Science.gov

Sample records for gain uniformity test

  1. Research on gain uniformity of the laser non-imaging rod amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yongzhong; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-08-01

    According to the problem of gain medium cross section high illumination and non-uniformity, which is caused by the laser rod amplifier non-imaging pump style. Orthogonal test design method is used to research the effect of absorption coefficient, gain medium radius, number of xenon lamps, center distance of xenon lamps and gain medium on gain uniformity. The rod amplifier which is made up by the above four elements, its gain medium cross section illumination distribution is simulated by ASAP. The results show that center distance of xenon lamps and gain medium, number of xenon lamps have very little influence on the gain uniformity. When absorption coefficient equal to 5.1 cm-1, gain uniformity will reach the optimum. Under the circumstance of other three elements are equal, the bigger is the gain radius, the smaller slope reflection curve, and the better gain uniformity.

  2. Uniform Test Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belov, Dmitry I.

    2008-01-01

    In educational practice, a test assembly problem is formulated as a system of inequalities induced by test specifications. Each solution to the system is a test, represented by a 0-1 vector, where each element corresponds to an item included (1) or not included (0) into the test. Therefore, the size of a 0-1 vector equals the number of items "n"…

  3. Uniform peanut performance test 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, 2 controls and 13 entries were evaluated at 9 locations....

  4. Uniform peanut performance test 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, 2 controls and 13 entries were evaluated at 9 locations....

  5. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) were established in 1973 through an informal arrangement among cooperating scientists involving seven major peanut-producing states. In 1995, plant material transfer agreements were also accepted among all cooperators in the UPPT. The year 2012 completed...

  6. Testing for uniformity in multidimensional data.

    PubMed

    Smith, S P; Jain, A K

    1984-01-01

    Testing for uniformity in multidimensional data is important in exploratory pattern analysis, statistical pattern recognition, and image processing. The goal of this paper is to determine whether the data follow the uniform distribution over some compact convex set in K-dimensional space, called the sampling window. We first provide a simple, computationally efficient method for generating a uniformly distributed sample over a set which approximates the convex hul of the data. We then test for uniformity by comparing this generated sample to the data by using Friedman-Rafsky's minimal spanning tree (MST) based test. Experiments with both simulated and real data indicate that this MST-based test is useful in deciding if data are uniform.

  7. Desert Test Site Uniformity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerola, Dana X.; Bruegge, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    Desert test sites such as Railroad Valley (RRV) Nevada, Egypt-1, and Libya-4 are commonly targeted to assess the on-orbit radiometric performance of sensors. Railroad Valley is used for vicarious calibration experiments, where a field-team makes ground measurements to produce accurate estimates of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances. The Sahara desert test sites are not instrumented, but provide a stable target that can be used for sensor cross-comparisons, or for stability monitoring of a single sensor. These sites are of interest to NASA's Atmospheric Carbon Observation from Space (ACOS) and JAXA's Greenhouse Gas Observation SATellite (GOSAT) programs. This study assesses the utility of these three test sites to the ACOS and GOSAT calibration teams. To simulate errors in sensor-measured radiance with pointing errors, simulated data have been created using MODIS Aqua data. MODIS data are further utilized to validate the campaign data acquired from June 22 through July 5, 2009. The first GOSAT vicarious calibration experiment was conducted during this timeframe.

  8. Compression gain of spin wave signals in a magnonic YIG waveguide with thermal non-uniformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolokoltsev, O.; Gómez-Arista, Ivan; Qureshi, N.; Acevedo, A.; Ordóñez-Romero, César L.; Grishin, A.

    2015-03-01

    We report on the observation of the compression gain of the signals carried by surface spin waves (MSSWs) in yittrium iron garnet films as a result of non-uniform optical heating of the spin wave medium. Efficient gain takes place if a frequency downshift of the spin wave spectrum induced by the heating is compensated by the corresponding non-uniformity of the bias magnetic field. It is proposed that the effect can be understood in part as an interaction between spin waves and a thermally induced potential well in the sample.

  9. Image intensifier gain uniformity improvements in sealed tubes by selective scrubbing

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Stanley W.

    1995-01-01

    The gain uniformity of sealed microchannel plate image intensifiers (MCPIs) is improved by selectively scrubbing the high gain sections with a controlled bright light source. Using the premise that ions returning to the cathode from the microchannel plate (MCP) damage the cathode and reduce its sensitivity, a HeNe laser beam light source is raster scanned across the cathode of a microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPI) tube. Cathode current is monitored and when it exceeds a preset threshold, the sweep rate is decreased 1000 times, giving 1000 times the exposure to cathode areas with sensitivity greater than the threshold. The threshold is set at the cathode current corresponding to the lowest sensitivity in the active cathode area so that sensitivity of the entire cathode is reduced to this level. This process reduces tube gain by between 10% and 30% in the high gain areas while gain reduction in low gain areas is negligible.

  10. Image intensifier gain uniformity improvements in sealed tubes by selective scrubbing

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, S.W.

    1995-04-18

    The gain uniformity of sealed microchannel plate image intensifiers (MCPIs) is improved by selectively scrubbing the high gain sections with a controlled bright light source. Using the premise that ions returning to the cathode from the microchannel plate (MCP) damage the cathode and reduce its sensitivity, a HeNe laser beam light source is raster scanned across the cathode of a microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPI) tube. Cathode current is monitored and when it exceeds a preset threshold, the sweep rate is decreased 1000 times, giving 1000 times the exposure to cathode areas with sensitivity greater than the threshold. The threshold is set at the cathode current corresponding to the lowest sensitivity in the active cathode area so that sensitivity of the entire cathode is reduced to this level. This process reduces tube gain by between 10% and 30% in the high gain areas while gain reduction in low gain areas is negligible. 4 figs.

  11. Uniform Tests of File Converters Using Unit Cubes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Uniform Tests of File Converters Using Unit Cubes by Steven J Nichols ARL-CR-0770 March 2015 Under contract...March 2015 Uniform Tests of File Converters Using Unit Cubes Steven J Nichols Survivability/Lethality Analysis Directorate, ARL...COVERED (From - To) 07/2014– 08/2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Uniform Tests of File Converters Using Unit Cubes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911NF-10-2-0076

  12. GD SDR Automatic Gain Control Characterization Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Briones, Janette C.

    2013-01-01

    The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) will provide experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The GD SDR platform and initial waveform were characterized on the ground before launch and the data will be compared to the data that will be collected during on-orbit operations. A desired function of the SDR is to estimate the received signal to noise ratio (SNR), which would enable experimenters to better determine on-orbit link conditions. The GD SDR does not have an SNR estimator, but it does have an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC). The AGCs can be used to estimate the SDR input power which can be converted into a SNR. Tests were conducted to characterize the AGC response to changes in SDR input power and temperature. This purpose of this paper is to describe the tests that were conducted, discuss the results showi ng how the AGCs relate to the SDR input power, and provide recommendations for AGC testing and characterization.

  13. GD SDR Automatic Gain Control Characterization Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Briones, Janette C.

    2013-01-01

    The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) will provide experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The GD SDR platform and initial waveform were characterized on the ground before launch and the data will be compared to the data that will be collected during on-orbit operations. A desired function of the SDR is to estimate the received signal to noise ratio (SNR), which would enable experimenters to better determine on-orbit link conditions. The GD SDR does not have an SNR estimator, but it does have an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC). The AGCs can be used to estimate the SDR input power which can be converted into a SNR. Tests were conducted to characterize the AGC response to changes in SDR input power and temperature. This purpose of this paper is to describe the tests that were conducted, discuss the results showing how the AGCs relate to the SDR input power, and provide recommendations for AGC testing and characterization.

  14. Weight gain in pregnancy and application of the 2009 IOM guidelines: toward a uniform approach

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, L. Anne; Redman, Leanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is an urgent need to adopt standardized nomenclature as it relates to GWG, a more uniform approach to calculate it, and hence quantifying adherence to the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines. Results This perspective highlights the varying methods used to estimate GWG and discuss the advantages and limitations of each. While these calculations could be argued to have a minimal impact on data at the population level, on the patient level, incorrectly estimating weight at conception can result in misclassification of preconception body mass index (BMI) and assignment of the IOM guidelines which inherently affect the prospective management of weight gain (and potential outcomes) during the current pregnancy. Conclusions We recommend that preconception BMI and total GWG be determined objectively and total GWG be adjusted for length of gestation before assessing adherence to the IOM GWG guidelines. PMID:25521748

  15. Measurement Uncertainty Within the Uniform Engine Test Programme

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    Also, included on the figures are the results for tBCC corrected to standard sea level Conditions ( Test Condition I). There is felt to be sufficient...AD-A219 033 IL307CpAGARD-AG-0 AGARDograph No. 307 Measurement Uncertainty Within the Uniform Engine Test Programme -D ’ ?T’UIQN ST.’ITMENr A MAR 0 71...THE UNIFORM ENGINE TEST PROGRAMME Report of the Sub-Group on Uncertainty Assessment Edited by J.PK. Vleghert National Aerospace Laboratory Anthony

  16. Insights Gained from Testing Alternate Cell Designs

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; G. K. Housley; M. S. Sohal; D. G. Milobar; Thomas Cable

    2009-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cell for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. The INL has been testing various solid oxide cell designs to characterize their electrolytic performance operating in the electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Some results presented in this report were obtained from cells, initially developed by the Forschungszentrum Jülich and now manufactured by the French ceramics firm St. Gobain. These cells have an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. They were initially developed as fuel cells, but are being tested as electrolytic cells in the INL test stands. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with ~10 µm thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, ~1400 µm thick nickel-YSZ steam-hydrogen electrodes, and manganite (LSM) air-oxygen electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 to 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900°C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented. NASA, in conjunction with the University of Toledo, has developed another fuel cell concept with the goals of reduced weight and high power density. The NASA cell is structurally symmetrical, with both electrodes supporting the thin electrolyte and containing micro-channels for gas diffusion. This configuration is called a bi

  17. Effects of non-uniform distributions of gain and loss in photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerjan, Alexander; Fan, Shanhui

    2016-12-01

    We present a {k}\\cdot {p} theory of photonic crystals containing gain and loss in which the gain and loss are added to separate primitive cells of the underlying Hermitian system, thereby creating a supercell photonic crystal. We show that the supercell bands of this system can merge outward from the degenerate contour formed from folding the bands of the underlying Hermitian system into the supercell Brillouin zone, but that other accidental degeneracies in the band structure of the underlying Hermitian system do not yield band merging behavior. Finally, we show that the modal coupling matrix in PhCs with balanced gain and loss is trace-less, and thus the imaginary components of the eigenvalues can only move relative to one another as the strength of the gain and loss is varied, without any collective motion.

  18. [Dependence of uniformity on the radionuclide in SPECT: test methods].

    PubMed

    Kalnischke, Heiko; Grebe, Gerhard; Zander, Andreas; Munz, Dieter Ludwig; Geworski, Lilli

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate test methods to clarify whether the non-uniformity of a gamma camera depends on individual radionuclides, and whether it is necessary to measure a separate correction matrix for each radionuclide used in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Two methods were devised to verify the nuclide-dependence of the gamma camera. In order to test the energy correction of the detectors, the first approach was based on the evaluation of the intrinsic non-uniformity and on the production of images with asymmetrical energy window. The second method was based on the production of correction matrices for different radionuclides, as well as on the subsequent application to phantom data that were also generated with different radionuclides. The investigation of a dualhead gamma camera produced the same results with both methods. One detector head was found to be weakly dependent on the radionuclide, due to the insufficient quality of energy correction. In this case, the phantom or patient data should be corrected using a uniformity correction matrix measured with the same radionuclide. The second detector remained nuclide-independent; in this case the uniformity correction matrix acquired for only one radionuclide was sufficient.

  19. High-Stakes Testing Hasn't Brought Education Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dianis, Judith Browne; Jackson, John H.; Noguera, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The only thing that more testing will tell us is what we already know: The schools that disadvantaged children attend are not being given the supports necessary to produce achievement gains. Students cannot be tested out of poverty, and while NCLB did take us a step forward by requiring schools to produce evidence that students were learning, it…

  20. Test-Anxiety Program and Test Gains with Nursing Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ginger; Ramsey, Gary; Driscoll, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Nursing programs can be highly stressful, and nursing students have been found to be more test-anxious than other students. The present investigation examines a practical program to reduce test-anxiety impairment and improve academic performance for a significant number of highly anxious nursing students. Incoming nursing students were screened…

  1. Loss/gain on ignition testing for HC-21C

    SciTech Connect

    De Vries, M.L.

    1994-12-12

    The HC-21C thermal stabilization process stabilizes reactive plutonium bearing material for long term storage. A Loss On Ignition (LOI) analysis is performed on all materials that are stabilized in the muffle furnaces prior to being stored in the vaults to ensure suitability for vault storage. The material is required to have a LOI of less than 1% (OSD-184-00013 Limit). The LOI analysis is performed to assure that all volatiles that could potentially pressurize the sealed containers over long periods of time, like water, have been removed. It is possible, while performing LOI analysis to see a Gain On Ignition (GOI) due to additional oxidation of materials. In the current stabilization campaign, two items processed have had a positive LOI or GOI result. One concern with a GOI is that the weight gain may actually be masking a weight loss. (Reference 15530-94-WSL-156). Other concerns with a GOI result are that the removal of the oxygen could create a vacuum in the product can causing it to collapse during long term storage or the oxidation of material would increase the volume of the solids potentially bulging or rupturing the product container. In the past, GOIs have been seen on items that were processed through Hoskin`s pot furnaces located in glovebox HA-21I. This test plan provides instruction to test causes of a GOI and to ensure the processed material with a GOI result will not cause a problem during long term storage. Product cans that are sampled for LOI and have results showing a gain of weight will be the test items.

  2. A Statistical Test of Uniformity in Solar Cycle Indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway David H.

    2012-01-01

    Several indices are used to characterize the solar activity cycle. Key among these are: the International Sunspot Number, the Group Sunspot Number, Sunspot Area, and 10.7 cm Radio Flux. A valuable aspect of these indices is the length of the record -- many decades and many (different) 11-year cycles. However, this valuable length-of-record attribute has an inherent problem in that it requires many different observers and observing systems. This can lead to non-uniformity in the datasets and subsequent erroneous conclusions about solar cycle behavior. The sunspot numbers are obtained by counting sunspot groups and individual sunspots on a daily basis. This suggests that the day-to-day and month-to-month variations in these numbers should follow Poisson Statistics and be proportional to the square-root of the sunspot numbers themselves. Examining the historical records of these indices indicates that this is indeed the case - even with Sunspot Area and 10.7 cm Radio Flux. The ratios of the RMS variations to the square-root of the indices themselves are relatively constant with little variation over the phase of each solar cycle or from small to large solar cycles. There are, however, important step-like changes in these ratios associated with changes in observer and/or observer system. Here we show how these variations can be used to construct more uniform datasets.

  3. Score Gains on "g"-Loaded Tests: No "g"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Nijenhuis, Jan; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; van der Flier, Henk

    2007-01-01

    IQ scores provide the best general predictor of success in education, job training, and work. However, there are many ways in which IQ scores can be increased, for instance by means of retesting or participation in learning potential training programs. What is the nature of these score gains? Jensen [Jensen, A. R. (1998a). "The g factor: The…

  4. Field Test of Room-to-Room Uniformity of Ventilation Air Distribution in Two New Houses

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, Robert; Anderson, Ren; Barley, Dennis; Rudd, Armin; Townsend, Aaron; Hancock, Ed

    2006-12-01

    This report describes a field test to characterize the uniformity of room-to-room ventilation air distribution under various operating conditions by examining multi-zone tracer gas decay curves and calculating local age-of-air.

  5. Uniform calibration of night vision goggles and test sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppeldauer, George P.

    2007-10-01

    There are orders of magnitude differences between the ~0.1 % (k=2) uncertainty of NIST reference detector calibrations and the uncertainty of night vision (NV) goggle measurements. NIST developed a night vision radiometer calibration facility including NV radiometer transfer standards. The transfer standards, that propagate the radiance responsivity scale to the military primary standards laboratories, are calibrated against a NIST reference radiometer. The reference radiometer has been calibrated on the NIST Spectral Comparator Facility (SCF) for spectral power and irradiance responsivities. Spectral considerations are discussed to lower the uncertainties of the radiance responsivity scale transfer to the test sets and then to the goggles. Since direct determination of the final uncertainties in goggle calibrations and measurements is difficult, models have been made to estimate the most important uncertainty components based on individual spectral measurements of the applied source distributions and radiometer spectral responsivities. It is also shown, that because of source spectral mismatch problems, the goggle measurement uncertainty at applications can be much higher than at calibration. A suggestion is being made to mimic the no-moon (stars only) night sky radiation distribution using several LEDs in the test-sets to decrease the large spectral mismatch errors. A broad-band correction factor has been developed to further decrease calibration uncertainty when the goggles to be used have different spectral responsivities than the standard. Geometrical considerations to optimize the radiance measurement angle and the out-of-target blocking are also discussed to decrease the uncertainty in the radiance responsivity transfer.

  6. Gaining Control over Radiolytic Synthesis of Uniform Sub-3-nanometer Palladium Nanoparticles: Use of Aromatic Liquids in the Electron Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Abellan Baeza, Patricia; Parent, Lucas R.; Al Hasan, Naila M.; Park, Chiwoo; Arslan, Ilke; Karim, Ayman M.; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2016-01-07

    Synthesizing nanomaterials of uniform shape and size is of critical importance to access and manipulate the novel structure-property relationships arising at the nanoscale. In this work we synthesize Pd nanoparticles with well-controlled size using in situ liquid-stage scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and demonstrate a match between the reaction kinetics and products of the radiolytic and chemical syntheses of size-stabilized Pd nanoparticles. We quantify the effect of electron dose on the nucleation kinetics, and compare these results with in situ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments investigating the effect of temperature during chemical synthesis. This work introduces methods for precise control of nanoparticle synthesis in the STEM and provides a means to uncover the fundamental processes behind the size and shape stabilization of nanoparticles.

  7. Testing for uniformity of ultra-high energy cosmic ray arrival directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) exhibit mainly an isotropic distribution with some small deviations in particular energy bins. In this paper, the Yakutsk array data are tested for circular uniformity of arrival directions in right ascension (RA) using two methods appropriate for the energy ranges below and above 1018 eV. No statistically significant deviation from uniformity is found in the arrival directions of cosmic rays (CRs) detected within the observation period 1974-2000.

  8. Situational Effects May Account for Gain Scores in Cognitive Ability Testing: A Longitudinal SEM Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matton, Nadine; Vautier, Stephane; Raufaste, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Mean gain scores for cognitive ability tests between two sessions in a selection setting are now a robust finding, yet not fully understood. Many authors do not attribute such gain scores to an increase in the target abilities. Our approach consists of testing a longitudinal SEM model suitable to this view. We propose to model the scores' changes…

  9. Effects of Response Task and Accessory Stimuli on Redundancy Gain: Tests of the Hemispheric Coactivation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jeff; Van Nes, Fenna

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments tested predictions of the hemispheric coactivation model for redundancy gain (J. O. Miller, 2004). Simple reaction time was measured in divided attention tasks with visual stimuli presented to the left or right of fixation or redundantly to both sides. Experiment 1 tested the prediction that redundancy gain--the decrease in…

  10. Hypertelescopes: potential science gains, current testing and prospects in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labeyrie, A.

    2016-09-01

    In the way of giant dilute telescopes, the hypertelescope is a many-aperture interferometer, which provides direct high resolution images with efficient light concentration. Pending future versions in space, a prototype terrestrial hypertelescope is under test in a high valley of the southern Alps. A moving focal gondola, suspended 101 m above small static mirrors, is driven under computer control with millimeter accuracy. The coude focus at ground level has been qualified by observing a Vega image focused by one of the mirrors and transmitted through the gondola. Upgrades under way for multi-beam interference include full autoguiding, the installation of several cameras on the gondola and adaptive optics for cophasing. Science observing is expected to begin in a few years, and other potential sites are considered for a larger meta-aperture, in the kilometer range. Future space versions, utilizing a 10-1000 km flotilla of small mirrors, are also considered and proposed to NASA and ESA, but require different technical developments.

  11. Comparisons of uniform and discrete source distributions for use in bioassay laboratory performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Scherpelz, R.I.; MacLellan, J.A.

    1987-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is sending a torso phantom with radioactive material uniformly distributed in the lungs to in vivo bioassay laboratories for analysis. Although the radionuclides ultimately chosen for the studies had relatively long half-lives, future accreditation testing will require repeated tests with short half-life test nuclides. Computer modeling was used to simulate the major components of the phantom. Radiation transport calculations were then performed using the computer models to calculate dose rates either 15 cm from the chest or at its surface. For /sup 144/Ce and /sup 60/Co, three configurations were used for the lung comparison tests. Calculations show that, for most detector positions, a single plug containing /sup 40/K located in the back of the heart provides a good approximation to a uniform distribution of /sup 40/K. The approximation would lead, however, to a positive bias for the detector reading if the detector were located at the chest surface near the center. Loading the /sup 40/K in a uniform layer inside the chest wall is not a good approximation of the uniform distribution in the lungs, because most of the radionuclides would be situated close to the detector location and the only shielding would be the thickness of the chest wall. The calculated dose rates for /sup 60/Co and /sup 144/Ce were similar at all calculated reference points. 3 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. 10 CFR 431.264 - Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... gallons per minute (gpm) or liters per minute (L/min), shall be conducted in accordance with the test... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for... Valves Test Procedures § 431.264 Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for...

  13. 10 CFR 431.264 - Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... gallons per minute (gpm) or liters per minute (L/min), shall be conducted in accordance with the test... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for... Valves Test Procedures § 431.264 Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for...

  14. Testing uniformity of mutants of the Lathyrus sativus L. (grasspea) using Bennet's method.

    PubMed

    Zawieja, B; Bocianowski, J; Rybin'ski, W

    2012-02-01

    In this paper interest is focused on uniformity of individual mutants. Because before the registration of a new variety the criteria for DUS (distinctness, uniformity and stability) are checked, so you should also check whether the mutant meets them. The aim of created mutants, in many genetic experiments, is to expand variation of the initial material. This is achieved through use of the mutagen or combination of mutagens on different stages of plants growth. The experimenter should choose some of obtained mutants (for example these which showed better property as regards the same trait). Calculations were done on the basis of results of test with variety Krab of the Lathyrus sativus L. (grasspea) species and 17 mutants getting from this variety. Uniformity was checked with the use of the Bennett's method which is based on testing of equality of coefficients of variation. After analysis the mutants with codes K3, K37, K63 and K64 were detected as uniform at the same level as variety Krab.

  15. Propulsion and Energetics Panel Working Group 15 on the Uniform Engine Test Programme

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    among member nations in aerospace research and development: - Exchange of scientific and technical information : - Providing assistance to member nations...developed in one country often were used in airframes developed in another. Both situations require engine pertormance information which can be interpreted...earlier test of uniform aerodynamic models in wind tunnels under the auspices of the Fluid Dynamics Panel. A formal proposal was presented to the

  16. Teachers' Responses to High-Stakes Testing and the Validity of Gains: A Pilot Study. CSE Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Daniel M.; Hamilton, Laura S.

    Previous studies of the validity of gains on high-stakes tests have compared trends in scores on a high-stakes test to trends on a lower-stakes test, such as NAEP. However, generalizability of gains is likely to be incomplete even when gains are meaningful because of differences in the inferences the two tests are designed to support. Therefore,…

  17. Design, development and testing of the x-ray timing explorer High Gain Antenna System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecha, Javier; Woods, Claudia; Phan, Minh

    1995-01-01

    The High Gain Antenna System (HGAS), consisting of two High Gain Antenna Deployment Systems (HGADS) and two Antenna Pointing Systems (APS), is used to position two High Gain Antennas (HGA) on the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE). A similar APS will be used on the upcoming Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Both XTE and TRMM are NASA in-house satellites. The salient features of the system include the two-axis gimbal and control electronics of the APS and the spring deployment and latch/release mechanisms of the HGADS. This paper describes some of the challenges faced in the design and testing of this system and their resolutions.

  18. 10 CFR Appendix S to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Faucets and Showerheads

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of... Appendix S to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Faucets and... water flow rate for faucets, expressed in gallons per minute (gpm) and liters per minute (L/min),...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix S to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Faucets and Showerheads

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of... Appendix S to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Faucets and... water flow rate for faucets, expressed in gallons per minute (gpm) and liters per minute (L/min),...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix S to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Faucets and Showerheads

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of... Appendix S to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Faucets and... water flow rate for faucets, expressed in gallons per minute (gpm) and liters per minute (L/min),...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix S to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Faucets and Showerheads

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of... Appendix S to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Faucets and... water flow rate for faucets, expressed in gallons per minute (gpm) and liters per minute (L/min),...

  2. Quasi-Uniform High Speed Foam Crush Testing Using a Guided Drop Mass Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lisa E. (Technical Monitor); Kellas, Sotiris

    2004-01-01

    A relatively simple method for measuring the dynamic crush response of foam materials at various loading rates is described. The method utilizes a drop mass impact configuration with mass and impact velocity selected such that the crush speed remains approximately uniform during the entire sample crushing event. Instrumentation, data acquisition, and data processing techniques are presented, and limitations of the test method are discussed. The objective of the test method is to produce input data for dynamic finite element modeling involving crash and energy absorption characteristics of foam materials.

  3. Uniform engine testing program phase 7: NASA Lewis Research Center second entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, T. J.; Burkardt, L. A.; Abdelwahab, M.; Braithwaite, W. M.; Kirchgessner, T. A.; Silver, D.

    1986-01-01

    The propulsion and Energetics Panel, Working Group 15, of the Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) is sponsoring a Uniform Engine Testing Program (UETP). In this program, two jet engines were tested under identical conditions in certain NATO altitude and ground-level facilities as a means of correlating these facilities. With this second entry, NASA documented engine deterioration that may have occurred since inception of the UETP. Additionally, NASA investigated anomalies discovered during review of data from the five facilities which had participated in the program between the two NASA entries.

  4. The Relationship of Motivational Values of Math and Reading Teachers to Student Test Score Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, David Allen

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory correlational study seeks to answer the question of whether a relationship exists between student average test score gains on state exams and teachers' rating of values on the Schwartz Values Survey. Eighty-seven randomly selected Kansas teachers of math and/or reading, grades four through eight, participated. Student test score…

  5. A microstructural investigation of ``machining rings'' and deformation uniformity for dynamic ring compression tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloete, T. J.; Hartley, R. S.; Nurick, G. N.

    2006-08-01

    A series of ring compression tests, conducted both quasi-statically (using a Zwick tensile test machine) and dynamically (using a split Hopkinson bar) are presented. The friction conditions were inferred from the behaviour of the inner diameter of the ring specimen using the analysis of Avitzur. Both quasi-static and dynamic specimens displayed machining rings. Microstructural analysis revealed that under quasi-static conditions the machining rings correlate with fold-over, while under dynamic conditions machining rings can appear without fold over. This indicates that machining rings formed during dynamic tests may be due to lubrication breakdown. The results indicate that the assumption of uniform specimen deformation is reasonable for strains attainable during split Hopkinson bar tests.

  6. Measurement uncertainty for the Uniform Engine Testing Program conducted at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelwahab, Mahmood; Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Silver, Dean

    1987-01-01

    An uncertainty analysis was conducted to determine the bias and precision errors and total uncertainty of measured turbojet engine performance parameters. The engine tests were conducted as part of the Uniform Engine Test Program which was sponsored by the Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD). With the same engines, support hardware, and instrumentation, performance parameters were measured twice, once during tests conducted in test cell number 3 and again during tests conducted in test cell number 4 of the NASA Lewis Propulsion Systems Laboratory. The analysis covers 15 engine parameters, including engine inlet airflow, engine net thrust, and engine specific fuel consumption measured at high rotor speed of 8875 rpm. Measurements were taken at three flight conditions defined by the following engine inlet pressure, engine inlet total temperature, and engine ram ratio: (1) 82.7 kPa, 288 K, 1.0, (2) 82.7 kPa, 288 K, 1.3, and (3) 20.7 kPa, 288 K, 1.3. In terms of bias, precision, and uncertainty magnitudes, there were no differences between most measurements made in test cells number 3 and 4. The magnitude of the errors increased for both test cells as engine pressure level decreased. Also, the level of the bias error was two to three times larger than that of the precision error.

  7. Supplemental Educational Services and Student Test Score Gains: Evidence from a Large, Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Pepper, Matthew J.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of supplemental education services (SES) on student test score gains and whether particular subgroups of students benefit more from NCLB tutoring services. Our sample includes information on students enrolled in third through eighth grades nested in 121 elementary and middle schools over a five-year period comprising…

  8. Estimated Effect of the Teacher Advancement Program on Student Test Score Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Ballou, Dale; Peng, Art

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first independent, third-party appraisal of the impact of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) on student test score gains in mathematics. TAP is a comprehensive school reform model designed to attract highly effective teachers, improve instructional effectiveness, and elevate student achievement. We use a…

  9. A synopsis of test results and knowledge gained from the Phase-0 CSI evolutionary model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, W. Keith; Elliott, Kenny B.; Horta, Lucas G.

    1993-01-01

    The Phase-0 CSI Evolutionary Model (CEM) is a testbed for the study of space platform global line-of-sight (LOS) pointing. Now that the tests have been completed, a summary of hardware and closed-loop test experiences is necessary to insure a timely dissemination of the knowledge gained. The testbed is described and modeling experiences are presented followed by a summary of the research performed by various investigators. Some early lessons on implementing the closed-loop controllers are described with particular emphasis on real-time computing requirements. A summary of closed-loop studies and a synopsis of test results are presented. Plans for evolving the CEM from phase 0 to phases 1 and 2 are also described. Subsequently, a summary of knowledge gained from the design and testing of the Phase-0 CEM is made.

  10. 10 CFR Appendix P to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Pool Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Pool Heaters P Appendix P to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION... Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Pool Heaters 1. Test method. The test method for testing pool heaters is as specified in American National Standards...

  11. 10 CFR 431.294 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines. 431.294 Section 431.294 Energy... EQUIPMENT Refrigerated Bottled or Canned Beverage Vending Machines Test Procedures § 431.294 Uniform test... machines. (a) Scope. This section provides test procedures for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the...

  12. 10 CFR 431.294 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines. 431.294 Section 431.294 Energy... EQUIPMENT Refrigerated Bottled or Canned Beverage Vending Machines Test Procedures § 431.294 Uniform test... machines. (a) Scope. This section provides test procedures for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the...

  13. 10 CFR 431.294 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines. 431.294 Section 431.294 Energy... EQUIPMENT Refrigerated Bottled or Canned Beverage Vending Machines Test Procedures § 431.294 Uniform test... machines. (a) Scope. This section provides test procedures for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the...

  14. 10 CFR 431.294 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines. 431.294 Section 431.294 Energy... EQUIPMENT Refrigerated Bottled or Canned Beverage Vending Machines Test Procedures § 431.294 Uniform test... machines. (a) Scope. This section provides test procedures for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the...

  15. 10 CFR 431.86 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial packaged boilers. 431.86 Section 431.86 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Boilers Test Procedures § 431.86 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial packaged boilers. (a) Scope. This section provides test procedures that must be followed...

  16. 10 CFR 431.86 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial packaged boilers. 431.86 Section 431.86 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Boilers Test Procedures § 431.86 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial packaged boilers. (a) Scope. This section provides test procedures that must be followed...

  17. 10 CFR 431.86 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial packaged boilers. 431.86 Section 431.86 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Boilers Test Procedures § 431.86 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial packaged boilers. (a) Scope. This section provides test procedures that must be followed...

  18. 10 CFR 431.86 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial packaged boilers. 431.86 Section 431.86 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Boilers Test Procedures § 431.86 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial packaged boilers. (a) Scope. This section provides test procedures that must be followed...

  19. 10 CFR 431.86 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial packaged boilers. 431.86 Section 431.86 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Boilers Test Procedures § 431.86 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial packaged boilers. (a) Scope. This section provides test procedures that must be followed...

  20. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. (a) This section covers the test procedures you must follow if, pursuant...

  1. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. (a) This section covers the test procedures you must follow if, pursuant...

  2. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. (a) This Section covers the test procedures you must follow if, pursuant...

  3. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. (a) This Section covers the test procedures you must follow if, pursuant...

  4. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. (a) This Section covers the test procedures you must follow if, pursuant...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix X to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dehumidifiers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... section 4, “Test Criteria,” of the EPA's “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Dehumidifiers,” effective..., “Test Criteria,” of EPA's “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Dehumidifiers,” effective January 1... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy...

  6. Uniform Foam Crush Testing for Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle Impact Attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Byron W.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEVs) are blunt-body vehicles designed with the purpose of transporting payloads from outer space to the surface of the Earth. To achieve high-reliability and minimum weight, MMEEVs avoid use of limited-reliability systems, such as parachutes and retro-rockets, instead using built-in impact attenuators to absorb energy remaining at impact to meet landing loads requirements. The Multi-Mission Systems Analysis for Planetary Entry (M-SAPE) parametric design tool is used to facilitate the design of MMEEVs and develop the trade space. Testing was conducted to characterize the material properties of several candidate impact foam attenuators to enhance M-SAPE analysis. In the current effort, four different Rohacell foams are tested at three different, uniform, strain rates (approximately 0.17, approximately 100, approximately 13,600%/s). The primary data analysis method uses a global data smoothing technique in the frequency domain to remove noise and system natural frequencies. The results from the data indicate that the filter and smoothing technique are successful in identifying the foam crush event and removing aberrations. The effect of strain rate increases with increasing foam density. The 71-WF-HT foam may support Mars Sample Return requirements. Several recommendations to improve the drop tower test technique are identified.

  7. The Role of Cohesive Particle Interactions on Solids Uniformity and Mobilization During Jet Mixing: Testing Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Wells, Beric E.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Fort, James A.; Chun, Jaehun; Jenks, Jeromy WJ

    2010-04-01

    Radioactive waste that is currently stored in large underground tanks at the Hanford Site will be staged in selected double-shell tanks (DSTs) and then transferred to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Before being transferred, the waste will be mixed, sampled, and characterized to determine if the waste composition and meets the waste feed specifications. Washington River Protection Solutions is conducting a Tank Mixing and Sampling Demonstration Program to determine the mixing effectiveness of the current baseline mixing system that uses two jet mixer pumps and the adequacy of the planned sampling method. The overall purpose of the demonstration program is to mitigate the technical risk associated with the mixing and sampling systems meeting the feed certification requirements for transferring waste to the WTP.The purpose of this report is to analyze existing data and evaluate whether scaled mixing tests with cohesive simulants are needed to meet the overall objectives of the small-scale mixing demonstration program. This evaluation will focus on estimating the role of cohesive particle interactions on various physical phenomena that occur in parts of the mixing process. A specific focus of the evaluation will be on the uniformity of suspended solids in the mixed region. Based on the evaluation presented in this report and the absence of definitive studies, the recommendation is to conduct scaled mixing tests with cohesive particles and augment the initial testing with non-cohesive particles. In addition, planning for the quantitative tests would benefit from having test results from some scoping experiments that would provide results on the general behavior when cohesive inter-particle forces are important.

  8. 'Battling my biology': psychological effects of genetic testing for risk of weight gain.

    PubMed

    Meisel, S F; Wardle, J

    2014-04-01

    The availability of genetic tests for multifactorial conditions such as obesity raises concerns that higher-risk results could lead to fatalistic reactions or lower-risk results to complacency. No study has investigated the effects of genetic test feedback for the risk of obesity in non-clinical samples. The present study explored psychological and behavioral reactions to genetic test feedback for a weight related gene (FTO) in a volunteer sample (n = 18) using semi-structured interviews. Respondents perceived the gene test result as scientifically objective; removing some of the emotion attached to the issue of weight control. Those who were struggling with weight control reported relief of self-blame. There was no evidence for either complacency or fatalism; all respondents emphasized the importance of lifestyle choices in long-term weight management, although they recognized the role of both genes and environment. Regardless of the test result, respondents evaluated the testing positively and found it motivating and informative. Genetic test feedback for risk of weight gain may offer psychological benefits beyond its objectively limited clinical utility. As the role of genetic counselors is likely to expand, awareness of reasons for genetic testing for common, complex conditions and reactions to the test result is important.

  9. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Q Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  10. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Q Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  11. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Q Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  12. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Q Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  13. 10 CFR Appendix Q to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Q Appendix Q to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  14. 10 CFR 431.96 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of small, large, and very large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., packaged terminal air conditioners, and packaged terminal heat pumps. 431.96 Section 431.96 Energy... EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Test Procedures § 431.96 Uniform test method for the... heating equipment, packaged terminal air conditioners, and packaged terminal heat pumps. (a) Scope....

  15. 10 CFR 431.204 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption of illuminated exit signs. 431.204 Section 431.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Illuminated Exit Signs Test Procedures § 431.204 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit...

  16. 10 CFR 431.204 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... consumption of illuminated exit signs. 431.204 Section 431.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Illuminated Exit Signs Test Procedures § 431.204 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit...

  17. 10 CFR 431.224 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... conducting the test procedure set forth in Environmental Protection Agency, “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules. 431.224 Section 431.224 Energy DEPARTMENT...

  18. 10 CFR 431.204 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... conducting the test procedure, set forth in the Environmental Protection Agency's “ENERGY STAR Program... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs. 431.204 Section 431.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY...

  19. 10 CFR 431.224 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... conducting the test procedure set forth in Environmental Protection Agency, “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules. 431.224 Section 431.224 Energy DEPARTMENT...

  20. 10 CFR 431.224 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... conducting the test procedure set forth in Environmental Protection Agency, “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules. 431.224 Section 431.224 Energy DEPARTMENT...

  1. 10 CFR 431.224 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... conducting the test procedure set forth in Environmental Protection Agency, “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules. 431.224 Section 431.224 Energy DEPARTMENT...

  2. 10 CFR 431.224 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... conducting the test procedure set forth in Environmental Protection Agency, “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules. 431.224 Section 431.224 Energy DEPARTMENT...

  3. 10 CFR 431.204 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... conducting the test procedure, set forth in the Environmental Protection Agency's “ENERGY STAR Program... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs. 431.204 Section 431.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY...

  4. 10 CFR 431.204 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... conducting the test procedure, set forth in the Environmental Protection Agency's “ENERGY STAR Program... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs. 431.204 Section 431.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Efficiency of Electric Motors B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY..., Subpt. B, App. B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431—Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load... Std 112-2004 Test Method B, Input-Output With Loss Segregation, (incorporated by reference, see §...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Efficiency of Electric Motors B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY..., Subpt. B, App. B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431—Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load... Winding (I2R), Core and Windage-Friction Losses, or (2) IEEE Standard 112-1996 Test Method B,...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Efficiency of Electric Motors B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY..., Subpt. B, App. B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431—Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load... Winding (I2R), Core and Windage-Friction Losses, or (2) IEEE Standard 112-1996 Test Method B,...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Efficiency of Electric Motors B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY..., Subpt. B, App. B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431—Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load..., (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15), or (2) IEEE Std 112-2004 Test Method B, Input-Output With...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix S to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Faucets and Showerheads

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Faucets and Showerheads S Appendix S to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  12. Influence of movable test section elements configuration on its drag and flow field uniformity at transonic speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazkov, S. A.; Gorbushin, A. R.; Osipova, S. L.; Semenov, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    The report describes the results of flow field experimental research in TsAGI T-128 transonic wind tunnel. During the tests Mach number, stagnation pressure, test section wall perforation ratio, angles between the test section panels and mixing chamber flaps varied. Based on the test results one determined corrections to the free-stream Mach number related to the flow speed difference in the model location and in the zone of static pressure measurement on the test section walls, nonuniformity of the longitudinal velocity component in the model location, optimal position of the movable test section elements to provide flow field uniformity in the test section and minimize the test leg drag.

  13. Reverberation Chamber Uniformity Validation and Radiated Susceptibility Test Procedures for the NASA High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppen, Sandra V.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Mielnik, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center's High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory has developed a capability based on the RTCA/DO-160F Section 20 guidelines for radiated electromagnetic susceptibility testing in reverberation chambers. Phase 1 of the test procedure utilizes mode-tuned stirrer techniques and E-field probe measurements to validate chamber uniformity, determines chamber loading effects, and defines a radiated susceptibility test process. The test procedure is segmented into numbered operations that are largely software controlled. This document is intended as a laboratory test reference and includes diagrams of test setups, equipment lists, as well as test results and analysis. Phase 2 of development is discussed.

  14. Pumping tests in non-uniform aquifers - the linear strip case

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, J.J.; Liu, W.Z.

    1991-01-01

    Many pumping tests are performed in geologic settings that can be conceptualized as a linear infinite strip of one material embedded in a matrix of differing flow properties. A semi-analytical solution is presented to aid the analysis of drawdown data obtained from pumping tests performed in settings that can be represented by such a conceptual model. Integral transform techniques are employed to obtain a solution in transform space that can be numerically inverted to real space. Examination of the numerically transformed solution reveals several interesting features of flow in this configuration. If the transmissivity of the strip is much higher than that of the matrix, linear and bilinear flow are the primary flow regimes during a pumping test. If the contrast between matrix and strip properties is not as extreme, then radial flow should be the primary flow mechanism. Sensitivity analysis is employed to develop insight into the controls on drawdown in this conceptual model and to demonstrate the importance of temporal and spatial placement of observations. Changes in drawdown are sensitive to the transmissivity of the strip for a limited time duration. After that time, only the total drawdown remains a function of strip transmissivity. In the case of storativity, both the total drawdown and changes in drawdown are sensitive to the storativity of the strip for a time of quite limited duration. After that time, essentially no information can be gained about the storage properties of the strip from drawdown data. An example analysis is performed using data previously presented in the literature to demonstrate the viability of the semi-analytical solution and to illustrate a general procedure for analysis of drawdown data in complex geologic settings. This example reinforces the importance of observation well placement and the time of data collection in constraining parameter correlation, a major source of the uncertainty that arises in the parameter estimation

  15. 10 CFR Appendix X to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dehumidifiers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...,” section 2, “Qualifying Products,” and section 4, “Test Criteria,” of the EPA's “ENERGY STAR Program... section 4, “Test Criteria,” of EPA's “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Dehumidifiers,” effective... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air... appendix F) until the compliance date of any amended energy conservation standards for room...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air... appendix F) until the compliance date of any amended energy conservation standards for room...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air... appendix F) until the compliance date of any amended energy conservation standards for room...

  19. 10 CFR 431.107 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. 431.107 Section 431.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters....

  20. 10 CFR Appendix N to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces and Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of Furnaces and Boilers N Appendix N to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix N to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces... conservation standards for furnaces and boilers at this time. However, any representation related to...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix N to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces and Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Furnaces and Boilers N Appendix N to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix N to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces... conservation standards for furnaces and boilers at this time. However, any representation related to...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix N to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces and Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Furnaces and Boilers N Appendix N to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix N to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces... not be performed to determine compliance with energy conservation standards for furnaces and...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix N to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces and Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Furnaces and Boilers N Appendix N to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix N to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces... with energy conservation standards for furnaces and boilers at this time. However, any...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix N to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces and Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Furnaces and Boilers N Appendix N to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix N to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces... Efficiency of Residential Central Furnaces and Boilers” (with errata of October 24, 1996). 2.2ASHRAE...

  5. 10 CFR 431.134 - Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. 431.134 Section 431.134 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Automatic Commercial Ice Makers...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Water Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Water Heaters E Appendix E to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix E to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Water Heaters 1. Definitions 1.1Cut-in means the time when or water temperature at which a water heater...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Water Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Water Heaters E Appendix E to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix E to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Water Heaters 1. Definitions 1.1Cut-in means the time when or water temperature at which a water heater...

  8. 34 CFR 462.4 - What are the transition rules for using tests to measure educational gain for the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... measure educational gain for the National Reporting System for Adult Education (NRS)? 462.4 Section 462.4... ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MEASURING EDUCATIONAL GAIN IN THE NATIONAL REPORTING SYSTEM FOR ADULT EDUCATION General § 462.4 What are the transition rules for using tests to measure...

  9. 34 CFR 462.4 - What are the transition rules for using tests to measure educational gain for the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... measure educational gain for the National Reporting System for Adult Education (NRS)? 462.4 Section 462.4... ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MEASURING EDUCATIONAL GAIN IN THE NATIONAL REPORTING SYSTEM FOR ADULT EDUCATION General § 462.4 What are the transition rules for using tests to measure...

  10. 34 CFR 462.4 - What are the transition rules for using tests to measure educational gain for the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... measure educational gain for the National Reporting System for Adult Education (NRS)? 462.4 Section 462.4... ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MEASURING EDUCATIONAL GAIN IN THE NATIONAL REPORTING SYSTEM FOR ADULT EDUCATION General § 462.4 What are the transition rules for using tests to measure...

  11. 34 CFR 462.4 - What are the transition rules for using tests to measure educational gain for the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... measure educational gain for the National Reporting System for Adult Education (NRS)? 462.4 Section 462.4... ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MEASURING EDUCATIONAL GAIN IN THE NATIONAL REPORTING SYSTEM FOR ADULT EDUCATION General § 462.4 What are the transition rules for using tests to measure...

  12. 34 CFR 462.4 - What are the transition rules for using tests to measure educational gain for the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... measure educational gain for the National Reporting System for Adult Education (NRS)? 462.4 Section 462.4... ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MEASURING EDUCATIONAL GAIN IN THE NATIONAL REPORTING SYSTEM FOR ADULT EDUCATION General § 462.4 What are the transition rules for using tests to measure...

  13. Testing CREATE at Community Colleges: An Examination of Faculty Perspectives and Diverse Student Gains

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Kristy L.; Onorato, Morgan E.; Gottesman, Alan J.; Hoque, Jamila; Hoskins, Sally G.

    2016-01-01

    CREATE (Consider, Read, Elucidate the hypotheses, Analyze and interpret the data, and Think of the next Experiment) is an innovative pedagogy for teaching science through the intensive analysis of scientific literature. Initiated at the City College of New York, a minority-serving institution, and regionally expanded in the New York/New Jersey/Pennsylvania area, this methodology has had multiple positive impacts on faculty and students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses. To determine whether the CREATE strategy is effective at the community college (2-yr) level, we prepared 2-yr faculty to use CREATE methodologies and investigated CREATE implementation at community colleges in seven regions of the United States. We used outside evaluation combined with pre/postcourse assessments of students to test related hypotheses: 1) workshop-trained 2-yr faculty teach effectively with the CREATE strategy in their first attempt, and 2) 2-yr students in CREATE courses make cognitive and affective gains during their CREATE quarter or semester. Community college students demonstrated positive shifts in experimental design and critical-thinking ability concurrent with gains in attitudes/self-rated learning and maturation of epistemological beliefs about science. PMID:26931399

  14. Testing CREATE at Community Colleges: An Examination of Faculty Perspectives and Diverse Student Gains.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Kristy L; Onorato, Morgan E; Gottesman, Alan J; Hoque, Jamila; Hoskins, Sally G

    2016-01-01

    CREATE (Consider, Read, Elucidate the hypotheses, Analyze and interpret the data, and Think of the next Experiment) is an innovative pedagogy for teaching science through the intensive analysis of scientific literature. Initiated at the City College of New York, a minority-serving institution, and regionally expanded in the New York/New Jersey/Pennsylvania area, this methodology has had multiple positive impacts on faculty and students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses. To determine whether the CREATE strategy is effective at the community college (2-yr) level, we prepared 2-yr faculty to use CREATE methodologies and investigated CREATE implementation at community colleges in seven regions of the United States. We used outside evaluation combined with pre/postcourse assessments of students to test related hypotheses: 1) workshop-trained 2-yr faculty teach effectively with the CREATE strategy in their first attempt, and 2) 2-yr students in CREATE courses make cognitive and affective gains during their CREATE quarter or semester. Community college students demonstrated positive shifts in experimental design and critical-thinking ability concurrent with gains in attitudes/self-rated learning and maturation of epistemological beliefs about science.

  15. Thermal comfort conditions in the NBS/DoE direct gain passive solar test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S. T.

    1982-12-01

    The thermal comfort conditions in a direct gain cell of passive solar test facility were analyzed. It was found that the daytime operative temperature as measured by the black globe temperature sensors in an area near the large south glazing exceeded the upper boundary of the ASHRAE comfort envelope by a large amount in a clear day during both the thermal transition month of October and the cold winter month of January. The reflected solar radiation from the interior surfaces and the snow covered ground plays a significant role on the measured black globe temperature and should be included in the computation of the mean radiant temperature for a space with large glazed areas.

  16. Psychological responses to genetic testing for weight gain: a vignette study.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Susanne F; Walker, Catherine; Wardle, Jane

    2012-03-01

    Genetic testing for obesity risk is increasingly available to the public but few studies have examined motivational or affective reactions. Here we report findings from a "vignette" study investigating reactions to "higher-risk" and "average-risk" results for the obesity-related FTO gene in two groups: a panel sample of individuals with weight concerns, for whom testing may have treatment implications (n = 306, mean age = 45 years, mean BMI = 35) and a student sample (n = 395, mean age = 25 years, mean BMI = 23), for whom testing would have implications for obesity prevention. Participants were given FTO gene information that described higher-risk alleles as linked with modest weight gain and slightly higher risk of obesity. They responded to both higher- and average-risk vignettes, with order randomized. Interest in genetic testing was high overall, and higher in panel respondents than students (93% vs. 78% would "probably" or "definitely" have the test; P < 0.001). In students, a higher-risk result generated higher motivation to change (d = 0.15; P < 0.001), but also slightly higher negative affect (d = 0.03, P < 0.001) and fatalism (d = 0.05, P < 0.001) than an average-risk result. Panel respondents also had higher motivation to change (d = 0.17, P < 0.001) as well as relief about having an explanation for their body weight (d = 0.02, P = 0.013) in the higher-risk condition, but no increase in fatalism or depression. These results suggest that at the level of anticipated responses to FTO gene feedback, higher-risk results had positive motivational effects with minimal changes in negative affect or fatalism. Genetic testing has the potential to be a useful clinical or preventive tool when combined with appropriate information.

  17. Self-Reported Learning Gains: A Theory and Test of College Student Survey Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have asserted that self-reported learning gains (SRLG) are valid measures of learning, because gains in specific content areas vary across academic disciplines as theoretically predicted. In contrast, other studies find no relationship between actual and self-reported gains in learning, calling into question the validity of SRLG. I…

  18. Design and testing of a uniformly solar energy TIR-R concentration lenses for HCPV systems.

    PubMed

    Shen, S C; Chang, S J; Yeh, C Y; Teng, P C

    2013-11-04

    In this paper, total internal reflection-refraction (TIR-R) concentration (U-TIR-R-C) lens module were designed for uniformity using the energy configuration method to eliminate hot spots on the surface of solar cell and increase conversion efficiency. The design of most current solar concentrators emphasizes the high-power concentration of solar energy, however neglects the conversion inefficiency resulting from hot spots generated by uneven distributions of solar energy concentrated on solar cells. The energy configuration method proposed in this study employs the concept of ray tracing to uniformly distribute solar energy to solar cells through a U-TIR-R-C lens module. The U-TIR-R-C lens module adopted in this study possessed a 76-mm diameter, a 41-mm thickness, concentration ratio of 1134 Suns, 82.6% optical efficiency, and 94.7% uniformity. The experiments demonstrated that the U-TIR-R-C lens module reduced the core temperature of the solar cell from 108 °C to 69 °C and the overall temperature difference from 45 °C to 10 °C, and effectively relative increased the conversion efficiency by approximately 3.8%. Therefore, the U-TIR-R-C lens module designed can effectively concentrate a large area of sunlight onto a small solar cell, and the concentrated solar energy can be evenly distributed in the solar cell to achieve uniform irradiance and effectively eliminate hot spots.

  19. Methodology for the validation of analytical methods involved in uniformity of dosage units tests.

    PubMed

    Rozet, E; Ziemons, E; Marini, R D; Boulanger, B; Hubert, Ph

    2013-01-14

    Validation of analytical methods is required prior to their routine use. In addition, the current implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD) framework in the pharmaceutical industries aims at improving the quality of the end products starting from its early design stage. However, no regulatory guideline or none of the published methodologies to assess method validation propose decision methodologies that effectively take into account the final purpose of developed analytical methods. In this work a solution is proposed for the specific case of validating analytical methods involved in the assessment of the content uniformity or uniformity of dosage units of a batch of pharmaceutical drug products as proposed in the European or US pharmacopoeias. This methodology uses statistical tolerance intervals as decision tools. Moreover it adequately defines the Analytical Target Profile of analytical methods in order to obtain analytical methods that allow to make correct decisions about Content uniformity or uniformity of dosage units with high probability. The applicability of the proposed methodology is further illustrated using an HPLC-UV assay as well as a near infra-red spectrophotometric method.

  20. 10 CFR Appendix T to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Water Closets and Urinals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. T Appendix T to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Water... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption...

  1. Differential Rearing Alters Forced Swim Test Behavior, Fluoxetine Efficacy, and Post-Test Weight Gain in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Arndt, David L; Peterson, Christy J; Cain, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors play a key role in the etiology of depression. The rodent forced swim test (FST) is commonly used as a preclinical model of depression, with increases in escape-directed behavior reflecting antidepressant effects, and increases in immobility reflecting behavioral despair. Environmental enrichment leads to serotonergic alterations in rats, but it is unknown whether these alterations may influence the efficacy of common antidepressants. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were reared in enriched (EC), standard (SC), or isolated (IC) conditions. Following the rearing period, fluoxetine (10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 23.5 hrs, 5 hrs, and 1 hr before locomotor and FST measures. Following locomotor testing and FST exposure, rats were weighed to assess fluoxetine-, FST-, and environmental condition-induced moderations in weight gain. Results revealed an antidepressant effect of environmental enrichment and a depressant effect of isolation. Regardless of significant fluoxetine effects on locomotor activity, fluoxetine generally decreased swimming and increased immobility in all three environmental conditions, with IC-fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) rats and EC-fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) rats swimming less than vehicle counterparts. Subchronic 20 mg/kg fluoxetine also induced significant weight loss, and differential rearing appeared to moderate weight gain following FST stress. These results suggest that differential rearing has the ability to alter FST behaviors, fluoxetine efficacy, and post-stressor well-being. Moreover, 20 mg/kg fluoxetine, administered subchronically, may lead to atypical effects of those commonly observed in the FST, highlighting the importance and impact of both environmental condition and dosing regimen in common animal models of depression.

  2. Differential Rearing Alters Forced Swim Test Behavior, Fluoxetine Efficacy, and Post-Test Weight Gain in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, David L.; Peterson, Christy J.; Cain, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors play a key role in the etiology of depression. The rodent forced swim test (FST) is commonly used as a preclinical model of depression, with increases in escape-directed behavior reflecting antidepressant effects, and increases in immobility reflecting behavioral despair. Environmental enrichment leads to serotonergic alterations in rats, but it is unknown whether these alterations may influence the efficacy of common antidepressants. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were reared in enriched (EC), standard (SC), or isolated (IC) conditions. Following the rearing period, fluoxetine (10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 23.5 hrs, 5 hrs, and 1 hr before locomotor and FST measures. Following locomotor testing and FST exposure, rats were weighed to assess fluoxetine-, FST-, and environmental condition-induced moderations in weight gain. Results revealed an antidepressant effect of environmental enrichment and a depressant effect of isolation. Regardless of significant fluoxetine effects on locomotor activity, fluoxetine generally decreased swimming and increased immobility in all three environmental conditions, with IC-fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) rats and EC-fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) rats swimming less than vehicle counterparts. Subchronic 20 mg/kg fluoxetine also induced significant weight loss, and differential rearing appeared to moderate weight gain following FST stress. These results suggest that differential rearing has the ability to alter FST behaviors, fluoxetine efficacy, and post-stressor well-being. Moreover, 20 mg/kg fluoxetine, administered subchronically, may lead to atypical effects of those commonly observed in the FST, highlighting the importance and impact of both environmental condition and dosing regimen in common animal models of depression. PMID:26154768

  3. High-gain test facility driven by a multimegajoule solid-state laser

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, H.T.; Manes, K.R.; Hogan, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    An ICF high-gain test facility (HGTF) will most certainly be in demand for other applications than ICF target physics. These will include advanced weapon physics, vulnerability and nuclear effects, and x-ray laser studies. These other applications will place additional demands on driver flexibility and will extend the desirable range of some of the driver variables (e.g., the desirable pulse length range would be 0.1 to 100 ns and the wavelength range would be 0.25 to 1.0 ..mu..m). It is also likely that to utilize the driver efficiently for the variety of applications foreseen will require multiple target chambers and experiment areas. Thus, it is important that the driver beams be efficiently transported to these different experimental areas. At the present time, the only driver capable of meeting this broad set of requirements is the Nd:glass laser. It has long been believed that an Nd:glass laser with the above requirements could be built but that it would be unreasonably expensive. There is still much work to be done. However, the progress to date and the track record for lowering system cost in past solid-state facilities, leads us to be optimistic that we can achieve our goal of building an affordable HGTF that will meet all the requirements.

  4. Refixation Saccades with Normal Gain Values: A Diagnostic Problem in the Video Head Impulse Test: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Korsager, Leise Elisabeth Hviid; Faber, Christian Emil; Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Wanscher, Jens Højberg

    2017-01-01

    Refixation saccades with normal gain value occur more frequently with increasing age. The phenomenon has also been observed in different vestibular disorders. In this case, we present a young male with normal gain value and refixation saccades tested with the video head impulse test (vHIT) the day after his cochlear implantation. One month after surgery, refixation saccades were no longer present. This suggests that refixation saccades can occur as a result of temporary pathology such as surgery. Refixation saccades with normal gain values might reflect a partial deficit in the vestibulo-ocular reflex. However, this partial deficit is in conflict with the current way of interpreting vHIT results in which the vestibular function is classified as either normal or pathological based only on the gain value. Refixation saccades, which are evident signs of vestibulopathy, are not considered in the evaluation. A new way of interpreting the vHIT based on the saccades must be considered. PMID:28352247

  5. Refixation Saccades with Normal Gain Values: A Diagnostic Problem in the Video Head Impulse Test: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Korsager, Leise Elisabeth Hviid; Faber, Christian Emil; Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Wanscher, Jens Højberg

    2017-01-01

    Refixation saccades with normal gain value occur more frequently with increasing age. The phenomenon has also been observed in different vestibular disorders. In this case, we present a young male with normal gain value and refixation saccades tested with the video head impulse test (vHIT) the day after his cochlear implantation. One month after surgery, refixation saccades were no longer present. This suggests that refixation saccades can occur as a result of temporary pathology such as surgery. Refixation saccades with normal gain values might reflect a partial deficit in the vestibulo-ocular reflex. However, this partial deficit is in conflict with the current way of interpreting vHIT results in which the vestibular function is classified as either normal or pathological based only on the gain value. Refixation saccades, which are evident signs of vestibulopathy, are not considered in the evaluation. A new way of interpreting the vHIT based on the saccades must be considered.

  6. Error Rates in Measuring Teacher and School Performance Based on Student Test Score Gains. NCEE 2010-4004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.; Chiang, Hanley S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses likely error rates for measuring teacher and school performance in the upper elementary grades using value-added models applied to student test score gain data. Using realistic performance measurement system schemes based on hypothesis testing, we develop error rate formulas based on OLS and Empirical Bayes estimators.…

  7. Uniform engine testing program. Phase 1: NASA Lewis Research Center participation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blesiadny, T.; Burkardt, L.; Braithwaite, W.

    1982-01-01

    Two jet engines were tested under identical conditions in a variety of altitude and ground level facilities as a means to correlating these facilities. Two J57-19W turbojet engines were tested in an altitude test facility. The test results are summarized.

  8. Mineral composition of small-grain cultivars from a uniform test plot in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erdman, J.A.; Moul, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Seventy-five cultivated varieties (cultivars) of hard red spring wheat (HRS), hard red winter wheat (HRW), durum wheat, oats, and barley were harvested in 1974 from a small-grain trial plot in Harding County, SD, just north of Buffalo. Analysis of the grains reported here includes crude protein for only the wheat cultivars, ash yield, and 17 chemical elements, many of which are not commonly given in the literature (such as B, Cd, Mo, Ni, and Se). Differences in composition between the two classes of hard red wheat indicate that HRS is significantly higher (p < 0.05) than HRW in protein content, ash yield, Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, total S, Sr, and Zn; Cd is significantly higher in the HRW cultivars. For the most part, concentrations were quite uniform within all grain types. Only two cultivars were anomalous: cv. Hi Plains in HRW wheats and cv. Astro in the oat group.

  9. Uniformly Most Powerful Tests for Simultaneously Detecting a Treatment Effect in the Overall Population and at Least One Subpopulation.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Michael

    2014-12-01

    We take the perspective of a researcher planning a randomized trial of a new treatment, where it is suspected that certain subpopulations may benefit more than others. These subpopulations could be defined by a risk factor or biomarker measured at baseline. We focus on situations where the overall population is partitioned into two, predefined subpopulations. When the true average treatment effect for the overall population is positive, it logically follows that it must be positive for at least one subpopulation. Our goal is to construct multiple testing procedures that maximize power for simultaneously rejecting the overall population null hypothesis and at least one subpopulation null hypothesis. We show that uniformly most powerful tests exist for this problem, in the case where outcomes are normally distributed. We construct new multiple testing procedures that, to the best of our knowledge, are the first to have this property. These procedures have the advantage of not requiring any sacrifice for detecting a treatment effect in the overall population, compared to the uniformly most powerful test of the overall population null hypothesis.

  10. Beyond the Uniformity Myth: A Comparison of Academically Successful and Unsuccessful Test-Anxious College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven D.; Nelson, Tamara L.

    1983-01-01

    Studied factors that might differentially underlie test anxiety and academic performance of college students (N=72). Results revealed that high anxious students differed from low anxious students on traditional cognitive and somatic indicators of text anxiety but not on any measure of study or test-taking skills. (WAS)

  11. Columbia University flow instability experimental program: Volume 2. Single tube uniformly heated tests -- Part 2: Uncertainty analysis and data

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.

    1990-05-01

    In June 1988, Savannah River Laboratory requested that the Heat Transfer Research Facility modify the flow excursion program, which had been in progress since November 1987, to include testing of single tubes in vertical down-flow over a range of length to diameter (L/D) ratios of 100 to 500. The impetus for the request was the desire to obtain experimental data as quickly as possible for code development work. In July 1988, HTRF submitted a proposal to SRL indicating that by modifying a facility already under construction the data could be obtained within three to four months. In January 1990, HTFR issued report CU-HTRF-T4, part 1. This report contained the technical discussion of the results from the single tube uniformly heated tests. The present report is part 2 of CU-HTRF-T4 which contains further discussion of the uncertainty analysis and the complete set of data.

  12. Gain length dependence on phase shake in the VUV-FEL at the TESLA Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pflueger, J.; Pierini, P.

    1995-12-31

    The TTF VUV FEL, which is in its design stage at DESY, consists of a 30 m long SASE FEL which will radiate around 6 nm, driven by a superconducting linac with final energy of 1 GeV. One of the important issues in its design is the undulator performance, which is studied in this paper. The present setup, including FODO lattice, is discussed in this paper. Results of simulations, including the realistic wiggler field errors and beam stearing, are presented. Dependence of the performance, in particular the gain and saturation length as well as the saturation peak power, on the wiggler field errors is discussed.

  13. Analytically Quantifying Gains in the Test and Evaluation Process through Capabilities-Based Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Situational Awareness for Surveillance and Interdiction Operations SBT &E Specifications-Based Test & Evaluation SME Subject Matter Expert SoS System...testing as Specifications-Based Test and Evaluation ( SBT &E). This limits the ability of modern, complex systems to satisfy the capability...interoperability (Defense Science Board Task Force, 2008). The use of SBT &E under these conditions has contributed to the failure of many new systems

  14. Drug testing and flow cytometry analysis on a large number of uniform sized tumor spheroids using a microfluidic device

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Bishnubrata; Peng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Wei-Hao; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Tung, Yi-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroid possesses great potential as an in vitro model to improve predictive capacity for pre-clinical drug testing. In this paper, we combine advantages of flow cytometry and microfluidics to perform drug testing and analysis on a large number (5000) of uniform sized tumor spheroids. The spheroids are formed, cultured, and treated with drugs inside a microfluidic device. The spheroids can then be harvested from the device without tedious operation. Due to the ample cell numbers, the spheroids can be dissociated into single cells for flow cytometry analysis. Flow cytometry provides statistical information in single cell resolution that makes it feasible to better investigate drug functions on the cells in more in vivo-like 3D formation. In the experiments, human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) are exploited to form tumor spheroids within the microfluidic device, and three anti-cancer drugs: Cisplatin, Resveratrol, and Tirapazamine (TPZ), and their combinations are tested on the tumor spheroids with two different sizes. The experimental results suggest the cell culture format (2D monolayer vs. 3D spheroid) and spheroid size play critical roles in drug responses, and also demonstrate the advantages of bridging the two techniques in pharmaceutical drug screening applications. PMID:26877244

  15. Drug testing and flow cytometry analysis on a large number of uniform sized tumor spheroids using a microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Bishnubrata; Peng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Wei-Hao; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Tung, Yi-Chung

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroid possesses great potential as an in vitro model to improve predictive capacity for pre-clinical drug testing. In this paper, we combine advantages of flow cytometry and microfluidics to perform drug testing and analysis on a large number (5000) of uniform sized tumor spheroids. The spheroids are formed, cultured, and treated with drugs inside a microfluidic device. The spheroids can then be harvested from the device without tedious operation. Due to the ample cell numbers, the spheroids can be dissociated into single cells for flow cytometry analysis. Flow cytometry provides statistical information in single cell resolution that makes it feasible to better investigate drug functions on the cells in more in vivo-like 3D formation. In the experiments, human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) are exploited to form tumor spheroids within the microfluidic device, and three anti-cancer drugs: Cisplatin, Resveratrol, and Tirapazamine (TPZ), and their combinations are tested on the tumor spheroids with two different sizes. The experimental results suggest the cell culture format (2D monolayer vs. 3D spheroid) and spheroid size play critical roles in drug responses, and also demonstrate the advantages of bridging the two techniques in pharmaceutical drug screening applications.

  16. Flight test of ARINC 741 configuration low gain SATCOM system on Boeing 747-400 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Timothy A.; Stapleton, Brian P.

    1990-01-01

    The Boeing company conducted a flight test of a SATCOM system similar to the ARINC 741 configuration on a production model 747-400. A flight plan was specifically designed to test the system over a wide variety of satellite elevations and aircraft attitudes as well as over land and sea. Interface bit errors, signal quality and aircraft position and navigational inputs were all recorded as a function of time. Special aircraft maneuvers were performed to demonstrate the potential for shadowing by aircraft structures. Both a compass rose test and the flight test indicated that shadowing from the tail is insignificant for the 747-400. However, satellite elevation angles below the aircraft horizon during banking maneuvers were shown to have a significant deleterious effect on SATCOM communications.

  17. Item Selection in Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing--Gaining Information from Different Angles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, obtaining diagnostic information from examinees' item responses has become an increasingly important feature of educational and psychological testing. The objective can be achieved by sequentially selecting multidimensional items to fit the class of latent traits being assessed, and therefore Multidimensional…

  18. IR gain monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Bryan

    2013-10-01

    The gain of the IR channel of WFC3 will be measured using a series of internal flat fields. Using knowledge gained from ground testing and previous cycles, we propose to collect flat field ramps which will be used to create photon transfer curves and give a measure of the gain. This continues the strategy of last cycle's gain monitor, in proposal 13080.

  19. Changes in self-reported HIV testing during South Africa's 2010/2011 national testing campaign: gains and shortfalls

    PubMed Central

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Lloyd, Neil; Bor, Jacob; Venkataramani, Atheendar S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives HIV counselling and testing is critical to HIV prevention and treatment efforts. Mass campaigns may be an effective strategy to increase HIV testing in countries with generalized HIV epidemics. We assessed the self-reported uptake of HIV testing among individuals who had never previously tested for HIV, particularly those in high-risk populations, during the period of a national, multisector testing campaign in South Africa (April 2010 and June 2011). Design This study was a prospective cohort study. Methods We analyzed data from two waves (2010/2011, n=16,893; 2012, n=18,707) of the National Income Dynamics Study, a nationally representative cohort that enabled prospective identification of first-time testers. We quantified the number of adults (15 years and older) testing for the first time nationally. To assess whether the campaign reached previously underserved populations, we examined changes in HIV testing coverage by age, gender, race and province sub-groups. We also estimated multivariable logistic regression models to identify socio-economic and demographic predictors of first-time testing. Results Overall, the proportion of adults ever tested for HIV increased from 43.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 41.48, 45.96) to 65.2% (95% CI: 63.28, 67.10) over the study period, with approximately 7.6 million (95% CI: 6,387,910; 8,782,986) first-time testers. Among black South Africans, the country's highest HIV prevalence sub-group, HIV testing coverage improved among poorer and healthier individuals, thus reducing gradients in testing by wealth and health. In contrast, HIV testing coverage remained lower for men, younger individuals and the less educated, indicating persistent if not widening disparities by gender, age and education. Large geographic disparities in coverage also remained as of 2012. Conclusions Mass provision of HIV testing services can be effective in increasing population coverage of HIV testing. The geographic and socio

  20. In-situ Testing of the EHT High Gain and Frequency Ultra-Stable Integrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kenneth; Ziemba, Timothy; Prager, James; Slobodov, Ilia; Lotz, Dan

    2014-10-01

    Eagle Harbor Technologies (EHT) has developed a long-pulse integrator that exceeds the ITER specification for integration error and pulse duration. During the Phase I program, EHT improved the RPPL short-pulse integrators, added a fast digital reset, and demonstrated that the new integrators exceed the ITER integration error and pulse duration requirements. In Phase II, EHT developed Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) software that allows for integrator control and real-time signal digitization and processing. In the second year of Phase II, the EHT integrator will be tested at a validation platform experiment (HIT-SI) and tokamak (DIII-D). In the Phase IIB program, EHT will continue development of the EHT integrator to reduce overall cost per channel. EHT will test lower cost components, move to surface mount components, and add an onboard Field Programmable Gate Array and data acquisition to produce a stand-alone system with lower cost per channel and increased the channel density. EHT will test the Phase IIB integrator at a validation platform experiment (HIT-SI) and tokamak (DIII-D). Work supported by the DOE under Contract Number (DE-SC0006281).

  1. 10 CFR Appendix T to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Water Closets and Urinals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Water Closets and Urinals T Appendix T to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. T Appendix T to Subpart B of Part...

  2. 10 CFR 431.304 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of walk-in coolers and walk-in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... consumption of walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers. 431.304 Section 431.304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Walk-in Coolers and Walk-in Freezers Test Procedures § 431.304 Uniform test method for the measurement of...

  3. 10 CFR 431.304 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of walk-in coolers and walk-in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... consumption of walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers. 431.304 Section 431.304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Walk-in Coolers and Walk-in Freezers Test Procedures § 431.304 Uniform test method for the measurement of...

  4. 10 CFR 431.304 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of walk-in coolers and walk-in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption of walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers. 431.304 Section 431.304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Walk-in Coolers and Walk-in Freezers Test Procedures § 431.304 Uniform test method for the measurement of...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix T to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Water Closets and Urinals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Water Closets and Urinals T Appendix T to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  6. 10 CFR Appendix T to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Water Closets and Urinals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Water Closets and Urinals T Appendix T to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App....

  7. 10 CFR 431.304 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of walk-in coolers and walk-in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers. 431.304 Section 431.304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Walk-in Coolers and Walk-in Freezers Test Procedures...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix T to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of Water Closets and Urinals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Water Closets and Urinals T Appendix T to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. T Appendix T to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Water Consumption of...

  9. Highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for determination of doxazosin through derivatization with fluorescamine; Application to content uniformity testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Mahmoud A.; Hammad, Mohamed A.; Salman, Baher I.; Derayea, Sayed M.

    2016-03-01

    A highly sensitive, simple and selective spectrofluorimetric method has been developed and validated for determination of doxazosin mesylate in pure form, pharmaceutical formulations and human plasma. The method is based on the reaction between doxazosin mesylate and fluorescamine in Teorell buffer solution (pH 3) to give highly fluorescent derivative that can be measured at 489 nm using excitation wavelength of 385 nm. Different experimental parameters affecting the reaction were carefully studied and optimized. The calibration plot was constructed over the concentration range of 16-400 ng mL- 1 with quantitation limit of 14.3 ng mL- 1. The developed procedure was validated according to ICH guidelines and the results were satisfactory. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of the cited drug in its pharmaceutical preparations as well as for content uniformity testing. The results showed excellent agreement with the reported method with respect to precision and accuracy. In addition, the drug concentration was determined in the spiked human plasma by the suggested method with % recovery in the range of 96.2-98.3% (SD; 0.76-0.93, n = 5).

  10. Micelle-enhanced spectrofluorimetric method for determination of lacidipine in tablet form; application to content uniformity testing.

    PubMed

    Belal, F; Sharaf El-Din, M; Tolba, M M; Alaa, H

    2015-09-01

    A highly sensitive, simple and rapid spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of lacidipine (LCP) in tablets. The proposed method is based on the investigation of the fluorescence spectral behavior of LCP in both sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and the tween-80 micellar system. In aqueous solutions of acetate buffer (pH 4.5), the fluorescence intensities of LCP were greatly enhanced (ca. 2.4 and 4.3 folds) in the presence of either SDS or tween-80, respectively. The fluorescence intensity was measured at 444 nm after excitation at 277 nm using either SDS or tween-80 as a surfactant. The fluorescence-concentration plots were rectilinear over the ranges of 50.0-500.0 ng/ml and 5.0-200.0 ng/ml with lower detection limits of 5.11 and 2.06 ng/ml and lower quantification limits of 17 and 6.87 ng/ml using SDS and tween-80, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of LCP in commercial tablets and the results were in good agreement with those obtained with the comparison method. Furthermore, content uniformity testing of pharmaceutical tablets was also conducted.

  11. Spectrofluorimetric determination of certain adrenergic agonist drugs in their pure forms and pharmaceutical formulations: Content uniformity test application.

    PubMed

    Badr El-Din, Khalid M; Attia, Tamer Z

    2016-11-29

    A new, simple, sensitive and rapid spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for determination of certain adrenergic agonists such as isoxsuprine hydrochloride, ritodrine hydrochloride and etilefrine hydrochloride in their pure forms and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method depends on micellar enhancement of the native fluorescence of investigated drugs by using 2% w/v sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an anionic surfactant. The enhanced fluorescence intensity of investigated drugs was measured at 305 nm after excitation at 278 nm. The interaction of studied drugs with SDS was studied, and the enhanced fluorescence intensity was exploited to develop an assay method for the determination of investigated drugs. The relative fluorescence intensity-concentration plots were rectilinear over the range 0.15-3.00 μg ml(-1) , with low quantification limits of 0.132, 0.123 and 0.118 μg mL(-1) for isoxsuprine, ritodrine and etilefrine, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for determination of studied drugs in their pharmaceutical formulations. Moreover, the high sensitivity of the proposed method allows performing the content uniformity testing of the studied drugs in their tablets by using the official United States Pharmacopeia (USP) guidelines. Statistical comparisons of the results with those of the reported methods revealed excellent agreement and indicated no significant difference in accuracy and precision.

  12. Spectrophotometric Determination of Risedronate in Pharmaceutical Formulations via Complex Formation with Cu (II) Ions: Application to Content Uniformity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Walash, M. I.; Metwally, M. E.-S.; Eid, M.; El-Shaheny, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, rapid and accurate spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of risedronate, a bisphosphonate drug important for the treatment of a variety of bone diseases, in raw material and pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method is based on complex formation between risedronate and Cu (II) ions in acetate buffer of pH5.5. The optimum conditions for this reaction were ascertained and a spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of risedronate in concentration range of 2-40 μg/mL with detection limit of 0.03 μg/mL (9.51 × 10-8 mol/L). The molar absorbtivity was 8.00 × 103 l/mol/cm. The method was successfully applied for the determination of risedronate in tablet dosage form with mean percentage recovery of 101.04 ± 0.32. The results obtained were favorably compared with those obtained by the comparison method. Furthermore, the proposed method was applied for content uniformity testing of risedronate tablets. PMID:23675102

  13. Stability analysis of Hawaiian Island flanks using insight gained from strength testing of the HSDP core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Nick; Watters, Robert J.; Schiffman, Peter

    2008-04-01

    Hawaiian Island flank failures are recognized as the largest landslide events on Earth, reaching volumes of several thousand cubic kilometers and lengths of over 200 km and occurring on an average of once every 100 000 years. The 3.1 km deep Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) enabled an investigation of the rock mass strength variations on the island of Hawaii [Schiffman, P., Watters, R.J., Thompson, N., Walton, A.W., 2006. Hyaloclastites and the slope stability of Hawaiian volcanoes: insights from the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project's 3-km drill core. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 151 (1-3): 217-228]. This study builds on that of Schiffman et al. [Schiffman, P., Watters, R.J., Thompson, N., Walton, A.W., 2006. Hyaloclastites and the slope stability of Hawaiian volcanoes: Insights from the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project's 3-km drill core. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 151 (1-3): 217-228] by considering more in-depth rock mass classification and strength testing methods of the HSDP core. Geotechnical core logging techniques combined with laboratory strength testing methods show that rock strength differences exist within the edifice. Comparing the rock strength parameters obtained from the various volcano lithologies identified weak zones, suggesting the possible location of future slip surfaces for large flank failures. Relatively weak rock layers were recognized within poorly consolidated hyaloclastite zones, with increases in strength based on degree of alteration. Subaerial and submarine basalt flows are found to be significantly stronger. With the aid of digital elevation models, cross-sections have been developed of key flank areas on the island of Hawaii. Limit equilibrium slope stability analyses are performed on each cross-section using various failure criteria for the rock mass strength calculations. Based on the stability analyses the majority of the slopes analyzed are considered stable. In cases

  14. Gain Evaluation of Micro-Channel-Plate Photomultipliers in the Upgraded High-B Test Facility at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, Corinne; DIRC at EIC Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The High-B test facility at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility allows researchers to evaluate the gain of compact photon sensors, such as Micro-Channel-Plate Photomultipliers (MCP-PMTs), in magnetic fields up to 5 T. These ongoing studies support the development of a Detector of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light (DIRC) to be used in an Electron Ion Collider (EIC). Here, we present our summer 2015 activities to upgrade and improve the facility, and we show results for MCP-PMT gain changes in high B-fields. To monitor the light stability delivered to the MCP-PMTs being tested, we implemented a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) in the setup and calibrated the ADC reading this sensor. A 405-nm Light-Emitting Diode (LED) housed in an optical tube compatible with neutral density filters was also installed. The filters provide an alternative way of reducing the light output of the LED to operate the MCP-PMTs in a single-photon mode. We calibrated a set of filters by means of a photodiode and measured the photon flux at multiple positions relative to the LED. This information helped us to design 3D-printed holders unique to each MCP-PMT so that the photocathode receives the greatest amount of light. The improvements to the setup allow for more precise PMT gain evaluation. This team includes 7 collaborators/co-authors besides myself: Yordanka Ilieva, Kijun Park, Greg Kalicy, Carl Zorn, Pawel Nadel-Turonski, Tongtong Cao, and Lee.

  15. Cold test, spontaneous emission and gain in a rectangular Cerenkov amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Scharer, J.E.; Joe, J.; Booske, J.H.; Basten, M.; Kirolous, H.

    1994-12-31

    The authors present experimental results for the rectangular Cerenkov grating amplifier. This research is being carried out to develop a Ka-band (35 GHz), low voltage (10 kV), moderate power (10 kW) source. They have constructed a Ku-band grating structure to study a scaled version of this source. The tapered grating consists of two tapered Ku-band smooth wave guide sections and two 3.5-inch sections of five-step-tapered gratings. Both tapered and untapered grating structures have been cold tested utilizing the network analyzer measurements. They find that their taper design reduced the reflection coefficient from {minus}5 dB to less than {minus}20 dB over a 12--15 GHz bandwidth. Spontaneous emission results resulting from passing the circular electron beam from a Litton thermionic gun over the grating structure will be presented. They have theoretically investigated the sheet beam interaction with hybrid modes in a deep groove rectangular grating waveguide. A complex dispersion relation, which includes a finite axial energy spread of the beam, describing the interaction has been solved. The authors find that the instability is always convective in the forward wave mode regime.

  16. Insights Gained from Ultrasonic Testing of Piping Welds Subjected to the Mechanical Stress Improvement Process

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Moran, Traci L.

    2010-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is assisting the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in developing a position on the management of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in leak-before-break piping systems. Part of this involves determining whether inspections alone, or inspections plus mitigation, are needed. This work addresses the reliability of ultrasonic testing (UT) of cracks that have been mitigated by the mechanical stress improvement process (MSIP). The MSIP has been approved by the NRC (NUREG-0313) since 1986 and modifies residual stresses remaining after welding with compressive, or neutral, stresses near the inner diameter surface of the pipe. This compressive stress is thought to arrest existing cracks and inhibit new crack formation. To evaluate the effectiveness of the MSIP and the reliability of ultrasonic inspections, flaws were evaluated both before and after MSIP application. An initial investigation was based on data acquired from cracked areas in 325-mm-diameter piping at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) in Lithuania. In a follow-on exercise, PNNL acquired and evaluated similar UT data from a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) specimen containing implanted thermal fatigue cracks. The DMW specimen is a carbon steel nozzle-to-safe end-to-stainless steel pipe section that simulates a pressurizer surge nozzle. The flaws were implanted in the nozzle-to-safe end Alloy 82/182 butter region. Results are presented on the effects of MSIP on specimen surfaces, and on UT flaw responses.

  17. Gimbals Drive and Control Electronics Design, Development and Testing of the LRO High Gain Antenna and Solar Array Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernyakov, Boris; Thakore, Kamal

    2010-01-01

    Launched June 18, 2009 on an Atlas V rocket, NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is the first step in NASA's Vision for Space Exploration program and for a human return to the Moon. The spacecraft (SC) carries a wide variety of scientific instruments and provides an extraordinary opportunity to study the lunar landscape at resolutions and over time scales never achieved before. The spacecraft systems are designed to enable achievement of LRO's mission requirements. To that end, LRO's mechanical system employed two two-axis gimbal assemblies used to drive the deployment and articulation of the Solar Array System (SAS) and the High Gain Antenna System (HGAS). This paper describes the design, development, integration, and testing of Gimbal Control Electronics (GCE) and Actuators for both the HGAS and SAS systems, as well as flight testing during the on-orbit commissioning phase and lessons learned.

  18. Development of a test methodology for determining the efficacy of One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma against airborne contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domitrovic, Ronald Edward

    A method of analysis is developed for an atmospheric plasma reactor in a ducted air stream with the intent of enabling parametric analysis for the multi-variable problem. Industrial uses for atmospheric plasma are numerous and in this case, a particular type of plasma known as "One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma" (OAUGDP(TM)) was studied for its chemistry generation abilities and its microorganism efficacy properties. The system of an OAUGDP reactor positioned in an air duct of fully-developed turbulent flow is constructed of nineteen pertinent variables and dimensional analysis is applied according to the Buckingham Pi method, yielding fourteen dimensionless variable groups. Important Pi groups are identified, namely those relating electrical power input to chemical generation and microorganism efficacy and experimental data is gathered and presented. Ozone is measured as a representative chemical and generation rates are presented in terms of airflow Reynolds number, geometry of the reactor electrodes and power input to the reactor. A universal generation curve is developed for a parallel electrode reactor in which ozone generation rates can be determined from the known Reynolds number, electrode diameter to electrode gap ratio and plasma power to air flow power ratio. It is shown that ozone generation follows a bell shaped curve with increasing rates of production at a low ratio of plasma power to flow power, reaching a maximum and then decreasing to nearly zero at sufficiently high values of plasma power to flow power ratio. A principal area of development for OAUGDP and other atmospheric plasmas is for their use in destroying microorganisms, both on surfaces and in air streams. The ducted OAUGDP system was experimentally tested for efficacy against Bacillus atrophaeus endospores and results are presented in terms of the Reynolds number, the dimensionless plasma exposure time and the plasma power to airflow power ratio. Higher Reynolds numbers require

  19. 10 CFR Appendix W to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Medium Base Compact Fluorescent Lamps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for CFLs,” Version dated August 9, 2001, (commonly referred to as... requirements specified in section 4, “CFL Requirements for Testing” of DOE's “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix W to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Medium Base Compact Fluorescent Lamps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for CFLs,” Version dated August 9, 2001, (commonly referred to as... requirements specified in section 4, “CFL Requirements for Testing” of DOE's “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix V to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fan Light Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Ceiling Fan Light Kits V Appendix V to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix V to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fan... of ceiling fan light kits. 2. Definitions: a. Input power means the actual total power used by...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix V to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fan Light Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of Ceiling Fan Light Kits V Appendix V to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix V to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fan... of ceiling fan light kits. 2. Definitions: a. Input power means the actual total power used by...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix V to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fan Light Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Ceiling Fan Light Kits V Appendix V to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix V to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fan... of ceiling fan light kits. 2. Definitions: a. Input power means the actual total power used by...

  4. Gaining control over responses to implicit attitude tests: Implementation intentions engender fast responses on attitude-incongruent trials.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Pepper, John

    2012-03-01

    The present research investigated whether forming implementation intentions could promote fast responses to attitude-incongruent associations (e.g., woman-manager) and thereby modify scores on popular implicit measures of attitude. Expt 1 used the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure associations between gender and science versus liberal arts. Planning to associate women with science engendered fast responses to this category-attribute pairing and rendered summary scores more neutral compared to standard IAT instructions. Expt 2 demonstrated that forming egalitarian goal intentions is not sufficient to produce these effects. Expt 3 extended these findings to a different measure of implicit attitude (the Go/No-Go Association Task) and a different stereotypical association (Muslims-terrorism). In Expt 4, managers who planned to associate women with superordinate positions showed more neutral IAT scores relative to non-planners and effects were maintained 3 weeks later. In sum, implementation intentions enable people to gain control over implicit attitude responses.

  5. High gain GaAs Photoconductive Semiconductor Switches (PCSS): Device lifetime, high current testing, optical pulse generators

    SciTech Connect

    Zutavern, F.J.; Loubriel, G.M.; Helgeson, W.D.; O`Malley, M.W.; Gallegos, R.R.; Hjalmarson, H.P.; Baca, A.G.; Plut, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents results from three areas of GaAs PCSS research and development: device lifetime, high current switching, and PCSS-driven laser diode arrays (LDA). The authors have performed device lifetime tests on both lateral and vertical switches as a function of current amplitude, pulse width, and charging time. At present, their longest-lived switch reached 4 {times} 10{sup 6} pulses. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show damage near the contacts even after only 5 pulses. They are presently searching for the threshold at which no damage is evident after a single shot. In high current tests, they have reached 5.2 kA at 4.2 kV. This was achieved using twenty fiber-optic coupled lasers to distribute current filaments over a 5 mm wide PCSS. Current waveforms and images of the current filaments as a function of current amplitude will be presented. The lasers used to trigger the high current PCSS were driven with a miniature PCSS. Low inductance, high speed GaAs PCSS are very effective as short pulse laser diode array drivers. Some types of arrays gain switch, producing a compressed optical pulse which is only 75 ps wide. Results from tests with a variety of laser diode arrays will be presented.

  6. IR Gain Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Bryan

    2012-10-01

    The gain of the IR channel of WFC3 will be measured using a series of internal flat fields. Using knowledge gained from ground testing and previous cycles, we propose to collect flat field ramps which will be used to create photon transfer curves and give a measure of the gain.

  7. Uniformities in OSA-UCS and in NCS tested by color difference prediction based on principal hue components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indow, Tarow

    2002-06-01

    The OSA uniform color system is a 3-D collection of color samples according to the regular rhombohedral structure in which each color is surrounded by its 12 nearest neighbors, all perceptually equally different (local uniformity). The Swedish NCS system is a 3-D collection of color samples that vary gradually in each of the three perceptual attributes. It is not clear that this arrangement implies all neighboring pairs along the respective coordinates being perceptually equally different (local uniformity). Of pairs (j,k) of interest, predicted color differences djk were calculated that have the following property. Suppose an observer selects a pair of Munsell grays (Va, Vb) that matches in size with the color difference between (j,k), then djk=|Va-Vb| is predicted by djk, on the average, with error of 0.34 in Munsell V-unit. Variation of djk in this unit was in the order of 0.22V for nearest neighboring pairs (j,k) in various cleavage planes of OSA-UCS and in the order of 0.11V for neighboring pairs (j,k) along s-coordinate and c-coordinate in sheets with fixed hue of NCS. Both were well within the prediction error range, but some systematic trends in values of djk were found.

  8. 10 CFR Appendix U to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Test Procedure,” and Chapter 6, “Definitions and Acronyms,” of the EPA's “ENERGY STAR Testing Facility Guidance Manual: Building a Testing Facility and Performing the Solid State Test Method for ENERGY STAR... specified in Chapter 4, “Equipment Setup and Test Procedure,” of the EPA's “ENERGY STAR Testing...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix U to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Test Procedure,” and Chapter 6, “Definitions and Acronyms,” of the EPA's “ENERGY STAR Testing Facility Guidance Manual: Building a Testing Facility and Performing the Solid State Test Method for ENERGY STAR... specified in Chapter 4, “Equipment Setup and Test Procedure,” of the EPA's “ENERGY STAR Testing...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix U to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Test Procedure,” and Chapter 6, “Definitions and Acronyms,” of the EPA's “ENERGY STAR Testing Facility Guidance Manual: Building a Testing Facility and Performing the Solid State Test Method for ENERGY STAR... specified in Chapter 4, “Equipment Setup and Test Procedure,” of the EPA's “ENERGY STAR Testing...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix U to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Test Procedure,” and Chapter 6, “Definitions and Acronyms,” of the EPA's “ENERGY STAR Testing Facility Guidance Manual: Building a Testing Facility and Performing the Solid State Test Method for ENERGY STAR... specified in Chapter 4, “Equipment Setup and Test Procedure,” of the EPA's “ENERGY STAR Testing...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix U to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Test Procedure,” and Chapter 6, “Definitions and Acronyms,” of the EPA's “ENERGY STAR Testing Facility Guidance Manual: Building a Testing Facility and Performing the Solid State Test Method for ENERGY STAR... specified in Chapter 4, “Equipment Setup and Test Procedure,” of the EPA's “ENERGY STAR Testing...

  13. Effects of a breeding scheme combined by genomic pre-selection and progeny testing on annual genetic gain in a dairy cattle population.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Takeshi; Togashi, Kenji; Iwama, Satoru; Matsumoto, Shigeo; Moribe, Kimihiro; Nakanishi, Takatoshi; Hagiya, Koichi; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi

    2014-06-01

    The effectiveness of the incorporation of genomic pre-selection into dairy cattle progeny testing (GS-PT) was compared with that of progeny testing (PT) where the fraction of dam to breed bull (DB) selected was 0.01. When the fraction of sires to breed bulls (SB) selected without being progeny tested to produce young bulls (YB) in the next generation was 0.2, the annual genetic gain from GS-PT was 13% to 43% greater when h(2)  = 0.3 and 16% to 53% greater when h(2)  = 0.1 compared with that from PT. Given h(2)  = 0.3, a selection accuracy of 0.8 for both YB and DB, and selected fractions of 0.117 for YB and 0.04 for DB, GS-PT produced 40% to 43% greater annual genetic gain than PT. Given h(2)  = 0.1, a selection accuracy of 0.6 for both YB and DB, and selected fractions of 0.117 for YB and 0.04 for DB, annual genetic gain from GS-PT was 48% to 53% greater than that from PT. When h(2)  = 0.3, progeny testing capacity had little effect on annual genetic gain from GS-PT. However, when h(2)  = 0.1, annual genetic gain from GS-PT increased with increasing progeny testing capacity.

  14. Color Uniformity in Navy Uniforms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    realized in contracting with a specific trouser, skirt, shirt or blouse manufacturer. Uniform items are issued on the basis of size and not on a top...Blue 3346 Spec. No.: MIL-C-29147 End Item: Men’s Winter Shirt Method of Issue: Stock Item - DPSC Procured Optional - NAVRESSO Method of Dyeing: Standard...Polyester Color: Blue 3346 Spec. No.: MIL-C-87051 End Item: Women’s Winter Shirt (new) Method of Issue: Stock Item - DPSC Procured Method of Dyeing: Piece

  15. Quality assurance test of delivered dose uniformity of multiple-dose inhaler and dry powder inhaler drug products.

    PubMed

    Tsong, Yi; Dong, Xiaoyu; Shen, Meiyu; Lostritto, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    The delivered dose uniformity is one of the most critical requirements for dry powder inhaler (DPI) and metered dose inhaler products. In 1999, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a Draft Guidance entitled Nasal Spray and Inhalation Solution, Suspension, and Spray Drug Products-Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls Documentation and recommended a two-tier acceptance sampling plan that is a modification of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) sampling plan of dose content uniformity (USP34<601>). This sampling acceptance plan is also applied to metered dose inhaler (MDI) and DPI drug products in general. The FDA Draft Guidance method is shown to have a near-zero probability of acceptance at the second tier. In 2000, under the request of The International Pharmaceutical Aerosol Consortium, the FDA developed a two-tier sampling acceptance plan based on two one-sided tolerance intervals (TOSTIs) for a small sample. The procedure was presented in the 2005 Advisory Committee Meeting of Pharmaceutical Science and later published in the Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics (Tsong et al., 2008). This proposed procedure controls the probability of the product delivering below a pre-specified effective dose and the probability of the product delivering over a pre-specified safety dose. In this article, we further propose an extension of the TOSTI procedure to single-tier procedure with any number of canisters.

  16. A 6-month randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention for weight gain management in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with schizophrenia have lower longevity than the general population as a consequence of a combination of risk factors connected to the disease, lifestyle and the use of medications, which are related to weight gain. Methods A multicentric, randomized, controlled-trial was conducted to test the efficacy of a 12-week group Lifestyle Wellness Program (LWP). The program consists of a one-hour weekly session to discuss topics like dietary choices, lifestyle, physical activity and self-esteem with patients and their relatives. Patients were randomized into two groups: standard care (SC) and standard care plus intervention (LWP). Primary outcome was defined as the weight and body mass index (BMI). Results 160 patients participated in the study (81 in the intervention group and 79 in the SC group). On an intent to treat analysis, after three months the patients in the intervention group presented a decrease of 0.48 kg (CI 95% -0.65 to 1.13) while the standard care group showed an increase of 0.48 kg (CI 95% 0.13 to 0.83; p=0.055). At six-month follow-up, there was a significant weight decrease of −1.15 kg, (CI 95% -2.11 to 0.19) in the intervention group compared to a weight increase in the standard care group (+0.5 kg, CI 95% -0.42–1.42, p=0.017). Conclusion In conclusion, this was a multicentric randomized clinical trial with a lifestyle intervention for individuals with schizophrenia, where the intervention group maintained weight and presented a tendency to decrease weight after 6 months. It is reasonable to suppose that lifestyle interventions may be important long-term strategies to avoid the tendency of these individuals to increase weight. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01368406 PMID:23418863

  17. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... repositioned until after the testing is complete. In order to avoid heating up the test ballast during lamp stabilization, which could cause resistance changes and result in unrepeatable data, it is necessary to warm...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix X to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dehumidifiers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. X...,” section 2, “Qualifying Products,” and section 4, “Test Criteria,” of the EPA's “ENERGY STAR Program... product capacity in pints per day (pints/day), in accordance with the test requirements specified...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix Y to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Battery Chargers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....e., watts) consumed as the time series integral of the power consumed over a 1-hour test period...) consumed as the time series integral of the power consumed over a 1-hour test period, divided by the period...-maintenance mode and standby mode over time periods defined in the test procedure. b. Active mode is...

  20. Custom uniform source system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balcom, John L.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose and scope of this final report is to provide information on the Custom Uniform Source System (CSTM-USS-4000). The report includes documentation and summaries of the results for the work performed under the contract. The Annex contain laboratory test findings, photographs, and drawings of the sphere system.

  1. 10 CFR 431.264 - Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Prerinse Spray... resolution of the test instrumentation. Round off calculations to the same number of significant digits...

  2. 10 CFR 431.264 - Uniform test method for the measurement of flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Prerinse Spray... resolution of the test instrumentation. Round off calculations to the same number of significant digits...

  3. The effects of head-up and head-down tilt on central respiratory chemoreflex loop gain tested by hyperoxic rebreathing.

    PubMed

    Skow, Rachel J; Tymko, Michael M; MacKay, Christina M; Steinback, Craig D; Day, Trevor A

    2014-01-01

    Central respiratory chemosensitivity is mediated via chemoreceptor neurons located throughout brain stem tissue. These receptors detect proximal CO2/[H(+)] (i.e., controller gain) and modulate breathing in a classic negative feedback loop. Loop gain (responsiveness) is the theoretical product of controller (chemoreceptors), mixing/feedback (cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems), and plant (pulmonary system) gains. The level of chemoreceptor stimulation is determined by interactions between mixing and plant gains. The extent to which steady-state changes in body position may affect central chemoreflex loop gain in response to CO2 is unclear. Because of the potential effects of tilt on pulmonary mechanics, we hypothesized that plant gain would be altered by head-up and head-down tilt (HUT, HDT) during hyperoxic rebreathing, which theoretically isolates plant gain by eliminating systemic arterial-tissue gradients. Sixteen subjects (eight females) underwent hyperoxic rebreathing tests on a tilt table to quantify central chemoreflex loop gain in five steady-state positions: 90° HUT, 45° HUT, supine, 45° HDT, and 90° HDT. Respiratory responses (tidal volume, VT; frequency, fR; minute ventilation, VE) were quantified during steady-state and increases in CO2 during rebreathing by linear regression above the ventilatory recruitment threshold (VRT). Using one-factor analysis of variance, we found that there were no differences in the respiratory responses between the five positions (VRT, P=0.711; VT, P=0.290; fR, P=0.748; VE, P=0.325). Our findings suggest that during steady-state orthostatic stress, the ability of subjects to mount a normal ventilatory response to increased CO2 was unaffected, despite any potential changes in pulmonary mechanics associated with positional challenges.

  4. 10 CFR Appendix D1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... information or status displays (including clocks) or sensor-based functions. A timer is a continuous clock... drying testing, maintain the room ambient air temperature at 75 ± 3 ° F and the room relative humidity at 50 ± 10 percent relative humidity. 2.2.2For standby and off mode testing, maintain room ambient...

  5. CHANGES IN OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR AEROSOL CONCENTRATION UNIFORMITY FOR PM2.5 AND PM10 SAMPLER TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technical note documents changes in the standard operating procedures used at the Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) aerosol testing wind tunnel facility for testing of particulate matter monitoring methods of PM2.5 and PM10. These changes are relative to the op...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix X to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dehumidifiers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... section 4, “Test Criteria,” of the EPA's “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Dehumidifiers,” effective..., “Test Criteria,” of EPA's “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Dehumidifiers,” effective January...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix X to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dehumidifiers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...,” section 2, “Qualifying Products,” and section 4, “Test Criteria,” of the EPA's “ENERGY STAR Program... section 4, “Test Criteria,” of EPA's “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Dehumidifiers,”...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Winding (I2R), Core and Windage-Friction Losses, or (2) IEEE Standard 112-1996 Test Method B, Input-Output With Loss Segregation, (Incorporated by reference, see § 431.15) with IEEE correction notice of January... revision to IEEE Standard 112-1996 Test Method B with correction notice of January 20, 1998, to...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix Z to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of External Power Supplies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... multiple-voltage external power supply). b. Active mode efficiency is the ratio, expressed as a percentage..., “General Conditions for Measurement,” of the CEC's “Test Method for Calculating the Energy Efficiency of... separately powered fans, air conditioners, or heat sinks. The UUT shall be conditioned, rested, and tested...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix Z to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of External Power Supplies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... multiple-voltage external power supply). b. Active mode efficiency is the ratio, expressed as a percentage..., “General Conditions for Measurement,” of the CEC's “Test Method for Calculating the Energy Efficiency of... separately powered fans, air conditioners, or heat sinks. The UUT shall be conditioned, rested, and tested...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix Z to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of External Power Supplies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... multiple-voltage external power supply). b. Active mode efficiency is the ratio, expressed as a percentage..., “General Conditions for Measurement,” of the CEC's “Test Method for Calculating the Energy Efficiency of... separately powered fans, air conditioners, or heat sinks. The UUT shall be conditioned, rested, and tested...

  12. 10 CFR 431.64 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of commercial refrigerators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... refrigerator-freezer by conducting the test procedure set forth in the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration... Storage Cabinets,” section 3, “Definitions,” section 4, “Test Requirements,” and section 7, “Symbols and... Requirements for Self-contained Commercial Refrigerated Display Merchandisers and Storage...

  13. 10 CFR 431.64 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of commercial refrigerators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... refrigerator-freezer by conducting the test procedure set forth in the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration... Storage Cabinets,” section 3, “Definitions,” section 4, “Test Requirements,” and section 7, “Symbols and... Requirements for Self-contained Commercial Refrigerated Display Merchandisers and Storage...

  14. 10 CFR 431.64 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of commercial refrigerators...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... refrigerator-freezer by conducting the test procedure set forth in the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration... Storage Cabinets,” section 3, “Definitions,” section 4, “Test Requirements,” and section 7, “Symbols and... Requirements for Self-contained Commercial Refrigerated Display Merchandisers and Storage...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dishwashers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... water heating to above 120 °F in at least one wash phase of the normal cycle. 2.Testing conditions: 2... dishwasher does not heat water in the normal cycle. 2.6.2Non-soil-sensing dishwashers to be tested at a... cycle. 3.4Water pressure gauge. The water pressure gauge must have a resolution of one pound per...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dishwashers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... water heating to above 120 °F in at least one wash phase of the normal cycle. 2.Testing conditions: 2... dishwasher does not heat water in the normal cycle. 2.6.2Non-soil-sensing dishwashers to be tested at a... cycle. 3.4Water pressure gauge. The water pressure gauge must have a resolution of one pound per...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dishwashers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... water heating to above 120 °F in at least one wash phase of the normal cycle. 2.Testing conditions: 2... dishwasher does not heat water in the normal cycle. 2.6.2Non-soil-sensing dishwashers to be tested at a... cycle. 3.4Water pressure gauge. The water pressure gauge must have a resolution of one pound per...

  18. Impact of the Teacher Advancement Program on Student Test Score Gains: Findings from an Independent Appraisal. Working Paper 2008-19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Ballou, Dale; Peng, Art

    2008-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first independent, third-party appraisal on the impact of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) on student test score gains in mathematics. TAP is a comprehensive school reform model designed to attract highly-effective teachers, improve instructional effectiveness, and elevate student achievement. We use a…

  19. Experimental Setup and Commissioning of a Test Facility for Gain Evaluation of Microchannel-Plate Photomultipliers in High Magnetic Field at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringley, Eric; Cao, Tongtong; Ilieva, Yordonka; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Park, Kijun; Zorn, Carl

    2014-09-01

    At the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) a research and development project for a Detector of Internally-Reflected Cherenkov light for the upcoming Electron Ion Collider is underway. One goal is the development of a compact readout camera that can operate in high magnetic fields. Small-size photon sensors, such as Microchannel-Plate Photomultipliers (MCP-PMT), are key components of the readout. Here we present our work to set up and commission a dedicated test facility at JLab where MCP-PMT gain is evaluated in magnetic fields of up to 5 T, and to develop a test procedure and analysis software to determine the gain. We operate the setup in a single-photon mode, where a light-emitting diode delivers photons to the sensor's photocathode. The PMT spectrum is measured with a flash Analog-to-Digital converter (fADC). We model the spectrum as a sum of an exponential background and a convolution of Poisson and Gaussian distributions of the pedestal and multiple photoelectron peaks, respectively. We determine the PMT's gain from the position of the single-photoelectron peak obtained by fitting the fADC spectrum to the model. Our gain uncertainty is <10%. The facility is now established and will have a long-lasting value for sensor tests and beyond-nuclear-physics applications.

  20. 10 CFR Appendix Y to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Battery Chargers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... by reference, see § 430.22). (b) Active Mode Energy Consumption Measurement. (c)(1) Standby Mode...-maintenance mode and standby mode over time periods defined in the test procedure. b. Active mode is the... or limited-time functions necessary for bringing the battery to the fully charged state. c....

  1. 10 CFR Appendix P to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Pool Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shall be in Btu. 4.2Average annual fossil fuel energy for pool heaters. The average annual fuel energy... reference; see § 430.3) and the fossil fuel energy consumption during the standby test, Qp, in Btu. Ambient... switch, the average electric power consumption during the off mode, PW,OFF = 0, and the fossil...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix D1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... displays (including clocks) or sensor-based functions. A timer is a continuous clock function (which may or... Ambient temperature and humidity. 2.2.1 For drying testing, maintain the room ambient air temperature at 75 ±3 °F and the room relative humidity at 50 ±10 percent relative humidity. 2.2.2 For standby...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix D2 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Continuous functions, including information or status displays (including clocks) or sensor-based functions. A timer is a continuous clock function (which may or may not be associated with a display) that... Ambient temperature and humidity. 2.2.1 For drying testing, maintain the room ambient air temperature...

  4. 10 CFR 431.134 - Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. 431.134 Section 431.134 Energy... of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. (a) Scope. This.../100 lbs ice). (b) Testing and Calculations. Determine the energy consumed and the condenser water...

  5. 10 CFR 431.134 - Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. 431.134 Section 431.134 Energy... of energy consumption and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers. (a) Scope. This.../100 lbs ice). (b) Testing and Calculations. Determine the energy consumed and the condenser water...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart K of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Distribution Transformers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... internal temperatures measured by the internal temperature sensors must not differ from the test area... frequency. The no-load loss determination must be based on a sine-wave voltage corrected to the reference... the following precautions: (1) Voltmeter connections. When correcting to a sine-wave basis using...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart K of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Distribution Transformers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... internal temperatures measured by the internal temperature sensors must not differ from the test area... frequency. The no-load loss determination must be based on a sine-wave voltage corrected to the reference... the following precautions: (1) Voltmeter connections. When correcting to a sine-wave basis using...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Water Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... pressure shall be within ±10% of the manufacturer's specified manifold pressure. For all tests, use natural... kg). 3.7Heating Value. The higher heating value of the natural gas, propane, or fuel oil shall be... heating value of natural gas and propane must be corrected for local temperature and pressure...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... termination control” means a dryer control system with a sensor which monitors either the dryer load... by the manufacturer. The natural gas supplied should have a heating value of approximately 1,025 Btu... natural gas to be used in the test shall be obtained either from measurements made by the...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... parts per million hardness or less), using 6.0 grams of AHAM Standard Test Detergent, IIA, per gallon of... 0 to 17 parts per million hardness for approximately two minutes in order to saturate the fabric... temperature is 100° ±5 °F and consists of 0 to 17 parts per million hardness for approximately two minutes...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart K of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Distribution Transformers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Measured quantity Test systemaccuracy Power Losses ± 3.0% Voltage ± 0.5% Current ± 0.5% Resistance ± 0.5... establish the winding temperature at the time of the winding resistance measurement. (b) Measure the direct current resistance (Rdc) of transformer windings by one of the methods outlined in section 3.3....

  12. 10 CFR 431.294 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Procedures,” of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 32.1-2004, “Methods of Testing for Rating Vending Machines for Bottled... the second paragraph of section 5, “Vending Machine Capacity,” of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart K of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Distribution Transformers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Measured quantity Test systemaccuracy Power Losses ±3.0% Voltage ±0.5% Current ±0.5% Resistance ±0.5... establish the winding temperature at the time of the winding resistance measurement. (b) Measure the direct current resistance (Rdc) of transformer windings by one of the methods outlined in section 3.3....

  14. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of metal halide ballasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... energy efficiency of metal halide ballasts. (b) Testing and Calculations. Energy Conservation Standards ... efficiency of metal halide ballasts. 431.324 Section 431.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dishwashers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. C Appendix C to... to the compliance date for any amended energy conservation standards that incorporate standby mode... existing DOE energy conservation standards and to make any representations related to energy and/or...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix B1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Freezers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... humidity. 1.3“Cycle” means the period of 24 hours for which the energy use of a freezer is calculated as... compartment temperatures were maintained. 1.4“Cycle type” means the set of test conditions having the...“Standard cycle” means the cycle type in which the anti-sweat heater switch, when provided, is set in...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix C1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dishwashers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... water softening system that periodically consumes additional water and energy during the cycle to... cycle without a test load if the dishwasher does not heat water in the normal cycle. 2.6.2Non-soil... cycle. During the second preconditioning, measure the prewash fill water volume, Vpw, if any, and...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dishwashers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....8Preconditioning cycle means any cycle that includes a fill, circulation, and drain to ensure that the water lines... cycle without a test load if the dishwasher does not heat water in the normal cycle. 2.6.2Non-soil... cycle. 3.4Water pressure gauge. The water pressure gauge must have a resolution of one pound per...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix C1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Dishwashers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Preconditioning cycle means a normal cycle run with no test load to ensure that the water lines and sump area of... phase of the normal cycle. 1.27 Water-softening dishwasher means a dishwasher which incorporates a water softening system that periodically consumes additional water and energy during the cycle to regenerate....

  20. 10 CFR Appendix Y to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Battery Chargers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... integral battery product and the rest of the battery charger designed to hold the product between uses. 2... cycles that are recommended only for occasional use to preserve battery health, such as equalization... battery shall be charged before such storage. 4.3. Selection of Batteries To Use for Testing a....

  1. 10 CFR Appendix Y to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Battery Chargers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... integral battery product and the rest of the battery charger designed to hold the product between uses. 2... cycles that are recommended only for occasional use to preserve battery health, such as equalization... battery shall be charged before such storage. 4.3. Selection of Batteries To Use for Testing a....

  2. 10 CFR Appendix Y to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Battery Chargers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... integral battery product and the rest of the battery charger designed to hold the product between uses. 2... cycles that are recommended only for occasional use to preserve battery health, such as equalization... battery shall be charged before such storage. 4.3. Selection of Batteries To Use for Testing a....

  3. 10 CFR Appendix B1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Freezers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standard as a revision of ANSI B38.1-1970. 1.2“Anti-sweat heater” means a device incorporated into the... characteristics. 1.5“Standard cycle” means the cycle type in which the anti-sweat heater switch, when provided, is... controls are to be operative and the anti-sweat heater switch is to be “on” during one test and...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix D1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the cabinet. 1.8“Cool down” means that portion of the clothes drying cycle when the added gas or electric heat is terminated and the clothes continue to tumble and dry within the drum. 1.9“Cycle” means a...“Moisture content” means the ratio of the weight of water contained by the test load to the bone-dry...

  5. Evidence that the oral glucose-tolerance test does not provide a uniform stimulus to pancreatic islets in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    de Leacy, E A; Cowley, D M

    1989-07-01

    Fifty consecutive pregnant patients referred for a glucose-tolerance test were classified on the basis of increasing (n = 20) or decreasing (n = 28) hematocrit after an oral 75-g glucose load. (The hematocrit did not change in the other two patients.) Patients with increasing hematocrit, a response previously seen in patients with the dumping syndrome, showed significantly flatter increases in glucose concentrations in plasma after the load. The mean decrease in the concentration of phosphate in plasma, measured as an index of glucose uptake by cells, was significantly less (P less than 0.05) 2 h after the load in the group with flatter glucose responses, suggesting that the flat response is ascribable to poor glucose absorption rather than to an exaggerated insulin response. These results indicate that the oral glucose-tolerance test stresses the pancreatic islets differently in different pregnant subjects, owing to individual variations in the gastrointestinal handling of the glucose load. Consequently, patients may give a "normal" result who might otherwise become hyperglycemic after normal meals. We suggest that alternative screening procedures be investigated to assess pregnant patients postprandially.

  6. Design and performance testing of an avalanche photodiode receiver with multiplication gain control algorithm for intersatellite laser communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaonan; Tong, Shoufeng; Dong, Yan; Song, Yansong; Hao, Shicong; Lu, Jing

    2016-06-01

    An avalanche photodiode (APD) receiver for intersatellite laser communication links is proposed and its performance is experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed system, a series of analog circuits are used not only to adjust the temperature and control the bias voltage but also to monitor the current and recover the clock from the communication data. In addition, the temperature compensation and multiplication gain control algorithm are embedded in the microcontroller to improve the performance of the receiver. As shown in the experiment, with the change of communication rate from 10 to 2000 Mbps, the detection sensitivity of the APD receiver varies from -47 to -34 dBm. Moreover, due to the existence of the multiplication gain control algorithm, the dynamic range of the APD receiver is effectively improved, while the dynamic range at 10, 100, and 1000 Mbps is 38.7, 37.7, and 32.8 dB, respectively. As a result, the experimental results agree well with the theoretical predictions, and the receiver will improve the flexibility of the intersatellite links without increasing the cost.

  7. Blend uniformity evaluation during continuous mixing in a twin screw granulator by in-line NIR using a moving F-test.

    PubMed

    Fonteyne, Margot; Vercruysse, Jurgen; De Leersnyder, Fien; Besseling, Rut; Gerich, Ad; Oostra, Wim; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2016-09-07

    This study focuses on the twin screw granulator of a continuous from-powder-to-tablet production line. Whereas powder dosing into the granulation unit is possible from a container of preblended material, a truly continuous process uses several feeders (each one dosing an individual ingredient) and relies on a continuous blending step prior to granulation. The aim of the current study was to investigate the in-line blending capacity of this twin screw granulator, equipped with conveying elements only. The feasibility of in-line NIR (SentroPAT, Sentronic GmbH, Dresden, Germany) spectroscopy for evaluating the blend uniformity of powders after the granulator was tested. Anhydrous theophylline was used as a tracer molecule and was blended with lactose monohydrate. Theophylline and lactose were both fed from a different feeder into the twin screw granulator barrel. Both homogeneous mixtures and mixing experiments with induced errors were investigated. The in-line spectroscopic analyses showed that the twin screw granulator is a useful tool for in-line blending in different conditions. The blend homogeneity was evaluated by means of a novel statistical method being the moving F-test method in which the variance between two blocks of collected NIR spectra is evaluated. The α- and β-error of the moving F-test are controlled by using the appropriate block size of spectra. The moving F-test method showed to be an appropriate calibration and maintenance free method for blend homogeneity evaluation during continuous mixing.

  8. 34 CFR 462.41 - How must tests be administered in order to accurately measure educational gain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to its State's assessment policy; and (3) Administer pre-tests to students in the skill areas... students in the same skill areas as the pre-test. (d) Other requirements. (1) A local eligible provider... the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1830-0027) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 9212)...

  9. Statistical searches for microlensing events in large, non-uniformly sampled time-domain surveys: A test using palomar transient factory data

    SciTech Connect

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Agüeros, Marcel A.; Fournier, Amanda P.; Street, Rachel; Ofek, Eran O.; Covey, Kevin R.; Levitan, David; Sesar, Branimir; Laher, Russ R.; Surace, Jason

    2014-01-20

    Many photometric time-domain surveys are driven by specific goals, such as searches for supernovae or transiting exoplanets, which set the cadence with which fields are re-imaged. In the case of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), several sub-surveys are conducted in parallel, leading to non-uniform sampling over its ∼20,000 deg{sup 2} footprint. While the median 7.26 deg{sup 2} PTF field has been imaged ∼40 times in the R band, ∼2300 deg{sup 2} have been observed >100 times. We use PTF data to study the trade off between searching for microlensing events in a survey whose footprint is much larger than that of typical microlensing searches, but with far-from-optimal time sampling. To examine the probability that microlensing events can be recovered in these data, we test statistics used on uniformly sampled data to identify variables and transients. We find that the von Neumann ratio performs best for identifying simulated microlensing events in our data. We develop a selection method using this statistic and apply it to data from fields with >10 R-band observations, 1.1 × 10{sup 9} light curves, uncovering three candidate microlensing events. We lack simultaneous, multi-color photometry to confirm these as microlensing events. However, their number is consistent with predictions for the event rate in the PTF footprint over the survey's three years of operations, as estimated from near-field microlensing models. This work can help constrain all-sky event rate predictions and tests microlensing signal recovery in large data sets, which will be useful to future time-domain surveys, such as that planned with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  10. Monitoring of the manufacturing process for ambroxol hydrochloride tablet using NIR-chemometric methods: compression effect on content uniformity model and relevant process parameters testing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongqin; Liao, Xiaoxiang; Peng, Feng; Wang, Wan; Liu, Yanxin; Yan, Jin; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to monitor compaction pressure for simultaneously determining the tensile strength and content uniformity, as well as moisture and mean particle size of ambroxol hydrochloride tablets. The content uniformity, compression force and tensile strength of the laboratory samples were obtained by pressing a mixture of active principle and excipient components into tablets. To reduce the spectral baseline shift of the laboratory samples, the compaction pressure applied to the mixture was assessed by a variable pressure test. Production samples were added to the test and subjected to principal component analysis. The expanded partial least-squares (PLS) calibration model used to quantify the active content was more accurate than the model constructed from laboratory samples using the production tablets included in the calibration set. The model showed good predictability, with correlation coefficient (R) 0.9977. The validation and reliability of the content model were evaluated to determine trueness and reliability for the measurement of individual production tablets and the laboratory tablets with drug content ranging from 24 to 36 mg. The PLS calibration models for compression force and tensile strength were constructed using the same spectral set assuming both were highly related. These models yielded high R values (0.9955 and 0.9910). The R values of the moisture and mean particle size were 0.9994 and 0.9919, respectively. This study demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric techniques can be successfully used to quantitatively monitor the tablet manufacturing process in the pharmaceutical industry.

  11. How Much Professional Development Is Needed to Effect Positive Gains in K-6 Student Achievement on High Stakes Science Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James A.; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard A.; Yore, Larry D.; Everett, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a report of a study that examines the relationship between teacher participation in a multi-year, K-6 professional development effort and the "high stakes" science test scores of different student groups in 33 rural mid-west school districts in the USA. The professional development program involved 1,269 elementary school…

  12. Micelle-enhanced spectrofluorimetric method for determination of cyproheptadine hydrochloride in tablets: application to in-vitro drug release and content uniformity test.

    PubMed

    Belal, F; El-Din, M K Sharaf; Tolba, M M; Elmansi, H

    2014-01-01

    A highly sensitive and simple spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of cyproheptadine hydrochloride (CYP) in its pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method is based on the investigation of the fluorescence spectral behaviour of CYP in a sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) micellar system. In aqueous solution, the fluorescence intensity of CYP was greatly enhanced (150 %) in the presence of SDS. The fluorescence intensity was measured at 410 nm after excitation at 280 nm. The fluorescence-concentration plot was rectilinear over the range 0.2-2.0 μg/mL, with lower detection limit of 0.06 μg/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied to the assay of commercial tablets as well as content uniformity testing. The application of the proposed method was extended to test the in-vitro drug release of CYP tablets, according to USP guidelines. The results were statistically compared with those obtained by official USP method and were found to be in good agreement.

  13. Do School Uniforms Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kerry A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1994, Long Beach (California) Unified School District began requiring uniforms in all elementary and middle schools. Now, half of all urban school systems and many suburban schools have uniform policies. Research on uniforms' effectiveness is mixed. Tightened dress codes may be just as effective and less litigious. (MLH)

  14. School Uniforms Redux.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Reviews a recent decision in "Littlefield" by the 5th Circuit upholding a school uniform policy. Advises board member who wish to adopt a school uniform policy to solicit input from parents and students, research the experiences of other school districts with uniform policies, and articulate the interests they wish to promote through uniform…

  15. Should Students Wear Uniforms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Carol A.; Siegel, Loren

    1996-01-01

    Two essays present opposing viewpoints on school uniforms. One suggests that uniforms make safer schools and better students. The other states that teenagers will rebel, and the uniform debate is a diversion from more pressing problems in education. The article includes brief opinion statements from teachers and other professionals. (SM)

  16. Uniform Continuity of POVMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beneduci, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    Recently a characterization of uniformly continuous POVMs and a necessary condition for a uniformly continuous POVM F to have the norm-1 property have been provided. Moreover it was proved that in the commutative case, uniform continuity corresponds to the existence of a Feller Markov kernel. We apply such results to the analysis of some relevant physical examples; i.e., the phase space localization observables, the unsharp phase observable and the unsharp number observable of which we study the uniform continuity, the norm-1 property and the existence of a Feller Markov kernel.

  17. Tradeoff on gain-flatness and gain-stabilization of erbium doped fiber amplifier with FBGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyin, Garidi; OuYang, Yunlun; Ma, Yu; Chang, Jinlong; Liu, Changxing; Yang, Jiuru

    2014-07-01

    It is a challenge to get gain-stabilization and gain-flatness of erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) in C-band, simultaneously. In this article, we establish a gain-clamped EDFA model based uniform fiber grating-pair and optimize the reflectivity of grating by the designed targets. The tradeoff between stabilization and flatness can be obtained when an ideal reflectivity is adopted. The numerical results show that the gain-stabilization is controlled in +/-0.1dB and gain-flatness is less than +/-1.41dB in the range from 1535nm to 1565nm.

  18. Development of a phantom and assessment of (141)Ce as a surrogate radionuclide for flood field uniformity testing of gamma cameras.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Sanjay Kumar; Kumar, Yogendra; Malpani, Basant; Rakshit, Sutapa; Dash, Ashutosh

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes an indigenous method for development and deployment of rechargeable liquid filled phantom with newly proposed radionuclide (141)Ce for determination of extrinsic uniformity of gamma cameras. Details about design of phantom, neutron irradiation of cerium targets, chemical processing of (141)Ce, charging of phantom with (141)Ce solution and their performance evaluation are presented. Suitability of (141)Ce in quality assurance of gamma cameras used in in-vivo diagnostic imaging procedures has been amply demonstrated.

  19. Dress Codes and Uniforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda; Miller, Gabriel

    2002-01-01

    Students do not always make choices that adults agree with in their choice of school dress. Dress-code issues are explored in this Research Roundup, and guidance is offered to principals seeking to maintain a positive school climate. In "Do School Uniforms Fit?" Kerry White discusses arguments for and against school uniforms and summarizes the…

  20. Uniform magnesium oxide adsorbents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dash, J. G.; Ecke, R.; Stoltenberg, J.; Vilches, O. E.; Whittemore, O. J., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Kr adsorption on MgO is used to characterize the surface uniformity of MgO smoke and thermally decomposed Mg(OH)2. It is found that initially heterogeneous samples develop progressively sharper stepwise isotherms with increasingly-high-temperature heat treatment, apparently due to the removal of imperfections and high-energy facets, leaving surfaces of highly uniform (100) planes.

  1. School Uniforms. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Does clothing make the person or does the person make the clothing? How does what attire a student wears to school affect their academic achievement? In 1996, President Clinton cited examples of school violence and discipline issues that might have been avoided had the students been wearing uniforms ("School uniforms: Prevention or suppression?").…

  2. Manual on School Uniforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

    In response to growing levels of violence in American schools, many communities are deciding to adopt school-uniform policies as part of an overall program to improve school safety and discipline. This document provides the following guidelines for parents, teachers, and school leaders who may consider adopting a school-uniform policy: (1) Get…

  3. Effective Instruction and Assessment Methods That Lead to Gains in Critical Thinking as Measured by the Critical Thinking Assessment Test (CAT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leming, Katie P.

    2016-01-01

    Previous qualitative research on educational practices designed to improve critical thinking has relied on anecdotal or student self-reports of gains in critical thinking. Unfortunately, student self-report data have been found to be unreliable proxies for measuring critical thinking gains. Therefore, in the current interpretivist study, five…

  4. The effect of a county's public high school summer remediation program on student gains on end-of-course standard of learning tests in Algebra I, Biology, Chemistry, Geometry and World History and Geography II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiken, Brenda L.

    The Commonwealth of Virginia requires high school students to receive a passing grade in core courses and a passing score on End-of-Course Standards of Learning (EOC SOL) tests to receive verified credits that lead to a Virginia high school diploma. These tests are believed to accurately reflect what students should know and be able to do in order to experience success in their endeavors beyond high school. For some students remediation is required to experience success on EOC SOL tests. This study sought to determine the effect of a County's public high school summer remediation program on student gains on EOC SOL tests in Algebra I, Biology, Chemistry, Geometry, and World History and Geography II. Specifically, the purpose of the study sought to determine the following: (a) If significant gains were made by students who attended the summer remediation program; (b) If significant gains were made by students who did not attend the summer remediation program; (c) If there were differences in gain scores of students who attended and those who did not attend the summer remediation program; and (d) If there were differences in gain scores among students who attended the summer remediation program related to school site, gender, ethnicity, learning ability group, socioeconomic status, and level of English proficiency. The results of the study indicate that students who attended and those who did not attend the summer remediation program made significant gains. However, the gains for students who attended the summer remediation program were significantly greater than the gains made by students who did not attend. The study also found that there were no significant differences in gain scores among students who attended the summer remediation program related to gender, ethnicity, learning ability group, socioeconomic status, and level of English proficiency. There were significant differences in Algebra I gain scores related to school site. Recommendations for

  5. Large barrier, highly uniform and reproducible Ni-Si/4H-SiC forward Schottky diode characteristics: testing the limits of Tung's model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Sabih U.; Sudarshan, Tangali S.; Rana, Tawhid A.; Song, Haizheng; Chandrashekhar, M. V. S.

    2014-07-01

    We report highly ideal (n < 1.1), uniform nickel silicide (Ni-Si)/SiC Schottky barrier (1.60-1.67 eV with a standard deviation <2.8%) diodes, fabricated on 4H-SiC epitaxial layers grown by chemical vapour deposition. The barrier height was constant over a wide epilayer doping range of 1014-1016 cm-3, apart from a slight decrease consistent with image force lowering. This remarkable uniformity was achieved by careful optimization of the annealing of the Schottky interface to minimize non-idealities that could lead to inhomogeneity. Tung's barrier inhomogeneity model was used to quantify the level of inhomogeneity in the optimized annealed diodes. The estimated ‘bulk’ barrier height (1.75 eV) was consistent with the Shockley-Mott limit for the Ni-Si/4H-SiC interface, implying an unpinned Fermi level. But the model was not useful to explain the poor ideality in unoptimized, as-deposited Schottky contacts (n = 1.6 - 2.5). We show analytically and numerically that only idealities n < 1.21 can be explained using Tung's model, irrespective of material system, indicating that the barrier height inhomogeneity is not the only cause of poor ideality in Schottky diodes. For explaining this highly non-ideal behaviour, other factors (e.g. interface traps, morphological defects, extrinsic impurities, etc) need to be considered.

  6. Analysis of HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) and antibody detected with various kinds of tests in Japanese blood donors to understand the relationship between PVL and antibody level and to gain insights toward better antibody testing.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Chieko; Sagara, Yasuko; Sobata, Rieko; Inoue, Yukiko; Morita, Maiko; Uchida, Shigeharu; Kiyokawa, Hiroyuki; Satake, Masahiro; Tadokoro, Kenji

    2017-03-02

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) occurs in approximately 5% of individuals infected with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). A high proviral load (PVL; more than four copies per 100 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or 1.6 copies per 100 blood leukocytes) and being male are risk factors for ATL development. Whether anti-HTLV-1 antibody level is related to such risk is unknown. Here, PVL and antibody levels were examined using real-time PCR and other tests in 600 HTLV-1 positive screened Japanese blood donors to understand the relationship between PVL and antibody level in asymptomatic carriers and to gain insights toward better antibody testing for HTLV-1 infection. The 430 donors in whom proviral DNA was detected were considered as true positives for HTLV-1 infection. Among donors aged 40 years or older, more males than females had a PVL corresponding to more than 1.6% infected leukocytes, and an antibody titer below the median (P = 0.0018). In antibody tests using an HTLV-1 positive cell line or Env antigens there was a large discrepancy in antibody titer among 13 provirus-positive samples, probably suggesting that antibody-based screening tests should incorporate multiple HTLV-1 antigens, such as Gag and Env antigens.

  7. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for testing. Conduct testing with the following installed: (1) the most restrictive filter(s); (2... restriction. c. Testing a ducted unit without having an indoor air filter installed is permissible as long as... of section 4.2 for information on region IV.) For heat pumps that use a time-adaptive defrost...

  8. The Uniformity Illusion.

    PubMed

    Otten, Marte; Pinto, Yair; Paffen, Chris L E; Seth, Anil K; Kanai, Ryota

    2017-01-01

    Vision in the fovea, the center of the visual field, is much more accurate and detailed than vision in the periphery. This is not in line with the rich phenomenology of peripheral vision. Here, we investigated a visual illusion that shows that detailed peripheral visual experience is partially based on a reconstruction of reality. Participants fixated on the center of a visual display in which central stimuli differed from peripheral stimuli. Over time, participants perceived that the peripheral stimuli changed to match the central stimuli, so that the display seemed uniform. We showed that a wide range of visual features, including shape, orientation, motion, luminance, pattern, and identity, are susceptible to this uniformity illusion. We argue that the uniformity illusion is the result of a reconstruction of sparse visual information (from the periphery) based on more readily available detailed visual information (from the fovea), which gives rise to a rich, but illusory, experience of peripheral vision.

  9. Do Generous Welfare States Generate Efficiency Gains Which Counterbalance Short Run Losses? Testing Downside Risk Theory with Economic Panel Data for the U.S., Germany and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce; Muffels, Ruud

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the theory that the downside risk insurance provided by more generous welfare states generates long run efficiency gains, which counterbalance the short run efficiency losses caused by work disincentives in these states (Feldstein 1974, 1976; Sinn 1995, 1996). Testing downside risk theory requires long term…

  10. Radially uniform electron source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomas, D.; Bame, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    A thermionic electron source capable of producing uniform count rates in a number of channel electron multipliers simultaneously was required for conditioning multipliers for an extended space mission. It was found that a straight tungsten filament in the center of a cylindrically symmetric geometry surrounded by an array of multipliers emits a radially asymmetric distribution of electrons that changes with time. A source was developed which successfully produces a time-independent radially uniform distribution of electrons by moving the filament out of the direct line of sight and replacing it with a centrally located electron 'cloud.'

  11. Antidepressants and Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Depression (major depressive disorder) Can antidepressants cause weight gain? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Weight gain is a possible side effect of nearly all antidepressants. ...

  12. Adaptive allocation of attentional gain.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Miranda; Serences, John T

    2009-09-23

    Humans are adept at distinguishing between stimuli that are very similar, an ability that is particularly crucial when the outcome is of serious consequence (e.g., for a surgeon or air-traffic controller). Traditionally, selective attention was thought to facilitate perception by increasing the gain of sensory neurons tuned to the defining features of a behaviorally relevant object (e.g., color, orientation, etc.). In contrast, recent mathematical models counterintuitively suggest that, in many cases, attentional gain should be applied to neurons that are tuned away from relevant features, especially when discriminating highly similar stimuli. Here we used psychophysical methods to critically evaluate these "ideal observer" models. The data demonstrate that attention enhances the gain of the most informative sensory neurons, even when these neurons are tuned away from the behaviorally relevant target feature. Moreover, the degree to which an individual adopted optimal attentional gain settings by the end of testing predicted success rates on a difficult visual discrimination task, as well as the amount of task improvement that occurred across repeated testing sessions (learning). Contrary to most traditional accounts, these observations suggest that the primary function of attentional gain is not to enhance the representation of target features per se, but instead to optimize performance on the current perceptual task. Additionally, individual differences in gain suggest that the operating characteristics of low-level attentional phenomena are not stable trait-like attributes and that variability in how attention is deployed may play an important role in determining perceptual abilities.

  13. 10 CFR Appendix G to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Unvented Home Heating Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... controls at 7 to 10 inches of water column. The regulator outlet pressure at normal supply test pressure... no greater than one percent. Alternatively, the test can be conducted using “bottled” natural gas of... actual higher heating value of the bottled natural gas has been determined with an error no greater...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix G to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Unvented Home Heating Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... controls at 7 to 10 inches of water column. The regulator outlet pressure at normal supply test pressure... no greater than one percent. Alternatively, the test can be conducted using “bottled” natural gas of... actual higher heating value of the bottled natural gas has been determined with an error no greater...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix G to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Unvented Home Heating Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... controls at 7 to 10 inches of water column. The regulator outlet pressure at normal supply test pressure... no greater than one percent. Alternatively, the test can be conducted using “bottled” natural gas of... actual higher heating value of the bottled natural gas has been determined with an error no greater...

  16. Uniformity in Tetrahedral Hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craxton, R. S.; Schnittman, J. D.; Pollaine, S. M.

    1996-11-01

    Tetrahedral hohlraums, i.e., spherical hohlraums with four laser entrance holes (LEH's), offer an alternative means of obtaining good time-independent capsule irradiation uniformity. Since the laser spots are spread fairly uniformly over the hohlraum wall, time-dependent uniformity swings are minimized. Using the 3-D view-factor code BUTTERCUP we have found, for both OMEGA and the NIF, that the uniformity is typically ~2% rms at all times, mainly in the Y_32 mode, but can be reduced to ~1% by independently varying the power in each beam. We have investigated the sensitivity of tetrahedral hohlraums to errors in beam-energy balance and pointing, and we have examined how large the LEH's must be to allow the beams to go through without refraction or absorption. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460. *Also Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  17. The Effectiveness and Unique Contribution of Neuropsychological Tests and the δ Latent Phenotype in the Differential Diagnosis of Dementia in the Uniform Data Set

    PubMed Central

    John, Samantha E.; Gurnani, Ashita S.; Bussell, Cara; Saurman, Jessica L.; Griffin, Jason W.; Gavett, Brandon E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Two main approaches to the interpretation of cognitive test performance have been utilized for the characterization of disease: evaluating shared variance across tests, as with measures of severity, and evaluating the unique variance across tests, as with pattern and error analysis. Both methods provide necessary information, but the unique contributions of each are rarely considered. This study compares the two approaches on their ability to differentially diagnose with accuracy, while controlling for the influence of other relevant demographic and risk variables. Method Archival data requested from the NACC provided clinical diagnostic groups that were paired to one another through a genetic matching procedure. For each diagnostic pairing, two separate logistic regression models predicting clinical diagnosis were performed and compared on their predictive ability. The shared variance approach was represented through the latent phenotype δ, which served as the lone predictor in one set of models. The unique variance approach was represented through raw score values for the 12 neuropsychological test variables comprising δ, which served as the set of predictors in the second group of models. Results Examining the unique patterns of neuropsychological test performance across a battery of tests was the superior method of differentiating between competing diagnoses, and it accounted for 16-30% of the variance in diagnostic decision making. Conclusion Implications for clinical practice are discussed, including test selection and interpretation. PMID:27797542

  18. 10 CFR Appendix Q1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (ii) Continuous functions, including information or status displays (including clocks) or sensor-based... be as specified in ANSI C82.2. 2.4.2. Room Temperature and Air Circulation. The test facility...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix Q1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (ii) Continuous functions, including information or status displays (including clocks) or sensor-based... be as specified in ANSI C82.2. 2.4.2. Room Temperature and Air Circulation. The test facility...

  20. Precision Gains from Publically Available School Proficiency Measures Compared to Study-Collected Test Scores in Education Cluster-Randomized Trials. NCEE 2010-4003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deke, John; Dragoset, Lisa; Moore, Ravaris

    2010-01-01

    In randomized controlled trials (RCTs) where the outcome is a student-level, study-collected test score, a particularly valuable piece of information is a study-collected baseline score from the same or similar test (a pre-test). Pre-test scores can be used to increase the precision of impact estimates, conduct subgroup analysis, and reduce bias…

  1. 10 CFR Appendix A1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Electric Refrigerators and Electric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... freezer compartment volume as defined in HRF-1-1979, in cubic feet. 1.3“Anti-sweat heater” means a device... operating characteristics. 1.7“Standard cycle” means the cycle type in which the anti-sweat heater control... unit under test. Defrost controls are to be operative and the anti-sweat heater switch is to be...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix W to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Medium Base Compact Fluorescent Lamps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Medium Base Compact Fluorescent Lamps W Appendix W to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Consumption of Medium Base Compact Fluorescent Lamps 1. Scope: This appendix covers the test requirements used... rated life, rapid cycle stress, and lamp life of medium base compact fluorescent lamps. 2....

  3. 10 CFR Appendix G to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Unvented Home Heating Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ahead of all controls at 7 to 10 inches of water column. The regulator outlet pressure at normal supply..., with an error no greater than one percent. Alternatively, the test can be conducted using “bottled... the actual higher heating value of the bottled natural gas has been determined with an error...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix V to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fan Light Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for Testing” of DOE's “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for CFLs,” Version 3.0, (Incorporated by... Products” of the EPA's “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Light Fixtures,” Version 4.0..., “CFL Requirements for Testing,” of the “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Compact Fluorescent...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix V to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fan Light Kits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... for Testing” of DOE's “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for CFLs,” Version 3.0, (Incorporated by... Products” of the EPA's “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Light Fixtures,” Version 4.0..., “CFL Requirements for Testing,” of the “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Compact Fluorescent...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... testing with the following installed: (1) the most restrictive filter(s); (2) supplementary heating coils... ducted unit without having an indoor air filter installed is permissible as long as the minimum external... on region IV.) For heat pumps that use a time-adaptive defrost control system (see Definition...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... testing with the following installed: (1) the most restrictive filter(s); (2) supplementary heating coils... ducted unit without having an indoor air filter installed is permissible as long as the minimum external... on region IV.) For heat pumps that use a time-adaptive defrost control system (see Definition...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... testing with the following installed: (1) the most restrictive filter(s); (2) supplementary heating coils... ducted unit without having an indoor air filter installed is permissible as long as the minimum external... on region IV.) For heat pumps that use a time-adaptive defrost control system (see Definition...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix R to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Average Lamp Efficacy (LE), Color Rendering Index (CRI), and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... input at equilibrium for the reference condition. 4.2 General Service Incandescent Lamps 4.2.1The... input at equilibrium for the reference condition. The test report shall conform to section 8 of IES LM... computing the ratio of the measured lamp lumen output and lamp electrical power input at equilibrium for...

  10. 10 CFR 431.304 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of walk-in coolers and walk-in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... it is produced in its final chemical form. Foam produced inside of a panel (“foam-in-place”) must be... shall be tested after it is produced in its final chemical form. Foam produced inside of a panel (“foam... set forth in AHRI 1250 and recording the annual energy consumption term in the equation for...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix J1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Automatic and Semi-Automatic Clothes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... tumbling it through the water. 1.7Energy test cycle for a basic model means (A) the cycle recommended by... selections and water levels offered in that cycle, and (B) for each other wash/rinse temperature selection or water level available on that basic model, the portion(s) of other cycle(s) with that...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix J1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Automatic and Semi-Automatic Clothes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., or control of any of the following: wash water temperature, agitation or tumble cycle time, number of... the water. 1.7Energy test cycle for a basic model means (A) the cycle recommended by the manufacturer... levels offered in that cycle, and (B) for each other wash/rinse temperature selection or water...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix J1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Automatic and Semi-Automatic Clothes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., or control of any of the following: wash water temperature, agitation or tumble cycle time, number of... the water. 1.7Energy test cycle for a basic model means (A) the cycle recommended by the manufacturer... levels offered in that cycle, and (B) for each other wash/rinse temperature selection or water...

  14. Gaining Cyber Dominance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University Gaining Cyber Dominance Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University NETCOM G3/5/7 TREX January 2015...JAN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Gaining Cyber Dominance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...2014) 4 GCD Overview January 2015 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University FY15 Initiatives Gaining Cyber Dominance Program • Army topology development

  15. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's draft report on a multifactor test design to investigate uniform corrosion of low-carbon steel

    SciTech Connect

    Paddock, R.A.; Lerman, A.; Ditmars, J.D.; Macdonald, D.D.; Peerenboom, J.P.; Was, G.S.; Harrison, W.

    1987-01-01

    This report documents Argonne National Laboratory's review of an internal technical memorandum prepared by Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) entitled Multifactor Test Design to Investigate Uniform Corrosion of Low-Carbon Steel in a Nuclear Waste Salt Repository Environment. The several major areas of concern identified by peer review panelists are important to the credibility of the test design proposed in the memorandum and are to adequately addressed there. These areas of concern, along with specific recommendations to improve their treatment, are discussed in detail in Sec. 2 of this report. The twenty recommendations, which were abstracted from those discussions, are presented essentially in the order in which they are introduced in Sec. 2.

  16. 10 CFR Appendix A1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Electric Refrigerators and Electric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....2 liters) or less for the freezing and storage of ice. 1.5“Cycle” means the period of 24 hours for... temperatures were maintained. 1.6“Cycle type” means the set of test conditions having the calculated effect of... operating characteristics. 1.7“Standard cycle” means the cycle type in which the anti-sweat heater...

  17. Correcting the Normalized Gain for Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John; Stewart, Gay

    2010-01-01

    The normalized gain, "g", has been an important tool for the characterization of conceptual improvement in physics courses since its use in Hake's extensive study on conceptual learning in introductory physics. The normalized gain is calculated from the score on a pre-test administered before instruction and a post-test administered…

  18. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... trying to do so can have many causes. Metabolism slows down as you age . This can cause weight gain if you eat too much, eat the wrong foods, or do not get enough exercise. Drugs that can cause weight gain include: Birth ...

  19. Invention and Gain Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Robert J.; Dixon, Stacey

    1989-01-01

    Gain analysis is applied to the invention of the sewing needle as well as different sewing implements and modes of sewing. The analysis includes a two-subject experiment. To validate the generality of gain heuristics and underlying switching processes, the invention of the assembly line is also analyzed. (TJH)

  20. Digital automatic gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uzdy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Performance analysis, used to evaluated fitness of several circuits to digital automatic gain control (AGC), indicates that digital integrator employing coherent amplitude detector (CAD) is best device suited for application. Circuit reduces gain error to half that of conventional analog AGC while making it possible to automatically modify response of receiver to match incoming signal conditions.

  1. Acting to gain information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenchein, Stanley J.; Burns, J. Brian; Chapman, David; Kaelbling, Leslie P.; Kahn, Philip; Nishihara, H. Keith; Turk, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This report is concerned with agents that act to gain information. In previous work, we developed agent models combining qualitative modeling with real-time control. That work, however, focused primarily on actions that affect physical states of the environment. The current study extends that work by explicitly considering problems of active information-gathering and by exploring specialized aspects of information-gathering in computational perception, learning, and language. In our theoretical investigations, we analyzed agents into their perceptual and action components and identified these with elements of a state-machine model of control. The mathematical properties of each was developed in isolation and interactions were then studied. We considered the complexity dimension and the uncertainty dimension and related these to intelligent-agent design issues. We also explored active information gathering in visual processing. Working within the active vision paradigm, we developed a concept of 'minimal meaningful measurements' suitable for demand-driven vision. We then developed and tested an architecture for ongoing recognition and interpretation of visual information. In the area of information gathering through learning, we explored techniques for coping with combinatorial complexity. We also explored information gathering through explicit linguistic action by considering the nature of conversational rules, coordination, and situated communication behavior.

  2. Use of a photonic crystal for optical amplifier gain control

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, James G.; El-Kady, Ihab

    2006-07-18

    An optical amplifier having a uniform gain profile uses a photonic crystal to tune the density-of-states of a gain medium so as to modify the light emission rate between atomic states. The density-of-states of the gain medium is tuned by selecting the size, shape, dielectric constant, and spacing of a plurality of microcavity defects in the photonic crystal. The optical amplifier is particularly useful for the regeneration of DWDM signals in long optical fibers.

  3. Measuring Gains in Critical Thinking in Food Science and Human Nutrition Courses: The Cornell Critical Thinking Test, Problem-Based Learning Activities, and Student Journal Entries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Li, Yong; Rhee, Walter Y.

    2010-01-01

    The Cornell Critical Thinking Test (CCTT) is one of the many multiple-choice tests with validated questions that have been reported to measure general critical thinking (CT) ability. One of the IFT Education Standards for undergraduate degrees in Food Science is the emphasis on the development of critical thinking. While this skill is easy to list…

  4. Optical antenna gain. II - Receiving antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, J. J.; Klein, B. J.

    1974-01-01

    Expressions are developed for the gain of a centrally obscured, circular optical antenna used as the collecting and focusing optics in a laser receiver, involving losses due to (1) incoming light blockage by central obscuration, (2) energy spillover at the detector, and (3) the effect of local oscillator distribution in the case of heterodyne or homodyne detection. Numerical results are presented for direct detection and for three types of local oscillator distribution (uniform, Gaussian, and matched).

  5. Indoor acoustic gain design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concha-Abarca, Justo Andres

    2002-11-01

    The design of sound reinforcement systems includes many variables and usually some of these variables are discussed. There are criteria to optimize the performance of the sound reinforcement systems under indoor conditions. The equivalent acoustic distance, the necessary acoustic gain, and the potential acoustic gain are parameters which must be adjusted with respect to the loudspeaker array, electric power and directionality of loudspeakers, the room acoustics conditions, the distance and distribution of the audience, and the type of the original sources. The design and installation of front of the house and monitoring systems have individual criteria. This article is about this criteria and it proposes general considerations for the indoor acoustic gain design.

  6. Should School Nurses Wear Uniforms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of School Health, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This 1958 paper questions whether school nurses should wear uniforms (specifically, white uniforms). It concludes that white uniforms are often associated with the treatment of ill people, and since many people have a fear reaction to them, they are not necessary and are even undesirable. Since school nurses are school staff members, they should…

  7. Asthma Triggers: Gain Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Page Additional resources An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality: Biological Pollutants Help Your Child Gain Control Over ... exhaust, smoke, road dust and factory emissions. Outdoor air quality is also affected by pollen from plants, crops ...

  8. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This shift slows their metabolism, making it easier to gain weight. In addition, some people become less physically ...

  9. Uniform quantized electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Høye, Johan S.; Lomba, Enrique

    2016-10-01

    In this work we study the correlation energy of the quantized electron gas of uniform density at temperature T  =  0. To do so we utilize methods from classical statistical mechanics. The basis for this is the Feynman path integral for the partition function of quantized systems. With this representation the quantum mechanical problem can be interpreted as, and is equivalent to, a classical polymer problem in four dimensions where the fourth dimension is imaginary time. Thus methods, results, and properties obtained in the statistical mechanics of classical fluids can be utilized. From this viewpoint we recover the well known RPA (random phase approximation). Then to improve it we modify the RPA by requiring the corresponding correlation function to be such that electrons with equal spins can not be on the same position. Numerical evaluations are compared with well known results of a standard parameterization of Monte Carlo correlation energies.

  10. The Uniform Rugosity Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnivard, Matthieu; Bucur, Dorin

    2012-06-01

    Relying on the effect of microscopic asperities, one can mathematically justify that viscous fluids adhere completely on the boundary of an impermeable domain. The rugosity effect accounts asymptotically for the transformation of complete slip boundary conditions on a rough surface in total adherence boundary conditions, as the amplitude of the rugosities vanishes. The decreasing rate (average velocity divided by the amplitude of the rugosities) computed on close flat layers is definitely influenced by the geometry. Recent results prove that this ratio has a uniform upper bound for certain geometries, like periodical and "almost Lipschitz" boundaries. The purpose of this paper is to prove that such a result holds for arbitrary (non-periodical) crystalline boundaries and general (non-smooth) periodical boundaries.

  11. Evaluating uniformity of IR reference sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrat, Catherine; Violleau, Sébastien

    2015-10-01

    Infrared reference sources such as blackbodies are used to calibrate and test IR sensors and cameras.. Applications requiring a high thermal uniformity over the emissive surface become more and more frequent compared to the past applications. Among these applications are non uniformity correction of infrared cameras focused at short distance and simultaneous calibration of a set of sensor facing a large area blackbody. Facing these demanding applications requires to accurately measuring thee thermal radiation of each point of the emissive surface of the reference source. The use of an infrared camera for this purpose turns out to be absolutely inefficient since the uniformity off response of this camera is usually worse than the uniformity of thee source to bee measured. Consequently, HGH has developed a testing bench for accurate measurement of uniformity of infrared sources based on a low noise radiometer mounted of translating stages and using an exclusive drift correction method. This bench delivers a reliable thermal map of any kind of infrared reference source.

  12. Comparison of the effects explained by variations in the bovine PLAG1 and NCAPG genes on daily body weight gain, linear skeletal measurements and carcass traits in Japanese Black steers from a progeny testing program.

    PubMed

    Hoshiba, Hiroshi; Setoguchi, Kouji; Watanabe, Toshio; Kinoshita, Akihiro; Mizoshita, Kazunori; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Takasuga, Akiko

    2013-07-01

    The c.1326T>G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the NCAPG gene, which leads to an amino acid change of Ile442 to Met442, was previously identified as a candidate causative variation for a bovine carcass weight quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosome 6, which was associated with linear skeletal measurement gains and daily body weight gain at puberty. Recently, we identified the stature quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) in the PLAG1-CHCHD7 intergenic region as the causative variations for another carcass weight QTL on chromosome 14. This study aimed to compare the effects of the two QTL on growth and carcass traits using 768 Japanese Black steers from a progeny testing program and to determine whether a genetic interaction was present between them. The FJX_250879 SNP representing the stature QTL was associated with linear skeletal measurements and average daily body weight gain at early and late periods during adolescence. A genetic interaction between FJX_250879 and NCAPG c.1326T>G was detected only for body and rump lengths. Both were associated with increased carcass weight and Longissimus muscle area, and NCAPG c.1326T>G was also associated with reduced subcutaneous fat thickness and increased carcass yield estimate. These results will provide useful information to improve carcass weight in Japanese Black cattle.

  13. Error margin for antenna gain measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cable, V.

    2002-01-01

    The specification of measured antenna gain is incomplete without knowing the error of the measurement. Also, unless gain is measured many times for a single antenna or over many identical antennas, the uncertainty or error in a single measurement is only an estimate. In this paper, we will examine in detail a typical error budget for common antenna gain measurements. We will also compute the gain uncertainty for a specific UHF horn test that was recently performed on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) antenna range. The paper concludes with comments on these results and how they compare with the 'unofficial' JPL range standard of +/- ?.

  14. Spatial uniformity measurement of SAW convolvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selviah, D. R.; Warne, D. H.; Morgan, D. P.

    1982-09-01

    For correlation of coded waveforms, the nonlinear interactive process in a SAW convolver should ideally give an amplitude and phase independent of position. A new experimental method of measuring this spatial uniformity used CW test waveforms and gave a resolution of 25 ns - a considerably higher resolution than previously attained.

  15. Experience gained from the development and results from tests of the equipment of the Kalinin NPP Unit 4 regeneration and intermediate steam separation and reheating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, N. N.; Sukhorukov, Yu. G.; Ermolov, V. F.; Svyatkin, F. A.; Nikolaenkova, E. K.; Sintsova, T. G.; Grigor'eva, E. B.; Esin, S. B.; Ukhanova, M. G.; Golubev, E. A.; Bik, S. P.; Tren'kin, V. B.

    2014-06-01

    The equipment of the Kalinin NPP Unit 4 regeneration, intermediate separation, and steam reheating (ISSR) systems is described and the results of their static and dynamic tests are presented. It was shown from an analysis of test results that the equipment of the regeneration and ISSR systems produce the design thermal and hydraulic characteristics in static and dynamic modes of its operation. Specialists of the Central boiler-Turbine Institute Research and Production Association have developed procedures and computer programs for calculating the system of direct-contact horizontal low-pressure heaters (connected according to the gravity circuit arrangement jointly with the second-stage electrically-driven condensate pumps) and the ISSR system, the results of which are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The drawbacks of the layout solutions due to which cavitation failure of the pumps may occur are considered. Technical solutions aimed at securing stable operation of the equipment of regeneration and ISSR systems are proposed. The process arrangement for heating the chamber-type high-pressure heaters adopted at the Kalinin NPP is analyzed. The version of this circuit developed at the Central Boiler-Turbine Institute Research and Production Association that allows the heating rate equal to 1°C/min to be obtained is proposed.

  16. Should I Gain Weight?

    MedlinePlus

    ... If you're having trouble with your body image, talk about how you feel with someone you like and trust who's been through it — maybe a parent, doctor, counselor, coach, or teacher. continue It's the Growth, Not the Gain No ...

  17. Research of improved sparse grid non-uniformity correction technologies for infrared resistor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hui-jie; Zhao, Hong-ming; Gao, Yang; Yu, Hong; Zhang, Yi

    2015-10-01

    Infrared resistor arrays perform a vital role in the hardware in the loop testing of infrared seekers. Infrared resistor arrays composed of large numbers of suspended resistor elements are commonly used to produce dynamic two-dimensional images of infrared radiation. Due to inconsistencies in the fabrication process of the resistor arrays, the temperature each resistor elements reaches for a given input voltage is variable and this leads to more significant radiance differences, these differences result in spatially-distributed radiance non-uniformity. Therefore, in order to obtain an available infrared image, non-uniformity correction (NUC) is necessary. In this paper, the non-uniformity characters of the infrared resistor arrays are analyzed base on measured data and then an improved sparse grid method for engineering are discussed and analyzed. First of all, the NUC camera has a strong influence on the effectiveness of the infrared resistor arrays NUC procedure. According to the actual fact and the laboratory condition, we presented an alternative method for collecting resistor arrays intended to reduce the influence causing by the NUC camera. Secondly, based on the measured non-uniformity data, we obtain the response characteristics of the infrared resistor arrays. In each gray level, we take two points or several points correction algorithm to calculate the gain data and the offset data, and then the linear look-up table is established. Finally, through MATLAB we develop the correction software, and we can obtain the driving output conveniently. The result shows that the image quality has a remarkable improvement after non-uniformity correction, the non-uniformity correction flow and algorithm preferably satisfies the requirement of the high confidence infrared imaging simulation.

  18. Geotech Smart24 data acquisition system input terminated noise seismic response adjusted test : StreckeisenSTS2-low and high gain, Guralp CMG3T and Geotech GS13 seismometers.

    SciTech Connect

    Rembold, Randy Kai; Hart, Darren M.; Harris, James Mark

    2008-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested, evaluated and reported on the Geotech Smart24 data acquisition system with active Fortezza crypto card data signing and authentication in SAND2008-. One test, Input Terminated Noise, allows us to characterize the self-noise of the Smart24 system. By computing the power spectral density (PSD) of the input terminated noise time series data set and correcting for the instrument response of different seismometers, the resulting spectrum can be compared to the USGS new low noise model (NLNM) of Peterson (1996), and determine the ability of the matched system of seismometer and Smart24 to be quiet enough for any general deployment location. Four seismometer models were evaluated: the Streckeisen STS2-Low and High Gain, Guralp CMG3T and Geotech GS13 models. Each has a unique pass-band as defined by the frequency band of the instrument corrected noise spectrum that falls below the new low-noise model.

  19. Optical antenna gain. 2: receiving antennas.

    PubMed

    Degnan, J J; Klein, B J

    1974-10-01

    Expressions are derived for the gain of a centrally obscured, circular optical antenna when used as the collecting and focusing optics in a laser receiver which include losses due to (1) blockage of the incoming light by the central obscuration, (2) the spillover of energy at the detector, and (3) the effect of local oscillator distribution in the case of heterodyne or homodyne detection. Numerical results are presented for direct detection and for three types of local oscillator distributions (uniform, Gaussian, and matched) in the case of heterodyne or homodyne detection. The results are presented in several graphs that allow the rapid evaluation of receiver gain for an arbitrary set of telescope and detector parameters. It is found that, for uniform illumination by the LO, the optimum SNR is obtained when the detector radius is approximately 0.74 times the Airy disk radius. The use of an optimized Gaussian (spot size = 0.46 times the Airy disk radius) improves the receiver gain by less than 1 dB. Theuse results are insensitive to the size of the central obscuration.

  20. School Uniforms: Esprit de Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Rosemary P.; Ryan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    The benefits of school uniforms far outweigh their short-term costs. School uniforms not only keep students safe, but they increase their self-esteem, promote a more positive attitude toward school, lead to improved student behavior, and help blur social-class distinctions. Students are allowed to wear their own political or religious messages,…

  1. Tuning of gravity-dependent and gravity-independent vertical angular VOR gain changes by frequency of adaptation.

    PubMed

    Yakushin, Sergei B

    2012-06-01

    The gain of the vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) was adaptively increased and decreased in a side-down head orientation for 4 h in two cynomolgus monkeys. Adaptation was performed at 0.25, 1, 2, or 4 Hz. The gravity-dependent and -independent gain changes were determined over a range of head orientations from left-side-down to right-side-down at frequencies from 0.25 to 10 Hz, before and after adaptation. Gain changes vs. frequency data were fit with a Gaussian to determine the frequency at which the peak gain change occurred, as well as the tuning width. The frequency at which the peak gravity-dependent gain change occurred was approximately equal to the frequency of adaptation, and the width increased monotonically with increases in the frequency of adaptation. The gravity-independent component was tuned to the adaptive frequency of 0.25 Hz but was uniformly distributed over all frequencies when the adaptation frequency was 1-4 Hz. The amplitude of the gravity-independent gain changes was larger after the aVOR gain decrease than after the gain increase across all tested frequencies. For the aVOR gain decrease, the phase lagged about 4° for frequencies below the adaptation frequency and led for frequencies above the adaptation frequency. For gain increases, the phase relationship as a function of frequency was inverted. This study demonstrates that the previously described dependence of aVOR gain adaptation on frequency is a property of the gravity-dependent component of the aVOR only. The gravity-independent component of the aVOR had a substantial tuning curve only at an adaptation frequency of 0.25 Hz.

  2. Content uniformity and assay requirements in current regulations.

    PubMed

    Bánfai, Balázs; Ganzler, Katalin; Kemény, Sándor

    2007-07-13

    The acceptance of a tablet batch is based both on the content uniformity test and on the assay. It is shown that these two characteristics are not independent, and the acceptance criteria for them are not even consistent. For content uniformity range three methods of calculation are compared: the present European Pharmacopoeia method, a tolerance range method with improved k tolerance factor and a one-way random effects analysis of variance model. To resolve the inconsistency several options are discussed: applying the holistic content uniformity range alone; using content uniformity standard deviation and assay mean simultaneously or applying a criterion based on Taguchi's quadratic loss function.

  3. Instrumentation For Detector Spectral / Spatial Uniformity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, Ronald W.; Bronson, Robert M.

    1989-09-01

    The information presented in this report describes an instrument which is used for precision measurements of detector spectral response and spatial response. Emphasis will be placed on detector spatial uniformity measurements. To allow spatial uniformity testing at selected wavelengths, an instrument was designed by applying existing spectral response instrumentation technology with the addition of special exit optics, a dual axis motorized positioning table, and supporting software. Supporting components consisted of a computer controlled radiometer and a monochromator with a high intensity light source attached. Spectral response is determined by measuring the wavelength response photosensitivity of a stationary specimen to the irradiance of a calibrated monochromatic light source over the wavelength range of interest at evenly spaced intervals. Data is presented in a pictorial format by graphing the RESPONSE versus the WAVELENGTH. Detector spatial response is determined by measuring the variation in photosensitivity over the surface of the test detector by moving the detector in an X,Y grid at evenly spaced intervals under a small monochromatic spot of light. Several versions of the instrument were built and test results are provided which represent data from the spatial uniformity testing of Ge, PbS, and PbSe detectors. Data acquired is presented as a 3-Dimensional surface map by plotting the RESPONSE versus the X POSITION versus the Y POSITION.

  4. Helicopter high gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, T. B.; Nunn, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    High gain control is explored through a design study of the CH-47B helicopter. The plans are designed to obtain the maximum bandwidth possible given the hardware constraints. Controls are designed with modal control theory to specific bandwidths and closed loop mode shapes. Comparisons are made to an earlier complementary filter approach. Bandwidth improvement by removal of limitations is explored in order to establish hardware and mechanization options. Improvements in the pitch axis control system and in the rate gyro sensor noise characteristics in all axes are discussed. The use of rotor state feedback is assessed.

  5. Uniform acceleration in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Yaakov; Scarr, Tzvi

    2015-10-01

    We extend de la Fuente and Romero's (Gen Relativ Gravit 47:33, 2015) defining equation for uniform acceleration in a general curved spacetime from linear acceleration to the full Lorentz covariant uniform acceleration. In a flat spacetime background, we have explicit solutions. We use generalized Fermi-Walker transport to parallel transport the Frenet basis along the trajectory. In flat spacetime, we obtain velocity and acceleration transformations from a uniformly accelerated system to an inertial system. We obtain the time dilation between accelerated clocks. We apply our acceleration transformations to the motion of a charged particle in a constant electromagnetic field and recover the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equation.

  6. The Uniformly Accelerated Reference Frame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, J. Dwayne

    1978-01-01

    The observations that would be made by a uniformly accelerated observer, including the observer's event horizon, the variation of clock rates with position, and the effects of following a freely falling object are considered in detail. (SL)

  7. New night vision goggle gain definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobedov, Vyacheslav B.; Eppeldauer, George P.; Larason, Thomas C.

    2015-05-01

    A new definition is proposed for the calibration of Night Vision Goggle (NVG) gains. This definition is based on the measurement of radiometric input and output quantities of the NVG. While the old definition used the "equivalent fL" which is a non SI traceable luminance unit, the new definition utilizes the radiance quantities that are traceable to the SI units through NIST standards. The new NVG gain matches the previous one as a result of the application of a correction coefficient originating from the conversion of the radiance to luminance units. The new definition was tested at the NIST Night Vision Calibration Facility and the measurement results were compared to the data obtained with a Hoffman Test Set Model ANV-126. Comparing the radiometric quantities of the Hoffman Test Set and those measured by the NIST transfer standard radiometer, indicates that the observed differences up to 15% were due to the calibration and experimental errors of the ANV-126 Test Set. In view of different spectral characteristics of luminophores that can be utilized in the NVG design, the simulation of the NVG output for gain measurement was performed. The NVG output was simulated with a sphere-based source using different LEDs and the measured gain was compared to that obtained with the ANV-126 internal luminance meter. The NVG gain uncertainty analysis was performed for the Type A, B, and C goggles.

  8. Bipolar Medications and Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    Bipolar medications and weight gain Do all bipolar medications cause weight gain? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M. ... disorder can be treated with a number of medications. Some of these medications can increase your appetite ...

  9. Gamma camera intrinsic uniformity in an unstable power supply environment.

    PubMed

    Ejeh, John E; Adedapo, Kayode S; Akinlade, Bidemi I; Osifo, Bola O A

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to show that a gamma camera in a developing country could perform efficiently despite electricity outages using intrinsic flood uniformity tests as an index of performance. A total of 143 intrinsic uniformity test results for a new gamma camera in use in an environment with unstable power supply are presented. The integral uniformity for the central field of view (CFOV) was found to be between 3.43% and 1.49% (3.29% for acceptance test) while the integral uniformity for the useful field of view (UFOV) was between 4.51% and 1.9% (5.21% for acceptance test). The differential uniformity for the CFOV was between 1.99% and 1.04% (2.25% for acceptance test) while that of the UFOV was between 2.84% and 1.23% (2.63% for acceptance test). In conclusion, these results show that the uniformity of the gamma camera under this condition is within an acceptable range for both planar and SPET imaging.

  10. Experience matters: information acquisition optimizes probability gain.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jonathan D; McKenzie, Craig R M; Cottrell, Garrison W; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2010-07-01

    Deciding which piece of information to acquire or attend to is fundamental to perception, categorization, medical diagnosis, and scientific inference. Four statistical theories of the value of information-information gain, Kullback-Liebler distance, probability gain (error minimization), and impact-are equally consistent with extant data on human information acquisition. Three experiments, designed via computer optimization to be maximally informative, tested which of these theories best describes human information search. Experiment 1, which used natural sampling and experience-based learning to convey environmental probabilities, found that probability gain explained subjects' information search better than the other statistical theories or the probability-of-certainty heuristic. Experiments 1 and 2 found that subjects behaved differently when the standard method of verbally presented summary statistics (rather than experience-based learning) was used to convey environmental probabilities. Experiment 3 found that subjects' preference for probability gain is robust, suggesting that the other models contribute little to subjects' search behavior.

  11. Interactions between uniformly magnetized spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Boyd F.; Riffe, D. M.; Ji, Jeong-Young; Booth, William A.

    2017-02-01

    We use simple symmetry arguments suitable for undergraduate students to demonstrate that the magnetic energy, forces, and torques between two uniformly magnetized spheres are identical to those between two point magnetic dipoles. These arguments exploit the equivalence of the field outside of a uniformly magnetized sphere with that of a point magnetic dipole, and pertain to spheres of arbitrary sizes, positions, and magnetizations. The point dipole/sphere equivalence for magnetic interactions may be useful in teaching and research, where dipolar approximations for uniformly magnetized spheres can now be considered to be exact. The work was originally motivated by interest in the interactions between collections of small neodymium magnetic spheres used as desk toys.

  12. Leading Gainful Employment Metric Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kristina; MacPherson, Derek

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will address the importance of intercampus involvement in reporting of gainful employment student-level data that will be used in the calculation of gainful employment metrics by the U.S. Department of Education. The authors will discuss why building relationships within the institution is critical for effective gainful employment…

  13. Effects of Lambertian sources design on uniformity and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariou, Nadine; Durell, Chris; McKee, Greg; Wilks, Dylan; Glastre, Wilfried

    2014-10-01

    Integrating sphere (IS) based uniform sources are a primary tool for ground based calibration, characterization and testing of flight radiometric equipment. The idea of a Lambertian field of energy is a very useful tool in radiometric testing, but this concept is being checked in many ways by newly lowered uncertainty goals. At an uncertainty goal of 2% one needs to assess carefully uniformity in addition to calibration uncertainties, as even sources with a 0.5% uniformity are now substantial proportions of uncertainty budgets. The paper explores integrating sphere design options for achieving 99.5% and better uniformity of exit port radiance and spectral irradiance created by an integrating sphere. Uniformity in broad spectrum and spectral bands are explored. We discuss mapping techniques and results as a function of observed uniformity as well as laboratory testing results customized to match with customer's instrumentation field of view. We will also discuss recommendations with basic commercial instrumentation, we have used to validate, inspect, and improve correlation of uniformity measurements with the intended application.

  14. School Uniforms: Guidelines for Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Nathan L.

    2001-01-01

    Principals desiring to develop a school-uniform policy should involve parents, teachers, community leaders, and student representatives; beware restrictions on religious and political expression; provide flexibility and assistance for low-income families; implement a pilot program; align the policy with school-safety issues; and consider legal…

  15. Trying Uniforms on for Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paliokas, Kathleen L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Public school uniforms are a recent development. Legal trends suggest that the courts are willing to defer to school authorities regarding dress codes--provided a clear link is established between the dress regulations and furtherance of the educational mission. Lists a range of options for a dress-code policy and how each of the available options…

  16. 46 CFR 310.11 - Cadet uniforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for State, Territorial or Regional Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.11 Cadet uniforms. Cadet uniforms shall be supplied at the school in accordance with the uniform regulations of the School. Those... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cadet uniforms. 310.11 Section 310.11 Shipping...

  17. 46 CFR 310.11 - Cadet uniforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for State, Territorial or Regional Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.11 Cadet uniforms. Cadet uniforms shall be supplied at the school in accordance with the uniform regulations of the School. Those... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cadet uniforms. 310.11 Section 310.11 Shipping...

  18. 46 CFR 310.11 - Cadet uniforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for State, Territorial or Regional Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.11 Cadet uniforms. Cadet uniforms shall be supplied at the school in accordance with the uniform regulations of the School. Those... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cadet uniforms. 310.11 Section 310.11 Shipping...

  19. 46 CFR 310.11 - Cadet uniforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for State, Territorial or Regional Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.11 Cadet uniforms. Cadet uniforms shall be supplied at the school in accordance with the uniform regulations of the School. Those... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cadet uniforms. 310.11 Section 310.11 Shipping...

  20. 46 CFR 310.11 - Cadet uniforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for State, Territorial or Regional Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.11 Cadet uniforms. Cadet uniforms shall be supplied at the school in accordance with the uniform regulations of the School. Those... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cadet uniforms. 310.11 Section 310.11 Shipping...

  1. Small Arms: Treated Uniforms for Personal Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Permethrin-treatment of field-worn U.S. Military uniforms has been standard practice since 1991. The uniform fabric composition has changed significantly from 100% cotton to 50:50 nylon:cotton Battle Dress Uniforms (BDUs), to 50:50 nylon:cotton Army Combat Uniforms (ACUs) with wrinkle-free finish, a...

  2. Reactor for making uniform capsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Anikumar, Amrutur V. (Inventor); Lacik, Igor (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel reactor for making capsules with uniform membrane. The reactor includes a source for providing a continuous flow of a first liquid through the reactor; a source for delivering a steady stream of drops of a second liquid to the entrance of the reactor; a main tube portion having at least one loop, and an exit opening, where the exit opening is at a height substantially equal to the entrance. In addition, a method for using the novel reactor is provided. This method involves providing a continuous stream of a first liquid; introducing uniformly-sized drops of the second liquid into the stream of the first liquid; allowing the drops to react in the stream for a pre-determined period of time; and collecting the capsules.

  3. Method for uniformly bending conduits

    DOEpatents

    Dekanich, S.J.

    1984-04-27

    The present invention is directed to a method for bending metal tubing through various radii while maintaining uniform cross section of the tubing. The present invention is practical by filling the tubing to a sufficient level with water, freezing the water to ice and bending the ice-filled tubing in a cooled die to the desired radius. The use of the ice as a filler material provides uniform cross-sectional bends of the tubing and upon removal of the ice provides an uncontaminated interior of the tubing which will enable it to be used in its intended application without encountering residual contaminants in the tubing due to the presence of the filler material.

  4. Luminance-Chrominance Gain Equalizer Based on Bernstein Polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chutchavong, Vanvisa; Sangaroon, Ornlarp; Benjangkaprasert, Chawalit; Janchitrapongvej, Kanok

    This paper presents a linear luminance-chrominance gain equalizer for correcting the linear chrominance gain distortion in the color TV transmission system. The proposed gain equalizer was implemented based on Bernstein polynomials. As it is known that the Bernstein filter has flexible parameters to adjust the circuit performance for the best results. In addition, the modulated 20T sine-squared pulse test signal is generated for testing the performance of the proposed gain equalizer, which can be measured all three types of the linear chrominance distortions. As the results, the proposed gain equalizer is also proved to be efficient in equalizing both the low gain and the high gain chrominance distortions without degrading its phase characteristics.

  5. Natural frequency of uniform and optimized tetrahedral truss platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Lake, Mark S.

    1994-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative estimates for the fundamental frequency of uniform and optimized tetrahedral truss platforms are determined. A semiempirical equation is developed for the frequency of free-free uniform trusses as a function of member material properties, truss dimensions, and parasitic (nonstructural) mass fraction Mp/Mt. Optimized trusses with frequencies approximately two times those of uniform trusses are determined by varying the cross-sectional areas of member groups. Trusses with 3 to 8 rings, no parasitic mass, and member areas up to 25 times the minimum area are optimized. Frequencies computed for ranges of both Mp/Mt and the ratio of maximum area to minimum area are normalized to the frequency of a uniform truss with no parasitic mass. The normalized frequency increases with the number of rings, and both frequency and the ratio of maximum area to minimum area decrease with increasing Mp/Mt. Frequency improvements that are achievable with a limited number of member areas are estimated for a 3-ring truss by using Taguchi methods. Joint stiffness knockdown effects are also considered. Comparison of optimized and baseline uniform truss frequencies indicates that tailoring can significantly increase structural frequency; maximum gains occur for trusses with low values of Mp/Mt. This study examines frequency trends for ranges of structural parameters and may be used as a preliminary design guide.

  6. Uniform batch processing using microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Jackson, Henry W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A microwave oven and microwave heating method generates microwaves within a cavity in a predetermined mode such that there is a known region of uniform microwave field. Samples placed in the region will then be heated in a relatively identical manner. Where perturbations induced by the samples are significant, samples are arranged in a symmetrical distribution so that the cumulative perturbation at each sample location is the same.

  7. Uniform-droplet spray forming

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, C.A.; Sikka, V.K.; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Ando, T.

    1997-04-01

    The uniform-droplet process is a new method of liquid-metal atomization that results in single droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on to substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructure. The mono-sized powder-production capability of the uniform-droplet process also has the potential of permitting engineered powder blends to produce components of controlled porosity. Metal and alloy powders are commercially produced by at least three different methods: gas atomization, water atomization, and rotating disk. All three methods produce powders of a broad range in size with a very small yield of fine powders with single-sized droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructures. The economical analysis has shown the process to have the potential of reducing capital cost by 50% and operating cost by 37.5% when applied to powder making. For the spray-forming process, a 25% savings is expected in both the capital and operating costs. The project is jointly carried out at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Tuffs University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary interactions with both finished parts and powder producers have shown a strong interest in the uniform-droplet process. Systematic studies are being conducted to optimize the process parameters, understand the solidification of droplets and spray deposits, and develop a uniform-droplet-system (UDS) apparatus appropriate for processing engineering alloys.

  8. A large area, high gain Micro Gap Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelini, F.; Bellazzini, R.; Bozzo, M.; Brez, A.; Massai, M. M.; Raffo, R.; Spandre, G.; Spezziga, M.; Toropin, A.

    1995-02-01

    A new approach to the construction of the Micro Gap Chamber is presented. A 10 × 10 cm 2 MGC has been built using a 8 μm thick polyimide layer as anode-cathode insulator. Studies on gas gain, uniformity of response along the strip and charging-up have been carried out in laboratory by using X-ray sources. Very large proportional gains, up to ˜ 210 4, have been reached working with gas mixtures based on Ne-DME. The simplified technology for the detector fabrication opens the possibility to produce very large area MGCs.

  9. WFC3 SS IR Flat Field Uniformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    2012-10-01

    Part of side switch activities.We will assess the uniformity and stability of the low-frequency flat fields on the IR detector. This will be accomplished using observations of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae {NGC104} at multiple pointings with multiple filters. By placing the same star at multiple locations on the detector and measuring the relative changes in its brightness, it will be possible to determine spatial variations in the response of the detector. Based on previous work with other instruments, a set of 9 pointings should be sufficient to characterize the stability of the flat field. For each filter to be tested, this set of 9 pointings will form an 3x3 box pattern on the detector, with steps of 20% of the FOV in the x and y directions between observations. The complement of filters to be tested will be F105W, F125W, F140W, and F160W.ID: WF40

  10. Willow: a uniform search interface.

    PubMed Central

    Ketchell, D S; Freedman, M M; Jordan, W E; Lightfoot, E M; Heyano, S; Libbey, P A

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the Willow Project is to develop a uniform search interface that allows a diverse community of users to retrieve information from heterogeneous network-based information resources. Willow separates the user interface from the database management or information retrieval system. It provides a graphic user interface to a variety of information resources residing on diverse hosts, and using different search engines and idiomatic query languages through networked-based client-server and Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocols. It is based on a "database driver'' model, which allows new database hosts to be added without altering Willow itself. Willow employs a multimedia extension mechanism to launch external viewers to handle data in almost any form. Drivers are currently available for a local BRS/SEARCH system and the Z39.50 protocol. Students, faculty, clinicians, and researchers at the University of Washington are currently offered 30 local and remote databases via Willow. They conduct more than 250,000 sessions a month in libraries, medical centers and clinics, laboratories, and offices, and from home. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is implementing Willow as its uniform search interface to Z39.50 hosts. PMID:8750388

  11. Ejector Enhanced Pulsejet Based Pressure Gain Combustors: An Old Idea With a New Twist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Dougherty, Kevin T.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation of pressure-gain combustion for gas turbine application is described. The test article consists of an off-the-shelf valved pulsejet, and an optimized ejector, both housed within a shroud. The combination forms an effective can combustor across which there is a modest total pressure rise rather than the usual loss found in conventional combustors. Although the concept of using a pulsejet to affect semi-constant volume (i.e., pressure-gain) combustion is not new, that of combining it with a well designed ejector to efficiently mix the bypass flow is. The result is a device which to date has demonstrated an overall pressure rise of approximately 3.5 percent at an overall temperature ratio commensurate with modern gas turbines. This pressure ratio is substantially higher than what has been previously reported in pulsejet-based combustion experiments. Flow non-uniformities in the downstream portion of the device are also shown to be substantially reduced compared to those within the pulsejet itself. The standard deviation of total pressure fluctuations, measured just downstream of the ejector was only 5.0 percent of the mean. This smoothing aspect of the device is critical to turbomachinery applications since turbine performance is, in general, negatively affected by flow non-uniformities and unsteadiness. The experimental rig will be described and details of the performance measurements will be presented. Analyses showing the thermodynamic benefits from this level of pressure-gain performance in a gas turbine will also be assessed for several engine types. Issues regarding practical development of such a device are discussed, as are potential emissions reductions resulting from the rich burning nature of the pulsejet and the rapid mixing (quenching) associated with unsteady ejectors.

  12. Adaptive uniform finite-/fixed-time convergent second-order sliding-mode control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basin, Michael; Bharath Panathula, Chandrasekhara; Shtessel, Yuri

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an adaptive gain algorithm for second-order sliding-mode control (2-SMC), specifically a super-twisting (STW)-like controller, with uniform finite/fixed convergence time, that is robust to perturbations with unknown bounds. It is shown that a second-order sliding mode is established as exact finite-time convergence to the origin if the adaptive gain does not have the ability to get reduced and converge to a small vicinity of the origin if the adaptation algorithm does not overestimate the control gain. The estimate of fixed convergence time of the studied adaptive STW-like controller is derived based on the Lyapunov analysis. The efficacy of the proposed adaptive algorithm is illustrated in a tutorial example, where the adaptive STW-like controller with uniform finite/fixed convergence time is compared to the adaptive STW controller with non-uniform finite convergence time.

  13. Performance study of the effective gain of the double phase liquid Argon LEM Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantini, C.; Epprecht, L.; Gendotti, A.; Horikawa, S.; Periale, L.; Murphy, S.; Natterer, G.; Regenfus, C.; Resnati, F.; Sergiampietri, F.; Rubbia, A.; Viant, T.; Wu, S.

    2015-03-01

    The Large Electron Multipliers (LEMs) are key components of double phase liquid argon TPCs. The drifting charges after being extracted from the liquid are amplified in the LEM positioned half a centimeter above the liquid in pure argon vapor at 87 K. The LEM is characterised by the size of its dielectric rim around the holes, the thickness of the LEM insulator, the diameter of the holes as well as their geometrical layout. The impact of those design parameters on the amplification were checked by testing seven different LEMs with an active area of 10×10 cm2 in a double phase liquid argon TPC of 21 cm drift. We studied their response in terms of maximal reachable gain and impact on the collected charge uniformity as well as the long-term stability of the gain. We show that we could reach maximal gains of around 150 which corresponds to a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of about 800 for a minimal ionising particle (MIP) signal on 3 mm readout strips. We could also conclude that the dielectric surfaces in the vicinity of the LEM holes charge up with different time constants that depend on their design parameters. Our results demonstrate that the LAr LEM TPC is a robust concept that is well-understood and well-suited for operation in ultra-pure cryogenic environments and that can match the goals of future large-scale liquid argon detectors.

  14. Improved Gain Microstrip Patch Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-06

    08-2015 Publication Improved Gain Microstrip Patch Antenna David A. Tonn Naval Under Warfare Center Division, Newport 1176 Howell St., Code 00L...Distribution A An antenna for mounting on a ground plane includes a dielectric substrate for mounting on the ground plane. A conductive patch...GAIN MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the

  15. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory predict gains in mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4) were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6) that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1). First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning.

  16. Attitudes of Parents about School Uniforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Charles K.; Tidwell, Diane K.; Bomba, Anne K.; Elmore, Patsy Alexander

    1999-01-01

    Responses from 144 parents of fourth graders showed that 56% favored uniforms in public schools; most agreed that uniforms contributed to a conducive learning environment, promoted school spirit, and discouraged violence; and most disagreed that uniforms cost more than other types of clothing. (SK)

  17. Uniformly dense polymeric foam body

    DOEpatents

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy

    2003-07-15

    A method for providing a uniformly dense polymer foam body having a density between about 0.013 g/cm.sup.3 to about 0.5 g/cm.sup.3 is disclosed. The method utilizes a thermally expandable polymer microsphere material wherein some of the microspheres are unexpanded and some are only partially expanded. It is shown that by mixing the two types of materials in appropriate ratios to achieve the desired bulk final density, filling a mold with this mixture so as to displace all or essentially all of the internal volume of the mold, heating the mold for a predetermined interval at a temperature above about 130.degree. C., and then cooling the mold to a temperature below 80.degree. C. the molded part achieves a bulk density which varies by less then about .+-.6% everywhere throughout the part volume.

  18. STRUCTURE OF UNIFORMLY ROTATING STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Deupree, Robert G.

    2011-07-10

    Zero-age main-sequence models of uniformly rotating stars have been computed for 10 masses between 1.625 and 8 M{sub sun} and for 21 rotation rates from zero to nearly critical rotation. The surface shape is used to distinguish rotation rather than the surface equatorial velocity or the rotation rate. Using the surface shape is close, but not quite equivalent, to using the ratio of the rotation rate to the critical rotation rate. Using constant shape as the rotation variable means that it and the mass are separable, something that is not true for either the rotation rate or surface equatorial velocity. Thus, a number of properties, including the ratio of the effective temperature anywhere on the surface to the equatorial temperature, are nearly independent of the mass of the model, as long as the rotation rate changes in such a way as to keep the surface shape constant.

  19. Uniformly Rotating Single Substance Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Charles Michael Leo

    This dissertation explicitly and in detail solves the extended rotator problem in the uncharged relativistic classical cases of most physical interest. It shows that no plausible relativistic solutions exist in the literature of the extended rotator and that the point rotator solutions sometimes ballyhooed are not to be taken seriously. Explicit energy speedratio functions, angular momentum speedratio functions, Hamiltonian, Lagrangian, and other important characteristic functions of the state of uniform rotation of the extended body are detailed. This dissertation does not retreat to an 'analysis' of just the point rotator --which so many others have done and done incorrectly, or at best misleadingly, by hiding implausible assumptions in manifestly covariant formats. Assumptions in the model are not hidden but are brought out and analyzed as to their relevance for highlighting the core of the uniform rotation physics. Neither does the author hide any ignorance of the internal holding field for the rotator. Formulae for the characteristic Minimum Holding Field are explicitly given and their relativistic relevance is shown. The demonstration that such fields can be ignored in the energy and angular momentum expressions is completely detailed. The explicit Stress-Energy Tensor for the entire closed rotator system is given with all that entails as to the inescapability of the results from out of that mathematics. The generality of the finiteness of the extreme relativistic rotational limit is detailed and explained with its stark essential contrast to the infinite limit in the case of extreme relativistic translation of a body. The rotator is shown to possess a rich mathematical structure. Many elegant interconnection formulae are found as well as new Hamiltonian formulae --sometimes of considerable complexity. Exact rotator formulae as well as graphs, tables, and even interesting approximations are provided. New nonlinear differential equations are discovered and

  20. Uniform temperature profile for a dense array CPV receiver under non uniform illumination profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riera, Sara; Barrau, Jérôme; Perona, Arnaud; Dollet, Alain; Rosell, Joan I.; Fréchette, Luc

    2014-09-01

    Previous experimental and numerical studies of hybrid cooling devices for CPV receivers were developed under uniform illumination profile conditions; but literature review shows that this uniformity assumption is difficult to satisfy in real conditions. This investigation presents the design and the validation of a hybrid cooling device able to tailor its local heat extraction capacity to 2D illumination profiles in order to provide a uniform temperature profile of the PV receiver as well as a low global thermal resistance coefficient. The inputs of the design procedure are the solar concentration, the coolant flow rate and its inlet temperature. As the illumination profile is 2D dependent, a matrix of pin fins is implemented and a hybrid Jet Impingement /Matrix of Pin Fins cooling device is experimentally tested and compared to a hybrid Jet Impingement / Microchannels cooling device developed previously. The results demonstrate similar performances for both designs. Furthermore, in contrast to the cooling scheme using longitudinal fins, the distribution of the pin fins can be tailored, in two dimensions, to the local need of heat extraction capacity.

  1. Theory and Simulation of Gain-Guided Noncollinear Modes in Chirped Quasi-Phase-Matched Optical Parametric Amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Charbonneau-Lefort, Mathieu; Afeyan, Bedros; Fejer, Martin

    2009-09-01

    Chirped quasi-phase-matched (QPM) gratings offer essentially constant gain over wide bandwidths, making them promising candidates for short-pulse optical parametric amplifiers. However, experiments have shown that high-gain non-collinear processes exist in spite of the dephasing caused by the non-uniformity of the QPM grating and compete with the desired collinear broadband gain of the amplifier. In this paper, these non-collinear gain-guided modes are investigated numerically and analytically in a model that includes longitudinal non-uniformity of the phase-matching profile, lateral localization of the pump beam and non-collinear propagation of the interacting waves.

  2. X chromosome gain in male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Di Oto, Enrico; Monti, Valentina; Cucchi, Maria C; Masetti, Riccardo; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Foschini, Maria P

    2015-12-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is an uncommon disease whose molecular profile is not well known. X chromosome gain has been described as a marker of aggressive behavior in female breast cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the X chromosome in male breast cancer. Twenty cases of male breast invasive ductal carcinoma were retrieved and compared with 10 cases of gynecomastia. Cases were tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization to assess a cytogenetic profile for the X chromosome. The X chromosome status was compared with histopathologic features and stage at presentation. All MBC cases harbored an X chromosome gain (100%) in a variable percentage of neoplastic cells, ranging from 31% to 85% (mean, 59%). On the contrary, all cases of gynecomastia showed wild X chromosome asset. The patients' age at surgery and tumor grading showed a statistically significant correlation (P = .0188-.04), with the percentages of neoplastic cells showing an X chromosome gain. These data suggest that this X chromosome gain plays a role in the neoplastic transformation of male breast epithelial cells.

  3. Modeling surface plasmon-polariton gain in planar metallic structures.

    PubMed

    De Leon, Israel; Berini, Pierre

    2009-10-26

    Amplification of the single-interface and long-range surface plasmon-polariton modes is studied in planar metallic structures incorporating gain media formed by Rhodamine 6G dye molecules in solution. We employ a theoretical model that accounts for the nonuniformity of the gain medium close to the metal surface due to position-dependent dipole lifetime and pump irradiance. The results of this model are used as a baseline for a comparative study against two simplified models: one neglects the position-dependent dipole lifetime while the other assumes a uniform gain medium. The discrepancies between the models are explained in terms of the mode overlap with the gain distribution near the metal. For the cases under analysis, the simplified models estimate the required pump irradiance with deviation factors that vary from 1.45 at the lossless conditions to 8 for gains near saturation. The relevance of describing properly the amount o gain interacting with the SPP mode and the role played by the dipole quantum efficiency are discussed.

  4. Designing divertor targets for uniform power load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekeyser, W.; Reiter, D.; Baelmans, M.

    2015-08-01

    Divertor design for next step fusion reactors heavily relies on 2D edge plasma modeling with codes as e.g. B2-EIRENE. While these codes are typically used in a design-by-analysis approach, in previous work we have shown that divertor design can alternatively be posed as a mathematical optimization problem, and solved very efficiently using adjoint methods adapted from computational aerodynamics. This approach has been applied successfully to divertor target shape design for more uniform power load. In this paper, the concept is further extended to include all contributions to the target power load, with particular focus on radiation. In a simplified test problem, we show the potential benefits of fully including the radiation load in the design cycle as compared to only assessing this load in a post-processing step.

  5. Problems with IQ Gains: The Huge Vocabulary Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Despite Kaufman, Raven's Progressive Matrices and the Wechsler subtest Similarities are tests whose gains call for special explanation. The spread of "scientific spectacles" is the key, but its explanatory potential has been exhausted. Three trends force us to look elsewhere: (a) gains on Wechsler subtests such as Picture Arrangement,…

  6. Absolute gain measurement by the image method under mismatched condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Baddour, Maurice F.

    1987-01-01

    Purcell's image method for measuring the absolute gain of an antenna is particularly attractive for small test antennas. The method is simple to use and utilizes only one antenna with a reflecting plane to provide an image for the receiving antenna. However, the method provides accurate results only if the antenna is matched to its waveguide. In this paper, a waveguide junction analysis is developed to determine the gain of an antenna under mismatched condition. Absolute gain measurements for two standard gain horn antennas have been carried out. Experimental results agree closely with published data.

  7. High current gain transistor laser

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Song; Qiao, Lijun; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A transistor laser (TL), having the structure of a transistor with multi-quantum wells near its base region, bridges the functionality gap between lasers and transistors. However, light emission is produced at the expense of current gain for all the TLs reported up to now, leading to a very low current gain. We propose a novel design of TLs, which have an n-doped InP layer inserted in the emitter ridge. Numerical studies show that a current flow aperture for only holes can be formed in the center of the emitter ridge. As a result, the common emitter current gain can be as large as 143.3, which is over 15 times larger than that of a TL without the aperture. Besides, the effects of nonradiative recombination defects can be reduced greatly because the flow of holes is confined in the center region of the emitter ridge. PMID:27282466

  8. Christiansen Revisited: Rethinking Quantification of Uniformity in Rainfall Simulator Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Daniel; Pattison, Ian

    2016-04-01

    patterns are consistent between experimental runs. Inclusion of these factors would allow a more descriptive and detailed understanding of uniformity but they are seldom included in analyses. Therefore, researchers must challenge whether their sampling methodologies provide a realistic representation uniformity across the entire plot surface. This paper will discuss the issues with relying on a single percentage value to represent uniformity across a surface plot underneath rainfall simulators and suggests that researchers should seek to utilise multiple methods to quantify and describe uniformity across a plot surface. These may include combining methods such as densograms and grid representations of descriptive statistics with uniformity coefficient values to create a more holistic understanding of uniformity. Additionally, this paper will present results from a series of spray nozzle rainfall simulator tests (positioned over a 9m2 plot surface) which were conducted to investigate the influence of sampling resolution on rainfall uniformity values. Alternative methods of expressing rainfall distribution will be presented, such as a grid representation of uniformity, generated by calculating the standard deviation from the mean volume of each individual measuring beaker, which is believed to provide a clear understanding of the spatial distribution of simulated precipitation and express areas which are under- and over-watered, when presented alongside other methods of uniformity quantification.

  9. Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Robert M.; Ueda, Kenichi

    2010-01-01

    Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue, as empirical evidence for growth enhancing effects is mixed. Here, we find sizable welfare gains from liberalization (cost to repression), though the gain in economic growth is ambiguous. We take the view that financial liberalization is a government policy that alters the path of financial deepening, while financial deepening is endogenously chosen by agents given a policy and occurs in transition towards a distant steady state. This history-dependent view necessitates the use of simulation analysis based on a growth model. Our application is a specific episode: Thailand from 1976 to 1996. PMID:20806055

  10. Uniform sampling table method and its applications: establishment of a uniform sampling method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yibin; Chen, Jiaxi; Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    A novel uniform sampling method is proposed in this paper. According to the requirements of uniform sampling, we propose the properties that must be met by analyzing the distribution of samples. Based on this, the proposed uniform sampling method is demonstrated and evaluated strictly by mathematical means such as inference. The uniform sampling tables with respect to Cn(t2) and Cn(t3) are established. Furthermore, a one-dimension uniform sampling method and a multidimension method are proposed. The proposed novel uniform sampling method, which is guided by uniform design theory, enjoys the advantages of simplified use and good representativeness of the whole sample.

  11. Investigation of light output uniformity and performance using a UV transmitting glass optic for a multi-UV LED array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasenak, Brian; Willsey, Rachel; Willsey, Adam; Forish, James

    2016-03-01

    Ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV LED) adoption is accelerating; they are being used in new applications such as UV curing, germicidal irradiation, nondestructive testing, and forensic analysis. In many of these applications, it is critically important to produce a uniform light distribution and consistent surface irradiance. Flat panes of fused quartz, silica, or glass are commonly used to cover and protect multi-UV LED arrays. However, they don't offer the advantages of an optical lens design. An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a secondary glass optic on the uniformity of the light distribution and irradiance. Glass optics capable of transmitting UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C wavelengths can improve light distribution and intensity. In this study, a UV transmitting glass formulation and secondary linear optic were designed and manufactured to demonstrate their effects on achievable irradiance intensity and uniformity. Prismatic patterning on the light source surface of the lens was used to minimize reflection losses on the incident surface of the glass. Fresnel optics were molded into the opposite side of the UV transmitting glass to control the refraction of the light and to gain the desired light intensity distribution from two multi-UV LED arrays. A 20% increase in relative irradiance was observed while maintaining the same coverage area. This work discusses the optical design and the resulting benefits of controlled light output on UV LED systems, which include reduced driving current, decreased thermal deterioration, improved energy efficiency, and longer LED lifetime.

  12. Uniform-burning matrix burner

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, Mark S.; Anselmo, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.

  13. Uniform guidelines improve client care.

    PubMed

    Barnett, B

    1994-12-01

    Uniform national guidelines on the delivery of family planning methods and services improve client care, assuming these guidelines are based on current scientific information. Compliance with these guidelines yields safe and efficient delivery of family planning services. Service providers need information, training, supplies, and guidelines to deliver quality services. Guidelines contribute to consistency among family planning programs in different settings. Even though clinics may not provide the same services, the guidelines allow them to provide the same standards of care. Specifically, eligibility criteria, contraindications, and follow-up schedules are the same regardless of the service delivery point. Various international health organizations (such as World Health Organization, USAID, Program for International Training in Health, International Planned Parenthood Federation, and Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception) have developed guidelines for family planning service delivery. Governments can use these documents to develop national family planning guidelines and policies. They should adapt the guidelines to local needs and consider program resources. After development of the national guidelines, training, workshops, and dissemination of written materials should be provided for policymakers, physicians, nurses, and other health providers. Countries that have either developed or are working to draft their own national guidelines are Cameroon, Ghana, Mexico, and Nepal.

  14. Monolithic F-16 Uniform Thickness Stretched Acrylic Canopy Transparency Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Thermoforming Finite Strain Analysis Finite Element Modeling Mooney Formulation Tensile Testing Acrylic Material Properties F-16 Transparency Thinning Uniform...OF ACRYLIC TENSILE SPECIMEN ...... 8 MARC ANALYSIS OF ACRYLIC HEMISPHERE ............ 12 IV ACRYLIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES AT THERMOFORMING TEMPERATURES...properties (necessary for finite element stress analysis work) were generated at temperatures in the range of thermoforming . A finite element code

  15. Factors Affecting Auditory Training Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, Roberta M.

    1980-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine which of nine variables were most related to success in auditory training, using as Ss 43 students at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf. Findings showed that the single largest contributing factor to postcourse gain was the entering English score. (PHR)

  16. The symbolism and myth surrounding nurses' uniform.

    PubMed

    Richardson, M

    This article addresses nurses' uniform from the perspective of the symbolic, myth, legend and competing discourse. The analysis touches upon why nurses working with people who have learning disabilities discarded the nurses' uniform and why other nurses may consider doing so, particularly if suitable alternatives exist. The analysis draws from various areas of nursing practice, including the nursing of disabled people, elderly people and people with learning disabilities. Nurses' uniform is revealed as a totem of considerable potency such that to wear a uniform in just any setting or context has to be cautioned. The practicalities of protective clothing are addressed. A differentiation is drawn between uniform and protective clothing such that much of the undesirable symbolism associated with uniform may be discarded with a consequent enhancement of the image of the nurse.

  17. Requiem for nutrition as the cause of IQ gains: Raven's gains in Britain 1938-2008.

    PubMed

    Flynn, James R

    2009-03-01

    The hypothesis that enhanced nutrition is mainly responsible for massive IQ gains over time borrows plausibility from the height gains of the 20th century. However, evidence shows that the two trends are largely independent. A detailed analysis of IQ trends on the Raven's Progressive Matrices tests in Britain dramatizes the poverty of the nutrition hypothesis. A multiple factor hypothesis that operates on three levels is offered as an alternative instrument of causal explanation. The Raven's data show that over the 65 years from circa 1942 to the present, taking ages 5-15 together, British school children have gained 14 IQ points for a rate of 0.216 points per year. However, since 1979, gains have declined with age and between the ages of 12-13 and 14-15, small gains turn into small losses. This is confirmed by Piagetian data and poses the possibility that the cognitive demands of teen-age subculture have been stagnant over perhaps the last 30 years.

  18. Uniform Additivity in Classical and Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Andrew; Li, Ke; Smith, Graeme

    2017-01-01

    Information theory quantifies the optimal rates of resource interconversions, usually in terms of entropies. However, nonadditivity often makes evaluating entropic formulas intractable. In a few auspicious cases, additivity allows a full characterization of optimal rates. We study uniform additivity of formulas, which is easily evaluated and captures all known additive quantum formulas. Our complete characterization of uniform additivity exposes an intriguing new additive quantity and identifies a remarkable coincidence—the classical and quantum uniformly additive functions with one auxiliary variable are identical.

  19. Hydraulic machine with non-uniform cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haluza, M.; Pochylý, F.; Habán, V.

    2012-11-01

    In this article is introduced the sentence of an extension of operational zone of hydraulic machines. The problems of its extending is based on the design of non-uniform cascade. The non-uniform cascade is connected with other factors. The change of own frequency of the runner of a hydraulic machine and pressure pulsations. The suitable construction of non-uniform cascade is introduced on the results of computational simulation and experiment.

  20. Photomultiplier tube gain regulating system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved system for regulating the gain of a photomultiplier tube, and was designed for use with the photomultiplier tubes of a GeMSAEC fast analyzers. It has the following advantages over the prior system: noise is virtually eliminated; sample analysis can begin after 3 to 4 revolutions of the rotor; fluorescent and light scattering solutions can be used as a reference; and the reference solution can be in any cuvette on the rotor.

  1. Insulin sensitivity and regional fat gain in response to overfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Votruba, S. B.; Jensen, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Although insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes are associated with upper body fat distribution, it is unknown whether insulin resistance predisposes to upper body fat gain or whether upper body fat gain causes insulin resistance. Our objective was to determine whether insulin sensitivity predicts abdominal (subcutaneous and/or visceral) fat gain in normal weight adults. Twenty-eight (15 men) lean (BMI = 22.1±2.5 kg/m2), healthy adults underwent ~8 weeks of overfeeding to gain ~4 kg fat. Body composition was assessed before and after overfeeding using DXA and abdominal CT to measure total and regional (visceral, abdominal, and lower body subcutaneous) fat gain. We assessed insulin sensitivity with an IV glucose tolerance test and the 24h insulin area-under-the-curve(AUC). We found a wide range of insulin sensitivity and a relatively narrow range of body fat distribution in this normal weight cohort. Participants gained 3.8±1.7 kg of body fat (4.6±2.2 kg body weight). The baseline 24h AUC of insulin concentration was positively correlated with percent body fat (r=0.43, p<0.05). The contribution of leg fat gain to total fat gain ranged from 29–79%, while the contributions of abdominal subcutaneous fat and visceral fat gain to total fat gain ranged from 17–69% and −5–22%, respectively. Baseline insulin sensitivity, whether measured by an IVGTT or the 24h AUC insulin Si, did not predict upper body subcutaneous or visceral fat gain in response to overfeeding. We conclude that reduced insulin sensitivity is not an obligate precursor to upper body fat gain. PMID:21127472

  2. Effects of filter housing and ductwork configuration on air flow uniformity inside air cleaning filter housings

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, J.D.

    1992-12-31

    Each new HEPA filter installation presents a different physical configuration based on the system requirements the available space and designer preference. Each different configuration can result in variations of air flow uniformity inside the filter housing across the filter banks. This paper will present the results of air flow uniformity testing for six different filter housing/ductwork configurations and discuss if any of the variations in air flow uniformity is attributable to the difference in the physical arrangements for the six cases.

  3. Effects of filter housing and ductwork configuration on air flow uniformity inside air cleaning filter housings

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    Each new HEPA filter installation presents a different physical configuration based on the system requirements the available space and designer preference. Each different configuration can result in variations of air flow uniformity inside the filter housing across the filter banks. This paper will present the results of air flow uniformity testing for six different filter housing/ductwork configurations and discuss if any of the variations in air flow uniformity is attributable to the difference in the physical arrangements for the six cases.

  4. School Dress Codes and Uniform Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wendell

    2002-01-01

    Opinions abound on what students should wear to class. Some see student dress as a safety issue; others see it as a student-rights issue. The issue of dress codes and uniform policies has been tackled in the classroom, the boardroom, and the courtroom. This Policy Report examines the whole fabric of the debate on dress codes and uniform policies…

  5. Student Dress Codes and Uniforms. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard

    2009-01-01

    According to an Education Commission of the States "Policy Report", research on the effects of dress code and school uniform policies is inconclusive and mixed. Some researchers find positive effects; others claim no effects or only perceived effects. While no state has legislatively mandated the wearing of school uniforms, 28 states and…

  6. School Uniform Policies: Students' Views of Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Teresa M.; Moreno, Josephine

    2001-01-01

    Focus-group interviews of New York City middle-school students about their perceptions of the effectiveness of the school-uniform policy. Finds that students' perceptions of the effects of school-uniform policy on school culture varied considerably with those intended by the principal. (Contains 40 references.) (PKP)

  7. School Uniforms and Discourses on Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodine, Ann

    2003-01-01

    This ethnographic study examined the introduction of school uniforms in the public schools of one California city. Findings indicated that the uniform issue intersected with issues such as student safety and violence, family stress, egalitarianism, competitive dressing, and a power struggle over shaping the childhood environment. It was concluded…

  8. A School Uniform Program That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loesch, Paul C.

    1995-01-01

    According to advocates, school uniforms reduce gang influence, decrease families' clothing expenditures, and help mitigate potentially divisive cultural and economic differences. Aiming to improve school climate, a California elementary school adopted uniforms as a source of pride and affiliation. This article describes the development of the…

  9. School Uniform Policies in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunsma, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The movement for school uniforms in public schools continues to grow despite the author's research indicating little if any impact on student behavior, achievement, and self-esteem. The author examines the distribution of uniform policies by region and demographics, the impact of these policies on perceptions of school climate and safety, and…

  10. Uniform insulation applied-B ion diode

    DOEpatents

    Seidel, David B.; Slutz, Stephen A.

    1988-01-01

    An applied-B field extraction ion diode has uniform insulation over an anode surface for increased efficiency. When the uniform insulation is accomplished with anode coils, and a charge-exchange foil is properly placed, the ions may be focused at a point on the z axis.

  11. Tuning gain and bandwidth of traveling wave tubes using metamaterial beam-wave interaction structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lipton, Robert Polizzi, Anthony

    2014-10-14

    We employ metamaterial beam-wave interaction structures for tuning the gain and bandwidth of short traveling wave tubes. The interaction structures are made from metal rings of uniform cross section, which are periodically deployed along the length of the traveling wave tube. The aspect ratio of the ring cross sections is adjusted to control both gain and bandwidth. The frequency of operation is controlled by the filling fraction of the ring cross section with respect to the size of the period cell.

  12. A high gain microstrip array adopting EMC dipoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, P.; Ruggieri, M.

    1988-10-01

    The design and operation of microstrip antenna arrays based on commercial feed boards and electromagnetically coupled (EMC) dipoles are described and illustrated with extensive drawings, graphs, and diagrams. The analysis of the radiating element and feeder network is outlined, and a 4 x 1 H-plane array and a 4 x 4 array operating at 11.7-12.5 GHz in linear or circular polarization are characterized in detail. With uniform illumination the latter array had directivity 21.75-22.08 db, gain 20.85-21.27 dB, voltage/standing-wave ratio 1.35-1.55:1, and efficiency 79-85 percent.

  13. The effect of operating conditions on resistance parameters of filter media and limestone dust cake for uniformly loaded needle felts in a pilot scale test facility at ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot; Tahir, M Suleman

    2012-09-01

    Resistance parameters are essential for the prediction of pressure drop in bag filters. The reported values for limestone dust differ in magnitude and also depend on operating parameters. In this work, experimental data is provided from a pilot scale pulse-jet regenerated bag filter test facility for three types of needle felts using air and limestone dust at ambient conditions. Results reveal that specific resistance of filter media is independent of velocity while the specific resistance of filter cake increases linearly with filtration velocity. Residual pressure drop is almost constant, independent of upper pressure drop limit. The cake resistance at constant velocity fits to a second degree polynomial whereas it increases linearly with the velocity. A linear relation is reported here for all the cases. The resistance of filter cake decreases at higher upper pressure drop limit.

  14. Stochastic Gain in Population Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traulsen, Arne; Röhl, Torsten; Schuster, Heinz Georg

    2004-07-01

    We introduce an extension of the usual replicator dynamics to adaptive learning rates. We show that a population with a dynamic learning rate can gain an increased average payoff in transient phases and can also exploit external noise, leading the system away from the Nash equilibrium, in a resonancelike fashion. The payoff versus noise curve resembles the signal to noise ratio curve in stochastic resonance. Seen in this broad context, we introduce another mechanism that exploits fluctuations in order to improve properties of the system. Such a mechanism could be of particular interest in economic systems.

  15. A Novel Uniform Discrete Multitone Transceiver with Power-Allocation for Digital Subscriber Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baig, Sobia; Junaid Mughal, Muhammad

    A novel Uniform Discrete Multitone (DMT) transceiver is proposed, utilizing a wavelet packet based filter bank transmultiplexer in conjunction with a DMT transceiver. The proposed transceiver decomposes the channel spectrum into subbands of equal bandwidth. The objective is to minimize the bit error rate (BER), which is increased by channel-noise amplification. This noise amplification is due to the Zero-Forcing equalization (ZFE) technique. Quantization of the channel-noise amplification is presented, based on post-equalization signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and probability of error in all subbands of the Uniform DMT system. A modified power loading algorithm is applied to allocate variable power according to subband gains. A BER performance comparison of the Uniform DMT with variable and uniform power-loading and with a conventional DMT system in a Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) channel is presented.

  16. Scalar gain interpretation of large order filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Paul A. C.; Mook, D. Joseph

    1993-01-01

    A technique is developed which demonstrates how to interpret a large fully-populated filter gain matrix as a set of scalar gains. The inverse problem is also solved, namely, how to develop a large-order filter gain matrix from a specified set of scalar gains. Examples are given to illustrate the method.

  17. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chris J.; van der Slot, Peter J. M.; Boller, Klaus-J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  18. Compensation for non-uniform attenuation in SPECT brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, S.J.; King, M.A.; Pan, T.S.

    1994-05-01

    Photon attenuation is a major limitation in performing quantitative SPECT brain imaging. A number of methods have been proposed for compensation of attenuation in regions of the body that can be modelled as a uniform attenuator. The magnitude of the errors introduced into reconstructed brain images by assuming the head to be a uniform attenuator are uncertain (the skull, sinus cavities and head holder all have different attenuation properties than brain tissue). Brain imaging is unique in that the radioisotope, for the most part, is taken up within a uniform attenuation medium (i.e., brain tissue) which is surrounded by bone (i.e., the skull) of a different density. Using this observation, Bellini`s method for attenuation compensation (which is an exact solution to the exponential Radon transform) has been modified to account for the different attenuation properties of the skull. To test this modified Bellini method, a simple mathematical phantom was designed to model the brain and a skull of varying thickness less than 7.5 mm. To model brain imaging with Tc-99m HMPAO, the attenuation coefficient of the brain tissue and skull were set to 0.15 cm{sup -1} and 0.22 cm{sup -1} respectively. A ray-driven projector which accounted for non-uniform attenuation was used to simulate projection data from 128 views. The detector response and scatter were not simulated. It was observed that reconstructions processed with uniform attenuation compensation (i.e., where it was assumed that the brain tissue and the skull had the same attenuation coefficient) provided errors of 6-20%, whereas those processed with the non-uniform Bellini algorithm were biased by only 0-5%.

  19. Effects of Gain Changes on RPM Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lousteau, Angela L; York, Robbie Lynn; Livesay, Jake

    2012-03-01

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA's) Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) is to strengthen the capability of foreign governments to deter, detect, and interdict the illicit trafficking of special nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime shipping system. The goal of this mission is to reduce the probability of these materials being fashioned into a weapon of mass destruction or radiological dispersal device that could be used against the United States or its international partners. This goal is achieved primarily through the installation and operation of radiation detection equipment at border crossings, airports, seaports, and other strategic locations around the world. In order to effectively detect the movement of radioactive material, the response of these radiation detectors to various materials in various configurations must be well characterized. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated two aspects of Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) settings, based on a preliminary investigation done by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL): source-to-detector distance effect on amplifier gain and optimized discriminator settings. This report discusses this investigation. A number of conclusions can be drawn from the ORNL testing. First, for increased distance between the source and the detector, thus illuminating the entire detector rather than just the center of the detector (as is done during detector alignments), an increase in gain may provide a 5-15% increase in sensitivity (Fig. 4). However, increasing the gain without adjusting the discriminator settings is not recommended as this makes the monitor more sensitive to electronic noise and temperature-induced fluctuations. Furthermore, if the discriminators are adjusted in relation to the increase in gain, thus appropriately discriminating against electronic noise, the sensitivity

  20. Optimal deployment of attentional gain during fine discriminations.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Miranda; Byers, Anna; Serences, John T

    2012-05-30

    Most models assume that top-down attention enhances the gain of sensory neurons tuned to behaviorally relevant stimuli (on-target gain). However, theoretical work suggests that when targets and distracters are highly similar, attention should enhance the gain of neurons that are tuned away from the target, because these neurons better discriminate neighboring features (off-target gain). While it is established that off-target neurons support difficult fine discriminations, it is unclear if top-down attentional gain can be optimally applied to informative off-target sensory neurons or if gain is always applied to on-target neurons, regardless of task demands. To test the optimality of attentional gain in human visual cortex, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an encoding model to estimate the response profile across a set of hypothetical orientation-selective channels during a difficult discrimination task. The results suggest that top-down attention can adaptively modulate off-target neural populations, but only when the discriminanda are precisely specified in advance. Furthermore, logistic regression revealed that activation levels in off-target orientation channels predicted behavioral accuracy on a trial-by-trial basis. Overall, these data suggest that attention does not only increase the gain of sensory-evoked responses, but may bias population response profiles in an optimal manner that respects both the tuning properties of sensory neurons and the physical characteristics of the stimulus array.

  1. Optimal deployment of attentional gain during fine discriminations

    PubMed Central

    Scolari, Miranda; Byers, Anna; Serences, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Most models assume that top-down attention enhances the gain of sensory neurons tuned to behaviorally-relevant stimuli (on-target gain). However, theoretical work suggests that when targets and distracters are highly similar, attention should enhance the gain of neurons that are tuned away from the target, because these neurons better discriminate neighboring features (off-target gain). While it is established that off-target neurons support difficult fine discriminations, it is unclear if top-down attentional gain can be optimally applied to informative off-target sensory neurons or if gain is always applied to on-target neurons, irrespective of task demands. To test the optimality of attentional gain in human visual cortex, we used fMRI and an encoding model to estimate the response profile across a set of hypothetical orientation-selective channels during a difficult discrimination task. The results suggest that top-down attention can adaptively modulate off-target neural populations, but only when the discriminanda are precisely specified in advance. Furthermore, logistic regression revealed that activation levels in off-target orientation channels predicted behavioral accuracy on a trial-by-trial basis. Overall, these data suggest that attention does not always increase the gain of sensory-evoked responses, but instead may bias population response profiles in an optimal manner that respects both the tuning properties of sensory neurons and the physical characteristics of the stimulus array. PMID:22649250

  2. Weight gain attitudes among pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Simon, C; Nakashima, I; Andrews, D

    1993-07-01

    Maternal weight gain is the most important, manageable determinant of infant birth weight among adolescents. Negative attitudes toward weight gain may adversely affect maternal weight gain. We hypothesized that (a) negative attitudes toward pregnancy weight gain are more common among younger pregnant adolescents, and (b) negative attitudes toward pregnancy weight gain adversely affect adolescent maternal weight gain. The study subjects, 99, radially diverse, pregnant 13 through 18 year olds, completed the 18-item, Likert-format, Pregnancy and Weight Gain Attitude Scale. Responses to the questionnaire indicated that most (83.8%) of the adolescents we interviewed had a positive attitude toward pregnancy weight gain when they entered prenatal care. Univariate analyses revealed that attitudes toward weight gain were unrelated to the respondents' ages but inversely related to their prepregnant weights (-0.16; p = 0.06) and the severity of their symptoms of depression (r = -0.26; p = 0.004). Attitudes toward weight gain were also directly related to their family support (r = 0.17; p = 0.06). Weight gain was significantly related to 4 of the 18 scale items but not to the total attitude scale score. We conclude that (a) the developmental task of formulating a positive body image does not foster more negative attitudes toward pregnancy weight gain among younger adolescents; (b) negative weight gain attitudes are most common among heavier adolescents, depressed adolescents, and adolescents who do not perceive their families as supportive; and (c) negative weight gain attitudes could adversely affect pregnancy weight gain.

  3. Patterns of intron gain and conservation in eukaryotic genes

    PubMed Central

    Carmel, Liran; Rogozin, Igor B; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2007-01-01

    Background: The presence of introns in protein-coding genes is a universal feature of eukaryotic genome organization, and the genes of multicellular eukaryotes, typically, contain multiple introns, a substantial fraction of which share position in distant taxa, such as plants and animals. Depending on the methods and data sets used, researchers have reached opposite conclusions on the causes of the high fraction of shared introns in orthologous genes from distant eukaryotes. Some studies conclude that shared intron positions reflect, almost entirely, a remarkable evolutionary conservation, whereas others attribute it to parallel gain of introns. To resolve these contradictions, it is crucial to analyze the evolution of introns by using a model that minimally relies on arbitrary assumptions. Results: We developed a probabilistic model of evolution that allows for variability of intron gain and loss rates over branches of the phylogenetic tree, individual genes, and individual sites. Applying this model to an extended set of conserved eukaryotic genes, we find that parallel gain, on average, accounts for only ~8% of the shared intron positions. However, the distribution of parallel gains over the phylogenetic tree of eukaryotes is highly non-uniform. There are, practically, no parallel gains in closely related lineages, whereas for distant lineages, such as animals and plants, parallel gains appear to contribute up to 20% of the shared intron positions. In accord with these findings, we estimated that ancestral introns have a high probability to be retained in extant genomes, and conversely, that a substantial fraction of extant introns have retained their positions since the early stages of eukaryotic evolution. In addition, the density of sites that are available for intron insertion is estimated to be, approximately, one in seven basepairs. Conclusion: We obtained robust estimates of the contribution of parallel gain to the observed sharing of intron positions

  4. Radiation Response of Emerging High Gain, Low Noise Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Heidi N.; Farr, William H; Zhu, David Q.

    2007-01-01

    Data illustrating the radiation response of emerging high gain, low noise detectors are presented. Ionizing dose testing of silicon internal discrete avalanche photodiodes, and 51-MeV proton testing of InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiodes operated in Geiger mode are discussed.

  5. Uniforms, status and professional boundaries in hospital.

    PubMed

    Timmons, Stephen; East, Linda

    2011-11-01

    Despite their comparative neglect analytically, uniforms play a key role in the delineation of occupational boundaries and the formation of professional identity in healthcare. This paper analyses a change to the system of uniforms in one UK hospital, where management have required all professions (with the exception of doctors) to wear the same 'corporate' uniform. Focus groups were conducted with the professionals and patients. We analyse this initiative as a kind of McDonaldisation, seeking to create a new 'corporate' worker whose allegiance is principally to the organisation, rather than a profession. Our findings show how important uniforms are to their wearers, both in terms of the defence of professional boundaries and status, as well as the construction of professional identity.

  6. 7 CFR 29.3563 - Uniformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign... tobacco as it is prepared for market. Uniformity is expressed in grade specifications as a percentage....

  7. Effects of beam irregularity on uniform scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Hyeuk; Jang, Sea duk; Yang, Tae-Keun

    2016-09-01

    An active scanning beam delivery method has many advantages in particle beam applications. For the beam is to be successfully delivered to the target volume by using the active scanning technique, the dose uniformity must be considered and should be at least 2.5% in the case of therapy application. During beam irradiation, many beam parameters affect the 2-dimensional uniformity at the target layer. A basic assumption in the beam irradiation planning stage is that the shape of the beam is symmetric and follows a Gaussian distribution. In this study, a pure Gaussian-shaped beam distribution was distorted by adding parasitic Gaussian distribution. An appropriate uniform scanning condition was deduced by using a quantitative analysis based on the gamma value of the distorted beam and 2-dimensional uniformities.

  8. Uniform National Discharge Standards (UNDS): Outreach

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the Federalism and Tribal consultation efforts related to the Uniform National Discharge Standards (UNDS) and links to copies of each presentation, both to state and local representatives, as well as federally-recognized tribes.

  9. Information gains from cosmological probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandis, S.; Seehars, S.; Refregier, A.; Amara, A.; Nicola, A.

    2016-05-01

    In light of the growing number of cosmological observations, it is important to develop versatile tools to quantify the constraining power and consistency of cosmological probes. Originally motivated from information theory, we use the relative entropy to compute the information gained by Bayesian updates in units of bits. This measure quantifies both the improvement in precision and the `surprise', i.e. the tension arising from shifts in central values. Our starting point is a WMAP9 prior which we update with observations of the distance ladder, supernovae (SNe), baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), and weak lensing as well as the 2015 Planck release. We consider the parameters of the flat ΛCDM concordance model and some of its extensions which include curvature and Dark Energy equation of state parameter w. We find that, relative to WMAP9 and within these model spaces, the probes that have provided the greatest gains are Planck (10 bits), followed by BAO surveys (5.1 bits) and SNe experiments (3.1 bits). The other cosmological probes, including weak lensing (1.7 bits) and {H0} measures (1.7 bits), have contributed information but at a lower level. Furthermore, we do not find any significant surprise when updating the constraints of WMAP9 with any of the other experiments, meaning that they are consistent with WMAP9. However, when we choose Planck15 as the prior, we find that, accounting for the full multi-dimensionality of the parameter space, the weak lensing measurements of CFHTLenS produce a large surprise of 4.4 bits which is statistically significant at the 8 σ level. We discuss how the relative entropy provides a versatile and robust framework to compare cosmological probes in the context of current and future surveys.

  10. Coupled Serial and Parallel Non-uniform SQUIDs

    SciTech Connect

    Longhini, Patrick; In, Visarath; Berggren, Susan; Palacios, Antonio; Leese de Escobar, Anna

    2011-04-19

    In this work we numerical model series and parallel non-uniform superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) array. Previous work has shown that series SQUID array constructed with a random distribution of loop sizes, (i.e. different areas for each SQUID loop) there exists a unique 'anti-peak' at the zero magnetic field for the voltage versus applied magnetic field (V-B). Similar results extend to a parallel SQUID array where the difference lies in the arrangement of the Josephson junctions. Other system parameter such as bias current, the number of loops, and mutual inductances are varied to demonstrate the change in dynamic range and linearity of the V-B response. Application of the SQUID array as a low noise amplifier (LNA) would increase link margins and affect the entire communication system. For unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), size, weight and power are limited, the SQUID array would allow use of practical 'electrically small' antennas that provide acceptable gain.

  11. Coupled Serial and Parallel Non-uniform SQUIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Patrick; Berggren, Susan; Palacios, Antonio; de Escobar, Anna Leese; In, Visarath

    2011-04-01

    In this work we numerical model series and parallel non-uniform superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) array. Previous work has shown that series SQUID array constructed with a random distribution of loop sizes, (i.e. different areas for each SQUID loop) there exists a unique `anti-peak' at the zero magnetic field for the voltage versus applied magnetic field (V-B). Similar results extend to a parallel SQUID array where the difference lies in the arrangement of the Josephson junctions. Other system parameter such as bias current, the number of loops, and mutual inductances are varied to demonstrate the change in dynamic range and linearity of the V-B response. Application of the SQUID array as a low noise amplifier (LNA) would increase link margins and affect the entire communication system. For unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), size, weight and power are limited, the SQUID array would allow use of practical `electrically small' antennas that provide acceptable gain.

  12. Gain Scheduling for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, Sara J.; Restrepo, Carolina I.; Madsen, Jennifer M.; Medina, Edgar A.; Proud, Ryan W.; Whitley, Ryan J.

    2011-01-01

    One of NASAs challenges for the Orion vehicle is the control system design for the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV), which is required to abort safely at any time during the atmospheric ascent portion of ight. The focus of this paper is the gain design and scheduling process for a controller that covers the wide range of vehicle configurations and flight conditions experienced during the full envelope of potential abort trajectories from the pad to exo-atmospheric flight. Several factors are taken into account in the automation process for tuning the gains including the abort effectors, the environmental changes and the autopilot modes. Gain scheduling is accomplished using a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) approach for the decoupled, simplified linear model throughout the operational envelope in time, altitude and Mach number. The derived gains are then implemented into the full linear model for controller requirement validation. Finally, the gains are tested and evaluated in a non-linear simulation using the vehicles ight software to ensure performance requirements are met. An overview of the LAV controller design and a description of the linear plant models are presented. Examples of the most significant challenges with the automation of the gain tuning process are then discussed. In conclusion, the paper will consider the lessons learned through out the process, especially in regards to automation, and examine the usefulness of the gain scheduling tool and process developed as applicable to non-Orion vehicles.

  13. Assessment of MODIS RSB Detector Uniformity Using Deep Convective Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Tiejun; Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Angal, Amit; Mu, Qiaozhen

    2016-01-01

    For satellite sensor, the striping observed in images is typically associated with the relative multiple detector gain difference derived from the calibration. A method using deep convective cloud (DCC) measurements to assess the difference among detectors after calibration is proposed and demonstrated for select reflective solar bands (RSBs) of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Each detector of MODIS RSB is calibrated independently using a solar diffuser (SD). Although the SD is expected to accurately characterize detector response, the uncertainties associated with the SD degradation and characterization result in inadequacies in the estimation of each detector's gain. This work takes advantage of the DCC technique to assess detector uniformity and scan mirror side difference for RSB. The detector differences for Terra MODIS Collection 6 are less than 1% for bands 1, 3-5, and 18 and up to 2% for bands 6, 19, and 26. The largest difference is up to 4% for band 7. Most Aqua bands have detector differences less than 0.5% except bands 19 and 26 with up to 1.5%. Normally, large differences occur for edge detectors. The long-term trending shows seasonal oscillations in detector differences for some bands, which are correlated with the instrument temperature. The detector uniformities were evaluated for both unaggregated and aggregated detectors for MODIS band 1 and bands 3-7, and their consistencies are verified. The assessment results were validated by applying a direct correction to reflectance images. These assessments can lead to improvements to the calibration algorithm and therefore a reduction in striping observed in the calibrated imagery.

  14. Scientific reasoning and FCI gains for a Community College population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diff, Karim; Tache, N.

    2007-05-01

    In a recent paper (AJP, 73:1172, (2005)), Coletta and Phillips have found positive correlations between pre-instruction scores and normalized gains on the FCI, as well as between scores on the Lawson classroom test of scientific reasoning and normalized FCI gains. This poster presents results from a similar study conducted with a community college population. Students from seven different physics classes taught by three different instructors were tested during the fall semester. Students were further grouped in three different levels of physics ( applied physics, algebra-based physics, calculus-based physics). In addition to analyzing the correlations between the FCI gains and the scores on the Lawson test, we discuss the interactive engagement techniques used by the instructors and the most significant differences between the performances of the three groups of students.

  15. Uniform color space based on color matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Shih-Fang; Yang, Tsung-Hsun; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2007-09-01

    This research intends to explore with a uniform color space based on the CIE 1931 x-y chromatic coordinate system. The goal is to improve the non-uniformity of the CIE 1931 x-y chromaticity diagram such as to approach the human color sensation as possible; however, its simple methodology still can be kept. In spite of the existence of various kinds of the uniform color coordinate systems built up early (CIE u'-v', CIE Lab, CIE LUV, etc.), the establishment of a genuine uniform color space is actually still an important work both for the basic research in color science and the practical applications of colorimetry, especially for recent growing request in illumination engineering and in display technology. In this study, the MacAdam ellipses and the Munsell color chips are utilized for the comparison with the human color sensation. One specific linear transformation matrix is found for the CIE 1931 color matching functions (see manuscript) to become the novel uniform ones. With the aid of the optimization method, the transformation matrix can be easily discovered and makes the 25 MacAdam ellipses are similar to each other in the novel uniform color space. On the other hand, the perfectiveness of the equal-hue curves and the equal-chroma contours from the Mnusell color chips evaluates for the best optimization conditions among several different definitions for the similarity of all the MacAdam ellipses. Finally, the color difference between any two colors can be simply measured by the Euclidean distance in the novel uniform color space and is still fitted to the human color sensation.

  16. Quantitative multi-pinhole small-animal SPECT: uniform versus non-uniform Chang attenuation correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; de Jong, J. R.; Gratama van Andel, H. A.; van der Have, F.; Vastenhouw, B.; Laverman, P.; Boerman, O. C.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.; Beekman, F. J.

    2011-09-01

    Attenuation of photon flux on trajectories between the source and pinhole apertures affects the quantitative accuracy of reconstructed single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. We propose a Chang-based non-uniform attenuation correction (NUA-CT) for small-animal SPECT/CT with focusing pinhole collimation, and compare the quantitative accuracy with uniform Chang correction based on (i) body outlines extracted from x-ray CT (UA-CT) and (ii) on hand drawn body contours on the images obtained with three integrated optical cameras (UA-BC). Measurements in phantoms and rats containing known activities of isotopes were conducted for evaluation. In 125I, 201Tl, 99mTc and 111In phantom experiments, average relative errors comparing to the gold standards measured in a dose calibrator were reduced to 5.5%, 6.8%, 4.9% and 2.8%, respectively, with NUA-CT. In animal studies, these errors were 2.1%, 3.3%, 2.0% and 2.0%, respectively. Differences in accuracy on average between results of NUA-CT, UA-CT and UA-BC were less than 2.3% in phantom studies and 3.1% in animal studies except for 125I (3.6% and 5.1%, respectively). All methods tested provide reasonable attenuation correction and result in high quantitative accuracy. NUA-CT shows superior accuracy except for 125I, where other factors may have more impact on the quantitative accuracy than the selected attenuation correction.

  17. Review of High Gain FELs

    SciTech Connect

    Shintake, Tsumoru

    2007-01-19

    For understanding on basic radiation mechanism of the high-gain FEL based on SASE, the author presents electron-crystal interpretation of FEL radiation. In the electron-crystal, electrons are localized at regularly spaced multi-layers, which represents micro-bunching, whose spacing is equal to the radiation wavelength, and the multi-layers are perpendicular to beam axis, thus, diffracted wave creates Bragg's spots in forward and backward directions. Due to the Doppler's effect, frequency of the back-scattered wave is up-converted, generates forwardly focused X-ray. The Bragg's effect contributes focusing the X-ray beam into a spot, thus peak power becomes extremely higher by factor of typically 107. This is the FEL radiation. As well known, the total numbers of scattered photons in Bragg's spots is equal to the total elastic scattering photons from the atoms contained in the crystal. Therefore, total power in the FEL laser is same as the spontaneous radiation power from the undulator for the same beam parameter. The FEL radiation phenomenon is simple interference effect. In today's presentations, we use the laser pointer, and we frequently experience difficulty in pointing precisely or steadily in one place on the screen, since the laser spot is very small and does not spread. Exactly same to this, X-ray FEL is a highly focused beam, and pointing stability dominates productivity of experiment, thus we need special care on beam stability from linear accelerator.

  18. Factors influencing weight gain after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C P; Gallagher-Lepak, S; Zhu, Y R; Porth, C; Kelber, S; Roza, A M; Adams, M B

    1993-10-01

    Weight gain following renal transplantation occurs frequently but has not been investigated quantitatively. A retrospective chart review of 115 adult renal transplant recipients was used to describe patterns of weight gain during the first 5 years after transplantation. Only 23 subjects (21%) were overweight before their transplant. Sixty-six subjects (57%) experienced a weight gain of greater than or equal to 10%, and 49 subjects (43%) were overweight according to Metropolitan relative weight criteria at 1 year after transplantation. There was an inverse correlation between advancing age and weight gain, with the youngest patients (18-29 years) having a 13.3% weight gain and the oldest patients (age greater than 50 years) having the lowest gain of 8.3% at 1 year (P = 0.047). Black recipients experienced a greater weight gain than whites during the first posttransplant year (14.6% vs. 9.0%; P = 0.043), and maintained or increased this difference over the 5-year period. Men and women experienced comparable weight gain during the first year (9.5% vs. 12.1%), but women continued to gain weight throughout the 5-year study (21.0% total weight gain). The men remained stable after the first year (10.8% total weight gain). Recipients who experienced at least a 10% weight gain also increased their serum cholesterol (mean 261 vs. 219) and triglyceride (mean 277 vs. 159) levels significantly, whereas those without weight gain did not. Weight gain did not correlate with cumulative steroid dose, donor source (living-related versus cadaver), rejection history, pre-existing obesity, the number of months on dialysis before transplantation, or posttransplant renal function. Posttransplant weight gain is related mainly to demographic factors, not to treatment factors associated with the transplant. The average weight gain during the first year after renal transplantation is approximately 10%. This increased weight, coupled with changes in lipid metabolism, may be significant in

  19. Nicotine Replacement: Effects on Postcessation Weight Gain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Janet; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined nicotine replacement effects on postcessation weight gain in smoking cessation volunteers. Randomly assigned abstinent subjects to active nicotine or placebo gum conditions for 10 weeks. Analyses revealed strong evidence for gum effect on weight gain, with active gum users gaining mean total of 3.8 pounds compared with 7.8 pounds for…

  20. Is Weight Gain after Smoking Cessation Inevitable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talcott, Gerald W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studied weight gain after smoking cessation in a naturalistic setting where all smokers quit and risk factors for postcessation weight gain were modified. Results showed no significant weight changes for smokers who quit. Suggests that an intensive program featuring dietary guidelines and increased physical activity can attenuate weight gain. (RJM)

  1. BDNF: no gain without pain?

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter A

    2014-12-26

    Injury to the adult nervous system promotes the expression and secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Because it promotes neuronal growth, survival and neurogenesis, BDNF may initiate compensatory processes that mitigate the deleterious effects of injury, disease or stress. Despite this, BDNF has been implicated in several injury-induced maladaptive processes including pain, spasticity and convulsive activity. This review will concentrate on the predominant role of BDNF in the initiation and maintenance of chronic and/or neuropathic pain at the spinal, peripheral and central levels. Within the spinal dorsal horn, the pattern of BDNF-induced changes in synaptic transmission across five different, identified neuronal phenotypes bears a striking resemblance to that produced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of peripheral nerves. The appearance of this "pain footprint" thus reflects multiple sensitizing actions of microglial-derived BDNF. These include changes in the chloride equilibrium potential, decreased excitatory synaptic drive to inhibitory neurons, complex changes in inhibitory (GABA/glycinergic) synaptic transmission, increases in excitatory synaptic drive to excitatory neurons and the appearance of oscillatory activity. BDNF effects are confined to changes in synaptic transmission as there is little change in the passive or active properties of neurons in the superficial dorsal horn. Actions of BDNF in the brain stem and periphery also contribute to the onset and persistence of chronic pain. In spite of its role in compensatory processes that facilitate the recovery of the nervous system from injury, the widespread maladaptive actions of BDNF mean that there is literally "no gain without pain".

  2. Uniformity of material in the SME and MFT

    SciTech Connect

    Plodinec, M.J.

    1992-05-29

    The DWPF will satisfy the product consistency specification in the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications through control of the chemical composition of the glass product. This control will be achieved by ensuring that each batch of feed in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) will produce glass which satisfies the specification. The purpose of this report is to determine what degree of uniformity can be expected of material in the SME and Metter Feed Tank (MFT). These vessels were designed based on a design development process which had proven successful for similar hard-to-mix feeds in the past. This process resulted in a design of the SME and MFT agitation systems which was intended to provide highly uniform melter feed material. Based on the results of extensive tests in protoypic equipment, the SME and MFT designs have met this design goal.

  3. Clonal propagation of chemically uniform fennel plants through somatic embryoids.

    PubMed

    Miura, Y; Fukui, H; Tabata, M

    1987-02-01

    Somatic embryoids obtained from cell suspension cultures of fennel in Linsmaier-Skoog medium containing 2,4-D and kinetin readily developed into plantlets when plated on a hormone-free agar medium. These plants were transplanted to the field to be tested for the uniformity of the chemically as well as the morphologically important characteristics of fruits. The results of field trials conducted for two years have confirmed that the clonal plants derived from somatic embryoids are remarkably uniform in all the characteristics examined in comparison with the control plants propagated through seeds. It is suggested, therefore, that the quality control of fennel fruits used for spice or medicine could be achieved by means of clonal propagation through somatic embryoids.

  4. Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.

  5. Gestational weight gain among Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Lam, Kim; Raine, Susan P

    2014-01-01

    To describe gestational weight gain among Hispanic women and to examine psychological, social, and cultural contexts affecting weight gain. A total of 282 Hispanic women were surveyed post-partum before leaving the hospital. Women were queried about their prepregnancy weight and weight gained during pregnancy. Adequacy of gestational weight gain was based on guidelines set by the Institute of Medicine in 2009. Independent risk factors for excessive or insufficient weight gain were examined by logistic regression. Most women were unmarried (59 %), with a mean age of 28.4 ± 6.6 years and an average weight gain of 27.9 ± 13.3 lbs. Approximately 45 % of women had gained too much, 32 % too little, and only 24 % had an adequate amount of weight gain. The mean birth weight was 7.3, 7.9, and 6.8 lbs among the adequate, excessive, and insufficient weight gain groups. Among women who exercised before pregnancy, two-thirds continued to do so during pregnancy; the mean gestational weight gain of those who continued was lower than those who stopped (26.8 vs. 31.4 lbs, p = 0.04). Independent risk factors for excessive weight gain were being unmarried, U.S. born, higher prepregnancy body mass index, and having indifferent or negative views about weight gain. Independent risk factors for insufficient weight gain were low levels of support and late initiation of prenatal care. Depression, stress, and a woman's or her partner's happiness regarding pregnancy were unrelated to weight gain. The results of this study can be used by prenatal programs to identify Hispanic women at risk for excessive or insufficient gestational weight gain.

  6. Temperature uniformity in hyperthermal tumor therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, G. H.; Robinson, J. E.; Samaras, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumors heated by water bath or by microwave-induced hyperthermia exhibit a response that varies sharply with treatment temperature; therefore, uniform heating of the tumor is essential to quantitate the biological response as a function of temperature. C3H tumors implanted on the mouse flank were easily heated to uniformities within 0.1 C by using water baths. Cold spots up to 1 C below the desired treatment temperature were observed in the same tumors implanted on the hind leg. These cold spots were attributed to cooling by major blood vessels near the tumor. In this case temperature uniformity was achieved by the deposition of 2450 MHz microwave energy into the tumor volume by using parallel-opposed applicators.

  7. Nonspherical LED packaging lens for uniformity improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Ou, Chung-Jen; Tsai, Yu-Sheng; Juang, Fuh-Shyang

    2009-05-01

    Light emitting diode (LED) has more advantages compared with a traditional incandescent light bulb and a fluorescent lamp, such as small size, low quantity of heat, long life, low power consumption, fast response, plain packaging and ease of develop ment of a frivolous short product. A methodology is proposed to improve the uniformity of the LED illumination system. As a light source in a backlight unit (BLU), the requirement for optical characteristics of a LED is different from highly directional conventional ones. New diffused-type LEDs need to be developed to fulfill the requirement of the BLU industry. A non-spherical lens is designed to optimize uniformity, and a great improvement in uniformity from 28.4 to 64% is demonstrated. In the future, it may used in an LED display to improve the unevenness of illumination.

  8. Uniform colloidal zinc compounds of various morphologies

    SciTech Connect

    Castellano, M.; Matijevic, E. )

    1989-02-01

    The preparation of finely dispersed zinc compounds consisting of uniform particles is described. Aging at elevated temperatures ({approx} 90{degree}C) of aqueous solutions of zinc nitrate or zinc chloride in the presence of urea resulted in precipitation of uniform rodlike basic zinc carbonate particles. These solids show x-ray characteristics of crystalline hydrozincite. In the presence of sulfate ions amorphous spherical particles of narrow size distribution of the same chemical composition are generated. On calcination both kinds of solids change to zinc oxide yet retain the original shape. In the presence of NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and urea, aqueous zinc salt solutions on aging yield rather uniform amorphous spherical zinc basic phosphate particles, which on calcination lose water.

  9. Elastic stability of non-uniform columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. Y.; Kuo, Y. H.

    1991-07-01

    A simple and efficient method is proposed to investigate the elastic stability of three different tapered columns subjected to uniformly distributed follower forces. The influences of the boundary conditions and taper ratio on critical buckling loads are investigated. The critical buckling loads of columns of rectangular cross section with constant depth and linearly varied width ( T1), constant width and linearly varied depth ( T2) and double taper ( T3) are investigated. Among the three different non-uniform columns considered, taper ratio has the greatest influence on the critical buckling load of column T3 and the lowest influence on that of column T1. The types of instability mechanisms for hinged-hinged and cantilever non-uniform columns are divergence and flutter respectively. However, for clamped-hinged and clamped-clamped non-uniform columns, the type of instability mechanism for column T1 is divergence, while that for columns T2 and T3 is divergence only when the taper ratio of the columns is greater than certain critical values and flutter for the rest value of taper ratio. When the type of instability mechanism changes from divergence to flutter, there is a finite jump for the critical buckling load. The influence of taper ratio on the elastic stability of cantilever column T3 is very sensitive for small values of the taper ratio and there also exist some discontinieties in the critical buckling loads of flutter instability. For a hinged-hinged non-uniform column ( T2 or T3) with a rotational spring at the left end of the column, when the taper ratio is less than the critical value the instability mechanism changes from divergence to flutter as the rotational spring constant is increased. For a clamped-elastically supported non-uniform column, when the taper ratio is greater than the critical value the instability mechanism changes from flutter to divergence as the translational spring constant is increased.

  10. Uniform color space is not homogeneous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehni, Rolf G.

    2002-06-01

    Historical data of chroma scaling and hue scaling are compared and evidence is shown that we do not have a reliable basis in either case. Several data sets indicate explicitly or implicitly that the number of constant sized hue differences between unique hues as well as in the quadrants of the a*, b* diagram differs making what is commonly regarded as uniform color space inhomogeneous. This problem is also shown to affect the OSA-UCS space. A Euclidean uniform psychological or psychophysical color space appears to be impossible.

  11. Controlling gain one photon at a time.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Gregory W; Rieke, Fred

    2013-05-14

    Adaptation is a salient property of sensory processing. All adaptational or gain control mechanisms face the challenge of obtaining a reliable estimate of the property of the input to be adapted to and obtaining this estimate sufficiently rapidly to be useful. Here, we explore how the primate retina balances the need to change gain rapidly and reliably when photons arrive rarely at individual rod photoreceptors. We find that the weakest backgrounds that decrease the gain of the retinal output signals are similar to those that increase human behavioral threshold, and identify a novel site of gain control in the retinal circuitry. Thus, surprisingly, the gain of retinal signals begins to decrease essentially as soon as background lights are detectable; under these conditions, gain control does not rely on a highly averaged estimate of the photon count, but instead signals from individual photon absorptions trigger changes in gain. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00467.001.

  12. Comparison of two leading uniform theories of edge diffraction with the exact uniform asymptotic solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boersma, J.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The diffraction of an arbitrary cylindrical wave by a half-plane has been treated by Rahmat-Samii and Mittra who used a spectral domain approach. In this paper, their exact solution for the total field is expressed in terms of a new integral representation. For large wave number k, two rigorous procedures are described for the exact uniform asymptotic expansion of the total field solution. The uniform expansions obtained are valid in the entire space, including transition regions around the shadow boundaries. The final results are compared with the formulations of two leading uniform theories of edge diffraction, namely, the uniform asymptotic theory and the uniform theory of diffraction. Some unique observations and conclusions are made in relating the two theories.

  13. Uniforms: Are They a Good Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutelle, Marsha

    2008-01-01

    In an era where some parents seem unwilling or unable to draw the "clothes" line with their children, where pop culture influences kids' clothing choices as never before, and school safety--including gang violence--is at the top of everyone's minds, school uniforms and dress codes can play a significant role. What that role should be,…

  14. Electroformed screens with uniform hole size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaer, G. R.

    1968-01-01

    Efficient method electroforms fine-mesh nickel screens, or plagues, with uniform hole size and accurate spacing between holes. An electroformed nickel mandrel has nonconducting silicone rubber projections that duplicate the desired hole size and shape in the finished nickel screen.

  15. Uniform spray coating for large tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    System employs spray facility located within ventilated plastic booth to uniformly coat exterior of large cylindrical tanks with polyurethane foam insulation. Coating target is rotated on turntable while movable spray guns apply overlapping spirals of foam. Entire operation may be controlled by single operator from remote station.

  16. Mandatory School Uniforms and Freedom of Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vopat, Mark C.

    2010-01-01

    On 10 December 2007 the Akron City School Board--following the precedent set by many school systems across the United States and the world--instituted a policy of mandatory school uniforms for all students in grades K-8. The measure was met with mixed reviews. While many parents supported the measure, a small group of parents from a selective,…

  17. School Uniforms in Urban Public High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draa, Virginia Ann Bendel

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the implementation of a mandatory uniform policy in urban public high schools improved school performance measures at the building level for rates of attendance, graduation, academic proficiency, and student conduct as measured by rates of suspensions and expulsions. Sixty-four secondary…

  18. School Uniform Revisited: Procedure, Pressure and Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Damian; Sinclair, Adele

    2006-01-01

    The House of Lords' decision in "R. (on the application of Begum) v. The Headteacher and Governors of Denbigh High School" considered whether a particular school uniform policy infringed a student's right to manifest her religion under Article 9. This paper analyses the content of this decision, and explores how schools should approach…

  19. Is Curriculum Quality Uniform? Evidence from Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, Rachana; Koedel, Cory; Lehmann, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    We construct a large panel dataset of schools and districts in Florida to evaluate curricular effectiveness in elementary mathematics. A key innovation of our study is that we allow for curriculum quality to be non-uniform across various mathematics subtopics. We find evidence of variability in curricular effectiveness across different subtopics…

  20. MODERATOR ELEMENTS FOR UNIFORM POWER NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Balent, R.

    1963-03-12

    This patent describes a method of obtaining a flatter flux and more uniform power generation across the core of a nuclear reactor. The method comprises using moderator elements having differing moderating strength. The elements have an increasing amount of the better moderating material as a function of radial and/or axial distance from the reactor core center. (AEC)

  1. METHOD OF OBTAINING UNIFORM COATINGS ON GRAPHITE

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, I.E.

    1961-04-01

    A method is given for obtaining uniform carbide coatings on graphite bodies. According to the invention a metallic halide in vapor form is passed over the graphite body under such conditions of temperature and pressure that the halide reacts with the graphite to form a coating of the metal carbide on the surface of the graphite.

  2. Method of Obtaining Uniform Coatings on Graphite

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, I. E.

    1961-04-01

    A method is given for obtaining uniform carbide coatings on graphite bodies. According to the invention a metallic halide in vapor form is passed over the graphite body under such conditions of temperature and pressure that the halide reacts with the graphite to form a coating of the metal carbide on the surface of the graphite.

  3. Uniformity and Diversity: Curricular and Instructional Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passow, A. Harry

    1987-01-01

    In the drive toward "democratization of education," the twin goals of diversity and uniformity (like equality and excellence) are considered desirable even though they often conflict with one another. This paper reviews the history of curriculum design, including bilingual and cultural pluralism influences and concludes that both…

  4. School Uniforms: A Blueprint for Legal Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Mary Ellen

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses some of the options and strategies available to school districts in defending dress codes which mandate uniforms. Three components are essential to a successful defense: the dress code must bear a reasonable relation to the school's pedagogical purpose, it must include alternative avenues of expression, and it must…

  5. Uniform color spaces and natural image statistics.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Kyle C; Webster, Michael A

    2012-02-01

    Many aspects of visual coding have been successfully predicted by starting from the statistics of natural scenes and then asking how the stimulus could be efficiently represented. We started from the representation of color characterized by uniform color spaces, and then asked what type of color environment they implied. These spaces are designed to represent equal perceptual differences in color discrimination or appearance by equal distances in the space. The relative sensitivity to different axes within the space might therefore reflect the gamut of colors in natural scenes. To examine this, we projected perceptually uniform distributions within the Munsell, CIE L(*)u(*)v(*) or CIE L(*)a(*)b(*) spaces into cone-opponent space. All were elongated along a bluish-yellowish axis reflecting covarying signals along the L-M and S-(L+M) cardinal axes, a pattern typical (though not identical) to many natural environments. In turn, color distributions from environments were more uniform when projected into the CIE L(*)a(*)b(*) perceptual space than when represented in a normalized cone-opponent space. These analyses suggest the bluish-yellowish bias in environmental colors might be an important factor shaping chromatic sensitivity, and also suggest that perceptually uniform color metrics could be derived from natural scene statistics and potentially tailored to specific environments.

  6. Uniform color spaces and natural image statistics

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Kyle C.; Webster, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Many aspects of visual coding have been successfully predicted by starting from the statistics of natural scenes and then asking how the stimulus could be efficiently represented. We started from the representation of color characterized by uniform color spaces, and then asked what type of color environment they implied. These spaces are designed to represent equal perceptual differences in color discrimination or appearance by equal distances in the space. The relative sensitivity to different axes within the space might therefore reflect the gamut of colors in natural scenes. To examine this, we projected perceptually uniform distributions within the Munsell, CIEL*u*v* or CIEL*a*b* spaces into cone-opponent space. All were elongated along a bluish-yellowish axis reflecting covarying signals along the L-M and S-L+M cardinal axes, a pattern typical (though not identical) to many natural environments. In turn, color distributions from environments were more uniform when projected into the CIEL*a*b* perceptual space than when represented in a normalized cone-opponent space. These analyses suggest the bluish-yellowish bias in environmental colors might be an important factor shaping chromatic sensitivity, and also suggest that perceptually uniform color metrics could be derived from natural scene statistics and potentially tailored to specific environments. PMID:22330376

  7. Uniformly convex and strictly convex Orlicz spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masta, Al Azhary

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we define the new norm of Orlicz spaces on ℝn through a multiplication operator on an old Orlicz spaces. We obtain some necessary and sufficient conditions that the new norm to be a uniformly convex and strictly convex spaces.

  8. Preparation and properties of uniform size colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Matijevic, E. )

    1993-04-01

    The achievements and problems in the preparation of uniform colloids by precipitation from homogeneous electrolyte solutions are reviewed. Specifically, the syntheses of [open quotes]monodispersed[close quotes] particles of simple and mixed compositions as well as of coated and hollow particles of different shapes are described, and the physical and chemical mechanisms of their formation are discussed. 126 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Controlling misses and false alarms in a machine learning framework for predicting uniformity of printed pages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Minh Q.; Allebach, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    In our previous work1 , we presented a block-based technique to analyze printed page uniformity both visually and metrically. The features learned from the models were then employed in a Support Vector Machine (SVM) framework to classify the pages into one of the two categories of acceptable and unacceptable quality. In this paper, we introduce a set of tools for machine learning in the assessment of printed page uniformity. This work is primarily targeted to the printing industry, specifically the ubiquitous laser, electrophotographic printer. We use features that are well-correlated with the rankings of expert observers to develop a novel machine learning framework that allows one to achieve the minimum "false alarm" rate, subject to a chosen "miss" rate. Surprisingly, most of the research that has been conducted on machine learning does not consider this framework. During the process of developing a new product, test engineers will print hundreds of test pages, which can be scanned and then analyzed by an autonomous algorithm. Among these pages, most may be of acceptable quality. The objective is to find the ones that are not. These will provide critically important information to systems designers, regarding issues that need to be addressed in improving the printer design. A "miss" is defined to be a page that is not of acceptable quality to an expert observer that the prediction algorithm declares to be a "pass". Misses are a serious problem, since they represent problems that will not be seen by the systems designers. On the other hand, "false alarms" correspond to pages that an expert observer would declare to be of acceptable quality, but which are flagged by the prediction algorithm as "fails". In a typical printer testing and development scenario, such pages would be examined by an expert, and found to be of acceptable quality after all. "False alarm" pages result in extra pages to be examined by expert observers, which increases labor cost. But "false

  10. Perceptual uniformity of commonly used color spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avanaki, Ali; Espig, Kathryn; Kimpe, Tom; Xthona, Albert; Marchessoux, Cedric; Rostang, Johan; Piepers, Bastian

    2014-03-01

    Use of color images in medical imaging has increased significantly the last few years. Color information is essential for applications such as ophthalmology, dermatology and clinical photography. Use of color at least brings benefits for other applications such as endoscopy, laparoscopy and digital pathology. Remarkably, as of today, there is no agreed standard on how color information needs to be visualized for medical applications. This lack of standardization results in large variability of how color images are visualized and it makes quality assurance a challenge. For this reason FDA and ICC recently organized a joint summit on color in medical imaging (CMI). At this summit, one of the suggestions was that modalities such as digital pathology could benefit from using a perceptually uniform color space (T. Kimpe, "Color Behavior of Medical Displays," CMI presentation, May 2013). Perceptually uniform spaces have already been used for many years in the radiology community where the DICOM GSDF standard provides linearity in luminance but not in color behavior. In this paper we quantify perceptual uniformity, using CIE's ΔE2000 as a color distance metric, of several color spaces that are typically used for medical applications. We applied our method to theoretical color spaces Gamma 1.8, 2.0, & 2.2, standard sRGB, and DICOM (correction LUT for gray applied to all primaries). In addition, we also measured color spaces (i.e., native behavior) of a high-end medical display (Barco Coronis Fusion 6MP DL, MDCC-6130), and a consumer display (Dell 1907FP). Our results indicate that sRGB & the native color space on the Barco Coronis Fusion exhibit the least non-uniformity within their group. However, the remaining degree of perceptual non-uniformity is still significant and there is room for improvement.

  11. Transient gain analysis of gain-switched semiconductor lasers during pulse lasing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Ito, Takashi; Asahara, Akifumi; Nakamae, Hidekazu; Nakamura, Takahiro; Yoshita, Masahiro; Kim, Changsu; Zhang, Baoping; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Suemoto, Tohru; Akiyama, Hidefumi

    2015-12-10

    We analyzed the transient gain properties of three gain-switched semiconductor lasers with different materials and cavity structures during pulse lasing. All the semiconductor lasers were pumped with impulse optical pumping, and all the generated gain-switched output pulses were well described by exponential functions in their rise parts, wherein the transient gains were derived according to the rate-equation theoretical model. In spite of the different laser structures and materials, the results consistently demonstrated that a higher transient gain produces shorter output pulses, indicating the dominant role of higher transient gain in the generation of even shorter gain-switched pulses with semiconductor lasers.

  12. Uniformity of stratum-ventilated thermal environment and thermal sensation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y; Fong, M L; Yao, T; Lin, Z; Fong, K F

    2014-10-01

    Three human test series were conducted to evaluate the uniformity of the thermal environments in a stratum-ventilated chamber with dimensions of 8.8 m (L) × 5.1 m (W) × 2.4 m (H). In all, nineteen conditions were generated by adjusting the room temperature, supply airflow rate, and supply terminal type. An air diffuser performance index (ADPI) of at least 80% was achieved for most cases. This result shows that the air velocity and temperature in the occupied zone are reasonably uniform. Subjective assessments using the ASHRAE 7-point scale indicate that the thermal sensations of the subjects in stratum ventilation are also uniform. This study examines the applicability of the predicted mean vote (PMV) model for evaluating stratum ventilation. When compared to the actual mean thermal sensation votes (ATS), the PMV values are acceptable. The PMV results at a height of 1.1 m above the floor show better agreement with the ATS than at a height of 0.1 m.

  13. The parthenogenetic Marmorkrebs (marbled crayfish) produces genetically uniform offspring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Peer; Kohlmann, Klaus; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2007-10-01

    Genetically identical animals are very much in demand as laboratory objects because they allow conclusions about environmental and epigenetic effects on development, structures, and behavior. Furthermore, questions about the relative fitness of various genotypes can be addressed. However, genetically identical animals are relatively rare, in particular, organisms that combine a high reproduction rate and a complex organization. Based on its exclusively parthenogenetic reproduction mode, it has been suggested that the Marmorkrebs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Astacida), a recently discovered crayfish, is an excellent candidate for research addressing the aforementioned questions. However, until now, a study using molecular markers that clearly proves the genetic uniformity of the offspring has been lacking. Here, with this first molecular study, we show that this crayfish indeed produces genetically uniform clones. We tested this with 19 related individuals of various generations of a Marmorkrebs population by means of six different microsatellite markers. We found that all examined specimens were identical in their allelic composition. Furthermore, half of the analyzed loci were heterozygous. These results and the absence of meioses in previous histological studies of the ovaries lead us to conclude the Marmorkrebs propagates apomictically. Thus, a genetically uniform organism with complex morphology, development, and behavior is now available for various laboratory studies.

  14. Explaining Mathematics Achievement Gains in Botswana and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin; Arends, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test empirically whether and how classroom and school factors contribute to student mathematics learning gains in the border region of North West province, South Africa and Southeastern Botswana. Our results suggest that in both regions, improving teaching quality has an important impact on how much mathematics…

  15. Deformation of Brillouin gain spectrum shape caused by strain varying linearly with respect to time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naruse, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Ayako; Tateda, Mitsuhiro

    2015-09-01

    The shape of the Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS) that is produced in an optical fiber undergoing strain varying linearly with respect to time, which is a typical example of temporally non-uniform strain, is theoretically derived through an analysis similar to that by which the BGS under spatially non-uniform strain would be derived. The BGS shape that is theoretically derived agrees well with the shape experimentally observed. The characteristics of the BGS deformation and strain measurement error under the temporally linear strain are discussed based on their similarity to the BGS shape derived under spatially linear strain.

  16. Direct and Indirect Approaches to Increasing Conceptual Survey Gains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, Patrick B.; Pearl, Charles; Kuo, H. Vincent

    2010-10-01

    Conceptual surveys like the FCI and CSEM are common, and course reforms often have the goal of improving student gains on these surveys. There exist various approaches to improving said gains, and there is occasionally concern that such methods "teach to the test" excessively. To our knowledge, however, there has been little direct experimentation on whether teaching to the test, even intentionally, has the expected result. In this paper, we report on a simple two-semester experiment involving ˜900 students where we tried two different approaches to improving CSEM gains in an introductory E&M class. In the first trial, we gave students many of the questions from the CSEM as Peer Instruction-style clicker questions in lecture. In the second, we redeveloped parts of our Studio physics curriculum to target CSEM concepts without replicating CSEM questions. Comparing the CSEM gains in the experimental sections to the previous year's sections, we find that the first trial resulted in significant (˜0.20) shifts in normalized gains on the relevant questions, while the second trial resulted in minimal or no shifts.

  17. Microchannel plate modal gain variations with temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, David C.; Timothy, J. G.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the modal gain of two high-gain curved-channel microchannel plates (MCPs) at various operating temperatures are presented. Both MCPs were fabricated from the Long Life glass with 12-micron diam channels on 15-micron centers. The modal gain was found to decrease with increasing temperature at a rate of -0.1 percent C. This reduction of gain with temperature is attributed primarily to an axial temperature gradient along each MCP channel creating a nonuniform electric field within the channel that lowers the effective output gain. A lowering of the secondary electron yield resulting from increased phonon scattering of secondary electrons released within the walls of the MCP channels was assessed, but was found to have a negligible contribution to the drop in gain with temperature.

  18. Optical antenna gain. I - Transmitting antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, B. J.; Degnan, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The gain of centrally obscured optical transmitting antennas is analyzed in detail. The calculations, resulting in near- and far-field antenna gain patterns, assume a circular antenna illuminated by a laser operating in the TEM-00 mode. A simple polynomial equation is derived for matching the incident source distribution to a general antenna configuration for maximum on-axis gain. An interpretation of the resultant gain curves allows a number of auxiliary design curves to be drawn that display the losses in antenna gain due to pointing errors and the cone angle of the beam in the far field as a function of antenna aperture size and its central obscuration. The results are presented in a series of graphs that allow the rapid and accurate evaluation of the antenna gain which may then be substituted into the conventional range equation.

  19. Optical antenna gain. 1: transmitting antennas.

    PubMed

    Klein, B J; Degnan, J J

    1974-09-01

    The gain of centrally obscured optical transmitting antennas is analyzed in detail. The calculations, resulting in near- and far-field antenna gain patterns, assume a circular antenna illuminated by a laser operating in the TEM(00) mode. A simple polynomial equation is derived for matching the incident source distribution to a general antenna configuration for maximum on-axis gain. An interpretation of the resultant gain curves allows a number of auxiliary design curves to be drawn that display the losses in antenna gain due to pointing errors and the cone angle of the beam in the far field as a function of antenna aperture size and its central obscuration. The results are presented in a series of graphs that allow the rapid and accurate evaluation of the antenna gain which may then be substituted into the conventional range equation.

  20. Utilization of photoconductive gain in a-Si:H devices for radiation detection

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.K.; Drewery, J.S.; Hong, W.S.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1995-05-01

    The photoconductive gain mechanism in a-Si:H was investigated in connection with applications to radiation detection. Various device types such as p-i-n, n-i-n and n-i-p-i-n structures were fabricated and tested. Photoconductive gain was measured in two time scales: one for short pulses of visible light (<1 {mu}sec) which simulates the transit of an energetic charged particle, and the other for rather long pulses of light (1 msec) which simulates x-ray exposure in medical imaging. We used two definitions of photoconductive gain: current gain and charge gain which is an integration of the current gain. We found typical charge gains of 3 {approximately} 9 for short pulses and a few hundred for long pulses at a dark current level of 10 mA/cm{sup 2}. Various gain results are discussed in terms of the device structure, applied bias and dark current.

  1. Gestational weight gain trajectories in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Piccinini-Vallis, Helena; Lee-Baggley, Dayna; Stewart, Moira; Ryan, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify gestational weight gain trajectories, stratified by prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), of women with singleton pregnancies who received prenatal care in a primary care setting, and to compare these trajectories with the 2009 Institute of Medicine gestational weight gain recommendations. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Halifax, NS. Participants Women who received prenatal care at the Dalhousie Family Medicine clinics in Halifax from 2009 to 2013. Main outcome measures For each prenatal visit, gestational age and weight measurements were obtained. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the gestational weight gain trajectories. The upper limit of the guideline-recommended weekly gestational weight gain was compared with the 95% CI of the observed mean weekly gestational weight gain for each prepregnancy BMI category. Results A total of 280 women were included in the analyses. There was a significant interaction between prepregnancy BMI category and gestational weight gain over time (P < .001), with gestational weight gain being significantly lower among women with prepregnancy BMI of 30.0 kg/m2 or greater compared with those with BMI of 18.5 to less than 25.0 kg/m2 and 25.0 to less than 30.0 kg/m2. When comparing women’s weight gain with the recommendations, women with prepregnancy BMI of 25.0 to less than 30.0 kg/m2 had the most guideline discordance, deviating from the weight gain recommendations at 20 weeks’ gestation. Conclusion These results are relevant and of benefit to women and clinicians wishing to address excess gestational weight gain, and to researchers and policy makers developing interventions aimed at curbing gestational weight gain in primary care. Although our results showed women with prepregnancy BMI of 25.0 to less than 30.0 kg/m2 gained the most excess, guideline-discordant weight, interventions should target all women planning or experiencing a pregnancy.

  2. Unstable resonators with a distributed focusing gain.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, T R

    1994-08-20

    The geometrical optics approximation is used to form a model of axisymmetric unstable resonators having distributed focus, gain, and loss. A tapered reflectivity feedback mirror is included. The rate equations for propagation through the focusing gain medium are derived. A unique grid is found for propagation without interpolation along eigenrays in each direction. Numerical examples show the effects of distributed gain and focus on the axial and transverse intensity distributions.

  3. A Simplified Model for Detonation Based Pressure-Gain Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    A time-dependent model is presented which simulates the essential physics of a detonative or otherwise constant volume, pressure-gain combustor for gas turbine applications. The model utilizes simple, global thermodynamic relations to determine an assumed instantaneous and uniform post-combustion state in one of many envisioned tubes comprising the device. A simple, second order, non-upwinding computational fluid dynamic algorithm is then used to compute the (continuous) flowfield properties during the blowdown and refill stages of the periodic cycle which each tube undergoes. The exhausted flow is averaged to provide mixed total pressure and enthalpy which may be used as a cycle performance metric for benefits analysis. The simplicity of the model allows for nearly instantaneous results when implemented on a personal computer. The results compare favorably with higher resolution numerical codes which are more difficult to configure, and more time consuming to operate.

  4. Evaluating the uniformity of color spaces and performance of color difference formulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Yusheng; Liao, Ningfang; Wang, Jiajia; Tan, Boneng; Liu, Zilong

    2010-11-01

    Using small color difference data sets (Macadam ellipses dataset and RIT-DuPont suprathreshold color difference ellipses dataset), and large color difference data sets (Munsell Renovation Data and OSA Uniform Color Scales dataset), the uniformity of several color spaces and performance of color difference formulae based on these color spaces are evaluated. The color spaces used are CIELAB, DIN99d, IPT, and CIECAM02-UCS. It is found that the uniformity of lightness is better than saturation and hue. Overall, for all these color spaces, the uniformity in the blue area is inferior to the other area. The uniformity of CIECAM02-UCS is superior to the other color spaces for the whole color-difference range from small to large. The uniformity of CIELAB and IPT for the large color difference data sets is better than it for the small color difference data sets, but the DIN99d is opposite. Two common performance factors (PF/3 and STRESS) and the statistical F-test are calculated to test the performance of color difference formula. The results show that the performance of color difference formulae based on these four color spaces is consistent with the uniformity of these color spaces.

  5. Measurement of Antenna Bore-Sight Gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortinberry, Jarrod; Shumpert, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The absolute or free-field gain of a simple antenna can be approximated using standard antenna theory formulae or for a more accurate prediction, numerical methods may be employed to solve for antenna parameters including gain. Both of these methods will result in relatively reasonable estimates but in practice antenna gain is usually verified and documented via measurements and calibration. In this paper, a relatively simple and low-cost, yet effective means of determining the bore-sight free-field gain of a VHF/UHF antenna is proposed by using the Brewster angle relationship.

  6. Controlled fundamental supermode operation of phase-locked arrays of gain-guided diode lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapon, E.; Margalit, S.; Yariv, A.; Katz, J.

    1984-01-01

    Uniform semiconductor laser arrays tend to oscillate in a superposition of their supermodes, thus leading to large beam divergence and spectral spread. Discrimination among the supermodes in phase-locked arrays is discussed theoretically. It is shown that supermode discrimination in gain-guided arrays, in favor of the fundamental supermode, is made possible by the near-field interference patterns which result from the complex optical fields of the gain-guided lasers. A fundamental supermode operation is demonstrated, for the first time, in GaAlAs/GaAs gain-guided laser arrays. This is achieved by control of the current (gain) profile across the array by means of individual laser contacts.

  7. Antenna gain measurements in the intermediate-field zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchidin, Liliana; Bari, Farida; Dumitrascu, Ana; Paun, Mirel; Deacu, Daniela; Tasu, Sorin; Danisor, Alin; Tamas, Razvan D.

    2016-12-01

    Antenna gain is usually evaluated under far-field conditions. Furthermore, Friis transmission formula can solely be applied when antenna size can be neglected with respect to the distance between the measuring antenna and the antenna under test. In this paper, we show that by applying the distance averaging technique the far-field and antenna size constraints can be overcome. Our method was validated by measuring a monopole antenna and a Vivaldi antenna in an open area test site (OATS).

  8. Analysis of Non-Uniform Gain for Control of a Deformable Mirror in an Adaptive-Optics System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    steering mirror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 LGS laser guidestar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 SR Strehl...system is performing in its entirety, they are easily accessible metrics and are commonly used. 2.2.2.2 Strehl Ratio. The Strehl ratio ( SR ) is a measure...poorer resolution. The SR is given by SR = psf(xi = 0) psfdl(xi = 0) , (2.11) where xi is the spatial vector in the image plane. The SR can also be

  9. 7 CFR 1006.61 - Computation of uniform prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., the market administrator shall compute a uniform butterfat price, a uniform skim milk price, and a... section. (b) Uniform skim milk price. The uniform skim milk price per hundredweight, rounded to the... included in these computations: (i) The total skim pounds of producer milk; and (ii) The total skim...

  10. 7 CFR 1007.61 - Computation of uniform prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., the market administrator shall compute a uniform butterfat price, a uniform skim milk price, and a... section. (b) Uniform skim milk price. The uniform skim milk price per hundredweight, rounded to the... included in these computations: (i) The total skim pounds of producer milk; and (ii) The total skim...

  11. 7 CFR 1007.61 - Computation of uniform prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., the market administrator shall compute a uniform butterfat price, a uniform skim milk price, and a... section. (b) Uniform skim milk price. The uniform skim milk price per hundredweight, rounded to the... included in these computations: (i) The total skim pounds of producer milk; and (ii) The total skim...

  12. 7 CFR 1131.61 - Computation of uniform prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., the market administrator shall compute a uniform butterfat price, a uniform skim milk price, and a... section. (b) Uniform skim milk price. The uniform skim milk price per hundredweight, rounded to the... included in these computations: (i) The total skim pounds of producer milk; and (ii) The total skim...

  13. 7 CFR 1005.61 - Computation of uniform prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... month, the market administrator shall compute a uniform butterfat price, a uniform skim milk price, and...) and (a)(2) of this section. (b) Uniform skim milk price. The uniform skim milk price per hundredweight... included in these computations: (i) The total skim pounds of producer milk; and (ii) The total skim...

  14. 7 CFR 1006.61 - Computation of uniform prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., the market administrator shall compute a uniform butterfat price, a uniform skim milk price, and a... section. (b) Uniform skim milk price. The uniform skim milk price per hundredweight, rounded to the... included in these computations: (i) The total skim pounds of producer milk; and (ii) The total skim...

  15. 7 CFR 1005.61 - Computation of uniform prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... month, the market administrator shall compute a uniform butterfat price, a uniform skim milk price, and...) and (a)(2) of this section. (b) Uniform skim milk price. The uniform skim milk price per hundredweight... included in these computations: (i) The total skim pounds of producer milk; and (ii) The total skim...

  16. 7 CFR 1131.61 - Computation of uniform prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., the market administrator shall compute a uniform butterfat price, a uniform skim milk price, and a... section. (b) Uniform skim milk price. The uniform skim milk price per hundredweight, rounded to the... included in these computations: (i) The total skim pounds of producer milk; and (ii) The total skim...

  17. Caustic Singularities Of High-Gain, Dual-Shaped Reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galindo, Victor; Veruttipong, Thavath W.; Imbriale, William A.; Rengarajan, Sambiam

    1991-01-01

    Report presents study of some sources of error in analysis, by geometric theory of diffraction (GTD), of performance of high-gain, dual-shaped antenna reflector. Study probes into underlying analytic causes of singularity, with view toward devising and testing practical methods to avoid problems caused by singularity. Hybrid physical optics (PO) approach used to study near-field spillover or noise-temperature characteristics of high-gain relector antenna efficiently and accurately. Report illustrates this approach and underlying principles by presenting numerical results, for both offset and symmetrical reflector systems, computed by GTD, PO, and PO/GO methods.

  18. Indirect flat-panel detector with avalanche gain: design and operation of the avalanche photoconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei; Li, Dan; Reznik, Alla; Lui, Brian; Hunt, D. C.; Tanioka, Kenkichi; Rowlands, J. A.

    2005-04-01

    An indirect flat-panel imager (FPI) with avalanche gain is being investigated for low-dose x-ray imaging. It is made by optically coupling a structured x-ray scintillator CsI(Tl) to an amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche photoconductor called HARP. The final electronic image can be read out using either an array of thin film transistors (TFT) or field emitters (FE). The advantage of the proposed detector is its programmable gain, which can be turned on during low dose fluoroscopy to overcome electronic noise, and turned off during high dose radiography to avoid pixel saturation. This paper investigates the important design considerations for HARP such as avalanche gain, which depends on both the thickness dSe and the applied electric field ESe. To determine the optimal design parameter and operational conditions for HARP, we measured the ESe dependence of both avalanche gain and optical quantum efficiency of an 8 μm HARP layer. The results were applied to a physical model of HARP as well as a linear cascaded model of the FPI to determine the following x-ray imaging properties in both the avalanche and non-avalanche modes as a function of ESe: (1) total gain (which is the product of avalanche gain and optical quantum efficiency); (2) linearity; (3) dynamic range; and (4) gain non-uniformity resulting from thickness non-uniformity. Our results showed that a HARP layer thickness of 8 μm can provide adequate avalanche gain and sufficient dynamic range for x-ray imaging applications to permit quantum limited operation over the range of exposures needed for radiography and fluoroscopy.

  19. Ising antiferromagnet on the 2-uniform lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Unjong

    2016-08-01

    The antiferromagnetic Ising model is investigated on the twenty 2-uniform lattices using the Monte Carlo method based on the Wang-Landau algorithm and the Metropolis algorithm to study the geometric frustration effect systematically. Based on the specific heat, the residual entropy, and the Edwards-Anderson freezing order parameter, the ground states of them were determined. In addition to the long-range-ordered phase and the spin ice phase found in the Archimedean lattices, two more phases were found. The partial long-range order is long-range order with exceptional disordered sites, which give extensive residual entropy. In the partial spin ice phase, the partial freezing phenomenon appears: A majority of sites are frozen without long-range order, but the other sites are fluctuating even at zero temperature. The spin liquid ground state was not found in the 2-uniform lattices.

  20. The Freeform Reflector for Uniform Rectangular Illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yi; Gu, Pei-Fu; Zheng, Zhen-Rong

    2007-12-01

    Energy from the source was rearranged through reflection by a freeform reflector, in order to get uniform rectangular illumination. The numerical results of partial differential equation sets were investigated to obtain the freeform reflector and these equations were obtained upon the determination of the characters of source and the desired illumination. As an example, a light emitting diode (LED) with a Lambertian light-emitting surface of 1 × 1 mm2 and a viewing angle of 120° was applied as the source, and the target plane was a 4:3 rectangle with uniform illumination. The projective length of the reflector on x-axis is about 23 mm, and on y-axis is about 21 mm. Thus the illumination system is very compact.

  1. Application of Uniform Measurement Error Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-18

    should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of...Uniform Measurement Error Distribution 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ghazarians, Alan; Jackson, Dennis...PFA), Probability of False Reject (PFR). 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 15 19a. NAME

  2. Superdense Coding with Uniformly Accelerated Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahmand, Mehrnoosh; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein; Mehri-Dehnavi, Hossein; Rahimi, Robabeh

    2017-03-01

    We study superdense coding with uniformly accelerated particle in single mode approximation and beyond single mode approximation. We use four different functions, the capacity of superdense coding, negativity, discord and the probability of success for evaluating the final results. In single mode approximation, all the four functions behave as expected, however in beyond single mode approximation, except the probability of success, the other three functions represent peculiar behaviors at least for special ranges where the beyond single mode approximation is strong.

  3. Teleportation with a uniformly accelerated partner.

    PubMed

    Alsing, Paul M; Milburn, G J

    2003-10-31

    In this work, we give a description of the process of teleportation between Alice in an inertial frame, and Rob who is in uniform acceleration with respect to Alice. The fidelity of the teleportation is reduced due to Davies-Unruh radiation in Rob's frame. In so far as teleportation is a measure of entanglement, our results suggest that quantum entanglement is degraded in noninertial frames.

  4. Parameters, uniformity and trends in plasma carburizing

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, S.; Hoffmann, F.T.; Mayr, P.

    1995-12-31

    Since the first hardness plot of a plasma carburized sample was presented in 1972, a lot of investigations have been published on the field of plasma carburizing. A short review of these results will be presented. Then some considerations concerning the reduction of process time and nitrogen as carrier gas will be described. Investigations with different samples make evident that plasma or gas carburizing can result in a better case uniformity, depending on the shape of the sample.

  5. Physical optics in a uniform gravitational field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacyan, Shahen

    2012-01-01

    The motion of a (quasi-)plane wave in a uniform gravitational field is studied. It is shown that the energy of an elliptically polarized wave does not propagate along a geodesic, but in a direction that is rotated with respect to the gravitational force. The similarity with the walk-off effect in anisotropic crystals or the optical Magnus effect in inhomogeneous media is pointed out.

  6. Processing of materials for uniform field emission

    DOEpatents

    Pam, L.S.; Felter, T.E.; Talin, A.; Ohlberg, D.; Fox, C.; Han, S.

    1999-01-12

    This method produces a field emitter material having a uniform electron emitting surface and a low turn-on voltage. Field emitter materials having uniform electron emitting surfaces as large as 1 square meter and turn-on voltages as low as 16V/{micro}m can be produced from films of electron emitting materials such as polycrystalline diamond, diamond-like carbon, graphite and amorphous carbon by the method of the present invention. The process involves conditioning the surface of a field emitter material by applying an electric field to the surface, preferably by scanning the surface of the field emitter material with an electrode maintained at a fixed distance of at least 3 {micro}m above the surface of the field emitter material and at a voltage of at least 500V. In order to enhance the uniformity of electron emission the step of conditioning can be preceded by ion implanting carbon, nitrogen, argon, oxygen or hydrogen into the surface layers of the field emitter material. 2 figs.

  7. Uniform biodegradable microparticle systems for controlled release

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yujie; Pack, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Drug delivery methods can impact efficacy as much as the nature of the drug itself. Microparticles made of biodegradable polymers such as poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) have been studied extensively for controlled release of diverse drugs. By using a modified solvent extraction/evaporation method called precision particle fabrication (PPF), uniform microparticles such as single-wall microspheres, double-wall microspheres and liquid-core microcapsules have been fabricated with precise control of their geometric structures. By producing particles of uniform size, which has crucial impact on drug release behaviors, PPF-fabricated microparticles provide unique insights about drug release mechanism. Using small-molecule and macromolecule model drugs, our group demonstrated that physicochemical properties of the polymers and drugs and structural properties of the matrix can greatly impact drug distribution within microparticles, particle erosion and drug release rates. By careful selection of particle size and shell thickness, uniform microparticles can achieve “zero-order”, pulsatile or tandem release of drugs. PMID:12106984

  8. Processing of materials for uniform field emission

    DOEpatents

    Pam, Lawrence S.; Felter, Thomas E.; Talin, Alec; Ohlberg, Douglas; Fox, Ciaran; Han, Sung

    1999-01-01

    This method produces a field emitter material having a uniform electron emitting surface and a low turn-on voltage. Field emitter materials having uniform electron emitting surfaces as large as 1 square meter and turn-on voltages as low as 16V/.mu.m can be produced from films of electron emitting materials such as polycrystalline diamond, diamond-like carbon, graphite and amorphous carbon by the method of the present invention. The process involves conditioning the surface of a field emitter material by applying an electric field to the surface, preferably by scanning the surface of the field emitter material with an electrode maintained at a fixed distance of at least 3 .mu.m above the surface of the field emitter material and at a voltage of at least 500V. In order to enhance the uniformity of electron emission the step of conditioning can be preceeded by ion implanting carbon, nitrogen, argon, oxygen or hydrogen into the surface layers of the field emitter material.

  9. Non-uniform space charge controlled KTN beam deflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Ju-Hung; Zhu, Wenbin; Chen, Chang-Jiang; Yin, Stuart; Hoffman, Robert C.

    2016-09-01

    A non-uniform space charge-controlled KTN beam deflector is presented and analyzed. We found that a non-uniform space charge can result in a non-uniform beam deflection angles. This effect can be useful for some applications such as electric field controlled beam separation. However, a non-uniform space charge needs to be avoided if one wants uniform beam deflection throughout the entire crystal.

  10. Gain Shift Corrections at Chi-Nu

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Tristan Brooks; Devlin, Matthew James

    2016-08-30

    Ambient conditions have the potential to cause changes in liquid scintillator detector gain that vary with time and temperature. These gain shifts can lead to poor resolution in both energy as well as pulse shape discrimination. In order to correct for these shifts in the Chi-Nu high energy array, a laser system has been developed for calibration of the pulse height signals.

  11. 75 FR 43615 - Program Integrity: Gainful Employment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... Education 34 CFR Part 668 Program Integrity: Gainful Employment; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... RIN 1840-AD04 Program Integrity: Gainful Employment AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education... against the education and training (and increased employment income) that higher education can provide....

  12. Physical and psychological consequences of weight gain.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, I

    1999-01-01

    Obesity and overweight are clearly associated with many serious conditions, including type II diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. Excess weight also increases the risk of death. Recent evidence suggests that weight gain itself, even if persons remain within the "normal" weight range, also increases the risk of medical illnesses and premature death. Persons who gain 5.0 to 7.9 kg (11 to 17.3 lb) as adults are 1.9 times more likely to develop type II diabetes mellitus and 1.25 times more likely to develop coronary heart disease than those who lose weight or maintain a stable weight after age 18 years. Gaining 11 to 20 kg (24.2 to 44 lb) or more in adulthood increases the risk of ischemic stroke 1.69 to 2.52 times. The relationship between weight gain and breast cancer has been difficult to study, primarily because postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy can mask the effect of weight gain on cancer risk. Accordingly, weight gain in adulthood has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer only among women who have never used hormone replacement therapy. In addition to its adverse effects on disease outcomes, weight gain also impairs physical functioning, reduces quality of life, and is associated with poor mental health. These psychological and mental health consequences of weight gain can become an added burden for patients with schizophrenia and other mental disorders.

  13. Complying with physician gain-sharing restrictions.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, P K

    1998-05-01

    Many IDSs are considering implementing gain-sharing programs as a way to motivate their physicians to provide high-quality, cost-effective services. Before embarking on such programs, however, IDSs need to understand the legal requirements associated with such programs to ensure that the gain-sharing arrangement is in compliance with Federal law.

  14. GaInNAs laser gain

    SciTech Connect

    CHOW,WENG W.; JONES,ERIC D.; MODINE,NORMAND A.; KURTZ,STEVEN R.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.

    2000-05-23

    The optical gain spectra for GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells are computed using a microscopic laser theory. From these spectra, the peak gain and carrier radiative decay rate as functions of carrier density are determined. These dependences allow the study of the lasing threshold current density of GaInNAs/GaAs quantum well structures.

  15. Characteristics of current filamentation in high gain photoconductive semiconductor switching

    SciTech Connect

    Zutavern, F J; Loubriel, G M; O'Malley, M W; Helgeson, W D; McLaughlin, D L; Denison, G J

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of current filamentation are reported for high gain photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS). Infrared photoluminescence is used to monitor carrier recombination radiation during fast initiation of high gain switching in large (1.5 cm gap) lateral GaAs PCSS. Spatial modulation of the optical trigger, a 200--300 ps pulse width laser, is examined. Effects on the location and number of current filaments, rise time, and delay to high gain switching, minimum trigger energy, and degradation of switch contacts are presented. Implications of these measurements for the theoretical understanding and practical development of these switches are discussed. Efforts to increase current density and reduce switch size and optical trigger energy requirements are described. Results from contact development and device lifetime testing are presented and the impact of these results on practical device applications is discussed.

  16. Information Gain Based Dimensionality Selection for Classifying Text Documents

    SciTech Connect

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2013-06-01

    Selecting the optimal dimensions for various knowledge extraction applications is an essential component of data mining. Dimensionality selection techniques are utilized in classification applications to increase the classification accuracy and reduce the computational complexity. In text classification, where the dimensionality of the dataset is extremely high, dimensionality selection is even more important. This paper presents a novel, genetic algorithm based methodology, for dimensionality selection in text mining applications that utilizes information gain. The presented methodology uses information gain of each dimension to change the mutation probability of chromosomes dynamically. Since the information gain is calculated a priori, the computational complexity is not affected. The presented method was tested on a specific text classification problem and compared with conventional genetic algorithm based dimensionality selection. The results show an improvement of 3% in the true positives and 1.6% in the true negatives over conventional dimensionality selection methods.

  17. Measuring Student Gains in Understanding the Process of Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rector, Travis A.; Krok, M.; Young, M.

    2011-05-01

    We have developed a "Research-Based Science Education" (RBSE) curriculum in which undergraduate non-science majors participate in authentic astrophysical research in the "astro 101" setting. The primary goal of the RBSE curriculum is to develop a student's understanding of the nature of scientific research; i.e. that science is not just a body of knowledge but a process by which knowledge is gained. The RBSE curriculum is now being tested at seven partner institutions. To measure student gains in understanding the process of scientific research we use a modified concept mapping methodology. We will present the methodology, identified student misconceptions about the process of science, and initial results on measured student gains. This work is supported through NSF DUE-CCLI grant 0920293.

  18. Sudden Gains During Therapy of Social Phobia

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Schulz, Stefan M.; Meuret, Alicia E.; Moscovitch, David A.; Suvak, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the phenomenon of sudden gains in 107 participants with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) who received either cognitive–behavioral group therapy or exposure group therapy without explicit cognitive interventions, which primarily used public speaking situations as exposure tasks. Twenty-two out of 967 session-to-session intervals met criteria for sudden gains, which most frequently occurred in Session 5. Individuals with sudden gains showed similar improvements in the 2 treatment groups. Although cognitive–behavioral therapy was associated with more cognitive changes than exposure therapy, cognitive changes did not precede sudden gains. In general, the results of this study question the clinical significance of sudden gains in social phobia treatment. PMID:16881776

  19. Cathode driven high gain crossed-field amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-07-01

    The objective of this three-phase program is to achieve the design of a cathode driven high gain re-entrant Crossed Field Amplifier capable of meeting the parameters of Raytheon Company specification No. 968838 dated 10 May 1978. The effort includes the fabrication and test of three developmental and four final configuration tubes. One final configuration tube will be life tested and two will be delivered to the Navy. The tasks discussed during this report period relate to the cold tests performed on various subassemblies of model no. 4 and on the sealed-in model no. 4 of the S-band high gain cathode driven crossed field amplifier. Based on the performance of model no. 3 certain remedial measures have been implemented in model no. 4 that have resulted in the elimination of key resonances within the tube and an improvement in the isolation between the cathode and anode circuits.

  20. Performance and Uniformity of Mass-Produced SIS Mixers for ALMA Band 8 Receiver Cartridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomura, Tomonuri; Noguchi, Takashi; Sekimoto, Yutaro; Shan, Wenlei; Sato, Naohisa; Iizuka, Yoshizo; Kumagai, Kazuyoshi; Niizeki, Yasuaki; Iwakuni, Mikio; Ito, Tetsuya

    2015-05-01

    The Atacama large millimeter/submillimeter array (ALMA), which was jointly built in Chile by Europe, North America and East Asia, has an observational band from 30 to 950 GHz [1], [2]. We developed receiver cartridges for ALMA Band 8 (385-500 GHz) [3]-[5] which is one of ALMA 10 frequency bands. The Band 8 receiver cartridges were produced as 73 cartridges, and 292 SIS mixers were installed in their cartridges. Also, their all cartridges were required to meet following ALMA specifications: 1. The noise temperature is less than 196 K over 80% of the frequency range and less than 292 K at any frequency from 385 to 500 GHz. 2. The image rejection ratio is larger than 10 dB over 90% of the frequency range. 3. The IF output power variation is less than 7.0 dB peak-to-peak in the 4-8 GHz band. 4. The gain compression to RF load temperatures between 77 and 373 K is less than 5%. 5. The Allan variance of the IF output power is less than 4.0×10-7 in the time scale of 0.05 s≤T≤100 s and 3.0×10-6 at 300 s. To meet these specifications, the performance and uniformity of the SIS mixers are crucial. The SIS mixers with Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junctions were fabricated in a clean room of National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and over 1000 mixer chips were mass-produced. After screening these mixers, 73 Band 8 receivers were assembled and tested. We report the test results of the mass-produced mixers and the receiver cartridges in detail from a statistical point of view.

  1. Studies on pressure-gain combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsutomi, Yu

    Various aspects of the pressure-gain combustion engine are investigated analytically and experimentally in the current study. A lumped parameter model is developed to characterize the operation of a valveless pulse detonation engine. The model identified the function of flame quenching process through gas dynamic process. By adjusting fuel manifold pressure and geometries, the duration of the air buffer can be effectively varied. The parametric study with the lumped parameter model has shown that engine frequency of up to approximately 15 Hz is attainable. However, requirements for upstream air pressure increases significantly with higher engine frequency. The higher pressure requirement indicates pressure loss in the system and lower overall engine performance. The loss of performance due to the pressure loss is a critical issue for the integrated pressure-gain combustors. Two types of transitional methods are examined using entropy-based models. An accumulator based transition has obvious loss due to sudden area expansion, but it can be minimized by utilizing the gas dynamics in the combustion tube. An ejector type transition has potential to achieve performance beyond the limit specified by a single flow path Humphrey cycle. The performance of an ejector was discussed in terms of apparent entropy and mixed flow entropy. Through an ideal ejector, the apparent part of entropy increases due to the reduction in flow unsteadiness, but entropy of the mixed flow remains constant. The method is applied to a CFD simulation with a simple manifold for qualitative evaluation. The operation of the wave rotor constant volume combustion rig is experimentally examined. The rig has shown versatility of operation for wide range of conditions. Large pressure rise in the rotor channel and in a section of the exhaust duct are observed even with relatively large leakage gaps on the rotor. The simplified analysis indicated that inconsistent combustion is likely due to insufficient

  2. Effects of fire fighting uniform (modern, modified modern, and traditional) design changes on exercise duration in New York City Firefighters.

    PubMed

    Malley, K S; Goldstein, A M; Aldrich, T K; Kelly, K J; Weiden, M; Coplan, N; Karwa, M L; Prezant, D J

    1999-12-01

    Fire departments have replaced traditional uniforms with modern, more thermal protective gear. Although the new uniforms afford superior burn protection, they may reduce work time. Our purpose was to determine if exercise time was (1) reduced by wearing the modern versus traditional uniform, and (2) increased by a design change to a modified modern uniform (T-shirt and short pants rather than a shirt and long pants under the outer uniform). Male firefighters (n = 23; age 27 to 59) performed a maximum exercise test in gym clothes (maximal oxygen consumption = 46 +/- 9 ml/kg/min) and then returned on separate days to exercise using a moderately high intensity, constant work rate treadmill protocol while wearing fire fighting breathing apparatus and each of three uniforms. Firefighters exceeded anaerobic threshold by 1 minute and eventually reached or exceeded maximum heart rate and maximal oxygen consumption. Exercise time in modern (15 +/- 3 min) was significantly less than in traditional (18 +/- 5 min) uniform. Exercise time in modified modern (17 +/- 5 min) was significantly greater than in modern and not significantly different than in traditional uniforms. The rate of change in oxygen consumption and water loss were significantly affected by uniform type, with faster rates in modern compared with modified modern or traditional uniforms. These findings show the impact that design changes have on energy demands and exercise duration.

  3. TCAD simulation of Low Gain Avalanche Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalal, Ranjeet; Jain, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Ranjan, Kirti

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, detailed simulation using Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) tool, Silvaco for non-irradiated and irradiated LGAD (Low Gain Avalanche Detector) devices has been carried out. The effects of different design parameters and proton irradiation on LGAD operation are discussed in detail. An already published effective two trap bulk damage model is used to simulate the radiation damage without implementing any acceptor removal term. The TCAD simulation for irradiated LGAD devices produce decreasing gain with increasing fluence, similar to the measurement results. The space charge density and electric field distribution are used to illustrate the possible reasons for the degradation of gain of the irradiated LGAD devices.

  4. Nonunity gain minimal-disturbance measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Sabuncu, Metin; Andersen, Ulrik L.; Mista, Ladislav Jr.; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Filip, Radim; Leuchs, Gerd

    2007-09-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optimal nonunity gain Gaussian scheme for partial measurement of an unknown coherent state that causes minimal disturbance of the state. The information gain and the state disturbance are quantified by the noise added to the measurement outcomes and to the output state, respectively. We derive the optimal trade-off relation between the two noises and we show that the tradeoff is saturated by nonunity gain teleportation. Optimal partial measurement is demonstrated experimentally using a linear optics scheme with feedforward.

  5. Frequency Dependence of APATS Antenna Gain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    ESD-TR-82-120 HTR-8354 3FREQUENCY DEPENDENCE OF APATS ANTENNA GAIN 0 By G. A. ROBERTSHAW MARCH 1982 Prepared for DEPUTY FOR SURVEILLANCE AND CONTROL...FREQUENCY DEPENDENCE OF APATS ANTENNA GAIN 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER MTR-8354 7. AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) G. A. ROBERTSHAW F19628-81-C...employed, each channel will lose 1.76 dB of gain. * E.g., if "a" is aperture length in array azimuth plane, frequency dependence begins for 0 > srFl

  6. AN AUTOMATED SYSTEM FOR PRODUCING UNIFORM SURFACE DEPOSITS OF DRY PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory system has been constructed that uniformly deposits dry particles onto any type of test surface. Devised as a quality assurance tool for the purpose of evaluating surface sampling methods for lead, it also may be used to generate test surfaces for any contaminant ...

  7. Image Correlation Microscopy for Uniform Illumination

    PubMed Central

    Gaborski, Thomas R.; Sealander, Michael N.; Ehrenberg, Morton; Waugh, Richard E.; McGrath, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Image cross-correlation microscopy (ICM) is a technique that quantifies the motion of fluorescent features in an image by measuring the temporal autocorrelation function decay in a time-lapse image sequence. ICM has traditionally employed laser-scanning microscopes because the technique emerged as an extension of laser-based fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). In this work, we show that image correlation can also be used to measure fluorescence dynamics in uniform illumination or wide-field imaging systems and we call our new approach uniform illumination image correlation microscopy (UI-ICM). Wide-field microscopy is not only a simpler, less expensive imaging modality, but it offers the capability of greater temporal resolution over laser-scanning systems. In traditional laser-scanning ICM, lateral mobility is calculated from the temporal de-correlation of an image, where the characteristic length is the illuminating laser beam width. In wide-field microscopy, the diffusion length is defined by the feature size using the spatial autocorrelation function (SACF). Correlation function decay in time occurs as an object diffuses from its original position. We show that theoretical and simulated comparisons between Gaussian and uniform features indicate the temporal autocorrelation function (TACF) depends strongly on particle size and not particle shape. In this report, we establish the relationships between the SACF feature size, TACF characteristic time and the diffusion coefficient for UI-ICM using analytical, Monte-Carlo and experimental validation with particle tracking algorithms. Additionally, we demonstrate UI-ICM analysis of adhesion molecule domain aggregation and diffusion on the surface of human neutrophils. PMID:20055917

  8. Uniform communications software using TCP/IP

    SciTech Connect

    Bernett, M.; Oleynik, G.

    1989-05-01

    Data acquisition applications at Fermilab require a reliable, distributed communication system for downloading, diagnostics, control, and data distribution. TCP/IP over Ethernet was chosen because of its uniform user interface and commercial availability for a number of processors and operating systems. This paper describes our software and hardware support for TCP/IP on VAX/VMS, VME/pSOS, FASTBUS/pSOS, and Unix systems. It includes plans to provide a portable, hardware independent implementation of TCP/IP based on Berkeley BSD software. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Conformal coordinates associated with uniformly accelerated motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    Specific problems in the theory of relativity are often simplified by an appropriate choice of the coordinate system. Restricted conformal coordinates provide an especially simple analysis of motion with uniform acceleration, known as hyperbolic motion. Conformal coordinates x', t' may be obtained from Cartesian coordinates x, t by the transformation x'+ct'=F(x+ct) and x'-ct'=G(x-ct), where c is the velocity of light. A variable motion of the x' system is determined by the choice of the functions F and G.

  10. Uniformity requirements in CMS hadron calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1996-02-01

    Practical considerations of calorimeter systems require a specification of the allowed manufacturing tolerances. The tightness of these requirements directly makes an impact on the assembly costs of the calorimeter. For that reason, a precise and well defined set of criteria is mandatory. In addition, the intrinsic limitations of hadron calorimetry define the level of accuracy needed in the manufacture of such devices. Therefore, considerations of the limitations on energy measurement accuracy due to Physics should define the needed level of effort to produce a uniform calorimetric device.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of silver doped fabrics for the production of hospital uniforms.

    PubMed

    Condò, Carla; Messi, Patrizia; Anacarso, Immacolata; Sabia, Carla; Iseppi, Ramona; Bondi, Moreno; de Niederhausern, Simona

    2015-10-01

    Among several alternatives to control hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), a strategy could be the use of hospital uniforms imbued with antimicrobial substances. For this purpose we evaluated the antibacterial activity of two different silver doped fabrics employed for the production of hospital uniforms. The study was conducted in two-step. In the first the antimicrobial activity was evaluated in vitro against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. In the second, we tested the total viable counts detected from beginning to end of the work shift on experimental silver doped uniforms worn by doctors, nurses, allied health assistants in different hospital wards. The in vitro tests showed a remarkable antibacterial activity of both silver doped samples (>99.9% reduction within 4h of exposure for Gram-positive and within 24 h for Gram-negative bacteria). The experimental uniforms provided results only slightly in agreement with in vitro data. Even if the increase of total viable counts was somewhat lower for experimental uniforms than traditional ones, significant differences were not observed. Despite the results on the uniforms worn, the addition of silver in fabrics to make medical equipment (supplies) remains an interesting option for HAI control.

  12. Optical properties of nanowire metamaterials with gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Joaquim; Adam, Jost; Rego, Davi; Esquerre, Vitaly; Bordo, Vladimir

    2016-11-01

    The transmittance, reflectance and absorption of a nanowire metamaterial with optical gain are numerically simulated and investigated. It is assumed that the metamaterial is represented by aligned silver nanowires embedded into a semiconductor matrix, made of either silicon or gallium phosphide. The gain in the matrix is modeled by adding a negative imaginary part to the dielectric function of the semiconductor. It is found that the optical coefficients of the metamaterial depend on the gain magnitude in a non-trivial way: they can both increase and decrease with gain depending on the lattice constant of the metamaterial. This peculiar behavior is explained by the field redistribution between the lossy metal nanowires and the amplifying matrix material. These findings are significant for a proper design of nanowire metamaterials with low optical losses for diverse applications.

  13. Can Beta Blockers Cause Weight Gain?

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can beta blockers cause weight gain? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, ... can occur as a side effect of some beta blockers, especially the older ones, such as atenolol (Tenormin) ...

  14. Binary fish passage models for uniform and nonuniform flows

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, Vincent S

    2011-01-01

    Binary fish passage models are considered by many fisheries managers to be the best 21 available practice for culvert inventory assessments and for fishway and barrier design. 22 Misunderstandings between different binary passage modeling approaches often arise, 23 however, due to differences in terminology, application and presentation. In this paper 24 one-dimensional binary fish passage models are reviewed and refined to clarify their 25 origins and applications. For uniform flow, a simple exhaustion-threshold (ET) model 26 equation is derived that predicts the flow speed threshold in a fishway or velocity barrier 27 that causes exhaustion at a given maximum distance of ascent. Flow speeds at or above 28 the threshold predict failure to pass (exclusion). Flow speeds below the threshold predict 29 passage. The binary ET model is therefore intuitive and easily applied to predict passage 30 or exclusion. It is also shown to be consistent with the distance-maximizing model. The 31 ET model s limitation to uniform flow is addressed by deriving a passage model that 32 accounts for nonuniform flow conditions more commonly found in the field, including 33 backwater profiles and drawdown curves. Comparison of these models with 34 experimental observations of volitional passage for Gambusia affinis in uniform and 35 nonuniform flows indicates reasonable prediction of binary outcomes (passage or 36 exclusion) if the flow speed is not near the threshold flow velocity. More research is 37 needed on fish behavior, passage strategies under nonuniform flow regimes and 38 stochastic methods that account for individual differences in swimming performance at or 39 near the threshold flow speed. Future experiments should track and measure ground 40 speeds of ascending fish to test nonuniform flow passage strategies and to improve model 41 predictions. Stochastic models, such as Monte-Carlo techniques, that account for 42 different passage performance among individuals and allow

  15. 34 CFR 462.43 - How is educational gain measured?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Educational Gain? § 462.43 How is educational gain measured? (a)(1) Educational gain is measured by comparing... educational functioning level. To measure educational gain, the local eligible provider would compare...

  16. Spike phase synchronization in delayed-coupled neural networks: Uniform vs. non-uniform transmission delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we investigated phase synchronization in delayed dynamical networks. Non-identical spiking Hindmarsh-Rose neurons were considered as individual dynamical systems and coupled through a number of network structures such as scale-free, Erdős-Rényi, and modular. The individual neurons were coupled through excitatory chemical synapses with uniform or distributed time delays. The profile of spike phase synchrony was different when the delay was uniform across the edges as compared to the case when it was distributed, i.e., different delays for the edges. When an identical transmission delay was considered, a quasi-periodic pattern was observed in the spike phase synchrony. There were specific values of delay where the phase synchronization reached to its peaks. The behavior of the phase synchronization in the networks with non-uniform delays was different with the former case, where the phase synchrony decreased as distributed delays introduced to the networks.

  17. Central Gain Control in Tinnitus and Hyperacusis

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Benjamin D.; Rodrigues, Paulo V.; Salvi, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss induced by noise or ototoxic drug exposure reduces the neural activity transmitted from the cochlea to the central auditory system. Despite a reduced cochlear output, neural activity from more central auditory structures is paradoxically enhanced at suprathreshold intensities. This compensatory increase in the central auditory activity in response to the loss of sensory input is referred to as central gain enhancement. Enhanced central gain is hypothesized to be a potential mechanism that gives rise to hyperacusis and tinnitus, two debilitating auditory perceptual disorders that afflict millions of individuals. This review will examine the evidence for gain enhancement in the central auditory system in response to cochlear damage. Further, it will address the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this enhancement and discuss the contribution of central gain enhancement to tinnitus and hyperacusis. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms with distinct temporal and spectral profiles are likely to contribute to central gain enhancement. Dissecting the contributions of these different mechanisms at different levels of the central auditory system is essential for elucidating the role of central gain enhancement in tinnitus and hyperacusis and, most importantly, the development of novel treatments for these disorders. PMID:25386157

  18. FEL gain optimisation and spontaneous radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bali, L.M.; Srivastava, A.; Pandya, T.P.

    1995-12-31

    Colson have evaluated FEL gains for small deviations from perfect electron beam injection, with radiation of the same polarisation as that of the wiggler fields. We find that for optimum gain the polarisation of the optical field should be the same as that of the spontaneous emission under these conditions. With a helical wiggler the axial oscillations resulting from small departures from perfect electron beam injection lead to injection dependent unequal amplitudes and phases of the spontaneous radiation in the two transverse directions. Viewed along the axis therefore the spontaneous emission is elliptically polarised. The azimuth of the ellipse varies with the difference of phase of the two transverse components of spontaneous emission but the eccentricity remains the same. With planar wigglers the spontaneous emission viewed in the axial direction is linearly polarised, again with an injection dependent azimuth. For optimum coherent gain of a radiation field its polarisation characteristics must be the same as those of the spontaneous radiation with both types of wiggler. Thus, with a helical wiggler and the data reported earlier, an increase of 10% in the FEL gain at the fundamental frequency and of 11% at the fifth harmonic has been calculated in the small gain per pass limit. Larger enhancements in gain may result from more favourable values of input parameters.

  19. Context-specific adaptation of saccade gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark; Clendaniel, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies established that vestibular reflexes can have two adapted states (e.g., gain) simultaneously, and that a context cue (e.g., vertical eye position) can switch between the two states. The present study examined this phenomenon of context-specific adaptationfor horizontal saccades, using a variety of contexts. Our overall goal was to assess the efficacy of different context cues in switching between adapted states. A standard double-step paradigm was used to adapt saccade gain. In each experiment, we asked for a simultaneous gain decrease in one context and gain increase in another context, and then determined if a change in the context would invoke switching between the adapted states. Horizontal eye position worked well as a context cue: saccades with the eyes deviated to the right could be made to have higher gains while saccades with the eyes deviated to the left could be made to have lower gains. Vertical eye position was less effective. This suggests that the more closely related a context cue is to the response being adapted, the more effective it is. Roll tilt of the head, and upright versus supine orientations, were somewhat effective in context switching; these paradigms contain orientation of gravity with respect to the head as part of the context.

  20. Determination of the STIS CCD Gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Allyssa; Monroe, TalaWanda R.; Lockwood, Sean A.

    2017-01-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) has been aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for almost 20 years. The STIS instrument team at Space Telescope Science Institute has continuously endeavored to provide high quality scientific data to the astronomical community, in part by monitoring the health and stability of the instrument. Because the change in gain value over time is a proxy for detector health, we measured the gain of the STIS CCD for amplifiers A, C and D using the mean-variance method, which has not been used to measure the CCD gain on STIS since before it was installed on HST. Here we present our methodology and results using data from the HST program 14424, which indicate a <3.5% change in the gain for amplifier D from when it was originally calculated pre-flight. We compare the various CCD gain measurements made over the history of STIS and discuss the extent to which the data and the different measurement techniques allow real changes to be distinguished from small systematic measurement errors. For the time being, we recommend the continued use of the currently adopted calibration pipeline values of 1.000 and 4.016 e-/DN for amplifier D at the nominal gain settings 1 and 4 e-/DN, respectively, as these are the values that were adopted when determining the other instrument calibrations.