Science.gov

Sample records for gained widespread popularity

  1. Social Influences on Paranormal Belief: Popular versus Scientific Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridolfo, Heather; Baxter, Amy; Lucas, Jeffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    Paranormal claims enjoy relatively widespread popular support despite by definition being rejected by the scientific community. We propose that belief in paranormal claims is influenced by how popular those claims are as well as by dominant scientific views on the claims. We additionally propose that individuals will be most likely to be…

  2. Popularity and Novelty Dynamics in Evolving Networks.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Khushnood; Shang, Mingsheng; Abbasi, Alireza; Luo, Xin; Xu, Jian Jun; Zhang, Yu-Xia

    2018-04-20

    Network science plays a big role in the representation of real-world phenomena such as user-item bipartite networks presented in e-commerce or social media platforms. It provides researchers with tools and techniques to solve complex real-world problems. Identifying and predicting future popularity and importance of items in e-commerce or social media platform is a challenging task. Some items gain popularity repeatedly over time while some become popular and novel only once. This work aims to identify the key-factors: popularity and novelty. To do so, we consider two types of novelty predictions: items appearing in the popular ranking list for the first time; and items which were not in the popular list in the past time window, but might have been popular before the recent past time window. In order to identify the popular items, a careful consideration of macro-level analysis is needed. In this work we propose a model, which exploits item level information over a span of time to rank the importance of the item. We considered ageing or decay effect along with the recent link-gain of the items. We test our proposed model on four various real-world datasets using four information retrieval based metrics.

  3. Behavioral Changes Predicting Temporal Changes in Perceived Popular Status

    PubMed Central

    Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Buskirk-Cohen, Alison; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2009-01-01

    The primary objectives of this investigation were to determine the extent to which young adolescents are stable in high perceived popular status across the middle school transition and to examine whether changes in social behaviors predict the stability, gain, and loss of perceived popular status after the transition. The sample included 672 young adolescents (323 boys) who completed peer-nomination assessments of social behavior and perceived popularity at the end of elementary school (5th grade) and the beginning of middle school (6th grade). Findings indicated that 62 percent of perceived popular adolescents remained stable in their high popular status across the middle school transition. Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that a combination of aggression and arrogance/conceit was associated with stable and newly-gained perceived popular status after the middle school transition. Taken together, findings highlight the significance of contextual and temporal changes in adolescents’ perceived popular status. PMID:20209113

  4. Altruism and Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egilmez, Eda; Naylor-Tincknell, Janett

    2017-01-01

    Popularity, as a manifestation of social status, has been widely researched and determined by group members. Prosocial behaviors are actions with intention of benefiting others or society as whole with little or no personal gain and may include helping, cooperating, and other voluntary works. Altruism is a type of prosocial behavior that could…

  5. Anthropology and Popular Culture: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Jack

    The study of popular culture in the United States is an appropriate anthropological endeavor, as evidenced in a case study of the volcanic eruption of Mt. St. Helens in Oregon. By examining its popular arts, anthropologists gain understanding of the culture and its people. For example, an analysis of reactions to the Mt. St. Helens eruption…

  6. Ethnic Identity and Cultural Achievement: Popular Mythology and Archeological Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ron

    The difficulties faced by ethnic groups today are related not only to widespread unfamiliarity with the cultural evolution of specific groups, but to an inadequate popular understanding of the processes of cultural evolution itself, i.e., man's prehistory. Archeology can make significant contributions in this regard by counteracting the…

  7. Evolution of popularity in given names

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mi Jin; Jo, Woo Seong; Yi, Il Gu; Baek, Seung Ki; Kim, Beom Jun

    2016-02-01

    An individual's identity in a human society is specified by his or her name. Differently from family names, usually inherited from fathers, a given name for a child is often chosen at the parents' disposal. However, their decision cannot be made in a vacuum but affected by social conventions and trends. Furthermore, such social pressure changes in time, as new names gain popularity while some other names are gradually forgotten. In this paper, we investigate how popularity of given names has evolved over the last century by using datasets collected in Korea, the province of Quebec in Canada, and the United States. In each of these countries, the average popularity of given names exhibits typical patterns of rise and fall with a time scale of about one generation. We also observe that notable changes of diversity in given names signal major social changes.

  8. Social intelligence and academic achievement as predictors of adolescent popularity.

    PubMed

    Meijs, Noortje; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Scholte, Ron H J; Segers, Eliane; Spijkerman, Renske

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the effects of social intelligence and cognitive intelligence, as measured by academic achievement, on adolescent popularity in two school contexts. A distinction was made between sociometric popularity, a measure of acceptance, and perceived popularity, a measure of social dominance. Participants were 512, 14-15 year-old adolescents (56% girls, 44% boys) in vocational and college preparatory schools in Northwestern Europe. Perceived popularity was significantly related to social intelligence, but not to academic achievement, in both contexts. Sociometric popularity was predicted by an interaction between academic achievement and social intelligence, further qualified by school context. Whereas college bound students gained sociometric popularity by excelling both socially and academically, vocational students benefited from doing well either socially or academically, but not in combination. The implications of these findings were discussed.

  9. Assessment of Learning Gains in a Flipped Biochemistry Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojennus, Deanna Dahlke

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom has become an increasingly popular pedagogical approach to teaching and learning. In this study, learning gains were assessed in a flipped biochemistry course and compared to gains in a traditional lecture. Although measured learning gains were not significantly different between the two courses, student perception of…

  10. Assessment of learning gains in a flipped biochemistry classroom.

    PubMed

    Ojennus, Deanna Dahlke

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom has become an increasingly popular pedagogical approach to teaching and learning. In this study, learning gains were assessed in a flipped biochemistry course and compared to gains in a traditional lecture. Although measured learning gains were not significantly different between the two courses, student perception of learning gains did differ and indicates a higher level of satisfaction with the flipped lecture format. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. Curriculum and Popular Culture: Building Bridges and Making Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Ernest

    This paper explores the potential of incorporating elements of popular culture such as music, film, and court trials as a bridge to help students traditionally alienated by the canonical texts they confront in the "standard" curriculum to conquer and gain a critical understanding of those texts. Sometimes complex, canonical texts can be…

  12. Popularity Prediction Tool for ATLAS Distributed Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beermann, T.; Maettig, P.; Stewart, G.; Lassnig, M.; Garonne, V.; Barisits, M.; Vigne, R.; Serfon, C.; Goossens, L.; Nairz, A.; Molfetas, A.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes a popularity prediction tool for data-intensive data management systems, such as ATLAS distributed data management (DDM). It is fed by the DDM popularity system, which produces historical reports about ATLAS data usage, providing information about files, datasets, users and sites where data was accessed. The tool described in this contribution uses this historical information to make a prediction about the future popularity of data. It finds trends in the usage of data using a set of neural networks and a set of input parameters and predicts the number of accesses in the near term future. This information can then be used in a second step to improve the distribution of replicas at sites, taking into account the cost of creating new replicas (bandwidth and load on the storage system) compared to gain of having new ones (faster access of data for analysis). To evaluate the benefit of the redistribution a grid simulator is introduced that is able replay real workload on different data distributions. This article describes the popularity prediction method and the simulator that is used to evaluate the redistribution.

  13. Individual Popularity, Peer Group Popularity Composition and Adolescents' Alcohol Consumption.

    PubMed

    Gommans, Rob; Müller, Christoph M; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have convincingly shown associations between popularity and adolescent drinking. This study examined whether the popularity composition of the peer group and the relative difference in popularity between adolescents and their peers are also associated with adolescent drinking. Participants were 800 adolescents (M age  = 14.73; SD age  = 1.00; 51.6 % girls) from 31 classrooms who completed peer ratings of popularity and self-reports of alcohol consumption. Results showed that drinking was higher among popular than unpopular adolescents, higher among popular adolescents surrounded by less popular classmates, and lower in classrooms with more variability in popularity. Thus, beyond individual popularity, peer group popularity composition also should be taken into account when investigating antisocial and health risk behaviors in adolescence such as drinking.

  14. The role of popularity goal in early adolescents' behaviors and popularity status.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Molly; Xie, Hongling

    2014-02-01

    The effect of popularity goal on the use of 3 popularity-related behaviors and later popularity status was examined in a diverse sample of 314 6th-grade students (176 girls and 138 boys) in both fall (Time 1) and spring (Time 2) semesters. Popularity goal and the use of popularity-driven behaviors (e.g., "I change the way I dress in order to be more popular") were assessed by self-report survey items (Time 1). Physical aggression, social aggression (Time 1), and perceived popularity (Times 1 and 2) were assessed by peer nominations. Popularity goal was positively associated with popularity-driven behaviors, social aggression, and physical aggression. There was a significant interaction effect between popularity goal and popularity status on the use of concurrent social aggression at Time 1; a higher popularity goal was associated with greater usage of social aggression for high-popular adolescents. Popularity goal alone did not predict popularity status change at Time 2; rather, greater use of social aggression at Time 1 was associated with higher Time 2 popularity status for initially high-popular adolescents who had a high-popularity goal and for initially low-popular adolescents who had a low-popularity goal. A similar 3-way interaction effect was found for physical aggression. Results suggest that the adolescents' goal for popularity may help us better understand the functions of aggressive and popularity-driven behaviors in peer social networks.

  15. Measuring Learning Gain: Comparing Anatomy Drawing Screencasts and Paper-Based Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, James D.

    2017-01-01

    The use of technology-enhanced learning (TEL) resources is now a common tool across a variety of healthcare programs. Despite this popular approach to curriculum delivery there remains a paucity in empirical evidence that quantifies the change in learning gain. The aim of the study was to measure the changes in learning gain observed with anatomy…

  16. Popular theatre and nonformal education in the Third World: Five strands of experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Ross

    1985-09-01

    Popular theatre is gaining increasing attention in the Third World as a tool for popular education and community organizing. It finds expression in a number of forms including drama, music dance, puppetry and poetry and is performed for — and often by — ordinary peasants and workers. Popular theatre is used as a means of bringing people together, building confidence and solidarity, stimulating discussion, exploring alternative options for action, and building a collective commitment to change: starting with people's urgent concerns and issues, it encourages reflection on these issues and possible strategies for change. Popular theatre, however, is not a unified discipline. It is used by different groups for different interests, ranging from a technocratic, message-oriented `domestication theatre' at one end of the spectrum to a process of consciousness-raising, organization-building and struggle at the other end. Five main strands of popular theatre can be distinguished: (a) the struggle for national liberation; (b) mass education and rural extension; (c) community or participatory development; (d) `conscientization' or popular education; and (e) popular education and organizing. At its best, popular theatre is not an isolated performance or a cathartic experience, but part of an ongoing process of education and organizing, aimed at overcoming oppression and dependence, and at securing basic rights.

  17. Single-frequency gain-switched Ho-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jihong; Wang, Q.; Luo, T.; Case, B.; Jiang, S.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Yu, Jirong

    2012-10-01

    We demonstrate a single-frequency gain-switched Ho-doped fiber laser based on heavily doped silicate glass fiber fabricated in house. A Q-switched Tm-doped fiber laser at 1.95μm was used to gain-switch the Ho-doped fiber laser via in-band pumping. Output power of the single-frequency gain-switched pulses has been amplified in a cladding-pumped Tm-Ho-codoped fiber amplifier with 1.2m active fiber pumped at 803nm. Two different nonlinear effects, i.e., modulation instability and stimulated Brillouin scattering, could be seen in the 10μm-core fiber amplifier when the peak power exceeds 3kW. The single-frequency gain-switched fiber laser was operated at 2.05μm, a popular laser wavelength for Doppler lidar application. This is the first demonstration of this kind of fiber laser.

  18. The Role of Popularity Goal in Early Adolescents' Behaviors and Popularity Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Molly; Xie, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    The effect of popularity goal on the use of 3 popularity-related behaviors and later popularity status was examined in a diverse sample of 314 6th-grade students (176 girls and 138 boys) in both fall (Time 1) and spring (Time 2) semesters. Popularity goal and the use of popularity-driven behaviors (e.g., "I change the way I dress in order to…

  19. Defining popular iconic metaphor.

    PubMed

    Columbus, Peter J; Boerger, Michael A

    2002-04-01

    Popular Iconic Metaphor is added to the cognitive linguistic lexicon of figurative language. Popular Iconic Metaphors employ real or fictional celebrities of popular culture as source domains in figurative discourse. Some borders of Popular Iconic Metaphor are identified, and Elvis Presley is offered as a prototype example of a popular iconic source domain, due to his ubiquity in American popular culture, which affords his figurative usage in ways consistent with decision heuristics in everyday life. Further study of Popular Iconic Metaphors may serve to illuminate how figurative expressions emerge in their localized contexts, structure conduct and experience, and affect mediation of cultural and personal meanings.

  20. "Hey, You're a Girl?": Gendered Expressions in the Popular Anime, "Cowboy Bebop"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiramoto, Mie

    2013-01-01

    The popular anime series, "Cowboy Bebop", was originally created and released in Japan in 1998 and later gained an intense overseas following. The show owes its phenomenal international acclaim to successful conventions of hegemonic masculinity represented by the imaginary characters. The social semiotics of desire depicted in…

  1. Investigating College Learning Gain: Exploring a Propensity Score Weighting Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Liu, Huili; Roohr, Katrina Crotts; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    Learning outcomes assessment has been widely used by higher education institutions both nationally and internationally. One of its popular uses is to document learning gains of students. Prior studies have recognized the potential imbalance between freshmen and seniors in terms of their background characteristics and their prior academic…

  2. Children's Social Constructions of Popularity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lease, A. Michele; Kennedy, Charlotte A.; Axelrod, Jennifer L.

    2002-01-01

    Assessed fourth, fifth- and sixth-graders' social constructions of popularity using perceived popularity nominations and sociometric measures. Found that perceived popularity is related to sociometric popularity and social dominance. Examined correlations with popularity for perceived popular girls and boys who were liked and not well-liked. Found…

  3. Popular Culture and Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Ray B., Ed.; Ambrosetti, Ronald J., Ed.

    The seven essays in this publication, including four read at the fall 1969 American Studies Association meeting, attempt to present both the nature of popular culture study and a guide for teachers of popular culture courses. Papers are (1) "Popular Culture: Notes toward a Definition" by Ray B. Browne; (2) "Can Popular Culture Save American…

  4. Popular "Problems": Deviantization and Teachers' Curation of Popular Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallio, Alexis Anja

    2017-01-01

    Despite many music classrooms welcoming popular musics in striving towards an inclusive and democratic education, there has been relatively little research into teachers' decisions regarding which popular musics are included and which are excluded from classroom activities. This is of particular interest taking into account arguments that the…

  5. College Freshmen Students’ Perspectives on Weight Gain Prevention in the Digital Age: Web-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Larsen, Chelsea A; Magradey, Karen; Brandt, Heather M; Wilcox, Sara; Sundstrom, Beth; West, Delia Smith

    2017-01-01

    Background College freshmen are highly vulnerable to experiencing weight gain, and this phenomenon is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases and mortality in older adulthood. Technology offers an attractive and scalable way to deliver behavioral weight gain prevention interventions for this population. Weight gain prevention programs that harness the appeal and widespread reach of Web-based technologies (electronic health or eHealth) are increasingly being evaluated in college students. Yet, few of these interventions are informed by college students’ perspectives on weight gain prevention and related lifestyle behaviors. Objective The objective of this study was to assess college freshmen students’ concern about weight gain and associated topics, as well as their interest in and delivery medium preferences for eHealth programs focused on these topics. Methods Web-based surveys that addressed college freshmen students’ (convenience sample of N=50) perspectives on weight gain prevention were administered at the beginning and end of the fall 2015 semester as part of a longitudinal investigation of health-related issues and experiences in first semester college freshmen. Data on weight gain prevention-related concerns and corresponding interest in eHealth programs targeting topics of potential concern, as well as preferred program delivery medium and current technology use were gathered and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results A considerable proportion of the freshmen sample expressed concern about weight gain (74%, 37/50) and both traditional (healthy diet: 86%, 43/50; physical activity: 64%, 32/50) and less frequently addressed (stress: 82%, 41/50; sleep: 74%, 37/50; anxiety and depression: 60%, 30/50) associated topics within the context of behavioral weight gain prevention. The proportion of students who reported interest in eHealth promotion programs targeting these topics was also generally high (ranging from 52% [26/50] for stress

  6. "Daddy Daycare," Daffy Duck, and Salvador Dali: Popular Culture and Children's Art Viewing Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhoff, Angela; Guberman, Steven

    2006-01-01

    In contemporary society, what, why, and how students come to gain knowledge and understandings of art defies traditional boundaries. In part, this is because of the prevalence of many forms of popular visual culture. In this article, the authors present three vignettes that demonstrate the ways in which three young children created connections…

  7. St. George Mivart as Popularizer of Zoology in Britain and America, 1869-1881.

    PubMed

    Swain, Emma E

    2017-12-01

    Recent scholarly attentions have shifted from key actors within the scientific elite and religious authorities to scientific practitioners and popularizers who used science to pursue a wide variety of cultural purposes. The Roman Catholic zoologist St. George Mivart (1827-1900) has typically been cast as a staunch anti-Darwinian ostracized by Darwin's inner circle of scientific naturalists. Understood as a popularizer of science, his position can be re-thought. Mivart did not operate on the periphery of Victorian science. Instead, his notable contributions to the fields of zoology and anatomy and his participation in debates about the origin of the human mind, consciousness, and soul made him a central figure in the changing landscape of late-Victorian scientific culture. Through the popular periodical press and his anatomy textbook for beginners, Mivart secured a reputation as a key spokesman for science and gained authority as a leading critic of agnostic scientific naturalism. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Becoming popular: interpersonal emotion regulation predicts relationship formation in real life social networks.

    PubMed

    Niven, Karen; Garcia, David; van der Löwe, Ilmo; Holman, David; Mansell, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Building relationships is crucial for satisfaction and success, especially when entering new social contexts. In the present paper, we investigate whether attempting to improve others' feelings helps people to make connections in new networks. In Study 1, a social network study following new networks of people for a 12-week period indicated that use of interpersonal emotion regulation (IER) strategies predicted growth in popularity, as indicated by other network members' reports of spending time with the person, in work and non-work interactions. In Study 2, linguistic analysis of the tweets from over 8000 Twitter users from formation of their accounts revealed that use of IER predicted greater popularity in terms of the number of followers gained. However, not all types of IER had positive effects. Behavioral IER strategies (which use behavior to reassure or comfort in order to regulate affect) were associated with greater popularity, while cognitive strategies (which change a person's thoughts about his or her situation or feelings in order to regulate affect) were negatively associated with popularity. Our findings have implications for our understanding of how new relationships are formed, highlighting the important the role played by intentional emotion regulatory processes.

  9. Becoming popular: interpersonal emotion regulation predicts relationship formation in real life social networks

    PubMed Central

    Niven, Karen; Garcia, David; van der Löwe, Ilmo; Holman, David; Mansell, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Building relationships is crucial for satisfaction and success, especially when entering new social contexts. In the present paper, we investigate whether attempting to improve others’ feelings helps people to make connections in new networks. In Study 1, a social network study following new networks of people for a 12-week period indicated that use of interpersonal emotion regulation (IER) strategies predicted growth in popularity, as indicated by other network members’ reports of spending time with the person, in work and non-work interactions. In Study 2, linguistic analysis of the tweets from over 8000 Twitter users from formation of their accounts revealed that use of IER predicted greater popularity in terms of the number of followers gained. However, not all types of IER had positive effects. Behavioral IER strategies (which use behavior to reassure or comfort in order to regulate affect) were associated with greater popularity, while cognitive strategies (which change a person’s thoughts about his or her situation or feelings in order to regulate affect) were negatively associated with popularity. Our findings have implications for our understanding of how new relationships are formed, highlighting the important the role played by intentional emotion regulatory processes. PMID:26483718

  10. The Ghost of "Emo:" Searching for Mental Health Themes in a Popular Music Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Timothy D.; Smith-Adcock, Sondra; Glynn, Virginia R.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of "Emo" has gained attention among counselors who work with teens in school settings. Emo has been associated with music and popular media has linked it to mental health concerns, but scholarly sources have not converged regarding what sort of music it is, or what it means for adolescents' wellness. The authors devise…

  11. Breastfeeding gains popularity in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Townsend, S

    1992-10-01

    In 1982, a breast feeding support program (PROALMA) first operated in 3 large public hospitals and a large health center in Tegucigalpa and San Pedro Sula, Honduras. It trained health workers about the benefits of breast feeding and lactation management and developed hospital breast feeding policies and practices, e.g., creation of a milk bank for premature newborns. It even convinced hospitals to stop free distribution of infant formula and bottles. In fact, annual expenditures for infant formula at the Social Security Hospital in San Pedro Sula fell from US$ 40,000 to 6000 in 1 year and to 0 by 1990. Hospital practices which were not conducive to breast feeding included separation of newborns from mothers and giving newborns sugar water as their first food. In fact, 69% of mothers at Tegucigalpa hospitals said hospital staff gave their newborns breast milk substitutes within 24 hours of birth. The program began a rooming-in system which made it easier for mothers to initiate early, frequent, and on-demand breast feeding. PROALMA staff were in the maternity wards daily to provide breast feeding counseling. At the end of 3 years, 98% of women delivering at Tegucigalpa hospitals breast fed their infants. The project eventually expanded to hospitals nationwide. Between 1981 and 1988, breast feeding rose from 80% to 93% in cities and from 95% to 98% in rural areas. Further, the median duration of breast feeding increased from 4 months to 10 months (1982-1987) in cities. Yet, just 6% of mothers exclusively breast fed their 3-4 month old infants in 1987. In addition, only 28% exclusively breast fed before introducing the bottle. Staff attitude improved as evidenced by an increase in the percentage of workers promoting breast feeding at birth (37-86% during 1982-1986). PROALMA concluded that increased efforts to promote exclusive breast feeding are needed.

  12. Does lamellar surgery for keratoconus experience the popularity it deserves?

    PubMed

    Wisse, Robert P L; van den Hoven, Célinde M L; Van der Lelij, Allegonda

    2014-08-01

    To analyse developments in surgical treatment for keratoconus (KC) by assessing rates and types of corneal surgery from 2005 to 2010. The Dutch Transplantation Foundation supplied data on all keratoplasty procedures for KC performed from 2005 to 2010 in the Netherlands. Registration was carried out by the eyebank at allocation and by the surgeon at the time of surgery. The type of surgery was categorized as either a penetrating or a lamellar procedure. Five hundred and seventy-five anonymized records were received, with excellent data completion (99%). Patients undergoing penetrating surgery had on average a lower visual acuity, higher k-readings and were slightly older compared with the lamellar group. A previous corneal hydrops was recorded for 19.1% of patients. Regular penetrating keratoplasty decreased in popularity from 79.7% in 2005 to 43.7% in 2010, due to the increased rate of lamellar surgery (42.5% in 2010) and 'mushroom' penetrating keratoplasty (13.8% in 2010). When hydrops cases were excluded, popularity became equal (47.6% penetrating versus 52.4% lamellar surgery, in 2010). Lamellar surgery is gaining in popularity, although regular penetrating keratoplasty is still the more commonly performed procedure. Only when hydrops cases are excluded do transplant rates become comparable. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Assessing Gains in Language Proficiency, Cross-Cultural Competence, and Regional Awareness during Study Abroad: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jeffrey R.; Siska, Peter; Wolfel, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    As a critical part of the internationalization movement in college curricula, study abroad initiatives are becoming more and more popular and the need to assess their outcomes more and more evident. While numerous studies have investigated the language gain associated with study abroad, researchers are also beginning to look at potential gains in…

  14. The information trail of the 'Freshman 15'--a systematic review of a health myth within the research and popular literature.

    PubMed

    Brown, Cecelia

    2008-03-01

    How does health misinformation become part of the American and Canadian vernacular? Twenty-three databases were searched for articles discussing university freshmen weight gain. Research articles were examined for methodology, number and gender of the participants and weight gain. Popular press articles were reviewed for the types of information published: expert/anecdotal, weight gain, nutrition, exercise, health and alcohol. A timeline of article publication dates was generated. Twenty peer-reviewed, 19 magazine, 146 newspaper, and 141 university newspaper articles were discovered. Appearance of media articles about the 'Freshman 15' mirrored the peer-reviewed articles, yet the information did not reliably depict the research. Research indicated a weight gain of less than five pounds (2.268 kg), while half of the popular press publications claimed a 15-pound (6.804 kg) weight gain. The misinformation was frequently accompanied by information about achieving weight control through diet, exercise, stress reduction and alcohol avoidance. Understanding of how the concept of the 'Freshman 15' developed indicates that remediation efforts are needed. Collaborative efforts between health science and academic librarians, faculty and journalists to construct new paradigms for the translation of scientific evidence into information that individuals can use for decisions about health and well-being is suggested.

  15. College Freshmen Students' Perspectives on Weight Gain Prevention in the Digital Age: Web-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Larsen, Chelsea A; Magradey, Karen; Brandt, Heather M; Wilcox, Sara; Sundstrom, Beth; West, Delia Smith

    2017-10-12

    College freshmen are highly vulnerable to experiencing weight gain, and this phenomenon is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases and mortality in older adulthood. Technology offers an attractive and scalable way to deliver behavioral weight gain prevention interventions for this population. Weight gain prevention programs that harness the appeal and widespread reach of Web-based technologies (electronic health or eHealth) are increasingly being evaluated in college students. Yet, few of these interventions are informed by college students' perspectives on weight gain prevention and related lifestyle behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess college freshmen students' concern about weight gain and associated topics, as well as their interest in and delivery medium preferences for eHealth programs focused on these topics. Web-based surveys that addressed college freshmen students' (convenience sample of N=50) perspectives on weight gain prevention were administered at the beginning and end of the fall 2015 semester as part of a longitudinal investigation of health-related issues and experiences in first semester college freshmen. Data on weight gain prevention-related concerns and corresponding interest in eHealth programs targeting topics of potential concern, as well as preferred program delivery medium and current technology use were gathered and analyzed using descriptive statistics. A considerable proportion of the freshmen sample expressed concern about weight gain (74%, 37/50) and both traditional (healthy diet: 86%, 43/50; physical activity: 64%, 32/50) and less frequently addressed (stress: 82%, 41/50; sleep: 74%, 37/50; anxiety and depression: 60%, 30/50) associated topics within the context of behavioral weight gain prevention. The proportion of students who reported interest in eHealth promotion programs targeting these topics was also generally high (ranging from 52% [26/50] for stress management to 70% [35/50] for eating a

  16. Characterizing Listener Engagement with Popular Songs Using Large-Scale Music Discovery Data

    PubMed Central

    Kaneshiro, Blair; Ruan, Feng; Baker, Casey W.; Berger, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Music discovery in everyday situations has been facilitated in recent years by audio content recognition services such as Shazam. The widespread use of such services has produced a wealth of user data, specifying where and when a global audience takes action to learn more about music playing around them. Here, we analyze a large collection of Shazam queries of popular songs to study the relationship between the timing of queries and corresponding musical content. Our results reveal that the distribution of queries varies over the course of a song, and that salient musical events drive an increase in queries during a song. Furthermore, we find that the distribution of queries at the time of a song's release differs from the distribution following a song's peak and subsequent decline in popularity, possibly reflecting an evolution of user intent over the “life cycle” of a song. Finally, we derive insights into the data size needed to achieve consistent query distributions for individual songs. The combined findings of this study suggest that music discovery behavior, and other facets of the human experience of music, can be studied quantitatively using large-scale industrial data. PMID:28386241

  17. Characterizing Listener Engagement with Popular Songs Using Large-Scale Music Discovery Data.

    PubMed

    Kaneshiro, Blair; Ruan, Feng; Baker, Casey W; Berger, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Music discovery in everyday situations has been facilitated in recent years by audio content recognition services such as Shazam. The widespread use of such services has produced a wealth of user data, specifying where and when a global audience takes action to learn more about music playing around them. Here, we analyze a large collection of Shazam queries of popular songs to study the relationship between the timing of queries and corresponding musical content. Our results reveal that the distribution of queries varies over the course of a song, and that salient musical events drive an increase in queries during a song. Furthermore, we find that the distribution of queries at the time of a song's release differs from the distribution following a song's peak and subsequent decline in popularity, possibly reflecting an evolution of user intent over the "life cycle" of a song. Finally, we derive insights into the data size needed to achieve consistent query distributions for individual songs. The combined findings of this study suggest that music discovery behavior, and other facets of the human experience of music, can be studied quantitatively using large-scale industrial data.

  18. How popular is waterpipe tobacco smoking? Findings from internet search queries

    PubMed Central

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Osman, Amira; Maziak, Wasim; Thrasher, James F

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS), a traditional tobacco consumption practice in the Middle East, is gaining popularity worldwide. Estimates of population-level interest in WTS over time are not documented. We assessed the popularity of WTS using World Wide Web search query results across four English-speaking countries. Methods We analysed trends in Google search queries related to WTS, comparing these trends with those for electronic cigarettes between 2004 and 2013 in Australia, Canada, the UK and the USA. Weekly search volumes were reported as percentages relative to the week with the highest volume of searches. Results Web-based searches for WTS have increased steadily since 2004 in all four countries. Search volume for WTS was higher than for e-cigarettes in three of the four nations, with the highest volume in the USA. Online searches were primarily targeted at WTS products for home use, followed by searches for WTS cafés/lounges. Conclusions Online demand for information on WTS-related products and venues is large and increasing. Given the rise in WTS popularity, increasing evidence of exposure-related harms, and relatively lax government regulation, WTS is a serious public health concern and could reach epidemic levels in Western societies. PMID:25052859

  19. Math Coaching in a Rural School: Gaining Entry: A Vital First Step

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Sara

    2013-01-01

    A growing trend across the nation, academic coaching is a popular way for schools to embed professional development within the regular school day. This article presents the findings of a yearlong qualitative case study of a rural school academic coach and her attempts to gain entry to teachers' classrooms to observe and guide their instructional…

  20. Characterizing popularity dynamics of online videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhuo-Ming; Shi, Yu-Qiang; Liao, Hao

    2016-07-01

    Online popularity has a major impact on videos, music, news and other contexts in online systems. Characterizing online popularity dynamics is nature to explain the observed properties in terms of the already acquired popularity of each individual. In this paper, we provide a quantitative, large scale, temporal analysis of the popularity dynamics in two online video-provided websites, namely MovieLens and Netflix. The two collected data sets contain over 100 million records and even span a decade. We characterize that the popularity dynamics of online videos evolve over time, and find that the dynamics of the online video popularity can be characterized by the burst behaviors, typically occurring in the early life span of a video, and later restricting to the classic preferential popularity increase mechanism.

  1. Uncovering the popularity mechanisms for Facebook applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng-Nan; Guo, Qiang; Yang, Kai; Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the popularity dynamics of online application(App) is significant for the online social systems. In this paper, by dividing the Facebook Apps into different groups in terms of their popularities, we empirically investigate the popularity dynamics for different kinds of Facebook Apps. Then, taking into account the influence of cumulative and recent popularities on the user choice, we present a model to regenerate the growth of popularity for different App groups. The experimental results of 917 Facebook Apps show that as the popularities of Facebook Apps increase, the recent popularity plays more important role. Specifically, the recent popularity plays more important role in regenerating the popularity dynamics for more popular Apps, and the cumulative popularity plays more important role for unpopular Apps. We also conduct temporal analysis on the growth characteristic of individual App by comparing the increment at each time with the average of historical records. The results show that the growth of more popular App tends to fluctuate more greatly. Our work may shed some lights for deeply understanding the popularity mechanism for online applications.

  2. Behavioral Correlates of Prioritizing Popularity in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Nina; Deutz, Marike H F; Schoneveld, Elke A; Burk, William J; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about individual differences in adolescents' motivation to achieve and maintain popularity. This study examined the moderating effects of prioritizing popularity on the associations between popularity and adjustment outcomes in late adolescence. Participants were 314 Dutch eleventh-grade students (M age  = 16.83 years; 52 % male) who completed measures of popularity, prioritizing popularity, and prosocial, antisocial, and risk behaviors. It was hypothesized that associations between popularity and adjustment outcomes are stronger for adolescents who prioritize popularity. The results indicate that the combination of being popular and valuing popularity was strongly related to antisocial and risk behaviors, but not to prosocial behaviors. Adolescents' social status motivations thus play an important role in the association of popularity with antisocial and risk behaviors in late adolescence.

  3. Keeping the Peace and Controlling Crime: What School Resource Officers Want School Personnel to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Lynn M.

    2016-01-01

    School Resource Officer (SRO) programs have gained widespread popularity across the nation in response to concerns regarding safe schools. While much of the research concerning the program examines students' and school administrators' perceptions regarding the program, current research lacks an examination of the officer's assessment of the daily…

  4. Affective associations with negativity: Why popular peers attract youths' visual attention.

    PubMed

    Lansu, Tessa A M; Troop-Gordon, Wendy

    2017-10-01

    Visual attention to high-status peers is well documented, but whether this attentional bias is due to high-status individuals' leadership and prosocial characteristics or due to their more agonistic behaviors has yet to be examined. To identify the affective associations that may underlie visual attention for high-status versus low-status peers, 122 early adolescents (67 girls; M age =11.0years, SD=0.7) completed a primed attention paradigm. Visual attention was measured using eye tracking as participants looked simultaneously at photographs of two classmates: one nominated by peers as popular and one nominated by peers as unpopular. Prior to each trial, the early adolescents were presented with a positive prime, the word "nice"; a negative prime, the word "stupid"; or no prime. Primary analyses focused on first-gaze preference and total gaze time The results showed a stronger first gaze preference for popular peers than for unpopular peers in the no-prime and negative prime trials than in the positive prime trials. The visual preference for a popular peer, thus, was attenuated by the positive prime. These findings are consistent with the notion that youths may visually attend to high-status peers due to their association with more negative characteristics and the threat they may pose to youths' own social standing and ability to gain interpersonal resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. How popular is waterpipe tobacco smoking? Findings from internet search queries.

    PubMed

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Osman, Amira; Maziak, Wasim; Thrasher, James F

    2015-09-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS), a traditional tobacco consumption practice in the Middle East, is gaining popularity worldwide. Estimates of population-level interest in WTS over time are not documented. We assessed the popularity of WTS using World Wide Web search query results across four English-speaking countries. We analysed trends in Google search queries related to WTS, comparing these trends with those for electronic cigarettes between 2004 and 2013 in Australia, Canada, the UK and the USA. Weekly search volumes were reported as percentages relative to the week with the highest volume of searches. Web-based searches for WTS have increased steadily since 2004 in all four countries. Search volume for WTS was higher than for e-cigarettes in three of the four nations, with the highest volume in the USA. Online searches were primarily targeted at WTS products for home use, followed by searches for WTS cafés/lounges. Online demand for information on WTS-related products and venues is large and increasing. Given the rise in WTS popularity, increasing evidence of exposure-related harms, and relatively lax government regulation, WTS is a serious public health concern and could reach epidemic levels in Western societies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. [Popular Health Insurance: key piece of inequity in health in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Tamez González, Silvia; Eibenschutz, Catalina

    2008-12-01

    This work is aimed at presenting an analysis of the Mexican health systems current situation resulting from successive reforms which have been carried out since the 1980s. Special interest is placed on the role which the Seguro Popular de Salud (SPS--a 'popular', meaning universal, health insurance plan) has played, being a key piece in commercializing medical attention. The first part of this work thus presents the main antecedents for the changes made during the last two decades of the last century and analyses the current situation since the start of the new millennium. Such analysis is centred on an initial evaluation of the Seguro Popular de Saluds scope and limitations from the perspective of equity in gaining access to medical attention. The analysis concludes that due to a medical perspective not having been present in the structural reforms, then this insurance policy represents a discretional, presidential and focalised programme taking funds away from the large social security institutions, obligating them (in many cases) to make budgetary adaptations to the detriment of providing quality attention. This situation will constitute (in the immediate future) a segmentation of the National Health System which will determine new conditions regarding the populations differential access to medical services, increase inequity in health and contribute towards increasing the great social inequality prevailing in México.

  7. Are Atypical Things More Popular?

    PubMed

    Berger, Jonah; Packard, Grant

    2018-04-01

    Why do some cultural items become popular? Although some researchers have argued that success is random, we suggest that how similar items are to each other plays an important role. Using natural language processing of thousands of songs, we examined the relationship between lyrical differentiation (i.e., atypicality) and song popularity. Results indicated that the more different a song's lyrics are from its genre, the more popular it becomes. This relationship is weaker in genres where lyrics matter less (e.g., dance) or where differentiation matters less (e.g., pop) and occurs for lyrical topics but not style. The results shed light on cultural dynamics, why things become popular, and the psychological foundations of culture more broadly.

  8. Popularity Contagion among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Peter E. L.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to support the theory of popularity contagion, which posits that popularity spreads among friends spontaneously and regardless of behavioral changes. Peer nominations of status and behavior were collected annually between 6th and 12th grades from a total of 1062 adolescents. Longitudinal hypotheses were mostly supported using path…

  9. The Popular Culture Explosion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Ray B.; Madden, David

    Popular culture is defined here as anything produced by and/or dissembled by the mass media or mass production or transportation, either directly or indirectly, and that reaches the majority of the people. This sampler from mass magazines, intended for use in the study of popular culture, includes fiction from "Playboy"; articles on cars, Johnny…

  10. Authentic Leadership--Is It More than Emotional Intelligence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Phyllis; Green, Mark; Gergen, Esther; Ecung, Wenonah

    2017-01-01

    One of the newest theories to gain widespread interest is authentic leadership. Part of the rationale for developing a model and subsequent instrument to measure authentic leadership was a concern that the more popular theory, the full range model of leadership and its instrument, the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) (Bass & Avolio,…

  11. Learning Rounds: What the Literature Tells Us (and What It Doesn't)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philpott, Carey; Oates, Catriona

    2015-01-01

    Learning Rounds is a form of professional development that has gained widespread currency in Scotland. It has received official endorsement from Scottish Government funded agencies and has spread as a practice through at least 24 out of 32 local authorities, in part through popular adoption by teachers. However the literature on Instructional…

  12. Toward Predicting Popularity of Social Marketing Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bei; Chen, Miao; Kwok, Linchi

    Popularity of social marketing messages indicates the effectiveness of the corresponding marketing strategies. This research aims to discover the characteristics of social marketing messages that contribute to different level of popularity. Using messages posted by a sample of restaurants on Facebook as a case study, we measured the message popularity by the number of "likes" voted by fans, and examined the relationship between the message popularity and two properties of the messages: (1) content, and (2) media type. Combining a number of text mining and statistics methods, we have discovered some interesting patterns correlated to "more popular" and "less popular" social marketing messages. This work lays foundation for building computational models to predict the popularity of social marketing messages in the future.

  13. She Is So Popular: A Study of Sixth Grade Girls' Views on Popularity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Debra Ann

    In this qualitative study, five female students in the sixth grade were interviewed and surveyed about their views on popularity at their urban middle school in Ohio. The objectives of the study were to investigate whether middle school girls engaged in academic competition, to describe their subjective experiences of popularity in middle school,…

  14. Gain Modulation in the Central Nervous System: Where Behavior, Neurophysiology, and Computation Meet

    PubMed Central

    SALINAS, EMILIO; SEJNOWSKI, TERRENCE J.

    2010-01-01

    Gain modulation is a nonlinear way in which neurons combine information from two (or more) sources, which may be of sensory, motor, or cognitive origin. Gain modulation is revealed when one input, the modulatory one, affects the gain or the sensitivity of the neuron to the other input, without modifying its selectivity or receptive field properties. This type of modulatory interaction is important for two reasons. First, it is an extremely widespread integration mechanism; it is found in a plethora of cortical areas and in some subcortical structures as well, and as a consequence it seems to play an important role in a striking variety of functions, including eye and limb movements, navigation, spatial perception, attentional processing, and object recognition. Second, there is a theoretical foundation indicating that gain-modulated neurons may serve as a basis for a general class of computations, namely, coordinate transformations and the generation of invariant responses, which indeed may underlie all the brain functions just mentioned. This article describes the relationships between computational models, the physiological properties of a variety of gain-modulated neurons, and some of the behavioral consequences of damage to gain-modulated neural representations. PMID:11597102

  15. Widespread pain: is an improved classification possible?

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, G J; Croft, P R; Schollum, J; Silman, A J

    1996-09-01

    The classification of widespread pain, proposed by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) for use in the clinic as a screen for fibromyalgia, as described, does not require truly widespread pain. Studies considering the epidemiology of widespread pain per se may therefore require a definition with greater face validity, which might also show enhanced associations with other physical and psychological measures. We aimed to develop a more coherent definition of widespread pain for use in epidemiological studies and to compare performance in identifying individuals with significant morbidity. A group of 172 subjects who had participated in a community based study on the occurrence of pain were identified and categorized by their pain experience as indicated on line drawings of the body according to ACR definition and to a new, more stringent definition that required the presence of more diffuse limb pain. A number of other clinical and psychological measures were recorded for these individuals and the association between their pain status measures and these other variables was assessed and compared. Persons satisfying the newly proposed definition for chronic widespread pain, in comparison with those who satisfied only the present ACR definition, had a significantly higher score on the General Health Questionnaire [median difference (MD) 7.95% CI 1.13], a higher score on the Health and Fatigue Questionnaire (MD 10.95% CI 0.15), and greater problems with sleep (sleep problem score MD 4.95% CI 0.9). Those satisfying the new definition also had a greater number of tender points on examination (MD 3.95% CI -1.7). The morbidity of those satisfying only the present ACR definition was closer to persons who had regional pain. A redefinition of widespread pain has produced a group of subjects whose pain is (a) likely to be more "widespread" and (b) is associated more strongly with factors such as psychological disturbance, fatigue, sleep problems, and tender points, and

  16. Aggressive effects of prioritizing popularity in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cillessen, Antonius H N; Mayeux, Lara; Ha, Thao; de Bruyn, Eddy H; LaFontana, Kathryn M

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of prioritizing popularity on the association between early adolescents' popularity and their aggressive, leadership, and prosocial behaviors with peers. Participants were 288 14-year-olds from The Netherlands who completed a sociometric instrument and an assessment of how much they prioritized popularity over other personal goals. Results indicated that prioritizing popularity was distinct from actual popularity in the peer group. Further, prioritizing popularity moderated the association of popularity with aggressive and leadership behaviors, with adolescents who were both popular and who prioritized popularity being particularly aggressive and scoring high on leadership behaviors. This trend was especially true for boys. The same moderating effect was not found for prosocial behaviors. Motivational and social-cognitive factors in the dynamics of peer popularity are highlighted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Personality disparity in chronic regional and widespread pain.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Chung; Chen, Po-Fei; Lung, For-Wey

    2017-08-01

    Chronic pain has high comorbidity with psychiatric disorders, therefore, better understanding of the relationship between chronic pain and mental illness is needed. This study aimed to investigate the pathway relationships among parental attachment, personality characteristics, alexithymic trait and mental health in patients with chronic widespread pain, those with chronic regional pain, and controls. Two hundred and thirty participants were recruited. The parental Bonding Inventory, Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI), 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Chinese Health Questionnaire, and Short-Form 36 were filled out. The pathway relationships revealed that patients of mothers who were more protective were more neurotic, had more difficulty identifying feelings (DIF), worse mental health, and a higher association with chronic widespread pain. No differences were found between patients with chronic regional pain and the controls. The predisposing factors for chronic widespread pain, when compared with chronic regional pain, may be more closely related to psychiatric disorders. The pathways to chronic regional pain and chronic widespread pain differ, with neuroticism and the alexithymic DIF trait being the main factors defining chronic widespread pain. Therefore, besides therapies targeting pain symptoms, psychiatric consultation, medication and psychotherapy are also recommended for those with chronic widespread pain to alleviate their mental health conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mass Media and the Popular Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissover, Fredric; Birch, David C.

    This anthology consists of journalistic essays on each of these popular arts: advertising, journalism, cartoons, radio and television, photography and motion pictures, popular literature, popular music, and public education. Examples of most of the art forms are also included. The book is aimed at junior college students. Its purpose is to…

  19. Popular Culture and the Teaching of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donelson, Ken, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    This issue of the "Arizona English Bulletin" contains 38 articles related to popular culture and the teaching of English. The articles discuss such topics as language in the popular arts, establishing a popular culture library, defining sexism in popular culture, detective literature and its uses in the traditional classroom, popular…

  20. Cognitive tutoring induces widespread neuroplasticity and remediates brain function in children with mathematical learning disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Iuculano, Teresa; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Richardson, Jennifer; Tenison, Caitlin; Fuchs, Lynn; Supekar, Kaustubh; Menon, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Competency with numbers is essential in today's society; yet, up to 20% of children exhibit moderate to severe mathematical learning disabilities (MLD). Behavioural intervention can be effective, but the neurobiological mechanisms underlying successful intervention are unknown. Here we demonstrate that eight weeks of 1:1 cognitive tutoring not only remediates poor performance in children with MLD, but also induces widespread changes in brain activity. Neuroplasticity manifests as normalization of aberrant functional responses in a distributed network of parietal, prefrontal and ventral temporal–occipital areas that support successful numerical problem solving, and is correlated with performance gains. Remarkably, machine learning algorithms show that brain activity patterns in children with MLD are significantly discriminable from neurotypical peers before, but not after, tutoring, suggesting that behavioural gains are not due to compensatory mechanisms. Our study identifies functional brain mechanisms underlying effective intervention in children with MLD and provides novel metrics for assessing response to intervention. PMID:26419418

  1. Cognitive tutoring induces widespread neuroplasticity and remediates brain function in children with mathematical learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Iuculano, Teresa; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Richardson, Jennifer; Tenison, Caitlin; Fuchs, Lynn; Supekar, Kaustubh; Menon, Vinod

    2015-09-30

    Competency with numbers is essential in today's society; yet, up to 20% of children exhibit moderate to severe mathematical learning disabilities (MLD). Behavioural intervention can be effective, but the neurobiological mechanisms underlying successful intervention are unknown. Here we demonstrate that eight weeks of 1:1 cognitive tutoring not only remediates poor performance in children with MLD, but also induces widespread changes in brain activity. Neuroplasticity manifests as normalization of aberrant functional responses in a distributed network of parietal, prefrontal and ventral temporal-occipital areas that support successful numerical problem solving, and is correlated with performance gains. Remarkably, machine learning algorithms show that brain activity patterns in children with MLD are significantly discriminable from neurotypical peers before, but not after, tutoring, suggesting that behavioural gains are not due to compensatory mechanisms. Our study identifies functional brain mechanisms underlying effective intervention in children with MLD and provides novel metrics for assessing response to intervention.

  2. An update on gain-of-function mutations in primary immunodeficiency diseases.

    PubMed

    Jhamnani, Rekha D; Rosenzweig, Sergio D

    2017-12-01

    Most primary immunodeficiencies described since 1952 were associated with loss-of-function defects. With the advent and popularization of unbiased next-generation sequencing diagnostic approaches followed by functional validation techniques, many gain-of-function mutations leading to immunodeficiency have also been identified. This review highlights the updates on pathophysiology mechanisms and new therapeutic approaches involving primary immunodeficiencies because of gain-of-function mutations. The more recent developments related to gain-of-function primary immunodeficiencies mostly involving increased infection susceptibility but also immune dysregulation and autoimmunity, were reviewed. Updates regarding pathophysiology mechanisms, different mutation types, clinical features, laboratory markers, current and potential new treatments on patients with caspase recruitment domain family member 11, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate 3-kinase catalytic 110, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate 3-kinase regulatory subunit 1, chemokine C-X-C motif receptor 4, sterile α motif domain containing 9-like, and nuclear factor κ-B subunit 2 gain-of-function mutations are reviewed for each disease. With the identification of gain-of-function mutations as a cause of immunodeficiency, new genetic pathophysiology mechanisms unveiled and new-targeted therapeutic approaches can be explored as potential rescue treatments for these diseases.

  3. The association between valuing popularity and relational aggression: the moderating effects of actual popularity and physiological reactivity to exclusion.

    PubMed

    Shoulberg, Erin K; Sijtsema, Jelle J; Murray-Close, Dianna

    2011-09-01

    The association between having a reputation for valuing popularity and relational aggression was assessed in a sample of 126 female children and adolescents (mean age = 12.43 years) at a 54-day residential summer camp for girls. Having a reputation for valuing popularity was positively related to relational aggression. This association was moderated by both popularity and physiological reactivity to social exclusion (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity [RSAR] and heart rate reactivity [HRR]). Popular girls with a reputation for valuing popularity were at greater risk for engaging in relational aggression when they also exhibited blunted reactivity to social exclusion. Conversely, girls who had a reputation for valuing popularity but were not popular (i.e., the "wannabes") were at risk for engaging in relational aggression when they exhibited heightened reactivity to exclusion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Popular Culture and the New Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishwick, Marshall W.

    This paper discusses the concept of popular culture, relating it to new journalism as a phenomenon which reflects the popular images of society. Style is the essential element of popular culture so that the kind of writing presently known as new journalism is the ultimate example of the philosophy that style is supreme. But the style of the best…

  5. A high gain antenna system for airborne satellite communication applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maritan, M.; Borgford, M.

    1990-01-01

    A high gain antenna for commercial aviation satellites communication is discussed. Electromagnetic and practical design considerations as well as candidate systems implementation are presented. An evaluation of these implementation schemes is given, resulting in the selection of a simple top mounted aerodynamic phased array antenna with a remotely located beam steering unit. This concept has been developed into a popular product known as the Canadian Marconi Company CMA-2100. A description of the technical details is followed by a summary of results from the first production antennas.

  6. Popularizing dissent: A civil society perspective.

    PubMed

    Motion, Judy; Leitch, Shirley; Weaver, C Kay

    2015-05-01

    This article theorizes civil society groups' attempts to popularize opposition to genetic modification in New Zealand as deliberative interventions that seek to open up public participation in science-society governance. In this case, the popularization strategies were designed to intensify concerns about social justice and democratic incursions, mobilize dissent and offer meaningful mechanisms for navigating and participating in public protest. Such civic popularization efforts, we argue, are more likely to succeed when popularity and politicization strategies are judiciously integrated to escalate controversy, re-negotiate power relations and provoke agency and action. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Social Costs for Wannabes: Moderating Effects of Popularity and Gender on the Links between Popularity Goals and Negative Peer Experiences.

    PubMed

    Breslend, Nicole Lafko; Shoulberg, Erin K; McQuade, Julia D; Murray-Close, Dianna

    2018-02-05

    Youth in early adolescence are highly concerned with being popular in the peer group, but the desire to be popular can have maladaptive consequences for individuals. In fact, qualitative work suggests that youth with high popularity goals who are nonetheless unpopular have negative experiences with their peers. However, little quantitative work has examined this possibility. The purpose of the current study was to examine if popularity goals were linked with physical (e.g., being hit) and relational (e.g., being excluded) victimization and peer rejection, particularly for individuals who strived for popularity but were viewed by their peers as unpopular. Late elementary and early middle school participants (N = 205; 54% female) completed self-reports of popularity goals and peer nominations of popularity and peer rejection. Teachers reported on students' experiences of relational and physical victimization. Peer nominated popularity and gender were moderators of the association between popularity goals and negative peer experiences. Consistent with hypotheses, girls who were unpopular but wanted to be popular were more likely to experience peer rejection and relational victimization. Unexpectedly, boys who were unpopular but did not desire to be popular were more likely to be rejected and relationally victimized. The findings suggest that intervention and prevention programs may benefit from addressing the social status goals of low status youth in a gender-specific manner.

  8. Popular Weight Loss Strategies: a Review of Four Weight Loss Techniques.

    PubMed

    Obert, Jonathan; Pearlman, Michelle; Obert, Lois; Chapin, Sarah

    2017-11-09

    The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiology of obesity and the most recent literature on popular fad diets and exercise regimens that are used for weight loss. The weight loss plans that will be discussed in this article include juicing or detoxification diets, intermittent fasting, the paleo diet, and high intensity training. Despite the growing popularity of fad diets and exercise plans for weight loss, there are limited studies that actually suggest these particular regimens are beneficial and lead to long-term weight loss. Juicing or detoxification diets tend to work because they lead to extremely low caloric intake for short periods of time, however tend to lead to weight gain once a normal diet is resumed. Both intermittent fasting and the paleo diet lead to weight loss because of overall decreased caloric intake as well. Lastly, studies on short bursts of high intensity training have shown remarkable weight loss and improvements in cardiovascular health. Review of the literature does suggest that some fad diets and exercise plans do lead to weight loss; however, the studies are quite limited and are all based on the concept of caloric restriction.

  9. Text Messaging for Student Communication and Voting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClean, Stephen; Hagan, Paul; Morgan, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Text messaging has gained widespread popularity in higher education as a communication tool and as a means of engaging students in the learning process. In this study we report on the use of text messaging in a large, year-one introductory chemistry module where students were encouraged to send questions and queries to a dedicated text number both…

  10. Discovery of high-gain stimulated polariton scattering near 4  THz from lithium niobate.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yu-Chung; Wang, Tsong-Dong; Zhao, Gang; Huang, Yen-Chieh

    2017-12-01

    Lithium niobate is the most popular material for terahertz wave generation via stimulated polariton scattering (SPS), previously known to have a gain peak near 2 THz. Here we report the discovery of another phase-matched gain peak near 4 THz in lithium niobate, which greatly extends the useful gain spectrum of lithium niobate. Despite the relatively high 4 THz absorption in lithium niobate, the 4 THz SPS becomes dominant over the 2 THz one in an intensely pumped short lithium niobate crystal due to less diffraction-induced absorption and mode-area mismatch. We also demonstrate a signal-seeded OTPO that generates 1.4 nJ at 4.2 THz from lithium niobate with 17.5 mJ pump energy.

  11. Rethinking Popular Culture and Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Elizabeth, Ed.; Sensoy, Ozlem, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Rethinking Popular Culture and Media" is a provocative collection of articles that begins with the idea that the "popular" in classrooms and in the everyday lives of teachers and students is fundamentally political. This anthology includes outstanding articles by elementary and secondary public school teachers, scholars, and activists who…

  12. Popular science publishing in contemporary China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guosheng; Qiu, Hui

    2013-07-01

    Since the 1950s China's popular science publishing has been the business of the government, and subject to its will. China adopted a system of planned economies, as the Soviet Union did, until the 1980s when a policy of reform and opening-up was adopted. During the period of the planned economies, popular science publishing was not a commercial but a governmental enterprise. More than 100 million copies of the most representative publication of this period, One Hundred Thousand Whys, have been distributed. The Unmoved Mover Series of the 1990s was a milestone in the new era. What is significant about this series is that it broke through the prevailing mode of science-popularization as 'serving for industrial and agricultural production, serving for ideology'. China's popular science publishing has its defects, genetically and culturally. In an age of marketization, popular science books are frequently applauded by the experts, but not enjoyed by general readers.

  13. Oil development and health in the Amazon basin of Ecuador: the popular epidemiology process.

    PubMed

    San Sebastián, Miguel; Hurtig, Anna Karin

    2005-02-01

    Recent decades have witnessed an increasing corporate access to and control over natural resources resulting in environmental degradation, inequalities and ill health. Since 1972, oil companies have extracted more than two billion barrels of crude oil from the Ecuadorian Amazon. During this process, millions of gallons of untreated toxic wastes, gas and oil have been released into the environment. Indigenous federations, peasant's movements and environmental groups have claimed that contamination has caused widespread damage to both people and the environment. This article tells the story of how the relationship between local organisations and research institutions developed around an epidemiological study constructed to address communities' concerns. Local organisations set the agenda of the research: they were involved in the hypothesis formulation, consulted in each step during the study and responsible of the dissemination of the findings. This process is known as popular epidemiology. Practical and personal issues and dilemmas faced during the research process are discussed with emphasis on the communication and dissemination of the findings. The article concludes the need of alliances between communities and researchers in order to protect health and environment. Popular epidemiology is an essential approach for public health researchers to reaffirm their roots in improving public health as a primary value.

  14. New Dimensions in Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Russel B., Ed.

    This document contains fifteen essays which study some of the didactic, moralistic literature which was popular in nineteenth century America, and speculate about the culture from which the literature evolved. The essays include "Millions of Moral Little Books: Sunday School Books in Their Popular Context"; "Nineteenth Century Gift Books: A…

  15. Popularity versus similarity in growing networks.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Kitsak, Maksim; Serrano, M Ángeles; Boguñá, Marián; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2012-09-27

    The principle that 'popularity is attractive' underlies preferential attachment, which is a common explanation for the emergence of scaling in growing networks. If new connections are made preferentially to more popular nodes, then the resulting distribution of the number of connections possessed by nodes follows power laws, as observed in many real networks. Preferential attachment has been directly validated for some real networks (including the Internet), and can be a consequence of different underlying processes based on node fitness, ranking, optimization, random walks or duplication. Here we show that popularity is just one dimension of attractiveness; another dimension is similarity. We develop a framework in which new connections optimize certain trade-offs between popularity and similarity, instead of simply preferring popular nodes. The framework has a geometric interpretation in which popularity preference emerges from local optimization. As opposed to preferential attachment, our optimization framework accurately describes the large-scale evolution of technological (the Internet), social (trust relationships between people) and biological (Escherichia coli metabolic) networks, predicting the probability of new links with high precision. The framework that we have developed can thus be used for predicting new links in evolving networks, and provides a different perspective on preferential attachment as an emergent phenomenon.

  16. Cultural values embodying universal norms: a critique of a popular assumption about cultures and human rights.

    PubMed

    Jing-Bao, Nie

    2005-09-01

    In Western and non-Western societies, it is a widely held belief that the concept of human rights is, by and large, a Western cultural norm, often at odds with non-Western cultures and, therefore, not applicable in non-Western societies. The Universal Draft Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights reflects this deep-rooted and popular assumption. By using Chinese culture(s) as an illustration, this article points out the problems of this widespread misconception and stereotypical view of cultures and human rights. It highlights the often ignored positive elements in Chinese cultures that promote and embody universal human values such as human dignity and human rights. It concludes, accordingly, with concrete suggestions on how to modify the Declaration.

  17. The contribution of migrant breeds to the genetic gain of beef traits of German Vorderwald and Hinterwald cattle.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, S; Wellmann, R; Hamann, H; Bennewitz, J

    2014-12-01

    During the past decades, migrant contributions have accumulated in many local breeds. Cross-breeding was carried out to mitigate the risk of inbreeding depression and to improve the performance of local breeds. However, breeding activities for local breeds were not as intensive and target oriented as for popular high-yielding breeds. Therefore, even if performance improved, the gap between the performance of local and popular breeds increased for many traits. Furthermore, the genetic originality of local breeds declined due to the increasing contributions of migrant breeds. This study examined the importance of migrant breed influences for the realization of breeding progress of beef traits of German Vorderwald and Hinterwald cattle. The results show that there is a high amount of migrant contributions and their effects on performance are substantial for most traits. The effect of the French cattle breed Montbéliard (p-value 0.014) on daily gain of Vorderwald bulls at test station was positive. The effects of Vorderwald ancestors (p-value for daily gain 0.007 and p-value for net gain 0.004) were positive for both traits under consideration in the population of Hinterwald cattle. Additionally, the effect of remaining breeds (p-value 0.030) on net gain of Hinterwald cattle in the field was also positive. The estimated effect of Fleckvieh ancestors on net gain of Hinterwald cattle was even larger but not significant. Breeding values adjusted for the effects of the migrant breeds showed little genetic trend. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Technology, Sound and Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Steve

    The ability to record sound is power over sound. Musicians, producers, recording engineers, and the popular music audience often refer to the sound of a recording as something distinct from the music it contains. Popular music is primarily mediated via electronics, via sound, and not by means of written notes. The ability to preserve or modify…

  19. Popular Culture in the Junior College Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, David; Ayers, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Popular culture is extremely influential in both academe and society at large. However, formal disciplinary study of popular culture lags far behind that influence. Anthropology, film studies, history, musicology, and sociology are only some of the disciplines that frequently include popular culture as a research focus. This article advises on how…

  20. Widespread suppression of huntingtin with convection-enhanced delivery of siRNA.

    PubMed

    Stiles, David K; Zhang, Zhiming; Ge, Pei; Nelson, Brian; Grondin, Richard; Ai, Yi; Hardy, Peter; Nelson, Peter T; Guzaev, Andrei P; Butt, Mark T; Charisse, Klaus; Kosovrasti, Verbena; Tchangov, Lubomir; Meys, Michael; Maier, Martin; Nechev, Lubomir; Manoharan, Muthiah; Kaemmerer, William F; Gwost, Douglas; Stewart, Gregory R; Gash, Don M; Sah, Dinah W Y

    2012-01-01

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by a toxic gain of function mutation in the huntingtin gene (Htt). Silencing of Htt with RNA interference using direct CNS delivery in rodent models of Huntington's disease has been shown to reduce pathology and promote neuronal recovery. A key translational step for this approach is extension to the larger non-human primate brain, achieving sufficient distribution of small interfering RNA targeting Htt (siHtt) and levels of Htt suppression that may have therapeutic benefit. We evaluated the potential for convection enhanced delivery (CED) of siHtt to provide widespread and robust suppression of Htt in nonhuman primates. siHtt was infused continuously for 7 or 28 days into the nonhuman primate putamen to analyze effects of infusion rate and drug concentration on the volume of effective suppression. Distribution of radiolabeled siHtt and Htt suppression were quantified by autoradiography and PCR, respectively, in tissue punches. Histopathology was evaluated and Htt suppression was also visualized in animals treated for 28 days. Seven days of CED led to widespread distribution of siHtt and significant Htt silencing throughout the nonhuman primate striatum in an infusion rate and dose dependent manner. Htt suppression at therapeutic dose levels was well tolerated by the brain. A model developed from these results predicts that continuous CED of siHtt can achieve significant coverage of the striatum of Huntington's disease patients. These findings suggest that this approach may provide an important therapeutic strategy for treating Huntington's disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Issues in the Popularization of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapitza, Sergei P.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the objectives, problems, and difficulties involved in the popularization of science. Describes popular scientific journals, scientists, journalists, exhibitions, museums, science-related social problems, the role of the mass media, and global problems. (RT)

  2. Characterizing and modeling the dynamics of online popularity.

    PubMed

    Ratkiewicz, Jacob; Fortunato, Santo; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2010-10-08

    Online popularity has an enormous impact on opinions, culture, policy, and profits. We provide a quantitative, large scale, temporal analysis of the dynamics of online content popularity in two massive model systems: the Wikipedia and an entire country's Web space. We find that the dynamics of popularity are characterized by bursts, displaying characteristic features of critical systems such as fat-tailed distributions of magnitude and interevent time. We propose a minimal model combining the classic preferential popularity increase mechanism with the occurrence of random popularity shifts due to exogenous factors. The model recovers the critical features observed in the empirical analysis of the systems analyzed here, highlighting the key factors needed in the description of popularity dynamics.

  3. Cases of good and bad popularizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekkola, Marko

    2010-05-01

    Scientific articles in average are read by few people and the impact of individual paper in the society may remain small. A typical press release might not help much. Simultaneously popular science magazines are seeking for news, but by reading the same channels it is easy to end up printing yesterdaýs digital news in predictable format. Yet an author who knows how and what to popularize, may win thousands of readers and simultaneously help the popular science magazine to win the news competition.

  4. An overview assessment of the effectiveness and global popularity of some methods used in measuring riverbank filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, Da'u. Abba; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Sulaiman, Wan Nor Azmin; Kura, Nura Umar; Tukur, Abubakar Ibrahim

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents an overview assessment of the effectiveness and popularity of some methods adopted in measuring river bank filtration (RBF). The review is aim at understanding some of the appropriate methods used in measuring riverbank filtration, their frequencies of use, and their spatial applications worldwide. The most commonly used methods and techniques in riverbank filtration studies are: Geographical Information System (GIS) (site suitability/surface characterization), Geophysical, Pumping Test and borehole logging (sub-surface), Hydrochemical, Geochemical, and Statistical techniques (hydrochemistry of water), Numerical modelling, Tracer techniques and Stable Isotope Approaches (degradation and contaminants attenuation processes). From the summary in Table 1, hydrochemical, numerical modelling and pumping test are the frequently used and popular methods, while geophysical, GIS and statistical techniques are the less attractive. However, many researchers prefer integrated approach especially that riverbank filtration studies involve diverse and interrelated components. In term of spatial popularity and successful implementation of riverbank filtration, it is explicitly clear that the popularity and success of the technology is more pronounced in developed countries like U.S. and most European countries. However, it is gradually gaining ground in Asia and Africa, although it is not far from its infancy state in Africa, where the technology could be more important considering the economic status of the region and its peculiarity when it comes to water resources predicaments.

  5. Measuring learning gain: Comparing anatomy drawing screencasts and paper-based resources.

    PubMed

    Pickering, James D

    2017-07-01

    The use of technology-enhanced learning (TEL) resources is now a common tool across a variety of healthcare programs. Despite this popular approach to curriculum delivery there remains a paucity in empirical evidence that quantifies the change in learning gain. The aim of the study was to measure the changes in learning gain observed with anatomy drawing screencasts in comparison to a traditional paper-based resource. Learning gain is a widely used term to describe the tangible changes in learning outcomes that have been achieved after a specific intervention. In regard to this study, a cohort of Year 2 medical students voluntarily participated and were randomly assigned to either a screencast or textbook group to compare changes in learning gain across resource type. Using a pre-test/post-test protocol, and a range of statistical analyses, the learning gain was calculated at three test points: immediate post-test, 1-week post-test and 4-week post-test. Results at all test points revealed a significant increase in learning gain and large effect sizes for the screencast group compared to the textbook group. Possible reasons behind the difference in learning gain are explored by comparing the instructional design of both resources. Strengths and weaknesses of the study design are also considered. This work adds to the growing area of research that supports the effective design of TEL resources which are complimentary to the cognitive theory of multimedia learning to achieve both an effective and efficient learning resource for anatomical education. Anat Sci Educ 10: 307-316. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. Orbital evidence for more widespread carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, James J.; Murchie, Scott L.; Bishop, Janice L.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Milliken, Ralph E.; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Seelos, Kimberly D.; Chojnacki, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    Carbonates are key minerals for understanding ancient Martian environments because they are indicators of potentially habitable, neutral-to-alkaline water and may be an important reservoir for paleoatmospheric CO2. Previous remote sensing studies have identified mostly Mg-rich carbonates, both in Martian dust and in a Late Noachian rock unit circumferential to the Isidis basin. Here we report evidence for older Fe- and/or Ca-rich carbonates exposed from the subsurface by impact craters and troughs. These carbonates are found in and around the Huygens basin northwest of Hellas, in western Noachis Terra between the Argyre basin and Valles Marineris, and in other isolated locations spread widely across the planet. In all cases they cooccur with or near phyllosilicates, and in Huygens basin specifically they occupy layered rocks exhumed from up to ~5 km depth. We discuss factors that might explain their observed regional distribution, arguments for why carbonates may be even more widespread in Noachian materials than presently appreciated and what could be gained by targeting these carbonates for further study with future orbital or landed missions to Mars.

  7. Comparison of gender and victim response to violence in popular movies.

    PubMed

    Firman, D M

    1991-01-01

    The overwhelming statistics of crime against women affect their perceptions and quality of life. The media have a significant effect on both perceptions and behavior. The manner, therefore, in which fictional victims are portrayed could affect perceptions of control in real-life women fearing victimization and in their potential assailants. Popular crime-drama movies and the difference between male and female behaviors were examined in this pilot study. A total of 65 responses were evaluated from a random sample of film videos. Active attempts to gain control were exhibited by 81% of the male responses, whereas only 17% of the women did so, chi 2 (1, N = 65) = 28.99, p less than .001. The relationship of results and myths concerning women as victims is discussed.

  8. [Popular education in health and nutrition: literature review].

    PubMed

    Mueses De Molina, C

    1993-01-01

    This literature review of popular education in health and nutrition is intended to provide the necessary theoretical framework for proposals and programs for human resource development in food and nutrition. The work contains a summary of the objectives, purposes, and methodology of popular education in general, a discussion of applications of popular education techniques to health and nutrition education, and a description of some projects based on popular education. Popular education was developed in Latin America by Paulo Freire and others as a response to political domination. Its basic objective was to make the oppressed masses aware of their condition and able to struggle for the transformation of society. Popular education views community participation, development of consciousness, and integration with social and economic activity as fundamental attributes. Participation should be developed through community organizations and should continue for the duration of the educational intervention. The right of all persons to participate in a plane of equality should be recognized. Community or popular education should be conceived as a process of permanent education that will continue throughout the lifetime of individuals and groups. Popular education is directed toward population sectors excluded from participation in employment, family, community, mass communications, education, and leisure activities. Such population sectors are concentrated in the urban periphery and in rural areas. Abandonment of traditional educational techniques and assumption of an active role by community members are elements in development of the methodology of popular education. Steps in the methodology include investigation of possible themes, selection of themes to serve as points of departure, definition of the problem, and action programs. Popular education in nutrition and health begins by asking what problems need to be remedied. The entire process of training and education in

  9. Popularity Modeling for Mobile Apps: A Sequential Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hengshu; Liu, Chuanren; Ge, Yong; Xiong, Hui; Chen, Enhong

    2015-07-01

    The popularity information in App stores, such as chart rankings, user ratings, and user reviews, provides an unprecedented opportunity to understand user experiences with mobile Apps, learn the process of adoption of mobile Apps, and thus enables better mobile App services. While the importance of popularity information is well recognized in the literature, the use of the popularity information for mobile App services is still fragmented and under-explored. To this end, in this paper, we propose a sequential approach based on hidden Markov model (HMM) for modeling the popularity information of mobile Apps toward mobile App services. Specifically, we first propose a popularity based HMM (PHMM) to model the sequences of the heterogeneous popularity observations of mobile Apps. Then, we introduce a bipartite based method to precluster the popularity observations. This can help to learn the parameters and initial values of the PHMM efficiently. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the PHMM is a general model and can be applicable for various mobile App services, such as trend based App recommendation, rating and review spam detection, and ranking fraud detection. Finally, we validate our approach on two real-world data sets collected from the Apple Appstore. Experimental results clearly validate both the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed popularity modeling approach.

  10. Health information on internet: quality, importance, and popularity of persian health websites.

    PubMed

    Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Ahmadi, Maryam; Mohammadi, Ali; Mohseni Saravi, Beniamin

    2014-04-01

    The Internet has provided great opportunities for disseminating both accurate and inaccurate health information. Therefore, the quality of information is considered as a widespread concern affecting the human life. Despite the increasingly substantial growth in the number of users, Persian health websites and the proportion of internet-using patients, little is known about the quality of Persian medical and health websites. The current study aimed to first assess the quality, popularity and importance of websites providing Persian health-related information, and second to evaluate the correlation of the popularity and importance ranking with quality score on the Internet. The sample websites were identified by entering the health-related keywords into four most popular search engines of Iranian users based on the Alexa ranking at the time of study. Each selected website was assessed using three qualified tools including the Bomba and Land Index, Google PageRank and the Alexa ranking. The evaluated sites characteristics (ownership structure, database, scope and objective) really did not have an effect on the Alexa traffic global rank, Alexa traffic rank in Iran, Google PageRank and Bomba total score. Most websites (78.9 percent, n = 56) were in the moderate category (8 ≤ x ≤ 11.99) based on their quality levels. There was no statistically significant association between Google PageRank with Bomba index variables and Alexa traffic global rank (P > 0.05). The Persian health websites had better Bomba quality scores in availability and usability guidelines as compared to other guidelines. The Google PageRank did not properly reflect the real quality of evaluated websites and Internet users seeking online health information should not merely rely on it for any kind of prejudgment regarding Persian health websites. However, they can use Iran Alexa rank as a primary filtering tool of these websites. Therefore, designing search engines dedicated to explore accredited

  11. Health Information on Internet: Quality, Importance, and Popularity of Persian Health Websites

    PubMed Central

    Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Ahmadi, Maryam; Mohammadi, Ali; Mohseni Saravi, Beniamin

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Internet has provided great opportunities for disseminating both accurate and inaccurate health information. Therefore, the quality of information is considered as a widespread concern affecting the human life. Despite the increasingly substantial growth in the number of users, Persian health websites and the proportion of internet-using patients, little is known about the quality of Persian medical and health websites. Objectives: The current study aimed to first assess the quality, popularity and importance of websites providing Persian health-related information, and second to evaluate the correlation of the popularity and importance ranking with quality score on the Internet. Materials and Methods: The sample websites were identified by entering the health-related keywords into four most popular search engines of Iranian users based on the Alexa ranking at the time of study. Each selected website was assessed using three qualified tools including the Bomba and Land Index, Google PageRank and the Alexa ranking. Results: The evaluated sites characteristics (ownership structure, database, scope and objective) really did not have an effect on the Alexa traffic global rank, Alexa traffic rank in Iran, Google PageRank and Bomba total score. Most websites (78.9 percent, n = 56) were in the moderate category (8 ≤ x ≤ 11.99) based on their quality levels. There was no statistically significant association between Google PageRank with Bomba index variables and Alexa traffic global rank (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The Persian health websites had better Bomba quality scores in availability and usability guidelines as compared to other guidelines. The Google PageRank did not properly reflect the real quality of evaluated websites and Internet users seeking online health information should not merely rely on it for any kind of prejudgment regarding Persian health websites. However, they can use Iran Alexa rank as a primary filtering tool of these websites

  12. Popularity and adolescent friendship networks: selection and influence dynamics.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Borch, Casey

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to enhance their status through befriending higher status adolescents, whereas higher status adolescents strive to maintain their status by keeping lower status adolescents at a distance. The results largely supported these expectations. Selection partially accounted for similarity in popularity among friends; adolescents preferred to affiliate with similar-status or higher status peers, reinforcing the attractiveness of popular adolescents and explaining stability of popularity at the individual level. Influence processes also accounted for similarity in popularity over time, showing that peers increase in popularity and become more similar to their friends. The results showed how selection and influence processes account for popularity dynamics in adolescent networks over time.

  13. Popularity versus similarity in growing networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Kitsak, Maksim; Serrano, Mariangeles; Boguna, Marian

    2012-02-01

    Preferential attachment is a powerful mechanism explaining the emergence of scaling in growing networks. If new connections are established preferentially to more popular nodes in a network, then the network is scale-free. Here we show that not only popularity but also similarity is a strong force shaping the network structure and dynamics. We develop a framework where new connections, instead of preferring popular nodes, optimize certain trade-offs between popularity and similarity. The framework admits a geometric interpretation, in which preferential attachment emerges from local optimization processes. As opposed to preferential attachment, the optimization framework accurately describes large-scale evolution of technological (Internet), social (web of trust), and biological (E.coli metabolic) networks, predicting the probability of new links in them with a remarkable precision. The developed framework can thus be used for predicting new links in evolving networks, and provides a different perspective on preferential attachment as an emergent phenomenon.

  14. Neural mechanisms tracking popularity in real-world social networks.

    PubMed

    Zerubavel, Noam; Bearman, Peter S; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2015-12-08

    Differences in popularity are a key aspect of status in virtually all human groups and shape social interactions within them. Little is known, however, about how we track and neurally represent others' popularity. We addressed this question in two real-world social networks using sociometric methods to quantify popularity. Each group member (perceiver) viewed faces of every other group member (target) while whole-brain functional MRI data were collected. Independent functional localizer tasks were used to identify brain systems supporting affective valuation (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum, amygdala) and social cognition (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, temporoparietal junction), respectively. During the face-viewing task, activity in both types of neural systems tracked targets' sociometric popularity, even when controlling for potential confounds. The target popularity-social cognition system relationship was mediated by valuation system activity, suggesting that observing popular individuals elicits value signals that facilitate understanding their mental states. The target popularity-valuation system relationship was strongest for popular perceivers, suggesting enhanced sensitivity to differences among other group members' popularity. Popular group members also demonstrated greater interpersonal sensitivity by more accurately predicting how their own personalities were perceived by other individuals in the social network. These data offer insights into the mechanisms by which status guides social behavior.

  15. Spanish Federation of Popular Universities (FEUP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Isabel Garcia-Longoria

    2006-01-01

    This article features the Spanish Popular Universities, which are defined as "a project of cultural development that acts in the municipality, whose objective is to promote social participation, education, training, and culture in order to improve life quality" (Federation of Popular Education Universities, 2000). A century of history of…

  16. Living-History Villages as Popular Entertainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Christopher D.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the furor created when Walt Disney Studios announced plans to develop a "historic amusement park" near the Manassas (Virginia) National Battlefield Park. Maintains that the public debate over the popular understanding of history reflects an ongoing tension between academic historians and the purveyors of popular history. (CFR)

  17. Function of Hero and Heroine in Women's Formula Fiction: A Gaining of Self through Separation, Identification, and Assimilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffitt, Mary Anne

    Romance novels have become increasingly popular and sexually explicit, in part because women may gain a sense of self through reading them and perhaps in reaction to the patriarchal structure of society. Women may seek escape and a sense of self-identity through the novels'"larger-than-life" characters and predictable endings. Readers of…

  18. Innovative methods of popularizing technical education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkitsa, L. Y.; Panchuk, V. G.; Kornuta, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    There have been analyzed reasons of the loss of technical education’s popularity. Also, the analysis of known educational and production methods, oriented at the innovative model of development of society, was performed. It is stated that the acquisition of 21st century’s skills as a result of competition of technical education are natural for the DIY ideology, which was realized in the institutions like Fab Lab. The new educational strategy, based on project-based learning, is proposed to be implemented as a special laboratory with equipment, which would be a center of innovative development for students at the Technical University. Moreover, the list of projects planned for implementation, that includes not only projects, specific to a particular university, but also projects, demanded by society as a whole, is specified. It is worth to implement trendy projects in the laboratory, such as toy-like, ecological projects; projects of the energy dependence decrease or the energy efficiency increase, modern digital or innovative projects etc. The student should gain knowledge, skills and, possibly, equipment that are available for immediate usage on the labor market or for the realization of his own projects or the community’s projects in everyday life after the realization of the particular project at the laboratory

  19. Bullying, Social Power and Heteronormativity: Girls' Constructions of Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Neil; Owens, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Literature on girls' popularity posits a strong association between popularity, social power and bullying behaviours, some of which conflate the concepts "bully" and "popular". This study explores that association through links to concepts of popularity among girls in two demographically different high schools. Data are presented that were derived…

  20. A Guide to Using Popular Culture to Teach Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smelstor, Marjorie, Ed.

    The purpose of this guide is to offer possible answers to questions concerning popular culture that teachers might have and to offer suggestions on utilizing popular culture materials that are available. Lesson plans are presented using materials from advertising, newspapers, comics, film, television, popular music, radio, popular literature,…

  1. Popularity Trajectories and Substance Use in early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Moody, James; Brynildsen, Wendy D; Osgood, D Wayne; Feinberg, Mark E; Gest, Scott

    2011-05-01

    This paper introduces new longitudinal network data from the "Promoting School-Community-University Partnerships to Enhance Resilience" or "PROSPER" peers project. In 28 communities, grade-level sociometric friendship nominations were collected from two cohorts of middle school students as they moved from 6(th), to 9(th) grade. As an illustration and description of these longitudinal network data, this paper describes the school popularity structure, changes in popularity position, and suggests linkages between popularity trajectory and substance use. In the cross-section, we find that the network is consistent with a hierarchical social organization, but exhibits considerable relational change in both particular friends and position at the individual level. We find that both the base level of popularity and the variability of popularity trajectories effect substance use.

  2. What types of astronomy images are most popular?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Alice; Bonnell, Jerry T.; Connelly, Paul; Haring, Ralf; Lowe, Stuart R.; Nemiroff, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Stunning imagery helps make astronomy one of the most popular sciences -- but what types of astronomy images are most popular? To help answer this question, public response to images posted to various public venues of the Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) are investigated. APOD portals queried included the main NASA website and the social media mirrors on Facebook, Google Plus, and Twitter. Popularity measures include polls, downloads, page views, likes, shares, and retweets; these measures are used to assess how image popularity varies in relation to various image attributes including topic and topicality.

  3. Subtle Nonlinearity in Popular Album Charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Maschner, Herbert D. G.

    Large-scale patterns of culture change may be explained by models of self organized criticality, or alternatively, by multiplicative processes. We speculate that popular album activity may be similar to critical models of extinction in that interconnected agents compete to survive within a limited space. Here we investigate whether popular music albums as listed on popular album charts display evidence of self-organized criticality, including a self-affine time series of activity and power-law distributions of lifetimes and exit activity in the chart. We find it difficult to distinguish between multiplicative growth and critical model hypotheses for these data. However, aspects of criticality may be masked by the selective sampling that a "Top 200" listing necessarily implies.

  4. Marriage and Retirement: Advice to Couples in Popular Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbert, Ellen M.; And Others

    Though academic research has shown retirement to be viewed by retirees as a satisfying time in life, popular opinion holds that retirement is a difficult adjustment for a couple. This study was undertaken to find out more about one source of popular opinion, the popular press. All popular books and magazine articles on the topic of marriage and…

  5. Popularity in Early Adolescence: Prosocial and Antisocial Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruyn, Eddy H.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine early adolescents' stereotypical descriptions of two types of youth who are seen as popular by their peers. Participants were 13- to 14-year-old early adolescents (N = 287). The results indicated that early adolescents distinguished two types of popular peers: a "populistic" (popular but not…

  6. Widespread activity of multiple lineages of Usutu virus, western Europe, 2016

    PubMed Central

    Cadar, Daniel; Lühken, Renke; van der Jeugd, Henk; Garigliany, Mutien; Ziegler, Ute; Keller, Markus; Lahoreau, Jennifer; Lachmann, Lars; Becker, Norbert; Kik, Marja; Oude Munnink, Bas B; Bosch, Stefan; Tannich, Egbert; Linden, Annick; Schmidt, Volker; Koopmans, Marion P; Rijks, Jolianne; Desmecht, Daniel; Groschup, Martin H; Reusken, Chantal; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    In the summer of 2016, Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands reported widespread Usutu virus (USUV) activity based on live and dead bird surveillance. The causative USUV strains represented four lineages, of which two putative novel lineages were most likely recently introduced into Germany and spread to other western European countries. The spatial extent of the outbreak area corresponded with R0 values > 1. The occurrence of the outbreak, the largest USUV epizootic registered so far in Europe, allowed us to gain insight in how a recently introduced arbovirus with potential public health implications can spread and become a resident pathogen in a naïve environment. Understanding the ecological and epidemiological factors that drive the emergence or re-emergence of USUV is critical to develop and implement timely surveillance strategies for adequate preventive and control measures. Public health authorities, blood transfusion services and clinicians in countries where USUV was detected should be aware of the risk of possible USUV infection in humans, including in patients with unexplained encephalitis or other neurological impairments, especially during late summer when mosquito densities peak. PMID:28181903

  7. Conflict behaviors and their relationship to popularity.

    PubMed

    Tezer, E

    2001-01-01

    This study examined conflict behaviors (self, other) among 127 Turkish college students. Differences in five conflict behaviors (forcing, avoiding, accommodating, compromising, and collaborating) were then explored in relation to popularity and unpopularity. Results indicated that the students engaged in more avoiding and compromising behaviors, while perceiving more forcing behavior in others. Further, the unpopular group was found to engage in more compromising behavior, and perceived more forcing behavior in others, as compared with the popular group. Constructive and destructive conflict strategies, and their implications for popularity, are discussed.

  8. Developmental trajectories of adolescent popularity: a growth curve modelling analysis.

    PubMed

    Cillessen, Antonius H N; Borch, Casey

    2006-12-01

    Growth curve modelling was used to examine developmental trajectories of sociometric and perceived popularity across eight years in adolescence, and the effects of gender, overt aggression, and relational aggression on these trajectories. Participants were 303 initially popular students (167 girls, 136 boys) for whom sociometric data were available in Grades 5-12. The popularity and aggression constructs were stable but non-overlapping developmental dimensions. Growth curve models were run with SAS MIXED in the framework of the multilevel model for change [Singer, J. D., & Willett, J. B. (2003). Applied longitudinal data analysis. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press]. Sociometric popularity showed a linear change trajectory; perceived popularity showed nonlinear change. Overt aggression predicted low sociometric popularity but an increase in perceived popularity in the second half of the study. Relational aggression predicted a decrease in sociometric popularity, especially for girls, and continued high-perceived popularity for both genders. The effect of relational aggression on perceived popularity was the strongest around the transition from middle to high school. The importance of growth curve models for understanding adolescent social development was discussed, as well as specific issues and challenges of growth curve analyses with sociometric data.

  9. Characterizing and modeling the dynamics of activity and popularity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Menghui; Gao, Liang; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru

    2014-01-01

    Social media, regarded as two-layer networks consisting of users and items, turn out to be the most important channels for access to massive information in the era of Web 2.0. The dynamics of human activity and item popularity is a crucial issue in social media networks. In this paper, by analyzing the growth of user activity and item popularity in four empirical social media networks, i.e., Amazon, Flickr, Delicious and Wikipedia, it is found that cross links between users and items are more likely to be created by active users and to be acquired by popular items, where user activity and item popularity are measured by the number of cross links associated with users and items. This indicates that users generally trace popular items, overall. However, it is found that the inactive users more severely trace popular items than the active users. Inspired by empirical analysis, we propose an evolving model for such networks, in which the evolution is driven only by two-step random walk. Numerical experiments verified that the model can qualitatively reproduce the distributions of user activity and item popularity observed in empirical networks. These results might shed light on the understandings of micro dynamics of activity and popularity in social media networks.

  10. Characterizing and Modeling the Dynamics of Activity and Popularity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Menghui; Gao, Liang; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru

    2014-01-01

    Social media, regarded as two-layer networks consisting of users and items, turn out to be the most important channels for access to massive information in the era of Web 2.0. The dynamics of human activity and item popularity is a crucial issue in social media networks. In this paper, by analyzing the growth of user activity and item popularity in four empirical social media networks, i.e., Amazon, Flickr, Delicious and Wikipedia, it is found that cross links between users and items are more likely to be created by active users and to be acquired by popular items, where user activity and item popularity are measured by the number of cross links associated with users and items. This indicates that users generally trace popular items, overall. However, it is found that the inactive users more severely trace popular items than the active users. Inspired by empirical analysis, we propose an evolving model for such networks, in which the evolution is driven only by two-step random walk. Numerical experiments verified that the model can qualitatively reproduce the distributions of user activity and item popularity observed in empirical networks. These results might shed light on the understandings of micro dynamics of activity and popularity in social media networks. PMID:24586586

  11. Neural mechanisms tracking popularity in real-world social networks

    PubMed Central

    Zerubavel, Noam; Bearman, Peter S.; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in popularity are a key aspect of status in virtually all human groups and shape social interactions within them. Little is known, however, about how we track and neurally represent others’ popularity. We addressed this question in two real-world social networks using sociometric methods to quantify popularity. Each group member (perceiver) viewed faces of every other group member (target) while whole-brain functional MRI data were collected. Independent functional localizer tasks were used to identify brain systems supporting affective valuation (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum, amygdala) and social cognition (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, temporoparietal junction), respectively. During the face-viewing task, activity in both types of neural systems tracked targets’ sociometric popularity, even when controlling for potential confounds. The target popularity–social cognition system relationship was mediated by valuation system activity, suggesting that observing popular individuals elicits value signals that facilitate understanding their mental states. The target popularity–valuation system relationship was strongest for popular perceivers, suggesting enhanced sensitivity to differences among other group members’ popularity. Popular group members also demonstrated greater interpersonal sensitivity by more accurately predicting how their own personalities were perceived by other individuals in the social network. These data offer insights into the mechanisms by which status guides social behavior. PMID:26598684

  12. Using Popular Culture to Teach Quantitative Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillyard, Cinnamon

    2007-01-01

    Popular culture provides many opportunities to develop quantitative reasoning. This article describes a junior-level, interdisciplinary, quantitative reasoning course that uses examples from movies, cartoons, television, magazine advertisements, and children's literature. Some benefits from and cautions to using popular culture to teach…

  13. Popularity differentially predicts reactive and proactive aggression in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Stoltz, Sabine; Cillessen, Antonius H N; van den Berg, Yvonne H M; Gommans, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that peer popularity is associated with aggressive behavior. However, it is not yet clear whether popularity is uniquely related to different functions of aggression. In this study, we examined associations between peer-perceived popularity, and reactive and proactive aggression using a cross-sectional and a longitudinal design. Yearly sociometric measures of popularity, and reactive and proactive aggression were gathered from 266 seventh and eight grade adolescents (Mage grade 7 = 12.80, SDage  = .40). Popularity was positively correlated with proactive aggression and negatively correlated with reactive aggression, both concurrently as over time. Curvilinear trends indicated that a significant minority of low versus high popular adolescents showed both functions of aggression. Somewhat stronger effects of popularity on proactive aggression were found for boys than girls. Stably popular adolescents showed the highest levels of proactive aggression, whereas stably unpopular youth showed the highest levels of reactive aggression. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Popularity in Wonderland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, J.S.

    Specialists in the field of children's literature, who publish research and decide on awards for individual books, should give serious study to what children themselves choose to read. Among the children's books that were not originally awarded top honors by critics but that have proved extremely popular with children are the Oz books by L. Frank…

  15. Significance and popularity in music production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monechi, Bernardo; Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio

    2017-07-01

    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. `Significant' or `influential' works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play.

  16. Significance and popularity in music production.

    PubMed

    Monechi, Bernardo; Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D P; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio

    2017-07-01

    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. 'Significant' or 'influential' works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play.

  17. Lights, Camera, Action: Integrating Popular Film in the Health Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diez, Keri S.; Pleban, Francis T.; Wood, Ralph J.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the benefits as well as the important considerations that should be taken into account in integrating popular films in health education classes. Use of popular films in the classroom, termed "cinema education," is becoming increasingly popular in teaching health education. As a matter of convenience, popular films are easy…

  18. Implicit associations with popularity in early adolescence: an approach-avoidance analysis.

    PubMed

    Lansu, Tessa A M; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Karremans, Johan C

    2012-01-01

    This study examined 241 early adolescents' implicit and explicit associations with popularity. The peer status and gender of both the targets and the perceivers were considered. Explicit associations with popularity were assessed with sociometric methods. Implicit associations with popularity were assessed with an approach-avoidance task (AAT). Explicit evaluations of popularity were positive, but implicit associations were negative: Avoidance reactions to popular peers were faster than approach reactions. Interactions with the status of the perceiver indicated that unpopular participants had stronger negative implicit reactions to popular girls than did popular participants. This study demonstrated a negative reaction to popularity that cannot be revealed with explicit methods. The study of implicit processes with methods such as the AAT is a new and important direction for peer relations research.

  19. Popular democracy and waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    The US has moved from representative democracy to popular democracy and public scrutiny is unrelenting. Any hope of success on their part in resolving the nuclear waste question hinges on their ability to condition themselves to operate in a popular democracy environment. Those opposed to the siting of high- and low-level waste repositories have already developed a set of recurring themes: (1) the siting criteria are fatally flawed; (2) the criteria are not adequate; (3) the process is driven by politics not science; (4) unrealistic deadlines lead to dangerous shortcuts; (5) transportation experience is lacking; (6) the scientific community doesmore » not really know how to dispose of the wastes. They must continue to tell the public that if science has brought us problems, then the answer can be only more knowledge - not less. Failure by their profession to recognize that popular democracy is a fact and that nuclear issues need to be addressed in humanistic terms raises the question of whether America is philosophically suited for the expanded use of nuclear power in the future - or for that matter for leadership in the world of tomorrow.« less

  20. Thermal Non-equilibrium Consistent with Widespread Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebarger, A.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J.; Mok, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Time correlation analysis has been used to show widespread cooling in the solar corona; this cooling has been interpreted as a result of impulsive (nanoflare) heating. In this work, we investigate wide-spread cooling using a 3D model for a solar active region which has been heated with highly stratified heating. This type of heating drives thermal non-equilibrium solutions, meaning that though the heating is effectively steady, the density and temperature in the solution are not. We simulate the expected observations in narrowband EUV images and apply the time correlation analysis. We find that the results of this analysis are qualitatively similar to the observed data. We discuss additional diagnostics that may be applied to differentiate between these two heating scenarios.

  1. Popularity Trajectories and Substance Use in early Adolescence1

    PubMed Central

    Moody, James; Brynildsen, Wendy D.; Osgood, D. Wayne; Feinberg, Mark E.; Gest, Scott

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces new longitudinal network data from the “Promoting School-Community-University Partnerships to Enhance Resilience” or “PROSPER” peers project. In 28 communities, grade-level sociometric friendship nominations were collected from two cohorts of middle school students as they moved from 6th, to 9th grade. As an illustration and description of these longitudinal network data, this paper describes the school popularity structure, changes in popularity position, and suggests linkages between popularity trajectory and substance use. In the cross-section, we find that the network is consistent with a hierarchical social organization, but exhibits considerable relational change in both particular friends and position at the individual level. We find that both the base level of popularity and the variability of popularity trajectories effect substance use. PMID:21765588

  2. Predicting item popularity: Analysing local clustering behaviour of users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebig, Jessica; Rao, Asha

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the popularity of items in rating networks is an interesting but challenging problem. This is especially so when an item has first appeared and has received very few ratings. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to predicting the future popularity of new items in rating networks, defining a new bipartite clustering coefficient to predict the popularity of movies and stories in the MovieLens and Digg networks respectively. We show that the clustering behaviour of the first user who rates a new item gives insight into the future popularity of that item. Our method predicts, with a success rate of over 65% for the MovieLens network and over 50% for the Digg network, the future popularity of an item. This is a major improvement on current results.

  3. La cultura popular anglofona en el curriculum del ingles a nivel superior (Popular Anglophone Culture in the English Curriculum at the College Level).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    This paper examines the rationale for introducing popular culture into college-level English-as-a-Second-Language instruction in Mexico, drawing on research and theory in second language instruction, and it offers specific suggestions for classroom presentation of popular cultural content. It is argued that content in popular culture can enhance…

  4. Women in Popular Culture: A Reference Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishburn, Katherine

    This book explores how women have been portrayed in various forms of American popular culture over the years. In an introductory section, it is suggested that popular culture has generally used women to represent a social mythology that is built around women's subordinate status, a position that current feminists reject. Chapter 1 reviews books…

  5. Popularity and user diversity of online objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-Hua; Guo, Qiang; Yang, Kai; Zhang, Yi-Lu; Han, Jingti; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-11-01

    The popularity has been widely used to describe the object property of online user-object bipartite networks regardless of the user characteristics. In this paper, we introduce a measurement namely user diversity to measure diversity of users who select or rate one type of objects by using the information entropy. We empirically calculate the user diversity of objects with specific degree for both MovieLens and Diggs data sets. The results indicate that more types of users select normal-degree objects than those who select large-degree and small-degree objects. Furthermore, small-degree objects are usually selected by large-degree users while large-degree objects are usually selected by small-degree users. Moreover, we define 15% objects of smallest degrees as unpopular objects and 10% ones of largest degrees as popular objects. The timestamp is introduced to help further analyze the evolution of user diversity of popular objects and unpopular objects. The dynamic analysis shows that as objects become popular gradually, they are more likely accepted by small-degree users but lose attention among the large-degree users.

  6. Significance and popularity in music production

    PubMed Central

    Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio

    2017-01-01

    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. ‘Significant’ or ‘influential’ works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play. PMID:28791169

  7. Popular Astronomy in the World and in Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    A review on the popular astronomy and astronomy outreach in the world and in Armenia is given. Various ways and methods of popularization of astronomy are described. The International Year of Astronomy (IYA-2009), amateur astronomy, publication of books and other materials, the database of astronomical books, AstroBook exhibition, science-popular articles, "Astghagitak" online science-popular astronomical journal, calendar of astronomical events, databases of Solar and Lunar eclipses 2001-2050, planetary triple conjunctions 2001-2050, and of periodic comets at ArAS webpage, ArAS School Lectures Program, public lectures, "Universe" club at "Mkhitar Sebastatsi" educational ensemble, the online database of Armenian astronomers, biographies of famous Armenian astronomers, astronomers' anniversaries, scientific journalism of Armenia, and "Mass media news" section at ArAS webpage are described and discussed.

  8. Preference for gain- or loss-framed electronic cigarette prevention messages.

    PubMed

    Kong, Grace; Cavallo, Dana A; Camenga, Deepa R; Morean, Meghan E; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2016-11-01

    Effective electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) prevention messages are needed to combat the rising popularity/uptake of e-cigarettes among youth. We examined preferences for e-cigarette prevention messages that either emphasized gains (e.g., You save money by not using e-cigarettes) or losses (e.g., You spend money by using e-cigarettes) among adolescents and young adults. Using surveys in two middle schools, four high schools, and one college in CT (N=5405), we assessed students' preferences for gain- or loss-framed e-cigarette prevention messages related to four themes: financial cost, health risks, addiction potential, and social labeling as a smoker. We also assessed whether preferences for each message framing theme differed by sex, school level, cigarette-use status, and e-cigarette use-status. We also examined whether preference for message framing differed by cigarette and e-cigarette susceptibility status among never e-cigarette users. Overall, loss-framing was preferred for message themes related to health risks, addiction potential, and social labeling as a smoker, whereas gain-framing was preferred for message themes related to financial cost. Logistic regression analyses showed that 1) females preferred loss-framed messages for all themes relative to males, 2) lifetime e-cigarette users preferred loss-framed health risks and social labeling messages relative to never users, and 3) high school students preferred gain-framed social labeling messages relative to college students. The preference for message framing did not differ by cigarette or e-cigarette susceptibility. Preference for message framing differed by themes and individual characteristics. This formative research could inform the construction of persuasive e-cigarette prevention messages. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The Association between Valuing Popularity and Relational Aggression: The Moderating Effects of Actual Popularity and Physiological Reactivity to Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoulberg, Erin K.; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Murray-Close, Dianna

    2011-01-01

    The association between having a reputation for valuing popularity and relational aggression was assessed in a sample of 126 female children and adolescents (mean age=12.43 years) at a 54-day residential summer camp for girls. Having a reputation for valuing popularity was positively related to relational aggression. This association was moderated…

  10. Space activities and global popular music culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, Allison Rae; Collins, Patrick

    During the "space age" era, space activities appear increasingly as a theme in Western popular music, as they do in popular culture generally. In combination with the electronics and tele-communications revolution, "pop/rock" music has grown explosively during the space age to become an effectively global culture. From this base a number of trends are emerging in the pattern of influences that space activities have on pop music. The paper looks at the use of themes and imagery in pop music; the role of space technology in the modern "globalization" of pop music; and current and future links between space activities and pop music culture, including how public space programmes are affected by its influence on popular attitudes.

  11. Widespread activity of multiple lineages of Usutu virus, western Europe, 2016.

    PubMed

    Cadar, Daniel; Lühken, Renke; van der Jeugd, Henk; Garigliany, Mutien; Ziegler, Ute; Keller, Markus; Lahoreau, Jennifer; Lachmann, Lars; Becker, Norbert; Kik, Marja; Oude Munnink, Bas B; Bosch, Stefan; Tannich, Egbert; Linden, Annick; Schmidt, Volker; Koopmans, Marion P; Rijks, Jolianne; Desmecht, Daniel; Groschup, Martin H; Reusken, Chantal; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2017-01-26

    In the summer of 2016, Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands reported widespread Usutu virus (USUV) activity based on live and dead bird surveillance. The causative USUV strains represented four lineages, of which two putative novel lineages were most likely recently introduced into Germany and spread to other western European countries. The spatial extent of the outbreak area corresponded with R 0 values > 1. The occurrence of the outbreak, the largest USUV epizootic registered so far in Europe, allowed us to gain insight in how a recently introduced arbovirus with potential public health implications can spread and become a resident pathogen in a naïve environment. Understanding the ecological and epidemiological factors that drive the emergence or re-emergence of USUV is critical to develop and implement timely surveillance strategies for adequate preventive and control measures. Public health authorities, blood transfusion services and clinicians in countries where USUV was detected should be aware of the risk of possible USUV infection in humans, including in patients with unexplained encephalitis or other neurological impairments, especially during late summer when mosquito densities peak. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  12. Substance Use in Popular Movies and Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Donald F.; Henriksen, Lisa; Christenson, Peter G.

    This study examines the frequency and nature of substance use in the most popular movie rentals and songs of 1996 and 1997. The intent was to determine the accuracy of public perceptions about extensive substance use in media popular among youth. Because teenagers are major consumers of movies and music, there is concern about the potential for…

  13. Popular Science Writing:Why? Who? How?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Baeyer, Hans Christian

    1998-04-01

    Why? Under the threats of anti-science, pseudo-science, and indifference to science, popularization of physics is changing from a genteel art to a necessity for survival. Science writing is one element in a campaign that includes TV, museums, lectures, school visits, etc. Who? Five percent of the total effort of every physics department should be devoted to popularization. The academic reward system should reflect this obligation. How? Hints and suggestions for effective science writing, based on extensive experience, will be presented.

  14. Peer status and aggression as predictors of dating popularity in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Houser, John J; Mayeux, Lara; Cross, Cassandra

    2015-03-01

    Research has identified links between dating and aversive behavior such as aggression and bullying in adolescence, highlighting the need for studies that further our understanding of romantic relationships and their dynamics during this period. This study tested the associations between dating popularity and overt and relational aggression, social preference, and peer popularity. Of particular interest were the moderating roles of social preference and peer popularity in the association of aggression with dating popularity. Further moderation by gender was also explored. Participants were 478 ninth-graders (48% girls) with peer nomination scores for peer status, aggression, and dating popularity. Dating popularity was positively correlated with popularity, social preference, and overt and relational aggression. Regression models indicated that popular, overtly aggressive girls were seen as desirable dating partners by their male peers. Relational aggression was associated with dating popularity for both boys and girls, especially for youths who were well-liked by peers. These findings are interpreted in light of developmental-contextual perspectives on adolescent romantic relationships and Resource Control Theory.

  15. Vocal handicap index in popular and erudite professional singers.

    PubMed

    Loiola-Barreiro, Camila Miranda; Silva, Marta Assumpção de Andrada E

    To compare the voice handicap index of popular and erudite professional singers according to gender, age, professional experience time, and presence or absence of self-reported vocal complaints. One hundred thirty-two professional singers, 74 popular and 58 erudite, who responded to a questionnaire with regards to identification, age, gender, professional experience time in singing, musical genres (for popular singers), vocal classification (for erudite singers), presence of self-reported vocal complaints, and the specific protocols for popular (Modern Singing Handicap Index - MSHI) and erudite (Classical Singing Handicap Index - CSHI) singing. Higher proportion of women and higher incidence of vocal complaints were observed in the popular singers compared with the erudite singers. Most of the popular singers belonged to the genre of Brazilian Popular Music. Regarding the classification of erudite singers, there was greater participation of sopranos and tenors. No statistical differences were observed with respect to age and professional experience time between the groups. Comparison of the MSHI and CSHI scores showed no statistically significant difference between these scores and genre or age in both groups of singers. Professional experience time was related to the total score and the subscales disability and impairment in the MSHI, only for popular singers with vocal complaints. There was no correlation between these variables and the CSHI for erudite singers. The impact of vocal difficulty/problem interferes differently in these two musical genres when related to vocal complaint and professional experience time. The MSHI and CSHI protocols proved to be important tools not only for the identification of problems, but also for the understanding of how these individuals relate their voices with this occupational activity.

  16. Popular Education and Social Movements in Scotland Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Jim, Ed.; Martin, Ian, Ed.; Shaw, Mae, Ed.

    The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Colin Kirkwood); "Introductory Essay: Popular Education and Social Movements in Scotland Today" (Ian Martin); "Popular Education and the Struggle for Democracy" (Jim Crowther); "Social Movements and the Politics of Educational Change" (Lindsay Paterson);…

  17. Long-range parametric amplification of THz wave with absorption loss exceeding parametric gain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsong-Dong; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Chuang, Ming-Yun; Lin, Yen-Hou; Lee, Ching-Han; Lin, Yen-Yin; Lin, Fan-Yi; Kitaeva, Galiya Kh

    2013-01-28

    Optical parametric mixing is a popular scheme to generate an idler wave at THz frequencies, although the THz wave is often absorbing in the nonlinear optical material. It is widely suggested that the useful material length for co-directional parametric mixing with strong THz-wave absorption is comparable to the THz-wave absorption length in the material. Here we show that, even in the limit of the absorption loss exceeding parametric gain, the THz idler wave can grows monotonically from optical parametric amplification over a much longer distance in a nonlinear optical material until pump depletion. The coherent production of the non-absorbing signal wave can assist the growth of the highly absorbing idler wave. We also show that, for the case of an equal input pump and signal in difference frequency generation, the quick saturation of the THz idler wave predicted from a much simplified and yet popular plane-wave model fails when fast diffraction of the THz wave from the co-propagating optical mixing waves is considered.

  18. Predicting the future trend of popularity by network diffusion.

    PubMed

    Zeng, An; Yeung, Chi Ho

    2016-06-01

    Conventional approaches to predict the future popularity of products are mainly based on extrapolation of their current popularity, which overlooks the hidden microscopic information under the macroscopic trend. Here, we study diffusion processes on consumer-product and citation networks to exploit the hidden microscopic information and connect consumers to their potential purchase, publications to their potential citers to obtain a prediction for future item popularity. By using the data obtained from the largest online retailers including Netflix and Amazon as well as the American Physical Society citation networks, we found that our method outperforms the accurate short-term extrapolation and identifies the potentially popular items long before they become prominent.

  19. Predicting the future trend of popularity by network diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, An; Yeung, Chi Ho

    2016-06-01

    Conventional approaches to predict the future popularity of products are mainly based on extrapolation of their current popularity, which overlooks the hidden microscopic information under the macroscopic trend. Here, we study diffusion processes on consumer-product and citation networks to exploit the hidden microscopic information and connect consumers to their potential purchase, publications to their potential citers to obtain a prediction for future item popularity. By using the data obtained from the largest online retailers including Netflix and Amazon as well as the American Physical Society citation networks, we found that our method outperforms the accurate short-term extrapolation and identifies the potentially popular items long before they become prominent.

  20. The Role of Respect in the Relation of Aggression to Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuryluk, Amanda; Cohen, Robert; Audley-Piotrowski, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    Can aggressive children be popular with peers? Generally, sociometric popularity (liking nominations) has been shown to be negatively associated with aggression, and perceived popularity (popularity nominations) has been shown to be positively associated with aggression. The thesis of the present research was that being respected by peers…

  1. Prosocial tendencies predict friendship quality, but not for popular children.

    PubMed

    Poorthuis, Astrid M G; Thomaes, Sander; Denissen, Jaap J A; van Aken, Marcel A G; Orobio de Castro, Bram

    2012-08-01

    Is prosocial behavior a prerequisite for having good-quality friendships? This study (N = 477, mean age = 12.2 years) examined whether the link between children's prosocial tendencies and their perceived friendship quality was dependent on children's level of popularity in the peer group. Children's prosocial tendencies were assessed both as observed behavior in a standardized setting and as a self-reported predisposition to act in prosocial ways. Across measures, the results showed that prosocial tendencies are associated with higher perceived friendship quality among nonpopular children (i.e., children holding average or lower levels of popularity), but not among popular children. Thus, even if they lack prosocial qualities, popular children are still able to hold good-quality friendships. Popular children may have other compensating characteristics, such as popularity by association, that make them attractive for peers to be friends with. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Popular cinema and lesbian interpretive strategies.

    PubMed

    Dobinson, C; Young, K

    2000-01-01

    In its examination of the relationship between popular film and lesbian viewing practices, this study attempts to more fully elucidate current ideas around audience engagement and forms of cultural reception. Drawing on 15 in-depth interviews conducted in Western Canada in 1996, the results clearly demonstrate the existence of active lesbian viewers, whose interpretations of popular film are intimately informed by lesbian-specific life experiences and cultural competencies. Although the social conditions which create the need for resistant viewing are themselves oppressive, subversion of mainstream film holds out some possibility of empowerment for lesbian viewers.

  3. Widespread introgression in deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussels.

    PubMed

    Breusing, Corinna; Vrijenhoek, Robert C; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2017-01-13

    The analysis of hybrid zones is crucial for gaining a mechanistic understanding of the process of speciation and the maintenance of species boundaries. Hybrid zones have been studied intensively in terrestrial and shallow-water ecosystems, but very little is known about their occurrence in deep-sea environments. Here we used diagnostic, single nucleotide polymorphisms in combination with one mitochondrial gene to re-examine prior hypotheses about a contact zone involving deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussels, Bathymodiolus azoricus and B. puteoserpentis, living along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Admixture was found to be asymmetric with respect to the parental species, while introgression was more widespread geographically than previously recognized. Admixed individuals with a majority of alleles from one of the parental species were most frequent in habitats corresponding to that species. Mussels found at a geographically intermediate vent field constituted a genetically mixed population that showed no evidence for hybrid incompatibilities, a finding that does not support a previously inferred tension zone model. Our analyses indicate that B. azoricus and B. puteoserpentis hybridize introgressively across a large geographic area without evidence for general hybrid incompatibilities. While these findings shed new light onto the genetic structure of this hybrid zone, many aspects about its nature still remain obscure. Our study sets a baseline for further research that should primarily focus on the acquisition of additional mussel samples and environmental data, a detailed exploration of vent areas and hidden populations as well as genomic analyses in both mussel hosts and their bacterial symbionts.

  4. The Popularization of Science in Nineteenth Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuritz, Hyman

    1981-01-01

    Explores the social context surrounding the popularization of science in nineteenth century America. The author argues that the popularization process was inseparable from the general democratization of Western society which was going on simultaneously. Increased public access to new scientific information was supposed to stimulate…

  5. Alcohol Use and Popularity: Social Payoffs from Conforming to Peers' Behavior.

    PubMed

    Balsa, Ana I; Homer, Jenny F; French, Michael T; Norton, Edward C

    2011-09-01

    Although many economic analyses of adolescents have examined the costs of risky behaviors, few have investigated the gains that young people derive from such actions, particularly in terms of social payoffs for complying with peer behavior. This paper studies the relationship between adolescents' use of alcohol (relative to that of their peers) and popularity at school. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich and nationally-representative survey with detailed information on social networks. Our findings suggest that adolescents are socially rewarded for conforming to their peers' alcohol use and penalized (to a lesser degree) for increasing their consumption above that of their peers. Male adolescents are rewarded for keeping up with their peers' drinking and for getting drunk. Female adolescents are rewarded for drinking per se, but not necessarily for keeping up with their peers. The results offer new information on peer influence and have implications for substance abuse interventions at school and in the community.

  6. Alcohol Use and Popularity: Social Payoffs from Conforming to Peers' Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Balsa, Ana I.; Homer, Jenny F.; French, Michael T.; Norton, Edward C.

    2010-01-01

    Although many economic analyses of adolescents have examined the costs of risky behaviors, few have investigated the gains that young people derive from such actions, particularly in terms of social payoffs for complying with peer behavior. This paper studies the relationship between adolescents' use of alcohol (relative to that of their peers) and popularity at school. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich and nationally-representative survey with detailed information on social networks. Our findings suggest that adolescents are socially rewarded for conforming to their peers' alcohol use and penalized (to a lesser degree) for increasing their consumption above that of their peers. Male adolescents are rewarded for keeping up with their peers' drinking and for getting drunk. Female adolescents are rewarded for drinking per se, but not necessarily for keeping up with their peers. The results offer new information on peer influence and have implications for substance abuse interventions at school and in the community. PMID:21860582

  7. The Role of Attractiveness and Aggression in High School Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borch, Casey; Hyde, Allen; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of physical attractiveness and aggression on popularity among high school students. Previous work has found positive relationships between aggression and popularity and physical attractiveness and popularity. The current study goes beyond this work by examining the interactive effects of physical attractiveness and…

  8. Effects of local and widespread muscle fatigue on movement timing.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Jeffrey C; Dingwell, Jonathan B; Gates, Deanna H

    2014-12-01

    Repetitive movements can cause muscle fatigue, leading to motor reorganization, performance deficits, and/or possible injury. The effects of fatigue may depend on the type of fatigue task employed, however. The purpose of this study was to determine how local fatigue of a specific muscle group versus widespread fatigue of various muscle groups affected the control of movement timing. Twenty healthy subjects performed an upper extremity low-load work task similar to sawing for 5 continuous minutes both before and after completing a protocol that either fatigued all the muscles used in the task (widespread fatigue) or a protocol that selectively fatigued the primary muscles used to execute the pushing stroke of the sawing task (localized fatigue). Subjects were instructed to time their movements with a metronome. Timing error, movement distance, and speed were calculated for each movement. Data were then analyzed using a goal-equivalent manifold approach to quantify changes in goal-relevant and non-goal-relevant variability. We applied detrended fluctuation analysis to each time series to quantify changes in fluctuation dynamics that reflected changes in the control strategies used. After localized fatigue, subjects made shorter, slower movements and exerted greater control over non-goal-relevant variability. After widespread fatigue, subjects exerted less control over non-goal-relevant variability and did not change movement patterns. Thus, localized and widespread muscle fatigue affected movement differently. Local fatigue may reduce the available motor solutions and therefore cause greater movement reorganization than widespread muscle fatigue. Subjects altered their control strategies but continued to achieve the timing goal after both fatigue tasks.

  9. An adaptive response to uncertainty can lead to weight gain during dieting attempts

    PubMed Central

    Higginson, A. D.; McNamara, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Peoples’ attempts to lose weight by low calorie diets often result in weight gain because of over-compensatory overeating during lapses. Animals usually respond to a change in food availability by adjusting their foraging effort and altering how much energy reserves they store. But in many situations the long-term availability of food is uncertain, so animals may attempt to estimate it to decide the appropriate level of fat storage. Methodology: We report the results of a conceptual model of feeding in which the animal knows whether food is currently abundant or limited, but does not know the proportion of time, there will be an abundance in the long-term and has to learn it. Results: If the food supply is limited much of the time, such as during cycles of dieting attempts, the optimal response is to gain a lot of weight when food is abundant. Conclusions and implications: This implies that recurring attempts to diet, by signalling to the body that the food supply is often insufficient, will lead to a greater fat storage than if food was always abundant. Our results shed light on the widespread phenomenon of weight gain during weight cycling and indicate possible interventions that may reduce the incidence of obesity. PMID:27920041

  10. Bridging the Gap: Popular Music and Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Carlos Xavier, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This versatile and insightful book discusses trends and issues related to popular music in the classroom. Topics covered include the definition of popular music, the "us versus them" dilemma, teacher education, effective teaching methods, and choosing quality repertoire. Fourth in the Northwestern University Music Education Leadership…

  11. Composing, Songwriting, and Producing: Informing Popular Music Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Evan S.

    2013-01-01

    In forwarding comprehensive popular music pedagogies, music educators might acknowledge and address expanded notions of composition in popular music that include processes of recording, engineering, mixing, and producing along with the technologies, techniques, and ways of being musical that encompass these processes. This article advances a…

  12. CAD/CAM guided surgery in implant dentistry. A review of software packages and step-by-step protocols for planning surgical guides.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Michael D; Kattadiyil, Mathew T; Parciak, Ewa; Puri, Shweta

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional radiographic imaging for dental implant treatment planning is gaining widespread interest and popularity. However, application of the data from 30 imaging can be a complex and daunting process initially. The purpose of this article is to describe features of three software packages and the respective computerized guided surgical templates (GST) fabricated from them. A step-by-step method of interpreting and ordering a GST to simplify the process of the surgical planning and implant placement is discussed.

  13. Social Intelligence and Academic Achievement as Predictors of Adolescent Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijs, Noortje; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Segers, Eliane; Spijkerman, Renske

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the effects of social intelligence and cognitive intelligence, as measured by academic achievement, on adolescent popularity in two school contexts. A distinction was made between sociometric popularity, a measure of acceptance, and perceived popularity, a measure of social dominance. Participants were 512, 14-15 year-old…

  14. Endemic and widespread coral reef fishes have similar mitochondrial genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Delrieu-Trottin, Erwan; Maynard, Jeffrey; Planes, Serge

    2014-12-22

    Endemic species are frequently assumed to have lower genetic diversity than species with large distributions, even if closely related. This assumption is based on research from the terrestrial environment and theoretical evolutionary modelling. We test this assumption in the marine environment by analysing the mitochondrial genetic diversity of 33 coral reef fish species from five families sampled from Pacific Ocean archipelagos. Surprisingly, haplotype and nucleotide diversity did not differ significantly between endemic and widespread species. The probable explanation is that the effective population size of some widespread fishes locally is similar to that of many of the endemics. Connectivity across parts of the distribution of the widespread species is probably low, so widespread species can operate like endemics at the extreme or isolated parts of their range. Mitochondrial genetic diversity of many endemic reef fish species may not either limit range size or be a source of vulnerability. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. The Use of Popular Science Articles in Teaching Scientific Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Jean; Adendorff, Ralph

    2004-01-01

    This article considers the use of popular science articles in teaching scientific literacy. Comparing the discourse features of popular science with research article and textbook science--the last two being target forms for students--it argues that popular science articles cannot serve as models for scientific writing. It does, however, suggest…

  16. Competition-Induced Criticality in a Model of Meme Popularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleeson, James P.; Ward, Jonathan A.; O'Sullivan, Kevin P.; Lee, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy-tailed distributions of meme popularity occur naturally in a model of meme diffusion on social networks. Competition between multiple memes for the limited resource of user attention is identified as the mechanism that poises the system at criticality. The popularity growth of each meme is described by a critical branching process, and asymptotic analysis predicts power-law distributions of popularity with very heavy tails (exponent α <2, unlike preferential-attachment models), similar to those seen in empirical data.

  17. Competition-induced criticality in a model of meme popularity.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, James P; Ward, Jonathan A; O'Sullivan, Kevin P; Lee, William T

    2014-01-31

    Heavy-tailed distributions of meme popularity occur naturally in a model of meme diffusion on social networks. Competition between multiple memes for the limited resource of user attention is identified as the mechanism that poises the system at criticality. The popularity growth of each meme is described by a critical branching process, and asymptotic analysis predicts power-law distributions of popularity with very heavy tails (exponent α<2, unlike preferential-attachment models), similar to those seen in empirical data.

  18. Question Popularity Analysis and Prediction in Community Question Answering Services

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users’ interest so as to improve the users’ experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

  19. Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository.

  20. Popular Media, Critical Pedagogy, and Inner City Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leard, Diane Wishart; Lashua, Brett

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we explored ways youth, traditionally silenced, engaged with popular culture to voice experiences and challenge dominant narratives of public schools and daily lives. We also considered how educators use popular culture as critical pedagogy with inner city youth. Through ethnographic bricolage and case study methods, and drawing…

  1. Widespread bone-based fluorescence in chameleons.

    PubMed

    Prötzel, David; Heß, Martin; Scherz, Mark D; Schwager, Martina; Padje, Anouk Van't; Glaw, Frank

    2018-01-15

    Fluorescence is widespread in marine organisms but uncommon in terrestrial tetrapods. We here show that many chameleon species have bony tubercles protruding from the skull that are visible through their scales, and fluoresce under UV light. Tubercles arising from bones of the skull displace all dermal layers other than a thin, transparent layer of epidermis, creating a 'window' onto the bone. In the genus Calumma, the number of these tubercles is sexually dimorphic in most species, suggesting a signalling role, and also strongly reflects species groups, indicating systematic value of these features. Co-option of the known fluorescent properties of bone has never before been shown, yet it is widespread in the chameleons of Madagascar and some African chameleon genera, particularly in those genera living in forested, humid habitats known to have a higher relative component of ambient UV light. The fluorescence emits with a maximum at around 430 nm in blue colour which contrasts well to the green and brown background reflectance of forest habitats. This discovery opens new avenues in the study of signalling among chameleons and sexual selection factors driving ornamentation.

  2. Fashion vs. function in cultural evolution: the case of dog breed popularity.

    PubMed

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Acerbi, Alberto; Herzog, Harold; Serpell, James A

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between characteristics of dog breeds and their popularity between years 1926 and 2005. We consider breed health, longevity, and behavioral qualities such as aggressiveness, trainability, and fearfulness. We show that a breed's overall popularity, fluctuations in popularity, and rates of increase and decrease around popularity peaks show typically no correlation with these breed characteristics. One exception is the finding that more popular breeds tend to suffer from more inherited disorders. Our results support the hypothesis that dog breed popularity has been primarily determined by fashion rather than function.

  3. Fashion vs. Function in Cultural Evolution: The Case of Dog Breed Popularity

    PubMed Central

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Acerbi, Alberto; Herzog, Harold; Serpell, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between characteristics of dog breeds and their popularity between years 1926 and 2005. We consider breed health, longevity, and behavioral qualities such as aggressiveness, trainability, and fearfulness. We show that a breed's overall popularity, fluctuations in popularity, and rates of increase and decrease around popularity peaks show typically no correlation with these breed characteristics. One exception is the finding that more popular breeds tend to suffer from more inherited disorders. Our results support the hypothesis that dog breed popularity has been primarily determined by fashion rather than function. PMID:24040341

  4. The sociology of popular music, interdisciplinarity and aesthetic autonomy.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Lee

    2011-03-01

    This paper considers the impact of interdisciplinarity upon sociological research, focusing on one particular case: the academic study of popular music. 'Popular music studies' is an area of research characterized by interdisciplinarity and, in keeping with broader intellectual trends, this approach is assumed to offer significant advantages. As such, popular music studies is broadly typical of contemporary intellectual and governmental attitudes regarding the best way to research specific topics. Such interdisciplinarity, however, has potential costs and this paper highlights one of the most significant: an over-emphasis upon shared substantive interests and subsequent undervaluation of shared epistemological understandings. The end result is a form of 'ghettoization' within sociology itself, with residents of any particular ghetto displaying little awareness of developments in neighbouring ghettos. Reporting from one such ghetto, this paper considers some of the ways in which the sociology of popular music has been limited by its positioning within an interdisciplinary environment and suggests two strategies for developing a more fully-realized sociology of popular music. First, based on the assumption that a sociological understanding of popular music shares much in common with a sociological understanding of everything else, this paper calls for increased intradisciplinary research between sociologists of varying specialisms. The second strategy, however, involves a reconceptualization of the disciplinary limits of sociology, as it argues that a sociology of popular music needs to accept musical specificity as part of its remit. Such acceptance has thus far been limited not only by an interdisciplinary context but also by the long-standing sociological scepticism toward the analysis of aesthetic objects. As such, this paper offers an intervention into wider debates concerning the remit of sociological enquiry, and whether it is ever appropriate for sociological

  5. Answers to Student's Most Popular Questions about Drug Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Day / Popular Chat Day Q & A Popular Chat Day Q & A Print Read students’ most popular questions ... from NIDA scientists. For more information about Chat Day, go to https://teens.drugabuse.gov/national-drug- ...

  6. Patterns in Popular Culture: The Use of Popular Art in the Composition Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Harold; Semeiks, Jonna Gormely

    The popular arts are useful resources in college composition courses both because of their appeal for students and because they embody the fundamental patterns, or archetypes, found in myths, fairy tales, and classic literature. The nine basic archetypes examined in certain composition classes at Queens College (Flushing, New York) are the Shadow,…

  7. Popular Music in Malaysia: Education from the outside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Shahanum Mohamad

    2006-01-01

    The musical preference of most Malaysian young people, their knowledge of music in general and popular music in particular are shaped through informal music education. Factors that contribute to this include the wide dissemination of popular music, the status of music in the school curriculum, and the perception of most Malaysians towards music.…

  8. The Unembarressed Muse: The Popular Arts in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Russel

    This book is a study of certain of the popular arts in American society, that is, the arts in their customarily accepted genres. "Popular" is interpreted to mean "generally dispersed and approved"--descriptive of those artistic productions which express the taste and understanding of the majority and which are free of control, in content and…

  9. Personalized Popular Blog Recommender Service for Mobile Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Pei-Yun; Liu, Duen-Ren

    Weblogs have emerged as a new communication and publication medium on the Internet for diffusing the latest useful information. Providing value-added mobile services such as blog articles is increasingly important to attract mobile users to mobile commerce. There are, however, a tremendous number of blog articles, and mobile users generally have difficulty in browsing weblogs. Accordingly, providing mobile users with blog articles that suit their interests is an important issue. Very little research, however, focuses on this issue. In this work, we propose a Customized Content Service on a mobile device (m-CCS) to filter and push blog articles to mobile users. The m-CCS can predict the latest popular blog topics by forecasting the trend of time-sensitive popularity of weblogs. Furthermore, to meet the diversified interest of mobile users, m-CCS further analyzes users’ browsing logs to derive their interests, which are then used to recommend their preferred popular blog topics and articles. The prototype system of m-CCS demonstrates that the system can effectively recommend mobile users desirable blog articles with respect to both popularity and personal interests.

  10. Life Expectancy and Cause of Death in Popular Musicians: Is the Popular Musician Lifestyle the Road to Ruin?

    PubMed

    Kenny, Dianna T; Asher, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    Does a combination of lifestyle pressures and personality, as reflected in genre, lead to the early death of popular musicians? We explored overall mortality, cause of death, and changes in patterns of death over time and by music genre membership in popular musicians who died between 1950 and 2014. The death records of 13,195 popular musicians were coded for age and year of death, cause of death, gender, and music genre. Musician death statistics were compared with age-matched deaths in the US population using actuarial methods. Although the common perception is of a glamorous, free-wheeling lifestyle for this occupational group, the figures tell a very different story. Results showed that popular musicians have shortened life expectancy compared with comparable general populations. Results showed excess mortality from violent deaths (suicide, homicide, accidental death, including vehicular deaths and drug overdoses) and liver disease for each age group studied compared with population mortality patterns. These excess deaths were highest for the under-25-year age group and reduced chronologically thereafter. Overall mortality rates were twice as high compared with the population when averaged over the whole age range. Mortality impacts differed by music genre. In particular, excess suicides and liver-related disease were observed in country, metal, and rock musicians; excess homicides were observed in 6 of the 14 genres, in particular hip hop and rap musicians. For accidental death, actual deaths significantly exceeded expected deaths for country, folk, jazz, metal, pop, punk, and rock.

  11. Books and the popularization of science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, R.

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses best-selling science books, the characteristics of the audience for popular science books, and the role of books within science popularization and science education. Best-selling science books have been rare, but generally readable. Regional books, also important sources of scientific information, aim at much smaller, far more price-sensitive audiences. Many successful regional, nontechnical science books are readable, heavily illustrated, and in some cases, cross-disciplinary. To increase the attentive audience for scientific information, improvement in science education is necessary, and the most efficacious role for scientific institutions may be the production of materials that can be easily incorporated into school curricula. ?? 1991 Springer.

  12. Astronomy Popularization via Sci-fi Movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingkang

    2015-08-01

    It is astronomers’ duty to let more and more young people know a bit astronomy and be interested in astronomy and appreciate the beauty and great achievements in astronomy. One of the most effective methods to popularize astronomy to young people nowadays might be via enjoying some brilliant sci-fi movies related to astronomy with some guidance from astronomers. Firstly, we will introduce the basic information of our selective course “Appreciation of Sci-fi Movies in Astronomy” for the non-major astronomy students in our University, which is surely unique in China, then we will show its effect on astronomy popularization based on several rounds of teaching.

  13. Balancing the popularity bias of object similarities for personalised recommendation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lei; Pan, Xue; Liu, Kecheng

    2018-03-01

    Network-based similarity measures have found wide applications in recommendation algorithms and made significant contributions for uncovering users' potential interests. However, existing measures are generally biased in terms of popularity, that the popular objects tend to have more common neighbours with others and thus are considered more similar to others. Such popularity bias of similarity quantification will result in the biased recommendations, with either poor accuracy or poor diversity. Based on the bipartite network modelling of the user-object interactions, this paper firstly calculates the expected number of common neighbours of two objects with given popularities in random networks. A Balanced Common Neighbour similarity index is accordingly developed by removing the random-driven common neighbours, estimated as the expected number, from the total number. Recommendation experiments in three data sets show that balancing the popularity bias in a certain degree can significantly improve the recommendations' accuracy and diversity simultaneously.

  14. American Popular Music 1950-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, David

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and discusses some of the chief resources in the study of post-World War II mainstream popular music. In addition to indicating major areas of research, it can serve as a guide to collection development in the discipline.

  15. Popular misconceptions: agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    McHughen, Alan; Wager, Robert

    2010-12-31

    Agricultural biotechnology, especially genetic engineering or genetic modification (GM), is a topic of considerable controversy worldwide. The public debate is fraught with polarized views and opinions, some are held with religious zeal. Unfortunately, it is also marked with much ignorance and misinformation. Here we explore some popular misconceptions encountered in the public debate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Temporal Associations of Popularity and Alcohol Use Among Middle School Students

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Zhou, Annie J.; Green, Harold D.; Shih, Regina A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study is to better understand the longitudinal cross-lagged associations between popularity, assessed through self-rating and peer nominations, and alcohol use among middle school students. Methods The analytic sample is 1,835 6th–8th grade students who were initially recruited from three California middle schools and surveyed in the fall and spring semesters of two academic years. Students reported on their background characteristics, past month alcohol use, and perceived popularity. Additionally, students provided school-based friendship nominations, which were used to calculate peer-nominated popularity. A cross-lagged regression approach within a structural equation modeling framework was used to examine the longitudinal relationship between popularity (self-rated and peer-nominated) and alcohol use. Results There was a statistically significant (p = 0.024) association between peer-nominated popularity and the probability of alcohol consumption at the subsequent survey, but not vice versa. Our results suggest that in a scenario where 8% of students are past month drinkers, each increase of 5 friendship nominations is associated with a 30% greater risk of being a current drinker at the next wave. We found no evidence of longitudinal associations between past month alcohol consumption and self-rated popularity. Conclusions Popularity is a risk factor for drinking during the middle school years, with peer-nominated popularity being more predictive of use than self-perceptions of popularity. To inform alcohol prevention efforts for middle school students, additional research is needed to better understand why adolescents with a larger number of school-based friendship ties are more inclined to drink. PMID:23260843

  17. Analysis of user activities on popular medical forums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamalov, M. V.; Dobrynin, V. Y.; Balykina, Y. E.; Martynov, R. S.

    2017-10-01

    The paper is devoted to detailed investigation of users’ behavior and level of expertise on online medical forums. Two popular forums were analyzed in terms of presence of experts who answer health related questions and participate in discussions. This study provides insight into the quality of medical information that one can get from the web resources, and also illustrates relationship between approved medical experts and popular authors of the considered forums. During experiments several machine learning and natural language processing methods were evaluated against to available web content to get further understanding of structure and distribution of information about medicine available online nowadays. As a result of this study the hypothesis of existing correlation between approved medical experts and popular authors has been rejected.

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorder in Popular Media: Storied Reflections of Societal Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Christina; Maich, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how storied representations of characters with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are typified in a world that is increasingly influenced by popular media. Twenty commercially published children's picture books, popular novels, mainstream television programs, and popular movies from 2006-2012 were selected using purposive,…

  19. Black Popular Music: First Scorned, Then Copied and Admired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Regina; Spiegelman, Judy

    1991-01-01

    Black popular music has its roots in African music that was a way of preserving history. A brief social and cultural history traces black popular music in the United States, focusing on the music blacks listened to, rather than just the music blacks played. (SLD)

  20. Implicit Associations with Popularity in Early Adolescence: An Approach-Avoidance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansu, Tessa A. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Karremans, Johan C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined 241 early adolescents' implicit and explicit associations with popularity. The peer status and gender of both the targets and the perceivers were considered. Explicit associations with popularity were assessed with sociometric methods. Implicit associations with popularity were assessed with an approach-avoidance task (AAT).…

  1. Does Humor Explain Why Relationally Aggressive Adolescents Are Popular?

    PubMed Central

    Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.

    2013-01-01

    The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents’ gender and their friends’ levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; Mage = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377

  2. Temporal associations of popularity and alcohol use among middle school students.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S; Miles, Jeremy N V; D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Zhou, Annie J; Green, Harold D; Shih, Regina A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand the longitudinal cross-lagged associations between popularity, assessed through self-rating and peer nominations, and alcohol use among middle school students. The analytical sample comprises 1,835 sixth- to eighth-grade students who were initially recruited from three California middle schools and surveyed in the fall and spring semesters of 2 academic years. Students reported on their background characteristics, past-month alcohol use, and perceived popularity. Additionally, students provided school-based friendship nominations, which were used to calculate peer-nominated popularity. A cross-lagged regression approach within a structural equation modeling framework was used to examine the longitudinal relationship between popularity (self-rated and peer-nominated) and alcohol use. There was a statistically significant (p = .024) association between peer-nominated popularity and the probability of alcohol consumption at the subsequent survey, but not vice versa. Our results suggest that in a scenario where 8% of students are past-month drinkers, each increase of five friendship nominations is associated with a 30% greater risk of being a current drinker at the next wave. We found no evidence of longitudinal associations between past-month alcohol consumption and self-rated popularity. Popularity is a risk factor for drinking during the middle school years, with peer-nominated popularity being more predictive of use than self-perceptions of popularity. To inform alcohol prevention efforts for middle school students, additional research is needed to better understand why adolescents with a larger number of school-based friendship ties are more inclined to drink. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Common and unique associated factors for medically unexplained chronic widespread pain and chronic fatigue☆

    PubMed Central

    McBeth, J.; Tomenson, B.; Chew-Graham, C.A.; Macfarlane, G.J.; Jackson, J.; Littlewood, A.; Creed, F.H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chronic widespread pain and chronic fatigue share common associated factors but these associations may be explained by the presence of concurrent depression and anxiety. Methods We mailed questionnaires to a randomly selected sample of people in the UK to identify participants with chronic widespread pain (ACR 1990 definition) and those with chronic fatigue. The questionnaire assessed sociodemographic factors, health status, healthcare use, childhood factors, adult attachment, and psychological stress including anxiety and depression. To identify persons with unexplained chronic widespread pain or unexplained chronic fatigue; we examined participant's medical records to exclude medical illness that might cause these symptoms. Results Of 1443 participants (58.0% response rate) medical records of 990 were examined. 9.4% (N = 93) had unexplained chronic widespread pain and 12.6% (N = 125) had unexplained chronic fatigue. Marital status, childhood psychological abuse, recent threatening experiences and other somatic symptoms were commonly associated with both widespread pain and fatigue. No common effect was found for few years of education and current medical illnesses (more strongly associated with chronic widespread pain) or recent illness in a close relative, neuroticism, depression and anxiety scores (more strongly associated with chronic fatigue). Putative associated factors with a common effect were associated with unexplained chronic widespread pain or unexplained chronic fatigue only when there was concurrent anxiety and/or depression. Discussion This study suggests that the associated factors for chronic widespread pain and chronic fatigue need to be studied in conjunction with concurrent depression/anxiety. Clinicians should be aware of the importance of concurrent anxiety or depression. PMID:26652592

  4. Popular Fiction as Liberal Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowe, William W.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes popular fiction, particularly the detective novel, using Ruth Rendell's "An Unkindness of Ravens" as an example. Calls detective fiction political literature and claims that it gives readers a chance to affirm or criticize the dynamics of the confrontation of society and crime. (SRT)

  5. Donkeys and Superteachers: Structural Adjustment and Popular Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischman, Gustavo

    1998-01-01

    Explores the challenges and possibilities of popular education by examining the educational field after the application of structural adjustment programs in Latin America. Presents a critique of Gramsci's model of the organic intellectual as understood by many within popular education. Offers the specific example of a popular-education workshop in…

  6. Widespread Antarctic glaciation during the Late Eocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Andrew; Riley, Teal R.; Hillenbrand, Claus-Dieter; Rittner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Marine sedimentary rocks drilled on the southeastern margin of the South Orkney microcontinent in Antarctica (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 113 Site 696) were deposited between ∼36.5 Ma to 33.6 Ma, across the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition. The recovered rocks contain abundant grains exhibiting mechanical features diagnostic of iceberg-rafted debris. Sand provenance based on a multi-proxy approach that included petrographic analysis of over 275,000 grains, detrital zircon geochronology and apatite thermochronometry rule out local sources (Antarctic Peninsula or the South Orkney Islands) for the material. Instead the ice-transported grains show a clear provenance from the southern Weddell Sea region, extending from the Ellsworth-Whitmore Mountains of West Antarctica to the coastal region of Dronning Maud Land in East Antarctica. This study provides the first evidence for a continuity of widespread glacier calving along the coastline of the southern Weddell Sea embayment at least 2.5 million yrs before the prominent oxygen isotope event at 34-33.5 Ma that is considered to mark the onset of widespread glaciation of the Antarctic continent.

  7. Homicides In Mexico Reversed Life Expectancy Gains For Men And Slowed Them For Women, 2000–10

    PubMed Central

    Aburto, José Manuel; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; García-Guerrero, Victor Manuel; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Life expectancy in Mexico increased for more than six decades but then stagnated in the period 2000–10. This decade was characterized by the enactment of a major health care reform—the implementation of the Seguro Popular de Salud (Popular Health Insurance), which was intended to provide coverage to the entire Mexican population—and by an unexpected increase in homicide mortality. We assessed the impact on life expectancy of conditions amenable to medical service—those sensitive to public health policies and changes in behaviors, homicide, and diabetes—by analyzing mortality trends at the state level. We found that life expectancy among males deteriorated from 2005 to 2010, compared to increases from 2000 to 2005. Females in most states experienced small gains in life expectancy between 2000 and 2010. The unprecedented rise in homicides after 2005 led to a reversal in life expectancy increases among males and a slowdown among females in most states in the first decade of the twenty-first century. PMID:26733705

  8. Exploring Marijuana Advertising on Weedmaps, a Popular Online Directory.

    PubMed

    Bierut, Tatiana; Krauss, Melissa J; Sowles, Shaina J; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A

    2017-02-01

    With an increase in the legalization of recreational marijuana across the USA, advertising for marijuana products is more widespread, especially on the Internet where such practices pose a regulatory challenge. In this study, we examined the content of marijuana advertising on Weedmaps, a popular website that markets marijuana retailers online. A total of 146 recreational marijuana retailers in Colorado and Washington were examined on Weedmaps. We studied the age verification practices made in retailers' own websites, the presence of health claims they made about marijuana on Weedmaps, and the characteristics of followers of Weedmaps on social media sites. Many retailers had no security measure to determine age (41 % in Colorado, 35 % in Washington). Approximately 61 % of retailers in Colorado and 44 % in Washington made health claims about the benefits of marijuana, including anxiety reduction, treatment of depression, insomnia, and pain/inflammation. Inferred demographic characteristics of followers of Weedmaps on Twitter and Instagram revealed that over 60 % were male and nearly 70 % or more were age 20-29 years old, yet some (15-18 %) were under the age of 20. Our findings indicate that marijuana retailers have a visible presence on the Internet. Potential customers might be enticed by retailers who tout health claims about marijuana use. It may also be appealing for a younger demographic to overlook age restrictions and engage with marijuana retailers via social media. As a whole, our findings can help to guide future policy making on the issue of marijuana-related advertising.

  9. Exploring Marijuana Advertising on Weedmaps, a Popular Online Directory

    PubMed Central

    Bierut, Tatiana; Krauss, Melissa J.; Sowles, Shaina J.; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    With an increase in the legalization of recreational marijuana across the U.S., advertising for marijuana products is more widespread, especially on the Internet where such practices pose a regulatory challenge. In this study, we examined the content of marijuana advertising on Weedmaps, a popular website that markets marijuana retailers online. A total of 146 recreational marijuana retailers in Colorado and Washington were examined on Weedmaps. We studied the age verification practices made in retailers’ own websites, the presence of health claims they made about marijuana on Weedmaps, and the characteristics of followers of Weedmaps on social media sites. Many retailers had no security measure to determine age (41% in Colorado, 35% in Washington). Approximately 61% of retailers in Colorado and 44% in Washington made health claims about the benefits of marijuana, including anxiety reduction, treatment of depression, insomnia, and pain/inflammation. Inferred demographic characteristics of followers of Weedmaps on Twitter and Instagram revealed that over 60% were male and nearly 70% or more were age 20–29 years old, yet some (15%–18%) were under the age of 20. Our findings indicate that marijuana retailers have a visible presence on the Internet. Potential customers might be enticed by retailers who tout health claims about marijuana use. It may also be appealing for a younger demographic to overlook age restrictions and engage with marijuana retailers via social media. As a whole, our findings can help to guide future policy making on the issue of marijuana-related advertising. PMID:27534665

  10. Popular Education: Adult Education for Social Change. ERIC Digest No. 185.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Popular education is a form of adult education that encourages learners to examine their lives critically and take action to change social conditions. Popular education's goal is to develop people's capacity for social change. Although it may assume diverse forms, popular education usually involves a cycle described as action/reflection/action or…

  11. Attitudinal, behavioral, and biological outcomes of a community popular opinion leader intervention in China.

    PubMed

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wen, Yi; Wu, Zunyou

    2011-10-01

    The effects of a community popular opinion leader (CPOL) intervention were examined among market vendors in a city on the eastern coast of China. Employees of 40 food markets were enrolled in a study that provided HIV-related education and tests, and treatment for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Twenty markets were randomly assigned to a CPOL intervention (N = 1,695) and 20 markets to a control condition (N = 1,616). Market employees in the intervention condition reported positive attitudes regarding STD/HIV prevention and more frequent discussions about safe sex than those in the control condition. Compared with baseline, the prevalence of unprotected sexual acts and new STDs were significantly lower within each study condition 24 months later. Although the CPOL intervention achieved its goal of shifting attitudes within food markets, the gains did not lead to the expected behavioral and biological outcomes.

  12. Juan Gabriel and audience interpretation. cultural impressions of effeminacy and sexuality in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sowards, S K

    2000-01-01

    Juan Gabriel's purported effeminacy and sexuality have made him a controversial subject in Mexico, but still loved by fans. Juan Gabriel, by trying to gain acceptance into Mexican society, has become part of a hybrid culture, between the feminine/masculine and homosexual/bisexual/heterosexual groups. This study focuses on interviews with 20 participants who discuss Juan Gabriel's popularity and sexuality. The findings of the study indicate that Juan Gabriel may be considered by his fans to be effeminate, and consequently homosexual. Even though homophobia is widespread in Mexico, Juan Gabriel's fans tend to ignore or exoticize his sexuality, thus affording his success. It is also possible that Juan Gabriel, consciously or not, uses his controversial sexuality as a way to generate popular interest.

  13. Listening to music in a risk-reward context: The roles of the temporoparietal junction and the orbitofrontal/insular cortices in reward-anticipation, reward-gain, and reward-loss.

    PubMed

    Li, Chia-Wei; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Tsai, Chen-Gia

    2015-12-10

    Artificial rewards, such as visual arts and music, produce pleasurable feelings. Popular songs in the verse-chorus form provide a useful model for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of artificial rewards, because the chorus is usually the most rewarding element of a song. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, the stimuli were excerpts of 10 popular songs with a tensioned verse-to-chorus transition. We examined the neural correlates of three phases of reward processing: (1) reward-anticipation during the verse-to-chorus transition, (2) reward-gain during the first phrase of the chorus, and (3) reward-loss during the unexpected noise followed by the verse-to-chorus transition. Participants listened to these excerpts in a risk-reward context because the verse was followed by either the chorus or noise with equal probability. The results showed that reward-gain and reward-loss were associated with left- and right-biased temporoparietal junction activation, respectively. The bilateral temporoparietal junctions were active during reward-anticipation. Moreover, we observed left-biased lateral orbitofrontal activation during reward-anticipation, whereas the medial orbitofrontal cortex was activated during reward-gain. The findings are discussed in relation to the cognitive and emotional aspects of reward processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Popular NREL-Developed Transportation Mobile App Launches on Android

    Science.gov Websites

    Platform | News | NREL Popular NREL-Developed Transportation Mobile App Launches on Android Platform Popular NREL-Developed Transportation Mobile App Launches on Android Platform May 23, 2017 More . Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the new mobile application for

  15. Chilean English Teacher Identity and Popular Culture: Three Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard-Warwick, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Recent discussions on English as an International Language have highlighted the important role played by English language popular culture for the identities and bilingual development of diverse global citizens who learn and use English. However, there has been little attention to connections between popular culture and "teacher"…

  16. Indexing of Popular Periodicals: The State of the Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aveney, Brian; Slade, Rod

    1978-01-01

    Nine indexing services of popular periodicals are discussed in terms of content, coverage, and characteristics: Access, Consumers Index, Index to Free Periodicals, New York Times Information Bank, Magazine Index, Monthly Periodicals Index, New Periodicals Index, Popular Periodical Index, and Readers Guide. A table indicates coverage for each index…

  17. Anglophone Popular Culture in the Mexican University English Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    This essay proposes instances of how Anglophone popular culture can offer a place for nurturing critical encounters in the context of learning English. It delineates the theoretical bases that reveal popular culture as a fundamental indicator of society and, using Anglophone movies and stories, analyzes the pedagogical possibilities for…

  18. Social goals, aggression, peer preference, and popularity: longitudinal links during middle school.

    PubMed

    Ojanen, Tiina; Findley-Van Nostrand, Danielle

    2014-08-01

    Social goals are associated with behaviors and adjustment among peers. However, it remains unclear whether goals predict adolescent social development. We examined prospective associations among goals, physical and relational aggression, social preference, and popularity during middle school (N = 384 participants, ages 12-14 years). Agentic (status, power) goals predicted increased relational aggression and communal (closeness) goals predicted decreased physical aggression. Popularity predicted increases and preference predicted decreases in both forms of aggression. Goals moderated longitudinal links between aggression and popularity: Aggression predicted increases in popularity and vice versa for youth with higher agentic goals, and popularity predicted increases in physical aggression for youth with higher agentic and lower communal goals. Implications for research on social goals, aggression, and popularity are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Scientific Discovery through Citizen Science via Popular Amateur Astrophotography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Bonnell, Jerry T.; Allen, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Can popular astrophotography stimulate real astronomical discovery? Perhaps surprisingly, in some cases, the answer is yes. Several examples are given using the Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) site as an example venue. One reason is angular -- popular wide and deep images sometimes complement professional images which typically span a more narrow field. Another reason is temporal -- an amateur is at the right place and time to take a unique and illuminating image. Additionally, popular venues can be informational -- alerting professionals to cutting-edge amateur astrophotography about which they might not have known previously. Methods of further encouraging this unusual brand of citizen science are considered.

  20. Popularity and Adolescent Friendship Networks: Selection and Influence Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Borch, Casey

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to enhance their status through befriending higher…

  1. Arab Stereotypes in Popular Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Janice J.

    1983-01-01

    Most popular fictional plots involving the Middle East--adventure stories, espionage, and themes of Western dependency on Arab oil--portray the Israelies as the good guys and the Arabs as the villians. People must be made aware that fictional literature is prejudiced and racially biased against Arabs. (RM)

  2. Popular Music in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Peter G.; Roberts, Donald F.

    This paper examines young adolescents' involvement with popular music and the health implications of that involvement. Initial discussion explores three central concepts: music media, adolescence, and mass media effects. A summary of research on music media in adolescence is offereed in two sections discussing exposure to, and gratifications and…

  3. Popular Musician Responses to Mental Health Treatment.

    PubMed

    Berg, Lloyd; King, Benjamin; Koenig, Jessica; McRoberts, Roger L

    2018-06-01

    Popular (i.e., nonclassical) musicians have higher rates of mental health disorders and mental health service utilization than the general population. Little is known, however, about how popular musicians perceive mental health interventions in terms of overall satisfaction and therapeutic benefit. An online client satisfaction survey was sent to all musicians and family members who received mental health services through a nonprofit mental health organization in Austin, Texas, between July 2014 and June 2015 (n=628). 260 individuals (41.4%) responded to the survey, of whom 94% (n=244) were musicians. A majority of musician respondents were male (60%) and white (82%). 87% received counseling, 32% received psychiatric medication treatment, and 8% received addiction recovery services. 97% of musicians (205/211) rated their counselor as 'very good' or 'excellent,' 88% (64/79) rated their psychiatric providers as 'very good' or 'excellent,' and 94% (17/19) rated their addiction recovery specialists as 'very good' or 'excellent' (nonsignificant between all categories, p>0.05). 89% of musicians receiving counseling, 84% receiving psychiatric medication treatment, and 95% receiving addiction recovery services agreed or strongly agreed that their symptoms and overall functioning improved as a result of their treatment (nonsignificant between all categories, p>0.05). Popular musicians express strong provider satisfaction and overall benefit when mental health interventions are accessible, affordable, and delivered by professionals familiar with their concerns. More research is needed to understand the unique psychosocial stresses popular musicians face to inform treatment planning for this high-risk, underserved population.

  4. Central Mechanisms in the Maintenance of Chronic Widespread Noninflammatory Muscle Pain

    PubMed Central

    DeSantana, Josimari M.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic widespread pain (CWP) conditions such as fibromyalgia and myofascial syndromes are characterized by generalized pain, tenderness, morning stiffness, disturbed sleep, and pronounced fatigue. However, CWP pathophysiology is still unclear. A number of hypotheses have been proposed as the underlying pathophysiology of CWP: muscular dysfunction/ischemia, central sensitization, and a deficit in endogenous pain-modulating systems. This article reviews the current and emerging literature about the pathophysiology and neurobiology of chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain. Widespread musculoskeletal pain results in changes in the central nervous system in human subjects and animal models. These changes likely reflect alterations in supraspinal modulation of nociception, and include increases in excitatory and decreases in inhibitory modulation pathways. These alterations in excitation and inhibition likely drive changes observed in the spinal cord to result in central sensitization, and the consequent pain and hyperalgesia. PMID:18765138

  5. Teaching Popular Music: Investigating Music Educators' Perceptions and Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, D. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in-service music teachers' perceptions of popular music in the classroom and to examine their own preparation to teach popular music. A sample of music teachers, drawn from two regional chapters of the American Orff-Schulwerk Association, completed a researcher-designed survey instrument. Results…

  6. Editorial Commentary: Platelet-Rich Plasma: Fountain of Youth, Cart Before the Horse, or Both?

    PubMed

    Salzler, Matthew J

    2018-05-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections have gained widespread popularity for the treatment of many orthopaedic conditions including osteoarthritis of the knee. Despite its increasing usage, there is comparatively little evidence regarding the mechanisms of action and relative roles of the multiple growth factors contained within PRP. That said, although future research will clarify the issue, current evidence suggests that PRP is safe and, for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis, effective. Copyright © 2018 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Electronic cigarette use and exposure in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Collaco, Joseph M; Drummond, M Bradley; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A

    2015-02-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has gained recent widespread popularity and acceptance in the general population. What effect e-cigarettes may have on pediatric health remains unknown. Although many jurisdictions have laws that prevent the sale of e-cigarettes to minors and the use of e-cigarettes in public places, infants, children, and adolescents are increasingly exposed to them. In this pediatric-focused review, we discuss the history of these devices, user demographics, known health effects, and current legislative efforts to protect minors from exposure.

  8. Electronic Cigarette Use and Exposure in the Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Collaco, Joseph M.; Drummond, M. Bradley; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A.

    2017-01-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has gained recent widespread popularity and acceptance in the general population. What effect e-cigarettes may have on pediatric health remains unknown. Although many jurisdictions have laws that prevent the sale of e-cigarettes to minors and the use of e-cigarettes in public places, infants, children, and adolescents are increasingly exposed to them. In this pediatric-focused review, we discuss the history of these devices, user demographics, known health effects, and current legislative efforts to protect minors from exposure. PMID:25546699

  9. The Popularization of Science in the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses ways in which the study of science is being popularized at all educational levels in Chinese society. Describes efforts of popularization through newspapers, gifted student programs, public schools, book publications, and audiovisual media. (CS)

  10. Widespread Weathered Glass on the Surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horgan, Briony; Bell, James F., III

    2012-01-01

    Low albedo sediments cover >10(exp 7) sq km in the northern lowlands of Mars, but the composition and origin of these widespread deposits have remained ambiguous despite many previous investigations. Here we use near-infrared spectra acquired by the Mars Express OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activite') imaging spectrometer to show that these sediments exhibit spectral characteristics that are consistent with both high abundances of iron-bearing glass and silica-enriched leached rinds on glass. This interpretation is supported by observations of low-albedo soil grains with possible rinds at the Phoenix Mars Lander landing site in the northern lowlands. By comparison with the extensive glass-rich dune fields and sand sheets of Iceland, we propose an explosive volcanic origin for these glass-rich sediments. We also propose that the glassy remnant rinds on the sediments are the result of post-depositional alteration, as these rinds are commonly formed in arid terrestrial volcanic environments during water-limited, moderately acidic leaching. These weathered, glass-rich deposits in the northern lowlands are also colocated with the strongest concentrations of a major global compositional surface type previously identified in mid-infrared spectra, suggesting that they may be representative of global processes. Our results provide potential confirmation of models suggesting that explosive volcanism has been widespread on Mars, and also raise the possibilities that glass-rich volcaniclastics are a major source of eolian sand on Mars and that widespread surficial aqueous alteration has occurred under Amazonian climatic conditions.

  11. Teaching through Film: Utilizing Popular Criminology in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atherton, M.

    2013-01-01

    As technology and media become more popular pedagogical tools for instructors, the discussion of using films as a way to help students understand criminological concepts is also growing. Using a conceptual framework of popular criminology, the author set out to explore the ways in which films can be incorporated into a unique course aimed at…

  12. Thinking critically about the occurrence of widespread participation in poor nursing care.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Marc; Ion, Robin

    2015-04-01

    A discussion of how Arendt's work can be productively re-contextualized to provide a critical analysis of the occurrence of widespread participation in poor nursing care and what the implications of this are for the providers of nursing education. While the recent participation of nurses in healthcare failings, such as that detailed in the Francis report, has been universally condemned, there has been an absence of critical analyses in the literature that attempt to understand the occurrence of such widespread participation in poor nursing care. This is a significant omission in so far as such analyses will form an integral part of the strategy to limit the occurrence of such widespread participation of nurses in future healthcare failings. Discussion paper. Arendt's 'Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil' and 'Thinking and Moral Considerations: A Lecture'. In addition, a literature search was conducted and articles published in English relating to the terms care, compassion, ethics, judgement and thinking between 2004-2014 were included. It is anticipated that this discussion will stimulate further critical debate about the role of Arendt's work for an understanding of the occurrence of poor nursing care, and encouraging additional detailed analyses of the widespread participation of nurses in healthcare failings more generally. This article provides a challenging analysis of the widespread participation of nurses in poor care and discusses the opportunities confronting the providers of nursing education in limiting future healthcare failings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Use of Popular Culture Texts in Mother Tongue Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Mazhar

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to associate popular culture texts with Turkish language lessons of middle school students. For this purpose, a model was proposed and a suitable curriculum was prepared for this model. It was aimed to determine how this program, which was the result of associating popular culture texts with Turkish language lesson…

  14. Homicides In Mexico Reversed Life Expectancy Gains For Men And Slowed Them For Women, 2000-10.

    PubMed

    Aburto, José Manuel; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; García-Guerrero, Victor Manuel; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy in Mexico increased for more than six decades but then stagnated in the period 2000-10. This decade was characterized by the enactment of a major health care reform-the implementation of the Seguro Popular de Salud (Popular Health Insurance), which was intended to provide coverage to the entire Mexican population-and by an unexpected increase in homicide mortality. We assessed the impact on life expectancy of conditions amenable to medical service-those sensitive to public health policies and changes in behaviors, homicide, and diabetes-by analyzing mortality trends at the state level. We found that life expectancy among males deteriorated from 2005 to 2010, compared to increases from 2000 to 2005. Females in most states experienced small gains in life expectancy between 2000 and 2010. The unprecedented rise in homicides after 2005 led to a reversal in life expectancy increases among males and a slowdown among females in most states in the first decade of the twenty-first century. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. Ultraviolet vision may be widespread in bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Bonaccorso, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Insectivorous bats are well known for their abilities to find and pursue flying insect prey at close range using echolocation, but they also rely heavily on vision. For example, at night bats use vision to orient across landscapes, avoid large obstacles, and locate roosts. Although lacking sharp visual acuity, the eyes of bats evolved to function at very low levels of illumination. Recent evidence based on genetics, immunohistochemistry, and laboratory behavioral trials indicated that many bats can see ultraviolet light (UV), at least at illumination levels similar to or brighter than those before twilight. Despite this growing evidence for potentially widespread UV vision in bats, the prevalence of UV vision among bats remains unknown and has not been studied outside of the laboratory. We used a Y-maze to test whether wild-caught bats could see reflected UV light and whether such UV vision functions at the dim lighting conditions typically experienced by night-flying bats. Seven insectivorous species of bats, representing five genera and three families, showed a statistically significant ‘escape-toward-the-light’ behavior when placed in the Y-maze. Our results provide compelling evidence of widespread dim-light UV vision in bats.

  16. Popularity of Russian information sources of medical education.

    PubMed

    Vasilyeva, Irina V; Arseniev, Sergey B

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to analyze the popularity of information sources of medical educational sites <webmedinfo.ru>, medical information portal <meduniver.com>, medical portal for students <6years.net>, electronic library of medical literature <booksmed.com>, <medliter.ru> and <medbook.net.ru>. Three sites (<www.webmedinfo.ru>, <meduniver.com> and <6years.net>) provide sources of medical literature, educational videos, medical histories, medical papers and medical popular literature. And three other sites (<www.booksmed.com>, <www.medliter.ru> and <www.medbook.net.ru>) provide sources for electronic medical books on various subjects. Using on-line programs Alexa and Cy-pr we have analyzed the website's rating and identified the main data and time-varying data of the sites. Calculated Alexa Rank rating was determined for each site. Our study has shown that the most popular information sources of medical education among the six studied sites for Russian users is <meduniver.com>; the site <booksmed.com> is at the second place referring to the Alexa Rank rating and the site <webmedinfo.ru> is at the second place referring to the citation index in Yandex. The most popular medical site of electronic medical books is <booksmed.com>.

  17. The social image of food: Associations between popularity and eating behavior.

    PubMed

    König, Laura M; Giese, Helge; Stok, F Marijn; Renner, Britta

    2017-07-01

    One factor that determines what we eat and why we eat is our social environment. In the present research, two online studies examined the relationship between food intake and social images. Specifically, the present research assessed the relationship between the food intake university students ascribed to peers who varied in popularity and own self-reported food intake, and whether this relationship was moderated by identification with the peer group. Participants (N = 97 in Study 1; N = 402 in Study 2) were randomly presented with one of four (Study 1) or two of eight (Study 2) vignettes describing a popular or unpopular student (male or female) from their university without receiving any information about the peer's eating behavior. Subsequently, healthy and unhealthy eating ascribed to the peers and own self-reported eating behavior were assessed. Results indicated that popular peers were perceived to eat more healthily than unpopular peers. Moreover, eating behavior ascribed to popular peers were associated with own healthy and unhealthy eating. Importantly, the relationship between healthy eating behavior ascribed to popular peers and own healthy eating behavior was moderated by identification with the student group - the more participants identified with their peers, the more their own eating was aligned with the healthy eating ascribed to a popular peer. Hence, the popularity of others seems to shape perceptions of the food they eat and may facilitate healthy eating via social influence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Popular Education in Solidarity Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Melo Neto, José Francisco; da Costa, Francisco Xavier Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to show the relation between popular education and solidarity economy in experiences of solidarity economy enterprises in Brazil. It is based on diverse experiences which have occurred in various sectors of this economy, highlighting those experiences which took place in João Pessoa with the creation of a Cooperative of Workers…

  19. Archaeoastronomical Concepts in Popular Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Edwin C.

    Broad public embrace of archaic astronomy probably began in the eighteenth century with awareness of the summer solstice sunrise's affiliation with Stonehenge. Since that time, Stonehenge has retained an astronomical mystique that attracts crowds mobilized by the monument's supposed cosmic purpose. They are committed to witness prehistoric heritage operating in real time and with enduring function. More recently, mass media have intermittently thrown a spotlight on new archaeoastronomical discoveries. While the details, ambiguities, and nuances of disciplined study of astronomy in antiquity do not usually infiltrate popular culture, some astronomical alignments, celestial events, sky-tempered symbols, and astral narratives have become well known and referenced in popular culture. Places and relics that command public interest with astronomical connotations are transformed into cultural icons and capture visitors on a quest for the authenticity the past is believed to possess. Monuments and ideas that successfully forge a romantic bond with the past and inspire an imagined sense of sharing the experience, perspective, and wisdom of antiquity persist in the cultural landscape.

  20. Structure of Science Popularizations: A Genre-Analysis Approach to the Schema of Popularized Medical Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwogu, Kevin N.

    1991-01-01

    Attempts to characterize one discourse type of science popularization, the Journalistic Reported Version (JRV) of research articles in science magazines and newspapers. Results indicate that the JRV has an identifiable schema by which the information it contains is structured, and a typical JRV text may have as many as nine schematic structures.…

  1. Case study teaching method improves student performance and perceptions of learning gains.

    PubMed

    Bonney, Kevin M

    2015-05-01

    Following years of widespread use in business and medical education, the case study teaching method is becoming an increasingly common teaching strategy in science education. However, the current body of research provides limited evidence that the use of published case studies effectively promotes the fulfillment of specific learning objectives integral to many biology courses. This study tested the hypothesis that case studies are more effective than classroom discussions and textbook reading at promoting learning of key biological concepts, development of written and oral communication skills, and comprehension of the relevance of biological concepts to everyday life. This study also tested the hypothesis that case studies produced by the instructor of a course are more effective at promoting learning than those produced by unaffiliated instructors. Additionally, performance on quantitative learning assessments and student perceptions of learning gains were analyzed to determine whether reported perceptions of learning gains accurately reflect academic performance. The results reported here suggest that case studies, regardless of the source, are significantly more effective than other methods of content delivery at increasing performance on examination questions related to chemical bonds, osmosis and diffusion, mitosis and meiosis, and DNA structure and replication. This finding was positively correlated to increased student perceptions of learning gains associated with oral and written communication skills and the ability to recognize connections between biological concepts and other aspects of life. Based on these findings, case studies should be considered as a preferred method for teaching about a variety of concepts in science courses.

  2. Spreading Chaos: The Role of Popularizations in the Diffusion of Scientific Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Danette

    2004-01-01

    Scientific popularizations are generally considered translations (often dubious ones) of scientific research for a lay audience. This study explores the role popularizations play within scientific discourse, specifically in the development of chaos theory. The methods included a review of the popular and the semipopular books on chaos theory from…

  3. Understanding Adolescent Delinquency: The Role of Older Siblings’ Delinquency and Popularity with Peers

    PubMed Central

    Craine, Jessica L.; Tanaka, Teri A.; Nishina, Adrienne; Conger, Katherine J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined delinquency concordance and the moderating effects of younger sibling perceptions of older sibling popularity in a sample of 587 adolescent sibling pairs. Using a social learning framework, and taking dyad composition into account, perceptions of popularity were hypothesized to strengthen siblings’ concordance for delinquency. Older sibling delinquency significantly predicted younger sibling delinquency. Older sibling popularity was not important in predicting boys’ delinquency. However, perceptions of older sibling popularity directly predicted reduced delinquency for girls with older sisters. A significant interaction effect was found for girls with older brothers. Older brother delinquency predicted girls’ delinquency for girls who perceived their older brother to be relatively popular. There was no delinquency concordance for girls who perceived their older brothers to be less popular. PMID:20305731

  4. Predicting Key Events in the Popularity Evolution of Online Information.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying; Hu, Changjun; Fu, Shushen; Fang, Mingzhe; Xu, Wenwen

    2017-01-01

    The popularity of online information generally experiences a rising and falling evolution. This paper considers the "burst", "peak", and "fade" key events together as a representative summary of popularity evolution. We propose a novel prediction task-predicting when popularity undergoes these key events. It is of great importance to know when these three key events occur, because doing so helps recommendation systems, online marketing, and containment of rumors. However, it is very challenging to solve this new prediction task due to two issues. First, popularity evolution has high variation and can follow various patterns, so how can we identify "burst", "peak", and "fade" in different patterns of popularity evolution? Second, these events usually occur in a very short time, so how can we accurately yet promptly predict them? In this paper we address these two issues. To handle the first one, we use a simple moving average to smooth variation, and then a universal method is presented for different patterns to identify the key events in popularity evolution. To deal with the second one, we extract different types of features that may have an impact on the key events, and then a correlation analysis is conducted in the feature selection step to remove irrelevant and redundant features. The remaining features are used to train a machine learning model. The feature selection step improves prediction accuracy, and in order to emphasize prediction promptness, we design a new evaluation metric which considers both accuracy and promptness to evaluate our prediction task. Experimental and comparative results show the superiority of our prediction solution.

  5. Popular Music: An Untapped Resource for Teaching Contemporary Black History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, B. Lee

    1979-01-01

    This essay suggests two innovative instructional approaches for using popular Black music as a model for historical study in the classroom: (1) biographies of popular music artists; and (2) lyrical demonstration of social themes. A list of lyric and album resources is provided. (Author/EB)

  6. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory predict gains in mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4) were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6) that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1). First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning.

  7. Developmental Gains in Visuospatial Memory Predict Gains in Mathematics Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4) were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6) that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1). First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning. PMID:23936154

  8. Alcohol brand appearances in US popular music.

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Nuzzo, Erin; Rice, Kristen R; Sargent, James D

    2012-03-01

    The average US adolescent is exposed to 34 references to alcohol in popular music daily. Although brand recognition is an independent, potent risk factor for alcohol outcomes among adolescents, alcohol brand appearances in popular music have not been assessed systematically. We aimed to determine the prevalence of and contextual elements associated with alcohol brand appearances in US popular music. Qualitative content analysis. We used Billboard Magazine to identify songs to which US adolescents were most exposed in 2005-07. For each of the 793 songs, two trained coders analyzed independently the lyrics of each song for references to alcohol and alcohol brand appearances. Subsequent in-depth assessments utilized Atlas.ti to determine contextual factors associated with each of the alcohol brand appearances. Our final code book contained 27 relevant codes representing six categories: alcohol types, consequences, emotional states, activities, status and objects. Average inter-rater reliability was high (κ = 0.80), and all differences were easily adjudicated. Of the 793 songs in our sample, 169 (21.3%) referred explicitly to alcohol, and of those, 41 (24.3%) contained an alcohol brand appearance. Consequences associated with alcohol were more often positive than negative (41.5% versus 17.1%, P < 0.001). Alcohol brand appearances were associated commonly with wealth (63.4%), sex (58.5%), luxury objects (51.2%), partying (48.8%), other drugs (43.9%) and vehicles (39.0%). One in five songs sampled from US popular music had explicit references to alcohol, and one-quarter of these mentioned a specific alcohol brand. These alcohol brand appearances are associated commonly with a luxury life-style characterized by wealth, sex, partying and other drugs. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Lone Geniuses in Popular Science: The Devaluation of Scientific Consensus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charney, Davida

    2003-01-01

    Popular accounts of scientific discoveries diverge from scholarly accounts, stripping off hedges and promoting short-term social consequences. This case study illustrates how the "horse-race" framing of popular accounts devalues the collective sharing, challenging, and extending of scientific work. In her best-selling "Longitude," Dava Sobel…

  10. Investigation of Fuselage Structure Subject to Widespread Fatigue Damage

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the results of the "Investigation of Fuselage Structure Subject to Widespread Fatigue Damage" contract. The primary program objective was to obtain data on airplane fuselage structures subject to multiple site damage (MSD) in an...

  11. Is popularity associated with aggression toward socially preferred or marginalized targets?

    PubMed

    Peets, Kätlin; Hodges, Ernest V E

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to test whether aggression toward easy or challenging targets is more likely to be associated with popularity. More specifically, we tested two alternative hypotheses with a sample of 224 adolescents (12- and 13-year-olds): (a) whether aggression toward highly disliked peers is associated with popularity (the easy target hypothesis) or (b) whether aggression toward highly liked peers is associated with popularity (the challenging target hypothesis). Support was found only for the challenging target hypothesis. In particular, our results indicate that aggressiveness toward peers who are liked by many others has social benefits in the form of greater popularity (particularly for highly preferred adolescents) without social costs (i.e., is unrelated to social preference). In contrast, aggressiveness toward peers who are disliked by many others is associated with lower social preference but bears no association with popularity. These results highlight the importance of studying contextualized aggression in order to understand the conditions under which aggression is most, and least, likely to be associated with social power and dominance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Situating Educational Leaders as Prophetic Critics in Black Popular Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prier, Darius D.

    2017-01-01

    This article situates educational leaders as prophetic critics in Black popular culture. These leaders merge cultural criticism with moral and political judgment, analyzing urban youths' lived experiences and representational practices as well as analyzing counter-narrative texts in Black popular culture that have implications for urban education.…

  13. Popular Theatre and Participatory Research. Bosele Tshwaraganang Publications No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraai, Ziki; And Others

    The use of popular theatre to overcome community development problems in underdeveloped countries through adult education is introduced and its relationship to the concept of participatory research is explored. Material is arranged in four sections. The first of these presents an introduction to popular theatre and participatory research. Stemming…

  14. "But Where Are the Cossacks?": An Alternative Strategy for Popularization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fayard, Pierre

    1991-01-01

    Proposes methods for the optimal popularization of science and technology to shape and influence public opinion about the utility of associated policies and goals. Emphasizes that such popularization should concentrate on enabling laypeople to acquire an adequate level of scientific and technological literacy, applicable to their everyday lives.…

  15. The Popularity of P&P

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffins, Paul

    2006-01-01

    "Principles and Practices" (P&P), a real estate pre-licensing class, is one of the most popular courses in adult education, because it can literally be the key to the dual American dreams: striking it rich and owning a home. One of the things that makes the P&P class unique is that it is taught in so many different venues. The…

  16. Substance Use among Middle School Students: Associations with Self-Rated and Peer-Nominated Popularity

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; Green, Harold D.; Zhou, Annie J.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Shih, Regina A.; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    Associations of popularity with adolescent substance use were examined among 1,793 6th-8th grade students who completed an in-school survey. Popularity was assessed through both self-ratings and peer nominations. Students who scored higher on either measure of popularity were more likely to be lifetime cigarette smokers, drinkers, and marijuana users, as well as past month drinkers. Self-rated popularity was positively associated with past month marijuana use and heavy drinking, and peer-nominated popularity showed a quadratic association with past month heavy drinking. These results extend previous work and highlight that popularity, whether based on self-perceptions or peer friendship nominations, is a risk factor for substance use during middle school. Given the substantial increase in peer influence during early adolescence, prevention program effectiveness may be enhanced by addressing popularity as a risk factor for substance use or working with popular students to be peer leaders to influence social norms and promote healthier choices. PMID:20580420

  17. Predicting Key Events in the Popularity Evolution of Online Information

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shushen; Fang, Mingzhe; Xu, Wenwen

    2017-01-01

    The popularity of online information generally experiences a rising and falling evolution. This paper considers the “burst”, “peak”, and “fade” key events together as a representative summary of popularity evolution. We propose a novel prediction task—predicting when popularity undergoes these key events. It is of great importance to know when these three key events occur, because doing so helps recommendation systems, online marketing, and containment of rumors. However, it is very challenging to solve this new prediction task due to two issues. First, popularity evolution has high variation and can follow various patterns, so how can we identify “burst”, “peak”, and “fade” in different patterns of popularity evolution? Second, these events usually occur in a very short time, so how can we accurately yet promptly predict them? In this paper we address these two issues. To handle the first one, we use a simple moving average to smooth variation, and then a universal method is presented for different patterns to identify the key events in popularity evolution. To deal with the second one, we extract different types of features that may have an impact on the key events, and then a correlation analysis is conducted in the feature selection step to remove irrelevant and redundant features. The remaining features are used to train a machine learning model. The feature selection step improves prediction accuracy, and in order to emphasize prediction promptness, we design a new evaluation metric which considers both accuracy and promptness to evaluate our prediction task. Experimental and comparative results show the superiority of our prediction solution. PMID:28046121

  18. Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

  19. Resources for Popular Culture in Ancient, Medieval and Renaissance Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Fred E. H.

    1996-01-01

    Notes that there are few readily accessible resources for teachers who wish to include popular culture in their ancient, medieval, or renaissance history lessons. Goes on to partially remedy this situation by providing a review of print sources of information on popular culture. Also mentions useful films and artifacts. (DSK)

  20. Overcoming Impossible Bodies: Using Media Literacy to Challenge Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graydon, Shari

    1997-01-01

    Media education can be taught by analyzing the ways popular media represent the sexes. Discusses stereotyped gender images in popular culture and outlines classroom activities investigating modeling poses, images of ideal and successful males and females, gender sensitive language, sex role portrayal, and violence for a media literacy unit using…

  1. Gender and the Rhetoric of Reproduction in Popular Science Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurkis, Elisa

    In academia, theorists in rhetoric are interested in viewing how race, gender, and class come into play in the language of literature. The same might be done with popular science texts. A rhetorical analysis of "Sperm Wars," a popular science article published in "Discover" magazine, suggests that cultural assumptions inform…

  2. Composition and Popular Culture: From Mindless Consumers to Critical Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Veleda; Robitaille, Marilyn

    1987-01-01

    Presents a model for a composition workshop using topics generated from the popular media. Designed to help students explore the mimetic characteristics of popular culture and to analyze the appeals, claims, and techniques used in advertising. Grouped under thematic guidelines of social roles, assignments are flexible in length but easily changed…

  3. Microwave Photonics: current challenges towards widespread application.

    PubMed

    Capmany, José; Li, Guifang; Lim, Christina; Yao, Jianping

    2013-09-23

    Microwave Photonics, a symbiotic field of research that brings together the worlds of optics and radio frequency is currently facing several challenges in its transition from a niche to a truly widespread technology essential to support the ever-increasing values for speed, bandwidth, processing capability and dynamic range that will be required in next generation hybrid access networks. We outline these challenges, which are the subject of the contributions to this focus issue.

  4. Noninsect Arthropods in Popular Music

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of noninsect arthropods in popular music was examined in order to explore human attitudes toward these species, especially as compared to insects. Crustaceans were the most commonly referenced taxonomic group in artist names, album titles and cover art, followed by spiders and scorpions. The surprising prevalence of crustaceans may be related to the palatability of many of the species. Spiders and scorpions were primarily used for shock value, as well as totemic qualities of strength and ferocity. Spiders were the most abundant group among song titles, perhaps because of their familiarity to the general public. Three noninsect arthropod album titles were found from the early 1970s, then none appear until 1990. Older albums are difficult to find unless they are quite popular, and the resurgence of albums coincides with the rise of the internet. After 1990, issuance of such albums increased approximately linearly. Giant and chimeric album covers were the most common of themes, indicating the use of these animals to inspire fear and surprise. The lyrics of select songs are presented to illustrate the diversity of sentiments present, from camp spookiness to edibility. PMID:26467627

  5. Noninsect Arthropods in Popular Music.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Joseph R

    2011-05-26

    The occurrence of noninsect arthropods in popular music was examined in order to explore human attitudes toward these species, especially as compared to insects. Crustaceans were the most commonly referenced taxonomic group in artist names, album titles and cover art, followed by spiders and scorpions. The surprising prevalence of crustaceans may be related to the palatability of many of the species. Spiders and scorpions were primarily used for shock value, as well as totemic qualities of strength and ferocity. Spiders were the most abundant group among song titles, perhaps because of their familiarity to the general public. Three noninsect arthropod album titles were found from the early 1970s, then none appear until 1990. Older albums are difficult to find unless they are quite popular, and the resurgence of albums coincides with the rise of the internet. After 1990, issuance of such albums increased approximately linearly. Giant and chimeric album covers were the most common of themes, indicating the use of these animals to inspire fear and surprise. The lyrics of select songs are presented to illustrate the diversity of sentiments present, from camp spookiness to edibility.

  6. Widespread plant species: Natives versus aliens in our changing world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Pysek, P.; Kartesz, J.; Nishino, M.; Pauchard, A.; Winter, M.; Pino, J.; Richardson, D.M.; Wilson, J.R.U.; Murray, B.R.; Phillips, M.L.; Ming-yang, L.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Font, X.

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  7. Widespread plant species: natives vs. aliens in our changing world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Pyšek, Petr; Kartesz, John; Nishino, Misako; Pauchard, Aníbal; Winter, Marten; Pino, Joan; Richardson, David M.; Wilson, John R.U.; Murray, Brad R.; Phillips, Megan L.; Ming-yang, Li; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Font, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments.

  8. Fiestaware as an Icon in the Popular Culture of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Sharon; Dale, J. Alexander

    Fiestaware, the brightly colored dinnerware first introduced in the United States in 1936, has been a cultural phenomenon from its inception. This paper seeks to explain the extraordinary popularity of Fiestaware and to understand the role the ware occupies in U.S. popular culture. Fiestaware achieved enormous success, in spite of its introduction…

  9. Freedom, Constraint, or Both? Readings on Popular Music and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorck, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how notions of freedom are linked to popular music practices in previous research literature. The author discusses how two competing discourses depict popular music practices on the one hand as "freedom," and on the other hand as "constraint," and how these ideas relate to gender. She also argues that…

  10. "Sounds Good to Me": Canadian Children's Perceptions of Popular Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosacki, Sandra; Francis-Murray, Nancy; Pollon, Dawn E.; Elliott, Anne

    2006-01-01

    This cross-sectional study explored the role of age and socioeconomic status (SES) in relation to children's popular musical preferences. As part of a larger, multi-method, longitudinal study on children's and adolescents self-views and media preference, the present study investigated the popular music section of a self-report questionnaire. Data…

  11. Disability and Popular Common Sense in India: Noun versus Adjective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahid, Mohd; Raza, Md. Shahid; Alam, Md. Aftab

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting through the Indian experiences, a brief attempt is made to explore how disability as a noun takes shape in popular common sense "call names" (adjectives) and how does the popular common sense legitimise and normalise the oppressive language and the oppressed reality of the persons with disabilities? In the Indian context, the…

  12. `Popular' journals and community in American astronomy, 1882 - 1951

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marché, Jordan D.

    2005-06-01

    Popularization fulfils several important roles beyond those recognized in the culturally-dominant view. Apart from its intended purpose of diffusing scientific knowledge among various audiences, popularization serves practitioners, especially when exercised in the format of a disciplinary `trade' journal. `Trade' journals inform researchers about developments occurring in areas of knowledge production beyond their immediate specialties. Such journals offer routine assessments and reviews of current investigations, innovations, and issues facing researchers and educators alike. These outlets attract new recruits into the profession, through encouragement of research methods and the explication of lingering problems. Most importantly, they serve to shape, direct, and influence peer-level dialogues and decisions upon future courses of action, including the research process itself. In an inversion of the culturally-dominant view of popularization, such trade journals comprise an essential, if little-recognized, component of disciplinary professionalization.

  13. Back by Popular Demand: A Narrative Review on the History of Food Addiction Research

    PubMed Central

    Meule, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of food addiction has gained more and more popularity. This approach acknowledges the apparent parallels between substance use disorders and overeating of highly palatable, high-caloric foods. Part of this discussion includes that “hyperpalatable” foods may have an addictive potential because of increased potency due to certain nutrients or additives. Although this idea seems to be relatively new, research on food addiction actually encompasses several decades, a fact that often remains unrecognized. Scientific use of the term addiction in reference to chocolate even dates back to the 19th century. In the 20th century, food addiction research underwent several paradigm shifts, which include changing foci on anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, obesity, or binge eating disorder. Thus, the purpose of this review is to describe the history and state of the art of food addiction research and to demonstrate its development and refinement of definitions and methodologies. PMID:26339213

  14. Back by Popular Demand: A Narrative Review on the History of Food Addiction Research.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, the concept of food addiction has gained more and more popularity. This approach acknowledges the apparent parallels between substance use disorders and overeating of highly palatable, high-caloric foods. Part of this discussion includes that "hyperpalatable" foods may have an addictive potential because of increased potency due to certain nutrients or additives. Although this idea seems to be relatively new, research on food addiction actually encompasses several decades, a fact that often remains unrecognized. Scientific use of the term addiction in reference to chocolate even dates back to the 19th century. In the 20th century, food addiction research underwent several paradigm shifts, which include changing foci on anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, obesity, or binge eating disorder. Thus, the purpose of this review is to describe the history and state of the art of food addiction research and to demonstrate its development and refinement of definitions and methodologies.

  15. Studying Popular Culture in the Public Library: Suggestions for Cooperative Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Janet K.

    1980-01-01

    Offers suggestions for cooperative sharing of resources and expertise between public librarians and their academic colleagues to establish access to popular cultural materials at academic institutions. Listings of materials for popular culture courses are included. (RAA)

  16. Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain - a comparison of those who meet criteria for fibromyalgia and those who do not.

    PubMed

    Cöster, Lars; Kendall, Sally; Gerdle, Björn; Henriksson, Chris; Henriksson, Karl G; Bengtsson, Ann

    2008-07-01

    Fibromyalgia is currently classified as chronic widespread pain with widespread allodynia to pressure pain. There are few data describing pain characteristics, quality of life, consequences for daily living, and psychosocial status in patients who meet the classification criteria for fibromyalgia proposed by the American College of Rheumatology compared with patients with chronic widespread pain but not widespread allodynia. This study used a randomly selected sample from the general population. A postal questionnaire and a pain mannequin were sent to 9952 people. The response rate was 76.7%. The pain drawings showed that 345 people had widespread pain; that is, they noted pain in all four extremities and axially. Clinical examination, which included a manual tender point examination, was performed in 125 subjects. These people answered commonly used questionnaires on pain, quality of life, coping strategies, depression, and anxiety. Compared with chronic widespread pain without widespread allodynia, fibromyalgia was associated with more severe symptoms/consequences for daily life and higher pain severity. Similar coping strategies were found. Chronic widespread pain without widespread allodynia to pressure pain was found in 4.5% in the population and fibromyalgia in 2.5%.

  17. A Comparison of Inbreeding Depression in Tropical and Widespread Drosophila Species

    PubMed Central

    Bechsgaard, Jesper S.; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Sgró, Carla; Loeschcke, Volker; Bilde, Trine; Kristensen, Torsten N.

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary history of widespread and specialized species is likely to cause a different genetic architecture of key ecological traits in the two species groups. This may affect how these two groups respond to inbreeding. Here we investigate inbreeding effects in traits related to performance in 5 widespread and 5 tropical restricted species of Drosophila with the aim of testing whether the two species groups suffered differently from inbreeding depression. The traits investigated were egg-to-adult viability, developmental time and resistance to heat, cold and desiccation. Our results showed that levels of inbreeding depression were species and trait specific and did not differ between the species groups for stress resistance traits. However, for the life history traits developmental time and egg-to adult viability, more inbreeding depression was observed in the tropical species. The results reported suggest that for life history traits tropical species of Drosophila will suffer more from inbreeding depression than widespread species in case of increases in the rate of inbreeding e.g. due to declines in population sizes. PMID:23460779

  18. Dark victory: cancer and popular Hollywood film.

    PubMed

    Lederer, Susan E

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the cultural representations of cancer in popular Hollywood films released between 1930 and 1970. These cinematic treatments were not representative of the types of cancer that increasingly afflicted Americans, nor were filmmakers and studios concerned with realistic representations of the disease, its treatment, and its outcomes. As in the "epidemic entertainments" of the early twentieth century that portrayed diseases as cultural commodities, popular filmmakers selectively projected some cancers rather than others, favoring those that were less offensive and more photogenic. Although the characters became weak and died, they did so without gross transformations of their bodies. This paper argues that such representations nonetheless informed American attitudes about cancer and the role of medical research in overcoming the disease.

  19. Substance use among middle school students: associations with self-rated and peer-nominated popularity.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S; Green, Harold D; Zhou, Annie J; Miles, Jeremy N V; Shih, Regina A; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2011-06-01

    Associations of popularity with adolescent substance use were examined among 1793 6-8th grade students who completed an in-school survey. Popularity was assessed through both self-ratings and peer nominations. Students who scored higher on either measure of popularity were more likely to be lifetime cigarette smokers, drinkers, and marijuana users, as well as past month drinkers. Self-rated popularity was positively associated with past month marijuana use and heavy drinking, and peer-nominated popularity showed a quadratic association with past month heavy drinking. These results extend previous work and highlight that popularity, whether based on self-perceptions or peer friendship nominations, is a risk factor for substance use during middle school. Given the substantial increase in peer influence during early adolescence, prevention program effectiveness may be enhanced by addressing popularity as a risk factor for substance use or working with popular students to be peer leaders to influence social norms and promote healthier choices. Copyright © 2010 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Caveat Lector: Reviewing Popular Social Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixson, Vivian Scott

    1981-01-01

    Discusses problems with reviews and criticisms of popular social science books: the quality and background of reviewers, the difficulty of distinguishing between fact and opinion, and the scarcity of competent reviewers. Analyzes reviews of Robert Ardrey's "African Genesis" and "The Territorial Imperative," Konrad Lorenz's "On Aggression," and…

  1. The Rhetorical Dimensions of Popular Song.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winebrenner, T. C.

    Communication scholars have recently focused attention on songs as artifacts of popular culture. Current literature implies that the contexts of music communication are defined by the relationships that songs establish between artists and their audience: persuasive, expressive, and commercial. As the commercialization of music is an inherently…

  2. Pain distribution and predictors of widespread pain in the immediate aftermath of motor vehicle collision.

    PubMed

    Bortsov, A V; Platts-Mills, T F; Peak, D A; Jones, J S; Swor, R A; Domeier, R M; Lee, D C; Rathlev, N K; Hendry, P L; Fillingim, R B; McLean, S A

    2013-09-01

    Musculoskeletal pain is common after motor vehicle collision (MVC). The study objective was to evaluate distribution of pain and predictors of widespread musculoskeletal pain in the early aftermath (within 48 h) of collision. European American adults aged 18-65 years presenting to the emergency department (ED) after collision who were discharged to home after evaluation were eligible. Evaluation included an assessment of reported pre-collision psychological characteristics, crash characteristics, current pain severity and location, and current psychological symptoms. Adjusted risk ratios were estimated using generalized linear models. Among 890 participants included in the study, 589/890 (66%) had pain in three or more regions, and 192/890 (22%) had widespread musculoskeletal pain (pain in seven or more regions). In adjusted analyses, the presence of widespread pain was strongly associated with depressive and somatic symptoms prior to collision, pain catastrophizing, and acute psychological symptoms, and was not associated with most collision characteristics (road speed limit, extent of vehicle damage, collision type, driver vs. passenger, airbag deployment). The reported number of body regions that struck an object during the collision was associated with both reported pre-collision depressive symptoms and with widespread pain. More than one in five individuals presenting to the ED in the hours after MVC have widespread pain. Widespread pain is strongly associated with patient characteristics known to be modulated by supraspinal mechanisms, suggesting that stress-induced hyperalgesia may influence acute widespread pain after collision. © 2013 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  3. The portrayal of migraine in popular music: observations and implications.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Daniel L; Vargas, Bert B

    2012-01-01

    To describe the manner in which migraine and migaineurs are depicted in popular music. Prior studies have elucidated the ways in which the popular perception of neurological disorders is shaped by popular culture, from the inflated expectations of the prognosis of coma patients in television dramas to the association of intractable headaches with demonic possession and death by violence in the cinema. searched popular online music sites for songs with the word "migraine" in their titles. Song lyrics were studied for tone, content, and the light in which they portrayed migraine sufferers. One hundred thirty-four songs met inclusion criteria, representing the work of 126 artists. The majority of the recording artists were male (112 of 126 artists, 89%). One hundred seven of the 134 songs (80%) were recorded since 2000. Of the 79 songs that contained lyrics, 16 (20%) included explicit content; 43 (54%) make reference to hopelessness, despair, or severe pain; and 27 (34%) contained references to killing or death. Only 9 songs (11%) made any reference to successful treatment, resolution, or hope of any sort, the same number that made lyrical references to explosions or bombs. The portrayal of a disease in popular music can reflect the artist's perceptions, anxieties, and prejudices about the disease and its victims. The public, including patients, may accept these portrayals as accurate. Clinicians familiar with the portrayal of headache sufferers in cinema will not be surprised that popular musicians (both migraineurs and non-migraineurs) portray migraines as intractable, violent, and all-consuming. The lack of any balancing view is disheartening, especially in light of the advances in migraine awareness and treatment over the past decade. Perhaps the most surprising finding is that the vast majority of migraine songs are written and performed by men. © 2012 American Headache Society.

  4. Characteristics, content, and significance of the popular health periodicals literature.

    PubMed Central

    Rees, A M

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of the content of sixty popular health periodicals covered in 1986 by the Consumer Health & Nutrition Index was made to identify the characteristics and concerns of popular health magazines and newsletters. The literature mirrors the health values and anxieties of the American public. While some of the literature diverges from mainstream allopathic medicine, most popular publications succeed in presenting coherent, reasoned, and documented viewpoints. Because there is no consensus on many medical problems, it is important that individuals have the freedom to read dissenting and alternative points of view and consider multiple options before making informed and reasoned health decisions. The popular literature is a valuable yet inexpensive source of reliable information on topics of current concern. The publications are not as well known as they deserve to be because they have not been adequately indexed, while they have not been indexed because they are not well known. The Consumer Health & Nutrition Index now provides expanded subject access to sixty health-related periodicals plus all health-related articles in sixteen general interest magazines. PMID:3450343

  5. Input-Specific Gain Modulation by Local Sensory Context Shapes Cortical and Thalamic Responses to Complex Sounds.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Ross S; Ahrens, Misha B; Linden, Jennifer F; Sahani, Maneesh

    2016-07-20

    Sensory neurons are customarily characterized by one or more linearly weighted receptive fields describing sensitivity in sensory space and time. We show that in auditory cortical and thalamic neurons, the weight of each receptive field element depends on the pattern of sound falling within a local neighborhood surrounding it in time and frequency. Accounting for this change in effective receptive field with spectrotemporal context improves predictions of both cortical and thalamic responses to stationary complex sounds. Although context dependence varies among neurons and across brain areas, there are strong shared qualitative characteristics. In a spectrotemporally rich soundscape, sound elements modulate neuronal responsiveness more effectively when they coincide with sounds at other frequencies, and less effectively when they are preceded by sounds at similar frequencies. This local-context-driven lability in the representation of complex sounds-a modulation of "input-specific gain" rather than "output gain"-may be a widespread motif in sensory processing. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Malt Beverage Brand Popularity Among Youth and Youth-Appealing Advertising Content.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Ziming; DeJong, William; Siegel, Michael; Babor, Thomas F

    2017-11-01

    This study examined whether alcohol brands more popular among youth are more likely to have aired television advertisements that violated the alcohol industry's voluntary code by including youth-appealing content. We obtained a complete list of 288 brand-specific beer advertisements broadcast during the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) men's and women's basketball tournaments from 1999 to 2008. All ads were rated by a panel of health professionals using a modified Delphi method to assess the presence of youth-appealing content in violation of the alcohol industry's voluntary code. The ads represented 23 alcohol brands. The popularity of these brands was operationalized as the brand-specific popularity of youth alcohol consumption in the past 30 days, as determined by a 2011 to 2012 national survey of underage drinkers. Brand-level popularity was used as the exposure variable to predict the odds of having advertisements with youth-appealing content violations. Accounting for other covariates and the clustering of advertisements within brands, increased brand popularity among underage youth was associated with significantly increased odds of having youth-appeal content violations in ads televised during the NCAA basketball tournament games (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.38, 2.09). Alcohol brands popular among underage drinkers are more likely to air television advertising that violates the industry's voluntary code which proscribes youth-appealing content. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Popular perceptions of Galileo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobel, Dava

    2010-01-01

    Among the most persistent popular misperceptions of Galileo is the image of an irreligious scientist who opposed the Catholic Church and was therefore convicted of heresy-was even excommunicated, according to some accounts, and denied Christian burial. In fact, Galileo considered himself a good Catholic. He accepted the Bible as the true word of God on matters pertaining to salvation, but insisted Scripture did not teach astronomy. Emboldened by his discovery of the Medicean Moons, he took a stand on Biblical exegesis that has since become the official Church position.

  8. Donkeys and Superteachers: Structural Adjustment and Popular Education in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischman, Gustavo

    1998-03-01

    In the past two decades Latin American governments have carried out dramatic social and economic transformations. The application of different programs of structural adjustment and decentralization has promoted deep changes, not only in the economic and social arenas, but also within the educational systems. The dominant tendency is to look for all the answers to educational problems in the realm of the "free market". However, contrary to what this situation may suggest, practitioners of "popular education" in the region have not lost all their vitality. This paper explores the challenges and possibilities of popular education by examining the educational field after the application of structural adjustment programs, presenting a critique of Gramsci's model of the organic intellectual as understood by many within popular education, and offering the specific example of a popular education workshop in Argentina.

  9. Popularizing the ancestry of man: Robert Ardrey and the killer instinct.

    PubMed

    Weidman, Nadine

    2011-06-01

    This essay examines Robert Ardrey (1908-1980)-American playwright, screenwriter, and prolific author-as a case study in the popularization of science. Bringing together evidence from both paleoanthropology and ethology, Ardrey became in the 1960s a vocal proponent of the theory that human beings are innately violent. The essay shows that Ardrey used his popular scientific books not only to consolidate a new science of human nature but also to question the popularizer's standard role, to reverse conventional hierarchies of scientific expertise, and to test the boundaries of professional scientific authority. Understanding how he did this can help us reassess the meanings and uses of popular science as critique in Cold War America. The essay also shows that E. O. Wilson's sociobiology was in part a reaction to the subversive political message of Ardrey's science.

  10. Popular Music as a Learning Tool in the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litevich, John A., Jr.

    This teaching guide reflects the belief that popular music is an effective tool for teachers to use in presenting social studies lessons to students. Titles of songs representative of popular music from 1955 to 1982 are listed by subject matter and suggest a possible lesson to be used in teaching that particular issue. Subject areas listed…

  11. Using Popular Culture in Developmental Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Sharon L.

    2006-01-01

    Using popular culture in my developmental writing course has prompted me to reconsider what it means to create successful developmental writing assignments. Having slipped into the questionable habit of assuming that removing complexity makes an assignment appropriate for developing writers, I pared down a fairly open-ended "media…

  12. Hedging becomes popular in electricity sector

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Electricity price hedging is getting popular among many energy companies due to the onslaught of deregulation in the electricity sector. Price hedging most often is used to manage power supply costs or to engage in arbitrage opportunities and is becoming a major ingredient in companies` risk management strategies.

  13. Is Being Popular a Risky Proposition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayeux, Lara; Sandstrom, Marlene J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal associations between social preference, perceived popularity, and risk behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, and sexual activity) were examined in a sample of high school students. Social preference did not predict any of the risk behaviors assessed, although the interaction between gender and social preference was predictive of sexual…

  14. Effects of individual popularity on information spreading in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lei; Li, Ruiqi; Shu, Panpan; Wang, Wei; Gao, Hui; Cai, Shimin

    2018-01-01

    In real world, human activities often exhibit preferential selection mechanism based on the popularity of individuals. However, this mechanism is seldom taken into account by previous studies about spreading dynamics on networks. Thus in this work, an information spreading model is proposed by considering the preferential selection based on individuals' current popularity, which is defined as the number of individuals' cumulative contacts with informed neighbors. A mean-field theory is developed to analyze the spreading model. Through systematically studying the information spreading dynamics on uncorrelated configuration networks as well as real-world networks, we find that the popularity preference has great impacts on the information spreading. On the one hand, the information spreading is facilitated, i.e., a larger final prevalence of information and a smaller outbreak threshold, if nodes with low popularity are preferentially selected. In this situation, the effective contacts between informed nodes and susceptible nodes are increased, and nodes almost have uniform probabilities of obtaining the information. On the other hand, if nodes with high popularity are preferentially selected, the final prevalence of information is reduced, the outbreak threshold is increased, and even the information cannot outbreak. In addition, the heterogeneity of the degree distribution and the structure of real-world networks do not qualitatively affect the results. Our research can provide some theoretical supports for the promotion of spreading such as information, health related behaviors, and new products, etc.

  15. Infrequent widespread microsatellite instability in hepatocellular carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, H; Itoh, F; Fukushima, H; Kaneto, H; Sasaki, S; Ohmura, T; Satoh, T; Karino, Y; Endo, T; Toyota, J; Imai, K

    2000-03-01

    Widespread or high-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI) due to the defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) occurs in the majority of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer and a subset of sporadic malignant tumors. The incidence of MSI and underlying DNA MMR defects have been well characterized in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis, but not in hepatocarcinogenesis. To address the issue, we analyzed 55 Japanese hepatocellular carcinomas using several indicators of DNA MMR defects, such as microsatellite analysis, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and mutation analysis of MMR genes, methylation of hMLH1 promoter, and frameshift mutations of mononucleotide repeat sequences within possible target genes. Mutation of beta2-microglobulin gene, which is presumably involved in MSI-positive tumor cell escape from immune surveillance was also examined. Some of these analyses were also carried out in 9 human liver cancer cell lines. None of the 3 quasi-monomorphic mononucleotide markers sensitive for MSI, BAT26, BAT25, and BAT34C4 presented shortened unstable alleles in any of the carcinoma, cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis tissues, or cell lines. LOH at MMR genes was infrequent (4.4 approximately 7.1%), and no mutations were detected. Neither hMLH1 hypermethylation nor frameshift mutation in the target genes was detected. No mutations were found in beta2-microglobulin. Widespread MSI due to the defective DNA MMR appears to play little if any part in Japanese hepatocarcinogenesis.

  16. Popularity as a Predictor of Early Alcohol Use and Moderator of Other Risk Processes

    PubMed Central

    Guyll, Max; Madon, Stephanie; Spoth, Richard; Lannin, Daniel G

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationship between popularity and early adolescent alcohol use and examined whether popularity moderated the influence of several risk processes. Method: Longitudinal data provided by 1,196 youth (590 girls) were analyzed to assess main and interactive effects of popularity, friends’ alcohol use attitudes, own alcohol use attitude, risk taking, and aggressive–disruptive behavior on changes in alcohol use during seventh grade. Results: When we controlled for demographic variables and baseline alcohol use, popularity and the other predictors of interest exhibited linear main effects on alcohol use, with popularity and the attitude variables also demonstrating curvilinear relationships. Further analysis indicated that popularity moderated the effect of aggressive–disruptive behavior, the latter being associated with greater alcohol use among more popular adolescents. Additional moderation results revealed that friends’ favorable attitudes toward alcohol use also potentiated aggressive–disruptive behavior’s relationship with alcohol use and that male youth were more likely than female youth to use alcohol, but only among low risk takers. Conclusions: Popular youth may attempt to maintain status through early alcohol use, and their social competencies may facilitate risk processes associated with aggressive–disruptive behavior. Findings suggest the utility of providing universal prevention at developmentally crucial times to address substance use overall, and particularly to decrease early use among popular youth, which may serve to slow the growth of substance use in the larger cohort. Although aggressive–disruptive youth who are popular seem to be at particular risk, they may resist traditional interventions, indicating the potential value of less obvious intervention strategies. PMID:25343648

  17. Popularity as a predictor of early alcohol use and moderator of other risk processes.

    PubMed

    Guyll, Max; Madon, Stephanie; Spoth, Richard; Lannin, Daniel G

    2014-11-01

    This study tested the relationship between popularity and early adolescent alcohol use and examined whether popularity moderated the influence of several risk processes. Longitudinal data provided by 1,196 youth (590 girls) were analyzed to assess main and interactive effects of popularity, friends' alcohol use attitudes, own alcohol use attitude, risk taking, and aggressive-disruptive behavior on changes in alcohol use during seventh grade. When we controlled for demographic variables and baseline alcohol use, popularity and the other predictors of interest exhibited linear main effects on alcohol use, with popularity and the attitude variables also demonstrating curvilinear relationships. Further analysis indicated that popularity moderated the effect of aggressive-disruptive behavior, the latter being associated with greater alcohol use among more popular adolescents. Additional moderation results revealed that friends' favorable attitudes toward alcohol use also potentiated aggressive-disruptive behavior's relationship with alcohol use and that male youth were more likely than female youth to use alcohol, but only among low risk takers. Popular youth may attempt to maintain status through early alcohol use, and their social competencies may facilitate risk processes associated with aggressive-disruptive behavior. Findings suggest the utility of providing universal prevention at developmentally crucial times to address substance use overall, and particularly to decrease early use among popular youth, which may serve to slow the growth of substance use in the larger cohort. Although aggressive-disruptive youth who are popular seem to be at particular risk, they may resist traditional interventions, indicating the potential value of less obvious intervention strategies.

  18. Teaching Theory through Popular Culture Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trier, James

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a pedagogical approach to teaching theory to pre-service teachers. This approach involves articulating academic texts that introduce theoretical ideas and tools with carefully selected popular culture texts that can be taken up to illustrate the elements of a particular theory. Examples of the theories…

  19. Carbon gains by conservation projects overbalance carbon losses by degradation in China's karst ecoregions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, X.; Yue, Y.; Fensholt, R.; Brandt, M.

    2017-12-01

    China's ecological restoration projects are considered as "mega-engineering" activities and the most ambitious afforestation and conservation projects in human history. The highly sensitive and vulnerable karst ecosystem in Southwest China is one of the largest exposed carbonate rock areas (more than 0.54 million km2) in the world. Accelerating desertification has been reported during the last half century, caused by the increasing intensity of human exploitation of natural resources. As a result, vast karst areas (approximately 0.12 million km2) previously covered by vegetation and soil were turned into a rocky landscape. To combat this severe form of land degradation, more than 19 billion USD have been invested in mitigation initiatives since the end of the 1990s. The costs of mega-engineering as a climate change mitigation measure are however only justified if ecosystem properties can be affected at large scales. Here we study the carbon balance of the karst regions of 8 Chinese provinces over four decades, using optical and passive microwave satellite data, supported by statistical data on project implementations. We find that most areas experiencing losses in aboveground biomass carbon are located in areas with a high standing biomass ( 95 Mg C ha-1), whereas areas with a carbon gain are mostly located in regions with a low standing biomass ( 45 Mg C ha-1). However, the overall gains in carbon stocks overbalance the losses, with an average gross loss of -0.8 Pg C and a gross gain of +2.4 Pg C (1980s to 2016), resulting in a net gain of 1.6 Pg C. Areas of carbon gains are widespread and spatially coherent with conservation projects implemented after 2001, whereas areas of carbon losses show that ongoing degradation is still happening in the western parts of the karst regions. We conclude that the impact of conservation projects on the carbon balance of China's karst ecoregions is remarkable, but biomass carbon losses caused by ongoing degradation can not be

  20. Popular Education in Latin America. Synthesis of the Discussion Themes. Verhandelingen no. 50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dam, Anke van; And Others

    The objective of popular education has been associated with the creation of identity of popular groups in society. Education has been considered a key in the process to reform and modernize social structures. In the 1990s, democratic governments have promoted popular participation to solve development problems. This context poses new challenges…

  1. Effects of Popularity and Gender on Peers' Perceptions of Prosocial, Antisocial, and Jealousy-Eliciting Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayeux, Lara

    2011-01-01

    Perceived popularity is associated with both positive and negative characteristics, and adolescents' stereotypes associated with popularity reflect this paradox. The current study investigated adolescents' stereotypes associated with popularity and gender, as well as their liking for popular peers who engage in prosocial, antisocial, and…

  2. Misrepresentation of UK homicide characteristics in popular culture.

    PubMed

    Brown, J; Hughes, N S; McGlen, M C; Crichton, J H M

    2014-03-01

    The homicide statistics of a popular UK television fictional crime series and the former Lothian & Borders police force region, Scotland were compared. This comparison was used to consider the implications for public attitudes which may influence the adoption of public health interventions to reduce homicide. 217 homicides were identified by 105 perpetrators in the television series 'Midsomer Murders' between 1997 and 2011; these were compared to 55 homicides by 53 perpetrators in the regional sample between 2006 and 2011. The numbers of serial killings (p < 0.0001), planned homicides, female perpetrators (p < 0.0001), shootings (p = 0.0456) and poisonings (p = 0.0289) were higher in the fictional sample. Lothian & Borders cases were almost all single killings, mostly unplanned, with a far greater rate of homicide by kitchen knives (p < 0.0001) and hitting/kicking (p = 0.0005) by intoxicated perpetrators. Control of access to pointed kitchen knives by members of certain groups may reduce homicide rates. If the popular perception of UK homicides is influenced by popular culture, the importance of such a public health intervention may not be apparent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparing gains and losses.

    PubMed

    McGraw, A Peter; Larsen, Jeff T; Kahneman, Daniel; Schkade, David

    2010-10-01

    Loss aversion in choice is commonly assumed to arise from the anticipation that losses have a greater effect on feelings than gains, but evidence for this assumption in research on judged feelings is mixed. We argue that loss aversion is present in judged feelings when people compare gains and losses and assess them on a common scale. But many situations in which people judge and express their feelings lack these features. When judging their feelings about an outcome, people naturally consider a context of similar outcomes for comparison (e.g., they consider losses against other losses). This process permits gains and losses to be normed separately and produces psychological scale units that may not be the same in size or meaning for gains and losses. Our experiments show loss aversion in judged feelings for tasks that encourage gain-loss comparisons, but not tasks that discourage them, particularly those using bipolar scales.

  4. The complex network of the Brazilian Popular Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima e Silva, D.; Medeiros Soares, M.; Henriques, M. V. C.; Schivani Alves, M. T.; de Aguiar, S. G.; de Carvalho, T. P.; Corso, G.; Lucena, L. S.

    2004-02-01

    We study the Brazilian Popular Music in a network perspective. We call the Brazilian Popular Music Network, BPMN, the graph where the vertices are the song writers and the links are determined by the existence of at least a common singer. The linking degree distribution of such graph shows power law and exponential regions. The exponent of the power law is compatible with the values obtained by the evolving network algorithms seen in the literature. The average path length of the BPMN is similar to the correspondent random graph, its clustering coefficient, however, is significantly larger. These results indicate that the BPMN forms a small-world network.

  5. Science communication on YouTube: Factors that affect channel and video popularity.

    PubMed

    Welbourne, Dustin J; Grant, Will J

    2016-08-01

    YouTube has become one of the largest websites on the Internet. Among its many genres, both professional and amateur science communicators compete for audience attention. This article provides the first overview of science communication on YouTube and examines content factors that affect the popularity of science communication videos on the site. A content analysis of 390 videos from 39 YouTube channels was conducted. Although professionally generated content is superior in number, user-generated content was significantly more popular. Furthermore, videos that had consistent science communicators were more popular than those without a regular communicator. This study represents an important first step to understand content factors, which increases the channel and video popularity of science communication on YouTube. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Write It So They'll Read It: Popular Annual Financial Reporting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard T.; Piotrowski, Craig L.

    1994-01-01

    Waukesha County Technical College (Wisconsin) received the Governmental Financial Officers Association "Popular Annual Financial Reporting Award" in 1993 and became the first educational entity to do so. Popular annual financial reporting is an effective way for schools to present reader-friendly reports that stress graphics and…

  7. Antecedents and Correlates of the Popular-Aggressive Phenomenon in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodkin, Philip C.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2010-01-01

    This study identified correlates and developmental antecedents that distinguish popular-aggressive elementary school children from other youth. Drawing on the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1022), popular-aggressive children were identified through teacher ratings over…

  8. School engagement trajectories in adolescence: The role of peer likeability and popularity.

    PubMed

    Engels, Maaike C; Colpin, Hilde; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Bijttebier, Patricia; Den Noortgate, Wim Van; Claes, Stephan; Goossens, Luc; Verschueren, Karine

    2017-10-01

    This accelerated longitudinal study examined how peer status (i.e., peer likeability and popularity) is involved in adolescents' school engagement trajectories. A large sample of students was followed from Grades 7 to 11 (N=1116; M age =13.79years). Students' school engagement and peer status were assessed using self-reports and peer nominations, respectively. Latent growth curve modeling revealed that different engagement dimensions were differentially associated with peer status. Likeability was positively related to both behavioral and emotional engagement in Grade 7, but not to behavioral and emotional disaffection. In contrast, popularity was related to less behavioral engagement and more behavioral disaffection at the start of secondary education, but not to emotional engagement and disaffection. Moreover, students' aggressive behavior moderated the relation between popularity and behavioral engagement in Grade 7, denoting the risk of popularity in combination with average and high levels of aggression. Results suggest that adolescents' popularity may interfere with meeting academic demands in general and with showing engagement in particular. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Popular Culture and Critical Media Literacy in Adult Education: Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter introduces the volume, provides an overview of the theory and literature on popular culture and critical media literacy in education, and discusses ways to use popular culture in adult education.

  10. Crosswords to computers: a critical review of popular approaches to cognitive enhancement.

    PubMed

    Jak, Amy J; Seelye, Adriana M; Jurick, Sarah M

    2013-03-01

    Cognitive enhancement strategies have gained recent popularity and have the potential to benefit clinical and non-clinical populations. As technology advances and the number of cognitively healthy adults seeking methods of improving or preserving cognitive functioning grows, the role of electronic (e.g., computer and video game based) cognitive training becomes more relevant and warrants greater scientific scrutiny. This paper serves as a critical review of empirical evaluations of publically available electronic cognitive training programs. Many studies have found that electronic training approaches result in significant improvements in trained cognitive tasks. Fewer studies have demonstrated improvements in untrained tasks within the trained cognitive domain, non-trained cognitive domains, or on measures of everyday function. Successful cognitive training programs will elicit effects that generalize to untrained, practical tasks for extended periods of time. Unfortunately, many studies of electronic cognitive training programs are hindered by methodological limitations such as lack of an adequate control group, long-term follow-up and ecologically valid outcome measures. Despite these limitations, evidence suggests that computerized cognitive training has the potential to positively impact one's sense of social connectivity and self-efficacy.

  11. Active rc filter permits easy trade-off of amplifier gain and sensitivity to gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerwin, W. J.; Shaffer, C. V.

    1968-01-01

    Passive RC network was designed with zeros of transmission in the right half of the complex frequency plane in the feedback loop of a simple negative-gain amplifier. The proper positioning provides any desired trade-off between amplifier gain and sensitivity to amplifier gain.

  12. Popular Music, Television, and Generational Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary

    Although previous generations have by no means been disloyal to the popular music of their youth, the tenacious attachment of the Baby Boomers to the music of the 1960s seems unprecedented. Three main reasons account for this constantly widening musical reclamation project. First, the Baby Boomers have a clearer sense of generational identity that…

  13. Lexical Cohesion and Specialized Knowledge in Science and Popular Science Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Greg

    1991-01-01

    Examines cohesion in the introductions to some scientific articles and compares the patterns to those from popularizations. Discusses a computational model of cohesion. Argues that readers of scientific articles must have a knowledge of lexical relations to see the implicit cohesion, whereas readers of popularizations must see the cohesive…

  14. Improved Gain Microstrip Patch Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-06

    08-2015 Publication Improved Gain Microstrip Patch Antenna David A. Tonn Naval Under Warfare Center Division, Newport 1176 Howell St., Code 00L...GAIN MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the...patch antenna having increased gain, and an apparatus for increasing the gain and bandwidth of an existing microstrip patch antenna . (2) Description

  15. Alcohol Brand Appearances in U.S. Popular Music

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Nuzzo, Erin; Rice, Kristen R.; Sargent, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Aims The average US adolescent is exposed to 34 references to alcohol in popular music daily. Although brand recognition is an independent, potent risk factor for alcohol outcomes among adolescents, alcohol brand appearances in popular music have not been systematically assessed. We aimed to determine the prevalence of and contextual elements associated with alcohol brand appearances in U.S. popular music. Design Qualitative content analysis. Setting We used Billboard Magazine to identify songs to which US adolescents were most exposed in 2005-2007. For each of the 793 songs, two trained coders independently analyzed the lyrics of each song for references to alcohol and alcohol brand appearances. Subsequent in-depth assessments utilised Atlas.ti to determine contextual factors associated with each of the alcohol brand appearances. Measurements Our final code book contained 27 relevant codes representing 6 categories: alcohol types, consequences, emotional states, activities, status, and objects. Findings Average inter-rater reliability was high (κ=0.80), and all differences were easily adjudicated. Of the 793 songs in our sample, 169 (21.3%) explicitly referred to alcohol, and of those, 41 (24.3%) contained an alcohol brand appearance. Consequences associated with alcohol were more often positive than negative (41.5% vs. 17.1%, P<.001). Alcohol brand appearances were commonly associated with wealth (63.4%), sex (58.5%), luxury objects (51.2%), partying (48.8%), other drugs (43.9%), and vehicles (39.0%). Conclusions One-in-five songs sampled from U.S. popular music had explicit references to alcohol, and one quarter of these mentioned a specific alcohol brand. These alcohol brand appearances are commonly associated with a luxury lifestyle characterised by wealth, sex, partying, and other drugs. PMID:22011113

  16. Release the Dragon: The Role of Popular Culture in Children's Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbach, Jennifer; Eckhoff, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Young learners come to the school environment with myriad literacy experiences, some of which are inevitably based in popular culture. While literacy knowledge drawn from experiences with popular culture has traditionally been viewed as less important than academic literacy, educators wishing to create classrooms that value all children need to…

  17. Preservice Music Teachers' Attitudes toward Popular Music in the Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, D. Gregory; Gooding, Lori F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine preservice music educators' attitudes toward popular music in the music classroom. On a survey instrument designed by the investigators, participants ("N" = 82) rated (a) the effectiveness of popular music in addressing the National Standards for Music Education, (b) the appropriateness of popular…

  18. Imagining the Mathematician: Young People Talking about Popular Representations of Maths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Debbie; Mendick, Heather; Moreau, Marie-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes both a critical analysis of some popular cultural texts about mathematics and mathematicians, and explores the ways in which young people deploy the discourses produced in these texts. We argue that there are particular (and sometimes contradictory) meanings and discourses about mathematics that circulate in popular culture, that…

  19. Popular Education and the "Party Line"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughton, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Popular education, by which is meant adult education within and in support of radical social movements, has become a major topic in academic adult education in recent times. This paper criticises the lack of attention paid in most of this writing to the history, theory and practice of revolutionary parties in the communist and socialist tradition.…

  20. Using Popular Children's Films in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Elle; Croker, Stev; Harrison, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Watching films is a common activity for children outside of school, and incorporating popular films that contain scientific references has the potential to spark interest in the classroom. Clips rather than entire films can be used, as the children will maintain focus on the lesson objectives while being excited by the appeal of the film. The use…

  1. Using Popular Media to Build Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuer, Barbara P.

    2007-01-01

    When an adult student from China says he learned English from listening to the radio or a literacy teacher mentions that she is reading a book recommended on "Oprah", they are illustrating how popular media are used for informal adult learning. This chapter examines some of the issues and implications surrounding how a sector of adult learners,…

  2. The Role of Popular Girls in Bullying and Intimidating Boys and Other Popular Girls in Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dytham, Siobhan

    2018-01-01

    Despite a large amount of research focusing on bullying and exclusion in secondary schools, there is far less research focusing on cross-gender bullying and 'popular' students who experience bullying. This research provides an analysis of interactions between male and female students (aged 13-14) in a school in England. The data provides multiple…

  3. Condom use and the popular press in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Renne, E P

    1993-04-01

    The increased acceptability and use of condoms by men in southwestern Nigeria is reflected in joking references to condoms in the comic-style popular press. Yet these references display an ambivalence about condoms that is mirrored in survey data and in interviews regarding condom use by rural Ekiti Yoruba men. This ambivalence, which is often couched in terms of health, has implications for the acceptance of government-sponsored HIV/AIDS-related educational programs. Because of the irreverence of comic-style newspapers and the 'unofficial' nature of their authority which coincides with popular attitudes about health programs, they have a credibility that could be useful in educating adolescents about sexually-transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS.

  4. A mechanistic explanation of popularity: genes, rule breaking, and evocative gene-environment correlations.

    PubMed

    Burt, Alexandra

    2009-04-01

    Previous work has suggested that the serotonergic system plays a key role in "popularity" or likeability. A polymorphism within the 5HT-sub(2A) serotonin receptor gene (-G1438A) has also been associated with popularity, suggesting that genes may predispose individuals to particular social experiences. However, because genes cannot code directly for others' reactions, any legitimate association should be mediated via the individual's behavior (i.e., genes-->behaviors-->social consequences), a phenomenon referred to as an evocative gene-environment correlation (rGE). The current study aimed to identify one such mediating behavior. The author focused on rule breaking given its prior links to both the serotonergic system and to increased popularity during adolescence. Two samples of previously unacquainted late-adolescent boys completed a peer-based interaction paradigm designed to assess their popularity. Analyses revealed that rule breaking partially mediated the genetic effect on popularity, thereby furthering our understanding of the biological mechanisms that underlie popularity. Moreover, the present results represent the first meaningfully explicated evidence that genes predispose individuals not only to particular behaviors but also to the social consequences of those behaviors. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Identification Approach to Alleviate Effects of Unmeasured Heat Gains for MIMO Building Thermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Jie; Kim, Donghun; Braun, James E.

    It is important to have practical methods for constructing a good mathematical model for a building's thermal system for energy audits, retrofit analysis and advanced building controls, e.g. model predictive control. Identification approaches based on semi-physical model structures are popular in building science for those purposes. However conventional gray box identification approaches applied to thermal networks would fail when significant unmeasured heat gains present in estimation data. Although this situation is very common and practical, there has been little research to tackle this issue in building science. This paper presents an overall identification approach to alleviate influences of unmeasured disturbances,more » and hence to obtain improved gray-box building models. The approach was applied to an existing open space building and the performance is demonstrated.« less

  6. Widespread Skin Necrosis Secondary to Gemcitabine Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zito, Patrick M; Gonzalez, Adrianna M; Fox, Joshua D; Cronin, Megan; Mackrides, Nicholas; Kirsner, Robert S; Nichols, Anna J

    2018-05-01

    Gemcitabine, a pyrimidine nucleoside analogue, is an oncologic agent used in the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Common dermatologic reactions associated with gemcitabine include alopecia, mild skin rash, and mucositis but skin necrosis is exceptional. Herein we present an unusual case of widespread skin necrosis mimicking toxic epidermal necrolysis in a 45-year-old woman receiving gemcitabine therapy for stage IIIA cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. This is the first reported case of a TEN-like reaction subsequent to gemcitabine treatment. J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(5):582-585.

  7. Walking the Talk: Expectations and Intentions of a Popular Education Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Mullett, Cathy; Griswold, Wendy; Baize-Ward, Amy; Vetor-Suits, Crissy; Londt, Susan Cole; Williams-Hawkins, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Popular education programs allow for collective agenda setting and flexibility, and also to carefully and respectfully design activities that bring in all voices and level the power in the room. Popular education methods help to raise awareness and engage with stakeholders to support topics, such as social justice, human rights, collective power,…

  8. Popular Science Writing Bringing New Perspectives into Science Students' Theses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelger, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    This study analyses which perspectives occur in science students' texts at different points in time during the process of writing a popular science article. The intention is, thus, to explore how popular science writing can help students discover and discuss different perspectives on science matter. For this purpose, texts written by 12 bachelor…

  9. Narrative theory and the dynamics of popular movies.

    PubMed

    Cutting, James E

    2016-12-01

    Popular movies grab and hold our attention. One reason for this is that storytelling is culturally important to us, but another is that general narrative formulae have been honed over millennia and that a derived but specific filmic form has developed and has been perfected over the last century. The result is a highly effective format that allows rapid processing of complex narratives. Using a corpus analysis I explore a physical narratology of popular movies-narrational structure and how it impacts us-to promote a theory of popular movie form. I show that movies can be divided into 4 acts-setup, complication, development, and climax-with two optional subunits of prolog and epilog, and a few turning points and plot points. In 12 studies I show that normative aspects in patterns of shot durations, shot transitions, shot scale, shot motion, shot luminance, character introduction, and distributions of conversations, music, action shots, and scene transitions reduce to 5 correlated stylistic dimensions of movies and can litigate among theories of movie structure. In general, movie narratives have roughly the same structure as narratives in any other domain-plays, novels, manga, folktales, even oral histories-but with particular runtime constraints, cadences, and constructions that are unique to the medium.

  10. On the Prediction of Flickr Image Popularity by Analyzing Heterogeneous Social Sensory Data.

    PubMed

    Aloufi, Samah; Zhu, Shiai; El Saddik, Abdulmotaleb

    2017-03-19

    The increase in the popularity of social media has shattered the gap between the physical and virtual worlds. The content generated by people or social sensors on social media provides information about users and their living surroundings, which allows us to access a user's preferences, opinions, and interactions. This provides an opportunity for us to understand human behavior and enhance the services provided for both the real and virtual worlds. In this paper, we will focus on the popularity prediction of social images on Flickr, a popular social photo-sharing site, and promote the research on utilizing social sensory data in the context of assisting people to improve their life on the Web. Social data are different from the data collected from physical sensors; in the fact that they exhibit special characteristics that pose new challenges. In addition to their huge quantity, social data are noisy, unstructured, and heterogeneous. Moreover, they involve human semantics and contextual data that require analysis and interpretation based on human behavior. Accordingly, we address the problem of popularity prediction for an image by exploiting three main factors that are important for making an image popular. In particular, we investigate the impact of the image's visual content, where the semantic and sentiment information extracted from the image show an impact on its popularity, as well as the textual information associated with the image, which has a fundamental role in boosting the visibility of the image in the keyword search results. Additionally, we explore social context, such as an image owner's popularity and how it positively influences the image popularity. With a comprehensive study on the effect of the three aspects, we further propose to jointly consider the heterogeneous social sensory data. Experimental results obtained from real-world data demonstrate that the three factors utilized complement each other in obtaining promising results in the

  11. On the Prediction of Flickr Image Popularity by Analyzing Heterogeneous Social Sensory Data

    PubMed Central

    Aloufi, Samah; Zhu, Shiai; El Saddik, Abdulmotaleb

    2017-01-01

    The increase in the popularity of social media has shattered the gap between the physical and virtual worlds. The content generated by people or social sensors on social media provides information about users and their living surroundings, which allows us to access a user’s preferences, opinions, and interactions. This provides an opportunity for us to understand human behavior and enhance the services provided for both the real and virtual worlds. In this paper, we will focus on the popularity prediction of social images on Flickr, a popular social photo-sharing site, and promote the research on utilizing social sensory data in the context of assisting people to improve their life on the Web. Social data are different from the data collected from physical sensors; in the fact that they exhibit special characteristics that pose new challenges. In addition to their huge quantity, social data are noisy, unstructured, and heterogeneous. Moreover, they involve human semantics and contextual data that require analysis and interpretation based on human behavior. Accordingly, we address the problem of popularity prediction for an image by exploiting three main factors that are important for making an image popular. In particular, we investigate the impact of the image’s visual content, where the semantic and sentiment information extracted from the image show an impact on its popularity, as well as the textual information associated with the image, which has a fundamental role in boosting the visibility of the image in the keyword search results. Additionally, we explore social context, such as an image owner’s popularity and how it positively influences the image popularity. With a comprehensive study on the effect of the three aspects, we further propose to jointly consider the heterogeneous social sensory data. Experimental results obtained from real-world data demonstrate that the three factors utilized complement each other in obtaining promising results in the

  12. Broken Glass Everywhere: Deconstructing Popular Identities through Critical Hip Hop Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Lauren Leigh

    2016-01-01

    In a society consumed by ever-increasing media and technology, it is more important now than ever that public schools provide their students with the skills and tools necessary to analyze, interpret, deconstruct, and construct popular media images and messages. Consequently, it is the role of educators to engage with popular media in the…

  13. The Usefulness of the Popular Social Interactive Media in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofowora, Olaniyi Alaba

    2013-01-01

    The paper is an investigation into the possibility of using the popular social interactive media in the classroom in the developing world. There has been different school of thoughts about the usefulness of the interactive social media. The question being widely asked today is, can these popular social media be used constructively in the…

  14. Geographies of American Popular Music: Introducing Students to Basic Geographic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Stephen S.

    2010-01-01

    Popular music can be used to study many subjects and issues related to the social sciences. "Geographies of American Popular Music" was a workshop that not only examined the history and development of select genres of American music, it also introduced students to basic geographic concepts such as the culture hearth and spatial diffusion. Through…

  15. University Faculty Perceptions and Utilization of Popular Culture in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Jessica; Covino, Ralph; Auchter, Jessica; Boyd, Jennifer; Klug, Hope; Laing, Craig; Irvin, Lindsay

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses results of a survey on the utilization of and attitudes and beliefs towards the use of popular culture among faculty in higher education. A total of 212 faculty members from a mid-sized public regional university provided responses, with the majority indicating that they utilize popular culture in their classroom teaching…

  16. The Trajectory of Popularity Goal during the Transition to Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Molly; Xie, Hongling

    2017-01-01

    The trajectory of early adolescents' popularity goal during the transition to middle school was examined in a diverse sample of 401 students. Popularity goal was assessed at five time points from the spring semester of fifth grade through the spring semester of seventh grade with the transition to middle school occurring between the fifth and…

  17. Cognitive science in popular film: the Cognitive Science Movie Index.

    PubMed

    Motz, Benjamin

    2013-10-01

    HAL 9000. Morpheus. Skynet. These household names demonstrate the strong cultural impact of films depicting themes in cognitive science and the potential power of popular cinema for outreach and education. Considering their wide influence, there is value to aggregating these movies and reflecting on their renderings of our field. The Cognitive Science Movie Index (CSMI) serves these purposes, leveraging popular film for the advancement of the discipline. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Association of gestational weight gain expectations with advice on actual weight gain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To examine pregnant women's gestational weight gain expectations/advice from various sources (i.e., self, family/friends, physician) and the impact of these sources of expectations/advice on actual measured gestational weight gain. Pregnant women (n=230, 87.4% Caucasian, second pregnancy) in a cohor...

  19. Coupling effect of nodes popularity and similarity on social network persistence

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xiaogang; Jin, Cheng; Huang, Jiaxuan; Min, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Network robustness represents the ability of networks to withstand failures and perturbations. In social networks, maintenance of individual activities, also called persistence, is significant towards understanding robustness. Previous works usually consider persistence on pre-generated network structures; while in social networks, the network structure is growing with the cascading inactivity of existed individuals. Here, we address this challenge through analysis for nodes under a coevolution model, which characterizes individual activity changes under three network growth modes: following the descending order of nodes’ popularity, similarity or uniform random. We show that when nodes possess high spontaneous activities, a popularity-first growth mode obtains highly persistent networks; otherwise, with low spontaneous activities, a similarity-first mode does better. Moreover, a compound growth mode, with the consecutive joining of similar nodes in a short period and mixing a few high popularity nodes, obtains the highest persistence. Therefore, nodes similarity is essential for persistent social networks, while properly coupling popularity with similarity further optimizes the persistence. This demonstrates the evolution of nodes activity not only depends on network topology, but also their connective typology. PMID:28220840

  20. Coupling effect of nodes popularity and similarity on social network persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiaogang; Jin, Cheng; Huang, Jiaxuan; Min, Yong

    2017-02-01

    Network robustness represents the ability of networks to withstand failures and perturbations. In social networks, maintenance of individual activities, also called persistence, is significant towards understanding robustness. Previous works usually consider persistence on pre-generated network structures; while in social networks, the network structure is growing with the cascading inactivity of existed individuals. Here, we address this challenge through analysis for nodes under a coevolution model, which characterizes individual activity changes under three network growth modes: following the descending order of nodes’ popularity, similarity or uniform random. We show that when nodes possess high spontaneous activities, a popularity-first growth mode obtains highly persistent networks; otherwise, with low spontaneous activities, a similarity-first mode does better. Moreover, a compound growth mode, with the consecutive joining of similar nodes in a short period and mixing a few high popularity nodes, obtains the highest persistence. Therefore, nodes similarity is essential for persistent social networks, while properly coupling popularity with similarity further optimizes the persistence. This demonstrates the evolution of nodes activity not only depends on network topology, but also their connective typology.

  1. Coupling effect of nodes popularity and similarity on social network persistence.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaogang; Jin, Cheng; Huang, Jiaxuan; Min, Yong

    2017-02-21

    Network robustness represents the ability of networks to withstand failures and perturbations. In social networks, maintenance of individual activities, also called persistence, is significant towards understanding robustness. Previous works usually consider persistence on pre-generated network structures; while in social networks, the network structure is growing with the cascading inactivity of existed individuals. Here, we address this challenge through analysis for nodes under a coevolution model, which characterizes individual activity changes under three network growth modes: following the descending order of nodes' popularity, similarity or uniform random. We show that when nodes possess high spontaneous activities, a popularity-first growth mode obtains highly persistent networks; otherwise, with low spontaneous activities, a similarity-first mode does better. Moreover, a compound growth mode, with the consecutive joining of similar nodes in a short period and mixing a few high popularity nodes, obtains the highest persistence. Therefore, nodes similarity is essential for persistent social networks, while properly coupling popularity with similarity further optimizes the persistence. This demonstrates the evolution of nodes activity not only depends on network topology, but also their connective typology.

  2. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence in the 1960s: Science in Popular Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Sierra

    2012-01-01

    Building upon the advancement of technology during the Second World War and the important scientific discoveries which have been made about the structure and components of the universe, scientists, especially in radio astronomy and physics, began seriously addressing the possibility of extraterrestrial intelligence in the 1960s. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) quickly became one of the most controversial scientific issues in the post Second World War period. The controversy played out, not only in scientific and technical journals, but in newspapers and in popular literature. Proponents for SETI, including Frank Drake, Carl Sagan, and Philip Morrison, actively used a strategy of engagement with the public by using popular media to lobby for exposure and funding. This paper will examine the use of popular media by scientists interested in SETI to popularize and heighten public awareness and also to examine the effects of popularization on SETI's early development. My research has been generously supported by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

  3. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... fitness > Weight gain during pregnancy Weight gain during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  4. Asthma Triggers: Gain Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Asthma Contact Us Share Asthma Triggers: Gain Control Breathing Freely: Controlling Asthma Triggers This video features ... Air Quality: Biological Pollutants Help Your Child Gain Control Over Asthma Top of Page Molds About Molds ...

  5. The Electric Humanities; Patterns for Teaching Mass Media and Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Don; Warren, Brent

    For generations teachers have tried to teach the approved "classics" of our culture. Today, with the mass media claiming so much of students' time and interest, this approach is more than ever doomed to failure. A better plan is to focus on popular culture: comic books, popular fiction (westerns, horror tales, and science fiction), movies, and…

  6. Life after High School: Adjustment of Popular Teens in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstrom, Marlene J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2010-01-01

    This project examines the adjustment sequelae of perceived popularity beyond high school, and the moderating role of relational aggression (RA) in this process. Yearly sociometric measures of popularity and RA were gathered across grades 9-12 for a sample of 264 adolescents in a lower-middle-class high school. In addition, data on post-high school…

  7. Water quality in Gaines Creek and Gaines Creek arm of Eufaula Lake, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurklin, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    Based on samples collected from May 1978 to May 1980 and analyzed for major anions, nitrogen, trace elements, phytoplankton, and bacteria, the water in Gaines Creek and the Gaines Creek arm of Eufaula Lake was similar with respect to suitability for municipal use. Water from Gaines Creek had a pH range of 5.7 to 7.6 and a maximum specific conductance of 97 microsiemens per centimeter at 25o Celsius, whereas water from the Gaines Creek arm of Eufaula Lake had a pH range of 6.0 to 9.2 and a maximum specific conductance of 260 microsiemens per centimeter at 25o Celsius. Dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, and specific conductance values for the lake varied with depth. With the exceptions of cadmium, iron, lead, and manganese, trace-element determinations of samples were within recommended national primary and secondary drinking-water standards. When compared to the National Academy of Sciences water-quality criteria, phytoplankton and bacteria counts exceeded recommendations; however, water from either Gaines Creek or Eufaula Lake could be treated similarly and used as a municipal water supply.

  8. A widespread allergic reaction to black tattoo ink caused by laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Eric F

    2015-02-01

    This is the first reported case of a local and widespread reaction in a 39 year old woman, to black tattoo ink, induced by Q-switched laser treatment. A 39 year old woman was treated with the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for removal of a decorative tattoo of her lower back. Subsequent to laser treatment, a severe, widespread allergic reaction developed within and surrounding the treated tattoo. Tattoo reactions subsequent to laser treatment should be considered in addition to reactions to topical antibiotics or wound dressings, following laser treatment of tattoos. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Bolivian Currents: Popular Participation and Indigenous Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Mary Jo

    1997-01-01

    Describes the effects on indigenous communities of Bolivia's recent Popular Participation Laws, which relocated political and financial decision making to the municipal level; community efforts toward cultural maintenance and nonformal agricultural education; the activism of indigenous university students; and the dual discrimination suffered by…

  10. Understanding and Developing Black Popular Music Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, James Briggs

    1983-01-01

    Enumerates types of black popular music (work songs, spirituals, gospel music, blues, race records, rock and roll, soul, funk, disco, Caribbean, and African) and discusses collection development (current, retrospective, monographs, periodicals, sheet music, motion picture film, photographs, oral history), cataloging, and preservation. A 229-item…

  11. Substance Use among Middle School Students: Associations with Self-Rated and Peer-Nominated Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Joan S.; Green, Harold D., Jr.; Zhou, Annie J.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Shih, Regina A.; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2011-01-01

    Associations of popularity with adolescent substance use were examined among 1793 6-8th grade students who completed an in-school survey. Popularity was assessed through both self-ratings and peer nominations. Students who scored higher on either measure of popularity were more likely to be lifetime cigarette smokers, drinkers, and marijuana…

  12. The Difference between Aesthetic Appreciation of Artistic and Popular Music: Evidence from an fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qiuling; Mo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that pleasure from artistic music is intellectual while that from popular music is physiological, this study investigated the different functional mechanisms between aesthetic appreciation of artistic and popular music using fMRI. 18 male non-musicians were scanned while they performed an aesthetic rating task for excerpts of artistic music, popular music and musical notes playing and singing (control). The rating scores of artistic and popular music excerpts were both significantly higher than that of control materials while the scores of them were not different. The fMRI results showed both artistic and popular conditions activated the VS and vmPFC, compared with control condition. When contrasted popular and artistic condition directly, we found popular music activated right putamen, while artistic music activated right mPFC. By parametric analysis, we found the activation of right putamen tracked the aesthetic ratings of popular music, whereas the BOLD signal in right mPFC tracked the aesthetic ratings of artistic music. These results indicate the reward induced by popular music is closer to a primary reward while that induced by artistic music is closer to a secondary reward. We also found artistic music activated ToM areas, including PCC/PC, arMFC and TPJ, when compared with popular music. And these areas also tracked aesthetic ratings of artistic music but not those of popular music. These results imply that the pleasure from former comes from cognitive empathy. In conclusion, this study gives clear neuronal evidences supporting the view that artistic music is of intelligence and social cognition involved while the popular music is of physiology. PMID:27814379

  13. The Difference between Aesthetic Appreciation of Artistic and Popular Music: Evidence from an fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Huang, Hanhua; Luo, Qiuling; Mo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that pleasure from artistic music is intellectual while that from popular music is physiological, this study investigated the different functional mechanisms between aesthetic appreciation of artistic and popular music using fMRI. 18 male non-musicians were scanned while they performed an aesthetic rating task for excerpts of artistic music, popular music and musical notes playing and singing (control). The rating scores of artistic and popular music excerpts were both significantly higher than that of control materials while the scores of them were not different. The fMRI results showed both artistic and popular conditions activated the VS and vmPFC, compared with control condition. When contrasted popular and artistic condition directly, we found popular music activated right putamen, while artistic music activated right mPFC. By parametric analysis, we found the activation of right putamen tracked the aesthetic ratings of popular music, whereas the BOLD signal in right mPFC tracked the aesthetic ratings of artistic music. These results indicate the reward induced by popular music is closer to a primary reward while that induced by artistic music is closer to a secondary reward. We also found artistic music activated ToM areas, including PCC/PC, arMFC and TPJ, when compared with popular music. And these areas also tracked aesthetic ratings of artistic music but not those of popular music. These results imply that the pleasure from former comes from cognitive empathy. In conclusion, this study gives clear neuronal evidences supporting the view that artistic music is of intelligence and social cognition involved while the popular music is of physiology.

  14. Adventures with Text and beyond: Popular Culture--The New Literacy Challenge for English Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    The classroom dynamic has become a competition of whose information is more important: the quickly accessed and popular digital texts or the perhaps less popular print texts. Whether or not teachers or school systems sanction the reading or teaching of popular culture texts in the classroom, students are reading--are even bombarded with--messages…

  15. The Common History and Popular Uses of Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rost, Thomas L.; Sandler, Maureen L.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the historical uses of popular plant roots such as mandrake, ginseng, chicory, belladonna, and blood root. Besides the text, information is organized into a table presenting use, application, and constituents. (MA)

  16. Leading Gainful Employment Metric Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kristina; MacPherson, Derek

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will address the importance of intercampus involvement in reporting of gainful employment student-level data that will be used in the calculation of gainful employment metrics by the U.S. Department of Education. The authors will discuss why building relationships within the institution is critical for effective gainful employment…

  17. Widespread abiotic methane in chromitites.

    PubMed

    Etiope, G; Ifandi, E; Nazzari, M; Procesi, M; Tsikouras, B; Ventura, G; Steele, A; Tardini, R; Szatmari, P

    2018-06-07

    Recurring discoveries of abiotic methane in gas seeps and springs in ophiolites and peridotite massifs worldwide raised the question of where, in which rocks, methane was generated. Answers will impact the theories on life origin related to serpentinization of ultramafic rocks, and the origin of methane on rocky planets. Here we document, through molecular and isotopic analyses of gas liberated by rock crushing, that among the several mafic and ultramafic rocks composing classic ophiolites in Greece, i.e., serpentinite, peridotite, chromitite, gabbro, rodingite and basalt, only chromitites, characterized by high concentrations of chromium and ruthenium, host considerable amounts of 13 C-enriched methane, hydrogen and heavier hydrocarbons with inverse isotopic trend, which is typical of abiotic gas origin. Raman analyses are consistent with methane being occluded in widespread microfractures and porous serpentine- or chlorite-filled veins. Chromium and ruthenium may be key metal catalysts for methane production via Sabatier reaction. Chromitites may represent source rocks of abiotic methane on Earth and, potentially, on Mars.

  18. Analytical Methodology for Predicting the Onset of Widespread Fatigue Damage in Fuselage Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Newman, James C., Jr.; Piascik, Robert S.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    NASA has developed a comprehensive analytical methodology for predicting the onset of widespread fatigue damage in fuselage structure. The determination of the number of flights and operational hours of aircraft service life that are related to the onset of widespread fatigue damage includes analyses for crack initiation, fatigue crack growth, and residual strength. Therefore, the computational capability required to predict analytically the onset of widespread fatigue damage must be able to represent a wide range of crack sizes from the material (microscale) level to the global structural-scale level. NASA studies indicate that the fatigue crack behavior in aircraft structure can be represented conveniently by the following three analysis scales: small three-dimensional cracks at the microscale level, through-the-thickness two-dimensional cracks at the local structural level, and long cracks at the global structural level. The computational requirements for each of these three analysis scales are described in this paper.

  19. Teaching India with Popular Feature Films: A Guide for High School and College Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parameswaran, Gowri

    2010-01-01

    Popular films say a lot about the culture where they are seen and enjoyed even though they may not reflect "reality" in the way that academics may want to portray a country. Popular films get at the deepest longings and fears of their viewership and their biggest hopes for the future. Teaching India through popular films is particularly…

  20. Measuring the impact of invasive species on popular culture: a case study based on toy turtles from Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Yamamoto, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    The red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) is native to portions of the United States of America (USA) and adjacent northeastern Mexico. The bright and colorful hatchlings have long been popular as pets globally but numerous individuals have been released into the wild establishing populations in areas well outside their native range. As a result, slider turtles are now introduced worldwide on all continents, with the exception of Antarctica, and many temperate and tropical islands, including Japan. They are very successful at establishing breeding populations in a variety of habitats, even those in proximity to human development. Once established in large populations, they compete with native turtle species sometimes to the detriment of the latter. Tin toy turtles were popular in Japan for decades, and they were an important export item after World War II. From the 1920s to the 1950s, prior to the widespread establishment of slider populations in Japan, the toys were characterized by muted earth-tone colors representative of native species of Japanese turtles. After the 1950s, toy turtles exhibited brighter combinations of yellow, red and green more typical of slider turtles. This transition may reflect demand for more colorful toys by importing countries like the USA. Alternatively, the change was coincident with the importation of large numbers of colorful slider turtles to Japan via the pet trade and their subsequent establishment and numerical dominance in Japanese wetlands. This switch in toy turtle colors may reflect a cultural transition in awareness of what constitutes the appearance of a typical turtle in Japan. Sliders appear to have been accepted by Japanese consumers as a new cultural norm in the appearance of turtles, a case of art imitating life.

  1. Behavioral, Personality, and Communicative Predictors of Acceptance and Popularity in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the behavioral, personality, and communicative predictors of acceptance and popularity in 608 early adolescents. Data were collected with sociometric methods and ratings in 30 sixth-grade classrooms. Hierarchical regressions were run to predict acceptance and popularity from prosocial, antisocial, and withdrawn behavior,…

  2. Teaching American Popular Culture: History and Economic Reasoning Are Only the Beginning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraig, Beth

    1994-01-01

    Argues that students seldom understand the history of U.S. popular culture, although such cultural attributes as shopping malls and advertising can be used to teach economic and historical understanding. Presents a model that indicates the interrelationship between U.S. popular culture and economic concepts. (CFR)

  3. Popular Media and the Teenage Sexual Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strover, Sharon

    A qualitative study examined how teenagers react to and interpret certain popular media messages. In addition it explored the relationship between content containing various sexual messages and teenagers' responses to those messages, with particular attention to the critical abilities this audience exhibits. Fifty male and female teenagers aged…

  4. Predicting Bullying: Maladjustment, Social Skills and Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postigo, Silvia; Gonzalez, Remedios; Mateu, Carmen; Montoya, Inmaculada

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent bullying, research has characterised the adolescents involved in terms of their social skills, maladjustment and popularity. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the relationships between these variables and how these relationships predict bullying involvement. Moreover, the literature has focused on pure bullies…

  5. Importance and Perspectives of the Earth Sciences Popularization in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Estrella, H.; Yussim, S.

    2007-05-01

    In our days the scientific popularization in Mexico has not a promising future and with the earth sciences is not better; most of the papers in the popularization magazines deal with subjects as earthquakes, volcanoes, plate tectonics, meteorite impacts and the massive extensions associated with them (e.g. Chicxulub). However, these subjects have not been enough to create conscience about the importance of earth sciences in the society and it has even motivated the idea of a community distant scientific with no social obligation, the idea that the earth scientists are responsible for all the problems in the planet (global warming, catastrophes) is wide spread. In these days that we need a change in our consumption, mainly in the energetic one, it's compulsory to change the relation between the subject and its environment; then, as we can not take care of something that we don't know, the scientific popularization has a fundamental role that we must start to pay attention to.

  6. Disk storage management for LHCb based on Data Popularity estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hushchyn, Mikhail; Charpentier, Philippe; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an algorithm providing recommendations for optimizing the LHCb data storage. The LHCb data storage system is a hybrid system. All datasets are kept as archives on magnetic tapes. The most popular datasets are kept on disks. The algorithm takes the dataset usage history and metadata (size, type, configuration etc.) to generate a recommendation report. This article presents how we use machine learning algorithms to predict future data popularity. Using these predictions it is possible to estimate which datasets should be removed from disk. We use regression algorithms and time series analysis to find the optimal number of replicas for datasets that are kept on disk. Based on the data popularity and the number of replicas optimization, the algorithm minimizes a loss function to find the optimal data distribution. The loss function represents all requirements for data distribution in the data storage system. We demonstrate how our algorithm helps to save disk space and to reduce waiting times for jobs using this data.

  7. The two pathways to being an (un-)popular narcissist.

    PubMed

    Küfner, Albrecht C P; Nestler, Steffen; Back, Mitja D

    2013-04-01

    Narcissism affects social relationships from the very first interactions. The overall positivity of social impressions narcissists evoke is, however, unclear-with previous research reporting positive, negative, or null effects on popularity at short-term acquaintance. Here we postulate a dual-pathway model, which explains the effects of narcissism on (un-)popularity as the result of two opposing behavioral pathways: assertiveness and aggressiveness. In two studies, unacquainted German college students (N = 100; N = 68) met in groups of four to six persons and engaged in group discussions. Afterward, they provided ratings of each other's assertiveness, aggressiveness, and likeability. In Study 2, we additionally videotaped the sessions and assessed participants' actual behavior. Results of both studies confirm our dual-pathway hypothesis: There was a "positive" and a "negative" path from targets' narcissism to being liked or not-dependent upon being seen as assertive or aggressive. Behavioral observations showed that expressive and dominant behaviors mediated the positive path, whereas arrogant and combative behaviors mediated the negative path. Initial (un-)popularity of narcissists at early stages of interpersonal interactions depends on the behavioral pathway that is triggered in the given situational context. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Infatuation With Biotin Supplementation: Is There Truth Behind Its Rising Popularity? A Comparative Analysis of Clinical Efficacy versus Social Popularity.

    PubMed

    Soleymani, Teo; Lo Sicco, Kristen; Shapiro, Jerry

    2017-05-01

    Biotin, also known as Vitamin B7 or vitamin H, is a water-soluble B vitamin that acts as an essential cofactor for several carboxylases involved in the cellular metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids, and gluconeogenesis. Although there exists an incredible amount of social media hype and market advertising touting its efficacy for the improvement of hair quantity and quality, biotin's efficacy for hair remains largely unsubstantiated in scientific literature. We reviewed all pertinent scientific literature regarding the efficacy of biotin supplementation for hair growth and quality improvement, and we also investigated its popularity in society defined as a function of market analytics. To date, there have been no clinical trials conducted to investigate the efficacy of biotin supplementation for the treatment of alopecia of any kind, nor has there been any randomized controlled trial to study its effect on hair quality and quantity in human subjects. Because of the lack of clinical evidence, its use to improve hair quantity or quality is not routinely recommended. However, societal infatuation with biotin supplementation is not only propagated by its glamorization in popular media, its popularity is vastly disproportionate to the insufficient clinical evidence supporting it's efficacy in hair improvement. In other words, biotin supplements are quite "in vogue", without there being any real reason to be so.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(5):496-500.

    .

  9. Is temporomandibular pain in chronic whiplash-associated disorders part of a more widespread pain syndrome?

    PubMed

    Visscher, Corine; Hofman, Nico; Mes, Carola; Lousberg, Richel; Naeije, Machiel

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder is a controversial issue that may be influenced by the widespread pain character and psychologic distress frequently observed in patients with chronic pain. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain, widespread pain, and psychologic distress in persons with chronic whiplash-associated disorder pain, using a controlled, single blind study design. The prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in the chronic whiplash-associated disorder pain group was compared with 2 control groups: a chronic neck pain group and a no neck pain group. From 65 persons, a standardized oral history was taken, a physical examination of the neck and the masticatory system was performed, widespread pain was investigated by tender point palpation, and psychologic distress was measured with a questionnaire (SCL-90). Because the recognition of temporomandibular disorder pain and neck pain remains a matter of debate, 3 well-defined classification systems were used: one based on the oral history, a second on a combination of oral history and pain on active movements and palpation, and a third one based on a combination of oral history and function tests. Irrespective of the classification system used, the chronic whiplash-associated disorder pain group more often suffered from temporomandibular disorder pain (0.001widespread pain (0.001widespread pain and psychologic distress in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder suggests that the higher prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in these patients is part of a more widespread chronic pain disorder.

  10. Widespread methanotrophic primary production in lowland chalk rivers.

    PubMed

    Shelley, Felicity; Grey, Jonathan; Trimmer, Mark

    2014-05-22

    Methane is oversaturated relative to the atmosphere in many rivers, yet its cycling and fate is poorly understood. While photosynthesis is the dominant source of autotrophic carbon to rivers, chemosynthesis and particularly methane oxidation could provide alternative sources of primary production where the riverbed is heavily shaded or at depth beneath the sediment surface. Here, we highlight geographically widespread methanotrophic carbon fixation within the gravel riverbeds of over 30 chalk rivers. In 15 of these, the potential for methane oxidation (methanotrophy) was also compared with photosynthesis. In addition, we performed detailed concurrent measurements of photosynthesis and methanotrophy in one large chalk river over a complete annual cycle, where we found methanotrophy to be active to at least 15 cm into the riverbed and to be strongly substrate limited. The seasonal trend in methanotrophic activity reflected that of the riverine methane concentrations, and thus the highest rates were measured in mid-summer. At the sediment surface, photosynthesis was limited by light for most of the year with heavy shading induced by dense beds of aquatic macrophytes. Across 15 rivers, in late summer, we conservatively calculated that net methanotrophy was equivalent to between 1% and 46% of benthic net photosynthetic production within the gravel riverbed, with a median value of 4%. Hence, riverbed chemosynthesis, coupled to the oxidation of methane, is widespread and significant in English chalk rivers.

  11. Widespread methanotrophic primary production in lowland chalk rivers

    PubMed Central

    Shelley, Felicity; Grey, Jonathan; Trimmer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Methane is oversaturated relative to the atmosphere in many rivers, yet its cycling and fate is poorly understood. While photosynthesis is the dominant source of autotrophic carbon to rivers, chemosynthesis and particularly methane oxidation could provide alternative sources of primary production where the riverbed is heavily shaded or at depth beneath the sediment surface. Here, we highlight geographically widespread methanotrophic carbon fixation within the gravel riverbeds of over 30 chalk rivers. In 15 of these, the potential for methane oxidation (methanotrophy) was also compared with photosynthesis. In addition, we performed detailed concurrent measurements of photosynthesis and methanotrophy in one large chalk river over a complete annual cycle, where we found methanotrophy to be active to at least 15 cm into the riverbed and to be strongly substrate limited. The seasonal trend in methanotrophic activity reflected that of the riverine methane concentrations, and thus the highest rates were measured in mid-summer. At the sediment surface, photosynthesis was limited by light for most of the year with heavy shading induced by dense beds of aquatic macrophytes. Across 15 rivers, in late summer, we conservatively calculated that net methanotrophy was equivalent to between 1% and 46% of benthic net photosynthetic production within the gravel riverbed, with a median value of 4%. Hence, riverbed chemosynthesis, coupled to the oxidation of methane, is widespread and significant in English chalk rivers. PMID:24695425

  12. Astronomy popularization at the University of Wrocław

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preś, Paweł; Cader-Sroka, Barbara; Berlicki, Arkadiusz

    2016-06-01

    Science popularization found many expressions in the history of the Astronomical Institute of the University of Wrocław. The long-lasting is the tradition of popular astronomy lectures. Occasional celestial events are the base of public observations. Since 1998 the Institute boldly participates in the Lower-Silesian Science Festival. The rising public interest in astronomy encouraged us to establish ''Planetarium'' laboratory in 2008. Together with the Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic we established in 2009 the very first trans-border dark-sky park in the location of Izera Mountains, where since then the public can benefit from excellent observational conditions and the astronomers' support.

  13. Classroom Contradictions: Popular Media in Ontario Schools' Literacy and Citizenship Education Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, the Ontario Ministry of Education in Canada began promoting popular media as a pedagogical tool, especially for "reluctant" readers. This "pedagogy of the popular" is instituted within a critical media literacy framework that draws on the values and codes of multiculturalism to counter the consumerist messages students…

  14. Climate change and forest fires synergistically drive widespread melt events of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Kaitlin M; Albert, Mary R; McConnell, Joseph R; Baker, Ian

    2014-06-03

    In July 2012, over 97% of the Greenland Ice Sheet experienced surface melt, the first widespread melt during the era of satellite remote sensing. Analysis of six Greenland shallow firn cores from the dry snow region confirms that the most recent prior widespread melt occurred in 1889. A firn core from the center of the ice sheet demonstrated that exceptionally warm temperatures combined with black carbon sediments from Northern Hemisphere forest fires reduced albedo below a critical threshold in the dry snow region, and caused the melting events in both 1889 and 2012. We use these data to project the frequency of widespread melt into the year 2100. Since Arctic temperatures and the frequency of forest fires are both expected to rise with climate change, our results suggest that widespread melt events on the Greenland Ice Sheet may begin to occur almost annually by the end of century. These events are likely to alter the surface mass balance of the ice sheet, leaving the surface susceptible to further melting.

  15. Popular Literature: Its Compatibility with the Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This special journal issue contains nine articles on the subject of using popular literature in the classroom. Subjects covered in the articles include (1) using vernacular supernatural literature to teach the skills of literary analysis, (2) teaching Agatha Christie's "Curtain," (3) pairing the classics with detective fiction, (4) using fantasy…

  16. Social Concerns, Political Protest, and Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, B. Lee

    1988-01-01

    Demonstrates how the use of rock-era music images of political protest and social criticism can provide teachers with a forceful and entertaining introduction to the examination of controversial issues in U.S. society. Includes chronologically and thematically arranged lists of recordings which represent popular themes in U.S. music between…

  17. Associations of group level popularity with observed behavior and influence in a dyadic context.

    PubMed

    Lansu, Tessa A M; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the association between popularity in the peer group and adolescents' behavior in a dyadic context. After collecting peer nominations for popularity, 218 early adolescents (M(age) = 11.0 years) in 109 randomly composed same-sex dyads participated in a discussion task where they planned a party for their classroom. From digital recordings of the sessions, each participant's influence, involvement, skillful leadership, coercive resource control, submissiveness, positivity, and negativity were observed. Analyses with the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) demonstrated that for girls high group level popularity was associated with a socially sensitive interaction style and influence in the dyadic context. For both boys and girls, the interaction partner's group level popularity negatively predicted their use of coercive resource control strategies and negative behavior in the dyad. For girls, in addition, the interaction partner's group level popularity also positively predicted their submissiveness and negatively predicted their task influence. These results indicate that, in particular for girls, adolescents' group level popularity plays an important role in the behavior of both peers in a cooperative dyadic context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnostic confounders of chronic widespread pain: not always fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Häuser, Winfried; Perrot, Serge; Sommer, Claudia; Shir, Yoram; Fitzcharles, Mary-Ann

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is the defining feature of fibromyalgia (FM), a worldwide prevalent condition. Chronic widespread pain is, however, not pathognomonic of FM, and other conditions may present similarly with CWP, requiring consideration of a differential diagnosis. Objectives: To conduct a literature search to identify medical conditions that may mimic FM and have highlighted features that may differentiate these various conditions from FM. Methods: A comprehensive literature search from 1990 through September 2016 was conducted to identify conditions characterized by CWP. Results: Conditions that may mimic FM may be categorized as musculoskeletal, neurological, endocrine/metabolic, psychiatric/psychological, and medication related. Characteristics pertaining to the most commonly identified confounding diagnoses within each category are discussed; clues to enable clinical differentiation from FM are presented; and steps towards a diagnostic algorithm for mimicking conditions are presented. Conclusion: Although the most likely reason for a complaint of CWP is FM, this pain complaint can be a harbinger of illness other than FM, prompting consideration of a differential diagnosis. This review should sensitize physicians to a broad spectrum of conditions that can mimic FM. PMID:29392213

  19. [The most popular poisons from Graeco-Roman world].

    PubMed

    Siek, Bartlomiej; Rys, Anna; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Article presents the most popular antique poisons. Information from encyclopaedic literature and literary texts of the Roman Empire period has been compared with the etymology of the names of some poisons of plant and animal origin.

  20. REVIEW: Widespread access to predictive models in the motor system: a short review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Paul R.; Wolpert, Daniel M.

    2005-09-01

    Recent behavioural and computational studies suggest that access to internal predictive models of arm and object dynamics is widespread in the sensorimotor system. Several systems, including those responsible for oculomotor and skeletomotor control, perceptual processing, postural control and mental imagery, are able to access predictions of the motion of the arm. A capacity to make and use predictions of object dynamics is similarly widespread. Here, we review recent studies looking at the predictive capacity of the central nervous system which reveal pervasive access to forward models of the environment.

  1. Conflict and Co-Operation between "Popular" and "State" Education in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Liam

    2007-01-01

    During the Latin American oppression of the 1970s, as the rapidly increasing number of grassroots "popular" social movements sought to profit from and expand the ideas of the radical Brazilian educationist Paulo Freire, there developed, in its own right, a "popular education" movement which engaged in radical education for…

  2. Longitudinal Investigation of the Associations between Adolescents' Popularity and Cyber Social Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michelle F.

    2014-01-01

    As adolescents become increasingly immersed in electronic technologies, popular adolescents may act in similar ways online as they do offline. This longitudinal study employed peer nominations and self-reports to examine perceived popularity and social preference in relation to cyber social behaviors among 256 adolescents during the fall (T1) and…

  3. The scientific authorship of Doctor Chernoviz, from the popularization of medicine to professional training: the Dicionário de medicina popular, 1842-1890.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Aline da Silva

    2018-03-01

    This article reflects on the scientific authorship of Pedro Luiz Napoleão Chernoviz, based on his Dicionário de medicina popular, which was published in six editions between 1842 and 1890. The first part of the text discusses Chernoviz's position within the regimes of scientific authorship which were present in the medical community in Rio de Janeiro. Next, we analyze the author's arguments justifying a text that popularized medical science while this field strove for exclusivity in the practice of medicine. Finally, we suggest new meanings around Chernoviz's scientific authorship based on how the Dicionário was used and read by an initiated public.

  4. Antidepressant utilisation and incidence of weight gain during 10 years’ follow-up: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Helen P; Gulliford, Martin C

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the long term association between antidepressant prescribing and body weight. Design Population based cohort study. Setting General practices contributing to the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, 2004-14. Participants 136 762 men and 157 957 women with three or more records for body mass index (BMI). Main outcome measures The main outcomes were antidepressant prescribing, incidence of ≥5% increase in body weight, and transition to overweight or obesity. Adjusted rate ratios were estimated from a Poisson model adjusting for age, sex, depression recording, comorbidity, coprescribing of antiepileptics or antipsychotics, deprivation, smoking, and advice on diet. Results In the year of study entry, 17 803 (13.0%) men and 35 307 (22.4%) women with a mean age of 51.5 years (SD 16.6 years) were prescribed antidepressants. During 1 836 452 person years of follow-up, the incidence of new episodes of ≥5 weight gain in participants not prescribed antidepressants was 8.1 per 100 person years and in participants prescribed antidepressants was 11.2 per 100 person years (adjusted rate ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.19 to 1.22, P<0.001). The risk of weight gain remained increased during at least six years of follow-up. In the second year of treatment the number of participants treated with antidepressants for one year for one additional episode of ≥5% weight gain was 27 (95% confidence interval 25 to 29). In people who were initially of normal weight, the adjusted rate ratio for transition to overweight or obesity was 1.29 (1.25 to 1.34); in people who were initially overweight, the adjusted rate ratio for transition to obesity was 1.29 (1.25 to 1.33). Associations may not be causal, and residual confounding might contribute to overestimation of associations. Conclusion Widespread utilisation of antidepressants may be contributing to long term increased risk of weight gain at population level. The potential for weight

  5. Invention and Gain Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Robert J.; Dixon, Stacey

    1989-01-01

    Gain analysis is applied to the invention of the sewing needle as well as different sewing implements and modes of sewing. The analysis includes a two-subject experiment. To validate the generality of gain heuristics and underlying switching processes, the invention of the assembly line is also analyzed. (TJH)

  6. UWP 011: Popular Science and Technology Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrault, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    UWP 011: Popular Science & Technology Writing is a sophomore-level course designed as an introduction to rhetoric of science at UC Davis, a science-focused land-grant university. The course fulfills the general education requirements for written literacy and for topical breadth in arts and humanities. The catalog describes the course as…

  7. Composition and the Study of Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcaire, Terry; Grady, Frank

    A required freshman English course at Berkeley was designed on the assumption that: (1) students have already developed a set of sophisticated skills for reading popular culture texts--movies, television, and commercial literary genres--against and in terms of one another; and (2) these skills are not categorically different from those inculcated…

  8. A Comparison of "Popular Music Pedagogy" Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantie, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to interrogate discourses of "popular music pedagogy" in order to better understand music education practices generally and specifically those in the United States. Employing a conceptual framework based on the work of Jan Blommaert (2005), a content analysis was conducted on a sample of 81 articles related…

  9. Evaluation of diet pattern and weight gain in postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Christopher; Chang, Shine; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Fenton, Jenifer I.; Howard, Barbara V.; Rhee, Jinnie J.; Stefanick, Marcia; Chen, Bertha; Snetselaar, Linda; Urrutia, Rachel; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.

    2017-01-01

    It is unclear which of four popular contemporary diet patterns is best for weight maintenance among postmenopausal women. Four dietary patterns were characterised among postmenopausal women aged 49–81 years (mean 63·6 (SD 7·4) years) from the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study: (1) a low-fat diet; (2) a reduced-carbohydrate diet; (3) a Mediterranean-style (Med) diet; and (4) a diet consistent with the US Department of Agriculture’s Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). Discrete-time hazards models were used to compare the risk of weight gain (≥10 %) among high adherers of each diet pattern. In adjusted models, the reduced-carbohydrate diet was inversely related to weight gain (OR 0·71; 95 % CI 0·66, 0·76), whereas the low-fat (OR 1·43; 95 % CI 1·33, 1·54) and DGA (OR 1·24; 95 % CI 1·15, 1·33) diets were associated with increased risk of weight gain. By baseline weight status, the reduced-carbohydrate diet was inversely related to weight gain among women who were normal weight (OR 0·72; 95 % CI 0·63, 0·81), overweight (OR 0·67; 95 % CI 0·59, 0·76) or obese class I (OR 0·63; 95 % CI 0·53, 0·76) at baseline. The low-fat diet was associated with increased risk of weight gain in women who were normal weight (OR 1·28; 95 % CI 1·13, 1·46), overweight (OR 1·60; 95 % CI 1·40, 1·83), obese class I (OR 1·73; 95 % CI 1·43, 2·09) or obese class II (OR 1·44; 95 % CI 1·08, 1·92) at baseline. These findings suggest that a low-fat diet may promote weight gain, whereas a reduced-carbohydrate diet may decrease risk of postmenopausal weight gain. PMID:28509665

  10. Batman and Batwoman Go to School: Popular Culture in the Literacy Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Jackie

    1999-01-01

    This case study investigated the introduction of a theme from popular culture into a sociodramatic role-play area in a northern England Nursery Infant school, focusing on its effects on 6- to 7-year olds' literacy activities. Findings indicated that the incorporation of themes from popular culture into the curriculum motivated children whose…

  11. Examining Multiple Readings of Popular Culture by ESL Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luk, Jasmine; Hui, Diane

    2017-01-01

    The integration of popular culture into English language learning has recently been formalised in the Hong Kong New Senior Secondary curriculum, with the development of critical reading indicated as one of the key objectives. Whether and how students respond to popular culture texts is, however, under-researched. The present paper reports findings…

  12. Differences between Non-Aggressive, Rejected Children and Popular Children during Peer Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Kimberly A.; Fireman, Gary D.; Clopton, James R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the communication of non-aggressive, rejected (NAR) children and popular children during peer interaction. The participants were 80 fifth and sixth graders recruited from a larger sociometric sample (40 boys and 40 girls; 20 NAR children and 60 non-aggressive, popular children). Participants were assigned to 40 same-gender…

  13. The Popularization of Astronomy in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trudel, J.-L.

    1996-12-01

    In Canada, astronomy has a longer history than most other sciences. The European settlers had to master the rudiments of astronomical practice, while the natural setting promoted geophysical observations of all kinds. In the nineteenth century, astronomy was part of natural theology and a resource for timekeepers and cartographers, but was increasingly pursued for its own sake by laymen. The creation of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada marks a turning point. Though it appeared to unite professionals and amateurs, it became early on a conduit for the knowledge of the former to flow to the latter, supplementing the purely academic stream. It followed upon the success of new publications meant to acquaint readers with the facts of astronomy, for the hitherto unsuspected pleasures they might bring. In fact, some Canadian works of this kind reached a wide audience, in Canada and abroad, and the post-WWII period saw an almost complete disjunction between the formerly utilitarian aspects of popularization a nd the catering to interested laypeople, distinct from the professionals. By 1976, the transformation was complete. The science mastered by explorers and appealed to by believers had become both a field for professional investigations and a widely popularized corpus of star lore

  14. Analysis of popular press articles concerning postpartum depression: 1998-2006.

    PubMed

    Schanie, Carrie L; Pinto-Foltz, Melissa D; Logsdon, M Cynthia

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the content of popular press magazine articles that focused on postpartum depression, published from 1998-2006. Replicating earlier research by Martinez, Johnson-Robledo, Ulsh, and Chrisler, 2000, 47 articles were identified and their content analyzed in the areas of etiology, symptoms, treatment, resources, and demographic assumptions about readers. Popular press magazines contained contradictory information about the definition, prevalence, onset, duration, symptoms, and treatment of postpartum mood disorders. Health care providers should be proactive in directing childbearing women to factual sources of information on postpartum depression.

  15. The origin of widespread species in a poor dispersing lineage (diving beetle genus Deronectes).

    PubMed

    García-Vázquez, David; Ribera, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    In most lineages, most species have restricted geographic ranges, with only few reaching widespread distributions. How these widespread species reached their current ranges is an intriguing biogeographic and evolutionary question, especially in groups known to be poor dispersers. We reconstructed the biogeographic and temporal origin of the widespread species in a lineage with particularly poor dispersal capabilities, the diving beetle genus Deronectes (Dytiscidae). Most of the ca. 60 described species of Deronectes have narrow ranges in the Mediterranean area, with only four species with widespread European distributions. We sequenced four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes of 297 specimens of 109 different populations covering the entire distribution of the four lineages of Deronectes , including widespread species. Using Bayesian probabilities with an a priori evolutionary rate, we performed (1) a global phylogeny/phylogeography to estimate the relationships of the main lineages within each group and root them, and (2) demographic analyses of the best population coalescent model for each species group, including a reconstruction of the geographical history estimated from the distribution of the sampled localities. We also selected 56 specimens to test for the presence of Wolbachia , a maternally transmitted parasite that can alter the patterns of mtDNA variability. All species of the four studied groups originated in the southern Mediterranean peninsulas and were estimated to be of Pleistocene origin. In three of the four widespread species, the central and northern European populations were nested within those in the northern areas of the Anatolian, Balkan and Iberian peninsulas respectively, suggesting a range expansion at the edge of the southern refugia. In the Mediterranean peninsulas the widespread European species were replaced by vicariant taxa of recent origin. The fourth species ( D. moestus ) was proven to be a composite of unrecognised lineages with

  16. The origin of widespread species in a poor dispersing lineage (diving beetle genus Deronectes)

    PubMed Central

    García-Vázquez, David

    2016-01-01

    In most lineages, most species have restricted geographic ranges, with only few reaching widespread distributions. How these widespread species reached their current ranges is an intriguing biogeographic and evolutionary question, especially in groups known to be poor dispersers. We reconstructed the biogeographic and temporal origin of the widespread species in a lineage with particularly poor dispersal capabilities, the diving beetle genus Deronectes (Dytiscidae). Most of the ca. 60 described species of Deronectes have narrow ranges in the Mediterranean area, with only four species with widespread European distributions. We sequenced four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes of 297 specimens of 109 different populations covering the entire distribution of the four lineages of Deronectes, including widespread species. Using Bayesian probabilities with an a priori evolutionary rate, we performed (1) a global phylogeny/phylogeography to estimate the relationships of the main lineages within each group and root them, and (2) demographic analyses of the best population coalescent model for each species group, including a reconstruction of the geographical history estimated from the distribution of the sampled localities. We also selected 56 specimens to test for the presence of Wolbachia, a maternally transmitted parasite that can alter the patterns of mtDNA variability. All species of the four studied groups originated in the southern Mediterranean peninsulas and were estimated to be of Pleistocene origin. In three of the four widespread species, the central and northern European populations were nested within those in the northern areas of the Anatolian, Balkan and Iberian peninsulas respectively, suggesting a range expansion at the edge of the southern refugia. In the Mediterranean peninsulas the widespread European species were replaced by vicariant taxa of recent origin. The fourth species (D. moestus) was proven to be a composite of unrecognised lineages with

  17. Loop gain stabilizing with an all-digital automatic-gain-control method for high-precision fiber-optic gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yue; Zhang, Chunxi; Li, Lijing; Song, Lailiang; Chen, Wen

    2016-06-10

    For a fiber-optic gyroscope (FOG) using electronic dithers to suppress the dead zone, without a fixed loop gain, the deterministic compensation for the dither signals in the control loop of the FOG cannot remain accurate, resulting in the dither residuals in the FOG rotation rate output and the navigation errors in the inertial navigation system. An all-digital automatic-gain-control method for stabilizing the loop gain of the FOG is proposed. By using a perturbation square wave to measure the loop gain of the FOG and adding an automatic gain control loop in the conventional control loop of the FOG, we successfully obtain the actual loop gain and make the loop gain converge to the reference value. The experimental results show that in the case of 20% variation in the loop gain, the dither residuals are successfully eliminated and the standard deviation of the FOG sampling outputs is decreased from 2.00  deg/h to 0.62  deg/h (sampling period 2.5 ms, 10 points smoothing). With this method, the loop gain of the FOG can be stabilized over the operation temperature range and in the long-time application, which provides a solid foundation for the engineering applications of the high-precision FOG.

  18. [Popular wisdom: its existence in the university environment].

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Maria Alves; de Melo, Marcia Borges; Júnior, Raul Soares Silveira; Brasil, Virginia Visconde; Martins, Cleusa Alves; Bezerra, Ana Lúcia Queiroz

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, myths and superstitions are present in spite of scientific and technological developments, especially when trying to solve problems that escape human understanding. This study was aimed at determining the existence of superstitions and myths in the university community, investigating their origins, influences, adoption and credibility, correlating them with people's level of knowledge. It is a descriptive/analytical research conducted at Teaching Units in the Area of Health of the Federal University of Goiás. The technique of content analysis was utilized for data analysis. Two categories have been created: Personal Attitudes related to Superstitions and Influences and Destruction of Superstitions. It was found out that there is a clash between popular and scientific knowledge, either leading to the exclusion of popular wisdom, to its 'veiled' maintenance, or even to an alliance between the two types of knowledge.

  19. Can Google Searches Predict the Popularity and Harm of Psychoactive Agents?

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Wojciech; Hoffmann, Marcin

    2016-02-25

    Predicting the popularity of and harm caused by psychoactive agents is a serious problem that would be difficult to do by a single simple method. However, because of the growing number of drugs it is very important to provide a simple and fast tool for predicting some characteristics of these substances. We were inspired by the Google Flu Trends study on the activity of the influenza virus, which showed that influenza virus activity worldwide can be monitored based on queries entered into the Google search engine. Our aim was to propose a fast method for ranking the most popular and most harmful drugs based on easily available data gathered from the Internet. We used the Google search engine to acquire data for the ranking lists. Subsequently, using the resulting list and the frequency of hits for the respective psychoactive drugs combined with the word "harm" or "harmful", we estimated quickly how much harm is associated with each drug. We ranked the most popular and harmful psychoactive drugs. As we conducted the research over a period of several months, we noted that the relative popularity indexes tended to change depending on when we obtained them. This suggests that the data may be useful in monitoring changes over time in the use of each of these psychoactive agents. Our data correlate well with the results from a multicriteria decision analysis of drug harms in the United Kingdom. We showed that Google search data can be a valuable source of information to assess the popularity of and harm caused by psychoactive agents and may help in monitoring drug use trends.

  20. Popular Education and the Logics of Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Elsie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I compare two distinct uses of "Popular Education" that emerged in Tlaxcala in the wake of the Mexican Revolution. I examine archival and oral evidence to reconstruct the situated meanings and political rationales that led to the use of the term in each case, beyond their contrasting pedagogical content. In 1917, a…

  1. Rómulo de Carvalho's Work on the Popularization of Science During Salazarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galamba, Arthur

    2013-10-01

    This article provides an account of Rómulo de Carvalho's most prominent works on the popularization of science during the Salazarist regime in Portugal. Carvalho has been praised for his `unique' writing style, for his uncommon ability to communicate scientific knowledge with clarity to a wide audience: he wrote to teachers, to secondary students, to the layman and even to the rural peasantry. Most of his books and articles on popularization explored the History and Philosophy of Science, and it has been claimed that he influenced many youngsters to pursue scientific careers. Given the repressive political context imposed by Salazarism, it is argued that Carvalho's work on the popularization of science had a humanist and libertarian connotation. However, intriguingly, different from some of his contemporaries who also promoted humanistic education for all, Carvalho was never targeted by the Dictatorship. The article seeks to shed light on this matter. It points out the educational reach of Carvalho's writings and suggests that popularization of science in repressive regimes is not necessarily a problematic issue as long as it does not threat the status quo.

  2. Weight gain following treatment of hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Dale, J; Daykin, J; Holder, R; Sheppard, M C; Franklyn, J A

    2001-08-01

    Patients frequently express concern that treating hyperthyroidism will lead to excessive weight gain. This study aimed to determine the extent of, and risk factors for, weight gain in an unselected group of hyperthyroid patients. We investigated 162 consecutive hyperthyroid patients followed for at least 6 months. Height, weight, clinical features, biochemistry and management were recorded at each clinic visit. Documented weight gain was 5.42 +/- 0.46 kg (mean +/- SE) and increase in BMI was 8.49 +/- 0.71%, over a mean 24.2 +/- 1.6 months. Pre-existing obesity, Graves' disease causing hyperthyroidism, weight loss before presentation and length of follow-up each independently predicted weight gain. Patients treated with thionamides or radioiodine gained a similar amount of weight (thionamides, n = 87, 5.16 +/- 0.63 kg vs. radioiodine, n = 62, 4.75 +/- 0.57 kg, P = 0.645), but patients who underwent thyroidectomy (n = 13) gained more weight (10.27 +/- 2.56 kg vs. others, P = 0.007). Development of hypothyroidism (even transiently) was associated with weight gain (never hypothyroid, n = 102, 4.57 +/- 0.52 kg, transiently hypothyroid, n = 29, 5.37 +/- 0.85 kg, on T4, n = 31, 8.06 +/- 1.42 kg, P = 0.014). This difference remained after correcting for length of follow-up. In the whole cohort, weight increased by 3.95 +/- 0.40 kg at 1 year (n = 144) to 9.91 +/- 1.62 kg after 4 years (n = 27) (P = 0.008), representing a mean weight gain of 3.66 +/- 0.44 kg/year. We have demonstrated marked weight gain after treatment of hyperthyroidism. Pre-existing obesity, a diagnosis of Graves' disease and prior weight loss independently predicted weight gain and weight continued to rise with time. Patients who became hypothyroid, despite T4 replacement, gained most weight.

  3. Study of gain-coupled distributed feedback laser based on high order surface gain-coupled gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Feng; Qin, Li; Chen, Yongyi; Jia, Peng; Chen, Chao; Cheng, LiWen; Chen, Hong; Liang, Lei; Zeng, Yugang; Zhang, Xing; Wu, Hao; Ning, Yongqiang; Wang, Lijun

    2018-03-01

    Single-longitudinal-mode, gain-coupled distributed feedback (DFB) lasers based on high order surface gain-coupled gratings are achieved. Periodic surface metal p-contacts with insulated grooves realize gain-coupled mechanism. To enhance gain contrast in the quantum wells without the introduction of effective index-coupled effect, groove length and depth were well designed. Our devices provided a single longitudinal mode with the maximum CW output power up to 48.8 mW/facet at 971.31 nm at 250 mA without facet coating, 3dB linewidth (<3.2 pm) and SMSR (>39 dB). Optical bistable characteristic was observed with a threshold current difference. Experimentally, devices with different cavity lengths were contrasted on power-current and spectrum characteristics. Due to easy fabrication technique and stable performance, it provides a method of fabricating practical gain-coupled distributed feedback lasers for commercial applications.

  4. Gain weight by "going diet?" Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings: Neuroscience 2010.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing

    2010-06-01

    America's obesity epidemic has gathered much media attention recently. A rise in the percent of the population who are obese coincides with an increase in the widespread use of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame (e.g., Diet Coke) and sucralose (e.g., Pepsi One), in food products (Figure 1). Both forward and reverse causalities have been proposed. While people often choose "diet" or "light" products to lose weight, research studies suggest that artificial sweeteners may contribute to weight gain. In this mini-review, inspired by a discussion with Dr. Dana Small at Yale's Neuroscience 2010 conference in April, I first examine the development of artificial sweeteners in a historic context. I then summarize the epidemiological and experimental evidence concerning their effects on weight. Finally, I attempt to explain those effects in light of the neurobiology of food reward.

  5. The Popularization of China's Higher Education and Its Influence on University Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jing, Tang

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the current situation of the popular Chinese university education, points out the impact of popularized Chinese higher education on its university mathematics education, and presents the actualities and existing problems of university mathematics education research in China.

  6. Population expansions dominate demographic histories of endemic and widespread Pacific reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Delrieu-Trottin, Erwan; Mona, Stefano; Maynard, Jeffrey; Neglia, Valentina; Veuille, Michel; Planes, Serge

    2017-01-16

    Despite the unique nature of endemic species, their origin and population history remain poorly studied. We investigated the population history of 28 coral reef fish species, close related, from the Gambier and Marquesas Islands, from five families, with range size varying from widespread to small-range endemic. We analyzed both mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data using neutrality test and Bayesian analysis (EBSP and ABC). We found evidence for demographic expansions for most species (24 of 28), irrespective of range size, reproduction strategy or archipelago. The timing of the expansions varied greatly among species, from 8,000 to 2,000,000 years ago. The typical hypothesis for reef fish that links population expansions to the Last Glacial Maximum fit for 14 of the 24 demographic expansions. We propose two evolutionary processes that could lead to expansions older than the LGM: (a) we are retrieving the signature of an old colonization process for widespread, large-range endemic and paleoendemic species or (b) speciation; the expansion reflects the birth of the species for neoendemic species. We show for the first time that the demographic histories of endemic and widespread reef fish are not distinctly different and suggest that a number of processes drive endemism.

  7. Popular Theatre: A Useful Process for Adult Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Reid A.

    1996-01-01

    Four types of theatre uses in adult education are theatre for education, for development, for conscientization, and popular theatre. The latter involves a group's interpretive study of its own social, economic, cultural, and political conditions, leading to collective action. (SK)

  8. Reanalyzing Head et al. (2015): investigating the robustness of widespread p-hacking.

    PubMed

    Hartgerink, Chris H J

    2017-01-01

    Head et al. (2015) provided a large collection of p -values that, from their perspective, indicates widespread statistical significance seeking (i.e., p -hacking). This paper inspects this result for robustness. Theoretically, the p -value distribution should be a smooth, decreasing function, but the distribution of reported p -values shows systematically more reported p -values for .01, .02, .03, .04, and .05 than p -values reported to three decimal places, due to apparent tendencies to round p -values to two decimal places. Head et al. (2015) correctly argue that an aggregate p -value distribution could show a bump below .05 when left-skew p -hacking occurs frequently. Moreover, the elimination of p  = .045 and p  = .05, as done in the original paper, is debatable. Given that eliminating p  = .045 is a result of the need for symmetric bins and systematically more p -values are reported to two decimal places than to three decimal places, I did not exclude p  = .045 and p  = .05. I conducted Fisher's method .04 <  p  < .05 and reanalyzed the data by adjusting the bin selection to .03875 <  p  ≤ .04 versus .04875 <  p  ≤ .05. Results of the reanalysis indicate that no evidence for left-skew p -hacking remains when we look at the entire range between .04 <  p  < .05 or when we inspect the second-decimal. Taking into account reporting tendencies when selecting the bins to compare is especially important because this dataset does not allow for the recalculation of the p -values. Moreover, inspecting the bins that include two-decimal reported p -values potentially increases sensitivity if strategic rounding down of p -values as a form of p -hacking is widespread. Given the far-reaching implications of supposed widespread p -hacking throughout the sciences Head et al. (2015), it is important that these findings are robust to data analysis choices if the conclusion is to be considered unequivocal. Although no evidence of widespread left

  9. Reanalyzing Head et al. (2015): investigating the robustness of widespread p-hacking

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Head et al. (2015) provided a large collection of p-values that, from their perspective, indicates widespread statistical significance seeking (i.e., p-hacking). This paper inspects this result for robustness. Theoretically, the p-value distribution should be a smooth, decreasing function, but the distribution of reported p-values shows systematically more reported p-values for .01, .02, .03, .04, and .05 than p-values reported to three decimal places, due to apparent tendencies to round p-values to two decimal places. Head et al. (2015) correctly argue that an aggregate p-value distribution could show a bump below .05 when left-skew p-hacking occurs frequently. Moreover, the elimination of p = .045 and p = .05, as done in the original paper, is debatable. Given that eliminating p = .045 is a result of the need for symmetric bins and systematically more p-values are reported to two decimal places than to three decimal places, I did not exclude p = .045 and p = .05. I conducted Fisher’s method .04 < p < .05 and reanalyzed the data by adjusting the bin selection to .03875 < p ≤ .04 versus .04875 < p ≤ .05. Results of the reanalysis indicate that no evidence for left-skew p-hacking remains when we look at the entire range between .04 < p < .05 or when we inspect the second-decimal. Taking into account reporting tendencies when selecting the bins to compare is especially important because this dataset does not allow for the recalculation of the p-values. Moreover, inspecting the bins that include two-decimal reported p-values potentially increases sensitivity if strategic rounding down of p-values as a form of p-hacking is widespread. Given the far-reaching implications of supposed widespread p-hacking throughout the sciences Head et al. (2015), it is important that these findings are robust to data analysis choices if the conclusion is to be considered unequivocal. Although no evidence of widespread left-skew p-hacking is found in this

  10. Hua Loo-Keng's Popularization of Mathematics and the Cultural Revolution.

    PubMed

    Hudeček, Jiří

    2017-09-01

    Before 1966, Chinese mathematician Hua Loo-Keng had singled out "Two Methods" as a way to truly applied and useful mathematics. The Overall Planning Method, based on the Critical Path Method widely used in USA, mostly appealed to middle and upper management. This limited its spread during the Cultural Revolution. The Optimum Selection Method, also of US origin, was more mass-oriented and ready for popularization. Nevertheless, Hua met resistance from leftist radicals, whose ideological objections sprang from an underlying power struggle. Hua built popularization teams, mostly from talented younger people whose careers were disrupted by the Cultural Revolution, and thus opened a path for many of them to important roles in China's scientific infrastructure after 1976. Hua Loo-Keng's efforts, while interrupted during the Cultural Revolution and the subsequent political campaigns, were also helped by the populist ethos of the movement, and by the lack of other non-political endeavors at that time. In this sense, the Cultural Revolution gave Hua Loo-Keng's popularization its importance and long-term impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Behavior change techniques in popular alcohol reduction apps: content analysis.

    PubMed

    Crane, David; Garnett, Claire; Brown, James; West, Robert; Michie, Susan

    2015-05-14

    Mobile phone apps have the potential to reduce excessive alcohol consumption cost-effectively. Although hundreds of alcohol-related apps are available, there is little information about the behavior change techniques (BCTs) they contain, or the extent to which they are based on evidence or theory and how this relates to their popularity and user ratings. Our aim was to assess the proportion of popular alcohol-related apps available in the United Kingdom that focus on alcohol reduction, identify the BCTs they contain, and explore whether BCTs or the mention of theory or evidence is associated with app popularity and user ratings. We searched the iTunes and Google Play stores with the terms "alcohol" and "drink", and the first 800 results were classified into alcohol reduction, entertainment, or blood alcohol content measurement. Of those classified as alcohol reduction, all free apps and the top 10 paid apps were coded for BCTs and for reference to evidence or theory. Measures of popularity and user ratings were extracted. Of the 800 apps identified, 662 were unique. Of these, 13.7% (91/662) were classified as alcohol reduction (95% CI 11.3-16.6), 53.9% (357/662) entertainment (95% CI 50.1-57.7), 18.9% (125/662) blood alcohol content measurement (95% CI 16.1-22.0) and 13.4% (89/662) other (95% CI 11.1-16.3). The 51 free alcohol reduction apps and the top 10 paid apps contained a mean of 3.6 BCTs (SD 3.4), with approximately 12% (7/61) not including any BCTs. The BCTs used most often were "facilitate self-recording" (54%, 33/61), "provide information on consequences of excessive alcohol use and drinking cessation" (43%, 26/61), "provide feedback on performance" (41%, 25/61), "give options for additional and later support" (25%, 15/61) and "offer/direct towards appropriate written materials" (23%, 14/61). These apps also rarely included any of the 22 BCTs frequently used in other health behavior change interventions (mean 2.46, SD 2.06). Evidence was mentioned by 16

  12. Behavior Change Techniques in Popular Alcohol Reduction Apps: Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Garnett, Claire; Brown, James; West, Robert; Michie, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile phone apps have the potential to reduce excessive alcohol consumption cost-effectively. Although hundreds of alcohol-related apps are available, there is little information about the behavior change techniques (BCTs) they contain, or the extent to which they are based on evidence or theory and how this relates to their popularity and user ratings. Objective Our aim was to assess the proportion of popular alcohol-related apps available in the United Kingdom that focus on alcohol reduction, identify the BCTs they contain, and explore whether BCTs or the mention of theory or evidence is associated with app popularity and user ratings. Methods We searched the iTunes and Google Play stores with the terms “alcohol” and “drink”, and the first 800 results were classified into alcohol reduction, entertainment, or blood alcohol content measurement. Of those classified as alcohol reduction, all free apps and the top 10 paid apps were coded for BCTs and for reference to evidence or theory. Measures of popularity and user ratings were extracted. Results Of the 800 apps identified, 662 were unique. Of these, 13.7% (91/662) were classified as alcohol reduction (95% CI 11.3-16.6), 53.9% (357/662) entertainment (95% CI 50.1-57.7), 18.9% (125/662) blood alcohol content measurement (95% CI 16.1-22.0) and 13.4% (89/662) other (95% CI 11.1-16.3). The 51 free alcohol reduction apps and the top 10 paid apps contained a mean of 3.6 BCTs (SD 3.4), with approximately 12% (7/61) not including any BCTs. The BCTs used most often were “facilitate self-recording” (54%, 33/61), “provide information on consequences of excessive alcohol use and drinking cessation” (43%, 26/61), “provide feedback on performance” (41%, 25/61), “give options for additional and later support” (25%, 15/61) and “offer/direct towards appropriate written materials” (23%, 14/61). These apps also rarely included any of the 22 BCTs frequently used in other health behavior change

  13. Misreading Masculinity: Boys, Literacy, and Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newkirk, Thomas

    This book takes an up-close and personal look at elementary school boys and their relationship to sports, movies, video games, and other avenues of popular culture. The book views these media not as enemies of literacy, but as resources "for" literacy. It contains a series of interviews with young boys and girls who describe the pleasure…

  14. Optimization of control gain by operator adjustment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, W.; Rothbauer, G.

    1973-01-01

    An optimal gain was established by measuring errors at 5 discrete control gain settings in an experimental set-up consisting of a 2-dimensional, first-order pursuit tracking task performed by subjects (S's). No significant experience effect on optimum gain setting was found in the first experiment. During the second experiment, in which control gain was continuously adjustable, high experienced S's tended to reach the previously determined optimum gain quite accurately and quickly. Less experienced S's tended to select a marginally optimum gain either below or above the experimentally determined optimum depending on initial control gain setting, although mean settings of both groups were equal. This quick and simple method is recommended for selecting control gains for different control systems and forcing functions.

  15. Optical antenna gain. I - Transmitting antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, B. J.; Degnan, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The gain of centrally obscured optical transmitting antennas is analyzed in detail. The calculations, resulting in near- and far-field antenna gain patterns, assume a circular antenna illuminated by a laser operating in the TEM-00 mode. A simple polynomial equation is derived for matching the incident source distribution to a general antenna configuration for maximum on-axis gain. An interpretation of the resultant gain curves allows a number of auxiliary design curves to be drawn that display the losses in antenna gain due to pointing errors and the cone angle of the beam in the far field as a function of antenna aperture size and its central obscuration. The results are presented in a series of graphs that allow the rapid and accurate evaluation of the antenna gain which may then be substituted into the conventional range equation.

  16. Vacchi's palatal organ: a widespread trait in Holocephali.

    PubMed

    Finucci, B; Gallus, L; Amaroli, A; Candiani, S; Rottigni, M; Masini, M A; Ferrando, S

    2018-04-01

    A palatal organ, possibly used for food sorting and processing, has previously been identified among the vomerine toothplates of the chimaeroid Chimaera monstrosa. In this study, the palatal organ was described in six additional species, confirming it is a widespread trait among holocephalans. It is proposed that this palatal structure, which appears to differ in shape according to each chimaeroid's degree of durophagy and is not homologous to the palatal structure described in teleosts, be hereby referred to as Vacchi's organ. © 2018 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. International arrivals: widespread bioinvasions in European Seas

    PubMed Central

    Galil, B.S.; Marchini, A.; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A.; Minchin, D.; Narščius, A.; Ojaveer, H.; Olenin, S.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union lacks a comprehensive framework to address the threats posed by the introduction and spread of marine non-indigenous species (NIS). Current efforts are fragmented and suffer substantial gaps in coverage. In this paper we identify and discuss issues relating to the assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of introductions in European Seas (ES), based on a scientifically validated information system of aquatic non-indigenous and cryptogenic species, AquaNIS. While recognizing the limitations of the existing data, we extract information that can be used to assess the relative risk of introductions for different taxonomic groups, geographic regions and likely vectors. The dataset comprises 879 multicellular NIS. We applied a country-based approach to assess patterns of NIS richness in ES, and identify the principal introduction routes and vectors, the most widespread NIS and their spatial and temporal spread patterns. Between 1970 and 2013, the number of recorded NIS has grown by 86, 173 and 204% in the Baltic, Western European margin and the Mediterranean, respectively; 52 of the 879 NIS were recorded in 10 or more countries, and 25 NIS first recorded in European seas since 1990 have since been reported in five or more countries. Our results highlight the ever-rising role of shipping (commercial and recreational) as a vector for the widespread and recently spread NIS. The Suez Canal, a corridor unique to the Mediterranean, is responsible for the increased introduction of new thermophilic NIS into this warming sea. The 2020 goal of the EU Biodiversity Strategy concerning marine Invasive Alien Species may not be fully attainable. The setting of a new target date should be accompanied by scientifically robust, sensible and pragmatic plans to minimize introductions of marine NIS and to study those present. PMID:24899770

  18. International arrivals: widespread bioinvasions in European Seas.

    PubMed

    Galil, B S; Marchini, A; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A; Minchin, D; Narščius, A; Ojaveer, H; Olenin, S

    2014-04-01

    The European Union lacks a comprehensive framework to address the threats posed by the introduction and spread of marine non-indigenous species (NIS). Current efforts are fragmented and suffer substantial gaps in coverage. In this paper we identify and discuss issues relating to the assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of introductions in European Seas (ES), based on a scientifically validated information system of aquatic non-indigenous and cryptogenic species, AquaNIS. While recognizing the limitations of the existing data, we extract information that can be used to assess the relative risk of introductions for different taxonomic groups, geographic regions and likely vectors. The dataset comprises 879 multicellular NIS. We applied a country-based approach to assess patterns of NIS richness in ES, and identify the principal introduction routes and vectors, the most widespread NIS and their spatial and temporal spread patterns. Between 1970 and 2013, the number of recorded NIS has grown by 86, 173 and 204% in the Baltic, Western European margin and the Mediterranean, respectively; 52 of the 879 NIS were recorded in 10 or more countries, and 25 NIS first recorded in European seas since 1990 have since been reported in five or more countries. Our results highlight the ever-rising role of shipping (commercial and recreational) as a vector for the widespread and recently spread NIS. The Suez Canal, a corridor unique to the Mediterranean, is responsible for the increased introduction of new thermophilic NIS into this warming sea. The 2020 goal of the EU Biodiversity Strategy concerning marine Invasive Alien Species may not be fully attainable. The setting of a new target date should be accompanied by scientifically robust, sensible and pragmatic plans to minimize introductions of marine NIS and to study those present.

  19. Nectar for the taking: the popularization of scientific bee culture in England, 1609-1809.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Adam

    2011-01-01

    This essay expands and refines academic knowledge of English beekeeping during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Scientific beekeeping focused on improvement, which, in turn, depended on the dissemination of ideas and practices. This analysis, therefore, encompasses the mentalities and tactics of popularizers. The article also identifies two neglected concepts in the popularization campaign. First, popularizers saw scientific beekeeping as a way to end the tradition of killing the bees in order to safely harvest. Second, they sought to promote a rural industry for the economic welfare of the nation. The case study of Exeter's Western Apiarian Society reveals precisely how popularization functioned in reality. The result is a more thorough history of scientific beekeeping and how the rhetoric of improvement related to the culture of practice.

  20. Turn up that Radio, Teacher: Popular Cultural Pedagogy in New Century Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan-Andrade, Jeffrey M. R.; Morrell, Ernest

    2005-01-01

    Synthesizing literature from critical pedagogy, sociocultural psychology, and cultural studies with popular cultural texts and experiences from actual classroom practice, this article conceptualizes the critical teaching of popular culture as a viable strategy to increase academic and critical literacies in urban secondary classrooms. Relying on…

  1. Putting Pop in Its Place: Using Popular Music in the Teaching of Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, John L.

    1991-01-01

    Provides ideas and resources for using popular music to teach geography. Discusses social values, conservation and land issues, and developmental issues in Latin America. Concludes that popular music reflects the character of a place as well as the perspective and values of the musician. (DK)

  2. Measuring the Evolution of Contemporary Western Popular Music

    PubMed Central

    Serrà, Joan; Corral, Álvaro; Boguñá, Marián; Haro, Martín; Arcos, Josep Ll.

    2012-01-01

    Popular music is a key cultural expression that has captured listeners' attention for ages. Many of the structural regularities underlying musical discourse are yet to be discovered and, accordingly, their historical evolution remains formally unknown. Here we unveil a number of patterns and metrics characterizing the generic usage of primary musical facets such as pitch, timbre, and loudness in contemporary western popular music. Many of these patterns and metrics have been consistently stable for a period of more than fifty years. However, we prove important changes or trends related to the restriction of pitch transitions, the homogenization of the timbral palette, and the growing loudness levels. This suggests that our perception of the new would be rooted on these changing characteristics. Hence, an old tune could perfectly sound novel and fashionable, provided that it consisted of common harmonic progressions, changed the instrumentation, and increased the average loudness. PMID:22837813

  3. Complementary and alternative medicine - representations in popular magazines.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Alexandra; Phillips, Christine

    2010-09-01

    More than half the patients who use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Australia do not discuss it with their doctors. Many consumers use popular media, especially women's magazines, to learn about CAM. To explore representations of CAM in popular Australian women's magazines. Content analysis of three Australian magazines: Australian Women's Weekly, Dolly and New Idea published from January to June 2008. Of 220 references to CAM (4-17 references per issue), most were to biologically based practices, particularly 'functional foods', which enhance health. Most representations of CAM were positive (81.3% positive, 16.4% neutral, 2.3% negative). Explanations of modes of action of CAM tended to be biological but relatively superficial. Australian magazines cast CAM as safe therapy which enhances patient engagement in healthcare, and works in ways analogous to orthodox medical treatments. General practitioners can use discussions with their patients about CAM to encourage health promoting practices.

  4. Measuring the Evolution of Contemporary Western Popular Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrà, Joan; Corral, Álvaro; Boguñá, Marián; Haro, Martín; Arcos, Josep Ll.

    2012-07-01

    Popular music is a key cultural expression that has captured listeners' attention for ages. Many of the structural regularities underlying musical discourse are yet to be discovered and, accordingly, their historical evolution remains formally unknown. Here we unveil a number of patterns and metrics characterizing the generic usage of primary musical facets such as pitch, timbre, and loudness in contemporary western popular music. Many of these patterns and metrics have been consistently stable for a period of more than fifty years. However, we prove important changes or trends related to the restriction of pitch transitions, the homogenization of the timbral palette, and the growing loudness levels. This suggests that our perception of the new would be rooted on these changing characteristics. Hence, an old tune could perfectly sound novel and fashionable, provided that it consisted of common harmonic progressions, changed the instrumentation, and increased the average loudness.

  5. Measuring the evolution of contemporary western popular music.

    PubMed

    Serrà, Joan; Corral, Alvaro; Boguñá, Marián; Haro, Martín; Arcos, Josep Ll

    2012-01-01

    Popular music is a key cultural expression that has captured listeners' attention for ages. Many of the structural regularities underlying musical discourse are yet to be discovered and, accordingly, their historical evolution remains formally unknown. Here we unveil a number of patterns and metrics characterizing the generic usage of primary musical facets such as pitch, timbre, and loudness in contemporary western popular music. Many of these patterns and metrics have been consistently stable for a period of more than fifty years. However, we prove important changes or trends related to the restriction of pitch transitions, the homogenization of the timbral palette, and the growing loudness levels. This suggests that our perception of the new would be rooted on these changing characteristics. Hence, an old tune could perfectly sound novel and fashionable, provided that it consisted of common harmonic progressions, changed the instrumentation, and increased the average loudness.

  6. Popularity and Resource Control Goals as Predictors of Adolescent Indirect Aggression.

    PubMed

    Dyches, Karmon D; Mayeux, Lara

    2015-01-01

    Resource Control Theory conceptualizes aggression as a behavior that allows access to, and control of, limited resources (P. H. Hawley, 1999 ). This study investigated the associations of adolescents' indirect aggression with their resource control goals, or goals related to controlling social resources such as dating opportunities and peer status, and with their levels of popularity and social intelligence. Participants were 109 seventh-graders (52% girls) who completed a resource control goals measure, the Tromsø Social Intelligence Scale, and peer nominations of popularity and indirect aggression. Results indicated positive associations between resource control goals and peer-nominated indirect aggression, with popularity further moderating these associations. These findings suggest that the resource control goals of adolescents can be a motivating force to engage in hurtful behaviors. They provide a context from which peer relations researchers can improve their understanding and prevention of adolescents' indirect aggression.

  7. Aggression, conflict resolution, popularity, and attitude to school in Russian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Butovskaya, Marina L; Timentschik, Vera M; Burkova, Valentina N

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of aggression and conflict-managing skills on popularity and attitude to school in Russian adolescents. Three types of aggression (physical, verbal, and indirect), constructive conflict resolution, third-party intervention, withdrawal, and victimization were examined using the Peer-Estimated Conflict Behavior (PECOBE) inventory [Bjorkquist and Osterman, 1998]. Also, all respondents rated peer and self-popularity with same-sex classmates and personal attitude to school. The sample consisted of 212 Russian adolescents (101 boys, 111 girls) aged between 11 and 15 years. The findings attest to significant sex differences in aggression and conflict resolution patterns. Boys scored higher on physical and verbal aggression, and girls on indirect aggression. Girls were socially more skillful than boys in the use of peaceful means of conflict resolution (they scored higher on constructive conflict resolution and third-party intervention). The attributional discrepancy index (ADI) scores were negative for all three types of aggression in both sexes. Verbal aggression is apparently more condemned in boys than in girls. ADI scores were positive for constructive conflict resolution and third-party intervention in both genders, being higher in boys. In girls, verbal aggression was positively correlated with popularity. In both sexes, popularity showed a positive correlation with constructive conflict resolution and third-party intervention, and a negative correlation with withdrawal and victimization. Boys who liked school were popular with same-sex peers and scored higher on constructive conflict resolution. Girls who liked school were less aggressive according to peer rating. They also rated higher on conflict resolution and third-party intervention. Physical aggression was related to age. The results are discussed in a cross-cultural perspective. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. From science to popularization, and back--the science and journalism of the Belgian economist Gustave de Molinari.

    PubMed

    Van Dijck, Maarten

    2008-09-01

    Sociologists and historians of science, such as Richard Whitley and Stephen Hilgartner, identified a culturally dominant discourse of science popularization in the broader society. In this dominant view, a clear distinction is maintained between scientific knowledge and popularized knowledge. Popularization of science is seen as the process of transmitting real science to a lay public. This discourse on science popularization was criticized by Whitley and Hilgartner as an inadequate simplification. Yet, the battered traditional model of popularization remains remarkably resistant to these theoretical attacks. In this paper I will argue, based on research of the output of the Belgian economist Gustave de Molinari (1819-1912), and more specifically, his opinion on the role of government in economic life, that the boundary between science and popularization in political economy is not clear and that the status of scientists fluctuates over time and in different contexts. It is therefore impossible for historians or economists to distinguish science from popularization based on the essential characteristics or intrinsic quality of the work. De Molinari's ideas are followed through the different media of science and journalism. Although de Molinari himself differentiated between his scientific and "popular" work, the boundary between science and popularization proves to be highly permeable, in both directions.

  9. Alcohol brand references in U.S. popular music, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Michael; Johnson, Renee M; Tyagi, Keshav; Power, Kathryn; Lohsen, Mark C; Ayers, Amanda J; Jernigan, David H

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence and context of alcohol brand references in popular music. Billboard Magazine year-end charts from 2009 to 2011 were used to identify the most popular songs in four genres: Urban, Pop, Country, and Rock. Of the 720 songs, 23% included an alcohol mention, and 6.4% included an alcohol brand mention. Songs classified as Urban had the highest percentage of alcohol mentions and alcohol brand mentions. The context associated with alcohol brand mentions was almost uniformly positive or neutral. Public health efforts may be necessary to reduce youth exposure to these positive messages about alcohol use.

  10. Local Variation of Hashtag Spike Trains and Popularity in Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Sanlı, Ceyda; Lambiotte, Renaud

    2015-01-01

    We draw a parallel between hashtag time series and neuron spike trains. In each case, the process presents complex dynamic patterns including temporal correlations, burstiness, and all other types of nonstationarity. We propose the adoption of the so-called local variation in order to uncover salient dynamical properties, while properly detrending for the time-dependent features of a signal. The methodology is tested on both real and randomized hashtag spike trains, and identifies that popular hashtags present regular and so less bursty behavior, suggesting its potential use for predicting online popularity in social media. PMID:26161650

  11. Multiplex congruity: friendship networks and perceived popularity as correlates of adolescent alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents interact with their peers in multiple social settings and form various types of peer relationships that affect drinking behavior. Friendship and popularity perceptions constitute critical relationships during adolescence. These two relations are commonly measured by asking students to name their friends, and this network is used to construct drinking exposure and peer status variables. This study takes a multiplex network approach by examining the congruity between friendships and popularity as correlates of adolescent drinking. Using data on friendship and popularity nominations among high school adolescents in Los Angeles, California (N = 1707; five schools), we examined the associations between an adolescent's drinking and drinking by (a) their friends only; (b) multiplexed friendships, friends also perceived as popular; and (c) congruent, multiplexed-friends, close friends perceived as popular. Logistic regression results indicated that friend-only drinking, but not multiplexed-friend drinking, was significantly associated with self-drinking (AOR = 3.51, p < 0.05). However, congruent, multiplexed-friend drinking also was associated with self-drinking (AOR = 3.10, p < 0.05). This study provides insight into how adolescent health behavior is predicated on the multiplexed nature of peer relationships. The results have implications for the design of health promotion interventions for adolescent drinking. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Multiplex congruity: Friendship networks and perceived popularity as correlates of adolescent alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents interact with their peers in multiple social settings and form various types of peer relationships that affect drinking behavior. Friendship and popularity perceptions constitute critical relationships during adolescence. These two relations are commonly measured by asking students to name their friends, and this network is used to construct drinking exposure and peer status variables. This study takes a multiplex network approach by examining the congruity between friendships and popularity as correlates of adolescent drinking. Using data on friendship and popularity nominations among high school adolescents in Los Angeles, California (N = 1707; five schools), we examined the associations between an adolescent's drinking and drinking by (a) their friends only; (b) multiplexed friendships, friends also perceived as popular; and (c) congruent, multiplexed-friends, close friends perceived as popular. Logistic regression results indicated that friend-only drinking, but not multiplexed-friend drinking, was significantly associated with self-drinking (AOR = 3.51, p < 0.05). However, congruent, multiplexed-friend drinking also was associated with self-drinking (AOR = 3.10, p < 0.05). This study provides insight into how adolescent health behavior is predicated on the multiplexed nature of peer relationships. The results have implications for the design of health promotion interventions for adolescent drinking. PMID:24913275

  13. Environment-friendly cycle time optimization and quality improvisation using Six Sigma.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, V S; Mungle, N P

    2008-07-01

    Healthy environment in any organization can make a difference in improving productivity and quality with low defect, lack of concentration, willingness to work, minimum accidental problems etc. Six Sigma is one of the more recent quality improvement initiatives to gain popularity and acceptance in many industries across the globe. It is an alternative to TQM to obtain minimum manufacturing defect, cycle time reduction, cost reduction, inventory reduction etc. Its use is increasingly widespread in many industries, in both manufacturing and service industries with many proponents of the approach claiming that it has developed beyond a quality control approach into a broader process improvement concept.

  14. Teaching ethics using popular songs: feeling and thinking.

    PubMed

    O'Mathúna, Dónal P

    2008-01-01

    A connection has long been made between music and moral education. Recent discussions have focused on concerns that certain lyrics can lead to acceptance of violence, suicide, inappropriate views of women, and other unethical behaviour. Debate over whether such connections exist at least illustrates that popular songs engage listeners with ethical issues; this arises from the unique blend of emotional and cognitive reactions to music. And while the emotional side of ethics has received less attention than other aspects of ethics, it is important and music can be a powerful and unique tool to introduce the emotional aspects of ethics. Music appeals to almost everyone. Throughout history songs have rallied people to action and drawn people into deeper reflection. Music engages our emotions, our imagination and our intellect. Students already spend many hours listening to songs, some of which address ethical issues; it is thus an ideal pedagogic aid in teaching subjects like ethics. This article will discuss how carefully selected songs can encourage thoughtful reflection and critical thinking about ethical issues: a number of specific examples will be described, along with a discussion of the general practicalities of using popular songs in teaching ethics and a demonstration of how students learn to listen critically and actively reflect on the ethical messages they receive. The enjoyment of music helps to engage students with ethics and its relevance for their lives and careers. This article aims to share some of the excitement and enthusiasm that popular songs have brought to my teaching of ethics.

  15. Thermoregulatory behavior is widespread in the embryos of reptiles and birds.

    PubMed

    Li, Teng; Zhao, Bo; Zhou, Yong-Kang; Hu, Rui; Du, Wei-Guo

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that thermoregulatory behavior occurs not only in posthatching turtles but also in turtles prior to hatching. Does thermoregulatory behavior also occur in the embryos of other reptile and bird species? Our experiments show that such behavior is widespread but not universal in reptile and bird embryos. We recorded repositioning within the egg, in response to thermal gradients, in the embryos of three species of snakes (Xenochrophis piscator, Elaphe bimaculata, and Zaocys dhumnades), two turtles (Chelydra serpentina and Ocadia sinensis), one crocodile (Alligator sinensis), and four birds (Coturnix coturnix, Gallus gallus domesticus, Columba livia domestica, and Anas platyrhynchos domestica). However, we detected no significant thermoregulation by the embryos of two lizard species (Takydromus septentrionalis and Phrynocephalus frontalis). Overall, embryonic thermoregulatory behavior is widespread in reptile as well as bird species but may be unimportant in the small eggs laid by most lizards.

  16. Chinese and American Children's Perceptions of Popularity Determinants: Cultural Differences and Behavioral Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yan; Xie, Hongling; Shi, Junqi

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate cultural construction of children's perceptions of popularity determinants using a cross-cultural approach. This study examined 327 Chinese and 312 American fifth-graders' perceptions of what individual characteristics and peer relationships would make a peer popular. Consistent with cultural emphases,…

  17. Understanding Adolescent Delinquency: The Role of Older Siblings' Delinquency and Popularity with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craine, Jessica L.; Tanaka,Teri A.; Nishina, Adrienne; Conger, Katherine J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined delinquency concordance and the moderating effects of younger sibling perceptions of older sibling popularity in a sample of 587 adolescent sibling pairs. Using a social learning framework and taking dyad composition into account, perceptions of popularity were hypothesized to strengthen siblings' concordance for…

  18. Temporal effects in trend prediction: identifying the most popular nodes in the future.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanbo; Zeng, An; Wang, Wei-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Prediction is an important problem in different science domains. In this paper, we focus on trend prediction in complex networks, i.e. to identify the most popular nodes in the future. Due to the preferential attachment mechanism in real systems, nodes' recent degree and cumulative degree have been successfully applied to design trend prediction methods. Here we took into account more detailed information about the network evolution and proposed a temporal-based predictor (TBP). The TBP predicts the future trend by the node strength in the weighted network with the link weight equal to its exponential aging. Three data sets with time information are used to test the performance of the new method. We find that TBP have high general accuracy in predicting the future most popular nodes. More importantly, it can identify many potential objects with low popularity in the past but high popularity in the future. The effect of the decay speed in the exponential aging on the results is discussed in detail.

  19. Temporal Effects in Trend Prediction: Identifying the Most Popular Nodes in the Future

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yanbo; Zeng, An; Wang, Wei-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Prediction is an important problem in different science domains. In this paper, we focus on trend prediction in complex networks, i.e. to identify the most popular nodes in the future. Due to the preferential attachment mechanism in real systems, nodes’ recent degree and cumulative degree have been successfully applied to design trend prediction methods. Here we took into account more detailed information about the network evolution and proposed a temporal-based predictor (TBP). The TBP predicts the future trend by the node strength in the weighted network with the link weight equal to its exponential aging. Three data sets with time information are used to test the performance of the new method. We find that TBP have high general accuracy in predicting the future most popular nodes. More importantly, it can identify many potential objects with low popularity in the past but high popularity in the future. The effect of the decay speed in the exponential aging on the results is discussed in detail. PMID:25806810

  20. Environmental Popular Education and Indigenous Social Movements in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapoor, Dip

    2003-01-01

    Environmental popular education helps shape indigenous social movements in India through a continual process of reflection and action that connects concerns about ecological degradation, subsistence, and marginalization. (Contains 56 references.) (SK)

  1. What Is Popular Music Studies? Some Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloonan, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Popular Music Studies (PMS) is now taught in over 20 higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK and numerous others across the world. This article outlines the constituent parts of PMS in the UK and questions its status as a discipline in its own right. It concludes by arguing that, having established itself, PMS will need to deal with two key…

  2. Student Voice and the Perils of Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudduck, Jean; Fielding, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In this article we suggest that the current popularity of student voice can lead to surface compliance--to a quick response that focuses on "how to do it" rather than a reflective review of "why we might want to do it". We look at the links between student consultation and participation and the legacy of the progressive democratic tradition in our…

  3. Popular Theatre and Non-Formal Education in Botswana: A Critique of Pseudo-Participatory Popular Education. Working Paper No. 5 (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Ross; Byram, Martin

    Designed to show that highly participatory, engaging, entertaining, and locally understandable communication forms can be used not only to liberate but also to domesticate, this paper presents case studies of several nonformal education projects in Botswana that attempted to follow the approach of Paulo Freire by using popular theatre to encourage…

  4. Secondary School Students' Preferences for Popular Music and Perceptions of Popular Music Learned in School Music Education in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2017-01-01

    This study examined popular music and school music education as cultural constructs of teenage students amid the shifting cultural and social dynamics of contemporary China. Data were drawn from questionnaires completed by 6,780 secondary students (mainly ages 12 through 17) from three cities--Beijing, Changsha, and Shanghai. The survey results…

  5. Added value of second biopsy target in screen-detected widespread suspicious breast calcifications.

    PubMed

    Falkner, Nathalie M; Hince, Dana; Porter, Gareth; Dessauvagie, Ben; Jeganathan, Sanjay; Bulsara, Max; Lo, Glen

    2018-06-01

    There is controversy on the optimal work-up of screen-detected widespread breast calcifications: whether to biopsy a single target or multiple targets. This study evaluates agreement between multiple biopsy targets within the same screen-detected widespread (≥25 mm) breast calcification to determine if the second biopsy adds value. Retrospective observational study of women screened in a statewide general population risk breast cancer mammographic screening program from 2009 to 2016. Screening episodes recalled for widespread calcifications where further views indicated biopsy, and two or more separate target areas were sampled within the same lesion were included. Percentage agreement and Cohen's Kappa were calculated. A total of 293317 women were screened during 761124 separate episodes with recalls for widespread calcifications in 2355 episodes. In 171 women, a second target was biopsied within the same lesion. In 149 (86%) cases, the second target biopsy result agreed with the first biopsy (κ = 0.6768). Agreement increased with increasing mammography score (85%, 86% and 92% for score 3, 4 and 5 lesions). Same day multiple biopsied lesions were three times more likely to yield concordant results compared to post-hoc second target biopsy cases. While a single target biopsy is sufficient to discriminate a benign vs. malignant diagnosis in most cases, in 14% there is added value in performing a second target biopsy. Biopsies performed prospectively are more likely to yield concordant results compared to post-hoc second target biopsy cases, suggesting a single prospective biopsy may be sufficient when results are radiological-pathological concordant; discordance still requires repeat sampling. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  6. Robust double gain unscented Kalman filter for small satellite attitude estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lu; Yang, Weiwei; Li, Hengnian; Zhang, Zhidong; Shi, Jianjun

    2017-08-01

    Limited by the low precision of small satellite sensors, the estimation theories with high performance remains the most popular research topic for the attitude estimation. The Kalman filter (KF) and its extensions have been widely applied in the satellite attitude estimation and achieved plenty of achievements. However, most of the existing methods just take use of the current time-step's priori measurement residuals to complete the measurement update and state estimation, which always ignores the extraction and utilization of the previous time-step's posteriori measurement residuals. In addition, the uncertainty model errors always exist in the attitude dynamic system, which also put forward the higher performance requirements for the classical KF in attitude estimation problem. Therefore, the novel robust double gain unscented Kalman filter (RDG-UKF) is presented in this paper to satisfy the above requirements for the small satellite attitude estimation with the low precision sensors. It is assumed that the system state estimation errors can be exhibited in the measurement residual; therefore, the new method is to derive the second Kalman gain Kk2 for making full use of the previous time-step's measurement residual to improve the utilization efficiency of the measurement data. Moreover, the sequence orthogonal principle and unscented transform (UT) strategy are introduced to robust and enhance the performance of the novel Kalman Filter in order to reduce the influence of existing uncertainty model errors. Numerical simulations show that the proposed RDG-UKF is more effective and robustness in dealing with the model errors and low precision sensors for the attitude estimation of small satellite by comparing with the classical unscented Kalman Filter (UKF).

  7. Optical antenna gain. III - The effect of secondary element support struts on transmitter gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, B. J.; Degnan, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of a secondary-element spider support structure on optical antenna transmitter gain is analyzed. An expression describing the influence of the struts on the axial gain, in both the near and far fields, is derived as a function of the number of struts and their width. It is found that, for typical systems, the struts degrade the on-axis gain by less than 0.4 dB, and the first side-lobe level is not increased significantly. Contour plots have also been included to show the symmetry of the far-field distributions for three- and four-support members.

  8. High-gain magnetized inertial fusion.

    PubMed

    Slutz, Stephen A; Vesey, Roger A

    2012-01-13

    Magnetized inertial fusion (MIF) could substantially ease the difficulty of reaching plasma conditions required for significant fusion yields, but it has been widely accepted that the gain is not sufficient for fusion energy. Numerical simulations are presented showing that high-gain MIF is possible in cylindrical liner implosions based on the MagLIF concept [S. A. Slutz et al Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)] with the addition of a cryogenic layer of deuterium-tritium (DT). These simulations show that a burn wave propagates radially from the magnetized hot spot into the surrounding much denser cold DT given sufficient hot-spot areal density. For a drive current of 60 MA the simulated gain exceeds 100, which is more than adequate for fusion energy applications. The simulated gain exceeds 1000 for a drive current of 70 MA.

  9. Do Narcissism and Emotional Intelligence Win Us Friends? Modeling Dynamics of Peer Popularity Using Inferential Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Czarna, Anna Z; Leifeld, Philip; Śmieja, Magdalena; Dufner, Michael; Salovey, Peter

    2016-09-27

    This research investigated effects of narcissism and emotional intelligence (EI) on popularity in social networks. In a longitudinal field study, we examined the dynamics of popularity in 15 peer groups in two waves (N = 273). We measured narcissism, ability EI, and explicit and implicit self-esteem. In addition, we measured popularity at zero acquaintance and 3 months later. We analyzed the data using inferential network analysis (temporal exponential random graph modeling, TERGM) accounting for self-organizing network forces. People high in narcissism were popular, but increased less in popularity over time than people lower in narcissism. In contrast, emotionally intelligent people increased more in popularity over time than less emotionally intelligent people. The effects held when we controlled for explicit and implicit self-esteem. These results suggest that narcissism is rather disadvantageous and that EI is rather advantageous for long-term popularity. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  10. The frequency and characteristics of chronic widespread pain in general practice: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rohrbeck, Jens; Jordan, Kelvin; Croft, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Chronic widespread pain is common in the community but is not often diagnosed in primary care. One explanation may be that widespread pain is presented and treated in primary care as multiple episodes of regional pain. To determine whether patients who consult with multiple regional pain syndromes have characteristics consistent with chronic widespread pain. Case-control study. One general practice in North Staffordshire, UK. Participants were 148 cases who consulted regularly with different musculoskeletal pains over 5 years, and 524 controls who had not consulted for musculoskeletal pain during the same period. A postal questionnaire survey and medical record review were undertaken. Cases with musculoskeletal pain reported more health problems and higher levels of fatigue than controls, and significantly worse general health and greater sleep disturbance (odds ratios 3.3. and 3.1, respectively). They generally reported more severe symptoms and consulted more frequently for a range of problems, but this was not explained by a general propensity to consult. Patients who consult in primary care with multiple regional pain syndromes have similar characteristics to those associated with chronic widespread pain and fibromyalgia. Recognising the need for general approaches to pain management, rather than treating each syndrome as a regional problem of pain, may improve the outcome in such patients.

  11. Speech-Language Pathology production regarding voice in popular singing.

    PubMed

    Drumond, Lorena Badaró; Vieira, Naymme Barbosa; Oliveira, Domingos Sávio Ferreira de

    2011-12-01

    To present a literature review about the Brazilian scientific production in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology regarding voice in popular singing in the last decade, as for number of publications, musical styles studied, focus of the researches, and instruments used for data collection. Cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in two stages: search in databases and publications encompassing the last decade of researches in this area in Brazil, and reading of the material obtained for posterior categorization. The databases LILACS and SciELO, the Databasis of Dissertations and Theses organized by CAPES, the online version of Acta ORL, and the online version of OPUS were searched, using the following uniterms: voice, professional voice, singing voice, dysphonia, voice disorders, voice training, music, dysodia. Articles published between the years 2000 and 2010 were selected. The researches found were classified and categorized after reading their abstracts and, when necessary, the whole study. Twenty researches within the proposed theme were selected, all of which were descriptive, involving several musical styles. Twelve studies focused on the evaluation of the popular singer's voice, and the most frequently used data collection instrument was the auditory-perceptual evaluation. The results of the publications found corroborate the objectives proposed by the authors and the different methodologies. The number of studies published is still restricted when compared to the diversity of musical genres and the uniqueness of popular singer.

  12. Music therapy students' recognition of popular song repertoire for geriatric clients.

    PubMed

    Vanweelden, Kimberly; Juchniewicz, Jay; Cevasco, Andrea M

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has found that music therapists, who work with geriatric clients in singing activities, indicated they know and use 3 times more popular or popular style music (songs from musicals) than folk songs. The purposes of the current study were to determine music therapy majors' recognition of popular songs and songs from musicals by asking whether they: (a) had heard the songs before, (b) could "name the tune" of each song, and (c) list the decade each song was composed. Results showed that students had previously heard many of the songs; however, this was not an indication of whether they could name the song title or the decade in which it was composed. Additionally, percentage data indicated that My Favorite Things and You Are My Sunshine were the most heard/recognized songs, Over the Rainbow was the most correctly named song title, and Five Foot Two, Eyes of Blue was the song most correctly identified by decade. Further results and discussion are included.

  13. Case Studies in Environmental Adult and Popular Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clover, Darlene E., Ed.; Follen, Shirley, Ed.

    Following an introduction by Darlene E. Clover and Rene Karottki, this booklet provides 16 case studies about nonformal environmental adult education: "Environment and Development in Argentina: Innovative Experiences in Adult Learning" (Raul A. Montenegro); "Learning for Environmental Action: Environmental Adult and Popular Education in Canada"…

  14. Link Prediction in Evolving Networks Based on Popularity of Nodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tong; He, Xing-Sheng; Zhou, Ming-Yang; Fu, Zhong-Qian

    2017-08-02

    Link prediction aims to uncover the underlying relationship behind networks, which could be utilized to predict missing edges or identify the spurious edges. The key issue of link prediction is to estimate the likelihood of potential links in networks. Most classical static-structure based methods ignore the temporal aspects of networks, limited by the time-varying features, such approaches perform poorly in evolving networks. In this paper, we propose a hypothesis that the ability of each node to attract links depends not only on its structural importance, but also on its current popularity (activeness), since active nodes have much more probability to attract future links. Then a novel approach named popularity based structural perturbation method (PBSPM) and its fast algorithm are proposed to characterize the likelihood of an edge from both existing connectivity structure and current popularity of its two endpoints. Experiments on six evolving networks show that the proposed methods outperform state-of-the-art methods in accuracy and robustness. Besides, visual results and statistical analysis reveal that the proposed methods are inclined to predict future edges between active nodes, rather than edges between inactive nodes.

  15. Organizing Science Popularization and Teacher Training Workshops : A Nigerian Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpala, Kingsley; Okere, Bonaventure

    Funding for science popularization has become a huge challenge in recent times especially for developing countries like Nigeria. However, a change in the school system from the 6-3-3-4 system (6 years primary, 3 years Junior secondary, 3year senior secondary, and 4 years tertiary education) to the 9-3-4 system ( 9 years junior basic, 3 years secondary, and 4 tertiary education) has made it even more convenient to strategically target the students through their teachers to attain the desired quality of education since the introduction of space science into the curriculum at the primary and secondary levels. Considering the size of Nigeria, there Is need for a shift in paradigm for sourcing resources to tackle this deficiency in a sustainable manner. Recently a teacher training and science popularization workshop was organized as a first in a series of subsequent workshops geared towards having a sustainable means of popularizing Science in Nigeria. Principally, the key lies in the partnership with the colleges of education which produce the teachers for primary schools in addition to the usual governmental actions. Experiences from this workshop will be enumerated with the hope of inspiring the same success in similar societies.

  16. Popular culture and the "new human condition": Catastrophe narratives and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulfin, Ailise

    2017-09-01

    Striking popular culture images of burnt landscapes, tidal waves and ice-bound cities have the potential to dramatically and emotively convey the dangers of climate change. Given that a significant number of people derive a substantial proportion of their information on the threat of climate change, or the ;new human condition;, from popular culture works such as catastrophe movies, it is important that an investigation into the nature of the representations produced be embedded in the attempt to address the issue. What climate change-related messages may be encoded in popular films, television and novels, how are they being received, and what effects may they have? This article adopts the cultural studies perspective that popular culture gives us an important means by which to access the ;structures of feeling; that characterise a society at a particular historic juncture: the views held and emotional states experienced by significant amounts of people as evident in disparate forms of cultural production. It further adopts the related viewpoint that popular culture has an effect upon the society in which it is consumed, as well as reflecting that society's desires and concerns - although the nature of the effect may be difficult to quantify. From this position, the article puts forward a theory on the role of ecological catastrophe narratives in current popular culture, before going on to review existing critical work on ecologically-charged popular films and novels which attempts to assess their effects on their audiences. It also suggests areas for future research, such as the prevalent but little studied theme of natural and environmental disaster in late-Victorian science fiction writing. This latter area is of interest because it reveals the emergence of an ecological awareness or structure of feeling as early as the late-nineteenth century, and allows the relationship of this development to environmental policy making to be investigated because of the

  17. Facial Attractiveness as a Moderator of the Association between Social and Physical Aggression and Popularity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Lisa H.; Underwood, Marion K.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations between facial attractiveness, aggression, and popularity in adolescence to determine whether facial attractiveness would buffer against the negative effects of aggression on popularity. We collected ratings of facial attractiveness from standardized photographs, and teachers provided information on adolescents’ social aggression, physical aggression, and popularity for 143 seventh graders (70 girls). Regression analyses indicated that facial attractiveness moderated the relations between both types of aggression and popularity. Aggression was associated with a reduction in popularity for adolescents low on facial attractiveness. However, popularity did not decrease as a function of aggression for adolescents high on facial attractiveness. Aggressors with high facial attractiveness may experience fewer negative consequences to their social standing, thus contributing to higher overall rates of aggression in school settings. PMID:20609852

  18. Popular education for health promotion and community empowerment: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Noelle

    2012-09-01

    While there is now general agreement that the most effective way to promote health and decrease health inequities is by creating more just economic, social and political conditions, there is much less agreement about concrete ways in which public health practitioners can work with communities to address inequities such as poverty, racism and powerlessness. Practical strategies are desperately needed. Popular education, also known as Freirian and empowerment education, has been used successfully to create more equitable conditions around the world for >50 years. Its use to improve health has been documented in the public health literature since the early 1980s. Nonetheless, it remains largely unknown and its potential unrealized in mainstream public health circles in the industrialized world. In order to explore the potential of popular education as a tool to address inequities and improve health, a systematic review of the peer-reviewed international literature was conducted. Findings revealed that popular education is an effective method for enhancing empowerment and improving health. However, the existing literature does not provide empirical evidence that popular education is more effective than traditional education at increasing health knowledge and empowerment and changing health behavior. In order to fully understand the potential of popular education as a tool to eliminate health inequities and to advocate effectively for its use, further studies are needed that utilize mixed methods, participatory approaches and experimental or quasi-experimental designs.

  19. Determination of the STIS CCD Gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Allyssa; Monroe, TalaWanda; Lockwood, Sean

    2016-09-01

    This report summarizes the analysis and absolute gain results of the STIS Cycle 23 special calibration program 14424 that was designed to measure the gain of amplifiers A, C and D at nominal gain settings of 1 and 4 e-/DN. We used the mean-variance technique and the results indicate a <3.5% change in the gain for amplifier D from when it was originally calculated pre-flight. We compared these values to previous measurements from Cycles 17 through 23. This report outlines the observations, methodology, and results of the mean-variance technique.

  20. Measurement of Antenna Bore-Sight Gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortinberry, Jarrod; Shumpert, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The absolute or free-field gain of a simple antenna can be approximated using standard antenna theory formulae or for a more accurate prediction, numerical methods may be employed to solve for antenna parameters including gain. Both of these methods will result in relatively reasonable estimates but in practice antenna gain is usually verified and documented via measurements and calibration. In this paper, a relatively simple and low-cost, yet effective means of determining the bore-sight free-field gain of a VHF/UHF antenna is proposed by using the Brewster angle relationship.

  1. Gain weight by “going diet?” Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qing

    2010-01-01

    America’s obesity epidemic has gathered much media attention recently. A rise in the percent of the population who are obese coincides with an increase in the widespread use of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame (e.g., Diet Coke) and sucralose (e.g., Pepsi One), in food products (Figure 1). Both forward and reverse causalities have been proposed [1,2]. While people often choose “diet” or “light” products to lose weight, research studies suggest that artificial sweeteners may contribute to weight gain. In this mini-review, inspired by a discussion with Dr. Dana Small at Yale’s Neuroscience 2010 conference in April, I first examine the development of artificial sweeteners in a historic context. I then summarize the epidemiological and experimental evidence concerning their effects on weight. Finally, I attempt to explain those effects in light of the neurobiology of food reward. PMID:20589192

  2. IQ Gains and the Binet Decrements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, James R.

    1984-01-01

    Thorndike's Stanford-Binet data suggest that from 1932 to 1971-72 preschool children enjoyed greater IQ gains than older children, possibly due to the rise of television. Additional analysis indicated that gains were either due to sampling error or totally antedated 1947. Gains of 12 IQ points were found for Americans. (Author/EGS)

  3. Notes on the Changing Nature of Popular French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curnow, Maureen Cheney

    This paper provides examples of a variety of phonological, orthographical, and morphological changes in current popular French are noted. They include: dropping of silent vowels in spelling, particularly in advertising and product names; changes in the pronunciation of vowels due to manipulation for product names; combinations of otherwise…

  4. Teaching for Social Change--Mission "Possible"? Cultural Studies Approaches to Teaching Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Marlia

    It is an open question whether popular culture courses are effective sites in which to instill the kinds of critical media literacies that might contribute to students acting in support of social justice in their everyday lives. A course called "The Uses of Popular Culture" focuses on contemporary multicultural American society to…

  5. Costs of Public Pharmaceutical Services in Rio de Janeiro Compared to Farmácia Popular Program

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rondineli Mendes; Caetano, Rosângela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the costs of public pharmaceutical services compared to Farmácia Popular Program (Popular Pharmacy Program). METHODS Comparison between prices paid by Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular Program (Farmácia Popular is available here) with the full costs of medicine provision by the Municipal Health Department of Rio de Janeiro. The comparison comprised 25 medicines supplied by both the municipal pharmaceutical service and Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular Program. Calculating the cost per pharmaceutical unit of each medicine included expenditure by Municipal Health Department of Rio de Janeiro with procurement (price), logistics, and local dispensation. The reference price of medicines paid by Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular was taken from the Brazilian Ministry of Health standard in force in 2012. Comparisons included full reference price; reference price minus 10.0% copayment by users; and maximum reference paid by the Ministry of Health (minus copayment and taxes). Simulations were carried out of the differences between the costs of Municipal Health Department of Rio de Janeiro with the common medicines and those potentially incurred based on the reference price of Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular. RESULTS The Municipal Health Department of Rio de Janeiro spent R$28,526,526.57 with 25 medicines of the common list in 2012; 58.7% accounted for direct procurement costs. The estimated costs of the Health Department were generally lower than the reference prices of the Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular Program for 20 medicines, regardless of reference prices. The potential costs incurred by Health Department if expenditure of its consumption pattern were based on the reference prices of Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular would be R$124,170,777.76, considering the best scenario of payment by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (90.0% of the reference price, minus taxes). CONCLUSIONS The difference in costs between public provision by Municipal Health Department of Rio de Janeiro and

  6. Facial attractiveness as a moderator of the association between social and physical aggression and popularity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Lisa H; Underwood, Marion K

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the relations between facial attractiveness, aggression, and popularity in adolescence to determine whether facial attractiveness would buffer against the negative effects of aggression on popularity. We collected ratings of facial attractiveness from standardized photographs, and teachers provided information on adolescents' social aggression, physical aggression, and popularity for 143 seventh graders (70 girls). Regression analyses indicated that facial attractiveness moderated the relations between both types of aggression and popularity. Aggression was associated with a reduction in popularity for adolescents low on facial attractiveness. However, popularity did not decrease as a function of aggression for adolescents high on facial attractiveness. Aggressors with high facial attractiveness may experience fewer negative consequences to their social standing, thus contributing to higher overall rates of aggression in school settings. Copyright 2010 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neural mechanisms of the influence of popularity on adolescent ratings of music.

    PubMed

    Berns, Gregory S; Capra, C Monica; Moore, Sara; Noussair, Charles

    2010-02-01

    It is well-known that social influences affect consumption decisions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the neural mechanisms associated with social influence with regard to a common consumer good: music. Our study population was adolescents, age 12-17. Music is a common purchase in this age group, and it is widely believed that adolescent behavior is influenced by perceptions of popularity in their reference group. Using 15-s clips of songs from MySpace.com, we obtained behavioral measures of preferences and neurobiological responses to the songs. The data were gathered with, and without, the overall popularity of the song revealed. Song popularity had a significant effect on the participants' likability ratings of the songs. fMRI results showed a strong correlation between the participants' rating and activity in the caudate nucleus, a region previously implicated in reward-driven actions. The tendency to change one's evaluation of a song was positively correlated with activation in the anterior insula and anterior cingulate, two regions that are associated with physiological arousal and negative affective states. Sensitivity to popularity was linked to lower activation levels in the middle temporal gyrus, suggesting a lower depth of musical semantic processing. Our results suggest that a principal mechanism whereby popularity ratings affect consumer choice is through the anxiety generated by the mismatch between one's own preferences and others'. This mismatch anxiety motivates people to switch their choices in the direction of the consensus. Our data suggest that this is a major force behind the conformity observed in music tastes in some teenagers. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neural Mechanisms of the Influence of Popularity on Adolescent Ratings of Music

    PubMed Central

    Berns, Gregory S.; Capra, C. Monica; Moore, Sara; Noussair, Charles

    2009-01-01

    It is well-known that social influences affect consumption decisions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the neural mechanisms associated with social influence with regard to a common consumer good: music. Our study population was adolescents, age 12–17. Music is a common purchase in this age group, and it is widely believed that adolescent behavior is influenced by perceptions of popularity in their reference group. Using 15-second clips of songs from MySpace.com, we obtained behavioral measures of preferences and neurobiological responses to the songs. The data were gathered with, and without, the overall popularity of the song revealed. Song popularity had a significant effect on the participants’ likability ratings of the songs. fMRI results showed a strong correlation between the participants’ rating and activity in the caudate nucleus, a region previously implicated in reward-driven actions. The tendency to change one’s evaluation of a song was positively correlated with activation in the anterior insula and anterior cingulate, two regions that are associated with physiological arousal and negative affective states. Sensitivity to popularity was linked to lower activation levels in the middle temporal gyrus, suggesting a lower depth of musical semantic processing. Our results suggest that a principal mechanism whereby popularity ratings affect consumer choice is through the anxiety generated by the mismatch between one’s own preferences and others’. This mismatch anxiety motivates people to switch their choices in the direction of the consensus. Our data suggest that this is a major force behind the conformity observed in music tastes in some teenagers. PMID:19879365

  9. Toothdrawers in English popular literature prior to 1700.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, A S

    1993-07-01

    Historical evidence about toothdrawers in England can be supplemented by references to these men in popular contemporary literature. Poetic and dramatic sources from the late medieval period to the close of the 17th century have been examined to this end, with some attempt made to distinguish satire from historical fact.

  10. Charting Relationships in American Popular Film. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Ken

    1997-01-01

    Explains several diagrams showing the evolution of significant film genres in context of each other and relevant historical trends. Figures present: (1) relationships of decades of U.S. history to popular film genres; (2) hero types by genre and decade; and (3) hero types as exemplified by various genres. (AEF)

  11. The origin of the criticality in meme popularity distribution on complex networks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yup; Park, Seokjong; Yook, Soon-Hyung

    2016-03-24

    Previous studies showed that the meme popularity distribution is described by a heavy-tailed distribution or a power-law, which is a characteristic feature of the criticality. Here, we study the origin of the criticality on non-growing and growing networks based on the competition induced criticality model. From the direct Mote Carlo simulations and the exact mapping into the position dependent biased random walk (PDBRW), we find that the meme popularity distribution satisfies a very robust power- law with exponent α = 3/2 if there is an innovation process. On the other hand, if there is no innovation, then we find that the meme popularity distribution is bounded and highly skewed for early transient time periods, while it satisfies a power-law with exponent α ≠ 3/2 for intermediate time periods. The exact mapping into PDBRW clearly shows that the balance between the creation of new memes by the innovation process and the extinction of old memes is the key factor for the criticality. We confirm that the balance for the criticality sustains for relatively small innovation rate. Therefore, the innovation processes with significantly influential memes should be the simple and fundamental processes which cause the critical distribution of the meme popularity in real social networks.

  12. The origin of the criticality in meme popularity distribution on complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yup; Park, Seokjong; Yook, Soon-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the meme popularity distribution is described by a heavy-tailed distribution or a power-law, which is a characteristic feature of the criticality. Here, we study the origin of the criticality on non-growing and growing networks based on the competition induced criticality model. From the direct Mote Carlo simulations and the exact mapping into the position dependent biased random walk (PDBRW), we find that the meme popularity distribution satisfies a very robust power- law with exponent α = 3/2 if there is an innovation process. On the other hand, if there is no innovation, then we find that the meme popularity distribution is bounded and highly skewed for early transient time periods, while it satisfies a power-law with exponent α ≠ 3/2 for intermediate time periods. The exact mapping into PDBRW clearly shows that the balance between the creation of new memes by the innovation process and the extinction of old memes is the key factor for the criticality. We confirm that the balance for the criticality sustains for relatively small innovation rate. Therefore, the innovation processes with significantly influential memes should be the simple and fundamental processes which cause the critical distribution of the meme popularity in real social networks. PMID:27009399

  13. The origin of the criticality in meme popularity distribution on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yup; Park, Seokjong; Yook, Soon-Hyung

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies showed that the meme popularity distribution is described by a heavy-tailed distribution or a power-law, which is a characteristic feature of the criticality. Here, we study the origin of the criticality on non-growing and growing networks based on the competition induced criticality model. From the direct Mote Carlo simulations and the exact mapping into the position dependent biased random walk (PDBRW), we find that the meme popularity distribution satisfies a very robust power- law with exponent α = 3/2 if there is an innovation process. On the other hand, if there is no innovation, then we find that the meme popularity distribution is bounded and highly skewed for early transient time periods, while it satisfies a power-law with exponent α ≠ 3/2 for intermediate time periods. The exact mapping into PDBRW clearly shows that the balance between the creation of new memes by the innovation process and the extinction of old memes is the key factor for the criticality. We confirm that the balance for the criticality sustains for relatively small innovation rate. Therefore, the innovation processes with significantly influential memes should be the simple and fundamental processes which cause the critical distribution of the meme popularity in real social networks.

  14. Widespread Gene Conversion in Centromere Cores

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jinghua; Wolf, Sarah E.; Burke, John M.; Presting, Gernot G.; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Dawe, R. Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Centromeres are the most dynamic regions of the genome, yet they are typified by little or no crossing over, making it difficult to explain the origin of this diversity. To address this question, we developed a novel CENH3 ChIP display method that maps kinetochore footprints over transposon-rich areas of centromere cores. A high level of polymorphism made it possible to map a total of 238 within-centromere markers using maize recombinant inbred lines. Over half of the markers were shown to interact directly with kinetochores (CENH3) by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Although classical crossing over is fully suppressed across CENH3 domains, two gene conversion events (i.e., non-crossover marker exchanges) were identified in a mapping population. A population genetic analysis of 53 diverse inbreds suggests that historical gene conversion is widespread in maize centromeres, occurring at a rate >1×10−5/marker/generation. We conclude that gene conversion accelerates centromere evolution by facilitating sequence exchange among chromosomes. PMID:20231874

  15. A weight-gain-for-gestational-age z score chart for the assessment of maternal weight gain in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Platt, Robert W; Abrams, Barbara; Himes, Katherine P; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Bodnar, Lisa M

    2013-05-01

    To establish the unbiased relation between maternal weight gain in pregnancy and perinatal health, a classification for maternal weight gain is needed that is uncorrelated with gestational age. The goal of this study was to create a weight-gain-for-gestational-age percentile and z score chart to describe the mean, SD, and selected percentiles of maternal weight gain throughout pregnancy in a contemporary cohort of US women. The study population was drawn from normal-weight women with uncomplicated, singleton pregnancies who delivered at the Magee-Womens Hospital in Pittsburgh, PA, 1998-2008. Analyses were based on a randomly selected subset of 648 women for whom serial prenatal weight measurements were available through medical chart record abstraction (6727 weight measurements). The pattern of maternal weight gain throughout gestation was estimated by using a random-effects regression model. The estimates were used to create a chart with the smoothed means, percentiles, and SDs of gestational weight gain for each week of pregnancy. This chart allows researchers to express total weight gain as an age-standardized z score, which can be used in epidemiologic analyses to study the association between pregnancy weight gain and adverse or physiologic pregnancy outcomes independent of gestational age.

  16. Charge Gain, Voltage Gain, and Node Capacitance of the SAPHIRA Detector Pixel by Pixel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastrana, Izabella M.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Baker, Ian M.; Jacobson, Shane M.; Goebel, Sean B.

    2018-01-01

    The University of Hawai`i Institute for Astronomy has partnered with Leonardo (formerly Selex) in the development of HgCdTe linear mode avalanche photodiode (L-APD) SAPHIRA detectors. The SAPHIRA (Selex Avalanche Photodiode High-speed Infra-Red Array) is ideally suited for photon-starved astronomical observations, particularly near infrared (NIR) adaptive optics (AO) wave-front sensing. I have measured the stability, and linearity with current, of a 1.7-um (10% spectral bandpass) infrared light emitting diode (IR LED) used to illuminate the SAPHIRA and have then utilized this source to determine the charge gain (in e-/ADU), voltage gain (in uV/ADU), and node capacitance (in fF) for each pixel of the 320x256@24um SAPHIRA. These have previously only been averages over some sub-array. Determined from the ratio of the temporal averaged signal level to variance under constant 1.7-um LED illumination, I present the charge gain pixel-by-pixel in a 64x64 sub-array at the center of the active area of the SAPHIRA (analyzed separately as four 32x32 sub-arrays) to be about 1.6 e-/ADU (σ=0.5 e-/ADU). Additionally, the standard technique of varying the pixel reset voltage (PRV) in 10 mV increments and recording output frames for the same 64x64 subarray found the voltage gain per pixel to be about 11.7 uV/ADU (σ=0.2 uV/ADU). Finally, node capacitance was found to be approximately 23 fF (σ=6 fF) utilizing the aforementioned charge and voltage gain measurements. I further discuss the linearity measurements of the 1.7-um LED used in the charge gain characterization procedure.

  17. Communicating meteorology through popular music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Sally; Aplin, Karen; Jenkins, Katie; Mander, Sarah; Walsh, Claire; Williams, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies of weather-inspired classical music showed that all forms of music (as well as visual arts and literature) reflect the significance of the environment in society. Here we quantify the extent to which weather has inspired popular musicians, and how weather is represented in English-language pop music. Our work is in press at Weather. Over 750 songs have been identified which were found to refer to meteorological phenomena, mainly in their lyrics, but also in the title of the song, name of the band or songwriter and occasionally in the song's music or sound effects. Over one third of the songs analysed referred to either sun or rain, out of a possible 20 weather categories. It was found that artists use weather to describe emotion, for example, to mirror the changes in a relationship. In this context, rain was broadly seen negatively, and might be used to signify the end of a relationship. Rain could also be perceived in a positive way, such as in songs from more agricultural communities. Wind was the next most common weather phenomenon, but did not represent emotions as much as sun or rain. However, it was the most frequently represented weather type in the music itself, such as in instrumental effects, or non-verbally in choruses. From the limited evidence available, we found that artists were often inspired by a single weather event in writing lyrics, whereas the outcomes were less clearly identifiable from longer periods of good or bad weather. Some artists were influenced more by their environment than others, but they were often inspired to write many songs about their surroundings as part of every-day life, rather than weather in particular. Popular singers and songwriters can therefore emotionally connect their listeners to the environment; this could be exploited to communicate environmental science to a broad audience.

  18. Effect of intermittent kangaroo mother care on weight gain of low birth weight neonates with delayed weight gain.

    PubMed

    Samra, Nashwa M; Taweel, Amal El; Cadwell, Karin

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate intermittent Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) with additional opportunities to breastfeed on weight gain of low birth weight (LBW) neonates with delayed weight gain. 40 LBW neonates were followed to see whether KMC with additional opportunities to breastfeed improved weight gain. In the KMC group, the mean age of regaining birth weight was significantly less (15.68 vs. 24.56 days) and the average daily weight gain was significantly higher (22.09 vs. 10.39 g, p < .001) than controls. KMC with additional opportunities to breastfeed was found to be an effective intervention for LBWs with delayed weight gain and should be considered to be an effective strategy.

  19. Wanting to See People Like Me? Racial and Gender Diversity in Popular Adolescent Television

    PubMed Central

    Ellithorpe, Morgan E.; Bleakley, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Media are one source for adolescent identity development and social identity gratifications. Nielsen viewing data across the 2014–2015 television season for adolescents ages 14–17 was used to examine racial and gender diversity in adolescent television exposure. Compared to U.S. Census data, mainstream shows underrepresent women, but the proportion of Black characters is roughly representative. Black adolescents watch more television than non-Black adolescents and, after taking this into account, shows popular with Black adolescents are more likely than shows popular with non-Black adolescents to exhibit racial diversity. In addition, shows popular with female adolescents are more likely than shows popular with males to exhibit gender diversity. These results support the idea that adolescents seek out media messages with characters that are members of their identity groups, possibly because the characters serve as tools for identity development and social identity gratifications. PMID:26759131

  20. Wanting to See People Like Me? Racial and Gender Diversity in Popular Adolescent Television.

    PubMed

    Ellithorpe, Morgan E; Bleakley, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Media are one source for adolescent identity development and social identity gratifications. Nielsen viewing data across the 2014-2015 television season for adolescents ages 14-17 was used to examine racial and gender diversity in adolescent television exposure. Compared to US Census data, mainstream shows under represent women, but the proportion of Black characters is roughly representative. Black adolescents watch more television than non-Black adolescents and, after taking this into account, shows popular with Black adolescents are more likely than shows popular with non-Black adolescents to exhibit racial diversity. In addition, shows popular with female adolescents are more likely than shows popular with males to exhibit gender diversity. These results support the idea that adolescents seek out media messages with characters that are members of their identity groups, possibly because the characters serve as tools for identity development and social identity gratifications.

  1. An Examination of Reciprocal Associations Between Social Preference, Popularity, and Friendship during Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Stotsky, Miriam T; Bowker, Julie C

    2018-04-03

    Getting along with peers becomes increasingly important to health and well-being during early adolescence (10-14 years). Young adolescents may succeed with peers when they are well-liked by and popular among the larger peer group (or at the group-level of social complexity). They might also fare well with peers when they are able to form numerous mutual and high quality friendships (at the dyadic-level of social complexity). Theory emphasizes the interrelatedness of different types of peer experiences, but few longitudinal studies have examined the interplay among and between group- and dyadic-level peer experiences in the same study. As a result, it is not known whether group-level peer experiences are predictors of dyadic-level peer experiences, and/or vice versa. To address this limitation, this study examined the prospective and reciprocal relations between four indices of peer experiences, preference (or being highly liked and not disliked by peers), popularity (or having a reputation as popular), friendship quantity (or having many mutual friends), and friendship or relationship quality, during early adolescence. Participants were 271 adolescents (49% girls; M age  = 11.52 years) who completed peer nominations of preference and popularity, a self-report measure of friendship quality, and nominated friends at two waves (Wave 1: November, Grade 6; Wave 2: October, Grade 7). Structural equation modeling indicated that friendship quantity predicted increases in preference and popularity and that friendship quality predicted increases in friendship quantity. Initial popularity was associated with decreases in preference. The importance of these findings for future research is discussed along with study limitations.

  2. Popular Media Representations of Physical Activity among Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Margaret P.; Dlugonski, Deirdre

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Many mothers fail to meet the recommended guidelines for physical activity. Popular media magazines targeting mothers provide information about physical activity and health, but little is known about the framing and content of physical activity messages within these sources. The aim of this content analysis was to analyze the framing and…

  3. Popular Culture Studies under Attack at American Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary; Donath, Jackie; Harpole, Charles; Kizer, Elizabeth; Sullivan, Peggy

    This paper is an edited transcript of a panel discussion which took place at an educational conference about the current state of popular culture studies at American colleges and universities. First touching on the number of university media departments being disbanded in general across the country, the discussion focuses on several questions:…

  4. Comparison of Video Head Impulse Test (vHIT) Gains Between Two Commercially Available Devices and by Different Gain Analytical Methods.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hun; Yoo, Myung Hoon; Park, Jun Woo; Kang, Byung Chul; Yang, Chan Joo; Kang, Woo Suk; Ahn, Joong Ho; Chung, Jong Woo; Park, Hong Ju

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate whether video head impulse test (vHIT) gains are dependent on the measuring device and method of analysis. Prospective study. vHIT was performed in 25 healthy subjects using two devices simultaneously. vHIT gains were compared between these instruments and using five different methods of comparing position and velocity gains during head movement intervals. The two devices produced different vHIT gain results with the same method of analysis. There were also significant differences in the vHIT gains measured using different analytical methods. The gain analytic method that compares the areas under the velocity curve (AUC) of the head and eye movements during head movements showed lower vHIT gains than a method that compared the peak velocities of the head and eye movements. The former method produced the vHIT gain with the smallest standard deviation among the five procedures tested in this study. vHIT gains differ in normal subjects depending on the device and method of analysis used, suggesting that it is advisable for each device to have its own normal values. Gain calculations that compare the AUC of the head and eye movements during the head movements show the smallest variance.

  5. Can LENR Energy Gains Exceed 1000?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, David J.

    2011-03-01

    Energy gain is defined as the energy realized from reactions divided by the energy required to produce those reactions. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) have already been measured to significantly exceed the energy gain of 10 projected from ITER,possibly 15 years from now. Electrochemical experiments using the Pd-D system have shown energy gains exceeding 10. Gas phase experiments with the Ni-H system were reported to yield energy gains of over 100. Neither of these reports has been adequately verified or reproduced. However, the question in the title still deserves consideration. If, as thought by many, it is possible to trigger nuclear reactions that yield MeV energies with chemical energies of the order of eV, then the most optimistic expectation is that LENR gains could approach one million. Hence, the very tentative answer to the question above is yes. However, if LENR could be initiated with some energy cost, and then continue to ``burn,'' very high energy gains might be realized. Consider a match and a pile of dry logs. The phenomenon termed ``heat after death'' will be examined to see if it might be the initial evidence for nuclear ``burning.''

  6. Controlling gain one photon at a time

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Gregory W; Rieke, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is a salient property of sensory processing. All adaptational or gain control mechanisms face the challenge of obtaining a reliable estimate of the property of the input to be adapted to and obtaining this estimate sufficiently rapidly to be useful. Here, we explore how the primate retina balances the need to change gain rapidly and reliably when photons arrive rarely at individual rod photoreceptors. We find that the weakest backgrounds that decrease the gain of the retinal output signals are similar to those that increase human behavioral threshold, and identify a novel site of gain control in the retinal circuitry. Thus, surprisingly, the gain of retinal signals begins to decrease essentially as soon as background lights are detectable; under these conditions, gain control does not rely on a highly averaged estimate of the photon count, but instead signals from individual photon absorptions trigger changes in gain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00467.001 PMID:23682314

  7. The Two Faces Of Adolescents’ Success With Peers: Adolescent Popularity, Social Adaptation, and Deviant Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances R.; McFarland, F. Christy; Marsh, Penny; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the hypothesis that popularity in adolescence takes on a twofold role, both marking high levels of concurrent psychosocial adaptation, but also predicting increases over time in both positive and negative behaviors sanctioned by peer norms. This hypothesis was tested with multi-method, longitudinal data obtained on a diverse community sample of 185 adolescents. Sociometric popularity data were examined in relation to data from interview-based assessments of attachment security and ego development, observations of mother-adolescent interactions, and repeated self- and peer-report assessments of delinquency and alcohol use. Results indicated that popular adolescents displayed higher concurrent levels of ego development, secure attachment and more adaptive interactions with mothers and best friends. Longitudinal analyses supported a “popularity-socialization” hypothesis, however, in which popular adolescents were more likely to increase in behaviors that receive approval in the peer group (e.g., minor levels of drug use and delinquency) and decrease in behaviors unlikely to be well-received by peers (e.g., hostile behavior with peers). PMID:15892790

  8. Popular Education: An Appropriate Educational Strategy for Community-Based Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beder, Hal

    1996-01-01

    Popular education has three essential, integrated components: praxis, a collective and participatory orientation, and action. Also important are systematization, communication, and attention to participants' everyday needs. (SK)

  9. Food advertising on children's popular subscription television channels in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hebden, Lana; King, Lesley; Chau, Josephine; Kelly, Bridget

    2011-04-01

    Trends on Australian free-to-air television show children continue to be exposed to a disproportionate amount of unhealthy food advertising. This study describes the nature and extent of food marketing on the Australian subscription television channels most popular with children. Advertisements broadcast on the six subscription television channels most popular with children were recorded over four days in February 2009. Advertised foods were coded as core/healthy, non-core/unhealthy or miscellaneous/other, and for persuasive marketing techniques (promotional characters, premium offers and nutrition claims). The majority of foods advertised were non-core (72%), with a mean rate of 0.7 non-core food advertisements broadcast per hour, per channel. The frequency of non-core food advertisements differed significantly across channels. Persuasive techniques were used to advertise non-core foods less frequently than core and miscellaneous foods. Non-core foods make up the majority of foods advertised on children's popular subscription channels. However, Australian children currently view less non-core food advertising on subscription television compared with free-to-air. Unlike free-to-air television, subscription services have the unique opportunity to limit inappropriate food marketing to children, given they are less reliant on advertising revenue. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  10. Effect of Intermittent Kangaroo Mother Care on Weight Gain of Low Birth Weight Neonates With Delayed Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Samra, Nashwa M.; Taweel, Amal El; Cadwell, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate intermittent Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) with additional opportunities to breastfeed on weight gain of low birth weight (LBW) neonates with delayed weight gain. Methods: 40 LBW neonates were followed to see whether KMC with additional opportunities to breastfeed improved weight gain. Results: In the KMC group, the mean age of regaining birth weight was significantly less (15.68 vs. 24.56 days) and the average daily weight gain was significantly higher (22.09 vs. 10.39 g, p < .001) than controls. Conclusion: KMC with additional opportunities to breastfeed was found to be an effective intervention for LBWs with delayed weight gain and should be considered to be an effective strategy. PMID:24868132

  11. Popular Music Pedagogy: Band Rehearsals at British Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There has been little published pedagogical research on popular music group rehearsing. This study explores the perceptions of tutors and student pop/rock bands about the rehearsals in which they were involved as a part of their university music course. The participants were 10 tutors and 16 bands from eight British tertiary institutions. Analysis…

  12. Exoskeletons: Generating Content for Popular Music in 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Casey Ann

    2016-01-01

    People all over the world are engaging with popular music, particularly through social media platforms, where views are often in the billions and climbing. Sacks (2007), a world-renowned neurologist, coined the term "earworms" to refer to songs that play repetitively in one's head for no apparent reason, sometimes for days, even years,…

  13. The Asian Financial Crisis, Globalisation and Popular Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tony

    1998-01-01

    Globalization is a confused and confusing term being used to explain a wide range of phenomena. It is presented as being outside anyone's control, neutral, and free of class interests. The Asian financial crisis illustrates that human agency still plays a role. Popular educators can help reinforce the idea that collective action does make a…

  14. Using Popular Movies in Teaching Cross-Cultural Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Satish

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aims to understand context and dynamics of cognitive learning of students as an outcome of the usage of popular movies as a learning tool in the management classroom and specifically in the context of a course on cross-cultural management issues. Design/methodology/approach: This is an exploratory study based on…

  15. Popular Music and Classical Musicians: Strategies and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsup, Randall Everett

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, popular music has become a growing area of music study and is increasingly accepted in schools and universities around the world. Despite this general enthusiasm, classically trained music teachers bring a certain hesitation to this art form, perhaps because too few have had formal hands-on experience with it. This article…

  16. Bridging the Gap: Science for a Popular Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdey, Diane

    This paper was based on a study of the writings of six scientists for lay readers and discussions with the authors on their concepts of audience and audience adaptation. Scientists who write popular or literary essays use several devices and methods that allow the successful transference of technical or scientific information to a general…

  17. Modification of saccadic gain by reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Paeye, Céline; Wallman, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Control of saccadic gain is often viewed as a simple compensatory process in which gain is adjusted over many trials by the postsaccadic retinal error, thereby maintaining saccadic accuracy. Here, we propose that gain might also be changed by a reinforcement process not requiring a visual error. To test this hypothesis, we used experimental paradigms in which retinal error was removed by extinguishing the target at the start of each saccade and either an auditory tone or the vision of the target on the fovea was provided as reinforcement after those saccades that met an amplitude criterion. These reinforcement procedures caused a progressive change in saccade amplitude in nearly all subjects, although the rate of adaptation differed greatly among subjects. When we reversed the contingencies and reinforced those saccades landing closer to the original target location, saccade gain changed back toward normal gain in most subjects. When subjects had saccades adapted first by reinforcement and a week later by conventional intrasaccadic step adaptation, both paradigms yielded similar degrees of gain changes and similar transfer to new amplitudes and to new starting positions of the target step as well as comparable rates of recovery. We interpret these changes in saccadic gain in the absence of postsaccadic retinal error as showing that saccade adaptation is not controlled by a single error signal. More generally, our findings suggest that normal saccade adaptation might involve general learning mechanisms rather than only specialized mechanisms for motor calibration. PMID:21525366

  18. Dimensions of Social Status in Preadolescent Peer Groups: Likability, Perceived Popularity, and Social Dominance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lease, A. Michele; Musgrove, Karen T.; Axelrod, Jennifer L.

    2002-01-01

    This study developed and examined a multidimensional, interdisciplinary model of social status among 487 fourth- through sixth-grade students. Seven subtypes were identified based on dimensions of likability, perceived popularity, and social dominance (high status, perceived popular/dominant, well-liked/dominant, average, low dominant/unpopular,…

  19. From Keats to Kanye: Romantic Poetry and Popular Culture in the Secondary English Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowmer, Megan E.; Curwood, Jen Scott

    2016-01-01

    This case study examined a Romanticism unit within a Year 9 English class in Sydney, Australia. It considered whether popular culture could build connections between students' lives and Romanticism, and whether the process of remixing "high" Romantic poetry with "low" popular culture could foster student engagement. Thematic…

  20. Drawing a Line in Water: Constructing the School Censorship Frame in Popular Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallio, Alexis Anja

    2015-01-01

    The apparent ideological tensions between popular musics and formal school contexts raise significant issues regarding teachers' popular repertoire selection processes. Such decision-making may be seen to take place within a school censorship frame, through which certain musics and their accompanying values are promoted, whilst others are…

  1. Adolescents' Perceptions of Popularity-Motivated Behaviors, Characteristics, and Relationships in Cyberspace and Cyber Aggression: The Role of Gender.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2017-06-01

    Research is increasingly revealing that adolescents utilize electronic technologies to promote and/or maintain their social standing among their peer group. Little is known about whether adolescents' perceptions of popularity-motivated behaviors, characteristics, and relationships in cyberspace are associated with popularity-motivated cyber relational aggression. It is also unclear how gender might impact these associations, especially considering that adolescent girls and boys differ in regard to the type of behaviors, characteristics, and relationships they believe contribute to popularity. To this end, this study examined the potential moderating effect of gender on the association between adolescents' perceptions of popularity-motivated behaviors, characteristics, and relationships in cyberspace and their engagement in popularity-motivated cyber relational aggression over 1 year, from seventh to eighth grade. There were 217 eighth graders (51 percent female; M age = 12.13) from three middle schools in a large Midwestern city in the United States included in this research. They completed questionnaires on their popularity-motivated behaviors, characteristics, and relationships in cyberspace and their perpetration of popularity-motivated cyber relational aggression during the seventh grade. One year later, they completed the perpetration of popularity-motivated cyber relational aggression questionnaire. The results revealed that the association between popularity-motivated behaviors, characteristics, and relationships in cyberspace and the perpetration of popularity-motivated cyber relational aggression was stronger for girls, while such an association was not found for boys. These findings indicate the importance of considering cyberspace as an environment in which adolescents can enhance their social standing among peers from their school.

  2. Variable gain for a wind turbine pitch control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, R. C.; Birchenough, A. G.

    1981-01-01

    The gain variation is made in the software logic of the pitch angle controller. The gain level is changed depending upon the level of power error. The control uses low gain for low pitch activity the majority of the time. If the power exceeds ten percent offset above rated, the gain is increased to a higher gain to more effectively limit power. A variable gain control functioned well in tests on the Mod-0 wind turbine.

  3. Contrast Gain Control in Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitz, Neil C.; Willmore, Ben D.B.; Schnupp, Jan W.H.; King, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The auditory system must represent sounds with a wide range of statistical properties. One important property is the spectrotemporal contrast in the acoustic environment: the variation in sound pressure in each frequency band, relative to the mean pressure. We show that neurons in ferret auditory cortex rescale their gain to partially compensate for the spectrotemporal contrast of recent stimulation. When contrast is low, neurons increase their gain, becoming more sensitive to small changes in the stimulus, although the effectiveness of contrast gain control is reduced at low mean levels. Gain is primarily determined by contrast near each neuron's preferred frequency, but there is also a contribution from contrast in more distant frequency bands. Neural responses are modulated by contrast over timescales of ∼100 ms. By using contrast gain control to expand or compress the representation of its inputs, the auditory system may be seeking an efficient coding of natural sounds. PMID:21689603

  4. When science becomes too easy: Science popularization inclines laypeople to underrate their dependence on experts.

    PubMed

    Scharrer, Lisa; Rupieper, Yvonne; Stadtler, Marc; Bromme, Rainer

    2017-11-01

    Science popularization fulfills the important task of making scientific knowledge understandable and accessible for the lay public. However, the simplification of information required to achieve this accessibility may lead to the risk of audiences relying overly strongly on their own epistemic capabilities when making judgments about scientific claims. Moreover, they may underestimate how the division of cognitive labor makes them dependent on experts. This article reports an empirical study demonstrating that this "easiness effect of science popularization" occurs when laypeople read authentic popularized science depictions. After reading popularized articles addressed to a lay audience, laypeople agreed more with the knowledge claims they contained and were more confident in their claim judgments than after reading articles addressed to expert audiences. Implications for communicating scientific knowledge to the general public are discussed.

  5. Medieval Literacy Outside the Academy: Popular Practice and Individual Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Cheryl

    1993-01-01

    Argues that medieval popular literacy can provide a crucial link for understanding alternative literacies. Claims that medieval practices explain some contemporary literacy practices, especially those outside the academy. (HB)

  6. Drought characteristics' role in widespread aspen forest mortality across Colorado, USA.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, Leander D L; Anderegg, William R L; Abatzoglou, John; Hausladen, Alexandra M; Berry, Joseph A

    2013-05-01

    Globally documented widespread drought-induced forest mortality has important ramifications for plant community structure, ecosystem function, and the ecosystem services provided by forests. Yet the characteristics of drought seasonality, severity, and duration that trigger mortality events have received little attention despite evidence of changing precipitation regimes, shifting snow melt timing, and increasing temperature stress. This study draws upon stand level ecohydrology and statewide climate and spatial analysis to examine the drought characteristics implicated in the recent widespread mortality of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.). We used isotopic observations of aspen xylem sap to determine water source use during natural and experimental drought in a region that experienced high tree mortality. We then drew upon multiple sources of climate data to characterize the drought that triggered aspen mortality. Finally, regression analysis was used to examine the drought characteristics most associated with the spatial patterns of aspen mortality across Colorado. Isotopic analysis indicated that aspens generally utilize shallow soil moisture with little plasticity during drought stress. Climate analysis showed that the mortality-inciting drought was unprecedented in the observational record, especially in 2002 growing season temperature and evaporative deficit, resulting in record low shallow soil moisture reserves. High 2002 summer temperature and low shallow soil moisture were most associated with the spatial patterns of aspen mortality. These results suggest that the 2002 drought subjected Colorado aspens to the most extreme growing season water stress of the past century by creating high atmospheric moisture demand and depleting the shallow soil moisture upon which aspens rely. Our findings highlight the important role of drought characteristics in mediating widespread aspen forest mortality, link this aspen die-off to regional climate change

  7. Seriously Popular: Rethinking 19th-Century American Literature through the Teaching of Popular Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatti, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Curious about the connections between the author's students' reading tastes and those of 19th-century readers, the author read Nina Baym's excellent text "Novels, Readers, and Reviewers: Responses to Fiction in Antebellum America" to gain a sense of how readers in the 1800s might have thought about the texts that they read. Nineteenth-century…

  8. Scientific Knowledge, Popularisation, and the Use of Metaphors: Modern Genetics in Popular Science Magazines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pramling, Niklas; Saljo, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The article reports an empirical study of how authors in popular science magazines attempt to render scientific knowledge intelligible to wide audiences. In bridging the two domains of "popular" and "scientific" knowledge, respectively, metaphor becomes central. We ask the empirical question of what metaphors are used when communicating about…

  9. Associations of Peer Acceptance and Perceived Popularity with Bullying and Victimization in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruyn, Eddy H.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Wissink, Inge B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the role of peer acceptance and perceived popularity in bullying and victimization in early adolescent peer groups. Peer acceptance is the degree to which adolescents are well liked by their peers; perceived popularity indicates visibility, dominance, and prestige. It was hypothesized that acceptance negatively predicts…

  10. A Research on the Influence of Contemporary Popular Music upon Youths' Self-Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jing, Wang

    2017-01-01

    "Emotion" is a key to exploring the relationship between contemporary popular music and youths. In reality, youths exercise the identity construction centering on self-identity by the unconscious use of ritualization towards popular music (cultures). The article analyzes the conversion in identity construction of youths in the course of…

  11. High mycorrhizal specificity in a widespread mycoheterotrophic plant, Eulophia zollingeri (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Ogura-Tsujita, Yuki; Yukawa, Tomohisa

    2008-01-01

    Because mycoheterotrophic plants fully depend on their mycorrhizal partner for their carbon supply, the major limiting factor for the geographic distribution of these plants may be the presence of their mycorrhizal partner. Although this factor may seem to be a disadvantage for increasing geographic distribution, widespread mycoheterotrophic species nonetheless exist. The mechanism causing the wide distribution of some mycoheterotrophic species is, however, seldom discussed. We identified the mycorrhizal partner of a widespread mycoheterotrophic orchid, Eulophia zollingeri, using 12 individuals from seven populations in Japan, Myanmar, and Taiwan by DNA-based methods. All fungal ITS sequences from the roots closely related to those of Psathyrella candolleana (Coprinaceae) from GenBank accessions and herbarium specimens. These results indicate that E. zollingeri is exclusively associated with the P. candolleana species group. Further, the molecular data support the wide distribution and wide-ranging habitat of this fungal partner. Our data provide evidence that a mycoheterotrophic plant can achieve a wide distribution, even though it has a high mycorrhizal specificity, if its fungal partner is widely distributed.

  12. Biodegradable DNA Nanoparticles that Provide Widespread Gene Delivery in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Mastorakos, Panagiotis; Song, Eric; Zhang, Clark; Berry, Sneha; Park, Hee Won; Kim, Young Eun; Park, Jong Sung; Lee, Seulki; Suk, Jung Soo; Hanes, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Successful gene therapy of neurological disorders is predicated on achieving widespread and uniform transgene expression throughout the affected disease area in the brain. However, conventional gene vectors preferentially travel through low-resistance perivascular spaces and/or are confined to the administration site even with the aid of a pressure-driven flow provided by convection-enhanced delivery. Biodegradable DNA nanoparticles offer a safe gene delivery platform devoid of adverse effects associated with virus-based or synthetic non-biodegradable systems. Using a state-of-the-art biodegradable polymer, poly(β-amino ester), we engineered colloidally stable sub-100 nm DNA nanoparticles coated with a non-adhesive polyethylene glycol corona that are able to avoid the adhesive and steric hindrances imposed by the extracellular matrix. Following convection enhanced delivery, these brain-penetrating nanoparticles were able to homogeneously distribute throughout the rodent striatum and mediate widespread and high-level transgene expression. These nanoparticles provide a biodegradable DNA nanoparticle platform enabling uniform transgene expression patterns in vivo and hold promise for the treatment of neurological diseases. PMID:26680637

  13. Computer algorithm for coding gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, E. E.

    1974-01-01

    Development of a computer algorithm for coding gain for use in an automated communications link design system. Using an empirical formula which defines coding gain as used in space communications engineering, an algorithm is constructed on the basis of available performance data for nonsystematic convolutional encoding with soft-decision (eight-level) Viterbi decoding.

  14. India's Music: Popular Film Songs in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarrazin, Natalie

    2006-01-01

    Indian film industry is the largest film industry in the world, with an output roughly three times that of Hollywood. This popular world music could easily be an exciting part of a multicultural music education curriculum. This music not only exposes students to an entirely new musical genre and cultural industry, but can also change their…

  15. Explaining the Popularity of Psychology at A-Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The sustained rise in popularity of psychology both at degree and A-level in the UK over the last two decades is a remarkable event, not only because it is indicative of wider cultural changes but because it is understudied by psychologists themselves and not predicted by curriculum planners. The aim of this article is to offer a theoretical…

  16. Revisioning Premodern Fine Art as Popular Visual Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncum, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Employing the concept of a rhetoric of emotions, European Premodern fine art is revisioned as popular culture. From ancient times, the rhetoric of emotion was one of the principle concepts informing the theory and practice of all forms of European cultural production, including the visual arts, until it was gradually displaced during the 1700s and…

  17. Making the case for orthogenesis: the popularization of definitely directed evolution (1890-1926).

    PubMed

    Ulett, Mark A

    2014-03-01

    Throughout the history of evolutionary theory a number of scientists have argued that evolution proceeds along a limited number of definite trajectories, a concept and group of theories known as "orthogenesis". Beginning in the 1880s, influential evolutionists including Theodor Eimer, Edward Drinker Cope, and Leo Berg argued that a fully causal explanation of evolution must take into account the origin and nature of variation, an idea that implied orthogenesis in their views. This paper argues that these orthogenesis developed theories that were more than highly technical and theoretically dubious hypotheses accessible only to elite specialists, as certain histories of these ideas might suggest. Some orthogenesists made their case to a non-specialist audience to gain support for their ideas in the face of widespread controversy over evolutionary theory. Through a case study analysis of three major books by Eimer, Cope, and Berg, this paper contends that they sought to re-orient the central tenets of the science of evolution to include the causal impact of variation on evolutionary outcomes. These orthogenesists developed novel and synthetic evolutionary theories in a publishing platform suited for non-specialist audiences in an effort to impact the debates over evolutionary causation prevalent in the late-19th and early 20th centuries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic diversity in three endangered pitcher plant species (Sarracenia; Sarraceniaceae) is lower than widespread congeners.

    PubMed

    Furches, M Steven; Small, Randall L; Furches, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Narrow-ranging, rare species often exhibit levels of genetic diversity lower than more common or widespread congeners. These taxa are at increased risk of extinction due to threats associated with natural as well as anthropogenic events. We assessed genetic variation in three federally endangered Sarracenia species. We discuss maintenance of genetic diversity and evolutionary implications of rarity. • We analyzed three noncoding chloroplast regions and nine microsatellite loci in populations spanning the geographic ranges of S. oreophila, S. alabamensis, and S. jonesii. The same microsatellite loci were used to examine a single field site of three more widespread species (S. alata, S. leucophylla, and S. rubra subsp. wherryi). • All three endangered species have experienced reductions in population size and numbers. All show considerably less variation than more widespread members of the genus. Sarracenia alabamensis maintains the greatest microsatellite variation but has the fewest remaining populations and may be under the greatest threat. More widespread S. oreophila maintains surprising chloroplast diversity, yet exhibits little microsatellite diversity. Sarracenia jonesii lacks chloroplast diversity, yet maintains greater microsatellite diversity than S. oreophila. • The three endangered species differ in levels and structure of diversity, yet not in predictable ways, emphasizing that unique demographic and ecological histories, rather than current distribution and population size, best explain present patterns of genetic variation. Maintenance of remaining genetic variation is important, but preventing further habitat loss and degradation is critical.

  19. Popular Science: Introductory Physics Textbooks for Home Economics Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrman, Joanna

    2014-03-01

    For many decades now there has been an ongoing debate about the way and extent to which physics ought to be popularized by appealing to a student's every day experience. Part of this debate has focused on how textbooks, a major factor shaping students' education, ought to be written and presented. I examine the background, passages, and problems of two examples drawn from the special genre of ``Household Physics'' textbooks which were published largely between 1910 and 1940. The pedagogy of applying or relating physics to the everyday experience engenders values defining how and by whom science is to be applied. These books are particularly evocative, as well, of the extent to which gender can be tied to differing everyday experiences and the consequences therefore of using experiential examples. Using popular science textbooks can alienate students by drawing an implicit division between the reader and the practicing scientist.

  20. A Conspicuous Gap in Cultural Studies: Popular Music in the English Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knippling, Jim

    2013-01-01

    For the author, the key analytic question about a popular song is not "What does it mean?" or "What hidden or coded meaning does it express?" but "What does its popularity tell us about the cultural moment when it resonated with its public?" How did the song "create its audience," so to speak? Obviously, a 1973 hit song, if it could time-travel,…