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Sample records for galactic halo stars

  1. Hot Stars in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Upgren, Arthur R.; Adelman, Carol J.

    2011-03-01

    Participants; Preface; Foreword; Acknowledgements; Part I. Introductory Papers: 1. What is the galaxy's halo population?; 2. Theoretical properties of horizontal-branch stars; 3. A review of A-type horizontal-branch stars; Part II. Surveys: 4. A progress report on the Edinburgh-Cape object survey; 5. A 300 square degree survey of young stars at high galactic latitudes; 6. The isolation of a new sample of B stars in the halo; 7. A northern catalog of FHB/A stars; 8. Recent progress on a continuing survey of galactic globular clusters for blue stragglers; 9. UV observations with FAUST and the galactic model; 10. Hot stars at the South Galactic Pole; Part III. Clusters: 11. Population II horizontal branches: a photometric study of globular clusters; 12. The period-shift effect in Oosterhoff type II globular clusters; 13. UV photometry of hot stars in omega centauri; 14. Spectroscopic and UBV observations of blue stars at the NGP; 15. Population I horizontal branches: probing the halo-to-disk transition; Part IV. Stars: 16. Very hot subdwarf O stars; 17. Quantitative spectroscopy of the very hot subluminous O-stars: K646, PG1159-035, and KPD0005+5106; 18. Analyzing the helium-rich hot sdO stars in the Palomar Green Survey; 19. Late type companions of hot sd O stars; 20. Hot stars in globular clusters; 21. Faint blue stars from the Hamburg Schmidt Survey; 22. Stellar winds and the evolution of sdB's to sdO's; 23. Halo stars in the Vilnius photometric system; 24. Horizontal branch stars in the geneva photometric system; 25. Zeeman observations of FHB stars and hot subdwarf stars; 26. What does a FHB star's spectrum look like?; 27. A technique for distinguishing FHB stars from A-type stars; 28. eEemental abundances of halo A and interloper stars; 29. The mass of blue horizontal branch stars in the globular cluster NGC6397; 30. IUE observations of blue HB stars in the globular clusters M3 and NGC6752; 31. Metallicities and kinematics of the local RR lyraes: lukewarm stars

  2. Hot Stars in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Upgren, Arthur R.; Adelman, Carol J.

    1994-08-01

    Participants; Preface; Foreword; Acknowledgements; Part I. Introductory Papers: 1. What is the galaxy's halo population?; 2. Theoretical properties of horizontal-branch stars; 3. A review of A-type horizontal-branch stars; Part II. Surveys: 4. A progress report on the Edinburgh-Cape object survey; 5. A 300 square degree survey of young stars at high galactic latitudes; 6. The isolation of a new sample of B stars in the halo; 7. A northern catalog of FHB/A stars; 8. Recent progress on a continuing survey of galactic globular clusters for blue stragglers; 9. UV observations with FAUST and the galactic model; 10. Hot stars at the South Galactic Pole; Part III. Clusters: 11. Population II horizontal branches: a photometric study of globular clusters; 12. The period-shift effect in Oosterhoff type II globular clusters; 13. UV photometry of hot stars in omega centauri; 14. Spectroscopic and UBV observations of blue stars at the NGP; 15. Population I horizontal branches: probing the halo-to-disk transition; Part IV. Stars: 16. Very hot subdwarf O stars; 17. Quantitative spectroscopy of the very hot subluminous O-stars: K646, PG1159-035, and KPD0005+5106; 18. Analyzing the helium-rich hot sdO stars in the Palomar Green Survey; 19. Late type companions of hot sd O stars; 20. Hot stars in globular clusters; 21. Faint blue stars from the Hamburg Schmidt Survey; 22. Stellar winds and the evolution of sdB's to sdO's; 23. Halo stars in the Vilnius photometric system; 24. Horizontal branch stars in the geneva photometric system; 25. Zeeman observations of FHB stars and hot subdwarf stars; 26. What does a FHB star's spectrum look like?; 27. A technique for distinguishing FHB stars from A-type stars; 28. eEemental abundances of halo A and interloper stars; 29. The mass of blue horizontal branch stars in the globular cluster NGC6397; 30. IUE observations of blue HB stars in the globular clusters M3 and NGC6752; 31. Metallicities and kinematics of the local RR lyraes: lukewarm stars

  3. Cool Carbon Stars in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigoyan, K. S.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we report current status of search and study for Faint High Latitude Carbon Stars (FHLCs). Data for more than 1800 spectroscopically confirmed FHLCs are known, which are found thanks to objective prism surveys and photometric selections. More than half of the detected objects belongs to group of dwarf Carbon (dC) stars. Many-sided investigations based on modern astrophysical databases are necessary to study the space distribution of different groups of the FHLC stars and their possible origin in the Halo of our Galaxy. We report about the selection of FHLCs by the spectroscopic surveys: First Byurakan Survey (FBS), Hamburg/ESO Survey (HES), LAMOST Pilot Survey and SDSS, as well as by photometric selection: APM Survey for Cool Carbon Stars in the Galactic Halo, SDSS and 2MASS JHK colours.

  4. Neutron stars and white dwarfs in galactic halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Olive, Keith A.; Silk, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    The possibility that galactic halos are composed of stellar remnants such as neutron stars and white dwarfs is discussed. On the basis of a simple model for the evolution of galactic halos, researchers follow the history of halo matter, luminosity, and metal and helium abundances. They assume conventional yields for helium and the heavier elements. By comparing with the observational constraints, which may be considered as fairly conservative, it is found that, for an exponentially decreasing star formation rate (SFR) with e-folding time tau, only values between 6 x 10(8) less than similar to tau less than similar to 2 x 10(9) years are allowed together with a very limited range of masses for the initial mass function (IMF). Star formation is allowed for 2 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 8 solar mass if tau = 2 x 10(9) years, and for 4 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 6 solar mass if tau = 10(9) years. For tau = 6 x 10(8) years, the lower and upper mass limits merge to similar to 5 solar mass. Researchers conclude that, even though the possibility of neutron stars as halo matter may be ruled out, that of white dwarfs may still be a viable hypothesis, though with very stringent constraints on allowed parameters, that merits further consideration.

  5. Neutron stars and white dwarfs in galactic halos?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Olive, Keith A.; Silk, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that galactic halos are composed of stellar remnants such as neutron stars and white dwarfs is discussed. On the basis of a simple model for the evolution of galactic halos, researchers follow the history of halo matter, luminosity, and metal and helium abundances. They assume conventional yields for helium and the heavier elements. By comparing with the observational constraints, which may be considered as fairly conservative, it is found that, for an exponentially decreasing star formation rate (SFR) with e-folding time tau, only values between 6 x 10(8) less than similar to tau less than similar to 2 x 10(9) years are allowed together with a very limited range of masses for the initial mass function (IMF). Star formation is allowed for 2 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 8 solar mass if tau = 2 x 10(9) years, and for 4 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 6 solar mass if tau = 10(9) years. For tau = 6 x 10(8) years, the lower and upper mass limits merge to similar to 5 solar mass. Researchers conclude that, even though the possibility of neutron stars as halo matter may be ruled out, that of white dwarfs may still be a viable hypothesis, though with very stringent constraints on allowed parameters, that merits further consideration.

  6. WEIGHING THE GALACTIC DARK MATTER HALO: A LOWER MASS LIMIT FROM THE FASTEST HALO STAR KNOWN

    SciTech Connect

    Przybilla, Norbert; Tillich, Alfred; Heber, Ulrich; Scholz, Ralf-Dieter

    2010-07-20

    The mass of the Galactic dark matter halo is under vivid discussion. A recent study by Xue et al. revised the Galactic halo mass downward by a factor of {approx}2 relative to previous work, based on the line-of-sight velocity distribution of {approx}2400 blue horizontal-branch (BHB) halo stars. The observations were interpreted with a statistical approach using cosmological galaxy formation simulations, as only four of the six-dimensional phase-space coordinates were determined. Here we concentrate on a close investigation of the stars with the highest negative radial velocity from that sample. For one star, SDSSJ153935.67+023909.8 (J1539+0239 for short), we succeed in measuring a significant proper motion, i.e., full phase-space information is obtained. We confirm the star to be a Population II BHB star from an independent quantitative analysis of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectrum-providing the first non-LTE (NLTE) study of any halo BHB star-and reconstruct its three-dimensional trajectory in the Galactic potential. J1539+0239 turns out to be the fastest halo star known to date, with a Galactic rest-frame velocity of 694{sup +300}{sub -221} km s{sup -1} (full uncertainty range from Monte Carlo error propagation) at its current position. The extreme kinematics of the star allows a significant lower limit to be put on the halo mass in order to keep it bound, of M {sub halo} {>=} 1.7{sup +2.3}{sub -1.1} x 10{sup 12} M{sub sun}. We conclude that the Xue et al. results tend to underestimate the true halo mass as their most likely mass value is consistent with our analysis only at a level of 4%. However, our result confirms other studies that make use of the full phase-space information.

  7. RADIAL VELOCITIES OF GALACTIC HALO STARS IN VIRGO

    SciTech Connect

    Brink, Thomas G.; Mateo, Mario; Martinez-Delgado, David E-mail: mmateo@umich.ed

    2010-11-15

    We present multi-slit radial velocity measurements for 111 stars in the direction of the Virgo Stellar Stream (VSS). The stars were photometrically selected to be probable main-sequence stars in the Galactic halo. When compared with the radial velocity distribution expected for the halo of the Milky Way, as well as the distribution seen in a control field, we observe a significant excess of negative velocity stars in the field, which can likely be attributed to the presence of a stellar stream. This kinematic excess peaks at a Galactic standard of rest radial velocity of -75 km s{sup -1}. A rough distance estimate suggests that this feature extends from {approx}15 kpc out to, and possibly beyond, the {approx}30 kpc limit of the study. The mean velocity of these stars is incompatible with those of the VSS itself (V{sub gsr} {approx} 130 km s{sup -1}), which we weakly detect, but it is consistent with radial velocity measurements of nearby 2MASS M-giants and SDSS+SEGUE K/M-giants and blue horizontal branch stars that constitute the leading tidal tail of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Some oblate models for the shape of the Milky Way's dark matter halo predict that the leading arm of the Sagittarius Stream should pass through this volume, and have highly negative (V{sub gsr} {approx}< -200 km s{sup -1}) radial velocities, as it descends down from the northern Galactic hemisphere toward the Galactic plane. The kinematic feature observed in this study, if it is in fact Sagittarius debris, is not consistent with these predictions, and instead, like other leading stream radial velocity measurements, is consistent with a recently published triaxial halo model, or, if axisymmetry is imposed, favors a prolate shape for the Galactic halo potential. However, a rough distance estimate to the observed kinematic feature places it somewhat closer (D {approx} 15-30 kpc) than the Sagittarius models predict (D {approx} 35-45 kpc).

  8. HUBBLE'S SEARCH FOR FAINT FIELD STARS IN GALACTIC HALO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Left A NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of a randomly selected area of sky taken to search for faint red stars that might constitute dark matter in our Milky Way Galaxy. (Dark matter is material of an unknown type that makes up most of the mass of our galaxy). If the dark matter in our Galaxy was made of faint red stars -- as many scientists have previously conjectured -- then about 38 such stars should have been visible in this HST image. The simulated stars (diamond-shaped symbols), based on theoretical calculations, illustrate what scientists would have seen if the dark matter were locked-up in faint red stars. These surprising results rule out dim stars as an explanation for dark matter in our Galaxy. Right The unmodified HST image shows the region is actually so devoid of stars that far more distant background galaxies can easily be seen. The field is in the constellation Eridanus, far outside the plane of our Milky Way Galaxy. This region was chosen to highlight stars in the galactic halo, where dark matter exists, and to avoid the contribution of faint stars in the plane of the Galaxy. Technical Information: The image was constructed from seven exposures totaling almost three hours of searching by HST. The field shown is about 1.5 arc-minutes across. The image was taken in near-infrared light (814 nm) with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, on Feb 8, 1994. This observation is part of the HST parallel observing program. Credit: J Bahcall, Institute for Advance Study, Princeton and NASA

  9. Blue horizontal branch field stars in the galactic halo - Observations versus kinematic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer-Larsen, Jesper; Christensen, Per Rex

    1989-07-01

    A sample of 185 blue horizontal branch field (BHBF) stars situated in four fields in the galactic halo at galactocentric distances r of less than 40 kpc has been analyzed. The BHBF stars are found to constitute a well mixed system. The Sommer-Larsen (1986, 1987) model is shown to provide a better fit to the kinematical data in all four fields than either the White (1985, 1988) or Ratnatunga and Freeman (1985, 1989) models. A formation scenario for the galactic halo which includes the effects of gas dynamical processes is proposed to account for the feature of the Sommer-Larsen model that the velocity distribution of halo stars is radially anisotropic in the inner halo, but tangentially anisotropic in the outer parts of the halo.

  10. Evidence for recent star formation in the galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, F. P.

    1986-09-01

    Observational data for PHL 346 obtained with the 2.5 m Issac Newton telescope on August 1985 are studied. Measured stellar Stromgren colors, hydrogen-line profiles, and helium and metal-line equivalent widths are compared with those predicted by local thermodynamic equilibrium model-atmosphere calculations. Effective temperature, surface gravity, microturbulent velocity, and helium and metal abundances for the star are derived. A mass of 13 + or - 2 solar masses, a lifetime of 11 x 10 to the 6th yr, a distance from the galactic plane of 8.7 + or - 1.5 kpc, and a velocity in the z direction of +56 + or - 10 km/s are calculated for the star. The data reveal that the star was not ejected from the galactic plane, but that it formed out of galactic fountain gas at about 6 kpc from the disc.

  11. Runaway Stars in the Galactic Halo: Their Origin and Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte de Vasconcelos Silva, Manuel

    2012-03-01

    Star formation in the Milky Way is confined to star-forming regions (OB associ- ation, HII regions, and open clusters) in the Galactic plane. It is usually assumed that these regions are found preferably along spiral arms, as is observed in other spiral galaxies. However, young early-type stars are often found at high Galactic latitudes, far away from their birthplaces in the Galactic disc. These stars are called runaway stars, and it is believed that they were ejected from their birth- places early in their lifetimes by one of two mechanisms: ejection from a binary system following the destruction of the massive companion in a supernova type II event (the binary ejection mechanism), or ejection from a dense cluster following a close gravitational encounter between two close binaries (the dynamical ejection mechanism). The aims of our study were: to improve the current understanding of the nature of high Galactic latitude runaway stars, in particular by investigating whether the theoretical ejection mechanisms could explain the more extreme cases; to show the feasibility of using high Galactic latitude stars as tracers of the spiral arms. The main technique used in this investigation was the tracing of stellar orbits back in time, given their present positions and velocities in 3D space. This technique allowed the determination of the ejection velocities, flight times and birthplaces of a sample of runaway stars. In order to obtain reasonable velocity estimates several recent catalogues of proper motion data were used. We found that the evolutionary ages of the vast majority of runaway stars is consistent with the disc ejection scenario. However, we identified three outliers which would need flight times much larger then their estimated ages in order to reach their present positions in the sky. Moreover, the ejection velocity distribution appears to be bimodal, showing evidence for two populations of runaway stars: a "low" velocity population (89 per cent of the

  12. The lithium content of the galactic halo stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonnel, C.; Primas, F.

    Thanks to the accurate determination of the baryon density of the Universe by the recent cosmic microwave background experiments, updated predictions of the standard model of Big Bang nucleosynthesis yield the initial abundances of the primordial light elements with an unprecedented precision (Bennet et al. 2003; Spergel et al. 2003; Coc et al. 2004; Cyburt 2004; Serpico et al. 2004). In the case of ^7Li, the CMB+SBBN value is significantly higher than the generally reported abundances for Pop II stars along the Spite plateau. Here, we report on the very recent results we obtained by revisiting a large sample of literature Li data in halo stars that we assembled following some strict criteria on the quality of the original analyses published from the early 90 s onwards. We put a strong emphasis on the temperature scale and reddening issues, and on the determination of the evolutionary status of each of our sample stars. Using our “best" (i.e. most consistent) set of temperatures we discuss the resulting mean Li value along the plateau for the dwarf stars on one hand and for the turnoff and subgiant stars on the other hand.

  13. Measuring the Shape and Orientation of the Galactic Dark-Matter Halo using Hypervelocity Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnedin, Oleg

    2009-07-01

    We propose to obtain high-resolution images of five hypervelocity stars in the Galactic halo in order to establish the first-epoch astrometric frame for them, as a part of a long-term program to measure precise proper motions. The origin of these recently discovered stars, all with positive radial velocities above 540 km/s, is consistent only with being ejected from the deep potential well of the massive black hole at the Galactic center. The deviations of their space motions from purely radial trajectories probe the departures from spherical symmetry of the Galactic potential, mainly due to the triaxiality of the dark-matter halo. Reconstructing the full three-dimensional space motion of the hypervelocity stars, through astrometric proper motions, provides a unique opportunity to measure the shape and orientation of the dark halo. The hypervelocity stars allow measurement of the potential up to 75 kpc from the center, independently of and at larger distances than are afforded by tidal streams of satellite galaxies such as the Sagittarius dSph galaxy. HVS3 may be associated with the LMC, rather then the Galactic center, and would therefore present a case for a supermassive black hole at the center of the LMC. We request one orbit with ACS/WFC for each of the five hypervelocity stars to establish their current positions relative to background galaxies. We will request a repeated observation of these stars in Cycle 17, which will conclusively measure the astrometric proper motions.

  14. Measuring the Shape and Orientation of the Galactic Dark-Matter Halo using Hypervelocity Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnedin, Oleg

    2006-07-01

    We propose to obtain high-resolution images of five hypervelocity stars in the Galactic halo in order to establish the first-epoch astrometric frame for them, as a part of a long-term program to measure precise proper motions. The origin of these recently discovered stars, all with positive radial velocities above 540 km/s, is consistent only with being ejected from the deep potential well of the massive black hole at the Galactic center. The deviations of their space motions from purely radial trajectories probe the departures from spherical symmetry of the Galactic potential, mainly due to the triaxiality of the dark-matter halo. Reconstructing the full three-dimensional space motion of the hypervelocity stars, through astrometric proper motions, provides a unique opportunity to measure the shape and orientation of the dark halo. The hypervelocity stars allow measurement of the potential up to 75 kpc from the center, independently of and at larger distances than are afforded by tidal streams of satellite galaxies such as the Sagittarius dSph galaxy. HVS3 may be associated with the LMC, rather then the Galactic center, and would therefore present a case for a supermassive black hole at the center of the LMC. We request one orbit with ACS/WFC for each of the five hypervelocity stars to establish their current positions relative to background galaxies. We will request a repeated observation of these stars in Cycle 17, which will conclusively measure the astrometric proper motions.

  15. Halo K-Giant Stars from LAMOST: Kinematics and Galactic Mass Estimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Sarah A.

    2017-03-01

    We analyze line-of-sight velocities of over 3000 halo K-giant stars from the second data release of the spectral survey LAMOST (Zhao et al. 2012). We find a nearly constant velocity dispersion profile, with no large dips or peaks, in a Galactocentric radial range of 10-30 kpc, in accord with earlier analyses (Battaglia et al. 2005, 2006; Xue et al. 2008, 2014) (see Fig. 1). Previous studies of halo star radial velocity dispersions in a reference frame centered on the Galactic Center have detected dips within this radial range (Sommer-Larsen et al. 1994; Kafle et al. 2012, 2014). We use the stars to make estimates of the enclosed mass out to 40 kpc from the Galactic Center using the method of Evans et al. (2011). Tens of thousands of such stars are expected to become available to this analysis by the end of the five-year survey.

  16. New cluster members and halo stars of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navin, Colin A.; Martell, Sarah L.; Zucker, Daniel B.

    2015-10-01

    NGC 1851 is an intriguing Galactic globular cluster, with multiple stellar evolutionary sequences, light and heavy element abundance variations and indications of a surrounding stellar halo. We present the first results of a spectroscopic study of red giant stars within and outside of the tidal radius of this cluster. Our results identify nine probable new cluster members (inside the tidal radius) with heliocentric radial velocities consistent with that of NGC 1851. We also identify, based on their radial velocities, four probable extratidal cluster halo stars at distances up to ˜3.1 times the tidal radius, which are supportive of previous findings that NGC 1851 is surrounded by an extended stellar halo. Proper motions were available for 12 of these 13 stars and all are consistent with that of NGC 1851. Apart from the cluster members and cluster halo stars, our observed radial velocity distribution agrees with the expected distribution from a Besançon disc/N-body stellar halo Milky Way model generated by the GALAXIA code, suggesting that no other structures at different radial velocities are present in our field. The metallicities of these stars are estimated using equivalent width measurements of the near-infrared calcium triplet absorption lines and are found, within the limitations of this method, to be consistent with that of NGC 1851. In addition we recover 110 red giant cluster members from previous studies based on their radial velocities and identify three stars with unusually high radial velocities.

  17. Highly-Ionized Gas in the Galactic Halo: A FUSE Survey of O 6 Absorption toward 22 Halo Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zsargo, J.; Sembach, K. R.; Howk, J. C.; Savage, B. D.

    2002-12-01

    Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectra of 22 Galactic halo stars are studied to determine the amount of O 6 in the Galactic halo between ~0.3 and ~10 kpc from the Galactic mid-plane. Strong O 6 λ 1031.93 absorption was detected toward 21 stars, and a reliable 3 σ upper limit was obtained toward HD 97991. The weaker member of the O 6 doublet at 1037.62 Å could be studied toward only six stars. The observed columns are reasonably consistent with a patchy exponential O 6 distribution with a mid-plane density of 1.7x10-8 cm-3 and scale height between 2.3 and 4 kpc. We do not see clear signs of strong high-velocity components in O 6 absorption along the Galactic sight lines, which indicates the general absence of high velocity O 6 within 2-5 kpc of the Galactic mid-plane. The correlation between the H 1 and O 6 intermediate velocity absorption is also poor. The O 6 velocity dispersions are much larger than the value of ~18 km/s expected from thermal broadening for gas at T ~ 3x105 K, the temperature at which O 6 is expected to reach its peak abundance in collisional ionization equilibrium. Turbulence, inflow, and outflow must have an effect on the shape of the O 6 profiles. Kinematical comparisons of O 6 with Ar 1 reveal that 9 of 21 sight lines are closely aligned in LSR velocity (|Δ VLSR| <=5 km/s ), while 8 of 21 exhibit significant velocity differences (|Δ VLSR| >= 15 km/s ). This dual behavior may indicate the presence of two different types of O 6-bearing environments toward the Galactic sight lines. Comparison of O 6 with other highly-ionized species suggests that the high ions are produced primarily by cooling hot gas in the Galactic fountain flow, and that turbulent mixing also has a significant contribution. The role of turbulent mixing is most important toward sight lines that sample supernova remnants like Loop I and IV. We are also able to show that the O 6 enhancement toward the Galactic center region that was observed in the FUSE

  18. THE FRACTION OF GLOBULAR CLUSTER SECOND-GENERATION STARS IN THE GALACTIC HALO

    SciTech Connect

    Vesperini, Enrico; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; D'Antona, Francesca; D'Ercole, Annibale

    2010-08-01

    Many observational studies have revealed the presence of multiple stellar generations in Galactic globular clusters. These studies suggest that second-generation stars make up a significant fraction of the current mass of globular clusters, with the second-generation mass fraction ranging from {approx}50% to 80% in individual clusters. In this Letter, we carry out hydrodynamical simulations to explore the dependence of the mass of second-generation stars on the initial mass and structural parameters and stellar initial mass function (IMF) of the parent cluster. We then use the results of these simulations to estimate the fraction f{sub SG,H} of the mass of the Galactic stellar halo composed of second-generation stars that originated in globular clusters. We study the dependence of f{sub SG,H} on the parameters of the IMF of the Galactic globular cluster system. For a broad range of initial conditions, we find that the fraction of mass of the Galactic stellar halo in second-generation stars is always small, f{sub SG,H} < 4%-6% for a Kroupa-1993 IMF and f{sub SG,H} < 7%-9% for a Kroupa-2001 IMF.

  19. HIERARCHICAL FORMATION OF THE GALACTIC HALO AND THE ORIGIN OF HYPER METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Komiya, Yutaka; Habe, Asao; Suda, Takuma; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.

    2009-05-01

    Extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars in the Galactic halo are unique probes into the early universe and the first stars. We construct a new program to calculate the formation history of EMP stars in the early universe with the chemical evolution, based on the merging history of the Galaxy. We show that the hierarchical structure formation model reproduces the observed metallicity distribution function and also the total number of observed EMP stars, when we take into account the high-mass initial mass function and the contribution of binaries, as proposed by Komiya et al. The low-mass survivors divide into two groups of those born before and after the mini-halos are polluted by their own first supernovae. The former has observational counterparts in the hyper metal-poor (HMP) stars below [Fe/H] < -4, while the latter represents the majority of EMP stars with {approx}<[Fe/H]> - 4. In this Letter, we focus on the origin of the extremely small iron abundances of HMP stars. We compute the change in the surface abundances of individual stars through the accretion of the metal-enriched interstellar gas along with the dynamical and chemical evolution of the Galaxy, to demonstrate that after-birth pollution of Population III stars is sufficiently effective to explain the observed abundances of HMP stars. Metal pre-enrichment by possible pair instability supernovae is also discussed, to derive constraints on their roles and on the formation of the first low-mass stars.

  20. Hot subdwarf stars in the Galactic halo Tracers of prominent events in late stellar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, Stephan; Kupfer, Thomas; Schaffenroth, Veronika; Heber, Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    Hot subdwarf stars (sdO/Bs) are the stripped cores of red giants located at the bluest extension of the horizontal branch. They constitute the dominant population of UV-bright stars in old stellar environments and are most likely formed by binary interactions. We perform the first systematic, spectroscopic analysis of a sample of those stars in the Galactic halo based on data from SDSS. In the course of this project we discovered 177 close binary candidates. A significant fraction of the sdB binaries turned out to have close substellar companions, which shows that brown dwarfs and planets can significantly influence late stellar evolution. Close hot subdwarf binaries with massive white dwarf companions on the other hand are good candidates for the progenitors of type Ia supernovae. We discovered a hypervelocity star, which not only turned out to be the fastest unbound star known in our Galaxy, but also the surviving companion of such a supernova explosion.

  1. Weak Galactic halo-Fornax dSph connection from RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorentino, G.; Monelli, M.; Stetson, P. B.; Bono, G.; Gallart, C.; Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Bernard, E. J.; Massari, D.; Braga, V. F.; Dall'Ora, M.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: For the first time accurate pulsation properties of the ancient variable stars of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) are discussed in the broad context of galaxy formation and evolution. Methods: Homogeneous multi-band BVI optical photometry of spanning twenty years has allowed us to identify and characterize more than 1400 RR Lyrae stars (RRLs) in this galaxy. Results: Roughly 70% are new discoveries. We investigate the period-amplitude distribution and find that Fornax shows a lack of high amplitude (AV ⪆ 0.75 mag) short period fundamental-mode RRLs (P ≲ 0.48 d, HASPs). These objects occur in stellar populations more metal-rich than [Fe/H] -1.5 and they are common in the Galactic halo (hereafter Halo) and in globulars. This evidence suggests that old Fornax stars (older than 10 Gyr) are relatively metal poor. A detailed statistical analysis of the role of the present-day Fornax dSph in reproducing the Halo period distribution shows that it can only account for up to 20% of the Halo when combined with RRLs in massive dwarf galaxies (Sagittarius dSph, Large Magellanic Cloud). This finding indicates that Fornax-like systems played a smaller role than massive dwarfs in building up the Halo. Conclusions: We also discuss the occurrence of HASPs in connection with the luminosity and the early chemical composition of nearby dwarf galaxies. We find that, independently of their individual star formation histories, bright (MV ≲ -13.5 mag) galaxies have HASPs, whereas faint ones (MV ⪆ -11 mag) do not. Interestingly enough, Fornax belongs to a luminosity range (-11 < MV ≲ -13.5 mag) in which the occurrence of HASPs appears to be correlated with the early star formation and chemical enrichment of the host galaxy.

  2. Neutron-Capture Elements in Low Metallicity Stars within the Inner Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumper, Kenneth A.; Burris, Debra L.

    2017-01-01

    The inner galactic halo is home to some of the oldest and low metallicity stars known. These stars are local enough to observe heavy element synthesis in the oldest stars in our galaxy. The purpose of this research is to analyze the distributions of neutron capture elements in low metallicity stars to help us understand the nature of first stars, which are responsible for the chemical enrichment of our galaxy, and consequently get man closer to an answer to some of the most fundamental questions about the universe.. The researchers will analyze and measure the stellar abundances of metal poor stars using MOOG’s spectral synthesis. Heavy element formation is connected to stellar evolution, thus by observing the chronometric ages of the distributions of Thorium/Europium, one can determine the age of the oldest stars. Analyzing the distribution of Uranium and Thorium as chronometers can set a lower limit on the age of the Universe. The chemical composition in our oldest observable stars resemble that of the earliest stars. This demonstrates that these stars were not synthesized internally but a result of previous deaths of stars generations before. This in turn provides useful information about the first star’s formation, evolution and nucleosynthesis of stars, and the arrangement of the structure of the early Universe. The most r-process rich halo stars abundances are consistent with a scaled solar system r-process abundance distribution. Also, there is symmetry in the rare earth elements in the stars within the Galactic halo. However the lighter n-capture abundances don’t conform to the solar pattern. This suggests the possibility of multiple synthesis mechanisms for the n capture elements. The combinations could include the main r-process, V-P process (core collapsed super- novae), charged particle reactions with Beta delayed fission, and the weak r-process. The weak r-process is sometimes called the incomplete r-process does not have enough neutrons to

  3. Sc and neutron-capture abundances in Galactic low- and high-α field halo stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishlock, C. K.; Yong, D.; Karakas, A. I.; Alves-Brito, A.; Meléndez, J.; Nissen, P. E.; Kobayashi, C.; Casey, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    We determine relative abundance ratios for the neutron-capture elements Zr, La, Ce, Nd, and Eu for a sample of 27 Galactic dwarf stars with -1.5 < [Fe/H] <-0.8. We also measure the iron-peak element Sc. These stars separate into three populations (low- and high-α halo and thick-disc stars) based on the [α/Fe] abundance ratio and their kinematics as discovered by Nissen & Schuster. We find differences between the low- and high-α groups in the abundance ratios of [Sc/Fe], [Zr/Fe], [La/Zr], [Y/Eu], and [Ba/Eu] when including Y and Ba from Nissen & Schuster. For all ratios except [La/Zr], the low-α stars have a lower abundance compared to the high-α stars. The low-α stars display the same abundance patterns of high [Ba/Y] and low [Y/Eu] as observed in present-day dwarf spheroidal galaxies, although with smaller abundance differences, when compared to the high-α stars. These distinct chemical patterns have been attributed to differences in the star formation rate between the two populations and the contribution of low-metallicity, low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to the low-α population. By comparing the low-α population with AGB stellar models, we place constraints on the mass range of the AGB stars.

  4. The role of neutron star mergers in the chemical evolution of the Galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cescutti, G.; Romano, D.; Matteucci, F.; Chiappini, C.; Hirschi, R.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The dominant astrophysical production site of the r-process elements has not yet been unambiguously identified. The suggested main r-process sites are core-collapse supernovae and merging neutron stars. Aims: We explore the problem of the production site of Eu. We also use the information present in the observed spread in the Eu abundances in the early Galaxy, and not only its average trend. Moreover, we extend our investigations to other heavy elements (Ba, Sr, Rb, Zr) to provide additional constraints on our results. Methods: We adopt a stochastic chemical evolution model that takes inhomogeneous mixing into account. The adopted yields of Eu from merging neutron stars and from core-collapse supernovae are those that are able to explain the average [Eu/Fe]-[Fe/H] trend observed for solar neighbourhood stars, the solar abundance of Eu, and the present-day abundance gradient of Eu along the Galactic disc in the framework of a well-tested homogeneous model for the chemical evolution of the Milky Way. Rb, Sr, Zr, and Ba are produced by both the s- and r-processes. The r-process yields were obtained by scaling the Eu yields described above according to the abundance ratios observed in r-process rich stars. The s-process contribution by spinstars is the same as in our previous papers. Results: Neutron star binaries that merge in less than 10 Myr or neutron star mergers combined with a source of r-process generated by massive stars can explain the spread of [Eu/Fe] in the Galactic halo. The combination of r-process production by neutron star mergers and s-process production by spinstars is able to reproduce the available observational data for Sr, Zr, and Ba. We also show the first predictions for Rb in the Galactic halo. Conclusions: We confirm previous results that either neutron star mergers on a very short timescale or both neutron star mergers and at least a fraction of Type II supernovae have contributed to the synthesis of Eu in the Galaxy. The r

  5. Erratum: Evaporation, Tidal Disruption, and Orbital Decay of Star Clusters in a Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capriotti, E. R.; Hawley, S. L.

    1997-07-01

    In § 2 of the recent paper ``Evaporation, Tidal Disruption, and Orbital Decay of Star Clusters in a Galactic Halo'' by E. R. Capriotti and S. L. Hawley (ApJ, 464, 765 [1996]), equation (1) contains a misprint. It should read rt=2r/3 [(Mc)/(AMH(r))]1/3/[1-r/(AMH(r)) (dMH(r))/dr]1/3 , (1)where the difference from the published version is that an A replaces the 3 in the denominator of the last term. The authors regret the error.

  6. MAPPING THE GALACTIC HALO WITH BLUE HORIZONTAL BRANCH STARS FROM THE TWO-DEGREE FIELD QUASAR REDSHIFT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    De Propris, Roberto; Harrison, Craig D.; Mares, Peter J.

    2010-08-20

    We use 666 blue horizontal branch stars from the 2Qz Redshift Survey to map the Galactic halo in four dimensions (position, distance, and velocity). We find that the halo extends to at least 100 kpc in Galactocentric distance, and obeys a single power-law density profile of index {approx}-2.5 in two different directions separated by about 150{sup 0} on the sky. This suggests that the halo is spherical. Our map shows no large kinematically coherent structures (streams, clouds, or plumes) and appears homogeneous. However, we find that at least 20% of the stars in the halo reside in substructures and that these substructures are dynamically young. The velocity dispersion profile of the halo appears to increase toward large radii while the stellar velocity distribution is non-Gaussian beyond 60 kpc. We argue that the outer halo consists of a multitude of low luminosity overlapping tidal streams from recently accreted objects.

  7. WEAK GALACTIC HALO-DWARF SPHEROIDAL CONNECTION FROM RR LYRAE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorentino, Giuliana; Bono, Giuseppe; Monelli, Matteo; Gallart, Carme; Martínez-Vásquez, Clara E.; Tolstoy, Eline; Salaris, Maurizio; Bernard, Edouard J.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the role that dwarf galaxies may have played in the formation of the Galactic halo (Halo) using RR Lyrae stars (RRL) as tracers of their ancient stellar component. The comparison is performed using two observables (periods, luminosity amplitudes) that are reddening and distance independent. Fundamental mode RRL in 6 dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) and 11 ultra faint dwarf galaxies (∼1300) show a Gaussian period distribution well peaked around a mean period of (Pab) = 0.610 ± 0.001 days (σ = 0.03). The Halo RRL (∼15,000) are characterized by a broader period distribution. The fundamental mode RRL in all the dSphs apart from Sagittarius are completely lacking in High Amplitude Short Period (HASP) variables, defined as those having P ≲ 0.48 days and A{sub V} ≥ 0.75 mag. Such variables are not uncommon in the Halo and among the globular clusters and massive dwarf irregulars. To further interpret this evidence, we considered 18 globulars covering a broad range in metallicity (–2.3 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ –1.1) and hosting more than 35 RRL each. The metallicity turns out to be the main parameter, since only globulars more metal-rich than [Fe/H] ∼ –1.5 host RRL in the HASP region. This finding suggests that dSphs similar to the surviving ones do not appear to be the major building-blocks of the Halo. Leading physical arguments suggest an extreme upper limit of ∼50% to their contribution. On the other hand, massive dwarfs hosting an old population with a broad metallicity distribution (Large Magellanic Cloud, Sagittarius) may have played a primary role in the formation of the Halo.

  8. Joint constraints on the Galactic dark matter halo and GC from hypervelocity stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Elena M.; Marchetti, T.; Cacciato, M.; Kuiack, M.; Sari, R.

    2017-01-01

    The mass assembly history of the Milky Way can inform both theory of galaxy formation and the underlying cosmological model. Thus, observational constraints on the properties of both its baryonic and dark matter contents are sought. Here we show that hypervelocity stars (HVSs) can in principle provide such constraints. We model the observed velocity distribution of HVSs, produced by tidal break-up of stellar binaries caused by Sgr A*. Considering a Galactic Centre (GC) binary population consistent with that inferred in more observationally accessible regions, a fit to current HVS data with significance level >5% can only be obtained if the escape velocity from the GC to 50 kpc is V_G ≲ 850 km s-1, regardless of the enclosed mass distribution. When a NFW matter density profile for the dark matter halo is assumed, haloes with V_G ≲ 850 km s-1are in agreement with predictions in the ΛCDM model and that a subset of models around M200 ˜ 0.5 - 1.5 × 1012M⊙ and r_s ≲ 35 kpc can also reproduce Galactic circular velocity data. HVS data alone cannot currently exclude potentials with VG > 850 km s-1. Finally, specific constraints on the halo mass from HVS data are highly dependent on the assumed baryonic mass potentials. This first attempt to simultaneously constrain GC and dark halo properties is primarily hampered by the paucity and quality of data. It nevertheless demonstrates the potential of our method, that may be fully realised with the ESA Gaia mission.

  9. Kinematic structure in the Galactic halo at the North Galactic Pole: RR Lyrae and blue horizontal branch stars show different kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinman, T. D.; Cacciari, C.; Bragaglia, A.; Buzzoni, A.; Spagna, A.

    2007-03-01

    Radial velocities and proper motions (derived from the GSC-II data base) are given for 38 RR Lyrae (RRL) stars and 79 blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars in a ~200 deg2 area around the North Galactic Pole (NGP). Both heliocentric (UVW) and galactocentric (VR, Vφ, Vz) space motions are derived for these stars using a homogeneous distance scale consistent with (m - M)0 = 18.52 for the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). An analysis of the 26 RRL and 52 BHB stars whose height (Z) above the plane is less than 8 kpc shows that this halo sample is not homogeneous. Our BHB sample (like that of Sirko et al.) has a zero galactic rotation (Vφ) and roughly isotropic velocity dispersions. The RRL sample shows a definite retrograde rotation (Vφ = -95 +/- 29 kms-1) and non-isotropic velocity dispersions. The combined BHB and RRL sample has a retrograde galactic rotation (V) that is similar to that found by Majewski for his sample of subdwarfs in Selected Area (SA) 57. The velocity dispersion of the RRL stars that have a positive W motion is significantly smaller than the dispersion of those `streaming down' with a negative W. Also, the ratio of RRL to BHB stars is smaller for the sample that has positive W. Our halo sample occupies 10.4 kpc3 at a mean height of 5 kpc above the Galactic plane. In this volume, one component (rich in RRL stars) shows retrograde rotation and the streaming motion that we associate with the accretion process. The other component (traced by the BHB stars) shows essentially no rotation and less evidence of streaming. These two components have horizontal branch (HB) morphologies that suggest that they may be the field star equivalents of the young and old halo globular clusters, respectively. Clearly, it is quite desirable to use more than one tracer in any kinematic analysis of the halo.

  10. Galactic Halos of Hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This image shows two companion galaxies, NGC 4625 (top) and NGC 4618 (bottom), and their surrounding cocoons of cool hydrogen gas (purple). The huge set of spiral arms on NGC 4625 (blue) was discovered by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. Though these arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light, they glow brightly in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light.

    The vibrant spiral arms are also quite lengthy, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far.

    Astronomers do not know why NGC 4625 grew arms while NGC 4618 did not. The purple nebulosity shown here illustrates that hydrogen gas - an ingredient of star formation - is diffusely distributed around both galaxies. This means that other unknown factors led to the development of the arms of NGC 4625.

    Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own.

    The image is composed of ultraviolet, visible-light and radio data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, the Netherlands, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. Radio emissions are colored purple.

  11. A reservoir of ionized gas in the galactic halo to sustain star formation in the Milky Way.

    PubMed

    Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, J Christopher

    2011-11-18

    Without a source of new gas, our Galaxy would exhaust its supply of gas through the formation of stars. Ionized gas clouds observed at high velocity may be a reservoir of such gas, but their distances are key for placing them in the galactic halo and unraveling their role. We have used the Hubble Space Telescope to blindly search for ionized high-velocity clouds (iHVCs) in the foreground of galactic stars. We show that iHVCs with 90 ≤ |v(LSR)| ≲ 170 kilometers per second (where v(LSR) is the velocity in the local standard of rest frame) are within one galactic radius of the Sun and have enough mass to maintain star formation, whereas iHVCs with |v(LSR)| ≳ 170 kilometers per second are at larger distances. These may be the next wave of infalling material.

  12. Brown dwarfs as dark galactic halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Fred C.; Walker, Terry P.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that the dark matter in galactic halos can consist of brown dwarf stars is considered. The radiative signature for such halos consisting solely of brown dwarfs is calculated, and the allowed range of brown dwarf masses, the initial mass function (IMF), the stellar properties, and the density distribution of the galactic halo are discussed. The prediction emission from the halo is compared with existing observations. It is found that, for any IMF of brown dwarfs below the deuterium burning limit, brown dwarf halos are consistent with observations. Brown dwarf halos cannot, however, explain the recently observed near-IR background. It is shown that future satellite missions will either detect brown dwarf halos or place tight constraints on the allowed range of the IMF.

  13. Clouds Dominate the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Using the exquisite sensitivity of the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), astronomer Jay Lockman of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, W. Va., has produced the best cross-section ever of the Milky Way Galaxy's diffuse halo of hydrogen gas. This image confirms the presence of discrete hydrogen clouds in the halo, and could help astronomers understand the origin and evolution of the rarefied atmosphere that surrounds our Galaxy. Lockman presented his findings at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Seattle, WA. Hydrogen Clouds Graphic Artist's Rendering of the Milky Way (background) with insert showing GBT image of cross-section of neutral atomic Hydrogen Credit: Kirk Woellert/National Science Foundation Patricia Smiley, NRAO. "The first observations with the Green Bank Telescope suggested that the hydrogen in the lower halo, the transition zone between the Milky Way and intergalactic space, is very clumpy," said Lockman. "The latest data confirm these results and show that instead of trailing away smoothly from the Galactic plane, a significant fraction of the hydrogen gas in the halo is concentrated in discrete clouds. There are even some filaments." Beyond the star-filled disk of the Milky Way, there exists an extensive yet diffuse halo of hydrogen gas. For years, astronomers have speculated about the origin and structure of this gas. "Even the existence of neutral hydrogen in the halo has been somewhat of a puzzle," Lockman remarked. "Unlike the Earth's atmosphere, which is hot enough to hold itself up against the force of gravity, the hydrogen in the halo is too cool to support itself against the gravitational pull of the Milky Way." Lockman points out that some additional factor has to be involved to get neutral hydrogen to such large distances from the Galactic plane. "This force could be cosmic rays, a supersonic wind, the blast waves from supernovae, or something we have not thought of

  14. "Invisible" Galactic Halos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugt, Karel Vander

    1993-01-01

    Develops a simple core-halo model of a galaxy that exhibits the main features of observed rotation curves and quantitatively illustrates the need to postulate halos of dark matter. Uses only elementary mechanics. (Author/MVL)

  15. A Speeding Binary in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    The recent discovery of a hyper-velocity binary star system in the halo of the Milky Way poses a mystery: how was this system accelerated to its high speed?Accelerating StarsUnlike the uniform motion in the Galactic disk, stars in the Milky Ways halo exhibit a huge diversity of orbits that are usually tilted relative to the disk and have a variety of speeds. One type of halo star, so-called hyper-velocity stars, travel with speeds that can approach the escape velocity of the Galaxy.How do these hyper-velocity stars come about? Assuming they form in the Galactic disk, there are multiple proposed scenarios through which they could be accelerated and injected into the halo, such as:Ejection after a close encounter with the supermassive black hole at the Galactic centerEjection due to a nearby supernova explosionEjection as the result of a dynamical interaction in a dense stellar population.Further observations of hyper-velocity stars are necessary to identify the mechanism responsible for their acceleration.J1211s SurpriseModels of J1211s orbit show it did not originate from the Galactic center (black dot). The solar symbol shows the position of the Sun and the star shows the current position of J1211. The bottom two panels show two depictions(x-y plane and r-z plane) of estimated orbits of J1211 over the past 10 Gyr. [Nmeth et al. 2016]To this end, a team of scientists led by Pter Nmeth (Friedrich Alexander University, Erlangen-Nrnberg) recently studied the candidate halo hyper-velocity star SDSS J121150.27+143716.2. The scientists obtained spectroscopy of J1211 using spectrographs at the Keck Telescope in Hawaii and ESOs Very Large Telescope in Chile. To their surprise, they discovered the signature of a companion in the spectra: J1211 is actually a binary!Nmeth and collaborators found that J1211, located roughly 18,000 light-years away, is moving at a rapid ~570 km/s relative to the galactic rest frame. The binary system consists of a hot (30,600 K) subdwarf and a

  16. Globular Cluster Contributions to the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martell, Sarah; Grebel, Eva; Lai, David

    2010-08-01

    The goal of this project is to confirm chemically that globular clusters are the source of as much as half the population of the Galactic halo. Using moderate-resolution spectroscopy from the SEGUE survey, we have identified a previously unknown population of halo field giants with distinctly strong CN features. CN variations are typically only observed in globular clusters, so these stars are interpreted as immigrants to the halo that originally formed in globular clusters. In one night of Keck/HIRES time, we will obtain high-quality, high- resolution spectra for five such stars, and determine abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, alpha, iron-peak and neutron-capture elements. With this information we can state clearly whether these unusual CN-strong halo stars carry the full abundance pattern seen in CN-strong globular cluster stars, with depleted C, O, and Mg and enhanced N, Na, and Al. This type of coarse ``chemical tagging'' will allow a clearer division of the Galactic halo into contributions from globular clusters and from dwarf galaxies, and will place constraints on theoretical models of globular cluster formation and evolution.

  17. GALACTIC WARPS IN TRIAXIAL HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, Myoungwon; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Ann, Hong Bae E-mail: sungsoo.kim@khu.ac.kr

    2009-05-10

    We study the behavior of galactic disks in triaxial halos both numerically and analytically to see if warps can be excited and sustained in triaxial potentials. We consider the following two scenarios: (1) galactic disks that are initially tilted relative to the equatorial plane of the halo (for a pedagogical purpose), and (2) tilted infall of dark matter relative to the equatorial plane of the disk and the halo. With numerical simulations of 100,000 disk particles in a fixed halo potential, we find that in triaxial halos, warps can be excited and sustained just as in spherical or axisymmetric halos but they show some oscillatory behavior and even can be transformed to a polar-ring system if the halo has a prolate-like triaxiality. The nonaxisymmetric component of the halo causes the disk to nutate, and the differential nutation between the inner and outer parts of the disk generally makes the magnitude of the warp slightly diminish and fluctuate. We also find that warps are relatively weaker in oblate and oblate-like triaxial halos, and since these halos are the halo configurations of disk galaxies inferred by cosmological simulations, our results are consistent with the fact that most of the observed warps are quite weak. We derive approximate formulae for the torques exerted on the disk by the triaxial halo and the dark matter torus, and with these formulae we successfully describe the behavior of the disks in our simulations. The techniques used in deriving these formulae could be applied for realistic halos with more complex structures.

  18. A NEW MILKY WAY HALO STAR CLUSTER IN THE SOUTHERN GALACTIC SKY

    SciTech Connect

    Balbinot, E.; Santiago, B. X.; Da Costa, L.; Maia, M. A. G.; Rocha-Pinto, H. J.; Majewski, S. R.; Nidever, D.; Thomas, D.; Wechsler, R. H.; Yanny, B.

    2013-04-20

    We report on the discovery of a new Milky Way (MW) companion stellar system located at ({alpha}{sub J2000,}{delta}{sub J2000}) = (22{sup h}10{sup m}43{sup s}.15, 14 Degree-Sign 56 Prime 58 Double-Prime .8). The discovery was made using the eighth data release of SDSS after applying an automated method to search for overdensities in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey footprint. Follow-up observations were performed using Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope/MegaCam, which reveal that this system is comprised of an old stellar population, located at a distance of 31.9{sup +1.0}{sub -1.6} kpc, with a half-light radius of r{sub h}= 7.24{sup +1.94}{sub -1.29} pc and a concentration parameter of c = log{sub 10}(r{sub t} /r{sub c} ) = 1.55. A systematic isochrone fit to its color-magnitude diagram resulted in log (age yr{sup -1}) = 10.07{sup +0.05}{sub -0.03} and [Fe/H] = -1.58{sup +0.08}{sub -0.13}. These quantities are typical of globular clusters in the MW halo. The newly found object is of low stellar mass, whose observed excess relative to the background is caused by 95 {+-} 6 stars. The direct integration of its background decontaminated luminosity function leads to an absolute magnitude of M{sub V} = -1.21 {+-} 0.66. The resulting surface brightness is {mu}{sub V} = 25.90 mag arcsec{sup -2}. Its position in the M{sub V} versus r{sub h} diagram lies close to AM4 and Koposov 1, which are identified as star clusters. The object is most likely a very faint star cluster-one of the faintest and lowest mass systems yet identified.

  19. The U/Th production ratio and the age of the Milky Way from meteorites and Galactic halo stars.

    PubMed

    Dauphas, Nicolas

    2005-06-30

    Some heavy elements (with atomic number A > 69) are produced by the 'rapid' (r)-process of nucleosynthesis, where lighter elements are bombarded with a massive flux of neutrons. Although this is characteristic of supernovae and neutron star mergers, uncertainties in where the r-process occurs persist because stellar models are too crude to allow precise quantification of this phenomenon. As a result, there are many uncertainties and assumptions in the models used to calculate the production ratios of actinides (like uranium-238 and thorium-232). Current estimates of the U/Th production ratio range from approximately 0.4 to 0.7. Here I show that the U/Th abundance ratio in meteorites can be used, in conjunction with observations of low-metallicity stars in the halo of the Milky Way, to determine the U/Th production ratio very precisely (0.57(+0.037)(-0.031). This value can be used in future studies to constrain the possible nuclear mass formulae used in r-process calculations, to help determine the source of Galactic cosmic rays, and to date circumstellar grains. I also estimate the age of the Milky Way (14.5(+2.8)(-2.2)Gyr in a way that is independent of the uncertainties associated with fluctuations in the microwave background or models of stellar evolution.

  20. Accretion in the galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Alex Courtney

    2000-10-01

    The Milky Way disk is enveloped in a diffuse, dynamically-hot collection of stars and star clusters collectively known as the ``stellar halo''. Photometric and chemical analyses suggest that these stars are ancient fossils of the galaxy formation epoch. Yet, little is known about the origin of this trace population. Is this system merely a vestige of the initial burst of star formation within the decoupled proto-Galaxy, or is it the detritus of cannibalized satellite galaxies? In an attempt to unravel the history of the Milky Way's stellar halo, I performed a detailed spectroscopic analysis of 55 metal-poor stars possessing ``extreme'' kinematic properties. It is thought that stars on orbits that either penetrate the remote halo or exhibit large retrograde velocities could have been associated with assimilated (or ``accreted'') dwarf galaxies. The hallmark of an accreted halo star is presumed to be a deficiency (compared with normal stars) of the α-elements (O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti) with respect to iron, a consequence of sporadic bursts of star formation within the diminutive galaxies. Abundances for a select group of light metals (Li, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti), iron-peak nuclides (Cr, Fe, Ni), and neutron-capture elements (Y, Ba) were calculated using line-strengths measured from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectral observations collected with the Keck I 10-m and KPNO 4-m telescopes. The abundances extracted from the spectra reveal: (1)The vast majority of outer halo stars possess supersolar [α/Fe] > 0.0) ratios. (2)The [α/Fe] ratio appears to decrease with increasing metallicity. (3)The outer halo stars have lower ratios of [α/Fe] than inner halo stars at a given metallicity. (4)At the largest metallicities, there is a large spread in the observed [α/Fe] ratios. (5)[α/Fe] anti-correlates with RAPO. (6)Only one star (BD+80° 245) exhibits the peculiar abundances expected of an assimilated star. The general conclusion extracted from these data is that the

  1. The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo. III. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars - CEMP-s stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, T. T.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Beers, T. C.; Placco, V. M.; Yoon, J.; Buchhave, L. A.

    2016-04-01

    natal clouds by an external (distant) source. This finding has important implications for our understanding of carbon enrichment in the early Galactic halo and some high-redshift damped lyman alpha (DLA) systems, and of the mass loss from extremely metal-poor AGB stars.

  2. Inhomogeneous chemical enrichment in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki

    2016-08-01

    In a galaxy, chemical enrichment takes place in an inhomogeneous fashion, and the Galactic Halo is one of the places where the inhomogeneous effects are imprinted and can be constrained from observations. I show this using my chemodynamical simulations of Milky Way type galaxies. The scatter in the elemental abundances originate from radial migration, merging/accretion of satellite galaxies, local variation of star formation and chemical enrichment, and intrinsic variation of nucleosynthesis yields. In the simulated galaxies, there is no strong age-metallicity relation. This means that the most metal-poor stars are not always the oldest stars, and can be formed in chemically unevolved clouds at later times. The long-lifetime sources of chemical enrichment such as asymptotic giant branch stars or neutron star mergers can contribute at low metallicities. The intrinsic variation of yields are important in the early Universe or metal-poor systems such as in the Galactic halo. The carbon enhancement of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars can be best explained by faint supernovae, the low [α/Fe] ratios in some EMP stars naturally arise from low-mass (~ 13 - 15M ⊙) supernovae, and finally, the [α/Fe] knee in dwarf spheroidal galaxies can be produced by subclasses of Type Ia supernovae such as SN 2002cx-like objects and sub-Chandrasekhar mass explosions.

  3. Inhomogeneous chemical enrichment in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki

    2015-08-01

    In a galaxy, chemical enrichment takes place in an inhomogeneous fashion, and the Galactic Halo is one of the places where the inhomogeneous effects are imprinted and can be constrained from observations. I show this using my chemodynamical simulations of Milky Way type galaxies. The scatter in the elemental abundances is originated from radial migration, merging/accretion of satellite galaxies, local variation of star formation and chemical enrichment, and intrinsic variation of nucleosynthesis yields. In the simulated galaxies, there is no strong age-metallicity relations. This means that the most metal poor stars are not always the oldest stars, and can be formed in chemically unevolved clouds at later times. The long-lifetime sources of chemical enrichment such as asymptotic giant blanch stars or neutron star mergers can contribute the abundance patterns of extremely metal-poor stars, which are in good agreement with observations.

  4. Structure of the Galactic Halo Towards the North Galactic Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinman, T. D.; Bragaglia, A.; Cacciari, C.; Buzzoni, A.; Spagna, A.

    2005-01-01

    We have used RR Lyrae and Blue HB stars as tracers of the old Galactic halo, in order to study the halo structure and the galactic rotation as a function of height above the plane. Our sample includes 40 RR Lyrae and 80 BHB stars that are about 2 to 15 kpc above the plane, in a roughly 250 deg2 area around the North Galactic Pole (NGP). We use proper motions (derived from the GSCII data base) and radial velocities to determine the rotation of the halo. From the whole sample the motion appears to be significantly more retrograde than the samples in the solar neighbourhood, confirming Majewski (1992) results and our own preliminary results based on 1/3 the present sample (Kinman et al. 2003; Spagna et al. 2003). However, the better statistics have now revealed the likely existence of two components, whose characteristics need an accurate analysis of systematic errors on the proper motions in order to be assessed in detail.

  5. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN NEARBY FGK STARS AND THE GALACTIC CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF THE LOCAL DISK AND HALO

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, I.; Lambert, D. L.; Allende Prieto, C.

    2013-02-10

    Atmospheric parameters and oxygen abundances of 825 nearby FGK stars are derived using high-quality spectra and a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis of the 777 nm O I triplet lines. We assign a kinematic probability for the stars to be thin-disk (P {sub 1}), thick-disk (P {sub 2}), and halo (P {sub 3}) members. We confirm previous findings of enhanced [O/Fe] in thick-disk (P {sub 2} > 0.5) relative to thin-disk (P {sub 1} > 0.5) stars with [Fe/H] {approx}< -0.2, as well as a 'knee' that connects the mean [O/Fe]-[Fe/H] trend of thick-disk stars with that of thin-disk members at [Fe/H] {approx}> -0.2. Nevertheless, we find that the kinematic membership criterion fails at separating perfectly the stars in the [O/Fe]-[Fe/H] plane, even when a very restrictive kinematic separation is employed. Stars with 'intermediate' kinematics (P {sub 1} < 0.7, P {sub 2} < 0.7) do not all populate the region of the [O/Fe]-[Fe/H] plane intermediate between the mean thin-disk and thick-disk trends, but their distribution is not necessarily bimodal. Halo stars (P {sub 3} > 0.5) show a large star-to-star scatter in [O/Fe]-[Fe/H], but most of it is due to stars with Galactocentric rotational velocity V < -200 km s{sup -1}; halo stars with V > -200 km s{sup -1} follow an [O/Fe]-[Fe/H] relation with almost no star-to-star scatter. Early mergers with satellite galaxies explain most of our observations, but the significant fraction of disk stars with 'ambiguous' kinematics and abundances suggests that scattering by molecular clouds and radial migration have both played an important role in determining the kinematic and chemical properties of solar neighborhood stars.

  6. High-velocity pulsars in the galactic halo.

    PubMed

    Eichler, D; Silk, J

    1992-08-14

    It is proposed that high-velocity pulsars are produced in extended galactic halos, and possibly in extragalactic space, from primordial (population III) stars. Such a population of neutron stars could provide an explanation for the gamma-ray bursters and would then accommodate the possibility that most bursters are not in the visible parts of galaxies.

  7. Probing the galactic disk and halo. 2: Hot interstellar gas toward the inner galaxy star HD 156359

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sembach, Kenneth R.; Savage, Blair D.; Lu, Limin

    1995-01-01

    We present Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph intermediate-resolution measurements of the 1233-1256 A spectral region of HD 156396, a halo star at l = 328.7 deg, b = -14.5 deg in the inner Galaxy with a line-of sight distance of 11.1 kpc and a z-distance of -2.8 kpc. The data have a resolution of 18 km/s Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) and a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 50:1. We detect interstellar lines of Mg II, S II, S II, Ge II, and N V and determine log N/(Mg II) = 15.78 +0.25, -0.27, log N(Si II) greater than 13.70, log N(S II) greater than 15.76, log N(Ge II) = 12.20 +0.09,-0.11, and log N(N v) = 14.06 +/- 0.02. Assuming solar reference abundances, the diffuse clouds containing Mg, S, and Ge along the sight line have average logarithmic depletions D(Mg) = -0.6 +/- 0.3 dex, D(S) greater than -0.2 dex, and D(Ge) = -0.2 +/- 0.2 dex. The Mg and Ge depletions are approximately 2 times smaller than is typical of diffuse clouds in the solar vicinity. Galactic rotational modeling of the N v profiles indicates that the highly ionized gas traced by this ion has a scale height of approximately 1 kpc if gas at large z-distances corotates with the underlying disk gas. Rotational modeling of the Si iv and C iv profiles measured by the IUE satellite yields similar scale height estimates. The scale height results contrast with previous studies of highly ionized gas in the outer Milky Way that reveal a more extended gas distribtion with h approximately equals 3-4 kpc. We detect a high-velocity feature in N v and Si II v(sub LSR) approximately equals + 125 km/s) that is probably created in an interface between warm and hot gas.

  8. The Milky Way, the Galactic Halo, and the Halos of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, Ortwin

    2016-08-01

    The Milky Way, ``our'' Galaxy, is currently the subject of intense study with many ground-based surveys, in anticipation of upcoming results from the Gaia mission. From this work we have been learning about the full three-dimensional structure of the Galactic box/peanut bulge, the distribution of stars in the bar and disk, and the many streams and substructures in the Galactic halo. The data indicate that a large fraction of the Galactic halo has been accreted from outside. Similarly, in many external galaxy halos there is now evidence for tidal streams and accretion of satellites. To study these features requires exquisite, deep photometry and spectroscopy. These observations illustrate how galaxy halos are still growing, and sometimes can be used to ``time'' the accretion events. In comparison with cosmological simulations, the structure of galaxy halos gives us a vivid illustration of the hierarchical nature of our Universe.

  9. The large, oxygen-rich halos of star-forming galaxies are a major reservoir of galactic metals.

    PubMed

    Tumlinson, J; Thom, C; Werk, J K; Prochaska, J X; Tripp, T M; Weinberg, D H; Peeples, M S; O'Meara, J M; Oppenheimer, B D; Meiring, J D; Katz, N S; Davé, R; Ford, A B; Sembach, K R

    2011-11-18

    The circumgalactic medium (CGM) is fed by galaxy outflows and accretion of intergalactic gas, but its mass, heavy element enrichment, and relation to galaxy properties are poorly constrained by observations. In a survey of the outskirts of 42 galaxies with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope, we detected ubiquitous, large (150-kiloparsec) halos of ionized oxygen surrounding star-forming galaxies; we found much less ionized oxygen around galaxies with little or no star formation. This ionized CGM contains a substantial mass of heavy elements and gas, perhaps far exceeding the reservoirs of gas in the galaxies themselves. Our data indicate that it is a basic component of nearly all star-forming galaxies that is removed or transformed during the quenching of star formation and the transition to passive evolution.

  10. Chemical Cartography. I. A Carbonicity Map of the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C.; Kim, Young Kwang; Placco, Vinicius; Yoon, Jinmi; Carollo, Daniela; Masseron, Thomas; Jung, Jaehun

    2017-02-01

    We present the first map of carbonicity, [C/Fe], for the halo system of the Milky Way, based on a sample of over 100,000 main-sequence turnoff stars with available spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This map, which explores distances up to 15 kpc from the Sun, reveals clear evidence for the dual nature of the Galactic halo, based on the spatial distribution of stellar carbonicity. The metallicity distribution functions of stars in the inner- and outer-halo regions of the carbonicity map reproduce those previously argued to arise from contributions of the inner- and outer-halo populations, with peaks at [Fe/H] = ‑1.5 and ‑2.2, respectively. From consideration of the absolute carbon abundances for our sample, A(C), we also confirm that the carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in the outer-halo region exhibit a higher frequency of CEMP-no stars (those with no overabundances of heavy neutron-capture elements) than of CEMP-s stars (those with strong overabundances of elements associated with the s-process), whereas the stars in the inner-halo region exhibit a higher frequency of CEMP-s stars. We argue that the contrast in the behavior of the CEMP-no and CEMP-s fractions in these regions arises from differences in the mass distributions of the mini-halos from which the stars of the inner- and outer-halo populations formed, which gives rise in turn to the observed dichotomy of the Galactic halo.

  11. Halo Star Lithium Depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsonneault, M. H.; Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Narayanan, Vijay K.

    1999-12-10

    The depletion of lithium during the pre-main-sequence and main-sequence phases of stellar evolution plays a crucial role in the comparison of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis with the abundances observed in halo stars. Previous work has indicated a wide range of possible depletion factors, ranging from minimal in standard (nonrotating) stellar models to as much as an order of magnitude in models that include rotational mixing. Recent progress in the study of the angular momentum evolution of low-mass stars permits the construction of theoretical models capable of reproducing the angular momentum evolution of low-mass open cluster stars. The distribution of initial angular momenta can be inferred from stellar rotation data in young open clusters. In this paper we report on the application of these models to the study of lithium depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A range of initial angular momenta produces a range of lithium depletion factors on the main sequence. Using the distribution of initial conditions inferred from young open clusters leads to a well-defined halo lithium plateau with modest scatter and a small population of outliers. The mass-dependent angular momentum loss law inferred from open cluster studies produces a nearly flat plateau, unlike previous models that exhibited a downward curvature for hotter temperatures in the 7Li-Teff plane. The overall depletion factor for the plateau stars is sensitive primarily to the solar initial angular momentum used in the calibration for the mixing diffusion coefficients. Uncertainties remain in the treatment of the internal angular momentum transport in the models, and the potential impact of these uncertainties on our results is discussed. The 6Li/7Li depletion ratio is also examined. We find that the dispersion in the plateau and the 6Li/7Li depletion ratio scale with the absolute 7Li depletion in the plateau, and we use observational data to set bounds on the 7Li depletion in main-sequence halo

  12. Mapping the Galactic Halo. I. The ``Spaghetti'' Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Heather L.; Mateo, Mario; Olszewski, Edward W.; Harding, Paul; Dohm-Palmer, R. C.; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Norris, John E.; Morita, Miwa

    2000-05-01

    We describe a major survey of the Milky Way halo designed to test for kinematic substructure caused by destruction of accreted satellites. We use the Washington photometric system to identify halo stars efficiently for spectroscopic follow-up. Tracers include halo giants (detectable out to more than 100 kpc), blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars, halo stars near the main-sequence turnoff, and the ``blue metal-poor stars'' of Preston, Beers, & Shectman. We demonstrate the success of our survey by showing spectra of stars we have identified in all these categories, including giants as distant as 75 kpc. We discuss the problem of identifying the most distant halo giants. In particular, extremely metal-poor halo K dwarfs are present in approximately equal numbers to the distant giants for V>18, and we show that our method will distinguish reliably between these two groups of metal-poor stars. We plan to survey 100 deg2 at high Galactic latitude and expect to increase the numbers of known halo giants, BHB stars, and turnoff stars by more than an order of magnitude. In addition to the strong test that this large sample will provide for the question, Was the Milky Way halo accreted from satellite galaxies? we will improve the accuracy of mass measurements of the Milky Way beyond 50 kpc via the kinematics of the many distant giants and BHB stars we find. We show that one of our first data sets constrains the halo density law over Galactocentric radii of 5-20 kpc and z-heights of 2-15 kpc. The data support a flattened power-law halo with b/a of 0.6 and exponent -3.0. More complex models with a varying axial ratio may be needed with a larger data set.

  13. Evidence for Distinct Components of the Galactic Stellar Halo from 838 RR Lyrae Stars Discovered in the LONEOS-I Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Miceli, A; Rest, A; Stubbs, C W; Hawley, S L; Cook, K H; Magnier, E A; Krisciunas, K; Bowell, E; Koehn, B

    2007-02-23

    We present 838 ab-type RR Lyrae stars from the Lowell Observatory Near Earth Objects Survey Phase I (LONEOS-I). These objects cover 1430 deg{sup 2} and span distances ranging from 3-30kpc from the Galactic Center. Object selection is based on phased, photometric data with 28-50 epochs. We use this large sample to explore the bulk properties of the stellar halo, including the spatial distribution. The period-amplitude distribution of this sample shows that the majority of these RR Lyrae stars resemble Oosterhoff type I, but there is a significant fraction (26%) which have longer periods and appear to be Oosterhoff type II. We find that the radial distributions of these two populations have significantly different profiles ({rho}{sub OoI} {approx} R{sup -2.26{+-}0.07} and {rho}{sub OoII} {approx} R{sup -2.88{+-}0.11}). This suggests that the stellar halo was formed by at least two distinct accretion processes and supports dual-halo models.

  14. New detections of embedded clusters in the Galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, D.; Bica, E.; Bonatto, C.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Until recently it was thought that high Galactic latitude clouds were a non-star-forming ensemble. However, in a previous study we reported the discovery of two embedded clusters (ECs) far away from the Galactic plane (~ 5 kpc). In our recent star cluster catalogue we provided additional high and intermediate latitude cluster candidates. Aims: This work aims to clarify whether our previous detection of star clusters far away from the disc represents just an episodic event or whether star cluster formation is currently a systematic phenomenon in the Galactic halo. We analyse the nature of four clusters found in our recent catalogue and report the discovery of three new ECs each with an unusually high latitude and distance from the Galactic disc midplane. Methods: The analysis is based on 2MASS and WISE colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), and stellar radial density profiles (RDPs). The CMDs are built by applying a field-star decontamination procedure, which uncovers the cluster's intrinsic CMD morphology. Results: All of these clusters are younger than 5 Myr. The high-latitude ECs C 932, C 934, and C 939 appear to be related to a cloud complex about 5 kpc below the Galactic disc, under the Local arm. The other clusters are above the disc, C 1074 and C 1100 with a vertical distance of ~3 kpc, C 1099 with ~ 2 kpc, and C 1101 with ~1.8 kpc. Conclusions: According to the derived parameters ECs located below and above the disc occur, which gives evidence of widespread star cluster formation throughout the Galactic halo. This study therefore represents a paradigm shift, by demonstrating that a sterile halo must now be understood as a host for ongoing star formation. The origin and fate of these ECs remain open. There are two possibilities for their origin, Galactic fountains or infall. The discovery of ECs far from the disc suggests that the Galactic halo is more actively forming stars than previously thought. Furthermore, since most ECs do not survive the infant

  15. Dark matter particles in the galactic halo

    SciTech Connect

    Bernabei, R. Belli, P.; Montecchia, F.; Nozzoli, F.; Cappella, F.; D'Angelo, A.; Incicchitti, A.; Prosperi, D.; Cerulli, R.; Dai, C. J.; He, H. L.; Kuang, H. H.; Ma, J. M.; Sheng, X. D.; Ye, Z. P.

    2009-12-15

    Arguments on the investigation of the DarkMatter particles in the galactic halo are addressed. Recent results obtained by exploiting the annual modulation signature are summarized and the perspectives are discussed.

  16. GS34-6+65: A Large Galactic Supershell Originating in an Active Star Formation Region and Extending to the Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, Witold; Murphy, Edward M.; Lockman, Felix J.; Savage, Blair D.

    1995-03-01

    The Galactic supershell GS34-6+65 (Heiles 1979) was mapped in the H{I}; 21 cm emission line with the NRAO 140 ft radiotelescope. The observations cover galactic longitudes 30(deg) ; to 40(deg) ; and latitudes -1(deg) ; to -15(deg) ; with 10 arcmin spacing in both coordinates. Centered at l=35, b=-5 and v_rad=+56km/s, the supershell consists of an irregular spherical shell about 7(deg) ; in diameter, which reaches 9.5(deg) ; below the galactic plane, and of a well defined, massive cone at low latitudes which connects to the molecular cloud CO[35,44] (Dame et al.1986) through a narrow (20 pc wide) channel of reduced H{I}; emission. On the basis of an investigation of objects near the line of sight to the supershell and information from the galactic rotation curve, we derive a distance of ~ 3.7 kpc, which implies that the shell has a diameter of ~ 450 pc and extends at least 600 pc into the Galactic halo. The distance also indicates that the supershell originates in the Sagittarius arm. The concentration of supernova remnants, star forming regions and H{II}; regions in this direction implies that the supershell is a remnant of multiple supernovae and that strong star formation activity persists in this region of the Galaxy, though the large column density (greater than 10(22) H/cm(2) ) prevents us from seeing the stars. We interpret W48 as a region of star formation induced by a shock wave related to the cone. We consider simple models to take into account geometrical and dynamical effects resulting in observed H{I}; emission at given radial velocity. We estimate the swept up mass in the shell to be 7.3*E(4) Msun ; and the mass in the cone -- 1.3*E(5) Msun ;. The estimated kinetic energy of the supershell, 5.0*E(51) ergs, imposes a minimicrons limit of about 5.0*E(52) ergs on the total energy of the event creating the supershell. REFERENCES: Dame, T. M., Elmegreen, B. G., Cohen, R. S., Thaddeus, P. 1986, Astroph. Journ., 305, 892 Heiles, C. 1979, Astroph. Journ., 229

  17. The SEGUE K Giant Survey. III. Quantifying Galactic Halo Substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janesh, William; Morrison, Heather L.; Ma, Zhibo; Rockosi, Constance; Starkenburg, Else; Xue, Xiang Xiang; Rix, Hans-Walter; Harding, Paul; Beers, Timothy C.; Johnson, Jennifer; Lee, Young Sun; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    We statistically quantify the amount of substructure in the Milky Way stellar halo using a sample of 4568 halo K giant stars at Galactocentric distances ranging over 5-125 kpc. These stars have been selected photometrically and confirmed spectroscopically as K giants from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey’s Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration project. Using a position-velocity clustering estimator (the 4distance) and a model of a smooth stellar halo, we quantify the amount of substructure in the halo, divided by distance and metallicity. Overall, we find that the halo as a whole is highly structured. We also confirm earlier work using blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars which showed that there is an increasing amount of substructure with increasing Galactocentric radius, and additionally find that the amount of substructure in the halo increases with increasing metallicity. Comparing to resampled BHB stars, we find that K giants and BHBs have similar amounts of substructure over equivalent ranges of Galactocentric radius. Using a friends-of-friends algorithm to identify members of individual groups, we find that a large fraction (˜33%) of grouped stars are associated with Sgr, and identify stars belonging to other halo star streams: the Orphan Stream, the Cetus Polar Stream, and others, including previously unknown substructures. A large fraction of sample K giants (more than 50%) are not grouped into any substructure. We find also that the Sgr stream strongly dominates groups in the outer halo for all except the most metal-poor stars, and suggest that this is the source of the increase of substructure with Galactocentric radius and metallicity.

  18. THE SEGUE K GIANT SURVEY. III. QUANTIFYING GALACTIC HALO SUBSTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Janesh, William; Morrison, Heather L.; Ma, Zhibo; Harding, Paul; Rockosi, Constance; Xue, Xiang Xiang; Rix, Hans-Walter; Beers, Timothy C.; Johnson, Jennifer; Lee, Young Sun; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-01-10

    We statistically quantify the amount of substructure in the Milky Way stellar halo using a sample of 4568 halo K giant stars at Galactocentric distances ranging over 5–125 kpc. These stars have been selected photometrically and confirmed spectroscopically as K giants from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey’s Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration project. Using a position–velocity clustering estimator (the 4distance) and a model of a smooth stellar halo, we quantify the amount of substructure in the halo, divided by distance and metallicity. Overall, we find that the halo as a whole is highly structured. We also confirm earlier work using blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars which showed that there is an increasing amount of substructure with increasing Galactocentric radius, and additionally find that the amount of substructure in the halo increases with increasing metallicity. Comparing to resampled BHB stars, we find that K giants and BHBs have similar amounts of substructure over equivalent ranges of Galactocentric radius. Using a friends-of-friends algorithm to identify members of individual groups, we find that a large fraction (∼33%) of grouped stars are associated with Sgr, and identify stars belonging to other halo star streams: the Orphan Stream, the Cetus Polar Stream, and others, including previously unknown substructures. A large fraction of sample K giants (more than 50%) are not grouped into any substructure. We find also that the Sgr stream strongly dominates groups in the outer halo for all except the most metal-poor stars, and suggest that this is the source of the increase of substructure with Galactocentric radius and metallicity.

  19. MODIFIED GRAVITY SPINS UP GALACTIC HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jounghun; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Li, Baojiu; Koyama, Kazuya

    2013-01-20

    We investigate the effect of modified gravity on the specific angular momentum of galactic halos by analyzing the halo catalogs at z = 0 from high-resolution N-body simulations for a f(R) gravity model that meets the solar-system constraint. It is shown that the galactic halos in the f(R) gravity model tend to acquire significantly higher specific angular momentum than those in the standard {Lambda}CDM model. The largest difference in the specific angular momentum distribution between these two models occurs for the case of isolated galactic halos with mass less than 10{sup 11} h {sup -1} M {sub Sun }, which are likely least shielded by the chameleon screening mechanism. As the specific angular momentum of galactic halos is rather insensitive to other cosmological parameters, it can in principle be an independent discriminator of modified gravity. We speculate a possibility of using the relative abundance of low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs) as a test of general relativity given that the formation of the LSBGs occurs in fast spinning dark halos.

  20. Formation of the Galactic Stellar Halo. I. Structure and Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekki, Kenji; Chiba, Masashi

    2001-09-01

    We perform numerical simulations for the formation of the Galactic stellar halo, based on the currently favored cold dark matter theory of galaxy formation. Our numerical models, taking into account both dynamical and chemical evolution processes in a consistent manner, are aimed at explaining the observed structure and kinematics of the stellar halo in the context of hierarchical galaxy formation. The main results of the present simulations are summarized as follows: (1) Basic physical processes involved in the formation of the stellar halo, composed of metal-deficient stars with [Fe/H]<=-1.0, are described by both dissipative and dissipationless merging of subgalactic clumps and their resultant tidal disruption in the course of gravitational contraction of the Galaxy at high redshift (z>1). (2) The simulated halo has a density profile similar to the observed power-law form of ρ(r)~r-3.5 and also has a metallicity distribution similar to the observations. The halo shows virtually no radial gradient for stellar ages and only a small gradient for metallicities. (3) The dual nature of the halo, i.e., its inner flattened and outer spherical density distribution, is reproduced, at least qualitatively, by the present model. The outer spherical halo is formed via essentially dissipationless merging of small subgalactic clumps, whereas the inner flattened one is formed via three different mechanisms, i.e., dissipative merging between larger, more massive clumps, adiabatic contraction due to the growing Galactic disk, and gaseous accretion onto the equatorial plane. (4) For the simulated metal-poor stars with [Fe/H]<=-1.0, there is no strong correlation between metal abundances and orbital eccentricities, in good agreement with the recent observations. Moreover, the observed fraction of the low-eccentricity stars is reproduced correctly for [Fe/H]<=-1.6 and approximately for the intermediate-abundance range of -1.6<[Fe/H]<=-1.0. (5) The mean rotational velocity of the

  1. Chemical trends in the Galactic halo from APOGEE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Alvar, E.; Carigi, L.; Allende Prieto, C.; Hayden, M. R.; Beers, T. C.; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Meza, A.; Schultheis, M.; Santiago, B. X.; Queiroz, A. B.; Anders, F.; da Costa, L. N.; Chiappini, C.

    2017-02-01

    The galaxy formation process in the Λ cold dark matter scenario can be constrained from the analysis of stars in the Milky Way's halo system. We examine the variation of chemical abundances in distant halo stars observed by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), as a function of distance from the Galactic Centre (r) and iron abundance ([M/H]), in the range 5 ≲ r ≲ 30 kpc and -2.5 < [M/H] < 0.0. We perform a statistical analysis of the abundance ratios derived by the APOGEE pipeline (ASPCAP) and distances calculated by several approaches. Our analysis reveals signatures of a different chemical enrichment between the inner and outer regions of the halo, with a transition at about 15 kpc. The derived metallicity distribution function exhibits two peaks, at [M/H] ∼ -1.5 and ∼-2.1, consistent with previously reported halo metallicity distributions. We obtain a difference of ∼0.1 dex for α-element-to-iron ratios for stars at r > 15 kpc and [M/H] > -1.1 (larger in the case of O, Mg, and S) with respect to the nearest halo stars. This result confirms previous claims for low-α stars found at larger distances. Chemical differences in elements with other nucleosynthetic origins (Ni, K, Na, and Al) are also detected. C and N do not provide reliable information about the interstellar medium from which stars formed because our sample comprises red giant branch and asymptotic giant branch stars and can experience mixing of material to their surfaces.

  2. Spectroscopy of Hot Stars in the Galactic Halo. III. Analysis of a Large Sample of Field Horizontal-Branch and Other A-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Ronald; Beers, Timothy C.; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper; Pier, Jeffrey R.; Layden, Andrew C.; Flynn, Chris; Rossi, Silvia; Christensen, Per Rex

    1999-05-01

    We present results from an analysis of medium-resolution spectroscopy and UBV photometry for a sample of 1121 A-type stars in the halo (and disk) of the Galaxy. A previously developed calibration technique is used to assign estimates of effective temperature, surface gravity, and stellar metal abundance, as parameterized by [Fe/H]. Radial velocities are reported with an accuracy of ~10 km s^-1. Distance estimates are obtained for the stars with well-determined luminosity classes. Note that although we refer to ``A-type'' stars, which dominate the present sample, the present data set includes roughly 100 stars of later spectral types, as a result of the temperature range we have chosen to explore in this paper (6000 K<=T_eff<=10,000 K). Included in the hot star sample are 444 stars we classify as field horizontal-branch stars, 416 we classify as main-sequence-gravity A-type (or slightly later) stars (including stars that are likely members of the blue metal-poor population, the so-called BMPs), 140 stars we classify as likely metallic-line (Am) or peculiar (Ap) stars, and 121 stars that cannot be unambiguously classified based on the present data. Examination of the distributions in metallicity and velocity indicates that the field horizontal-branch and main-sequence A-type samples are quite distinct; hence we expect only a modest amount of cross-contamination between the subsamples. We identify 58 RR Lyrae candidates among the hot star sample, based on incompatibilities in their photometric and spectroscopic data. There are 19 stars in the sample that have been previously classified as RR Lyrae variables, and one additional star that had been previously suggested as a variable, though not necessarily of the RR Lyrae class. There are 115 stars in the sample that were previously classified as BMPs by Preston, Beers, & Shectman, most of which fall into the main-sequence A-type category, but 10 of which are found among the Am/Ap classifications. Furthermore, 53 of

  3. Does SEGUE/SDSS indicate a dual galactic halo?

    SciTech Connect

    Schönrich, Ralph; Asplund, Martin; Casagrande, Luca

    2014-05-01

    We re-examine recent claims of observational evidence for a dual Galactic halo in SEGUE/SDSS data, and trace them back to improper error treatment and neglect of selection effects. In particular, the detection of a vertical abundance gradient in the halo can be explained as a metallicity bias in distance. A similar bias and the impact of disk contamination affect the sample of blue horizontal branch stars. These examples highlight why non-volume complete samples require forward modeling from theoretical models or extensive bias-corrections. We also show how observational uncertainties produce the specific non-Gaussianity in the observed azimuthal velocity distribution of halo stars, which can be erroneously identified as two Gaussian components. A single kinematic component yields an excellent fit to the observed data, when we model the measurement process including distance uncertainties. Furthermore, we show that sample differences in proper motion space are the direct consequence of kinematic cuts and are enhanced when distance estimates are less accurate. Thus, their presence is neither proof of a separate population nor a measure of reliability for the applied distances. We conclude that currently there is no evidence from SEGUE/SDSS that would favor a dual Galactic halo over a single halo that is full of substructure.

  4. The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo. I. r-process-enhanced metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, T. T.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Beers, T. C.; Yoon, J.; Buchhave, L. A.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The detailed chemical composition of most metal-poor halo stars has been found to be highly uniform, but a minority of stars exhibit dramatic enhancements in their abundances of heavy neutron-capture elements and/or of carbon. The key question for Galactic chemical evolution models is whether these peculiarities reflect the composition of the natal clouds, or if they are due to later (post-birth) mass transfer of chemically processed material from a binary companion. If the former case applies, the observed excess of certain elements was implanted within selected clouds in the early ISM from a production site at interstellar distances. Aims: Our aim is to determine the frequency and orbital properties of binaries among these chemically peculiar stars. This information provides the basis for deciding whether local mass transfer from a binary companion is necessary and sufficient to explain their unusual compositions. This paper discusses our study of a sample of 17 moderately (r-I) and highly (r-II) r-process-element enhanced VMP and EMP stars. Methods: High-resolution, low signal-to-noise spectra of the stars were obtained at roughly monthly intervals over eight years with the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. From these spectra, radial velocities with an accuracy of ~100 m s-1 were determined by cross-correlation against an optimized template. Results: Fourteen of the programme stars exhibit no significant radial-velocity variation over this temporal window, while three are binaries with orbits of typical eccentricity for their periods, resulting in a normal binary frequency of ~18 ± 6% for the sample. Conclusions: Our results confirm our preliminary conclusion from 2011, based on partial data, that the chemical peculiarity of the r-I and r-II stars is not caused by any putative binary companions. Instead, it was imprinted on the natal molecular clouds of these stars by an external, distant source. Models of the ISM in early galaxies

  5. Stability of BEC galactic dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, F. S.; Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; González-Avilés, J. J.; Rivera-Paleo, F. J.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we show that spherically symmetric BEC dark matter halos, with the sin r/r density profile, that accurately fit galactic rotation curves and represent a potential solution to the cusp-core problem are unstable. We do this by introducing back the density profiles into the fully time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson system of equations. Using numerical methods to track the evolution of the system, we found that these galactic halos lose mass at an approximate rate of half of its mass in a time scale of dozens of Myr. We consider this time scale is enough as to consider these halos are unstable and unlikely to be formed. We provide some arguments to show that this behavior is general and discuss some other drawbacks of the model that restrict its viability.

  6. A Search for Moving Groups in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, L. A.; Hoogerwerf, R.

    The idea that the Galactic Halo has been formed largely by the accretion and tidal disruption of satellite systems has been gaining strength. The discovery of a retrograde rotating stellar group (Majewski et al., 1992), patchiness in the kinematics of halo stars (Majewski et al., 1996), the realization that most of the Milky Way satellites lie near two great circles in the sky (Lynden-Bell, 1976) and the discovery of an elongated dwarf galaxy in Sagittarius (Ibata et al., 1994), all add credence to this idea. Theoretically, the apparent fragility of galactic disks (Toth & Ostriker, 1992) no longer seems to be a problem for accretion (Velazquez & White, 1997). The tidal ``streamers'' from tidal disruption seem to be long lived (Barnes 1996) and can be exploited to devise algorithms to search for them in galactic surveys (Johnston et al., 1996). The phase space portrait of the halo, far from being a smooth distribution, should consist of a patchy aggregation of tidally disrupted systems that have been phase mixed over wide swaths in the sky, but which retain kinematic memory of their existence as a coherent entity. The challenges to discover these moving groups in the halo are enormous due to the distances involved and the fact that they can span large angles in the sky. The availability of astrometric databases of unprecedent accuracies (HIPPARCOS) and plans for follow up (GAIA), offer an opportunity to search for these moving groups. Together with these databases, new search techniques must be devised (Chen etal. 1997, Hoogerwerf & Aguilar, 1997).

  7. NGC 5694: another foster son of the Galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucciarelli, A.; Bellazzini, M.; Catelan, M.; Dalessandro, E.; Amigo, P.; Correnti, M.; Cortés, C.; D'Orazi, V.

    2013-11-01

    We present the results of the analysis of high-resolution spectra obtained with UVES-FLAMES at the Very Large Telescope for six red giant branch stars in the outer-halo metal-poor ([Fe/H] I = -1.98 and [Fe/H] II = -1.83) Galactic globular cluster NGC 5694, which has been suggested as a possible incomer by Lee et al. based on the anomalous chemical composition of a single cluster giant. We obtain accurate abundances for a large number of elements and we find that (a)the six target stars have the same chemical composition within the uncertainties, except for Na and Al; (b) the average cluster abundance of α elements (with the only exception of Si) is nearly solar, at odds with typical halo stars and globular clusters of similar metallicity; (c) Y, Ba, La and Eu abundances are also significantly lower than in Galactic field stars and star clusters of similar metallicity. Hence, we confirm the Lee et al. classification of NGC 5694 as a cluster of extragalactic origin. We provide the first insight on the Na-O and Mg-Al anticorrelations in this cluster: all the considered stars have very similar abundance ratios for these elements, except one that has significantly lower [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe] ratios, suggesting that some degree of early self-enrichment has occurred also in this cluster.

  8. Production and Recycling of Carbon in the Early Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Johannes; Thidemann Hansen, Terese; Nordström, Birgitta

    2015-08-01

    Extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars - [Fe/H] below ~ -3 - are fossil records of the conditions in the early halo. High-resolution 8m-class spectroscopy has shown that the detailed abundance pattern of EMP giant stars is surprisingly uniform and essentially Solar (e.g. Bonifacio+ 2012), apart from the usual α-enhancement in the halo. In the simplest picture, iron is a proxy for both overall metallicity and time, so the EMP stars should form before the oldest and most metal-poor Galactic globular clusters, notably at the lowest metallicities ([Fe/H] ≲ -3.5).It is thus striking that 20-40% of the EMP giants are strongly enhanced in carbon - the CEMP stars (Lucatello+ 2006). This is conventionally ascribed to mass transfer from a former AGB binary companion, and from a limited compilation of data, Lucatello+ (2005) concluded that most or all CEMP stars are indeed binaries, similar to the classical Ba and CH stars (e.g. Jorissen+ 1998). However, most of the sample was of the inner-halo CEMP-s variety (C and s-process elements both enhanced), while CEMP-no stars dominate the outer halo (Carollo+ 2014). Our precise radial velocity monitoring for CEMP stars over 8 years shed light on this issue.Our data suggest a normal binary frequency for the CEMP-no stars; i.e. the C was not produced in a binary companion, but in sites at interstellar distances, e.g. ‘faint’ SNe, and imprinted on the natal clouds of the low-mass stars we observe. This has immediate implications for the formation of dust in primitive, high-redshift galaxies (Watson+ 2015) and the origin of C-enhanced DLAs (Cooke+ 2011, 2012). The CEMP-s binary orbits are also revealing, with periods up to several decades and generally low amplitudes and eccentricities, suggesting that EMP AGB stars have very large radii, facilitating extensive mass loss. More work on faint SNe and EMP AGB envelopes is needed!

  9. The FUSE Survey of 0 VI in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George; Savage, B. D.; Wakker, B. P.; Sembach, K. R.; Jenkins, E. B.; Moos, H. W.; Shull, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) program to study 0 VI in the Milky Way halo. Spectra of 100 extragalactic objects and two distant halo stars are analyzed to obtain measures of O VI absorption along paths through the Milky Way thick disk/halo. Strong O VI absorption over the velocity range from -100 to 100 km/s reveals a widespread but highly irregular distribution of O VI, implying the existence of substantial amounts of hot gas with T approx. 3 x 10(exp 5) K in the Milky Way thick disk/halo. The overall distribution of O VI is not well described by a symmetrical plane-parallel layer of patchy O VI absorption. The simplest departure from such a model that provides a reasonable fit to the observations is a plane-parallel patchy absorbing layer with an average O VI mid-plane density of n(sub 0)(O VI) = 1.7 x 10(exp -2)/cu cm, a scale height of approx. 2.3 kpc, and a approx. 0.25 dex excess of O VI in the northern Galactic polar region. The distribution of O VI over the sky is poorly correlated with other tracers of gas in the halo, including low and intermediate velocity H I, Ha emission from the warm ionized gas at approx. l0(exp 4) K, and hot X-ray emitting gas at approx. l0(exp 6) K . The O VI has an average velocity dispersion, b approx. 60 km/s and standard deviation of 15 km/s. Thermal broadening alone cannot explain the large observed profile widths. A combination of models involving the radiative cooling of hot fountain gas, the cooling of supernova bubbles in the halo, and the turbulent mixing of warm and hot halo gases is required to explain the presence of O VI and other highly ionized atoms found in the halo. The preferential venting of hot gas from local bubbles and superbubbles into the northern Galactic polar region may explain the enhancement of O VI in the North.

  10. An origin for multiphase gas in galactic winds and haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Todd A.; Quataert, Eliot; Zhang, Dong; Weinberg, David H.

    2016-01-01

    The physical origin of high-velocity cool gas seen in galactic winds remains unknown. Following work by B. Wang, we argue that radiative cooling in initially hot thermally-driven outflows can produce fast neutral atomic and photoionized cool gas. The inevitability of adiabatic cooling from the flow's initial 107-108 K temperature and the shape of the cooling function for T ≲ 107 K imply that outflows with hot gas mass-loss rate relative to star formation rate of β =dot{M}_hot/dot{M}_star ≳ 0.5 cool radiatively on scales ranging from the size of the energy injection region to tens of kpc. We highlight the β and star formation rate surface density dependence of the column density, emission measure, radiative efficiency, and velocity. At rcool, the gas produces X-ray and then UV/optical line emission with a total power bounded by ˜10-2 L⋆ if the flow is powered by steady-state star formation with luminosity L⋆. The wind is thermally unstable at rcool, potentially leading to a multiphase medium. Cooled winds decelerate significantly in the extended gravitational potential of galaxies. The cool gas precipitated from hot outflows may explain its prevalence in galactic haloes. We forward a picture of winds whereby cool clouds are initially accelerated by the ram pressure of the hot flow, but are rapidly shredded by hydrodynamical instabilities, thereby increasing β, seeding radiative and thermal instability, and cool gas rebirth. If the cooled wind shocks as it sweeps up the circumgalactic medium, its cooling time is short, thus depositing cool gas far out into the halo. Finally, conduction can dominate energy transport in low-β hot winds, leading to flatter temperature profiles than otherwise expected, potentially consistent with X-ray observations of some starbursts.

  11. Ages, chemistry, and type 1A supernovae: Clues to the formation of the galactic stellar halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1993-01-01

    We endeavor to resolve two conflicting constraints on the duration of the formation of the Galactic stellar halo - 2-3 Gyr age differences in halo stars, and the time scale inferred from the observed constant values of chemical element abundance ratios characteristic of enrichment by Type II supernovae - by investigating the time scale for the onset of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) in the currently favored progenitor model - mergers of carbon and oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs).

  12. Compact binary mergers as the origin of r-process elements in the Galactic halo

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimaru, Yuhri; Wanajo, Shinya; Prantzos, Nikos

    2014-05-02

    Compact binary mergers (of double neutron star and black hole-neutron star systems) are suggested to be the major site of the r-process elements in the Galaxy by recent hydrodynamical and nucleosynthesis studies. It has been pointed out, however, that estimated long lifetimes of compact binaries are in conflict with the presence of r-process-enhanced stars at the metallicity [Fe/H] ∼ −3. To resolve this problem, we examine the role of compact binary mergers in the early Galactic chemical evolution on the assumption that our Galactic halo was formed from merging sub-halos. The chemical evolutions are modeled for sub-halos with their total stellar masses between 10{sup 4}M{sub ⊙} and 2 × 10{sup 8}M{sub ⊙}. The lifetimes of compact binaries are assumed to be 100 Myr (95%) and 1 Myr (5%) according to recent binary population synthesis studies. We find that the r-process abundances (relative to iron; [r/Fe]) start increasing at [Fe/H] ≤ −3 if the star formation rates are smaller for less massive sub-halos. Our models also suggest that the star-to-star scatter of [r/Fe]'s observed in Galactic halo stars can be interpreted as a consequence of greater gas outflow rates for less massive sub-halos. In addition, the sub-solar [r/Fe]'s (observed as [Ba/Fe] ∼ −1.5 for [Fe/H] < −3) are explained by the contribution from the short-lived (∼ 1 Myr) binaries. Our result indicates, therefore, that compact binary mergers can be potentially the origin of the r-process elements throughout the Galactic history.

  13. Interaction of Cosmic Rays with Cold Clouds in Galactic Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiener, Joshua; Peng Oh, S.; Zweibel, Ellen G.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effects of cosmic ray (CR) dynamics on cold, dense clouds embedded in a hot, tenuous galactic halo. If the magnetic field does not increase too much inside the cloud, the local reduction in Alfvén speed imposes a bottleneck on CRs streaming out from the star-forming galactic disk. The bottleneck flattens the upstream CR gradient in the hot gas, implying that multi-phase structure could have global effects on CR driven winds. A large CR pressure gradient can also develop on the outward-facing edge of the cloud. This pressure gradient has two independent effects. The CRs push the cloud upward, imparting it with momentum. On smaller scales, the CRs pressurize cold gas in the fronts, reducing its density, consistent with the low densities of cold gas inferred in recent COS observations of local L★ galaxies. They also heat the material at the cloud edge, broadening the cloud-halo interface and causing an observable change in interface ionic abundances. Due to the much weaker temperature dependence of cosmic ray heating relative to thermal conductive heating, CR mediated fronts have a higher ratio of low to high ions compared to conduction fronts, in better agreement with observations. We investigate these effects separately using 1D simulations and analytic techniques.

  14. SMASH: Spitzer Merger History and Shape of the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Kathryn; Scowcroft, Vicky; Madore, Barry; Freedman, Wendy; Scowcroft, Victoria; Clementini, Gisella; Cioni, Maria-Rosa; van der Marel, Roeland; Udalski, Andrzej; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Soszynski, Igor; Nidever, David; Kallivayalil, Nitya; Besla, Gurtina; Majewski, Steve; Monson, Andy; Seibert, Mark; Smith, Horace; Preston, George; Kollmeier, Juna; Bono, Giuseppe; Marengo, Massimo; Persson, Eric; Law, David; Grillmair, Carl; Cohen, Judy; Sesar, Branimir; Price-Whelan, Adrian; Fabrizio, Michele

    2013-10-01

    The existence of a period-luminosity relation for RR Lyrae variables as measured at IRAC mid-infrared wavelengths allows Spitzer to estimate distances to individual stars with 2% errors. The SMASH program will exploit this unprecedented opportunity to precisely map structures throughout the halo of our Galaxy. SMASH will construct the first 3-D map of one of the larger satellites of the Milky Way (Sagittarius), it will determine precise distances to four more satellites (Ursa Minor, Carina, Sculptor & Bootes) and make the only measurements of stars in tidal streams accurate enough to determine their individual positions within the debris. This proposal describes some of the ground-breaking science enabled by this program, from increased accuracy in determining the orbits of satellite galaxies, to revolutionary constraints on the mass, shape and orientation of our Milky Way's dark matter halo. The foundational importance of these data sets cannot be overstated. These Milky Way structures lie far beyond the reach of any current or proposed future direct parallax measurements. Moreover, the combination of the SMASH results with proper motions from ESA's upcoming astrometric mission, Gaia, can effectively stretch Gaia's horizon for full 6D phase-space maps of our Galaxy by nearly four orders of magnitude in volume! These data and the resulting distance measurements will become Spitzer's legacy to the Galactic Astronomy community for years to come.

  15. Highly ionized gas in the Galactic halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, J. Michael; Slavin, Jonathan D.

    1994-01-01

    We reexamine the values of electron density n(sub e) and gas pressure P/k in the interstellar medium (ISM) of the Galactic halo, as inferred from C IV emission and absorption lines and using current C IV atomic data. In a homogeneous model with 4.7 less than or equal to log T less than or equal to 5.3, the data are consistent with 0.01 less than or equal to n(sub e) less than or equal to 0.02/cu cm and 2200 less than or equal to P/k less than or equal to 3700/cu cm K, a factor of 2-3 higher than advocated by Martin & Bowyer (1990) and comparable to the thermal pressure in the disk. If some of the C IV absorption arises from nonemitting, photoionized gas, then the inferred density and pressure will increase accordingly. The volume filling factor for homogeneous models ranges from 0.5% to 5%. Because of the constraints arising from filling factor and radiated power, most of the C IV must arise from gas near the peak of the cooling curve, at log t less than or equal to 5.6. We relate both emission-line and absorption-line observations to recent models in which turbulent mixing layers and isobarically cooling supernova remnants (SNRs) provide significant amounts of halo gas at approximately 10(exp 5.3) K and process 20-40 solar mass/yr with a power of approximately 10(exp 41) ergs/sec. Since the observed C IV and N V absorption scale heights have been reported to differ, at 4.9 kpc and 1.6 kpc, respectively, we examine inhomogeneous models with different exponential scale heights of T, P, and SN energy input. The ISM may change its character with distance above the Galactic plane, as superbubbles and mixing layers dominate over isolated SNRs as the source of the C IV. For appropiate scale heights, the midplane pressure is twice the homogeneous values quoted above. The O IV lambda 1034 diffuse emission line, which can be used as a temperature diagnostic of the hot gas, is predicted to be comparable in strength to that of C IV lambda 1549 (approximately 6000 photons

  16. Palomar 13: An Unusual Stellar System in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Côté, Patrick; Djorgovski, S. G.; Meylan, G.; Castro, Sandra; McCarthy, J. K.

    2002-08-01

    We report the first results of a program to study the internal kinematics of globular clusters in the outer halo of the Milky Way. Using the Keck telescope and High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer, we have measured precise radial velocities for 30 candidate red giants in the direction of Palomar 13, an object traditionally cataloged as a compact, low-luminosity globular cluster. We have combined these radial velocities with published proper motion membership probabilities and new CCD photometry from the Keck and Canada-France-Hawaii telescopes to isolate a sample of 21 probable members. We find a systemic velocity of s=24.1+/-0.5 km s-1 and a projected, intrinsic velocity dispersion of σp=2.2+/-0.4 km s-1. Although modest, this dispersion is nevertheless several times larger than that expected for a globular cluster of this luminosity and central concentration. Taken at face value, it implies a mass-to-light ratio of ΥV=40+24-17 based on the best-fit King-Michie model. The surface density profile of Palomar 13 also appears unusual compared to most Galactic globular clusters; depending upon the details of background subtraction and model-fitting, Palomar 13 either contains a substantial population of ``extratidal'' stars, or is considerably more spatially extended than previously suspected. The full surface density profile is equally well fitted by a King-Michie model having a high concentration and large tidal radius, or by a Navarro-Frenk-White model. We examine-and tentatively reject-a number of possible origins for the observed characteristics of Palomar 13 (e.g., velocity ``jitter'' among the red giant branch stars, spectroscopic binary stars, nonstandard mass functions, modified Newtonian dynamics) and conclude that the two leading explanations are either catastrophic heating during a recent perigalacticon passage or the presence of a dark matter halo. The available evidence therefore suggests that Palomar 13 is either a globular cluster that is now in

  17. Constraints on baryonic dark matter in the Galactic halo and Local Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richstone, Douglas; Gould, Andrew; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Flynn, Chris

    1992-01-01

    A four-color method and deep CCD data are used to search for very faint metal-poor stars in the direction of the south Galactic pole. The results make it possible to limit the contribution of ordinary old, metal-poor stars to the dynamical halo of the Galaxy or to the Local Group. The ratio of the mass of the halo to its ordinary starlight must be more than about 2000, unless the halo is very small. For the Local Group, this ratio is greater than about 400. If this local dark matter is baryonic, the process of compact-object formation must produce very few 'impurities' in the form of stars similar to those found in globular clusters. The expected number of unbound stars with MV not greater than 6 within 100 pc of the sun is less than 1 based on the present 90-percent upper limit to the Local Group starlight.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The SEGUE K giant survey. III. Galactic halo (Janesh+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janesh, W.; Morrison, H. L.; Ma, Z.; Rockosi, C.; Starkenburg, E.; Xue, X. X.; Rix, H.-W.; Harding, P.; Beers, T. C.; Johnson, J.; Lee, Y. S.; Schneider, D. P.

    2016-03-01

    We statistically quantify the amount of substructure in the Milky Way stellar halo using a sample of 4568 halo K giant stars at Galactocentric distances ranging over 5-125kpc. These stars have been selected photometrically and confirmed spectroscopically as K giants from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) project. Using a position-velocity clustering estimator (the 4distance) and a model of a smooth stellar halo, we quantify the amount of substructure in the halo, divided by distance and metallicity. Overall, we find that the halo as a whole is highly structured. We also confirm earlier work using blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars which showed that there is an increasing amount of substructure with increasing Galactocentric radius, and additionally find that the amount of substructure in the halo increases with increasing metallicity. Comparing to resampled BHB stars, we find that K giants and BHBs have similar amounts of substructure over equivalent ranges of Galactocentric radius. Using a friends-of-friends algorithm to identify members of individual groups, we find that a large fraction (~33%) of grouped stars are associated with Sgr, and identify stars belonging to other halo star streams: the Orphan Stream, the Cetus Polar Stream, and others, including previously unknown substructures. A large fraction of sample K giants (more than 50%) are not grouped into any substructure. We find also that the Sgr stream strongly dominates groups in the outer halo for all except the most metal-poor stars, and suggest that this is the source of the increase of substructure with Galactocentric radius and metallicity. (2 data files).

  19. A New Model for Chemical Evolution of the Galactic Halo: Formulation and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    A model for Galactic chemical evolution, driven by supernova-induced star formation, is formulated and used to examine the nature of the Galactic halo at early epochs. In this model, new stars are formed following each supernova event, thus their abundance pattern is determined by the combination of heavy elements ejected from the supernova itself and those elements which are already present in the interstellar gas swept up by the supernova remnant. The end result is a prediction of large scatter in the abundance ratios among low-metallicity stars, reflecting a different nucleosynthesis yield for each Type II supernova (SN II) with a different progenitor mass. Formation of new stars is terminated when supernova remnants sweep up too little gas to form shells. We show from calculations based on the above scenario that (i) the observed [Fe/H] distribution for the Galactic halo field stars can be reproduced without effectively decreasing the heavy-element yields from SNe II by some manipulation required by previous models (e.g., via mass lass from the early Galaxy, or later mixing with "pristine" hydrogen clouds), (ii) the large observed scatter in the abundante ratio [Eu/Fe] for the most metal-poor stars can also be reproduced, and (iii) the frequency distribution of stars in the [Eu/Fe]-[Fe/H] plane can be predicted. Our model suggests that the probability of identifying essentially metal-free stars (Population III) in the local halo is around one in 103-4, provided that star formation in the halo is confined to individual gas clouds with mass of 10 ^{6-7} M_⊙ and that the initial mass function of metal-free stars is not significantly different from the Salpeter mass function.

  20. Did globular clusters contribute to the stellar population of the Galactic halo?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonnel, Corinne; Krause, Martin

    2016-08-01

    The origin of Galactic halo stars and the contribution of globular clusters (GC) to this stellar population have long been (and still are) debated. The discovery of multiple stellar populations with peculiar chemical properties in GCs both in the Milky Way and in Local Group galaxies recently brought a renewal on these questions. Indeed most of the scenarios that compete to reproduce the present-day GC characteristics call for fast expulsion of both gas and low-mass stars from these clusters in their early infancy. In this framework, the initial masses of GCs could have been 8 to 25 times higher than their present-day stellar mass, and they could have contributed to 5 to 20 % of the low-mass stars in the Galactic halo. Here we revisit these conclusions, which are in tension with observations of dwarf galaxies and of young massive star clusters in the Local Group. We come back in particular on the paradigm of gas expulsion from massive star clusters, and propose an alternative interpretation of the GC abundance properties. We conclude by proposing a major revision of the current concepts regarding the role massive star clusters play in the assembly of galactic haloes.

  1. Ghostly Halos in Dwarf Galaxies: a probe of star formation in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hoyoung; Ricotti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    We carry out numerical simulations to characterize the size, stellar mass, and stellar mass surface density of extended stellar halos in dwarf galaxies as a function of dark matter halo mass. We expect that for galaxies smaller than a critical value, these ghostly halos will not exist because the smaller galactic subunits that build it up, do not form any stars. The detection of ghostly halos around isolated dwarf galaxies is a sensitive test of the efficiency of star formation in the first galaxies and of whether ultra-faint dwarf satellites of the Milky Way are fossils of the first galaxies.

  2. Mixing between high velocity clouds and the galactic halo

    SciTech Connect

    Gritton, Jeffrey A.; Shelton, Robin L.; Kwak, Kyujin E-mail: rls@physast.uga.edu

    2014-11-01

    In the Galactic halo, metal-bearing Galactic halo material mixes into high velocity clouds (HVCs) as they hydrodynamically interact. This interaction begins long before the clouds completely dissipate and long before they slow to the velocity of the Galactic material. In order to make quantitative estimates of the mixing efficiency and resulting metal enrichment of HVCs, we made detailed two- and three-dimensional simulations of cloud-interstellar medium interactions. Our simulations track the hydrodynamics and time-dependent ionization levels. They assume that the cloud originally has a warm temperature and extremely low metallicity while the surrounding medium has a high temperature, low density, and substantial metallicity, but our simulations can be generalized to other choices of initial metallicities. In our simulations, mixing between cloud and halo gas noticeably raises the metallicity of the high velocity material. We present plots of the mixing efficiency and metal enrichment as a function of time.

  3. Two New Ultra-Faint Star Clusters in the Milky Way Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongwon

    2016-08-01

    Kim 1 & 2 are two new star clusters discovered in the Stromlo Missing Satellite Survey. Kim 1, located at a heliocentric distance of 19.8 +/- 0.9 kpc, features an extremely low total luminosity (M V = 0.3 +/- 0.5 mag) and low star concentration. Together with the large ellipticity (ɛ = 0.42 +/- 0.10) and irregular isophotes, these properties suggest that Kim 1 is an intermediate mass star cluster being stripped by the Galactic tidal field. Kim 2 is a rare ultra-faint outer halo globular cluster located at a heliocentric distance of 104.7 +/- 4.1 kpc. The cluster exhibits evidence of significant mass loss such as extra-tidal stars and mass-segregation. Kim 2 is likely to follow an orbit confined to the peripheral region of the Galactic halo, and/or to have formed in a dwarf galaxy that was later accreted into the Galactic halo.

  4. The sagittarius tidal stream and the shape of the galactic stellar halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, Matthew T.

    The stellar halo that surrounds our Galaxy contains clues to understanding galaxy formation, cosmology, stellar evolution, and the nature of dark matter. Gravitationally disrupted dwarf galaxies form tidal streams, which roughly trace orbits through the Galactic halo. The Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf tidal debris is the most dominant of these streams, and its properties place important constraints on the distribution of mass (including dark matter) in the Galaxy. Stars not associated with substructures form the "smooth" component of the stellar halo, the origin of which is still under investigation. Characterizing halo substructures such as the Sgr stream and the smooth halo provides valuable information on the formation history and evolution of our galaxy, and places constraints on cosmological models. This thesis is primarily concerned with characterizing the 3-dimensional stellar densities of the Sgr tidal debris system and the smooth stellar halo, using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). F turnoff stars are used to infer distances, as they are relatively bright, numerous, and distributed about a single intrinsic brightness (magnitude). The inherent spread in brightnesses of these stars is overcome through the use of the recently-developed technique of statistical photometric parallax, in which the bulk properties of a stellar population are used to create a probability distribution for a given star's distance. This was used to build a spatial density model for the smooth stellar halo and tidal streams. The free parameters in this model are then fit to SDSS data with a maximum likelihood technique, and the parameters are optimized by advanced computational methods. Several computing platforms are used in this study, including the RPI SUR Bluegene and the Milkyway home volunteer computing project. Fits to the Sgr stream in 18 SDSS data stripes were performed, and a continuous density profile is found for the major Sgr stream. The stellar halo is found to

  5. Mapping Milky Way Halo Structure with Blue Horizontal Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Charles; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.

    2017-01-01

    The use of blue horizontal brach (BHB) and red giant branch stars as tracers of stellar debris streams is a common practice and has been useful in the confirmation of kinematic properties of previously identified streams. This work explores less common ways of untangling the velocity signatures of streams traveling radially to our line of sight, and to peer toward the higher density region of the Galactic Center using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Using spectra of BHB stars, we are able to kinematically distinguish moving groups in the Milky Way halo. The results of this thesis advance our knowledge of the following stellar halo substructures: the Pisces Stellar Stream, the Hercules-Aquila Cloud, the Hercules Halo Stream, and the Hermus Stream. A study of red giant stars led to the kinematic discovery of the Pisces Stellar Stream. Red giant stars were also examined to determine that the previously identified velocity signature that was suggested for the Hercules-Aquila Cloud was due to disk star contamination and errors in preliminary SDSS velocities. The Hercules Halo Stream is a previously unidentified structure that could be related to the Hercules-Aquila Cloud, and was discovered as a velocity excess of SDSS BHB stars. We identify a group of 10 stars with similar velocities that are spatially coincident with the Hermus Stream. An orbit is fit to the Hermus Stream that rules out a connection with the Phoenix Stream.This work was supported by NSF grants AST 09-37523, 14-09421, 16-15688, the NASA/NY Space Grant fellowship, and contributions made by The Marvin Clan, Babette Josephs, Manit Limlamai, and the 2015 Crowd Funding Campaign to Support Milky Way Research.

  6. HaloSat- A CubeSat to Study the Hot Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    We propose to develop, build, and fly HaloSat, a CubeSat capable of measuring the oxygen line emission from the hot Galactic halo. A dedicated CubeSat enables an instrument design and observing strategy to maximize the halo signal while minimizing foregrounds from solar wind charge exchange interactions within the solar system. We will use HaloSat to map the distribution of hot gas in the Milky Way and determine whether it fills an extended, and thus massive halo, or whether the halo is compact, and thus does not contribute significantly to the total mass of the Milky Way. HaloSat can be accomplished at modest cost using a CubeSat, a novel platform for space astrophysics missions. We will use a commercially available CubeSat bus and commercially available X-ray detectors to reduce development risk and minimize overall mission cost. HaloSat builds on the initiatives of GSFC/Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) in the development of CubeSats for low cost access to space and relies on the technical expertise of WFF personnel for spacecraft and mission design and operations. The team, from University of Iowa (UI), GSFC, Johns Hopkins, and CNRS (France), contains experts in X-ray detector development and data analysis and the astrophysics of hot plasmas and Galactic structure. The UI team will include a number of junior researchers (undergraduates, graduate students, and a postdoc) and help train them for future leadership roles on NASA space flight missions.

  7. Star formation across galactic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Jason

    I present here parallel investigations of star formation in typical and extreme galaxies. The typical galaxies are selected to be free of active galactic nuclei (AGN), while the extreme galaxies host quasars (the most luminous class of AGN). These two environments are each insightful in their own way; quasars are among the most violent objects in the universe, literally reshaping their host galaxies, while my sample of AGN-free star-forming galaxies ranges from systems larger than the Milky Way to small galaxies which are forming stars at unsustainably high rates. The current paradigm of galaxy formation and evolution suggests that extreme circumstances are key stepping stones in the assembly of galaxies like our Milky Way. To test this paradigm and fully explore its ramifications, this dual approach is needed. My sample of AGN-free galaxies is drawn from the KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey. This Halpha-selected, volume-limited survey was designed to detect star-forming galaxies without a bias toward continuum luminosity. This type of selection ensures that this sample is not biased toward galaxies that are large or nearby. My work studies the KISS galaxies in the mid- and far-infrared using photometry from the IRAC and MIPS instruments aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. These infrared bands are particularly interesting for star formation studies because the ultraviolet light from young stars is reprocessed into thermal emission in the far-infrared (24mum MIPS) by dust and into vibrational transitions features in the mid-infrared (8.0mum IRAC) by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The work I present here examines the efficiencies of PAH and thermal dust emission as tracers of star-formation rates over a wide range of galactic stellar masses. I find that the efficiency of PAH as a star-formation tracer varies with galactic stellar mass, while thermal dust has a highly variable efficiency that does not systematically depend on galactic stellar mass

  8. The star formation history in the Andromeda halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Thomas M.

    I present the preliminary results of a program to measure the star formation history in the halo of the Andromeda galaxy. Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope, we obtained the deepest optical images of the sky to date, in a field on the southeast minor axis of Andromeda, 51' (11 kpc) from the nucleus. The resulting color-magnitude diagram (CMD) contains approximately 300,000 stars and extends more than 1.5 mag below the main sequence turnoff, with 50% completeness at V = 30.7 mag. We interpret this CMD using comparisons to ACS observations of five Galactic globular clusters through the same filters, and through χ2-fitting to a finely-spaced grid of calibrated stellar population models. We find evidence for a major (~30%) intermediate-age (6-8 Gyr) metal-rich ([Fe/H])>-0.5) population in the Andromeda halo, along with a significant old metal-poor population akin to that in the Milky Way halo. The large spread in ages suggests that the Andromeda halo formed as a result of a more violent merging history than that in our own Milky Way.

  9. HaloSat - A CubeSat to Study the Hot Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Observations of the nearby universe fail to locate about half of the normal matter (baryons) observed in the early universe. The missing baryons may be in hot galactic halos. HaloSat is a CubeSat designed to map oxygen line emission (O VII and O VIII) around the Milky Way in order to constrain the mass and spatial distribution of hot gas in the halo. HaloSat has a grasp competitive with current X-ray observatories. Its observing program will be optimized to minimize contributions from solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission that limit the accuracy of current measurements. We will describe the HaloSat mission concept, progress towards its implementation, and plans for archiving and distribution of the data.

  10. HaloSat - A CubeSat to Study the Hot Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Observations of the nearby universe fail to locate about half of the baryons observed in the early universe. The missing baryons may be in hot galactic halos. HaloSat is a CubeSat designed to map oxygen line emission (O VII and O VIII) around the Milky Way in order to constrain the mass and spatial distribution of hot gas in the halo. HaloSat has a grasp competitive with current X-ray observatories. Its observing program will be optimized to minimize contributions from solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission that limit the accuracy of current measurements. We will describe the HaloSat mission concept, progress towards its implementation, and plans for archiving and distribution of the data.

  11. IC 1257: A New Globular Cluster in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, W. E.; Phelps, R. L.; Madore, B. F.; Pevunova, O.; Skiff, B. A.; Crute, C.; Wilson, B.

    1996-01-01

    New CCD photometry of the faint, compact star cluster IC 1257 (L = 17? = +/- 15?obtained with the Palomar 5m telescope, reveals that it is a highly reddened globular cluster well beyond the Galactic center.

  12. The Gaia-ESO Survey: A globular cluster escapee in the Galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, K.; Koposov, S. E.; Battistini, C.; Marino, A. F.; Ruchti, G.; Serenelli, A.; Worley, C. C.; Alves-Brito, A.; Asplund, M.; Barklem, P. S.; Bensby, T.; Bergemann, M.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Bragaglia, A.; Edvardsson, B.; Feltzing, S.; Gruyters, P.; Heiter, U.; Jofre, P.; Korn, A. J.; Nordlander, T.; Ryde, N.; Soubiran, C.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Jeffries, R. D.; Vallenari, A.; Allende Prieto, C.; Pancino, E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Romano, D.; Smiljanic, R.; Bellazzini, M.; Damiani, F.; Hill, V.; de Laverny, P.; Jackson, R. J.; Lardo, C.; Zaggia, S.

    2015-03-01

    A small fraction of the halo field is made up of stars that share the light element (Z ≤ 13) anomalies characteristic of second generation globular cluster (GC) stars. The ejected stars shed light on the formation of the Galactic halo by tracing the dynamical history of the clusters, which are believed to have once been more massive. Some of these ejected stars are expected to show strong Al enhancement at the expense of shortage of Mg, but until now no such star has been found. We search for outliers in the Mg and Al abundances of the few hundreds of halo field stars observed in the first eighteen months of the Gaia-ESO public spectroscopic survey. One halo star at the base of the red giant branch, here referred to as 22593757-4648029 is found to have [ Mg/Fe ] = -0.36 ± 0.04 and [ Al/Fe ] = 0.99 ± 0.08, which is compatible with the most extreme ratios detected in GCs so far. We compare the orbit of 22593757-4648029 to GCs of similar metallicity andfind it unlikely that this star has been tidally stripped with low ejection velocity from any of the clusters. However, both chemical and kinematic arguments render it plausible that the star has been ejected at high velocity from the anomalous GC ω Centauri within the last few billion years. We cannot rule out other progenitor GCs, because some may have disrupted fully, and the abundance and orbital data are inadequate for many of those that are still intact. Based on data acquired by the Gaia-ESO Survey, programme ID 188.B-3002. Observations were made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  13. Simulating the carbon footprint of galactic haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Simeon; Rubin, Kate H. R.; Suresh, Joshua; Hernquist, Lars

    2016-10-01

    We compare simulations, including the Illustris simulations, to observations of C IV and C II absorption at z = 2-4. These are the C IV column density distribution function in the column density range 1012-1015 cm-2, the C IV equivalent width distribution at 0.1-2 Å, and the covering fractions and equivalent widths of C IV1548 Å and C II 1337 Å around damped Lyman α systems (DLAs). In the context of the feedback models that we investigate, all C IV observations favour the use of more energetic wind models, which are better able to enrich the gas surrounding haloes. We propose two ways to achieve this: an increased wind velocity and an increase in wind thermal energy. However, even our most energetic wind models do not produce enough absorbers with C IV equivalent width >0.6 Å, which in our simulations are associated with the most massive haloes. All simulations are in reasonable agreement with the C II covering fraction and equivalent widths around damped Lyman α absorbers, although there is a moderate deficit in one bin 10-100 kpc from the DLA. Finally, we show that the C IV in our simulations is predominantly photoionized.

  14. Oxygen vs. Age in Halo Field Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, J. B.; Sneden, C.

    1996-04-01

    Oxygen abundances as a function of age are presented for a sample of halo field stars near the main sequence turn-off. We have measured oxygen abundances using the infrared oxygen triplet, and ages have previously been determined for these stars by Schuster & Nissen and Marquez & Schuster using Stromgren photometry and theoretical isochrones. The age spread observed among globular clusters and among the field stars indicates that the formation of the halo occurred over at least several billion years. The relatively shorter time scale for the contribution of Type Ia supernovae should have produced a significant decrease in the oxygen-to-iron (O/Fe) ratio over this time, leading to a significant variation in [O/Fe] among stars with different ages. We do not find the expected correlation of O/Fe and age. This result suggests that either the timescale for Type Ia supernovae is significantly longer than 1 Gyr or the stars of different ages formed in chemically isolated regions of the halo.

  15. Characterizing the X-Ray Spectrum of the Galactic Halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this project is to determine the spectrum of the Galactic halo's soft X-ray emission. These photons are emitted by hot, diffuse gas hundreds to thousands of parsecs from the Galactic plane. Thus, the emission is weak, can be confused with locally produced photons, and must be distinguished from noise. My co-I has made significant progress on determining the background. I have been working on a complementary aspect of the project: computer simulations of the hot gas in the local and distant regions.

  16. Sulphur and Zinc Abundances in Halo and Disk Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, Poul Erik; Chen, Yu Qin; Asplund, Martin; Max, Pettini

    Sulphur and zinc are key elements in studies of the chemical evolution of DLAs because they are undepleted on interstellar dust. It is often assumed that S is an ""alpha""-element made by Type II supernovae whereas Zn follows iron in its chemical evolution. If correct the S/Zn ratio can be used as ""a chemical clock"" to date the star formation process in DLAs. Recent studies of S/Fe and Zn/Fe in Galactic stars have however questioned these assumptions. In order to advance the study of the chemical evolution of S and Zn in our Galaxy we have obtained high resolution ESO VLT/UVES spectra for 35 halo stars and the Xinglong 2.16m telescope has been used to observe disk stars. From a model atmosphere analysis of these spectra including estimates of 3D effects we have derived the trends of S/Fe and Zn/Fe for Galactic stars in the metallicity range -3.2 < [Fe/H] < +0.2. Preliminary results suggest that S behaves like an ""alpha""-element whereas Zn may show small deviations from the trend of iron.

  17. Halo Substructure Towards the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amy, Paul Martin; Martin, Charles; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Shelton, Siddartha; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Willett, Benjamin A.

    2017-01-01

    We measure the velocity substructure of blue horizontal branch stars in Data Release 10 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, particularly in the regions of the Hermus Stream, the Hyllus Stream, and the Hercules-Aquila Cloud. These stars are concentrated at lower latitudes (b < 50°) in the first quadrant (0°stars in each substructure, and N-body simulations that plausibly replicate the morphologies of the observed tidal debris. From comparison with N-body simulations, we estimate the mass of the stream progenitors. This project was funded by a Rensselaer Presidential Fellowship, NSF grants AST 14-09421 and AST 16-15688, the NASA/NY Space Grant fellowship, and contributions made by The Marvin Clan, Babette Josephs, Manit Limlamai, and the 2015 Crowd Funding Campaign to Support Milky Way Research.

  18. V474 Car: A RARE HALO RS CVn BINARY IN RETROGRADE GALACTIC ORBIT

    SciTech Connect

    Bubar, Eric J.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Walter, Frederick M.

    2011-04-15

    We report the discovery that the star V474 Car is an extremely active, high velocity halo RS CVn system. The star was originally identified as a possible pre-main-sequence star in Carina, given its enhanced stellar activity, rapid rotation (10.3 days), enhanced Li, and absolute magnitude which places it above the main sequence (MS). However, its extreme radial velocity (264 km s{sup -1}) suggested that this system was unlike any previously known pre-MS system. Our detailed spectroscopic analysis of echelle spectra taken with the CTIO 4 m finds that V474 Car is both a spectroscopic binary with an orbital period similar to the photometric rotation period and metal-poor ([Fe/H] {approx_equal}-0.99). The star's Galactic orbit is extremely eccentric (e {approx_equal} 0.93) with a perigalacticon of only {approx}0.3 kpc of the Galactic center-and the eccentricity and smallness of its perigalacticon are surpassed by only {approx}0.05% of local F/G-type field stars. The observed characteristics are consistent with V474 Car being a high-velocity, metal-poor, tidally locked, chromospherically active binary, i.e., a halo RS CVn binary, and one of only a few such specimens known.

  19. Formation of the Galactic Stellar Halo: Origin of the Metallicity-Eccentricity Relation.

    PubMed

    Bekki; Chiba

    2000-05-01

    Motivated by the recently improved knowledge on the kinematic and chemical properties of the Galactic metal-poor stars, we present the numerical simulation for the formation of the Galactic stellar halo to interpret the observational results. As a model for the Galaxy contraction, we adopt the currently standard theory of galaxy formation based on the hierarchical assembly of the cold dark matter fluctuations. We find, for the simulated stars with &sqbl0;Fe&solm0;H&sqbr0;stars is reproduced correctly for &sqbl0;Fe&solm0;H&sqbr0;Galactic halo is a natural consequence of the hierarchical evolution of the subgalactic clumps seeded from the cold dark matter density fluctuations.

  20. Formation of the Galactic Stellar Halo: Origin of the Metallicity-Eccentricity Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekki, Kenji; Chiba, Masashi

    2000-05-01

    Motivated by the recently improved knowledge on the kinematic and chemical properties of the Galactic metal-poor stars, we present the numerical simulation for the formation of the Galactic stellar halo to interpret the observational results. As a model for the Galaxy contraction, we adopt the currently standard theory of galaxy formation based on the hierarchical assembly of the cold dark matter fluctuations. We find, for the simulated stars with [Fe/H]<=-1.0, that there is no strong correlation between metal abundances and orbital eccentricities, in good agreement with the observations. Moreover, the observed fraction of the low-eccentricity stars is reproduced correctly for [Fe/H]<=-1.6 and approximately for the intermediate abundance range of -1.6<[Fe/H]<=-1.0. We show that this successful reproduction of the kinematics of the Galactic halo is a natural consequence of the hierarchical evolution of the subgalactic clumps seeded from the cold dark matter density fluctuations.

  1. Beryllium in the Galactic halo - Surface abundances from standard, diffusive, and rotational stellar evolution, and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.

    1990-01-01

    The recently observed upper limits to the beryllium abundances in population II stars are much lower than population I detections. This difference reflects an intrinsic difference in the initial abundances and is not caused by different degrees of depletion driven by stellar evolution processes from similar initial abundances. Evolutionary sequences of models from the early premain sequence to beyond the turnoff that correspond to halo dwarfs with Fe/H abundances of -1.3, -2.3, and -3.3 are constructed, and standard, diffusive, and rotational mechanisms are used to estimate a maximal possible beryllium depletion. Halo star models in the T(eff) range 6000 to 5000 K might be rotationally depleted by a factor of 1.5-2, and the total depletion should be no more than (conservatively) a factor of 3. Implications for cosmology, cosmic-ray theory, and Galactic chemical evolution are discussed.

  2. The Hobby-Eberly Telescope Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetrone, Matthew D.; Frebel, A.; Allende Prieto, C.; Krugler, J.; Sneden, C.; Beers, T.; Rhee, J.; Roederer, I.; Cowan, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    The chemical evolution of the Galaxy and the early Universe is a key topic in modern astrophysics. The most metal-poor Galactic halo stars are now frequently used in an attempt to reconstruct the onset of the chemical and dynamical formation processes of the Galaxy. These stars are an easily-accessible local equivalent of the high-redshift Universe, and can thus be used to carry out near-field cosmology. In order to identify large numbers of metal-poor stars we started the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. This University of Texas Long Term Project aims at discovering metal-poor Galactic halo stars selected from various surveys. We present the results of the first two years of HET observations: Thus far, 400 metal-poor star are observed with the high-resolution spectrograph -- the largest data base for these objects so far. Data reduction, stellar parameter determination, and our automated analysis procedure are presented. We also report the abundances found in our stars with which we aim to establish the frequencies of chemically distinct subgroups of metal-poor stars in the halo.

  3. Cool carbon stars in the halo and in dwarf galaxies: Hα, colours, and variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauron, N.; Gigoyan, K. S.; Berlioz-Arthaud, P.; Klotz, A.

    2014-02-01

    The population of cool carbon (C) stars located far from the galactic plane is probably made of debris of small galaxies such as the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr), which are disrupted by the gravitational field of the Galaxy. We aim to know this population better through spectroscopy, 2MASS photometric colours, and variability data. When possible, we compared the halo results to C star populations in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy, Sgr, and the solar neighbourhood. We first present a few new discoveries of C stars in the halo and in Fornax. The number of spectra of halo C stars is now 125. Forty percent show Hα in emission. The narrow location in the JHK diagram of the halo C stars is found to differ from that of similar C stars in the above galaxies. The light curves of the Catalina and LINEAR variability databases were exploited to derive the pulsation periods of 66 halo C stars. A few supplementary periods were obtained with the TAROT telescopes. We confirm that the period distribution of the halo strongly resembles that of Fornax, and we found that it is very different from the C stars in the solar neighbourhood. There is a larger proportion of short-period Mira/SRa variables in the halo than in Sgr, but the survey for C stars in this dwarf galaxy is not complete, and the study of their variability needs to be continued to investigate the link between Sgr and the cool halo C stars. Based on observations made with the NTT and 3.6 m telescope at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile; programs 084.D-0302 and 070.D-0203), with the TAROT telescopes at La Silla and at Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (France), and on the exploitation of the Catalina Sky Survey and the LINEAR variability databases.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. The Fractions of Inner- and Outer-halo Stars in the Local Volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Deokkeun; Beers, Timothy C.; Santucci, Rafael M.; Carollo, Daniela; Placco, Vinicius M.; Lee, Young Sun; Rossi, Silvia

    2015-11-01

    We obtain a new determination of the metallicity distribution function (MDF) of stars within ˜5-10 kpc of the Sun, based on recently improved co-adds of ugriz photometry for Stripe 82 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our new estimate uses the methodology developed previously by An et al. to study in situ halo stars, but is based on a factor of two larger sample than available before, with much-improved photometric errors and zero-points. The newly obtained MDF can be divided into multiple populations of halo stars, with peak metallicities at [Fe/H] ≈ -1.4 and -1.9, which we associate with the inner-halo and outer-halo populations of the Milky Way, respectively. We find that the kinematics of these stars (based on proper-motion measurements at high Galactic latitude) supports the proposed dichotomy of the halo, as stars with retrograde motions in the rest frame of the Galaxy are generally more metal-poor than stars with prograde motions, consistent with previous claims. In addition, we generate mock catalogs of stars from a simulated Milk Way halo system, and demonstrate for the first time that the chemically and kinematically distinct properties of the inner- and outer-halo populations are qualitatively in agreement with our observations. The decomposition of the observed MDF and our comparison with the mock catalog results suggest that the outer-halo population contributes on the order of ˜35%-55% of halo stars in the local volume.

  5. Abundances and Evolution of Lithium in the Galactic Halo and Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Sean G.; Kajino, Toshitaka; Beers, Timothy C.; Suzuki, Takeru Ken; Romano, Donatella; Matteucci, Francesca; Rosolankova, Katarina

    2001-03-01

    We have measured the Li abundance of 18 stars with -2<~[Fe/H]<~-1 and 6000<~Teff<~6400 K, a parameter range that was poorly represented in previous studies. We examine the Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) of this element, combining these data with previous samples of turnoff stars over the full range of halo metallicities. We find that A(Li) increases from a level of ~2.10 at [Fe/H]=-3.5 to ~2.40 at [Fe/H]=-1.0, where A(Li)=log10(n(Li)/n(H))+12.00. We compare the observations with several GCE calculations, including existing one-zone models and a new model developed in the framework of inhomogeneous evolution of the Galactic halo. We show that Li evolved at a constant rate relative to iron throughout the halo and old disk epochs but that during the formation of young disk stars, the production of Li relative to iron increased significantly. These observations can be understood in the context of models in which postprimordial Li evolution during the halo and old disk epochs is dominated by Galactic cosmic-ray fusion and spallation reactions, with some contribution from the ν-process in supernovae. The onset of more efficient Li production (relative to iron) in the young disk coincides with the appearance of Li from novae and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. The major challenge facing the models is to reconcile the mild evolution of Li during the halo and old disk phases with the more efficient production (relative to iron) at [Fe/H]>-0.5. We speculate that cool-bottom processing (production) of Li in low-mass stars may provide an important late-appearing source of Li, without attendant Fe production, that might explain the Li production in the young disk. Based on observations obtained with the University College London échelle spectrograph (UCLES) on the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) and the Utrecht échelle spectrograph (UES) on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT).

  6. The ionization conditions in the Milky Way halo - Infalling gas toward the North Galactic Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danly, Laura

    1992-01-01

    Observations of gas in the Milky Way halo are studied with an eye toward the theoretical predictions of the Galactic Fountain model for the production of halo gas. Data are shown that indicate significant variations in the ionization conditions in infalling halo gas in the northern galactic hemisphere. Understanding the nature of Milky Way halo gas plays a critical role in interpreting QSO absorption lines in the investigation of galaxies at high redshift.

  7. Star formation inside a galactic outflow.

    PubMed

    Maiolino, R; Russell, H R; Fabian, A C; Carniani, S; Gallagher, R; Cazzoli, S; Arribas, S; Belfiore, F; Bellocchi, E; Colina, L; Cresci, G; Ishibashi, W; Marconi, A; Mannucci, F; Oliva, E; Sturm, E

    2017-04-13

    Recent observations have revealed massive galactic molecular outflows that may have the physical conditions (high gas densities) required to form stars. Indeed, several recent models predict that such massive outflows may ignite star formation within the outflow itself. This star-formation mode, in which stars form with high radial velocities, could contribute to the morphological evolution of galaxies, to the evolution in size and velocity dispersion of the spheroidal component of galaxies, and would contribute to the population of high-velocity stars, which could even escape the galaxy. Such star formation could provide in situ chemical enrichment of the circumgalactic and intergalactic medium (through supernova explosions of young stars on large orbits), and some models also predict it to contribute substantially to the star-formation rate observed in distant galaxies. Although there exists observational evidence for star formation triggered by outflows or jets into their host galaxy, as a consequence of gas compression, evidence for star formation occurring within galactic outflows is still missing. Here we report spectroscopic observations that unambiguously reveal star formation occurring in a galactic outflow at a redshift of 0.0448. The inferred star-formation rate in the outflow is larger than 15 solar masses per year. Star formation may also be occurring in other galactic outflows, but may have been missed by previous observations owing to the lack of adequate diagnostics.

  8. Linking dwarf galaxies to halo building blocks with the most metal-poor star in Sculptor.

    PubMed

    Frebel, Anna; Kirby, Evan N; Simon, Joshua D

    2010-03-04

    Current cosmological models indicate that the Milky Way's stellar halo was assembled from many smaller systems. On the basis of the apparent absence of the most metal-poor stars in present-day dwarf galaxies, recent studies claimed that the true Galactic building blocks must have been vastly different from the surviving dwarfs. The discovery of an extremely iron-poor star (S1020549) in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy based on a medium-resolution spectrum cast some doubt on this conclusion. Verification of the iron-deficiency, however, and measurements of additional elements, such as the alpha-element Mg, are necessary to demonstrate that the same type of stars produced the metals found in dwarf galaxies and the Galactic halo. Only then can dwarf galaxy stars be conclusively linked to early stellar halo assembly. Here we report high-resolution spectroscopic abundances for 11 elements in S1020549, confirming its iron abundance of less than 1/4,000th that of the Sun, and showing that the overall abundance pattern follows that seen in low-metallicity halo stars, including the alpha-elements. Such chemical similarity indicates that the systems destroyed to form the halo billions of years ago were not fundamentally different from the progenitors of present-day dwarfs, and suggests that the early chemical enrichment of all galaxies may be nearly identical.

  9. Formation of a Giant Galactic Gaseous Halo: Metal-Absorption Lines and High-Velocity Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fan

    1992-04-01

    A Galactic gaseous halo formed through the interstellar disk-halo connection is simulated by means of a two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic code based upon the chimney model of the interstellar medium, a new version of the galactic fountain. Galactic rotation, heating processes by diffuse UV flux, and radiative cooling processes are taken into account. The resulting gaseous halo can be divided into three categories, i.e., wind-type halo, bound-type halo, and cooled-type halo. In this way, we try to reproduce the column densities of C IV, N V, O VI, and Si IV in the observed absorption lines of halo stars. Assuming that the radiatively cooled halo gas condenses into clouds due to thermal instabilities, we can calculate their distribution and ballistic motions in the Galactic gravitational field. These correspond to the high- and intermediate-velocity clouds observed at high Galactic latitudes. We find that a cooled-type halo with a gas temperature between 5 X 10^5 and 10^6 K and a density between 10^-3 and 10^-2 cm^-3 at the disk-halo interface can reproduce the observational facts about our Galaxy. Supposing that the metal-absorption-line systems of QSOs arise from the halos of intervening galaxies formed by similar processes, we calculate features of the Ca II, Mg II, C IV, and Si IV absorption lines in various stages of galactic evolution. We conclude that C IV systems which are greater than 50 kpc in size correspond to the wind-type halo. On the other hand, Mg II and Ca II systems can only be detected in a very restricted region ( Metaxa, SMALL FAINT CLUSTERS IN THE LMC This is a short review of the main results of my Ph.D. thesis concerning some important problems on the dynamical properties of the LMC star clusters. The topic of this thesis was to find and study the dynamical paramters (tidal radius r_t core radius r_c concentration parameters log (r_t/r_c), and total mass M) for a large sample of small LMC clusters and to define their location in the

  10. Probing ionization conditions of Galactic halo gas using H-alpha observations of the Magellanic Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, Kat; Madsen, Gregory J.; Fox, Andrew; Wakker, Bart P.; Bland-Hawthorn, Jonathan; Nidever, David L.; Lehner, Nicolas; Haffner, L. Matthew; Hill, Alex S.

    2017-01-01

    Galaxy interactions have greatly disturbed and redistributed the gas in the Magellanic System throughout the halos of the Milky Way. Using the Wisconsin H-alpha Mapper (WHAM) telescope, we have completed the highest sensitivity and kinematically resolved emission-line survey of the entire Magellanic Stream. These observations enable us to determine how the ionization conditions change over 100-degrees across the sky, including the region below the South Galactic Pole. We explore the sources of that ionization and find that photoionization from the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds is insufficient to explain the observed H-alpha emission. We further investigate whether energetic processes associated with the Milky Way's center or interactions with the halo could provide the remaining ionization. The gas in the Magellanic Steam could supply enough gas to maintain or even boost the star formation in the Milky Way, but only if it can survive the journey to the Galaxy's disk.

  11. The lithium abundance in extreme halo stars

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, L.M.; Thorburn, J.A. )

    1991-07-01

    New observations are reported of atmospheric Li abundances for six extremely metal-poor dwarfs with Fe-H ratios not higher than {minus}2.59 and T(e) not lower than 5950 K. The spectra were obtained in 1990 at Kitt Peak National Observatory, using the echelle spectrograph with the UV Fast camera. The resulting Li abundances for these stars range between N(Li) values of 1.99 and 2.24, where N(Li) = 12 + log (Li/H). These results agree with the abundances reported previously for five other metal-poor dwarfs with the Fe/H ratios not above {minus}2.60. The invariance of Li abundance in these 11 stars indicates a primordial origin for most of the Li observed in these Galactic stars. 23 refs.

  12. Manganese Abundances in Globular Cluster and Halo Field Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobeck, J. S.; Simmerer, J. A.; Fulbright, J. P.; Sneden, C.; Kraft, R. P.; Ivans, I. I.

    2004-05-01

    We have derived Mn abundances for more than 100 stars in nine Galactic globular clusters: M3, M4, M5, M10, M13, M15, M71, Pal5 and NGC 7006. In addition, Mn abundance determinations have been made for a comparable number of halo field stars possessing an overlapping range of metallicities and stellar parameters. The spectra of the cluster giants were obtained as a part of the Lick-Texas investigations into globular cluster chemistry. The spectra of the field stars are a part of a large study by Simmerer et al. (2004, ApJ, submitted). Data were collected at the McDonald, Lick ,and Keck Observatories and were analyzed using the synthetic spectra of the 6000 Å Mn I triplet. Hyperfine structure parameters were included in the synthetic spectra computations. It is well known that metal-poor field stars possess [Mn/Fe] ratios approximately a factor of two lower than solar values (Wallerstein et al. 1963, Gratton et al.1989, McWilliam et al. 1997). Our analysis shows that for the metallicity range -0.5 > [Fe/H] > -2.8 field stars have a mean relative abundance of <[Mn/Fe]> = -0.28±0.01 (sigma = 0.08), a value esssentially identical to that of the nine globular clusters: <[Mn/Fe]> = -0.28±0.01 (sigma = 0.12). It is evident that [Mn/Fe] ratios of metal-poor stars do not depend upon their environment. Our Mn abundance results viewed in conjunction with the globular cluster Cu abundances of Simmerer et al. (2003) suggest the following possibilities: one, the production of these elements is extremely metallicity-dependent or two, these elements were manufactured in the Galactic halo prior to cluster formation. Ongoing support from NSF, currently through grants AST-0307495 to CS and AST-0098453 to RPK, is gratefully acknowledged. Research for III is currently supported by NASA through Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF-01151.01-A from the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  13. Hierarchical Star Formation Across Galactic Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios

    2016-09-01

    Most stars form in clusters. This fact has emerged from the finding that "embedded clusters account for the 70 - 90% fraction of all stars formed in Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs)." While this is the case at scales of few 10 parsecs, typical for GMCs, a look at star-forming galaxies in the Local Group (LG) shows significant populations of enormous loose complexes of early-type stars extending at scales from few 100 to few 1000 parsecs. The fact that these stellar complexes host extremely large numbers of loosely distributed massive blue stars implies either that stars form also in an unbound fashion or they are immediately dislocated from their original compact birthplaces or both. The Legacy Extra-Galactic UV Survey (LEGUS) has produced remarkable collections of resolved early-type stars in 50 star-forming LG galaxies, suited for testing ideas about recent star formation. I will present results from our ongoing project on star formation across LEGUS disk galaxies. We characterize the global clustering behavior of the massive young stars in order to understand the morphology of star formation over galactic scales. This morphology appears to be self-similar with fractal dimensions comparable to those of the molecular interstellar medium, apparently driven by large-scale turbulence. Our clustering analysis reveals compact stellar systems nested in larger looser concentrations, which themselves are the dense parts of unbound complexes and super-structures, giving evidence of hierarchical star formation up to galactic scales. We investigate the structural and star formation parameters demographics of the star-forming complexes revealed at various levels of compactness. I will discuss the outcome of our correlation and regression analyses on these parameters in an attempt to understand the link between galactic disk dynamics and morphological structure in spiral and ring galaxies of the local universe.

  14. Inflow of halo gas from the direction of the Galactic north pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Boer, K. S.; Savage, B. D.

    1984-01-01

    A far-UV echelle spectrum has been obtained of the UV-bright star vZ1128 in the globular cluster M3. This cluster lies in a direction 11 deg off the Galactic north pole at a distance of about 10 kpc. Only the usually strong interstellar lines are recognizable in the faint spectrum, and they show absorption at velocities from near +40 km/s to -100 km/s. Since in the direction observed the line-of-sight component of the Milky Way rotation is negligible, the detected velocities demonstrate for this direction the motion of gas from the Milky Way halo toward the disk. Gas returning to the disk in a galactic fountainlike flow may explain the observations.

  15. Prospects for detecting supersymmetric dark matter in the Galactic halo.

    PubMed

    Springel, V; White, S D M; Frenk, C S; Navarro, J F; Jenkins, A; Vogelsberger, M; Wang, J; Ludlow, A; Helmi, A

    2008-11-06

    Dark matter is the dominant form of matter in the Universe, but its nature is unknown. It is plausibly an elementary particle, perhaps the lightest supersymmetric partner of known particle species. In this case, annihilation of dark matter in the halo of the Milky Way should produce gamma-rays at a level that may soon be observable. Previous work has argued that the annihilation signal will be dominated by emission from very small clumps (perhaps smaller even than the Earth), which would be most easily detected where they cluster together in the dark matter haloes of dwarf satellite galaxies. Here we report that such small-scale structure will, in fact, have a negligible impact on dark matter detectability. Rather, the dominant and probably most easily detectable signal will be produced by diffuse dark matter in the main halo of the Milky Way. If the main halo is strongly detected, then small dark matter clumps should also be visible, but may well contain no stars, thereby confirming a key prediction of the cold dark matter model.

  16. Modelling galactic conformity with the colour-halo age relation in the Illustris simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Aaron D.; Pillepich, Annalisa; Sales, Laura V.; Zhu, Emily; Genel, Shy; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Torrey, Paul; Nelson, Dylan; Vogelsberger, Mark; Springel, Volker; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Hernquist, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Comparisons between observational surveys and galaxy formation models find that dark matter haloes' mass can largely explain their galaxies' stellar mass. However, it remains uncertain whether additional environmental variables, known as assembly bias, are necessary to explain other galaxy properties. We use the Illustris simulation to investigate the role of assembly bias in producing galactic conformity by considering 18 000 galaxies with Mstellar > 2 × 109 M⊙. We find a significant signal of galactic conformity: out to distances of about 10 Mpc, the mean red fraction of galaxies around redder galaxies is higher than around bluer galaxies at fixed stellar mass. Dark matter haloes exhibit an analogous conformity signal, in which the fraction of haloes formed at earlier times (old haloes) is higher around old haloes than around younger ones at fixed halo mass. A plausible interpretation of galactic conformity is the combination of the halo conformity signal with the galaxy colour-halo age relation: at fixed stellar mass, particularly towards the low-mass end, Illustris' galaxy colours correlate with halo age, with the reddest galaxies (often satellites) preferentially found in the oldest haloes. We explain the galactic conformity effect with a simple semi-empirical model, assigning stellar mass via halo mass (abundance matching) and galaxy colour via halo age (age matching). Regarding comparison to observations, we conclude that the adopted selection/isolation criteria, projection effects, and stacking techniques can have a significant impact on the measured amplitude of the conformity signal.

  17. The Vertical Structure of the Halo Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinman, T. D.; Cacciari, C.; Bragaglia, A.; Buzzoni, A.; Spagna, A.

    New GSC-II proper motions of RR Lyrae and Blue Horizontal Branch (BHB) stars near the North Galactic Pole are used to show that the Galactic Halo 5 kpc above the Plane has a significantly retrograde galactic rotation.

  18. The Hobby-Eberly Telescope Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. First Year Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frebel, Anna; Allende Prieto, C.; Davies, L. A.; Roederer, I.; Shetrone, M.; Sneden, C.; Rhee, J.; Beers, T. C.; Cowan, J. J.

    2007-12-01

    We introduce the The Hobby-Eberly Telescope Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. This University of Texas Long Term Project aims at discovering metal-poor Galactic halo stars selected from various surveys. We present the results of the first year of HET observations: Thus far, 200 objects are observed with the high-resolution spectrograph. Data reduction and stellar parameter determination, as well as our automated analysis procedure are described. A handful of stars with [Fe/H]<-3.0 were found. We also report an individual abundance analysis of three metal-poor program stars that confirm our automated analysis techniques.

  19. Lithium in halo stars from standard stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Demarque, Pierre; Kawaler, Steven D.

    1990-01-01

    A grid has been constructed of theoretical evolution sequences of models for low-metallicity stars from the premain-sequence to the giant branch phases. The grid is used to study the history of surface Li abundance during standard stellar evolution. The Li-7 observations of halo stars by Spite and Spite (1982) and subsequent observations are synthesized to separate the halo stars by age. The theory of surface Li abundance is illustrated by following the evolution of a reference halo star model from the contracting fully convective premain sequence to the giant branch phase. The theoretical models are compared with observed Li abundances. The results show that the halo star lithium abundances can be explained in the context of standard stellar evolution theory using completely standard assumptions and physics.

  20. Gas motions within high-velocity cloud Complex A reveal that it is dissolving into the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huey-You, Cannan; Barger, Kathleen; Nidever, David L.; Rueff, Katherine Meredith

    2017-01-01

    A massive gas cloud, known as Complex A, is headed towards our Galaxy. This high-velocity cloud is made up of 2 million solar masses of neutral and ionized hydrogen. This cloud is traveling through the Galactic halo, which causes a headwind that damages the cloud. Light escaping the Milky Way’s disk also hits the cloud and ionizes it. Using 21-cm radio observations from the Green Bank Telescope, we studied the motions of the gas. We found that diffuse gas is lagging behind the denser parts of the cloud. These motions suggest that gas is being stripped off the cloud and that it is dissolving into the Galactic halo. This disruptive process means that less gas will safely reach the disk of Milky Way and therefore the cloud will provide less gas for making future stars.

  1. F Turnoff Distribution in the Galactic Halo Using Globular Clusters as Proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, Matthew; Newberg, H. J.; Simones, J.; Monaco, M.; Cole, N.

    2012-01-01

    F turnoff stars are important tools for studying Galactic halo substructure because they are plentiful, luminous, and can be easily selected by their photometric colors from large surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We describe the absolute magnitude distribution of color-selected F turnoff stars, as measured from SDSS data, for eleven globular clusters in the Milky Way halo. We find that the absolute magnitude distribution of turnoff stars is intrinsically the same for all clusters studied, and is well fit by two half Gaussian functions, centered at μ = 4.18, with a bright-side σ = 0.36, and with a faint-side σ = 0.76. However, the color errors and detection efficiencies cause the observed σ of the faint-side Gaussian to change with magnitude due to contamination from redder main sequence stars (40% at 21st magnitude). We present a function that will correct for this magnitude-dependent change in selected stellar populations, when calculating stellar density from color-selected turnoff stars. We also present a consistent set of distances, ages and metallicities for eleven clusters in the SDSS Data Release 7. We calculate a linear correction function to Padova isochrones so that they are consistent with SDSS globular cluster data from previous papers. We show that our cluster population falls along the theoretical Age-Metallicity Relationship (AMR), and further find that isochrones for stellar populations on the AMR have very similar turnoffs; increasing metallicity and decreasing age conspire to produce similar turnoff magnitudes and colors for all old clusters that lie on the AMR. This research was supported by NSF grant AST 10-09670 and the NASA/NY Space Grant.

  2. Absolute proper motions to B approximately 22.5: Evidence for kimematical substructure in halo field stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majewski, Steven R.; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Hawley, Suzanne L.

    1994-01-01

    Radial velocities have been obtained for six of nine stars identified on the basis of similar distances and common, extreme transverse velocities in the proper motion survey of Majewski (1992) as a candidate halo moving group at the north Galactic pole. These radial velocities correspond to velocities perpendicular to the Galactic plane which span the range -48 +/- 21 to -128 +/- 9 km/sec (but a smaller range, -48 +/- 21 to -86 +/- 19 km/sec, when only our own measurements are considered), significantly different than the expected distribution, with mean 0 km/sec, for a random sample of either halo or thick disk stars. The probability of picking such a set of radial velocities at random is less than 1%. Thus the radial velocity data support the hypothesis that these stars constitute part of a halo moving group or star stream at a distance of approximately 4-5 kpc above the Galactic plane. If real, this moving group is evidence for halo phase space substructure which may be the fossil remains of a destroyed globular cluster, Galactic satellite, or Searle & Zinn (1978) 'fragment.'

  3. High S/N Observations of Low-Ionization Gas Through the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, D. M.; Roth, K. C.; Savage, B. D.; Lu, L.

    1993-12-01

    Optical absorption-line studies of extragalactic objects can now provide a sensitive probe of low-ionization gas over the full extent of the Galactic halo. Such work is particularly pertinent to a better understanding of the distances, metallicities, and sky coverage of the high-velocity clouds (HVCs) primarily observed in H I 21 cm emission. We have recently obtained high S/N, high resolution (20 km s(-1) ) KPNO 4-m echelle observations of the Ca II absorption toward the QSO 1821+643, the Seyfert galaxy Mkn 231, and SN 1993J in the galaxy M81. We detect a weak (W_lambda ~30 m Angstroms) Ca II component at an LSR velocity of -140 km s(-1) toward 1821+643 that corresponds to the Outer Arm H I HVC Complex. In the case of Mkn 231, we find no evidence of high-velocity Ca II absorption despite the location of this sightline near H I HVC Complex C. Our Ca II observations toward SN 1993J are especially exceptional in quality (S/N~500) and reveal absorption due to the Galactic halo, the disk of M81, and intergalactic material in the M81 group. Although the M81 disk gas dominates the absorption in the velocity region encompassing HVC Complex C, we do find a high-velocity component at +228 km s(-1) in Ca II that has also been seen in Mg II absorption with HST (Bowen et al. 1994, Ap. J. (Letters), in press). Our echelle spectra of SN 1993J also reveal detections of other interstellar atoms and molecules such as Ti II, Ca I, and CH(+) \\@. The Ti II measurement is particularly interesting in that it represents the first detection of Ti II toward an extragalactic object and indicates a Ti II scale height of about 1200 pc which is somewhat less than expected from observations of Ti II toward halo stars.

  4. Connecting Galaxies, Halos, and Star Formation Rates Across Cosmic Time

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, Charlie; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2008-06-02

    A simple, observationally-motivated model is presented for understanding how halo masses, galaxy stellar masses, and star formation rates are related, and how these relations evolve with time. The relation between halo mass and galaxy stellar mass is determined by matching the observed spatial abundance of galaxies to the expected spatial abundance of halos at multiple epochs--i.e. more massive galaxies are assigned to more massive halos at each epoch. This 'abundance matching' technique has been shown previously to reproduce the observed luminosity- and scale-dependence of galaxy clustering over a range of epochs. Halos at different epochs are connected by halo mass accretion histories estimated from N-body simulations. The halo-galaxy connection at fixed epochs in conjunction with the connection between halos across time provides a connection between observed galaxies across time. With approximations for the impact of merging and accretion on the growth of galaxies, one can then directly infer the star formation histories of galaxies as a function of stellar and halo mass. This model is tuned to match both the observed evolution of the stellar mass function and the normalization of the observed star formation rate--stellar mass relation to z {approx} 1. The data demands, for example, that the star formation rate density is dominated by galaxies with M{sub star} {approx} 10{sup 10.0-10.5} M{sub {circle_dot}} from 0 < z < 1, and that such galaxies over these epochs reside in halos with M{sub vir} {approx} 10{sup 11.5-12.5} M{sub {circle_dot}}. The star formation rate--halo mass relation is approximately Gaussian over the range 0 < z < 1 with a mildly evolving mean and normalization. This model is then used to shed light on a number of issues, including (1) a clarification of 'downsizing', (2) the lack of a sharp characteristic halo mass at which star formation is truncated, and (3) the dominance of star formation over merging to the stellar build-up of galaxies

  5. Discovery of two low-luminosity star clusters in the Milky Way halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongwon

    2015-08-01

    Star clusters in the halo of the Milky Way (MW) hold important clues to the formation and structure of their host galaxy. In the talk, I present the discovery of two new low-luminosity star clusters in the inner and outer halo of the Milky Way. These two star clusters, named as Kim 1 and Kim 2, were first detected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and our independent 500 sqr degree survey using the Dark Energy Survey camera (DECam) at the 4m Blanco telescope at CTIO repectively. Their true identies were confirmed by deep follow-up imaging using DECam and Gemini-South 8-m telescope. Kim 1 and Kim 2 both exhibit unsual physical properties compared to other classically known star clusters. Kim 1, located at a heliocentric distance of 17 kpc, features extremely low luminosity (Mv~0.3 mag) and low star concentration. Together with the high ellipticity (e ~ 0.4) and irregular isophotes, these properties suggest that we are seeing an intermediate mass star cluster being stripped by the Galactic tidal field. In the case of Kim 2, ~ 104 kpc away from the sun, is the faintest globular cluster ever found in the outer halo of the Milky Way. The globular cluster exhibits evidence of significant mass loss such as extra-tidal stars and mass-segregation. The observed properties of the new star cluster also raise the question about how such a low luminosity star cluster could have survived until today. One possible scenario is that Kim 2 is a star cluster originally located in a satellite dwarf galaxy and was accreted into the Milky Way's halo.

  6. HaloSat: A CubeSat to Map the Distribution of Baryonic Matter in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Drew M.

    2016-04-01

    Approximately half of predicted baryonic matter in the Milky Way remains unidentified. One possible explanation for the location of this missing matter is in an extended Galactic halo. HaloSat is a CubeSat that aims to constrain the mass and distribution of the halo’s baryonic matter by obtaining an all-sky map of O VII and O VIII emission in the hot gas associated with the halo of the Milky Way. HaloSat offers an improvement in the quality of measurements of oxygen line emission over existing X-ray observatories and an observation plan dedicated to mapping the hot gas in the Galactic halo. In addition to the missing baryon problem, HaloSat will assign a portion of its observations to the solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) in order to calibrate models of SCWX emission. We present here the current status of HaloSat and the progression of instrument development in anticipation of a 2018 launch.

  7. ASSEMBLY OF THE OUTER GALACTIC STELLAR HALO IN THE HIERARCHICAL MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Murante, Giuseppe; Curir, Anna; Poglio, Eva; Villalobos, Alvaro E-mail: curir@oato.inaf.i E-mail: villalobos@oats.inaf.i

    2010-06-20

    We provide a set of numerical N-body simulations for studying the formation of the outer Milky Ways' stellar halo through accretion events. After simulating minor mergers of prograde and retrograde orbiting satellite halos with a dark matter main halo, we analyze the signal left by satellite stars in the rotation velocity distribution. The aim is to explore the orbital conditions where a retrograde signal in the outer part of the halo can be obtained, in order to give a possible explanation of the observed rotational properties of the Milky Way stellar halo. Our results show that, for satellites more massive than {approx}1/40 of the main halo, the dynamical friction has a fundamental role in assembling the final velocity distributions resulting from different orbits and that retrograde satellites moving on low-inclination orbits deposit more stars in the outer halo regions and therefore can produce the counter-rotating behavior observed in the outer Milky Way halo.

  8. Changes in interstellar atomic abundances from the galactic plane to the halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, E. B.

    1982-01-01

    A few, specially selected interstellar absorption lines were measured in the high resolution, far ultraviolet spectra of 200 O and B type stars observed by the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). For lines of sight extending beyond about 500 pc from the galactic plane, the abundance of singly ionized iron atoms increases relative to singly ionized sulfur. However, the relative abundances of singly ionized sulfur, silicon and aluminum do not seem to change appreciably. An explanation for the apparent increase of iron is the partial sputtering of material off the surfaces of dust grains by interstellar shocks. Another possibility might be that the ejecta from type I supernovae enrich the low density medium in the halo with iron.

  9. Simultaneous orbit fitting of stellar streams: Constraining the galactic dark matter halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Benjamin Arthur

    2010-12-01

    The Milky Way Galaxy serves as a laboratory for testing models of galaxy formation. Discovering the nature of dark matter is often cited as the second most important problem in astrophysics, preceded only by dark energy. Mapping the structure and dynamics of the Milky Way Galaxy can tell us how galaxies form, and place constraints on the properties of dark matter. We can map the distribution of dark matter in the Milky Way using tidal streams, collections of stars that have been gravitationally stripped from satellite dwarf galaxies and globular clusters. By knowing the positions and velocities of these stars, and assuming they came from a compact source, we can follow them back in time and constrain the shape of the Milky Way dark matter halo. This Thesis presents a method that allows us to constrain the parameters of a static Galactic gravitational potential using the data from any number of tidal debris streams. The method is tested on simulated tidal streams, and successfully recovers the original model parameters in most cases. The importance of simultaneously fitting the measured rotation curve of the Milky Way is explored, and the strengths and weaknesses of the algorithm are discussed. The orbit fitting algorithm is applied independently to the Stream of Grillmair and Dionatos (GD-1), the Orphan Stream, and the Cetus Polar Stream (CPS). We show that no known globular cluster or dwarf galaxy in the Milky Way has kinematics consistent with being the progenitor of the GD-1 stream. The Orphan Stream constrains the Milky Way dark matter halo as having a mass at the low end of previous measurements, giving a best fit halo speed of vhalo = 73 +/- 24 km s-1, compared to typical values of vhalo ≈ 115 km s -1. A lower halo speed implies a less massive halo. The GD-1 and Orphan streams are then fit simultaneously with the Sagittarius Dwarf Tidal Stream (Sgr), within a triaxial dark matter halo. Results for restricted triaxial cases are shown to be consistent with

  10. PG 0832 + 676 - An apparently normal B1 V star 18 kiloparsecs above the galactic plane

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.J.F.; Dufton, P.L.; Keenan, F.P.; Boksenberg, A.; King, D.L.

    1989-04-01

    Stellar equivalent widths and line profiles, measured from optical spectra obtained with the 5 m Hale telescope and the 2.5 m Isaac Newton telescope, are used in conjunction with model atmosphere calculations to determine the atmospheric parameters and chemical composition of the faint, blue, high-galactic latitude star PG 0832 + 676. The effective temperature (Teff = 25,000 K), surface gravity (log g = 3.9), and abundances of He, C, N, O, Mg, Al, and Si are similar to those of Population I OB-type stars, from which it is concluded that PG 0832 + 676 is a normal star at a distance from the galactic plane of about 18 kpc. The star's kinematics and evolutionary age suggest that it formed in the halo, possibly from galactic fountain material. 51 refs.

  11. Identifying CEMP-s and CEMP-no Stars within Milky Way Halo Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz, Sarah Eliana; Beers, Timothy C.; Carollo, Daniela; Yoon, Jinmi; Placco, Vinicius M.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars are ancient objects used to probe the star-formation history of the first generations of stars in the Galactic halo. CEMP stars may be further separated into sub-classes based on the presence or absence of heavy elements associated with different neutron-capture processes. Here we examine CEMP stars enriched with the nucleosynthesis products of the slow neutron-capture process (CEMP-s stars) and those that exhibit no strong neutron-capture element enrichments (CEMP-no stars), which are preferentially found in the Galaxy’s inner and outer halo regions, respectively [1,2].Recent structure-finding algorithms have been applied to samples of K giants from SDSS to identify groups of associated stars and classify them as members of known structures, such as the Sagittarius tidal debris stream [3]. Here we investigate whether CEMP-s and CEMP-no stars are associated in different proportion with such structures or with the diffuse halo. We distinguish CEMP-s stars from CEMP-no stars using metallicity ([Fe/H]) and carbonicity ([C/Fe]), a method that has been demonstrated to be as effective as separation based on the presence of Ba enhancements used in the past [4]. We discuss the impact of our results on our understanding of the nature of CEMP stars and their progenitor populations, as well as on the assembly history of the Milky Way.This work received partial support from PHY 14-30152; Physics Frontier Center/JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements (JINA-CEE), awarded by the US National Science Foundation.References:[1] Carollo, D. et al. 2007, Nature, 450, 1020[2] Carollo, D. et al. 2010, ApJ, 712, 692[3] Janesh, W. et al. 2016, ApJ, 816, 80[4] Yoon, J. et al. 2016, ApJ, in press (arXiv:1607.06336)

  12. r-Process Elements in EMP stars: Indicators of Inhomogeneous Early Halo Enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Johannes; Nordström, Birgitta; Thidemann Hansen, Terese

    2015-08-01

    Extremely metal-poor (EMP) halo stars with [Fe/H] below ~ -3 are considered to be fossil records of conditions in the early halo. In the simplest picture where iron is a proxy for overall metallicity and indirectly for time, EMP stars formed before the oldest and most metal-poor Galactic globular clusters. High-resolution spectroscopy with 8m-class telescopes has shown the detailed abundance pattern of these stars to be surprisingly uniform (e.g. Bonifacio+ 2012) and essentially Solar, apart from the α-enhancement typical of SN II nucleosynthesis. A small fraction (~3%) of EMP stars, however, is strongly enhanced in the heaviest (r-process) neutron-capture elements, highlighting that the periodic system of elements was fully populated already this early.These striking departures from the general chemical homogeneity could be produced by local or distant sources. The former case is simple - mass transfer from a binary companion that evolved to produce a highly neutron-rich environment (one or more NS). Alternatively, the r-process elements were formed in a site at interstellar distance and preferentially seeded into the natal clouds of the present-day EMP-r stars. Our long-term, precise monitoring of the radial velocities of a sample of such stars (Hansen+ 2011) disproved the binary hypothesis, which would in fact also fail to explain the existence of r-process poor stars, such as HD 122653. We thus conclude that the chemical enrichment of the early halo was far more complex, patchy and likely anisotropic than assumed in current models of Galactic chemical evolution: The EMP-r stars are not just peculiarities to be ignored, but indicate that a new level of complexity must be invoked. That r-process elements have not (yet) been observed in high-redshift DLA systems is readily explained by their low abundance relative to the lighter species and the rarity of strong enrichment events.

  13. White dwarf stars and the age of the Galactic disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    The history of the Galaxy is written in its oldest stars, the white dwarf (WD) stars. Significant limits can be placed on both the Galactic age and star formation history. A wide range of input WD model sequences is used to derive the current limits to the age estimates suggested by fitting to the observed falloff in the WD luminosity function. The results suggest that the star formation rate over the history of the Galaxy has been relatively constant, and that the disk age lies in the range 6-12 billion years, depending upon the assumed structure of WD stars, and in particular on the core composition and surface helium layer mass. Using plausible mixed C/O core input models, the estimates for the disk age range from 8-10.5 Gyr, i.e.,sustantially younger than most age estimates for the halo globular clusters. After speculating on the significance of the results, expected observational and theoretical refinements which will further enhance the reliability of the method are discussed.

  14. The Velocity Anisotropy of Distant Milky Way Halo Stars from Hubble Space Telescope Proper Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deason, A. J.; Van der Marel, R. P.; Guhathakurta, P.; Sohn, S. T.; Brown, T. M.

    2013-03-01

    Based on long baseline (5-7 years) multi-epoch HST/ACS photometry, used previously to measure the proper motion of M31, we present the proper motions (PMs) of 13 main-sequence Milky Way halo stars. The sample lies at an average distance of r ~= 24 kpc from the Galactic center, with a root-mean-square spread of 6 kpc. At this distance, the median PM accuracy is 5 km s-1. We devise a maximum likelihood routine to determine the tangential velocity ellipsoid of the stellar halo. The velocity second moments in the directions of the Galactic (l, b) system are < v^2_l > ^{1/2} = 123^{+29}_{-23} km s-1, and < v^2_b > ^{1/2} = 83^{+24}_{-16} km s-1. We combine these results with the known line-of-sight second moment, < v^2_los > ^{1/2} = 105 +/- 5 km s-1, at this langrrang to study the velocity anisotropy of the halo. We find approximate isotropy between the radial and tangential velocity distributions, with anisotropy parameter β = 0.0^{+0.2}_{-0.4}. Our results suggest that the stellar halo velocity anisotropy out to r ~ 30 kpc is less radially biased than solar neighborhood measurements. This is opposite to what is expected from violent relaxation, and may indicate the presence of a shell-type structure at r ~ 24 kpc. With additional multi-epoch HST data, the method presented here has the ability to measure the transverse kinematics of the halo for more stars, and to larger distances. This can yield new improved constraints on the stellar halo formation mechanism, and the mass of the Milky Way.

  15. Photoionization of the diffuse interstellar medium and galactic halo by OB associtations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dove, James B.; Shull, J. Michael

    1994-01-01

    Assuming smoothly varying H I distributions in te Galactic disk, we have calculated the geometry of diffuse II regions due to OB associations in the Galactic plane. Near the solar circle, OB associations with a Lyman continuum (Lyc) photon luminosity Psi(sub Lyc) = 3.3 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2) s(exp -1), produce H II regions that are density bounded in the vertical direction (H II chimneys) allowing Lyc to escape the gaseous disk and penetrate into the Galactic halo. We provide analytic formulae for the Lyc escape fraction as functions of S(sub 0) O-star catalog of Garmany and a new Lyc stellar stellar Lyc stellar flux calibration, we find a production rate of Lyc photons by OB associations within 2.5 kpc of Psi(sub Lyc) = 3.3 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2) s(exp -1). Integrating the fraction of Lyc photons that escape the disk over our adopted luminosity function of OB associations, we estimate that approximately 7% of the ionizing photons, or Phi(sub Lyc) = 2.3 x 10(exp 6) cm(exp -2) s(exp -1), escape each side of the H I disk layer and penetrate the diffuse ionized medium ('Reynolds layer'). This flux is sufficient to explain the potoionization of this, although we have not constructed a model for the observed H-alpha emission and pulsar dispersion measures that is fully consistent with the absorption rate of Lyc in the H II layer. Since our quiescent model does not account for the effects of dynamic chimneys and superbubbles, which should enhance Lyc escape, we conclude the O stars are the probable source of ionizing radiation for the Reynolds layer. For a random distribution of OB associations throughout the disk, the Lyc flux is nearly uniform for heights Z is greater than approximately 0.8 kpc above the midplane.

  16. Intermediate-metallicity, high-velocity stars and Galactic chemical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, S. G.; Smith, I. M.

    2003-05-01

    High signal-to-noise ratio spectra were obtained of 10 high-proper-motion stars having -1 <~[Fe/H] < 0, and a comparable number of disc stars. All but two of the high-proper-motion stars were confirmed to have [Fe/H] > -1.0, some approaching solar metallicity, but, even so, earlier measurements overestimated the metallicities and velocities of some of these stars. Models of stellar populations were used to assign membership probabilities to the Galactic components to which the high-velocity stars might belong. Many were found to be more probably thick-disc than halo objects, despite their large space motions, and two might be associated with the inner Galaxy. It may be necessary to reassess contamination of previous halo samples, such as those used to define the metallicity distribution, to account for contamination by high-velocity thick-disc stars, and to consider possible subcomponents of the halo. The change in [α/Fe] ratios at [Fe/H]~=-1.0 is often used to constrain the degree and timing of Type Ia supernova nucleosynthesis in Galactic chemical-evolution models. [Ti/Fe] values were measured for eight of the high-velocity stars. Both high- and low-[Ti/Fe] halo stars exist; likewise high- and low-[Ti/Fe] thick-disc stars exist. We conclude that the [Ti/Fe]`break' is not well defined for a given population; nor is there a simple, continuous evolutionary sequence through the break. Implications for the interpretation of the [α/Fe] break in terms of SN Ia time-scales and progenitors are discussed. The range of [Ti/Fe] found for high-velocity (low rotation) thick-disc stars contrasts with that for the low-velocity (high rotation) thick-disc sample studied by Prochaska et al.

  17. White Dwarfs in the Galaxy's Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, B.; Murdin, P.

    2002-12-01

    The Galaxy's large spherical halo (see GALACTICMETAL-POOR HALO and HALO, GALACTIC) may harboras many as several hundred billion WHITE DWARFS, apopulation as large in number as the total number of stars in theGalaxy's disk (see DISK GALAXIES and GALACTIC THIN DISK). Although this assertion iscontroversial, several astronomical surveys provide strong support for it andthe implications affect fields ...

  18. CALET's sensitivity to Dark Matter annihilation in the galactic halo

    SciTech Connect

    Motz, H.; Asaoka, Y.; Torii, S.; Bhattacharyya, S. E-mail: yoichi.asaoka@aoni.waseda.jp E-mail: saptashwab@ruri.waseda.jp

    2015-12-01

    CALET (Calorimetric Electron Telescope), installed on the ISS in August 2015, directly measures the electron+positron cosmic rays flux up to 20 TeV. With its proton rejection capability of 1 : 10{sup 5} and an aperture of 1200 cm{sup 2·} sr, it will provide good statistics even well above one TeV, while also featuring an energy resolution of 2%, which allows it to detect fine structures in the spectrum. Such structures may originate from Dark Matter annihilation or decay, making indirect Dark Matter search one of CALET's main science objectives among others such as identification of signatures from nearby supernova remnants, study of the heavy nuclei spectra and gamma astronomy. The latest results from AMS-02 on positron fraction and total electron+positron flux can be fitted with a parametrization including a single pulsar as an extra power law source with exponential cut-off, which emits an equal amount of electrons and positrons. This single pulsar scenario for the positron excess is extrapolated into the TeV region and the expected CALET data for this case are simulated. Based on this prediction for CALET data, the sensitivity of CALET to Dark Matter annihilation in the galactic halo has been calculated. It is shown that CALET could significantly improve the limits compared to current data, especially for those Dark Matter candidates that feature a large fraction of annihilation directly into e{sup +} + e{sup −}, such as the LKP (Lightest Kaluza-Klein particle)

  19. An ancient F-type subdwarf from the halo crossing the Galactic plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, R.-D.; Heber, U.; Heuser, C.; Ziegerer, E.; Geier, S.; Niederhofer, F.

    2015-02-01

    Aims: We selected the bluest object, WISE J0725-2351, from Luhman's new high proper motion (HPM) survey based on observations with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for spectroscopic follow-up observations. Our aim was to unravel the nature of this relatively bright (V ~ 12, J ~ 11) HPM star (μ = 267 mas/yr). Methods: We obtained low- and medium-resolution spectra with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) New Technology Telescope (NTT)/EFOSC2 and Very Large Telescope (VLT)/X-Shooter instruments, investigated the radial velocity and performed a quantitative spectral analysis that allowed us to determine physical parameters. The fit of the spectral energy distribution based on the available photometry to low-metallicity model spectra and the similarity of our target to a metal-poor benchmark star (HD 84937) allowed us to estimate the distance and space velocity. Results: As in the case of HD 84937, we classified WISE J0725-2351 as sdF5: or a metal-poor turnoff star with [ Fe/H ] = -2.0 ± 0.2, Teff = 6250 ± 100 K, log g = 4.0 ± 0.2, and a possible age of about 12 Gyr. At an estimated distance of more than 400 pc, its proper motion translates to a tangential velocity of more than 500 km s-1. Together with its constant (on timescales of hours, days, and months) and large radial velocity (about +240 km s-1), the resulting Galactic restframe velocity is about 460 km s-1, implying a bound retrograde orbit for this extreme halo object that currently crosses the Galactic plane at high speed. Based on observations at the La Silla-Paranal Observatory of the European Southern Observatory for programmes 092.D-0040(A) and 093.D-0127(A).

  20. RR Lyrae in XSTPS: The halo density profile in the north galactic cap

    SciTech Connect

    Faccioli, L.; Smith, M. C.; Yuan, H.-B.; Liu, X.-W.; Zhang, H.-H.; Zhao, H.-B.; Yao, J.-S. E-mail: msmith@shao.ac.cn

    2014-06-20

    We present a catalog of RR Lyrae stars (RRLs) observed by the Xuyi Schmidt Telescope Photometric Survey (XSTPS). The area we consider is located in the north Galactic cap, covering ≈376.75 deg{sup 2} at α ≈ 150° and δ ≈ 27° down to a magnitude limit of i ≈ 19. Using the variability information afforded by the multi-epoch nature of our XSTPS data, combined with colors from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we are able to identify candidate RRLs. We find 318 candidates, derive distances to them, and estimate the detection efficiency. The majority of our candidates have more than 12 observations, and for these we are able to calculate periods. These also allow us to estimate our contamination level, which we predict is between 30% and 40%. Finally, we use the sample to probe the halo density profile in the 9-49 kpc range and find that it can be well fitted by a double power law. We find good agreement between this model and the models derived for the south Galactic cap using the Watkins et al. and Sesar et al. RRL data sets, after accounting for possible contamination in our data set from Sagittarius stream members. We consider non-spherical double power-law models of the halo density profile and again find agreement with literature data sets, although we have limited power to constrain the flattening due to our small survey area. Much tighter constraints will be placed by current and future wide-area surveys, most notably ESA's astrometric Gaia mission. Our analysis demonstrates that surveys with a limited number of epochs can effectively be mined for RRLs. Our complete sample is provided as accompanying online material; as an example the first few entries of each electronic table are shown in the text.

  1. Chronography of the Milky Way's Halo System with Field Blue Horizontal-branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santucci, Rafael M.; Beers, Timothy C.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Carollo, Daniela; Rossi, Silvia; Lee, Young Sun; Denissenkov, Pavel; Tumlinson, Jason; Tissera, Patricia B.

    2015-11-01

    In a pioneering effort, Preston et al. reported that the colors of blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars in the halo of the Galaxy shift with distance, from regions near the Galactic center to about 12 kpc away, and interpreted this as a correlated variation in the ages of halo stars, from older to younger, spanning a range of a few Gyrs. We have applied this approach to a sample of some 4700 spectroscopically confirmed BHB stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to produce the first “chronographic map” of the halo of the Galaxy. We demonstrate that the mean de-reddened g - r color, < {(g-r)}0> , increases outward in the Galaxy from -0.22 to -0.08 (over a color window spanning [-0.3: 0.0]) from regions close to the Galactic center to ˜40 kpc, independent of the metallicity of the stars. Models of the expected shift in the color of the field BHB stars based on modern stellar evolutionary codes confirm that this color gradient can be associated with an age difference of roughly 2-2.5 Gyr, with the oldest stars concentrated in the central ˜15 kpc of the Galaxy. Within this central region, the age difference spans a mean color range of about 0.05 mag (˜0.8 Gyr). Furthermore, we show that chronographic maps can be used to identify individual substructures, such as the Sagittarius Stream, and overdensities in the direction of Virgo and Monoceros, based on the observed contrast in their mean BHB colors with respect to the foreground/background field population.

  2. The Evolution of Pristine Gas: Implications for Milky Way Halo Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmento, Richard J.; Scannapieco, Evan; Pan, Liubin

    2016-06-01

    We implement a new subgrid model for turbulent mixing to accurately follow the cosmological evolution of the first stars, the mixing of their supernova ejecta and the impact on the chemical composition of the Galactic Halo. Using the cosmological adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES, we implement a model for the pollution of pristine gas as described in Pan et al. (2013). This allows us to account for the fraction of Z < Zcrit stars formed throughout the simulation volume, even in regions in which the average metallicity is well above Zcrit. Further, as a result of modeling the pristine fraction of gas, we also improve our modeling of the metallicity of the polluted fraction, fpol, of both the gas and stars.Additionally, we track the evolution of the “primordial metals” generated by Pop III supernovae. These metals are taken up by second-generation stars and are likely to lead to unique abundance signatures characteristic of carbon enhanced, metal poor (CEMP) stars. As an illustrative example, we associate primordial metals with abundance ratios used by Keller at al (2014) to explain the source of metals in the star SMSS J031300.36- 670839.3, finding good agreement with the observed [Fe/H], [C/H], [O/H] and [Mg/Ca] ratios in CEMP Milky Way (MW) halo stars.

  3. PRIMUS: One- and Two-halo Galactic Conformity at 0.2 < z < 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berti, Angela M.; Coil, Alison L.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Bray, Aaron D.; Cool, Richard J.; Moustakas, John

    2017-01-01

    We test for galactic conformity at 0.2< z< 1.0 to a projected distance of 5 Mpc using spectroscopic redshifts from the PRism MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS). Our sample consists of ∼60,000 galaxies in five separate fields covering a total of ∼5.5 square degrees, which allows us to account for cosmic variance. We identify star-forming and quiescent “isolated primary” (i.e., central) galaxies using isolation criteria and cuts in specific star formation rate. We match the redshift and stellar mass distributions of these samples to control for correlations between quiescent fraction and redshift and stellar mass. We detect a significant (>3σ) one-halo conformity signal, or an excess of star-forming neighbors around star-forming central galaxies, of ∼5% on scales of 0–1 Mpc and a 2.5σ two-halo signal of ∼1% on scales of 1–3 Mpc. These signals are weaker than those detected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and are consistent with galactic conformity being the result of large-scale tidal fields and reflecting assembly bias. We also measure the star-forming fraction of central galaxies at fixed stellar mass as a function of large-scale environment and find that central galaxies are more likely to be quenched in overdense environments, independent of stellar mass. However, we find that environment does not affect the star formation efficiency of central galaxies, as long as they are forming stars. We test for redshift and stellar mass dependence of the conformity signal within our sample and show that large volumes and multiple fields are required at intermediate redshift to adequately account for cosmic variance.

  4. A model atmosphere analysis of the faint early-type halo star PHL 346

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, F. P.; Lennon, D. J.; Brown, P. J. F.; Dufton, P. L.

    1986-08-01

    Stellar equivalent widths and hydrogen line profiles, measured from high-resolution optical spectra obtained with the 2.5 m Issac Newton Telescope, are used in conjunction with model atmosphere calculations to determine the atmospheric parameters and chemical composition of the faint, high galactic latitude early-type star PHL 346. The effective temperature (Teff = 22,600 + or - 1000 K) and surface gravity (log g = 3.6 + or - 0.2), as well as the chemical composition, are found to be similar to those of normal OB stars. Therefore, it is concluded that PHL 346 is an ordinary Population I object, at a z distance of 8.7 + or - 1.5 kpc. The relatively small stellar velocity in the z-direction (Vz = +56 + or - 10 km/s) then implies that PHL 346 must have been formed in the halo, possibly from galactic fountain material at a z distance of about 6 kpc.

  5. THE CLUSTERING AND HALO MASSES OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z < 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dolley, Tim; Brown, Michael J. I.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Palamara, David P.; Beare, Richard; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Brodwin, Mark; Kochanek, C. S.; Dey, Arjun; Atlee, David W.

    2014-12-20

    We present clustering measurements and halo masses of star-forming galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0. After excluding active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we construct a sample of 22,553 24 μm sources selected from 8.42 deg{sup 2} of the Spitzer MIPS AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey of Boötes. Mid-infrared imaging allows us to observe galaxies with the highest star formation rates (SFRs), less biased by dust obscuration afflicting the optical bands. We find that the galaxies with the highest SFRs have optical colors that are redder than typical blue cloud galaxies, with many residing within the green valley. At z > 0.4 our sample is dominated by luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs, L {sub TIR} > 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉}) and is composed entirely of LIRGs and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs, L {sub TIR} > 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}) at z > 0.6. We observe weak clustering of r {sub 0} ≈ 3-6 h {sup –1} Mpc for almost all of our star-forming samples. We find that the clustering and halo mass depend on L {sub TIR} at all redshifts, where galaxies with higher L {sub TIR} (hence higher SFRs) have stronger clustering. Galaxies with the highest SFRs at each redshift typically reside within dark matter halos of M {sub halo} ≈ 10{sup 12.9} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}. This is consistent with a transitional halo mass, above which star formation is largely truncated, although we cannot exclude that ULIRGs reside within higher mass halos. By modeling the clustering evolution of halos, we connect our star-forming galaxy samples to their local descendants. Most star-forming galaxies at z < 1.0 are the progenitors of L ≲ 2.5 L {sub *} blue galaxies in the local universe, but star-forming galaxies with the highest SFRs (L {sub TIR} ≳ 10{sup 11.7} L {sub ☉}) at 0.6 < z < 1.0 are the progenitors of early-type galaxies in denser group environments.

  6. Ultrahigh energy neutrinos from galactic neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to estimate the production rate of ultrahigh energy (UHE) neutrinos from galactic neutron stars. The statistics of various stellar populations are reviewed as well as an evolutionary scheme linking several neutron star environments. An observational test for predicting stellar evolution is made using two mass ratio intervals of less than 0.3 and greater than or approximately equal to 0.3, which is supported by kinematical evidence. Attention is given to the problem of the target material that is required by UHE protons accelerated from the pulsar's surface to their rotational kinetic energy, and to the detectability of neutron stars in the UHE neutrinos by employing the deep underwater muon and neutrino detector (DUMAND) array.

  7. The Halo Stars in NGC 5128. III. An Inner Halo Field and the Metallicity Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, William E.; Harris, Gretchen L. H.

    2002-06-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 (V,I) photometry for field stars in NGC 5128 at a projected distance of 8 kpc from the galaxy center, which probes a mixture of its inner halo and outer bulge. The color-magnitude diagram shows an old red giant branch that is even broader in color than our two previously studied outer halo fields (at 21 and 31 kpc), with significant numbers of stars extending to solar metallicity and higher. The peak frequency of the metallicity distribution function (MDF) is at [m/H]~=-0.4, with even fewer metal-poor stars than in the outer halo fields. If we use the 21 and 31 kpc fields to define template ``halo'' MDFs and subtract these from the 8 kpc field, the residual ``bulge'' population has a mean [m/H]~=-0.2, similar to the bulges of other large spiral and elliptical galaxies. We find that the main features of the halo MDF can be reproduced by a simple chemical evolution model in which early star formation goes on simultaneously with an initial stage of rapid infall of very metal-poor gas, after which the infall dies away exponentially. Finally, by comparison with the MDFs for the NGC 5128 globular clusters, we find that in all the halo fields we have studied there is a clear decrease of specific frequency SN (number of clusters per unit halo light) with increasing metallicity. At the lowest-metallicity range ([Fe/H]<-1.6) SN is ~4-8, while at metallicities [Fe/H]>-1 it has dropped to ~=1.5. This trend may indicate that globular cluster formation efficiency is a strong function of the metallicity of the protocluster gas. However, we suggest an alternate possibility, which is that globular clusters form preferentially sooner than field stars. If most of the cluster formation within a host giant molecular cloud takes place sooner than most of the distributed field-star formation and if the earliest most metal-poor star-forming clouds are prematurely disrupted by their own first bursts of star formation, then they would leave

  8. HOW GALACTIC ENVIRONMENT REGULATES STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Meidt, Sharon E.

    2016-02-10

    In a new simple model I reconcile two contradictory views on the factors that determine the rate at which molecular clouds form stars—internal structure versus external, environmental influences—providing a unified picture for the regulation of star formation in galaxies. In the presence of external pressure, the pressure gradient set up within a self-gravitating turbulent (isothermal) cloud leads to a non-uniform density distribution. Thus the local environment of a cloud influences its internal structure. In the simple equilibrium model, the fraction of gas at high density in the cloud interior is determined simply by the cloud surface density, which is itself inherited from the pressure in the immediate surroundings. This idea is tested using measurements of the properties of local clouds, which are found to show remarkable agreement with the simple equilibrium model. The model also naturally predicts the star formation relation observed on cloud scales and at the same time provides a mapping between this relation and the closer-to-linear molecular star formation relation measured on larger scales in galaxies. The key is that pressure regulates not only the molecular content of the ISM but also the cloud surface density. I provide a straightforward prescription for the pressure regulation of star formation that can be directly implemented in numerical models. Predictions for the dense gas fraction and star formation efficiency measured on large-scales within galaxies are also presented, establishing the basis for a new picture of star formation regulated by galactic environment.

  9. The Relative Ages and Fractions of the Accreted and In Situ Populations in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, K.; Jofré, P.; Masseron, T.

    2016-10-01

    The inner Galactic halo is thought to be formed by a combination of stars formed in situ and in dwarf galaxies that were accreted onto the Milky Way at later times. The two populations have been shown to be chemically distinct primarily in the α-elements such that the accreted population has lower [α/Fe] compared to the in situ stars at a constant metallicity. In this paper, we outline a powerful new spectral-indexing method to measure the [α/Fe] from low-resolution Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra, and use the method in addition to turnoff temperature to study the relative age difference between, and age-metallicity relation of, the accreted and in situ populations. Our results indicate that at high metallicities the α-poor population is systematically younger than the α-rich population, but becomes coeval at low metallicities. Finally, we discuss the implication of this finding and potential applications for the new method.

  10. The Segue K giant survey. II. A catalog of distance determinations for the Segue K giants in the galactic halo

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Xiang-Xiang; Rix, Hans-Walter; Ma, Zhibo; Morrison, Heather L.; Harding, Paul; Beers, Timothy C.; Ivans, Inese I.; Jacobson, Heather R.; Johnson, Jennifer; Lee, Young Sun; Lucatello, Sara; Rockosi, Constance M.; Yanny, Brian; Zhao, Gang; Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2014-04-01

    We present an online catalog of distance determinations for 6036 K giants, most of which are members of the Milky Way's stellar halo. Their medium-resolution spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration are used to derive metallicities and rough gravity estimates, along with radial velocities. Distance moduli are derived from a comparison of each star's apparent magnitude with the absolute magnitude of empirically calibrated color-luminosity fiducials, at the observed (g – r){sub 0} color and spectroscopic [Fe/H]. We employ a probabilistic approach that makes it straightforward to properly propagate the errors in metallicities, magnitudes, and colors into distance uncertainties. We also fold in prior information about the giant-branch luminosity function and the different metallicity distributions of the SEGUE K-giant targeting sub-categories. We show that the metallicity prior plays a small role in the distance estimates, but that neglecting the luminosity prior could lead to a systematic distance modulus bias of up to 0.25 mag, compared to the case of using the luminosity prior. We find a median distance precision of 16%, with distance estimates most precise for the least metal-poor stars near the tip of the red giant branch. The precision and accuracy of our distance estimates are validated with observations of globular and open clusters. The stars in our catalog are up to 125 kpc from the Galactic center, with 283 stars beyond 50 kpc, forming the largest available spectroscopic sample of distant tracers in the Galactic halo.

  11. Studies of the Hot Gas in the Galactic halo and Local Bubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Robin L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a report on the progress made on Studies of the Hot Gas in the Galactic halo and Local Bubble at Johns Hopkins University. The broad goals of this project are to determine the physical conditions and history of the hot phase of the Galaxy's interstellar medium. Such gas resides in the Galactic halo, the Local Bubble surrounding the solar neighborhood, other bubbles, and supernova remnants. A better understanding of the hot gas and the processes occurring within it requires several types of work, including ultraviolet and X-ray data analyses and computer modeling.

  12. Visibility of stars, halos, and rainbows during solar eclipses.

    PubMed

    Können, Gunther P; Hinz, Claudia

    2008-12-01

    The visibility of stars, planets, diffraction coronas, halos, and rainbows during the partial and total phases of a solar eclipse is studied. The limiting magnitude during various stages of the partial phase is presented. The sky radiance during totality with respect to noneclipse conditions is revisited and found to be typically 1/4000. The corresponding limiting magnitude is +3.5. At totality, the signal-to-background ratio of diffraction coronas, halos, and rainbows has dropped by a factor of 250. It is found that diffraction coronas around the totally eclipsed Sun may nevertheless occur. Analyses of lunar halo observations during twilight indicate that bright halo displays may also persist during totality. Rainbows during totality seem impossible.

  13. Magnetic fields and galactic star formation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, Sven Van; Tan, Jonathan C.; Falle, Sam A. E. G.

    2015-02-10

    The regulation of galactic-scale star formation rates (SFRs) is a basic problem for theories of galaxy formation and evolution: which processes are responsible for making observed star formation rates so inefficient compared to maximal rates of gas content divided by dynamical timescale? Here we study the effect of magnetic fields of different strengths on the evolution of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) within a kiloparsec patch of a disk galaxy and resolving scales down to ≃0.5 pc. Including an empirically motivated prescription for star formation from dense gas (n{sub H}>10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}) at an efficiency of 2% per local free-fall time, we derive the amount of suppression of star formation by magnetic fields compared to the nonmagnetized case. We find GMC fragmentation, dense clump formation, and SFR can be significantly affected by the inclusion of magnetic fields, especially in our strongest investigated B-field case of 80 μG. However, our chosen kiloparsec-scale region, extracted from a global galaxy simulation, happens to contain a starbursting cloud complex that is only modestly affected by these magnetic fields and likely requires internal star formation feedback to regulate its SFR.

  14. Exploring the Hot Galactic Halo Using Shadows of High Latitude Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juda, M.; Petre, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this proposal was to measure variations in the 1/4 keV emission from the galactic halo, using ROSAT (x-ray astronomy satellite) Position Sensitive Proportional Counters (PSPC) observations toward known enhancements in the absorbing column density along the line-of-sight out of the Galaxy. Target directions were selected to have a low total hydrogen column density but to also show significant gradients in the amount of absorbing material, as traced by Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) 100 micron emission, on angular scales that would be contained within the PSPC field of view. In addition, we restricted the galactic latitude of the target directions to be greater than 60 degrees or less than -60 degrees in order to enable a cleaner separation of Galactic halo emission from that of the Galactic disk. The observations would also provide a measurement of the brightness of the emission from the Local Bubble.

  15. Star Formation at the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    Could stars be forming in the inhospitable environment near Sagittarius A* in the heart of the Milky Way? A possible signature of low-mass star formation has recently been found just two light-years from the black hole at the center of our galaxy — a region that was previously thought to be too hostile for such activity. Searching for Signatures: Previous observations of the central few light-years of the Milky Way had focused on a population of about 200 massive, young and very bright stars in tight orbits around Sgr A*. These stars are only a few million years old and prompted scientists to wonder: have they somehow managed to form in situ, in spite of their close proximity to the black hole, or did they form further out and then migrate in? Motivated by this mystery, Farhad Yusef-Zadeh of Northwestern University and collaborators looked for evidence of even younger stars close to Sagittarius A*, which would demonstrate that star formation in the area is an ongoing process. Using the Very Large Array (VLA), the collaboration discovered several small sources in one arm of activity near Sgr A*. This 34-GHz image provides a close-up view of two protoplanetary disk candidates (labeled P26 and P8) located near Sgr A*. These objects are outlined on the right side by a bow shock caused by impacting stellar wind that streams from the young, hot stars closer to the Galactic center. The disks are thought to contain recently-formed, low-mass stars. (Credit: Yusef-Zadeh et al., 2015) Heated Disks: The team identified these sources as candidate photoevaporative protoplanetary disks, or “proplyds” — areas of dense, ionized gas and dust surrounding young, newly formed stars. The proplyd candidates are between 10,000 and 100,000 years old, and they lie along the edge of a large molecular cloud. It is likely that this cloud produced the disks by providing a reservoir of gas to feed the star-formation activity. The region surrounding these proplyds is blasted with harsh

  16. Carbon Stars in the Satellites and Halo of M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamren, Katherine; Beaton, Rachael L.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Tollerud, Erik J.; Boyer, Martha L.; Rockosi, Constance M.; Smith, Graeme H.; Majewski, Steven R.; Howley, Kirsten

    2016-09-01

    We spectroscopically identify a sample of carbon stars in the satellites and halo of M31 using moderate-resolution optical spectroscopy from the Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda’s Stellar Halo survey. We present the photometric properties of our sample of 41 stars, including their brightness with respect to the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) and their distributions in various color-color spaces. This analysis reveals a bluer population of carbon stars fainter than the TRGB and a redder population of carbon stars brighter than the TRGB. We then apply principal component analysis to determine the sample’s eigenspectra and eigencoefficients. Correlating the eigencoefficients with various observable properties reveals the spectral features that trace effective temperature and metallicity. Putting the spectroscopic and photometric information together, we find the carbon stars in the satellites and halo of M31 to be minimally impacted by dust and internal dynamics. We also find that while there is evidence to suggest that the sub-TRGB stars are extrinsic in origin, it is also possible that they are are particularly faint members of the asymptotic giant branch.

  17. THE ORIGIN OF THE HOT GAS IN THE GALACTIC HALO: TESTING GALACTIC FOUNTAIN MODELS' X-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.; Kwak, Kyujin; Hill, Alex S.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2015-02-20

    We test the X-ray emission predictions of galactic fountain models against XMM-Newton measurements of the emission from the Milky Way's hot halo. These measurements are from 110 sight lines, spanning the full range of Galactic longitudes. We find that a magnetohydrodynamical simulation of a supernova-driven interstellar medium, which features a flow of hot gas from the disk to the halo, reproduces the temperature but significantly underpredicts the 0.5-2.0 keV surface brightness of the halo (by two orders of magnitude, if we compare the median predicted and observed values). This is true for versions of the model with and without an interstellar magnetic field. We consider different reasons for the discrepancy between the model predictions and the observations. We find that taking into account overionization in cooled halo plasma, which could in principle boost the predicted X-ray emission, is unlikely in practice to bring the predictions in line with the observations. We also find that including thermal conduction, which would tend to increase the surface brightnesses of interfaces between hot and cold gas, would not overcome the surface brightness shortfall. However, charge exchange emission from such interfaces, not included in the current model, may be significant. The faintness of the model may also be due to the lack of cosmic ray driving, meaning that the model may underestimate the amount of material transported from the disk to the halo. In addition, an extended hot halo of accreted material may be important, by supplying hot electrons that could boost the emission of the material driven out from the disk. Additional model predictions are needed to test the relative importance of these processes in explaining the observed halo emission.

  18. Following the Cosmic Evolution of Pristine Gas. I. Implications for Milky Way Halo Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmento, Richard; Scannapieco, Evan; Pan, Liubin

    2017-01-01

    We make use of a new subgrid model of turbulent mixing to accurately follow the cosmological evolution of the first stars, the mixing of their supernova (SN) ejecta, and the impact on the chemical composition of the Galactic Halo. Using the cosmological adaptive mesh refinement code ramses, we implement a model for the pollution of pristine gas as described in Pan et al. Tracking the metallicity of Pop III stars with metallicities below a critical value allows us to account for the fraction of Z< {Z}{crit} stars formed even in regions in which the gas’s average metallicity is well above {Z}{crit}. We demonstrate that such partially mixed regions account for 0.5 to 0.7 of all Pop III stars formed up to z = 5. Additionally, we track the creation and transport of “primordial metals” (PM) generated by Pop III SNe. These neutron-capture deficient metals are taken up by second-generation stars and likely lead to unique abundance signatures characteristic of carbon-enhanced, metal-poor (CEMP-no) stars. As an illustrative example, we associate primordial metals with abundance ratios used by Keller et al. to explain the source of metals in the star SMSS J031300.36-670839.3, finding good agreement with the observed [Fe/H], [C/H], [O/H], and [Mg/Ca] ratios in CEMP-no Milky Way halo stars. Similar future simulations will aid in further constraining the properties of Pop III stars using CEMP observations, as well as improve predictions of the spatial distribution of Pop III stars, as will be explored by the next generation of ground- and space-based telescopes.

  19. Assembly history of subhalo populations in galactic and cluster sized dark haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Lizhi; Gao, Liang

    2015-12-01

    We make use of two suits of ultrahigh resolution N-body simulations of individual dark matter haloes from the Phoenix and the Aquarius Projects to investigate systematics of assembly history of subhaloes in dark matter haloes differing by a factor of 1000 in the halo mass. We have found that real progenitors which built up present-day subhalo population are relatively more abundant for high-mass haloes, in contrast to previous studies claiming a universal form independent of the host halo mass. That is mainly because of repeated counting of the `re-accreted' (progenitors passed through and were later re-accreted to the host more than once) and inclusion of the `ejected' progenitor population (progenitors were accreted to the host in the past but no longer members at present day) in previous studies. The typical accretion time for all progenitors vary strongly with the host halo mass, which is typical about z ˜ 5 for the galactic Aquarius and about z ˜ 3 for the cluster sized Phoenix haloes. Once these progenitors start to orbit their parent haloes, they rapidly lose their original mass but not their identifiers, more than 55 (50) per cent of them survive to present day for the Phoenix (Aquarius) haloes. At given redshift, survival fraction of the accreted subhalo is independent of the parent halo mass, whilst the mass-loss of the subhalo is more efficient in high-mass haloes. These systematics results in similarity and difference in the subhalo population in dark matter haloes of different masses at present day.

  20. Lithium abundance in a turnoff halo star on an extreme orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.

    2015-10-01

    Context. The lithium abundance in turnoff stars of the old population of our Galaxy is remarkably constant in the metallicity interval -2.8 < [Fe/H] < -2.0, defining a plateau. The Li abundance of these turnoff stars is clearly lower than the abundance predicted by the primordial nucleosynthesis in the frame of the standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis. Different scenarios have been proposed for explaining this discrepancy, along with the very low scatter of the lithium abundance around the plateau. Aims: The recently identified very high velocity star, WISE J0725-2351 appears to belong to the old Galactic population, and appears to be an extreme halo star on a bound, retrograde Galactic orbit. In this paper, we study the abundance ratios and, in particular the lithium abundance, in this star. Methods: The available spectra (ESO-Very Large Telescope) are analyzed and the abundances of Li, C, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Sr and Ba are determined. Results: The abundance ratios in WISE J0725-2351 are those typical of old turnoff stars. The lithium abundance in this star is in close agreement with the lithium abundance found in the metal-poor turnoff stars located at moderate distance from the Sun. This high velocity star confirms, in an extreme case, that the very small scatter of the lithium plateau persists independent of the dynamic and kinematic properties of the stars. Based on observations obtained at the ESO Paranal Observatory, Chile Programmes 093.D-0127, PI: S. Geier and 189.B-0925, PI: S. Trager.Table 2 (line by line abundances of the elements) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/582/A74

  1. The abundance of boron in three halo stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Douglas K.; Lambert, David L.; Lemke, Michael

    1992-01-01

    B abundances for three halo stars: HD 140283, HD 19445, and HD 201891 are presented. Using recent determinations of the Be abundance in HD 140283, B/Be of 10 +5/-4 is found for this star, and similar ratios are inferred for HD 19445 and HD 201891. This ratio is equal to the minimum value of 10 expected from a synthesis of B and Be by high-energy cosmic-ray spallation reactions in the interstellar medium. It is shown that the accompanying synthesis of Li by alpha on alpha fusion reactions is probably a minor contributor to the observed 'primordial' Li of halo stars. The observed constant ratios of B/O and Be/O are expected if the principal channel of synthesis involves cosmic-ray CNO nuclei from the supernovae colliding with interstellar protons.

  2. ORIGIN OF THE GALACTIC CENTER S-STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Griv, Evgeny

    2009-09-01

    The supermassive black hole at the Galactic center is surrounded by a parsec-scale star disk, with about a hundred massive young stars that move in approximately circular Keplerian orbits. Another group of roughly 20 young stars ('S-stars') follow eccentric, randomly oriented orbits well inside the disk stars. A model is proposed to explain the S-stars. Accordingly, the stars formed originally in the parsec-scale disk through gravitational fragmentation of gas. The newly formed S-stars then migrated inward via the gravitational torques exerted by a Lin-Shu-type spiral density wave on the stars at an inner Lindblad resonance.

  3. Chandra observation of the edge-on spiral NGC 5775: probing the hot galactic disc/halo connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiang-Tao; Li, Zhiyuan; Wang, Q. Daniel; Irwin, Judith A.; Rossa, Joern

    2008-10-01

    We study the edge-on galaxy NGC 5775, utilizing a 58.2 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation together with complementary Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ACS, Spitzer IRAC and other multi-wavelength data sets. This edge-on galaxy, with its disc-wide active star formation, is particularly well suited for studying the disc/halo interaction on subgalactic scales. We detect 27 discrete X-ray sources within the D25 region of the galaxy, including an ultra-luminous source with a 0.3-7 keV luminosity of ~7 × 1040ergs-1. The source-removed diffuse X-ray emission shows several prominent extraplanar features, including a ~10kpc diameter `shell-like' feature and a `blob' reaching a projected distance of ~25kpc from the galactic disc. The bulk of the X-ray emission in the halo has a scale height of ~1.5 kpc and can be characterized by a two-temperature optically thin thermal plasma with temperatures of ~0.2 and 0.6keV and a total 0.3-2 keV luminosity of ~3.5 × 1039ergs-1. The high-resolution, multi-wavelength data reveal the presence of several extraplanar features around the disc, which appear to be associated with the in-disc star formation. We suggest that hot gas produced with different levels of mass loading can have different temperatures, which may explain the characteristic temperatures of hot gas in the halo. We have obtained a subgalactic scale X-ray-intensity-star-formation relation, which is consistent with the integrated version in other star-forming galaxies.

  4. Spectroscopic Monitoring of Southern Galactic O and WN Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamen, R.; Barbá, R. H.; Morrell, N. I.; Arias, J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.

    2008-08-01

    We are conducting a spectroscopic monitoring of O- and WN-type stars for which there is no indication of multiplicity in the Galactic O-Stars Catalog (Maíz-Apellániz et al. 2004) or in the VIIth Catalog of Galactic Wolf-Rayet Stars (van der Hucht 2001). We search for radial-velocity (RV) variations indicative of orbital motion.

  5. Star Formation in Edge-on Galaxies and its Relation to Radio Continuum Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Carlos J.; Mora Partiarroyo, Silvia Carolina; Schmidt, Philip; Walterbos, Rene A. M.; Irwin, Judith; Wang, Daniel; Rand, Richard J.; Stein, Yelena; CHANG-ES

    2017-01-01

    We study the radio continuum emission in edge-on galaxies from the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies -- an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES), with a particular focus on the question of the correlation of radio synchroton halos with the star formation rate distribution across the galaxy disks. To determine the star formation rates we analyze the application of various SFR calibration methods, in particular those involving Hα and 24 μm emission for the galaxies in the sample. We test consistency of the published SFR calibrations by predicting thermal radio continuum maps that are compared with the observed radio data and with the derived spectral index maps, both before and after removal of the predicted thermal maps. In addition to published calibrations of the SFR from Hα and 24 μm data, we explore different mixtures of Hα and 24 μm maps that may be more applicable in the case of an edge-on galaxy perspective. We also discuss the correlation between the luminosity, morphology, and spectral indices of radio synchrotron halos with the distribution of SF in the galactic disks, and explore the connection with extra-planar diffuse ionized gas obtained from sensitive Hα images with the ARC 3.5m telescope for the entire sample. This research is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No 1650681 and AST - 1615594.

  6. The chemical compositions of two nitrogen-rich, metal-poor, halo dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beveridge, Renee C.; Sneden, Cristopher

    1994-07-01

    New high resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra have been obtained for HD 25329 and HD 74000, dwarf stars that are metal-poor but nitrogen-rich members of the galactic halo. An atmosphere parameter and chemical composition analysis confirms earlier assertions of both their metal poverty, (Fe/H) approximately equals -2, and their high gravity, log g greater than 4. The relative abundances of the alpha-capture and iron-peak elements are normal for metal-poor stars. Overabundances of sodium, and possibly aluminum as well, are derived, but there are no pronounced depletions of oxygen; thus these stars do not show the sodium/oxygen or nitrogen/oxygen anticorrelations seen in globular cluster giants. All very heavy elements synthesized through s-process neutron-capture nucleosynthesis are enhanced in these stars. It is likely that the enrichments of nitrogen, sodium, aluminum, and the very heavy elements in these stars originated in material dredged up from the helium-burning shells of former AGB stars, but there is no direct evidence for binary companions for these stars.

  7. A relationship between halo mass, cooling, active galactic nuclei heating and the co-evolution of massive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Main, R. A.; McNamara, B. R.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Russell, H. R.; Vantyghem, A. N.

    2017-02-01

    We derive X-ray mass, luminosity, and temperature profiles for 45 galaxy clusters to explore relationships between halo mass, active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback, and central cooling time. We find that radio-mechanical feedback power (referred to here as `AGN power') in central cluster galaxies correlates with halo mass as Pmech ∝ M1.55 ± 0.26, but only in haloes with central atmospheric cooling times shorter than 1 Gyr. The trend of AGN power with halo mass is consistent with the scaling expected from a self-regulating AGN feedback loop, as well as with galaxy and central black hole co-evolution along the MBH-σ relation. AGN power in clusters with central atmospheric cooling times longer than ˜1 Gyr typically lies two orders of magnitude below those with shorter central cooling times. Galaxies centred in clusters with long central cooling times nevertheless experience ongoing and occasionally powerful AGN outbursts. We further investigate the impact of feedback on cluster scaling relations. We find L-T and M-T relations in clusters with direct evidence of feedback which are steeper than self-similar, but not atypical compared to previous studies of the full cluster population. While the gas mass rises, the stellar mass remains nearly constant with rising total mass, consistent with earlier studies. This trend is found regardless of central cooling time, implying tight regulation of star formation in central galaxies as their haloes grew, and long-term balance between AGN heating and atmospheric cooling. Our scaling relations are presented in forms that can be incorporated easily into galaxy evolution models.

  8. Chronography of the Milky Way's Halo System with Field Blue Horizontal-Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, Timothy C.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Carollo, Daniela; Santucci, Rafael; Rossi, Siliva; Lee, Young Sun; Denissenkov, Pavel; Tumlinson, Jason; Tissera, Patricia; Lentner, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    In a pioneering effort, Preston et al. (1991, AJ 375, 121) reported that the colors of blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars in the halo of the Galaxy shift with distance, from regions near the Galactic center to about 12 kpc away, and interpreted this as a correlated variation in the ages of halo stars, from older to younger, spanning a range of a few Gyrs. We have applied this approach to a sample of some 4700 spectroscopically confirmed BHB stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to produce the first "chronographic map" of the halo of the Galaxy.We demonstrate that the mean de-reddened g-r color increases outward in the Galaxy from -0.22 to -0.08 (over a color window spanning [-0.3:0.0]) from regions close to the Galactic center to ~40 kpc, independent of the metallicity of the stars. Models of the expected shift in the color of the field BHB stars based on modern stellar evolutionary codes confirm that this color gradient can be associated with an age difference of roughly 2-2.5 Gyrs, with the oldest stars concentrated in the central ~15 kpc of the Galaxy. Within this centralregion, which we refer to as the Ancient Chronographic Sphere (ACS), the age difference spans a mean color range of about 0.05 mag (~0.8 Gyrs). Interestingly, the ACS extends far enough to include the Solar Neighborhood, suggesting that ancient metal-poor stars should be readily detectable in the vicinity of the Sun. Furthermore, we show that chronographic maps can be used to identify individual substructures, such as the Sagittarius Stream, and overdensities in the direction of Virgo and Monoceros, based on the observed contrast in their mean BHB colors with respect to the foreground/background field population.We acknowledge partial support from the grant PHY 14-30152; Physics Frontier Center/JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements (JINA-CEE), awarded by the US National Science Foundation.

  9. Keck Spectroscopy of NGVS Sources: Milky Way Halo Star Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Peng, Eric W.; Toloba, Elisa; Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present a study of the kinematics of main sequence turnoff stars in the halo of the Milky Way based on Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey photometry and Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopic follow-up. Specifically, we investigate the properties of the Virgo overdensity and Sagittarius stream Milky Way halo substructures in the foreground of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies. We use an inverse concentration (iC) parameter that characterizes the angular size of a source, which is defined by the magnitude difference measured by two different apertures for the same object. After combining this information as well as redshift measured from spectra into a Z vs iC plot, all of the objects are separated clearly into three categories: foreground Milky Way stars, Virgo globular clusters, and background galaxies. Most objects located in unexpected regions in the V_iC plot are subsequently rejected through a rigorous examination due to low spectral quality or bad imaging quality, indicating that our sample selection approach gives a very clean classification. We then select Sagittarius stream stars and Virgo overdensity stars out of the foreground star sample to characterize their distributions of spatial position, radial velocity and metallicity, from which we can probe deeper into the history of structure formation in the Milky Way Galaxy. This research was supported by NASA and the National Science Foundation. HZ has been sponsored by China Scholarship Council to carry out this research project at University of California, Santa Cruz.

  10. A general relativistic approach to the Navarro Frenk White galactic halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, Tonatiuh; Núñez, Darío; Sussman, Roberto A.

    2004-11-01

    Although galactic dark matter halos are basically Newtonian structures, the study of their interplay with large-scale cosmic evolution and with relativistic effects, such as gravitational lenses, quintessence sources or gravitational waves, makes it necessary to obtain adequate relativistic descriptions for these self-gravitating systems. With this purpose in mind, we construct a post-Newtonian fluid framework for the 'Navarro Frenk White' (NFW) models of galactic halos that follow from N-body numerical simulations. Since these simulations are unable to resolve regions very near the halo centre, the extrapolation of the fitting formula leads to a spherically averaged 'universal' density profile that diverges at the origin. We remove this inconvenient feature by replacing a small central region of the NFW halo with an interior Schwarzschild solution with constant density, continuously matched to the remaining NFW spacetime. A model of a single halo, as an isolated object with finite mass, follows by smoothly matching the NFW spacetime to a Schwarzschild vacuum exterior along the virial radius, the physical 'cut-off' customarily imposed, as the mass associated with NFW profiles diverges asymptotically. Numerical simulations assume weakly interacting collisionless particles, hence we suggest that NFW halos approximately satisfy an 'ideal gas' type of equation of state, where mass-density is the dominant rest-mass contribution to matter-energy, with the internal energy contribution associated with an anisotropic kinetic pressure. We show that, outside the central core, this pressure and the mass density roughly satisfy a polytropic relation. Since stellar polytropes are the equilibrium configurations in Tsallis' non-extensive formalism of statistical mechanics, we argue that NFW halos might provide a rough empirical estimate of the free parameter q of Tsallis' formalism.

  11. IUE observations of blue halo high luminosity stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, M.; Franco, M. L.; Stalio, R.

    1981-01-01

    Two high luminosity population II blue stars of high galactic latitude, BD+33 deg 2642 and HD 137569 were observed at high resolution. The stellar spectra show the effect of mass loss in BD+33 deg 2642 and abnormally weak metallic lines in HD 137569. The interstellar lines in the direction of BD+33 deg 2642, which lies at a height z greater than or equal to 6.2 kpc from the galactic plane, are split into two components. No high ionization stages are found at the low velocity component; nor can they be detected in the higher velocity clouds because of mixing with the corresponding stellar/circumstellar lines.

  12. Dark matter halo environment for primordial star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.; Ciardi, B.; Maio, U.; Ferrara, A.

    2013-01-01

    We study the statistical properties (such as shape and spin) of high-z haloes likely hosting the first (PopIII) stars with cosmological simulations including detailed gas physics. In the redshift range considered (11 < z < 16) the average sphericity is = 0.3 ± 0.1, and for more than 90 per cent of haloes the triaxiality parameter is T ≲ 0.4, showing a clear preference for oblateness over prolateness. Larger haloes in the simulation tend to be both more spherical and prolate: we find s∝Mαsh and T∝MαTh, with αs ≈ 0.128 and αT = 0.276 at z = 11. The spin distributions of dark matter and gas are considerably different at z = 16, with the baryons rotating slower than the dark matter. At lower redshift, instead, the spin distributions of dark matter and gas track each other almost perfectly, as a consequence of a longer time interval available for momentum redistribution between the two components. The spin of both the gas and dark matter follows a lognormal distribution, with a mean value at z = 16 of <λ> = 0.0184, virtually independent of halo mass. This is in good agreement with previous studies. Using the results of two feedback models (MT1 and MT2) by McKee & Tan and mapping our halo spin distribution into a PopIII initial mass function (IMF), we find that at high z, the IMF closely tracks the spin lognormal distribution. Depending on the feedback model, though, the distribution can be centred at ≈ 65 M⊙ (MT1) or ≈ 140 M⊙ (MT2). At later times, model MT1 evolves into a bimodal distribution with a second prominent peak located at 35-40 M⊙ as a result of the non-linear relation between rotation and halo mass. We conclude that the dark matter halo properties might be a key factor shaping the IMF of the first stars.

  13. A New Insight to the Galactic O Vz Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, J. I.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Barbá, R.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Walborn, N. R.; Sota, A.; Morrell, N.; Gamen, R.; Alfaro, E.; Sabín-Sanjulián, C.; Herrero, A.

    2014-10-01

    Based on a large sample of spectra from the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS, Maíz Apellániz et al. 2011) a systematic study of the Galactic O dwarfs belonging to the luminosity subclass Vz is being performed. Preliminary results suggest a redefinition of the quantitative criterion to assign the ``z'' qualifier to the spectra.

  14. Soft X-Ray Observations of the Galactic Halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Robin; Kuntz, K. D.

    2003-01-01

    In this project, my co-I (K.D. Kuntz) and I plan to extract the soft X-ray spectrum emitted by the hot gas along a high latitude line of sight. We plan to subtract off the local component (garnered from other observations) in order to isolate the halo component. We then plan to combine this spectral information with the ultraviolet resonance line emission produced by slightly cooler gas along the line of sight and use the two observations as a constraint on models. My co-I, K.D., Kuntz has been working on the determination of the instrumental background. I have not yet drawn any of the funds for this project. I have just moved from J h s Hopkins University to the University of Georgia and anticipate finishing the project while at the University of Georgia.

  15. Expanding hydrodynamical jets crossing a galactic halo/intergalactic medium interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiita, Paul J.; Rosen, Alexander; Norman, Michael L.

    1990-01-01

    Parameters within ranges that are plausible for radio sources are presently used to perform two-dimensional hydrodynamical calculations of axisymmetric, initially conical, jets whose initial propagation is through isothermal galactic halos with power-law density distributions; these emerge across a pressure-matched interface into a hotter, but less dense medium whose parameters are typical of an intracluster or intergalactic gas. Upon crossing this interface, the jets accelerate and focused toward cylindrical shapes having long, narrow cocoons.

  16. RECONSTRUCTING THE ACCRETION HISTORY OF THE GALACTIC STELLAR HALO FROM CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE RATIO DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Duane M.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Sen, Bodhisattva; Jessop, Will

    2015-03-20

    Observational studies of halo stars during the past two decades have placed some limits on the quantity and nature of accreted dwarf galaxy contributions to the Milky Way (MW) stellar halo by typically utilizing stellar phase-space information to identify the most recent halo accretion events. In this study we tested the prospects of using 2D chemical abundance ratio distributions (CARDs) found in stars of the stellar halo to determine its formation history. First, we used simulated data from 11 “MW-like” halos to generate satellite template sets (STSs) of 2D CARDs of accreted dwarf satellites, which are composed of accreted dwarfs from various mass regimes and epochs of accretion. Next, we randomly drew samples of ∼10{sup 3–4} mock observations of stellar chemical abundance ratios ([α/Fe], [Fe/H]) from those 11 halos to generate samples of the underlying densities for our CARDs to be compared to our templates in our analysis. Finally, we used the expectation-maximization algorithm to derive accretion histories in relation to the STS used and the sample size. For certain STSs used we typically can identify the relative mass contributions of all accreted satellites to within a factor of two. We also find that this method is particularly sensitive to older accretion events involving low-luminosity dwarfs, e.g., ultra-faint dwarfs—precisely those events that are too ancient to be seen by phase-space studies of stars and too faint to be seen by high-z studies of the early universe. Since our results only exploit two chemical dimensions and near-future surveys promise to provide ∼6–9 dimensions, we conclude that these new high-resolution spectroscopic surveys of the stellar halo will allow us to recover its accretion history—and the luminosity function of infalling dwarf galaxies—across cosmic time.

  17. A Wide-Field Photometric Survey for Extratidal Tails Around Five Metal-Poor Globular Clusters in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Woo; Sohn, Sangmo T.; Park, Jang-Hyun; Han, Wonyong; Kim, Ho-Il; Lee, Young-Wook; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Lee, Sang-Gak; Sohn, Young-Jong

    2010-02-01

    Wide-field deep g'r'i' images obtained with the Megacam of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope are used to investigate the spatial configuration of stars around five metal-poor globular clusters M15, M30, M53, NGC 5053, and NGC 5466, in a field-of-view ~3°. Applying a mask filtering algorithm to the color-magnitude diagrams of the observed stars, we sorted cluster's member star candidates that are used to examine the characteristics of the spatial stellar distribution surrounding the target clusters. The smoothed surface density maps and the overlaid isodensity contours indicate that all of the five metal-poor globular clusters exhibit strong evidence of extratidal overdensity features over their tidal radii, in the form of extended tidal tails around the clusters. The orientations of the observed extratidal features show signatures of tidal tails tracing the clusters' orbits, inferred from their proper motions, and effects of dynamical interactions with the Galaxy. Our findings include detections of a tidal bridge-like feature and an envelope structure around the pair of globular clusters M53 and NGC 5053. The observed radial surface density profiles of target clusters have a deviation from theoretical King models, for which the profiles show a break at 0.5-0.7rt , extending the overdensity features out to 1.5-2rt . Both radial surface density profiles for different angular sections and azimuthal number density profiles confirm the overdensity features of tidal tails around the five metal-poor globular clusters. Our results add further observational evidence that the observed metal-poor halo globular clusters originate from an accreted satellite system, indicative of the merging scenario of the formation of the Galactic halo. Based on observations carried out at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, and the University of Hawaii. This is part of the

  18. Lithium and Lithium Depletion in Halo Stars on Extreme Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesgaard, Ann Merchant; Stephens, Alex; Deliyannis, Constantine P.

    2005-11-01

    We have determined Li abundances in 55 dwarfs and subgiants that are metal-poor (-3.6<[Fe/H]<-0.7) and have extreme orbital kinematics. Our purpose is to examine the Li abundance in the Li plateau stars and its decrease in low-temperature, low-mass stars. For the stars in our sample we have determined chemical profiles given in 2002 by Stephens & Boesgaard. The Li observations are primarily from the echelle spectrograph on the 10 m Keck I telescope, with HIRES covering 4700-6800 Å with a spectral resolution of ~48,000. The spectra have high signal-to-noise ratios, from 70 to 700 pixel-1, with a median of 140. The Li I resonance doublet was detected in 42 of the 55 stars. Temperatures were found spectroscopically by Stephens & Boesgaard. Abundances or upper limits were determined for all stars, with typical errors of 0.06 dex. Corrections for the deviations from nonlocal thermodynamical equilibrium for Li in the stellar atmospheres have been made, which range from -0.04 to +0.11 dex. Our 14 dwarf and turnoff stars on the Li plateau with temperatures greater than 5700 K and [Fe/H]<-1.5 give A(Li)=logN(Li)/N(H)+12.00 of 2.215+/-0.110, consistent with earlier results. We find a dependence of the Li abundance on metallicity as measured by [Fe/H] and the Fe-peak elements Cr and Ni, with a slope of ~0.18. We have examined the possible trends of A(Li) with the chemical abundances of other elements and find similar dependences of A(Li) with the α-elements Mg, Ca, and Ti. These slopes are slightly steeper at ~0.20, resulting from an excess in [α/Fe] with decreasing [Fe/H]. For the n-capture, rare-earth element Ba, we find a relation between A(Li) and [Ba/H] that has a shallower slope of ~0.13 over a range of 2.6 dex in [Ba/H], the Li abundance spans only a factor of 2. We have also examined the possible trends of A(Li) with the characteristics of the orbits of our halo stars. We find no trends in A(Li) with kinematic or dynamic properties. For the stars with temperatures

  19. Neutrino propagation in the Galactic dark matter halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Salas, P. F.; Lineros, R. A.; Tórtola, M.

    2016-12-01

    Neutrino oscillations are a widely observed and well-established phenomenon. It is also well known that deviations with respect to flavor conversion probabilities in vacuum arise due to neutrino interactions with matter. In this work, we analyze the impact of new interactions between neutrinos and the dark matter present in the Milky Way on the neutrino oscillation pattern. The dark matter-neutrino interaction is modeled by using an effective coupling proportional to the Fermi constant GF with no further restrictions on its flavor structure. For the galactic dark matter profile we consider a homogeneous distribution as well as several density profiles, estimating in all cases the size of the interaction required to get an observable effect at different neutrino energies. Our discussion is mainly focused in the PeV neutrino energy range, to be explored in observatories like IceCube and KM3NeT. The obtained results may be interpreted in terms of a light O (sub -eV - keV ) or weakly interacting massive particlelike dark matter particle or as a new interaction with a mediator of O (sub -eV - keV ) mass.

  20. Dynamics and X-ray emission of a galactic superwind interacting with disk and halo gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suchkov, Anatoly A.; Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Leitherner, Claus

    1994-01-01

    There is a general agreement that the conspicuous extranuclear X-ray, optical-line, and radio-contiuum emission of starbursts is associated with powerful galactic superwinds blowing from their centers. However, despite the significant advances in observational studies of superwinds, there is no consensus on the nature of the emitting material and even on the emission mechanisms themselves. This is to a great extent a consequence of a poor understanding of dynamical processes in the starburst superwind regions. To address this issue, we have conducted two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of galactic superwinds. While previous similar studies have used a single (disk) component to represent the ISM of the starburst galaxy, we analyze the interaction of the wind with a two-component disk-halo ambient interstellar medium and argue that this two-component representation is crucial for adequate modeling of starbursts. The emphasis of this study is on the geometry and structure of the wind region and the X-ray emission arising in the wind material and the shocked gas in the disk and the halo of the galaxy. The simulation results have shown that a clear-cut bipolar wind can easily develop under a range of very different conditions. On the other hand, a complex 'filamentary' structure associated with the entrained dense disk material is found to arise within the hot bubble blown out by the wind. The flow pattern within the bubble is dominated equally by the central biconic outflow and a system of whirling motions r elated to the origin and development of the 'filaments'. The filament parameters make them a good candidate for optical-emission-line filamentary gas observed in starburst halos. We find that the history of mass and energy deposition in the starburst region of the galaxy is crucial for wind dynamics. A 'mild' early wind, which arises as a result of the cumulative effect of stellar winds from massive stars, produces a bipolar vertical cavity in the disk and

  1. Determining the Galactic Halo's Emission Measure from UV and X-Ray Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Shijun; Shelton, Robin L.; Henley, David B.

    2009-07-01

    We analyze a pair of Suzaku shadowing observations in order to determine the X-ray spectrum of the Galaxy's gaseous halo. Our data consist of an observation toward an absorbing filament in the southern Galactic hemisphere and an observation toward an unobscured region adjacent to the filament. We simultaneously fit the spectra with models having halo, local, and extragalactic components. The intrinsic intensities of the halo O VII triplet and O VIII Ly α emission lines are 9.98+1.10 -1.99 LU (line unit; photons cm-2 s-1 sr-1) and 2.66+0.37 -0.30 LU, respectively. These results imply the existence of hot gas with a temperature of ~106.0 K to ~107.0 K in the Galactic halo. Meanwhile, FUSE O VI observations for the same directions and SPEAR C IV observations for a nearby direction indicate the existence of hot halo gas at temperatures of ~105.0 K to ~106.0 K. This collection of data implies that the hot gas in the Galactic halo is not isothermal, but its temperature spans a relatively wide range from ~105.0 K to ~107.0 K. We therefore construct a differential emission measure (DEM) model for the halo's hot gas, consisting of two components. In each, dEM/dlog T is assumed to follow a power-law function of the temperature and the gas is assumed to be in collisional ionizational equilibrium. The low-temperature component (LTC) of the broken power-law DEM model covers the temperature range of 104.80-106.02 K with a slope of 0.30 and the high-temperature component (HTC) covers the temperature range of 106.02-107.02 K with a slope of -2.21. We compare our observations with predictions from models for hot gas in the halo. The observed spatial distribution of gas with temperatures in the range of our HTC is smoother than that of the LTC. We thus suggest that two types of sources contribute to our broken power-law model. We find that a simple model in which hot gas accretes onto the Galactic halo and cools radiatively cannot explain both the observed UV and X-ray portions of

  2. Galactic halo origin of the neutrinos detected by IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Andrew M.; Gabici, Stefano; Aharonian, Felix

    2014-05-01

    Recent IceCube results suggest that the first detection of very high energy astrophysical neutrinos have been accomplished. We consider these results at face value in a Galactic origin context. Emission scenarios from both the Fermi bubble and broader halo region are considered. We motivate that such an intensity of diffuse neutrino emission could be Galactic in origin if it is produced from an outflow into the halo region. This scenario requires cosmic ray transport within the outflow environment to be different to that inferred locally within the disk and that activity in the central part of the Galaxy accelerates cosmic rays to trans-"knee" energies before they escape into an outflow. The presence of a large reservoir of gas in a very extended halo around the Galaxy, recently inferred from x-ray observations, implies that the relatively modest acceleration power of 1039 erg s-1 in PeV energy cosmic rays may be sufficient to explain the observed neutrino flux. Such a luminosity is compatible with that required to explain the observed intensity of cosmic rays around the knee.

  3. IUE observations of early-type stars at high Galactic latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quin, D. A.; Brown, P. J. F.; Conlon, E. S.; Dufton, P. L.; Keenan, F. P.

    1991-07-01

    High- and low-resolution IUE spectra of 14 apparently normal high-Galactic latitude B-type stars, together with visual fluxes determined from Stroemgren four-color photometry, are compared with theoretical spectra deduced from LTE model atmosphere calculations. Ten of the program stars have normal flux distributions, with only four of the stars exhibiting UV flux deficiency. For the latter, PHL 346 has been identified as a beta Cepheid variable, SB 357 is a Be-type star, and the ultraviolet flux deficiency for HD 214080 can be removed by increasing the E(B-V) from 0.09 to 0.12. In the case of HD 100340, the four-color photometry is inconsistent with the ultraviolet flux distribution, but this inconsistency vanishes when UBV photometry is employed in the analysis, implying that the uvby measurements may be in error. The normal flux distributions found for the program star provide support for their being Population I objects in the Galactic halo.

  4. POPULATION III STAR FORMATION IN LARGE COSMOLOGICAL VOLUMES. I. HALO TEMPORAL AND PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Crosby, Brian D.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Smith, Britton D.; Turk, Matthew J.; Hahn, Oliver

    2013-08-20

    We present a semi-analytic, computationally inexpensive model to identify halos capable of forming a Population III star in cosmological simulations across a wide range of times and environments. This allows for a much more complete and representative set of Population III star forming halos to be constructed, which will lead to Population III star formation simulations that more accurately reflect the diversity of Population III stars, both in time and halo mass. This model shows that Population III and chemically enriched stars coexist beyond the formation of the first generation of stars in a cosmological simulation until at least z {approx} 10, and likely beyond, though Population III stars form at rates that are 4-6 orders of magnitude lower than chemically enriched stars by z = 10. A catalog of more than 40,000 candidate Population III forming halos were identified, with formation times temporally ranging from z = 30 to z = 10, and ranging in mass from 2.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} to 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. At early times, the environment that Population III stars form in is very similar to that of halos hosting chemically enriched star formation. At later times Population III stars are found to form in low-density regions that are not yet chemically polluted due to a lack of previous star formation in the area. Population III star forming halos become increasingly spatially isolated from one another at later times, and are generally closer to halos hosting chemically enriched star formation than to another halo hosting Population III star formation by z {approx} 10.

  5. EXPLORING THE VARIABLE SKY WITH LINEAR. II. HALO STRUCTURE AND SUBSTRUCTURE TRACED BY RR LYRAE STARS TO 30 kpc

    SciTech Connect

    Sesar, Branimir; Ivezic, Zeljko; Morgan, Dylan M.; Becker, Andrew C.; Stuart, J. Scott; Sharma, Sanjib; Palaversa, Lovro; Juric, Mario; Wozniak, Przemyslaw; Oluseyi, Hakeem

    2013-08-01

    We present a sample of {approx}5000 RR Lyrae stars selected from the recalibrated LINEAR data set and detected at heliocentric distances between 5 kpc and 30 kpc over {approx}8000 deg{sup 2} of sky. The coordinates and light curve properties, such as period and Oosterhoff type, are made publicly available. We analyze in detail the light curve properties and Galactic distribution of the subset of {approx}4000 type ab RR Lyrae (RRab) stars, including a search for new halo substructures and the number density distribution as a function of Oosterhoff type. We find evidence for the Oosterhoff dichotomy among field RR Lyrae stars, with the ratio of the type II and I subsamples of about 1:4, but with a weaker separation than for globular cluster stars. The wide sky coverage and depth of this sample allow unique constraints for the number density distribution of halo RRab stars as a function of galactocentric distance: it can be described as an oblate ellipsoid with an axis ratio q = 0.63 and with either a single or a double power law with a power-law index in the range -2 to -3. Consistent with previous studies, we find that the Oosterhoff type II subsample has a steeper number density profile than the Oosterhoff type I subsample. Using the group-finding algorithm EnLink, we detected seven candidate halo groups, only one of which is statistically spurious. Three of these groups are near globular clusters (M53/NGC 5053, M3, M13), and one is near a known halo substructure (Virgo Stellar Stream); the remaining three groups do not seem to be near any known halo substructures or globular clusters and seem to have a higher ratio of Oosterhoff type II to Oosterhoff type I RRab stars than what is found in the halo. The extended morphology and the position (outside the tidal radius) of some of the groups near globular clusters are suggestive of tidal streams possibly originating from globular clusters. Spectroscopic follow-up of detected halo groups is encouraged.

  6. Metal-poor stars towards the Galactic bulge: A population potpourri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Andreas; McWilliam, Andrew; Preston, George W.; Thompson, Ian B.

    2016-03-01

    We present a comprehensive chemical abundance analysis of five red giants and two horizontal branch (HB) stars towards the southern edge of the Galactic bulge, at (l, b) ~ (0°,-11°). Based on high-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Magellan/MIKE spectrograph, we derived up to 23 chemical element abundances and identify a mixed bag of stars, representing various populations in the central regions of the Galaxy. Although cosmological simulations predict that the inner Galaxy was host to the first stars in the Universe, we see no chemical evidence of the ensuing massive supernova explosions: all of our targets exhibit halo-like, solar [Sc/Fe] ratios, which is in contrast to the low values predicted from Population III nucleosynthesis. One of the targets is a CEMP-s star at [Fe/H] = -2.52 dex, and another target is a moderately metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -1.53 dex) CH star with strong enrichment in s-process elements (e.g., [Ba/Fe] = 1.35). These individuals provide the first contenders of these classes of stars towards the bulge. Four of the carbon-normal stars exhibit abundance patterns reminiscent of halo star across a metallicity range spanning -2.0 to -2.6 dex, i.e., enhanced α-elements and solar Fe-peak and neutron-capture elements, and the remaining one is a regular metal-rich bulge giant. The position, distance, and radial velocity of one of the metal-poor HB stars coincides with simulations of the old trailing arm of the disrupted Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. While their highly uncertain proper motions prohibit a clear kinematic separation, the stars' chemical abundances and distances suggest that these metal-poor candidates, albeit located towards the bulge, are not of the bulge, but rather inner halo stars on orbits that make them pass through the central regions. Thus, we caution similar claims of detections of metal-poor stars as true habitants of the bulge. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas

  7. Trajectories of Cepheid variable stars in the Galactic nuclear bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Noriyuki

    2012-06-01

    The central region of our Galaxy provides us with a good opportunity to study the evolution of galactic nuclei and bulges because we can observe various phenomena in detail at the proximity of 8 kpc. There is a hierarchical alignment of stellar systems with different sizes; from the extended bulge, the nuclear bulge, down to the compact cluster around the central supermassive blackhole. The nuclear bulge contains stars as young as a few Myr, and even hosts the ongoing star formation. These are in contrast to the more extended bulge which are dominated by old stars, ~10Gyr. It is considered that the star formation in the nuclear bulge is caused by fresh gas provided from the inner disk. In this picture, the nuclear bulge plays an important role as the interface between the gas supplier, the inner disk, and the galactic nucleus. Kinematics of young stars in the nuclear bulge is important to discuss the star forming process and the gas circulation in the Galactic Center. We here propose spectroscopic observations of Cepheid variable stars, ~25 Myr, which we recently discovered in the nuclear bulge. The spectra taken in this proposal will allow timely estimates of the systemic velocities of the variable stars.

  8. NIHAO VII: Predictions for the galactic baryon budget in dwarf to Milky Way mass haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Dutton, Aaron A.; Stinson, Gregory S.; Macciò, Andrea V.; Gutcke, Thales; Kang, Xi

    2017-01-01

    We use the NIHAO galaxy formation simulations to make predictions for the baryonic budget in present day galaxies ranging from dwarf (M_{200} ˜ 10^{10} M_{⊙}) to Milky Way (M_{200} ˜ 10^{12} M_{⊙}) masses. The sample is made of 88 independent high resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations. NIHAO galaxies reproduce key properties of observed galaxies, such as the stellar mass vs halo mass and cold gas vs stellar mass relations. Thus they make plausible predictions for the baryon budget. We present the mass fractions of stars, cold gas (T < 104K), cool gas (104 < T < 105K), warm-hot gas (105 < T < 5 × 106K), and hot gas (T>5 × 106K), inside the virial radius, R200. Compared to the predicted baryon mass, using the dark halo mass and the universal baryon fraction, fb ≡ Ωb/Ωm = 0.15, we find that all of our haloes are missing baryons. The missing mass has been relocated past 2 virial radii, and cool gas dominates the corona at low mass (M_{200} ≲ 3 × 10^{11} M_{⊙}) while the warm-hot gas dominates at high mass (M_{200} ≳ 3 × 10^{11} M_{⊙}). Haloes of mass M_{200} ˜ 10^{10}M_{⊙} are missing ˜90% of their baryons. More massive haloes (M_{200} ˜ 10^{12}M_{⊙}) retain a higher fraction of their baryons, with ˜30% missing, consistent with recent observational estimates. Moreover, these more massive haloes reproduce the observed fraction of cold, warm-hot and hot gas. The fraction of cool gas we predict (0.11 ± 0.06) is significantly lower than the observation from COS-HALOs (0.3-0.47), but agrees with the alternative analysis of Stern et al. (2016).

  9. Deep SDSS optical spectroscopy of distant halo stars. II. Iron, calcium, and magnesium abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Alvar, E.; Allende Prieto, C.; Schlesinger, K. J.; Beers, T. C.; Robin, A. C.; Schneider, D. P.; Lee, Y. S.; Bizyaev, D.; Ebelke, G.; Malanushenko, E.; Malanushenko, V.; Oravetz, D.; Pan, K.; Simmons, A.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: We analyze a sample of 3944 low-resolution (R ~ 2000) optical spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), focusing on stars with effective temperatures 5800 ≤ Teff ≤ 6300 K, and distances from the Milky Way plane in excess of 5 kpc, and determine their abundances of Fe, Ca, and Mg. Methods: We followed the same methodology as in the previous paper in this series, deriving atmospheric parameters by χ2 minimization, but this time we obtained the abundances of individual elements by fitting their associated spectral lines. Distances were calculated from absolute magnitudes obtained by a statistical comparison of our stellar parameters with stellar-evolution models. Results: The observations reveal a decrease in the abundances of iron, calcium, and magnesium at large distances from the Galactic center. The median abundances for the halo stars analyzed are fairly constant up to a Galactocentric distance r ~ 20 kpc, rapidly decrease between r ~ 20 and r ~ 40 kpc, and flatten out to significantly lower values at larger distances, consistent with previous studies. In addition, we examine [Ca/Fe] and [Mg/Fe] as a function of [Fe/H] and Galactocentric distance. Our results show that the most distant parts of the halo show a steeper variation of [Ca/Fe] and [Mg/Fe] with iron. We found that at the range -1.6 < [Fe/H] < -0.4, [Ca/Fe] decreases with distance, in agreement with earlier results based on local stars. However, the opposite trend is apparent for [Mg/Fe]. Our conclusion that the outer regions of the halo are more metal-poor than the inner regions, based on in situ observations of distant stars, agrees with recent results based on inferences from the kinematics of more local stars, and with predictions of recent galaxy formation simulations for galaxies similar to the Milky Way. Table 1 and beginning of Tables 2 and 3 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFull Tables 2 and 3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  10. Kinematics of Metal-poor Stars in the Galaxy. III. Formation of the Stellar Halo and Thick Disk as Revealed from a Large Sample of Nonkinematically Selected Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Masashi; Beers, Timothy C.

    2000-06-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the space motions of 1203 solar-neighborhood stars with metal abundances [Fe/H]<=-0.6, on the basis of a catalog, of metal-poor stars selected without kinematic bias recently revised and supplemented by Beers et al. This sample, having available proper motions, radial velocities, and distance estimates for stars with a wide range of metal abundances, is by far the largest such catalog to be assembled to date. We show that the stars in our sample with [Fe/H]<=-2.2, which likely represent a ``pure'' halo component, are characterized by a radially elongated velocity ellipsoid (σU,σV,σW)=(141+/-11, 106+/-9, 94+/-8) km s-1 and small prograde rotation =30 to 50 km s-1, consistent with previous analysis of this sample by Beers and Sommer-Larsen based on radial velocity information alone. In contrast to the previous analysis, we find a decrease in with increasing distance from the Galactic plane for stars that are likely to be members of the halo population (Δ/Δ|Z|=-52+/-6 km s-1 kpc-1), which may represent the signature of a dissipatively formed flattened inner halo. Unlike essentially all previous kinematically selected catalogs, the metal-poor stars in our sample exhibit a diverse distribution of orbital eccentricities, e, with no apparent correlation between [Fe/H] and e. This demonstrates, clearly and convincingly, that the evidence offered in 1962 by Eggen, Lynden-Bell, & Sandage for a rapid collapse of the Galaxy, an apparent correlation between the orbital eccentricity of halo stars with metallicity, is basically the result of their proper-motion selection bias. However, even in our nonkinematically selected sample, we have identified a small concentration of high-e stars at [Fe/H]~-1.7, which may originate, in part, from infalling gas during the early formation of the Galaxy. We find no evidence for an additional thick disk component for stellar abundances [Fe/H]<=-2.2. The kinematics of the intermediate

  11. FORMATION HISTORY OF METAL-POOR HALO STARS WITH THE HIERARCHICAL MODEL AND THE EFFECT OF INTERSTELLAR MATTER ACCRETION ON THE MOST METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Komiya, Yutaka; Habe, Asao; Suda, Takuma; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.

    2010-07-01

    We investigate star formation and chemical evolution in the early universe by considering the merging history of the Galaxy in the {Lambda} cold dark matter scenario according to the extended Press-Schechter theory. We give some possible constraints from comparisons with observation of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars, made available by the recent large-scale surveys and by the follow-up high-resolution spectroscopy. We demonstrate that (1) the hierarchical structure formation can explain the characteristics of the observed metallicity distribution function including a break around [Fe/H] = -4; (2) a high-mass initial mass function (IMF) of peak mass {approx}10 M{sub sun} with the contribution of binaries, derived from the statistics of carbon-enhanced EMP stars, predicts the frequency of low-mass survivors consistent with the number of EMP stars observed for -4 {approx_lt} [Fe/H] {approx_lt} -2.5; (3) the stars formed from primordial gas before the first supernova (SN) explosions in their host mini-halos are assigned to the hyper metal-poor (HMP) stars with [Fe/H] {approx} -5; and (4) there is no indication of significant changes in the IMF and the binary contribution at metallicities -4 {approx_gt} [Fe/H] {approx_gt} -2.5, or even larger, as far as the field stars of the Galactic halo are concerned. We further study the effects of surface pollution through the accretion of interstellar matter (ISM) along the chemical and dynamical evolution of the Galaxy for low-mass Population III and EMP survivors. Because of the shallower potential of smaller halos, the accretion of ISM in the mini-halos in which these stars were born dominates the surface metal pollution. This can account for the surface iron abundances as observed for the HMP stars if the cooling and concentration of gas in their birth mini-halos are taken into account. We also study the feedback effect from the very massive Population III stars. The metal pre-pollution by pair-instability SNe is shown to be

  12. Super Star Clusters: the Engines of Galactic Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockhart, Kelly; Lu, Jessica R.; Kewley, Lisa; Kudritzki, Rolf; Barnes, Joshua Edward

    2015-08-01

    Winds in starburst galaxies are ubiquitous; however, we still do not understand how winds from individual star clusters unite into a large-scale galactic outflow. Recent work suggests that radiation pressure from young (<7 Myr) massive super star clusters (SSCs) may be a necessary first step in launching global starburst winds. We have begun a program using integral field spectroscopy with Keck/OSIRIS to investigate the winds from these very young clusters, and how energy is transferred from the stellar population to the surrounding medium to launch galactic-scale outflows. We present preliminary work on a sample of young massive clusters from the Antennae.

  13. Galactic Internet made possible by star gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccone, Claudio

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we study how to create a radio bridge between the Sun and any other star made up by both the gravitational lenses of the Sun and that star. The alignment for this radio bridge to work is very strict, but the power-saving is enormous, due to the huge contributions of the two stars' lenses to the overall antenna gain of the system. In particular, we study in detail: The Sun-Alpha Centauri A radio bridge. The Sun-Barnard's star radio bridge. The Sun-Sirius A radio bridge. The radio bridge between the Sun and any Sun-like star located in the Galactic Bulge. The radio bridge between the Sun and a similar Sun-like star located inside the Andromeda galaxy (M31). Finally, we find the information channel capacity for each of the above radio bridges, putting thus a physical constraint to the maximum information transfer that will be enabled even by exploiting the stars as gravitational lenses. The conclusion is that a Galactic Internet is indeed physically possible. May be the Galactic Internet already is in existence, and was created long ago by civilizations more advanced than ours. But the potential for creating such a system has only recently been realized by Humans.

  14. Coronal Emission from dG Halo Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Harnden, F. R.

    2005-01-01

    The halo dG star HD 114762 was observed with the XMM-Newton satellite on 28-29 June 2004, during orbit 834, and the data were processed using the XMM-Newton Science Analysis System (SAS), version 6.0.0. Somewhat surprisingly, the target was NOT detected during this approx.30 ks exposure, which yielded instead a count rate upper limit of less than 0.0041 cts/s. We computed an X-ray flux upper limit by assuming a Raymond-Smith thermal spectrum of coronal temperature 1 million degrees K, typical of quiet old stars, a hydrogen column density of 2-10$^{19)$ cm$^{-2)$ and sub-solar abundances of 0.2. Our calculated X-ray luminosity upper limit in the 0.25-7.8 keV band is L$_x < 4.95 $\\time$10$^{26)$ erg/s, where we have assumed a stellar distance of 28 pc. This relatively low upper limit has implications for the capability of metal poor stars to host solar-like dynamos, as we will report in a forthcoming paper (now in preparation).

  15. Reconstructing the Accretion History of the Galactic Halo Using Stellar Chemical Abundance Ratio Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Duane M.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Sen, Bodhisattva; Jessop, Will

    2016-08-01

    In this study we tested the prospects of using 2D chemical abundance ratio distributions (CARDs) found in stars of the stellar halo to determine its formation history. First, we used simulated data from eleven ``MW-like'' halos to generate satellite template sets of 2D CARDs of accreted dwarf satellites which are comprised of accreted dwarfs from various mass regimes and epochs of accretion. Next, we randomly drew samples of ~ 103-4 mock observations of stellar chemical abundance ratios ([α/Fe], [Fe/H]) from those eleven halos to generate samples of the underlying densities for our CARDs to be compared to our templates in our analysis. Finally, we used the expectation-maximization algorithm to derive accretion histories in relation to the satellite template set (STS) used and the sample size. For certain STS used we typically can identify the relative mass contributions of all accreted satellites to within a factor of 2. We also find that this method is particularly sensitive to older accretion events involving low-luminous dwarfs e.g. ultra-faint dwarfs - precisely those events that are too ancient to be seen by phase-space studies of stars and too faint to be seen by high-z studies of the early Universe. Since our results only exploit two chemical dimensions and near-future surveys promise to provide ~ 6-9 dimensions, we conclude that these new high-resolution spectroscopic surveys of the stellar halo will allow us (given the development of new CARD-generating dwarf models) to recover the luminosity function of infalling dwarf galaxies - and the detailed accretion history of the halo - across cosmic time.

  16. Star formation scales and efficiency in Galactic spiral arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, D. J.; Moore, T. J. T.; Urquhart, J. S.; Elia, D.; Plume, R.; Rigby, A. J.; Thompson, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    We positionally match a sample of infrared-selected young stellar objects, identified by combining the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and Herschel Space Observatory Herschel infrared Galactic Plane Survey, to the dense clumps identified in the millimetre continuum by the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey in two Galactic lines of sight centred towards l = 30° and 40°. We calculate the ratio of infrared luminosity, LIR, to the mass of the clump, Mclump, in a variety of Galactic environments and find it to be somewhat enhanced in spiral arms compared to the interarm regions when averaged over kiloparsec scales. We find no compelling evidence that these changes are due to the mechanical influence of the spiral arm on the star formation efficiency rather than, e.g. different gradients in the star formation rate due to patchy or intermittent star formation, or local variations that are not averaged out due to small source samples. The largest variation in LIR/Mclump is found in individual clump values, which follow a lognormal distribution and have a range of over three orders of magnitude. This spread is intrinsic as no dependence of LIR/Mclump with Mclump was found. No difference was found in the luminosity distribution of sources in the arm and interarm samples and a strong linear correlation was found between LIR and Mclump.

  17. Fractional Yields Inferred from Halo and Thick Disk Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caimmi, R.

    2013-12-01

    Linear [Q/H]-[O/H] relations, Q = Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, are inferred from a sample (N=67) of recently studied FGK-type dwarf stars in the solar neighbourhood including different populations (Nissen and Schuster 2010, Ramirez et al. 2012), namely LH (N=24, low-α halo), HH (N=25, high-α halo), KD (N=16, thick disk), and OL (N=2, globular cluster outliers). Regression line slope and intercept estimators and related variance estimators are determined. With regard to the straight line, [Q/H]=a_{Q}[O/H]+b_{Q}, sample stars are displayed along a "main sequence", [Q,O] = [a_{Q},b_{Q},Δ b_{Q}], leaving aside the two OL stars, which, in most cases (e.g. Na), lie outside. The unit slope, a_{Q}=1, implies Q is a primary element synthesised via SNII progenitors in the presence of a universal stellar initial mass function (defined as simple primary element). In this respect, Mg, Si, Ti, show hat a_{Q}=1 within ∓2hatσ_ {hat a_{Q}}; Cr, Fe, Ni, within ∓3hatσ_{hat a_{Q}}; Na, Ca, within ∓ rhatσ_{hat a_{Q}}, r>3. The empirical, differential element abundance distributions are inferred from LH, HH, KD, HA = HH + KD subsamples, where related regression lines represent their theoretical counterparts within the framework of simple MCBR (multistage closed box + reservoir) chemical evolution models. Hence, the fractional yields, hat{p}_{Q}/hat{p}_{O}, are determined and (as an example) a comparison is shown with their theoretical counterparts inferred from SNII progenitor nucleosynthesis under the assumption of a power-law stellar initial mass function. The generalized fractional yields, C_{Q}=Z_{Q}/Z_{O}^{a_{Q}}, are determined regardless of the chemical evolution model. The ratio of outflow to star formation rate is compared for different populations in the framework of simple MCBR models. The opposite situation of element abundance variation entirely due to cosmic scatter is also considered under reasonable assumptions. The related differential element abundance

  18. Interstellar Medium, Young Stars, and Astrometric Binaries in Galactic Archaeology Spectroscopic Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwitter, T.; Kos, J.; Žerjal, M.; Traven, G.

    2016-10-01

    Current ongoing stellar spectroscopic surveys (RAVE, GALAH, Gaia-ESO, LAMOST, APOGEE, Gaia) are mostly devoted to studying Galactic archaeology and the structure of the Galaxy. But they allow also for important auxiliary science: (i) the Galactic interstellar medium can be studied in four dimensions (position in space plus radial velocity) through weak but numerous diffuse interstellar bands and atomic absorptions seen in spectra of background stars, (ii) emission spectra which are quite frequent even in field stars can serve as a good indicator of their youth, pointing e.g. to stars recently ejected from young stellar environments, (iii) an astrometric solution of the photocenter of a binary to be obtained by Gaia can yield accurate masses when joined by spectroscopic information obtained serendipitously during a survey. These points are illustrated by first results from the first three surveys mentioned above. These hint at the near future: spectroscopic studies of the dynamics of the interstellar medium can identify and quantify Galactic fountains which may sustain star formation in the disk by entraining fresh gas from the halo; RAVE already provided a list of ˜ 14,000 field stars with chromospheric emission in Ca II lines, to be supplemented by many more observations by Gaia in the same band, and by GALAH and Gaia-ESO observations of Balmer lines; several millions of astrometric binaries with periods up to a few years which are being observed by Gaia can yield accurate masses when supplemented with measurements from only a few high-quality ground based spectra.

  19. Red horizontal-branch stars in the galactic disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, J. A.

    1985-05-01

    A class of red horizontal-branch (RHB) stars, similar to those in the "metal-rich" globular cluster M71, has been identified in the Galactic disk, using a quantitative three-dimensional spectral classification system developed earlier (Rose 1984) that uses 2.5-Å resolution spectra in the blue. A prototype for this class is the G5 III star HD 79452, which has been found by Helfer and Wallerstein (1968) to have [Fe/H] = -0.85 and MV = +1. The RHB stars are shown to be evolved stars on the basis of the strength of their Sr II λ4077 line, and are distinguished from post-main-sequence stars evolving through the same region of the HR diagram because of the unique appearance of their CN λ3883 and λ4216 bands. A preliminary estimate has been made of their space density, scale height perpendicular to the Galactic plane, and kinematics by surveying G5 - G7 stars in the Upgren (1962) North Galactic Pole survey.

  20. THE MASSIVE-BLACK-HOLE-VELOCITY-DISPERSION RELATION AND THE HALO BARYON FRACTION: A CASE FOR POSITIVE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK

    SciTech Connect

    Silk, Joseph; Nusser, Adi E-mail: adi@physics.technion.ac.i

    2010-12-10

    Force balance considerations put a limit on the rate of active galactic nucleus radiation momentum output, L/c, capable of driving galactic superwinds and reproducing the observed M{sub BH}-{sigma} relation between black hole mass and spheroid velocity dispersion. We show that black holes cannot supply enough momentum in radiation to drive the gas out by pressure alone. Energy-driven winds give a M{sub BH}-{sigma} scaling favored by a recent analysis but also fall short energetically once cooling is incorporated. We propose that outflow triggering of star formation by enhancing the intercloud medium turbulent pressure and squeezing clouds can supply the necessary boost and suggest possible tests of this hypothesis. Our hypothesis simultaneously can account for the observed halo baryon fraction.

  1. Structures in the Milky Way’s Halo System using the Age Distribution of Field Horizontal-Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentner, Geoffrey; Beers, Timothy C.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Carollo, Daniela; Whitten, Deven; Denissenkov, Pavel; Santucci, Rafael; Rossi, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Twenty five years ago it was demonstrated that the colors of blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars in the halo of the Milky Way correlate with age (Preston et al., 1991). More recently, this property of BHB stars has been used to construct chronographic (age) maps of the Galaxy (Santucci et al., 2015; Carollo et al., 2016), which revealed the presence of substructures on the basis of the age contrast between younger accreted satellites with respect to the diffuse halo field stars, and, for the first time, obtained an empirical estimate of the age gradient for the halo of the Galaxy based on field BHB stars. These maps also indicated the presence of an ancient chronographic sphere, including the oldest BHB stars, extending from close to the Galactic center out to some 10-15 kpc.We extend these studies making use of deeper u-band photometry from the recent public data release of the SCUSS survey (Zou et al., 2016). We also describe application of a new grid of ages that takes into account both metallicity and colors for BHB stars.By building deeper chronographic maps we can better explore the age structures that are revealed. Up- coming large surveys, including the public release of Pan-STARRS, as well as photometry from the Dark Energy Survey, will further add to these efforts.This work received partial support from PHY 14-30152; Physics Frontier Center/JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements (JINA-CEE), awarded by the US National Science Foundation.

  2. The Galactic O-Star Catalog (GOSC) and the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS): current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.; Alonso Moragón, A.; Ortiz de Zárate Alcarazo, L.; The Gosss Team

    2017-03-01

    We present the updates of the Galactic O-Star Catalog (GOSC) that we have undertaken in the last two years: new spectral types, more objects, additional information, and coordination with CDS. We also present updates for the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS). A new paper (GOSSS-III) has been published and ˜ 1000 targets have been observed since 2014. Four new setups have been added to our lineup and for two of them we have already obtained over 100 spectra: with OSIRIS at the 10.4 m GTC we are observing northern dim stars and with FRODOspec at the 2.0 m Liverpool Telescope we are observing northern bright stars. Finally, we also make available new versions of MGB, the spectral classification tool associated with the project, and of the GOSSS grid of spectroscopic standards.

  3. IMPACT OF SUPERNOVA AND COSMIC-RAY DRIVING ON THE SURFACE BRIGHTNESS OF THE GALACTIC HALO IN SOFT X-RAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Thomas; Girichidis, Philipp; Gatto, Andrea; Naab, Thorsten; Walch, Stefanie; Wünsch, Richard; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Baczynski, Christian; Clark, Paul C.

    2015-11-10

    The halo of the Milky Way contains a hot plasma with a surface brightness in soft X-rays of the order 10{sup −12} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} deg{sup −2}. The origin of this gas is unclear, but so far numerical models of galactic star formation have failed to reproduce such a large surface brightness by several orders of magnitude. In this paper, we analyze simulations of the turbulent, magnetized, multi-phase interstellar medium including thermal feedback by supernova explosions as well as cosmic-ray feedback. We include a time-dependent chemical network, self-shielding by gas and dust, and self-gravity. Pure thermal feedback alone is sufficient to produce the observed surface brightness, although it is very sensitive to the supernova rate. Cosmic rays suppress this sensitivity and reduce the surface brightness because they drive cooler outflows. Self-gravity has by far the largest effect because it accumulates the diffuse gas in the disk in dense clumps and filaments, so that supernovae exploding in voids can eject a large amount of hot gas into the halo. This can boost the surface brightness by several orders of magnitude. Although our simulations do not reach a steady state, all simulations produce surface brightness values of the same order of magnitude as the observations, with the exact value depending sensitively on the simulation parameters. We conclude that star formation feedback alone is sufficient to explain the origin of the hot halo gas, but measurements of the surface brightness alone do not provide useful diagnostics for the study of galactic star formation.

  4. Hot Gas in the Galactic Thick Disk and Halo Near the Draco Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, R. L.; Henley, D. B.; Dixon, W. V.

    2010-10-01

    This paper examines the ultraviolet and X-ray photons generated by hot gas in the Galactic thick disk or halo in the Draco region of the northern hemisphere. Our analysis uses the intensities from four ions, C IV, O VI, O VII, and O VIII, sampling temperatures of ~105 to ~3 × 106 K. We measured the O VI, O VII, and O VIII intensities from FUSE and XMM-Newton data and subtracted off the local contributions in order to deduce the thick disk/halo contributions. These were supplemented with published C IV intensity and O VI column density measurements. Our estimate of the thermal pressure in the O VI-rich thick disk/halo gas, p th/k = 6500+2500 -2600 K cm-3, suggests that the thick disk/halo is more highly pressurized than would be expected from theoretical analyses. The ratios of C IV to O VI to O VII to O VIII intensities were compared with those predicted by theoretical models. Gas which was heated to 3 × 106 K then allowed to cool radiatively cannot produce enough C IV or O VI-generated photons per O VII or O VIII-generated photon. Producing enough C IV and O VI emission requires heating additional gas to 105 K < T < 106 K. However, shock heating, which provides heating across this temperature range, overproduces O VI relative to the others. Obtaining the observed mix may require a combination of several processes, including some amount of shock heating, heat conduction, and mixing, as well as radiative cooling of very hot gas.

  5. The Extinction Toward the Galactic Bulge from RR Lyrae Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Kunder, A; Popowski, P; Cook, K; Chaboyer, B

    2007-11-07

    The authors present mean reddenings toward 3525 RR0 Lyrae stars from the Galactic bulge fields of the MACHO Survey. These reddenings are determined using the color at minimum V-band light of the RR0 Lyrae stars themselves and are found to be in general agreement with extinction estimates at the same location obtained from other methods. Using 3256 stars located in the Galactic Bulge, they derive the selective extinction coefficient R{sub V,VR} = A{sub V}/E(V-R) = 4.2 {+-} 0.2. this value is what is expected for a standard extinction law with R{sub V,BV} = 3.1 {+-} 0.3

  6. Galactic kinematics from a sample of young massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobylev, V. V.; Bajkova, A. T.

    2013-08-01

    Based on published sources, we have created a kinematic database on 220 massive (> 10 M ⊙) young Galactic star systems located within ≤3 kpc of the Sun. Out of them, ≈100 objects are spectroscopic binary and multiple star systems whose components are massive OB stars; the remaining objects are massive Hipparcos B stars with parallax errors of no more than 10%. Based on the entire sample, we have constructed the Galactic rotation curve, determined the circular rotation velocity of the solar neighborhood around the Galactic center at R 0 = 8kpc, V 0 = 259±16 km s-1, and obtained the following spiral density wave parameters: the amplitudes of the radial and azimuthal velocity perturbations f R = -10.8 ± 1.2 km s-1 and f θ = 7.9 ± 1.3 km s-1, respectively; the pitch angle for a two-armed spiral pattern i = -6.0° ± 0.4°, with the wavelength of the spiral density wave near the Sun being λ = 2.6 ± 0.2 kpc; and the radial phase of the Sun in χ ⊙ = -120° ± 4°. We show that such peculiarities of the Gould Belt as the local expansion of the system, the velocity ellipsoid vertex deviation, and the significant additional rotation can be explained in terms of the density wave theory. All these effects decrease noticeably once the influence of the spiral density wave on the velocities of nearby stars has been taken into account. The influence of Gould Belt stars on the Galactic parameter estimates has also been revealed. Eliminating them from the kinematic equations has led to the following new values of the spiral density wave parameters: f θ = 2.9 ± 2.1 km s-1 and χ ⊙ = -104° ± 6°.

  7. Wide-Field Imaging of Galactic Halos with a Near-Infrared Rocket-Borne Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Andrew E.

    2000-01-01

    We successfully completed both of the proposed flights by May of 1998, on schedule and on budget. In both flights the instrument worked flawlessly, achieving sensitivities slightly better than the specification (1 nW/sq m sr per pixel). The payload was recovered with only minor damage after both flights. The results from the first flight, which targeted the nearby edge-on spiral NCG 4565, have been published. Analysis of the data failed to detect any significant emission, from the halo around the galaxy, and set a very stringent 2 sigma lower limit on the M/L ratio of the halo of greater than 260 in solar units. The results from the second flight, which targeted the infamous NGC 5907, have taken longer to analyze because of an offset in the absolute pointing of the payload which broke the symmetry of the scan pattern about the galaxy, thus complicating the analysis, After careful analysis, Caltech graduate student, Sarah Yost, has recovered the full sensitivity of the experiment, setting a 2 sigma lower limit on the M/L ratio of the halo of greater than 280 in solar units. This result rules out the hypothesis that a significant portion of the halo around NGC 5907 is composed of low-mass stars, as previous observations had suggested. NITE probes directly the halo at 10 to 30 kpc from the disk, a region far too dim for other experiments. Our conclusion is that observations of a significant IR signature associated with the halo at less than approximately 5kpc radius where contaminated by tidally disrupted disk population of stars. In order to test the idea that we could study faint surface-brightness fluctuations in the diffuse background using NITE, we have analyzed the data from the 1997 flight which targeted NCG 4565 (this target is in a region of lower stellar confusion than is NGC 5907). We have detected a significant correlation in the noise at zero-lag, with an amplitude that corresponds to brightness fluctuations of 3.04 plus or minus 0.16 nW/sq m sr. This

  8. The MACHO Project Sample of Galactic Bulge High-Amplitude Scuti Stars: Pulsation Behavior and Stellar Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.P.; Cook, K.H.; Freeman, K.C.; Geha, M.; Griest, K.; Lehner, M.J.; Marshall, S.L.; McNamara, B.J.; Minniti, D.; Nelson, C.; Peterson, B.A.; Popowski, P.; Pratt, M.R.; Quinn, P.J.; Rodgers, A.W.; Sutherland, W.; Templeton, M.R.; Vandehei, T.; Welch, D.L.

    1999-11-16

    We have detected 90 objects with periods and lightcurve structure similar to those of field {delta} Scuti stars, using the Massive Compact Halo Object (MACHO) Project database of Galactic bulge photometry. If we assume similar extinction values for all candidates and absolute magnitudes similar to those of other field high-amplitude {delta} Scuti stars (HADS), the majority of these objects lie in or near the Galactic bulge. At least two of these objects are likely foreground {delta} Scuti stars, one of which may be an evolved nonradial pulsator, similar to other evolved, disk-population {delta} Scuti stars. We have analyzed the light curves of these objects and find that they are similar to the light curves of field {delta} Scuti stars and the {delta} Scuti stars found by the Optical Gravitational Lens Experiment (OGLE). However, the amplitude distribution of these sources lies between those of low- and high-amplitude {delta} Scuti stars, which suggests that they may be an intermediate population. We have found nine double-mode HADS with frequency ratios ranging from 0.75 to 0.79, four probable double- and multiple-mode objects, and another four objects with marginal detections of secondary modes. The low frequencies (5-14 cycles d{sup -1}) and the observed period ratios of {approx}0.77 suggest that the majority of these objects are evolved stars pulsating in fundamental or first overtone radial modes.

  9. Burst of Star Formation Drives Galactic Bubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) captures a lumpy bubble of hot gas rising from a cauldron of glowing matter in Galaxy NGC 3079, located 50 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Ursa Major. Astronomers suspect the bubble is being blown by 'winds' or high speed streams of particles, released during a burst of star formation. The bubble's lumpy surface has four columns of gaseous filaments towering above the galaxy's disc that whirl around in a vortex and are expelled into space. Eventually, this gas will rain down on the disc and may collide with gas clouds, compress them, and form a new generation of stars.

  10. Star-forming Processes Far from the Galactic Disk: Inoperative or Indolent Where Operative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulou, Dimitris M.; Tohline, Joel E.; Keenan, Francis P.

    1997-09-01

    Highly supersonic collisions between gaseous clouds may effectively trigger star formation in the disk of our Galaxy, but not in the diffuse environment of the Galactic halo. This is because the observed high-velocity clouds (HVCs) are not dominated by collisions: the characteristic time between cloudlet collisions inside an HVC at an assumed distance of 10 kpc is at least 1 Gyr for collective encounters and at least 10 Gyr if a particular cloudlet is considered. In agreement with this result, we also estimate that the observed cloudlets contain smaller masses than the nonmagnetic Jeans mass that signals favorable conditions for gravitational collapse and further fragmentation in the isothermal regime. The diffuse environment observed around the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) is more difficult to understand than HVCs. Six sparse blue associations and two young B-type stars have been observed in the H I bridge between the MCs, while no stars exist in the H I cloud complexes that make up the Magellanic Stream. We discuss the conditions under which spatially sporadic star formation took place in the Magellanic Bridge during the past 16-25 Myr and the reasons for the complete absence of star formation in the Stream during its entire lifetime. We also estimate the angular resolutions that need to be achieved by follow-up radio observations of these regions that could detect cold cloudlets embedded in the gas.

  11. Isotropic at the Break? 3D Kinematics of Milky Way Halo Stars in the Foreground of M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Emily C.; Deason, Alis J.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Rockosi, Constance M.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Toloba, Elisa; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Dorman, Claire E.

    2016-03-01

    We present the line-of-sight (LOS) velocities for 13 distant main sequence Milky Way halo stars with published proper motions (PMs). The PMs were measured using long baseline (5-7 years) multi-epoch Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys photometry, and the LOS velocities were extracted from deep (5-6 hr integrations) Keck II/DEIMOS spectra. We estimate the parameters of the velocity ellipsoid of the stellar halo using a Markov chain Monte Carlo ensembler sampler method. The velocity second moments in the directions of the Galactic (l, b, LOS) coordinate system are {< {v}l2> }1/2={138}-26+43 km s-1, {< {v}b2> }1/2={88}-17+28 {\\text{km s}}-1, and {< {v}{{LOS}}2> }1/2={91}-14+27 {\\text{km s}}-1. We use these ellipsoid parameters to constrain the velocity anisotropy of the stellar halo. Ours is the first measurement of the anisotropy parameter β using 3D kinematics outside of the solar neighborhood. We find β =-{0.3}-0.9+0.4, consistent with isotropy and lower than solar neighborhood β measurements by 2σ (βSN ˜ 0.5-0.7). We identify two stars in our sample that are likely members of the known TriAnd substructure, and excluding these objects from our sample increases our estimate of the anisotropy to β ={0.1}-1.0+0.4, which is still lower than solar neighborhood measurements by 1σ. The potential decrease in β with Galactocentric radius is inconsistent with theoretical predictions, though consistent with recent observational studies, and may indicate the presence of large, shell-type structure (or structures) at r ˜ 25 kpc. The methods described in this paper will be applied to a much larger sample of stars with 3D kinematics observed through the ongoing HALO7D program.

  12. The impact of galactic environment on star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreckel, Kathryn; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Schinnerer, Eva; Groves, Brent; Adamo, Angela; Hughes, Annie; Meidt, Sharon; SFNG Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    While spiral arms are the most prominent sites for star formation in disk galaxies, interarm star formation contributes significantly to the overall star formation budget. However, it is still an open question if the star formation proceeds differently in the arm and inter-arm environment. We use deep VLT/MUSE optical IFU spectroscopy to resolve and fully characterize the physical properties of 428 interarm and arm HII regions in the nearby grand design spiral galaxy NGC 628. Unlike molecular clouds (the fuel for star formation) which exhibit a clear dependence on galactic environment, we find that most HII region properties (luminosity, size, metallicity, ionization parameter) are independent of environment. One clear exception is the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) contribution to the arm and interarm flux (traced via the temperature sensitive [SII]/Halpha line ratio inside and outside of the HII region boundaries). We find a systematically higher DIG background within HII regions, particularly on the spiral arms. Correcting for this DIG contamination can result in significant (70%) changes to the star formation rate measured. We also show preliminary results comparing well-corrected star formation rates from our MUSE HII regions to ALMA CO(2-1) molecular gas observations at matched 1"=50pc resolution, tracing the Kennicutt-Schmidt star formation law at the scales relevant to the physics of star formation. We estimate the timescales relevant for GMC evolution using distance from the spiral arm as a proxy for age, and test whether star formation feedback or galactic-scale dynamical processes dominate GMC disruption.

  13. The Impact Of Galactic Environment On Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreckel, Kathryn

    2016-09-01

    While spiral arms are the most prominent sites for star formation in disk galaxies, interarm star formation contributes significantly to the overall star formation budget. However, it is still an open question if the star formation proceeds differently in the arm and inter-arm environment. We use deep VLT/MUSE optical IFU spectroscopy to resolve and fully characterize the physical properties of 428 interarm and arm HII regions in the nearby grand design spiral galaxy NGC 628. Unlike molecular clouds (the fuel for star formation) which exhibit a clear dependence on galactic environment, we find that most HII region properties (luminosity, size, metallicity, ionization parameter) are independent of environment. One clear exception is the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) contribution to the arm and interarm flux (traced via the temperature sensitive [SII]/Halpha line ratio inside and outside of the HII region boundaries). We find a systematically higher DIG background within HII regions, particularly on the spiral arms. Correcting for this DIG contamination can result in significant (70%) changes to the star formation rate measured. We also show preliminary results comparing well@corrected star formation rates from our MUSE HII regions to ALMA CO(2-1) molecular gas observations at matched 1"=35pc resolution, tracing the Kennicutt-Schmidt star formation law at the scales relevant to the physics of star formation. We estimate the timescales relevant for GMC evolution using distance from the spiral arm as a proxy for age, and test whether star formation feedback or galactic@scale dynamical processes dominate GMC disruption.

  14. Molecular Clouds, Star Formation and Galactic Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoville, Nick; Young, Judith S.

    1984-01-01

    Radio observations show that the gigantic clouds of molecules where stars are born are distributed in various ways in spiral galaxies, perhaps accounting for the variation in their optical appearance. Research studies and findings in this area are reported and discussed. (JN)

  15. Proper Motions of Isolated Massive Stars Near the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    The Galactic Center is one of the most perplexing and unusual regions of the Galaxy. Not only is it home to the central massive black hole but it contains three very massive young star clusters within the central 30 pc; the Arches, Quintuplet and Central clusters. Furthermore, emission-line surveys have revealed the presence of what appears to be a diaspora of 40 very massive isolated Wolf-Rayet-like stars scattered throughout the region, outside of these massive clusters. Their origin is currently unkown but the suspected causes include such diverse and exotic mechanisms as ejection by dynamical interaction within the massive clusters, ejection by supernovae events within those clusters old enough to have SN, ejection by interaction with the central black hole, stellar mergers in the field, and in situ star formation of isolated massive stars. These processes however should all leave clear and distinct dynamical signatures on their products.We propose using WFC3/IR to conduct a survey of 150 square arcminutes the Galactic Center region to measure relative proper motions to an accuracy of 10 km/s for stars with masses as low as a few solar masses {late B-type}. Our objectives include determining which of the known isolated massive stars are runaways, estimating their probable places of origin, discovering less luminous runaways that are invisible to emission line surveys, characterizing the dynamical properties of runaway stars in all luminosty ranges, and searching for signs of tidally disrupted massive clusters. The survey will have lasting legacy value to those trying to unravel the physics of galactic centers and the environments around massive black holes.

  16. Proper Motions of Isolated Massive Stars Near the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    The Galactic Center is one of the most perplexing and unusual regions of the Galaxy. Not only is it home to the central massive black hole but it contains three very massive young star clusters within the central 30 pc; the Arches, Quintuplet and Central clusters. Furthermore, emission-line surveys have revealed the presence of what appears to be a diaspora of ~40 very massive isolated Wolf-Rayet-like stars scattered throughout the region, outside of these massive clusters. Their origin is currently unkown but the suspected causes include such diverse and exotic mechanisms as ejection by dynamical interaction within the massive clusters, ejection by supernovae events within those clusters old enough to have SN, ejection by interaction with the central black hole, stellar mergers in the field, and in situ star formation of isolated massive stars. These processes however should all leave clear and distinct dynamical signatures on their products.We propose using WFC3/IR to conduct a survey of ~150 square arcminutes the Galactic Center region to measure relative proper motions to an accuracy of 10 km/s for stars with masses as low as a few solar masses (late B-type). Our objectives include determining which of the known isolated massive stars are runaways, estimating their probable places of origin, discovering less luminous runaways that are invisible to emission line surveys, characterizing the dynamical properties of runaway stars in all luminosty ranges, and searching for signs of tidally disrupted massive clusters. The survey will have lasting legacy value to those trying to unravel the physics of galactic centers and the environments around massive black holes.

  17. XMM-NEWTON MEASUREMENT OF THE GALACTIC HALO X-RAY EMISSION USING A COMPACT SHADOWING CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.; Cumbee, Renata S.; Stancil, Phillip C.

    2015-02-01

    Observations of interstellar clouds that cast shadows in the soft X-ray background can be used to separate the background Galactic halo emission from the local emission due to solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) and/or the Local Bubble (LB). We present an XMM-Newton observation of a shadowing cloud, G225.60–66.40, that is sufficiently compact that the on- and off-shadow spectra can be extracted from a single field of view (unlike previous shadowing observations of the halo with CCD-resolution spectrometers, which consisted of separate on- and off-shadow pointings). We analyzed the spectra using a variety of foreground models: one representing LB emission, and two representing SWCX emission. We found that the resulting halo model parameters (temperature T {sub h} ≈ 2 × 10{sup 6} K, emission measure E{sub h}≈4×10{sup −3} cm{sup −6} pc) were not sensitive to the foreground model used. This is likely due to the relative faintness of the foreground emission in this observation. However, the data do favor the existence of a foreground. The halo parameters derived from this observation are in good agreement with those from previous shadowing observations, and from an XMM-Newton survey of the Galactic halo emission. This supports the conclusion that the latter results are not subject to systematic errors, and can confidently be used to test models of the halo emission.

  18. Astrochemical studies of galactic star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Ronak Yogendra

    2000-08-01

    This thesis characterizes and quantifies a key part of the chemical evolution associated with star formation towards nearby molecular clouds by analyzing the radiation from abundant molecules and their deuterium- substituted counterparts, or deuterated molecules. As clouds evolve to form stars, molecular spectra probe the dynamics. Deuterium fractionation ratios sample the variations in temperature, density and activity of protostellar systems and offer clues into their dynamics. We present three projects to examine the scope and scale of deuterium fractionation of ammonia, NH3, and formylium, HCO+, in low mass star forming regions. Analysis of single aperture NH2D and NH3 spectra from prestellar and protostellar cores indicates the predominance of gas-phase reactions in the production of these species. Our survey suggests that these species deplete onto grain surfaces at late times in the evolution of molecular cores into protostars. Since the collapse of protostars is rapid, deuterium fractionation of ammonia is not likely to be affected substantially by grain chemistry. This should be the case for even more massive molecular clouds such as Orion Molecular Cloud I or Sgr B2. Thus, observed NH2D/NH3 values probe the cold gas-phase evolution of molecular clouds. The relationship between gas dynamics and star formation are explored in our survey of DCO+ and H13CO+. We extend previous analyses of the DCO+HCO+ as a measure of the ionization fraction and magnetic field-neutral coupling of molecular clouds by examining high energy transitions. This method traces warmer, denser gas associated with near-protostellar regions and clustered star formation. Although we find that most DCO+HCO + values are consistent with previous studies, we also discover regions where DCO+HCO+ is larger than predicted by the paradigm of ambipolar diffusion-regulated star formation. Single aperture surveys examine the ambient gas on ~105 AU scales. However, only aperture synthesis studies

  19. Particle Dark Matter in the galactic halo: results from DAMA/LIBRA

    SciTech Connect

    Bernabei, R.; Belli, P.; Nozzoli, F.; Montecchia, F.; Cappella, F.; D'Angelo, A.; Incicchitti, A.; Presperi, D.; Cerulli, R.; Dai, C. J.; He, H. L.; Kuang, H. H.; Ma, X. H.; Sheng, X. D.

    2010-02-10

    The DAMA/LIBRA experiment at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of the I.N.F.N. has confirmed with higher sensitivity the model independent evidence for Dark Matter (DM) particles in the galactic halo obtained by the former DAMA/NaI experiment by investigating the DM annual modulation signature. Considering the data collected by DAMA/LIBRA together with the data collected by the former DAMA/NaI (cumulative exposure of 0.82 tonxyr) a confidence level of 8.2 sigma has been achieved. The experiment is in data taking; a first upgrading of the set-up has been carried out in Spetember 2008 and a second one--aiming to decrease the experimental energy threshold--is foreseen in September 2010.

  20. Light bending in the galactic halo by Rindler-Ishak method

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Amrita; Nandi, Kamal K.; Isaev, Ruslan; Scalia, Massimo; Cattani, Carlo E-mail: subfear@gmail.com E-mail: ccattani@unisa.it

    2010-09-01

    After the work of Rindler and Ishak, it is now well established that the bending of light is influenced by the cosmological constant Λ appearing in the Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime. We show that their method, when applied to the exact Mannheim-Kazanas-de Sitter solution of the Weyl conformal gravity, nicely yields the expected answer together with several other physically interesting new terms. Apart from Λ, the solution is parametrized by a conformal parameter γ, which is known to play a dominant role in the galactic halo gravity. The application of the method yields exactly the same γ− correction to Schwarzschild bending as obtained by standard methods. Different cases are analyzed, which include some corrections to the special cases considered in the original paper by Rindler and Ishak.

  1. The Origin Billions Star Survey: Galactic Explorer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-18

    orbital distances of the satellites vary with the general location of the asteroid in the solar system (near- Earth, main belt , or Kuiper Belt ...not necessarily have the same kinematics. 3.2.7. The Gould Belt The Gould Belt is a disk-shaped structure that includes most of the stars younger than...the Pleiades within ∼700 pc of the Sun, which is situated inside the belt . The Gould Belt is de- lineated on the sky by major concentrations of

  2. Enhanced tidal stripping of satellites in the galactic halo from dark matter self-interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooley, Gregory A.; Peter, Annika H. G.; Vogelsberger, Mark; Zavala, Jesús; Frebel, Anna

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the effects of self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) on the tidal stripping and evaporation of satellite galaxies in a Milky Way-like host. We use a suite of five zoom-in, dark-matter-only simulations, two with velocity-independent SIDM cross-sections, two with velocity-dependent SIDM cross-sections, and one cold dark matter (CDM) simulation for comparison. After carefully assigning stellar mass to satellites at infall, we find that stars are stripped at a higher rate in SIDM than in CDM. In contrast, the total bound dark matter mass-loss rate is minimally affected, with subhalo evaporation having negligible effects on satellites for viable SIDM models. Centrally located stars in SIDM haloes disperse out to larger radii as cores grow. Consequently, the half-light radius of satellites increases, stars become more vulnerable to tidal stripping, and the stellar mass function is suppressed. We find that the ratio of core radius to tidal radius accurately predicts the relative strength of enhanced SIDM stellar stripping. Velocity-independent SIDM models show a modest increase in the stellar stripping effect with satellite mass, whereas velocity-dependent SIDM models show a large increase in this effect towards lower masses, making observations of ultrafaint dwarfs prime targets for distinguishing between and constraining SIDM models. Due to small cores in the largest satellites of velocity-dependent SIDM, no identifiable imprint is left on the all-sky properties of the stellar halo. While our results focus on SIDM, the main physical mechanism of enhanced tidal stripping of stars apply similarly to satellites with cores formed via other means.

  3. Infrared Spectroscopy of Star Formation in Galactic and Extragalactic Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Howard A.; Hasan, Hashima (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report details work done in a project involving spectroscopic studies, including data analysis and modeling, of star-formation regions using an ensemble of archival space-based data including some from the Infrared Space Observatory's Long Wavelength Spectrometer and Short Wavelength Spectrometer, and other spectroscopic databases. We will include four kinds of regions: (1) disks around more evolved objects; (2) young, low or high mass pre-main sequence stars in star-formation regions; (3) star formation in external, bright IR (infrared) galaxies; and (4) the galactic center. During this period, work proceeded fully on track and on time. Details on workshops and conferences attended and research results are presented. A preprint article entitled 'The Far Infrared Lines of OH as Molecular Cloud Diagnostics' is included as an appendix.

  4. The boron-to-beryllium ratio in halo stars - A signature of cosmic-ray nucleosynthesis in the early Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Schramm, D. N.; Olive, K. A.; Fields, B.

    1993-01-01

    We discuss Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) spallation production of Li, Be, and B in the early Galaxy with particular attention to the uncertainties in the predictions of this model. The observed correlation between the Be abundance and the metallicity in metal-poor Population II stars requires that Be was synthesized in the early Galaxy. We show that the observations and such Population II GCR synthesis of Be are quantitatively consistent with the big bang nucleosynthesis production of Li-7. We find that there is a nearly model independent lower bound to B/Be of about 7 for GCR synthesis. Recent measurements of B/Be about 10 in HD 140283 are in excellent agreement with the predictions of Population II GCR nucleosynthesis. Measurements of the boron abundance in additional metal-poor halo stars is a key diagnostic of the GCR spallation mechanism. We also show that Population II GCR synthesis can produce amounts of Li-6 which may be observed in the hottest halo stars.

  5. Unveiling the Role of Galactic Rotation on Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utreras, José; Becerra, Fernando; Escala, Andrés

    2016-12-01

    We study the star formation process at galactic scales and the role of rotation through numerical simulations of spiral and starburst galaxies using the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo. We focus on the study of three integrated star formation laws found in the literature: the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) and Silk-Elmegreen (SE) laws, and the dimensionally homogeneous equation proposed by Escala {{{Σ }}}{SFR}\\propto \\sqrt{G/L}{{{Σ }}}{gas}1.5. We show that using the last we take into account the effects of the integration along the line of sight and find a unique regime of star formation for both types of galaxies, suppressing the observed bi-modality of the KS law. We find that the efficiencies displayed by our simulations are anti-correlated with the angular velocity of the disk Ω for the three laws studied in this work. Finally, we show that the dimensionless efficiency of star formation is well represented by an exponentially decreasing function of -1.9{{Ω }}{t}{ff}{ini}, where {t}{ff}{ini} is the initial free-fall time. This leads to a unique galactic star formation relation which reduces the scatter of the bi-modal KS, SE, and Escala relations by 43%, 43%, and 35%, respectively.

  6. Star Formation and Dynamics in the Galactic Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapelli, Michela; Gualandris, Alessia

    The centre of our Galaxy is one of the most studied and yet enigmatic places in the Universe. At a distance of about 8 kpc from our Sun, the Galactic centre (GC) is the ideal environment to study the extreme processes that take place in the vicinity of a supermassive black hole (SMBH). Despite the hostile environment, several tens of early-type stars populate the central parsec of our Galaxy. A fraction of them lie in a thin ring with mild eccentricity and inner radius ˜ 0.04 pc, while the S-stars, i.e. the ˜ 30 stars closest to the SMBH ( lesssim 0.04 pc), have randomly oriented and highly eccentric orbits. The formation of such early-type stars has been a puzzle for a long time: molecular clouds should be tidally disrupted by the SMBH before they can fragment into stars. We review the main scenarios proposed to explain the formation and the dynamical evolution of the early-type stars in the GC. In particular, we discuss the most popular in situ scenarios (accretion disc fragmentation and molecular cloud disruption) and migration scenarios (star cluster inspiral and Hills mechanism). We focus on the most pressing challenges that must be faced to shed light on the process of star formation in the vicinity of a SMBH.

  7. ANISOTROPY AS A PROBE OF THE GALACTIC COSMIC-RAY PROPAGATION AND HALO MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Xiao-bo; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Cheng; Hu, Hong-bo; Xue, Liang

    2012-05-01

    The anisotropy of cosmic rays (CRs) in the solar vicinity is generally attributed to CR streaming due to the discrete distribution of CR sources or local magnetic field modulation. Recently, the two-dimensional large-scale CR anisotropy has been measured by many experiments in the TeV-PeV energy range in both hemispheres. The tail-in excess along the tangential direction of the local spiral arm and the loss cone deficit pointing to the north Galactic pole direction agree with what have been obtained in tens to hundreds of GeV. The persistence of the two large-scale anisotropy structures in such a wide energy range suggests that the anisotropy might be due to global streaming of the Galactic CRs (GCRs). This work tries to extend the observed CR anisotropy picture from the solar system to the whole galaxy. In such a case, we can find a new interesting signature, a loop of GCR streaming, of the GCR propagation. We further calculate the overall GCR streaming induced magnetic field, and find a qualitative consistency with the observed structure of the halo magnetic field.

  8. THE ORIGIN OF THE HOT GAS IN THE GALACTIC HALO: CONFRONTING MODELS WITH XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.; Kwak, Kyujin; Joung, M. Ryan; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2010-11-01

    We compare the predictions of three physical models for the origin of the hot halo gas with the observed halo X-ray emission, derived from 26 high-latitude XMM-Newton observations of the soft X-ray background between l = 120{sup 0} and l = 240{sup 0}. These observations were chosen from a much larger set of observations as they are expected to be the least contaminated by solar wind charge exchange emission. We characterize the halo emission in the XMM-Newton band with a single-temperature plasma model. We find that the observed halo temperature is fairly constant across the sky ({approx}(1.8-2.4) x 10{sup 6} K), whereas the halo emission measure varies by an order of magnitude ({approx}0.0005-0.006 cm{sup -6} pc). When we compare our observations with the model predictions, we find that most of the hot gas observed with XMM-Newton does not reside in isolated extraplanar supernova (SN) remnants-this model predicts emission an order of magnitude too faint. A model of an SN-driven interstellar medium, including the flow of hot gas from the disk into the halo in a galactic fountain, gives good agreement with the observed 0.4-2.0 keV surface brightness. This model overpredicts the halo X-ray temperature by a factor of {approx}2, but there are a several possible explanations for this discrepancy. We therefore conclude that a major (possibly dominant) contributor to the halo X-ray emission observed with XMM-Newton is a fountain of hot gas driven into the halo by disk SNe. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that the extended hot halo of accreted material predicted by disk galaxy formation models also contributes to the emission.

  9. Observational probes of the connection between Star Formation Efficiency and Dark Matter halo mass of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinova, Veselina; Colombo, Dario; Rosolowsky, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Modern simulations predict that the stellar mass and the star formation efficiency of a galaxy are tightly linked to the dark matter (DM) halo mass of that galaxy. This prediction relies on a specific model of galaxy evolution and so testing this prediction directly tests our best models of galaxy formation and evolution. Recent DM numerical studies propose relationships between star formation efficiency and the DM halo mass with two domains based on SF feedback (low-mass) vs. AGN feedback (high-mass), see Moster et al. (2013). The observational probe of such parameters in the relationship imply globally important physics that are fundamental as, e.g., the star formation law (e.g., Kennicutt et al., 1998), the universal depletion time (Leroy et al. 2008), and the origin of the cold gas phase with respect to the stellar disc (Davis et al.2011). Thus, we can directly measure whether this parameterization is correct by estimating the stellar mass, star formation efficiency and dynamical (DM) mass for a set of galaxies at strategically selected points to test if they fall on the predicted relationship.We use CO data from the Extragalactic Database for Galaxy Evolution survey (EDGE) in conjunction with archival 21-cm data and spectroscopic data from Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field spectroscopy Area survey (CALIFA) to measure the stellar vs. halo mass and star-formation-efficiency vs. halo mass relations of the galaxies. We also analyze archival 21-cm spectra to estimate rotation speeds, atomic gas masses and halo masses for a set of EDGE galaxies. Data from CALIFA are used for high quality star formation efficiency and stellar mass measurements. By linking these three parameters - stellar mass, star formation efficiency (SFE) and DM halo mass - we can test the simulation models of how the gas is cooling in the potential wells of the dark matter halos and then forms stars.

  10. THE GALACTIC O-STAR SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY (GOSSS). II. BRIGHT SOUTHERN STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Sota, A.; Apellániz, J. Maíz; Alfaro, E. J.; Barbá, R. H.; Arias, J. I.; Walborn, N. R.; Gamen, R. C.

    2014-03-01

    We present the second installment of GOSSS, a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R ∼ 2500 digital observations from both hemispheres selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog (GOSC). In this paper we include bright stars and other objects drawn mostly from the first version of GOSC, all of them south of δ = –20°, for a total number of 258 O stars. We also revise the northern sample of Paper I to provide the full list of spectroscopically classified Galactic O stars complete to B = 8, bringing the total number of published GOSSS stars to 448. Extensive sequences of exceptional objects are given, including the early Of/WN, O Iafpe, Ofc, ON/OC, Onfp, Of?p, and Oe types, as well as double/triple-lined spectroscopic binaries. The new spectral subtype O9.2 is also discussed. The magnitude and spatial distributions of the observed sample are analyzed. We also present new results from OWN, a multi-epoch high-resolution spectroscopic survey coordinated with GOSSS that is assembling the largest sample of Galactic spectroscopic massive binaries ever attained. The OWN data combined with additional information on spectroscopic and visual binaries from the literature indicate that only a very small fraction (if any) of the stars with masses above 15-20 M {sub ☉} are born as single systems. In the future we will publish the rest of the GOSSS survey, which is expected to include over 1000 Galactic O stars.

  11. Evolution of heavy-element abundances in the Galactic halo and disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, G. J.; Cowan, J. J.; Schramm, D. N.

    1988-01-01

    The constraints on the universal energy density and cosmological constant from cosmochronological ages and the Hubble age are reviewed. Observational evidence for the galactic chemical evolution of the heavy-element chronometers is descirbed in the context of numerical models. The viability of the recently discovered Th/Nd stellar chronometer is discussed, along with the suggestion that high r-process abundances in metal-poor stars may have resulted from a primordial r-process, as may be required by some inhomogeneous cosmologies.

  12. STELLAR ARCHEOLOGY IN THE GALACTIC HALO WITH ULTRA-FAINT DWARFS. VII. HERCULES

    SciTech Connect

    Musella, Ilaria; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Marconi, Marcella E-mail: ripepi@na.astro.it; and others

    2012-09-10

    We present the first time-series study of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Hercules. Using a variety of telescope/instrument facilities we secured about 50 V and 80 B epochs. These data allowed us to detect and characterize 10 pulsating variable stars in Hercules. Our final sample includes six fundamental-mode (ab-type) and three first-overtone (c-type) RR Lyrae stars, and one Anomalous Cepheid. The average period of the ab-type RR Lyrae stars, (P{sub ab}) = 0.68 days ({sigma} = 0.03 days), places Hercules in the Oosterhoff II group, as found for almost the totality of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxies investigated so far for variability. The RR Lyrae stars were used to obtain independent estimates of the metallicity, reddening, and distance to Hercules, for which we find [Fe/H] = -2.30 {+-} 0.15 dex, E(B - V) = 0.09 {+-} 0.02 mag, and (m - M){sub 0} = 20.6 {+-} 0.1 mag, in good agreement with the literature values. We have obtained a V, B - V color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of Hercules that reaches V {approx} 25 mag and extends beyond the galaxy's half-light radius over a total area of 40' Multiplication-Sign 36'. The CMD and the RR Lyrae stars indicate the presence of a population as old and metal-poor as (at least) the Galactic globular cluster M68.

  13. The Suppression of Star Formation by Powerful Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, E.

    2012-01-01

    The old, red stars that constitute the bulges of galaxies, and the massive black holes at their centres, are the relics of a period in cosmic history when galaxies formed stars at remarkable rates and active galactic nuclei (AGN) shone brightly as a result of accretion onto black holes. It is widely suspected, but unproved, that the tight corre1ation between the mass of the black hole and the mas. of the stellar bulge results from the AGN quenching the surrounding star formation as it approaches its peak luminosity. X-rays trace emission from AGN unambiguously, whereas powerful star-forming ga1axies are usually dust-obscured and are brightest at infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. Here we report submillimetre and X-ray observations that show that rapid star formation was common in the host galaxies of AGN when the Universe was 2-6 billion years old, but that the most vigorous star formation is not observed around black holes above an X-ray luminosity of 10(exp 44) ergs per second. This suppression of star formation in the host galaxy of a powerful AGN is a key prediction of models in which the AGN drives an outflow, expe11ing the interstellar medium of its host and transforming the galaxy's properties in a brief period of cosmic time.

  14. The suppression of star formation by powerful active galactic nuclei.

    PubMed

    Page, M J; Symeonidis, M; Vieira, J D; Altieri, B; Amblard, A; Arumugam, V; Aussel, H; Babbedge, T; Blain, A; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Castro-Rodríguez, N; Cava, A; Chanial, P; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Conversi, L; Cooray, A; Dowell, C D; Dubois, E N; Dunlop, J S; Dwek, E; Dye, S; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Farrah, D; Fox, M; Franceschini, A; Gear, W; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Halpern, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Ibar, E; Isaak, K; Ivison, R J; Lagache, G; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S; Maffei, B; Mainetti, G; Marchetti, L; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Pérez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rawlings, J I; Rigopoulou, D; Riguccini, L; Rizzo, D; Rodighiero, G; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Sánchez Portal, M; Schulz, B; Scott, D; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Stevens, J A; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K E; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Viero, M; Vigroux, L; Wang, L; Ward, R; Wright, G; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M

    2012-05-09

    The old, red stars that constitute the bulges of galaxies, and the massive black holes at their centres, are the relics of a period in cosmic history when galaxies formed stars at remarkable rates and active galactic nuclei (AGN) shone brightly as a result of accretion onto black holes. It is widely suspected, but unproved, that the tight correlation between the mass of the black hole and the mass of the stellar bulge results from the AGN quenching the surrounding star formation as it approaches its peak luminosity. X-rays trace emission from AGN unambiguously, whereas powerful star-forming galaxies are usually dust-obscured and are brightest at infrared and submillimetre wavelengths. Here we report submillimetre and X-ray observations that show that rapid star formation was common in the host galaxies of AGN when the Universe was 2-6 billion years old, but that the most vigorous star formation is not observed around black holes above an X-ray luminosity of 10(44) ergs per second. This suppression of star formation in the host galaxy of a powerful AGN is a key prediction of models in which the AGN drives an outflow, expelling the interstellar medium of its host and transforming the galaxy's properties in a brief period of cosmic time.

  15. [α/Fe] ABUNDANCES OF FOUR OUTER M31 HALO STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Luis C.; Geha, Marla; Tollerud, Erik J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Kirby, Evan N.; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    2014-12-10

    We present alpha element to iron abundance ratios, [α/Fe], for four stars in the outer stellar halo of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). The stars were identified as high-likelihood field halo stars by Gilbert et al. and lie at projected distances between 70 and 140 kpc from M31's center. These are the first alpha abundances measured for a halo star in a galaxy beyond the Milky Way. The stars range in metallicity between [Fe/H] = –2.2 and [Fe/H] = –1.4. The sample's average [α/Fe] ratio is +0.20 ± 0.20. The best-fit average value is elevated above solar, which is consistent with rapid chemical enrichment from Type II supernovae. The mean [α/Fe] ratio of our M31 outer halo sample agrees (within the uncertainties) with that of Milky Way inner/outer halo stars that have a comparable range of [Fe/H].

  16. HUBBLE SPIES GIANT STAR CLUSTERS NEAR GALACTIC CENTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Penetrating 25,000 light-years of obscuring dust and myriad stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has provided the clearest view yet of a pair of the largest young clusters of stars inside our Milky Way galaxy, located less than 100 light-years from the very center of the Galaxy. Having the equivalent mass greater than 10,000 stars like our sun, the monster clusters are ten times larger than typical young star clusters scattered throughout our Milky Way. Both clusters are destined to be ripped apart in just a few million years by gravitational tidal forces in the Galaxy's core. But in the brief time they are around, they shine more brightly than any other star cluster in the Galaxy. Arches cluster (left): The more compact Arches cluster is so dense, over 100,000 of its stars would fill a spherical region in space whose radius is the distance between the Sun and its nearest neighbor, the star Alpha Centauri, 4.3 light-years away. At least 150 of its stars are among the brightest ever seen in the Galaxy. Quintuplet cluster (right): This 4-million-year-old cluster is more dispersed than the Arches cluster. It has stars on the verge of blowing up as supernovae. It is the home of the brightest star seen in the Galaxy, called the Pistol star. Both pictures were taken in infrared light by Hubble's NICMOS camera in September 1997. The false colors correspond to infrared wavelengths. The galactic center stars are white, the red stars are enshrouded in dust or behind dust, and the blue stars are foreground stars between us and the Milky Way's center. The clusters are hidden from direct view behind black dust clouds in the constellation Sagittarius. If the clusters could be seen from Earth they would appear to the naked eye as a pair of third magnitude 'stars,' 1/6th of a full moon's diameter apart. Credit: Don Figer (Space Telescope Science Institute) and NASA

  17. NuSTAR results from the Galactic Center - diffuse emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailey, Charles

    2016-03-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) was launched in June 2012. It carried the first true, hard X-ray (>~10 keV-79 keV) focusing telescopes into orbit. Its twin telescopes provide 10 times better angular resolution and 100 times better sensitivity than previously obtainable in the hard X-ray band. Consequently NuSTAR is able to resolve faint diffuse structures whose hard X-rays offer insight into some of the most energetic processes in the Galactic Center. One of the surprising discoveries that NuSTAR made in the Galactic Center is the central hard X-ray emission (CHXE). The CHXE is a diffuse emission detected from ~10 keV to beyond 50 keV in X-ray energy, and extending spatially over a region ~8 parsecs x ~4 parsecs in and out of the plane of the galaxy respectively, and centered on the supermassive black hole Sgr A*. The CHXE was speculated to be due to a large population of unresolved black hole X-ray binaries, millisecond pulsars (MSP), a class of highly magnetized white dwarf binaries called intermediate polars, or to particle outflows from Sgr A*. The presence of an unexpectedly large population of MSP in the Galactic Center would be particularly interesting, since MSP emitting at higher energies and over a much larger region have been posited to be the origin of the gamma-ray emission that is also ascribed to dark matter annihilation in the galaxy. In addition, the connection of the CHXE to the ~9000 unidentified X-ray sources in the central the the ~100 pc detected by the Chandra Observatory, to the soft X-ray emission detected by the Chandra and XMM/Newton observatories in the Galactic Center, and to the hard X-ray emission detected by both the RXTE and INTEGRAL observatories in the Galactic Ridge, is unclear. I review these results and present recent NuSTAR observations that potentially resolve the origin of the CHXE and point to a unified origin for all these X-ray emissions. Two other noteworthy classes of diffuse structures in the

  18. Galactic chemical evolution: The star formation rate in the early galaxy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahijpal, Sandeep

    2012-07-01

    The metallicity of the sun has been recently revised from an earlier value of ~0.02 (Anders & Grevesse 1989) to a value ~0.014 (Asplund et al. 2009). We have developed a galactic chemical evolution model to make an assessment of the implications of the revision in the metallicity on the stellar evolutionary history of the galaxy (Sahijpal & Gupta 2012). We performed numerical simulations of the galaxy by evolving numerous generations of stars. The approch is distinct from the conventional approach of solving the non-linear integro-differential equations (e.g., Pagel 1997). In the present work, we have performed numerical simulations of the galactic chemical evolution by taking into account the star formation rate in the earliest epoch of the galaxy. The era corresponds to the formation of the metal-poor stars during the accretion of the halo-thick disk of the galaxy. We have performed several simulations to study the role of the star formation history in this earliest era on the evolution of age-metallicity relation, the elemental abundance evolution of the galaxy in the solar neighborhood. The preliminary results of this work will be presented in the presentation. References: [1] Anders E. & Grevesse N. 1989, Geo. Cosmochimic. Acta 53, 197-214. [2] Asplund M., Grevesse N., Sauval A. J. & Scott P. 2009, A. Rev. A & A 47, 481-522. [3] Sahijpal S. and Gupta G. 2012, Met. Planet. Sci., submitted. [4] Pagel B. E. J. 1997, Nucleosynthesis and the chemical evolution of galaxies. Cambridge University Press.

  19. STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF THE MILKY WAY HALO TRACED BY THE OOSTERHOFF DICHOTOMY AMONG GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Sohee; Lee, Young-Wook

    2015-06-22

    In our recent investigation of the Oosterhoff dichotomy in the multiple population paradigm, we have suggested that the RR Lyrae variables in the globular clusters (GCs) of Oosterhoff groups I, II, and III are produced mostly by first, second, and third generation stars (G1, G2, and G3), respectively. Here we show, for the first time, that the observed dichotomies in the inner and outer halo GCs can be naturally reproduced when these models are extended to all metallicity regimes, while maintaining reasonable agreements in the horizontal-branch type versus [Fe/H] correlations. In order to achieve this, however, specific star formation histories are required for the inner and outer halos. In the inner halo GCs, the star formation commenced and ceased earlier with a relatively short formation timescale between the subpopulations (∼0.5 Gyr), while in the outer halo, the formation of G1 was delayed by ∼0.8 Gyr with a more extended timescale between G1 and G2 (∼1.4 Gyr). This is consistent with the dual origin of the Milky Way halo. Despite the difference in detail, our models show that the Oosterhoff period groups observed in both outer and inner halo GCs are all manifestations of the “population-shift” effect within the instability strip, for which the origin can be traced back to the two or three discrete episodes of star formation in GCs.

  20. Ultraviolet Halos around Spiral Galaxies. I. Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges-Kluck, Edmund; Cafmeyer, Julian; Bregman, Joel N.

    2016-12-01

    We examine ultraviolet halos around a sample of highly inclined galaxies within 25 Mpc to measure their morphology and luminosity. Despite contamination from galactic light scattered into the wings of the point-spread function, we find that ultraviolet (UV) halos occur around each galaxy in our sample. Around most galaxies the halos form a thick, diffuse disk-like structure, but starburst galaxies with galactic superwinds have qualitatively different halos that are more extensive and have filamentary structure. The spatial coincidence of the UV halos above star-forming regions, the lack of consistent association with outflows or extraplanar ionized gas, and the strong correlation between the halo and galaxy UV luminosity suggest that the UV light is an extragalactic reflection nebula. UV halos may thus represent 106-107 M ⊙ of dust within 2-10 kpc of the disk, whose properties may change with height in starburst galaxies.

  1. Star formation activity in spiral galaxy disks and the properties of radio halos: Observational evidence for a direct dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahlem, Michael; Lisenfeld, Ute; Golla, Gotz

    1995-01-01

    In this article we address observationally the questions: how does star formation (SF) in the disks of galaxies lead to the creation of radio halos, and what minimum energy input into the interstellar medium (ISM) is needed to facilitate this? For the investigation we use a sample of five edge-on galaxies exhibiting radio continuum emmission in their halos and enhanced SF spread over large parts of their disks. In a detailed study of the two galaxies in our sample for which we have the best data, NGC 891 and NGC 4631, we show that the radio halos cut off abruptly at galactocentric radii smaller than those of the underlying thin radio disks. Our most important result is that the halo cutoffs are spatially coincident with the radii where the SF activity in the underlying disks drops sharply. The difference in radius of the emission distributions tracing ongoing SF in the disks (IRAS 50 micrometers, H alpha) versus that of the nonthermal radio continuum thin disks (tracing the distribution of cosmic-ray (CR) electrons) is typically a few kpc. This difference in extent is caused by CR diffusion. We have measured the CR diffusion coefficients in the thin disks of both NGC 891 and NGC 4631. For radial diffusion of CR electrons within the galactic disks the values are D(sub r) = 1.1-2.5 x 10 (exp 29) sq cm/s (NGC 4631) and D(sub r) = 1.2 x 10(exp 29) sq cm/s (NGC 891). For motions in the z-direction in areas within the thin disks where no outflows occur, we derive a firm upper limit of D(sub z) less than or equal to 0.2 x 10(exp 28) sq cm/s for NGC 891. The value for NGC 4631 is D(sub z = 1.4 x 10 (exp 28) sq cm/s. The other three galaxies in our sample, NGC 3044, NGC 4666, and NGC 5775 show (at the sensitivity of our data) less extended, more filamentary radio halos. Isolates spurs or filaments of nonthermal radio continuum emission in their halos are traced only above the most actively star-forming regions in the disks. This, in conjuction with the results obtained for

  2. A study of ultraviolet absorption lines through the complete Galactic halo by the analysis of HST faint object spectrograph spectra of active Galactic nuclei, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burks, Geoffrey S.; Bartko, Frank; Shull, J. Michael; Stocke, John T.; Sachs, Elise R.; Burbidge, E. Margaret; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Harms, Richard J.; Massa, Derck

    1994-01-01

    The ultraviolet (1150 - 2850 A) spectra of a number of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) have been used to study the properties of the Galactic halo. The objects that served as probes are 3C 273, PKS 0454-220, Pg 1211+143, CSO 251, Ton 951, and PG 1351+640. The equivalent widths of certain interstellar ions have been measured, with special attention paid to the C IV/C II and Si IV/Si II ratios. These ratios have been intercompared, and the highest values are found in the direction of 3C 273, where C IV/C II = 1.2 and Si IV/Si II greater than 1. These high ratios may be due to a nearby supernova remnant, rather than to ionized gas higher up in the Galactic halo. Our data give some support to the notion that QSO metal-line systems may arise from intervening galaxies which contain high supernova rates, galactic fountains, and turbulent mixing layers.

  3. Environmental regulation of cloud and star formation in galactic bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, F.; Bournaud, F.; Emsellem, E.; Agertz, O.; Athanassoula, E.; Combes, F.; Elmegreen, B.; Kraljic, K.; Motte, F.; Teyssier, R.

    2015-12-01

    The strong time-dependence of the dynamics of galactic bars yields a complex and rapidly evolving distribution of dense gas and star forming regions. Although bars mainly host regions void of any star formation activity, their extremities can gather the physical conditions for the formation of molecular complexes and mini-starbursts. Using a sub-parsec resolution hydrodynamical simulation of a Milky Way-like galaxy, we probe these conditions to explore how and where bar (hydro-)dynamics favours the formation or destruction of molecular clouds and stars. The interplay between the kpc-scale dynamics (gas flows, shear) and the parsec-scale (turbulence) is key to this problem. We find a strong dichotomy between the leading and trailing sides of the bar, in term of cloud fragmentation and in the age distribution of the young stars. After orbiting along the bar edge, these young structures slow down at the extremities of the bar, where orbital crowding increases the probability of cloud-cloud collision. We find that such events increase the Mach number of the cloud, leading to an enhanced star formation efficiency and finally the formation of massive stellar associations, in a fashion similar to galaxy-galaxy interactions. We highlight the role of bar dynamics in decoupling young stars from the clouds in which they form, and discuss the implications on the injection of feedback into the interstellar medium (ISM), in particular in the context of galaxy formation.

  4. Blue straggler stars in Galactic open clusters and the effect of field star contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, G.; Vázquez, R. A.; Moitinho, A.

    2008-05-01

    Context: We investigate the distribution of blue straggler stars in the field of three open star clusters. Aims: The main purpose is to highlight the crucial role played by general Galactic disk fore-/back-ground field stars, which are often located in the same region of the color magnitude diagram as blue straggler stars. Methods: We analyze photometry taken from the literature of 3 open clusters of intermediate/old age rich in blue straggler stars, which are projected in the direction of the Perseus arm, and study their spatial distribution and the color magnitude diagram. Results: As expected, we find that a large portion of the blue straggler population in these clusters are simply young field stars belonging to the spiral arm. This result has important consequences on the theories of the formation and statistics of blue straggler stars in different population environments: open clusters, globular clusters, or dwarf galaxies. Conclusions: As previously emphasized by many authors, a detailed membership analysis is mandatory before comparing the blue straggler population in star clusters to theoretical models. Moreover, these sequences of young field stars (blue plumes) are potentially powerful tracers of Galactic structure and they require further consideration.

  5. Establishing binarity amongst Galactic RV Tauri stars with a disc⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manick, Rajeev; Van Winckel, Hans; Kamath, Devika; Hillen, Michel; Escorza, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Context. Over the last few decades it has become more evident that binarity is a prevalent phenomenon amongst RV Tauri stars with a disc. This study is a contribution to comprehend the role of binarity upon late stages of stellar evolution. Aims: In this paper we determine the binary status of six Galactic RV Tauri stars, namely DY Ori, EP Lyr, HP Lyr, IRAS 17038-4815, IRAS 09144-4933, and TW Cam, which are surrounded by a dusty disc. The radial velocities are contaminated by high-amplitude pulsations. We disentangle the pulsations from the orbital signal in order to determine accurate orbital parameters. We also place them on the HR diagram, thereby establishing their evolutionary nature. Methods: We used high-resolution spectroscopic time series obtained from the HERMES and CORALIE spectrographs mounted on the Flemish Mercator and Swiss Leonhard Euler Telescopes, respectively. An updated ASAS/AAVSO photometric time series is analysed to complement the spectroscopic pulsation search and to clean the radial velocities from the pulsations. The pulsation-cleaned orbits are fitted with a Keplerian model to determine the spectroscopic orbital parameters. We also calibrated a PLC relationship using type II cepheids in the LMC and apply the relation to our Galactic sample to obtain accurate distances and hence luminosities. Results: All six of the Galactic RV Tauri stars included in this study are binaries with orbital periods ranging between 650 and 1700 days and with eccentricities between 0.2 and 0.6. The mass functions range between 0.08 to 0.55 M⊙ which points to an unevolved low-mass companion. In the photometric time series we detect a long-term variation on the timescale of the orbital period for IRAS 17038-4815, IRAS 09144-4933, and TW Cam. Our derived stellar luminosities indicate that all except DY Ori and EP Lyr are post-AGB stars. DY Ori and EP Lyr are likely examples of the recently discovered dusty post-RGB stars. Conclusions: The orbital parameters

  6. A flux-limited sample of Galactic carbon stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claussen, M. J.; Kleinmann, S. G.; Joyce, R. R.; Jura, M.

    1987-01-01

    Published observational data (including IRAS observations) for a flux-limited sample of 215 Galactic carbon stars (CSs) selected from the 2-micron sky survey of Neugebauer and Leighton (1969) are compiled in extensive tables and graphs and analyzed statistically. The sample is found to penetrate a volume of radius 1.5 kpc, and the local CS space density and surface density are calculated as log rho0 (per cu kpc) = 2.0 + or - 0.4 and log N (per sq kpc) = 1.6 + or - 0.2, respectively. The total Galactic mass-return rate from these CSs is estimated as 0.013 solar mass/yr, implying a time scale of 0.1-1 Myr for the CS evolutionary phase and a mass of 1.2-1.6 solar mass for the (probably F-type) main-seqence progenitors of CSs.

  7. Enriched haloes at redshift z = 2 with no star formation: implications for accretion and wind scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouché, N.; Murphy, M. T.; Péroux, C.; Contini, T.; Martin, C. L.; Forster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Lutz, D.; Gillessen, S.; Tacconi, L.; Davies, R.; Eisenhauer, F.

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand which process (e.g. galactic winds, cold accretion) is responsible for the cool (T ˜ 104 K) halo gas around galaxies, we embarked on a programme to study the star formation properties of galaxies selected by their Mg II absorption signature in quasar spectra. Specifically, we searched for the Hα line emission from galaxies near very strong z ≃ 2 Mg II absorbers (with rest-frame equivalent width ? Å) because these could be the signposts of outflows or inflows. Surprisingly, we detect Hα from only four hosts out of 20 sightlines (and two out of the 19 H I-selected sightlines), despite reaching a star formation rate (SFR) sensitivity limit of 2.9 M⊙ yr-1 (5σ) for a Chabrier initial mass function. This low success rate (4/20) is in contrast with our z ≃ 1 survey where we detected 66 per cent (14/21) of the Mg II hosts (down to 0.6 M⊙ yr-1; 5σ). Taking into account the difference in sensitivity between the two surveys, we should have been able to detect ≥11.4 (≥7.6) of the 20 z ≃ 2 hosts - assuming that SFR evolves as ∝(1 + z)γ with γ= 2.5 (or γ= 0) respectively - whereas we found only four galaxies. Interestingly, all the z = 2 detected hosts have observed SFRs ≳ 9 M⊙ yr-1, well above our sensitivity limit, while at z = 1 they all have SFR < 9 M⊙ yr-1, an evolution that is in good agreement with the evolution of the SFR main sequence, i.e. with γ= 2.5. Moreover, we show that the z = 2 undetected hosts are not hidden under the quasar continuum after stacking our data. They also cannot be outside our surveyed area as this latter option runs against our sample selection criteria (? Å) and the known Wλ2796r-impact parameter relation for low-ionization ions. Hence, strong Mg II absorbers could trace star-formation-driven winds in low-mass haloes (Mh≤ 1010.6 M⊙), provided that the winds do not extend beyond 20 kpc in order not to violate the evolution of the absorber number density dN/dz (Mg II). Alternatively, our

  8. The Outer Halo -- Halo Origins and Mass of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Heather; Arabadjis, John; Dohm-Palmer, Robbie; Freeman, Ken; Harding, Paul; Mateo, Mario; Norris, John; Olszewski, Ed; Sneden, Chris

    2000-02-01

    Through our detection of distant halo stars, we are now well placed to map the regions of the Galactic halo where previously only satellite galaxies and a few globular clusters were known. Mapping this region is crucial for answering questions like: How and over what timescales was the Milky Way's stellar halo assembled? What is the total mass and shape of its dark halo? The Sagittarius dwarf has demonstrated that at least some of the stellar halo was accreted. But, HOW MUCH of the halo was accreted? Our previous efforts have proven that the Washington photometric system, in conjuction with spectroscopy, is capable of efficiently and unambiguously identifying halo stars out to 100 kpc or more. We require followup spectroscopy to map velocity substructure, which is more likely visible in the outer halo because of the long dynamical timescales, and to identify the rare objects in the extreme outer halo which will constrain the shape and size of its dark halo. We are applying for 4m/RCSP time at both CTIO and KPNO to observe faint outer-halo giant and BHB candidates.

  9. Clues on the Galactic evolution of sulphur from star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffau, E.; Monaco, L.; Spite, M.; Bonifacio, P.; Carraro, G.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Villanova, S.; Beletsky, Y.; Sbordone, L.

    2014-08-01

    Context. The abundances of α-elements are a powerful diagnostic of the star formation history and chemical evolution of a galaxy. Sulphur, being moderately volatile, can be reliably measured in the interstellar medium (ISM) of damped Ly-α galaxies and extragalactic H ii regions. Measurements in stars of different metallicity in our Galaxy can then be readily compared to the abundances in external galaxies. Such a comparison is not possible for Si or Ca that suffer depletion onto dust in the ISM. Furthermore, studying sulphur is interesting because it probes nucleosynthetic conditions that are very different from those of O or Mg. In this context measurements in star clusters are a reliable tracers of the Galactic evolution of sulphur. Aims: The aim of this paper is to determine sulphur abundances in several Galactic clusters that span a metallicity range -1.5 < [Fe/H] < 0.0. Methods: We use a standard abundance analysis, based on 1D model atmospheres in local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) and literature corrections for non-LTE (NLTE), as well as 3D corrections based on hydrodynamical model atmospheres, to derive sulphur abundances in a sample of stars in the globular cluster M 4, and the open clusters Trumpler 5, NGC 2477, and NGC 5822. Results: We find ⟨ A(S) ⟩ NLTE = 6.11 ± 0.04 for M 4, ⟨ A(S) ⟩ NLTE = 7.17 ± 0.02 for NGC 2477, and ⟨ A(S) ⟩ NLTE = 7.13 ± 0.06 for NGC 5822. For the only star studied in Trumpler 5 we find A(S)NLTE = 6.43 ± 0.03 and A(S)LTE = 6.94 ± 0.05. Conclusions: Our measurements show that, by and large, the S abundances in Galactic clusters trace reliably those in field stars. The only possible exception is Trumpler 5, for which the NLTE sulphur abundance implies an [S/Fe] ratio lower by roughly 0.4 dex than observed in field stars of comparable metallicity, even though its LTE sulphur abundance is in line with abundances of field stars. Moreover the LTE sulphur abundance is consistent only with the abundance of another

  10. The Abundances of Metal-poor Stars in the Outer Halo of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, David K.; Rockosi, C. M.; Johnson, J. A.; Bolte, M.; SEGUE Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    We present a program measuring the abundance ratios of stars in the outer halo of the Milky Way. Using the metal-poor candidates from SDSS-SEGUE and follow-up spectra with ESI on Keck we efficiently measure metallicity, alpha-ratio abundances, and certain neutron-capture abundance ratios for stars out to distances of about 30 kpc, thereby placing them in situ in the outer halo (Carollo et al. 2007). By studying metal-poor stars in this relatively unexplored region we can look for evidence of different star formation environments which can provide a important constraint on current Galaxy formation scenarios (e.g., Bullock & Johnston 2005), and potentially discover interesting individual stars. In an initial sample of 25 stars, we have already discovered one new highly r-process-enhanced metal-poor star and a new type of very metal-poor star with a unique [Ca/Mg] of 1.2. In terms of the larger sample, we are also seeing hints of a different alpha-element population, possible evidence of varied star formation environments in the outer halo. DKL acknowledges the support from the NSF grant AST-0802292 through the Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship program.

  11. Exploring the total Galactic extinction with SDSS BHB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Hai-Jun; Liu, Chao; Hu, Jing-Yao; Xu, Yang; Chen, Xue-Lei

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We used 12 530 photometrically-selected blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to estimate the total extinction of the Milky Way at the high Galactic latitudes, RV and AV in each line of sight. Methods: A Bayesian method was developed to estimate the reddening values in the given lines of sight. Based on the most likely values of reddening in multiple colors, we were able to derive the values of RV and AV. Results: We selected 94 zero-reddened BHB stars from seven globular clusters as the template. The reddening in the four SDSS colors for the northern Galactic cap were estimated by comparing the field BHB stars with the template stars. The accuracy of this estimation is around 0.01 mag for most lines of sight. We also obtained ⟨ RV ⟩ to be around 2.40 ± 1.05 and AV map within an uncertainty of 0.1 mag. The results, including reddening values in the four SDSS colors, AV, and RV in each line of sight, are released on line. In this work, we employ an up-to-date parallel technique on GPU card to overcome time-consuming computations. We plan to release online the C++ CUDA code used for this analysis. Conclusions: The extinction map derived from BHB stars is highly consistent with that from Schlegel et al. (1998, ApJ, 500, 525). The derived RV is around 2.40 ± 1.05. The contamination probably makes the RV be larger. Tables 1-4 (excerpt) are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFull Table 4 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/561/A142

  12. Galactic mass-losing AGB stars probed with the IRTS. II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bertre, T.; Tanaka, M.; Yamamura, I.; Murakami, H.

    2003-06-01

    We are using the 2002 data-release from the Japanese space experiment IRTS to investigate the spatial distribution of galactic mass-losing (>2x 10-8 Msund) AGB stars and the relative contribution of C-rich and O-rich ones to the replenishment of the ISM. Our sample contains 126 C-rich and 563 O-rich sources which are sorted on the basis of the molecular bands observed in the range 1.4-4.0 mu m, and for which we estimate distances and mass loss rates from near-infrared photometry (K and L'). There is a clear dependence on galactocentric distance, with O-rich sources outnumbering C-rich ones for rGC< 8 kpc, and the reverse for rGC> 10 kpc. The contribution to the replenishment of the ISM by O-rich AGB stars relative to C-rich ones follows the same trend. Although they are rare ( ~ 10% in our sample), sources with 10-6 Msund < dot {M} < 10-5 Msund dominate the replenishment of the ISM by contributing to ~ 50% of the total of the complete sample. We find 2 carbon stars at more than 1 kpc from the Galactic Plane, that probably belong to the halo of our Galaxy. The complete Tables \\ref{tab_C-rich} and \\ref{tab_O-rich} are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/403/943}

  13. Kinematics of the Stellar Halo and the Mass Distribution of the Milky Way Using Blue Horizontal Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafle, Prajwal R.; Sharma, Sanjib; Lewis, Geraint F.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2012-12-01

    Here, we present a kinematic study of the Galactic halo out to a radius of ~60 kpc, using 4664 blue horizontal branch stars selected from the SDSS/SEGUE survey to determine key dynamical properties. Using a maximum likelihood analysis, we determine the velocity dispersion profiles in spherical coordinates (σ r , σθ, σphi) and the anisotropy profile (β). The radial velocity dispersion profile (σ r ) is measured out to a galactocentric radius of r ~ 60 kpc, but due to the lack of proper-motion information, σθ, σphi, and β could only be derived directly out to r ~ 25 kpc. From a starting value of β ≈ 0.5 in the inner parts (9 < r/kpc < 12), the profile falls sharply in the range r ≈ 13-18 kpc, with a minimum value of β = -1.2 at r = 17 kpc, rising sharply at larger radius. In the outer parts, in the range 25 < r/kpc < 56, we predict the profile to be roughly constant with a value of β ≈ 0.5. The newly discovered kinematic anomalies are shown not to arise from halo substructures. We also studied the anisotropy profile of simulated stellar halos formed purely by accretion and found that they cannot reproduce the sharp dip seen in the data. From the Jeans equation, we compute the stellar rotation curve (v circ) of the Galaxy out to r ~ 25 kpc. The mass of the Galaxy within r <~ 25 kpc is determined to be 2.1 × 1011 M ⊙, and with a three-component fit to v circ(r), we determine the virial mass of the Milky Way dark matter halo to be M vir = 0.9+0.4 -0.3 × 1012 M ⊙ (R vir = 249+34 -31 kpc).

  14. Clear Evidence for the Presence of Second-generation Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in Metal-poor Galactic Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Hernández, D. A.; Mészáros, Sz.; Monelli, M.; Cassisi, S.; Stetson, P. B.; Zamora, O.; Shetrone, M.; Lucatello, S.

    2015-12-01

    Galactic globular clusters (GCs) are known to host multiple stellar populations: a first generation (FG) with a chemical pattern typical of halo field stars and a second generation (SG) enriched in Na and Al and depleted in O and Mg. Both stellar generations are found at different evolutionary stages (e.g., the main-sequence turnoff, the subgiant branch, and the red giant branch (RGB)). The non detection of SG asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in several metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -1) GCs suggests that not all SG stars ascend the AGB phase, and that failed AGB stars may be very common in metal-poor GCs. This observation represents a serious problem for stellar evolution and GC formation/evolution theories. We report fourteen SG-AGB stars in four metal-poor GCs (M13, M5, M3, and M2) with different observational properties: horizontal branch (HB) morphology, metallicity, and age. By combining the H-band Al abundances obtained by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment survey with ground-based optical photometry, we identify SG Al-rich AGB stars in these four GCs and show that Al-rich RGB/AGB GC stars should be Na-rich. Our observations provide strong support for present, standard stellar models, i.e., without including a strong mass-loss efficiency, for low-mass HB stars. In fact, current empirical evidence is in agreement with the predicted distribution of FG and SG stars during the He-burning stages based on these standard stellar models.

  15. From the sun to the Galactic Center: dust, stars and black hole(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Tobias

    2013-07-01

    The centers of galaxies are their own ultimate gravitational sinks. Massive black holes and star clusters as well as gas are especially likely to fall into the centers of galaxies by dynamical friction or dissipation. Many galactic centers harbor supermassive black holes (SMBH) and dense nuclear (star) clusters which possibly arrived there by these processes. Nuclear clusters can be formed in situ from gas, or from smaller star clusters which fall to the center. Since the Milky Way harbors both an SMBH and a nuclear cluster, both can be studied best in the Galactic Center (GC), which is the closest galactic nucleus to us. In Chapter 1, I introduce the different components of the Milky Way, and put these into the context of the GC. I then give an overview of relevant properties (e.g. star content and distribution) of the GC. Afterwards, I report the results of four different studies about the GC. In Chapter 2, I analyze the limitations of astrometry, one of the most useful methods for the study of the GC. Thanks to the high density of stars and its relatively small distance from us it is possible to measure the motions of thousands of stars in the GC with images, separated by few years only. I find two main limitations to this method: (1) for bright stars the not perfectly correctable distortion of the camera limits the accuracy, and (2) for the majority of the fainter stars, the main limitation is crowding from the other stars in the GC. The position uncertainty of faint stars is mainly caused by the seeing halos of bright stars. In the very center faint unresolvable stars are also important for the position uncertainty. In Chapter 3, I evaluate the evidence for an intermediate mass black hole in the small candidate cluster IRS13E within the GC. Intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) have a mass between the two types of confirmed black hole: the stellar remnants and the supermassive black holes in the centers of galaxies. One possibility for! their formation is the

  16. Discussion on the energy content of the galactic dark matter Bose-Einstein condensate halo in the Thomas-Fermi approximation

    SciTech Connect

    De Souza, J.C.C.; Pires, M.O.C. E-mail: marcelo.pires@ufabc.edu.br

    2014-03-01

    We show that the galactic dark matter halo, considered composed of an axionlike particles Bose-Einstein condensate [6] trapped by a self-graviting potential [5], may be stable in the Thomas-Fermi approximation since appropriate choices for the dark matter particle mass and scattering length are made. The demonstration is performed by means of the calculation of the potential, kinetic and self-interaction energy terms of a galactic halo described by a Boehmer-Harko density profile. We discuss the validity of the Thomas-Fermi approximation for the halo system, and show that the kinetic energy contribution is indeed negligible.

  17. A comparison of evolutionary tracks for single Galactic massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.; Palacios, A.

    2013-12-01

    Context. The evolution of massive stars is not fully understood. The relation between different types of evolved massive stars is not clear, and the role of factors such as binarity, rotation or magnetism needs to be quantified. Aims: Several groups make available the results of 1D single stellar evolution calculations in the form of evolutionary tracks and isochrones. They use different stellar evolution codes for which the input physics and its implementation varies. In this paper, we aim at comparing the currently available evolutionary tracks for massive stars. We focus on calculations aiming at reproducing the evolution of Galactic stars. Our main goal is to highlight the uncertainties on the predicted evolutionary paths. Methods: We compute stellar evolution models with the codes MESA and STAREVOL. We compare our results with those of four published grids of massive stellar evolution models (Geneva, STERN, Padova and FRANEC codes). We first investigate the effects of overshooting, mass loss, metallicity, chemical composition. We subsequently focus on rotation. Finally, we compare the predictions of published evolutionary models with the observed properties of a large sample of Galactic stars. Results: We find that all models agree well for the main sequence evolution. Large differences in luminosity and temperatures appear for the post main sequence evolution, especially in the cool part of the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. Depending on the physical ingredients, tracks of different initial masses can overlap, rendering any mass estimate doubtful. For masses between 7 and 20 M⊙, we find that the main sequence width is slightly too narrow in the Geneva models including rotation. It is (much) too wide for the (STERN) FRANEC models. This conclusion is reached from the investigation of the HR diagram and from the evolution of the surface velocity as a function of surface gravity. An overshooting parameter α between 0.1 and 0.2 in models with rotation is

  18. UBVR POLARIMETRY OF EVOLVED CARBON STARS NEAR THE GALACTIC EQUATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, J. M.; Hiriart, D. E-mail: hiriart@astrosen.unam.mx

    2011-07-15

    We present polarimetry and photometry in the UBVR bands of nine low Galactic latitude carbon stars (|b{sup II} | {<=} 15{sup 0}) over a period of one year: V384 Per, ST Cam, S Aur, CL Mon, HV Cas, Y Tau, TT Cyg, U Cyg, and V1426 Cyg. We have corrected the observed values for the effects of extinction and polarization by the interstellar medium to obtain the intrinsic polarization and photometry of the stars. All the observed objects present polarization in at least two bands. There is a statistical correlation between the temporal mean polarization (p) at each filter band and the IR color K - [12] with the redder stars tending to be more polarized. A related trend is found between polarization and mass-loss rate in gas. The degree of polarization increases with the mass-loss rate at around M-dot{sub gas}{approx}3.6x10{sup -7} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. We found two stars-TT Cyg and ST Cam-that increase polarization with decreasing mass-loss rate below this value. Multiple observations of TT Cyg, U Cyg, and V1426 Cyg during the campaign show no correlation between polarization and luminosity in any of the UBVR bands. Therefore, the distribution of the scatterers shall vary with time in a very irregular way.

  19. Infrared Spectroscopy of Star Formation in Galactic and Extragalactic Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frogel, Jay (Technical Monitor); Smith, Howard A.

    2004-01-01

    In this program we proposed to perform a series of spectroscopic studies, including data analysis and modeling, of star formation regions using an ensemble of archival space-based data from the Infrared Space Observatory's Long Wavelength Spectrometer and Short Wavelength Spectrometer, and to take advantage of other spectroscopic databases including the first results from SIRTF. Our empha- sis has been on star formation in external, bright IR galaxies, but other areas of research have in- cluded young, low or high mass pre-main sequence stars in star formation regions, and the galactic center. The OH lines in the far infrared were proposed as one key focus of this inquiry because the Principal Investigator (H. Smith) had a full set of OH IR lines from IS0 observations. It was planned that during the proposed 2-1/2 year timeframe of the proposal other data (including perhaps from SIRTF) would become available, and we intended to be responsive to these and other such spec- troscopic data sets. Three papers are included:The Infrared Lines of OH: Diagnostics of Molecular Cloud Conditions in Infrared Bright Galaxies; The Far-Infrared Spectrum of Arp 220; andThe Far-Infrared Emission Line and Continuum Spectrum of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1068.

  20. Southern near-infrared photometric monitoring of Galactic young star clusters (NIP of Stars)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbá, R.; Morrell, N. I.; Gunthardt, G.; Torres Robledo, S.; Jaque, M.; Soto, M.; Ferrero, G.; Arias, J. I.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Gamen, R. C.; Astudillo Hormazabal, J.

    We have performed a near-infrared photometric monitoring of 39 galactic young star clusters and star-forming regions, known as NIP of Stars, be- tween the years 2009-2011, using the Swope telescope at Las Campanas Observatory (Chile) and the RetroCam camera. The primary objective of the campaign is to perform a census of photometric variability of such clus- ters and to discover massive eclipsing binary stars. In this work, we describe the general idea, the implementation of the survey, and the first preliminary results of some of the observed clusters. This monitoring program is com- plementary to the Vista Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV), as the brightest sources observed in NIP of Stars are saturated in VVV.

  1. Searching for planetary nebulae at the Galactic halo via J-PAS and J-PLUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, Denise R.; Aparício-Villegas, Teresa; Akras, Stavros; Borges Fernandes, Marcelo; J-PAS Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    The Javalambre-Physics of the Accelerating Universe Astrophysical Survey (J-PAS) is a narrow-band imaging, very wide field cosmological survey to be carried out from a dedicated 2.5m telescope and a 4.7 sq.deg camera with 1.2Gpix. It will last 5 years and will observe 8500 sq.deg of Northern sky to a 5-σ magnitude depth for point sources, equivalent to i ~23.3 over an aperture of 2 arcsec2. The J-PAS filter system consists of 54 contiguous narrow band filters of 145-Å FWHM, from 3,500 to 10,000Å. Two broad-band filters will be added at the extremes, UV and IR, plus 3 SDSS g, r, and i filters. The Javalambre Photometric Local Universe Survye (J-PLUS) will be an auxiliary survey ofJ-PAS (mainly for calibration) with a dedicated 0.80m telescope. J-PLUS comprises 12 filters, including g, r, i and z SDSS ones. Though about 2,500 planetary nebulae (PNe, confirmed spectroscopically) are known in the Galaxy, only 14 objects have been convincingly identified as halo PNe. They were classified as such from their location, kinematics and chemistry. Halo PNe are able to reveal precious information for the study of low- and intermediate-mass star evolution and the early chemical conditions of the Galaxy. The characteristic low continuum and intense line emissions of PNe make them good objects to be searched by J-PAS, and even by J-PLUS. For instance, the halo PNe BoBn 1, DdDm 1 and PS 1, located somewhere between 11 and 24 kpc from the Sun, have B magnitudes of 16, 14 and 13.4, respectively. Such values are easily encompassed by J-PAS/J-PLUS, given the typical limit magnitude of the survey. Though covering a significantly smaller sky area, data from the ALHAMBRA survey were used to test our J-PAS/J-PLUS strategy to search for PNe. Our first results will be shown in this poster.

  2. The Vertical Structure of the Halo Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinman, T. D.; Bragaglia, A.; Cacciari, C.; Buzzoni, A.; Spagna, A.

    New GSC-II proper motions and radial velocities of RR Lyrae and Blue Horizontal Branch stars near the North Galactic Pole are used to show that the Galactic Halo 5 kpc above the Plane has a significantly retrograde galactic rotation. Streaming motions cannot be excluded. Based on observations collected at the Kitt Peak and TNG Observatories. Funded by MIUR-Cofin 2001 (PI: Gratton).

  3. Prospecting for Elements: Galactic Halo Planetary Nebulae Abundances and Virgo Spiral Galaxy Color Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Joseph William

    Halo planetary nebulae. Using published spectral line data for nine halo planetary nebulae (HPNe), I have calculated photoionization models in an attempt to gain insight into the physical conditions and chemical abundances of these nebulae. The nine HPNE reported upon are K648, DdDm-1, NGC2242, NGC4361, PN243.8-37.1, PN006-41.9, M2-29, BB-1, and H4-1. The derived abundance ranges for the HPNe are: C 6.60-8.95, N 7.18-8.00, O 7.56-8.56, Ne 6.24-7.71, Ar 4.12-7.70, and S 4.90-7.00 (log(x) + 12). The temperature range for the central stars of these nebulae is 40,000 to 140,000K. Specifically, with a few exceptions, I find that all nine objects exhibit subsolar O/H; most show enhanced C/O and N/O, and a constant Ne/O ration. I also note the existence of comparatively larger abundance scatter in the HPNe as opposed to disk PNe, and suggest that this is consistent with the accretion model of halo formation formulated by Searle & Zinn. In addition, I test the effects on derived abundances and central star temperatures of a variety of model atmospheres as well as blackbodies for input ionizing spectra. I find that nebular line strengths are relatively insensitive to atmospheric details; thus blackbody spectra are suitable for central star continua. Near-infrared Virgo cluster spiral colors. Near-infrared (NIR) surface photometry in J (1.2μm), H (1.6μm) and K (2.2μm) have been obtained for a sample of Virgo cluster spirals; NGC4321, NGC4303, NGC4571, NGC4689, and NGC4254 which span a large range in HI deficiency. The spirals range from a normal gas content to a deficiency of a factor of 10 compared to normal galaxies. Using previous HII region abundance studies along with the NIR colors an attempt has been made to calibrate any correlation between the J-K index to the overall gas phase abundance gradients as a first step to probing the underlying stellar metallicity. Decomposition techniques have been used to produce estimates of spiral bulge/disk masses and luminosities

  4. AGB stars in the disk, satellites, and halo of M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamren, Katherine M.

    2016-08-01

    Asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are simultaneously one of the most important and least well understood phases of stellar evolution. Luminous, red, AGB stars are excellent tracers of kinematical and morphological structure, and track the presence of intermediate age populations. In addition, they contribute significantly to the near-infrared flux and gas/dust budgets of galaxies. As a result, they are essential for studying galaxies in both the local and distance universe. However, their observable properties depend on complicated physical processes, including dredge-up, dust production, and stellar pulsations. As a result, they are difficult to model on both the individual and population-level scales. Homogenous samples of AGB stars are necessary to calibrate ever improving models. In this thesis I use data from the Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda's Stellar Halo survey to identify and characterize clean, homogenous samples of carbon- and oxygen-rich AGB stars (carbon stars and M-stars, respectively) in the disk, satellites and halo of the Andromeda galaxy (M31). Using these stars, I constrain the ratio (C/M) of carbon- to oxygen-rich in fields throughout the M31 system, compare the AGB stars to their observationally similar contaminants (extrinsic carbon stars and oxygen-rich red giant branch stars), and discuss major physical properties (color, temperature, metallicity, dust production, and variability).

  5. Attribution of halo merger mass ratio and star formation rate density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungeun; Jo, Jeong-woon; Hwang, Jihe; Youn, Soyoung; Park, Boha

    2016-06-01

    We have used codes for implementing the merger tree algorithm by Cole et al. (2007) and Parkinson et al. (2008) and derived the halo merger mass ratio of protocluster of galaxies across the cosmic time. The authors compare the observed and simulated star formation rates reported by the various groups and derive the star formation rate densities at different red-shifts. This study implies that an investigation of different mass variables should be incorporated into the analysis in order to accurately estimate cumulative star formation rates of galaxies and star formation rate densities as a function of red-shifts.

  6. Feedback-regulated star formation and escape of LyC photons from mini-haloes during reionisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimm, Taysun; Katz, Harley; Haehnelt, Martin; Rosdahl, Joakim; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne

    2017-01-01

    Reionisation in the early Universe is likely driven by dwarf galaxies. Using cosmological radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, we study star formation and the escape of Lyman continuum (LyC) photons from mini-haloes with M_halo ≲ 10^8 M_⊙. Our simulations include a new thermo-turbulent star formation model, non-equilibrium chemistry, and relevant stellar feedback processes (photoionisation by young massive stars, radiation pressure, and mechanical supernova explosions). We find that feedback reduces star formation very efficiently in mini-haloes, resulting in the stellar mass consistent with the slope and normalisation reported in Kimm & Cen (2014) and the empirical stellar mass-to-halo mass relation derived in the local Universe. Because star formation is stochastic and dominated by a few gas clumps, the escape fraction in mini-haloes is generally determined by radiation feedback (heating due to photo-ionisation), rather than supernova explosions. We also find that the photon number-weighted mean escape fraction in mini-haloes is higher (˜20-40%) than that in atomic-cooling haloes, although the instantaneous fraction in individual haloes varies significantly. The escape fraction from Pop III stars is found to be significant (≳ 10%) only when the mass is greater than ˜100 M_⊙. Based on simple analytic calculations, we show that LyC photons from mini-haloes are, despite their high escape fractions, of minor importance for reionisation due to inefficient star formation. We confirm previous claims that stars in atomic-cooling haloes with masses 10^8 M_⊙ ≲ M_halo ≲ 10^{11} M_⊙ are likely to be the most important source of reionisation.

  7. NO OBSERVATIONAL CONSTRAINTS FROM HYPOTHETICAL COLLISIONS OF HYPOTHETICAL DARK HALO PRIMORDIAL BLACK HOLES WITH GALACTIC OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowicz, Marek A.; Becker, Julia K.; Garzilli, Antonella; Johansson, Fredrik; Biermann, Peter L.; Qian Lei

    2009-11-01

    It was suggested by several authors that hypothetical primordial black holes (PBHs) may contribute to the dark matter (DM) in our Galaxy. There are strong constraints based on the Hawking evaporation that practically exclude PBHs with masses m{sub pbh} approx 10{sup 15}to10{sup 16} g and smaller as significant contributors to the Galactic DM. Similarly, PBHs with masses greater than about 10{sup 26} g are practically excluded by the gravitational lensing observation. The mass range between 10{sup 16} g stars, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars in our Galaxy. This has previously been discussed as possibly leading to an observable photon eruption due to shock production during the encounter. We find that such collisions are either too rare to be observed (if the PBH masses are typically larger than about 10{sup 20} g), or produce too little power to be detected (if the masses are smaller than about 10{sup 20} g).

  8. STAR-TO-STAR IRON ABUNDANCE VARIATIONS IN RED GIANT BRANCH STARS IN THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 3201

    SciTech Connect

    Simmerer, Jennifer; Ivans, Inese I.; Filler, Dan; Francois, Patrick; Charbonnel, Corinne; Monier, Richard; James, Gaeel E-mail: iii@physics.utah.edu E-mail: patrick.francois@obspm.fr E-mail: richard.monier@unice.fr

    2013-02-10

    We present the metallicity as traced by the abundance of iron in the retrograde globular cluster NGC 3201, measured from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of 24 red giant branch stars. A spectroscopic analysis reveals a spread in [Fe/H] in the cluster stars at least as large as 0.4 dex. Star-to-star metallicity variations are supported both through photometry and through a detailed examination of spectra. We find no correlation between iron abundance and distance from the cluster core, as might be inferred from recent photometric studies. NGC 3201 is the lowest mass halo cluster to date to contain stars with significantly different [Fe/H] values.

  9. RELICS OF GALAXY MERGING: OBSERVATIONAL PREDICTIONS FOR A WANDERING MASSIVE BLACK HOLE AND ACCOMPANYING STAR CLUSTER IN THE HALO OF M31

    SciTech Connect

    Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Saito, Yuriko; Miki, Yohei; Mori, Masao

    2014-07-01

    Galaxies and massive black holes (BHs) presumably grow via galactic merging events and subsequent BH coalescence. As a case study, we investigate the merging event between the Andromeda galaxy (M31) and a satellite galaxy. We compute the expected observational appearance of the massive BH that was at the center of the satellite galaxy prior to the merger and is currently wandering in the M31 halo. We demonstrate that a radiatively inefficient accretion flow with a bolometric luminosity of a few tens of solar luminosities develops when Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion onto the BH is assumed. We compute the associated broadband spectrum and show that the radio band (observable with EVLA, ALMA, and the Square Kilometre Array) is the best frequency range in which to detect the emission. We also evaluate the mass and the luminosity of the stars bound by the wandering BH and find that such a star cluster is sufficiently luminous that it could correspond to one of the star clusters found by the PAndAS survey. The discovery of a relic massive BH wandering in a galactic halo will provide a direct means of investigating in detail the coevolution of galaxies and BHs. It also means a new population of BHs (off-center massive BHs) and offers targets for clean BH imaging that avoid strong interstellar scattering in the centers of galaxies.

  10. The gaseous galactic halo as inferred from the line spectra of the galaxies Markarian 509 and Fairall 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, D. G.; Songaila, A.; Blades, J. C.; Cowie, L. L.; Morton, D. C.; Wu, C.-C.

    1982-01-01

    Narrow interstellar absorption lines of S II 1259.52, Si II 1260.42, and Fe II 1608.46 due to gas in the disk and the halo of the Galaxy have been detected in the spectrum of the Seyfert galaxy Mrk 509 with the International Ultraviolet Explorer. This gas is also seen at higher resolution in the Ca II and Na I absorption lines in two components at LSR velocities of +6 and +62 km/s. In addition, narrow Ly-alpha and C IV absorption near the Seyfert redshift seem to be present in the spectrum. Si II 1260.42 absorption from the galactic disk and from the Magellanic Stream or the halo of the SMC have been detected with the IUE in the spectrum of Fairall 9. The observations of these two objects when combined with existing results are shown to be consistent with a corotating galactic halo having a height of less than 10 kpc at the sun.

  11. May 2005 Halo CMEs and Galactic Cosmic Ray Flux Changes at Earth's Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.; Alania, M. V.; Wawrzynczak, A.; Ygbuhay, R. C.; Fikani, M. M.

    2014-05-01

    The pressure corrected hourly data from the global network of cosmic ray detectors, measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) intensity ( B) at Earth's orbit and its components B x , B y , B z (in the geocentric solar ecliptic coordinates) are used to conduct a comprehensive study of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity fluctuations caused by the halo coronal mass ejection of 13 May 2005. Distinct differences exist in GCR timelines recorded by neutron monitors (NMs) and multidirectional muon telescopes (MTs), the latter respond to the high rigidity portion of the GCR differential rigidity spectrum. The Forbush decrease (FD) onset in MTs is delayed (˜5 h) with respect to the onset of a geomagnetic storm sudden commencement (SSC) and a large pre-increase is present in MT data before, during, and after the SSC onset, of unknown origin. The rigidity spectrum, for a range of GCR rigidities (≤200 GV), is a power law in rigidity (R) with a negative exponent ( γ=-1.05) at GCR minimum intensity, leading us to infer that the quasi-linear theory of modulation is inconsistent with observations at high rigidities (>1 GV); the results support the force field theory of modulation. At present, we do not have a comprehensive model for the FD explaining quantitatively all the observational features but we present a preliminary model listing physical processes that may contribute to a FD timeline. We explored the connections between different phases of the FD and the power spectra of IMF components but did not find a sustained relationship.

  12. Li abundances in F stars: planets, rotation, and Galactic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado Mena, E.; Bertrán de Lis, S.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Sousa, S. G.; Figueira, P.; Mortier, A.; González Hernández, J. I.; Tsantaki, M.; Israelian, G.; Santos, N. C.

    2015-04-01

    explored the Li evolution with [Fe/H] taking advantage of the metal-rich stars included in our sample. We find that Li abundance reaches its maximum around solar metallicity, but decreases in the most metal-rich stars, as predicted by some models of Li Galactic production. Based on observations collected at the La Silla Observatory, ESO (Chile), with the HARPS spectrograph at the 3.6 m ESO telescope, with CORALIE spectrograph at the 1.2 m Euler Swiss telescope and with the FEROS spectrograph at the 1.52 m ESO telescope; at the Paranal Observatory, ESO (Chile), using the UVES spectrograph at the VLT/UT2 Kueyen telescope, and with the FIES and SARG spectrographs at the 2.5 m NOT and the 3.6 m TNG, respectively, both at La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain).Tables 3-6 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  13. Symbiotic stars and other Hα emission-line stars towards the Galactic bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miszalski, Brent; Mikołajewska, Joanna; Udalski, Andrzej

    2013-07-01

    Symbiotic stars are interacting binaries with the longest orbital periods, and their multicomponent structure makes them rich astrophysical laboratories. The accretion of a high-mass-loss-rate red giant wind on to a white dwarf (WD) makes them promising Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) progenitors. Systematic surveys for new Galactic symbiotic stars are critical to identify new promising SN Ia progenitors (e.g. RS Oph) and to better estimate the total population size to compare against SN Ia rates. Central to the latter objective is building a complete census of symbiotic stars towards the Galactic bulge. Here we report on the results of a systematic survey of Hα emission-line stars covering 35 deg2. It is distinguished by the combination of deep optical spectroscopy and long-term light curves that improve the certainty of our classifications. A total of 20 bona fide symbiotic stars are found (13 S-types, 6 D-types and 1 D'-type), 35 per cent of which show the symbiotic specific Raman-scattered O VI emission bands, as well as 15 possible symbiotic stars that require further study (six S-types and nine D-types). Light curves show a diverse range of variability including stellar pulsations (semi-regular and Mira), orbital variations and slow changes due to dust. Orbital periods are determined for five S-types and Mira pulsation periods for three D-types. The most significant D-type found is H1-45 and its carbon Mira with a pulsation period of 408.6 d, corresponding to an estimated period-luminosity relation distance of ˜6.2 ± 1.4 kpc and MK = -8.06 ± 0.12 mag. If H1-45 belongs to the Galactic bulge, then it would be the first bona fide luminous carbon star to be identified in the Galactic bulge population. The lack of luminous carbon stars in the bulge is a longstanding unsolved problem. A possible explanation for H1-45 may be that the carbon enhancement was accreted from the progenitor of the WD companion. A wide variety of unusual emission-line stars were also

  14. Carbon star survey in the Local Group. VII. NGC 3109 a galaxy without a stellar halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, S.; Battinelli, P.; Letarte, B.

    2003-11-01

    We present a CFH12K wide field survey of the carbon star population in and around NGC 3109. Carbon stars, the brightest members of the intermediate-age population, were found nearly exclusively in and near the disk of NGC 3109, ruling out the existence of an extensive intermediate-age halo like the one found in NGC 6822. Over 400 carbon stars identified have = -4.71, confirming the nearly universality of mean magnitude of C star populations in Local Group galaxies. Star counts over the field reveal that NGC 3109 is a truncated disk shaped galaxy without an extensive stellar halo. The minor axis star counts reach the foreground density between 4' and 5', a distance that can be explained by an inclined disk rather than a spheroidal halo. We calculate a global C/M ratio of 1.75 +/- 0.20, a value expected for such a metal poor galaxy. The complete Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/410/795

  15. Modeling the Destruction and Survival of PAHs in Astrophysical Regions: from Low-metallicity Galaxies to Elliptical Galaxies and Galactic Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aigen

    2006-05-01

    The 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6 and 11.3 micron emission features of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have been seen in a wide variety of Galactic and extragalactic objects. However, the PAH features are weak or absent in low-metallicity galaxies and AGN, as generally interpreted as the destruction of PAHs by hard UV photons in metal-poor galaxies or by extreme UV and soft X-ray photons in AGN. On the other hand, the PAH emission features have recently been detected in elliptical galaxies, tidal dwarf galaxies, galaxy halos, and distant galaxies at redshift >=2. However, it is not clear how PAHs can survive in elliptical galaxies containing X-ray emitting hot gas where PAHs are expected to be easily destroyed through sputtering by hot plasma ions. It is also not clear how PAHs get ``levitated'' and survive from galactic plane to galaxy halo where the physical conditions are similar to those of elliptical galaxies. We propose to study the destruction of PAHs (1) by UV photons in low-metallicity galaxies, (2) by extreme UV and X-ray photons in AGN, (3) by intense UV radiation in regions with strong star-forming activities, and (4) through sputtering by plasma ions in hot gas. This will allow us, by the first time, to quantitatively investigate the deficiency or lack of PAHs in AGN and low-metallicity galaxies, as well as the survivability of PAHs in elliptical galaxies, galaxy halo, and superwind, and the method of using the IRAC 8 micron photometry as a tracer of star formation rates. This program will create a web-based ``library'' of the destruction rates of PAHs by UV and X-ray photons as a function of size, intensity and hardness of the radiation field, and the sputtering rates of PAHs by plasma ions as a function of size, gas density and temperature. This library will be made publicly available to the astronomical community by May 2007 on the internet at http://www.missouri.edu/~lia/.

  16. A hadronic-leptonic model for the Fermi bubbles: Cosmic-rays in the galactic halo and radio emission

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Yutaka; Ohira, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Ryo

    2014-07-01

    We investigate non-thermal emission from the Fermi bubbles in a hadronic model. Cosmic-ray (CR) protons are accelerated at the forward shock of the bubbles. They interact with the background gas in the Galactic halo and create π{sup 0}-decay gamma-rays and secondary electrons through proton-proton interaction. We follow the evolution of the CR protons and electrons by calculating their distribution functions. We find that the spectrum and the intensity profiles of π{sup 0}-decay gamma-rays are consistent with observations. We predict that the shock front is located far ahead of the gamma-ray boundary of the Fermi bubbles. This naturally explains the fact that a clear temperature jump of thermal gas was not discovered at the gamma-ray boundary in recent Suzaku observations. We also consider re-acceleration of the background CRs in the Galactic halo at the shock front. We find that it can significantly affect the gamma-rays from the Fermi bubbles, unless the density of the background CRs is ≲ 10% of that in the Galactic disk. We indicate that secondary electrons alone cannot produce the observed radio emission from the Fermi bubbles. However, the radio emission from the outermost region of the bubbles can be explained if electrons are directly accelerated at the shock front with an efficiency of ∼0.1% of that of protons.

  17. POST T-Tauri Stars in Galactic Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haro, G.

    1983-08-01

    spectral type and luminosity: the earlier the spectral type, the shorter the vanishing effect. Therefore, if we look for weakened T Tauri features in stellar aggregates of various ages from which the typical and extreme T Tauri stars have already disappeared, we find that the older the aggregate, the later the spectral type in which the last prominent features are detectable. Everything seems to suggest that it is within these possible evolved T Tauri objects that we can find the so-called post-T Tauri stars, and that a good number of flare stars detected in galactic clusters are among them. These clusters are: the Orion stellar aggregate, NOC 2264, the Pleiades, and possibly the flare stars in stellar aggregates of ages equal or superior to 108 years. As I have in the past, I would like to place special emphasis on the genetic relationship between certain flare stars and their T Tauri ancestors, based not only on the very rapid outbursts of the former but also, and primarily, on the fact that these flare stars show spectroscopic characteristics reminiscent of the T Tauri original stars. In other words, the simple fact that a star presents the "flare" phenomenon does not constitute necessary and sufficient proof that it should be regarded as an evolutionary product of a T Tauri star: in addition to the flare-up the spectral types of the investigated objects must present -during maximum and minimum light- clear and reminiscent spectroscopic evidences of the original T Tauri objects; that is, spectral types as late or later than G and some emission lines, at least in H and Call. There are some flare stars in Orion and NGC 2264 which, even during minimum light, can be classified spectroscopically as typical T Tauri stars. In the case of the Pleiades, where undoubtedly there are no T Tauri stars, many of the flare stars show spectral emission lines (H and Call) of great intensity during maximum and of detectable intensity in slit spectrograms of not high dispersion, during

  18. THE BINARY FREQUENCY OF r-PROCESS-ELEMENT-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STARS AND ITS IMPLICATIONS: CHEMICAL TAGGING IN THE PRIMITIVE HALO OF THE MILKY WAY

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Terese; Andersen, Johannes; Nordstroem, Birgitta; Buchhave, Lars A.; Beers, Timothy C. E-mail: ja@astro.ku.dk E-mail: beers@pa.msu.edu

    2011-12-10

    A few rare halo giants in the range [Fe/H] {approx_equal} -2.9 {+-} 0.3 exhibit r-process element abundances that vary as a group by factors up to [r/Fe] {approx}80, relative to those of the iron peak and below. Yet, the astrophysical production site of these r-process elements remains unclear. We report initial results from four years of monitoring the radial velocities of 17 r-process-enhanced metal-poor giants to detect and characterize binaries in this sample. We find three (possibly four) spectroscopic binaries with orbital periods and eccentricities that are indistinguishable from those of Population I binaries with giant primaries, and which exhibit no signs that the secondary components have passed through the asymptotic giant branch stage of evolution or exploded as supernovae. The other 14 stars in our sample appear to be single-including the prototypical r-process-element-enhanced star CS 22892-052, which is also enhanced in carbon, but not in s-process elements. We conclude that the r-process (and potentially carbon) enhancement of these stars was not a local event due to mass transfer or winds from a binary companion, but was imprinted on the natal molecular clouds of these (single and binary) stars by an external source. These stars are thus spectacular chemical tracers of the inhomogeneous nature of the early Galactic halo system.

  19. Star-disc interaction in galactic nuclei: orbits and rates of accreted stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Gareth F.; Meiron, Yohai; Shukirgaliyev, Bekdaulet; Panamarev, Taras; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas; Spurzem, Rainer

    2016-07-01

    We examine the effect of an accretion disc on the orbits of stars in the central star cluster surrounding a central massive black hole by performing a suite of 39 high-accuracy direct N-body simulations using state-of-the art software and accelerator hardware, with particle numbers up to 128k. The primary focus is on the accretion rate of stars by the black hole (equivalent to their tidal disruption rate for black holes in the small to medium mass range) and the eccentricity distribution of these stars. Our simulations vary not only the particle number, but disc model (two models examined), spatial resolution at the centre (characterized by the numerical accretion radius) and softening length. The large parameter range and physically realistic modelling allow us for the first time to confidently extrapolate these results to real galactic centres. While in a real galactic centre both particle number and accretion radius differ by a few orders of magnitude from our models, which are constrained by numerical capability, we find that the stellar accretion rate converges for models with N ≥ 32k. The eccentricity distribution of accreted stars, however, does not converge. We find that there are two competing effects at work when improving the resolution: larger particle number leads to a smaller fraction of stars accreted on nearly circular orbits, while higher spatial resolution increases this fraction. We scale our simulations to some nearby galaxies and find that the expected boost in stellar accretion (or tidal disruption, which could be observed as X-ray flares) in the presence of a gas disc is about a factor of 10. Even with this boost, the accretion of mass from stars is still a factor of ˜100 slower than the accretion of gas from the disc. Thus, it seems accretion of stars is not a major contributor to black hole mass growth.

  20. The Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS): new results from the southern stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sota, A.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Barbá, R. H.; Walborn, N. R.; Alfaro, E. J.; Gamen, R. C.; Morrell, N. I.; Arias, J. I.; Penadés Ordaz, M.

    2013-05-01

    The Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS) is a project that will observe all known Galactic O stars with B < 14 in the blue-violet part of the spectrum with R ˜ 3000. It is based on v2.0 of the the most complete Galactic O star catalog with accurate spectral types (Maíz Apellániz et al. 2004, ApJS, 151, 103; Sota et al. 2008, RevMexAA Conf. Series, 33, 55) that we have recently compiled. We have completed the first part of the main project and recently published the first articles (Walborn et al. 2010, ApJ, 711, 143; Walborn et al. 2011, AJ, 142, 150; Sota et al. 2011, ApJS, 193, 24). GOSSS is part of a bigger project with the next companion surveys: High resolution spectroscopic surveys: OWN, IACOB, IACOB-sweG, NoMaDS, CAFÉ-BEANS High resolution imaging surveys: Astralux, Astralux Sur.

  1. Scaling Relations of Galactic Winds with Star Formation Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Ryan; Cecil, Gerald; Heitsch, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    The galactic scale outflows generated by nuclear starbursts consist of a multiphase medium where each phase has a distinct velocity depending on the characteristics of the starburst. Using synthetic absorption lines generated from 3D hydrodynamical simulations we probe the outflow velocity of the hot, warm, and neutral gas entrained in a galactic wind. By varying the star formation rate (SFR) in our simulations, we find no correlation between the outflow velocity of the hot gas with the SFR, but we do find a correlation between the outflow velocity of both warm and neutral gas with the SFR. The scaling relation between outflow velocity and SFR only holds for low SFR until the scaling relation abruptly flattens at a SFR determined by the mass loading of the starburst. The outflow velocity of the hot gas only depends on the mass loading of the starburst and not the SFR. For low SFRs the difference between the velocity of cold gas, as measured by absorption lines of neutral or low ionized gas, may be 5-7 times lower than the velocity of the hot, highly ionized gas. The difference in velocity between the cold and hot gas for higher SFRs depends on the mass loading factor of the starburst. Thus the measured velocities of neutral or low ionized gas cannot be used to estimate the outflow velocity of the hot gas without determining the mass loading of the starburst.

  2. Infrared Spectroscopy of Star Formation in Galactic and Extragalactic Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Howard A.; Hasan, Hashima (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In this program we proposed to perform a series of spectroscopic studies, including data analysis and modeling, of star formation regions using an ensemble of archival space-based data from the Infrared Space Observatory's Long Wavelength Spectrometer and Short Wavelength Spectrometer, and to take advantage of other spectroscopic databases including the first results from SIRTF. Our emphasis has been on star formation in external, bright IR galaxies, but other areas of research have included young, low or high mass pre-main sequence stars in star formation regions, and the galactic center. The OH lines in the far infrared were proposed as one key focus of this inquiry, because the Principal Investigator (H. Smith) had a full set of OH IR lines from IS0 observations. It was planned that during the proposed 2-1/2 year timeframe of the proposal other data (including perhaps from SIRTF) would become available, and we intended to be responsive to these and other such spectroscopic data sets. The program has the following goals: 1) Refine the data analysis of IS0 observations to obtain deeper and better SNR results on selected sources. The IS0 data itself underwent pipeline 10 reductions in early 2001, and the more 'hands-on data reduction packages' have been released. The IS0 Fabry-Perot database is particularly sensitive to noise and can have slight calibration errors, and improvements are anticipated. We plan to build on these deep analysis tools and contribute to their development. Model the atomic and molecular line shapes, in particular the OH lines, using revised montecarlo techniques developed by the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) team at the Center for Astrophysics. 2) 3) Use newly acquired space-based SIRTF or SOFIA spectroscopic data as they become available, and contribute to these observing programs as appropriate. 4) Attend scientific meetings and workshops. 5) E&PO activities, especially as related to infrared astrophysics and

  3. PyMGC3: Finding stellar streams in the Galactic Halo using a family of Great Circle Cell counts methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateu, C.

    2014-11-01

    PyMGC3 is a Python toolkit to apply the Modified Great Circle Cell Counts (mGC3) method to search for tidal streams in the Galactic Halo. The code computes pole count maps using the full mGC3/nGC3/GC3 family of methods. The original GC3 method (Johnston et al., 1996) uses positional information to search for 'great-circle-cell structures'; mGC3 makes use of full 6D data and nGC3 uses positional and proper motion data.

  4. The Dependence of the Occupation of Galaxies on the Halo Formation Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guangtun; Zheng, Zheng; Lin, W. P.; Jing, Y. P.; Kang, Xi; Gao, Liang

    2006-03-01

    We study the dependence of the galaxy contents within halos on the halo formation time using two galaxy formation models, one being a semianalytic model utilizing the halo assembly history from a high-resolution N-body simulation and the other being a smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation including radiative cooling, star formation, and energy feedback from galactic winds. We confirm the finding by Gao et al. that at fixed mass, the clustering of halos depends on the halo formation time, especially for low-mass halos. This age dependence of halo clustering makes it desirable to study the correlation between the occupation of galaxies within halos and the halo age. We find that, in halos of fixed mass, the number of satellite galaxies has a strong dependence on halo age, with fewer satellites in older halos. The youngest one-third of the halos can have an order of magnitude more satellites than the oldest one-third. For central galaxies, in halos that form earlier, they tend to have more stars and thus appear to be more luminous, and the dependence of their luminosity on halo age is not as strong as that of stellar mass. The results can be understood through the star formation history in halos and the merging of satellites onto central galaxies. The age dependence of the galaxy contents within halos would constitute an important ingredient in a more accurate halo-based model of galaxy clustering.

  5. Modeling mergers of known galactic systems of binary neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feo, Alessandra; De Pietri, Roberto; Maione, Francesco; Löffler, Frank

    2017-02-01

    We present a study of the merger of six different known galactic systems of binary neutron stars (BNS) of unequal mass with a mass ratio between 0.75 and 0.99. Specifically, these systems are J1756-2251, J0737-3039A, J1906  +  0746, B1534  +  12, J0453  +  1559 and B1913  +  16. We follow the dynamics of the merger from the late stage of the inspiral process up to  ∼20ms after the system has merged, either to form a hyper-massive neutron star (NS) or a rotating black hole (BH), using a semi-realistic equation of state (EOS), namely the seven-segment piece-wise polytropic SLy with a thermal component. For the most extreme of these systems (q  =  0.75, J0453  +  1559), we also investigate the effects of different EOSs: APR4, H4, and MS1. Our numerical simulations are performed using only publicly available open source code such as, the Einstein toolkit code deployed for the dynamical evolution and the LORENE code for the generation of the initial models. We show results on the gravitational wave signals, spectrogram and frequencies of the BNS after the merger and the BH properties in the two cases in which the system collapses within the simulated time.

  6. DETECTING TRIAXIALITY IN THE GALACTIC DARK MATTER HALO THROUGH STELLAR KINEMATICS

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas-Nino, Armando; Valenzuela, Octavio; Pichardo, Barbara; Aguilar, Luis A. E-mail: barbara@astro.unam.mx

    2012-10-01

    Assuming the dark matter halo of the Milky Way to be a non-spherical potential (i.e., triaxial, prolate, oblate), we show how the assembling process of the Milky Way halo may have left long-lasting stellar halo kinematic fossils due to the shape of the dark matter halo. In contrast with tidal streams, which are associated with recent satellite accretion events, these stellar kinematic groups will typically show inhomogeneous chemical and stellar population properties. However, they may be dominated by a single accretion event for certain mass assembling histories. If the detection of these peculiar kinematic stellar groups were confirmed, they would be the smoking gun for the predicted triaxiality of dark halos in cosmological galaxy formation scenarios.

  7. The Galactic O-Star Spectral Survey (GOSSS) Project status and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sota, Alfredo; Maíz Apellániz, Jesús; Barbá, Rodolfo H.; Walborn, Nolan R.; Alfaro, Emilio J.; Gamen, Roberto C.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Arias, Julia I.; Penadés Ordaz, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    The Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS) is a project that is observing all known Galactic O stars with B < 13 (˜2000 objects) in the blue-violet part of the spectrum with R˜2500. It also includes two companion surveys (a spectroscopic one at R˜1500 and a high resolution imaging one). It is based on v2.0 of the Galactic O star catalog (v1, Maíz-Apellániz et al. 2004; v2, Sota et al. 2008). We have completed the first part of the main project. Here we present results on the first 400 objects of the sample.

  8. Bibliographic compilation of NIR spectroscopy for stars in the Galactic O-Star Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Robledo, S.; Barbá, R.; Arias, J. I.; Morrell, N. I.

    We are carrying out a bibliographic compilation of near-infrared (NIR) (0.7 - 5.0 μm) spectroscopic studies available for stars in the Galactic O Star Catalog (GOSC, Maíz Apellániz et al. 2004). This compilation al- lows us to quantify the precise degree of knowledge about NIR spectral information for GOSC sources, such as band coverage, spectral resolution, equivalent-width measurements, etc. This bibliographic compilation has a clear next step toward the development of a new catalog of O-type stars observed only in the NIR, which will be annexed to the GOSC. In this poster paper we present preliminary results derived from a set of different attributes extracted from the retrieved papers.

  9. Phase mixing due to the Galactic potential: steps in the position and velocity distributions of popped star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candlish, G. N.; Smith, R.; Fellhauer, M.; Gibson, B. K.; Kroupa, P.; Assmann, P.

    2014-02-01

    As star clusters are expected to form with low star formation efficiencies, the gas in the cluster is expelled quickly and early in their development: the star cluster `pops'. This leads to an unbound stellar system, evolving in the Galactic potential. Previous N-body simulations have demonstrated the existence of a stepped number density distribution of cluster stars after popping, both in vertical position and vertical velocity, with a passing resemblance to a Christmas tree. Using numerical and analytical methods, we investigate the source of this structure, which arises due to the phase mixing of the out-of-equilibrium stellar system, determined entirely by the background analytic potential. Considering only the vertical motions, we construct a theoretical model to describe the time evolution of the phase space distribution of stars in a Miyamoto-Nagai disc potential and a full Milky Way-type potential comprising bulge, halo and disc components, which is then compared with N-body simulations. Using our theoretical model, we investigate the possible observational signatures and the feasibility of detection.

  10. Star Factory Near Galactic Center Bathed In High-Energy X-Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-06-01

    Near the crowded core of the Milky Way galaxy, where stars shine so brightly and plentifully that planets there would never experience nighttime, astronomers have found a new phenomenon: a cauldron of 60-million-degree gas enveloping a cluster of young stars. Professor Farhad Zadeh of Northwestern University and his collaborators used NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to trace the gas around the Arches cluster, a well-studied region of star formation that is home to some of our Galaxy's largest and youngest stars. "This is the first time we have seen a young cluster of stars surrounded by such a halo of high-energy X-rays," said Zadeh in a press conference at the American Astronomical Society in Pasadena, CA. "This supports theoretical predictions that stellar winds from massive stars can collide with each other and generate very hot gas." Massive stars, newborn stars, and stellar winds have long been known to emit X-rays. The Chandra results are significant because they identify this new type of mechanism of colliding winds to generate X-rays as energetic as those seen in distant starburst galaxies, which are known for their furious pace of star production. The Arches cluster is about 26,000 light years from Earth and only about 1 to 2 million years old. It is also less than 100 light years from what is thought to be a supermassive black hole in the center of our Galaxy. The cluster contains 150 hot, young stars, known as "O" stars, concentrated within a diameter of one light year, making it the most compact cluster known in the Milky Way galaxy. The density of stars makes the region in and around the Arches cluster a microcosm of what is likely occurring in starburst galaxies. "The Arches cluster is one of the best 'local' analogues of starburst galaxies-- the most prodigious stellar nurseries known," said Casey Law of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "Yet the Arches cluster is in our backyard, not millions of light years away." The Arches Cluster

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Southern Galactic Be star candidates (Sabogal+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabogal, B. E.; Garcia-Varela, A.

    2014-04-01

    We present the result of a search for southern Galactic Be star candidates within the group of miscellaneous variables of the ASAS-2 catalog of variable stars, using statistical, morphological, photometric, and color criteria. This search lead us to obtain a catalog of 213 new Be star candidates. The I-band light curves of these candidates show outbursts (Type-1 stars) only in 9% of the sample, and stochastic variations (Type-4 stars) in 91% of the sample. We do not find stars showing clear high and low states (Type-2 stars) or showing outbursts and high and low states simultaneously (Type-1/Type-2 stars). Our sample of southern Galactic Be star candidates provide valuable new bright targets for high resolution spectroscopic studies with small/medium size telescopes. (1 data file).

  12. Duration of the Early Galactic Formation Epoch: HST Photometry for Red-Horizontal Branch Clusters in the Outer Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesser, J. E.; Stetson, P. B.; McClure, R. D.; van den Bergh, S.; Bolte, M.; Harris, W. E.; van den Berg, D. A.; Bell, R. A.; Fahlman, G. G.; Richer, H. B.; Bond, H. E.

    1997-12-01

    Last year we presented evidence from HST photometry of the low-metallicity cluster NGC 2419 (M_V = -9.5, R_⊙ ~ 90 kpc, [Fe/H] = -2.2) that globular cluster formation began at essentially the same time throughout a region of the Galactic halo now almost 200 kpc in diameter (Harris et al. 1997 AJ 114, 1030). We now turn to the time spread of halo formation, with the ultimate aim of addressing the relative roles of mergers over the first 4 or more Gyrs (Searle & Zinn 1978, ApJ, 225, 357; Lee, Demarque & Zinn 1994 ApJ, 423, 248) versus models favoring a rapid collapse (Eggen, Lynden-Bell & Sandage 1962, ApJ, 236, 748; Stetson, VandenBerg & Bolte 1996, PASP, 108, 560), or some combination of those and other processes. We provide the first reliable measurements from the giant branch through the main-sequence turnoffs of red-horizontal-branch clusters in the outer halo, which are frequently postulated to be younger than most other globular clusters. From WFPC2 F555W (`V') and F814W (`I') photometry for Pal 3 (M_V = -5.2, R_⊙ ~ 87 kpc), Pal 4 (M_V = -5.8, R_⊙ ~ 98 kpc), and Eridanus (M_V = -4.8, R_⊙ ~ 78 kpc), all with [Fe/H] ~ -1.5, we estimate their relative ages by making differential comparisons among them and with respect to inner-halo objects of, presumably, comparable chemical compositions. It seems likely at this stage of our analysis that (a) the three clusters are the same age to our measurement precision of ~ 1 Gyr, and, (b) the CMDs of all three outer halo clusters differ from those of M 3 and M 5 (our template clusters of similar metallicity), in the sense that the outer halo clusters are younger by ~ 3 Gyr, or they are ~ 0.5 dex more metal-rich than currently thought. Large uncertainties in chemical compositions (He, [alpha /Fe], [CNO/Fe]) for outer halo and template clusters alike mask the true interpretation.

  13. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE ANGULAR MOMENTUM PROPERTIES OF GAS AND DARK MATTER IN GALACTIC HALOS AND ITS IMPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Sanjib; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Steinmetz, Matthias

    2012-05-10

    We perform a set of non-radiative hydrodynamical simulations of merging spherical halos in order to understand the angular momentum (AM) properties of the galactic halos seen in cosmological simulations. The universal shape of AM distributions seen in simulations is found to be generically produced as a result of mergers. The universal shape is such that it has an excess of low AM material and hence cannot explain the exponential structure of disk galaxies. A resolution to this is suggested by the spatial distribution of low AM material which is found to be in the center and a conical region close to the axis of rotation. A mechanism that preferentially discards the material in the center and prevents the material along the poles from falling onto the disk is proposed as a solution. We implement a simple geometric criterion for the selective removal of low AM material and show that in order for 90% of halos to host exponential disks one has to reject at least 40% of material. Next, we explore the physical mechanisms responsible for distributing the AM within the halo during a merger. For dark matter there is an inside-out transfer of AM, whereas for gas there is an outside-in transfer, which is due to differences between collisionless and gas dynamics. This is responsible for the spin parameter {lambda} and the shape parameter {alpha} of AM distributions being higher for gas compared to dark matter. We also explain the apparent high spin of dark matter halos undergoing mergers and show that a criterion stricter than what is currently used would be required to detect such unrelaxed halos. Finally, we demonstrate that the misalignment of AM between gas and dark matter only occurs when the intrinsic spins of the merging halos are not aligned with the orbital AM of the system. The self-misalignment (orientation of AM when measured in radial shells not being constant), which could be the cause of warps and anomalous rotation in disks galaxies, also occurs under similar

  14. The Hobby-Eberly Telescope Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo CASH Project I. Observations of the First Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frebel, A.; Allende Prieto, C.; Roederer, I. U.; Shetrone, M.; Rhee, J.; Sneden, C.; Beers, T. C.; Cowan, J. J.

    2008-08-01

    We present preliminary results obtained from the first year of observations of a new, long-term project of the University of Texas, the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project.

  15. The minimum halo mass for star formation at z = 6-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlator, Kristian; Prescott, Moire K. M.; Oppenheimer, B. D.; Davé, Romeel; Zackrisson, E.; Livermore, R. C.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Thompson, Robert; Huang, Shuiyao

    2017-01-01

    Recent analysis of strongly lensed sources in the Hubble Frontier Fields indicates that the rest-frame UV luminosity function of galaxies at z = 6-8 rises as a power law down to MUV = -15, and possibly as faint as -12.5. We use predictions from a cosmological radiation hydrodynamic simulation to map these luminosities on to physical space, constraining the minimum dark matter halo mass and stellar mass that the Frontier Fields probe. While previously published theoretical studies have suggested or assumed that early star formation was suppressed in haloes less massive than 109-1011 M⊙, we find that recent observations demand vigorous star formation in haloes at least as massive as (3.1, 5.6, 10.5) × 109 M⊙ at z = (6, 7, 8). Likewise, we find that Frontier Fields observations probe down to stellar masses of (8.1, 18, 32) × 106 M⊙: that is, they are observing the likely progenitors of analogues to Local Group dwarfs such as Pegasus and M32. Our simulations yield somewhat different constraints than two complementary models that have been invoked in similar analyses, emphasizing the need for further observational constraints on the galaxy-halo connection.

  16. Evidence for Gamma-ray Halos Around Active Galactic Nuclei and the First Measurement of Intergalactic Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Kusenko, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    Intergalactic magnetic fields (IGMFs) can cause the appearance of halos around the gamma-ray images of distant objects because an electromagnetic cascade initiated by a high-energy gamma-ray interaction with the photon background is broadened by magnetic deflections. We report evidence of such gamma-ray halos in the stacked images of the 170 brightest active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the 11 month source catalog of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Excess over the point-spread function in the surface brightness profile is statistically significant at 3.5σ (99.95% confidence level), for the nearby, hard population of AGNs. The halo size and brightness are consistent with IGMF, B IGMF ≈ 10-15 G. The knowledge of IGMF will facilitate the future gamma-ray and charged-particle astronomy. Furthermore, since IGMFs are likely to originate from the primordial seed fields created shortly after the big bang, this potentially opens a new window on the origin of cosmological magnetic fields, inflation, and the phase transitions in the early universe.

  17. CONSTRAINTS ON NATAL KICKS IN GALACTIC DOUBLE NEUTRON STAR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Tsing-Wai; Willems, Bart; Kalogera, Vassiliki E-mail: b-willems@northwestern.ed

    2010-10-01

    Since the discovery of the first double neutron star (DNS) system in 1975 by Hulse and Taylor, there are currently eight confirmed DNS in our galaxy. For every system, the masses of both neutron stars, the orbital semimajor axis, and eccentricity are measured, and proper motion is known for half of the systems. Using the orbital parameters and kinematic information, if available, as constraints for all systems, we investigate the immediate progenitor mass of the second-born neutron star (NS2) and the magnitude of the supernova kick it received at birth, with the primary goal to understand the core-collapse mechanism leading to neutron star formation. Compared to earlier studies, we use a novel method to address the uncertainty related to the unknown radial velocity of the observed systems. For PSR B1534+12 and PSR B1913+16, the kick magnitudes are 150-270 km s{sup -1} and 190-450 km s{sup -1} (with 95% confidence), respectively, and the progenitor masses of the NS2 are 1.3-3.4 M{sub sun} and 1.4-5.0 M{sub sun} (95%), respectively. These suggest that the NS2 was formed by an iron core-collapse supernova in both systems. For PSR J0737 - 3039, on the other hand, the kick magnitude is only 5-120 km s{sup -1} (95%), and the progenitor mass of the NS2 is 1.3-1.9 M{sub sun} (95%). Because of the relatively low progenitor mass and kick magnitude, the formation of the NS2 in PSR J0737 - 3039 is potentially connected to an electron capture supernova of a massive O-Ne-Mg white dwarf. For the remaining five Galactic DNS, the kick magnitude ranges from several tens to several hundreds of km s{sup -1}, and the progenitor mass of the NS2 can be as low as {approx}1.5 M{sub sun} or as high as {approx}8 M{sub sun}. Therefore, in these systems it is not clear which type of supernova is more likely to form the NS2.

  18. Explaining the Ba, Y, Sr, and Eu abundance scatter in metal-poor halo stars: constraints to the r-process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cescutti, G.; Chiappini, C.

    2014-05-01

    Context. Thanks to the heroic observational campaigns carried out in recent years we now have large samples of metal-poor stars for which measurements of detailed abundances exist. In particular, large samples of stars with metallicities -5 < [Fe/H] <-1 and measured abundances of Sr, Ba, Y, and Eu are now available. These data hold important clues on the nature of the contribution of the first stellar generations to the enrichment of our Galaxy. Aims: We aim to explain the scatter in Sr, Ba, Y, and Eu abundance ratio diagrams unveiled by the metal-poor halo stars. Methods: We computed inhomogeneous chemical evolution models for the Galactic halo assuming different scenarios for the r-process site: the electron-capture (EC) supernovae and the magnetorotationally driven (MRD) supernovae scenarios. We also considered models with and without the contribution of fast-rotating massive stars (spinstars) to an early enrichment by the s-process. A detailed comparison with the now large sample of stars with measured abundances of Sr, Ba, Y, Eu, and Fe is provided (both in terms of scatter plots and number distributions for several abundance ratios). Results: The scatter observed in these abundance ratios of the very metal-poor stars (with [Fe/H] <-2.5) can be explained by combining the s-process production in spinstars, and the r-process contribution coming from massive stars. For the r-process we have developed models for both the EC and the MRD scenarios that match the observations. Conclusions: With the present observational and theoretical constraints we cannot distinguish between the EC and the MRD scenarios in the Galactic halo. Independently of the r-process scenarios adopted, the production of elements by an s-process in spinstars is needed to reproduce the spread in abundances of the light neutron capture elements (Sr and Y) over heavy neutron capture elements (Ba and Eu). We provide a way to test our suggestions by means of the distribution of the Ba isotopic

  19. Surface density of dark matter haloes on galactic and cluster scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Popolo, A.; Cardone, V. F.; Belvedere, G.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we analysed the correlation between the central surface density and the halo core radius of galaxies, and cluster of galaxies dark matter (DM) haloes, in the framework of the secondary infall model. We used Del Popolo secondary infall model taking into account ordered and random angular momentum, dynamical friction and DM adiabatic contraction to calculate the density profile of haloes, and then these profiles are used to determine the surface density of DM haloes. The main result is that r* (the halo characteristic radius) is not a universal quantity as claimed by Donato et al. and Gentile et al. On the contrary, we find a correlation with the halo mass M200 in agreement with Cardone & Tortora, Boyarsky et al. and Napolitano, Romanowsky & Tortora, but with a significantly smaller scatter, namely 0.16 ± 0.05. We also consider the baryon column density finding this latter being indeed a constant for low-mass systems, such as dwarfs, but correlating with mass with a slope of α = 0.18 ± 0.05. In the case of the surface density of DM for a system composed only of DM, as in dissipationless simulations, we get α = 0.20 ± 0.05. These results leave little room for the recently claimed universality of (dark and stellar) column density.

  20. Homogeneous photometry and star counts in the field of 9 Galactic star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seleznev, A. F.; Carraro, G.; Costa, E.; Loktin, A. V.

    2010-01-01

    We present homogeneous V, I CCD photometry of nine stellar fields in the two inner quadrants of the Galactic plane. The lines-of-view to most of these fields aim in the direction of the very inner Galaxy, where the Galactic field is very dense, and extinction is high and patchy. Our nine fields are, according to several catalogs, centred on Galactic star clusters, namely Trumpler 13, Trumpler 20, Lynga 4, Hogg 19, Lynga 12, Trumpler 25, Trumpler 26, Ruprecht 128, and Trumpler 34. Apart from their coordinates, and in some cases additional basic data (mainly from the 2MASS archive), their properties are poorly known. By means of star count techniques and field star decontaminated Color Magnitude diagrams, the nature and size of these visual over-densities has been established; and, when possible, new cluster fundamental parameters have been derived. To strengthen our findings, we complement our data-set with JHKs photometry from the 2MASS archive, that we analyze using a suitably defined Q-parameter. Most clusters are projected towards the Carina-Sagittarium spiral arm. Because of that, we detect in the Color Magnitude diagrams of most of the other fields several distinctive sequences produced by young population within the arm. All the clusters are of intermediate or old age. The most interesting cases detected by our study are, perhaps, that of Trumpler 20, which seems to be much older than previously believed, as indicated by its prominent - and double - red clump; and that of Hogg 19, a previously overlooked old open cluster, whose existence in such regions of the Milky Way is puzzling.

  1. An X-ray and Infrared Hunt for New Candidate Galactic OB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povich, Matthew S.; Alexander, Michael J.; Busk, Heather; Hanes, Richard J.; Feigelson, Eric; McSwain, M. Virginia; Townsley, Leisa K.

    2016-01-01

    Most young, massive OB stars produce X-ray emission through a variety of wind-driven shock processes, and individual massive stars are detectable out to several kpc distances in the Galactic plane using high-resolution imaging observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We have developed a technique to identify known and new candidate OB stars by fitting model stellar atmospheres to the broadband infrared spectral energy distributions of X-ray-identified stars. Using this technique, we identified 94 candidate O- and early B-type stars in the Carina Nebula and an additional 98 candidates in 11 other Galactic Massive Star-Forming Regions. Visible-light and near-infrared follow-up spectroscopy of these candidates is ongoing, and initial results indicate that a majority of candidate massive stars will be spectroscopically confirmed as OB stars.

  2. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN LOW- AND HIGH-{alpha} FIELD HALO STARS AND THE DISCOVERY OF TWO FIELD STARS BORN IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, I.; Melendez, J.

    2012-10-01

    Oxygen abundances of 67 dwarf stars in the metallicity range -1.6 < [Fe/H] < -0.4 are derived from a non-LTE analysis of the 777 nm O I triplet lines. These stars have precise atmospheric parameters measured by Nissen and Schuster, who find that they separate into three groups based on their kinematics and {alpha}-element (Mg, Si, Ca, Ti) abundances: thick disk, high-{alpha} halo, and low-{alpha} halo. We find the oxygen abundance trends of thick-disk and high-{alpha} halo stars very similar. The low-{alpha} stars show a larger star-to-star scatter in [O/Fe] at a given [Fe/H] and have systematically lower oxygen abundances compared to the other two groups. Thus, we find the behavior of oxygen abundances in these groups of stars similar to that of the {alpha} elements. We use previously published oxygen abundance data of disk and very metal-poor halo stars to present an overall view (-2.3 < [Fe/H] < +0.3) of oxygen abundance trends of stars in the solar neighborhood. Two field halo dwarf stars stand out in their O and Na abundances. Both G53-41 and G150-40 have very low oxygen and very high sodium abundances, which are key signatures of the abundance anomalies observed in globular cluster (GC) stars. Therefore, they are likely field halo stars born in GCs. If true, we estimate that at least 3% {+-} 2% of the local field metal-poor star population was born in GCs.

  3. DISTANCE SCALE ZERO POINTS FROM GALACTIC RR LYRAE STAR PARALLAXES

    SciTech Connect

    Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, Barbara E.; Barnes, Thomas G.; Feast, Michael W.; Harrison, Thomas E.; Bean, Jacob L.; Kolenberg, Katrien; Menzies, John W.; Laney, C. D.; Chaboyer, Brian; Fossati, Luca; Nesvacil, Nicole; Smith, Horace A.; Kochukhov, Oleg; Nelan, Edmund P.; Taylor, Denise; Shulyak, D. V.; Freedman, Wendy L.

    2011-12-15

    We present new absolute trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions for seven Population II variable stars-five RR Lyr variables: RZ Cep, XZ Cyg, SU Dra, RR Lyr, and UV Oct; and two type 2 Cepheids: VY Pyx and {kappa} Pav. We obtained these results with astrometric data from Fine Guidance Sensors, white-light interferometers on Hubble Space Telescope. We find absolute parallaxes in milliseconds of arc: RZ Cep, 2.12 {+-} 0.16 mas; XZ Cyg, 1.67 {+-} 0.17 mas; SU Dra, 1.42 {+-} 0.16 mas; RR Lyr, 3.77 {+-} 0.13 mas; UV Oct, 1.71 {+-} 0.10 mas; VY Pyx, 6.44 {+-} 0.23 mas; and {kappa} Pav, 5.57 {+-} 0.28 mas; an average {sigma}{sub {pi}}/{pi} = 5.4%. With these parallaxes, we compute absolute magnitudes in V and K bandpasses corrected for interstellar extinction and Lutz-Kelker-Hanson bias. Using these RR Lyrae variable star absolute magnitudes, we then derive zero points for M{sub V} -[Fe/H] and M{sub K} -[Fe/H]-log P relations. The technique of reduced parallaxes corroborates these results. We employ our new results to determine distances and ages of several Galactic globular clusters and the distance of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The latter is close to that previously derived from Classical Cepheids uncorrected for any metallicity effect, indicating that any such effect is small. We also discuss the somewhat puzzling results obtained for our two type 2 Cepheids.

  4. QUENCHING OF STAR FORMATION IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY GROUPS: CENTRALS, SATELLITES, AND GALACTIC CONFORMITY

    SciTech Connect

    Knobel, Christian; Lilly, Simon J.; Woo, Joanna; Kovač, Katarina

    2015-02-10

    We re-examine the fraction of low-redshift Sloan Digital Sky Survey satellites and centrals in which star formation has been quenched, using the environment quenching efficiency formalism that separates out the dependence of stellar mass. We show that the centrals of the groups containing the satellites are responding to the environment in the same way as their satellites (at least for stellar masses above 10{sup 10.3} M {sub ☉}), and that the well-known differences between satellites and the general set of centrals arise because the latter are overwhelmingly dominated by isolated galaxies. The widespread concept of ''satellite quenching'' as the cause of environmental effects in the galaxy population can therefore be generalized to ''group quenching''. We then explore the dependence of the quenching efficiency of satellites on overdensity, group-centric distance, halo mass, the stellar mass of the satellite, and the stellar mass and specific star formation rate (sSFR) of its central, trying to isolate the effect of these often interdependent variables. We emphasize the importance of the central sSFR in the quenching efficiency of the associated satellites, and develop the meaning of this ''galactic conformity'' effect in a probabilistic description of the quenching of galaxies. We show that conformity is strong, and that it varies strongly across parameter space. Several arguments then suggest that environmental quenching and mass quenching may be different manifestations of the same underlying process. The marked difference in the apparent mass dependencies of environment quenching and mass quenching which produces distinctive signatures in the mass functions of centrals and satellites will arise naturally, since, for satellites at least, the distributions of the environmental variables that we investigate in this work are essentially independent of the stellar mass of the satellite.

  5. Stellar oxygen abundances. 3: The oxygen abundance of the very metal poor halo star BD -13 deg 3442

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Jeremy R.

    1994-01-01

    A spectrum of the very metal poor ((Fe/H) approximately -3) halo star BD -13 deg 3442 is presented and used to determine this star's oxygen abundance. Our determination makes BD -13 deg 3442 the most metal poor dwarf (though a somewhat evolved one) with an O abundance determination. The O abundance (determined from the 7774 A O I triped) and (O/Fe) ratio is compared to that of two other metal-poor stars. The (O/Fe) ratio of BD -13 deg 3442 is found to be approximately 0.35 dex larger than that of the other two halo stars. Possible implications of this result are discussed.

  6. Using the multi-object adaptive optics demonstrator RAVEN to observe metal-poor stars in and towards the Galactic Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, M.; Venn, K.; Andersen, D.; Oya, S.; Shetrone, M.; Fattahi, A.; Howes, L.; Asplund, M.; Lardière, O.; Akiyama, M.; Ono, Y.; Terada, H.; Hayano, Y.; Suzuki, G.; Blain, C.; Jackson, K.; Correia, C.; Youakim, K.; Bradley, C.

    2017-03-01

    The chemical abundances for five metal-poor stars in and towards the Galactic bulge have been determined from the H-band infrared spectroscopy taken with the RAVEN multi-object adaptive optics science demonstrator and the Infrared Camera and Spectrograph at the Subaru 8.2-m telescope. Three of these stars are in the Galactic bulge and have metallicities between -2.1 < [Fe/H] < -1.5, and high [α/Fe] ∼ +0.3, typical of Galactic disc and bulge stars in this metallicity range; [Al/Fe] and [N/Fe] are also high, whereas [C/Fe] < +0.3. An examination of their orbits suggests that two of these stars may be confined to the Galactic bulge and one is a halo trespasser, though proper motion values used to calculate orbits are quite uncertain. An additional two stars in the globular cluster M22 show [Fe/H] values consistent to within 1σ, although one of these two stars has [Fe/H] = -2.01 ± 0.09, which is on the low end for this cluster. The [α/Fe] and [Ni/Fe] values differ by 2σ, with the most metal-poor star showing significantly higher values for these elements. M22 is known to show element abundance variations, consistent with a multipopulation scenario though our results cannot discriminate this clearly given our abundance uncertainties. This is the first science demonstration of multi-object adaptive optics with high-resolution infrared spectroscopy, and we also discuss the feasibility of this technique for use in the upcoming era of 30-m class telescope facilities.

  7. Using red clump stars to decompose the galactic magnetic field with distance

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel, Michael D.

    2014-09-01

    A new method for measuring the large-scale structure of the Galactic magnetic field is presented. The Galactic magnetic field has been probed through the Galactic disk with near-infrared starlight polarimetry; however, the distance to each background star is unknown. Using red clump stars as near-infrared standard candles, this work presents the first attempt to decompose the line-of-sight structure of the sky-projected Galactic magnetic field. Two example lines of sight are decomposed: toward a field with many red clump stars and toward a field with few red clump stars. A continuous estimate of magnetic field orientation over several kiloparsecs of distance is possible in the field with many red clump stars, while only discrete estimates are possible in the sparse example. Toward the outer Galaxy, there is a continuous field orientation with distance that shows evidence of perturbation by the Galactic warp. Toward the inner Galaxy, evidence for a large-scale change in the magnetic field geometry is consistent with models of magnetic field reversals, independently derived from Faraday rotation studies. A photo-polarimetric method for identifying candidate intrinsically polarized stars is also presented. The future application of this method to large regions of the sky will begin the process of mapping the Galactic magnetic field in a way never before possible.

  8. EFFECTS OF HOT HALO GAS ON STAR FORMATION AND MASS TRANSFER DURING DISTANT GALAXY–GALAXY ENCOUNTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Jeong-Sun; Park, Changbom E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr

    2015-06-01

    We use N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of encounters between an early-type galaxy (ETG) and a late-type galaxy (LTG) to study the effects of hot halo gas on the evolution for a case with the mass ratio of the ETG to LTG of 2:1 and the closest approach distance of ∼100 kpc. We find that the dynamics of the cold disk gas in the tidal bridge and the amount of the newly formed stars depend strongly on the existence of a gas halo. In the run of interacting galaxies not having a hot gas halo, the gas and stars accreted into the ETG do not include newly formed stars. However, in the run using the ETG with a gas halo and the LTG without a gas halo, a shock forms along the disk gas tidal bridge and induces star formation near the closest approach. The shock front is parallel to a channel along which the cold gas flows toward the center of the ETG. As a result, the ETG can accrete star-forming cold gas and newly born stars at and near its center. When both galaxies have hot gas halos, a shock is formed between the two gas halos somewhat before the closest approach. The shock hinders the growth of the cold gas bridge to the ETG and also ionizes it. Only some of the disk stars transfer through the stellar bridge. We conclude that the hot halo gas can give significant hydrodynamic effects during distant encounters.

  9. Properties of galaxy groups in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - II. Active galactic nucleus feedback and star formation truncation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinmann, Simone M.; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Yang, Xiaohu; Mo, H. J.; Croton, Darren J.; Moore, Ben

    2006-11-01

    Successfully reproducing the galaxy luminosity function (LF) and the bimodality in the galaxy distribution requires a mechanism that can truncate star formation in massive haloes. Current models of galaxy formation consider two such truncation mechanisms: strangulation, which acts on satellite galaxies, and active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, which predominantly affects central galaxies. The efficiencies of these processes set the blue fraction of galaxies, fblue(L, M), as a function of galaxy luminosity, L, and halo mass, M. In this paper, we use a galaxy group catalogue extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to determine fblue(L, M). To demonstrate the potential power of these data as a benchmark for galaxy formation models, we compare the results to the semi-analytical model for galaxy formation of Croton et al. Although this model accurately fits the global statistics of the galaxy population, as well as the shape of the conditional LF, there are significant discrepancies when the blue fraction of galaxies as a function of mass and luminosity is compared between the observations and the model. In particular, the model predicts (i) too many faint satellites in massive haloes, (ii) a blue fraction of satellites that is much too low, and (iii) a blue fraction of centrals that is too high and with an inverted luminosity dependence. In the same order, we argue that these discrepancies owe to (i) the neglect of tidal stripping in the semi-analytical model, (ii) the oversimplified treatment of strangulation, and (iii) improper modelling of dust extinction and/or AGN feedback. The data presented here will prove useful to test and calibrate future models of galaxy formation and, in particular, to discriminate between various models for AGN feedback and other star formation truncation mechanisms.

  10. White Dwarfs:. Contributors and Tracers of the Galactic Dark-Matter Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopmans, L. V. E.; Blandford, R. D.

    2002-03-01

    We examine the claim by Oppenheimer et al. (2001) that the local halo density of white dwarfs is an order of magnitude higher than previously thought. As it stands, the observational data support the presence of a kinematically distinct population of halo white dwarfs at the >99% confidence level. A maximum-likelihood analysis gives a radial velocity dispersion of σ hU = 150+80-40\\ km s-1 and an asymmetric drift of ν ha = 176+102-80\\ km s-1, for a Schwarzschild velocity distribution function with σU:σV:σW = 1:2/3:1/2. Halo white dwarfs have a local number density of 1.1+2.1-0.7 × 10-4\\ pc-3, which amounts to 0.8+1.6-0.5 per cent of the nominal local dark-matter halo density and is 5.0+9.5-3.2 times (90% C.L.) higher and thus only marginally in agreement with previous estimates. We discuss several direct consequences of this white-dwarf population (e.g. microlensing) and postulate a potential mechanism to eject young white dwarfs from the disc to the halo, through the orbital instabilities in triple or multiple stellar systems.

  11. Airborne Astronomy Symposium on the Galactic Ecosystem: From Gas to Stars to Dust, volume 73

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Michael R. (Editor); Davidson, Jacqueline A. (Editor); Erickson, Edwin F. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This symposium was organized to review the science related to NASA's Airborne Astronomy Program on the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The theme selected, 'The Galactic Ecosystem: From Gas to Stars to Dust,' was considered to capture the underlying commonality of much of the research discussed. The 8 sessions were as follows: The Interstellar Medium; The Life Cycle of the ISM in Other Galaxies; Star and Planetary System Formation; Our Planetary System: The Solar System; The Enrichment of the Interstellar Medium; The Galactic Center: A Unique Region of the Galactic Ecosystem; Instrumentation for Airborne Astronomy; KAO History and Education; and Missions and the Future of Infrared Astronomy.

  12. Discovery of Five New R. Coronae Borealis Stars in the MACHO Galactic Bulge Database

    SciTech Connect

    Zaniewshi, A; Clayton, G C; Welch, D; Gordon, K D; Minniti, D; Cook, K

    2005-06-16

    We have identified five new R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars in the Galactic bulge using the MACHO Project photometry database, raising the total number of known Galactic RCB stars to about 40. We have obtained spectra to confirm the identifications. The fact that four out of the five newly identified RCB stars are ''cool'' (T{sub eff} < 6000 K) rather than ''warm'' (T{sub eff} > 6000 K) suggests that the preponderance of warm RCB stars among the existing sample is a selection bias. These cool RCB stars are redder and fainter than their warm counterparts and may have been missed in surveys done with blue plates. Based on the number of new RCB stars discovered in the MACHO bulge fields, there may be {approx}250 RCB stars in the reddened ''exclusion'' zone toward the bulge.

  13. The Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. II. A Sample of 14 Extremely Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollek, Julie K.; Frebel, Anna; Roederer, Ian U.; Sneden, Christopher; Shetrone, Matthew; Beers, Timothy C.; Kang, Sung-ju; Thom, Christopher

    2011-11-01

    We present a comprehensive abundance analysis of 20 elements for 16 new low-metallicity stars from the Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) project. The abundances have been derived from both Hobby-Eberly Telescope High Resolution Spectrograph snapshot spectra (R ~15, 000) and corresponding high-resolution (R ~35, 000) Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectra. The stars span a metallicity range from [Fe/H] from -2.9 to -3.9, including four new stars with [Fe/H] < -3.7. We find four stars to be carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, confirming the trend of increasing [C/Fe] abundance ratios with decreasing metallicity. Two of these objects can be classified as CEMP-no stars, adding to the growing number of these objects at [Fe/H]< - 3. We also find four neutron-capture-enhanced stars in the sample, one of which has [Eu/Fe] of 0.8 with clear r-process signatures. These pilot sample stars are the most metal-poor ([Fe/H] <~ -3.0) of the brightest stars included in CASH and are used to calibrate a newly developed, automated stellar parameter and abundance determination pipeline. This code will be used for the entire ~500 star CASH snapshot sample. We find that the pipeline results are statistically identical for snapshot spectra when compared to a traditional, manual analysis from a high-resolution spectrum. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen. Based on observations gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  14. TRIGONOMETRIC PARALLAXES OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS. VI. GALACTIC STRUCTURE, FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS, AND NONCIRCULAR MOTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, M. J.; Sato, M.; Menten, K. M.; Brunthaler, A.; Xu, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Zheng, X. W.; Zhang, B.; Moscadelli, L.; Honma, M.; Hirota, T.; Hachisuka, K.; Moellenbrock, G. A.; Bartkiewicz, A.

    2009-07-20

    We are using the Very Long Baseline Array and the Japanese VLBI Exploration of Radio Astronomy project to measure trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions of masers found in high-mass star-forming regions across the Milky Way. Early results from 18 sources locate several spiral arms. The Perseus spiral arm has a pitch angle of 16 deg. {+-} 3 deg., which favors four rather than two spiral arms for the Galaxy. Combining positions, distances, proper motions, and radial velocities yields complete three-dimensional kinematic information. We find that star-forming regions on average are orbiting the Galaxy {approx}15 km s{sup -1} slower than expected for circular orbits. By fitting the measurements to a model of the Galaxy, we estimate the distance to the Galactic center R {sub 0} = 8.4 {+-} 0.6 kpc and a circular rotation speed {theta}{sub 0} = 254 {+-} 16 km s{sup -1}. The ratio {theta}{sub 0}/R {sub 0} can be determined to higher accuracy than either parameter individually, and we find it to be 30.3 {+-} 0.9 km s{sup -1} kpc{sup -1}, in good agreement with the angular rotation rate determined from the proper motion of Sgr A*. The data favor a rotation curve for the Galaxy that is nearly flat or slightly rising with Galactocentric distance. Kinematic distances are generally too large, sometimes by factors greater than 2; they can be brought into better agreement with the trigonometric parallaxes by increasing {theta}{sub 0}/R {sub 0} from the IAU recommended value of 25.9 km s{sup -1} kpc{sup -1} to a value near 30 km s{sup -1} kpc{sup -1}. We offer a 'revised' prescription for calculating kinematic distances and their uncertainties, as well as a new approach for defining Galactic coordinates. Finally, our estimates of {theta}{sub 0} and {theta}{sub 0}/R{sub 0}, when coupled with direct estimates of R {sub 0}, provide evidence that the rotation curve of the Milky Way is similar to that of the Andromeda galaxy, suggesting that the dark matter halos of these two

  15. How old are the stars in the halo of NGC 5128 (Centaurus A)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejkuba, M.; Harris, W. E.; Greggio, L.; Harris, G. L. H.

    2011-02-01

    Context. NGC 5128 (Centaurus A) is, at the distance of just 3.8 Mpc, the nearest easily observable giant elliptical galaxy. Therefore it is the best target to investigate the early star formation history of an elliptical galaxy. Aims: Our aims are to establish when the oldest stars formed in NGC 5128, and whether this galaxy formed stars over a long period. Methods: We compare simulated colour-magnitude diagrams with the deep ACS/HST photometry. The simulations assume in input either the observed metallicity distribution function, based on the colour distribution of the upper red giant branch stars, or the closed box chemical enrichment. Simulations are constructed for single age bursts using BASTI evolutionary isochrones; more complex star formation histories are constructed as well by combining several individual simulations. Comparisons with data are made by fitting the whole colour-magnitude diagram as well as the the luminosity functions in V and I band. In addition we inspect carefully the red clump and asymptotic giant branch bump luminosities and number counts, since these features are the primary constraints on the ages of the observed stars. Results: We find that that the observed colour-magnitude diagram can be reproduced satisfactorily only by simulations that have the bulk of the stars with ages in excess of ~10 Gyr, and that the alpha-enhanced models fit the data much better than the solar scaled ones. Data are not consistent with extended star formation over more than 3-4 Gyr. Two burst models, with 70-80% of the stars formed 12±1 Gyr ago and with 20-30% younger contribution with 2-4 Gyr old stars provide the best agreement with the data. The old component spans the whole metallicity range of the models (Z = 0.0001-0.04), while for the young component the best fitting models indicate higher minimum metallicity (~ 1/10-1/4 Z_⊙). Conclusions: The bulk of the halo stars in NGC 5128 must have formed at redshift z ⪆ 2 and the chemical enrichment was

  16. Gas phase abundances and conditions along the sight line to the low-halo, inner galaxy star HD 167756

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardelli, Jason A.; Sembach, Kenneth R.; Savage, Blair D.

    1995-01-01

    We present high-resolution (3.5 km/s) Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) measurements of the Mg II, Si II, Cr II, Fe II, and Zn II lines toward HD 167756, a low-latitude halo star at a distance of 4 kpc in the direction l = 351.5 deg, b = -12.3 and at a Galactic altitude of z = -0.85 kpc. Supplemental Na I, Ca II, and H I data are also presented for comparison with the UV lines. Our analysis centers on converting the observed absoprtion-line data into measures of the apparent column density per unit velocity. N(sub a)(v), over the velocity range -25 less than or = v(sub lsr) less than 30 km/s for each species observed. We use these N(sub a)(v) profiles to construct logarithmic abundance ratios of Mg II, Si II, Cr II, Fe II, and Ca II relative to Zn II, normalized to solar abundances, as a function of velocity. Compared to Zn, these species show an underabundance relative to their solar values, with the largest underabundances occurring in the v(sub lsr) approximately equals 5 km/s component(s), for which we find logarithmic abundances A(sub Si/Zn) greater than -0.38, A(Mg/Zn) = -0.82, A(sub Cr/Zn) = -1.18, and A(sub Fe/Zn) greater than 1.40 dex. We show that ionization effects, abundance gradients, or intrinsic abundance variability cannot be significant sources for the underabundances observed. The most likely explanation is gas phase depletion of elements onto dust grains. Comparisons with the gas phase abundances along other diffuse, warm gas sight lines, like the halo sight line to HD 93521, support this interpretation as do the derived physical properties of the sight line.

  17. The rotation of the halo of NGC 6822 from the radial velocities of carbon stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Graham P.; Ryan, Sean G.; Sibbons, Lisette F.

    2016-11-01

    Using spectra taken with the AAOmega spectrograph, we measure the radial velocities of over 100 stars, many of which are intermediate age carbon stars, in the direction of the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822. Kinematic analysis suggests that the carbon stars in the sample are associated with NGC 6822, and estimates of its radial velocity and galactic rotation are made from a star-by-star analysis of its carbon star population. We calculate a heliocentric radial velocity for NGC 6822 of -51 ± 3 km s-1 and show that the population rotates with a mean rotation speed of 11.2 ± 2.1 km s-1 at a mean distance of 1.1 kpc from the galactic centre, about a rotation axis with a position angle of 26° ± 13°, as projected on the sky. This is close to the rotation axis of the H I gas disc and suggests that NGC 6822 is not a polar ring galaxy, but is dynamically closer to a late-type galaxy. However, the rotation axis is not aligned with the minor axis of the AGB isodensity profiles and this remains a mystery.

  18. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars: CEMP-s and CEMP-no subclasses in the halo system of the Milky Way

    SciTech Connect

    Carollo, Daniela; Freeman, Ken; Beers, Timothy C.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Tumlinson, Jason; Martell, Sarah L. E-mail: kcf@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: vplacco@gemini.edu E-mail: smartell@aao.gov.au

    2014-06-20

    We explore the kinematics and orbital properties of a sample of 323 very metal-poor stars in the halo system of the Milky Way, selected from the high-resolution spectroscopic follow-up studies of Aoki et al. and Yong et al. The combined sample contains a significant fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars (22% or 29%, depending on whether a strict or relaxed criterion is applied for this definition). Barium abundances (or upper limits) are available for the great majority of the CEMP stars, allowing for their separation into the CEMP-s and CEMP-no subclasses. A new method to assign membership to the inner- and outer-halo populations of the Milky Way is developed, making use of the integrals of motion, and applied to determine the relative fractions of CEMP stars in these two subclasses for each halo component. Although limited by small-number statistics, the data suggest that the inner halo of the Milky Way exhibits a somewhat higher relative number of CEMP-s stars than CEMP-no stars (57% versus 43%), while the outer halo possesses a clearly higher fraction of CEMP-no stars than CEMP-s stars (70% versus 30%). Although larger samples of CEMP stars with known Ba abundances are required, this result suggests that the dominant progenitors of CEMP stars in the two halo components were different; massive stars for the outer halo, and intermediate-mass stars in the case of the inner halo.

  19. Spatial distribution of Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars and implications for the global population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosslowe, C. K.; Crowther, P. A.

    2015-03-01

    We construct revised near-infrared absolute magnitude calibrations for 126 Galactic Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars at known distances, based in part upon recent large-scale spectroscopic surveys. Application to 246 WR stars located in the field permits us to map their Galactic distribution. As anticipated, WR stars generally lie in the thin disc (˜40 pc half-width at half-maximum) between Galactocentric radii 3.5-10 kpc, in accordance with other star formation tracers. We highlight 12 WR stars located at vertical distances of ≥300 pc from the mid-plane. Analysis of the radial variation in WR subtypes exposes a ubiquitously higher NWC/NWN ratio than predicted by stellar evolutionary models accounting for stellar rotation. Models for non-rotating stars or accounting for close binary evolution are more consistent with observations. We consolidate information acquired about the known WR content of the Milky Way to build a simple model of the complete population. We derive observable quantities over a range of wavelengths, allowing us to estimate a total number of 1900 ± 250 Galactic WR stars, implying an average duration of ˜ 0.4 Myr for the WR phase at the current Milky Way star formation rate. Of relevance to future spectroscopic surveys, we use this model WR population to predict follow-up spectroscopy to KS ≃ 17.5 mag will be necessary to identify 95 per cent of Galactic WR stars. We anticipate that ESA's Gaia mission will make few additional WR star discoveries via low-resolution spectroscopy, though will significantly refine existing distance determinations. Appendix A provides a complete inventory of 322 Galactic WR stars discovered since the VIIth catalogue (313 including Annex), including a revised nomenclature scheme.

  20. Photoelectric Photometry of Faint M-Type Stars in the Direction of the South Galactic Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesch, P.

    1982-04-01

    Photoelectric V (Johnson-Morgan UBV system) and (V I) (Kron-Mayall PVI system) photometry is presented for 54 faint M-type stars from Pesch and Sanduleak's catalog of probable dwarf stars of type M3 and later in the direction of the south galactic pole. The observations were made in November 1978 with the 1.5-m CTIO reflector.

  1. Physical characterization of Galactic O-type stars targeted by the IACOB and OWN surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holgado, G.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Barbá, R.

    2017-03-01

    We present first results from the quantitative spectroscopic analysis of ˜ 270 Galactic O-type stars targeted by the IACOB and OWN surveys (implying the largest sample of stars of this type analyzed homogeneously). We also evaluate what is the present situation regarding available information about distances, as provided by the Hipparcos and Gaia missions

  2. Tracing the Galactic Halo: Obtaining Bayesian mass estimates of the Galaxy in the presence of incomplete data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eadie, Gwendolyn; Harris, William; Widrow, Lawrence; Springford, Aaron

    2016-08-01

    The mass and cumulative mass profile of the Galaxy are its most fundamental properties. Estimating these properties, however, is not a trivial problem. We rely on the kinematic information from Galactic satellites such as globular clusters and dwarf galaxies, and this data is incomplete and subject to measurement uncertainty. In particular, the complete 3D velocity vectors of objects are sometimes unavailable, and there may be selection biases due to both the distribution of objects around the Galaxy and our measurement position. On the other hand, the uncertainties of these data are fairly well understood. Thus, we would like to incorporate these uncertainties and the incomplete data into our estimate of the Milky Way's mass. The Bayesian paradigm offers a way to deal with both the missing kinematic data and measurement errors using a hierarchical model. An application of this method to the Milky Way halo mass profile, using the kinematic data for globular clusters and dwarf satellites, is shown.

  3. Star Formation and Cloud Dynamics in the Galactic Bar Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolls, Volker

    The Inner Galaxy (IG) that is the Galactic Bar Region (GBR) and the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) including the Galactic Center (GC) are, despite being the sites of dramatic processes and unique sources, still only incompletely understood. Detailed new datasets from the Herschel Space Observatory can be systematically combined with older archival material to enable a new and more complete analysis of the region, its large-scale dynamics, its unusual giant molecular clouds, and the likely influences of its bar and its supermassive black hole. Such a study is both timely and important: the region has affected the structure and evolution of the galaxy; its individual sources are opportunities to examine star formation (for example) under extreme conditions; the processes feeding the CMZ and, subsequently, its black hole are important; and not least, it is a nearby template for the inner regions of other galaxies. The Herschel Space Observatory has provided us with exciting new datasets including full FIR photometric maps and highand low-resolution far-infrared/submillimeter spectra of key sources and lines of the locations of dynamical importance. All these datasets are publicly available from the Herschel Science Archive. Our experienced team has already developed preliminary models, and we propose a thorough investigation to combine the Herschel datasets with Spitzer and WISE datasets. We will supplement them with ground-based observations in cases when it will improve the results. We will then analyze the data and use the results to refine the models and improve our understanding of this key region. Our specific goal is to characterize and model the 3 giant high-velocity molecular cloud clumps in the Galaxy Bar Region (GBR) in detail and to combine the conclusions to produce an improved model of the IG. We have seven tasks: (1) identify all smaller scale gas and dust cores using archival Herschel FIR photometric observations and obtain their physical characteristics

  4. Calcium triplet metallicity calibration for stars in the Galactic bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vásquez, S.; Zoccali, M.; Hill, V.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Saviane, I.; Rejkuba, M.; Battaglia, G.

    2015-08-01

    Aims: We present a new calibration of the calcium II triplet equivalent widths versus [Fe/H], constructed upon K giant stars in the Galactic bulge. This calibration will be used to derive iron abundances for the targets of the GIBS survey, and is in general especially well suited for solar and supersolar metallicity giants, which are typical of external massive galaxies. Methods: About 150 bulge K giants were observed with the GIRAFFE spectrograph at the VLT with a resolution of R ~ 20 000 and at R ~ 6000. In the first case, the spectra allowed us to directly determine the Fe abundances from several unblended Fe lines, deriving what we call here high-resolution [Fe/H] measurements. The low-resolution spectra allowed us to measure equivalent widths of the two strongest lines of the near-infrared calcium II triplet at 8542 and 8662 Å. Results: By comparing the two measurements, we derived a relation between calcium equivalent widths and [Fe/H] that is linear over the metallicity range probed here, - 1 < [Fe/H] < +0.7. By adding a small second-order correction based on literature globular cluster data, we derived the unique calibration equation [Fe/H] CaT = -3.150 + 0.432W' + 0.006W'2, with an rms dispersion of 0.197 dex, valid across the whole metallicity range -2.3 < [Fe/H] < +0.7. Based on observations taken with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 385.B-0735(B).Full Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/580/A121

  5. Distance Scale Zero Points from Galactic RR Lyrae Star Parallaxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, Barbara E.; Feast, Michael W.; Barnes, Thomas G.; Harrison, Thomas E.; Bean, Jacob L.; Menzies, John W.; Chaboyer, Brian; Fossati, Luca; Nesvacil, Nicole; Smith, Horace A.; Kolenberg, Katrien; Laney, C. D.; Kochukhov, Oleg; Nelan, Edmund P.; Shulyak, D. V.; Taylor, Denise; Freedman, Wendy L.

    2011-12-01

    We present new absolute trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions for seven Population II variable stars—five RR Lyr variables: RZ Cep, XZ Cyg, SU Dra, RR Lyr, and UV Oct; and two type 2 Cepheids: VY Pyx and κ Pav. We obtained these results with astrometric data from Fine Guidance Sensors, white-light interferometers on Hubble Space Telescope. We find absolute parallaxes in milliseconds of arc: RZ Cep, 2.12 ± 0.16 mas XZ Cyg, 1.67 ± 0.17 mas SU Dra, 1.42 ± 0.16 mas RR Lyr, 3.77 ± 0.13 mas UV Oct, 1.71 ± 0.10 mas VY Pyx, 6.44 ± 0.23 mas and κ Pav, 5.57 ± 0.28 mas an average σπ/π = 5.4%. With these parallaxes, we compute absolute magnitudes in V and K bandpasses corrected for interstellar extinction and Lutz-Kelker-Hanson bias. Using these RR Lyrae variable star absolute magnitudes, we then derive zero points for MV -[Fe/H] and MK -[Fe/H]-log P relations. The technique of reduced parallaxes corroborates these results. We employ our new results to determine distances and ages of several Galactic globular clusters and the distance of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The latter is close to that previously derived from Classical Cepheids uncorrected for any metallicity effect, indicating that any such effect is small. We also discuss the somewhat puzzling results obtained for our two type 2 Cepheids. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  6. On the physical origin of galactic conformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearin, Andrew P.; Behroozi, Peter S.; van den Bosch, Frank C.

    2016-09-01

    Correlations between the star formation rates (SFRs) of nearby galaxies (so-called galactic conformity) have been observed for projected separations up to 4 Mpc, an effect not predicted by current semi-analytic models. We investigate correlations between the mass accretion rates (dMvir/dt) of nearby haloes as a potential physical origin for this effect. We find that pairs of host haloes `know about' each others' assembly histories even when their present-day separation is greater than thirty times the virial radius of either halo. These distances are far too large for direct interaction between the haloes to explain the correlation in their dMvir/dt. Instead, halo pairs at these distances reside in the same large-scale tidal environment, which regulates dMvir/dt for both haloes. Larger haloes are less affected by external forces, which naturally gives rise to a mass dependence of the halo conformity signal. SDSS measurements of galactic conformity exhibit a qualitatively similar dependence on stellar mass, including how the signal varies with distance. Based on the expectation that halo accretion and galaxy SFR are correlated, we predict the scale-, mass- and redshift-dependence of large-scale galactic conformity, finding that the signal should drop to undetectable levels by z ≳ 1. These predictions are testable with current surveys to z ˜ 1; confirmation would establish a strong correlation between dark matter halo accretion rate and central galaxy SFR.

  7. The Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. II. New Extremely Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krugler, Julie A.; Frebel, A.; Roederer, I. U.; Sneden, C.; Shetrone, M.; Beers, T.; Christlieb, N.

    2011-01-01

    We present new abundance results from the Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) project. The 500 CASH spectra were observed using the Hobby-Eberly Telescope in "snapshot" mode and are analyzed using an automated stellar parameter and abundance pipeline called CASHCODE. For the 20 most metal-poor stars of the CASH sample we have obtained high resolution spectra using the Magellan Telescope in order to test the uncertainties and systematic errors associated with the snapshot quality (i.e., R 15,000 and S/N 65) HET spectra and to calibrate the newly developed CASHCODE by making a detailed comparison between the stellar parameters and abundances determined from the high resolution and snapshot spectra. We find that the CASHCODE stellar parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and microturbulence) agree well with the results of the manual analysis of the high resolution spectra. We present the abundances of three newly discovered stars with [Fe/H] < -3.5. For the entire pilot sample, we find typical halo abundance ratios with alpha-enhancement and Fe-peak depletion and a range of n-capture elements. The full CASH sample will be used to derive statistically robust abundance trends and frequencies (e.g. carbon and n-capture), as well as placing constraints on nucleosynthetic processes that occurred in the early universe.

  8. Massive Star Clusters and the high-mass population in the Galactic center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolte, A.

    2013-06-01

    With a star formation rate of 10% of the SFR in the Milky Way disc, the Galactic center is the most active star-forming environment in the Milky Way today. The small volume of the central molecular zone (CMZ), spanning a diameter of merely 400 pc, appears to foster especially the formation of high-mass stars. The CMZ is host to three of the most massive, young star clusters and a quarter of the known Wolf-Rayet population in the Galaxy. In this review, I will present the census of high-mass star formation that emerged from the recent Galactic center surveys, and will summarise the properties of the starburst clusters as the most productive sites of high-mass star formation.

  9. The pairwise velocity difference of over 2000 BHB stars in the Milky Way halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xiang-Xiang; Rix, Hans-Walter; Zhao, Gang

    2009-11-01

    Models of hierarchical galaxy formation predict that the extended stellar halos of galaxies like our Milky Way show a great deal of sub-structure, arising from disrupted satellites. Spatial sub-structure is directly observed, and has been quantified, in the Milky Way's stellar halo. Phase-space conservation implies that there should be sub-structure in position-velocity space. Here, we aim to quantify such position-velocity sub-structure, using a state-of-the art data set having over 2000 blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars with photometry and spectroscopy from SDSS. For stars in dynamically cold streams (“young" streams), we expect that pairs of objects that are physically close also have similar velocities. Therefore, we apply the well-established “pairwise velocity difference" (PVD) statistic <|ΔVlos|> (Δr), where we expect <|ΔVlod|> to drop for small separations Δr. We calculate the PVD for the SDSS BHB sample and find <|ΔVlos|> (Δr) approx const., i.e. no such signal. By making mock-observations of the simulations by Bullock & Johnston and applying the same statistic, we show that for individual, dynamically young streams, or assemblages of such streams, <|ΔVlod|> drops for small distance separations Δr, as qualitatively expected. However, for a realistic complete set of halo streams, the pair-wise velocity difference shows no signal, as the simulated halos are dominated by “dynamically old" phase-mixed streams. Our findings imply that the sparse sampling and the sample sizes in SDSS DR6 are still insufficient to use the position-velocity sub-structure for a stringent quantitative data-model comparison. Therefore, alternate statistics must be explored and much more densely sampled surveys, dedicated to the structure of the Milky Way, such as LAMOST, are needed.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galactic O star catalog (Maiz-apellaniz+, 2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiz-Apellaniz, J.; Walborn, N. R.; Galue, H. A.; Wei, L. H.

    2004-04-01

    We have produced a catalog of 378 Galactic O stars with accurate spectral classifications that is complete for V<8 but includes many fainter stars. The catalog provides cross-identifications with other sources; coordinates (obtained in most cases from Tycho-2 data); astrometric distances for 24 of the nearest stars; optical (Tycho-2, Johnson, and Stroemgren) and NIR photometry; group membership, runaway character, and multiplicity information; and a Web-based version with links to on-line services. (9 data files).

  11. Moving Groups in the Milky Way Halo and Disk Induced by the Bar and Spiral Arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, William John

    2015-08-01

    In a previous study (Moreno et al. 2015), the use of a detailed Milky Way potential (observationally and dynamically constrained) has shown that the Galactic bar is able to efficiently concentrate stars of the stellar halo and disk into several main resonances. With the tools introduced here, the Galactic bar is shown to produce significant phase-space structure attracting stars to several main resonances. This new study is dedicated to the study of known groups of the Galactic halo and disk, and their relation to these resonances. Stars belonging to some known halo and disk moving groups have settled down along these bar resonant families, showing, in some cases, a likely Galactic secular origin. In general, the 2D resonant orbits of the disk produced by the bar, seem to dominate at large scale-heights (several kiloparsecs) into the Galactic halo. In particular, provisionally six of the members of the Kapteyn halo moving group seem to be associated with one of these resonances, and also the Groombridge 1830 (Eggen 1996a; Eggen & Sandage 1959) and especially the newer halo moving groups G21-22 and G18-39 (Silva et al. 2012) show some correlation with these resonances suggesting possible secular origins, while the halo moving group Ross 451 (Eggen 1996b) does not show any such correlation, indicating a more probable cosmological (non-secular) ancestry. All Galactic disk moving groups (such as Arcturus, Hercules, Castor, IC 2391, Hyades, Pleiades, and Ursa Major) show considerable association with these resonances.

  12. The Dual Origin Of Stellar Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotov, Adi

    In the dominant Lambda+Cold Dark Matter cosmological paradigm, galaxy stellar halos are thought to form hierarchically from multiple accretion events, starting from the first structures to collapse in the Universe. This dissertation aims to make the first detailed theoretical predictions for the origin of galactic stellar halos. We focus on understanding the physical processes involved in halo formation using high-resolution, N-body + Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic simulations of disk galaxies in a cosmological context. These self-consistent simulations are used to study the competing importance of dissipative processes and dissipationless mergers in the formation of stellar halos. The relative contribution of each mechanism, and its specific role in assembling the inner and outer regions of halos is explored, as a function of galaxy mass and merging history. We show that the presence of both accreted and in situ stars in halos is a generic feature of galaxy formation. For L* galaxies, the relative contribution of each stellar population to a halo is shown to be a function of a galaxy's accretion history. Galaxies with recent mergers, like M31, will host relatively few in situ stars, while galaxies with more quiescent recent histories, like the Milky Way, will likely have a larger relative contribution from an in situ population. We show that in situ halo stars are more [alpha/Fe]-rich than accreted stars at the high [Fe/H] end of a halo's metallicity distribution function. In lower mass galaxies, M ˜ 1010 M, in situ stars dominate the stellarmass of halos. In these galaxies, in situ halo stars are, on average, younger and more metal-rich than accreted halo stars. Because in situ stars are dominant, these trends result in halos that are more metal-rich than simple accretion models predict. The halos of low mass galaxies do not extend out to the virial radii of the primary, as they do in more massive galaxies. We find that the ratio of luminous-halo mass to total

  13. X-ray haloes and star formation in early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negri, Andrea; Pellegrini, Silvia; Ciotti, Luca

    2015-08-01

    High-resolution 2D hydrodynamical simulations describing the evolution of the hot interstellar medium (ISM) in axisymmetric two-component models of early-type galaxies well reproduced the observed trends of the X-ray luminosity (LX) and temperature (TX) with galaxy shape and rotation, however they also revealed the formation of an exceedingly massive cooled gas disc in rotating systems. In a follow-up of this study, here we investigate the effects of star formation in the disc, including the consequent injection of mass, momentum and energy in the pre-existing ISM. It is found that subsequent generations of stars originate one after the other in the equatorial region; the mean age of the new stars is >5 Gyr, and the adopted recipe for star formation can reproduce the empirical Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. The results of the previous investigation without star formation, concerning LX and TX of the hot gas, and their trends with galactic shape and rotation, are confirmed. At the same time, the consumption of most of the cold gas disc into new stars leads to more realistic final systems, whose cold gas mass and star formation rate agree well with those observed in the local Universe. In particular, our models could explain the observation of kinematically aligned gas in massive, fast-rotating early-type galaxies.

  14. Milky Way halo gas kinematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danly, L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of high resolution, short wavelength absorption data taken by IUE toward high latitude O and B stars are presented in a discussion of the large scale kinematic properties of Milky Way Halo gas. An analysis of these data demonstrates that: (1) the obsrved absorption widths (FWHM) of Si II are very large, ranging up to 150 Km/s for the most distant halo star; this is much larger than is generally appreciated from optical data; (2) the absorption is observed to be systematically negative in radial velocity, indicating that cool material is, on the whole, flowing toward the disk of the galaxy; (3) there is some evidence for asymmetry between the northern and southern galactic hemispheres, in accordance with the HI 21 cm data toward the galactic poles; (4) low column density gas with highly negative radial LSR velocity (V less than -70 km/s) can be found toward stars beyond 1-3 kpc in the northern galactic hemisphere in all four quadrants of galactic longitude; and (5) only the profiles toward stars in the direction of known high velocity HI features show a clear two component structure.

  15. PHL 346, a Beta Cephei star situated at more than 5 KPC from the Galactic plane?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waelkens, C.; Rufener, F.

    1988-07-01

    The high-latitude early-B star PHL 346 is a pulsating variable with a period of 0.152 days. This period, the fact that color and brightness vary in phase, and the atmospheric parameters of PHL 346 suggest that it is a β Cephei variable. The star would then have a mass of about 10 solar masses and an age of about 107years. PHL 346 is faint (mv = 11.44) and is located at a high galactic latitude of -58°, so that it appears excluded that it originated in the galactic plane only 107yr ago. The pulsation of PHL 346 thus lends support to the idea that star formation far from the plane of the galaxy can occur. It is argued, more generally, that the study of the variability of high-latitude B stars provides a strong test for the nature of these stars.

  16. Deep HST/ACS Photometry of an Arc of Young Stars in the Southern Halo of M82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwannajak, Chutipong

    2016-01-01

    We present deep HST/ACS photometry of an arclike, overdense region of stars in the southern halo of M82, located approximately 5 kpc from its disk. This arc feature was originally identified about a decade ago. The early ground-based studies suggested that it contains young stars with ages and metallicities similar to those that formed in the tidal tails between M81, M82, and NGC3077 during their interactions. The arc is clearly presented in the spatial distribution of stars in our field with significantly higher stellar density than the background M82 halo stars. The location of the tip of the red giant branch (RGB) reveals the arc to have a similar distance to M81 and M82, therefore confirming that it belongs to this interacting system. Combining our data with those from the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST), we construct a color-magnitude diagram (CMD) for the arc. A sequence of young stars is clearly presented on its CMD. This young main sequence is not seen in other parts of the M82 halo. Single-metallicity isochrones are used to derive the age of the young stars in the arc. We confirm that these stars exhibit ages consistent with young stars found in the HI bridges between M81, M82 and NGC3077. Furthermore, the mean metallicity of the RGB stars is also derived from their metallicity distribution function and found to be similar to that found in the HI bridges.

  17. Dark matter annihilation and decay from non-spherical dark halos in galactic dwarf satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Kohei; Ichikawa, Koji; Matsumoto, Shigeki; Ibe, Masahiro; Ishigaki, Miho N.; Sugai, Hajime

    2016-09-01

    The dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) in the Milky Way are the primary targets in the indirect searches for particle dark matter. To set robust constraints on candidate dark matter particles, understanding the dark halo structure of these systems is of substantial importance. In this paper, we first evaluate the astrophysical factors for dark matter annihilation and decay for 24 dSphs, taking into account a non-spherical dark halo, using generalized axisymmetric mass models based on axisymmetric Jeans equations. First, from a fitting analysis of the most recent kinematic data available, our axisymmetric mass models are a much better fit than previous spherical ones, thus, our work should be the most realistic and reliable estimator for astrophysical factors. Secondly, we find that among analysed dSphs, the ultra-faint dwarf galaxies Triangulum II and Ursa Major II are the most promising but large uncertain targets for dark matter annihilation while the classical dSph Draco is the most robust and detectable target for dark matter decay. It is also found that the non-sphericity of luminous and dark components influences the estimate of astrophysical factors, even though these factors largely depend on the sample size, the prior range of parameters and the spatial extent of the dark halo. Moreover, owing to these effects, the constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross-section are more conservative than those of previous spherical works. These results are important for optimizing and designing dark matter searches in current and future multi-messenger observations by space and ground-based telescopes.

  18. Searching for New Highly r-Process-Enhanced Stars in the Halo of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, Timothy C.; Placco, Vinicius; Holmbeck, Erika M.; Hansen, Terese T.; Simon, Joshua D.; Thompson, Ian; Frebel, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Great progress has been made in recent years concerning understanding and constraining the nature of the astrophysical r-process, and on obtaining evidence for the likely astrophysical site(s) of its production. One of the keys to this progress was the identification, over 20 years ago, of a rare class of VMP stars ([Fe/H] < -2.0), which in spite of their very low metallicity, exhibit r-process-element enhancements relative to iron from 10 to over 100 times the Solar ratio (the r-II stars). These stars provide us with the best probes of the production of the r-process elements in the early Universe. Furthermore, knowledge of their metallicity distribution and frequency in the halo field provides potentially tight constraints on the origin of the r-process. However, due to their rarity (~3% of VMP stars), only a total of ~25 r-II stars have been found to date.We provide an update on our new survey effort to quadruple the numbers of recognized r-II stars over the next few years, based on "snapshot" high-resolution spectroscopy of a sample of some 2500 bright (V < 13.5) VMP stars, using the Echelle spectrograph on the du Pont 2.5m telescope. To date, some 1000 targets have been identified, based on medium-resolution follow-up of stars from the RAVE survey, the Best & Brightest survey, and a variety of other sources. Over 100 of these targets have been observed at high resolution in the first run with the du Pont telscope; we expect this number to grow rapidly, as observations continue.This work received partial support from PHY 14-30152; Physics Frontier Center/JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements (JINA-CEE), awarded by the US National Science Foundation.

  19. Constraints on the Galactic Halo Dark Matter from Fermi-LAT Diffuse Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, Theresa J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cuoco, A.; Guiriec, Sylvain Germain; McEnery, Julie E.; Scargle. J. D.; Troja, Eleonora

    2012-01-01

    We have performed an analysis of the diffuse gamma-ray emission with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in the Milky Way halo region, searching for a signal from dark matter annihilation or decay. In the absence of a robust dark matter signal, constraints are presented. We consider both gamma rays produced directly in the dark matter annihilation/decay and produced by inverse Compton scattering of the e+/e- produced in the annihilation/decay. Conservative limits are derived requiring that the dark matter signal does not exceed the observed diffuse gamma-ray emission. A second set of more stringent limits is derived based on modeling the foreground astrophysical diffuse emission using the GALPROP code. Uncertainties in the height of the diffusive cosmic-ray halo, the distribution of the cosmic-ray sources in the Galaxy, the index of the injection cosmic-ray electron spectrum, and the column density of the interstellar gas are taken into account using a profile likelihood formalism, while the parameters governing the cosmic-ray propagation have been derived from fits to local cosmic-ray data. The resulting limits impact the range of particle masses over which dark matter thermal production in the early universe is possible, and challenge the interpretation of the PAMELA/Fermi-LAT cosmic ray anomalies as the annihilation of dark matter.

  20. Glow in the dark matter: observing galactic halos with scattered light.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jonathan H; Silk, Joseph

    2015-02-06

    We consider the observation of diffuse halos of light around the discs of spiral galaxies, as a probe of the interaction cross section between dark matter (DM) and photons. Using the galaxy M101 as an example, we show that for a scattering cross section at the level of 10(-23)(m/GeV)  cm(2) or greater dark matter in the halo will scatter light out from the more luminous center of the disc to larger radii, contributing to an effective increased surface brightness at the edges of the observed area on the sky. This allows us to set an upper limit on the DM-photon cross section using data from the Dragonfly instrument. We then show how to improve this constraint, and the potential for discovery, by combining the radial profile of DM-photon scattering with measurements at multiple wavelengths. Observation of diffuse light presents a new and potentially powerful way to probe the interactions of dark matter with photons, a way that is complementary to existing searches.

  1. Searching for planetary nebulae at the Galactic halo via J-PAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Denise R.; Aparício-Villegas, T.; Akras, S.; Cortesi, A.; Borges-Fernandes, M.; Daflon, S.; Pereira, C. B.; Lorenz-Martins, S.; Marcolino, W.; Kanaan, A.; Viironen, K.; de Oliveira, C. Mendes; Molino, A.; Ederoclite, A.

    2016-08-01

    The Javalambre-Physics of the Accelerating Universe Astrophysical Survey (J-PAS) is a narrow-band imaging, very wide field cosmological survey. It will last 5 years and will observe 8500 sq. deg. of the sky. There will be 54 contiguous narrow-band filters of 145Å FWHM, from 3,500 to 10,000Å. Two broad-band filters will be added at the extremes, UV and IR, plus the 3-g, r, and i- SDSS filters. Thus, J-PAS can be an important tool to search for new planetary nebulae (PNe) at the halo, increasing their numbers, because only 14 of them have been convincingly identified in the literature. Halo PNe are able to reveal precious information for the study of stellar evolution and the early chemical conditions of the Galaxy. The characteristic low continuum and intense emission lines of PNe make them good objects to be searched by J-PAS. Though covering a significantly smaller sky area, data from the ALHAMBRA survey were used to test our J-PAS strategy to search for PNe. Our first results are shown in this contribution.

  2. CONSTRAINTS ON THE GALACTIC HALO DARK MATTER FROM FERMI-LAT DIFFUSE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bonamente, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; and others

    2012-12-20

    We have performed an analysis of the diffuse gamma-ray emission with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in the Milky Way halo region, searching for a signal from dark matter annihilation or decay. In the absence of a robust dark matter signal, constraints are presented. We consider both gamma rays produced directly in the dark matter annihilation/decay and produced by inverse Compton scattering of the e {sup +}/e {sup -} produced in the annihilation/decay. Conservative limits are derived requiring that the dark matter signal does not exceed the observed diffuse gamma-ray emission. A second set of more stringent limits is derived based on modeling the foreground astrophysical diffuse emission using the GALPROP code. Uncertainties in the height of the diffusive cosmic-ray halo, the distribution of the cosmic-ray sources in the Galaxy, the index of the injection cosmic-ray electron spectrum, and the column density of the interstellar gas are taken into account using a profile likelihood formalism, while the parameters governing the cosmic-ray propagation have been derived from fits to local cosmic-ray data. The resulting limits impact the range of particle masses over which dark matter thermal production in the early universe is possible, and challenge the interpretation of the PAMELA/Fermi-LAT cosmic ray anomalies as the annihilation of dark matter.

  3. KMOS view of the Galactic Centre - II. Metallicity distribution of late-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldmeier-Krause, A.; Kerzendorf, W.; Neumayer, N.; Schödel, R.; Nogueras-Lara, F.; Do, T.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Kuntschner, H.

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the metallicity distribution of stars in the Galactic Centre has important implications for the formation history of the Milky Way nuclear star cluster. However, this distribution is not well known, and is currently based on a small sample of fewer than 100 stars. We obtained near-infrared K-band spectra of more than 700 late-type stars in the central 4 pc2 of the Milky Way nuclear star cluster with the integral-field spectrograph KMOS (VLT). We analyse the medium-resolution spectra using a full-spectral fitting method employing the Göttingen spectral library of synthetic PHOENIX spectra. The derived stellar metallicities range from metal-rich [M/H] > +0.3 dex to metal-poor [M/H] <-1.0 dex, with a fraction of 5.2^{+6.0}_{-3.1} per cent metal-poor ([M/H] ≤ -0.5 dex) stars. The metal-poor stars are distributed over the entire observed field. The origin of metal-poor stars remains unclear. They could originate from infalling globular clusters. For the metal-rich stellar population ([M/H] > 0 dex), a globular cluster origin can be ruled out. As there is only a very low fraction of metal-poor stars in the central 4 pc2 of the Galactic Centre, we believe that our data can discard a scenario in which the Milky Way nuclear star cluster is purely formed from infalling globular clusters.

  4. Predicting Galaxy Star Formation Rates via the Co-evolution of Galaxies and Halos

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Douglas F.; Hearin, Andrew P.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Becker, Matthew R.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Reyes, Reinabelle; Zentner, Andrew R.

    2014-03-06

    In this paper, we test the age matching hypothesis that the star formation rate (SFR) of a galaxy is determined by its dark matter halo formation history, and as such, that more quiescent galaxies reside in older halos. This simple model has been remarkably successful at predicting color-based galaxy statistics at low redshift as measured in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). To further test this method with observations, we present new SDSS measurements of the galaxy two-point correlation function and galaxy-galaxy lensing as a function of stellar mass and SFR, separated into quenched and star forming galaxy samples. We find that our age matching model is in excellent agreement with these new measurements. We also employ a galaxy group finder and show that our model is able to predict: (1) the relative SFRs of central and satellite galaxies, (2) the SFR-dependence of the radial distribution of satellite galaxy populations within galaxy groups, rich groups, and clusters and their surrounding larger scale environments, and (3) the interesting feature that the satellite quenched fraction as a function of projected radial distance from the central galaxy exhibits an approx r-.15 slope, independent of environment. The accurate prediction for the spatial distribution of satellites is intriguing given the fact that we do not explicitly model satellite-specific processes after infall, and that in our model the virial radius does not mark a special transition region in the evolution of a satellite, contrary to most galaxy evolution models. The success of the model suggests that present-day galaxy SFR is strongly correlated with halo mass assembly history.

  5. Star formation rates on global and cloud scales within the Galactic Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, A. T.; Longmore, S. N.; Battersby, C.; Bally, J.; Kruijssen, J. M. D.

    2017-01-01

    The environment within the inner few hundred parsecs of the Milky Way, known as the ``Central Molecular Zone'' (CMZ), harbours densities and pressures orders of magnitude higher than the Galactic Disc; akin to that at the peak of cosmic star formation (Kruijssen & Longmore 2013). Previous studies have shown that current theoretical star-formation models under-predict the observed level of star-formation (SF) in the CMZ by an order of magnitude given the large reservoir of dense gas it contains. Here we explore potential reasons for this apparent dearth of star formation activity.

  6. The Masses of the B Stars in the High Galactic Latitude Eclipsing Binary IT Librae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, John C.

    2003-01-01

    A number of blue stars that appear to be similar to Population I B stars in the star-forming regions of the Galactic disk are found more than 1 kpc from the Galactic plane. Uncertainties about the true distances and masses of these high-latitude B stars have fueled a debate as to their origin and evolutionary status. The eclipsing binary IT Lib is composed of two B stars, is approximately 1 kpc above the Galactic plane, and is moving back toward the plane. Observations of the light and velocity curves presented here lead to the conclusion that the B stars in this system are massive young main-sequence stars. While there are several possible explanations, it appears most plausible that the IT Lib system formed in the disk about 30 million years ago and was ejected on a trajectory taking it to its present position. Based on observations made at the 2.1 m Otto Struve Telescope of McDonald Observatory operated by the University of Texas at Austin and also at the 2.1 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  7. Galactic Angular Momentum in Cosmological Zoom-in Simulations. I. Disk and Bulge Components and the Galaxy–Halo Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokołowska, Aleksandra; Capelo, Pedro R.; Fall, S. Michael; Mayer, Lucio; Shen, Sijing; Bonoli, Silvia

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the angular momentum evolution of four disk galaxies residing in Milky-Way–sized halos formed in cosmological zoom-in simulations with various sub-grid physics and merging histories. We decompose these galaxies, kinematically and photometrically, into their disk and bulge components. The simulated galaxies and their components lie on the observed sequences in the j *–M * diagram, relating the specific angular momentum and mass of the stellar component. We find that galaxies in low-density environments follow the relation {j}* \\propto {M}* α past major mergers, with α ∼ 0.6 in the case of strong feedback, when bulge-to-disk ratios are relatively constant, and α ∼ 1.4 in the other cases, when secular processes operate on shorter timescales. We compute the retention factors (i.e., the ratio of the specific angular momenta of stars and dark matter) for both disks and bulges and show that they vary relatively slowly after averaging over numerous but brief fluctuations. For disks, the retention factors are usually close to unity, while for bulges, they are a few times smaller. Our simulations therefore indicate that galaxies and their halos grow in a quasi-homologous way.

  8. STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF GALACTIC {delta} SCUTI STARS: REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.-W.; Kim, D.-W.; Byun, Y.-I.; Protopapas, P. E-mail: kim@mpia-hd.mpg.de

    2013-05-15

    We present statistical characteristics of 1578 {delta} Scuti stars including nearby field stars and cluster member stars within the Milky Way. We obtained 46% of these stars (718 stars) from work by Rodriguez and collected the remaining 54% of stars (860 stars) from other literature. We updated the entries with the latest information of sky coordinates, color, rotational velocity, spectral type, period, amplitude, and binarity. The majority of our sample is well characterized in terms of typical period range (0.02-0.25 days), pulsation amplitudes (<0.5 mag), and spectral types (A-F type). Given this list of {delta} Scuti stars, we examined relations between their physical properties (i.e., periods, amplitudes, spectral types, and rotational velocities) for field stars and cluster members, and confirmed that the correlations of properties are not significantly different from those reported in Rodriguez's work. All the {delta} Scuti stars are cross-matched with several X-ray and UV catalogs, resulting in 27 X-ray and 41 UV-only counterparts. These counterparts are interesting targets for further study because of their uniqueness in showing {delta} Scuti-type variability and X-ray/UV emission at the same time. The compiled catalog can be accessed through the Web interface http://stardb.yonsei.ac.kr/DeltaScuti.

  9. Statistical Properties of Galactic δ Scuti Stars: Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S.-W.; Protopapas, P.; Kim, D.-W.; Byun, Y.-I.

    2013-05-01

    We present statistical characteristics of 1578 δ Scuti stars including nearby field stars and cluster member stars within the Milky Way. We obtained 46% of these stars (718 stars) from work by Rodríguez and collected the remaining 54% of stars (860 stars) from other literature. We updated the entries with the latest information of sky coordinates, color, rotational velocity, spectral type, period, amplitude, and binarity. The majority of our sample is well characterized in terms of typical period range (0.02-0.25 days), pulsation amplitudes (<0.5 mag), and spectral types (A-F type). Given this list of δ Scuti stars, we examined relations between their physical properties (i.e., periods, amplitudes, spectral types, and rotational velocities) for field stars and cluster members, and confirmed that the correlations of properties are not significantly different from those reported in Rodríguez's work. All the δ Scuti stars are cross-matched with several X-ray and UV catalogs, resulting in 27 X-ray and 41 UV-only counterparts. These counterparts are interesting targets for further study because of their uniqueness in showing δ Scuti-type variability and X-ray/UV emission at the same time. The compiled catalog can be accessed through the Web interface http://stardb.yonsei.ac.kr/DeltaScuti.

  10. Hα Surface Brightness Profiles of Star-Forming Galaxies and Dependence on Halo Mass Using the HAGGIS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, S.; Wilman, D.; Erwin, P.; Koppenhöfer, J.; Gutierrez, L.; Beckman, J.; Saglia, R.; Bender, R.

    2014-03-01

    We present the first results from the Hα Galaxy Groups Imaging Survey (HAGGIS), a narrow-band imaging survey of SDSS groups at z < 0.05 conducted using the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the ESO/MPG 2.2-meter telescope and the Wide Field Camera (WFC) on the Issac Newton Telescope (INT). In total, we observed 100 galaxy groups with a wide range of halo mass (1012 - 1014 M⊙) in pairs of narrow-band filters selected to get continuum subtracted rest-frame Hα images for each galaxy. The excellent data allows us to detect Hα down to the 10-18 ergs/s/cm2/arcsec2 level. Here, we examine the role played by halo mass and galaxy stellar mass in deciding the overall star formation activity in star forming disks by comparing stacked Hα profiles of galaxies in different halo mass and stellar mass bins. With this preliminary study, we have found that the star-formation activity in star-forming galaxies decreases in larger halos compared to the field galaxies. Using median equivalent width profiles, we can infer how environmental processes affect star-forming galaxies differently at different radii.

  11. Hypervelocity stars from young stellar clusters in the Galactic Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragione, G.; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.; Kroupa, P.

    2017-01-01

    The enormous velocities of the so called hypervelocity stars (HVSs) derive, likely, from close interactions with massive black holes, binary stars encounters or supernova explosions. In this paper, we investigate the origin of hypervelocity stars as consequence of the close interaction between the Milky Way central massive black hole and a passing-by young stellar cluster. We found that both single and binary HVSs may be generated in a burst-like event, as the cluster passes near the orbital pericentre. High velocity stars will move close to the initial cluster orbital plane and in the direction of the cluster orbital motion at the pericentre. The binary fraction of these HVS jets depends on the primordial binary fraction in the young cluster. The level of initial mass segregation determines the value of the average mass of the ejected stars. Some binary stars will merge, continuing their travel across and out of the Galaxy as blue stragglers.

  12. Galactic evolution. I - Single-zone models. [encompassing stellar evolution and gas-star dynamic theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thuan, T. X.; Hart, M. H.; Ostriker, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The two basic approaches of physical theory required to calculate the evolution of a galactic system are considered, taking into account stellar evolution theory and the dynamics of a gas-star system. Attention is given to intrinsic (stellar) physics, extrinsic (dynamical) physics, and computations concerning the fractionation of an initial mass of gas into stars. The characteristics of a 'standard' model and its variants are discussed along with the results obtained with the aid of these models.

  13. GALACTIC S STARS: INVESTIGATIONS OF COLOR, MOTION, AND SPECTRAL FEATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, Elizabeth; Green, Paul J.; Gray, Richard O.

    2011-09-01

    Known bright S stars, recognized as such by their enhanced s-process abundances and C/O ratio, are typically members of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) or the red giant branch. Few modern digital spectra for these objects have been published, from which intermediate resolution spectral indices and classifications could be derived. For published S stars, we find accurate positions using the Two-Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and use the FAST spectrograph of the Tillinghast reflector on Mt. Hopkins to obtain the spectra of 57 objects. We make available a digital S star spectral atlas consisting of 14 spectra of S stars with diverse spectral features. We define and derive basic spectral indices that can help distinguish S stars from late-type (M) giants and carbon stars. We convolve all our spectra with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey bandpasses, and employ the resulting gri magnitudes together with 2MASS JHK{sub s} mags to investigate S star colors. These objects have colors similar to carbon and M stars, and are therefore difficult to distinguish by color alone. Using near- and mid-infrared colors from IRAS and Akari, we identify some of the stars as intrinsic (AGB) or extrinsic (with abundances enhanced by past mass transfer). We also use V band and 2MASS magnitudes to calculate a temperature index for stars in the sample. We analyze the proper motions and parallaxes of our sample stars to determine upper and lower limit absolute magnitudes and distances, and confirm that most are probably giants.

  14. The Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS). III. 142 Additional O-type Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.; Sota, A.; Arias, J. I.; Barbá, R. H.; Walborn, N. R.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Negueruela, I.; Marco, A.; Leão, J. R. S.; Herrero, A.; Gamen, R. C.; Alfaro, E. J.

    2016-05-01

    This is the third installment of the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS), a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R ˜ 2500 digital observations selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog. In this paper, we present 142 additional stellar systems with O stars from both hemispheres, bringing the total of O-type systems published within the project to 590. Among the new objects, there are 20 new O stars. We also identify 11 new double-lined spectroscopic binaries, 6 of which are of O+O type and 5 of O+B type, and an additional new tripled-lined spectroscopic binary of O+O+B type. We also revise some of the previous GOSSS classifications, present some egregious examples of stars erroneously classified as O-type in the past, introduce the use of luminosity class IV at spectral types O4-O5.5, and adapt the classification scheme to the work of Arias et al. The GOSSS spectroscopic data in this article were gathered with five facilities: the 1.5 m Telescope at the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (OSN), the 2.5 m du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO), the 3.5 m Telescope at Calar Alto Observatory (CAHA), and the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) and 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) at Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM).

  15. THE ABUNDANCE OF FLUORINE IN NORMAL G AND K STARS OF THE GALACTIC THIN DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Pilachowski, C. A.; Pace, Cameron E-mail: cjamespace@gmail.com

    2015-09-15

    The abundance of fluorine is determined from the (2-0) R9 2.3358 μm feature of the molecule HF for several dozen normal G and K stars in the Galactic thin disk from spectra obtained with the Phoenix IR spectrometer on the 2.1 m telescope at Kitt Peak. The abundances are analyzed in the context of Galactic chemical evolution to explore the contributions of supernovae and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to the abundance of fluorine in the thin disk. The average abundance of fluorine in the thin disk is found to be [F/Fe] = +0.23 ± 0.03, and the [F/Fe] ratio is flat or declines slowly with metallicity in the range from –0.6 < [Fe/H] < +0.3, within the limits of our estimated uncertainty. The measured abundance of fluorine and lack of variation with metallicity in Galactic thin disk stars suggest neutrino spallation in Type II supernovae contributes significantly to the Galactic fluorine abundance, although contributions from AGB stars may also be important.

  16. THE STAR-FORMATION RELATION FOR REGIONS IN THE GALACTIC PLANE: THE EFFECT OF SPATIAL RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Vutisalchavakul, Nalin; Evans II, Neal J.; Battersby, Cara

    2014-12-20

    We examined the relations between molecular gas surface density and star-formation rate surface density in an 11 deg{sup 2} region of the Galactic plane. Dust continua at 1.1 mm from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey and 22 μm emission from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey were used as tracers of molecular gas and the star-formation rate, respectively, across the Galactic longitude of 31.5 ≥ l ≥ 20.5 and Galactic latitude of 0.5 ≥ b ≥ –0.5. The relation was studied over a range of resolutions from 33'' to 20' by convolving images to larger scales. The pixel-by-pixel correlation between 1.1 mm and 22 μm increases rapidly at small scales and levels off at the scale of 5'-8'. We studied the star-formation relation based on a pixel-by-pixel analysis and on an analysis of the 1.1 mm and 22 μm peaks. The star-formation relation was found to be nearly linear with no significant changes in the form of the relation across all spatial scales, and it lies above the extragalactic relation from Kennicutt. The average gas-depletion time is ≈200 Myr and does not change significantly at different scales, but the scatter in the depletion time decreases as the scale increases.

  17. A Remarkable Sample of New Symbiotic Stars Towards the Galactic Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miszalski, B.; Mikolajewska, J.; Udalski, A.

    2014-12-01

    Symbiotic stars are the longest orbital period interacting binaries, where nova-like outbursts are generated by the accretion of a high mass loss rate red giant wind onto a white dwarf companion. Long-term photometric monitoring surveys such as OGLE and MACHO are ideal platforms to identify nova-like events in symbiotic stars. However, there are only a handful of known systems within the small footprint of these surveys. We introduce a systematic Hα emission line object survey for new symbiotic stars covering 35 deg2 towards the Galactic Bulge that combines deep 2dF/AAOmega spectroscopy with OGLE and MACHO photometry. This powerful combination has uncovered nearly two dozen new symbiotic stars, more than a dozen probable symbiotic stars, and several other unusual Hα emission line stars. While we don't find any nova-like activity, the lightcurves do exhibit semi-regular and Mira pulsations, orbital variations and slower changes due to dust. Here we introduce a few of the new symbiotics, including H1-45, only the fourth known carbon symbiotic Mira. This remarkable discovery may be the first luminous carbon star belonging to the Galactic Bulge, according to its period-luminosity relation distance of 6.2±1.4 kpc, potentially shedding new light on the puzzling lack of luminous carbon stars in the Bulge. We also present two old novae captured in the nebular phase, complementing other surveys to better characterize the old nova population.

  18. A KINEMATIC AND PHOTOMETRIC STUDY OF THE GALACTIC YOUNG STAR CLUSTER NGC 7380

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W. P.; Chen, C. W.; Pandey, A. K.; Sharma, Saurabh; Chen Li; Sperauskas, J.; Ogura, K.; Chuang, R. J.; Boyle, R. P.

    2011-09-15

    We present proper motions, radial velocities, and a photometric study of the Galactic open cluster NGC 7380, which is associated with prominent emission nebulosity and dark molecular clouds. On the basis of the sample of highly probable member stars, the star cluster is found to be at a distance of 2.6 {+-} 0.4 kpc, has an age of around 4 Myr, and a physical size of {approx}6 pc across with a tidal structure. The binary O-type star DH Cep is a member of the cluster in its late stage of clearing the surrounding material, and may have triggered the ongoing star formation in neighboring molecular clouds which harbor young stars that are coeval and comoving with, but not gravitationally bound by, the star cluster.

  19. Numerical Simulations of Self-Regulated, Star Forming Galactic Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. C.; Struck, C.

    2000-12-01

    While star formation feedback models have been used in the study of galaxy formation, the effects of these processes on the global structure of disks have received less attention. We have adapted Hydra, the adaptive particle-particle, particle-mesh with smoothed particle hydrodynamics code by Couchman et al., to include heating processes deriving from star formation in order to study the effects of this heating on the structure of the disk and on the star formation itself. These processes include mechanical heating from strong stellar winds and supernovae, as well as heating due to photoelectric removal of electrons from grains by UV flux from young OB stars. Mechanisms of this type can be implemented in a simple way within the Hydra code, allowing us to study the density and temperature profiles of the gas, the balance among the multiple thermal phases generated in the disk, and the kinematics of the disk. Preliminary results from numerical simulations of star-forming gas disks of late type spirals are presented. Self-regulating effects of star formation on the global structure of the disk are discussed. We describe and compare the results of different star formation criteria and discuss the effects of particle resolution. This study was funded, in part, by a grant from the George Washington Carver Charitable Trust.

  20. Star formation driven galactic winds in UGC 10043

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Cobá, C.; Sánchez, S. F.; Moiseev, A. V.; Oparin, D. V.; Bitsakis, T.; Cruz-González, I.; Morisset, C.; Galbany, L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Roth, M. M.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Bomans, D. J.; González Delgado, Rosa M.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Marino, R. A.; Kehrig, C.; Monreal Ibero, A.; Abril-Melgarejo, V.

    2016-12-01

    We study the galactic wind in the edge-on spiral galaxy UGC 10043 with the combination of the CALIFA integral field spectroscopy data, scanning Fabry-Perot interferometry (FPI), and multiband photometry. We detect ionized gas in the extraplanar regions reaching a relatively high distance, up to ˜ 4 kpc above the galactic disk. The ionized gas line ratios ([N II]/Hα, [S II]/Hα and [O I]/Hα) present an enhancement along the semi minor axis, in contrast with the values found at the disk, where they are compatible with ionization due to H II-regions. These differences, together with the biconic symmetry of the extra-planar ionized structure, makes UGC 10043 a clear candidate for a galaxy with gas outflows ionizated by shocks. From the comparison of shock models with the observed line ratios, and the kinematics observed from the FPI data, we constrain the physical properties of the observed outflow. The data are compatible with a velocity increase of the gas along the extraplanar distances up to < 400 km s-1 and the preshock density decreasing in the same direction. We also observe a discrepancy in the SFR estimated based on Hα (0.36 M⊙ yr-1) and the estimated with the CIGALE code, being the latter 5 times larger. Nevertheless, this SFR is still not enough to drive the observed galactic wind if we do not take into account the filling factor. We stress that the combination of the three techniques of observation with models is a powerful tool to explore galactic winds in the Local Universe.

  1. The Effect of Feedback and Reionization on Star Formation in Low-mass Dwarf Galaxy Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Christine M.; Bryan, G.; Johnston, K. V.; Smith, B. D.; Mac Low, M.; Sharma, S.; Tumlinson, J.

    2013-01-01

    I will present a set of high resolution simulations of a 109 M⊙ dark matter halo in a cosmological setting done with an adaptive-mesh refinement code as a mass analogue to local low-luminosity dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The primary goal of our simulations is to investigate the roles of reionization and supernova feedback in determining the star formation histories of low mass dwarf galaxies. We include a wide range of physical effects, including metal cooling, molecular hydrogen formation and cooling, photoionization and photodissociation from a metagalactic (but not local) background, a simple prescription for self-shielding, star formation, and a simple model for supernova driven energetic feedback. We find that reionization is primarily responsible for expelling most of the gas in our simulations, but that supernova feedback is required to disperse the dense, cold gas in the core of the halo. Moreover, we show that the timing of reionization can produce an order of magnitude difference in the final stellar mass of the system. For our full physics run with reionization at z=9, we find a stellar mass of about 105 M⊙ at z=0, and a mass-to-light ratio within the half-light radius of approximately 130 M⊙/L⊙, consistent with observed low-luminosity dwarfs. However, the resulting median stellar metallicity is 0.06 Z⊙, considerably larger than observed systems. In addition, we find star formation is truncated between redshifts 4 and 7, at odds with the observed late time star formation in isolated dwarf systems but in agreement with Milky Way ultrafaint dwarf spheroidals. We investigate the efficacy of energetic feedback in our simple thermal-energy driven feedback scheme, and suggest that it may still suffer from excessive radiative losses, despite reaching stellar particle masses of about 100 M⊙, and a comoving spatial resolution of 11 pc. This has led us to pursue improvements in our supernova feedback model to include kinetic as well as thermal energy in

  2. Li-7 abundances in halo stars: Testing stellar evolution models and the primordial Li-7 abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaboyer, Brian; Demarque, P.

    1994-01-01

    A large number of stellar evolution models with (Fe/H) = -2.3 and -3.3 have been calculated in order to determine the primordial Li-7 abundance and to test current stellar evolution models by a comparison to the extensive database of accurate Li abundances in extremely metal-poor halo stars observed by Thorburn (1994). Standard models with gray atmospheres do a very good job of fitting the observed Li abundances in stars hotter than approximately 5600 K. They predict a primordial. Li-7 abundance of log N(Li) = 2.24 +/- 0.03. Models which include microscopic diffusion predict a downward curvature in the Li-7 destruction isochrones at hot temperatures which is not present in the observations. Thus, the observations clearly rule out models which include uninhibited microscopic diffusion of Li-7 from the surface of the star. Rotational mixing inhibits the microscopic diffusion and the (Fe/H) = -2.28 stellar models which include both diffusion and rotational mixing provide an excellent match to the mean trend in T(sub eff) which is present in the observations. Both the plateau stars and the heavily depleted cool stars are well fit by these models. The rotational mixing leads to considerable Li-7 depletion in these models and the primordial Li-7 abundance inferred from these models is log N(Li) = 3.08 +/- 0.1. However, the (Fe/H) = -3.28 isochrones reveal problems with the combined models. These isochrones predict a trend of decreasing log N(Li) with increasing T(sub eff) which is not present in the observations. Possible causes for this discrepancy are discussed.

  3. Convection and 6Li in the atmospheres of metal-poor halo stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Matthias; Cayrel, R.; Bonifacio, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Caffau, E.

    2010-04-01

    Based on 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres computed with the CO5BOLD code and 3D non-LTE (NLTE) line formation calculations, we study the effect of the convection-induced line asymmetry on the derived 6Li abundance for a range in effective temperature, gravity, and metallicity covering the stars of the Asplund et al. (2006) sample. When the asymmetry effect is taken into account for this sample of stars, the resulting 6Li/7Li ratios are reduced by about 1.5% on average with respect to the isotopic ratios determined by Asplund et al. (2006). This purely theoretical correction diminishes the number of significant 6Li detections from 9 to 4 (2σ criterion), or from 5 to 2 (3σ criterion). In view of this result the existence of a 6Li plateau appears questionable. A careful reanalysis of individual objects by fitting the observed lithium 6707 Å doublet both with 3D NLTE and 1D LTE synthetic line profiles confirms that the inferred 6Li abundance is systematically lower when using 3D NLTE instead of 1D LTE line fitting. Nevertheless, halo stars with unquestionable 6Li detection do exist even if analyzed in 3D-NLTE, the most prominent example being HD 84937.

  4. Planetary system disruption by Galactic perturbations to wide binary stars.

    PubMed

    Kaib, Nathan A; Raymond, Sean N; Duncan, Martin

    2013-01-17

    Nearly half the exoplanets found within binary star systems reside in very wide binaries with average stellar separations greater than 1,000 astronomical units (one astronomical unit (AU) being the Earth-Sun distance), yet the influence of such distant binary companions on planetary evolution remains largely unstudied. Unlike their tighter counterparts, the stellar orbits of wide binaries continually change under the influence of the Milky Way's tidal field and impulses from other passing stars. Here we report numerical simulations demonstrating that the variable nature of wide binary star orbits dramatically reshapes the planetary systems they host, typically billions of years after formation. Contrary to previous understanding, wide binary companions may often strongly perturb planetary systems, triggering planetary ejections and increasing the orbital eccentricities of surviving planets. Although hitherto not recognized, orbits of giant exoplanets within wide binaries are statistically more eccentric than those around isolated stars. Both eccentricity distributions are well reproduced when we assume that isolated stars and wide binaries host similar planetary systems whose outermost giant planets are scattered beyond about 10 AU from their parent stars by early internal instabilities. Consequently, our results suggest that although wide binaries eventually remove the most distant planets from many planetary systems, most isolated giant exoplanet systems harbour additional distant, still undetected planets.

  5. Coronal gas in the Galactic halo: ORFEUS observations of NGC 346 #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, M.; Bowyer, S.

    1995-01-01

    We present high resolution (lambda/delta lambda = 3000) observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) star NGC 346 #1 near the O VI resonance doublet (1031.9, 1037.6 A). The data were collected with the Berkeley extreme/far ultraviolet (EUV/FUV) spectrometer in the ORFEUS telescope aboard the space platform Astro-SPAS during the missiom of space shuttle Discovery flown in September 1993. The O VI features shows broad absorption centered near nu(sub LSR) is approximately equal to +140 km/sec. This is almost certainly associated with the OB cluster NGC 346 itself, which also shows deep absorption at Si IV and C IV at comparable velocities. An absorption feature corresponding to O VI near nu(sub LSR) = -230 km/sec is present in our data, but this feature is caused by contamination from a second star, probably an early B-type main sequence star at lower standard of rest (LSR) velocity, which is also present in the 20 min circular aperture. Between these velocity extrema lies one broad feature (b is approximately equal 70 km/sec) or multiple narrower features, with a combined column density of about 1.4 x 10(exp 14)/sq cm. Assuming an exponential distribution of O VI with the in-plane density of Jenkins, we infer a scale height, H(sub 0), of no more than approximately equal 1.2 kpc toward NGC 346 #1. Our O VI column density is about a factor of 4 below the predictions of cooling fountain models, but our low scale height is consistent with more recent predictions.

  6. Stellar mass to halo mass relation from galaxy clustering in VUDS: a high star formation efficiency at z ≃ 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durkalec, A.; Le Fèvre, O.; de la Torre, S.; Pollo, A.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Lemaux, B. C.; Maccagni, D.; Pentericci, L.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Thomas, R.; Vanzella, E.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Amorín, R.; Bardelli, S.; Cassarà, L. P.; Castellano, M.; Cimatti, A.; Cucciati, O.; Fontana, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Grazian, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Ilbert, O.; Paltani, S.; Ribeiro, B.; Schaerer, D.; Scodeggio, M.; Sommariva, V.; Talia, M.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Capak, P.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; Cuby, J. G.; Dunlop, J.; Fotopoulou, S.; Koekemoer, A.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Mellier, Y.; Pforr, J.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Wang, P. W.

    2015-04-01

    The relation between the galaxy stellar mass M⋆ and the dark matter halo mass Mh gives important information on the efficiency in forming stars and assembling stellar mass in galaxies. We present measurements of the ratio of stellar mass to halo mass (SMHR) at redshifts 2 < z < 5, obtained from the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey. We use halo occupation distribution (HOD) modelling of clustering measurements on ~3000 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts to derive the dark matter halo mass Mh, and spectral energy density fitting over a large set of multi-wavelength data to derive the stellar mass M⋆ and compute the SMHR = M⋆/Mh. We find that the SMHR ranges from 1% to 2.5% for galaxies with M⋆ = 1.3 × 109 M⊙ to M⋆ = 7.4 × 109 M⊙ in DM halos with Mh = 1.3 × 1011 M⊙ to Mh = 3 × 1011 M⊙. We derive the integrated star formation efficiency (ISFE) of these galaxies and find that the star formation efficiency is a moderate 6-9% for lower mass galaxies, while it is relatively high at 16% for galaxies with the median stellar mass of the sample ~ 7 × 109 M⊙. The lower ISFE at lower masses may indicate that some efficient means of suppressing star formation is at work (like SNe feedback), while the high ISFE for the average galaxy at z ~ 3 indicates that these galaxies efficiently build up their stellar mass at a key epoch in the mass assembly process. Based on our results, we propose a possible scenario in which the average massive galaxy at z ~ 3 begins to experience truncation of its star formation within a few million years. Based on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile, under Large Program 185.A-0791.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Cool carbon stars in the halo and Fornax dSph (Mauron+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauron, N.; Gigoyan, K. S.; Berlioz-Arthaud, P.; Klotz, A.

    2014-03-01

    Spectroscopy of halo candidate C stars was achieved at ESO (La Silla) on 17-18 October 2009 at the NTT telescope equipped with the EFOSC2 instrument in the spectral range 5200-9300Å. We were able to secure the spectra of 25 candidates with exposure times of generally a few minutes, and eventually, eight were found to be C-rich. We also observed three carbon stars in the Carina dwarf galaxy because they were erroneously believed to be in the halo, and for comparison APM 2225-1401, a C star from the list of Totten and Irwin (1998MNRAS.294....1T). We found spectra that covered the Hα region for four halo stars in the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory archive. They were obtained with the BAO 2.6m telescope and the ByuFOSC2 spectrograph. These spectra were taken on 28 March 1999, 12 June 2002, 11 May 2000, and 11 June 2000 with a resolution ~8Å. Concerning Fornax, spectra of C stars were found in the ESO Archive (program 70.D-0203, P.I. Marc Azzopardi). They were obtained on 5 November 2002 with the ESO 3.6m telescope and the EFOSC instrument with a resolution ~23Å and a spectral coverage from 4000Å to 7950Å. Sixteen C stars were monitored with the ground-based 25cm diameter TAROT telescopes. This monitoring took place irregularly at ESO La Silla and Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur (France) beginning in 2010. Thanks to the recently released Catalina and LINEAR databases, we were able to examine the light curves of 143 halo C stars and found 66 new periodic (Mira or SRa-type) variables among them. (5 data files).

  8. Investigation of Faint Galactic Carbon Stars from the First Byurakan Spectral Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostandyan, G. R.; Gigoyan, K. S.

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to present the optical variability study of the comparatively faint carbon (C) stars which have been discovered by searching the First Byurakan Survey (FBS) low-resolution (lr) spectral plates at high Galactic latitudes using a recent wide-area variability databases. The light curves from the Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) and Northern Sky Variability Survey (NSVS) databases were exploited to study the variability nature of them. From the 120 detected objects 54 are N-type Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) C stars. 9 stars belongs to the group of Mira-type, 43 are Semi-Regular (SR), and 2 stars are Irregular (Irr) - type variables. The variability types of 27 objects has been established for the first time. From 66 objects showing early-type spectra 57 are CH-type stars, 4 objects are R-type stars and 5 are dC candidates. K-band absolute magnitudes, distances, and height from the Galactic plane were estimated for all of them. We aim to better understand the nature of the selected C stars through spectroscopy, 2MASS photometric colours, and variability data.

  9. The dynamical fate of binary star clusters in the Galactic tidal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyatikanto, R.; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N.; Arifyanto, M. I.; Wulandari, H. R. T.; Siregar, S.

    2016-04-01

    Fragmentation and fission of giant molecular clouds occasionally results in a pair of gravitationally bound star clusters that orbit their mutual centre of mass for some time, under the influence of internal and external perturbations. We investigate the evolution of binary star clusters with different orbital configurations, with a particular focus on the Galactic tidal field. We carry out N-body simulations of evolving binary star clusters and compare our results with estimates from our semi-analytic model. The latter accounts for mass-loss due to stellar evolution and two-body relaxation, and for evolution due to external tides. Using the semi-analytic model, we predict the long-term evolution for a wide range of initial conditions. It accurately describes the global evolution of such systems, until the moment when a cluster merger is imminent. N-body simulations are used to test our semi-analytic model and also to study additional features of evolving binary clusters, such as the kinematics of stars, global cluster rotation, evaporation rates, and the cluster merger process. We find that the initial orientation of a binary star cluster with respect to the Galactic field, and also the initial orbital phase, is crucial for its fate. Depending on these properties, the binaries may experience orbital reversal, spiral-in, or vertical oscillation about the Galactic plane before they actually merge at t ≈ 100 Myr, and produce rotating star clusters with slightly higher evaporation rates. The merger process of a binary cluster induces an outburst that ejects ˜10 per cent of the stellar members into the Galactic field.

  10. THERMAL AND RADIATIVE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK HAVE A LIMITED IMPACT ON STAR FORMATION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, Orianne; Juneau, Stéphanie; Bournaud, Frédéric; Gabor, Jared M.

    2015-02-10

    The effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on their host galaxies depend on the coupling between the injected energy and the interstellar medium (ISM). Here, we model and quantify the impact of long-range AGN ionizing radiation—in addition to the often considered small-scale energy deposition—on the physical state of the multi-phase ISM of the host galaxy and on its total star formation rate (SFR). We formulate an AGN spectral energy distribution matched with observations, which we use with the radiative transfer (RT) code Cloudy to compute AGN ionization in a simulated high-redshift disk galaxy. We use a high-resolution (∼6 pc) simulation including standard thermal AGN feedback and calculate RT in post-processing. Surprisingly, while these models produce significant AGN-driven outflows, we find that AGN ionizing radiation and heating reduce the SFR by a few percent at most for a quasar luminosity (L {sub bol} = 10{sup 46.5} erg s{sup –1}). Although the circumgalactic gaseous halo can be kept almost entirely ionized by the AGN, most star-forming clouds (n ≳ 10{sup 2} {sup –} {sup 3} cm{sup –3}) and even the reservoirs of cool atomic gas (n ∼ 0.3-10 cm{sup –3})—which are the sites of future star formation (SF; 100-200 Myr), are generally too dense to be significantly affected. Our analysis ignores any absorption from a putative torus, making our results upper limits on the effects of ionizing radiation. Therefore, while the AGN-driven outflows can remove substantial amounts of gas in the long term, the impact of AGN feedback on the SF efficiency in the interstellar gas in high-redshift galaxies is marginal, even when long-range radiative effects are accounted for.

  11. Spectroscopic Comparison of Metal-rich RRab Stars of the Galactic Field with their Metal-poor Counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadid, Merieme; Sneden, Christopher; Preston, George W.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate atmospheric properties of 35 stable RRab stars that possess the full ranges of period, light amplitude, and metal abundance found in Galactic RR Lyrae stars. Our results are derived from several thousand echelle spectra obtained over several years with the du Pont telescope of Las Campanas Observatory. Radial velocities of metal lines and the Hα line were used to construct curves of radial velocity versus pulsation phase. From these we estimated radial velocity amplitudes for metal lines (formed near the photosphere) and Hα Doppler cores (formed at small optical depths). We also measured Hα emission fluxes when they appear during primary light rises. Spectra shifted to rest wavelengths, binned into small phase intervals, and co-added were used to perform model atmospheric and abundance analyses. The derived metallicities and those of some previous spectroscopic surveys were combined to produce a new calibration of the Layden abundance scale. We then divided our RRab sample into metal-rich (disk) and metal-poor (halo) groups at [Fe/H] = ‑1.0 the atmospheres of RRab families, so defined, differ with respect to (a) peak strength of Hα emission flux, (b) Hα radial velocity amplitude, (c) dynamical gravity, (d) stellar radius variation, (e) secondary acceleration during the photometric bump that precedes minimum light, and (f) duration of Hα line-doubling. We also detected Hα line-doubling during the “bump” in the metal-poor family, but not in the metal-rich one. Although all RRab probably are core helium-burning horizontal branch stars, the metal-rich group appears to be a species sui generis.

  12. The Spatial Distribution of Star Formation in Galaxies: Observing the Emergence of Galactic Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Erica June

    A high resolution measurement of the distribution of star formation within galaxies is key to understanding the emergence of galactic structure. The aim of this thesis is to understand how the structure of galaxies is built by developing a new method to spatially resolve their star formation. Using Ha maps for 2676 galaxies, this thesis shows where star formation is distributed in galaxies during the epoch 0.7 < z < 1.5 when a third of the total star formation in the history of the universe occurred. Across the star formation rate - stellar mass plane (the "main sequence"), star formation is `spatially coherent': in galaxies with higher than average star formation rates, Ha is enhanced throughout the disk; similarly, in galaxies with low star formation rates Ha is depressed throughout the disk. This places constraints both on the mechanisms for enhancing and quenching star formation as well as on how the structure of galaxies is built. The disk scale length of star formation in galaxies is larger than that of the stars, a direct demonstration that the disks of galaxies grow inside-out. While most star formation in most galaxies occurs in disks, not all of it does. With the first spatially resolved measurement of the Balmer decrement at z > 1, it can be seen that galaxies with M* > 1010M ⊙ have significant dust attenuation toward their centers. This means that we are witnessing the build-up of the dense stellar cores of massive galaxies through dust-obscured in-situ star formation. The most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores at even earlier cosmic epochs. This thesis presents the first confirmed example of a massive galaxy core in the process of formation at z = 2.3. It has one of the highest velocity dispersions ever measured for a normal star forming galaxy and also appears to be building through very dense, dust-enshrouded star formation.

  13. SOAR Near-Infrared and Optical Survey of OIf* and OIf*/WN Stars in the Periphery of Galactic Massive Star Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman-Lopes, A.; Franco, G. A. P.; Sanmartin, D.

    In this contribution we present some preliminary results obtained from a SOAR-Goodman optical spectroscopic survey aimed to confirm the OIf* - OIf*/WN nature of a sample of Galactic candidates that were previously confirmed as massive stars based on near-infrared spectra taken with OSIRIS at SOAR. With only a few of such stars known in the Galaxy to date, our study significantly contributes to improve the number of known Galactic O2If* stars, as well as almost doubling the number of known members of the galactic sample of the rare type OIf*/WN.

  14. The Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps : Looking at the early stages of star-formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montier, Ludovic

    2015-08-01

    The Planck satellite has provided an unprecedented view of the submm sky, allowing us to search for the dust emission of Galactic cold sources. Combining Planck-HFI all-sky maps in the high frequency channels with the IRAS map at 100um, we built the Planck catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC, Planck 2015 results XXVIII 2015), counting 13188 sources distributed over the whole sky, and following mainly the Galactic structures at low and intermediate latitudes. This is the first all-sky catalogue of Galactic cold sources obtained with a single instrument at this resolution and sensitivity, which opens a new window on star-formation processes in our Galaxy.I will briefly describe the colour detection method used to extract the Galactic cold sources, i.e., the Cold Core Colour Detection Tool (CoCoCoDeT, Montier et al. 2010), and its application to the Planck data. I will discuss the statistical distribution of the properties of the PGCC sources (in terms of dust temperature, distance, mass, density and luminosity), which illustrates that the PGCC catalogue spans a large variety of environments and objects, from molecular clouds to cold cores, and covers various stages of evolution. The Planck catalogue is a very powerful tool to study the formation and the evolution of prestellar objects and star-forming regions.I will finally present an overview of the Herschel Key Program Galactic Cold Cores (PI. M.Juvela), which allowed us to follow-up about 350 Planck Galactic Cold Clumps, in various stages of evolution and environments. With this program, the nature and the composition of the 5' Planck sources have been revealed at a sub-arcmin resolution, showing very different configurations, such as starless cold cores or multiple Young Stellar objects still embedded in their cold envelope.

  15. The Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS). First results: A new O-Type classification atlas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sota Ballano, A.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Barbá, R. H.; Walborn, N. R.; Alfaro Navarro, E.; Gamen, R. C.; Morrell, N. I.; Arias, J. I.; Penadés Ordaz, M.

    The Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS) is a project that is observing all known Galactic O stars with B < 13 (˜ 2000 objects) in the blue-violet part of the spectrum with R ˜ 2500. It is based on v2.0 of the Galactic O star catalogue (v1, Maíz Apellániz et al. [2004]; v2, Sota et al. [2008]). We have completed the first part of the main project. Here we present a new O-type classification atlas, which supersedes previous versions.

  16. INTERACTION OF RECOILING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES WITH STARS IN GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shuo; Liu, F. K.; Berczik, Peter; Spurzem, Rainer; Chen Xian E-mail: fkliu@bac.pku.edu.cn

    2012-03-20

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are the products of frequent galaxy mergers. The coalescence of the SMBHBs is a distinct source of gravitational wave (GW) radiation. The detections of the strong GW radiation and their possible electromagnetic counterparts are essential. Numerical relativity suggests that the post-merger supermassive black hole (SMBH) gets a kick velocity up to 4000 km s{sup -1} due to the anisotropic GW radiations. Here, we investigate the dynamical coevolution and interaction of the recoiling SMBHs and their galactic stellar environments with one million direct N-body simulations including the stellar tidal disruption by the recoiling SMBHs. Our results show that the accretion of disrupted stars does not significantly affect the SMBH dynamical evolution. We investigate the stellar tidal disruption rates as a function of the dynamical evolution of oscillating SMBHs in the galactic nuclei. Our simulations show that most stellar tidal disruptions are contributed by the unbound stars and occur when the oscillating SMBHs pass through the galactic center. The averaged disruption rate is {approx}10{sup -6} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, which is about an order of magnitude lower than that by a stationary SMBH at similar galactic nuclei. Our results also show that a bound star cluster is around the oscillating SMBH of about {approx}0.7% the black hole mass. In addition, we discover a massive cloud of unbound stars following the oscillating SMBH. We also investigate the dependence of the results on the SMBH masses and density slopes of the galactic nuclei.

  17. Galactic Dark Matter Halos and Globular Cluster Populations. III. Extension to Extreme Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, William E.; Blakeslee, John P.; Harris, Gretchen L. H.

    2017-02-01

    The total mass {M}{GCS} in the globular cluster (GC) system of a galaxy is empirically a near-constant fraction of the total mass {M}h\\equiv {M}{bary}+{M}{dark} of the galaxy across a range of 105 in galaxy mass. This trend is radically unlike the strongly nonlinear behavior of total stellar mass M ⋆ versus M h . We discuss extensions of this trend to two more extreme situations: (a) entire clusters of galaxies and (b) the ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) recently discovered in Coma and elsewhere. Our calibration of the ratio {η }M={M}{GCS}/{M}h from normal galaxies, accounting for new revisions in the adopted mass-to-light ratio for GCs, now gives {η }M=2.9× {10}-5 as the mean absolute mass fraction. We find that the same ratio appears valid for galaxy clusters and UDGs. Estimates of {η }M in the four clusters we examine tend to be slightly higher than for individual galaxies, but more data and better constraints on the mean GC mass in such systems are needed to determine if this difference is significant. We use the constancy of {η }M to estimate total masses for several individual cases; for example, the total mass of the Milky Way is calculated to be {M}h=1.1× {10}12 {M}ȯ . Physical explanations for the uniformity of {η }M are still descriptive, but point to a picture in which massive dense star clusters in their formation stages were relatively immune to the feedback that more strongly influenced lower-density regions where most stars form.

  18. ENHANCED ACCRETION RATES OF STARS ON SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES BY STAR-DISK INTERACTIONS IN GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Just, Andreas; Yurin, Denis; Makukov, Maxim; Berczik, Peter; Omarov, Chingis; Spurzem, Rainer; Vilkoviskij, Emmanuil Y.

    2012-10-10

    We investigate the dynamical interaction of a central star cluster surrounding a supermassive black hole (SMBH) and a central accretion disk (AD). The dissipative force acting on stars in the disk leads to an enhanced mass flow toward the SMBH and to an asymmetry in the phase space distribution due to the rotating AD. The AD is considered as a stationary Keplerian rotating disk, which is vertically extended in order to employ a fully self-consistent treatment of stellar dynamics including the dissipative force originating from star-gas ram pressure effects. The stellar system is treated with a direct high-accuracy N-body integration code. A star-by-star representation, desirable in N-body simulations, cannot be extended to real particle numbers yet. Hence, we carefully discuss the scaling behavior of our model with regard to particle number and tidal accretion radius. The main idea is to find a family of models for which the ratio of two-body relaxation time and dissipation time (for kinetic energy of stellar orbits) is constant, which then allows us to extrapolate our results to real parameters of galactic nuclei. Our model is derived from basic physical principles and as such it provides insight into the role of physical processes in galactic nuclei, but it should be regarded as a first step toward more realistic and more comprehensive simulations. Nevertheless, the following conclusions appear to be robust: the star accretion rate onto the AD and subsequently onto the SMBH is enhanced by a significant factor compared to purely stellar dynamical systems neglecting the disk. This process leads to enhanced fueling of central disks in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and to an enhanced rate of tidal stellar disruptions. Such disruptions may produce electromagnetic counterparts in the form of observable X-ray flares. Our models improve predictions for their rates in quiescent galactic nuclei. We do not yet model direct stellar collisions in the gravitational potential

  19. A Rapidly Evolving Region in the Galactic Center: Why S-stars Thermalize and More Massive Stars are Missing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xian; Amaro-Seoane, Pau

    2014-05-01

    The existence of "S-stars" within a distance of 1'' from Sgr A* contradicts our understanding of star formation, due to Sgr A* 's forbiddingly violent environment. A suggested possibility is that they form far away and were brought in by some fast dynamical process, since they are young. Nonetheless, all conjectured mechanisms either fail to reproduce their eccentricities—without violating their young age—or cannot explain the problem of "inverse mass segregation": the fact that lighter stars (the S-stars) are closer to Sgr A* and more massive ones, Wolf-Rayet (WR) and O-stars, are farther out. In this Letter we propose that the mechanism responsible for both the distribution of the eccentricities and the paucity of massive stars is the Kozai-Lidov-like resonance induced by a sub-parsec disk recently discovered in the Galactic center. Considering that the disk probably extended to a smaller radius in the past, we show that in as short as (a few) 106 yr, the stars populating the innermost 1'' region would redistribute in angular-momentum space and recover the observed "super-thermal" distribution. Meanwhile, WR and O-stars in the same region intermittently attain ample eccentricities that will lead to their tidal disruptions by the central massive black hole. Our results provide new evidences that Sgr A* was powered several millions years ago by an accretion disk as well as by tidal stellar disruptions.

  20. A RAPIDLY EVOLVING REGION IN THE GALACTIC CENTER: WHY S-STARS THERMALIZE AND MORE MASSIVE STARS ARE MISSING

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xian; Amaro-Seoane, Pau E-mail: Pau.Amaro-Seoane@aei.mpg.de

    2014-05-10

    The existence of ''S-stars'' within a distance of 1'' from Sgr A* contradicts our understanding of star formation, due to Sgr A* 's forbiddingly violent environment. A suggested possibility is that they form far away and were brought in by some fast dynamical process, since they are young. Nonetheless, all conjectured mechanisms either fail to reproduce their eccentricities—without violating their young age—or cannot explain the problem of {sup i}nverse mass segregation{sup :} the fact that lighter stars (the S-stars) are closer to Sgr A* and more massive ones, Wolf-Rayet (WR) and O-stars, are farther out. In this Letter we propose that the mechanism responsible for both the distribution of the eccentricities and the paucity of massive stars is the Kozai-Lidov-like resonance induced by a sub-parsec disk recently discovered in the Galactic center. Considering that the disk probably extended to a smaller radius in the past, we show that in as short as (a few) 10{sup 6} yr, the stars populating the innermost 1'' region would redistribute in angular-momentum space and recover the observed ''super-thermal'' distribution. Meanwhile, WR and O-stars in the same region intermittently attain ample eccentricities that will lead to their tidal disruptions by the central massive black hole. Our results provide new evidences that Sgr A* was powered several millions years ago by an accretion disk as well as by tidal stellar disruptions.

  1. The contribution of dissolving star clusters to the population of ultra faint objects in the outer halo of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contenta, Filippo; Gieles, Mark; Balbinot, Eduardo; Collins, Michelle L. M.

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade, several ultra faint objects (UFOs, MV ≳ -3.5) have been discovered in the outer halo of the Milky Way. For some of these objects, it is not clear whether they are star clusters or (ultra faint) dwarf galaxies. In this work, we quantify the contribution of star clusters to the population of UFOs. We extrapolated the mass and Galactocentric radius distribution of the globular clusters using a population model, finding that the Milky Way contains about 3.3^{+7.3}_{-1.6} star clusters with MV ≳ -3.5 and Galactocentric radius ≥20 kpc. To understand whether dissolving clusters can appear as UFOs, we run a suite of direct N-body models, varying the orbit, the Galactic potential, the binary fraction and the black hole (BH) natal kick velocities. In the analyses, we consider observational biases such as luminosity limit, field stars and line-of-sight projection. We find that star clusters contribute to both the compact and the extended population of UFOs: clusters without BHs appear compact with radii ∼5 pc, while clusters that retain their BHs after formation have radii ≳ 20 pc. The properties of the extended clusters are remarkably similar to those of dwarf galaxies: high-inferred mass-to-light ratios due to binaries, binary properties mildly affected by dynamical evolution, no observable mass segregation and flattened stellar mass function. We conclude that the slope of the stellar mass function as a function of Galactocentric radius and the presence/absence of cold streams can discriminate between dark matter-free and dark matter-dominated UFOs.

  2. Star formation across cosmic time and its influence on galactic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freundlich, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    Observations show that ten billion years ago, galaxies formed their stars at rates up to twenty times higher than now. As stars are formed from cold molecular gas, a high star formation rate means a significant gas supply, and galaxies near the peak epoch of star formation are indeed much more gas-rich than nearby galaxies. Is the decline of the star formation rate mostly driven by the diminishing cold gas reservoir, or are the star formation processes also qualitatively different earlier in the history of the Universe? Ten billion years ago, young galaxies were clumpy and prone to violent gravitational instabilities, which may have contributed to their high star formation rate. Stars indeed form within giant, gravitationally-bound molecular clouds. But the earliest phases of star formation are still poorly understood. Some scenarii suggest the importance of interstellar filamentary structures as a first step towards core and star formation. How would their filamentary geometry affect pre-stellar cores? Feedback mechanisms related to stellar evolution also play an important role in regulating star formation, for example through powerful stellar winds and supernovae explosions which expel some of the gas and can even disturb the dark matter distribution in which each galaxy is assumed to be embedded. This PhD work focuses on three perspectives: (i) star formation near the peak epoch of star formation as seen from observations at sub-galactic scales; (ii) the formation of pre-stellar cores within the filamentary structures of the interstellar medium; and (iii) the effect of feedback processes resulting from star formation and evolution on the dark matter distribution.

  3. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: extraplanar gas, galactic winds and their association with star formation history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, I.-Ting; Medling, Anne M.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Groves, Brent; Kewley, Lisa J.; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Dopita, Michael A.; Leslie, Sarah K.; Sharp, Rob; Allen, James T.; Bourne, Nathan; Bryant, Julia J.; Cortese, Luca; Croom, Scott M.; Dunne, Loretta; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Goodwin, Michael; Green, Andy W.; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S.; Lawrence, Jon S.; Lorente, Nuria P. F.; Owers, Matt S.; Richards, Samuel; Sweet, Sarah M.; Tescari, Edoardo; Valiante, Elisabetta

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a sample of 40 local, main-sequence, edge-on disc galaxies using integral field spectroscopy with the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey to understand the link between properties of the extraplanar gas and their host galaxies. The kinematics properties of the extraplanar gas, including velocity asymmetries and increased dispersion, are used to differentiate galaxies hosting large-scale galactic winds from those dominated by the extended diffuse ionized gas. We find rather that a spectrum of diffuse gas-dominated to wind-dominated galaxies exist. The wind-dominated galaxies span a wide range of star formation rates (SFRs; -1 ≲ log (SFR/M⊙ yr-1) ≲ 0.5) across the whole stellar mass range of the sample (8.5 ≲ log (M*/M⊙) ≲ 11). The wind galaxies also span a wide range in SFR surface densities (10- 3-10- 1.5 M⊙ yr- 1 kpc- 2) that is much lower than the canonical threshold of 0.1 M⊙ yr- 1 kpc- 2. The wind galaxies on average have higher SFR surface densities and higher HδA values than those without strong wind signatures. The enhanced HδA indicates that bursts of star formation in the recent past are necessary for driving large-scale galactic winds. We demonstrate with Sloan Digital Sky Survey data that galaxies with high SFR surface density have experienced bursts of star formation in the recent past. Our results imply that the galactic winds revealed in our study are indeed driven by bursts of star formation, and thus probing star formation in the time domain is crucial for finding and understanding galactic winds.

  4. Hard X-ray Point Sources Detected in the NuSTAR Galactic Plane Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailey, Chuck

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) has surveyed the Galactic Center and Norma region with total exposure of approximately 2 Msec and 50 pointings. Hard X-ray spectroscopy with NuSTAR is a powerful tool to identify sources previously discovered by Chandra, and thus perform comparative population studies in the Galactic Center and Norma region. The NuSTAR survey, with a depth ranging from 20 to 40 ksec, detected dozens of point source above 10 keV including three known X-ray transients (GRS 1741-2853, AXJ1745.6-2901 and CXOGC J174540.0-29005) during their outbursts in 2013. Some of the NuSTAR point sources exhibit remarkably hard X-ray spectra extending beyond 40 keV, indicating that they are either hot intermediate polars with temperatures greater than 50 keV or X-ray binaries with either a neutron star or black hole. We will present our spectral and timing analysis of the NuSTAR sources as well as results of IR counterpart searches.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Northern Galactic OB stars vsini (Simon-Diaz+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon-Diaz, S.; Herrero, A.

    2014-04-01

    The spectroscopic observations considered for this study are part of the IACOB spectroscopic database of northern Galactic OB stars (last described in Simon-Diaz et al., 2011, Bull. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liege, 80, 514 and Stellar Clusters and Associations: Proc. A RIA Workshop on Gaia, eds. E. J. Alfaro Navarro, A. T. Gallego Calvente, & M. R. Zapatero Osorio, 255). This unique high-quality spectroscopic database has been compiled in the framework of the IACOB project. To date, the IACOB database comprises 1250 spectra of 153 and 97 Galactic O- and early B-type stars, respectively, observable from the Roque de los Muchachos observatory in La Palma (Spain). The spectra have a resolving power of 46000 and 23000, a typical signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) above 150, and were compiled between November 2008 and January 2013 with the high-resolution FIbre-fed Echelle Spectrograph (FIES) attached to the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT). The IACOB database has a multi-epoch character that enables investigations of the binary/multiple nature of considered stars and the temporal variations in individual objects with at least three spectra per observed target. In this study, we only used a subsample of the spectra, discarding all stars with signatures of multiplicity (which means that we only considered apparently single and SB1 stars), and only considering the spectrum with the highest S/N ratio per star. (5 data files).

  6. Cosmic Questions: Galactic Halos, Cold Dark Matter and the End of Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Richard

    1995-08-01

    Did the Big Bang really happen? Is space infinite? When did time begin? In this "superb new book" (San Francisco Chronicle), acclaimed science writer Richard Morris probes a host of far-reaching questions about the fundamental nature of the universe. The result is a masterful exploration of the newest discoveries and theories in the field of cosmology-the study of the origin, structure, and evolution of the universe. With dramatic flair and enthusiasm, he introduces us to the intriguing world of cosmic strings and quark nuggets, shadow matter and imaginary time. He brings emerging theoretical concepts into clear focus, offering keen insight into science's most puzzling riddles, the very questions that have challenged and confounded humankind through the ages. Featuring a thorough explanation of the breakthrough voyage of NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) and its effects on the Big Bang theory, this remarkable book is a fascinating journey along the cutting edge of cosmological discovery. Praise for Richard Morris... "Mr. Morris's genius is an ability to reveal the wonderful. --Kansas City Star "Morris does a clearer job explaining Hawking than Hawking did." --Library Journal

  7. Origin of the Galactic Center S-Stars: Gravitational Torques from Lin-Shu-Type Spiral Density Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griv, Evgeny

    2010-02-01

    The supermassive ~4 × 106 M sun black hole at the Galactic center is surrounded by a parsec-scale star disk, with several thousands of dynamically relaxed, evolved, late-type CO absorption line stars and a small ~100 population of luminous O and Wolf-Rayet stars which move in approximately circular Keplerian orbits. These bluish in color massive O and Wolf-Rayet stars are very young with an estimated age of 6 ± 2 Myr. Another small group of roughly 20 young (<10 Myr) blue B stars with the orbital periods as short as 15 years ("S-stars") follow eccentric, randomly oriented orbits well inside the disk stars. A model is proposed to explain the S-stars. Accordingly, the stars formed originally in the parsec-scale disk through Jeans' gravitational fragmentation of gas. The newly formed S-stars then migrated inward to the Galactic center via the torques exerted by Lin-Shu-type spiral density waves on the stars at an inner Lindblad resonance. The model explains both the number of observed S-stars orbiting the Galactic black hole within the nuclear (<0.05 pc) star cluster and the key property of the S-star orbits, namely, their high eccentricities.

  8. ORIGIN OF THE GALACTIC CENTER S-STARS: GRAVITATIONAL TORQUES FROM LIN-SHU-TYPE SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Griv, Evgeny

    2010-02-01

    The supermassive approx4 x 10{sup 6} M{sub sun} black hole at the Galactic center is surrounded by a parsec-scale star disk, with several thousands of dynamically relaxed, evolved, late-type CO absorption line stars and a small approx100 population of luminous O and Wolf-Rayet stars which move in approximately circular Keplerian orbits. These bluish in color massive O and Wolf-Rayet stars are very young with an estimated age of 6 +- 2 Myr. Another small group of roughly 20 young (<10 Myr) blue B stars with the orbital periods as short as 15 years ('S-stars') follow eccentric, randomly oriented orbits well inside the disk stars. A model is proposed to explain the S-stars. Accordingly, the stars formed originally in the parsec-scale disk through Jeans' gravitational fragmentation of gas. The newly formed S-stars then migrated inward to the Galactic center via the torques exerted by Lin-Shu-type spiral density waves on the stars at an inner Lindblad resonance. The model explains both the number of observed S-stars orbiting the Galactic black hole within the nuclear (<0.05 pc) star cluster and the key property of the S-star orbits, namely, their high eccentricities.

  9. 6Li in metal-poor halo stars: real or spurious?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, M.; Cayrel, R.; Bonifacio, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Caffau, E.

    2010-03-01

    The presence of convective motions in the atmospheres of metal-poor halo stars leads to systematic asymmetries of the emergent spectral line profiles. Since such line asymmetries are very small, they can be safely ignored for standard spectroscopic abundance analysis. However, when it comes to the determination of the 6Li/7Li isotopic ratio, q(Li)=n(6Li)/n(7Li), the intrinsic asymmetry of the 7Li line must be taken into account, because its signature is essentially indistinguishable from the presence of a weak 6Li blend in the red wing of the 7Li line. In this contribution we quantity the error of the inferred 6Li/7Li isotopic ratio that arises if the convective line asymmetry is ignored in the fitting of the λ6707 Å lithium blend. Our conclusion is that 6Li/7Li ratios derived by Asplund et al. (2006), using symmetric line profiles, must be reduced by typically Δq(Li) ≈ 0.015. This diminishes the number of certain 6Li detections from 9 to 4 stars or less, casting some doubt on the existence of a 6Li plateau.

  10. CN ANOMALIES IN THE HALO SYSTEM AND THE ORIGIN OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN THE MILKY WAY

    SciTech Connect

    Carollo, Daniela; Martell, Sarah L.; Beers, Timothy C.; Freeman, Ken C. E-mail: smartell@aao.gov.au E-mail: kcf@mso.anu.edu.au

    2013-06-01

    We explore the kinematics and orbital properties of a sample of red giants in the halo system of the Milky Way that are thought to have formed in globular clusters based on their anomalously strong UV/blue CN bands. The orbital parameters of the CN-strong halo stars are compared to those of the inner- and outer-halo populations as described by Carollo et al., and to the orbital parameters of globular clusters with well-studied Galactic orbits. The CN-strong field stars and the globular clusters both exhibit kinematics and orbital properties similar to the inner-halo population, indicating that stripped or destroyed globular clusters could be a significant source of inner-halo field stars, and suggesting that both the CN-strong stars and the majority of globular clusters are primarily associated with this population.

  11. GAS REGULATION OF GALAXIES: THE EVOLUTION OF THE COSMIC SPECIFIC STAR FORMATION RATE, THE METALLICITY-MASS-STAR-FORMATION RATE RELATION, AND THE STELLAR CONTENT OF HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella; Pipino, Antonio; Peng Yingjie; Renzini, Alvio

    2013-08-01

    A very simple physical model of galaxies is one in which the formation of stars is instantaneously regulated by the mass of gas in a reservoir with mass loss scaling with the star-formation rate (SFR). This model links together three different aspects of the evolving galaxy population: (1) the cosmic time evolution of the specific star-formation rate (sSFR) relative to the growth of halos, (2) the gas-phase metallicities across the galaxy population and over cosmic time, and (3) the ratio of the stellar to dark matter mass of halos. The gas regulator is defined by the gas consumption timescale ({epsilon}{sup -1}) and the mass loading {lambda} of the wind outflow {lambda}{center_dot}SFR. The simplest regulator, in which {epsilon} and {lambda} are constant, sets the sSFR equal to exactly the specific accretion rate of the galaxy; more realistic situations lead to an sSFR that is perturbed from this precise relation. Because the gas consumption timescale is shorter than the timescale on which the system evolves, the metallicity Z is set primarily by the instantaneous operation of the regulator system rather than by the past history of the system. The metallicity of the gas reservoir depends on {epsilon}, {lambda}, and sSFR, and the regulator system therefore naturally produces a Z(m{sub star}, SFR) relation if {epsilon} and {lambda} depend on the stellar mass m{sub star}. Furthermore, this relation will be the same at all epochs unless the parameters {epsilon} and {lambda} themselves change with time. A so-called fundamental metallicity relation is naturally produced by these conditions. The overall mass-metallicity relation Z(m{sub star}) directly provides the fraction f{sub star}(m{sub star}) of incoming baryons that are being transformed into stars. The observed Z(m{sub star}) relation of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies implies a strong dependence of stellar mass on halo mass that reconciles the different faint-end slopes of the stellar and halo mass

  12. Stochastic Chemical Evolution of Sub-Halos and the Origin of r-Process Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, Takuya; Ishimaru, Yuhri; Wanajo, Shinya; Prantzos, Nikos

    The main origin of r-process elements is still uncertain, but recent nucleosynthesis studies show that neutron star mergers (NSMs) are capable of naturally explaining the solar r-process abundance. Though, previous chemical evolution models hold conflict with the NSM scenario because the long NSM coalescence timescale causes an [r/Fe] enhancement at higher metallicity compared to the observed Galactic halo stars in the [r/Fe] vs [Fe/H] plane. However, it is not the case if assuming the formation of the Galactic halo by clusterings of sub-halos with varying star formation histories. We construct a chemical evolution model of sub-halos, where NSM occurring in each sub-halos are computed stochastically. Our results are in good agreement with the Galactic halo stars, explaining the observed dispersion and trend. Also, the abundance ratio pattern of the low mass sub-halos is in consistency with Reticulum II, a dwarf galaxy that might have been contaminated by a single r-process event.

  13. The Star Formation Scenario in the Galactic Range from Ophiuchus to Chamaeleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, Marília J.

    2000-07-01

    The molecular cloud complexes of Chamaeleon, Lupus and Ophiuchus, and the OB sub-groups of stars that form the Scorpius OB2 association are located at galactic longitudes in the interval 290° to 360°, all of them in a distance range from 100 to 200 pc. The distribution of known young stars in this region, both of low and of high mass, suggests that they belong to a single large structure. Moreover, a significant number of pre-main sequence (PMS) stars far from the star-forming clouds have been recently discovered. This scenario suggests that a global analysis of the star formation must be performed, especially of such nearby regions for which a large amount of data can be obtained. In order to test the models that intend to describe the history of star formation in these nearby star-forming regions, we collected information on the distribution of gas and dust and on the related young stellar populations. We mapped the molecular clouds of the complexes located in Chamaeleon, Lupus and Ophiuchus by means of an automatic method for star counting on plates of the Digitized Sky Survey. Another improvement with respect to the traditional star counts method is that we have adopted a relation between the extinction and the number of stars based on the predictions of the Galaxy's model by Ortiz & Lépine (1993, A&A 279, 90). Our maps confirm that there is an extended distribution of dust in the regions between the main clouds. We built a complete list of PMS and early-type stars from the literature, including all the available distance, radial velocity and proper motion data. We completed these data with our own determinations of proper motions of PMS stars, using positions obtained with the Valinhos Meridian Circle (IAG/USP, Brazil), photographic plates and public catalogs (Teixeira et al. 2000, A&A in press). Using these kinematical data and comparing the positions and spatial velocities of PMS stars to those of early-type stars, we verified that the kinematics of the

  14. PROBING THE HALO FROM THE SOLAR VICINITY TO THE OUTER GALAXY: CONNECTING STARS IN LOCAL VELOCITY STRUCTURES TO LARGE-SCALE CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Kathryn V.; Sheffield, Allyson A.; Majewski, Steven R.; Sharma, Sanjib; Rocha-Pinto, Helio J.

    2012-11-20

    This paper presents the first potential connections made between two local features in velocity space found in a survey of M giant stars and stellar spatial inhomogeneities on global scales. Comparison to cosmological, chemodynamical stellar halo models confirms that the M giant population is particularly sensitive to rare, recent and massive accretion events. These events can give rise to locally observed velocity sequences-each made from a small fraction of debris from a massive progenitor, passing at high velocity through the survey volume, near the pericenter of the eccentric orbit of the system. The majority of the debris is found in much larger structures, whose morphologies are more cloud-like than stream-like and which lie at the orbital apocenters. Adopting this interpretation, the full-space motions represented by the observed M giant velocity features are derived under the assumption that the members within each sequence share a common space velocity. Orbit integrations are then used to trace the past and future trajectories of these stars across the sky revealing plausible associations with large, previously discovered, cloud-like structures. The connections made between nearby velocity structures and these distant clouds represent preliminary steps toward developing coherent maps of such giant debris systems. These maps promise to provide new insights into the origin of debris clouds, new probes of Galactic history and structure, and new constraints on the high-velocity tails of the local dark matter distribution that are essential for interpreting direct dark matter particle detection experiments.

  15. A new sample of OH/IR stars in the Galactic center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjouwerman, L. O.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Winnberg, A.; Habing, H. J.

    1998-02-01

    Two independent, largely overlapping 1612 MHz data sets were searched for OH/IR stars in the Galactic center. One set, taken with the Very Large Array in the period 1988 to 1991, consists of 17 epochs monitoring data of \\cite[Van Langevelde et al. (1993)]{van93}. The other set was observed in 1994, using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. This article describes the data reduction procedures as well as a different way of searching image cubes for narrow line sources, and lists a total of 155 double peak OH maser detections within 18arcmin or 40 projected parsecs of Sagittarius A*, the compact radio continuum source in the Galactic nucleus. Presented are 65 formerly unseen double peaked 1612 MHz emitters, of which 52 are OH/IR stars. Also given are 3 single peak sources, which we believe to be masers of OH/IR stars. Apart from being less bright in their 1612 MHz OH maser line, the previously unknown OH/IR stars do not seem to be different from the previously known population of OH/IR stars in the Galactic center. We find that the OH/IR star OH maser luminosity distribution peaks at L_OH~ 10(43.4) photons per second. Further physical and kinematical analysis of the new sample will be presented in additional papers. Tables 2 and 3 are also available in electronic form at CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5), or via the WWW at http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html. Figures 4 and 5 are only published electronically and obtainable from http://www.edpsciences.com

  16. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. VII. CHARACTERIZING THE PROPERTIES OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, Miranda K.; Rosolowsky, Erik; Evans II, Neal J.; Cyganowski, Claudia; Urquhart, James S.

    2011-11-10

    We present the results of a Green Bank Telescope survey of NH{sub 3}(1,1), (2,2), (3,3) lines toward 631 Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) sources at a range of Galactic longitudes in the inner Galaxy. We have detected the NH{sub 3}(1,1) line toward 72% of our targets (456), demonstrating that the high column density features identified in the BGPS and other continuum surveys accurately predict the presence of dense gas. We have determined kinematic distances and resolved the distance ambiguity for all BGPS sources detected in NH{sub 3}. The BGPS sources trace the locations of the Scutum and Sagittarius spiral arms, with the number of sources. We measure the physical properties of each source and find that depending on the distance, BGPS sources are primarily clumps, with some cores and clouds. We have examined the physical properties as a function of Galactocentric distance, and find a mean gas kinetic temperature of 15.6 K, and that the NH{sub 3} column density and abundance decrease by nearly an order of magnitude. Comparing sources at similar distances demonstrates that the physical properties are indistinguishable, which suggests a similarity in clump structure across the Galactic disk. We have also compared the BGPS sources to criteria for efficient star formation presented independently by Heiderman et al. and Lada et al., and for massive star formation presented by Kauffmann et al. Forty-eight percent of our sample should be forming stars (including massive stars) with high efficiency, and 87% contain subregions that should be efficiently forming stars. Indeed, we find that 67% of the sample exhibit signs of star formation activity based on an association with a mid-infrared source.

  17. SEGUE 3: AN OLD, EXTREMELY LOW LUMINOSITY STAR CLUSTER IN THE MILKY WAY's HALO

    SciTech Connect

    Fadely, Ross; Willman, Beth; Geha, Maria; Munoz, Ricardo R.; Vargas, Luis C.; Walsh, Shane

    2011-09-15

    We investigate the kinematic and photometric properties of the Segue 3 Milky Way companion using Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy and Magellan/IMACS g- and r-band imaging. Using maximum likelihood methods to analyze the photometry, we study the structure and stellar population of Segue 3. We find that the half-light radius of Segue 3 is 26'' {+-} 5'' (2.1 {+-} 0.4 pc, for a distance of 17 kpc) and the absolute magnitude is a mere M{sub V} = 0.0 {+-} 0.8 mag, making Segue 3 the least luminous old stellar system known. We find Segue 3 to be consistent with a single stellar population, with an age of 12.0{sup +1.5}{sub -0.4} Gyr and an [Fe/H] of -1.7{sup +0.07}{sub -0.27}. Line-of-sight velocities from the spectra are combined with the photometry to determine a sample of 32 stars which are likely associated with Segue 3. The member stars within three half-light radii have a velocity dispersion of 1.2 {+-} 2.6 km s{sup -1}. Photometry of the members indicates that the stellar population has a spread in [Fe/H] of {approx}< 0.3 dex. These facts, together with the small physical size of Segue 3, imply the object is likely an old, faint stellar cluster which contains no significant dark matter. We find tentative evidence for stellar mass loss in Segue 3 through the 11 candidate member stars outside of three half-light radii, as expected from dynamical arguments. Interpretation of the data outside of three half-light radii is complicated by the object's spatial coincidence with a previously known halo substructure, which may enhance contamination of our member sample.

  18. Galactic fountains and outflows in star forming dwarf galaxies: ISM expulsion and chemical enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melioli, Claudio

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the impact of supernova feedback in gas-rich dwarf galaxies experiencing a low-to-moderate star formation rate, typical of relatively quiescent phases between starbursts. We calculated the long term evolution of the ISM and the metal-rich SN ejecta using 3D hydrodynamical simulations, in which the feedback energy is deposited by SNII exploding in distinct OB associations. We found that a circulation flow similar to galactic fountains is generally estabilished, with some ISM lifted at heights of one to few kpc above the galactic plane. This gas forms an extra-planar layer, which falls back to the plane in about 108 yr, once the star formation stops. Very little or no ISM is expelled outside the galaxy system for the considered SFRs, even though in the most powerful model the SN energy is comparable to the gas binding energy. The metal-rich SN ejecta is instead more vulnerable to the feedback and we found that a significant fraction (25-80%) is vented in the intergalactic medium, even for low SN rate. About half of the metals retained by the galaxy are located far (z > 500 pc) from the galactic plane. Moreover, our models indicate that the circulation of the metal-rich gas out from and back to the galactic disk is not able to erase the chemical gradients imprinted by the (centrally concentrated) SN explosions.

  19. GALACTIC-CENTER S STARS AS A PROSPECTIVE TEST OF THE EINSTEIN EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Angelil, Raymond; Saha, Prasenjit

    2011-06-10

    The S stars in the Galactic-center region are found to be on near-perfect Keplerian orbits around presumably a supermassive black hole, with periods of 15-50 yr. Since these stars reach a few percent of light speed at pericenter, various relativistic effects are expected and have been discussed in the literature. We argue that an elegant test of the Einstein equivalence principle should be possible with existing instruments, through spectroscopic monitoring of an S star concentrated during the months around pericenter, supplemented with an already-adequate astrometric determination of the inclination. In essence, the spectrum of an S star can be considered a heterogeneous ensemble of clocks in a freely falling frame, which near pericenter is moving at relativistic speeds.

  20. Constraining the Variability and Binary Fraction of Galactic Center Young Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Abhimat K.; Do, Tuan; Ghez, Andrea M.; Lu, Jessica R.; Morris, Mark R.; Sakai, Shoko; Witzel, Gunther; Sitarski, Breann N.; Chappell, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    We present constraints on the variability and binarity of young stars in the central 10 arcseconds (~ 0.4 pc) of the Milky Way Galactic Center (GC) using Keck Adaptive Optics data over a 12 year baseline. Given our experiment's photometric uncertainties, at least 36% of our sample's known early-type stars are variable. We identified eclipsing binary systems by searching for periodic variability. In our sample of spectroscopically confirmed and likely early-type stars, we detected the two previously discovered GC eclipsing binary systems. We derived the likely binary fraction of main sequence, early-type stars at the GC via Monte Carlo simulations of eclipsing binary systems, and find that it is at least 32% with 90% confidence.

  1. The delayed contribution of low and intermediate mass stars to chemical galactic enrichment: An analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, I.; Carigi, L.

    2008-10-01

    We find a new analytical solution for the chemical evolution equations, taking into account the delayed contribution of all low and intermediate mass stars (LIMS) as one representative star that enriches the interstellar medium. This solution is built only for star formation rate proportional to the gas mass in a closed box model. We obtain increasing C/O and N/O ratios with increasing O/H, behavior impossible to match with the Instantaneous Recycling Approximation (IRA). Our results, obtained by two analytical equations, are very similar to those found by numerical models that consider the lifetimes of each star. This delayed model reproduces successfully the evolution of the C/O-O/H and Y - O relations in the solar vicinity. This analytical approximation is a useful tool to study the chemical evolution of elements produced by LIMS when a galactic chemical evolutionary code is not available.

  2. Galactic Winds and Structure of z ~ 2 Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Sarah F.

    Galactic-scale outflows are a key driver of galaxy evolution through their feedback effect on star-formation and their ejection of metals and energy into the inter-galactic medium (IGM). While it is known that outflows likely play an important role in the quenching of star-formation - transforming actively star-forming, blue galaxies into their 'red and dead' counterparts - this role is currently not well understood. In particular, at z ˜ 2, during the most active epoch of star-formation, the mass and energy in these outflows is poorly constrained, as is the mechanism for launching them. Furthermore, active-galactic nuclei (AGN) in the centers of massive star-forming galaxies (SFGs) likely play an important role in star-formation quenching, but we do not have a clear understanding of how this AGN feedback compares with that of star-formation driven feedback, and it is not known how many of these massive SFGs at z ˜ 2 even have AGN. This issue is complicated by the fact that many high-z AGN are likely highly obscured, and have strong nebular emission line contributions from both star-formation and the AGN. In this dissertation, I explore these issues using high-spatial and spectral resolution integral field unit spectroscopic data of z ˜ 2 SFGs. The observations are obtained with the instrument SINFONI on the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Cerro Paranal. These high-quality data allow spatially-resolved studies of the gas-phase kinematics of these galaxies, as well dynamical information on their outflows. In this work, I explore outflow properties in one galaxy with exceptionally deep data, allowing detailed examination of the outflow energetics, spatial extent and underlying ISM properties, as well those from a larger sample of galaxies. I also probe the fraction of SFGs in our sample which contain (possibly obscured) AGN, and study how this affects our determination of galaxy properties, such as gas-phase metallicity. Finally

  3. The roles of stellar feedback and galactic environment in star-forming molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey-Raposo, Ramon; Dobbs, Clare; Agertz, Oscar; Alig, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Feedback from massive stars is thought to play an important role in the evolution of molecular clouds. In this work, we analyse the effects of stellar winds and supernovae (SNe) in the evolution of two massive (˜106 M⊙) giant molecular clouds: one gravitationally bound collapsing cloud and one unbound cloud undergoing disruption by galactic shear. These two clouds have been extracted from a large-scale galaxy model and are re-simulated at a spatial resolution of ˜0.01 pc, including feedback from winds, SNe, and the combined effect of both. We find that stellar winds stop accretion of gas on to sink particles, and can also trigger star formation in the shells formed by the winds, although the overall effect is to reduce the global star formation rate of both clouds. Furthermore, we observe that winds tend to escape through the corridors of diffuse gas. The effect of SNe is not so prominent and the star formation rate is similar to models neglecting stellar feedback. We find that most of the energy injected by the SNe is radiated away, but overdense areas are created by multiple and concurrent SN events especially in the most virialized cloud. Our results suggest that the impact of stellar feedback is sensitive to the morphology of star-forming clouds, which is set by large-scale galactic flows, being of greater importance in clouds undergoing gravitational collapse.

  4. Gas-star-interaction in Dense Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, A.; Amaro-Seoane, P.

    The precursor of a Supermassive Black Hole in the center of a galaxy may be described by a `supermassive star' (SMS) at the center of the galaxy. This is a strongly condensed gas cloud in the center of the central stellar component. The stability and evolution of the SMS depend essentially on the energetic interaction with the stellar component. The structure of the loss-cone (i.e. the part of phase space with stellar orbits crossing the SMS) and the total energy transfer rate to the SMS were recently studied in detail by Amaro-Seoane & Spurzem (2001, astro-ph/0105251, MNRAS in press). They used an estimate of the total cross section of each star when moving through the SMS resulting in a heating rate per dynamical time-scale. This point of view is reasonable for investigating the evolution of the stellar component as a function of radius. For an analysis of the structure and evolution of the SMS itself (i.e. the gaseous component) it is necessary to look on the radial dependance of the energy deposition due to the star-gas interaction. This can be done also semi-analytical in a statistical way by using the dynamical friction concept including a gaseous component (see Just, Kegel & Deiss, 1986, A&A 164, 337). From this the local heating rate of the gas can be estimated and the influence of this (dissipational) process on the stability of the SMS can be investigated. We compute the relevant time-scales as a function of radius for a SMS in the relevant mass range (103 dots 107 Msolar). In the regime of heating time-scales comparable to the evolution time of the SMS we will consider the question of stabilisation against core collapse (resulting in a delay of subsequent formation of a Supermassive Black Hole with the effect of a higher Black Hole mass?).

  5. Interstellar Scattering Towards the Galactic Center as Probed by OH/IR Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanlangevelde, Huib Jan; Frail, Dale A.; Cordes, James M.; Diamond, Philip J.

    1992-01-01

    Angular broadening measurements are reported of 20 OH/IR stars near the galactic center. This class of sources is known to have bright, intrinsically compact (less than or equal to 20 mas) maser components within their circumstellar shells. VLBA antennas and the VLA were used to perform a MKII spectral line VLBI experiment. The rapid drop in correlated flux with increasing baseline, especially for sources closest to the galactic center, is attributed to interstellar scattering. Angular diameters were measured for 13 of our sources. Lower limits were obtained for the remaining seven. With the data, together with additional data taken from the literature, the distribution was determined of interstellar scattering toward the galactic center. A region was found of pronounced scattering nearly centered on SgrA*. Two interpretations are considered for the enhanced scattering. One hypothesis is that the scattering is due to a clump of enhanced turbulence, such as those that lie along lines of sight to other known objects, that has no physical relationship to the galactic center. The other model considers the location of the enhanced scattering to arise in the galactic center itself. The physical implications of the models yield information on the nature of interstellar scattering.

  6. Chemistry and radiative shielding in star-forming galactic discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safranek-Shrader, Chalence; Krumholz, Mark R.; Kim, Chang-Goo; Ostriker, Eve C.; Klein, Richard I.; Li, Shule; McKee, Christopher F.; Stone, James M.

    2017-02-01

    To understand the conditions under which dense, molecular gas is able to form within a galaxy, we post-process a series of three-dimensional galactic-disc-scale simulations with ray-tracing-based radiative transfer and chemical network integration to compute the equilibrium chemical and thermal state of the gas. In performing these simulations, we vary a number of parameters, such as the interstellar radiation field strength, vertical scaleheight of stellar sources, and cosmic ray flux, to gauge the sensitivity of our results to these variations. Self-shielding permits significant molecular hydrogen (H2) abundances in dense filaments around the disc mid-plane, accounting for approximately ˜10-15 per cent of the total gas mass. Significant CO fractions only form in the densest, nH≳ 10^3 cm^{-3}, gas where a combination of dust, H2, and self-shielding attenuates the far-ultraviolet background. We additionally compare these ray-tracing-based solutions to photochemistry with complementary models where photoshielding is accounted for with locally computed prescriptions. With some exceptions, these local models for the radiative shielding length perform reasonably well at reproducing the distribution and amount of molecular gas as compared with a detailed, global ray-tracing calculation. Specifically, an approach based on the Jeans length with a T = 40 K temperature cap performs the best in regard to a number of different quantitative measures based on the H2 and CO abundances.

  7. New orbital analysis of stars at the Galactic center using speckle holography and orbital priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehle, Anna; Schödel, Rainer; Meyer, Leo; Ghez, Andrea M.

    2014-05-01

    We present initial results of a study that has more than doubled the time baseline for astrometric measurements of faint stars orbiting the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the Galactic center. The advent of adaptive optics has enabled stars as faint as K = 19 mag to be tracked at 50 mas resolution for the last decade. While similar resolution images exist from the prior decade, they were obtained from speckle imaging data analyzed with the technique of shift-and-add, which limited detections to stars brighter than K = 16 mag. By improving the speckle data analysis technique with speckle holography and using prior orbital knowledge, we are now able to track stars as faint as ˜18 mag at 50 mas resolution through the early Keck speckle data sets (1995-2005). This methodology has already led to the detection of two short-period stars never previously seen in speckle images, such that our data now spans their full orbits. We can now better constrain the orbital parameters of all stars in the intriguing "S-star cluster," which will ultimately give us insight into the origin of these stars and be used to probe the curvature of space-time in the unexplored regime near a SMBH.

  8. Estimating Gaia's performance for O stars in the Outer Galactic plane using Herschel data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rygl, K. L. J.; Molinari, S.; Prusti, T.; Antoja, T.; Elia, D.; de Bruijne, J.

    2014-07-01

    It is in the less dense Outer Galaxy where Gaia can contribute much to stellar studies of the Galactic Plane. As O stars are by definition young objects, their positions and kinematics can still be related to their formation site and history. O star astrometry will not only be important for studies of high-mass star formation, such as triggered star-formation in shells, but also an interesting complement to the radio maser astrometry of star-forming regions and the structure of spiral arms. With the TLUSTY (Lanz & Hubeny 2013) model atmospheres and the nominal Gaia parallax uncertainty, we estimate the parallax uncertainty for all subtypes of main sequence O stars given a visual extinction. The expected extinction is an important limitation for Gaia's astrometric performance and we estimate the extinction from the column density maps calculated from the Herschel Infrared Galactic Plane survey (Molinari et al. 2010), a thermal cold dust emission survey of unprecedented angular resolution and sensitivity. In the 10∘ strip, taken to represent the first estimate of the average extinction in the Outer Galaxy, we find that most of the visual extinction is less than 10 mag. Only the most dense parts of the clouds have AV > 10 mag. Given these extinctions toward the Outer Galaxy, Gaia will provide accurate (5σ) astrometry for O stars in the Outer Galaxy up to distances of at least 4-6 kpc, which means that Gaia's O star astrometry will be able to transgress the Perseus arm and reach the less-known Outer Arm of the Milky Way (Rygl et al.https://gaia.ub.edu/Twiki/pub/GREATITNFC/ProgramFinalconference/Poster_Rygl%2cK.pdf).

  9. On the observability of bow shocks of Galactic runaway OB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, D. M.-A.; van Marle, A.-J.; Kuiper, R.; Kley, W.

    2016-06-01

    Massive stars that have been ejected from their parent cluster and supersonically sailing away through the interstellar medium (ISM) are classified as exiled. They generate circumstellar bow-shock nebulae that can be observed. We present two-dimensional, axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations of a representative sample of stellar wind bow shocks from Galactic OB stars in an ambient medium of densities ranging from nISM = 0.01 up to 10.0 cm- 3. Independently of their location in the Galaxy, we confirm that the infrared is the most appropriated waveband to search for bow shocks from massive stars. Their spectral energy distribution is the convenient tool to analyse them since their emission does not depend on the temporary effects which could affect unstable, thin-shelled bow shocks. Our numerical models of Galactic bow shocks generated by high-mass ( ≈ 40 M⊙) runaway stars yield H α fluxes which could be observed by facilities such as the SuperCOSMOS H-Alpha Survey. The brightest bow-shock nebulae are produced in the denser regions of the ISM. We predict that bow shocks in the field observed at H α by means of Rayleigh-sensitive facilities are formed around stars of initial mass larger than about 20 M⊙. Our models of bow shocks from OB stars have the emission maximum in the wavelength range 3 ≤ λ ≤ 50 μm which can be up to several orders of magnitude brighter than the runaway stars themselves, particularly for stars of initial mass larger than 20 M⊙.

  10. Bar Effects on Central Star Formation and Active Galactic Nucleus Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seulhee; Oh, Kyuseok; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2012-01-01

    Galactic bars are often suspected to be channels of gas inflow to the galactic center and to trigger central star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. However, the current status on this issue based on empirical studies is unsettling, especially regarding AGNs. We investigate this question based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. From the nearby (0.01 < z < 0.05) bright (M r < -19) database, we have constructed a sample of 6658 relatively face-on late-type galaxies through visual inspection. We found 36% of them to have a bar. Bars are found to be more common in galaxies with earlier morphology. This makes sample selection critical. Parameter-based selections would miss a large fraction of barred galaxies of early morphology. Bar effects on star formation or AGNs are difficult to understand properly because multiple factors (bar frequency, stellar mass, black hole mass, gas contents, etc.) seem to contribute to them in intricate manners. In the hope of breaking these degeneracies, we inspect bar effects for fixed galaxy properties. Bar effects on central star formation seem higher in redder galaxies. Bar effects on AGNs on the other hand are higher in bluer and less massive galaxies. These effects seem more pronounced with increasing bar length. We discuss possible implications in terms of gas contents, bar strength, bar evolution, fueling timescale, and the dynamical role of supermassive black hole.

  11. The Galactic Starburst Region NGC 3603 : exciting new insights on the formation of high mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nürnberger, D. E. A.

    2004-10-01

    powerful stellar winds which evaporate and disperse the surrounding interstellar medium, thus "lifting the courtains" around nearby young stars at a relatively early evolutionary stage. Such premises are given in the Galactic starburst region NGC 3603. Nevertheless, a large observational effort with different telescopes and instruments -- in particular, taking advantage of the high angular resolution and high sensitivity of near and mid IR instruments available at ESO -- was necessary to achieve the goals of my study. After a basic introduction on the topic of (high mass) star formation in Chapter 1, a short overview of the investigated region NGC 3603 and its importance for both galactic and extragalactic star formation studies is given in Chapter 2. Then, in Chapter 3, I report on a comprehensive investigation of the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas and dust associated with the NGC 3603 region. In Chapter 4 I thoroughly address the radial extent of the NGC 3603 OB cluster and the spatial distribution of the cluster members. Together with deep Ks band imaging data, a detailed survey of NGC 3603 at mid IR wavelengths allows to search the neighbourhood of the cold molecular gas and dust for sources with intrinsic mid IR excess (Chapter 5). In Chapter 6 I characterize the most prominent sources of NGC 3603 IRS 9 and show that these sources are bona-fide candidates for high mass protostars. Finally, a concise summary as well as an outlook on future prospects in high mass star formation research is given in Chapter 7.

  12. A multiwavelength study of the Carlson-Henize sample of early-type Galactic extreme emission-line stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, Steven N.; Brown, Douglas N.; Bopp, B. W.; Robinson, C. R.; Sanduleak, N.

    1990-01-01

    A UV, optical, and radio study of nine early spectral type extreme emission-line Galactic stars from the Carlson and Henize (1979) sample is presented. He 3-407 and He 3-1482 appear to be analogs of the massive evolved B(e) and luminous blue variable stars of the Magellanic Clouds. The sample appears to be confined to a narrow range in spectral type from about B0 to B6. Most of the observed stars do not show strong N emission, with the striking exception of He 3-1482, and these Galactic stars may not have mixed significant quantities of nitrogen into their envelopes, unlike many of the LMC supergiants, Most of the Galactic stars are considerably fainter than those in the Magellanic Clouds, although their spectral properties are quite similar.

  13. Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS): The HST View of Star Formation in Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetti, Daniela; Lee, J. C.; Adamo, A.; Aloisi, A.; Andrews, J. E.; Brown, T. M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C. A.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G. C.; Da Silva, R. L.; de Mink, S. E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, B.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Evans, A. S.; Fumagalli, M.; Gallagher, J. S.; Gouliermis, D.; Grebel, E.; Herrero-Davo`, A.; Hilbert, B.; Hunter, D. A.; Johnson, K. E.; Kennicutt, R.; Kim, H.; Krumholz, M. R.; Lennon, D. J.; Martin, C. D.; Nair, P.; Nota, A.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M. W.; Sabbi, E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Smith, L. J.; Thilker, D. A.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Walterbos, R. A.; Whitmore, B. C.; Wofford, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Treasury program LEGUS (HST/GO-13364) is the first HST UV Atlas of nearby galaxies, and is aimed at the thorough investigation of star formation and its relation with galaxy environment, from the scales of individual stars to those of ~kpc clustered structures. The 154-orbits program is obtaining NUV,U,B,V,I images of 50 star-forming galaxies in the distance range 4-12 Mpc, covering the full range of morphology, star formation rate (SFR), mass, metallicity, internal structure, and interaction state found in the local Universe. The imaging survey will yield accurate recent (<50 Myr) star formation histories (SFHs) from resolved massive stars, and the extinction-corrected ages and masses of star clusters and associations. These extensive inventories of massive stars, clustered systems, and SFHs will be used to: (1) quantify how the clustering of star formation evolves both in space and in time; (2) discriminate among models of star cluster evolution; (3) investigate the effects of SFH on the UV SFR calibrations; (4) explore the impact of environment on star formation and cluster evolution across the full range of galactic and ISM properties. LEGUS observations will inform theories of star formation and galaxy evolution, and improve the understanding of the physical underpinning of the gas-star formation relation and the nature of the clumpy star formation at high redshift. LEGUS will generate the most homogeneous high-resolution, wide-field UV dataset to date, building and expanding on the GALEX legacy. Data products that will be delivered to the community include: catalogs of massive stars and star clusters, catalogs of star cluster properties (ages, masses, extinction), and a one-stop shop for all the ancillary data available for this well-studied galaxy sample. LEGUS will provide the reference survey and the foundation for future observations with JWST and with ALMA. This abstract accompanies another one from the same project, and presents the status of the

  14. A Luminous Yellow Post-AGB Star in the Galactic Globular Cluster M79

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Howard E.; Ciardullo, Robin; Siegel, Michael H.

    2016-02-01

    We report the discovery of a luminous F-type post-asymptotic-giant-branch (PAGB) star in the Galactic globular cluster (GC) M79 (NGC 1904). At visual apparent and absolute magnitudes of V=12.20 and {M}V=-3.46, this “yellow” PAGB star is by a small margin the visually brightest star known in any GC. It was identified using CCD observations in the uBVI photometric system, which is optimized to detect stars with large Balmer discontinuities, indicative of very low surface gravities. Follow-up observations with the SMARTS 1.3 and 1.5 m telescopes show that the star is not variable in light or radial velocity, and that its velocity is consistent with cluster membership. Near- and mid-infrared observations with 2MASS and WISE show no evidence for circumstellar dust. We argue that a sharp upper limit to the luminosity function exists for yellow PAGB stars in old populations, making them excellent candidates for Population II standard candles, which are four magnitudes brighter than RR Lyrae variables. Their luminosities are consistent with the stars being in a PAGB evolutionary phase, with core masses of ˜ 0.53 {M}⊙ . We also detected four very hot stars lying above the horizontal branch (“AGB-manqué” stars); along with the PAGB star, they are the brightest objects in M79 in the near-ultraviolet. In the Appendix, we give periods and light curves for five variables in M79: three RR Lyrae stars, a Type II Cepheid, and a semiregular variable. Based in part on observations with the 1.3 and 1.5 m telescopes operated by the SMARTS Consortium at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory.

  15. A NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE INNER GALACTIC PLANE FOR WOLF-RAYET STARS. II. GOING FAINTER: 71 MORE NEW W-R STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Shara, Michael M.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Zurek, David; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Doyon, Rene; Gerke, Jill; Artigau, Etienne; Drissen, Laurent E-mail: jfaherty@amnh.org E-mail: moffat@astro.umontreal.ca E-mail: gerke@astronomy.ohio-state.edu E-mail: ldrissen@phy.ulaval.ca

    2012-06-15

    We are continuing a J, K and narrowband imaging survey of 300 deg{sup 2} of the plane of the Galaxy, searching for new Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars. Our survey spans 150 Degree-Sign in Galactic longitude and reaches 1 Degree-Sign above and below the Galactic plane. The survey has a useful limiting magnitude of K = 15 over most of the observed Galactic plane, and K = 14 (due to severe crowding) within a few degrees of the Galactic center. Thousands of emission-line candidates have been detected. In spectrographic follow-ups of 146 relatively bright W-R star candidates, we have re-examined 11 previously known WC and WN stars and discovered 71 new W-R stars, 17 of type WN and 54 of type WC. Our latest image analysis pipeline now picks out W-R stars with a 57% success rate. Star subtype assignments have been confirmed with the K-band spectra and distances approximated using the method of spectroscopic parallax. Some of the new W-R stars are among the most distant known in our Galaxy. The distribution of these new W-R stars is beginning to trace the locations of massive stars along the distant spiral arms of the Milky Way.

  16. Galactic evolution of Beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesgaard, Ann Merchant; King, Jeremy R.

    1993-12-01

    The abundance of Be in the lowest-metallicity stars is a probe of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and its abundance in halo and disk stars is a probe of galactic evolution and stellar structure. We present observations of the Be II resonance lines in 14 halo stars and 27 (mostly old) disk stars with (Fe/H) from -2.7 to +0.13. The spectra were obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii (CFH) 3.6 m telescope and have a measured resolution of 0.13 A and a median signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 50. For 18 of the 41 stars we have also made observations of the O I triplet at the Palomar 5 m telescope, the UH 2.2 m telescope, and the CFH telescope. Stellar parameters of Teff, log g, and (Fe/H) were carefully determined from several independent estimates. Abundances are determined for log N (Be/H) and (O/H) from measured equivalent widths, model parameters, and Kurucz (1991) model atmospheres with the RAI10 model atmosphere abundance program. The agreement with previously published Be detections is very good (a mean difference of 0.05 dex) for five of six determinations in four halo stars and in four of five disk stars. The agreement with very recently published O abundances is 0.0075 dex. It is plausible, but far from conclusive, that there is a plateau in the amount of Be present in the lowest metallicity stars: log N (Be/H) approximately -12.8 for (Fe/H) less than -2.2 As (Fe/H) increases from -2.2 to -1.0, log N (Be/H) increases and the slope is 1.2-1.3, indicating a faster increase in Be than in Fe. This is consistent with the production of Be by spallation reactions between cosmic rays and O atoms from massive stars and the production of Fe from intermediate mass stars. Evidence for stellar processing of Be exists in the disk stars and in at least two of the halo stars. A plot of Be abundance vs O abundances shows that Be increases as O1.12, indicating that Be is produced primarily is the vicinity of supernovae envelopes, but a small and interesting fraction is produced in

  17. The Eating Habits of Milky Way Mass Halos: Destroyed Dwarf Satellites and the Metallicity Distribution of Accreted Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Deason, Alis J.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we study the mass spectrum of destroyed dwarfs that contribute to the accreted stellar mass of Milky Way (MW)-mass (Mvir ~ 1012.1 M) halos using a suite of 45 zoom-in dissipationless simulations. Empirical models are employed to relate (peak) subhalo mass to dwarf stellar mass, and we use constraints from z = 0 observations and hydrodynamical simulations to estimate the metallicity distribution of the accreted stellar material. The dominant contributors to the accreted stellar mass are relatively massive dwarfs with Mstar ~ 108–1010M. Halos with more quiescent accretion histories tend to have lower mass progenitors (108–109 M), and lower overall accreted stellar masses. Ultra-faint mass (Mstar < 105 M) dwarfs contribute a negligible amount (<<1%) to the accreted stellar mass and, despite having low average metallicities, supply a small fraction (~2%–5%) of the very metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < -2. Dwarfs with masses 105 < Mstar/M < 108 provide a substantial amount of the very metal-poor stellar material (~40%–80%), and even relatively metal-rich dwarfs with Mstar > 108 M can contribute a considerable fraction (~20%–60%) of metal-poor stars if their metallicity distributions have significant metal-poor tails. Finally, we find that the generic assumption of a quiescent assembly history for the MW halo seems to be in tension with the mass spectrum of its surviving dwarfs. In conclusion, we suggest that the MW could be a "transient fossil"; a quiescent halo with a recent accretion event(s) that disguises the preceding formation history of the halo.

  18. THE EATING HABITS OF MILKY WAY-MASS HALOS: DESTROYED DWARF SATELLITES AND THE METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION OF ACCRETED STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Deason, Alis J.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-04-10

    We study the mass spectrum of destroyed dwarfs that contribute to the accreted stellar mass of Milky Way (MW)-mass (M{sub vir} ∼ 10{sup 12.1} M{sub ⊙}) halos using a suite of 45 zoom-in dissipationless simulations. Empirical models are employed to relate (peak) subhalo mass to dwarf stellar mass, and we use constraints from z = 0 observations and hydrodynamical simulations to estimate the metallicity distribution of the accreted stellar material. The dominant contributors to the accreted stellar mass are relatively massive dwarfs with M{sub star} ∼ 10{sup 8}–10{sup 10}M{sub ⊙}. Halos with more quiescent accretion histories tend to have lower mass progenitors (10{sup 8}–10{sup 9} M{sub ⊙}), and lower overall accreted stellar masses. Ultra-faint mass (M{sub star} < 10{sup 5} M{sub ⊙}) dwarfs contribute a negligible amount (≪1%) to the accreted stellar mass and, despite having low average metallicities, supply a small fraction (∼2%–5%) of the very metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < −2. Dwarfs with masses 10{sup 5} < M{sub star}/M{sub ⊙} < 10{sup 8} provide a substantial amount of the very metal-poor stellar material (∼40%–80%), and even relatively metal-rich dwarfs with M{sub star} > 10{sup 8} M{sub ⊙} can contribute a considerable fraction (∼20%–60%) of metal-poor stars if their metallicity distributions have significant metal-poor tails. Finally, we find that the generic assumption of a quiescent assembly history for the MW halo seems to be in tension with the mass spectrum of its surviving dwarfs. We suggest that the MW could be a “transient fossil”; a quiescent halo with a recent accretion event(s) that disguises the preceding formation history of the halo.

  19. A dynamical model for gas flows, star formation and nuclear winds in galactic centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumholz, Mark R.; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Crocker, Roland M.

    2017-04-01

    We present a dynamical model for gas transport, star formation and winds in the nuclear regions of galaxies, focusing on the Milky Way's Central Molecular Zone (CMZ). In our model angular momentum and mass are transported by a combination of gravitational and bar-driven acoustic instabilities. In gravitationally unstable regions the gas can form stars, and the resulting feedback drives both turbulence and a wind that ejects mass from the CMZ. We show that the CMZ is in a quasi-steady state where mass deposited at large radii by the bar is transported inwards to a star-forming, ring-shaped region at ∼100 pc from the Galactic Centre, where the shear reaches a minimum. This ring undergoes episodic starbursts, with bursts lasting ∼5-10 Myr occurring at ∼20-40 Myr intervals. During quiescence the gas in the ring is not fully cleared, but is driven out of a self-gravitating state by the momentum injected by expanding supernova remnants. Starbursts also drive a wind off the star-forming ring, with a time-averaged mass flux comparable to the star formation rate. We show that our model agrees well with the observed properties of the CMZ, and places it near a star formation minimum within the evolutionary cycle. We argue that such cycles of bursty star formation and winds should be ubiquitous in the nuclei of barred spiral galaxies, and show that the resulting distribution of galactic nuclei on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation is in good agreement with that observed in nearby galaxies.

  20. The redshift evolution of the distribution of star formation among dark matter halos as seen in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béthermin, Matthieu; Wang, Lingyu; Doré, Olivier; Lagache, Guilaine; Sargent, Mark; Daddi, Emanuele; Cousin, Morgane; Aussel, Hervé

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies have revealed a strong correlation between the star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass of the majority of star-forming galaxies, the so-called star-forming main sequence. An empirical modeling approach (the 2-SFM framework) that distinguishes between the main sequence and rarer starburst galaxies is capable of reproducing most statistical properties of infrared galaxies, such as number counts, luminosity functions, and redshift distributions. In this paper, we extend this approach by establishing a connection between stellar mass and halo mass with the technique of abundance matching. Based on a few simple assumptions and a physically motivated formalism, our model successfully predicts the (cross-)power spectra of the cosmic infrared background (CIB), the cross-correlation between CIB and cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing, and the correlation functions of bright, resolved infrared galaxies measured by Herschel, Planck, ACT, and SPT. We use this model to infer the redshift distribution of CIB-anisotropies and of the CIB × CMB lensing signal, as well as the level of correlation between CIB-anisotropies at different wavelengths. We study the link between dark matter halos and star-forming galaxies in the framework of our model. We predict that more than 90% of cosmic star formation activity occurs in halos with masses between 1011.5 and 1013.5 M⊙. If taking subsequent mass growth of halos into account, this implies that the majority of stars were initially (at z > 3) formed in the progenitors of clusters (Mh(z = 0) > 1013.5 M⊙), then in groups (1012.5 < Mh(z = 0) < 1013.5 M⊙) at 0.5 < z < 3, and finally in Milky-Way-like halos (1011.5 < Mh(z = 0) < 1012.5 M⊙) at z < 0.5. At all redshifts, the dominant contribution to the SFR density stems from halos of mass ~1012 M⊙, in which the instantaneous star formation efficiency - defined here as the ratio between SFR and baryonic accretion rate - is maximal (~70%). The strong redshift

  1. An HST/WFPC2 Survey for Nearby Companions of Galactic Wolf-Rayet Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, D. J.

    2003-12-01

    Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars provide key insights about the final evolutionary phase of the most massive stars. I present here the results of a new, high angular resolution, imaging survey of 61 Galactic WR stars, which was designed to detect new companions, clusters, and/or associations surrounding these stars. High resolution observations are essential to provide a true census of the number and astrophysical parameters of massive stars, to understand the effects of nearby companions on their evolutionary paths, and to understand the effects of these companions on the stellar environment. The survey is based on images of each WR target made with the Planetary Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 instrument (usually through the F336W, F439W, and F555W filters, which are near counterparts of the Johnson UBV filters). I measured astrometric positions and photometric magnitudes on the HST synthetic system for all the stars found within 15 arcsec of each WR star. I present results on new companions for 23 (38%) of the 61 WR stars in the survey sample. Three WR stars (WR 86, WR 146, and WR 147) are resolved as close colliding-wind binary systems. Another three WR stars (WR 98a, WR 104, and WR 112) are dusty WC9 type stars in hierarchical multiple systems. Six WR stars are members of previously unrecognized stellar groups. Finally, for thirteen WR stars, I determine new stellar parameters based on an analysis of the color-color and color-magnitude diagrams of the nearby cluster/association main sequence stars. My WR sample breaks down into 57% cluster/association members, 33% field stars, and 10% runaways. This agrees reasonably well with the fractions determined by Mason et al. (1998) of 72%, 20%, and 8% for the same categories among the O stars. I find the same trend that the binary fraction decreases from cluster/association to field and to runaway groups in accordance with our expectation that many of the latter were originally binary members that were ejected by

  2. Color excesses, intrinsic colors, and absolute magnitudes of Galactic and Large Magellanic Cloud Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vacca, William D.; Torres-Dodgen, Ana V.

    1990-01-01

    A new method of determining the color excesses of WR stars in the Galaxy and the LMC has been developed and is used to determine the excesses for 44 Galactic and 32 LMC WR stars. The excesses are combined with line-free, narrow-band spectrophotometry to derive intrinsic colors of the WR stars of nearly all spectral subtypes. No correlation of UV spectral index or intrinsic colors with spectral subtype is found for the samples of single WN or WC stars. There is evidence that early WN stars in the LMC have flatter UV continua and redder intrinsic colors than early WN stars in the Galaxy. No separation is found between the values derived for Galactic WC stars and those obtained for LMC WC stars. The intrinsic colors are compared with those calculated from model atmospheres of WR stars and generally good agreement is found. Absolute magnitudes are derived for WR stars in the LMC and for those Galactic WR stars located in clusters and associations for which there are reliable distance estimates.

  3. Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor Parallaxes of Galactic RR Lyrae Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, B. E.

    2011-04-01

    We present new absolute trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions for seven Pop II variable stars: the five RR Lyr stars; RZ Cep, XZ Cyg, SU Dra, RR Lyr, UV Oct; and two W Vir Pop II Cepheids; VY Pyx and kappa Pav. We obtain these results with astrometric data from Fine Guidance Sensor 1r, a white-light interferometer on Hubble Space Telescope. We measure absolute parallaxes with an average precision, 6.6%. Using these parallaxes we compute absolute magnitudes in V and K bandpasses corrected for interstellar extinction and Lutz-Kelker-Hanson bias. Considering only the RR Lyr stars, we use these absolute magnitudes to construct a K-band Leavitt Law (Period-Luminosity relation) and a Galactic Mv-[Fe/H] relation. We employ these relations to determine independent distances to the LMC and several globular clusters. For the LMC our K-band distance modulus from RR Lyr stars agrees within the errors with a previous value derived by us from Galactic Cepheids, uncorrected for metallicity. These results are based on observations made through grants GO-11211 and GO-11789 administered through the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  4. Core-halo age gradients and star formation in the Orion Nebula and NGS 2024 young stellar clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Getman, Konstantin V.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Kuhn, Michael A.

    2014-06-01

    We analyze age distributions of two nearby rich stellar clusters, the NGC 2024 (Flame Nebula) and Orion Nebula cluster (ONC) in the Orion molecular cloud complex. Our analysis is based on samples from the MYStIX survey and a new estimator of pre-main sequence (PMS) stellar ages, Age{sub JX} , derived from X-ray and near-infrared photometric data. To overcome the problem of uncertain individual ages and large spreads of age distributions for entire clusters, we compute median ages and their confidence intervals of stellar samples within annular subregions of the clusters. We find core-halo age gradients in both the NGC 2024 cluster and ONC: PMS stars in cluster cores appear younger and thus were formed later than PMS stars in cluster peripheries. These findings are further supported by the spatial gradients in the disk fraction and K-band excess frequency. Our age analysis is based on Age{sub JX} estimates for PMS stars and is independent of any consideration of OB stars. The result has important implications for the formation of young stellar clusters. One basic implication is that clusters form slowly and the apparent age spreads in young stellar clusters, which are often controversial, are (at least in part) real. The result further implies that simple models where clusters form inside-out are incorrect and more complex models are needed. We provide several star formation scenarios that alone or in combination may lead to the observed core-halo age gradients.

  5. An explosion model for the formation of the radio halo of NGC 891

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Jun-Han; Allen, R. J.; Hu, Fu-Xing

    1986-06-01

    The explosion model for the formation of the radio halo of NGC 891 proposed here is mainly based on two physical assumptions: (1) the relativistic electrons belong to two families, a halo family and a disk family, the disk family originating in supernova events throughout the disk, and the halo family in a violent explosion of the galactic nucleus in the distant past; and (2) energy equipartition, where the magnetic energy density is proportional to the number density of stars. On these two assumptions, the main observed features of the radio halo of NGC 891 can be satisfactorily explained.

  6. An explosion model for the formation of the radio halo of NGC 891

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Jun-han; Allen, R. J.; Hu, Fu-xing

    1987-06-01

    The explosion model for the formation of the radio halo of NGC 891 proposed here are mainly based on two physical assumptions: a) the relativistic electrons belong to two families, a halo family and a disk family: the disk family originating in supernova events throughout the disk and the halo family, in a violent explosion of the galactic nucleus in the distant past. b) Energy equipartition, that is, the magnetic energy density be proportional to the number density of stars. On these two assumptions, the main observed features of the radio halo of NGC 891 can be satisfactorily explained.

  7. Resolved Stellar Halos of M87 and NGC 5128: Metallicities from the Red-Giant Branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Sarah A.

    2016-08-01

    We have searched halo fields of two giant elliptical galaxies: M87, using HST images at 10 kpc from the galactic center, and NGC 5128 (Cen A), using VIMOS VLT images at 65 kpc from the center and archival HST data from 8 to 38 kpc from the center. We have resolved thousands of red-giant-branch (RGB) stars in these stellar halo fields using V and I filters, and, in addition, measured the metallicity using stellar isochrones. The metallicity distribution function (MDF) of the inner stellar halo of M87 is similar to that of NGC 5128's stellar halo.

  8. Understanding AGB evolution in Galactic bulge stars from high-resolution infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttenthaler, S.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Wood, P. R.; Lebzelter, T.; Aringer, B.; Schultheis, M.; Ryde, N.

    2015-08-01

    An analysis of high-resolution near-infrared spectra of a sample of 45 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars towards the Galactic bulge is presented. The sample consists of two subsamples, a larger one in the inner and intermediate bulge, and a smaller one in the outer bulge. The data are analysed with the help of hydrostatic model atmospheres and spectral synthesis. We derive the radial velocity of all stars, and the atmospheric chemical mix ([Fe/H], C/O, 12C/13C, Al, Si, Ti, and Y) where possible. Our ability to model the spectra is mainly limited by the (in)completeness of atomic and molecular line lists, at least for temperatures down to Teff ≈ 3100 K. We find that the subsample in the inner and intermediate bulge is quite homogeneous, with a slightly subsolar mean metallicity and only few stars with supersolar metallicity, in agreement with previous studies of non-variable M-type giants in the bulge. All sample stars are oxygen-rich, C/O < 1.0. The C/O and carbon isotopic ratios suggest that third dredge-up (3DUP) is absent among the sample stars, except for two stars in the outer bulge that are known to contain technetium. These stars are also more metal-poor than the stars in the intermediate or inner bulge. Current stellar masses are determined from linear pulsation models. The masses, metallicities and 3DUP behaviour are compared to AGB evolutionary models. We conclude that these models are partly in conflict with our observations. Furthermore, we conclude that the stars in the inner and intermediate bulge belong to a more metal-rich population that follows bar-like kinematics, whereas the stars in the outer bulge belong to the metal-poor, spheroidal bulge population.

  9. DETECTING TRIAXIALITY IN THE GALACTIC DARK MATTER HALO THROUGH STELLAR KINEMATICS. II. DEPENDENCE ON NATURE DARK MATTER AND GRAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas-Niño, Armando; Pichardo, Barbara; Valenzuela, Octavio; Martínez-Medina, Luis A. E-mail: octavio@astro.unam.mx

    2015-05-20

    Recent studies have presented evidence that the Milky Way global potential may be non-spherical. In this case, the assembling process of the Galaxy may have left long-lasting stellar halo kinematic fossils due to the shape of the dark matter halo, potentially originated by orbital resonances. We further investigate such a possibility, now considering potential models further away from ΛCDM halos, like scalar field dark matter halos and Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), and including several other factors that may mimic the emergence and permanence of kinematic groups, such as a spherical and triaxial halo with an embedded disk potential. We find that regardless of the density profile (DM nature), kinematic groups only appear in the presence of a triaxial halo potential. For the case of a MOND-like gravity theory no kinematic structure is present. We conclude that the detection of these kinematic stellar groups could confirm the predicted triaxiality of dark halos in cosmological galaxy formation scenarios.

  10. The Eating Habits of Milky Way Mass Halos: Destroyed Dwarf Satellites and the Metallicity Distribution of Accreted Stars

    DOE PAGES

    Deason, Alis J.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we study the mass spectrum of destroyed dwarfs that contribute to the accreted stellar mass of Milky Way (MW)-mass (Mvir ~ 1012.1 M⊙) halos using a suite of 45 zoom-in dissipationless simulations. Empirical models are employed to relate (peak) subhalo mass to dwarf stellar mass, and we use constraints from z = 0 observations and hydrodynamical simulations to estimate the metallicity distribution of the accreted stellar material. The dominant contributors to the accreted stellar mass are relatively massive dwarfs with Mstar ~ 108–1010M⊙. Halos with more quiescent accretion histories tend to have lower mass progenitors (108–109 M⊙),more » and lower overall accreted stellar masses. Ultra-faint mass (Mstar < 105 M⊙) dwarfs contribute a negligible amount (<<1%) to the accreted stellar mass and, despite having low average metallicities, supply a small fraction (~2%–5%) of the very metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < -2. Dwarfs with masses 105 < Mstar/M⊙ < 108 provide a substantial amount of the very metal-poor stellar material (~40%–80%), and even relatively metal-rich dwarfs with Mstar > 108 M⊙ can contribute a considerable fraction (~20%–60%) of metal-poor stars if their metallicity distributions have significant metal-poor tails. Finally, we find that the generic assumption of a quiescent assembly history for the MW halo seems to be in tension with the mass spectrum of its surviving dwarfs. In conclusion, we suggest that the MW could be a "transient fossil"; a quiescent halo with a recent accretion event(s) that disguises the preceding formation history of the halo.« less

  11. Elemental Abundance Ratios in Stars of the Outer Galactic Disk. III. Cepheids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, David; Carney, Bruce W.; Teixera de Almeida, Maria Luísa; Pohl, Brian L.

    2006-04-01

    We present metallicities, [Fe/H], and elemental abundance ratios, [X/Fe], for a sample of 24 Cepheids in the outer Galactic disk based on high-resolution echelle spectra. The sample members have galactocentric distances covering 12 kpc<=RGC<=17.2 kpc, making them the most distant Galactic Cepheids upon which detailed abundance analyses have been performed. We find subsolar ratios of [Fe/H] and overabundances of [α/Fe], [La/Fe], and [Eu/Fe] in the program stars. All abundance ratios exhibit a dispersion that exceeds the measurement uncertainties. As seen in our previous studies of old open clusters and field giants, enhanced ratios of [α/Fe] and [Eu/Fe] reveal that recent star formation has taken place in the outer disk with Type II supernovae preferentially contributing ejecta to the interstellar medium and with Type Ia supernovae playing only a minor role. The enhancements for La suggest that asymptotic giant branch stars have contributed to the chemical evolution of the outer Galactic disk. Some of the young Cepheids are more metal-poor than the older open clusters and field stars at comparable galactocentric distances. This demonstrates that the outer disk is not the end result of the isolated evolution of an ensemble of gas and stars. We showed previously that the older open clusters and field stars reached a basement metallicity at about 10-11 kpc. The younger Cepheids reach the same metallicity but at larger galactocentric distances, roughly 14 kpc. This suggests that the Galactic disk has been growing with time, as predicted from numerical simulations. The outer disk Cepheids appear to exhibit a bimodal distribution for [Fe/H] and [α/Fe]. Most of the Cepheids continue the trends with galactocentric distance exhibited by S. M. Andrievsky's larger Cepheid sample, and we refer to these stars as the ``Galactic Cepheids.'' A minority of the Cepheids show considerably lower [Fe/H] and higher [α/Fe], and we refer to these stars as the ``Merger Cepheids.'' One

  12. Properties of the highly ionized disk and halo gas toward two distant high-latitude stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Blair D.; Sembach, K. R.

    1994-01-01

    absorption, part of the C IV absorption, and has very little associated Si IV absorption. In this gas N(C IV)/N(N V) is approximately 1 to 3. This gas is hot (T greater than 2 x 10(exp 5) K) and may be tracing the cooling gas of supernova (SN) bubbles or a Galactic fountain. The relative mixture of these two types of highly ionized gas varies from one sight line to the next. The two sight lines in this study sample halo gas in the solar neighborhood and have a smaller percentage of the more highly ionized gas than inner Galaxy sight lines.

  13. A NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE INNER GALACTIC PLANE FOR WOLF-RAYET STARS. I. METHODS AND FIRST RESULTS: 41 NEW WR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Shara, Michael M.; Gerke, Jill; Zurek, David; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Doyon, Rene; Villar-Sbaffi, Alfredo; Stanonik, Kathryn; Artigau, Etienne; Drissen, Laurent E-mail: jgerke@amnh.org E-mail: moffat@astro.umontreal.ca E-mail: alfredovs@hotmail.com E-mail: eartigau@gemini.edu

    2009-08-15

    The discovery of new Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in our Galaxy via large-scale narrowband optical surveys has been severely limited by dust extinction. Recent improvements in infrared technology have made narrowband-broadband imaging surveys viable again. We report a new J, K, and narrowband imaging survey of 300 deg{sup 2} of the plane of the Galaxy, spanning 150 degrees in Galactic longitude and reaching 1 degree above and below the Galactic plane. The survey has a useful limiting magnitude of K = 15 over most of the observed Galactic plane, and K = 14 within a few degrees of the Galactic center. Thousands of emission line candidates have been detected. In spectrographic follow-ups of 173 WR star candidates we have discovered 41 new WR stars, 15 of type WN and 26 of type WC. Star subtype assignments have been confirmed with K-band spectra, and distances approximated using the method of spectroscopic parallax. A few of the new WR stars are among the most distant known in our Galaxy. The distribution of these new WR stars is seen to follow that of previously known WR stars along the spiral arms of the Galaxy. Tentative radial velocities were also measured for most of the new WR stars.

  14. Entangled in Cirrus: The Star Formation Environment at High Galactic Latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGehee, Peregrine

    2013-07-01

    Drawing on large-area surveys spanning the optical [SDSS] to the millimeter [Planck] wavelengths we assess the environment and conditions for star formation at |b| > 20 degrees. This assessment has the goals of 1) distance determination of features in the Galactic ISM, 2) identification of candidate pre-stellar cores, and 3) selection and spectroscopic verification of young stellar objects. Results are presented for interstellar clouds located within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR9 imaging that are away from the anti-center star formation regions (Orion, Taurus, Perseus). Candidate T Tauri stars are identified on the basis of SDSS+2MASS+WISE multi-band imaging and classified by follow-on observations at the Palomar Observatory Hale Telescope.

  15. Star counts from the Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Survey. I - Galactic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, A.; Bahcall, J. N.; Maoz, D.

    1993-01-01

    We report a photometric study of stars from 450 fields at high Galactic latitudes that were observed in the Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Survey to an average limiting apparent magnitude of V = 21.4. There are 166 fields that contain quasars selected in radio, X-ray, and color-excess surveys. This sample of 273 stars is free of selection bias with respect to the density of stars. To within the Poisson errors, the total counts and magnitude distribution of this unbiased sample are in agreement with the Bahcall-Soneira model (Bahcall, 1986). The angular distribution of the faint stars favors, at the 2 sigma level, a somewhat steeper disk luminosity function and a smaller spheroid main-sequence normalization than given by the model. The sample does not have enough statistical power to distinguish between the two-component Bahcall-Soneira model and the three-component model first proposed by Gilmore and Reid (1983), which contains a thick disk. The statistical power of the survey would increase about 15-fold if colors were obtained for the stars: the data probe the main sequences of the disk, thick disk, and spheroid. Models with and without a thick disk could then be distinguished at the 6 sigma level. The HST Snapshot Survey includes an additional 284 fields, 279 of which are centered on quasars that were selected by objective-prism surveys. These 279 fields are expected to show and do exhibit bias against bright stars, making them unsuitable for testing Galactic models.

  16. Super massive black hole in galactic nuclei with tidal disruption of stars

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Shiyan; Berczik, Peter; Spurzem, Rainer

    2014-09-10

    Tidal disruption of stars by super massive central black holes from dense star clusters is modeled by high-accuracy direct N-body simulation. The time evolution of the stellar tidal disruption rate, the effect of tidal disruption on the stellar density profile, and, for the first time, the detailed origin of tidally disrupted stars are carefully examined and compared with classic papers in the field. Up to 128k particles are used in simulation to model the star cluster around a super massive black hole, and we use the particle number and the tidal radius of the black hole as free parameters for a scaling analysis. The transition from full to empty loss-cone is analyzed in our data, and the tidal disruption rate scales with the particle number, N, in the expected way for both cases. For the first time in numerical simulations (under certain conditions) we can support the concept of a critical radius of Frank and Rees, which claims that most stars are tidally accreted on highly eccentric orbits originating from regions far outside the tidal radius. Due to the consumption of stars moving on radial orbits, a velocity anisotropy is found inside the cluster. Finally we estimate the real galactic center based on our simulation results and the scaling analysis.

  17. Can Star-Disk Collisions Explain the Missing Red Giants Problem in the Galactic Center?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanovic, Tamara; Kieffer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Observations have revealed a relative paucity of red giant (RG) stars within the central 0.5 pc in the Galactic Center (GC). Motivated by this finding we investigate the hypothesis that collisions of stars with a fragmenting accretion disk are responsible for the observed dearth of evolved stars. We use 3D hydrodynamic simulations to model a star with radius 10 R⊙ and mass 1 M⊙, representative of the missing population of RGs, colliding with high density clumps. We find that multiple collisions with clumps of relatively high column density ≥108 g cm-2 can strip a substantial fraction of the star’s envelope and in principle render it invisible to observations. Because the envelope is unbound on account of the kinetic energy of the star, any significant amount of stripping of the RG population in the GC should be mirrored by a systematic decay of their orbits and possibly by their enhanced rotational velocity. To be viable, this scenario requires that the total mass of the fragmenting disk has been substantial and several orders of magnitude higher than that of the early-type stars which now form the stellar disk in the GC.

  18. PROJECTED ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES AND STELLAR CHARACTERIZATION OF 350 B STARS IN THE NEARBY GALACTIC DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Braganca, G. A.; Daflon, S.; Cunha, K.; Bensby, T.; Oey, M. S.; Walth, G.

    2012-11-01

    Projected rotational velocities (v sin i) are presented for a sample of 350 early B-type main-sequence stars in the nearby Galactic disk. The stars are located within {approx}1.5 kpc from the Sun, and the great majority within 700 pc. The analysis is based on high-resolution spectra obtained with the MIKE spectrograph on the Magellan Clay 6.5 m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. Spectral types were estimated based on relative intensities of some key line absorption ratios and comparisons to synthetic spectra. Effective temperatures were estimated from the reddening-free Q index, and projected rotational velocities were then determined via interpolation on a published grid that correlates the synthetic FWHM of the He I lines at 4026, 4388 and 4471 A with v sin i. As the sample has been selected solely on the basis of spectral types, it contains a selection of B stars in the field, in clusters, and in OB associations. The v sin i distribution obtained for the entire sample is found to be essentially flat for v sin i values between 0 and 150 km s{sup -1}, with only a modest peak at low projected rotational velocities. Considering subsamples of stars, there appears to be a gradation in the v sin i distribution with the field stars presenting a larger fraction of the slow rotators and the cluster stars distribution showing an excess of stars with v sin i between 70 and 130 km s{sup -1}. Furthermore, for a subsample of potential runaway stars we find that the v sin i distribution resembles the distribution seen in denser environments, which could suggest that these runaway stars have been subject to dynamical ejection mechanisms.

  19. The Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic (GOSSS) and Northern Massive Dim Stars (NoMaDS) Surveys, the Galactic O-Star Catalog (GOSC), and Marxist Ghost Buster (MGB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.; Pellerin, A.; Barbá, R. H.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Alfaro, E. J.; Morrell, N. I.; Sota, A.; Penadés Ordaz, M.; Gallego Calvente, A. T.

    2012-12-01

    There are several ongoing massive-star (mostly of spectral type O) surveys that are significantly increasing the quality and quantity of the spectroscopic information about these objects. Here we discuss and present results for two of them, GOSSS and NoMaDS. We also discuss recent and future developments on the Galactic O-Star Catalog and announce the upcoming availability of Marxist Ghost Buster, an IDL code that attacks spectral classification (hence the name) by using an interactive comparison with spectral libraries.

  20. Neutrino-heated stars and broad-line emission from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, James; Stanev, Todor; Biermann, Peter L.

    1991-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation from active galactic nuclei indicates the presence of highly relativistic particles. The interaction of these high-energy particles with matter and photons gives rise to a flux of high-energy neutrinos. In this paper, the influence of the expected high neutrino fluxes on the structure and evolution of single, main-sequence stars is investigated. Sequences of models of neutrino-heated stars in thermal equilibrium are presented for masses 0.25, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0 solar mass. In addition, a set of evolutionary sequences for mass 0.5 solar mass have been computed for different assumed values for the incident neutrino energy flux. It is found that winds driven by the heating due to high-energy particles and hard electromagnetic radiation of the outer layers of neutrino-bloated stars may satisfy the requirements of the model of Kazanas (1989) for the broad-line emission clouds in active galactic nuclei.

  1. PROGRESSIVE STAR FORMATION IN THE YOUNG GALACTIC SUPER STAR CLUSTER NGC 3603

    SciTech Connect

    Beccari, Giacomo; Spezzi, Loredana; De Marchi, Guido; Andersen, Morten; Paresce, Francesco; Young, Erick; Panagia, Nino; Bond, Howard; Balick, Bruce; Calzetti, Daniela; Carollo, C. Marcella; Disney, Michael J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Saha, Abhijit

    2010-09-10

    Early Release Science observations of the cluster NGC 3603 with the WFC3 on the refurbished Hubble Space Telescope allow us to study its recent star formation history. Our analysis focuses on stars with H{alpha} excess emission, a robust indicator of their pre-main sequence (PMS) accreting status. The comparison with theoretical PMS isochrones shows that 2/3 of the objects with H{alpha} excess emission have ages from 1 to 10 Myr, with a median value of 3 Myr, while a surprising 1/3 of them are older than 10 Myr. The study of the spatial distribution of these PMS stars allows us to confirm their cluster membership and to statistically separate them from field stars. This result establishes unambiguously for the first time that star formation in and around the cluster has been ongoing for at least 10-20 Myr, at an apparently increasing rate.

  2. EXPLORING THE CONNECTION BETWEEN STAR FORMATION AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACTIVITY IN THE LOCAL UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Heckman, T. M.; Ptak, A.; Schiminovich, D.; Bertincourt, B.; O'Dowd, M.

    2012-10-10

    We study a combined sample of 264 star-forming, 51 composite, and 73 active galaxies using optical spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectra from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. We examine optical and mid-IR spectroscopic diagnostics that probe the amount of star formation and relative energetic contributions from star formation and an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Overall we find good agreement between optical and mid-IR diagnostics. Misclassifications of galaxies based on the SDSS spectra are rare despite the presence of dust obscuration. The luminosity of the [Ne II] 12.8 {mu}m emission line is well correlated with the star formation rate measured from the SDSS spectra, and this holds for the star-forming, composite, and AGN-dominated systems. AGNs show a clear excess of [Ne III] 15.6 {mu}m emission relative to star-forming and composite systems. We find good qualitative agreement between various parameters that probe the relative contributions of the AGN and star formation, including the mid-IR spectral slope, the ratio of the [Ne V] 14.3 {mu}m to [Ne II] {mu}m 12.8 fluxes, the equivalent widths of the 7.7 {mu}m, 11.3 {mu}m, and 17 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features, and the optical 'D' parameter which measures the distance at which a source lies from the locus of star-forming galaxies in the optical BPT emission-line diagnostic diagram. We also consider the behavior of the three individual PAH features by examining how their flux ratios depend upon the degree of AGN dominance. We find that the PAH 11.3 {mu}m feature is significantly suppressed in the most AGN-dominated systems.

  3. Shining a light on star formation driven outflows: the physical conditions within galactic outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, John P.; Tremonti, Christina A.; Leitherer, Claus; Wofford, Aida; Chen, Yanmei

    2016-01-01

    Stellar feedback drives energy and momentum into the surrounding gas, which drives gas and metals out of galaxies through a galactic outflow. Unfortunately, galactic outflows are difficult to observe and characterize because they are extremely diffuse, and contain gas at many different temperatures. Here we present results from a sample of 37 nearby (z < 0.27) star forming galaxies observed in the ultraviolet with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. The sample covers over three decades in stellar mass and star formation rate, probing different morphologies such as dwarf irregulars and high-mass merging systems. Using four different UV absorption lines (O I, Si II, Si III and Si IV) that trace a wide range of temperatures (ionization potentials between 13.6 eV and 45 eV), we find shallow correlations between the outflow velocity or the equivalent width of absorption lines with stellar mass or star formation rate. Absorption lines probing different temperature phases have similar centroid velocities and line widths, indicating that they are comoving. Using the equivalent width ratios of the four different transitions, we find the ratios to be consistent with photo-ionized outflows, with moderately strong ionization parameters. By constraining the ionization mechanism we model the ionization fractions for each transition, but find the ionization fractions depend crucially on input model parameters. The shallow velocity scalings imply that low-mass galaxies launch outflows capable of escaping their galactic potential, while higher mass galaxies retain all of their gas, unless they undergo a merger.

  4. The distance to the Galactic center determined by A-F stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branham, Richard L.

    2015-10-01

    The distance from the sun to the center of the Galaxy R0 remains a fundamental parameter for Galactic structure. This study uses 36,061 A and F stars of all luminosity classes with position, parallax, and proper motion taken from the Hipparcos catalog and radial velocities from the Wilson and Strasbourg Data Center catalogs. The nonlinear kinematical equations of condition are solved by the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm and give R0=7.68± 0.07 kpc. The randomness of the residuals, calculated by a runs test as 91.9 % probable, shows that the kinematical model yields satisfactory results.

  5. The distance to the Galactic center determined by G, K, and M stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branham, Richard L.

    2017-02-01

    The distance from the Sun to the center of the Galaxy R0 remains a fundamental parameter for Galactic structure. This study uses 105,275 G, K, and M stars of all luminosity classes with position, parallax, and proper motion taken from the Hipparcos catalog and radial velocities from the Wilson and Strasbourg Data Center catalogs. The nonlinear kinematical equations of condition are solved by the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm and give R0=7.64± 0.09 kpc. At a confidence level of 90 % one can assert the randomness of the residuals and shows that the kinematical model yields satisfactory results.

  6. The Stellar Cusp in the Galactic Center: Three-Dimensional Orbits of Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappell, Samantha; Ghez, Andrea M.; Boehle, Anna; Yelda, Sylvana; Sitarski, Breann; Witzel, Gunther; Do, Tuan; Lu, Jessica R.; Morris, Mark; Becklin, Eric E.

    2015-01-01

    We present new findings from our long term study of the nuclear star cluster around the Galaxy's central supermassive blackhole (SMBH). Measurements where made using speckle and laser guided adaptive optics imaging and integral field spectroscopy on the Keck telescopes. We report 13 new measurable accelerating sources around the SMBH, down to ~17 mag in K band, only 4 of which are known to be young stars, the rest are either known to be old stars or have yet to be spectral typed. Thus we more than double the number of measured accelerations for the known old stars and unknown spectral type population (increasing the number from 6 to 15). Previous observations suggest a flat density profile of late-type stars, contrary to the theorized Bahcall-Wolf cusp (Bahcall & Wolf 1976, 1977; Buchholz et al. 2009; Do et al. 2009; Bartko et al. 2010). With three-dimensional orbits of significantly accelerating sources, we will be able to better characterize the stellar cusp in the Galactic center, including the slope of the stellar density profile.

  7. FURTHER RESULTS FROM THE GALACTIC O-STAR SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY: RAPIDLY ROTATING LATE ON GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Walborn, Nolan R.; MaIz Apellaniz, Jesus; Sota, Alfredo; Alfaro, Emilio J.; Barba, Rodolfo H.; Arias, Julia I.; Gamen, Roberto C. E-mail: jmaiz@iaa.es E-mail: emilio@iaa.es E-mail: rbarba@dfuls.cl E-mail: rgamen@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar

    2011-11-15

    With new data from the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey, we confirm and expand the ONn category of late-O, nitrogen-enriched (N), rapidly rotating (n) giants. In particular, we have discovered two 'clones' (HD 102415 and HD 117490) of one of the most rapidly rotating O stars previously known (HD 191423, 'Howarth's Star'). We compare the locations of these objects in the theoretical H-R diagram to those of slowly rotating ON dwarfs and supergiants. All ON giants known to date are rapid rotators, whereas no ON dwarf or supergiant is, but all ON stars are small fractions of their respective spectral-type/luminosity-class/rotational subcategories. The ONn giants, displaying both substantial processed material and high rotation at an intermediate evolutionary stage, may provide significant information about the development of these properties. They may have preserved high initial rotational velocities or may have been spun up by terminal-age main-sequence core contraction; alternatively, and perhaps more likely, they may be products of binary mass transfer. At least some of them are also runaway stars.

  8. Variable Stars Observed in the Galactic Disk by AST3-1 from Dome A, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lingzhi; Ma, Bin; Li, Gang; Hu, Yi; Fu, Jianning; Wang, Lifan; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Cui, Xiangqun; Du, Fujia; Gong, Xuefei; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Zhengyang; Liu, Qiang; Pennypacker, Carl R.; Shang, Zhaohui; Yuan, Xiangyan; York, Donald G.; Zhou, Jilin

    2017-03-01

    AST3-1 is the second-generation wide-field optical photometric telescope dedicated to time-domain astronomy at Dome A, Antarctica. Here, we present the results of an i-band images survey from AST3-1 toward one Galactic disk field. Based on time-series photometry of 92,583 stars, 560 variable stars were detected with i magnitude ≤16.5 mag during eight days of observations; 339 of these are previously unknown variables. We tentatively classify the 560 variables as 285 eclipsing binaries (EW, EB, and EA), 27 pulsating variable stars (δ Scuti, γ Doradus, δ Cephei variable, and RR Lyrae stars), and 248 other types of variables (unclassified periodic, multiperiodic, and aperiodic variable stars). Of the eclipsing binaries, 34 show O’Connell effects. One of the aperiodic variables shows a plateau light curve and another variable shows a secondary maximum after peak brightness. We also detected a complex binary system with an RS CVn-like light-curve morphology; this object is being followed-up spectroscopically using the Gemini South telescope.

  9. Building Halos by Digesting Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    We think galactic halos are built through the addition of material from the smaller subhalos of satellites digested by their hosts. Though most of the stars in Milky-Way-mass halos were probably formed in situ, many were instead accumulated over time, as orbiting dwarf galaxies were torn apart and their stars flung throughout the host galaxy. A recent set of simulations has examined this brutal formation process.In the authors simulations, a subhalo first falls into the host halo. At this point, it can either survive to present day as a satellite galaxy, or it can be destroyed, its stars scattering throughout the host halo. [Deason et al. 2016]Subhalo FateThere are many open questions about the growth of Milky-Way-mass halos from the accretion of subhalos. Which subhalos are torn apart and accreted, and which ones survive intact? Are more small or large subhalos accreted? Does subhalo accretion affect the host galaxys metallicity? And what can we learn from all of this about the Milky Ways formation history?In a recently published study, a team of scientists from Stanford University and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory set out to answer these questions using a suite of 45 zoom-in simulations of Milky-Way-mass halos. Led by Alis Deason, the team tracked the accretion history of these 45 test galaxies to determine how their halos were built.Piecing Together HistoryDeason and collaborators reach several new and interesting conclusions based on the outcomes of their simulations.Average accreted stellar mass from destroyed dwarfs for each host halo, as a function of the time of the last major accretion event. More stellar mass is accreted in more recent accretion events. [Deason et al. 2016]Most of the stellar mass accreted by the Milky-Way-mass halos typically comes from only one or two destroyed dwarfs. The accreted dwarfs are usually low-mass if they were accreted early on in the simulation (i.e., in the early universe), and high-mass if they were accreted

  10. The COS-Halos Survey: Origins of the Highly Ionized Circumgalactic Medium of Star-Forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werk, Jessica K.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Fox, Andrew J.; Oppenheimer, Benjamin; Tumlinson, Jason; Tripp, Todd M.; Lehner, Nicolas; McQuinn, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    The total contribution of diffuse halo gas to the galaxy baryon budget strongly depends on its dominant ionization state. In this paper, we address the physical conditions in the highly ionized circumgalactic medium (CGM) traced by {{O}} {{VI}} absorption lines observed in COS-Halos spectra. We analyze the observed ionic column densities, absorption-line widths and relative velocities, along with the ratios of {{N}} {{V}}/{{O}} {{VI}} for 39 fitted Voigt profile components of O vi. We compare these quantities with the predictions given by a wide range of ionization models. Photoionization models that include only extragalactic UV background radiation are ruled out; conservatively, the upper limits to {{N}} {{V}}/{{O}} {{VI}} and measurements of {N}{{O}{{VI}}} imply unphysically large path lengths ≳100 kpc. Furthermore, very broad {{O}} {{VI}} absorption (b > 40 km s-1) is a defining characteristic of the CGM of star-forming L* galaxies. We highlight two possible origins for the bulk of the observed {{O}} {{VI}}: (1) highly structured gas clouds photoionized primarily by local high-energy sources or (2) gas radiatively cooling on large scales behind a supersonic wind. Approximately 20% of circumgalactic O vi does not align with any low-ionization state gas within ±50 km s-1 and is found only in halos with {M}{halo} < 1012 {M}⊙ . We suggest that this type of unmatched O vi absorption traces the hot corona itself at a characteristic temperature of {10}5.5 K. We discuss the implications of these very distinct physical origins for the dynamical state, gas cooling rates, and total baryonic content of L* gaseous halos.

  11. Blazhko effect in the Galactic bulge fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars - I. Incidence rate and differences between modulated and non-modulated stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudil, Z.; Skarka, M.

    2017-04-01

    We present the first paper of a series focused on the Blazhko effect in RR Lyrae type stars pulsating in the fundamental mode that are located in the Galactic bulge. A comprehensive overview of the incidence rate and light-curve characteristics of the Blazhko stars is given. We analysed 8282 stars having the best quality data in the OGLE-IV survey, and found that at least 40.3 per cent of the stars show modulation of their light curves. The number of Blazhko stars we identified is 3341, which is the largest sample ever studied, implying that these are the most relevant statistical results currently available. Using combined data sets with OGLE-III observations, we found that 50 per cent of the stars that show unresolved peaks close to the main component in OGLE-IV are actually Blazhko stars with extremely long periods. Blazhko stars with modulation occur preferentially among RR Lyrae stars with shorter pulsation periods in the Galactic bulge. Fourier amplitude and phase coefficients based on the mean light curves appear to be substantially lower for Blazhko stars than for stars with an unmodulated light curve on average. We derived new relations for the compatibility parameter Dm in the I passband and relations that allow for differentiating modulated and non-modulated stars easily based on R31, ϕ21 and ϕ31. Photometric metallicities, intrinsic colours and absolute magnitudes computed using empirical relations are the same for Blazhko and non-modulated stars in the Galactic bulge, suggesting there is no correlation between the occurrence of the Blazhko effect and these parameters.

  12. The Origins and Evolutionary Status of B Stars Found Far from the Galactic Plane. I. Composition and Spectral Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. C.

    2004-11-01

    The existence of faint blue stars far above the Galactic plane that have spectra that are similar to nearby Population I B stars presents several interesting questions. Among them are the following: Can a Population I B star travel from the disk to a position many kiloparsecs above the plane in a relatively short main-sequence lifetime? Is it possible that single massive star formation is occurring far from the Galactic plane? Are these objects something else masquerading as main-sequence B stars? This paper (the first of two) analyzes the abundances of a sample of these stars and reveals several that are chemically similar to nearby Population I B stars, whereas others clearly have abundance patterns more like those expected in blue horizontal-branch (BHB) or post-asymptotic giant branch stars. Several of those with old evolved star abundances also have interesting features of note in their spectra. We also consider why this sample does not have any classical Be stars and identify at least two nearby solar-metallicity BHB stars. Based on observations made at the 2.1 m Otto Struve Telescope of McDonald Observatory operated by the University of Texas at Austin.

  13. Why galactic gamma-ray bursts might depend on environment: Blast waves around neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, Martin J.; Meszaros, Peter; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1994-01-01

    Although galactic models for gamma-ray bursts are hard to reconcile with the isotropy data, the issue is still sufficiently open that both options should be explored. The most likely 'triggers' for bursts in our Galaxy would be violent disturbances in the magnetospheres of neutron stars. Any event of this kind is likely to expel magnetic flux and plasma at relativistic speed. Such ejecta would be braked by the interstellar medium (ISM), and a gamma-ray flash may result from this interaction. The radiative efficiency, of this mechanism would depend on the density of the circumstellar ISM. Therefore, even if neutron stars were uniformly distributed in space (at least within 1-2 kpc of the Sun), the observed locations of bursts would correlate with regions of above-average ISM density.

  14. The sub-galactic and nuclear main sequences for local star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maragkoudakis, A.; Zezas, A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.

    2017-04-01

    We describe a sub-galactic main sequence (SGMS) relating star formation rate (SFR) surface density (ΣSFR) and stellar mass density (Σ⋆) for distinct regions within star-forming galaxies, including their nuclei. We use a sample of 246 nearby star-forming galaxies from the 'Star Formation Reference Survey and demonstrate that the SGMS holds down to ∼1 kpc scales with a slope of α = 0.91 and a dispersion of 0.31 dex, similar to the well-known main sequence (MS) measured for globally integrated SFRs and stellar masses. The SGMS slope depends on galaxy morphology, with late-type galaxies (Sc-Irr) having α = 0.97 and early-type spirals (Sa-Sbc) having α = 0.81. The SGMS constructed from subregions of individual galaxies has on average the same characteristics as the composite SGMS from all galaxies. The SGMS for galaxy nuclei shows a dispersion similar to that seen for other subregions. Sampling a limited range of SFR-M⋆ space may produce either sublinearity or superlinearity of the SGMS slope. For nearly all galaxies, both SFR and stellar mass peak in the nucleus, indicating that circumnuclear clusters are among the most actively star-forming regions in the galaxy and the most massive. The nuclear SFR also correlates with total galaxy mass, forming a distinct sequence from the standard MS of star formation. The nuclear MS will be useful for studying bulge growth and for characterizing feedback processes connecting AGN and star formation.

  15. HerMES: disentangling active galactic nuclei and star formation in the radio source population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlings, J. I.; Page, M. J.; Symeonidis, M.; Bock, J.; Cooray, A.; Farrah, D.; Guo, K.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Ibar, E.; Oliver, S. J.; Roseboom, I. G.; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N.; Vaccari, M.; Wardlow, J. L.

    2015-10-01

    We separate the extragalactic radio source population above ˜50 μJy into active galactic nuclei (AGN) and star-forming sources. The primary method of our approach is to fit the infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs), constructed using Spitzer/IRAC (Infrared Array Camera) and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) and Herschel/SPIRE photometry, of 380 radio sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South. From the fitted SEDs, we determine the relative AGN and star-forming contributions to their infrared emission. With the inclusion of other AGN diagnostics such as X-ray luminosity, Spitzer/IRAC colours, radio spectral index and the ratio of star-forming total infrared flux to k-corrected 1.4 GHz flux density, qIR, we determine whether the radio emission in these sources is powered by star formation or by an AGN.