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Sample records for galactic nuclear jets

  1. NUCLEAR RADIO JET FROM A LOW-LUMINOSITY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS IN NGC 4258

    SciTech Connect

    Doi, Akihiro; Kohno, Kotaro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Kameno, Seiji; Inoue, Makoto; Hada, Kazuhiro; Sorai, Kazuo

    2013-03-01

    The nearby low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (LLAGN) NGC 4258 has a weak radio continuum component at the galactic center. We investigate its radio spectral properties on the basis of our new observations using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array at 100 GHz and archival data from the Very Large Array at 1.7-43 GHz and the James Clerk Maxwell telescope at 347 GHz. The NGC 4258 nuclear component exhibits (1) an intra-month variable and complicated spectral feature at 5-22 GHz and (2) a slightly inverted spectrum at 5-100 GHz ({alpha} {approx} 0.3; F {sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup {alpha}}) in time-averaged flux densities, which are also apparent in the closest LLAGN M81. These similarities between NGC 4258 and M81 in radio spectral natures in addition to previously known core shift in their AU-scale jet structures produce evidence that the same mechanism drives their nuclei. We interpret the observed spectral property as the superposition of emission spectra originating at different locations with frequency-dependent opacity along the nuclear jet. Quantitative differences between NGC 4258 and M81 in terms of jet/counter jet ratio, radio loudness, and degree of core shift can be consistently understood by fairly relativistic speeds ({Gamma} {approx}> 3) of jets and their quite different inclinations. The picture established from the two closest LLAGNs is useful for understanding the physical origin of unresolved and flat/inverted spectrum radio cores that are prevalently found in LLAGNs, including Sgr A*, with starved supermassive black holes in the present-day universe.

  2. ASCA observations of galactic jet systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotani, T.; Kawai, N.; Matsuoka, M.; Dotani, T.; Inoue, H.; Nagase, F.; Tanaka, Y.; Ueda, Y.; Yamaoka, K.; Brinkmann, W.; Ebisawa, K.; Takeshima, T.; White, N. E.; Harmon, A.; Robinson, C. R.; Zhang, S. N.; Tavani, M.; Foster, R.

    1997-05-01

    Recent studies with ASCA have shown very complicated, strange iron K features in the spectra of galactic jet systems. SS 433, the ``classic'' jet, was found to have pairs of Doppler-shifted lines, contrary to the previous belief that the receding X-ray jet is short and hidden behind the accretion disk. The transient jets, GRS 1915+105 and GRO J1655-40, show spectral dips, which have never been observed in any other source and are interpreted as absorption lines or Doppler-shifted absorption edges. If they are resonant absorption lines of helium-like iron, they would be the evidence of highly ionized, anisotropically distributed plasma near the jet engine. These features peculiar to galactic jet systems are expected to be explained in terms of the nature of the sources and the jet-formation mechanisms. Since ASCA was proved to be an excellent tool for diagnostics of jets, observation campaigns of the jet systems were planned and performed. SS 433 was observed about thirty times in the three years of the campaign, covering the phase space of the 162.5-day precession and the 13-day orbital motion. The extracted physics of the system, such as X-ray-jet length ten times longer than previous estimations, jet kinetic luminosity exceeding 1040 erg s-1, etc., draw a highly energetic and stormy, new picture of SS 433. The transient jets, GRS 1915+105 and GRO J1655-40, were also observed several times. GRS 1915+105 was found to be active in ASCA band even months after onsets of outburst. Violent variations were not seen. GRO J1655-40 was observed to be transit between high and low states, and the low state is consistent to occultation of a component. We review ASCA Observations of galactic jet systems and present some topics from recent progresses.

  3. What can we learn about extragalactic jets from galactic jets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer; Biretta, John

    2002-05-01

    Jets are powerful features of extragalactic radio sources; yet jets are also seen in young stellar objects and X-ray binaries within our own galaxy. These occupy a very different parameter space from the extragalactic jets, and yet many are similar in appearance and nature to their powerful extragalactic cousins. In many cases far more information is available for the galactic jets, due to, e.g., rapid evolution and knowledge of emission line ratios and Doppler velocities. We review properties of galactic jets and speculate at implications they have for extragalactic ones. Specifically we consider central engine mass, jet opening angle and Mach number, the nature of the emission knots, the symmetry of the ejection process, and the source history.

  4. Radio galaxy jets as probes of galactic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Saslaw, W.C.; Whittle, M.

    1988-02-01

    It has been noted that the central source of an asymmetric nuclear galactic radio jet may experience considerable net thrust and consequently behave like a massive rocket. In this paper, simple models for the motion of a rocket through a galaxy are examined. It is found that the density distribution of the galaxy is important, and determines whether a given source can escape. Thus, observations of the location and velocity of a source relative to its galactic center may provide new constraints on models of the density distribution in galaxies. 35 references.

  5. BARYON LOADING OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS JETS MEDIATED BY NEUTRONS

    SciTech Connect

    Toma, K.; Takahara, F.

    2012-08-01

    Plasmas of geometrically thick, black hole (BH) accretion flows in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are generally collisionless for protons, and involve magnetic field turbulence. Under such conditions a fraction of protons can be accelerated stochastically and create relativistic neutrons via nuclear collisions. These neutrons can freely escape from the accretion flow and decay into protons in the dilute polar region above the rotating BH to form relativistic jets. We calculate geometric efficiencies of the neutron energy and mass injections into the polar region, and show that this process can deposit luminosity as high as L{sub j}{approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M-dot c{sup 2} and mass loading M-dot{sub j}{approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M-dot for the case of the BH mass M {approx} 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, where M-dot is the mass accretion rate. The terminal Lorentz factors of the jets are {Gamma} {approx} 3, and they may explain the AGN jets having low luminosities. For higher luminosity jets, which can be produced by additional energy inputs such as Poynting flux, the neutron decay still can be a dominant mass loading process, leading to, e.g., {Gamma} {approx} 50 for L{sub j,tot}{approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} M-dot c{sup 2}.

  6. Relativistic Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei and Microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Gustavo E.; Boettcher, M.; Markoff, S.; Tavecchio, F.

    2017-07-01

    Collimated outflows (jets) appear to be a ubiquitous phenomenon associated with the accretion of material onto a compact object. Despite this ubiquity, many fundamental physics aspects of jets are still poorly understood and constrained. These include the mechanism of launching and accelerating jets, the connection between these processes and the nature of the accretion flow, and the role of magnetic fields; the physics responsible for the collimation of jets over tens of thousands to even millions of gravitational radii of the central accreting object; the matter content of jets; the location of the region(s) accelerating particles to TeV (possibly even PeV and EeV) energies (as evidenced by γ-ray emission observed from many jet sources) and the physical processes responsible for this particle acceleration; the radiative processes giving rise to the observed multi-wavelength emission; and the topology of magnetic fields and their role in the jet collimation and particle acceleration processes. This chapter reviews the main knowns and unknowns in our current understanding of relativistic jets, in the context of the main model ingredients for Galactic and extragalactic jet sources. It discusses aspects specific to active Galactic nuclei (especially blazars) and microquasars, and then presents a comparative discussion of similarities and differences between them.

  7. Relativistic Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei and Microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Gustavo E.; Boettcher, M.; Markoff, S.; Tavecchio, F.

    2017-01-01

    Collimated outflows (jets) appear to be a ubiquitous phenomenon associated with the accretion of material onto a compact object. Despite this ubiquity, many fundamental physics aspects of jets are still poorly understood and constrained. These include the mechanism of launching and accelerating jets, the connection between these processes and the nature of the accretion flow, and the role of magnetic fields; the physics responsible for the collimation of jets over tens of thousands to even millions of gravitational radii of the central accreting object; the matter content of jets; the location of the region(s) accelerating particles to TeV (possibly even PeV and EeV) energies (as evidenced by γ-ray emission observed from many jet sources) and the physical processes responsible for this particle acceleration; the radiative processes giving rise to the observed multi-wavelength emission; and the topology of magnetic fields and their role in the jet collimation and particle acceleration processes. This chapter reviews the main knowns and unknowns in our current understanding of relativistic jets, in the context of the main model ingredients for Galactic and extragalactic jet sources. It discusses aspects specific to active Galactic nuclei (especially blazars) and microquasars, and then presents a comparative discussion of similarities and differences between them.

  8. Evidence of parsec-scale jets in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Mezcua, M.; Prieto, M. A.

    2014-05-20

    The nuclear radio emission of low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) is often associated with unresolved cores. In this paper we show that most LLAGNs present extended jet radio emission when observed with sufficient angular resolution and sensitivity. They are thus able to power, at least, parsec-scale radio jets. To increase the detection rate of jets in LLAGNs, we analyze subarcsecond resolution data of three low-ionization nuclear emission regions. This yields the detection of extended jet-like radio structures in NGC 1097 and NGC 2911 and the first resolved parsec-scale jet of NGC 4594 (Sombrero). The three sources belong to a sample of nearby LLAGNs for which high-spatial-resolution spectral energy distribution of their core emission is available. This allows us to study their accretion rate and jet power (Q {sub jet}) without drawing on (most) of the ad hoc assumptions usually considered in large statistical surveys. We find that those LLAGNs with large-scale radio jets (>100 pc) have Q {sub jet} > 10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1}, while the lowest Q {sub jet} correspond to those LLAGNs with parsec-scale (≤100 pc) jets. The Q {sub jet} is at least as large as the radiated bolometric luminosity for all LLAGN, in agreement with previous statistical studies. Our detection of parsec-scale jets in individual objects further shows that the kinematic jet contribution is equally important in large- or parsec-scale objects. We also find that the Eddington-scaled accretion rate is still highly sub-Eddingtonian (<10{sup –4}) when adding the Q {sub jet} to the total emitted luminosity (radiated plus kinetic). This indicates that LLAGNs are not only inefficient radiators but that they also accrete inefficiently or are very efficient advectors.

  9. Evidence of Parsec-scale Jets in Low-luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezcua, M.; Prieto, M. A.

    2014-05-01

    The nuclear radio emission of low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) is often associated with unresolved cores. In this paper we show that most LLAGNs present extended jet radio emission when observed with sufficient angular resolution and sensitivity. They are thus able to power, at least, parsec-scale radio jets. To increase the detection rate of jets in LLAGNs, we analyze subarcsecond resolution data of three low-ionization nuclear emission regions. This yields the detection of extended jet-like radio structures in NGC 1097 and NGC 2911 and the first resolved parsec-scale jet of NGC 4594 (Sombrero). The three sources belong to a sample of nearby LLAGNs for which high-spatial-resolution spectral energy distribution of their core emission is available. This allows us to study their accretion rate and jet power (Q jet) without drawing on (most) of the ad hoc assumptions usually considered in large statistical surveys. We find that those LLAGNs with large-scale radio jets (>100 pc) have Q jet > 1042 erg s-1, while the lowest Q jet correspond to those LLAGNs with parsec-scale (<=100 pc) jets. The Q jet is at least as large as the radiated bolometric luminosity for all LLAGN, in agreement with previous statistical studies. Our detection of parsec-scale jets in individual objects further shows that the kinematic jet contribution is equally important in large- or parsec-scale objects. We also find that the Eddington-scaled accretion rate is still highly sub-Eddingtonian (<10-4) when adding the Q jet to the total emitted luminosity (radiated plus kinetic). This indicates that LLAGNs are not only inefficient radiators but that they also accrete inefficiently or are very efficient advectors.

  10. Nuclear obscuration in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Almeida, Cristina; Ricci, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    The material surrounding accreting supermassive black holes connects the active galactic nucleus with its host galaxy and, besides being responsible for feeding the black hole, provides important information on the feedback that nuclear activity produces on the galaxy. In this Review, we summarize our current understanding of the close environment of accreting supermassive black holes obtained from studies of local active galactic nuclei carried out in the infrared and X-ray regimes. The structure of this circumnuclear material is complex, clumpy and dynamic, and its covering factor depends on the accretion properties of the active galactic nucleus. In the infrared, this obscuring material is a transition zone between the broad- and narrow-line regions, and, at least in some galaxies, it consists of two structures: an equatorial disk/torus and a polar component. In the X-ray regime, the obscuration is produced by multiple absorbers across various spatial scales, mostly associated with the torus and the broad-line region. In the coming decade, the new generation of infrared and X-ray facilities will greatly contribute to our understanding of the structure and physical properties of nuclear obscuration in active galactic nuclei.

  11. Nuclear obscuration in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Cristina Ramos; Ricci, Claudio

    2017-10-01

    The material surrounding accreting supermassive black holes connects the active galactic nucleus with its host galaxy and, besides being responsible for feeding the black hole, provides important information on the feedback that nuclear activity produces on the galaxy. In this Review, we summarize our current understanding of the close environment of accreting supermassive black holes obtained from studies of local active galactic nuclei carried out in the infrared and X-ray regimes. The structure of this circumnuclear material is complex, clumpy and dynamic, and its covering factor depends on the accretion properties of the active galactic nucleus. In the infrared, this obscuring material is a transition zone between the broad- and narrow-line regions, and, at least in some galaxies, it consists of two structures: an equatorial disk/torus and a polar component. In the X-ray regime, the obscuration is produced by multiple absorbers across various spatial scales, mostly associated with the torus and the broad-line region. In the coming decade, the new generation of infrared and X-ray facilities will greatly contribute to our understanding of the structure and physical properties of nuclear obscuration in active galactic nuclei.

  12. Radio jet refraction in galactic atmospheres with static pressure gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriksen, R. N.; Vallee, J. P.; Bridle, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    A theory of double radio sources which have a 'Z' or 'S' morphology is proposed, based on the refraction of radio jets in the extended atmosphere of an elliptical galaxy. The model describes a collimated jet of supersonic material bending self-consistently under the influence of external static pressure gradients. Gravity and magnetic fields are neglected in the simplest case except insofar as they determine the static pressure distribution. The calculation is a straightforward extension of a method used to calculate a ram-pressure model for twin radio trails ('C' morphology). It may also be described as a continuous-jet version of a buoyancy model proposed in 1973. The model has the added virtue of invoking a galactic atmosphere similar to those already indicated by X-ray measurements of some other radio galaxies and by models for the collimation of other radio jets.

  13. On the deceleration of relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei- I. Radiation drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beskin, V. S.; Chernoglazov, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    Deceleration of relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected recently by the Monitoring Of Jets in Active galactic nuclei with Very Long Baseline Array Experiments (MOJAVE) team is discussed in connection with the interaction of the jet material with an external photon field. The appropriate energy density of the isotropic photon field necessary to decelerate jets is determined. It is shown that disturbances of the electric potential and magnetic surfaces play an important role in the general dynamics of particle deceleration.

  14. Feedback by AGN Jets and Wide-angle Winds on a Galactic Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, Zachary; Gaibler, Volker; Silk, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the differences in mechanical feedback from radio-loud and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei on the host galaxy, we perform 3D AMR hydrodynamic simulations of wide-angle, radio-quiet winds with different inclinations on a single, massive, gas-rich disk galaxy at a redshift of 2-3. We compare our results to hydrodynamic simulations of the same galaxy but with a jet. The jet has an inclination of 0° (perpendicular to the galactic plane), and the winds have inclinations of 0°, 45°, and 90°. We analyze the impact on the host’s gas, star formation, and circumgalactic medium. We find that jet feedback is energy-driven and wind feedback is momentum-driven. In all the simulations, the jet or wind creates a cavity mostly devoid of dense gas in the nuclear region where star formation is then quenched, but we find strong positive feedback in all the simulations at radii greater than 3 kpc. All four simulations have similar SFRs and stellar velocities with large radial and vertical components. However, the wind at an inclination of 90° creates the highest density regions through ram pressure and generates the highest rates of star formation due to its ongoing strong interaction with the dense gas of the galactic plane. With increased wind inclination, we find greater asymmetry in gas distribution and resulting star formation. Our model generates an expanding ring of triggered star formation with typical velocities of the order of 1/3 of the circular velocity, superimposed on the older stellar population. This should result in a potentially detectable blue asymmetry in stellar absorption features at kiloparsec scales.

  15. VARIABILITY IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM PROPAGATING TURBULENT RELATIVISTIC JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, Maxwell; Pauls, David; Wiita, Paul J.

    2016-03-20

    We use the Athena hydrodynamics code to model propagating two-dimensional relativistic jets as approximations to the growth of radio-loud active galactic nuclei for various input jet velocities and jet-to-ambient matter density ratios. Using results from these simulations we estimate the changing synchrotron emission by summing the fluxes from a vertical strip of zones behind the reconfinement shock, which is nearly stationary, and from which a substantial portion of the flux variability should arise. We explore a wide range of timescales by considering two light curves from each simulation; one uses a relativistic turbulence code with bulk velocities taken from our simulations as input, while the other uses the bulk velocity data to compute fluctuations caused by variations in the Doppler boosting due to changes in the direction and the speed of the flow through all zones in the strip. We then calculate power spectral densities (PSDs) from the light curves for both turbulent and bulk velocity origins for variability. The range of the power-law slopes of the PSDs for the turbulence induced variations is −1.8 to −2.3, while for the bulk velocity produced variations this range is −2.1 to −2.9; these are in agreement with most observations. When superimposed, these power spectra span a very large range in frequency (about five decades), with the turbulent fluctuations yielding most of the shorter timescale variations and the bulk flow changes dominating the longer periods.

  16. Probing nuclear matter with jet conversions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.; Fries, R. J.

    2008-05-15

    We discuss the flavor of leading jet partons as a valuable probe of nuclear matter. We point out that the coupling of jets to nuclear matter naturally leads to an alteration of jet chemistry even at high transverse momentum p{sub T}. In particular, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) jets coupling to a chemically equilibrated quark gluon plasma in nuclear collisions will lead to hadron ratios at high transverse momentum p{sub T} that can differ significantly from their counterparts in p+p collisions. Flavor measurements could complement energy loss as a way to study interactions of hard QCD jets with nuclear matter. Roughly speaking they probe the inverse mean free path 1/{lambda} while energy loss probes the average squared momentum transfer {mu}{sup 2}/{lambda}. We present some estimates for the rate of jet conversions in a consistent Fokker-Planck framework and their impact on future high-p{sub T} identified hadron measurements at RHIC and LHC. We also suggest some novel observables to test flavor effects.

  17. Trajectories of Cepheid variable stars in the Galactic nuclear bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Noriyuki

    2012-06-01

    The central region of our Galaxy provides us with a good opportunity to study the evolution of galactic nuclei and bulges because we can observe various phenomena in detail at the proximity of 8 kpc. There is a hierarchical alignment of stellar systems with different sizes; from the extended bulge, the nuclear bulge, down to the compact cluster around the central supermassive blackhole. The nuclear bulge contains stars as young as a few Myr, and even hosts the ongoing star formation. These are in contrast to the more extended bulge which are dominated by old stars, ~10Gyr. It is considered that the star formation in the nuclear bulge is caused by fresh gas provided from the inner disk. In this picture, the nuclear bulge plays an important role as the interface between the gas supplier, the inner disk, and the galactic nucleus. Kinematics of young stars in the nuclear bulge is important to discuss the star forming process and the gas circulation in the Galactic Center. We here propose spectroscopic observations of Cepheid variable stars, ~25 Myr, which we recently discovered in the nuclear bulge. The spectra taken in this proposal will allow timely estimates of the systemic velocities of the variable stars.

  18. The host galaxies of active galactic nuclei with powerful relativistic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olguín-Iglesias, A.; León-Tavares, J.; Kotilainen, J. K.; Chavushyan, V.; Tornikoski, M.; Valtaoja, E.; Añorve, C.; Valdés, J.; Carrasco, L.

    2016-08-01

    We present deep near-infrared (NIR) images of a sample of 19 intermediate-redshift (0.3 < z < 1.0) radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) with powerful relativistic jets (L1.4 GHz > 1027 W Hz-1), previously classified as flat-spectrum radio quasars. We also compile host galaxy and nuclear magnitudes for blazars from literature. The combined sample (this work and compilation) contains 100 radio-loud AGN with host galaxy detections and a broad range of radio luminosities L1.4 GHz ˜ 1023.7-1028.3 W Hz-1, allowing us to divide our sample into high-luminosity blazars (HLBs) and low-luminosity blazars (LLBs). The host galaxies of our sample are bright and seem to follow the μe-Reff relation for ellipticals and bulges. The two populations of blazars show different behaviours in the MK,nuclear -MK,bulge plane, where a statistically significant correlation is observed for HLBs. Although it may be affected by selection effects, this correlation suggests a close coupling between the accretion mode of the central supermassive black hole and its host galaxy, which could be interpreted in terms of AGN feedback. Our findings are consistent with semi-analytical models where low-luminosity AGN emit the bulk of their energy in the form of radio jets, producing a strong feedback mechanism, and high-luminosity AGN are affected by galaxy mergers and interactions, which provide a common supply of cold gas to feed both nuclear activity and star formation episodes.

  19. THE INNER GALACTIC BULGE: EVIDENCE FOR A NUCLEAR BAR?

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard, Ortwin; Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma

    2012-01-15

    Recent data from the VVV survey have strengthened evidence for a structural change in the Galactic bulge inward of |l| {<=} 4 Degree-Sign . Here we show with an N-body barred galaxy simulation that a boxy bulge formed through the bar and buckling instabilities effortlessly matches measured bulge longitude profiles for red clump stars. The same simulation snapshot was earlier used to clarify the apparent boxy bulge-long bar dichotomy, for the same orientation and scaling. The change in the slope of the model longitude profiles in the inner few degrees is caused by a transition from highly elongated to more nearly axisymmetric isodensity contours in the inner boxy bulge. This transition is confined to a few degrees from the Galactic plane; thus the change of slope is predicted to disappear at higher Galactic latitudes. We also show that the nuclear star count map derived from this simulation snapshot displays a longitudinal asymmetry similar to that observed in the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) data, but is less flattened to the Galactic plane than the 2MASS map. These results support the interpretation that the Galactic bulge originated from disk evolution and question the evidence advanced from star count data for the existence of a secondary nuclear bar in the Milky Way.

  20. The Inner Galactic Bulge: Evidence for a Nuclear Bar?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, Ortwin; Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma

    2012-01-01

    Recent data from the VVV survey have strengthened evidence for a structural change in the Galactic bulge inward of |l| <= 4°. Here we show with an N-body barred galaxy simulation that a boxy bulge formed through the bar and buckling instabilities effortlessly matches measured bulge longitude profiles for red clump stars. The same simulation snapshot was earlier used to clarify the apparent boxy bulge—long bar dichotomy, for the same orientation and scaling. The change in the slope of the model longitude profiles in the inner few degrees is caused by a transition from highly elongated to more nearly axisymmetric isodensity contours in the inner boxy bulge. This transition is confined to a few degrees from the Galactic plane; thus the change of slope is predicted to disappear at higher Galactic latitudes. We also show that the nuclear star count map derived from this simulation snapshot displays a longitudinal asymmetry similar to that observed in the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) data, but is less flattened to the Galactic plane than the 2MASS map. These results support the interpretation that the Galactic bulge originated from disk evolution and question the evidence advanced from star count data for the existence of a secondary nuclear bar in the Milky Way.

  1. Expanding hydrodynamical jets crossing a galactic halo/intergalactic medium interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiita, Paul J.; Rosen, Alexander; Norman, Michael L.

    1990-01-01

    Parameters within ranges that are plausible for radio sources are presently used to perform two-dimensional hydrodynamical calculations of axisymmetric, initially conical, jets whose initial propagation is through isothermal galactic halos with power-law density distributions; these emerge across a pressure-matched interface into a hotter, but less dense medium whose parameters are typical of an intracluster or intergalactic gas. Upon crossing this interface, the jets accelerate and focused toward cylindrical shapes having long, narrow cocoons.

  2. Impact of red giant/AGB winds on active galactic nucleus jet propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perucho, M.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Barkov, M. V.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Dense stellar winds may mass-load the jets of active galactic nuclei, although it is unclear on what time and spatial scales the mixing takes place. Aims: Our aim is to study the first steps of the interaction between jets and stellar winds, and also the scales on which the stellar wind mixes with the jet and mass-loads it. Methods: We present a detailed 2D simulation - including thermal cooling - of a bubble formed by the wind of a star designed to study the initial stages of jet-star interaction. We also study the first interaction of the wind bubble with the jet using a 3D simulation in which the star enters the jet. Stability analysis is carried out for the shocked wind structure to evaluate the distances over which the jet-dragged wind, which forms a tail, can propagate without mixing with the jet flow. Results.The 2D simulations point to quick wind bubble expansion and fragmentation after about one bubble shock crossing time. Three-dimensional simulations and stability analysis point to local mixing in the case of strong perturbations and relatively low density ratios between the jet and the jet dragged-wind, and to a possibly more stable shocked wind structure at the phase of maximum tail mass flux. Analytical estimates also indicate that very early stages of the star jet-penetration time may be also relevant for mass-loading. The combination of these and previous results from the literature suggests highly unstable interaction structures and efficient wind-jet flow mixing on the scale of the jet interaction height. Conclusions: The winds of stars with strong mass loss can efficiently mix with jets from active galactic nuclei. In addition, the initial wind bubble shocked by the jet leads to a transient, large interaction surface. The interaction between jets and stars can produce strong inhomogeneities within the jet. As mixing is expected to be effective on large scales, even individual asymptotic giant branch stars can significantly contribute to

  3. Radio jet refraction in galactic atmospheres with static pressure gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriksen, R. N.; Vallee, J. P.; Bridle, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    A theory based on the refraction of radio jets in the extended atmosphere of an elliptical galaxy, is proposed for double radio sources with a Z or S morphology. The model describes a collimated jet of supersonic material that bends self-consistently under the influence of external static pressure gradients, and may alternatively be seen as a continuous-jet version of the buoyancy model proposed by Gull (1973). Emphasis is placed on (1) S-shaped radio sources identified with isolated galaxies, such as 3C 293, whose radio structures should be free of distortions resulting from motion relative to a cluster medium, and (2) small-scale, galaxy-dominated rather than environment-dominated S-shaped sources such as the inner jet structure of Fornax A.

  4. Radio jet refraction in galactic atmospheres with static pressure gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriksen, R. N.; Vallee, J. P.; Bridle, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    A theory based on the refraction of radio jets in the extended atmosphere of an elliptical galaxy, is proposed for double radio sources with a Z or S morphology. The model describes a collimated jet of supersonic material that bends self-consistently under the influence of external static pressure gradients, and may alternatively be seen as a continuous-jet version of the buoyancy model proposed by Gull (1973). Emphasis is placed on (1) S-shaped radio sources identified with isolated galaxies, such as 3C 293, whose radio structures should be free of distortions resulting from motion relative to a cluster medium, and (2) small-scale, galaxy-dominated rather than environment-dominated S-shaped sources such as the inner jet structure of Fornax A.

  5. MHD SIMULATIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS JETS IN A DYNAMIC GALAXY CLUSTER MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Mendygral, P. J.; Jones, T. W.; Dolag, K.

    2012-05-10

    We present a pair of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of intermittent jets from a central active galactic nucleus (AGN) in a galaxy cluster extracted from a high-resolution cosmological simulation. The selected cluster was chosen as an apparently relatively relaxed system, not having undergone a major merger in almost 7 Gyr. Despite this characterization and history, the intracluster medium (ICM) contains quite active 'weather'. We explore the effects of this ICM weather on the morphological evolution of the AGN jets and lobes. The orientation of the jets is different in the two simulations so that they probe different aspects of the ICM structure and dynamics. We find that even for this cluster, which can be characterized as relaxed by an observational standard, the large-scale, bulk ICM motions can significantly distort the jets and lobes. Synthetic X-ray observations of the simulations show that the jets produce complex cavity systems, while synthetic radio observations reveal bending of the jets and lobes similar to wide-angle tail radio sources. The jets are cycled on and off with a 26 Myr period using a 50% duty cycle. This leads to morphological features similar to those in 'double-double' radio galaxies. While the jet and ICM magnetic fields are generally too weak in the simulations to play a major role in the dynamics, Maxwell stresses can still become locally significant.

  6. Nuclear Structure and Galactic γ-Ray Activity.

    PubMed

    Görres, J

    2000-01-01

    The observation of galactic γ lines following the decay of radioactive nuclei provides a direct link between nuclear physics experiments in earth-based laboratories and astrophysical observations with space-based observatories. Two examples are presented to illustrate this interplay: the measurement of the lifetime of (44)Ti to allow an improved determination of the (44)Ti mass of the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A from the observed γ ray activity and the measurements of excited states in (24)Si to determine the reaction rate of (23)Al(p, γ)(24)Si which might be important for a reduced production of (22)Na in novae.

  7. WHAT GOVERNS THE BULK VELOCITY OF THE JET COMPONENTS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?

    SciTech Connect

    Chai Bo; Cao Xinwu; Gu Minfeng E-mail: cxw@shao.ac.cn

    2012-11-10

    We use a sample of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with measured black hole masses to explore the jet formation mechanisms in these sources. Based on Koenigl's inhomogeneous jet model, the jet parameters, such as the bulk motion Lorentz factor, magnetic field strength, and electron density in the jet, can be estimated with the very long baseline interferometry and X-ray data.. We find a significant correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample, while no significant correlation is present between the bulk Lorentz factor and the Eddington ratio. The massive black holes will be spun up through accretion, as the black holes acquire mass and angular momentum simultaneously through accretion. Recent investigation indeed suggested that most supermassive black holes in elliptical galaxies have on average higher spins than the black holes in spiral galaxies, where random, small accretion episodes (e.g., tidally disrupted stars, accretion of molecular clouds) might have played a more important role. If this is true, then the correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components found in this work implies that the motion velocity of the jet components is probably governed by the black hole spin. No correlation is found between the magnetic field strength at 10R {sub S} (R {sub S} = 2GM/c {sup 2} is the Schwarzschild radius) in the jets and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample. This is consistent with the black hole spin scenario, i.e., the faster moving jets are magnetically accelerated by the magnetic fields threading the horizon of more rapidly rotating black holes. The results imply that the Blandford-Znajek mechanism may dominate over the Blandford-Payne mechanism for the jet acceleration, at least in these radio-loud AGNs.

  8. Jet signatures of black holes: From Sgr A* to active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britzen, S.; Eckart, A.; Lämmerzahl, C.; Roland, J.; Brockamp, M.; Hackmann, E.; Kunz, J.; Macias, A.; Malchow, R.; Sabha, N.; Shahzamanian, B.

    2015-06-01

    Detailed and long-term VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) studies of the variable jets of supermassive black holes helps us to understand the emission processes of these fascinating phenomena. When observed and traced precisely, jet component kinematics reveals details about the potential motion of the jet base. Following this motion over decades with VLBI monitoring reveals - in some cases - the signatures of precession. While several processes can cause precession, the most likely cause seems to be a supermassive binary black hole in the central region of the AGN. We present examples of the analysis of high-resolution VLBI observations which provides us with insight into the physics of these objects and reveals evidence for the presence of double black hole cores. EHT (Event Horizon Telescope) observations will probably soon tell us more about the jet origin and launching mechanism at the very centers of nearby active galactic nuclei. An important question to be addressed by the EHT and related observations will be whether Sgr A\\star, the supermassive black hole in the Galactic Center, has a jet as well.

  9. MOJAVE: Monitoring of jets in active galactic nuclei with VLBA experiments. XI. Spectral distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Hovatta, Talvikki; Aller, Margo F.; Aller, Hugh D.; Clausen-Brown, Eric; Kovalev, Yuri Y.; Pushkarev, Alexander B.; Savolainen, Tuomas; Homan, Daniel C.; Lister, Matthew L.

    2014-06-01

    We have obtained milliarcsecond-scale spectral index distributions for a sample of 190 extragalactic radio jets through the Monitoring of Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei with the VLBA Experiments (MOJAVE) project. The sources were observed in 2006 at 8.1, 8.4, 12.1, and 15.4 GHz, and we have determined spectral index maps between 8.1 and 15.4 GHz to study the four-frequency spectrum in individual jet features. We have performed detailed simulations to study the effects of image alignment and (u, v)-plane coverage on the spectral index maps to verify our results. We use the spectral index maps to study the spectral index evolution along the jet and determine the spectral distributions in different locations of the jets. The core spectral indices are on average flat with a mean value of +0.22 ± 0.03 for the sample, while the jet spectrum is in general steep with a mean index of –1.04 ± 0.03. A simple power-law fit is often inadequate for the core regions, as expected if the cores are partially self-absorbed. The overall jet spectrum steepens at a rate of about –0.001 to –0.004 per deprojected parsec when moving further out from the core with flat spectrum radio quasars having significantly steeper spectra (mean –1.09 ± 0.04) than the BL Lac objects (mean –0.80 ± 0.05). However, the spectrum in both types of objects flattens on average by ∼0.2 at the locations of the jet components indicating particle acceleration or density enhancements along the jet. The mean spectral index at the component locations of –0.81 ± 0.02 corresponds to a power-law index of ∼2.6 for the electron energy distribution. We find a significant trend that jet components with linear polarization parallel to the jet (magnetic field perpendicular to the jet) have flatter spectra, as expected for transverse shocks. Compared to quasars, BL Lacs have more jet components with perpendicular magnetic field alignment, which may explain their generally flatter spectra. The overall

  10. Chasing the heaviest black holes of jetted active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Della Ceca, R.; Volonteri, M.; Ghirlanda, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Foschini, L.; Tagliaferri, G.; Haardt, F.; Pareschi, G.; Grindlay, J.

    2010-06-01

    We investigate the physical properties of 10 blazars at redshift greater than 2 detected in the 3-yr all-sky survey performed by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board the Swift satellite. We find that the jets of these blazars are among the most powerful known. Furthermore, the mass of their central black hole, inferred from the optical-ultraviolet bump, exceeds a few billions of solar masses, with accretion luminosities being a large fraction of the Eddington one. We compare their properties with those of the brightest blazars of the 3-month survey performed by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi satellite. We find that the BAT blazars have more powerful jets, more luminous accretion discs and larger black hole masses than LAT blazars. These findings can be simply understood on the basis of the blazar sequence, which suggests that the most powerful blazars have a spectral energy distribution with a high-energy peak at MeV (or even sub-MeV) energies. This implies that the most extreme blazars can be found more efficiently in hard X-rays, rather than in the high-energy γ-ray band. We then discuss the implications of our findings for future missions, such as the New Hard X-ray Mission (NHXM) and especially the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) mission which, during its planned 2-yr all-sky survey, is expected to detect thousands of blazars, with a few of them at z >~ 6.

  11. Backflows by active galactic nuclei jets: global properties and influence on supermassive black hole accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cielo, S.; Antonuccio-Delogu, V.; Silk, J.; Romeo, A. D.

    2017-06-01

    Jets from active galactic nuclei (AGN) inflate large cavities in the hot gas environment around galaxies and galaxy clusters. The large-scale gas circulation promoted within such cavities by the jet itself gives rise to backflows that propagate back to the centre of the jet-cocoon system, spanning all the physical scales relevant for the AGN. Using an adaptive mesh refinement code, we study these backflows through a series of numerical experiments, aiming at understanding how their global properties depend on jet parameters. We are able to characterize their mass flux down to a scale of a few kiloparsecs to about 0.5 M⊙ yr-1 for as long as 15 or 20 Myr, depending on jet power. We find that backflows are both spatially coherent and temporally intermittent, independently of jet power in the range 1043-1045 erg s-1. Using the mass flux thus measured, we model analytically the effect of backflows on the central accretion region, where a magnetically arrested disc lies at the centre of a thin circumnuclear disc. Backflow accretion on to the disc modifies its density profile, producing a flat core and tail. We use this analytic model to predict how accretion beyond the black hole magnetopause is modified, and thus how the jet power is temporally modulated. Under the assumption that the magnetic flux stays frozen in the accreting matter, and that the jets are always launched via the Blandford-Znajek mechanism, we find that backflows are capable of boosting the jet power up to tenfold during relatively short time episodes (a few Myr).

  12. Intrinsic physical conditions and structure of relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nokhrina, E. E.; Beskin, V. S.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Zheltoukhov, A. A.

    2015-03-01

    The analysis of the frequency dependence of the observed shift of the cores of relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) allows us to evaluate the number density of the outflowing plasma ne and, hence, the multiplicity parameter λ = ne/nGJ, where nGJ is the Goldreich-Julian number density. We have obtained the median value for λmed = 3 × 1013 and the median value for the Michel magnetization parameter σM, med = 8 from an analysis of 97 sources. Since the magnetization parameter can be interpreted as the maximum possible Lorentz factor Γ of the bulk motion which can be obtained for relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow, this estimate is in agreement with the observed superluminal motion of bright features in AGN jets. Moreover, knowing these key parameters, one can determine the transverse structure of the flow. We show that the poloidal magnetic field and particle number density are much larger in the centre of the jet than near the jet boundary. The MHD model can also explain the typical observed level of jet acceleration. Finally, casual connectivity of strongly collimated jets is discussed.

  13. VLBI-Gaia offsets favor parsec-scale jet direction in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, Y. Y.; Petrov, L.; Plavin, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The data release 1 (DR1) of milliarcsecond-scale accurate optical positions of stars and galaxies was recently published by the space mission Gaia. Aims: We study the offsets of highly accurate absolute radio (very long baseline interferometry, VLBI) and optical positions of active galactic nuclei (AGN) to see whether or not a signature of wavelength-dependent parsec-scale structure can be seen. Methods: We analyzed VLBI and Gaia positions and determined the direction of jets in 2957 AGNs from their VLBI images. Results: We find that there is a statistically significant excess of sources with VLBI-to-Gaia position offset in directions along and opposite to the jet. Offsets along the jet vary from 0 to tens of mas. Offsets in the opposite direction do not exceed 3 mas. Conclusions: The presense of strong, extended parsec-scale optical jet structures in many AGNs is required to explain all observed VLBI-Gaia offsets along the jet direction. The offsets in the opposite direction shorter than 1 mas can be explained either by a non-point-like VLBI jet structure or a "core-shift" effect due to synchrotron opacity.

  14. 3-D Mapping of the Galactic Nuclear Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. Daniel

    The Galactic center of our Galaxy provides an excellent laboratory to study the star formation mode and history as well as the structure and dynamics of stars and gas under an extreme galactic nuclear environment. We propose a comprehensive data analysis program to investigate the 3-D properties of the region enclosed by the Central Molecular Zone of the Galaxy. We will capitalize on an extensive data set now available from Planck, Herschel, Spitzer, and Hubble Space Telescopes, as well as the Large Millimeter Telescope and other ground-based facilities. This data set provides sensitive high-resolution probes of the region over the millimeter to nearIR wavelength range. The data set, together with dedicated state-of-art analysis tools that we have been developing, will enable us to obtain (1) the first full-spacing millimeter dust emission image of the region at a resolution better than 10 arcseconds (FWHM), (2) the column density, temperature, and opacity spectral index distributions of dusty gas; (3) the mapping of dust extinction toward individual stars; (4) the line-of-sight locations of individual dense clouds, (5) the global spatial distribution and formation history of stars, and (6) the characterization of environment effects on stellar and gas dynamics in the region. The combined analysis of the dust emission and extinction will represent a major step forward in determining the properties of the dusty gas as well as its effect on the stellar light observations of the region. This body of work will likely have strong implications for our understanding the stellar and gas properties in other galactic nuclei and their role in regulating the evolution of galaxies as whole.

  15. Galactic Archaeology via Relics Of Nuclear Accretion Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicastro, Fabrizio; Senatore, F.; Krongold, Y.; Elvis, M.; Mathur, S.

    2016-10-01

    I will report on the presence of large amounts of million-degree gas in the Milky Way's interstellar and circum-galactic medium, and will show that this gas: (1) permeates both the Galactic plane and the halo, (2) extends to distances larger than 60-200 kpc from the center, and (3) its mass is sufficient to close the Galaxy's baryon census.I will also show that a vast, 6 kpc radius, spherically-symmetric central region of the Milky Way above and below the 0.16 kpc thick plane, has either been emptied of hot gas or the density of this gas within the cavity has a peculiar profile, increasing from the center up to a radius of 6 kpc, and then decreasing with a typical halo density profile. This, and several other converging pieces of evidence, suggest that the current surface of the cavity, at 6 kpc from the Galaxy's center, traces the distant echo of a period of strong nuclear activity of our super-massive black-hole, occurred about 6 Myrs ago.

  16. Parsec-scale Faraday rotation and polarization of 20 active galactic nuclei jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, E. V.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Sokolovsky, K. V.

    2017-01-01

    We perform polarimetry analysis of 20 active galactic nuclei jets using the very long baseline array at 1.4, 1.6, 2.2, 2.4, 4.6, 5.0, 8.1, 8.4 and 15.4 GHz. The study allowed us to investigate linearly polarized properties of the jets at parsec scales: distribution of the Faraday rotation measure (RM) and fractional polarization along the jets, Faraday effects and structure of Faraday-corrected polarization images. Wavelength dependence of the fractional polarization and polarization angle is consistent with external Faraday rotation, while some sources show internal rotation. The RM changes along the jets, systematically increasing its value towards synchrotron self-absorbed cores at shorter wavelengths. The highest core RM reaches 16 900 rad m-2 in the source rest frame for the quasar 0952+179, suggesting the presence of highly magnetized, dense media in these regions. The typical RM of transparent jet regions has values of an order of a hundred rad m-2. Significant transverse RM gradients are observed in seven sources. The magnetic field in the Faraday screen has no preferred orientation, and is observed to be random or regular from source to source. Half of the sources show evidence for the helical magnetic fields in their rotating magneto-ionic media. At the same time jets themselves contain large-scale, ordered magnetic fields and tend to align its direction with the jet flow. The observed variety of polarized signatures can be explained by a model of spine-sheath jet structure.

  17. Resolving the Geometry of the Innermost Relativistic Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algaba, J. C.; Nakamura, M.; Asada, K.; Lee, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    In the current paradigm, it is believed that the compact VLBI radio core of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) represents the innermost upstream regions of relativistic outflows. These regions of AGN jets have generally been modeled by a conical outflow with a roughly constant opening angle and flow speed. Nonetheless, some works suggest that a parabolic geometry would be more appropriate to fit the high energy spectral distribution properties and it has been recently found that, at least in some nearby radio galaxies, the geometry of the innermost regions of the jet is parabolic. We compile here multi-frequency core sizes of archival data to investigate the typically unresolved upstream regions of the jet geometry of a sample of 56 radio-loud AGNs. Data combined from the sources considered here are not consistent with the classic picture of a conical jet starting in the vicinity of the super-massive black hole (SMBH), and may exclude a pure parabolic outflow solution, but rather suggest an intermediate solution with quasi-parabolic streams, which are frequently seen in numerical simulations. Inspection of the large opening angles near the SMBH and the range of the Lorentz factors derived from our results support our analyses. Our result suggests that the conical jet paradigm in AGNs needs to be re-examined by millimeter/sub-millimeter VLBI observations.

  18. THE MICROARCSECOND STRUCTURE OF AN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS JET VIA INTERSTELLAR SCINTILLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Macquart, J.-P.; Godfrey, L. E. H.; Bignall, H. E.

    2013-03-10

    We describe a new tool for studying the structure and physical characteristics of ultracompact active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets and their surroundings with {mu}as precision. This tool is based on the frequency dependence of the light curves observed for intra-day variable radio sources, where the variability is caused by interstellar scintillation. We apply this method to PKS 1257-326 to resolve the core-shift as a function of frequency on scales well below {approx}12 {mu}as. We find that the frequency dependence of the position of the scintillating component is r{proportional_to}{nu}{sup -0.1{+-}0.24} (99% confidence interval) and the frequency dependence of the size of the scintillating component is d{proportional_to}{nu}{sup -0.64{+-}0.006}. Together, these results imply that the jet opening angle increases with distance along the jet: d{proportional_to}r{sup n{sub d}} with n{sub d} > 1.8. We show that the flaring of the jet, and flat frequency dependence of the core position is broadly consistent with a model in which the jet is hydrostatically confined and traversing a steep pressure gradient in the confining medium with p{proportional_to}r{sup -n{sub p}} and n{sub p} {approx}> 7. Such steep pressure gradients have previously been suggested based on very long baseline interferometry studies of the frequency dependent core shifts in AGNs.

  19. Nuclear Infrared Spectral Energy Distribution of Type II Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Videla, Liza; Lira, Paulina; Andrews, Heather; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Alexander, David M.; Ward, Martin

    2013-02-01

    We present near- and mid-IR observations of a sample of Seyfert II galaxies drawn from the 12 μm Galaxy sample. The sample was observed in the J, H, K, L, M and N bands. Galaxy surface brightness profiles are modeled using nuclear, bulge, bar (when necessary), and disk components. To check the reliability of our findings, the procedure was tested using Spitzer observations of M 31. Nuclear spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are determined for 34 objects, and optical spectra are presented for 38, including analysis of their stellar populations using the STARLIGHT spectral synthesis code. Emission line diagnostic diagrams are used to discriminate between genuine active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and H II nuclei. Combining our observations with those found in the literature, we have a total of 40 SEDs. It is found that about 40% of the SEDs are characterized by an upturn in the near-IR, which we have quantified as a NIR slope α < 1 for an SED characterized as λf λvpropλα. The three objects with an H II nucleus and two Seyfert nuclei with strong contamination from a circumnuclear also show an upturn. For genuine AGNs, this component could be explained as emission from the accretion disk, a jet, or from a very hot dust component leaking from the central region through a clumpy obscuring structure. The presence of a very compact nuclear starburst as the origin for this NIR excess emission is not favored by our spectroscopic data for these objects.

  20. Isotropic Heating of Galaxy Cluster Cores via Rapidly Reorienting Active Galactic Nucleus Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babul, Arif; Sharma, Prateek; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2013-05-01

    Active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets carry more than sufficient energy to stave off catastrophic cooling of the intracluster medium (ICM) in the cores of cool-core clusters. However, in order to prevent catastrophic cooling, the ICM must be heated in a near-isotropic fashion and narrow bipolar jets with P jet = 1044 - 45 erg s-1, typical of radio AGNs at cluster centers, are inefficient in heating the gas in the transverse direction to the jets. We argue that due to existent conditions in cluster cores, the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) will, in addition to accreting gas via radiatively inefficient flows, experience short stochastic episodes of enhanced accretion via thin disks. In general, the orientation of these accretion disks will be misaligned with the spin axis of the black holes (BHs) and the ensuing torques will cause the BH's spin axis (and therefore the jet axis) to slew and rapidly change direction. This model not only explains recent observations showing successive generations of jet-lobes-bubbles in individual cool-core clusters that are offset from each other in the angular direction with respect to the cluster center, but also shows that AGN jets can heat the cluster core nearly isotropically on the gas cooling timescale. Our model does require that the SMBHs at the centers of cool-core clusters be spinning relatively slowly. Torques from individual misaligned disks are ineffective at tilting rapidly spinning BHs by more than a few degrees. Additionally, since SMBHs that host thin accretion disks will manifest as quasars, we predict that roughly 1-2 rich clusters within z < 0.5 should have quasars at their centers.

  1. THE ROLE OF THE ACCRETION DISK, DUST, AND JETS IN THE IR EMISSION OF LOW-LUMINOSITY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R. E.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Alonso-Herrero, A.

    2013-11-10

    We use recent high-resolution infrared (IR; 1-20 μm) photometry to examine the origin of the IR emission in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGN). The data are compared with published model fits that describe the spectral energy distribution (SED) of LLAGN in terms of an advection-dominated accretion flow, truncated thin accretion disk, and jet. The truncated disk in these models is usually not luminous enough to explain the observed IR emission, and in all cases its spectral shape is much narrower than the broad IR peaks in the data. Synchrotron radiation from the jet appears to be important in very radio-loud nuclei, but the detection of strong silicate emission features in many objects indicates that dust must also contribute. We investigate this point by fitting the IR SED of NGC 3998 using dusty torus and optically thin (τ{sub mid-IR} ∼ 1) dust shell models. While more detailed modeling is necessary, these initial results suggest that dust may account for the nuclear mid-IR emission of many LLAGN.

  2. Nuclear composition of magnetized gamma-ray burst jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Sanshiro; Tominaga, Nozomu

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the fraction of metal nuclei in the relativistic jets of gamma-ray bursts associated with core-collapse supernovae. We simulate the fallback in jet-induced explosions with two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics calculations and the jet acceleration with steady, radial, relativistic magnetohydrodynamics calculations, and derive the detailed nuclear composition of the jet by post-processing calculation. We found that if the temperature at the jet launch site is above 4.7 × 109 K, quasi-statistical equilibrium is established and heavy nuclei are dissociated into light particles such as 4He during the acceleration of the jets. The criterion for the survival of metal nuclei is written in terms of the isotropic jet luminosity as L_j^iso ≲ 3.9 × 10^{50} ( R_i/107 cm)^2(1 + σi) erg s-1, where Ri and σi are the initial radius of the jets and the initial magnetization parameter, respectively. If the jet is initially dominated by radiation field (i.e., σi ≪ 1) and the isotropic luminosity is relatively high (L_j^iso ≳ 4 × 10^{52} erg s-1), the metal nuclei cannot survive in the jet. On the other hand, if the jet is mainly accelerated by magnetic field (i.e., σi ≫ 1), metal nuclei initially contained in the jet can survive without serious dissociation even in the case of a high-luminosity jet. If the jet contains metal nuclei, the dominant nuclei are 28Si, 16O, and 32S and the mean mass number can be ˜ 25.

  3. On the acceleration and deceleration of relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei - II. Mass loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nokhrina, E. E.; Beskin, V. S.

    2017-08-01

    The effect of mass loading of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow in relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) due to γγ → e+e- conversion is considered analytically. We argue that the effects of charge average separation due to specific initial pairs' motion lead to partial magnetic and electric field screening or enhancement. The effect of the field screening has not been considered earlier. The pairs with the centre of mass moving faster or slower than the bulk plasma flow create a surface charge and a current that either screen or enhance both electric and magnetic fields in a pair creation domain. This impacts the bulk flow motion, which either accelerates or decelerates. The pairs with the centre of mass moving with exactly the drift velocity do not induce the field disturbance. In this case, the flow decelerates due to pure mass loading. For these different cases, the Lorentz factor of the loaded outflow is calculated as a function of loading pair number density. The effect may be important on sub-parsec to parsec scales due to the conversion of TeV jet radiation on the soft infrared to the ultraviolet external isotropic photon field. This leads to a jet outer shell acceleration. The conversion of MeV jet radiation on larger scales may account for the flow deceleration due to pure mass loading. The proposed mechanism may be a source of internal shocks and instabilities in the pair creation region.

  4. A PHYSICAL LINK BETWEEN JET FORMATION AND HOT PLASMA IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Qingwen; Wang Dingxiong; Cao Xinwu; Ho, Luis C. E-mail: dxwang@hust.edu.cn E-mail: lho@obs.carnegiescience.edu

    2013-06-10

    Recent observations suggest that in black hole X-ray binaries jet/outflow formation is related to the hot plasma in the vicinity of the black hole, either in the form of an advection-dominated accretion flow at low accretion rates or in a disk corona at high accretion rates. We test the viability of this scenario for supermassive black holes using two samples of active galactic nuclei distinguished by the presence (radio-strong) and absence (radio-weak) of well-collimated, relativistic jets. Each is centered on a narrow range of black hole mass but spans a very broad range of Eddington ratios, effectively simulating in a statistical manner the behavior of a single black hole evolving across a wide spread in accretion states. Unlike the relationship between the radio and optical luminosity, which shows an abrupt break between high- and low-luminosity sources at an Eddington ratio of {approx}1%, the radio emission-a measure of the jet power-varies continuously with the hard X-ray (2-10 keV) luminosity, roughly as L{sub R} {proportional_to} L{sub X}{sup 0.6-0.75}. This relation, which holds for both radio-weak and radio-strong active galaxies, is similar to the one seen in X-ray binaries. Jet/outflow formation appears to be closely linked to the conditions that give rise to the hot, optically thin coronal emission associated with accretion flows, both in the regime of low and high accretion rates.

  5. A Physical Link between Jet Formation and Hot Plasma in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qingwen; Cao, Xinwu; Ho, Luis C.; Wang, Ding-Xiong

    2013-06-01

    Recent observations suggest that in black hole X-ray binaries jet/outflow formation is related to the hot plasma in the vicinity of the black hole, either in the form of an advection-dominated accretion flow at low accretion rates or in a disk corona at high accretion rates. We test the viability of this scenario for supermassive black holes using two samples of active galactic nuclei distinguished by the presence (radio-strong) and absence (radio-weak) of well-collimated, relativistic jets. Each is centered on a narrow range of black hole mass but spans a very broad range of Eddington ratios, effectively simulating in a statistical manner the behavior of a single black hole evolving across a wide spread in accretion states. Unlike the relationship between the radio and optical luminosity, which shows an abrupt break between high- and low-luminosity sources at an Eddington ratio of ~1%, the radio emission—a measure of the jet power—varies continuously with the hard X-ray (2-10 keV) luminosity, roughly as L_R \\propto L_X^{0.6{--}0.75}. This relation, which holds for both radio-weak and radio-strong active galaxies, is similar to the one seen in X-ray binaries. Jet/outflow formation appears to be closely linked to the conditions that give rise to the hot, optically thin coronal emission associated with accretion flows, both in the regime of low and high accretion rates.

  6. Decaying globular cluster systems and galactic nuclear activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.

    Globular cluster are systems that evolve dissipatively in non symmetric galactic potentials, losing energy and angular momentum. As a consequence, the GCS radial profile in a galaxy evolves significantly, so to differ from the one of the collisionless stellar bulge phase: this can explain the observations, which indicate how the GCS distribution in galaxies is usually more extended than the underlining stellar distribution. Moreover, the GCS orbital decay implies that a significant quantity of mass is carried toward the mother galaxy's central galactic region in a time scale short compared to the Hubble time. We show that this mass can accrete a galactic nucleus and fuel its activity in early stages of galactic life.

  7. THE NUCLEAR INFRARED EMISSION OF LOW-LUMINOSITY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R. E.; Lopez-Rodriguez, E.; Packham, C.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Elitzur, M.; Aretxaga, I.; Roche, P. F.; Oi, N.

    2012-07-15

    We present high-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) imaging, nuclear spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and archival Spitzer spectra for 22 low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs; L{sub bol} {approx}< 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}). Infrared (IR) observations may advance our understanding of the accretion flows in LLAGNs, the fate of the obscuring torus at low accretion rates, and, perhaps, the star formation histories of these objects. However, while comprehensively studied in higher-luminosity Seyferts and quasars, the nuclear IR properties of LLAGNs have not yet been well determined. We separate the present LLAGN sample into three categories depending on their Eddington ratio and radio emission, finding different IR characteristics for each class. (1) At the low-luminosity, low-Eddington-ratio (log L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} < -4.6) end of the sample, we identify 'host-dominated' galaxies with strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bands that may indicate active (circum-)nuclear star formation. (2) Some very radio-loud objects are also present at these low Eddington ratios. The IR emission in these nuclei is dominated by synchrotron radiation, and some are likely to be unobscured type 2 AGNs that genuinely lack a broad-line region. (3) At higher Eddington ratios, strong, compact nuclear sources are visible in the MIR images. The nuclear SEDs of these galaxies are diverse; some resemble typical Seyfert nuclei, while others lack a well-defined MIR 'dust bump'. Strong silicate emission is present in many of these objects. We speculate that this, together with high ratios of silicate strength to hydrogen column density, could suggest optically thin dust and low dust-to-gas ratios, in accordance with model predictions that LLAGNs do not host a Seyfert-like obscuring torus. We anticipate that detailed modeling of the new data and SEDs in terms of accretion disk, jet, radiatively inefficient accretion flow, and torus components will provide further insights into the nuclear

  8. Photon-axion mixing within the jets of active galactic nuclei and prospects for detection

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.; Chadwick, P.M. E-mail: p.m.chadwick@durham.ac.uk

    2014-10-01

    Very high energy γ-ray observations of distant active galactic nuclei (AGN) generally result in higher fluxes and harder spectra than expected, resulting in some tension with the level of the extragalactic background light (EBL). If hypothetical axions or axion-like particles (ALPs) were to exist, this tension could be relieved since the oscillation of photons to ALPs would mitigate the effects of EBL absorption and lead to softer inferred intrinsic AGN spectra. In this paper we consider the effect of photon-ALP mixing on observed spectra, including the photon-ALP mixing that would occur within AGN jets. We then simulate observations of three AGN with the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a next generation γ-ray telescope, to determine its prospects for detecting the signatures of photon-ALP mixing on the spectra. We conclude that prospects for CTA detecting these signatures or else setting limits on the ALP parameter space are quite promising. We find that prospects are improved if photon-ALP mixing within the jet is properly considered and that the best target for observations is PKS 2155-304.

  9. HI Clouds Near the Galactic Center: Possible Tracers of the Nuclear Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockman, Felix J.; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi; DiTeodoro, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    We have used the Green Bank Telescope to discover more than one hundred neutral hydrogen clouds that appear to be embedded in the Fermi Bubble -- the Milky Way’s nuclear wind. With the other members of this population that were previously found with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we now have a sample of about 200 such clouds. They are identified by their peculiar velocities. The cloud kinematics show no trace of Galactic rotation or association with the Galactic bar. Near longitude zero the clouds can have values of VLSR = +-200 km/s. No clouds have been detected with |VLSR| > 350 km/s. The clouds are concentrated toward the Galactic plane, but some are still found to |b|=10 degrees, or z > 1 kpc at the Galactic Center, where the current surveys end. These clouds are important tracers of conditions in the nuclear wind of the Milky Way.

  10. Multi-wavelength polarimetric studies of relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadio, Carolina

    This Thesis is focussed on the study of relativistic jets, commonly present in multiple astrophysical sites, from active galactic nuclei (AGN), to micro- quasars or gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In the case of AGN, huge amounts of energy across the whole electromagnetic spectrum are released as a conse- quence of the accretion of material onto a supermassive back hole (SMBH) lurking at their centers. The accretion leads to the formation of a pair of very powerful and highly collimated jets extending far beyond the size of the host galaxy. We analyzed the correlation between the multi-wavelength emission and the radio jet in three powerful AGN, the radio galaxies 3C 120 and M 87, and the quasar CTA 102. The main goal of this Thesis is to obtain a better understanding of the jet dynamics and the role played by the magnetic field, and to determine what are the sites and mechanisms for the production of the γ-ray emission observed in these sources. We have performed multi-wavelength studies of the radio galaxy 3C 120 and the blazar CTA 102 during unprecedented γ-ray flares for both sources. The NASA satellite Fermi registered in September-October 2012 a bright γ-ray flare in CTA 102, and between December 2012 and October 2014 a prolonged γ-ray activity in the radio galaxy 3C 120. In both studies, to determine where the γ-ray emission is produced, the analysis of Fermi data has been compared with a detailed study of the morphology and evolution of the parsec scale jet through a series of extremely-high angular resolution Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) images at 43 GHz from the Boston University blazar monitoring program, in which our research group is actively participating. In the case of 3C 120 we have also collected 15 GHz VLBA data from the MOJAVE monitoring program, extending our study of the radio jet from June 2008 to May 2014. For the study of CTA 102 a total of 80 VLBA images at 43 GHz have been analyzed and compared with observations across the whole

  11. The Jet Experiments in Nuclear Structure and Astrophysics (JENSA) gas jet target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipps, K. A.; Greife, U.; Bardayan, D. W.; Blackmon, J. C.; Kontos, A.; Linhardt, L. E.; Matos, M.; Pain, S. D.; Pittman, S. T.; Sachs, A.; Schatz, H.; Schmitt, K. T.; Smith, M. S.; Thompson, P.

    2014-11-01

    New radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities will push further away from stability and enable the next generation of nuclear physics experiments. Of great importance to the future of RIB physics are scattering, transfer, and capture reaction measurements of rare, exotic, and unstable nuclei on light targets such as hydrogen and helium. These measurements require targets that are dense, highly localized, and pure. Targets must also accommodate the use of large area silicon detector arrays, high-efficiency gamma arrays, and heavy ion detector systems to efficiently measure the reaction products. To address these issues, the Jet Experiments in Nuclear Structure and Astrophysics (JENSA) Collaboration has designed, built, and characterized a supersonic gas jet target, capable of providing gas areal densities on par with commonly used solid targets within a region of a few millimeters diameter. Densities of over 5×1018 atoms/cm2 of helium have been achieved, making the JENSA gas jet target the most dense helium jet achieved so far.

  12. The Galactic Center compared with nuclei of nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, Francoise

    2017-01-01

    Understanding our Galactic Center is easier with insights from nearby galactic nuclei. Both the star formation activity in nuclear gas disks, driven by bars and nuclear bars, and the fueling of low-luminosity AGN, followed by feedback of jets, driving molecular outflows, were certainly present in our Galactic Center, which appears now quenched. Comparisons and diagnostics are reviewed, in particular of m = 2 and m = 1 modes, lopsidedness, different disk orientations, and fossil evidences of activity and feedback.

  13. The Invariant Twist of Magnetic Fields in the Relativistic Jets of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Contopoulos, Ioannis; Christodoulou, Dimitris M.; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Gabuzda, Denise C.

    2009-01-01

    The origin of cosmic magnetic (B) fields remains an open question. It is generally believed that very weak primordial B fields are amplified by dynamo processes, but it appears unlikely that the amplification proceeds fast enough to account for the fields presently observed in galaxies and galaxy clusters. In an alternative scenario, cosmic B fields are generated near the inner edges of accretion disks in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) by azimuthal electric currents due to the difference between the plasma electron and ion velocities that arises when the electrons are retarded by interactions with photons. While dynamo processes show no preference for the polarity of the (presumably random) seed field that they amplify, this alternative mechanism uniquely relates the polarity of the poloidal B field to the angular velocity of the accretion disk, resulting in a unique direction for the toroidal B field induced by disk rotation. Observations of the toroidal fields of 29 AGN jets revealed by parsec-scale Faraday rotation measurements show a clear asymmetry that is consistent with this model, with the probability that this asymmetry came about by chance being less than 1 %. This lends support to the hypothesis that the Universe is seeded by B fields that are generated in AGN via this mechanism

  14. The Invariant Twist of Magnetic Fields in the Relativistic Jets of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Contopoulos, Ioannis; Christodoulou, Dimitris M.; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Gabuzda, Denise C.

    2009-01-01

    The origin of cosmic magnetic (B) fields remains an open question. It is generally believed that very weak primordial B fields are amplified by dynamo processes, but it appears unlikely that the amplification proceeds fast enough to account for the fields presently observed in galaxies and galaxy clusters. In an alternative scenario, cosmic B fields are generated near the inner edges of accretion disks in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) by azimuthal electric currents due to the difference between the plasma electron and ion velocities that arises when the electrons are retarded by interactions with photons. While dynamo processes show no preference for the polarity of the (presumably random) seed field that they amplify, this alternative mechanism uniquely relates the polarity of the poloidal B field to the angular velocity of the accretion disk, resulting in a unique direction for the toroidal B field induced by disk rotation. Observations of the toroidal fields of 29 AGN jets revealed by parsec-scale Faraday rotation measurements show a clear asymmetry that is consistent with this model, with the probability that this asymmetry came about by chance being less than 1 %. This lends support to the hypothesis that the Universe is seeded by B fields that are generated in AGN via this mechanism

  15. Disk-jet coupling in the Galactic black hole X-ray binary MAXI J1836-194

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    There is a universal connection between the accretion and ejection phenomena that are observed in black holes across the mass scale. Quantifying this relationship is the first step in understanding how jets are launched, accelerated and collimated. X-ray binaries are ideal systems to study this relationship, as they evolve on human timescales. In outburst, their luminosities increase by several orders of magnitude, with the thermal X-ray emission from the accretion disk and the radio emission from the relativistic jets undergoing dramatic, coupled changes. We present the results of our multiwavelength radio through to X-ray observations of the Galactic black hole candidate X-ray binary MAXI J1836-194 during its 2011 outburst. We find that this system has a near face-on accretion disk with the jet, that is pointed almost directly towards us, accounting for ~6% of the total energy output of the system early in the outburst. We observed the frequency of the transition from optically thick to optically thin synchrotron emission in the jet spectrum evolve by ~3 orders of magnitude as the jet gradually switches on and off on a timescale of a few weeks. This evolution does not appear to follow the expected positive relation with source luminosity. Instead the jet break shifted to higher frequencies as the source luminosity decreased and is likely coupled to the accretion flow in a more complex way. We find the region where the jet is accelerated up to relativistic speeds occurs at much larger distances from the black hole than previously thought and does not scale with the inner radius of the accretion disk. Our simultaneous, high cadence observations provide an unprecedented insight into the accretion processes occurring during an outburst, allowing us to observe the compact jet evolve and the corresponding changes within the accretion regime. This has implications for the launching of jets on all scales, from X-ray binaries to their larger-scale analogues, AGN.

  16. Nuclear processes in the jets of SS 433

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The very narrow gamma-ray lines observed at 1.495 and 6.695 MeV from SS 433 which are blueshifted 1.369 and 6.129 emissions from deexcitations of (24)Mg-asterisk and (16)O-asterisk in grains moving with the jets and inelastically excited by interactions with the ambient medium are discussed. Energetic particle interactions in grains produce very narrow gamma ray lines from deexcitation of nuclear levels whose lifetimes are long enough that the excited nuclei stop before deexcitation. The presence of grains in the jets resolves hitherto discussed difficulties of inelastic excitation models for gamma ray production in SS 433, the very narrow widths of the observed lines and the absence of other strong lines, expected from abundant elements. A model is proposed which could be distinguished from a previously proposed fusion model by gamma ray line observations.

  17. Nuclear processes in the jets of SS433

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The very narrow gamma-ray lines observed at 1.495 and 6.695 MeV from SS433 which are blueshifted 1.369 and 6.129 emissions from deexcitations of (24)Mg* and (16)O* in grains moving with the jets and inelastically excited by interactions with the ambient medium are discussed. Energetic particle interactions in grains produce very narrow gamma ray lines from deexcitation of nuclear levels whose lifetimes are long enough that the excited nuclei stop before deexcitation. The presence of grains in the jets resolves hitherto discussed difficulties of inelastic excitation models for gamma ray production in SS433, the very narrow widths of the observed lines and the absence of other strong lines, expected from abundant elements. A model is proposed which could be distinguished from a previously proposed fusion model by gamma ray line observations.

  18. Nuclear processes in the jets of SS 433

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The very narrow gamma-ray lines observed at 1.495 and 6.695 MeV from SS 433 which are blueshifted 1.369 and 6.129 emissions from deexcitations of (24)Mg-asterisk and (16)O-asterisk in grains moving with the jets and inelastically excited by interactions with the ambient medium are discussed. Energetic particle interactions in grains produce very narrow gamma ray lines from deexcitation of nuclear levels whose lifetimes are long enough that the excited nuclei stop before deexcitation. The presence of grains in the jets resolves hitherto discussed difficulties of inelastic excitation models for gamma ray production in SS 433, the very narrow widths of the observed lines and the absence of other strong lines, expected from abundant elements. A model is proposed which could be distinguished from a previously proposed fusion model by gamma ray line observations.

  19. The inner jet of an active galactic nucleus as revealed by a radio-to-gamma-ray outburst.

    PubMed

    Marscher, Alan P; Jorstad, Svetlana G; D'Arcangelo, Francesca D; Smith, Paul S; Williams, G Grant; Larionov, Valeri M; Oh, Haruki; Olmstead, Alice R; Aller, Margo F; Aller, Hugh D; McHardy, Ian M; Lähteenmäki, Anne; Tornikoski, Merja; Valtaoja, Esko; Hagen-Thorn, Vladimir A; Kopatskaya, Eugenia N; Gear, Walter K; Tosti, Gino; Kurtanidze, Omar; Nikolashvili, Maria; Sigua, Lorand; Miller, H Richard; Ryle, Wesley T

    2008-04-24

    Blazars are the most extreme active galactic nuclei. They possess oppositely directed plasma jets emanating at near light speeds from accreting supermassive black holes. According to theoretical models, such jets are propelled by magnetic fields twisted by differential rotation of the black hole's accretion disk or inertial-frame-dragging ergosphere. The flow velocity increases outward along the jet in an acceleration and collimation zone containing a coiled magnetic field. Detailed observations of outbursts of electromagnetic radiation, for which blazars are famous, can potentially probe the zone. It has hitherto not been possible to either specify the location of the outbursts or verify the general picture of jet formation. Here we report sequences of high-resolution radio images and optical polarization measurements of the blazar BL Lacertae. The data reveal a bright feature in the jet that causes a double flare of radiation from optical frequencies to TeV gamma-ray energies, as well as a delayed outburst at radio wavelengths. We conclude that the event starts in a region with a helical magnetic field that we identify with the acceleration and collimation zone predicted by the theories. The feature brightens again when it crosses a standing shock wave corresponding to the bright 'core' seen on the images.

  20. Complete multiwavelength evolution of Galactic black hole transients during outburst decay. I. Conditions for 'compact' jet formation

    SciTech Connect

    Kalemci, E.; Dinçer, T.; Chun, Y. Y.; Tomsick, J. A.; Buxton, M. M.; Bailyn, C. D.

    2013-12-20

    Compact, steady jets are observed in the near infrared and radio bands in the hard state of Galactic black hole transients as their luminosity decreases and the source moves toward a quiescent state. Recent radio observations indicate that the jets turn off completely in the soft state; therefore, multiwavelength monitoring of black hole transients is essential to probe the formation of jets. In this work, we conducted a systematic study of all black hole transients with near infrared and radio coverage during their outburst decays. We characterized the timescales of changes in X-ray spectral and temporal properties and also in near infrared and/or in radio emission. We confirmed that state transitions occur in black hole transients at a very similar fraction of their respective Eddington luminosities. We also found that the near infrared flux increase that could be due to the formation of a compact jet is delayed by a time period of days with respect to the formation of a corona. Finally, we found a threshold disk Eddington luminosity fraction for the compact jets to form. We explain these results with a model such that the increase in the near infrared flux corresponds to a transition from a patchy, small-scale height corona along with an optically thin outflow to a large-scale height corona that allows for collimation of a steady compact jet. We discuss the timescale of jet formation in terms of transport of magnetic fields from the outer parts of the disk, and we also consider two alternative explanations for the multiwavelength emission: hot inner accretion flows and irradiation.

  1. Spine-sheath polarization structures in four active galactic nuclei jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushkarev, A. B.; Gabuzda, D. C.; Vetukhnovskaya, Yu. N.; Yakimov, V. E.

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of multifrequency (15 + 8 + 5GHz) polarization Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations of the three BL Lacertae objects 0745+241, 1418+546 and 1652+398 together with 5-GHz VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP) observations of 1418+546 and 1.6- and 5-GHz VSOP observations of the blazar 1055+018. The jets of all these sources have polarization structure transverse to the jet axis, with the polarization E vectors aligned with the jet along the jet spine and `sheaths' of orthogonal E vectors at one or both edges of the jet. The presence of polarization aligned with the jet near the `spine' may indicate that the jets are associated with helical B fields that propogate outward with the jet flow; the presence of orthogonal polarization near the edges of the jet may likewise be a consequence of a helical jet B field, or may be owing to an interaction with the ambient medium on parsec scales. We have tentatively detected interknot polarization in 1055+018 with E aligned with the local jet direction, consistent with the possibility that the jet of this source is associated with a helical B field.

  2. MOJAVE: MONITORING OF JETS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH VLBA EXPERIMENTS. V. MULTI-EPOCH VLBA IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, M. L.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F. E-mail: haller@umich.edu

    2009-03-15

    We present images from a long-term program (MOJAVE: Monitoring of Jets in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with VLBA Experiments) to survey the structure and evolution of parsec-scale jet phenomena associated with bright radio-loud active galaxies in the northern sky. The observations consist of 2424 15 GHz Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) images of a complete flux-density-limited sample of 135 AGNs above declination -20{sup 0}, spanning the period 1994 August to 2007 September. These data were acquired as part of the MOJAVE and 2 cm Survey programs, and from the VLBA archive. The sample-selection criteria are based on multi-epoch parsec-scale (VLBA) flux density, and heavily favor highly variable and compact blazars. The sample includes nearly all the most prominent blazars in the northern sky, and is well suited for statistical analysis and comparison with studies at other wavelengths. Our multi-epoch and stacked-epoch images show 94% of the sample to have apparent one-sided jet morphologies, most likely due to the effects of relativistic beaming. Of the remaining sources, five have two-sided parsec-scale jets, and three are effectively unresolved by the VLBA at 15 GHz, with essentially all of the flux density contained within a few tenths of a milliarcsecond.

  3. DRIVING OUTFLOWS WITH RELATIVISTIC JETS AND THE DEPENDENCE OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK EFFICIENCY ON INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM INHOMOGENEITY

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2012-10-01

    We examine the detailed physics of the feedback mechanism by relativistic active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets interacting with a two-phase fractal interstellar medium (ISM) in the kpc-scale core of galaxies using 29 three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations. The feedback efficiency, as measured by the amount of cloud dispersal generated by the jet-ISM interactions, is sensitive to the maximum size of clouds in the fractal cloud distribution but not to their volume filling factor. Feedback ceases to be efficient for Eddington ratios P{sub jet}/L{sub edd} {approx}< 10{sup -4}, although systems with large cloud complexes {approx}> 50 pc require jets of Eddington ratio in excess of 10{sup -2} to disperse the clouds appreciably. Based on measurements of the bubble expansion rates in our simulations, we argue that sub-grid AGN prescriptions resulting in negative feedback in cosmological simulations without a multi-phase treatment of the ISM are good approximations if the volume filling factor of warm-phase material is less than 0.1 and the cloud complexes are smaller than {approx}25 pc. We find that the acceleration of the dense embedded clouds is provided by the ram pressure of the high-velocity flow through the porous channels of the warm phase, flow that has fully entrained the shocked hot-phase gas it has swept up, and is additionally mass loaded by ablated cloud material. This mechanism transfers 10% to 40% of the jet energy to the cold and warm gas, accelerating it within a few 10 to 100 Myr to velocities that match those observed in a range of high- and low-redshift radio galaxies hosting powerful radio jets.

  4. MOJAVE: MONITORING OF JETS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH VLBA EXPERIMENTS. VIII. FARADAY ROTATION IN PARSEC-SCALE AGN JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Hovatta, Talvikki; Lister, Matthew L.; Aller, Margo F.; Aller, Hugh D.; Homan, Daniel C.; Kovalev, Yuri Y.

    2012-10-01

    We report observations of Faraday rotation measures for a sample of 191 extragalactic radio jets observed within the MOJAVE program. Multifrequency Very Long Baseline Array observations were carried out over 12 epochs in 2006 at four frequencies between 8 and 15 GHz. We detect parsec-scale Faraday rotation measures in 149 sources and find the quasars to have larger rotation measures on average than BL Lac objects. The median core rotation measures are significantly higher than in the jet components. This is especially true for quasars where we detect a significant negative correlation between the magnitude of the rotation measure and the de-projected distance from the core. We perform detailed simulations of the observational errors of total intensity, polarization, and Faraday rotation, and concentrate on the errors of transverse Faraday rotation measure gradients in unresolved jets. Our simulations show that the finite image restoring beam size has a significant effect on the observed rotation measure gradients, and spurious gradients can occur due to noise in the data if the jet is less than two beams wide in polarization. We detect significant transverse rotation measure gradients in four sources (0923+392, 1226+023, 2230+114, and 2251+158). In 1226+023 the rotation measure is for the first time seen to change sign from positive to negative over the transverse cuts, which supports the presence of a helical magnetic field in the jet. In this source we also detect variations in the jet rotation measure over a timescale of three months, which are difficult to explain with external Faraday screens and suggest internal Faraday rotation. By comparing fractional polarization changes in jet components between the four frequency bands to depolarization models, we find that an external purely random Faraday screen viewed through only a few lines of sight can explain most of our polarization observations, but in some sources, such as 1226+023 and 2251+158, internal

  5. Nuclear Thermal Rocket - Arc Jet Integrated System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian D.; Emrich, William

    2016-01-01

    In the post-shuttle era, space exploration is moving into a new regime. Commercial space flight is in development and is planned to take on much of the low earth orbit space flight missions. With the development of a heavy lift launch vehicle, the Space Launch, System, NASA has become focused on deep space exploration. Exploration into deep space has traditionally been done with robotic probes. More ambitious missions such as manned missions to asteroids and Mars will require significant technology development. Propulsion system performance is tied to the achievability of these missions and the requirements of other developing technologies that will be required. Nuclear thermal propulsion offers a significant improvement over chemical propulsion while still achieving high levels of thrust. Opportunities exist; however, to build upon what would be considered a standard nuclear thermal engine to attain improved performance, thus further enabling deep space missions. This paper discuss the modeling of a nuclear thermal system integrated with an arc jet to further augment performance. The performance predictions and systems impacts are discussed.

  6. Collisional dust fragmentation near nuclear surface within cometary jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckloff, J.; Melosh, J.

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies of dust and grain fragmentation within cometary comae have focused on dust fragmentation schemes far from the nucleus [1-4]. In this work, we explore how to quantitatively constrain dust fragmentation mechanisms near the nuclear surface, and show that dust fragmentation within dust jets of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 is dominated by collisions. The dust jets on Tempel 1 that originate from a long scarp [5] obey power-law radiance profiles [6], which is the function describing the radiance (a proxy for dust) along the centerline of a dust jet as a function of height above the surface. The exponent of these power-law radiance profiles within the first kilometer of the surface is greater than -1, indicative of dust fragmentation. We constructed a one-dimensional numerical model of a cometary dust jet, which incorporates two end-member dust fragmentation schemes: binary fission and grain shedding [1]. In binary fission, an initial dust grain continually splits into two equal size pieces after a specified period of time (τ_{s}), whereas, in grain shedding, an initial dust grain continually loses a thin layer (Δ R) of fundamentally small grains from its surface. We model dust as spherical grains that conserve volume during fragmentation, with an initially uniform diameter of up to 5 cm. We model these two schemes without assuming a driving mechanism. Rather, we constrain their fundamental splitting parameters to generate power-law radiance profiles. We formulate the binary fission splitting time (τ_{s (R)}) and the grain shedding thickness of the shed layer (Δ R_{(R)}) as functions of the size of the dust grain (R). This generates power-law radiance profiles when the split time has the functional dependence τ_{s (R)} ∝ R^{-2} or when the depth of the shed layer has the functional dependence on the powers of the radius of the grain of Δ R_{(R)} ∝ R^{2} and higher. We then incorporate a power-law size-frequency distribution of initial grain sizes into our

  7. Exploring the jet launching region in active galactic nuclei using high-resolution VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Bindu

    2017-01-01

    The high radio frequency polarization imaging of non-thermal emission from AGN is a direct way to probe the magnetic field strength and structure in the immediate vicinity of SMBHs and is crucial in testing the jet-launching scenario. To explore the magnetic field configuration at the base of jets in blazars, I took advantage of the full polarization capabilities of the GMVA (Global Millimeter VLBI Array). With an angular resolution of 50 micro-arcseconds at 86 GHz, one could reach scales down to 900 Rs (for a 109 solar mass black hole). On sub-mas scales the core and central jet of BL Lac is polarized with the EVPA being aligned well with jet in the North-South jet direction. This suggests a well ordered magnetic field, with its main component being perpendicular to the jet axis. Such a field configuration is consistent with a helical magnetic field in the jet. In this talk, I will show the results of our study on BL Lac.

  8. NEW CLASS OF VERY HIGH ENERGY {gamma}-RAY EMITTERS: RADIO-DARK MINI SHELLS SURROUNDING ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Kino, Motoki; Kawakatu, Nozomu; Orienti, Monica

    2013-02-20

    We explore non-thermal emission from a shocked interstellar medium, which is identified as an expanding shell, driven by a relativistic jet in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). In this work, we particularly focus on parsec-scale size mini shells surrounding mini radio lobes. From the radio to X-ray band, the mini radio lobe emission dominates the faint emission from the mini shell. On the other hand, we find that inverse-Compton (IC) emission from the shell can overwhelm the associated lobe emission at the very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) {gamma}-ray range, because energy densities of synchrotron photons from the lobe and/or soft photons from the AGN nucleus are large and IC scattering works effectively. The predicted IC emission from nearby mini shells can be detected with the Cherenkov Telescope Array and they are potentially a new class of VHE {gamma}-ray emitters.

  9. RADIATION MECHANISM AND JET COMPOSITION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND GeV-TeV-SELECTED RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jin; Lu Ye; Zhang Shuangnan; Liang Enwei; Sun Xiaona; Zhang Bing

    2013-09-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and GeV-TeV-selected radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are compared based on our systematic modeling of the observed spectral energy distributions of a sample of AGNs with a single-zone leptonic model. We show that the correlation between the jet power (P{sub jet}) and the prompt gamma-ray luminosity (L{sub jet}) of GRBs is consistent, within the uncertainties, with the correlation between jet power and the synchrotron peak luminosity (L{sub s,jet}) of flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). Their radiation efficiencies ({epsilon}) are also comparable (>10% for most sources), which increase with the bolometric jet luminosity (L{sub bol,jet}) for FSRQs and with the L{sub jet} for GRBs with similar power-law indices. BL Lac objects (BL Lacs) do not follow the P{sub jet}-L{sub s,jet} relation of FSRQs. They have lower {epsilon} and L{sub bol,jet} values than FSRQs, and a tentative L{sub bol,jet}-{epsilon} relation is also found, with a power-law index different from that of the FSRQs. The magnetization parameters ({sigma}) of FSRQs are on average larger than that of BL Lacs. They are anti-correlated with {epsilon} for the FSRQs, but positively correlated with {epsilon} for the BL Lacs. GeV narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies potentially share similar properties with FSRQs. Based on the analogy between GRBs and FSRQs, we suggest that the prompt gamma-ray emission of GRBs is likely produced by the synchrotron process in a magnetized jet with high radiation efficiency, similar to FSRQs. The jets of BL Lacs, on the other hand, are less efficient and are likely more matter-dominated.

  10. Probing nuclear dynamics in jet production with a global event shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Liu, Xiaohui; Mantry, Sonny; Qiu, Jian-Wei

    2013-10-01

    We study single jet production in electron-nucleus collisions e-+NA→J+X, using the 1-jettiness (τ1) global event shape. It inclusively quantifies the pattern of radiation in the final state, gives enhanced sensitivity to soft radiation at wide angles from the nuclear beam and final-state jet, and facilitates the resummation of large Sudakov logarithms associated with the veto on additional jets. Through their effect on the observed pattern of radiation, 1-jettiness can be a useful probe of nuclear parton distribution functions and power corrections from dynamical effects in the nuclear medium. This formalism allows for the standard jet shape analysis while simultaneously providing sensitivity to soft radiation at wide angles from the jet. We use a factorization framework for cross-sections differential in τ1 and the transverse momentum (PJT) and rapidity (y) of the jet, in the region τ1≪PJT. The restriction τ1≪PJT allows only soft radiation between the nuclear beam and jet directions, thereby acting as a veto on additional jets. This region is also insensitive to the details of the jet algorithm, allowing for better theoretical control over resummation, while providing enhanced sensitivity to nuclear medium effects. We give numerical results at leading twist, with resummation at the next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic level of accuracy, for a variety of nuclear targets. Such studies would be ideal for the electron-ion collider and the LHeC proposals for a future electron-ion collider, where a range of nuclear targets are planned.

  11. Evidence for a nuclear radio jet and its structure down to ≲100 Schwarzschild radii in the center of the Sombrero galaxy (M 104, NGC 4594)

    SciTech Connect

    Hada, Kazuhiro; Giroletti, Marcello; Giovannini, Gabriele; Doi, Akihiro; Nagai, Hiroshi; Honma, Mareki; Inoue, Makoto

    2013-12-10

    The Sombrero galaxy (M 104, NGC 4594) is associated with one of the nearest low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We investigated the detailed radio structure of the Sombrero nucleus using high-resolution, quasi-simultaneous, multi-frequency, phase-referencing Very Long Baseline Array observations. We obtained high-quality images of this nucleus at seven frequencies, where those at 15, 24, and 43 GHz are the first clear very long baseline interferometry detections. At 43 GHz, the nuclear structure was imaged on a linear scale under 0.01 pc or 100 Schwarzschild radii, revealing a compact, high-brightness-temperature (≳ 3 × 10{sup 9} K) radio core. We discovered the presence of the extended structure emanating from the core on two sides in the northwest and southeast directions. The nuclear radio spectra show a clear spatial gradient, which is similar to that seen in more luminous AGNs with powerful relativistic jets. Moreover, the size and position of the core tend to be frequency dependent. These findings provide evidence that the central engine of the Sombrero is powering radio jets and the jets are overwhelming the emission from the underlying radiatively inefficient accretion flow over the observed frequencies. Based on these radio characteristics, we constrained the following physical parameters for the M 104 jets: (1) the northern side is approaching, whereas the southern one is receding; (2) the jet viewing angle is relatively close to our line-of-sight (≲ 25°); and (3) the intrinsic jet velocity is highly sub-relativistic (≲ 0.2c). The derived pole-on nature of the M 104 jets is consistent with the previous argument that this nucleus contains a true type II AGN, i.e., the broad line region is actually absent or intrinsically weak if the plane of the circumnuclear torus is perpendicular to the jet axis.

  12. Evidence for a Nuclear Radio Jet and its Structure down to lsim100 Schwarzschild Radii in the Center of the Sombrero Galaxy (M 104, NGC 4594)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hada, Kazuhiro; Doi, Akihiro; Nagai, Hiroshi; Inoue, Makoto; Honma, Mareki; Giroletti, Marcello; Giovannini, Gabriele

    2013-12-01

    The Sombrero galaxy (M 104, NGC 4594) is associated with one of the nearest low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We investigated the detailed radio structure of the Sombrero nucleus using high-resolution, quasi-simultaneous, multi-frequency, phase-referencing Very Long Baseline Array observations. We obtained high-quality images of this nucleus at seven frequencies, where those at 15, 24, and 43 GHz are the first clear very long baseline interferometry detections. At 43 GHz, the nuclear structure was imaged on a linear scale under 0.01 pc or 100 Schwarzschild radii, revealing a compact, high-brightness-temperature (gsim 3 × 109 K) radio core. We discovered the presence of the extended structure emanating from the core on two sides in the northwest and southeast directions. The nuclear radio spectra show a clear spatial gradient, which is similar to that seen in more luminous AGNs with powerful relativistic jets. Moreover, the size and position of the core tend to be frequency dependent. These findings provide evidence that the central engine of the Sombrero is powering radio jets and the jets are overwhelming the emission from the underlying radiatively inefficient accretion flow over the observed frequencies. Based on these radio characteristics, we constrained the following physical parameters for the M 104 jets: (1) the northern side is approaching, whereas the southern one is receding; (2) the jet viewing angle is relatively close to our line-of-sight (lsim 25°) and (3) the intrinsic jet velocity is highly sub-relativistic (lsim 0.2c). The derived pole-on nature of the M 104 jets is consistent with the previous argument that this nucleus contains a true type II AGN, i.e., the broad line region is actually absent or intrinsically weak if the plane of the circumnuclear torus is perpendicular to the jet axis.

  13. Nuclear 11.3 μm PAH emission in local active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Herrero, A.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Esquej, P.; Roche, P. F.; Hernán-Caballero, A.; Hönig, S. F.; González-Martín, O.; Aretxaga, I.; Mason, R. E.; Packham, C.; Levenson, N. A.; Rodríguez Espinosa, J. M.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Colina, L.; Alvarez, C.; Telesco, C. M.

    2014-09-01

    We present Gran Telescopio CANARIAS CanariCam 8.7 μm imaging and 7.5-13 μm spectroscopy of six local systems known to host an active galactic nucleus (AGN) and have nuclear star formation. Our main goal is to investigate whether the molecules responsible for the 11.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature are destroyed in the close vicinity of an AGN. We detect 11.3 μm PAH feature emission in the nuclear regions of the galaxies as well as extended PAH emission over a few hundred parsecs. The equivalent width (EW) of the feature shows a minimum at the nucleus but increases with increasing radial distances, reaching typical star-forming values a few hundred parsecs away from the nucleus. The reduced nuclear EWs are interpreted as due to increased dilution from the AGN continuum rather than destruction of the PAH molecules. We conclude that at least those molecules responsible for the 11.3 μm PAH feature survive in the nuclear environments as close as 10 pc from the AGN and for Seyfert-like AGN luminosities. We propose that material in the dusty tori, nuclear gas discs, and/or host galaxies of AGN is likely to provide the column densities necessary to protect the PAH molecules from the AGN radiation field.

  14. 76 FR 13397 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2010-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Pulse Jet...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... Response to Recommendation 2010-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Pulse Jet Mixing at the... Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 2010-2, concerning Pulse Jet Mixing at the Waste... Board (Board) Recommendation 2010-2, Pulse Jet Mixing at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant...

  15. Diffuse neutrino intensity from the inner jets of active galactic nuclei: Impacts of external photon fields and the blazar sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Kohta; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Dermer, Charles D.

    2014-07-01

    We study high-energy neutrino production in inner jets of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN), taking into account effects of external photon fields and the blazar sequence. We show that the resulting diffuse neutrino intensity is dominated by quasar-hosted blazars, in particular, flat spectrum radio quasars, and that PeV-EeV neutrino production due to photohadronic interactions with broadline and dust radiation is unavoidable if the AGN inner jets are ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray (UHECR) sources. Their neutrino spectrum has a cutoff feature around PeV energies since target photons are due to Lyα emission. Because of infrared photons provided by the dust torus, neutrino spectra above PeV energies are too hard to be consistent with the IceCube data unless the proton spectral index is steeper than 2.5, or the maximum proton energy is ≲100 PeV. Thus, the simple model has difficulty in explaining the IceCube data. For the cumulative neutrino intensity from blazars to exceed ˜10-8 GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1, their local cosmic-ray energy generation rate would be ˜10-100 times larger than the local UHECR emissivity but is comparable to the averaged γ-ray blazar emissivity. Interestingly, future detectors such as the Askaryan Radio Array can detect ˜0.1-1 EeV neutrinos even in more conservative cases, allowing us to indirectly test the hypothesis that UHECRs are produced in the inner jets. We find that the diffuse neutrino intensity from radio-loud AGN is dominated by blazars with γ-ray luminosity of ≳1048 erg s-1, and the arrival directions of their ˜1-100 PeV neutrinos correlate with the luminous blazars detected by Fermi.

  16. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE KINETIC POWER AND BOLOMETRIC LUMINOSITY OF JETS: LIMITATION FROM BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES, ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI, AND GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Renyi; Hou, Shujin; Xie, Fu-Guo E-mail: fgxie@shao.ac.cn

    2014-01-01

    The correlation between the kinetic power P {sub jet} and intrinsic bolometric luminosity L {sub jet} of jets may reveal the underlying jet physics in various black hole systems. Based on the recent work by Nemmen et al., we re-investigate this correlation with additional sources of black hole X-ray binaries (BXBs) in hard/quiescent states and low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). The new sample includes 29 sets of data from 7 BXBs and 20 LLAGNs, with P {sub jet} and L {sub jet} being derived from spectral modeling of the quasi-simultaneous multi-band spectra under the accretion jet scenario. Compared to previous works, the range of luminosity is now enlarged to more than 20 decades, i.e., from ∼10{sup 31} erg s{sup –1} to ∼10{sup 52} erg s{sup –1}, which allows for better constraining of the correlation. One notable result is that the jets in BXBs and LLAGNs almost follow the same P {sub jet}-L {sub jet} correlation that was obtained from blazars and gamma-ray bursts. The slope indices we derived are 1.03 ± 0.01 for the whole sample, 0.85 ± 0.06 for the BXB subsample, 0.71 ± 0.11 for the LLAGN subsample, and 1.01 ± 0.05 for the LLAGN-blazar subsample, respectively. The correlation index around unit implies the independence of jet efficiency on the luminosity or kinetic power. Our results may further support the hypothesis that similar physical processes exist in the jets of various black hole systems.

  17. YSO jets in the Galactic plane from UWISH2 - III. Jets and outflows in Cassiopeia and Auriga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froebrich, D.; Makin, S. V.

    2016-10-01

    We present the analysis of 35.5 deg2 of images in the 1-0 S(1) line of H2 from the UK Widefield Infrared Survey for H2 (UWISH2) towards Cassiopeia and Auriga. We have identified 98 Molecular Hydrogen emission-line Objects (MHOs) driven by Young Stellar Objects, 60 per cent of which are bipolar outflows and all are new discoveries. We estimate that the UWISH2-extended emission object catalogue contains fewer than 2 per cent false positives and is complete at the 95 per cent level for jets and outflows brighter than the UWISH2 detection limit. We identified reliable driving source candidates for three quarters of the detected outflows, 40 per cent of which are associated with groups and clusters of stars. The driving source candidates are 20 per cent protostars, the remainder are Classical T-Tauri Stars. We also identified 15 new star cluster candidates near MHOs in the survey area. We find that the typical outflow identified in the sample has the following characteristics: the position angles are randomly orientated; bipolar outflows are straight within a few degrees; the two lobes are slightly asymmetrical in length and brightness; the length and brightness of the lobes are not correlated; typical time gaps between major ejections of material are 1-3 kyr, hence FU-Ori or EX-Ori eruptions are most likely not the cause of these, but we suggest MNors as a possible source. Furthermore, we find that outflow lobe length distributions are statistically different from the widely used total length distributions. There are a larger than expected number of bright outflows indicating that the flux distribution does not follow a power law.

  18. Artificial γ-ray imaging of a galactic, relativistic astrophysical jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smponias, T.; Kosmas, T. S.

    2013-02-01

    The jet in a microquasar stellar system is simulated with a relativistic hydrocode (PLUTO) and then it is imaged, in the γ-rays wave band, with a line-of-sight method, including both emission and self-absorption. A synthetic image is produced which allows to better estimate the system's physical properties. The calculation procedure in our method has been simplified by exploiting the ability to de-couple the hydrodynamical from the radiative quantities in the computations.

  19. IFU spectroscopy of 10 early-type galactic nuclei - II. Nuclear emission line properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, T. V.; Steiner, J. E.; Menezes, R. B.

    2014-05-01

    Although it is well known that massive galaxies have central black holes, most of them accreting at low Eddington ratios, many important questions still remain open. Among them are the nature of the ionizing source, the characteristics and frequencies of the broad-line region and of the dusty torus. We report observations of 10 early-type galactic nuclei, observed with the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph in integral field unit mode, installed on the Gemini South telescope, analysed with standard techniques for spectral treatment and compared with results obtained with principal component analysis Tomography (Paper I). We performed spectral synthesis of each spaxel of the data cubes and subtracted the stellar component from the original cube, leaving a data cube with emission lines only. The emission lines were decomposed in multi-Gaussian components. We show here that, for eight galaxies previously known to have emission lines, the narrow-line region can be decomposed in two components with distinct line widths. In addition to this, broad Hα emission was detected in six galaxies. The two galaxies not previously known to have emission lines show weak Hα+[N II] lines. All 10 galaxies may be classified as low-ionization nuclear emission regions in diagnostic diagrams and seven of them have bona fide active galactic nuclei with luminosities between 1040 and 1043 erg s-1. Eddington ratios are always <10-3.

  20. Light ion components of the galactic cosmic rays: Nuclear interactions and transport theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Badhwar, G. D.; Dubey, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    Light nuclei are present in the primary galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and are produced in thick targets due to projectile or target fragmentation from both nucleon and heavy induced reactions. In the primary GCR, He-4 is the most abundant nucleus after H-1. However, there are also a substantial fluxes of H-2 and He-3. In this paper we describe theoretical models based on quantum multiple scattering theory for the description of light ion nuclear interactions. The energy dependence of the light ion fragmentation cross section is considered with comparisons of inclusive yields and secondary momentum distributions to experiments described. We also analyze the importance of a fast component of lights ions from proton and neutron induced target fragementation. These theoretical models have been incorporated into the cosmic ray transport code HZETRN and will be used to analyze the role of shielding materials in modulating the production and the energy spectrum of light ions.

  1. Light ion components of the galactic cosmic rays: Nuclear interactions and transport theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Badhwar, G. D.; Dubey, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    Light nuclei are present in the primary galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and are produced in thick targets due to projectile or target fragmentation from both nucleon and heavy induced reactions. In the primary GCR, He-4 is the most abundant nucleus after H-1. However, there are also a substantial fluxes of H-2 and He-3. In this paper we describe theoretical models based on quantum multiple scattering theory for the description of light ion nuclear interactions. The energy dependence of the light ion fragmentation cross section is considered with comparisons of inclusive yields and secondary momentum distributions to experiments described. We also analyze the importance of a fast component of lights ions from proton and neutron induced target fragementation. These theoretical models have been incorporated into the cosmic ray transport code HZETRN and will be used to analyze the role of shielding materials in modulating the production and the energy spectrum of light ions.

  2. Solar modulation and nuclear fragmentation effects in galactic cosmic ray transport through shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Cucinotta, C. F.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Badhwar, G.

    1994-10-01

    Crews of manned interplanetary missions may accumulate significant radiation exposures from the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) environment in space. Estimates of how these dose levels are affected by the assumed temporal and spatial variations in the composition of the GCR environment, and by the effects of the spacecraft and body self-shielding on the transported fields are presented. In this work, the physical processes through which shielding alters the transported radiation fields are described. We then present estimates of the effects on model calculations of (1) nuclear fragmentation model uncertainties, (2) solar modulation, (3) variations between solar cycles, and (4) proposed changes to the quality factors which relate dose equivalent to absorbed dose.

  3. Solar modulation and nuclear fragmentation effects in galactic cosmic ray transport through shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Cucinotta, C. F.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Badhwar, G.

    1994-01-01

    Crews of manned interplanetary missions may accumulate significant radiation exposures from the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) environment in space. Estimates of how these dose levels are affected by the assumed temporal and spatial variations in the composition of the GCR environment, and by the effects of the spacecraft and body self-shielding on the transported fields are presented. In this work, the physical processes through which shielding alters the transported radiation fields are described. We then present estimates of the effects on model calculations of (1) nuclear fragmentation model uncertainties, (2) solar modulation, (3) variations between solar cycles, and (4) proposed changes to the quality factors which relate dose equivalent to absorbed dose.

  4. Resolved, expanding jets in the Galactic black hole candidate XTE J1908+094

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushton, A. P.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Curran, P. A.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Rupen, M. P.; Paragi, Z.; Spencer, R. E.; Yang, J.; Altamirano, D.; Belloni, T.; Fender, R. P.; Krimm, H. A.; Maitra, D.; Migliari, S.; Russell, D. M.; Russell, T. D.; Soria, R.; Tudose, V.

    2017-07-01

    Black hole X-ray binaries undergo occasional outbursts caused by changing inner accretion flows. Here we report high angular resolution radio observations of the 2013 outburst of the black hole candidate X-ray binary system XTE J1908+094, using data from the Very Long Baseline Array and European VLBI Network. We show that following a hard-to-soft state transition, we detect moving jet knots that appear asymmetric in morphology and brightness, and expand to become laterally resolved as they move away from the core, along an axis aligned approximately -11° east of north. We initially see only the southern component, whose evolution gives rise to a 15-mJy radio flare and generates the observed radio polarization. This fades and becomes resolved out after 4 days, after which a second component appears to the north, moving in the opposite direction. From the timing of the appearance of the knots relative to the X-ray state transition, a 90° swing of the inferred magnetic field orientation, the asymmetric appearance of the knots, their complex and evolving morphology, and their low speeds, we interpret the knots as working surfaces where the jets impact the surrounding medium. This would imply a substantially denser environment surrounding XTE J1908+094 than has been inferred to exist around the microquasar sources GRS 1915+105 and GRO J1655-40.

  5. Disc-jet quenching of the galactic black hole Swift J1753.5-0127

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushton, A. P.; Shaw, A. W.; Fender, R. P.; Altamirano, D.; Gandhi, P.; Uttley, P.; Charles, P. A.; Kolehmainen, M.; Anderson, G. E.; Rumsey, C.; Titterington, D. J.

    2016-11-01

    We report on radio and X-ray monitoring observations of the BHC Swift J1753.5-0127 taken over a ˜10 yr period. Presented are daily radio observations at 15 GHz with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager Large Array (AMI-LA) and X-ray data from Swift X-ray Telescope and Burst Alert Telescope. Also presented is a deep 2 h JVLA observation taken in an unusually low-luminosity soft-state (with a low disc temperature). We show that although the source has remained relatively radio-quiet compared to XRBs with a similar X-ray luminosity in the hard-state, the power-law relationship scales as ζ = 0.96 ± 0.06, i.e. slightly closer to what has been considered for radiatively inefficient accretion discs. We also place the most stringent limit to date on the radio-jet quenching in an XRB soft-state, showing the connection of the jet quenching to the X-ray power-law component; the radio flux in the soft-state was found to be < 21 μJy, which is a quenching factor of ≳ 25.

  6. THE GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT W49B LIKELY ORIGINATES FROM A JET-DRIVEN, CORE-COLLAPSE EXPLOSION

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Laura A.; Castro, Daniel; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Pearson, Sarah

    2013-02-10

    We present results from a 220 ks observation of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) W49B using the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer on board the Chanrda X-ray Observatory. We exploit these data to perform detailed spatially resolved spectroscopic analyses across the SNR with the aim to investigate the thermodynamic properties and explosive origin of W49B. We find substantial variation in the electron temperature and absorbing column toward W49B, and we show that the mean metal abundances are consistent with the predicted yields in models of bipolar/jet-driven core-collapse SNe. Furthermore, we set strict upper limits on the X-ray luminosity of any undetected point sources, and we exclude the presence of a neutron star associated with W49B. We conclude that the morphological, spectral, and environmental characteristics of W49B are indicative of a bipolar Type Ib/Ic SN origin, making it the first of its kind to be discovered in the Milky Way.

  7. Probing the Relativistic Jets of Active Galactic Nuclei with Multiwavelength Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Aller, Margo

    2005-01-01

    The work completed includes the analysis of observations obtained during Cycle 7 (March 2002-February 2003) of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The project was part of a longer-term, continuing program to study the X-ray emission process in blazars and radio galaxies in collaboration with Dr. Ian McHardy (U. of Southampton, UK) and Prof. Thomas Balonek (Colgate U.). The goals of the program are to study the X-ray emission mechanism in blazars and radio galaxies and the relation of the X-ray emission to changes in the relativistic jet. The program includes contemporaneous brightness and linear polarization monitoring at radio and optical wavelengths, total and polarized intensity imaging at at 43 GHz with a resolution of 0.1 milliarcseconds with the VLBA, and well-sampled X-ray light curves obtained from a series of approved RXTE programs. The objects studied in the time period covered by the grant were 3C 120, 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 273, all with radio jets containing bright knots that appear to move at superluminal speeds. During RXTE Cycle 7, the project was awarded RXTE time to monitor PKS 1510-089 two times per week, 3C 273 and 3C 279 three times per week, and 3C 120 four times per week. In addition, 3C273 and 3C 279 were observed several times per day during a ten-day period in April 2002. The X-ray data, including those from earlier cycles, were compared with radio measurements obtained in the centimeter-wave band by the monitoring program of Drs. Margo and Hugh Aller at the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory, monthly imaging observations with the VLBA at 43 GHz, and optical observations obtained at several telescopes around the world.

  8. Effect of meson cloud on the jet nuclear modification factor in pA collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, B. G.

    2017-02-01

    We study the effect of the nucleon meson cloud on centrality dependence of the jet nuclear modification factor R pA . We find that the meson-baryon Fock components may lead to a noticeable deviation of R pA from unity. Our results for R pA show the same tendency as that observed by ATLAS in p + Pb collisions at √s = 5.02 TeV. The meson cloud suppresses the central jet events and enhances the peripheral jet events. But quantitatively the effect is somewhat smaller than in the data.

  9. 76 FR 37798 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2010-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Pulse Jet...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Response to Recommendation 2010-2 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Pulse Jet Mixing at the..., concerning Pulse Jet Mixing at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, to the Department of Energy. In... Safety Board (Board) Recommendation 2010-2, Pulse Jet Mixing (PJM) at the Waste Treatment and...

  10. A dynamical model for gas flows, star formation and nuclear winds in galactic centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumholz, Mark R.; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Crocker, Roland M.

    2017-04-01

    We present a dynamical model for gas transport, star formation and winds in the nuclear regions of galaxies, focusing on the Milky Way's Central Molecular Zone (CMZ). In our model angular momentum and mass are transported by a combination of gravitational and bar-driven acoustic instabilities. In gravitationally unstable regions the gas can form stars, and the resulting feedback drives both turbulence and a wind that ejects mass from the CMZ. We show that the CMZ is in a quasi-steady state where mass deposited at large radii by the bar is transported inwards to a star-forming, ring-shaped region at ∼100 pc from the Galactic Centre, where the shear reaches a minimum. This ring undergoes episodic starbursts, with bursts lasting ∼5-10 Myr occurring at ∼20-40 Myr intervals. During quiescence the gas in the ring is not fully cleared, but is driven out of a self-gravitating state by the momentum injected by expanding supernova remnants. Starbursts also drive a wind off the star-forming ring, with a time-averaged mass flux comparable to the star formation rate. We show that our model agrees well with the observed properties of the CMZ, and places it near a star formation minimum within the evolutionary cycle. We argue that such cycles of bursty star formation and winds should be ubiquitous in the nuclei of barred spiral galaxies, and show that the resulting distribution of galactic nuclei on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation is in good agreement with that observed in nearby galaxies.

  11. How Space Radiation Risk from Galactic Cosmic Rays at the International Space Station Relates to Nuclear Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Space radiation risk to astronauts is a major obstacle for long term human space explorations. Space radiation transport codes have thus been developed to evaluate radiation effects at the International Space Station (ISS) and in missions to the Moon or Mars. We study how nuclear fragmentation processes in such radiation transport affect predictions on the radiation risk from galactic cosmic rays. Taking into account effects of the geomagnetic field on the cosmic ray spectra, we investigate the effects of fragmentation cross sections at different energies on the radiation risk (represented by dose-equivalent) from galactic cosmic rays behind typical spacecraft materials. These results tell us how the radiation risk at the ISS is related to nuclear cross sections at different energies, and consequently how to most efficiently reduce the physical uncertainty in our predictions on the radiation risk at the ISS.

  12. Jet Tomography of Quark Gluon Plasmas in High Energy Nuclear Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyulassy, Miklos

    2015-04-01

    The attenuation pattern of high energy jet fragments in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions provides information on the space-time evolution and dynamical properties of the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) phase of matter discovered at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and observed at higher densities at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). First I review our jet tomography theory of quark and gluon energy loss in a weakly coupled picture of the QGP. While the average attenuation pattern of light and heavy quark jets were well accounted for in that picture, the predicted azimuthal elliptic asymmetry of jets was underestimated when realistic bulk collective flow effects were taken into account. I then show that the elliptic asymmetry of jet fragments can also be quantitatively understood when nonperturbative lattice QCD constraints on the suppression of color electric fluctuations and the enhancement of color magnetic fluctuations near the critical QCD confinement temperature, Tc ~ 160 MeV, are incorporated into the theory. Our analysis provides a novel quantitative connection between the jet transport properties controlling the hard jet quenching observables and the bulk viscous transport properties controlling the remarkable ``perfect fluidity'' of QGP observed at RHIC and LHC.

  13. Analysis of Material Sample Heated by Impinging Hot Hydrogen Jet in a Non-Nuclear Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Foote, John; Litchford, Ron

    2006-01-01

    A computational conjugate heat transfer methodology was developed and anchored with data obtained from a hot-hydrogen jet heated, non-nuclear materials tester, as a first step towards developing an efficient and accurate multiphysics, thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine thrust chamber. The computational methodology is based on a multidimensional, finite-volume, turbulent, chemically reacting, thermally radiating, unstructured-grid, and pressure-based formulation. The multiphysics invoked in this study include hydrogen dissociation kinetics and thermodynamics, turbulent flow, convective and thermal radiative, and conjugate heat transfers. Predicted hot hydrogen jet and material surface temperatures were compared with those of measurement. Predicted solid temperatures were compared with those obtained with a standard heat transfer code. The interrogation of physics revealed that reactions of hydrogen dissociation and recombination are highly correlated with local temperature and are necessary for accurate prediction of the hot-hydrogen jet temperature.

  14. Effects of Nuclear Cross Sections at Different Energies on Space Radiation Exposure from Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zi-Wei; Adams, James H., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a major hazard to space crews, especially in long duration human space explorations. For this reason, they will be protected by radiation shielding that fragments the GCR heavy ions. Here we investigate how sensitive the crew's radiation exposure is to nuclear fragmentation cross sections at different energies. We find that in deep space cross sections between about 0.2 and 1.2 GeV/u have the strongest effect on dose equivalent behind shielding in solar minimum GCR environments, and cross sections between about 0.6 and 1.7 GeV/u are the most important at solar maximum'. On the other hand, at the location of the International Space Station, cross sections at_higher -energies, between about 0.6 and 1.7 GeV /u at solar minimum and between about 1.7 and 3.4 GeV/u'at,solar maximum, are the most important This is. due-to the average geomagnetic cutoff for the ISS orbit. We also show the effect of uncertainties in the fragmentation cross sections on the elemental energy spectra behind shielding. These results help to focus the studies of fragmentation cross sections on the proper energy range in order to improve our predictions of crew exposures.

  15. Effects of Nuclear Cross Sections at Different Energies on Space Radiation Exposure from Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zi-Wei; Adams, James H., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a major hazard to space crews, especially in long duration human space explorations. For this reason, they will be protected by radiation shielding that fragments the GCR heavy ions. Here we investigate how sensitive the crew's radiation exposure is to nuclear fragmentation cross sections at different energies. We find that in deep space cross sections between about 0.2 and 1.2 GeV/u have the strongest effect on dose equivalent behind shielding in solar minimum GCR environments, and cross sections between about 0.6 and 1.7 GeV/u are the most important at solar maximum'. On the other hand, at the location of the International Space Station, cross sections at_higher -energies, between about 0.6 and 1.7 GeV /u at solar minimum and between about 1.7 and 3.4 GeV/u'at,solar maximum, are the most important This is. due-to the average geomagnetic cutoff for the ISS orbit. We also show the effect of uncertainties in the fragmentation cross sections on the elemental energy spectra behind shielding. These results help to focus the studies of fragmentation cross sections on the proper energy range in order to improve our predictions of crew exposures.

  16. The sub-galactic and nuclear main sequences for local star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maragkoudakis, A.; Zezas, A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.

    2017-04-01

    We describe a sub-galactic main sequence (SGMS) relating star formation rate (SFR) surface density (ΣSFR) and stellar mass density (Σ⋆) for distinct regions within star-forming galaxies, including their nuclei. We use a sample of 246 nearby star-forming galaxies from the 'Star Formation Reference Survey and demonstrate that the SGMS holds down to ∼1 kpc scales with a slope of α = 0.91 and a dispersion of 0.31 dex, similar to the well-known main sequence (MS) measured for globally integrated SFRs and stellar masses. The SGMS slope depends on galaxy morphology, with late-type galaxies (Sc-Irr) having α = 0.97 and early-type spirals (Sa-Sbc) having α = 0.81. The SGMS constructed from subregions of individual galaxies has on average the same characteristics as the composite SGMS from all galaxies. The SGMS for galaxy nuclei shows a dispersion similar to that seen for other subregions. Sampling a limited range of SFR-M⋆ space may produce either sublinearity or superlinearity of the SGMS slope. For nearly all galaxies, both SFR and stellar mass peak in the nucleus, indicating that circumnuclear clusters are among the most actively star-forming regions in the galaxy and the most massive. The nuclear SFR also correlates with total galaxy mass, forming a distinct sequence from the standard MS of star formation. The nuclear MS will be useful for studying bulge growth and for characterizing feedback processes connecting AGN and star formation.

  17. Nuclear pumped laser research at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    Using a partially nuclear excited xenon flashlamp to pump an iodine laser, laser pulse shapes were analyzed with and without nuclear flashlamp augmentation. The pulse shapes indicate that the deposition of nuclear energy is equally as effective as electrical energy deposition in producing laser pulse energy output. The amplification of the E-beam pumped CF3I was measured at pressures of several atmospheres. Preliminary data shows that, for a part of the iodine laser pulse, amplification of almost a factor of two is measured. This measurement indicates that the gain in an E-beam pumped CF3I is an order of magnitude greater than in the coaxial laser tube.

  18. Nuclear physics experiments with a windowless supersonic gas jet target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favela, J. F.; Shapira, D.; Chávez, E.; Ortíz, M. E.; Andrade, E.; de Lucio, O. G.; Huerta, A.

    2014-03-01

    A new windowless gas target has been developed in Mexico. It is a supersonic gas jet flow produced inside a vacuum chamber which can be coupled to a regular beam line in an accelerator laboratory as a differential pumping system brings the pressure of the gas target system down to a microTorr, or better, at the connecting stage. In this work, we present the system as it was designed and constructed as well as the first results using air, Nitrogen and Argon.

  19. DO MOST ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI LIVE IN HIGH STAR FORMATION NUCLEAR CUSPS?

    SciTech Connect

    Mushotzky, Richard F.; Shimizu, T. Taro; Meléndez, Marcio; Koss, Michael

    2014-02-01

    We present early results of the Herschel PACS (70 and 160 μm) and SPIRE (250, 350, and 500 μm) survey of 313 low redshift (z < 0.05), ultra-hard X-ray (14-195 keV) selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the 58 month Swift/Burst Alert Telescope catalog. Selection of AGNs from ultra-hard X-rays avoids bias from obscuration, providing a complete sample of AGNs to study the connection between nuclear activity and star formation in host galaxies. With the high angular resolution of PACS, we find that >35% and >20% of the sources are ''point-like'' at 70 and 160 μm respectively and many more have their flux dominated by a point source located at the nucleus. The inferred star formation rates (SFRs) of 0.1-100 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} using the 70 and 160 μm flux densities as SFR indicators are consistent with those inferred from Spitzer Ne II fluxes, but we find that 11.25 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon data give ∼3× lower SFR. Using GALFIT to measure the size of the far-infrared emitting regions, we determined the SFR surface density (M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}) for our sample, finding that a significant fraction of these sources exceed the threshold for star formation driven winds (0.1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2})

  20. Multiphase environment of compact galactic nuclei: the role of the nuclear star cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Różańska, A.; Kunneriath, D.; Czerny, B.; Adhikari, T. P.; Karas, V.

    2017-01-01

    We study the conditions for the onset of thermal instability in the innermost regions of compact galactic nuclei, where the properties of the interstellar environment are governed by the interplay of quasi-spherical accretion on to a supermassive black hole (SMBH) and the heating/cooling processes of gas in a dense nuclear star cluster (NSC). Stellar winds are the source of material for radiatively inefficient (quasi-spherical, non-magnetized) inflow/outflow on to the central SMBH, where a stagnation point develops within the Bondi-type accretion. We study the local thermal equilibrium to determine the parameter space that allows cold and hot phases in mutual contact to co-exist. We include the effects of mechanical heating by stellar winds and radiative cooling/heating by the ambient field of the dense star cluster. We consider two examples: the NSC in the Milky Way central region (including the gaseous mini-spiral of Sgr A*), and the ultracompact dwarf galaxy M60-UCD1. We find that the two systems behave in different ways because they are placed in different areas of parameter space in the instability diagram: gas temperature versus dynamical ionization parameter. In the case of Sgr A*, stellar heating prevents the spontaneous formation of cold clouds. The plasma from stellar winds joins the hot X-ray emitting phase and forms an outflow. In M60-UCD1, our model predicts spontaneous formation of cold clouds in the inner part of the galaxy. These cold clouds may survive since the cooling time-scale is shorter than the inflow/outflow time-scale.

  1. Jets.

    PubMed

    Rhines, Peter B.

    1994-06-01

    This is a discussion of concentrated large-scale flows in planetary atmospheres and oceans, argued from the viewpoint of basic geophysical fluid dynamics. We give several elementary examples in which these flows form jets on rotating spheres. Jet formation occurs under a variety of circumstances: when flows driven by external stress have a rigid boundary which can balance the Coriolis force, and at which further concentration can be caused by the beta effect; when there are singular lines like the line of vanishing windstress or windstress-curl, or the Equator; when compact sources of momentum, heat or mass radiate jet-like beta plumes along latitude circles; when random external stirring of the fluid becomes organized by the beta effect into jets; when internal instability of the mass field generates zonal flow which then is concentrated into jets; when bottom topographic obstacles radiate jets, and when frontogenesis leads to shallow jet formation. Essential to the process of jet formation in stratified fluids is the baroclinic life cycle described in geostrophic turbulence studies; there, conversion from potential to kinetic energy generates eddy motions, and these convert to quasibarotropic motions which then radiate and induce jet-like large-scale circulation. Ideas of potential vorticity stirring by eddies generalize the notion of Rossby-wave radiation, showing how jets embedded in an ambient potential vorticity gradient (typically due to the spherical geometry of the rotating planet) gain eastward momentum while promoting broader, weaker westward circulation. Homogenization of potential vorticity is an important limit point, which many geophysical circulations achieve. This well-mixed state is found in subdomains of the terrestrial midlatitude oceans, the high-latitude circumpolar ocean, and episodically in the middle atmosphere. Homogenization expels potential vorticity gradients vertically to the top and bottom of the fluid, and sideways to the edges of

  2. Anisotropic flow and jet quenching in relativistic nuclear collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Guang-You

    2015-02-01

    The exploration of the strong-interaction matter under extreme conditions is one of the main goals of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We provide some of the main results on the novel properties of quark-gluon plasma, with particular focus given to the strong collectivity and the color opaqueness exhibited by such hot and dense matter produced in high-energy nuclear collisions at RHIC and the LHC.

  3. Bent Galactic Jets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-24

    This diagram shows findings of results of observations made primarily by NASA Spitzer Telescopes and the Very Large Array radio telescope and illuminates new details about a celestial andbar connecting two massive islands of galaxies.

  4. A NEW PERSPECTIVE OF THE RADIO BRIGHT ZONE AT THE GALACTIC CENTER: FEEDBACK FROM NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jun-Hui; Morris, Mark R.; Goss, W. M.

    2016-02-01

    New observations of Sgr A have been carried out with the Jansky VLA in the B and C arrays using the broadband (2 GHz) continuum mode at 5.5 GHz. The field of view covers the central 13′ (30 pc) region of the radio-bright zone at the Galactic center. Using the multi-scale and multi-frequency-synthesis (MS-MFS) algorithms in CASA, we have imaged Sgr A with a resolution of 1″, achieving an rms noise of 8 μJy beam{sup −1}, and a dynamic range of 100,000:1. Both previously known and newly identified radio features in this region are revealed, including numerous filamentary sources. The radio continuum image is compared with Chandra X-ray images, with a CN emission-line image obtained with the Submillimeter Array and with detailed Paschen-α images obtained with Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS. We discuss several prominent features in the radio image. The “Sgr A west Wings” extend 2′ (5 pc) from the NW and SE tips of the Sgr A west H ii region (the “Mini-spiral”) to positions located 2.9 and 2.4 arcmin to the northwest and southeast of Sgr A*, respectively. The NW wing, along with several other prominent features, including the previously identified “NW Streamers,” form an elongated radio lobe (NW lobe), oriented nearly perpendicular to the Galactic plane. This radio lobe, with a size of 6.′3 × 3.′2 (14.4 pc × 7.3 pc), has a known X-ray counterpart. In the outer region of the NW lobe, a row of three thermally emitting rings is observed. A field containing numerous amorphous radio blobs extends for a distance of ∼2 arcmin beyond the tip of the SE wing; these newly recognized features coincide with the SE X-ray lobe. Most of the amorphous radio blobs in the NW and SE lobes have Paschen-α counterparts. We propose that they have been produced by shock interaction of ambient gas concentrations with a collimated nuclear wind or an outflow that originated from within the circumnuclear disk (CND). We also discuss the possibility that the ionized

  5. A New Perspective of the Radio Bright Zone at The Galactic Center: Feedback from Nuclear Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun-Hui; Morris, Mark R.; Goss, W. M.

    2016-02-01

    New observations of Sgr A have been carried out with the Jansky VLA in the B and C arrays using the broadband (2 GHz) continuum mode at 5.5 GHz. The field of view covers the central 13‧ (30 pc) region of the radio-bright zone at the Galactic center. Using the multi-scale and multi-frequency-synthesis (MS-MFS) algorithms in CASA, we have imaged Sgr A with a resolution of 1″, achieving an rms noise of 8 μJy beam-1, and a dynamic range of 100,000:1. Both previously known and newly identified radio features in this region are revealed, including numerous filamentary sources. The radio continuum image is compared with Chandra X-ray images, with a CN emission-line image obtained with the Submillimeter Array and with detailed Paschen-α images obtained with Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS. We discuss several prominent features in the radio image. The “Sgr A west Wings” extend 2‧ (5 pc) from the NW and SE tips of the Sgr A west H ii region (the “Mini-spiral”) to positions located 2.9 and 2.4 arcmin to the northwest and southeast of Sgr A*, respectively. The NW wing, along with several other prominent features, including the previously identified “NW Streamers,” form an elongated radio lobe (NW lobe), oriented nearly perpendicular to the Galactic plane. This radio lobe, with a size of 6.‧3 × 3.‧2 (14.4 pc × 7.3 pc), has a known X-ray counterpart. In the outer region of the NW lobe, a row of three thermally emitting rings is observed. A field containing numerous amorphous radio blobs extends for a distance of ˜2 arcmin beyond the tip of the SE wing; these newly recognized features coincide with the SE X-ray lobe. Most of the amorphous radio blobs in the NW and SE lobes have Paschen-α counterparts. We propose that they have been produced by shock interaction of ambient gas concentrations with a collimated nuclear wind or an outflow that originated from within the circumnuclear disk (CND). We also discuss the possibility that the ionized wind or

  6. Nuclear parton density functions from jet production in DIS at an EIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klasen, M.; Kovařík, K.; Potthoff, J.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the potential of inclusive-jet production in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) at a future electron-ion collider (EIC) to improve our current knowledge of nuclear parton density functions (PDFs). We demonstrate that the kinematic reach is extended similarly to inclusive DIS, but that the uncertainty of the nuclear PDFs, in particular of the gluon density at low Bjorken-x , is considerably reduced, by up to an order of magnitude compared to the present situation. Using an approximate next-to-next-to-leading order (aNNLO) calculation implemented in the program JetViP, we also make predictions for three different EIC designs and for four different light and heavy nuclei.

  7. The many lives of active galactic nuclei-II: The formation and evolution of radio jets and their impact on galaxy evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raouf, Mojtaba; Shabala, Stanislav S.; Croton, Darren J.; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Bernyk, Maksym

    2017-10-01

    We describe new efforts to model radio active galactic nuclei (AGN) in a cosmological context using the Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution (SAGE) semi-analytic galaxy model. Our new method tracks the physical properties of radio jets in massive galaxies including the evolution of radio lobes and their impact on the surrounding gas. This model also self consistently follows the gas cooling-heating cycle that significantly shapes star formation and the life and death of many galaxy types. Adding jet physics to SAGE adds new physical properties to the model output, which in turn allows us to make more detailed predictions for the radio AGN population. After calibrating the model to a set of core observations we analyse predictions for jet power, radio cocoon size, radio luminosity and stellar mass. We find that the model is able to match the stellar mass-radio luminosity relation at z ∼ 0 and the radio luminosity function out to z ∼ 1. This updated model will make possible the construction of customised AGN-focused mock survey catalogues to be used for large-scale observing programs.

  8. The Fossil Nuclear Outflow in the Central 30 pc of the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Ho, Paul T. P.; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan; Shimajiri, Yoshito; Matsushita, Satoki; Koch, Patrick M.; Iono, Daisuke

    2016-11-01

    We report a new 1 pc (30″) resolution CS(J=2-1) line map of the central 30 pc of the Galactic center (GC), made with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. We revisit our previous study of an extraplanar feature called the polar arc (PA), which is a molecular cloud located above SgrA*, with a velocity gradient perpendicular to the galactic plane. We find that the PA can be traced back to the galactic disk. This provides clues to the launching point of the PA, roughly 6 × 106 years ago. Implications of the dynamical timescale of the PA might be related to the Galactic center lobe at parsec scale. Our results suggest that, in the central 30 pc of the GC, the feedback from past explosions could alter the orbital path of molecular gas down to the central tenth of a parsec. In the follow-up work of our new CS(J=2-1) map, we also find that, near systemic velocity, the molecular gas shows an extraplanar hourglass-shaped feature (HG-feature) with a size of ˜13 pc. The latitude-velocity diagrams show that the eastern edge of the HG-feature is associated with an expanding bubble B1, ˜7 pc away from SgrA*. The dynamical timescale of this bubble is ˜3 × 105 years. This bubble is interacting with the 50 km s-1 cloud. Part of the molecular gas from the 50 km s-1 cloud was swept away by the bubble to b=-0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 2. The western edge of the HG-feature seems to be molecular gas entrained from the 20 km s-1 cloud toward the north of the galactic disk. Our results suggest a fossil explosion in the central 30 pc of the GC, a few 105 years ago.

  9. Discrete knot ejection from the jet in a nearby low-luminosity active galactic nucleus, M81*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ashley L.; Miller, Jon M.; Bietenholz, Michael; Gültekin, Kayhan; Reynolds, Mark T.; Mioduszewski, Amy; Rupen, Michael; Bartel, Norbert

    2016-08-01

    Observational constraints of the relativistic jets from black holes have largely come from the most powerful and extended jets, leaving the nature of the low-luminosity jets a mystery. M81* is one of the nearest low-luminosity jets and it emitted an extremely large radio flare in 2011, allowing us to study compact core emission with unprecedented sensitivity and linear resolution. Using a multiwavelength campaign, we were able to track the flare as it re-brightened and became optically thick. Simultaneous X-ray observations indicated that the radio re-brightening was preceded by a low-energy X-ray flare at least 12 days earlier. Associating the time delay (tdelay) between the two bands with the cooling time in a synchrotron flare, we find that the magnetic field strength was 1.9 < B < 9.2 G, which is consistent with magnetic field estimate from spectral energy distribution modelling, B < 10.2 G. In addition, Very Long Baseline Array observations at 23 GHz clearly illustrate a discrete knot moving at a low relativistic speed of vapp/c = 0.51 +/- 0.17 associated with the initial radio flare. The observations indicate radial jet motions for the first time in M81*. This has profound implications for jet production, as it means radial motion can be observed in even the lowest-luminosity AGN, but at slower velocities and smaller radial extents (≍104 RG).

  10. Accretion Disk Spectra of the Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources in Nearby Spiral Galaxies and Galactic Superluminal Jet Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, T

    2003-12-11

    Ultra-luminous Compact X-ray Sources (ULXs) in nearby spiral galaxies and Galactic superluminal jet sources share the common spectral characteristic that they have unusually high disk temperatures which cannot be explained in the framework of the standard optically thick accretion disk in the Schwarzschild metric. On the other hand, the standard accretion disk around the Kerr black hole might explain the observed high disk temperature, as the inner radius of the Kerr disk gets smaller and the disk temperature can be consequently higher. However, we point out that the observable Kerr disk spectra becomes significantly harder than Schwarzschild disk spectra only when the disk is highly inclined. This is because the emission from the innermost part of the accretion disk is Doppler-boosted for an edge-on Kerr disk, while hardly seen for a face-on disk. The Galactic superluminal jet sources are known to be highly inclined systems, thus their energy spectra may be explained with the standard Kerr disk with known black hole masses. For ULXs, on the other hand, the standard Kerr disk model seems implausible, since it is highly unlikely that their accretion disks are preferentially inclined, and, if edge-on Kerr disk model is applied, the black hole mass becomes unreasonably large (> 300 M{sub solar}). Instead, the slim disk (advection dominated optically thick disk) model is likely to explain the observed super-Eddington luminosities, hard energy spectra, and spectral variations of ULXs. We suggest that ULXs are accreting black holes with a few tens of solar mass, which is not unexpected from the standard stellar evolution scenario, and that their X-ray emission is from the slim disk shining at super-Eddington luminosities.

  11. Accretion Disk Spectra of the Ultra-luminous X-ray Sources in Nearby Spiral Galaxies and Galactic Superluminal Jet Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Ebisawa, Ken; Zycki, Piotr; Kubota, Aya; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Watarai, Ken-ya

    2003-01-01

    Ultra-luminous Compact X-ray Sources (ULXs) in nearby spiral galaxies and Galactic superluminal jet sources share the common spectral characteristic that they have unusually high disk temperatures which cannot be explained in the framework of the standard optically thick accretion disk in the Schwarzschild metric. On the other hand, the standard accretion disk around the Kerr black hole might explain the observed high disk temperature, as the inner radius of the Kerr disk gets smaller and the disk temperature can be consequently higher. However, we point out that the observable Kerr disk spectra becomes significantly harder than Schwarzschild disk spectra only when the disk is highly inclined. This is because the emission from the innermost part of the accretion disk is Doppler-boosted for an edge-on Kerr disk, while hardly seen for a face-on disk. The Galactic superluminal jet sources are known to be highly inclined systems, thus their energy spectra may be explained with the standard Kerr disk with known black hole masses. For ULXs, on the other hand, the standard Kerr disk model seems implausible, since it is highly unlikely that their accretion disks are preferentially inclined, and, if edge-on Kerr disk model is applied, the black hole mass becomes unreasonably large (greater than or approximately equal to 300 Solar Mass). Instead, the slim disk (advection dominated optically thick disk) model is likely to explain the observed super- Eddington luminosities, hard energy spectra, and spectral variations of ULXs. We suggest that ULXs are accreting black holes with a few tens of solar mass, which is not unexpected from the standard stellar evolution scenario, and their X-ray emission is from the slim disk shining at super-Eddington luminosities.

  12. Cosmic jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    The evidence that active galactic nuclei produce collimated plasma jets is summarised. The strongest radio galaxies are probably energised by relativistic plasma jets generated by spinning black holes interacting with magnetic fields attached to infalling matter. Such objects can produce e(+)-e(-) plasma, and may be relevant to the acceleration of the highest-energy cosmic ray primaries. Small-scale counterparts of the jet phenomenon within our own galaxy are briefly reviewed.

  13. Age determination of the nuclear stellar population of Active Galactic Nuclei using Locally Weighted Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada-Piedra, T.; Torres-Papaqui, J. P.; Terlevich, R.; Fuentes, O.; Terlevich, E.

    2004-07-01

    We present a new technique to segregate old and young stellar populations in galactic spectra using machine learning methods. We used an ensemble of classifiers, each classifier in the ensemble specializes in young or old populations and was trained with locally weighted regression and tested using ten-fold cross-validation. Since the relevant information concentrates in certain regions of the spectra we used the method of sequential floating backward selection offline for feature selection. The application to Seyfert galaxies proved that this technique is very insensitive to the dilution by the Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) continuum. Comparing with exhaustive search we concluded that both methods are similar in terms of accuracy but the machine learning method is faster by about two orders of magnitude.

  14. A new perspective on the radio active zone at the Galactic center - feedback from nuclear activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.-H.; Morris, M. R.; Goss, W. M.

    2014-05-01

    Based on our deep image of Sgr A using broadband data observed with the VLA† at 6 cm, we present a new perspective of the radio bright zone at the Galactic center. We further show the radio detection of the X-ray Cannonball, a candidate neutron star associated with the Galactic center SNR Sgr A East. The radio image is compared with the Chandra X-ray image to show the detailed structure of the radio counterparts of the bipolar X-ray lobes. The bipolar lobes are likely produced by the winds from the activities within Sgr A West, which could be collimated by the inertia of gas in the CND, or by the momentum driving of Sgr A*; and the poloidal magnetic fields likely play an important role in the collimation. The less-collimated SE lobe, in comparison to the NW one, is perhaps due to the fact that the Sgr A East SN might have locally reconfigured the magnetic field toward negative galactic latitudes. In agreement with the X-ray observations, the time-scale of ˜1 × 104 yr estimated for the outermost radio ring appears to be comparable to the inferred age of the Sgr A East SNR.

  15. A New Perspective on the Radio Active Zone at The Galactic Center - Feedback from Nuclear Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun-Hui; Morris, Mark R.; Goss, W. M.

    2013-11-01

    Based on our deep image of Sgr A using broadband data observed with the Jansky VLA at 6 cm, we present a new perspective of the radio bright zone at the Galactic center. We further show the radio detection of the X-ray Cannonball, a candidate neutron star associated with the Galactic center SNR Sgr A East. The radio image is compared with the Chandra X-ray image to show the detailed structure of the radio counterparts of the bipolar X-ray lobes. The bipolar lobes are likely produced by the winds from the activities within Sgr A West, which could be collimated by the inertia of gas in the CND, or by the momentum driving of Sgr A*; and the poloidal magnetic fields likely play an important role in the collimation. The less-collimated SE lobe, in comparison to the NW one, is perhaps due to the fact that the Sgr A East SN might have locally reconfigured the magnetic field toward negative galactic latitudes. In agreement with the X-ray observations, the time-scale of ~ $1\\times10^4$ yr estimated for the outermost radio ring appears to be comparable to the inferred age of the Sgr A East SNR.

  16. An Expanding Plasma Model for the X-ray/radio knots in KPC-scale Jets of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahayanathan, S.; Misra, R.; Kembhavi, A. K.; Kaul, C. L.

    2003-03-01

    We model the observed X-ray/radio knots in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) as isotropically expanding spherical plasma clouds fed continously by non-thermal electrons. The time-dependent electron distribution and the emitted photon spectrum are computed using the standard kinetic equation considering synchrotron, adiabatic and inverse Compton cooling processes. We use this model to study the knots of 1136 - 135 and 1150 + 497, recenly observed by Chandra. 29

  17. Complete multiwavelength evolution of galactic black hole transients during outburst decay. II. Compact jets and X-ray variability properties

    SciTech Connect

    Dinçer, T.; Kalemci, E.; Tomsick, J. A.; Buxton, M. M.; Bailyn, C. D.

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the relation between compact jet emission and X-ray variability properties of all black hole transients with multiwavelength coverage during their outburst decays. We studied the evolution of all power spectral components (including low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations; QPOs), and related this evolution to changes in jet properties tracked by radio and infrared observations. We grouped sources according to their tracks in the radio/X-ray luminosity relation and show that the standards show stronger broadband X-ray variability than outliers at a given X-ray luminosity when the compact jet turns on. This trend is consistent with the internal shock model and can be important for the understanding of the presence of tracks in the radio/X-ray luminosity relation. We also observed that the total and the QPO rms amplitudes increase together during the earlier part of the outburst decay, but after the compact jet turns, either the QPO disappears or its rms amplitude decreases significantly while the total rms amplitudes remain high. We discuss these results with a scenario including a variable corona and a non-variable disk with a mechanism for the QPO separate from the mechanism that creates broad components. Finally, we evaluated the timing predictions of the magnetically dominated accretion flow model that can explain the presence of tracks in the radio/X-ray luminosity relation.

  18. Effects of nuclear cross sections at different energies on the radiation hazard from galactic cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Lin, Z W; Adams, J H

    2007-03-01

    The radiation hazard for astronauts from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a major obstacle to long-duration human space exploration. Space radiation transport codes have been developed to calculate the radiation environment on missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. We have studied how uncertainties in fragmentation cross sections at different energies affect the accuracy of predictions from such radiation transport calculations. We find that, in deep space, cross sections at energies between 0.3 and 0.85 GeV/nucleon have the largest effect in solar maximum GCR environments. At the International Space Station, cross sections at higher energies have the largest effect due to the geomagnetic cutoff.

  19. Jets, hotspots and lobes: what X-ray observations tell us about extra-galactic radio sources.

    PubMed

    Hardcastle, Martin J

    2005-12-15

    The brightest and most numerous discrete radio sources in the sky, radio galaxies and quasars, are powered by twin jets of plasma which emerge at relativistic speeds from very small regions at the centre of large elliptical galaxies, powered by mass infall on to supermassive black holes. The jets can carry material out to very large distances (millions of light years) where it forms balloon-like lobes. Until recently it has been impossible to make definite statements about the energy or the nature of the matter supplied by the jets, or the dynamics of the lobes as they expand into the external medium. This has meant that crucial questions about the generation of radio sources and their effect on their environment have gone unanswered. The situation has been revolutionized by the launch at the start of this decade of a new generation of X-ray observatories, Chandra and XMM-Newton. In this article, I explain why observations with these instruments have made such a difference, what we have learned as a result and why the community remains divided on some important features of the interpretation of the data.

  20. Self-regulated growth of supermassive black holes by a dual jet-heating active galactic nucleus feedback mechanism: methods, tests and implications for cosmological simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Yohan; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Teyssier, Romain

    2012-03-01

    We develop a subgrid model for the growth of supermassive black holes (BHs) and their associated active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback in hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. This model transposes previous attempts to describe BH accretion and AGN feedback with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique to the adaptive mesh refinement framework. It also furthers their development by implementing a new jet-like outflow treatment of the AGN feedback which we combine with the heating mode traditionally used in the SPH approach. Thus, our approach allows one to test the robustness of the conclusions derived from simulating the impact of self-regulated AGN feedback on galaxy formation vis-à-vis the numerical method. Assuming that BHs are created in the early stages of galaxy formation, they grow by mergers and accretion of gas at a Eddington-limited Bondi accretion rate. However this growth is regulated by AGN feedback which we model using two different modes: a quasar-heating mode when accretion rates on to the BHs are comparable to the Eddington rate, and a radio-jet mode at lower accretion rates which not only deposits energy, but also deposits mass and momentum on the grid. In other words, our feedback model deposits energy as a succession of thermal bursts and jet outflows depending on the properties of the gas surrounding the BHs. We assess the plausibility of such a model by comparing our results to observational measurements of the co-evolution of BHs and their host galaxy properties, and check their robustness with respect to numerical resolution. We show that AGN feedback must be a crucial physical ingredient for the formation of massive galaxies as it appears to be able to efficiently prevent the accumulation of and/or expel cold gas out of haloes/galaxies and significantly suppress star formation. Our model predicts that the relationship between BHs and their host galaxy mass evolves as a function of redshift, because of the vigorous accretion

  1. UNCOVERING THE DEEPLY EMBEDDED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACTIVITY IN THE NUCLEAR REGIONS OF THE INTERACTING GALAXY Arp 299

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Herrero, A.; Roche, P. F.; Esquej, P.; Colina, L.; González-Martín, O.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Rodríguez Espinosa, J. M.; Alvarez, C.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Levenson, N. A.; Packham, C.; Mason, R. E.; Aretxaga, I.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Perlman, E.; Telesco, C. M.

    2013-12-10

    We present mid-infrared (MIR) 8-13 μm spectroscopy of the nuclear regions of the interacting galaxy Arp 299 (IC 694+NGC 3690) obtained with CanariCam (CC) on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). The high angular resolution (∼0.''3-0.''6) of the data allows us to probe nuclear physical scales between 60 and 120 pc, which is a factor of 10 improvement over previous MIR spectroscopic observations of this system. The GTC/CC spectroscopy displays evidence of deeply embedded active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in both nuclei. The GTC/CC nuclear spectrum of NGC 3690/Arp 299-B1 can be explained as emission from AGN-heated dust in a clumpy torus with both a high covering factor and high extinction along the line of sight. The estimated bolometric luminosity of the AGN in NGC 3690 is 3.2 ± 0.6 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup –1}. The nuclear GTC/CC spectrum of IC 694/Arp 299-A shows 11.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission stemming from a deeply embedded (A{sub V} ∼ 24 mag) region of less than 120 pc in size. There is also a continuum-emitting dust component. If associated with the putative AGN in IC 694, we estimate that it would be approximately five times less luminous than the AGN in NGC 3690. The presence of dual AGN activity makes Arp 299 a good example to study such phenomena in the early coalescence phase of interacting galaxies.

  2. Effects of Nuclear Cross Sections at Different Energies on the Radiation Hazard from Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Z. W.; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The radiation hazard for astronauts from galactic cosmic rays is a major obstacle in long duration human space explorations. Space radiation transport codes have been developed to calculate radiation environment on missions to the Moon, Mars or beyond. We have studied how uncertainties in fragmentation cross sections at different energies affect the accuracy of predictions from such radiation transport. We find that, in deep space, cross sections between 0.3 and 0.85 GeV/u usually have the largest effect on dose-equivalent behind shielding in solar minimum GCR environments, and cross sections between 0.85 and 1.2 GeV/u have the largest effect in solar maximum GCR environments. At the International Space Station, cross sections at higher energies have the largest effect due to the geomagnetic cutoff.

  3. Luminous Infrared Galaxies. III. Multiple Merger, Extended Massive Star Formation, Galactic Wind, and Nuclear Inflow in NGC 3256

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lípari, S.; Díaz, R.; Taniguchi, Y.; Terlevich, R.; Dottori, H.; Carranza, G.

    2000-08-01

    ouflow axis (at P.A.~160deg). We analyze in detail the physical conditions in the giant H II regions located in the asymmetric spiral arms, the two main optical nuclei, and the outflow component (using long-slit spectroscopy, plus standard models of photoionization, shocks, and starbursts). We present four detailed emission-line ratios (N II/Hα, S II/Hα, S II/S II), and FWHM (Hα) maps for the central region (30''×30'' rmax~22''~4 kpc), with a spatial resolution of 1". In the central region (r~5-6 kpc) we detected that the nuclear starburst and the extended giant H II regions (in the spiral arms) have very similar properties, i.e., high metallicity and low-ionization spectra, with Teff=35,000 K, solar abundance, a range of Te~6000-7000 K, and Ne~100-1000 cm-3. The nuclear and extended outflow shows properties typical of galactic wind/shocks, associated with the nuclear starburst. We suggest that the interaction between dynamical effects, the galactic wind (outflow), low-energy cosmic rays, and the molecular+ionized gas (probably in the inflow phase) could be the possible mechanism that generate the ``similar extended properties in the massive star formation, at a scale of 5-6 kpc!'' We have also studied the presence of the close merger/interacting systems NGC 3256C (at ~150 kpc, ΔV=-100 km s-1) and the possible association between the NGC 3256 and 3263 groups of galaxies. In conclusion, these results suggest that NGC 3256 is the product of a multiple merger, which generated an extended massive star formation process with an associated galactic wind plus a nuclear inflow. Therefore, NGC 3256 is another example in which the relation between mergers and extreme starburst (and the powerful galactic wind, ``multiple'' Type II supernova explosions) play an important role in the evolution of galaxies (the hypothesis of Rieke et al., Joseph et al., Terlevich et al., Heckman et al., and Lípari et al.). Based on observations obtained at the Hubble Space Telescope (HST; Wide

  4. Nuclear planetology: understanding habitable planets as Galactic bulge stellar remnants (black dwarfs) in a Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roller, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    model constraining the evolution of a rocky planet like Earth or Mercury from a stellar precursor of the oldest population to a Fe-C BLD, shifting through different spectral classes in a HR diagram after massive decompression and tremendous energy losses. In the light of WD/BLD cosmochronology [1], solar system bodies like Earth, Mercury and Moon are regarded as captured interlopers from the Galactic bulge, Earth and Moon possibly representing remnants of an old binary system. Such a preliminary scenario is supported by similar ages obtained from WD's for the Galactic halo [1] and, independently, by means of 187Re-232Th-238U nuclear geochronometry [2, 4, 5], together with recent observations extremely metal-poor stars from the cosmic dawn in the bulge of the Milky Way [6]. This might be further elucidated in the near future by Th/U cosmochronometry based upon a nuclear production ratio Th/U = 0.96 [5] and additionally by means of a newly developed nucleogeochronometric age dating method for stellar spectroscopy, which will be presented in a forthcoming paper. The model shall stimulate geochemical data interpretation from a different perspective to constrain the (thermal) evolution of a habitable planet as to its geo-, bio-, hydro- and atmosphere. [1] Fontaine et al. (2001), Public. Astron. Soc. of the Pacific 113, 409-435. [2] Roller (2015), Abstract T34B-0407, AGU Spring Meeting 2015. [3] Arevalo et al. (2010), Chem. Geol. 271, 70-85. [4] Roller (2015), Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17, EGU2015-2399. [5] Roller (2015), 78th Annu. Meeting Met. Soc., Abstract #5041. [6] Howes et al. (2015), Nature 527, 484-487.

  5. New supersonic gas jet target for low energy nuclear reaction studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favela, F.; Acosta, L.; Andrade, E.; Araujo, V.; Huerta, A.; de Lucio, O. G.; Murillo, G.; Ortiz, M. E.; Policroniades, R.; Santa Rita, P.; Varela, A.; Chávez, E.

    2015-12-01

    A windowless supersonic gas jet target (SUGAR) has been put in operation recently in Mexico. It is the first target of its kind in the country and the region. New research opportunities become available with this facility through the study of the direct beam-gas interaction: nuclear physics and astrophysics, atomic physics, interaction of radiation with matter and other interdisciplinary applications. A general description of the apparatus and its commissioning is given here. Air, nitrogen and argon jets were produced. Proton and deuteron beams were used to measure key parameters of the system to compare with theoretical estimates. In addition, as a first study case, we present data from the 14N (d ,α )12C reaction, at center of mass energies between 1.9 and 3.0 MeV with an E-Δ E telescope detector at 35°. Excitation functions for several excited states were constructed and an 16O resonance at 22.72 MeV was confirmed.

  6. Interaction of ultraviolet and X-ray radiation with gamma rays produced by a jet in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zbyszewska, Magda

    1994-01-01

    Recent observations by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory give evidence for the existence of a type of blazar with strong gamma-ray emission. Data obtained by EGRET for the quasar 3C 279 show a spectrum between 100 MeV and 10 GeV. Photons of such energies should interact with the X-rays and produce positron/electron pairs. If the optical depth against pair production for the gamma rays is large (tau(gamma gamma) greater than 1), the gamma-ray spectrum should be affected. The importance of this process has been pointed out by, e.g., Maraschi, Ghisellini, & Celotti (1992). Several works (e.g., Dermer 1993; Zbyszewska 1993; Sikora, Begelman, & Rees 1993) concerning gamma-ray radiation from quasar 3C 279 have proposed a model in which the gamma rays are produced via interaction between a moving cloud of relativistic electrons and external soft photons. The presence of gamma rays in active galactic nuclei spectra gives constraints on the localization and the luminosity of the medium which produces ultraviolet/X-ray photons. We investigate what conditions should be fulfilled in the above model to avoid the absorption of the gamma rays due to pair production.

  7. Measurement of inclusive jet production and nuclear modifications in pPb collisions at [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

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Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Foerster, M; Riley, G; Rose, K; Spanier, S; Thapa, K; Bouhali, O; Castaneda Hernandez, A; Celik, A; Dalchenko, M; De Mattia, M; Delgado, A; Dildick, S; Eusebi, R; Gilmore, J; Huang, T; Kamon, T; Krutelyov, V; Mueller, R; Osipenkov, I; Pakhotin, Y; Patel, R; Perloff, A; Rose, A; Safonov, A; Tatarinov, A; Ulmer, K A; Akchurin, N; Cowden, C; Damgov, J; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Kunori, S; Lamichhane, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Undleeb, S; Volobouev, I; Appelt, E; Delannoy, A G; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Janjam, R; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Mao, Y; Melo, A; Ni, H; Sheldon, P; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Xu, Q; Arenton, M W; Cox, B; Francis, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Lin, C; Neu, C; Sinthuprasith, T; Sun, X; Wang, Y; Wolfe, E; Wood, J; Xia, F; Clarke, C; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Lamichhane, P; Sturdy, J; Belknap, D A; Carlsmith, D; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Gomber, B; Grothe, M; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ruggles, T; Sarangi, T; Savin, A; Sharma, A; Smith, N; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Verwilligen, P; Woods, N; Collaboration, Authorinst The Cms

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive jet production in pPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon (NN) center-of-mass energy of [Formula: see text] is studied with the CMS detector at the LHC. A data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30.1 nb[Formula: see text] is analyzed. The jet transverse momentum spectra are studied in seven pseudorapidity intervals covering the range [Formula: see text] in the NN center-of-mass frame. The jet production yields at forward and backward pseudorapidity are compared and no significant asymmetry about [Formula: see text] is observed in the measured kinematic range. The measurements in the pPb system are compared to reference jet spectra obtained by extrapolation from previous measurements in pp collisions at [Formula: see text]. In all pseudorapidity ranges, nuclear modifications in inclusive jet production are found to be small, as predicted by next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations that incorporate nuclear effects in the parton distribution functions.

  8. Tables of nuclear cross sections for galactic cosmic rays: Absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A simple but comprehensive theory of nuclear reactions is presented. Extensive tables of nucleon, deuteron, and heavy-ion absorption cross sections over a broad range of energies are generated for use in cosmic ray shielding studies. Numerous comparisons of the calculated values with available experimental data show agreement to within 3 percent for energies above 80 MeV/nucleon and within approximately 10 percent for energies as low as 30 MeV/nucleon. These tables represent the culmination of the development of the absorption cross section formalism and supersede the preliminary absorption cross sections published previously in NASA TN D-8107, NASA TP-2138, and NASA TM-84636.

  9. Tables of nuclear cross sections for galactic cosmic rays: Absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-05-01

    A simple but comprehensive theory of nuclear reactions is presented. Extensive tables of nucleon, deuteron, and heavy-ion absorption cross sections over a broad range of energies are generated for use in cosmic ray shielding studies. Numerous comparisons of the calculated values with available experimental data show agreement to within 3 percent for energies above 80 MeV/nucleon and within approximately 10 percent for energies as low as 30 MeV/nucleon. These tables represent the culmination of the development of the absorption cross section formalism and supersede the preliminary absorption cross sections published previously in NASA TN D-8107, NASA TP-2138, and NASA TM-84636.

  10. Carbon-13 and proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of shale-derived refinery products and jet fuels and of experimental referee broadened-specification jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalling, D. K.; Bailey, B. K.; Pugmire, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    A proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study was conducted of Ashland shale oil refinery products, experimental referee broadened-specification jet fuels, and of related isoprenoid model compounds. Supercritical fluid chromatography techniques using carbon dioxide were developed on a preparative scale, so that samples could be quantitatively separated into saturates and aromatic fractions for study by NMR. An optimized average parameter treatment was developed, and the NMR results were analyzed in terms of the resulting average parameters; formulation of model mixtures was demonstrated. Application of novel spectroscopic techniques to fuel samples was investigated.

  11. MODELING THE NUCLEAR INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF TYPE II ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Lira, Paulina; Videla, Liza; Wu, Yanling; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Alexander, David M.; Ward, Martin

    2013-02-20

    We present results from model fitting to the spectral energy distribution (SED) of a homogeneous sample of Seyfert II galaxies drawn from the 12 {mu}m Galaxy Sample. Imaging and nuclear flux measurements are presented in an accompanying paper. Here we add Spitzer/IRS observations to further constrain the SEDs after careful subtraction of a starburst component. We use the library of CLUMPY torus models from Nenkova et al. and also test the two-phase models recently produced by Stalevski et al. We find that photometric and spectroscopic observations in the mid-IR ({lambda} {approx}> 5 {mu}m) are crucial to properly constrain the best-fit torus models. About half of our sources show clear near-IR excess of their SEDs above the best-fit models. This problem can be less severe when using the Stalevski et al. models. The nature of this emission is not clear since best-fitted blackbody temperatures are very high ({approx}1700-2500 K) and the Type II classification of our sources would correspond to a small probability to peer directly into the hottest regions of the torus. Crucially, the derived torus parameters are quite robust when using CLUMPY models, independently of whether or not the sources require an additional blackbody component. Our findings suggest that tori are characterized by N{sub 0}{approx}>5, {sigma} {approx}> 40, {tau} {approx}< 25, Angle i {approx}> 40 Degree-Sign , Y {approx}< 50, and A {sup los} {sub v} {approx} 100-300, where N{sub 0} is the number of clouds in the equatorial plane of the torus, {sigma} is the characteristic opening angle of the cloud distribution, {tau} is the opacity of a single cloud, Angle i is the line-of-sight orientation of the torus, Y is the ratio of the inner to the outer radii, and A {sup los} {sub v} is the total opacity along the line of sight. From these, we can determine typical torus sizes and masses of 0.1-5.0 pc and 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} M {sub Sun }, respectively. We find tentative evidence that those nuclei with

  12. Galaxy gas as obscurer - II. Separating the galaxy-scale and nuclear obscurers of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Johannes; Bauer, Franz E.

    2017-03-01

    The 'torus' obscurer of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is poorly understood in terms of its density, sub-structure and physical mechanisms. Large X-ray surveys provide model boundary constraints, for both Compton-thin and Compton-thick levels of obscuration, as obscured fractions are mean covering factors fcov. However, a major remaining uncertainty is host-galaxy obscuration. In Paper I, we discovered a relation of {NH} ∝ M_{star }^{1/3} for the obscuration of galaxy-scale gas. Here, we apply this observational relation to the AGN population, and find that galaxy-scale gas is responsible for a luminosity-independent fraction of Compton-thin AGN, but does not produce Compton-thick columns. With the host-galaxy obscuration understood, we present a model of the remaining nuclear obscurer, which is consistent with a range of observations. Our radiation-lifted torus model consists of a Compton-thick component (fcov ∼ 35 per cent) and a Compton-thin component (fcov ∼ 40 per cent), which depends on both black hole mass and luminosity. This provides a useful summary of observational constraints for torus modellers who attempt to reproduce this behaviour. It can also be employed as a sub-grid recipe in cosmological simulations that do not resolve the torus. We also investigate host-galaxy X-ray obscuration inside cosmological, hydrodynamic simulations (Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment; Illustris). The obscuration from ray-traced galaxy gas can agree with observations, but is highly sensitive to the chosen feedback assumptions.

  13. Measurement of charged jet production cross sections and nuclear modification in p–Pb collisions at sNN=5.02 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Adam, J.

    2015-07-26

    Charged jet production cross sections in p-Pb collisions at √s(NN) = 5.02 TeV measured with the ALICE detector at the LHC are presented. Using the anti-kT algorithm, jets have been reconstructed in the central rapidity region from charged particles with resolution parameters R = 0.2 and R = 0.4. The reconstructed jets have been corrected for detector effects and the underlying event background. To calculate the nuclear modification factor, R-pPb, of charged jets in p-Pb collisions, a pp reference was constructed by scaling previously measured charged jet spectra at √s = 7 TeV. In the transverse momentum range 20 ≤more » pT, ch jet ≤ 120 GeV/c, R-pPb is found to be consistent with unity, indicating the absence of strong nuclear matter effects on jet production. Major modifications to the radial jet structure are probed via the ratio of jet production cross sections reconstructed with the two different resolution parameters. In conclusion, this ratio is found to be similar to the measurement in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV and to the expectations from PYTHIA pp simulations and NLO pQCD calculations at √s(NN) = 5.02 TeV.« less

  14. Measurement of charged jet production cross sections and nuclear modification in p-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 5.02 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahn, S. U.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Buxton, J. T.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Chunhui, Z.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erhardt, F.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Fleck, M. G.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hilden, T. E.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Khan, K. H.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Lee, S.; Legrand, I.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; Leoncino, M.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Luz, P. H. F. N. D.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Masui, H.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Mcdonald, D.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Minervini, L. M.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nellen, L.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Ohlson, A.; Okatan, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Pant, D.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Seeder, K. S.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, N.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szabo, A.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tanaka, N.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Van Der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, D.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yurchenko, V.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.

    2015-10-01

    Charged jet production cross sections in p-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 5.02 TeV measured with the ALICE detector at the LHC are presented. Using the anti-kT algorithm, jets have been reconstructed in the central rapidity region from charged particles with resolution parameters R = 0.2 and R = 0.4. The reconstructed jets have been corrected for detector effects and the underlying event background. To calculate the nuclear modification factor, RpPb, of charged jets in p-Pb collisions, a pp reference was constructed by scaling previously measured charged jet spectra at √{ s} = 7 TeV. In the transverse momentum range 20 ≤p T , ch jet ≤ 120 GeV / c, RpPb is found to be consistent with unity, indicating the absence of strong nuclear matter effects on jet production. Major modifications to the radial jet structure are probed via the ratio of jet production cross sections reconstructed with the two different resolution parameters. This ratio is found to be similar to the measurement in pp collisions at √{ s} = 7 TeV and to the expectations from PYTHIA pp simulations and NLO pQCD calculations at √{sNN} = 5.02 TeV.

  15. The UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, P. W.; Hoare, M. G.; Longmore, A.; Schröder, A. C.; Davis, C. J.; Adamson, A.; Bandyopadhyay, R. M.; de Grijs, R.; Smith, M.; Gosling, A.; Mitchison, S.; Gáspár, A.; Coe, M.; Tamura, M.; Parker, Q.; Irwin, M.; Hambly, N.; Bryant, J.; Collins, R. S.; Cross, N.; Evans, D. W.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Hodgkin, S.; Lewis, J.; Read, M.; Riello, M.; Sutorius, E. T. W.; Lawrence, A.; Drew, J. E.; Dye, S.; Thompson, M. A.

    2008-11-01

    The UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey (GPS) is one of the five near-infrared Public Legacy Surveys that are being undertaken by the UKIDSS consortium, using the Wide Field Camera on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. It is surveying 1868 deg2 of the northern and equatorial Galactic plane at Galactic latitudes -5° < b < 5° in the J, H and K filters and a ~200-deg2 area of the Taurus-Auriga-Perseus molecular cloud complex in these three filters and the 2.12 μm (1-0) H2 filter. It will provide data on ~2 × 109 sources. Here we describe the properties of the data set and provide a user's guide for its exploitation. We also present brief Demonstration Science results from DR2 and from the Science Verification programme. These results illustrate how GPS data will frequently be combined with data taken in other wavebands to produce scientific results. The Demonstration Science comprises six studies. (1) A GPS-Spitzer-GLIMPSE cross-match for the star formation region G28.983-0.603 to identify YSOs. This increases the number of YSOs identified by a factor of 10 compared to GLIMPSE alone. (2) A wide-field study of the M17 nebula, in which an extinction map of the field is presented and the effect of source confusion on luminosity functions in different subregions is noted. (3) H2 emission in the ρ Ophiuchi dark cloud. All the molecular jets are traced back to a single active clump containing only a few protostars, which suggests that the duration of strong jet activity and associated rapid accretion in low-mass protostars is brief. (4) X-ray sources in the nuclear bulge. The GPS data distinguishes local main-sequence counterparts with soft X-ray spectra from nuclear bulge giant counterparts with hard X-ray spectra. (5) External galaxies in the zone of avoidance. The galaxies are clearly distinguished from stars in fields at longitudes l > 90°. (6) IPHAS-GPS optical-infrared spectrophotometric typing. The (i' - J) versus (J - H) diagram is used to distinguish A-F type

  16. A jet-dominated model for a broad-band spectral energy distribution of the nearby low-luminosity active galactic nucleus in M94

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oers, Pieter; Markoff, Sera; Uttley, Phil; McHardy, Ian; van der Laan, Tessel; Donovan Meyer, Jennifer; Connors, Riley

    2017-06-01

    We have compiled a new multiwavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) for the closest obscured low-ionization emission-line region active galactic nucleus (AGN), NGC 4736, also known as M94. The SED comprises mainly high-resolution (mostly sub-arcsecond, or, at the distance to M94, ≲23 pc from the nucleus) observations from the literature, archival data, as well as previously unpublished sub-millimetre data from the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, in conjunction with new electronic MultiElement Radio Interferometric Network (e-MERLIN) L-band (1.5 GHz) observations. Thanks to the e-MERLIN resolution and sensitivity, we resolve for the first time a double structure composed of two radio sources separated by ˜1 arcsec, previously observed only at higher frequency. We explore this data set, which further includes non-simultaneous data from the Very Large Array, the Gemini telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-ray observatory, in terms of an outflow-dominated model. We compare our results with previous trends found for other AGN using the same model (NGC 4051, M81*, M87 and Sgr A*), as well as hard- and quiescent-state X-ray binaries. We find that the nuclear broad-band spectrum of M94 is consistent with a relativistic outflow of low inclination. The findings in this work add to the growing body of evidence that the physics of weakly accreting black holes scales with mass in a rather straightforward fashion.

  17. Particle Acceleration in Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi

    2005-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma ray burst (GRBs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Fermi acceleration is the mechanism usually assumed for the acceleration of particles in astrophysical environments.

  18. Galactic cosmic rays and nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kiener, Juergen

    2010-03-01

    The nucleosynthesis of the light elements Li, Be and B by galactic cosmic rays is presented. Observations of cosmic rays and the nuclear reactions responsible for Li, Be and B nucleosynthesis are described, followed by some words on propagation. At the end, some open questions concerning galactic cosmic rays are discussed.

  19. Turbulent steam jets in enclosed structures: An application to nuclear reactor accident analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyenle, Quocanh

    The primary objective of this thesis is to characterize the behavior of steam jets within an enclosed structures. To satisfy the above objective, the following areas were studied and addressed: (1) study the analytical models of round turbulent jets, (2) to model the turbulent jets using commercially available CFD codes, (3) measure steam convection and stratification pattern within the PUMA Drywell and compare against numerical models. The analytical approach is limited because the solutions for complex geometry and boundary conditions are not readily available. However, the analytical studies provided the necessary understanding of the physical processes involved in turbulent steam jet discharge and convection. From this analytical study, a new mechanistic model of turbulence eddy viscosity model is introduced to replace the ad hoc model recently proposed. Numerical modeling of the current problem allows greater flexibility. Even though the present state of numerical modeling of turbulent flows is still far from complete, the slightly modified k-ε models of turbulent round jets match that of experimental data extremely well. Based on the basic models of axisymmetric turbulent round jets, PUMA DW geometry and boundary conditions specific were developed. The results of these numerical models compared favorably against the PUMA MSLB tests. The 3-D simulations show that the PUMA DW environment was highly stratified and that the temperature and velocity distributions were extremely complicated. Experimentally, it was found that even though the discharged steam was stably stratified in the upper drywell, the PCCS operation was largely unaffected. Additionally, it was determined that DW wall condensation is not a significant factor in containment cooling. Additionally, it was found that homogeneous condensation within the upper drywell was not possible because steam entering the upper drywell was superheated.

  20. Radiation Mechanism and Jet Composition of Gamma-Ray Bursts and GeV-TeV-Selected Radio-Loud Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Liang, E. W.; Sun, X. N.; Zhang, B.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, S. N.

    2016-10-01

    Based on the analogy between GRBs and FSRQs, we suggest that the prompt gamma-ray emission of GRBs is likely produced by the synchrotron process in a magnetized jet with high radiation efficiency, similar to FSRQs.

  1. Galactic politics

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-07

    Only rarely does an astronomical object have a political association. However, the spiral galaxy NGC 7252 acquired exactly that when it was given an unusual nickname. In December 1953, the US President Dwight D. Eisenhower gave a speech advocating the use of nuclear power for peaceful purposes. This  “Atoms for Peace” speech was significant for the scientific community, as it brought nuclear research into the public domain, and NGC 7252, which has a superficial resemblance to an atomic nucleus surrounded by the loops of electronic orbits, was dubbed the Atoms for Peace galaxy in honour of this. These loops are well visible in a wider field of view image. This nickname is quite ironic, as the galaxy’s past was anything but peaceful. Its peculiar appearance is the result of a collision between two galaxies that took place about a billion years ago, which ripped both galaxies apart. The loop-like outer structures, likely made up of dust and stars flung outwards by the crash, but recalling orbiting electrons in an atom, are partly responsible for the galaxy’s nickname. This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows the inner parts of the galaxy, revealing a pinwheel-shaped disc that is rotating in a direction opposite to the rest of the galaxy. This disc resembles a spiral galaxy like our own galaxy, the Milky Way, but is only about 10 000 light-years across — about a tenth of the size of the Milky Way. It is believed that this whirling structure is a remnant of the galactic collision. It will most likely have vanished in a few billion years’ time, when NGC 7252 will have completed its merging process.

  2. Logarithmic Spiral Arm Pitch Angle of Spiral Galaxies: Measurement and Relationship to Galactic Structure and Nuclear Supermassive Black Hole Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Benjamin

    In this dissertation, I explore the geometric structure of spiral galaxies and how the visible structure can provide information about the central mass of a galaxy, the density of its galactic disk, and the hidden mass of the supermassive black hole in its nucleus. In order to quantitatively measure the logarithmic spiral pitch angle (a measurement of tightness of the winding) of galactic spiral arms, I led an effort in our research group (the Arkansas Galaxy Evolution Survey) to modify existing two-dimensional fast Fourier transform software to increase its efficacy and accuracy. Using this software, I was able to lead an effort to calculate a black hole mass function (BHMF) for spiral galaxies in our local Universe. This work effectively provides us with a census of local black holes and establishes an endpoint on the evolutionary history of the BHMF for spiral galaxies. Furthermore, my work has indicated a novel fundamental relationship between the pitch angle of a galaxy's spiral arms, the maximum density of neutral atomic hydrogen in its disk, and the stellar mass of its bulge. This result provides strong support for the density wave theory of spiral structure in disk galaxies and poses a critical question of the validity of rival theories for the genesis of spiral structure in disk galaxies.

  3. Measurements of the nuclear modification factor for jets in Pb+Pb collisions at sNN=2.76TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.

    2015-02-20

    The measurements of inclusive jet production are performed in pp and Pb+Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 4.0 and 0.14 nb-1, respectively. The jets are identified with the anti-kt algorithm with R = 0.4, and the spectra are measured over the kinematic range of jet transverse momentum 32T<500 GeV and absolute rapidity |y|<2.1 and as a function of collision centrality. The nuclear modification factor RAA is evaluated, and jets are found to be suppressed by approximately a factor of 2 in central collisions compared to pp collisions.more » The RAA shows a slight increase with pT and no significant variation with rapidity.« less

  4. Calculated performance of a mercury-compressor-jet powered airplane using a nuclear reactor as an energy source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, R B

    1951-01-01

    An analysis was made at a flight Mach number of 1.5, an altitude of 45,000 feet, a turbine-inlet temperature of 1460 degrees R, of a mercury compressor-jet powered airplane using a nuclear reactor as an energy source. The calculations covered a range of turbine-exhaust and turbine-inlet pressures and condenser-inlet Mach numbers. For a turbine--inlet pressure of 40 pounds per square inch absolute, a turbine-exhaust pressure of 14 pounds per square inch absolute, and a condenser-inlet Mach number of 0.23 the calculated airplane gross weight required to carry a 20,000 pound payload was 322000 pounds and the reactor heat release per unit volume was 8.9 kilowatts per cubic inch. These do not represent optimum operating conditions.

  5. Spectral Energy Distribution Models for Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei in LINERs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemmen, Rodrigo S.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Eracleous, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) represent the bulk of the AGN population in the present-day universe and they trace the low-level accreting supermassive black holes. In order to probe the accretion and jet physical properties in LLAGNs as a class, we model the broadband radio to X-rays spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 21 LLAGNs in low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) with a coupled accretion-jet model. The accretion flow is modeled as an inner ADAF outside of which there is a truncated standard thin disk. We find that the radio emission is severely underpredicted by ADAF models and is explained by the relativistic jet. The origin of the X-ray radiation in most sources can be explained by three distinct scenarios: the X-rays can be dominated by emission from the ADAF, or the jet, or the X-rays can arise from a jet-ADAF combination in which both components contribute to the emission with similar importance. For 3 objects both the jet and ADAF fit equally well the X-ray spectrum and can be the dominant source of X-rays whereas for 11 LLAGNs a jet-dominated model accounts better than the ADAF-dominated model for the data. The individual and average SED models that we computed can be useful for different studies of the nuclear emission of LLAGNs. From the model fits, we estimate important parameters of the central engine powering LLAGNs in LINERs, such as the mass accretion rate and the mass-loss rate in the jet and the jet power - relevant for studies of the kinetic feedback from jets.

  6. Long range rapidity correlations and jet production in high energy nuclear collisions

    SciTech Connect

    STAR Collaboration; Abelev, Betty

    2010-07-05

    The STAR Collaboration at RHIC presents a systematic study of high transverse momentum charged di-hadron correlations at small azimuthal pair separation {Delta}{phi}, in d+Au and central Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. Significant correlated yield for pairs with large longitudinal separation {Delta}{eta} is observed in central Au+Au, in contrast to d+Au collisions. The associated yield distribution in {Delta}{eta} x {delta}{phi} can be decomposed into a narrow jet-like peak at small angular separation which has a similar shape to that found in d+Au collisions, and a component which is narrow in {Delta}{phi} and depends only weakly on {Delta}{eta}, the 'ridge'. Using two systematically independent analyses, finite ridge yield is found to persist for trigger p{sub t} > 6 GeV/c, indicating that it is correlated with jet production. The transverse momentum spectrum of hadrons comprising the ridge is found to be similar to that of bulk particle production in the measured range (2 < p{sub t} < 4 GeV/c).

  7. Measurement of inclusive jet production and nuclear modifications in pPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_\\mathrm {NN}}} =5.02\\,\\mathrm{TeV} $

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-07-04

    In this study, inclusive jet production in pPb collisions at a nucleon–nucleon (NN) center-of-mass energy of √sNN = 5.02 TeV is studied with the CMS detector at the LHC. A data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30.1 nb-1 is analyzed. The jet transverse momentum spectra are studied in seven pseudorapidity intervals covering the range -2.0 < ηCM < 1.5 in the NN center-of-mass frame. The jet production yields at forward and backward pseudorapidity are compared and no significant asymmetry about ηCM=0 is observed in the measured kinematic range. The measurements in the pPb system are compared to reference jet spectra obtained by extrapolation from previous measurements in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV. In all pseudorapidity ranges, nuclear modifications in inclusive jet production are found to be small, as predicted by next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations that incorporate nuclear effects in the parton distribution functions.

  8. Measurement of inclusive jet production and nuclear modifications in pPb collisions at $$\\sqrt{s_{_\\mathrm {NN}}} =5.02\\,\\mathrm{TeV} $$

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-07-04

    In this study, inclusive jet production in pPb collisions at a nucleon–nucleon (NN) center-of-mass energy of √sNN = 5.02 TeV is studied with the CMS detector at the LHC. A data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30.1 nb-1 is analyzed. The jet transverse momentum spectra are studied in seven pseudorapidity intervals covering the range -2.0 < ηCM < 1.5 in the NN center-of-mass frame. The jet production yields at forward and backward pseudorapidity are compared and no significant asymmetry about ηCM=0 is observed in the measured kinematic range. The measurements in the pPb system are compared to referencemore » jet spectra obtained by extrapolation from previous measurements in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV. In all pseudorapidity ranges, nuclear modifications in inclusive jet production are found to be small, as predicted by next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations that incorporate nuclear effects in the parton distribution functions.« less

  9. Measurement of inclusive jet production and nuclear modifications in pPb collisions at √{s_{_NN}} =5.02 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Fang, W.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; De Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Awad, A.; Mahrous, A.; Radi, A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Abdulsalam, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.

    2016-07-01

    Inclusive jet production in pPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon (NN) center-of-mass energy of √{s_{_NN}} =5.02 TeV is studied with the CMS detector at the LHC. A data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30.1 nb^{-1} is analyzed. The jet transverse momentum spectra are studied in seven pseudorapidity intervals covering the range -2.0<η _{CM}< 1.5 in the NN center-of-mass frame. The jet production yields at forward and backward pseudorapidity are compared and no significant asymmetry about η _{CM} = 0 is observed in the measured kinematic range. The measurements in the pPb system are compared to reference jet spectra obtained by extrapolation from previous measurements in pp collisions at √{s}=7 TeV . In all pseudorapidity ranges, nuclear modifications in inclusive jet production are found to be small, as predicted by next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations that incorporate nuclear effects in the parton distribution functions.

  10. The mid-infrared emission of narrow-line active galactic nuclei: Star formation, nuclear activity, and two populations revealed by WISE

    SciTech Connect

    Rosario, David J.; Burtscher, Leonard; Davies, Richard; Genzel, Reinhard; Lutz, Dieter; Tacconi, Linda J.

    2013-12-01

    We explore the nature of the long-wavelength mid-infrared (MIR) emission of a sample of 13,000 local Type II (narrow-line) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) using 12 μm and 22 μm photometry from the WISE all-sky survey. In combination with FIRST 1.4 GHz photometry, we show that AGNs divide into two relatively distinct populations or 'branches' in the plane of MIR and radio luminosity. Seyfert galaxies lie almost exclusively on an MIR-bright branch (Branch A), while low-ionization nuclear emission line galaxies (LINERs) are split evenly into Branch A and the MIR-faint Branch B. We devise various tests to constrain the processes that define the branches, including a comparison to the properties of pure star-forming inactive galaxies on the MIR-radio plane. We demonstrate that the total MIR emission of objects on Branch A, including most Seyfert galaxies, is governed primarily by host star formation, with ≈15% of the 22 μm luminosity coming from AGN-heated dust. This implies that ongoing dusty star formation is a general property of Seyfert host galaxies. We show that the 12 μm broadband luminosity of AGNs on Branch A is suppressed with respect to star-forming galaxies, possibly due to the destruction of PAHs or deeper 10 μm Si absorption in AGNs. We uncover a correlation between the MIR luminosity and [O III] λ5007 luminosity in AGNs. This suggests a relationship between the star formation rate and nuclear luminosity in the AGN population, but we caution on the importance of selection effects inherent to such AGN-dominated emission-line galaxies in driving such a correlation. We highlight the MIR-radio plane as a useful tool in comparative studies of star formation and nuclear activity in AGNs.

  11. On the two main classes of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padovani, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are empirically divided into 'radio-loud' and 'radio-quiet'. These 50-year-old labels are obsolete, misleading and wrong. I argue that AGNs should be classified as 'jetted' and 'non-jetted' based on a physical difference — the presence (or lack) of strong relativistic jets.

  12. Radiogenic p-isotopes from type Ia supernova, nuclear physics uncertainties, and galactic chemical evolution compared with values in primitive meteorites

    SciTech Connect

    Travaglio, C.; Gallino, R.; Rauscher, T.; Dauphas, N.; Röpke, F. K.; Hillebrandt, W. E-mail: claudia.travaglio@b2fh.org

    2014-11-10

    The nucleosynthesis of proton-rich isotopes is calculated for multi-dimensional Chandrasekhar-mass models of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with different metallicities. The predicted abundances of the short-lived radioactive isotopes {sup 92}Nb, {sup 97,} {sup 98}Tc, and {sup 146}Sm are given in this framework. The abundance seeds are obtained by calculating s-process nucleosynthesis in the material accreted onto a carbon-oxygen white dwarf from a binary companion. A fine grid of s-seeds at different metallicities and {sup 13}C-pocket efficiencies is considered. A galactic chemical evolution model is used to predict the contribution of SN Ia to the solar system p-nuclei composition measured in meteorites. Nuclear physics uncertainties are critical to determine the role of SNe Ia in the production of {sup 92}Nb and {sup 146}Sm. We find that, if standard Chandrasekhar-mass SNe Ia are at least 50% of all SN Ia, they are strong candidates for reproducing the radiogenic p-process signature observed in meteorites.

  13. CHANDRA X-RAY AND HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING OF OPTICALLY SELECTED KILOPARSEC-SCALE BINARY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. I. NATURE OF THE NUCLEAR IONIZING SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xin; Civano, Francesca; Shen, Yue; Green, Paul; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2013-01-10

    Kiloparsec-scale binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) signal active supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs in merging galaxies. Despite their significance, unambiguously confirmed cases remain scarce and most have been discovered serendipitously. In a previous systematic search, we optically identified four kpc-scale binary AGNs from candidates selected with double-peaked narrow emission lines at z = 0.1-0.2. Here, we present Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging of these four systems. We critically examine and confirm the binary-AGN scenario for two of the four targets, by combining high angular resolution X-ray imaging spectroscopy with Chandra ACIS-S, better nuclear position constraints from WFC3 F105W imaging, and direct starburst estimates from WFC3 F336W imaging; for the other two targets, the existing data are still consistent with the binary-AGN scenario, but we cannot rule out the possibility of only one AGN ionizing gas in both merging galaxies. We find tentative evidence for a systematically smaller X-ray-to-[O III] luminosity ratio and/or higher Compton-thick fraction in optically selected kpc-scale binary AGNs than in single AGNs, possibly caused by a higher nuclear gas column due to mergers and/or a viewing angle bias related to the double-peak narrow-line selection. While our result lends some further support to the general approach of optically identifying kpc-scale binary AGNs, it also highlights the challenge and ambiguity of X-ray confirmation.

  14. X-ray jets in microquasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbel, S.

    2003-03-01

    Large scale moving relativistic X-ray jets have been recently discovered around the microquasar XTE J1550--564 (Corbel et al. 2002, Sci., 298, 196). They have been observed over a timescale of at least four years. The broadband spectra of the jets are consistent with synchrotron emission from high energy (up to 10 TeV) particles accelerated in shocks, possibly during the interaction of the jets with the interstellar medium. XTE J1550-564 offers a unique opportunity to study the dynamical evolution of relativistic jets on time scales inaccessible for active galactic nuclei jets, with implications for our understanding of relativistic jets from Galactic x-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei. New results from the continuing multiwavelength campaign, as well as a comparison with other jet producing system, will be shown during this presentation.

  15. Measurements of the charm jet cross section and nuclear modification factor in pPb collisions at √{sNN} = 5.02 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Strauss, J.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Dvornikov, O.; Makarenko, V.; Zykunov, V.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Lauwers, J.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Brun, H.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Luetic, J.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Randle-conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Vannerom, D.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Cimmino, A.; Cornelis, T.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Khvastunov, I.; Poyraz, D.; Salva, S.; Schöfbeck, R.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; De Visscher, S.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; Francois, B.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Krintiras, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Magitteri, A.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Wertz, S.; Beliy, N.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; Da Silveira, G. G.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Fang, W.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, T.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Liu, Z.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, J.; Ban, Y.; Chen, G.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; González Hernández, C. F.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Sculac, T.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Ferencek, D.; Kadija, K.; Mesic, B.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Susa, T.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Tsiakkouri, D.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Carrera Jarrin, E.; El-khateeb, E.; Elgammal, S.; Mohamed, A.; Kadastik, M.; Perrini, L.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Ghosh, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Kucher, I.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Abdulsalam, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Davignon, O.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Miné, P.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grenier, G.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Popov, A.; Sabes, D.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Khvedelidze, A.; Bagaturia, I.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schomakers, C.; Schulz, J.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Zhukov, V.; Albert, A.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hamer, M.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Knutzen, S.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Mukherjee, S.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Flügge, G.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Müller, T.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Arndt, T.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Beernaert, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bin Anuar, A. A.; Borras, K.; Campbell, A.; Connor, P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Eren, E.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Grados Luyando, J. M.; Gunnellini, P.; Harb, A.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Keaveney, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Krücker, D.; Lange, W.; Lelek, A.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Ntomari, E.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Stefaniuk, N.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Dreyer, T.; Garutti, E.; Gonzalez, D.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Niedziela, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Poehlsen, J.; Sander, C.; Scharf, C.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schumann, S.; Schwandt, J.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Stober, F. M.; Stöver, M.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baur, S.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Butz, E.; Caspart, R.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Freund, B.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kudella, S.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Schröder, M.; Shvetsov, I.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Ulrich, R.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Williamson, S.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Filipovic, N.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Makovec, A.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Bahinipati, S.; Choudhury, S.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Nayak, A.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Kumari, P.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Keshri, S.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nishu, N.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Bhattacharya, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutt, S.; Dutta, S.; Ghosh, S.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Nandan, S.; Purohit, A.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Thakur, S.; Behera, P. K.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Dugad, S.; Kole, G.; Mahakud, B.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Ganguly, S.; Guchait, M.; Jain, Sa.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Sarkar, T.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Hegde, V.; Kapoor, A.; Kothekar, K.; Pandey, S.; Rane, A.; Sharma, S.; Chenarani, S.; Eskandari Tadavani, E.; Etesami, S. 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M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, M.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Magini, N.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Ristori, L.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Stoynev, S.; Strait, J.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Wang, M.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Wu, Y.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Low, J. F.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Shchutska, L.; Sperka, D.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bein, S.; Diamond, B.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Santra, A.; Yohay, R.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Jung, K.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wang, H.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Zhang, J.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Cocoros, A.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Al-bataineh, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Boren, S.; Bowen, J.; Bruner, C.; Castle, J.; Forthomme, L.; Kenny, R. P., III; Khalil, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Mcbrayer, W.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Abercrombie, D.; Allen, B.; Apyan, A.; Azzolini, V.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bi, R.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Hsu, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krajczar, K.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Maier, B.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Tatar, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bartek, R.; Bloom, K.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Kravchenko, I.; Malta Rodrigues, A.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Stieger, B.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Charaf, O.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Kumar, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M. H.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Hurtado Anampa, K.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Alimena, J.; Antonelli, L.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Francis, B.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Cooperstein, S.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Lange, D.; Luo, J.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mei, K.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Folgueras, S.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Khatiwada, A.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Schulte, J. F.; Shi, X.; Sun, J.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Duh, Y. t.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Lo, K. H.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Agapitos, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gómez Espinosa, T. A.; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Delannoy, A. G.; Foerster, M.; Heideman, J.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Juska, E.; Kamon, T.; Mueller, R.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Perniè, L.; Rathjens, D.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; De Guio, F.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Gurpinar, E.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Peltola, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Barria, P.; Cox, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Buchanan, J.; Caillol, C.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.; CMS Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The CMS Collaboration presents the first measurement of the differential cross section of jets from charm quarks produced in proton-lead (pPb) collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of √{sNN} = 5.02TeV, as well as results from charm quark jets in proton-proton (pp) collisions at √{ s} = 2.76 and 5.02TeV. By comparing the yields of the pPb and pp collision systems at the same energy, a nuclear modification factor for charm jets from 55 to 400 GeV/ c in pPb collisions at √{sNN} = 5.02TeV of RpA = 0.92 ± 0.07(stat) ± 0.11(syst) is obtained. This is consistent with an absence of final-state energy loss for charm quarks in pPb collisions. In addition, the fraction of jets coming from charm quarks is found to be consistent with that predicted by PYTHIA 6 for pp collisions at √{ s} = 2.76 and 5.02TeV, and is independent of the jet transverse momentum from 55 to 400 GeV/ c.

  16. Measurements of the charm jet cross section and nuclear modification factor in pPb collisions at sqrt(s[NN]) = 5.02 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Sirunyan, Albert M; et al.

    2016-12-28

    The CMS Collaboration presents the first measurement of the differential cross section of jets from charm quarks produced in proton-lead (pPb) collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of sqrt(s[NN]) = 5.02 TeV, as well as results from charm quark jets in proton-proton (pp) collisions at sqrt(s)= 2.76 and 5.02 TeV. By comparing the yields of the pPb and pp collision systems at the same energy, a nuclear modification factor for charm jets in pPb collisions at sqrt(s[NN]) = 5.02 TeV of R[pA] = 0.92 +/- 0.07 (stat) +/- 0.11 (syst) is obtained. This is consistent with an absence of final-state energy loss for charm quarks in pPb collisions. In addition, the fraction of jets coming from charm quarks is found to be consistent with that predicted by PYTHIA 6 for pp collisions at sqrt(s)= 2.76 and 5.02 TeV, and is independent of the jet transverse momentum from 55 to 400 GeV.

  17. Measurements of the charm jet cross section and nuclear modification factor in pPb collisions at sNN=5.02 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; ...

    2017-06-23

    The CMS Collaboration presents the first measurement of the differential cross section of jets from charm quarks produced in proton-lead (pPb) collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy ofmore » $$\\sqrt{s{NN}}$$ = 5.02 TeV, as well as results from charm quark jets in proton-proton (pp) collisions at $$\\sqrt{s}$$= 2.76 and 5.02 TeV. By comparing the yields of the pPb and pp collision systems at the same energy, a nuclear modification factor for charm jets in pPb collisions at $$\\sqrt{s{NN}}$$ = 5.02 TeV of $$R_{pA}$$ = 0.92 +/- 0.07 (stat) +/- 0.11 (syst) is obtained. This is consistent with an absence of final-state energy loss for charm quarks in pPb collisions. In addition, the fraction of jets coming from charm quarks is found to be consistent with that predicted by PYTHIA 6 for pp collisions at $$\\sqrt{s}$$= 2.76 and 5.02 TeV, and is independent of the jet transverse momentum from 55 to 400 GeV.« less

  18. Development of a high-density gas-jet target for nuclear astrophysics and reaction studies with rare isotope beams. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Uwe, Greife

    2014-08-12

    The purpose of this project was to develop a high-density gas jet target that will enable a new program of transfer reaction studies with rare isotope beams and targets of hydrogen and helium that is not currently possible and will have an important impact on our understanding of stellar explosions and of the evolution of nuclear shell structure away from stability. This is the final closeout report for the project.

  19. The jet-disk symbiosis without maximal jets: 1D hydrodynamical jets revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crumley, Patrick; Ceccobello, Chiara; Connors, Riley M. T.; Cavecchi, Yuri

    2017-05-01

    In this work we discuss the recent criticism by Zdziarski (2016, A&A, 586, A18) of the maximal jet model derived in Falcke & Biermann (1995, A&A, 293, 665). We agree with Zdziarski that in general a jet's internal energy is not bounded by its rest-mass energy density. We describe the effects of the mistake on conclusions that have been made using the maximal jet model and show when a maximal jet is an appropriate assumption. The maximal jet model was used to derive a 1D hydrodynamical model of jets in agnjet, a model that does multiwavelength fitting of quiescent/hard state X-ray binaries and low-luminosity active galactic nuclei. We correct algebraic mistakes made in the derivation of the 1D Euler equation and relax the maximal jet assumption. We show that the corrections cause minor differences as long as the jet has a small opening angle and a small terminal Lorentz factor. We find that the major conclusion from the maximal jet model, the jet-disk symbiosis, can be generally applied to astrophysical jets. We also show that isothermal jets are required to match the flat radio spectra seen in low-luminosity X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei, in agreement with other works.

  20. The Sins/zC-Sinf Survey of z ~ 2 Galaxy Kinematics: Evidence for Powerful Active Galactic Nucleus-Driven Nuclear Outflows in Massive Star-Forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Newman, S. F.; Kurk, J. D.; Lutz, D.; Tacconi, L. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bandara, K.; Burkert, A.; Buschkamp, P.; Carollo, C. M.; Cresci, G.; Daddi, E.; Davies, R.; Eisenhauer, F.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Lang, P.; Lilly, S. J.; Mainieri, V.; Mancini, C.; Naab, T.; Peng, Y.; Renzini, A.; Rosario, D.; Shapiro Griffin, K.; Shapley, A. E.; Sternberg, A.; Tacchella, S.; Vergani, D.; Wisnioski, E.; Wuyts, E.; Zamorani, G.

    2014-05-01

    We report the detection of ubiquitous powerful nuclear outflows in massive (>=1011 M ⊙) z ~ 2 star-forming galaxies (SFGs), which are plausibly driven by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The sample consists of the eight most massive SFGs from our SINS/zC-SINF survey of galaxy kinematics with the imaging spectrometer SINFONI, six of which have sensitive high-resolution adaptive optics-assisted observations. All of the objects are disks hosting a significant stellar bulge. The spectra in their central regions exhibit a broad component in Hα and forbidden [N II] and [S II] line emission, with typical velocity FWHM ~ 1500 km s-1, [N II]/Hα ratio ≈ 0.6, and intrinsic extent of 2-3 kpc. These properties are consistent with warm ionized gas outflows associated with Type 2 AGN, the presence of which is confirmed via independent diagnostics in half the galaxies. The data imply a median ionized gas mass outflow rate of ~60 M ⊙ yr-1 and mass loading of ~3. At larger radii, a weaker broad component is detected but with lower FWHM ~485 km s-1 and [N II]/Hα ≈ 0.35, characteristic for star formation-driven outflows as found in the lower-mass SINS/zC-SINF galaxies. The high inferred mass outflow rates and frequent occurrence suggest that the nuclear outflows efficiently expel gas out of the centers of the galaxies with high duty cycles and may thus contribute to the process of star formation quenching in massive galaxies. Larger samples at high masses will be crucial in confirming the importance and energetics of the nuclear outflow phenomenon and its connection to AGN activity and bulge growth. Based on observations obtained at the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO program IDs 074.A-0911, 075.A-0466, 076.A-0527, 078.A-0600, 082.A-0396, 183.A-0781, 088.A-0202, 091.A-0126). Also based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the

  1. Galactic Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, Sylvain

    Galactic winds have become arguably one of the hottest topics in extragalactic astronomy. This enthusiasm for galactic winds is due in part to the detection of winds in many, if not most, high-redshift galaxies. Galactic winds have also been invoked by theorists to (1) suppress the number of visible dwarf galaxies and avoid the "cooling catastrophe" at high redshift that results in the overproduction of massive luminous galaxies, (2) remove material with low specific angular momentum early on and help enlarge gas disks in CDM + baryons simulations, (3) reduce the dark mass concentrations in galaxies, (4) explain the mass-metallicity relation of galaxies from selective loss of metal-enriched gas from smaller galaxies, (5) enrich and "preheat" the ICM, (6) enrich the IGM without disturbing the Lyαforest significantly, and (7) inhibit cooling flows in galaxy clusters with active cD galaxies. The present paper highlights a few key aspects of galactic winds taken from a recent ARAA review by Veilleux, Cecil, &Bland-Hawthorn (2005; herafter VCBH). Readers interested in a more detailed discussion of this topic are encouraged to refer to the original ARAA article.

  2. The remarkable AGN jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komissarov, Serguei

    The jets from active galactic nuclei exhibit stability which seems to be far superior compared to that of terrestrial and laboratory jets. They manage to propagate over distances up to a billion of initial jet radii. Yet this may not be an indication of some exotic physics but mainly a reflection of the specific environment these jets propagate through. The key property of this environment is a rapid decline of density and pressure along the jet, which promotes its rapid expansion. Such an expansion can suppress global instabilities, which require communication across the jet, and hence ensure its survival over huge distances. At kpc scales, some AGN jets do show signs of strong instabilities and even turn into plumes. This could be a result of the flattening of the external pressure distribution in their host galaxies or inside the radio lobes. In this regard, we discuss the possible connection between the stability issue and the Fanaroff-Riley classification of extragalactic radio sources. The observations of AGN jets on sub-kpc scale do not seem to support their supposed lack of causal connectivity. When interpreted using simple kinematic models, they reveal a rather perplexing picture with more questions than answers on the jets dynamics.

  3. Radiation from Relativistic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Mizuno, Y.; Hardee, P.; Sol, H.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J. T.; Fishman, G. J.; Preece, R.

    2008-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-ion (electron-positron) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. In the presence of relativistic jets, instabilities such as the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability create collisionless shocks, which are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The 'jitter' radiation from deflected electrons in small-scale magnetic fields has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation, a case of diffusive synchrotron radiation, may be important to understand the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.

  4. Gamma ray constraints on the Galactic supernova rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, D.; The, L.-S.; Clayton, Donald D.; Leising, M.; Mathews, G.; Woosley, S. E.

    1991-01-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations of the expected gamma ray signatures of Galactic supernovae of all types to estimate the significance of the lack of a gamma ray signal due to supernovae occurring during the last millenium. Using recent estimates of the nuclear yields, we determine mean Galactic supernova rates consistent with the historic supernova record and the gamma ray limits. Another objective of these calculations of Galactic supernova histories is their application to surveys of diffuse Galactic gamma ray line emission.

  5. Galactic oscillator symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosensteel, George

    1995-01-01

    Riemann ellipsoids model rotating galaxies when the galactic velocity field is a linear function of the Cartesian coordinates of the galactic masses. In nuclear physics, the kinetic energy in the linear velocity field approximation is known as the collective kinetic energy. But, the linear approximation neglects intrinsic degrees of freedom associated with nonlinear velocity fields. To remove this limitation, the theory of symplectic dynamical symmetry is developed for classical systems. A classical phase space for a self-gravitating symplectic system is a co-adjoint orbit of the noncompact group SP(3,R). The degenerate co-adjoint orbit is the 12 dimensional homogeneous space Sp(3,R)/U(3), where the maximal compact subgroup U(3) is the symmetry group of the harmonic oscillator. The Hamiltonian equations of motion on each orbit form a Lax system X = (X,F), where X and F are elements of the symplectic Lie algebra. The elements of the matrix X are the generators of the symplectic Lie algebra, viz., the one-body collective quadratic functions of the positions and momenta of the galactic masses. The matrix F is composed from the self-gravitating potential energy, the angular velocity, and the hydostatic pressure. Solutions to the hamiltonian dynamical system on Sp(3,R)/U(3) are given by symplectic isospectral deformations. The Casimirs of Sp(3,R), equal to the traces of powers of X, are conserved quantities.

  6. THREE-DIMENSIONAL STELLAR KINEMATICS AT THE GALACTIC CENTER: MEASURING THE NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTER SPATIAL DENSITY PROFILE, BLACK HOLE MASS, AND DISTANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Do, T.; Martinez, G. D.; Bullock, J.; Kaplinghat, M.; Peter, A. H. G.; Yelda, S.; Ghez, A.; Phifer, K.; Lu, J. R.

    2013-12-10

    We present three-dimensional (3D) kinematic observations of stars within the central 0.5 pc of the Milky Way (MW) nuclear star cluster (NSC) using adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy from the Keck telescopes. Recent observations have shown that the cluster has a shallower surface density profile than expected for a dynamically relaxed cusp, leading to important implications for its formation and evolution. However, the true 3D profile of the cluster is unknown due to the difficulty in de-projecting the stellar number counts. Here, we use spherical Jeans modeling of individual proper motions and radial velocities to constrain, for the first time, the de-projected spatial density profile, cluster velocity anisotropy, black hole mass (M {sub BH}), and distance to the Galactic center (R {sub 0}) simultaneously. We find that the inner stellar density profile of the late-type stars, ρ(r)∝r {sup –γ}, have a power law slope γ=0.05{sub −0.60}{sup +0.29}, much more shallow than the frequently assumed Bahcall-Wolf slope of γ = 7/4. The measured slope will significantly affect dynamical predictions involving the cluster, such as the dynamical friction time scale. The cluster core must be larger than 0.5 pc, which disfavors some scenarios for its origin. Our measurement of M{sub BH}=5.76{sub −1.26}{sup +1.76}×10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} and R{sub 0}=8.92{sub −0.55}{sup +0.58} kpc is consistent with that derived from stellar orbits within 1'' of Sgr A*. When combined with the orbit of S0-2, the uncertainty on R {sub 0} is reduced by 30% (8.46{sub −0.38}{sup +0.42} kpc). We suggest that the MW NSC can be used in the future in combination with stellar orbits to significantly improve constraints on R {sub 0}.

  7. Sensitivity of Pion versus Parton-Jet Nuclear Modification Factors to the Path-Length Dependence of Jet-Energy Loss at RHIC and LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbara, Betz; Miklos, Gyulassy

    2015-12-01

    Not Available Supported by the Helmholtz International Centre for FAIR within the Framework of the LOEWE Program, and the US-DOE Nuclear Science under Grant Nos DE-FG02-93ER40764 and DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  8. Galactic onion

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-11

    The glowing object in this image is an elliptical galaxy called NGC 3923. It is located over 90 million light-years away in the constellation of Hydra. NGC 3923 is an example of a shell galaxy where the stars in its halo are arranged in layers. Finding concentric shells of stars enclosing a galaxy is quite common and is observed in many elliptical galaxies. In fact, every tenth elliptical galaxy exhibits this onion-like structure, which has never been observed in spiral galaxies. The shell-like structures are thought to develop as a consequence of galactic cannibalism, when a larger galaxy ingests a smaller companion. As the two centres approach, they initially oscillate about a common centre, and this oscillation ripples outwards forming the shells of stars just as ripples on a pond spread when the surface is disturbed. NGC 3923 has over twenty shells, with only a few of the outer ones visible in this image and its shells are much more subtle than those of other shell galaxies. The shells of this galaxy are also interestingly symmetrical, while other shell galaxies are more skewed. A version of this image was entered into the Hubble’s Hidden Treasures image processing competition by contestant Judy Schmidt.

  9. Research on jet mixing of settled sludges in nuclear waste tanks at Hanford and other DOE sites: A historical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, M.R.; Onishi, Y.; Shekarriz, R.

    1997-09-01

    Jet mixer pumps will be used in the Hanford Site double-shell tanks to mobilize and mix the settled solids layer (sludge) with the tank supernatant liquid. Predicting the performance of the jet mixer pumps has been the subject of analysis and testing at Hanford and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. One important aspect of mixer pump performance is sludge mobilization. The research that correlates mixer pump design and operation with the extent of sludge mobilization is the subject of this report. Sludge mobilization tests have been conducted in tanks ranging from 1/25-scale (3 ft-diameter) to full scale have been conducted at Hanford and other DOE sites over the past 20 years. These tests are described in Sections 3.0 and 4.0 of this report. The computational modeling of sludge mobilization and mixing that has been performed at Hanford is discussed in Section 5.0.

  10. Twin Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda; Bozak, Rick

    2010-01-01

    Many subsonic and supersonic vehicles in the current fleet have multiple engines mounted near one another. Some future vehicle concepts may use innovative propulsion systems such as distributed propulsion which will result in multiple jets mounted in close proximity. Engine configurations with multiple jets have the ability to exploit jet-by-jet shielding which may significantly reduce noise. Jet-by-jet shielding is the ability of one jet to shield noise that is emitted by another jet. The sensitivity of jet-by-jet shielding to jet spacing and simulated flight stream Mach number are not well understood. The current experiment investigates the impact of jet spacing, jet operating condition, and flight stream Mach number on the noise radiated from subsonic and supersonic twin jets.

  11. Measurements of the Nuclear Modification Factor for Jets in Pb+Pb Collisions at √(s)NN]=2.76  TeV with the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

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Thong, W M; Thun, R P; Tian, F; Tibbetts, M J; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Yu A; Timoshenko, S; Tiouchichine, E; Tipton, P; Tisserant, S; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Toggerson, B; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomlinson, L; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Topilin, N D; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Tran, H L; Trefzger, T; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tripiana, M F; Trischuk, W; Trocmé, B; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trovatelli, M; True, P; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tsarouchas, C; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsionou, D; Tsipolitis, G; Tsirintanis, N; Tsiskaridze, S; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tuna, A N; Tupputi, S A; Turchikhin, S; Turecek, D; Turk Cakir, I; Turra, R; Tuts, P M; Tykhonov, A; Tylmad, M; Tyndel, M; Uchida, K; Ueda, I; Ueno, R; Ughetto, M; Ugland, M; Uhlenbrock, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Ungaro, F C; Unno, Y; Unverdorben, C; Urbaniec, D; Urquijo, P; Usai, G; Usanova, A; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Valencic, N; Valentinetti, S; Valero, A; Valery, L; Valkar, S; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Den Wollenberg, W; Van Der Deijl, P C; van der Geer, R; van der Graaf, H; Van Der Leeuw, R; van der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; Van Nieuwkoop, J; van Vulpen, I; van Woerden, M C; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vanguri, R; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vannucci, F; Vardanyan, G; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vazeille, F; Vazquez Schroeder, T; Veatch, J; Veloso, F; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Ventura, D; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Venturini, A; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Viazlo, O; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Vickey Boeriu, O E; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Vigne, R; Villa, M; Villaplana Perez, M; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinogradov, V B; Virzi, J; Vivarelli, I; Vives Vaque, F; Vlachos, S; Vladoiu, D; Vlasak, M; Vogel, A; Vogel, M; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; von der Schmitt, H; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorobev, K; Vos, M; Voss, R; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Vykydal, Z; Wagner, P; Wagner, W; Wahlberg, H; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wall, R; Waller, P; Walsh, B; Wang, C; Wang, C; Wang, F; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, K; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Wang, T; Wang, X; Wanotayaroj, C; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Wardrope, D R; Warsinsky, M; Washbrook, A; Wasicki, C; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, I J; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, B M; Webb, S; Weber, M S; Weber, S W; Webster, J S; Weidberg, A R; Weigell, P; Weinert, B; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Weits, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wendland, D; Weng, Z; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Whalen, K; White, A; White, M J; White, R; White, S; Whiteson, D; Wicke, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wijeratne, P A; Wildauer, A; Wildt, M A; Wilkens, H G; Will, J Z; Williams, H H; Williams, S; Willis, C; Willocq, S; Wilson, A; Wilson, J A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winklmeier, F; Winter, B T; Wittgen, M; Wittig, T; Wittkowski, J; Wollstadt, S J; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wright, M; Wu, M; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wulf, E; Wyatt, T R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xiao, M; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yakabe, R; Yamada, M; Yamaguchi, H; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, T; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, U K; Yang, Y; Yanush, S; Yao, L; Yao, W-M; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Yau Wong, K H; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yeletskikh, I; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yilmaz, M; Yoosoofmiya, R; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Yusuff, I; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zengel, K; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zerwas, D; Zevi Della Porta, G; Zhang, D; Zhang, F; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhukov, K; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Ziolkowski, M; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zurzolo, G; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L

    2015-02-20

    Measurements of inclusive jet production are performed in pp and Pb+Pb collisions at √(s)NN=2.76  TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 4.0 and 0.14  nb(-1), respectively. The jets are identified with the anti-k(t) algorithm with R=0.4, and the spectra are measured over the kinematic range of jet transverse momentum 32nuclear modification factor R(AA) is evaluated, and jets are found to be suppressed by approximately a factor of 2 in central collisions compared to pp collisions. The R(AA) shows a slight increase with p(T) and no significant variation with rapidity.

  12. Jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Gyulassy, M.

    1990-09-01

    Several aspects of hard and semihard QCD jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed, including multiproduction of minijets and the interaction of a jet with dense nuclear matter. The reduction of jet quenching effect in deconfined phase of nuclear matter is speculated to provide a signature of the formation of quark gluon plasma. HIJING Monte Carlo program which can simulate events of jets production and quenching in heavy ion collisions is briefly described. 35 refs., 13 figs.

  13. Jet shielding of jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonich, J. C.; Amiet, R. K.; Schlinker, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical study was conducted to develop a validated first principle analysis for predicting the jet noise reduction achieved by shielding one jet exhaust flow with a second, closely spaced, identical jet flow. A generalized fuel jet noise analytical model was formulated in which the acoustic radiation from a source jet propagates through the velocity and temperature discontinuity of the adjacent shielding jet. Input variables to the prediction procedure include jet Mach number, spacing, temperature, diameter, and source frequency. Refraction, diffraction, and reflection effects, which control the dual jet directivity pattern, are incorporated in the theory. The analysis calculates the difference in sound pressure level between the dual jet configuration and the radiation field based on superimposing two independent jet noise directivity patterns. Jet shielding was found experimentally to reduce noise levels in the common plane of the dual jet system relative to the noise generated by two independent jets.

  14. Shifts of the Al-26 line due to Galactic rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skibo, Jeff; Ramaty, Reuven

    1991-01-01

    The shape of the Al-26 line is evaluated using a Galactic disk rotation curve and assuming various galactic distributions of radioactive aluminum. The line shape depends on galactic longitude, detector opening angle, and the assumed aluminum distribution. For a detector of 20 deg aperture and 2.5 keV resolution, the shift of the line peak can be as large as 0.4 keV. Such a shift could be detected with the proposed nuclear astrophysics explorer.

  15. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  16. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-12-31

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  17. Measuring the kinetic power of active galactic nuclei in the radio mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merloni, Andrea; Heinz, Sebastian

    2007-10-01

    We have studied the relationship among nuclear radio and X-ray power, Bondi rate and the kinetic luminosity of sub-Eddington active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets, as estimated from the pdV work done to inflate the cavities and bubbles observed in the hot X-ray-emitting atmospheres of their host galaxies and clusters. Besides the recently discovered correlation between jet kinetic and Bondi power, we show that a clear correlation exists also between Eddington-scaled kinetic power and bolometric luminosity, given by log(Lkin/LEdd) = (0.49 +/- 0.07) log(Lbol/LEdd) - (0.78 +/- 0.36). The measured slope suggests that these objects are in a radiatively inefficient accretion mode, and have been used to put stringent constraints on the properties of the accretion flow. Interestingly, we found no statistically significant correlations between Bondi power and bolometric AGN luminosity, apart from that induced by their common dependence on Lkin, thus confirming the idea that most of the accretion power emerges from these systems in kinetic form. We have then analysed the relation between kinetic power and radio core luminosity. Combining the measures of jet power with estimators of the unbeamed radio flux of the jet cores as, for example, the so-called Fundamental Plane of active black holes, we are able to determine, in a statistical sense, both the probability distribution of the mean jet Lorentz factor, which peaks at Γm ~ 7, and the intrinsic relationship between kinetic and radio core luminosity (and thus the jet radiative efficiency), which we estimate as logLkin = (0.81 +/- 0.11) logLR + 11.9+4.1-4.4, in good agreement with theoretical predictions of synchrotron jet models. With the aid of these findings, quantitative assessments of kinetic feedback from supermassive black holes in the radio mode (i.e. at low dimensionless accretion rates) will be possible based on accurate determinations of the central engine properties alone, such as mass, radio core and/or X

  18. NON-THERMAL RADIATION FROM COLLISIONS OF COMPACT OBJECTS WITH INTERMEDIATE-SCALE JETS IN ACTIVE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bednarek, W.; Banasiński, P.

    2015-07-10

    Massive black holes in active galaxies are immersed in huge concentrations of late-type stars in the galactic bulges and also early-type massive stars in the nuclear stellar clusters, which are additionally surrounded by quasi-spherical halos on a scale of several kpc that contain from a few hundred up to several thousand globular clusters (GCs). It is expected that significant numbers of red giant stars, massive stars, and also GCs can move through the jet expelled from the central engine of the active galaxy. We consider collisions of stars from the galactic bulge, nuclear cluster, and GCs with the jet plasma. As a result of such collisions, multiple shocks are expected to appear in the jet around these compact objects. Therefore, the plasma in the kpc-scale jet can be significantly disturbed. We show that particles can be accelerated on these shocks up to multi-TeV energies. TeV leptons emit synchrotron radiation, extending up to X-ray energies, and also comptonize radiation produced in a stellar cluster and also the microwave background radiation to TeV γ-ray energies. We show that such non-thermal radiation is likely to be detectable from the intermediate-scale jets of nearby active galaxies for a reasonable number of stars and GCs immersed within the jet. As an example, we calculate the expected non-thermal emission in X-ray and gamma-ray energies from the nearby radio galaxy Cen A, from which steady gamma-ray emission with a complex spectrum has recently been reported by Fermi and the HESS Observatories.

  19. Gamma ray constraints on the galactic supernova rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, D.; The, L.-S.; Clayton, D. D.; Leising, M.; Mathews, G.; Woosley, S. E.

    1992-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of the expected gamma-ray signatures of galactic supernovae of all types are performed in order to estimate the significance of the lack of a gamma-ray signal due to supernovae occurring during the last millenium. Using recent estimates of nuclear yields, we determine galactic supernova rates consistent with the historic supernova record and the gamma-ray limits. Another objective of these calculations of galactic supernova histories is their application to surveys of diffuse galactic gamma-ray line emission.

  20. Jetting tool

    SciTech Connect

    Szarka, D.D.; Schwegman, S.L.

    1991-07-09

    This patent describes an apparatus for hydraulically jetting a well tool disposed in a well, the well tool having a sliding member. It comprises positioner means for operably engaging the sliding member of the well tool; and a jetting means, connected at a rotatable connection to the positioner means so that the jetting means is rotatable relative to the positioner means and the well tool, for hydraulically jetting the well tool as the jetting means is rotated relative thereto.

  1. The SINS/zC-SINF survey of z ∼ 2 galaxy kinematics: Evidence for powerful active galactic nucleus-driven nuclear outflows in massive star-forming galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Kurk, J. D.; Lutz, D.; Tacconi, L. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bandara, K.; Buschkamp, P.; Davies, R.; Eisenhauer, F.; Lang, P.; Newman, S. F.; Burkert, A.; Carollo, C. M.; Lilly, S. J.; Cresci, G.; Daddi, E.; Mainieri, V.; Mancini, C.; and others

    2014-05-20

    We report the detection of ubiquitous powerful nuclear outflows in massive (≥10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}) z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies (SFGs), which are plausibly driven by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The sample consists of the eight most massive SFGs from our SINS/zC-SINF survey of galaxy kinematics with the imaging spectrometer SINFONI, six of which have sensitive high-resolution adaptive optics-assisted observations. All of the objects are disks hosting a significant stellar bulge. The spectra in their central regions exhibit a broad component in Hα and forbidden [N II] and [S II] line emission, with typical velocity FWHM ∼ 1500 km s{sup –1}, [N II]/Hα ratio ≈ 0.6, and intrinsic extent of 2-3 kpc. These properties are consistent with warm ionized gas outflows associated with Type 2 AGN, the presence of which is confirmed via independent diagnostics in half the galaxies. The data imply a median ionized gas mass outflow rate of ∼60 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and mass loading of ∼3. At larger radii, a weaker broad component is detected but with lower FWHM ∼485 km s{sup –1} and [N II]/Hα ≈ 0.35, characteristic for star formation-driven outflows as found in the lower-mass SINS/zC-SINF galaxies. The high inferred mass outflow rates and frequent occurrence suggest that the nuclear outflows efficiently expel gas out of the centers of the galaxies with high duty cycles and may thus contribute to the process of star formation quenching in massive galaxies. Larger samples at high masses will be crucial in confirming the importance and energetics of the nuclear outflow phenomenon and its connection to AGN activity and bulge growth.

  2. The influence of circumnuclear environment on the radio emission from TDE jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Generozov, A.; Mimica, P.; Metzger, B. D.; Stone, N. C.; Giannios, D.; Aloy, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Dozens of stellar tidal disruption events (TDEs) have been identified at optical, UV and X-ray wavelengths. A small fraction of these, most notably Swift J1644+57, produce radio synchrotron emission, consistent with a powerful, relativistic jet shocking the surrounding circumnuclear gas. The dearth of similar non-thermal radio emission in the majority of TDEs may imply that powerful jet formation is intrinsically rare, or that the conditions in galactic nuclei are typically unfavourable for producing a detectable signal. Here we explore the latter possibility by constraining the radial profile of the gas density encountered by a TDE jet using a one-dimensional model for the circumnuclear medium which includes mass and energy input from a stellar population. Near the jet Sedov radius of 1018 cm, we find gas densities in the range of n18 ˜ 0.1-1000 cm-3 across a wide range of plausible star formation histories. Using one- and two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamical simulations, we calculate the synchrotron radio light curves of TDE jets (as viewed both on and off-axis) across the allowed range of density profiles. We find that bright radio emission would be produced across the plausible range of nuclear gas densities by jets as powerful as Swift J1644+57, and we quantify the relationship between the radio luminosity and jet energy. We use existing radio detections and upper limits to constrain the energy distribution of TDE jets. Radio follow-up observations several months to several years after the TDE candidate will strongly constrain the energetics of any relativistic flow.

  3. A candidate dual AGN in a double-peaked emission-line galaxy with precessing radio jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinur, K.; Das, M.; Kharb, P.; Honey, M.

    2017-03-01

    We present high-resolution radio continuum observations with the Karl G. Jansky very large array at 6, 8.5, 11.5 and 15 GHz of the double-peaked emission-line galaxy 2MASXJ12032061+1319316. The radio emission has a prominent S-shaped morphology with highly symmetric radio jets that extend over a distance of ∼1.5 arcsec (1.74 kpc) on either side of the core of size ∼0.1 arcsec (116 pc). The radio jets have a helical structure resembling the precessing jets in the galaxy NGC 326 which has confirmed dual active galactic nuclei (AGN). The nuclear bulge velocity dispersion gives an upper limit of (1.56 ± 0.26) × 108 M⊙ for the total mass of nuclear black hole(s). We present a simple model of precessing jets in 2MASXJ1203 and find that the precession time-scale is around 105 yr: this matches the source lifetime estimate via spectral ageing. We find that the expected supermassive black hole (SMBH) separation corresponding to this time-scale is 0.02 pc. We used the double-peaked emission lines in 2MASXJ1203 to determine an orbital speed for a dual AGN system and the associated jet precession time-scale, which turns out to be more than the Hubble time, making it unfeasible. We conclude that the S-shaped radio jets are due to jet precession caused either by a binary/dual SMBH system, a single SMBH with a tilted accretion disc or a dual AGN system where a close pass of the secondary SMBH in the past has given rise to jet precession.

  4. A candidate dual AGN in a double-peaked emission-line galaxy with precessing radio jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinur, K.; Das, M.; Kharb, P.; Honey, M.

    2017-03-01

    We present high-resolution radio continuum observations with the Karl G. Jansky very large array at 6, 8.5, 11.5 and 15 GHz of the double-peaked emission-line galaxy 2MASXJ12032061+1319316. The radio emission has a prominent S-shaped morphology with highly symmetric radio jets that extend over a distance of ˜1.5 arcsec (1.74 kpc) on either side of the core of size ˜0.1 arcsec (116 pc). The radio jets have a helical structure resembling the precessing jets in the galaxy NGC 326 which has confirmed dual active galactic nuclei (AGN). The nuclear bulge velocity dispersion gives an upper limit of (1.56 ± 0.26) × 108 M⊙ for the total mass of nuclear black hole(s). We present a simple model of precessing jets in 2MASXJ1203 and find that the precession time-scale is around 105 yr: this matches the source lifetime estimate via spectral ageing. We find that the expected supermassive black hole (SMBH) separation corresponding to this time-scale is 0.02 pc. We used the double-peaked emission lines in 2MASXJ1203 to determine an orbital speed for a dual AGN system and the associated jet precession time-scale, which turns out to be more than the Hubble time, making it unfeasible. We conclude that the S-shaped radio jets are due to jet precession caused either by a binary/dual SMBH system, a single SMBH with a tilted accretion disc or a dual AGN system where a close pass of the secondary SMBH in the past has given rise to jet precession.

  5. Radio characteristics of galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condon, J. J.

    1986-02-01

    Radio characteristics of galactic nuclei, providing such unique information as spectral data on source variability, and the long-term history of the central engine and its duration of activity and total energy, are reviewed. The compact radio source characteristics are complicated by orientation-dependent relativistic beaming and by refractive focusing in the interstellar medium. Incoherent synchrotron radiation is thought to be the emission mechanism, with the result that synchrotron self-absorption in compact sources hides the central engine from direct radio observation. However, the history revealed by the extended jets and lobes of radio galaxies and quasars favors a single massive object not supported by radiation pressure, either a spinar or a black hole, as the energy source in radio-galaxy nuclei.

  6. Microscopic Processes in Relativistic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Nordlund, A.; Fredricksen, J.; Sol, H.; Niemiec, J.; Lyubarsky, Y.; Hartmann, D. H.; Fishman, G. J.

    2008-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. In the collisionless relativistic shock particle acceleration is due to plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The 'jitter' radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.

  7. Microscopic Processes in Relativistic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Nordlund, A.; Fredricksen, J.; Sol, H.; Niemiec, J.; Lyubarsky, Y.; hide

    2008-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. In the collisionless relativistic shock particle acceleration is due to plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The 'jitter' radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.

  8. The host galaxies of AGN with powerful relativistic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olguín-Iglesias, A.; León-Tavares, J.; Kotilainen, J. K.; Chavushyan, V.; Tornikoski, M.; Valtaoja, E.; Añorve, C.; Valdés, J.; Carrasco, L.

    2016-08-01

    We present deep Near-infrared (NIR) images of a sample of 19 intermediate-redshift (0.3galactic nuclei (AGN) with powerful relativistic jets (L1.4GHz >10^27 WHz^-1), previously classified as flat-spectrum radio quasars. We also compile host galaxy and nuclear magnitudes for blazars from literature. The combined sample (this work and compilation) contains 100 radio-loud AGN with host galaxy detections and a broad range of radio luminosities L1.4GHz = 10^23.7 - 10^28.3WHz^-1, allowing us to divide our sample into high-excitation (quasar-mode; HERGs) and low-excitation (radio-mode; LERGs) radio galaxies. The host galaxies of our sample are bright and seem to follow the Kormendy relation. Nuclear emission (dominated by non-thermal mechanisms) and host-galaxy magnitudes show a slightly negative weak trend for LERGs. On the other hand, the m_bulge -m_nuc relation is statistically significant for HERGs. Although it may be affected by selection effects, this correlation suggests a close coupling between the relativistic jets and their host galaxy. Our findings are consistent with the excitation state (LERG/HERG) scenario. In this view, LERGs emit the bulk of their energy in the form of radio jets, producing a strong feedback mechanism, and HERGs are affected by galaxy mergers and interactions, which provide a common supply of cold gas to feed both nuclear activity and star formation episodes.

  9. The Making of a Galactic Parallelogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows in unprecedented detail the galaxy Centaurus A's last big meal: a spiral galaxy seemingly twisted into a parallelogram-shaped structure of dust. Spitzer's ability to both see dust and see through it allowed the telescope to peer into the center of Centaurus A and capture this galactic remnant as never before.

    An elliptical galaxy located 11 million light-years from Earth, Centaurus A is one of the brightest sources of radio waves in the sky. These radio waves indicate the presence of a supermassive black hole, which may be 'feeding' off the leftover galactic meal.

    A high-speed jet of gas can be seen shooting above the plane of the galaxy (the faint, fuzzy feature pointing from the center toward the upper left). Jets are a common feature of galaxies, and this one is probably receiving an extra boost from the galactic remnant.

    Scientists have created a model that explains how such a strangely geometric structure could arise. In this model, a spiral galaxy falls into an elliptical galaxy, becoming warped and twisted in the process. The folds in the warped disc create the parallelogram-shaped illusion.

  10. Simulations and synchrotron radiation from the relativistic jet base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porth, O.

    The central acceleration region of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is simulated for a two-component spine and sheath jet. For the steady jet component we perform the spatially resolved polarized synchrotron transfer producing observables as radio maps, spectra and derived rotation measures. The wealth of detail obtained this way helps to assess the physical processes (such as internal Faraday rotation) and model assumptions.

  11. Fuzzy jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, Lester; Nachman, Benjamin; Schwartzman, Ariel; Stansbury, Conrad

    2016-06-01

    Collimated streams of particles produced in high energy physics experiments are organized using clustering algorithms to form jets. To construct jets, the experimental collaborations based at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) primarily use agglomerative hierarchical clustering schemes known as sequential recombination. We propose a new class of algorithms for clustering jets that use infrared and collinear safe mixture models. These new algorithms, known as fuzzy jets, are clustered using maximum likelihood techniques and can dynamically determine various properties of jets like their size. We show that the fuzzy jet size adds additional information to conventional jet tagging variables in boosted topologies. Furthermore, we study the impact of pileup and show that with some slight modifications to the algorithm, fuzzy jets can be stable up to high pileup interaction multiplicities.

  12. Fuzzy jets

    DOE PAGES

    Mackey, Lester; Nachman, Benjamin; Schwartzman, Ariel; ...

    2016-06-01

    Collimated streams of particles produced in high energy physics experiments are organized using clustering algorithms to form jets . To construct jets, the experimental collaborations based at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) primarily use agglomerative hierarchical clustering schemes known as sequential recombination. We propose a new class of algorithms for clustering jets that use infrared and collinear safe mixture models. These new algorithms, known as fuzzy jets , are clustered using maximum likelihood techniques and can dynamically determine various properties of jets like their size. We show that the fuzzy jet size adds additional information to conventional jet tagging variablesmore » in boosted topologies. Furthermore, we study the impact of pileup and show that with some slight modifications to the algorithm, fuzzy jets can be stable up to high pileup interaction multiplicities.« less

  13. Fuzzy jets

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, Lester; Nachman, Benjamin; Schwartzman, Ariel; Stansbury, Conrad

    2016-06-01

    Collimated streams of particles produced in high energy physics experiments are organized using clustering algorithms to form jets . To construct jets, the experimental collaborations based at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) primarily use agglomerative hierarchical clustering schemes known as sequential recombination. We propose a new class of algorithms for clustering jets that use infrared and collinear safe mixture models. These new algorithms, known as fuzzy jets , are clustered using maximum likelihood techniques and can dynamically determine various properties of jets like their size. We show that the fuzzy jet size adds additional information to conventional jet tagging variables in boosted topologies. Furthermore, we study the impact of pileup and show that with some slight modifications to the algorithm, fuzzy jets can be stable up to high pileup interaction multiplicities.

  14. Active galactic nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, Andrew C.

    1999-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei are the most powerful, long-lived objects in the Universe. Recent data confirm the theoretical idea that the power source is accretion into a massive black hole. The common occurrence of obscuration and outflows probably means that the contribution of active galactic nuclei to the power density of the Universe has been generally underestimated. PMID:10220363

  15. Relativistic jet feedback in high-redshift galaxies - I. Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Bicknell, Geoffrey V.; Sutherland, Ralph; Wagner, Alex

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of 3D relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of interaction of active galactic nucleus jets with a dense turbulent two-phase interstellar medium, which would be typical of high-redshift galaxies. We describe the effect of the jet on the evolution of the density of the turbulent interstellar medium (ISM). The jet-driven energy bubble affects the gas to distances up to several kiloparsecs from the injection region. The shocks resulting from such interactions create a multiphase ISM and radial outflows. One of the striking result of this work is that low-power jets (Pjet ≲ 1043 ergs-1), although less efficient in accelerating clouds, are trapped in the ISM for a longer time and hence affect the ISM over a larger volume. Jets of higher power drill through with relative ease. Although the relativistic jets launch strong outflows, there is little net mass ejection to very large distances, supporting a galactic fountain scenario for local feedback.

  16. Star formation inside a galactic outflow.

    PubMed

    Maiolino, R; Russell, H R; Fabian, A C; Carniani, S; Gallagher, R; Cazzoli, S; Arribas, S; Belfiore, F; Bellocchi, E; Colina, L; Cresci, G; Ishibashi, W; Marconi, A; Mannucci, F; Oliva, E; Sturm, E

    2017-04-13

    Recent observations have revealed massive galactic molecular outflows that may have the physical conditions (high gas densities) required to form stars. Indeed, several recent models predict that such massive outflows may ignite star formation within the outflow itself. This star-formation mode, in which stars form with high radial velocities, could contribute to the morphological evolution of galaxies, to the evolution in size and velocity dispersion of the spheroidal component of galaxies, and would contribute to the population of high-velocity stars, which could even escape the galaxy. Such star formation could provide in situ chemical enrichment of the circumgalactic and intergalactic medium (through supernova explosions of young stars on large orbits), and some models also predict it to contribute substantially to the star-formation rate observed in distant galaxies. Although there exists observational evidence for star formation triggered by outflows or jets into their host galaxy, as a consequence of gas compression, evidence for star formation occurring within galactic outflows is still missing. Here we report spectroscopic observations that unambiguously reveal star formation occurring in a galactic outflow at a redshift of 0.0448. The inferred star-formation rate in the outflow is larger than 15 solar masses per year. Star formation may also be occurring in other galactic outflows, but may have been missed by previous observations owing to the lack of adequate diagnostics.

  17. Discovery in the Galactic Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    In our efforts to map our galaxys structure, one region has remained very difficult to probe: the galactic center. A new survey, however, uses infrared light to peer through the gas and dust in the galactic plane, searching for variable stars in the bulge of the galaxy. This study has discovered a population of very young stars in a thin disk in the galactic center, providing clues to the star formation history of the Milky Way over the last 100 million years.Obscured CenterThe center of the Milky Way is dominated by a region known as the galactic bulge. Efforts to better understand this region in particular, its star formation history have been hindered by the stars, gas, and dust of the galactic disk, which prevent us from viewing the galactic bulge at low latitudes in visible light.The positions of the 35 classical Cepheids discovered in VVV data, projected onto an image of the galactic plane. Click for a better look! The survey area is bounded by the blue lines, and the galactic bar is marked with a red curve. The bottom panel shows the position of the Cepheids overlaid on the VVV bulge extinction map. [Dkny et al. 2015]Infrared light, however, can be used to probe deeper through the dust than visible-light searches. A new survey called VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) uses the VISTA telescope in Chile to search, in infrared, for variable stars in the inner part of the galaxy. The VVV survey area spans the Milky Way bulge and an adjacent section of the mid-plane where star formation activity is high.Led by Istvn Dkny, a researcher at the Millennium Institute of Astrophysics and the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, a team has now used VVV data to specifically identify classical Cepheid variable stars in the bulge. Why? Cepheids are pulsating stars with a very useful relation between their periods and luminosities that allows them to be used as distance indicators. Moreover, classical Cepheids are indicators of young stellar populations which can

  18. The Warped Nuclear Disk of Radio Galaxy 3C 449

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, G. R.; Quillen, A. C.; Floyd, D. J. E.; Noel-Storr, J.; Baum, S. A.; Axon, D. J.; O'Dea, C. P.; Chiaberge, M.; Macchetto, F. D.; Sparks, W. B.; Miley, G. K.; Capetti, A.; Madrid, J. P.; Perlman, E.

    2005-12-01

    Among radio galaxies containing nuclear dust disks, the bipolar jet axis is generally expected to be perpendicular to the disk major axis. However, the FR I radio source 3C 449, possessing a nearly parallel jet/disk orientation on the sky, is an extreme example of a system that does not conform to this expectation. We examine the 600 pc dusty disk in this galaxy with images from the Hubble Space Telescope. We find that a colormap of the disk exhibits a twist in its isocolor contours (isochromes). We model the colormap by integrating galactic starlight through an absorptive disk, and find that the anomalous twist in the isochromes can be reproduced in the model with a vertically thin, warped disk. The model predicts that the disk is nearly perpendicular to the jet axis within 100 pc of the nucleus. We discuss physical mechanisms capable of causing such a warp. We show that a torque on the disk arising from a possible binary black hole in the AGN or radiation pressure from the AGN causes precession on a timescale that is too long to generate such a warp. However, we estimate that the pressure in the X-ray emitting interstellar medium is large enough to perturb the disk. The warped disk in 3C 449 may be a new manifestation of feedback from an active galactic nucleus.

  19. Active Galactic Nuclei Feedback and Galactic Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ai-Lei

    Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is thought to regulate the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and galaxies. The most direct evidence of AGN feedback is probably galactic outflows. This thesis addresses the link between SMBHs and their host galaxies from four different observational perspectives. First, I study the local correlation between black hole mass and the galactic halo potential (the MBH - Vc relation) based on Very Large Array (VLA) HI observations of galaxy rotation curves. Although there is a correlation, it is no tighter than the well-studied MBH - sigma* relation between the black hole mass and the potential of the galactic bulge, indicating that physical processes, such as feedback, could link the evolution of the black hole to the baryons in the bulge. In what follows, I thus search for galactic outflows as direct evidence of AGN feedback. Second, I use the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to observe a luminous obscured AGN that hosts an ionized galactic outflow and find a compact but massive molecular outflow that can potentially quench the star formation in 10. 6 years.The third study extends the sample of known ionized outflows with new Magellan long-slit observations of 12 luminous obscured AGN. I find that most luminous obscured AGN (Lbol > 1046 ergs s-1) host ionized outflows on 10 kpc scales, and the size of the outflow correlates strongly with the luminosity of the AGN. Lastly, to capitalize on the power of modern photometric surveys, I experiment with a new broadband imaging technique to study the morphology of AGN emission line regions and outflows. With images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), this method successfully constructs images of the [OIII]lambda5007 emission line and reveals hundreds of extended emission-line systems. When applied to current and future surveys, such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), this technique could open a new parameter space for the study of AGN outflows. In

  20. Pondermotive acceleration of charged particles along the relativistic jets of an accreting blackhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisuzaki, T.; Tajima, T.

    2014-05-01

    Accreting blackholes such as miniquasars and active galactic nuclei can contribute to the highest energy components of intra- (˜1015 eV) galactic and extra-galactic components (˜1020 eV) of cosmic rays. Alfven wave pulses which are excited in the accretion disk around blackholes propagate in relativistic jets. Because of their highly non-linear nature of the waves, charged particles (protons, ions, and electrons) can be accelerated to high energies in relativistic jets in accreting blackhole systems, the central engine of miniquasars and active galactic nuclei.

  1. Active Galactic Nuclei and Gamma Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giebels, Berrie; Aharonian, Felix; Sol, Hélène

    The supermassive black holes harboured in active galactic nuclei are at the origin of powerful jets which can emit copious amounts of γ-rays. The exact interplay between the infalling matter, the black hole and the relativistic outflow is still poorly known, and this parallel session of the 12th Marcel Grossman meeting intended to offer the most up to date status of observational results with the latest generation of ground and space-based instruments, as well as the theoretical developments relevant for the field.

  2. Fermi-LAT Observations of Galactic Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the observations of Galactic transients by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope. The LAT is producing spectacular results for the GeV transient sky, some of which are shown and reviewed. Some of the results in the GeV range that are discussed in this presentation are: (1) New blazars and unidentified transients (2) the jet of the Cygnus X-3 microquasar (3) gamma rays from V407 Cygni nova (4) Fast high-energy gamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula

  3. THE GALACTIC CENTER: NOT AN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    SciTech Connect

    An, Deokkeun; Ramirez, Solange V.; Sellgren, Kris

    2013-06-01

    We present 10 {mu}m-35 {mu}m Spitzer spectra of the interstellar medium in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ), the central 210 pc Multiplication-Sign 60 pc of the Galactic center (GC). We present maps of the CMZ in ionic and H{sub 2} emission, covering a more extensive area than earlier spectroscopic surveys in this region. The radial velocities and intensities of ionic lines and H{sub 2} suggest that most of the H{sub 2} 0-0 S(0) emission comes from gas along the line-of-sight, as found by previous work. We compare diagnostic line ratios measured in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey to our data. Previous work shows that forbidden line ratios can distinguish star-forming galaxies from low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our GC line ratios agree with star-forming galaxies and not with LINERs or AGNs.

  4. Galactic Train Wrecks

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-25

    This montage combines observations from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope and NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer GALEX spacecraft showing three examples of colliding galaxies from a new photo atlas of galactic train wrecks.

  5. Fermi Galactic Center Zoom

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation zooms into an image of the Milky Way, shown in visible light, and superimposes a gamma-ray map of the galactic center from NASA's Fermi. Raw data transitions to a view with all known...

  6. Galactic cosmic ray composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    An assessment is given of the galactic cosmic ray source (GCRS) elemental composition and its correlation with first ionization potential. The isotopic composition of heavy nuclei; spallation cross sections; energy spectra of primary nuclei; electrons; positrons; local galactic reference abundances; comparison of solar energetic particles and solar coronal compositions; the hydrogen; lead; nitrogen; helium; and germanium deficiency problems; and the excess of elements are among the topics covered.

  7. On the biological hazard of galactic antinuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Buck, W. W.

    1986-01-01

    The interaction of antinuclei in the galactic cosmic-ray beam with biological systems is studied. A nuclei-antinuclei annihilation event observed in nuclear emulsion near the end of the slowing-down trajectories of singly charged particle is discussed. An annihilation event that occurred by capture of the antinucleus into an atomic orbital followed by cascade to or near the ground atomic state and subsequent annihilation with the nuclear material of the atom is described. Microdosimetric quantities relevant to potential biological hazards are estimated. The average linear-energy-transfer spectrum for galactic cosmic ray antinuclei annihilation events in tissues is presented. It is observed that the annihilation in tissues occurs mainly in O and the heavier elements around K.

  8. Accretion-ejection models for AGN jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanni, C.

    2008-10-01

    It is likely that jets from Active Galactic Nuclei derive their energy from accretion onto the central black hole. It is actually possible to fuel the jets by extracting energy and angular momentum from the accretion disk and/or the rotating black hole via the action of large-scale magnetic fields. In this talk I will first present results of analytical and numerical models of the launching process of jets from magnetized accretion disks: I will show that, although a sizeable fraction of the accretion power goes into the jets, these outflows are presumably only mildly relativistic. In the second place, I will therefore suggest that the strongly relativistic components observed at the VLBI scales are accelerated in the innermost parts of the AGNs by Blandford-Znajek and/or Compton-rocket processes. Nonetheless, the non-relativistic disk-wind is needed to collimate the relativistic component and to reproduce the total power of extragalactic jets.

  9. Water Jetting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Hi-Tech Inc., a company which manufactures water jetting equipment, needed a high pressure rotating swivel, but found that available hardware for the system was unsatisfactory. They were assisted by Marshall, which had developed water jetting technology to clean the Space Shuttles. The result was a completely automatic water jetting system which cuts rock and granite and removes concrete. Labor costs have been reduced; dust is suppressed and production has been increased.

  10. Two Types of Magnetohydrodynamic Sheath Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaburaki, Osamu

    2009-06-01

    Recent observations of astrophysical jets emanating from various galactic nuclei strongly suggest that a double-layered structure, or a spine-sheath structure, is likely to be their common feature. We propose that such a sheath jet structure can be formed magnetohydrodynamically within a valley of the magnetic pressures, which is formed between the peaks due to the poloidal and toroidal components, with the centrifugal force acting on the rotating sheath plasma being balanced by the hoop stress of the toroidal field. The poloidal field concentrated near the polar axis is maintained by a converging plasma flow toward the jet region, and the toroidal field is developed outside the jet cone owing to the poloidal current circulating through the jet. Under such situations, the set of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations allows two main types of solutions, at least, in the region far from the footpoint. The first type solution describes the jets of marginally bound nature. This type is realized when the jet temperature decreases like a virial one, and neither the pressure-gradient nor the MHD forces, which are both determined consistently, cannot completely overcome the gravity, even at infinity. The second type is realized under an isothermal situation, and the gravity is cancelled exactly by the pressure-gradient force. Hence, the jets of this type are accelerated purely by the MHD force. It is also suggested that these two types correspond, respectively, to the jets from type I and II radio galaxies in the Fanaroff-Riley classification.

  11. MEASUREMENT OF THE ELECTRIC CURRENT IN A kpc-SCALE JET

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, P. P.; Lovelace, R. V. E.; Lapenta, G.; Colgate, S. A. E-mail: lovelace@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: colgate@lanl.gov

    2011-11-01

    We present radio emission, polarization, and Faraday rotation maps of the radio jet of the galaxy 3C303. From these data we derive the magnetoplasma and electrodynamic parameters of this 50 kpc long jet. For one component of this jet we obtain for the first time a direct determination of a galactic-scale electric current ({approx}3 x 10{sup 18} A), and its direction-positive away from the active galactic nucleus. Our analysis strongly supports a model where the jet energy flow is mainly electromagnetic.

  12. Jet measurements by ALICE at LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Sultanov, Rishat; Collaboration: ALICE Collaboration

    2015-12-15

    Jets are collimated sprays of particles originating from fragmentation of high energy partons produced in a hard collision. They are an important diagnostic tool in studies of the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). The modification of the jet fragmentation pattern and its structure is a signature for the influence of hot and dense matter on the parton fragmentation process. Jet measurements in proton-proton collisions provide a baseline for similar measurements in heavy-ion collisions, while studies in proton-nucleus system allow to estimate cold nuclear matter effects. Here we present jet studies in different colliding systems (p–p, p–Pb, Pb–Pb) performed by the ALICE collaboration at LHC energies. Results on jet spectra, cross sections, nuclear modification factors, jet structure and other kinematic observables will be presented.

  13. Latest results from jet measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruna, Elena

    2009-10-01

    A first stage in understanding the phenomenon of jet quenching in the hot and dense nuclear matter has been successfully reached at RHIC through measurements of inclusive hadron suppression and di-hadron azimuthal correlations. A significant step forward in this field is being obtained by full jet reconstruction in heavy-ion collisions, that in principle should give access to the energy of the hard scattering independent of the presence of the medium and should enable the study of jet quenching at the partonic level. Due to the intrinsic difficulties of such a measurement in the high multiplicity environment, this is an innovative analysis and the first results of full jet reconstruction were obtained only over the last year thanks to the recently developed jet-finding techniques. We discuss the current methods to treat the large background, which is the main critical aspect that makes full jet reconstruction a challenge at RHIC. New measurements directed to address the mechanisms of partonic energy loss in hot QCD matter are presented. These measurements include the ratio of inclusive jet cross sections in Au+Au and p+p and the comparison of jet fragmentation functions in Au+Au and p+p.

  14. Bouncing Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadhwa, Navish; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2011-11-01

    Contrary to common intuition, free jets of fluid can ``bounce'' off each other on collision in mid-air, through the effect of a lubricating air film that separates the jets. We have developed a simple experimental setup to stably demonstrate and study the non-coalescence of jets on collision. We present the results of an experimental investigation of oblique collision between two silicone oil jets, supported by a simple analytical explanation. Our focus is on elucidating the role of various physical forces at play such as viscous stresses, capillary force and inertia. A parametric study conducted by varying the nozzle diameter, jet velocity, angle of inclination and fluid viscosity reveals the scaling laws for the quantities involved such as contact time. We observed a transition from bouncing to coalescence with an increase in jet velocity and inclination angle. We propose that a balance between the contact time of jets and the time required for drainage of the trapped air film can provide a criterion for transition from non-coalescence to coalescence.

  15. Jet-regulated cooling catastrophe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Yohan; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Teyssier, Romain

    2010-12-01

    We present the first implementation of active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback in the form of momentum-driven jets in an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) cosmological resimulation of a galaxy cluster. The jets are powered by gas accretion on to supermassive black holes (SMBHs) which also grow by mergers. Throughout its formation, the cluster experiences different dynamical states: both a morphologically perturbed epoch at early times and a relaxed state at late times allowing us to study the different modes of black hole (BH) growth and associated AGN jet feedback. BHs accrete gas efficiently at high redshift (z > 2), significantly pre-heating proto-cluster haloes. Gas-rich mergers at high redshift also fuel strong, episodic jet activity, which transports gas from the proto-cluster core to its outer regions. At later times, while the cluster relaxes, the supply of cold gas on to the BHs is reduced leading to lower jet activity. Although the cluster is still heated by this activity as sound waves propagate from the core to the virial radius, the jets inefficiently redistribute gas outwards and a small cooling flow develops, along with low-pressure cavities similar to those detected in X-ray observations. Overall, our jet implementation of AGN feedback quenches star formation quite efficiently, reducing the stellar content of the central cluster galaxy by a factor of 3 compared to the no-AGN case. It also dramatically alters the shape of the gas density profile, bringing it in close agreement with the β model favoured by observations, producing quite an isothermal galaxy cluster for gigayears in the process. However, it still falls short in matching the lower than universal baryon fractions which seem to be commonplace in observed galaxy clusters.

  16. Interaction of Hydra A jets with the intracluster medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawaz, Mohammad Ali; Bicknell, Geoffrey Vincent; Wagner, Alex; Slatyer Sutherland, Ralph; McNamara, Brian

    2015-08-01

    An important research area of modern astronomy is to understand the physics of jets from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and their interaction with the interstellar medium (ISM) or intracluster medium (ICM). The aims of our project is to understand the energetics and composition of the jet near its origin, and its interaction with the ICM, focusing on detailed models of the inner structure of a spectacular radio source Hydra A. The key features of our modelling are that 1) We identify the four bright knots in the northern jet of Hydra A as biconical reconfinement shocks, which result when an over-pressured jet starts to come into equilibrium whit the galactic atmosphere 2) The curved morphology of the source and the turbulent transition of the jet to a plume are produced by the dynamical interaction of a precessing jet with the ICM. We provided an innovative theoretical approach to estimate the jet velocity from the information of the inner jet knots and the oscillation of the jet boundary. We also explored the complex morphology of the source and the heating of the ambient medium via the forward shock using a three dimensional precessing jet-ICM interaction model. With the 3D models We successfully reproduced key features of the source, for example, i) Four bright knots along the jet trajectory at approximately correct locations, 2) The curvature of the jet within 10 kpc, 3) The turbulent transition of the jet to a plume, and 4) A misaligned bright knot in the turbulent flaring zone. From our model we determined that the heating of the atmosphere by the jet would be gentle, which is consistent with the assessment of the physics of cooling flow.

  17. Soft-collinear effective theory for hadronic and nuclear collisions: The evolution of jet quenching from RHIC to the highest LHC energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitev, Ivan

    2016-12-01

    In the framework of soft-collinear effective theory with Glauber gluons, results and predictions for inclusive hadron suppression, based upon in-medium parton shower evolution, are presented for Au+Au and Pb+Pb collisions at RHIC and LHC energies √{ s} = 200 AGev and √{ s} = 2.76 , 5.1 ATeV, respectively. The SCETG medium-induced splitting kernels are further implemented to evaluate the attenuation of reconstructed jet cross sections in such reactions and to examine their centrality and radius R dependence. Building upon a previously developed method to systematically resum the jet shape at next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, a quantitative understanding of the jet shape modification measurement in Pb+Pb collisions at √{ s} = 2.76 ATeV at the LHC can be achieved. Predictions for photon-tagged jet cross sections and shapes, that can shed light on the parton flavor dependence of in-medium parton shower modification, are also given.

  18. Catching a Galactic Football: Chandra Examines Cygnus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    falling into the Cygnus A galaxy. However, the two jets powered by the nuclear black hole in this galaxy push this gas outward, like a balloon being inflated by a tank of gas. Cygnus A is not alone in its galactic neighborhood, but is a member of a large cluster containing many galaxies. Extremely hot (tens of millions of degrees Celsius) gas is spread between the galaxies. Although it has a very low density, this gas provides enough resistance to slow down the outward advancement of the particle jets from Cygnus A. At the ends of the jets, astronomers find bright areas of radio and X-ray emission known as "hot spots." Scientists believe that fast atomic particles and magnetic fields from the jets spill out into the region, providing pressure that continuously inflates the cavity. In a paper accepted by the Astrophysical Journal Letters, Wilson, Young and Shopbell discuss how the Chandra observations resolve a long-standing puzzle about the hot spots at the ends of the jets. By analyzing the X-ray emission of the hot spots, the astronomers have measured the strength of the magnetic field associated with them. "The radio data themselves cannot determine the strength of the magnetic field, a limitation that has inhibited progress in our understanding of cosmic radio sources for 50 years," said Wilson. "Combination of the Chandra X-ray and the radio data allows a quite precise measurement of the field strength." The Chandra observation of Cygnus A was made with the ACIS on May 21, 2000, for over nine hours. The ACIS X-ray camera was developed for NASA by Pennsylvania State University and MIT. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, manages the Chandra program. TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, California, is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, MA. This research was supported by the Chandra project at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Images associated with this

  19. Business Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Citation Jet, developed by Cessna Aircraft Company, Wichita, KS, is the first business jet to employ Langley Research Center's natural laminar flow (NLF) technology. NLF reduces drag and therefore saves fuel by using only the shape of the wing to keep the airflow smooth, or laminar. This reduces friction between the air and wing, and therefore, reduces drag. NASA's Central Industrial Applications Center, Rural Enterprises, Inc., Durant, OK, its Kansas affiliate, and Wichita State University assisted in the technology transfer.

  20. Is There a Maximum Mass for Black Holes in Galactic Nuclei?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inayoshi, Kohei; Haiman, Zoltán

    2016-09-01

    The largest observed supermassive black holes (SMBHs) have a mass of {M}{{BH}}≃ {10}10 {\\text{}}{M}⊙ , nearly independent of redshift, from the local (z≃ 0) to the early (z\\gt 6) universe. We suggest that the growth of SMBHs above a few × {10}10 {\\text{}}{M}⊙ is prevented by small-scale accretion physics, independent of the properties of their host galaxies or of cosmology. Growing more massive BHs requires a gas supply rate from galactic scales onto a nuclear region as high as ≳ {10}3 {M}⊙ {{{yr}}}-1. At such a high accretion rate, most of the gas converts to stars at large radii (˜10-100 pc), well before reaching the BH. We adopt a simple model for a star-forming accretion disk and find that the accretion rate in the subparsec nuclear region is reduced to the smaller value of at most a few × {M}⊙ {{{yr}}}-1. This prevents SMBHs from growing above ≃ {10}11 {\\text{}}{M}⊙ in the age of the universe. Furthermore, once an SMBH reaches a sufficiently high mass, this rate falls below the critical value at which the accretion flow becomes advection dominated. Once this transition occurs, BH feeding can be suppressed by strong outflows and jets from hot gas near the BH. We find that the maximum SMBH mass, given by this transition, is between {M}{{BH,max}}≃ (1{--}6)× {10}10 {\\text{}}{M}⊙ , depending primarily on the efficiency of angular momentum transfer inside the galactic disk, and not on other properties of the host galaxy.

  1. Active Galactic Nucleus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-14

    SCI2017_0007: Artist illustration of the thick ring of dust that can obscure the energetic processes that occur near the supermassive black hole of an active galactic nuclei. The SOFIA studies suggest that the dust distribution is about 30 percent smaller than previously thought. Credit: NASA/SOFIA/Lynette Cook

  2. Emerging jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  3. PREFACE: Astronomy at High Angular Resolution 2011: The central kiloparsec in galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iserlohe, Christof; Karas, Vladimir; Krips, Melanie; Eckart, Andreas; Britzen, Silke; Fischer, Sebastian

    2012-07-01

    We are pleased to present the proceedings from the Astronomy at High Angular Resolution 2011: The central kiloparsec in galactic nuclei conference. The conference took place in the Physikzentrum of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft (DPG), Bad Honnef, Germany, from 28 August to 2 September 2011. It was the second conference of this kind, following the Astronomy at High Angular Resolution conference held in Bad Honnef, three years earlier in 2008. The main objective of the conference was to frame the discussion of the broad range of physical processes that occur in the central 100pc of galactic nuclei. In most cases, this domain is difficult to probe through observations. This is mainly because of the lack of angular resolution, the brightness of the central engine and possible obscurations through dust and gas, which play together in the central regions of host galaxies of galactic nuclei within a broad range of activity. The presence of large amounts of molecular and atomic (both neutral and ionized) gas, dust and central engines with outflows and jets implies that the conditions for star formation in these regions are very special, and probably different from those in the disks of host galaxies. Numerous presentations covering a broad range of topics, both theoretical and experimental, those related to research on Active Galactic Nuclei and on a wide range of observed wavelengths were submitted to the Scientific Organizing Committee. Presentations have been grouped into six sessions: The nuclei of active galaxies The Galactic Center The immediate environment of Super Massive Black Holes The physics of nuclear jets and the interaction of the interstellar medium The central 100pc of the nuclear environment Star formation in that region The editors thank all participants of the AHAR 2011 conference for their enthusiasm and their numerous and vivid contributions to this conference. We would especially like to thank John Hugh Seiradakis from the Aristotle

  4. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK WORKS BOTH WAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, P.-C.; Middelberg, E.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Norris, R. P.

    2013-09-01

    Simulations of galaxy growth need to invoke strong negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to suppress the formation of stars and thus prevent the over-production of very massive systems. While some observations provide evidence for such negative feedback, other studies find either no feedback or even positive feedback, with increased star formation associated with higher AGN luminosities. Here we report an analysis of several hundred AGNs and their host galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South using X-ray and radio data for sample selection. Combined with archival far-infrared data as a reliable tracer of star formation activity in the AGN host galaxies, we find that AGNs with pronounced radio jets exhibit a much higher star formation rate (SFR) than the purely X-ray-selected ones, even at the same X-ray luminosities. This difference implies that positive AGN feedback plays an important role, too, and therefore has to be accounted for in all future simulation work. We interpret this to indicate that the enhanced SFR of radio-selected AGNs arises because of jet-induced star formation, as is suggested by the different jet powers among our AGN samples, while the suppressed SFR of X-ray selected AGN is caused by heating and photo-dissociation of molecular gas by the hot AGN accretion disk.

  5. QUASI-STATIC MODEL OF MAGNETICALLY COLLIMATED JETS AND RADIO LOBES. II. JET STRUCTURE AND STABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui; Fowler, T. Kenneth; Hooper, E. Bickford; McClenaghan, Joseph; Lin, Zhihong

    2015-11-10

    This is the second in a series of companion papers showing that when an efficient dynamo can be maintained by accretion disks around supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei, it can lead to the formation of a powerful, magnetically driven, and mediated helix that could explain both the observed radio jet/lobe structures and ultimately the enormous power inferred from the observed ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. In the first paper, we showed self-consistently that minimizing viscous dissipation in the disk naturally leads to jets of maximum power with boundary conditions known to yield jets as a low-density, magnetically collimated tower, consistent with observational constraints of wire-like currents at distances far from the black hole. In this paper we show that these magnetic towers remain collimated as they grow in length at nonrelativistic velocities. Differences with relativistic jet models are explained by three-dimensional magnetic structures derived from a detailed examination of stability properties of the tower model, including a broad diffuse pinch with current profiles predicted by a detailed jet solution outside the collimated central column treated as an electric circuit. We justify our model in part by the derived jet dimensions in reasonable agreement with observations. Using these jet properties, we also discuss the implications for relativistic particle acceleration in nonrelativistically moving jets. The appendices justify the low jet densities yielding our results and speculate how to reconcile our nonrelativistic treatment with general relativistic MHD simulations.

  6. The Fermi Bubbles. I. Possible Evidence for Recent AGN Jet Activity in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fulai; Mathews, William G.

    2012-09-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope reveals two large gamma-ray bubbles in the Galaxy, which extend about 50° (~10 kpc) above and below the Galactic center (GC) and are symmetric about the Galactic plane. Using axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations with a self-consistent treatment of the dynamical cosmic ray (CR)-gas interaction, we show that the bubbles can be created with a recent active galactic nucleus (AGN) jet activity about 1-3 Myr ago, which was active for a duration of ~0.1-0.5 Myr. The bipolar jets were ejected into the Galactic halo along the rotation axis of the Galaxy. Near the GC, the jets must be moderately light with a typical density contrast 0.001 <~ η <~ 0.1 relative to the ambient hot gas. The jets are energetically dominated by kinetic energy, and overpressured with either CR or thermal pressure which induces lateral jet expansion, creating fat CR bubbles as observed. The sharp edges of the bubbles imply that CR diffusion across the bubble surface is strongly suppressed. The jet activity induces a strong shock, which heats and compresses the ambient gas in the Galactic halo, potentially explaining the ROSAT X-ray shell features surrounding the bubbles. The Fermi bubbles provide plausible evidence for a recent powerful AGN jet activity in our Galaxy, providing new insights into the origin of the halo CR population and the channel through which massive black holes in disk galaxies release feedback energy during their growth.

  7. Transmission line analogy for relativistic Poynting-flux jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelace, R. V. E.; Kronberg, P. P.

    2013-04-01

    Radio emission, polarization and Faraday rotation maps of the radio jet of the galaxy 3C 303 have shown that one knot of this jet carries a galactic-scale electric current and that it is magnetically dominated. We develop the theory of magnetically dominated or Poynting-flux jets by making an analogy of a Poynting jet with a transmission line or waveguide carrying a net current and having a potential drop across it (from the jet's axis to its radius) and a definite impedance which we derive. The electromagnetic energy flow in the jet is the jet impedance times the square of the jet current. The observed current in 3C 303 can be used to calculate the electromagnetic energy flow in this magnetically dominated jet. Time dependent but not necessarily small perturbations of a Poynting-flux jet are described by the `telegrapher's equations'. These predict the propagation speed of disturbances and the effective wave impedance for forward and backward propagating wave components. A localized disturbance of a Poynting jet gives rise to localized dissipation in the jet which may explain the enhanced synchrotron radiation in the knots of the 3C 303 jet, and also in the apparently stationary knot HST-1 in the jet near the nucleus of the nearby galaxy M87. For a relativistic Poynting jet on parsec scales, the reflected voltage wave from an inductive termination or load can lead to a backward propagating wave which breaks down the magnetic insulation of the jet giving |{boldsymbol E}| /|{boldsymbol B}|ge 1. At the threshold for breakdown, |{boldsymbol E}|/|{boldsymbol B}|=1, positive and negative particles are directly accelerated in the {boldsymbol E} × {boldsymbol B} direction which is approximately along the jet axis. Acceleration can occur up to Lorentz factors ˜107. This particle acceleration mechanism is distinct from that in shock waves and that in magnetic field reconnection.

  8. Jet acceleration of the fast molecular outflows in the Seyfert galaxy IC 5063.

    PubMed

    Tadhunter, C; Morganti, R; Rose, M; Oonk, J B R; Oosterloo, T

    2014-07-24

    Massive outflows driven by active galactic nuclei are widely recognized to have a key role in the evolution of galaxies, by heating the ambient gas, expelling it from the nuclear regions, and thereby affecting the star-formation histories of the galaxy bulges. It has been proposed that the powerful jets of relativistic particles (such as electrons) launched by some active nuclei can both accelerate and heat the molecular gas, which often dominates the mass budgets of the outflows. Clear evidence for this mechanism, in the form of detailed associations between the molecular gas kinematics and features in the radio-emitting jets, has however been lacking. Here we report that the warm molecular hydrogen gas in the western radio lobe of the Seyfert galaxy IC 5063 is moving at high velocities-up to about 600 kilometres per second-relative to the galaxy disk. This suggests that the molecules have been accelerated by fast shocks driven into the interstellar medium by the expanding radio jets. These results demonstrate the general feasibility of accelerating molecular outflows in fast shocks driven by active nuclei.

  9. Lorentz Factor Evolution Patterns within Relativistic Jets of GRBs and AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Ming; Lin, Da-Bin; Lin, Ting-Ting; Liu, Bao-Rong; Huang, Xiao-Li; Zhong, Shu-Qing; Lu, Rui-Jing; Liang, En-Wei

    The Lorentz factor (Γ) is an important parameter related to the relativistic jet physics. We study the evolution patterns of Γ within gamma-ray burst (GRB) and active galactic nuclear jets for individual GRB 090168, GRB 140508A, and 3C 454.3. By estimating the Γ values for well-separated pulses in GRBs 090618 and 140508A with an empirical relation derived from typical GRBs, we find that the Γ evolution pattern in the two GRBs are different. The increasing-to-coasting evolution pattern of Γ in GRB 090618 likely indicates that the GRB fireball is still being accelerated in the prompt phase. The clear decrease evolution pattern of Γ in GRB 140508A suggests the deceleration of the fireball components. By deriving the Γ value through fitting their spectral energy distribution in different flares of 3C 454.3, a pattern of Γ-tracking-γ-ray flux is clearly found, likely indicating that the observed gamma-ray flares are being due to the Doppler boosting effect to the jet emission.

  10. Superluminal Jets and Other Properties of Black Holes Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Discoveries in the past few years of radio jets in Galactic black hole candidates have provided a link between active galactic nuclei (AGNS) and the compact stars in binary systems. The availability of binary systems relatively close by is an opportunity to learn about the jet production mechanism on a timescale a million times shorter than that of an AGN. Evidence is clearly seen of correlated high energy X-ray and gamma ray emission to radio emission from jets, linking the accretion and jet production mechanisms. objects such as GRS 1915+105, GRO J1655-40 and Cyg X-3 show striking properties which distinguish them from other black hole candidates. Our theoretical understanding of these systems is still in the formative stages. I review some of the most recent multiwavelength data and point out questions raised by these observations.

  11. Superluminal Jets and Other Properties of Black Holes Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Discoveries in the past few years of radio jets in Galactic black hole candidates have provided a link between active galactic nuclei (AGNS) and the compact stars in binary systems. The availability of binary systems relatively close by is an opportunity to learn about the jet production mechanism on a timescale a million times shorter than that of an AGN. Evidence is clearly seen of correlated high energy X-ray and gamma ray emission to radio emission from jets, linking the accretion and jet production mechanisms. objects such as GRS 1915+105, GRO J1655-40 and Cyg X-3 show striking properties which distinguish them from other black hole candidates. Our theoretical understanding of these systems is still in the formative stages. I review some of the most recent multiwavelength data and point out questions raised by these observations.

  12. The role of magnetic reconnection on astrophysical jets launching and particle acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete

    2012-07-01

    Magnetic reconnection events like those associated to solar flares can be also a very powerful mechanism operating on accretion disk/jet systems. We have recently found that the magnetic power released in fast reconnection flares is more than sufficient to accelerate relativistic plasmons and produce the observed radio luminosity of the nuclear jets associated both to galactic stellar mass black holes and low luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The famous observed correlation between the radio luminosity and the black hole mass of these sources, spanning ^10^9 orders of magnitude in mass, can be naturally explained in this model as simply due to the magnetic reconnection activity at the jet launching region of the accretion disk coronae of these sources. A similar process may explain the observed x-ray flares in young stars (YSOs) as well. In this talk, we review this mechanism and show results of numerical MHD tests of its validity. Also, particle acceleration in the magnetic reconnection sites of these sources can be rather efficient . In this talk, we will also discuss this acceleration process showing the energy distribution evolution of several thousands of test particles injected in a three-dimensional MHD domain of magnetic reconnection with embedded turbulence. The particle acceleration rate, which depends on the reconnection rate, is highly enhanced in this case. This is because reconnection becomes fast and independent of magnetic resistivity in the presence of turbulence and allows the formation of a thick volume in the current sheet filled with multiple, simultaneously reconnecting magnetic fluxes. The particles trapped within this volume then suffer several head-on scatterings with the contracting magnetic fluctuations in a first-order Fermi process. Particles are thus exponentially accelerated to energies which are several orders of magnitude larger than their injected energy.

  13. Stellar binaries in galactic nuclei: tidally stimulated mergers followed by tidal disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradnick, B.; Mandel, I.; Levin, Y.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate interactions of stellar binaries in galactic nuclear clusters with a massive black hole (MBH). We consider binaries on highly eccentric orbits around the MBH that change due to random gravitational interactions with other stars in the nuclear stellar cluster. The pericentres of the orbits perform a random walk, and we consider cases where this random walk slowly brings the binary to the Hills tidal separation radius (the so-called empty loss-cone regime). However, we find that in a majority of cases, the expected separation does not occur and instead the members of the binary merge together. This happens because the binary's eccentricity is excited by tidal interactions with the MBH, and the relative excursions of the internal eccentricity of the binary far exceed those in its internal semimajor axis. This frequently reduces the pericentre separation to values below typical stellar diameters, which induces a significant fraction of such binaries to merge (≳75 per cent in our set of numerical experiments). Stellar tides do not appreciably change the total rate of mergers but circularize binaries, leading to a significant fraction of low-eccentricity, low-impact-velocity mergers. Some of the stellar merger products will then be tidally disrupted by the MBH within ∼106 yr. If the merger strongly enhances the magnetic field of the merger product, this process could explain observations of prompt relativistic jet formation in some tidal disruption events.

  14. Plasma jet takes off.

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, L

    1999-01-01

    Thanks to a series of joint research projects by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Beta Squared of Allen, Texas, and the University of California at Los Angeles, there is now a more environmentally sound method for cleaning semiconductor chips that may also be effective in cleaning up chemical, bacterial, and nuclear contaminants. The Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet uses a type of ionized gas called plasma to clean up contaminants by binding to them and lifting them away. In contrast to the corrosive acids and chemical solvents traditionally used to clean semiconductor chips, the jet oxidizes contaminants, producing only benign gaseous by-products such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. The new technology is also easy to transport, cleans thoroughly and quickly, and presents no hazards to its operators. PMID:10417375

  15. Structural Transition in the NGC 6251 Jet: an Interplay with the Supermassive Black Hole and Its Host Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Chih-Yin; Asada, Keiichi; Nakamura, Masanori; Pu, Hung-Yi; Algaba, Juan-Carlos; Lo, Wen-Ping

    2016-12-01

    The structure of the NGC 6251 jet on the milliarcsecond scale is investigated using images taken with the European VLBI Network and the Very Long Baseline Array. We detect a structural transition of the jet from a parabolic to a conical shape at a distance of (1-2) × 105 times the Schwarzschild radius from the central engine, which is close to the sphere of gravitational influence of the supermassive black hole (SMBH). We also examine the jet pressure profiles with the synchrotron minimum energy assumption to discuss the physical origin of the structural transition. The NGC 6251 jet, together with the M87 jet, suggests a fundamental process of structural transition in the jets of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Collimated AGN jets are characterized by their external galactic medium, showing that AGN jets interplay with the SMBH and its host galaxy.

  16. Massive accretion disks in galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoville, N. Z.

    In the luminous infrared galaxies, very large masses of interstellar matter have been concentrated in the galactic nuclei at radii less than 300 pc as a result of galactic merging, while in lower luminosity systems, this material is probably concentrated by stellar bars and viscous accretion. In both cases, the nuclear region will be highly obscured by dust at visible wavelengths, forcing studies to longer wavelengths where the extinction is reduced. We review recent high resolution near infrared (HST-NICMOS) and mm-interferometric imaging of the dense gas and dust accretion disks in nearby luminous galactic nuclei. Since this nuclear ISM is the active ingredient for both starburst activity and a likely fuel for central AGNs, the nuclear accretion disks are critical to both the activity and the optical appearance of the nucleus. For a sample of 24 luminous galaxies imaged with NICMOS at 1-2μm, approximately 13 show nuclear point sources, indicating the existence of a central AGN or an intense starburst at <= 50 pc radius. Approximately 14 of the sample galaxies have apparent central dust disks. In the best studied ultraluminous IR galaxy, Arp 220, the 2μm imaging shows dust disks in both of the merging galactic nuclei and mm-CO line imaging indicates molecular gas masses ~ 109Msolar for each disk. The two gas disks in Arp 220 are counterrotating and their dynamical masses are ~ 2×109Msolar, that is, only slightly larger than the gas masses. These disks have radii ~ 100 pc and thickness 10-50 pc. The high brightness temperatures of the CO lines indicate that the gas in the disks has area filling factors ~25-50% and mean densities of >= 104 cm-3. Within these nuclear disks, the rate of massive star formation is undoubtedly prodigious and, given the high viscosity of the gas, there will also be high radial accretion rates, perhaps >= 10 Msolar yr-1. If this inflow persists to very small radii, it is enough to feed even the highest

  17. NASA Jet Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    The presentation highlights NASA's jet noise research for 2016. Jet-noise modeling efforts, jet-surface interactions results, acoustic characteristics of multi-stream jets, and N+2 Supersonic Aircraft system studies are presented.

  18. The Galactic Habitable Zone: Galactic Chemical Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Guillermo; Brownlee, Donald; Ward, Peter

    2001-07-01

    We propose the concept of a "Galactic Habitable Zone" (GHZ). Analogous to the Circumstellar Habitable Zone (CHZ), the GHZ is that region in the Milky Way where an Earth-like planet can retain liquid water on its surface and provide a long-term habitat for animal-like aerobic life. In this paper we examine the dependence of the GHZ on Galactic chemical evolution. The single most important factor is likely the dependence of terrestrial planet mass on the metallicity of its birth cloud. We estimate, very approximately, that a metallicity at least half that of the Sun is required to build a habitable terrestrial planet. The mass of a terrestrial planet has important consequences for interior heat loss, volatile inventory, and loss of atmosphere. A key issue is the production of planets that sustain plate tectonics, a critical recycling process that provides feedback to stabilize atmospheric temperatures on planets with oceans and atmospheres. Due to the more recent decline from the early intense star formation activity in the Milky Way, the concentration in the interstellar medium of the geophysically important radioisotopes 40K, 235,238U, and 232Th has been declining relative to Fe, an abundant element in the Earth. Also likely important are the relative abundances of Si and Mg to Fe, which affects the mass of the core relative to the mantle in a terrestrial planet. All these elements and isotopes vary with time and location in the Milky Way; thus, planetary systems forming in other locations and times in the Milky Way with the same metallicity as the Sun will not necessarily form habitable Earth-like planets. As a result of the radial Galactic metallicity gradient, the outer limit of the GHZ is set primarily by the minimum required metallicity to build large terrestrial planets. Regions of the Milky Way least likely to contain Earth-mass planets are the halo (including globular clusters), the thick disk, and the outer thin disk. The bulge should contain Earth

  19. Galactic-scale civilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.

    1980-01-01

    Evolutionary arguments are presented in favor of the existence of civilization on a galactic scale. Patterns of physical, chemical, biological, social and cultural evolution leading to increasing levels of complexity are pointed out and explained thermodynamically in terms of the maximization of free energy dissipation in the environment of the organized system. The possibility of the evolution of a global and then a galactic human civilization is considered, and probabilities that the galaxy is presently in its colonization state and that life could have evolved to its present state on earth are discussed. Fermi's paradox of the absence of extraterrestrials in light of the probability of their existence is noted, and a variety of possible explanations is indicated. Finally, it is argued that although mankind may be the first occurrence of intelligence in the galaxy, it is unjustified to presume that this is so.

  20. The Galactic Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbuy, B.

    2016-06-01

    The Galactic bulge is the least studied component of our Galaxy. Yet, its formation and evolution are key to understand the formation of the Galaxy itself. Studies on the Galactic bulge have increased significantly in the last years, but still there are many points of controversy. This volume contains several contributions from experts in different aspects of the bulge. Issues discussed include the following: the presence of an old spheroidal bulge, or identification of its old stellar population with the thick disk or halo; fraction of stars younger than 10 Gyr is estimated to be of < 5 to 22% depending on method and authors; multiple populations or only a metal-poor and a metal-rich ones; spheroidal or ellipsoidal distribution of RR Lyrae; formation of the bulge from early mergers or from secular evolution of the bar; different methods of mapping extinction; selection and identification of bulge globular clusters.

  1. Galactic-scale civilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.

    1980-01-01

    Evolutionary arguments are presented in favor of the existence of civilization on a galactic scale. Patterns of physical, chemical, biological, social and cultural evolution leading to increasing levels of complexity are pointed out and explained thermodynamically in terms of the maximization of free energy dissipation in the environment of the organized system. The possibility of the evolution of a global and then a galactic human civilization is considered, and probabilities that the galaxy is presently in its colonization state and that life could have evolved to its present state on earth are discussed. Fermi's paradox of the absence of extraterrestrials in light of the probability of their existence is noted, and a variety of possible explanations is indicated. Finally, it is argued that although mankind may be the first occurrence of intelligence in the galaxy, it is unjustified to presume that this is so.

  2. [Jet lag].

    PubMed

    Lagarde, D; Doireau, P

    1997-01-01

    Desynchronization of circadian rhythmicity resulting from rapid travel through at least four time zones leads to symptoms known in everyday English as jet-lag. The most detrimental effect of jet-lag is fatigue with poor alertness and psychomotor performance. Severity is subject to individual variation in susceptibility (morning/evening typology, age,...) and environmental factors (direction of travel, number of time zones crossed, psychosocial environment...). Many measures used to prevent or reduce jet lag are inappropriate or ineffective and some may even be dangerous, such as use of melatonin. One of the most reliable preventive techniques consists of reinforcing social synchronizers by maintaining exposure to sunlight and social activity. Only two drugs currently available on the market can be recommended, i.e. non-benzodiazepinic hypnotics which induce high quality sleep to allow quick recovery and a new time-release caffeine agent which has been shown to prolong psychomotor performance.

  3. Siegel FIRST EXPERIMENTAL DISCOVERY of Granular-Giant-Magnetoresistance (G-GMR) DiagnosES/ED Wigner's-Disease/.../Spinodal-Decomposition in ``Super''Alloys Generic Endemic Extant in: Nuclear-Reactors/ Petrochemical-Plants/Jet/ Missile-Engines/...

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Ace; Wigner-Weinberg, Eugene-Alvin; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig Sidney; ORNL/Wigner/Weinberg/Siegel/Hollifeld/Yu/... Collaboration; ANL/Fermi/Wigner/Arrott/Weeks/Bader/Freeman/Sinha/Palazlotti/Nichols/Petersen/Rosner/Zimmer/... Collaboration; BNL/Chudahri/Damask/Dienes/Emery/Goldberg/Bak//Bari/Lofaro/... Collaboration; LLNL-LANL/Hecker/Tatro/Meara/Isbell/Wilkins/YFreund/Yudof/Dynes/Yang/... Collaboration; WestinKLouse/EPRI/PSEG/IAEA/ABB/Rickover/Nine/Carter/Starr/Stern/Hamilton/Richards/Lawes/OGrady/Izzo Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Siegel[APS Shock-Physics Mtg., Chicago(11)] carbides solid-state chemistry[PSS (a)11,45(72); Semis. & Insuls. 5: 39,47,62 (79)], following: Weinberg-Siegel-Loretto-Hargraves-Savage-Westwood-Seitz-Overhauser-..., FIRST EXPERIMENTAL DISCOVERY of G-GMR[JMMM 7, 312(78); Google: ``If LEAKS Could KILL Ana Mayo''] identifIED/IES GENERIC ENDEMIC EXTANT domination of old/new (so mis-called) ``super''alloys': nuclear-reactors/spent-fuel-casks/refineries/jet/missile/rocket-engines in austenitic/FCC Ni/Fe/Co-based (so mis-called) ''super''alloys (182/82; Hastelloy-X,600,304/304L-Stainless-Steels,...,690!!!) GENERIC ENDEMIC EXTANT detrimental(synonyms!!!): THERMAL: Wigner's-disease(WD physics) [J.Appl.Phys.17,857(46)]/ Ostwald-ripening

  4. Galactic Diffuse Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Digel, Seth W.; /SLAC

    2007-10-25

    Interactions of cosmic rays with interstellar nucleons and photons make the Milky Way a bright, diffuse source of high-energy {gamma}-rays. Observationally, the results from EGRET, COMPTEL, and OSSE have now been extended to higher energies by ground-based experiments, with detections of diffuse emission in the Galactic center reported by H.E.S.S. in the range above 100 GeV and of diffuse emission in Cygnus by MILAGRO in the TeV range. In the range above 100 keV, INTEGRAL SPI has found that diffuse emission remains after point sources are accounted for. I will summarize current knowledge of diffuse {gamma}-ray emission from the Milky Way and review some open issues related to the diffuse emission -- some old, like the distribution of cosmic-ray sources and the origin of the 'excess' of GeV emission observed by EGRET, and some recently recognized, like the amount and distribution of molecular hydrogen not traced by CO emission -- and anticipate some of the advances that will be possible with the Large Area Telescope on GLAST. We plan to develop an accurate physical model for the diffuse emission, which will be useful for detecting and accurately characterizing emission from Galactic point sources as well as any Galactic diffuse emission from exotic processes, and for studying the unresolved extragalactic emission.

  5. Relativistic MHD simulations of poynting flux-driven jets

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Xiaoyue; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai

    2014-01-20

    Relativistic, magnetized jets are observed to propagate to very large distances in many active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We use three-dimensional relativistic MHD simulations to study the propagation of Poynting flux-driven jets in AGNs. These jets are already assumed to be being launched from the vicinity (∼10{sup 3} gravitational radii) of supermassive black holes. Jet injections are characterized by a model described in Li et al., and we follow the propagation of these jets to ∼parsec scales. We find that these current-carrying jets are always collimated and mildly relativistic. When α, the ratio of toroidal-to-poloidal magnetic flux injection, is large the jet is subject to nonaxisymmetric current-driven instabilities (CDI) which lead to substantial dissipation and reduced jet speed. However, even with the presence of instabilities, the jet is not disrupted and will continue to propagate to large distances. We suggest that the relatively weak impact by the instability is due to the nature of the instability being convective and the fact that the jet magnetic fields are rapidly evolving on Alfvénic time scales. We present the detailed jet properties and show that far from the jet launching region, a substantial amount of magnetic energy has been transformed into kinetic energy and thermal energy, producing a jet magnetization number σ < 1. In addition, we have also studied the effects of a gas pressure supported 'disk' surrounding the injection region, and qualitatively similar global jet behaviors were observed. We stress that jet collimation, CDIs, and the subsequent energy transitions are intrinsic features of current-carrying jets.

  6. MOJAVE - XIV. Shapes and opening angles of AGN jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushkarev, A. B.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Lister, M. L.; Savolainen, T.

    2017-07-01

    We present 15 GHz stacked VLBA images of 373 jets associated with active galactic nuclei (AGNs) having at least five observing epochs within a 20 yr time interval 1994-2015 from the Monitoring Of Jets in Active galactic nuclei with VLBA Experiments (MOJAVE) programme and/or its precursor, the 2-cm VLBA Survey. These data are supplemented by 1.4 GHz single-epoch VLBA observations of 135 MOJAVE AGNs to probe larger scale jet structures. The typical jet geometry is found to be close to conical on scales from hundreds to thousands of parsecs, while a number of galaxies show quasi-parabolic streamlines on smaller scales. A true jet geometry in a considerable fraction of AGNs appears only after stacking epochs over several years. The jets with significant radial accelerated motion undergo more active collimation. We have analysed total intensity jet profiles transverse to the local jet ridgeline and derived both apparent and intrinsic opening angles of the flows, with medians of 21.5° and 1.3°, respectively. The Fermi LAT-detected gamma-ray AGNs in our sample have, on average, wider apparent and narrower intrinsic opening angle, and smaller viewing angle than non-LAT-detected AGNs. We have established a highly significant correlation between the apparent opening angle and gamma-ray luminosity, driven by Doppler beaming and projection effects.

  7. The age of the Galactic disk - Inflow, chemical evolution, astration, and radioactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, Donald D.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical models of Galactic evolution and observational data on the age of the Galaxy are compared, with a focus on recent results. Topics addressed include the infall of material and its effects on the age-metallicity relation, the distribution of metallicity, the present gas fraction and metallicity, and the age spectrum of interstellar nuclei; the chemical evolution of the solar neighborhood; the key results of nuclear cosmochronology; and astration effects on Galactic age. It is found that both nuclear cosmochronology and detailed stellar and Galactic evolution models tend to support an age of 12-16 Gyr.

  8. Gas Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaplygin, S.

    1944-01-01

    A brief summary of the contents of this paper is presented here. In part I the differential equations of the problem of a gas flow in two dimensions is derived and the particular integrals by which the problem on jets is solved are given. Use is made of the same independent variables as Molenbroek used, but it is found to be more suitable to consider other functions. The stream function and velocity potential corresponding to the problem are given in the form of series. The investigation on the convergence of these series in connection with certain properties of the functions entering them forms the subject of part II. In part III the problem of the outflow of a gas from an infinite vessel with plane walls is solved. In part IV the impact of a gas jet on a plate is considered and the limiting case where the jet expands to infinity changing into a gas flow is taken up in more detail. This also solved the equivalent problem of the resistance of a gaseous medium to the motion of a plate. Finally, in part V, an approximate method is presented that permits a simpler solution of the problem of jet flows in the case where the velocities of the gas (velocities of the particles in the gas) are not very large.

  9. Radioactivity in the galactic plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walraven, G. D.; Haymes, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports the detection of a large concentration of interstellar radioactivity during balloon-altitude measurements of gamma-ray energy spectra in the band between 0.02 and 12.27 MeV from galactic and extragalactic sources. Enhanced counting rates were observed in three directions towards the plane of the Galaxy; a power-law energy spectrum is computed for one of these directions (designated B 10). A large statistical deviation from the power law in a 1.0-FWHM interval centered near 1.16 MeV is discussed, and the existence of a nuclear gamma-ray line at 1.15 MeV in B 10 is postulated. It is suggested that Ca-44, which emits gamma radiation at 1.156 MeV following the decay of radioactive Sc-44, is a likely candidate for this line, noting that Sc-44 arises from Ti-44 according to explosive models of supernova nucleosynthesis. The 1.16-MeV line flux inferred from the present data is shown to equal the predicted flux for a supernova at a distance of approximately 3 kpc and an age not exceeding about 100 years.

  10. Jet pump with labyrinth seal

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, L.L.; Kudirka, A.A.

    1981-08-25

    In a jet pump for a nuclear reactor a slip joint is provided between the mixer and diffuser sections thereof to facilitate jet pump maintenance and to allow thermal expansion. To limit leakage flow through the slip joint to a rate below that which causes unacceptable flow induced vibration of the pump, there is provided a labyrinth seal for the slip joint in the form of a series of flow expansion chambers formed by a series of spaced grooves in the annulus of the slip joint.

  11. Diffuse Galactic low energy gamma ray continuum emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skibo, J. G.; Ramaty, R.

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the origin of diffuse low-energy Galactic gamma-ray continuum down to about 30 keV. We calculate gamma-ray emission via bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton scattering by propagating an unbroken electron power law injection spectrum and employing a Galactic emmissivity model derived from COSB observations. To maintain the low energy electron population capable of producing the observed continuum via bremsstrahlung, a total power input of 4 x 10 exp 41 erg/s is required. This exceeds the total power supplied to the nuclear cosmic rays by about an order of magnitude.

  12. AGN Coronae through a Jet Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ashley L.; Lohfink, Anne; Kara, Erin

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents an in-depth look at the jet and coronal properties of 41 active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Utilizing the highest quality NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and NRAO VLA Sky Survey 1.4 GHz data, we find that the radio Eddington luminosity inversely scales with X-ray reflection fraction, and positively scales with the distance between the corona and the reflected regions in the disk. We next investigate a model fit to the data that predicts the corona is outflowing and propagates into the large-scale jet. We find this model describes the data well and predicts that the corona has mildly relativistic velocities, 0.04< β < 0.40. We discuss our results in the context of disk–jet connections in AGNs.

  13. DISCOVERY OF NUCLEAR WATER MASER EMISSION IN CENTAURUS A

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Juergen; Meier, David S.; Walter, Fabian; Mao, Minnie Y. E-mail: dmeier@nmt.edu E-mail: mmao@nrao.edu; and others

    2013-07-10

    We report the detection of a 22 GHz water maser line in the nearest (D {approx} 3.8 Mpc) radio galaxy Centaurus A (Cen A) using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). The line is centered at a velocity of {approx}960 km s{sup -1}, which is redshifted by about 415 km s{sup -1} from the systemic velocity. Such an offset, as well as the width of {approx}120 km s{sup -1}, could be consistent with either a nuclear maser arising from an accretion disk of the central supermassive black hole (SMBH), or with a jet maser that is emitted from the material that is shocked near the base of the jet in Cen A. The best spatial resolution of our ATCA data constrains the origin of the maser feature within <3 pc of the SMBH. The maser exhibits an isotropic luminosity of {approx}1 L{sub Sun }, which classifies it as a kilomaser, and appears to be variable on timescales of months. A kilomaser can also be emitted by shocked gas in star-forming regions. Given the small projected distance from the core, the large offset from systemic velocity, and the smoothness of the line feature, we conclude that a jet maser line emitted by shocked gas around the base of the active galactic nucleus is the most likely explanation. For this scenario we can infer a minimum density of the radio jet of {approx}> 10 cm{sup -3}, which indicates substantial mass entrainment of surrounding gas into the propagating jet material.

  14. Jet lag.

    PubMed

    Herxheimer, Andrew

    2008-12-04

    Jet lag affects most air travellers crossing five or more time zones; it tends to be worse on eastward than on westward flights. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of interventions to prevent or minimise jet lag? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found five systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: hypnotics, melatonin, and lifestyle and environmental adaptations.

  15. Are There Rotation Measure Gradients Across Active Galactic Nuclei Jets?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-20

    The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 722:L183–L187, 2010 October 20 doi:10.1088/2041-8205/722/2/L183 C© 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All...outstanding question in astrophysics . Blandford & Znajek (1977) proposed an electromagnetic model by which the energy of the black hole could launch a rela... Astrophysical Journal Letters, Volume 722, Issue 2, pp. L183-L187 (2010). (ApJL Homepage) Publication Date: 10/2010 14. ABSTRACT We report on multi-frequency

  16. Poynting-flux-dominated Jets in Decreasing Density Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, M.; Meier, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    We present 3-dimensional MHD simulations of Poynting-flux-dominated (PFD) jets that are generated by the "Sweeping-Magnetic-Twist Mechanism" of jet production. Our study focuses on the stability of the non-linear torsional Alfvén wave train (TAWT) and the development of current-driven helical instabilities, which may be responsible for the "wiggled" structure seen in AGN jets. Our previous numerical results (Nakamura et al. 2001) had revealed that PFD jets would be subject to the kink mode (m=1) helical instability when the jet experiences a decreasing Alfvén velocity distribution caused by an increasing ambient density. In the present study we investigate the behavior of jets in a variety of more realistic galactic atmospheric conditions, including decreasing density, pressure, and temperature gradients. We find that PFD jets can develop helical-kink distortions even when the jet experiences decreasing ambient conditions and the flow is strongly magnetically dominated. Nevertheless, some of our jets are apparently stable for the duration of the simulation, and we shall discuss possible criteria for MHD jet stability. MN is supported by NRC.

  17. Dichotomy of Solar Coronal Jets: Standard Jets and Blowout Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.

    2010-09-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/X-Ray Telescope coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop Hα macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major coronal mass ejections. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 Å snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T ~ 104 - 105 K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  18. DICHOTOMY OF SOLAR CORONAL JETS: STANDARD JETS AND BLOWOUT JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Ronald L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.

    2010-09-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/X-Ray Telescope coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H{alpha} macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major coronal mass ejections. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 A snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T {approx} 10{sup 4} - 10{sup 5} K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  19. Dichotomy of Solar Coronal Jets: Standard Jets and Blowout Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.; Cirtain, J. W.; Sterling, A. C.; Falconer, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/XRT coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H alpha macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major CMEs. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 Angstrom snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 5) K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  20. Testing Galactic Cosmic Ray Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Models of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Environment are used for designing and planning space missions. The existing models will be reviewed. Spectral representations from these models will be compared with measurements of galactic cosmic ray spectra made on balloon flights and satellite flights over a period of more than 50 years.

  1. Testing Galactic Cosmic Ray Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Models of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Environment are used for designing and planning space missions. The exising models will be reviewed. Spectral representations from these models will be compared with measurements of galactic cosmic ray spectra made on balloon flights and satellite flights over a period of more than 50 years.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a jet drilling an H I cloud: Shock induced formation of molecular clouds and jet breakup

    SciTech Connect

    Asahina, Yuta; Ogawa, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Furukawa, Naoko; Enokiya, Rei; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Fukui, Yasuo

    2014-07-01

    The formation mechanism of the jet-aligned CO clouds found by NANTEN CO observations is studied by magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations taking into account the cooling of the interstellar medium. Motivated by the association of the CO clouds with the enhancement of H I gas density, we carried out MHD simulations of the propagation of a supersonic jet injected into the dense H I gas. We found that the H I gas compressed by the bow shock ahead of the jet is cooled down by growth of the cooling instability triggered by the density enhancement. As a result, a cold dense sheath is formed around the interface between the jet and the H I gas. The radial speed of the cold, dense gas in the sheath is a few km s{sup –1} almost independent of the jet speed. Molecular clouds can be formed in this region. Since the dense sheath wrapping the jet reflects waves generated in the cocoon, the jet is strongly perturbed by the vortices of the warm gas in the cocoon, which breaks up the jet and forms a secondary shock in the H I-cavity drilled by the jet. The particle acceleration at the shock can be the origin of radio and X-ray filaments observed near the eastern edge of the W50 nebula surrounding the galactic jet source SS433.

  3. Discovery of five low-luminosity active galactic nuclei at the centre of the Perseus cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Songyoun; Yang, Jun; Oonk, J. B. Raymond; Paragi, Zsolt

    2017-03-01

    According to optical stellar kinematics observations, an overmassive black hole candidate has been reported by van den Bosch et al. in the normal early-type galaxy NGC 1277. This galaxy is located in the central region of the Perseus cluster. Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope observations have shown that NGC 1277 and other early-type galaxies in the neighbourhood have radio counterparts. These nuclear radio sources have stable flux densities on a time-scale of years. In order to investigate the origin of the radio emission from these normal galaxies, we selected five sources (NGC 1270, NGC 1272, NGC 1277, NGC 1278 and VZw 339) residing in the central 10-arcmin region of the Perseus cluster and requested to re-correlate the data of an existing very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiment at these new positions. With the re-correlation data provided by the European VLBI Network (EVN), we imaged the five sources with a resolution of about 8 mas and detected all of them with a confidence level above 5σ at 1.4 GHz. They show compact structure and brightness temperatures above 107 K, which implies that the radio emission is non-thermal. We rule out ongoing nuclear star formation and conclude that these VLBI-detected radio sources are parsec-scale jet activity associated with the supermassive black holes in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei, although there are no clear signs of nuclear activity observed in the optical and infrared bands. Using the Fundamental Plane relation in black holes, we find no significant evidence for or against an extremely massive black hole hiding in NGC 1277.

  4. MAGNETIC FLUX PARADIGM FOR RADIO LOUDNESS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Sikora, Marek; Begelman, Mitchell C. E-mail: mitch@jila.colorado.edu

    2013-02-20

    We argue that the magnetic flux threading the black hole (BH), rather than BH spin or Eddington ratio, is the dominant factor in launching powerful jets and thus determining the radio loudness of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Most AGNs are radio quiet because the thin accretion disks that feed them are inefficient in depositing magnetic flux close to the BH. Flux accumulation is more likely to occur during a hot accretion (or thick disk) phase, and we argue that radio-loud quasars and strong emission-line radio galaxies occur only when a massive, cold accretion event follows an episode of hot accretion. Such an event might be triggered by the merger of a giant elliptical galaxy with a disk galaxy. This picture supports the idea that flux accumulation can lead to the formation of a so-called magnetically choked accretion flow. The large observed range in radio loudness reflects not only the magnitude of the flux pressed against the BH, but also the decrease in UV flux from the disk, due to its disruption by the ''magnetosphere'' associated with the accumulated flux. While the strongest jets result from the secular accumulation of flux, moderate jet activity can also be triggered by fluctuations in the magnetic flux deposited by turbulent, hot inner regions of otherwise thin accretion disks, or by the dissipation of turbulent fields in accretion disk coronae. These processes could be responsible for jet production in Seyferts and low-luminosity AGNs, as well as jets associated with X-ray binaries.

  5. Nuclear effects at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1996-07-01

    The development of a nuclear beam facility at HERA would allow the study of fundamental features of quark and gluon interactions in QCD. I briefly review the physics underlying nuclear shadowing and anti-shadowing as well as other diffractive and jet fragmentation processes that can be studies in high energy electron-nucleus collisions.

  6. Characterizing the stellar populations interacting with AGN jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Albà, N.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Vieyro, F. L.

    2017-01-01

    Galaxies hosting an active galactic nucleus may present interactions between relativistic jets, if present, and the surrounding medium, especially if the central regions are rich in stars and gas. In particular, the presence of stars with strong winds entering into the jets can lead to the formation of shocks in which particles can be accelerated up to relativistic energies. Galaxies with ongoing starbursts in the innermost regions will present a significant amount of young OB stars close to the central engine, whereas in older galaxies like M87 the population responsible for most of the jet-star interactions will be formed by red giants. In this work, we develop prescriptions for the spatial and mass distributions of different populations of stars inside AGN jets, and for the mass-loss properties of these stars. Our final objective is to explore the consequences of such interactions for jet dynamics and radiation.

  7. Gamma ray emission from the region of the galactic center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahlbacka, G. H.; Freier, P. S.; Waddington, C. J.

    1972-01-01

    A combination nuclear emulsion-spark chamber gamma ray (E=100 MeV) telescope was used to study the region of sky that includes the Galactic Center. 95% confidence upper limits on the flux from the reported sources G gamma 2 - 3 and Sgr gamma-1 were placed at 4.4 and 8.8 x 10 to the minus 5th power protons/sq cm-sec, and a similar limit on the emission from the Galactic Center as a point source (plus or minus .75 degrees) was placed at 3.3 x 10 to the minus 5th power protons/sq cm-sec. No enhanced emission was observed from the Galactic Plane (plus or minus 6 degrees) and an upper limit of 2 x 10 to the minus 4th power protons/sq cm-sec rad/ was obtained.

  8. Galactic Hearts of Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger graph

    This artist's concept shows delicate greenish crystals sprinkled throughout the violent core of a pair of colliding galaxies. The white spots represent a thriving population of stars of all sizes and ages. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope detected more than 20 bright and dusty galactic mergers like the one depicted here, all teeming with the tiny gem-like crystals.

    When galaxies collide, they trigger the birth of large numbers of massive stars. Astronomers believe these blazing hot stars act like furnaces to produce silicate crystals in the same way that glass is made from sand. The stars probably shed the crystals as they age, and as they blow apart in supernovae explosions.

    At the same time the crystals are being churned out, they are also being destroyed. Fast-moving particles from supernova blasts easily convert silicates crystals back to their amorphous, or shapeless, form.

    How is Spitzer seeing the crystals if they are rapidly disappearing? Astronomers say that, for a short period of time at the beginning of galactic mergers, massive stars might be producing silicate crystals faster than they are eliminating them. When our own galaxy merges with the Andromeda galaxy in a few billion years, a similar burst of massive stars and silicate crystals might occur.

    Crystal Storm in Distant Galaxy The graph (see inset above) of infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope tells astronomers that a distant galaxy called IRAS 08752+3915 is experiencing a storm of tiny crystals made up of silicates. The crystals are similar to the glass-like grains of sand found on Earth's many beaches.

    The data were taken by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, which splits light open to reveal its rainbow-like components. The resulting spectrum shown here reveals the signatures of both crystalline (green) and non-crystalline (brown) silicates.

    Spitzer detected the same

  9. Galactic Hearts of Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger graph

    This artist's concept shows delicate greenish crystals sprinkled throughout the violent core of a pair of colliding galaxies. The white spots represent a thriving population of stars of all sizes and ages. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope detected more than 20 bright and dusty galactic mergers like the one depicted here, all teeming with the tiny gem-like crystals.

    When galaxies collide, they trigger the birth of large numbers of massive stars. Astronomers believe these blazing hot stars act like furnaces to produce silicate crystals in the same way that glass is made from sand. The stars probably shed the crystals as they age, and as they blow apart in supernovae explosions.

    At the same time the crystals are being churned out, they are also being destroyed. Fast-moving particles from supernova blasts easily convert silicates crystals back to their amorphous, or shapeless, form.

    How is Spitzer seeing the crystals if they are rapidly disappearing? Astronomers say that, for a short period of time at the beginning of galactic mergers, massive stars might be producing silicate crystals faster than they are eliminating them. When our own galaxy merges with the Andromeda galaxy in a few billion years, a similar burst of massive stars and silicate crystals might occur.

    Crystal Storm in Distant Galaxy The graph (see inset above) of infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope tells astronomers that a distant galaxy called IRAS 08752+3915 is experiencing a storm of tiny crystals made up of silicates. The crystals are similar to the glass-like grains of sand found on Earth's many beaches.

    The data were taken by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, which splits light open to reveal its rainbow-like components. The resulting spectrum shown here reveals the signatures of both crystalline (green) and non-crystalline (brown) silicates.

    Spitzer detected the same

  10. Are Radio Active Galactic Nuclei Powered by Accretion or Black Hole Spin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, B. R.; Rohanizadegan, Mina; Nulsen, P. E. J.

    2011-01-01

    We compare accretion and black hole spin as potential energy sources for outbursts from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). Based on our adopted spin model, we find that the distribution of AGN power estimated from X-ray cavities is consistent with a broad range of both spin parameters and accretion rates. Sufficient quantities of molecular gas are available in most BCGs to power their AGNs by accretion alone. However, we find no correlation between AGN power and molecular gas mass over the range of jet power considered here. For a given AGN power, the BCG's gas mass and accretion efficiency, defined as the fraction of the available cold molecular gas that is required to power the AGN, both vary by more than two orders of magnitude. Most of the molecular gas in BCGs is apparently consumed by star formation or is driven out of the nucleus by the AGN before it reaches the nuclear black hole. Bondi accretion from hot atmospheres is generally unable to fuel powerful AGNs, unless their black holes are more massive than their bulge luminosities imply. We identify several powerful AGNs that reside in relatively gas-poor galaxies, indicating an unusually efficient mode of accretion, or that their AGNs are powered by another mechanism. If these systems are powered primarily by black hole spin rather than by accretion, spin must also be tapped efficiently in some systems, i.e., P_jet > \\dot{M}c^2, or their black hole masses must be substantially larger than the values implied by their bulge luminosities. We constrain the (model-dependent) accretion rate at the transition from radiatively inefficient to radiatively efficient accretion flows to be a few percent of the Eddington rate, a value that is consistent with other estimates.

  11. SNRs in the MOST Galactic Centre Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, A. D.

    1994-04-01

    The Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST) has been used to make an 843 MHz survey of the Galactic Center region. This survey has excellent sensitivity to structures up to approximately 30 min in size and has given an unprecedented view of the region between longitudes l = 5 deg and l = 355 deg, with latitudes in the range absolute value of b less than or equal to 2.5 deg (see Gray, 1993, PhD thesis, University of Sydney). Using these data, a detailed study of the supernova remannts (SNRs) in the inner Galaxy--both known objects and new identifications--was possible. Nine objects in the survey region are catalogued as SNRs, only one of which, G358.4-1.9, had properties inconsistent with those previously published (Green, 1991 Proc. Astron. Soc. Pacific, 103, 209). It was, in fact, totally absent from the MOST images, although it is quite prominent in single-dish images (e.g., Reich et al., 1990, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl., 85, 633). No other SNR in the southern Galaxy exhibits this behavior (Anne Green, private communication). Comparisons with data from other wave-bands, notably Parkes 6 and 13 cm images and IRAS 60 micrometers plates, suggest that this object is in fact thermal, as was originally suggested by Westerhout (1958, Bull. Astron. Inst. Netherlands, 14, 215). In addition to the known objects, seventeen new objects were identified as SNR candidates on the basis of their morphological features and/or nonthermal emission properties. A comparison of the longitude distribution of SNRs before and after the MOST surveys (including the MOST Galactic Plane Survey; see the previous Abstract by Green) showed that, on the whole, the distribution does not deviate significantly from that expected from a random distribution of SNRs in the Galactic disc. However, an excess of 14 SNRs is present in the Galactic Center. nuclear region, which may be due to anomalous SNR rates and

  12. The Galactic Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, Fulvio

    Exciting new broadband observations of the galactic nucleus have placed the heart of the Milky Way under intense scrutiny in recent years. This has been due in part to the growing interest from theorists motivated to study the physics of black hole accretion, magnetized gas dynamics, and unusual star formation. The center of our Galaxy is now known to harbor the most compelling supermassive black hole candidate, weighing in at 3-4 million solar masses. Its nearby environment is comprised of a molecular dusty ring, clusters of evolved and young stars, diffuse hot gas, ionized gas streamers, and several supernova remnants. This chapter will focus on the physical makeup of this dynamic region and the feasibility of actually imaging the black hole's shadow in the coming decade with mm interferometry.

  13. SYNCHROTRON EMISSION FROM ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES CONSEQUENT TO ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS OUTBURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Yanfei; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Spitkovsky, Anatoly; Ciotti, Luca

    2010-03-01

    Both radiative and mechanical feedback from active galactic nuclei have been found to be important for the evolution of elliptical galaxies. We compute how a shock may be driven from a central black hole into the gaseous envelope of an elliptical galaxy by such feedback (in the form of nuclear winds) using high resolution one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. We calculate the synchrotron emission from the electron cosmic rays accelerated by the shocks (not the jets) in the central part of elliptical galaxies, and we also study the synchrotron spectrum's evolution using the standard diffusive shock acceleration mechanism, which is routinely applied to supernova remnants. We find quantitative consistency between the synchrotron radio emission produced via this mechanism with extant observations of elliptical galaxies which are undergoing outbursts. Additionally, we also find that synchrotron optical and X-ray emission can co-exist inside elliptical galaxies during a specific evolutionary phase subsequent to central outbursts. In fact, our calculations predict a peak synchrotron luminosity of {approx}1.3 x 10{sup 6} L{sub sun} at the frequency 5 GHz (radio band), of {approx}1.1 x 10{sup 6} L{sub sun} at 4.3 x 10{sup 14} Hz (corresponding to the absolute magnitude -10.4 in R band), and of {approx}1.5 x 10{sup 7} L{sub sun} at 2.4 x 10{sup 17} Hz (soft X-ray, 0.5-2.0 keV band).

  14. Galaxy interactions and the stimulation of nuclear activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, Timothy M.

    1990-01-01

    The author discusses the idea that interactions between galaxies can lead to enhanced galactic activity. He discusses whether, apart from the observational evidence, there is a strong theoretical or heuristic motivation for investigating galaxy interactions as stimulators of nuclear activity in galaxies. Galactic interactions as mechanisms for triggering nuclear starbursts are covered.

  15. Galactic Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, Benjamin P.

    The precise phase-space distribution and properties of Galactic dark matter necessary for its direct and indirect detection are currently unknown. Since the distributions of normal and dark matter in the Milky Way are coupled to each other as they both move in the same gravitational potential, constraints on the distribution and properties of dark matter can be derived by studying the distribution of visible matter in the Galaxy and making some general assumptions regarding the phase-space distribution of the dark matter. In this study, the visible components of the Galaxy have been comprehensively reviewed to create an axisymmetric model of the Galaxy that is consistent with the available observations, and the dark matter phase-space distribution is assumed to follow a lowered-isothermal form. Poisson's equations are then solved self-consistently to construct models of the spatial and velocity distribution of Galactic dark matter. The total gravitational potential from normal and dark matter are calculated and compared to the current observations of the rotation curve and to the radial velocity distributions of blue horizontal-branch and blue straggler stars. It is found that this analysis allows for a wide range of parameters for the dark matter. The implications for direct and indirect detection of dark matter are discussed in detail. In the appendices, two additional projects are presented. In Appendix A, the recent observations of the positron fraction and the total electron spectrum in cosmic rays are addressed by considering a nested leaky-box model for the propagation of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. This is found to obviate the need for exotic processes such as the annihilation or decay of dark matter to explain the recent observations. In Appendix B, we discuss a novel dark matter detector involving triggered cavitation in acoustic fields. The theory behind the detector is presented in detail, and we discuss the work than has been done to create a prototype

  16. Galactic plane gamma-radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Ogelman, H. B.; Tumer, T.; Ozel, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of the SAS 2 data together with the COS B results shows that the distribution of galactic gamma-radiation has several similarities to that of other large-scale tracers of galactic structure. The radiation is primarily confined to a thin disc which exhibits offsets from b = 0 degrees similar to warping at radio frequencies. The principal distinction of the gamma-radiation is a stronger contrast in intensity between the region from 310 to 45 degrees in longitude and the regions away from the center that can be attributed to a variation in cosmic-ray density as a function of position in Galaxy. The diffuse galactic gamma-ray energy spectrum shows no significant variation in direction, and the spectrum seen along the plane is the same as that for the galactic component of the gamma-radiation at high altitudes. The uniformity of the galactic gamma-ray spectrum, the smooth decrease in intensity as a function of altitude, and the absence of any galactic gamma-ray sources at high altitudes indicate a diffuse origin for bulk of the galactic gamma-radiation rather than a collection of localized sources.

  17. Measurement and Simulation of the Electric Current in a kpc-Scale Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronberg, P. P.; Lovelace, R. V. E.; Lapenta, G.; Colgate, Sa; Sanna, L.

    2012-10-01

    We present radio emission, polarization, and Faraday rotation maps of the radio jet of the galaxy 3C303. From these data we derive the magnetoplasma and electrodynamic parameters of this 50 kpc long jet. For one component of this jet we obtain for the first time a direct determination of a galactic-scale electric current (3 x 1018 A), and its direction-positive away from the active galactic nucleus. Our analysis strongly supports a model where the jet energy flow is mainly electromagnetic.[4pt] P.P. Kronberg, R.V.E. Lovelace, G. Lapenta, S.A. Colgate, Measurement of the Electric Current in a Kpc-Scale Jet, Astrophysical Journal Letters, 741, L15, doi:10.1088/2041-8205/741/1/L15, 2011.

  18. Peculiarities of α-element abundances in Galactic open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsakov, V. A.; Gozha, M. L.; Koval', V. V.; Shpigel', L. V.

    2016-01-01

    A catalog compiling the parameters of 346 open clusters, including their metallicities, positions, ages, and velocities has been composed. The elements of the Galactic orbits for 272 of the clusters have been calculated. Spectroscopic determinations of the relative abundances, [el/Fe], for 14 elements synthesized in various nuclear processes averaged over data from 109 publications are presented for 90 clusters. The compiled data indicate that the relative abundances of primary α elements (oxygen and magnesium) exhibit different dependences on metallicity, age, Galactocentric distance, and the elements of the Galactic orbits in clusters with high, elongated orbits satisfying the criterion ( Z max 2 + 4 e 2)1/2 > 0.40 and in field stars of the Galactic thin disk ( Z max is the maximum distance of the orbit from the Galactic plane in kiloparsec and e is the eccentricity of the Galactic orbit). Since no systematic effects distorting the relative abundances of the studied elements in these clusters have been found, these difference suggest real differences between clusters with high, elongated orbits and field stars. In particular, this supports the earlier conclusion, based on an analysis of the elements of the Galactic orbits, that some clusters formed as a result of interactions between high-velocity,metal-poor clouds and the interstellar mediumof theGalactic thin disk. On average, clusters with high, elongated orbits and metallicities [Fe/H] < -0.1 display lower relative abundances of the primary a elements than do field stars. The low [O, Mg/Fe] ratios of these clusters can be understood if the high-velocity clouds that gave rise to them were formed of interstellar material from regions where the star-formation rate and/or the masses of Type II supernovae were lower than near the Galactic plane. It is also shown that, on average, the relative abundances of the primary a elements are higher in relatively metal-rich clusters with high, elongated orbits than in

  19. Jet lag

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Jet lag is a syndrome caused by disruption of the "body clock", and affects most air travellers crossing five or more time zones; it tends to be worse on eastward than on westward flights. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of interventions to prevent or minimise jet lag? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found five systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: hypnotics, lifestyle and environmental adaptations, and melatonin. PMID:19445780

  20. Hydrodynamic Simulations of the Central Molecular Zone with a Realistic Galactic Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jihye; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Baba, Junichi; Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Hwang, Jeong-Sun; Chun, Kyungwon; Hozumi, Shunsuke

    2017-06-01

    We present hydrodynamic simulations of gas clouds inflowing from the disk to a few hundred parsec region of the Milky Way. A gravitational potential is generated to include realistic Galactic structures by using thousands of multipole expansions (MEs) that describe 6.4 million stellar particles of a self-consistent Galaxy simulation. We find that a hybrid ME model, with two different basis sets and a thick-disk correction, accurately reproduces the overall structures of the Milky Way. Through non-axisymmetric Galactic structures of an elongated bar and spiral arms, gas clouds in the disk inflow to the nuclear region and form a central molecular zone-like nuclear ring. We find that the size of the nuclear ring evolves into ˜ 240 {pc} at T˜ 1500 {Myr}, regardless of the initial size. For most simulation runs, the rate of gas inflow to the nuclear region is equilibrated to ˜ 0.02 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1. The nuclear ring is off-centered, relative to the Galactic center, by the lopsided central mass distribution of the Galaxy model, and thus an asymmetric mass distribution of the nuclear ring arises accordingly. The vertical asymmetry of the Galaxy model also causes the nuclear ring to be tilted along the Galactic plane. During the first ˜100 Myr, the vertical frequency of the gas motion is twice that of the orbital frequency, thus the projected nuclear ring shows a twisted, ∞ -like shape.

  1. Magnetic fields in the central engines of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1989-01-01

    Important physical processes which may occur in the central engines of active galactic nuclei and which rely on the presence of a strong magnetic field are discussed. These processes include those involved in the plasma physics of hot tenuous accretion flows, the production of nonthermal continuum radiation, and the radiative manifestation of hydromagnetic jet production. The main arguments which support the hypothesis that supermassive black holes are the prime movers in the central engines are reviewed, and some major deduction regarding the physical state of the accreting gas are pointed out.

  2. Observational distinction between two types of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, G. Z.; Liu, F. K.; Liu, B. F.; Li, K. H.; Lu, R. W.; Lu, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    Using three criteria, the observational distinction between relativistic beaming and pure accretion for 69 active galaxies, including Seyferts, Quasars, and BL Lac objects are discussed. The first criterion is whether the inferred efficiency of the conversion of accreted matter into energy is greater than 0.1 or not. The second one is whether the observed flux is larger than the classical Eddington luminosity or not. The third is concerned in the strong coupling of geometrical and physical effects in jets. The result suggests distinguishing active galactic nuclei into two types.

  3. The Galactic nucleus: A unique region in the Galactic ecosystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genzel, Reinhard; Poglitsch, Albrecht

    1995-01-01

    The nucleus is a unique region in the Galactic ecosystem. It is also superb laboratory of modern astrophysics where astronomers can study, at unprecedented spatial resolution and across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, physical processes that may also happen at the cores of other galaxies. Infrared observations from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory have made important contributions to unraveling the mysteries of the Galactic nucleus and this review highlights some of these measurements, as well as recent results regarding the central parsec.

  4. VLBA Movies Reveal New Details of Cosmic Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    Astronomers have known for decades that supermassive black holes at the cores of galaxies can shoot out jets of subatomic particles at tremendous speeds. However, details about the physics of such jets, including how they are generated, how the high-speed flows are shaped into jets, and how fast the particles are moving, among many others, have remained elusive. An international team of researchers now is making an unprecedented long-term study of the motions of these giant jets, using the super-sharp imaging capabilities of the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). "We're making images of 200 galactic jets at regular intervals, tracking their motions and studying their magnetic-field properties. This is making major contributions to our understanding of such jets," said Matthew Lister, of Purdue University. MOJAVE Poster Click image for high-resolution file (11.9 MB) The research team has produced time-lapse movies of 100 of the jets, allowing measurement of the speed and direction of motion. "The results of these VLBA observations are going into a rich and still-growing set of data that is available to the entire astronomical research community as a tool for understanding the many unresolved questions we have about these jets," Lister said. The jet study is called MOJAVE -- Monitoring Of Jets in Active galactic nuclei with VLBA Experiments -- and began in 2002. It is a successor to an earlier VLBA study that regularly made images of nearly 200 jets from 1994 to 2002. The jets are powered by the gravitational energy of black holes containing hundreds of millions times more mass than the Sun. Black holes are concentrations of mass so dense that not even light can escape them. As these monsters draw material toward them, the material falls into a circular disk orbiting the black hole. The jets are propelled outward along the poles of the disk. The MOJAVE movies have given astronomers some surprises and also have spurred follow-on studies of

  5. Molecular cloud shredding in the Galactic Bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liszt, H. S.

    2006-02-01

    Seen just outside the innermost regions of the galactic center, the kinematics of molecular gas are dominated by a handful of compact but unusually broad-lined features of enigmatic origin. We show, using previous data, that there is a family of such features whose members are distinguished morphologically by their extreme vertical extension, perpendicular to the inclined plane of the overall gas tilt. Having isolated the features spatially, we mapped them with varying degrees of completeness at high resolution (1´) in lines of 12CO, 13CO and CS. Although very broad profiles exist in some individual beams, more generally we resolved the kinematics into spatial gradients which earlier were smeared in broader beams to form wider lines. The largest apparent velocity gradients are typically with respect to galactic latitude but motions are confined to the range of velocities inside the galactic terminal velocity, indicating that it is the galactic gravitational potential which is being tapped to create the observed kinematics. We interpret the broad-lined features qualitatively in terms of recent hydrodynamical models of gas flow in strongly barred galaxies: standing shocks which occur where gas enters the Galactic dust lane can account for the presence of broad lines over small spatial volumes wherever molecular gas is actually engaged in this process. To interpret the dynamical sequencing of the complex behaviour seen within the broad-line features we discuss how the Sun must be oriented with respect to the bar. In doing so, we identify the nuclear star-forming rings seen in other galaxies with the complex of giant H II regions Sgr A, B, C etc. and show that the kinematics are as expected for a ring of radius 175 pc (for a Sun-center distance of 8.5 kpc) rotating at about 210 km s-1. Gas having clear and strong outward-directed non-circular motion around l=0° (the famous "expanding molecular ring") is then associated with the "spray" of incoming gas at the inner

  6. Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation and Emission from Relativistic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Fishman, G. Jerry; Hartmann, D. H.

    2006-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), supernova remnants, and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Fermi acceleration is the mechanism usually assumed for the acceleration of particles in astrophysical environments. Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet, rather than by the scattering of particles back and forth across the shock as in Fermi acceleration. Shock acceleration' is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different spectral properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants. We will review recent PIC simulations of relativistic jets and try to make a connection with observations.

  7. QUASI-STAR JETS AS UNIDENTIFIED GAMMA-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Czerny, Bozena; Sikora, Marek; Janiuk, Agnieszka

    2012-08-10

    Gamma-ray catalogs contain a considerable amount of unidentified sources. Many of these are located out of the Galactic plane and therefore may have extragalactic origin. Here we assume that the formation of massive black holes in galactic nuclei proceeds through a quasi-star stage and consider the possibility of jet production by such objects. Those jets would be the sources of collimated synchrotron and Compton emission, extending from radio to gamma rays. The expected lifetimes of quasi-stars are of the order of million of years while the jet luminosities, somewhat smaller than that of quasar jets, are sufficient to account for the unidentified gamma-ray sources. The jet emission dominates over the thermal emission of a quasi-star in all energy bands, except when the jet is not directed toward an observer. The predicted synchrotron emission peaks in the IR band, with the flux close to the limits of the available IR all sky surveys. The ratio of the gamma-ray flux to the IR flux is found to be very large ({approx}60), much larger than in BL Lac objects but reached by some radio-loud quasars. On the other hand, radio-loud quasars show broad emission lines while no such lines are expected from quasi-stars. Therefore, the differentiation between various scenarios accounting for the unidentified gamma-ray sources will be possible at the basis of the photometry and spectroscopy of the IR/optical counterparts.

  8. Inclusive Jets in PHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roloff, P.

    Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured in photoproduction for boson virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 300 pb^-1. Jets were identified in the laboratory frame using the k_T, anti-k_T or SIScone jet algorithms. Cross sections are presented as functions of the jet pseudorapidity, eta(jet), and the jet transverse energy, E_T(jet). Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements, except for jets with low E_T(jet) and high eta(jet). The cross sections have the potential to improve the determination of the PDFs in future QCD fits. Values of alpha_s(M_Z) have been extracted from the measurements based on different jet algorithms. In addition, the energy-scale dependence of the strong coupling was determined.

  9. Particle Acceleration in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James A.

    1997-01-01

    The high efficiency of energy generation inferred from radio observations of quasars and X-ray observations of Seyfert active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is apparently achieved only by the gravitational conversion of the rest mass energy of accreting matter onto supermassive black holes. Evidence for the acceleration of particles to high energies by a central engine is also inferred from observations of apparent superluminal motion in flat spectrum, core-dominated radio sources. This phenomenon is widely attributed to the ejection of relativistic bulk plasma from the nuclei of active galaxies, and accounts for the existence of large scale radio jets and lobes at large distances from the central regions of radio galaxies. Reports of radio jets and superluminal motion from galactic black hole candidate X-ray sources indicate that similar processes are operating in these sources. Observations of luminous, rapidly variable high-energy radiation from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory show directly that particles are accelerated to high energies in a compact environment. The mechanisms which transform the gravitational potential energy of the infalling matter into nonthermal particle energy in galactic black hole candidates and AGNs are not conclusively identified, although several have been proposed. These include direct acceleration by static electric fields (resulting from, for example, magnetic reconnection), shock acceleration, and energy extraction from the rotational energy of Kerr black holes. The dominant acceleration mechanism(s) operating in the black hole environment can only be determined, of course, by a comparison of model predictions with observations. The purpose of the work proposed for this grant was to investigate stochastic particle acceleration through resonant interactions with plasma waves that populate the magnetosphere surrounding an accreting black hole. Stochastic acceleration has been successfully applied to the

  10. New State of Nuclear Matter: Nearly Perfect Fluid of Quarks and Gluons in Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC Energies From Charged Particle Density to Jet Quenching

    SciTech Connect

    Nouicer, R.

    2016-03-28

    This article reviews several important results from RHIC experiments and discusses their implications. They were obtained in a unique environment for studying QCD matter at temperatures and densities that exceed the limits wherein hadrons can exist as individual entities and raises to prominence the quark-gluon degrees of freedom. These findings are supported by major experimental observations via measuring of the bulk properties of particle production, particle ratios and chemical freeze-out conditions, and elliptic ow; followed by hard probe measurements: high-pT hadron suppression, dijet fragment azimuthal correlations, and heavy favor probes. These measurements are presented for particles of different species as a function of system sizes, collision centrality, and energy carried out in RHIC experiments. The results reveal that a dense, strongly-interacting medium is created in central Au + Au collisions at p sNN = 200 GeV at RHIC. This revelation of a new state of nuclear matter has also been observed in measurements at the LHC. Further, the IP-Glasma model coupled with viscous hydrodynamic models, which assumes the formation of a QGP, reproduces well the experimental ow results from Au + Au at p sNN = 200 GeV. This implies that the fluctuations in the initial geometry state are important and the created medium behaves as a nearly perfect liquid of nuclear matter because it has an extraordinarily low ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, =s 0.12. However, these discoveries are far from being fully understood. Furthermore, recent experimental results from RHIC and LHC in small p + A, d + Au and 3He+Au collision systems provide brand new insight into the role of initial and final state effects. These have proven to be interesting and more surprising than originally anticipated; and could conceivably shed new light in our understanding of collective behavior in heavy-ion physics. Accordingly, the focus of the experiments at both facilities RHIC and the LHC

  11. New State of Nuclear Matter: Nearly Perfect Fluid of Quarks and Gluons in Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC Energies From Charged Particle Density to Jet Quenching

    DOE PAGES

    Nouicer, R.

    2016-03-28

    This article reviews several important results from RHIC experiments and discusses their implications. They were obtained in a unique environment for studying QCD matter at temperatures and densities that exceed the limits wherein hadrons can exist as individual entities and raises to prominence the quark-gluon degrees of freedom. These findings are supported by major experimental observations via measuring of the bulk properties of particle production, particle ratios and chemical freeze-out conditions, and elliptic ow; followed by hard probe measurements: high-pT hadron suppression, dijet fragment azimuthal correlations, and heavy favor probes. These measurements are presented for particles of different species asmore » a function of system sizes, collision centrality, and energy carried out in RHIC experiments. The results reveal that a dense, strongly-interacting medium is created in central Au + Au collisions at p sNN = 200 GeV at RHIC. This revelation of a new state of nuclear matter has also been observed in measurements at the LHC. Further, the IP-Glasma model coupled with viscous hydrodynamic models, which assumes the formation of a QGP, reproduces well the experimental ow results from Au + Au at p sNN = 200 GeV. This implies that the fluctuations in the initial geometry state are important and the created medium behaves as a nearly perfect liquid of nuclear matter because it has an extraordinarily low ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, =s 0.12. However, these discoveries are far from being fully understood. Furthermore, recent experimental results from RHIC and LHC in small p + A, d + Au and 3He+Au collision systems provide brand new insight into the role of initial and final state effects. These have proven to be interesting and more surprising than originally anticipated; and could conceivably shed new light in our understanding of collective behavior in heavy-ion physics. Accordingly, the focus of the experiments at both facilities RHIC and

  12. New state of nuclear matter: Nearly perfect fluid of quarks and gluons in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC energies. From charged particle density to jet quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouicer, R.

    2016-03-01

    This article reviews several important results from RHIC experiments and discusses their implications. They were obtained in a unique environment for studying QCD matter at temperatures and densities that exceed the limits wherein hadrons can exist as individual entities and raises to prominence the quark-gluon degrees of freedom. These findings are supported by major experimental observations via measuring of the bulk properties of particle production, particle ratios and chemical freeze-out conditions, and elliptic flow; followed by hard probe measurements: high- pT hadron suppression, dijet fragment azimuthal correlations, and heavy-flavor probes. These measurements are presented for particles of different species as a function of system sizes, collision centrality, and energy carried out in RHIC experiments. The results reveal that a dense, strongly interacting medium is created in central Au+Au collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV at RHIC. This revelation of a new state of nuclear matter has also been observed in measurements at the LHC. Further, the IP-Glasma model coupled with viscous hydrodynamic models, which assumes the formation of a QGP, reproduces well the experimental flow results from Au+Au at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV. This implies that the fluctuations in the initial geometry state are important and the created medium behaves as a nearly perfect liquid of nuclear matter because it has an extraordinarily low ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, η/s≈ 0.12. However, these discoveries are far from being fully understood. Furthermore, recent experimental results from RHIC and LHC in small p+A, d+ Au and 3He+Au collision systems provide brand new insight into the role of initial and final state effects. These have proven to be interesting and more surprising than originally anticipated; and could conceivably shed new light in our understanding of collective behavior in heavy-ion physics. Accordingly, the focus of the experiments at both

  13. The ATLAS3D Project - XXXI. Nuclear radio emission in nearby early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyland, Kristina; Young, Lisa M.; Wrobel, Joan M.; Sarzi, Marc; Morganti, Raffaella; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of a high-resolution, 5 GHz, Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array study of the nuclear radio emission in a representative subset of the ATLAS3D survey of early-type galaxies (ETGs). We find that 51 ± 4 per cent of the ETGs in our sample contain nuclear radio emission with luminosities as low as 1018 W Hz-1. Most of the nuclear radio sources have compact (≲25-110 pc) morphologies, although ˜10 per cent display multicomponent core+jet or extended jet/lobe structures. Based on the radio continuum properties, as well as optical emission line diagnostics and the nuclear X-ray properties, we conclude that the majority of the central 5 GHz sources detected in the ATLAS3D galaxies are associated with the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). However, even at subarcsecond spatial resolution, the nuclear radio emission in some cases appears to arise from low-level nuclear star formation rather than an AGN, particularly when molecular gas and a young central stellar population is present. This is in contrast to popular assumptions in the literature that the presence of a compact, unresolved, nuclear radio continuum source universally signifies the presence of an AGN. Additionally, we examine the relationships between the 5 GHz luminosity and various galaxy properties including the molecular gas mass and - for the first time - the global kinematic state. We discuss implications for the growth, triggering, and fuelling of radio AGNs, as well as AGN-driven feedback in the continued evolution of nearby ETGs.

  14. Corporate Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Savannah, GA, used a version of a NASA program called WIBCO to design a wing for the Gulfstream IV (G-IV) which will help to reduce transonic drag (created by shock waves that develop as an airplane approaches the speed of sound). The G-IV cruises at 88 percent of the speed of sound, and holds the international record in its class for round-the-world flight. They also used the STANS5 and Profile programs in the design. They will use the NASA program GASP to help determine the gross weight, range, speed, payload and optimum wing area of an intercontinental supersonic business jet being developed in cooperation with Sukhoi Design Bureau, a Soviet organization.

  15. A galactic sunflower

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-07

    The arrangement of the spiral arms in the galaxy Messier 63, seen here in a new image from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, recall the pattern at the centre of a sunflower. So the nickname for this cosmic object — the Sunflower Galaxy — is no coincidence. Discovered by Pierre Mechain in 1779, the galaxy later made it as the 63rd entry into fellow French astronomer Charles Messier’s famous catalogue, published in 1781. The two astronomers spotted the Sunflower Galaxy’s glow in the small, northern constellation Canes Venatici (the Hunting Dogs). We now know this galaxy is about 27 million light-years away and belongs to the M51 Group — a group of galaxies, named after its brightest member, Messier 51, another spiral-shaped galaxy dubbed the Whirlpool Galaxy. Galactic arms, sunflowers and whirlpools are only a few examples of nature’s apparent preference for spirals. For galaxies like Messier 63 the winding arms shine bright because of the presence of recently formed, blue–white giant stars, readily seen in this Hubble image.

  16. Galactic planetary science

    PubMed Central

    Tinetti, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Planetary science beyond the boundaries of our Solar System is today in its infancy. Until a couple of decades ago, the detailed investigation of the planetary properties was restricted to objects orbiting inside the Kuiper Belt. Today, we cannot ignore that the number of known planets has increased by two orders of magnitude nor that these planets resemble anything but the objects present in our own Solar System. Whether this fact is the result of a selection bias induced by the kind of techniques used to discover new planets—mainly radial velocity and transit—or simply the proof that the Solar System is a rarity in the Milky Way, we do not know yet. What is clear, though, is that the Solar System has failed to be the paradigm not only in our Galaxy but even ‘just’ in the solar neighbourhood. This finding, although unsettling, forces us to reconsider our knowledge of planets under a different light and perhaps question a few of the theoretical pillars on which we base our current ‘understanding’. The next decade will be critical to advance in what we should perhaps call Galactic planetary science. In this paper, I review highlights and pitfalls of our current knowledge of this topic and elaborate on how this knowledge might arguably evolve in the next decade. More critically, I identify what should be the mandatory scientific and technical steps to be taken in this fascinating journey of remote exploration of planets in our Galaxy. PMID:24664916

  17. Galactic planetary science.

    PubMed

    Tinetti, Giovanna

    2014-04-28

    Planetary science beyond the boundaries of our Solar System is today in its infancy. Until a couple of decades ago, the detailed investigation of the planetary properties was restricted to objects orbiting inside the Kuiper Belt. Today, we cannot ignore that the number of known planets has increased by two orders of magnitude nor that these planets resemble anything but the objects present in our own Solar System. Whether this fact is the result of a selection bias induced by the kind of techniques used to discover new planets--mainly radial velocity and transit--or simply the proof that the Solar System is a rarity in the Milky Way, we do not know yet. What is clear, though, is that the Solar System has failed to be the paradigm not only in our Galaxy but even 'just' in the solar neighbourhood. This finding, although unsettling, forces us to reconsider our knowledge of planets under a different light and perhaps question a few of the theoretical pillars on which we base our current 'understanding'. The next decade will be critical to advance in what we should perhaps call Galactic planetary science. In this paper, I review highlights and pitfalls of our current knowledge of this topic and elaborate on how this knowledge might arguably evolve in the next decade. More critically, I identify what should be the mandatory scientific and technical steps to be taken in this fascinating journey of remote exploration of planets in our Galaxy.

  18. A galactic maelstrom

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-08-31

    This new NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope shows Messier 96, a spiral galaxy just over 35 million light-years away in the constellation of Leo (The Lion). It is of about the same mass and size as the Milky Way. It was first discovered by astronomer Pierre Méchain in 1781, and added to Charles Messier’s famous catalogue of astronomical objects just four days later. The galaxy resembles a giant maelstrom of glowing gas, rippled with dark dust that swirls inwards towards the nucleus. Messier 96 is a very asymmetric galaxy; its dust and gas is unevenly spread throughout its weak spiral arms, and its core is not exactly at the galactic centre. Its arms are also asymmetrical, thought to have been influenced by the gravitational pull of other galaxies within the same group as Messier 96. This group, named the M96 Group, also includes the bright galaxies Messier 105 and Messier 95, as well as a number of smaller and fainter galaxies. It is the nearest group containing both bright spirals and a bright elliptical galaxy (Messier 105).

  19. Galactic Distance Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feast, Michael W.

    This chapter begins with a discussion of the basic methods of determining astronomical distances, particularly, trigonometrical, statistical, and pulsational parallaxes. It then summarizes the current state of the calibration of various classes of pulsating variables (Classical Cepheids, type-II Cepheids, RR Lyraes, Miras, and δ Sct and SX Phe stars). Work on other distance indicators (e.g., the red giant clump and the tip of the red giant branch) is also summarized. The use of spectroscopic parallaxes and their application to supergiants and common stars as well as the methods of determining the distances to open and globular clusters are discussed. To illustrate and compare different distance indicators, their use in estimating the scale length of our Galaxy, and the distance to Galactic centre as well as the distances to the LMC, the Fornax dwarf spheroidal, and the spiral galaxy NGC4258 is discussed in some detail. An appendix summarizes some common bias problems that arise in the calibration and use of distance indicators.

  20. Jet inclusive cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

  1. Simulations and analytic models of relativistic magnetized jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchekhovskoi, Alexandre Dmitrievich

    Astrophysical jets are tightly collimated streams that are often observed to move at velocities close to the speed of light. While many such systems are known, understanding and explaining how jets collimate and accelerate has been a long-standing challenge and is currently an area of active research. Finding analytic solutions for jets is extremely hard because the equations that describe the jets are highly nonlinear and difficult to solve analytically. Only in the last few years has it become possible to simulate ultrarelativistic jets computationally, which has led to unprecedented insights into their structure. We now think that many relativistic jets are produced by magnetic fields twisted by the rotation of a central compact object, which can be a black hole or a neutron star. In this thesis I present numerical and analytical studies of relativistic jets. In Chapter 2, I start with a discussion of a simple, idealized model that has the bare minimum of ingredients needed for the production of jets: regular magnetic field, spinning central compact object, and externally imposed collimation. The model assumes that magnetic field in the jet is so strong that plasma inertia is negligible and can be ignored. The simplicity of this model allows for a fully analytic description and an intuitive understanding of the results. Despite being simple, this model possesses non-trivial properties and has important applications to various astrophysical systems --- compact object binaries, gamma-ray bursts, and active galactic nuclei. Chapters 3 -- 7 add an extra level of realism (and sophistication) into jet models: they account for mass inertia of the jet fluid and study its effects on the jet structure. Chapter 4 discusses the effect of jet confinement on the acceleration of the jet. Chapter 5 shows that deconfinement can also have a dramatic effect on the jet. Chapter 6 studies how the structure of the jet changes if the central object driving the jet is a black hole

  2. Differentially rotating relativistic magnetic jets. Asymptotic trans-field force-balance including differential rotation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendt, C.

    1997-07-01

    Highly collimated jets are observed in various astronomical objects, as active galactic nuclei, galactic high energy sources, and also young stellar objects. There is observational indication that these jets originate in accretion disks, and that magnetic fields play an important role for the jet collimation and plasma acceleration. The rapid disk rotation close to the central object leads to relativistic rotational velocities of the magnetic field lines. The structure of these axisymmetric magnetic flux surfaces follows from the trans-field force-balance described by the Grad-Schlueter-Shafranov equation. In this paper, we investigate the asymptotic field structure of differentially rotating magnetic jets, widening the study by Appl & Camenzind (1993A&A...270...71A, 1993A&A...274..699A). In general, our results show that, with the same current distribution, differentially rotating jets are collimated to smaller jet radii as compared with jets with rigidly rotating field. Differentially rotating jets need a stronger net poloidal current in order to collimate to the same asymptotic radius. Current-free solutions are not possible for differentially rotating disk-jet magnetospheres with cylindrical asymptotics. We present a simple analytical relation between the poloidal current distribution and magnetic field rotation law. A general relation is derived for the current strength for jets with maximum differential rotation and minimum differential rotation. Analytical solutions are also given in the case of a field rotation leading to a degeneration of the light cylinder. By linking the asymptotic solution to a Keplerian accretion disk, 'total expansion rates' for the jets, and also the flux distribution at the foot points of the flux surfaces are derived. Large poloidal currents imply a strong opening of flux surfaces, a stronger gradient of field rotation leads to smaller expansion rates. There is indication that AGN jet expansion rates are less than in the case of

  3. Dielectronic Recombination In Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukić, D.; Savin, D. W.; Schnell, M.; Brandau, C.; Schmidt, E.; Schippers, S.; Müller, A.; Lestinsky, M.; Sprenger, F.; Wolf, A.; Altun, Z.; Badnell, N. R.

    2006-05-01

    Recent X-ray satelitte observations of active galactic nuclei point out shortcomings in our understanding of low temperature dielectronic recombination (DR) for iron M- shell ions. In order to resolve this issue and to provide reliable iron M-shell DR data for modeling astrophysical plasmas, we are carrying out a series of laboratory measurements using the heavy-ion Test Storage Ring at the Max- Plank-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. Storage rings are currently the only laboratory method capable of studying low temperature DR. We use our results to produce experimentally- derived DR rate coefficients. We are also providing our data to atomic theorist to benchmark their DR calculations. Here we will report our recent DR results for selected Fe M-shell ions. At temperatures where these ions are predicted to form in photoionized gas, we find a significant discrepancy between our experimental results and previously recommended DR rate coefficients.

  4. Active galactic nuclei as scaled-up Galactic black holes.

    PubMed

    McHardy, I M; Koerding, E; Knigge, C; Uttley, P; Fender, R P

    2006-12-07

    A long-standing question is whether active galactic nuclei (AGN) vary like Galactic black hole systems when appropriately scaled up by mass. If so, we can then determine how AGN should behave on cosmological timescales by studying the brighter and much faster varying Galactic systems. As X-ray emission is produced very close to the black holes, it provides one of the best diagnostics of their behaviour. A characteristic timescale--which potentially could tell us about the mass of the black hole--is found in the X-ray variations from both AGN and Galactic black holes, but whether it is physically meaningful to compare the two has been questioned. Here we report that, after correcting for variations in the accretion rate, the timescales can be physically linked, revealing that the accretion process is exactly the same for small and large black holes. Strong support for this linkage comes, perhaps surprisingly, from the permitted optical emission lines in AGN whose widths (in both broad-line AGN and narrow-emission-line Seyfert 1 galaxies) correlate strongly with the characteristic X-ray timescale, exactly as expected from the AGN black hole masses and accretion rates. So AGN really are just scaled-up Galactic black holes.

  5. Multiwavelength monitoring of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent multiwavelength monitoring of active galactic nuclei (AGN), particularly with the IUE satellite, has produced extraordinay advances in our understanding of the energy-generation mechanism(s) in the central engine and of the structure of the surrounding material. Examples discussed here include both ordinary AGN and blazars (the collective name for highly variable, radio-loud AGN like BL Lac objects and Optically Violently Variable quasars). In the last decade, efforts to obtain single-epoch multiwavelength spectra led to fundamentally new models for the structure of AGN, involving accretion disks for AGN and relativistic jets for blazars. Recent extensions of multiwavelength spectroscopy into the temporal domain have shown that while these general pictures may be correct, the details were probably wrong. Campaigns to monitor Seyfert 1 galaxies like NGC 4151, NGC 5548 and Fairall 9 at infrared, optical, ultraviolet and X-ray wavelengths indicate that broad-emission line regions are stratified by ionization, density, and velocity; argue against a standard thin accretion disk model; and suggest that X-rays represent primary rather than reprocessed radiation. For blazars, years of radio monitoring indicated emission from an inhomogeneous synchrotron-emitting plasma, which could also produce at least some of the shorter-wavelength emission. The recent month-long campaign to observe the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 has revealed remarkably rapid variability that extends from the infrared through the X-ray with similar amplitude and little or no discernible lag. This lends strong support to relativistic jet models and rules out the proposed accretion disk model for the ultraviolet-X-ray continuum.

  6. Finding Distant Galactic HII Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Johnstone, B. M.; Bania, T. M.; Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V.; Cunningham, V.

    2015-12-01

    The WISE Catalog of Galactic H ii Regions contains ˜2000 H ii region candidates lacking ionized gas spectroscopic observations. All candidates have the characteristic H ii region mid-infrared morphology of WISE 12 μ {{m}} emission surrounding 22 μ {{m}} emission, and additionally have detected radio continuum emission. We here report Green Bank Telescope hydrogen radio recombination line and radio continuum detections in the X-band (9 GHz; 3 cm) of 302 WISE H ii region candidates (out of 324 targets observed) in the zone 225^\\circ ≥slant {\\ell }≥slant -20^\\circ , | {\\text{}}b| ≤slant 6^\\circ . Here we extend the sky coverage of our H ii region Discovery Survey, which now contains nearly 800 H ii regions distributed across the entire northern sky. We provide LSR velocities for the 302 detections and kinematic distances for 131 of these. Of the 302 new detections, 5 have ({\\ell },{\\text{}}b,v) coordinates consistent with the Outer Scutum-Centaurus Arm (OSC), the most distant molecular spiral arm of the Milky Way. Due to the Galactic warp, these nebulae are found at Galactic latitudes >1° in the first Galactic quadrant, and therefore were missed in previous surveys of the Galactic plane. One additional region has a longitude and velocity consistent with the OSC but lies at a negative Galactic latitude (G039.183-01.422 -54.9 {km} {{{s}}}-1). With Heliocentric distances >22 kpc and Galactocentric distances >16 kpc, the OSC H ii regions are the most distant known in the Galaxy. We detect an additional three H ii regions near {\\ell }≃ 150^\\circ whose LSR velocities place them at Galactocentric radii >19 kpc. If their distances are correct, these nebulae may represent the limit to Galactic massive star formation.

  7. Stellar signatures of AGN-jet-triggered star formation

    SciTech Connect

    Dugan, Zachary; Silk, Joseph; Bryan, Sarah; Gaibler, Volker; Haas, Marcel

    2014-12-01

    To investigate feedback between relativistic jets emanating from active galactic nuclei and the stellar population of the host galaxy, we analyze the long-term evolution of the orbits of the stars formed in the galaxy-scale simulations by Gaibler et al. of jets in massive, gas-rich galaxies at z ∼ 2-3. We find strong, jet-induced differences in the resulting stellar populations of galaxies that host relativistic jets and galaxies that do not, including correlations in stellar locations, velocities, and ages. Jets are found to generate distributions of increased radial and vertical velocities that persist long enough to effectively augment the stellar structure of the host. The jets cause the formation of bow shocks that move out through the disk, generating rings of star formation within the disk. The bow shock often accelerates pockets of gas in which stars form, yielding populations of stars with significant radial and vertical velocities, some of which have large enough velocities to escape the galaxy. These stellar population signatures can serve to identify past jet activity as well as jet-induced star formation.

  8. Simulations of AGN jets: magnetic kink instability versus conical shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barniol Duran, Rodolfo; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Giannios, Dimitrios

    2017-08-01

    Relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei (AGN) convert as much as half of their energy into radiation. To explore the poorly understood processes that are responsible for this conversion, we carry out fully 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of relativistic magnetized jets. Unlike the standard approach of injecting the jets at large radii, our simulated jets self-consistently form at the source and propagate and accelerate outwards for several orders of magnitude in distance before they interact with the ambient medium. We find that this interaction can trigger strong energy dissipation of two kinds inside the jets, depending on the properties of the ambient medium. Those jets that form in a new outburst and drill a fresh hole through the ambient medium fall victim to a 3D magnetic kink instability and dissipate their energy primarily through magnetic reconnection in the current sheets formed by the instability. On the other hand, those jets that form during repeated cycles of AGN activity and escape through a pre-existing hole in the ambient medium maintain their stability and dissipate their energy primarily at MHD recollimation shocks. In both cases, the dissipation region can be associated with a change in the density profile of the ambient gas. The Bondi radius in AGN jets serves as such a location.

  9. JASMINE: galactic structure surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouda, Naoteru; Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Yano, Taihei; Tsujimoto, Takuji; Suganuma, Masahiro; Niwa, Yoshito; Yamauchi, Masahiro; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro; Matsuhara, Hideo; Noda, Atsushi; Tsuiki, Atsuo; Utashima, Masayoshi; Ogawa, Akira

    2006-06-01

    We introduce a Japanese plan of infrared(z-band:0.9μm) space astrometry(JASMINE-project). JASMINE is the satellite (Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for INfrared Exploration) which will measure distances and apparent motions of stars around the center of the Milky Way with yet unprecedented precision. It will measure parallaxes, positions with the accuracy of 10 micro-arcsec and proper motions with the accuracy of ~ 4microarcsec/ year for stars brighter than z=14mag. JASMINE can observe about ten million stars belonging to the bulge components of our Galaxy, which are hidden by the interstellar dust extinction in optical bands. Number of stars with σ/π < 0.1 in the direction of the Galactic central bulge is about 1000 times larger than those observed in optical bands, where π is a parallax and σ is an error of the parallax. With the completely new "map of the bulge in the Milky Way", it is expected that many new exciting scientific results will be obtained in various fields of astronomy. Presently, JASMINE is in a development phase, with a target launch date around 2015. We adopt the following instrument design of JASMINE in order to get the accurate positions of many stars. A 3-mirrors optical system(modified Korsch system)with a primary mirror of~ 0.85m is one of the candidate for the optical system. On the astro-focal plane, we put dozens of new type of CCDs for z-band to get a wide field of view. The accurate measurements of the astrometric parameters requires the instrument line-of-sight highly stability and the opto-mechanical highly stability of the payload in the JASMINE spacecraft. The consideration of overall system(bus) design is now going on in cooperation with Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency(JAXA).

  10. The Galactic stellar disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltzing, S.; Bensby, T.

    2008-12-01

    The study of the Milky Way stellar discs in the context of galaxy formation is discussed. In particular, we explore the properties of the Milky Way disc using a new sample of about 550 dwarf stars for which we have recently obtained elemental abundances and ages based on high-resolution spectroscopy. For all the stars we also have full kinematic information as well as information about their stellar orbits. We confirm results from previous studies that the thin and the thick discs have distinct abundance patterns. But we also explore a larger range of orbital parameters than what has been possible in our previous studies. Several new results are presented. We find that stars that reach high above the Galactic plane and have eccentric orbits show remarkably tight abundance trends. This implies that these stars formed out of well-mixed gas that had been homogenized over large volumes. We find some evidence that suggest that the event that most likely caused the heating of this stellar population happened a few billion years ago. Through a simple, kinematic exploration of stars with super-solar [Fe/H], we show that the solar neighbourhood contains metal-rich, high velocity stars that are very likely associated with the thick disc. Additionally, the HR1614 moving group and the Hercules and Arcturus stellar streams are discussed and it is concluded that, probably, a large fraction of the groups and streams so far identified in the disc are the result of evolution and interactions within the stellar disc rather than being dissolved stellar clusters or engulfed dwarf galaxies. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. Also based on observations collected at the Nordic Optical Telescope on La Palma, Spain, and at the European Southern Observatories on La Silla and Paranal, Chile, Proposals no. 65.L-0019(B), 67.B-0108(B), 69.B-0277.

  11. Galactic Halos of Hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This image shows two companion galaxies, NGC 4625 (top) and NGC 4618 (bottom), and their surrounding cocoons of cool hydrogen gas (purple). The huge set of spiral arms on NGC 4625 (blue) was discovered by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. Though these arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light, they glow brightly in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light.

    The vibrant spiral arms are also quite lengthy, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far.

    Astronomers do not know why NGC 4625 grew arms while NGC 4618 did not. The purple nebulosity shown here illustrates that hydrogen gas - an ingredient of star formation - is diffusely distributed around both galaxies. This means that other unknown factors led to the development of the arms of NGC 4625.

    Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own.

    The image is composed of ultraviolet, visible-light and radio data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, the Netherlands, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. Radio emissions are colored purple.

  12. A Disturbed Galactic Duo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-04-01

    The galaxies in this cosmic pairing, captured by the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, display some curious features, demonstrating that each member of the duo is close enough to feel the distorting gravitational influence of the other. The gravitational tug of war has warped the spiral shape of one galaxy, NGC 3169, and fragmented the dust lanes in its companion NGC 3166. Meanwhile, a third, smaller galaxy to the lower right, NGC 3165, has a front-row seat to the gravitational twisting and pulling of its bigger neighbours. This galactic grouping, found about 70 million light-years away in the constellation Sextans (The Sextant), was discovered by the English astronomer William Herschel in 1783. Modern astronomers have gauged the distance between NGC 3169 (left) and NGC 3166 (right) as a mere 50 000 light-years, a separation that is only about half the diameter of the Milky Way galaxy. In such tight quarters, gravity can start to play havoc with galactic structure. Spiral galaxies like NGC 3169 and NGC 3166 tend to have orderly swirls of stars and dust pinwheeling about their glowing centres. Close encounters with other massive objects can jumble this classic configuration, often serving as a disfiguring prelude to the merging of galaxies into one larger galaxy. So far, the interactions of NGC 3169 and NGC 3166 have just lent a bit of character. NGC 3169's arms, shining bright with big, young, blue stars, have been teased apart, and lots of luminous gas has been drawn out from its disc. In NGC 3166's case, the dust lanes that also usually outline spiral arms are in disarray. Unlike its bluer counterpart, NGC 3166 is not forming many new stars. NGC 3169 has another distinction: the faint yellow dot beaming through a veil of dark dust just to the left of and close to the galaxy's centre [1]. This flash is the leftover of a supernova detected in 2003 and known accordingly as SN 2003cg. A supernova of this

  13. Jet pump-drive system for heat removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, James R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The invention does away with the necessity of moving parts such as a check valve in a nuclear reactor cooling system. Instead, a jet pump, in combination with a TEMP, is employed to assure safe cooling of a nuclear reactor after shutdown. A main flow exists for a reactor coolant. A point of withdrawal is provided for a secondary flow. A TEMP, responsive to the heat from said coolant in the secondary flow path, automatically pumps said withdrawn coolant to a higher pressure and thus higher velocity compared to the main flow. The high velocity coolant is applied as a driver flow for the jet pump which has a main flow chamber located in the main flow circulation pump. Upon nuclear shutdown and loss of power for the main reactor pumping system, the TEMP/jet pump combination continues to boost the coolant flow in the direction it is already circulating. During the decay time for the nuclear reactor, the jet pump keeps running until the coolant temperature drops to a lower and safe temperature where the heat is no longer a problem. At this lower temperature, the TEMP/jet pump combination ceases its circulation boosting operation. When the nuclear reactor is restarted and the coolant again exceeds the lower temperature setting, the TEMP/jet pump automatically resumes operation. The TEMP/jet pump combination is thus automatic, self-regulating and provides an emergency pumping system free of moving parts.

  14. Heavy Flavored Jet Modification at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kurt

    2016-12-01

    The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the flavor of the fragmenting parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching as a function of flavor place powerful constraints on the thermodynamical and transport properties of the hot and dense medium. Specifically, pPb measurements provide crucial insights into the behavior of the cold nuclear matter effect, which is required to fully understand the hot and dense medium effects on jets in PbPb collisions. In these proceedings, we present the heavy flavor jet spectra and measurements of the nuclear modification factors of b jets in both PbPb and pPb as a function of transverse momentum and pseudorapidity, at √{sNN} = 2.76 and 5.02 TeV, respectively. In addition, we present the first ever measurement of charm-tagged jets in a heavy-ion environment, including cross-sections and comparisons to PYTHIA in both pPb and pp.

  15. High energy neutrinos from radio-quiet active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, Jaime; Mészáros, Peter

    2004-12-01

    Most active galactic nuclei (AGN) lack prominent jets, and show modest radio emission and significant x-ray emission which arises mainly from the galactic core, very near the central black hole. We use a quantitative scenario of such core-dominated radio-quiet AGN, which attributes a substantial fraction of the x-ray emission to the presence of abortive jets involving the collision of gas blobs in the core. Here we investigate the consequences of the acceleration of protons in the shocks from such collisions. We find that protons will be accelerated up to energies above the pion photoproduction threshold on both the x rays and the UV photons from the accretion disk. The secondary charged pions decay, producing neutrinos. We predict significant fluxes of TeV-PeV neutrinos, and show that the AMANDA II detector is already constraining several important astrophysical parameters of these sources. Larger cubic kilometer detectors such as IceCube will be able to detect such neutrinos in less than one year of operation, or otherwise rule out this scenario.

  16. THE FERMI BUBBLES. I. POSSIBLE EVIDENCE FOR RECENT AGN JET ACTIVITY IN THE GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Fulai; Mathews, William G.

    2012-09-10

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope reveals two large gamma-ray bubbles in the Galaxy, which extend about 50 Degree-Sign ({approx}10 kpc) above and below the Galactic center (GC) and are symmetric about the Galactic plane. Using axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations with a self-consistent treatment of the dynamical cosmic ray (CR)-gas interaction, we show that the bubbles can be created with a recent active galactic nucleus (AGN) jet activity about 1-3 Myr ago, which was active for a duration of {approx}0.1-0.5 Myr. The bipolar jets were ejected into the Galactic halo along the rotation axis of the Galaxy. Near the GC, the jets must be moderately light with a typical density contrast 0.001 {approx}< {eta} {approx}< 0.1 relative to the ambient hot gas. The jets are energetically dominated by kinetic energy, and overpressured with either CR or thermal pressure which induces lateral jet expansion, creating fat CR bubbles as observed. The sharp edges of the bubbles imply that CR diffusion across the bubble surface is strongly suppressed. The jet activity induces a strong shock, which heats and compresses the ambient gas in the Galactic halo, potentially explaining the ROSAT X-ray shell features surrounding the bubbles. The Fermi bubbles provide plausible evidence for a recent powerful AGN jet activity in our Galaxy, providing new insights into the origin of the halo CR population and the channel through which massive black holes in disk galaxies release feedback energy during their growth.

  17. Hyperaccreting black holes in galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Volonteri, Marta

    2017-01-01

    The rate at which matter flows into a galactic nucleus during early phases of galaxy evolution can sometimes exceed the Eddington limit of the growing central black hole by several orders of magnitude. We discuss the necessary conditions for the black hole to actually accrete this matter at such a high rate, and consider the observational appearance and detectability of a hyperaccreting black hole. In order to be accreted at a hyper-Eddington rate, the infalling gas must have a sufficiently low angular momentum. Although most of the gas is accreted, a significant fraction accumulates in an optically thick envelope with luminosity ˜LEdd, probably pierced by jets of much higher power. If dot{M} > 10^3 dot{M}_Edd, the envelope spectrum resembles a blackbody with a temperature of a few thousand kelvin, but for lower (but still hyper-Eddington) accretion rates the spectrum becomes a very dilute and hard Wien spectrum. We consider the likelihood of various regimes of hyperaccretion, and discuss its possible observational signatures.

  18. Stretched Inertial Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghabache, Elisabeth; Antkowiak, Arnaud; Seon, Thomas; Villermaux, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    Liquid jets often arise as short-lived bursting liquid flows. Cavitation or impact-driven jets, bursting champagne bubbles, shaped-charge jets, ballistospores or drop-on-demand inkjet printing are a few examples where liquid jets are suddenly released. The trademark of all these discharge jets is the property of being stretched, due to the quenching injection. the present theoretical and experimental investigation, the structure of the jet flow field will be unraveled experimentally for a few emblematic occurrences of discharge jets. Though the injection markedly depends on each flow configuration, the jet velocity field will be shown to be systematically and rapidly attracted to the universal stretching flow z/t. The emergence of this inertial attractor actually only relies on simple kinematic ingredients, and as such is fairly generic. The universality of the jet velocity structure will be discussed.

  19. Where Galactic Snakes Live

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows what astronomers are referring to as a 'snake' (upper left) and its surrounding stormy environment. The sinuous object is actually the core of a thick, sooty cloud large enough to swallow dozens of solar systems. In fact, astronomers say the 'snake's belly' may be harboring beastly stars in the process of forming.

    The galactic creepy crawler to the right of the snake is another thick cloud core, in which additional burgeoning massive stars might be lurking. The colorful regions below the two cloud cores are less dense cloud material, in which dust has been heated by starlight and glows with infrared light. Yellow and orange dots throughout the image are monstrous developing stars; the red star on the 'belly' of the snake is 20 to 50 times as massive as our sun. The blue dots are foreground stars.

    The red ball at the bottom left is a 'supernova remnant,' the remains of massive star that died in a fiery blast. Astronomers speculate that radiation and winds from the star before it died, in addition to a shock wave created when it exploded, might have played a role in creating the snake.

    Spitzer was able to spot the two black cloud cores using its heat-seeking infrared vision. The objects are hiding in the dusty plane of our Milky Way galaxy, invisible to optical telescopes. Because their heat, or infrared light, can sneak through the dust, they first showed up in infrared images from past missions. The cloud cores are so thick with dust that if you were to somehow transport yourself into the middle of them, you would see nothing but black, not even a star in the sky. Now, that's spooky!

    Spitzer's new view of the region provides the best look yet at the massive embryonic stars hiding inside the snake. Astronomers say these observations will ultimately help them better understand how massive stars form. By studying the clustering and range of masses of the stellar embryos, they hope

  20. Galactic evolution of Beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesgaard, Ann Merchant; King, Jeremy R.

    1993-12-01

    The abundance of Be in the lowest-metallicity stars is a probe of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and its abundance in halo and disk stars is a probe of galactic evolution and stellar structure. We present observations of the Be II resonance lines in 14 halo stars and 27 (mostly old) disk stars with (Fe/H) from -2.7 to +0.13. The spectra were obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii (CFH) 3.6 m telescope and have a measured resolution of 0.13 A and a median signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 50. For 18 of the 41 stars we have also made observations of the O I triplet at the Palomar 5 m telescope, the UH 2.2 m telescope, and the CFH telescope. Stellar parameters of Teff, log g, and (Fe/H) were carefully determined from several independent estimates. Abundances are determined for log N (Be/H) and (O/H) from measured equivalent widths, model parameters, and Kurucz (1991) model atmospheres with the RAI10 model atmosphere abundance program. The agreement with previously published Be detections is very good (a mean difference of 0.05 dex) for five of six determinations in four halo stars and in four of five disk stars. The agreement with very recently published O abundances is 0.0075 dex. It is plausible, but far from conclusive, that there is a plateau in the amount of Be present in the lowest metallicity stars: log N (Be/H) approximately -12.8 for (Fe/H) less than -2.2 As (Fe/H) increases from -2.2 to -1.0, log N (Be/H) increases and the slope is 1.2-1.3, indicating a faster increase in Be than in Fe. This is consistent with the production of Be by spallation reactions between cosmic rays and O atoms from massive stars and the production of Fe from intermediate mass stars. Evidence for stellar processing of Be exists in the disk stars and in at least two of the halo stars. A plot of Be abundance vs O abundances shows that Be increases as O1.12, indicating that Be is produced primarily is the vicinity of supernovae envelopes, but a small and interesting fraction is produced in

  1. Where Galactic Snakes Live

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-10-27

    This infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows what astronomers are referring to as a "snake" (upper left) and its surrounding stormy environment. The sinuous object is actually the core of a thick, sooty cloud large enough to swallow dozens of solar systems. In fact, astronomers say the "snake's belly" may be harboring beastly stars in the process of forming. The galactic creepy crawler to the right of the snake is another thick cloud core, in which additional burgeoning massive stars might be lurking. The colorful regions below the two cloud cores are less dense cloud material, in which dust has been heated by starlight and glows with infrared light. Yellow and orange dots throughout the image are monstrous developing stars; the red star on the "belly" of the snake is 20 to 50 times as massive as our sun. The blue dots are foreground stars. The red ball at the bottom left is a "supernova remnant," the remains of massive star that died in a fiery blast. Astronomers speculate that radiation and winds from the star before it died, in addition to a shock wave created when it exploded, might have played a role in creating the snake. Spitzer was able to spot the two black cloud cores using its heat-seeking infrared vision. The objects are hiding in the dusty plane of our Milky Way galaxy, invisible to optical telescopes. Because their heat, or infrared light, can sneak through the dust, they first showed up in infrared images from past missions. The cloud cores are so thick with dust that if you were to somehow transport yourself into the middle of them, you would see nothing but black, not even a star in the sky. Now, that's spooky! Spitzer's view of the region provides the best look yet at the massive embryonic stars hiding inside the snake. Astronomers say these observations will ultimately help them better understand how massive stars form. By studying the clustering and range of masses of the stellar embryos, they hope to determine if the stars were

  2. Where Galactic Snakes Live

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows what astronomers are referring to as a 'snake' (upper left) and its surrounding stormy environment. The sinuous object is actually the core of a thick, sooty cloud large enough to swallow dozens of solar systems. In fact, astronomers say the 'snake's belly' may be harboring beastly stars in the process of forming.

    The galactic creepy crawler to the right of the snake is another thick cloud core, in which additional burgeoning massive stars might be lurking. The colorful regions below the two cloud cores are less dense cloud material, in which dust has been heated by starlight and glows with infrared light. Yellow and orange dots throughout the image are monstrous developing stars; the red star on the 'belly' of the snake is 20 to 50 times as massive as our sun. The blue dots are foreground stars.

    The red ball at the bottom left is a 'supernova remnant,' the remains of massive star that died in a fiery blast. Astronomers speculate that radiation and winds from the star before it died, in addition to a shock wave created when it exploded, might have played a role in creating the snake.

    Spitzer was able to spot the two black cloud cores using its heat-seeking infrared vision. The objects are hiding in the dusty plane of our Milky Way galaxy, invisible to optical telescopes. Because their heat, or infrared light, can sneak through the dust, they first showed up in infrared images from past missions. The cloud cores are so thick with dust that if you were to somehow transport yourself into the middle of them, you would see nothing but black, not even a star in the sky. Now, that's spooky!

    Spitzer's new view of the region provides the best look yet at the massive embryonic stars hiding inside the snake. Astronomers say these observations will ultimately help them better understand how massive stars form. By studying the clustering and range of masses of the stellar embryos, they hope

  3. The Stability of Radiatively Cooling Jets I. Linear Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardee, Philip E.; Stone, James M.

    1997-01-01

    The results of a spatial stability analysis of a two-dimensional slab jet, in which optically thin radiative cooling is dynamically important, are presented. We study both magnetized and unmagnetized jets at external Mach numbers of 5 and 20. We model the cooling rate by using two different cooling curves: one appropriate to interstellar gas, and the other to photoionized gas of reduced metallicity. Thus, our results will be applicable to both protostellar (Herbig-Haro) jets and optical jets from active galactic nuclei. We present analytical solutions to the dispersion relations in useful limits and solve the dispersion relations numerically over a broad range of perturbation frequencies. We find that the growth rates and wavelengths of the unstable Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) modes are significantly different from the adiabatic limit, and that the form of the cooling function strongly affects the results. In particular, if the cooling curve is a steep function of temperature in the neighborhood of the equilibrium state, then the growth of K-H modes is reduced relative to the adiabatic jet. On the other hand, if the cooling curve is a shallow function of temperature, then the growth of K-H modes can be enhanced relative to the adiabatic jet by the increase in cooling relative to heating in overdense regions. Inclusion of a dynamically important magnetic field does not strongly modify the important differences between an adiabatic jet and a cooling jet, provided the jet is highly supermagnetosonic and not magnetic pressure-dominated. In the latter case, the unstable modes behave more like the transmagnetosonic magnetic pressure-dominated adiabatic limit. We also plot fluid displacement surfaces associated with the various waves in a cooling jet in order to predict the structures that might arise in the nonlinear regime. This analysis predicts that low-frequency surface waves and the lowest order body modes will be the most effective at producing observable features in

  4. Microscopic Processes On Radiation from Accelerated Particles in Relativistic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P. E.; Mizuno, Y.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Sol, H.; Niemiec, J.; Pohl, M.; Nordlund, A.; Fredriksen, J.; Lyubarsky, Y.; Hartmann, D. H.; Fishman, G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. In the collisionless relativistic shock particle acceleration is due to plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The jitter'' radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.

  5. Microscopic Processes On Radiation from Accelerated Particles in Relativistic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P. E.; Mizuno, Y.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Sol, H.; Niemiec, J.; Pohl, M.; Nordlund, A.; Fredriksen, J.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. In the collisionless relativistic shock particle acceleration is due to plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The jitter'' radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.

  6. Colour, design and virtual reality at JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, S.; Carman, Paul

    2006-06-01

    Joint European torus (JET) is the world's largest nuclear fusion research facility investigating the use of nuclear fusion, the process that powers the stars, as a source of clean, limitless electrical energy. The JET machine undergoes an on-going program of upgrades and modifications facilitating a broad scientific program of experimentation. Maintenance of the JET machine is carried out remotely using telemanipulators mounted on a robotic Boom, employing a 'man in the loop' approach. The system relies on the use of real time 3D computer graphic models in a 'virtual reality' environment for preparation and support of remote-handling operations. Colour is used in this virtual environment to emphasise robots from the vessel environment and to highlight materials, components and systems requiring special care.

  7. Herschel far-infrared photometry of the Swift Burst Alert Telescope active galactic nuclei sample of the local universe - III. Global star-forming properties and the lack of a connection to nuclear activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, T. Taro; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Meléndez, Marcio; Koss, Michael J.; Barger, Amy J.; Cowie, Lennox L.

    2017-04-01

    We combine the Herschel Space Observatory PACS (Photoconductor Array Camera and Spectrometer) and SPIRE (Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver) photometry with archival WISE (Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer) photometry to construct the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for over 300 local (z < 0.05), ultrahard X-ray (14-195 keV) selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) 58-month catalogue. Using a simple analytical model that combines an exponentially cutoff power law with a single temperature modified blackbody, we decompose the SEDs into a host galaxy and AGN component. We calculate dust masses, dust temperatures, and star formation rates (SFRs) for our entire sample and compare them to a stellar mass-matched sample of local non-AGN galaxies. We find AGN host galaxies have systematically higher dust masses, dust temperatures, and SFRs due to the higher prevalence of late-type galaxies to host an AGN, in agreement with previous studies of the Swift/BAT AGN. We provide a scaling to convert X-ray luminosities into 8-1000 μm AGN luminosities, as well as determine the best mid-to-far IR colours for identifying AGN-dominated galaxies in the IR regime. We find that for nearly 30 per cent of our sample, the 70 μm emission contains a significant contribution from the AGN (>0.5), especially at higher luminosities (L14 - 195 keV > 1042.5 erg s-1). Finally, we measure the local SFR-AGN luminosity relationship, finding a slope of 0.18, large scatter (0.37 dex), and no evidence for an upturn at high AGN luminosity. We conclude with a discussion on the implications of our results within the context of galaxy evolution with and without AGN feedback.

  8. The AGN Jet Model of the Fermi Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fulai

    2017-01-01

    The nature and origin of the Fermi bubbles detected in the inner Galaxy remain elusive. In this paper, we briefly discuss some recent theoretical and observational developments, with a focus on the AGN jet model. Analogous to radio lobes observed in massive galaxies, the Fermi bubbles could be naturally produced by a pair of opposing jets emanating nearly along the Galaxy's rotation axis from the Galactic center. Our two-fluid hydrodynamic simulations reproduce quite well the bubble location and shape, and interface instabilities at the bubble surface could be effectively suppressed by shear viscosity. We briefly comment on some potential issues related to our model, which may lead to future progress.

  9. Near infrared study of shrouded active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearty, Frederick R.

    2007-08-01

    In this work, I consider the astronomical search for active galactic nuclei which has been predominately conducted in the optical portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and propose a multi-wavelength approach. I describe the opto-mechanical systems of the Near Infrared Camera and Fabry-Perot Spectrometer (NIC-FPS) which I, as part of a team, designed, built, and commissioned, and which I then used for this scientific investigation. This investigation had two purposes: (1) to demonstrate the state-of-theart capability of NIC-FPS, and (2) to examine the large population of astronomical radio sources that remain undetected in optical observations. My broadband near infrared imaging, when combined with archival optical, mid-infrared, and radio data, revealed large numbers of active galactic nuclei and related quasi- stellar objects which may, in part, be hidden by shrouds of gas and dust. This newly revealed population is likely to outnumber the optically selected population, and may indicate a phase of galactic nuclear activation which has been strongly selected against by existing surveys. Such objects are critical to our scientific understanding because they can be used as probes of the most distant regions of the observable Universe. Additionally, I propose a life cycle model for active galactic nuclei which accounts for the shrouded phase and for the disparity between the optically detected and near infrared detected radio sources.

  10. Control of jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreck, Stefan

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of active control of jet noise, knowledge of the noise generation mechanisms in natural jets is essential. Once these mechanisms are determined, active control can be used to manipulate the noise production processes. We investigated the evolution of the flow fields and the acoustic fields of rectangular and circular jets. A predominant flapping mode was found in the supersonic rectangular jets. We hope to increase the spreading of supersonic jets by active control of the flapping mode found in rectangular supersonic jets.

  11. Understanding jet noise.

    PubMed

    Karabasov, S A

    2010-08-13

    Jets are one of the most fascinating topics in fluid mechanics. For aeronautics, turbulent jet-noise modelling is particularly challenging, not only because of the poor understanding of high Reynolds number turbulence, but also because of the extremely low acoustic efficiency of high-speed jets. Turbulent jet-noise models starting from the classical Lighthill acoustic analogy to state-of-the art models were considered. No attempt was made to present any complete overview of jet-noise theories. Instead, the aim was to emphasize the importance of sound generation and mean-flow propagation effects, as well as their interference, for the understanding and prediction of jet noise.

  12. Observing the next galactic supernova

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Scott M.; Kochanek, C. S.; Beacom, John F.; Stanek, K. Z.; Vagins, Mark R.

    2013-12-01

    No supernova (SN) in the Milky Way has been observed since the invention of the optical telescope, instruments for other wavelengths, neutrino detectors, or gravitational wave observatories. It would be a tragedy to miss the opportunity to fully characterize the next one. To aid preparations for its observations, we model the distance, extinction, and magnitude probability distributions of a successful Galactic core-collapse supernova (ccSN), its shock breakout radiation, and its massive star progenitor. We find, at very high probability (≅ 100%), that the next Galactic SN will easily be detectable in the near-IR and that near-IR photometry of the progenitor star very likely (≅ 92%) already exists in the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Most ccSNe (98%) will be easily observed in the optical, but a significant fraction (43%) will lack observations of the progenitor due to a combination of survey sensitivity and confusion. If neutrino detection experiments can quickly disseminate a likely position (∼3°), we show that a modestly priced IR camera system can probably detect the shock breakout radiation pulse even in daytime (64% for the cheapest design). Neutrino experiments should seriously consider adding such systems, both for their scientific return and as an added and internal layer of protection against false triggers. We find that shock breakouts from failed ccSNe of red supergiants may be more observable than those of successful SNe due to their lower radiation temperatures. We review the process by which neutrinos from a Galactic ccSN would be detected and announced. We provide new information on the EGADS system and its potential for providing instant neutrino alerts. We also discuss the distance, extinction, and magnitude probability distributions for the next Galactic Type Ia supernova (SN Ia). Based on our modeled observability, we find a Galactic ccSN rate of 3.2{sub −2.6}{sup +7.3} per century and a Galactic SN Ia rate of 1.4{sub −0.8}{sup +1.4} per

  13. SIZES OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Bergh, Sidney

    2012-02-20

    A study is made of deviations from the mean power-law relationship between the Galactocentric distances and the half-light radii of Galactic globular clusters. Surprisingly, deviations from the mean R{sub h} versus R{sub gc} relationship do not appear to correlate with cluster luminosity, cluster metallicity, or horizontal-branch morphology. Differences in orbit shape are found to contribute to the scatter in the R{sub h} versus R{sub gc} relationship of Galactic globular clusters.

  14. Variable Stars and Galactic Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feast, Michael; Whitelock, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Variable stars have a unique part to play in Galactic astronomy. Among the most important of these variables are the Cepheids (types I and II), the RR Lyraes and the Miras (O- and C-rich). The current status of the basic calibration of these stars in their roles as distance, structure and population indicators is outlined and some examples of recent applications of these stars to Galactic and extragalactic problems are reviewed. The expected impact of Gaia on this type of work is discussed and the need for complementary ground based observations, particularly large scale near-infrared photometry, is stressed.

  15. The galactic 'belt of life'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marochnik, L. S.; Mukhin, L. M.

    1983-11-01

    A galactic anthropocentric principle is proposed according to which the terrestrial forms of life and civilization can arise only in galactic 'belts of life', i.e., in corotation tori. It is noted that this principle holds not only for the Milky Way but also for other spiral galaxies, and that the special position of the solar system in the corotation band of the Galaxy makes the proposed hypothesis especially appealing. Upper bounds to the possible number of technological civilizations in the framework of the proposed principle are calculated.

  16. The jet-disc connection in AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbarrato, T.; Padovani, P.; Ghisellini, G.

    2014-11-01

    We present our latest results on the connection between accretion rate and relativistic jet power in active galactic nuclei (AGN), by using a large sample which includes mostly blazars, but contains also some radio galaxies. The jet power can be traced by γ-ray luminosity in the case of blazars, and radio luminosity for both classes. The accretion-disc luminosity is instead traced by the broad emission lines. Among blazars, we find a correlation between broad line emission and the γ-ray or radio luminosities, suggesting a direct tight connection between jet power and accretion rate. We confirm that the observational differences between blazar subclasses reflect differences in the accretion regime, but with blazars only we cannot properly access the low-accretion regime. By introducing radio galaxies, we succeed in observing the fingerprint of the transition between radiatively efficient and inefficient accretion discs in the jetted AGN family. The transition occurs at the standard critical value Ld/LEdd ˜ 10-2 and it appears smooth. Below this value, the ionizing luminosity emitted by the accretion structure drops significantly.

  17. The Heliosphere and Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The heliosphere deflects galactic cosmic rays from entering the system. Galactic cosmic rays are a very high energy form of particle radiation that are extremely difficult to shield against and are...

  18. The Structure of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriss, Gerard A.

    1997-01-01

    We are continuing our systematic investigation of the nuclear structure of nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN). Upon completion, our study will characterize hypothetical constructs such as narrow-line clouds, obscuring tori, nuclear gas disks. and central black holes with physical measurements for a complete sample of nearby AGN. The major scientific goals of our program are: (1) the morphology of the NLR; (2) the physical conditions and dynamics of individual clouds in the NLR; (3) the structure and physical conditions of the warm reflecting gas; (4) the structure of the obscuring torus; (5) the population and morphology of nuclear disks/tori in AGN; (6) the physical conditions in nuclear disks; and (7) the masses of central black holes in AGN. We will use the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to obtain high-resolution images and spatially resolved spectra. Far-UV spectroscopy of emission and absorption in the nuclear regions using HST/FOS and the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) will help establish physical conditions in the absorbing and emitting gas. By correlating the dynamics and physical conditions of the gas with the morphology revealed through our imaging program, we will be able to examine mechanisms for fueling the central engine and transporting angular momentum. The kinematics of the nuclear gas disks may enable us to measure the mass of the central black hole. Contemporaneous X-ray observations using ASCA will further constrain the ionization structure of any absorbing material. Monitoring of variability in the UV and X-ray absorption will be used to determine the location of the absorbing gas, possibly in the outflowing warm reflecting gas, or the broad-line region, or the atmosphere of the obscuring torus. Supporting ground-based observations in the optical, near-IR, imaging polarimetry, and the radio will complete our picture of the nuclear structures. With a comprehensive survey of these characteristics in a complete sample of nearby AGN, our

  19. Jet flavor tomography of quark gluon plasmas at RHIC and LHC.

    PubMed

    Buzzatti, Alessandro; Gyulassy, Miklos

    2012-01-13

    A new Monte Carlo model of jet quenching in nuclear collisions, CUJET1.0, is applied to predict the jet flavor dependence of the nuclear modification factor for fragments f=π,D,B,e(-) from quenched jet flavors g,u,c,b in central collisions at RHIC and LHC. The nuclear modification factors for different flavors are predicted to exhibit a novel level crossing pattern over a transverse momentum range 5jet-medium dynamics in quark gluon plasmas.

  20. Control of jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreck, Stefan

    1993-01-01

    This reports describes experiments conducted at the High-Speed Jet Facility at the University of Southern California on supersonic jets. The goal of the study was to develop methods for controlling the noise emitted from supersonic jets by passive and/or active means. Work by Seiner et al (1991) indicates that eddy Mach wave radiation is the dominant noise source in a heated high speed jet. Eddy Mach radiation is caused by turbulent eddies traveling at supersonic speed in the shear layer of the jet. The convection velocity of the eddies decays with increasing distance from the nozzle exit due to the mixing of the jet stream with the ambient fluid. Once the convection speed reaches subsonic velocities, eddy Mach wave radiation ceases. To control noise, a rapid decay of the convection velocity is desired. This may be accomplished by enhanced mixing in the jet. In this study, small aspect ratio rectangular jet nozzles were tested. A flapping mode was noticed in the jets. By amplifying screech components of the jets and destabilizing the jet columns with a collar device, the flapping mode was excited. The result was a rapid decay of the jet velocity. A reduction in eddy Mach radiation in rectangular supersonic jets may be achieved with this device.

  1. Glottal jet inertance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mphail, Michael; Krane, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Estimates of an inertive contribution of the glottal jet to glottal aerodynamic resistance is presented. Given that inertance of the flow in a constriction can be expressed in terms of the kinetic energy of the flow, and that a jet is a maximum kinetic energy flow pattern, it is argued that the glottal jet possesses its own inertance which is at least as large as that of the vocal tract. These arguments are supported by estimates of inertance obtained from simulations of an unsteady flow through an axisymmetric orifice, and of a compliant constriction with the approximate shape and mechanical properties of the vocal folds. It is further shown that the inertive effect of the glottal jet depends on the jet path and jet mixing, with a slowly diffusing, symmetric jet showing higher inertance than an asymmetric jet which rapidly mixes with supraglottal air. Acknowledge support of NIH Grant 2R01DC005642-10A1.

  2. HST/WFC3 OBSERVATIONS OF AN OFF-NUCLEAR SUPERBUBBLE IN ARP 220

    SciTech Connect

    Lockhart, Kelly E.; Lu, Jessica R.; Sanders, David B.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Allen, Mark G.; Rupke, David; Calzetti, Daniela; Davies, Richard I.; Engel, Hauke; Heckman, Timothy M.; Leitherer, Claus

    2015-09-10

    We present a high spatial resolution optical and infrared study of the circumnuclear region in Arp 220, a late-stage galaxy merger. Narrowband imaging using Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 has resolved the previously observed peak in Hα+[N ii] emission into a bubble-shaped feature. This feature measures 1.″6 in diameter, or 600 pc, and is only 1″ northwest of the western nucleus. The bubble is aligned with the western nucleus and the large-scale outflow axis seen in X-rays. We explore several possibilities for the bubble origin, including a jet or outflow from a hidden active galactic nucleus (AGN), outflows from high levels of star formation within the few hundred pc nuclear gas disk, or an ultraluminous X-ray source. An obscured AGN or high levels of star formation within the inner ∼100 pc of the nuclei are favored based on the alignment of the bubble and energetics arguments.

  3. Investigating the Dynamics of Canonical Flux Tubes in Jet Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavine, Eric; You, Setthivoine

    2014-10-01

    Highly collimated plasma jets are frequently observed at galactic, stellar, and laboratory scales. Some models suppose these jets are magnetohydrodynamically-driven magnetic flux tubes filled with flowing plasma, but they do not agree on a collimation process. Some evidence supporting a universal MHD pumping mechanism has been obtained from planar electrode experiments with aspect ratios of ~10:1 however, these jets are subject to kink instabilities beyond a certain length and are unable to replicate the remarkable aspect ratios (10-1000:1) seen in astrophysical systems. Other models suppose these jets are flowing Z-pinch plasmas and experiments that use stabilizing shear flows have achieved aspect ratios of ~30:1, but are line tied at both ends. Can both collimation and stabilization mechanisms work together to produce long jets without kink instabilities and only one end tied to the central object? This question is evaluated from the point of view of canonical flux tubes and canonical helicity transport, indicating that jets can become long and collimated due to a combination of strong helical shear flows and conversion of magnetic helicity into kinetic helicity. The MOCHI LabJet experiment is designed to study this in the laboratory. Supported by US DoE Early Career Grant DE-SC0010340.

  4. Do Jets Precess... or Even Move at All?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Chris; King, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    Observations of accreting black holes often provoke suggestions that their jets precess. The precession is usually supposed to result from a combination of the Lense-Thirring effect and accretion disk viscosity. We show that this is unlikely for any type of black hole system, as the disk generally has too little angular momentum compared with a spinning hole to cause any significant movement of the jet direction across the sky on short timescales. Uncorrelated accretion events, as in the chaotic accretion picture of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), change AGN jet directions only on timescales >~ 107 yr. In this picture AGN jet directions are stable on shorter timescales, but uncorrelated with any structure of the host galaxy, as observed. We argue that observations of black hole jets precessing on timescales short compared to the accretion time would be a strong indication that the accretion disk, and not the standard Blandford-Znajek mechanism, is responsible for driving the jet. This would be particularly convincing in a tidal disruption event. We suggest that additional disk physics is needed to explain any jet precession on timescales short compared with the accretion time. Possibilities include the radiation warping instability, or disk tearing.

  5. A STUDY OF RADIO POLARIZATION IN PROTOSTELLAR JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Cécere, Mariana; Velázquez, Pablo F.; De Colle, Fabio; Esquivel, Alejandro; Araudo, Anabella T.; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F.

    2016-01-10

    Synchrotron radiation is commonly observed in connection with shocks of different velocities, ranging from relativistic shocks associated with active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, or microquasars, to weakly or non-relativistic flows such as those observed in supernova remnants. Recent observations of synchrotron emission in protostellar jets are important not only because they extend the range over which the acceleration process works, but also because they allow us to determine the jet and/or interstellar magnetic field structure, thus giving insights into the jet ejection and collimation mechanisms. In this paper, we compute for the first time polarized (synchrotron) and non-polarized (thermal X-ray) synthetic emission maps from axisymmetrical simulations of magnetized protostellar jets. We consider models with different jet velocities and variability, as well as a toroidal or helical magnetic field. Our simulations show that variable, low-density jets with velocities of ∼1000 km s{sup −1} and ∼10 times lighter than the environment can produce internal knots with significant synchrotron emission and thermal X-rays in the shocked region of the leading bow shock moving in a dense medium. While models with a purely toroidal magnetic field show a very large degree of polarization, models with a helical magnetic field show lower values and a decrease of the degree of polarization, in agreement with observations of protostellar jets.

  6. On the Importance of Very Light Internally Subsonic AGN Jets in Radio-mode AGN Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fulai

    2016-07-01

    Radio-mode active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback plays a key role in the evolution of galaxy groups and clusters. Its physical origin lies in the kiloparsec-scale interaction of AGN jets with the intracluster medium. Large-scale jet simulations often initiate light internally supersonic jets with density contrast 0.01 < η < 1. Here we argue for the first time for the importance of very light (η < 0.01) internally subsonic jets. We investigated the shapes of young X-ray cavities produced in a suite of hydrodynamic simulations, and found that bottom-wide cavities are always produced by internally subsonic jets, while internally supersonic jets inflate cylindrical, center-wide, or top-wide cavities. We found examples of real cavities with shapes analogous to those inflated in our simulations by internally subsonic and internally supersonic jets, suggesting a dichotomy of AGN jets according to their internal Mach numbers. We further studied the long-term cavity evolution, and found that old cavities resulted from light jets spread along the jet direction, while those produced by very light jets are significantly elongated along the perpendicular direction. The northwestern ghost cavity in Perseus is pancake shaped, providing tentative evidence for the existence of very light jets. Our simulations show that very light internally subsonic jets decelerate faster and rise much slower in the intracluster medium than light internally supersonic jets, possibly depositing a larger fraction of jet energy to cluster cores and alleviating the problem of low coupling efficiencies found previously. The internal Mach number points to the jet’s energy content, and internally subsonic jets are energetically dominated by non-kinetic energy, such as thermal energy, cosmic rays, or magnetic fields.

  7. The Galactic Nova Rate Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafter, A. W.

    2017-01-01

    Despite its fundamental importance, a reliable estimate of the Galactic nova rate has remained elusive. Here, the overall Galactic nova rate is estimated by extrapolating the observed rate for novae reaching m≤slant 2 to include the entire Galaxy using a two component disk plus bulge model for the distribution of stars in the Milky Way. The present analysis improves on previous work by considering important corrections for incompleteness in the observed rate of bright novae and by employing a Monte Carlo analysis to better estimate the uncertainty in the derived nova rates. Several models are considered to account for differences in the assumed properties of bulge and disk nova populations and in the absolute magnitude distribution. The simplest models, which assume uniform properties between bulge and disk novae, predict Galactic nova rates of ∼50 to in excess of 100 per year, depending on the assumed incompleteness at bright magnitudes. Models where the disk novae are assumed to be more luminous than bulge novae are explored, and predict nova rates up to 30% lower, in the range of ∼35 to ∼75 per year. An average of the most plausible models yields a rate of {50}-23+31 yr‑1, which is arguably the best estimate currently available for the nova rate in the Galaxy. Virtually all models produce rates that represent significant increases over recent estimates, and bring the Galactic nova rate into better agreement with that expected based on comparison with the latest results from extragalactic surveys.

  8. The Galactic Spaceship Tour Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Bill; Schmidt, Diane

    2004-01-01

    A science fiction problem was placed before the students, they had to plan a profitable trip for Galactic spaceship tour and for which group of five students was made to solve the problem, which would encourage cooperative efforts, and different people in the group could work on different aspects. An important part of this problem is that students…

  9. PIPER and Polarized Galactic Foregrounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David

    2009-01-01

    In addition to probing inflationary cosmology, PIPER will measure the polarized dust emission from the Galaxy. PIPER will be capable of full (I,0,U,V) measurement over four frequency bands ' These measurements will provide insight into the physics of dust grains and a probe of the Galactic magnetic field on large and intermediate scales.

  10. Fountain-Jet Turbulence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    and 3 times higher than expected from free- jet results. Hill et al., (Reference 6) in work with foun- tain jets impacting fuselage models, detected ...delineate the origins of the turbulent anomalies associated with fountain jets by extending the previous studies. The results are presented herein...jet velocities were detected with a Thermal Systems Inc. Model 1050 dual-channel constant-temperature anemometer equipped with a Thermal Systems Inc

  11. Jets of incipient liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnikov, A. V.; Mazheiko, N. A.; Skripov, V. P.

    2000-05-01

    Jets of incipient water escaping into the atmosphere through a short channel are photographed. In some experiments. complete disintegration of the jet is observed. The relationship of this phenomenon with intense volume incipience is considered. The role of the Coanda effect upon complete opening of the jet is revealed. Measurement results of the recoil force R of the jets of incipient liquids are presented. Cases of negative thrust caused by the Coanda effect are noted. Generalization of experimental data is proposed.

  12. NASA Jet Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    The presentation highlights jet-noise research conducted in the Subsonic Fixed Wing, Supersonics, and Environmentally Responsible Aviation Projects in the Fundamental Aeronautics Program at NASA. The research efforts discussed include NASA's updated Aircraft NOise Prediction Program (ANOPP2), acoustic-analogy-based prediction tools, jet-surface-interaction studies, plasma-actuator investigations, N+2 Supersonics Validation studies, rectangular-jet experiments, twin-jet experiments, and Hybrid Wind Body (HWB) activities.

  13. The GBT HII Region Discovery Survey: Galactic Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balser, Dana S.; Anderson, Loren D.; Bania, Thomas M.; Wenger, Trey

    2015-01-01

    The HII region discovery survey (HRDS) has significantly expanded the census of HII regions in the Galaxy using the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). HII regions are the formation sites of massive OB stars and reveal the locations of current Galactic star formation. They are the archetypical tracers of spiral arms since, unlike other tracers, the identification of an HII region unambiguously locates massive star formation. Their chemical abundances indicate the present state of the ISM and reveal the elemental enrichment caused by the nuclear processing of many stellar generations. We determine kinematic distances in a self consistent way and explore Galactic structure across the Milky Way disk. In thermal equilibrium metal abundances are expected to set the nebular electron temperature with high abundances producing low temperatures. We derive the electron temperature using the radio recombination line-to-continuum ratio and use these values to explore metallicity structure.

  14. Influence of galactic and solar cosmic rays on the Earth's atmosphere and atmosphere processes through nuclear and chemical reactions, and ionization; influence on formation of clouds and on atmospheric electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, L. I.

    In this paper we continue our research described in the monograph 1 and consider the problem how CR influence on the atmosphere and atmosphere processes through nuclear reactions of primary and secondary CR with air and aerosol matter accompanied by the formation of many unstable and stable cosmogenic nuclides through the generation in the atmosphere of secondary relativistic electrons and EAS Extensive Atmospheric Showers playing a crucial role in atmospheric electric field phenomena through air ionization influences on the low ionosphere and radio wave propagation through induced chemical reactions influences on the chemistry of the atmosphere and the ozone layer as well as on the formation of clouds and influence on long-term global climate change section References 1 Lev I Dorman Cosmic Rays in the Earth s Atmosphere and Underground Kluwer Acad Publ Dordrecht Boston London 2004

  15. Galactic arm structure and gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bignami, G. F.; Fichtel, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    Unexpectedly high energy gamma radiation over a broad region of the galactic plane in the general direction of the galactic center was observed. A model is proposed wherein the galactic cosmic rays are preferentially located in the high matter density regions of galactic arm segments, as a result of the weight of the matter in these arms tieing the magnetic fields and hence the cosmic rays to these regions. The presently observed galactic gamma ray longitudinal distribution can be explained with the current estimate of the average galactic matter density: if the average arm to interarm matter ratio is five to one for the major arm segments toward the galactic center from the sun; and if the cosmic ray density normalized to its local value is assumed to be directly proportional to the matter density.

  16. Jet shapes and jet cross sections in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ben-Wei

    2009-10-01

    Energetic partons traversing a hot/dense nuclear medium are expected to lose a large fraction of their energy. In fact, the stopping power of strongly-interacting matter for color-charged particles has, by far, the largest experimentally established effect: the attenuation of the cross section for final-state observables of large mass/momentum/energy. This jet quenching mechanism has been used to successfully explain the strong suppression of the hadron spectra at large transverse momentum observed in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). However, at present, most measurements of hard processes are limited to single particles and particle correlations, which are only the leading fragments of a jet. Experimental advances at RHIC and new opportunities provided by LHC will allow for innovative and much more definitive tests of the mechanisms of parton attenuation in matter. In this study we demonstrate that jet shape and jet cross section measurements are precisely the tools to probe the underlying QCD theory. We present a first step in understanding these shapes and cross sections in heavy ion reactions. Our approach allows for detailed simulations of the experimental acceptance/cuts that help isolate jets in such high-multiplicity environment. It is demonstrated for the first time that the pattern of stimulated gluon emission can be correlated with a variable quenching of the jet rates and provide an approximately model-independent approach to determining the characteristics of the medium-induced bremsstrahlung spectrum. Surprisingly, in realistic simulations of parton propagation through the QGP we find a minimal increase in the mean jet radius even for large jet attenuation. Jet broadening is manifest in the tails of the energy distribution away from the jet axis and its qualification may need high statistics measurements.

  17. Formation of Galactic Prominence in the Galactic Central Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chih-Han; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    2017-02-01

    We carried out 2.5-dimensional resistive MHD simulations to study the formation mechanism of molecular loops observed by Fukui et al. in the Galactic central region. Since it is hard to form molecular loops by lifting up dense molecular gas, we study the formation mechanism of molecular gas in rising magnetic arcades. This model is based on the in situ formation model of solar prominences, in which prominences are formed by cooling instability in helical magnetic flux ropes formed by imposing converging and shearing motion at footpoints of the magnetic arch anchored to the solar surface. We extended this model to Galactic center scale (a few hundreds of parsecs). Numerical results indicate that magnetic reconnection taking place in the current sheet that formed inside the rising magnetic arcade creates dense blobs confined by the rising helical magnetic flux ropes. Thermal instability taking place in the flux ropes forms dense molecular filaments floating at high Galactic latitude. The mass of the filament increases with time and can exceed {10}5 {M}ȯ .

  18. Structure of the Galactic Halo Towards the North Galactic Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinman, T. D.; Bragaglia, A.; Cacciari, C.; Buzzoni, A.; Spagna, A.

    2005-01-01

    We have used RR Lyrae and Blue HB stars as tracers of the old Galactic halo, in order to study the halo structure and the galactic rotation as a function of height above the plane. Our sample includes 40 RR Lyrae and 80 BHB stars that are about 2 to 15 kpc above the plane, in a roughly 250 deg2 area around the North Galactic Pole (NGP). We use proper motions (derived from the GSCII data base) and radial velocities to determine the rotation of the halo. From the whole sample the motion appears to be significantly more retrograde than the samples in the solar neighbourhood, confirming Majewski (1992) results and our own preliminary results based on 1/3 the present sample (Kinman et al. 2003; Spagna et al. 2003). However, the better statistics have now revealed the likely existence of two components, whose characteristics need an accurate analysis of systematic errors on the proper motions in order to be assessed in detail.

  19. Large bouncing jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardin, Karl; Weislogel, Mark

    2016-11-01

    We experimentally investigate the phenomena of large jet rebound (bounce), a mode of fluid transfer following oblique jet impacts on hydrophobic surfaces. We initially seek to describe the regimes of such jet bounce in tests conducted in the weightless environment of a drop tower. A parametric study reveals the dependence of the rebound mode on the relevant dimensionless groups such as Weber number We⊥ defined on the velocity component perpendicular to the surface. We show that significantly larger diameter jets behave similarly as much smaller jets demonstrated during previous terrestrial investigations when We⊥ 1 . For We⊥ > 1 , large jet impacts create fishbone-like structures. We also explore rebounds from nonplanar substrates. Improving our understanding of such jet rebound opens avenues for unique transport capabilities. NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX12A047A.

  20. Hydroacoustic pulsating jet generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unrau, A.; Meier, G. E. A.

    1987-04-01

    A high pressure turbulent jet generator connected to a low pressure hydraulic tube is studied to investigate water hammer in tubes with fast flow variations, generating high pressure pulsating water jets. The pulsating jet generator consists of a tube, a hydraulic valve, a spring, and a water container. The jet is the effect of the combination of turbulent pipe flow with a valve for flow nozzle. The jet pressure depends on specific oscillation impedance and flow velocity variations. For inlet pressure of 0.5 to 2 bar the pressure rises to 40 bar. The described pulsating jet generator is more effective than the earlier model. A piezoelectric pressure controller is used to register pressure signals and high speed photos are made of the jet. Test results are consistent with theoretical calculation.

  1. Collective non-thermal emission from an extragalactic jet interacting with stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieyro, Florencia L.; Torres-Albà, Núria; Bosch-Ramon, Valentí

    2017-08-01

    Context. The central regions of galaxies are complex environments, rich in evolved and/or massive stars. For galaxies hosting an active galactic nucleus (AGN) with jets, the interaction of the jets with the winds of the stars within can lead to particle acceleration, and to extended high-energy emitting regions. Aims: We compute the non-thermal emission produced by the jet flow shocked by stellar winds on the jet scale, far from the jet-star direct interaction region. Methods: First, prescriptions for the winds of the relevant stellar populations in different types of galaxies are obtained. The scenarios adopted include galaxies with their central regions dominated by old or young stellar populations, and with jets of different power. Then, we estimate the available energy to accelerate particles in the jet shock, and compute the transport and energy evolution of the accelerated electrons, plus their synchrotron and inverse Compton emission, in the shocked flow along the jet. Results: A significant fraction of the jet energy, 0.1 - 10%, can potentially be available for the particles accelerated in jet-wind shocks in the studied cases. The non-thermal particles can produce most of the high-energy radiation on jet scales, far from the jet shock region. This high-energy emission will be strongly enhanced in jets aligned with the line of sight due to Doppler boosting effects. Conclusions: The interaction of relativistic jets with stellar winds may contribute significantly to the persistent high-energy emission in some AGNs with jets. However, in the particular case of M 87, this component seems too low to explain the observed gamma-ray fluxes.

  2. Phenomenology of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, J. P.

    1999-04-01

    I review the observational data on AGN, focusing especially on results that may be relevant to sub-parsec discs. After emphasizing the essential unity of the different AGN, from LINERs to quasars, I review several observational tracers which have been claimed to be produced by accretion discs. In most cases the interpretation of these data is ambiguous, but the recent detections of redshifted Fe K alpha by ASCA provide convincing evidence for discs. I briefly review the phenomenology of jets in AGN, and emphasize that jets are detected in all classes of AGN, and in radio-loud AGN comprise a major component of the energy budget. Evidence that jets are relativistic is now compelling for all types of radio-loud AGN and is accumulating even for radio-quiet objects. Data on jets provide a long-term record of AGN activity which constrains aspects of disc history including start-up times, alignment stability and precession, lifetimes, and recurrent activity. Finally, I discuss the distinction between radio-quiet and radio loud AGN, which is broad enough to suggest two fundamentally different types of central engine, although it may not be as clear-cut as is sometimes claimed. At present there is no consensus on the nature of this difference. I draw attention to the broad absorption line (BAL) phenomenon, which signposts powerful but uncollimated outflows in radio-quiet AGN, which may correspond to the powerful jets in the radio-loud objects.

  3. SPATIALLY RESOLVED IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPY OF CANDIDATE DUAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    McGurk, R. C.; Max, C. E.; Medling, A. M.; Shields, G. A.; Comerford, J. M. E-mail: max@ucolick.org E-mail: shields@lfastro.org

    2015-09-20

    When galaxies merge, both central supermassive black holes are immersed in a dense and chaotic environment. If there is sufficient gas in the nuclear regions, one expects to see close pairs of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or dual AGNs, in a fraction of galaxy mergers. However, finding them remains a challenge. The presence of double-peaked [O iii] emission lines has been proposed as a technique to select dual AGNs efficiently. We studied a sample of double-peaked narrow [O iii] emitting AGNs from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7. By obtaining new and archival high spatial resolution images taken with the Keck II Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system and the near-infrared camera NIRC2, we show that 30% of 140 double-peaked [O iii] emission line SDSS AGNs have two spatial components within a 3″ radius. However, spatially resolved spectroscopy or X-ray observations are needed to confirm these galaxy pairs as systems containing two AGNs. We followed up three spatially double candidate dual AGNs with integral field spectroscopy from Keck OSIRIS and 10 candidates with long-slit spectroscopy from the Shane Kast Double Spectrograph at Lick Observatory. We find that the double-peaked emission lines in our sample of 12 candidates are caused by: one dual AGN (SDSS J114642.47+511029.6), one confirmed outflow and four likely outflows, two pairs of star-forming galaxies, one candidate indeterminate due to sky line interference, and three AGNs with spatially coincident double [O iii] peaks, likely due to unresolved complex narrow line kinematics, outflows, binary AGN, or small-scale jets.

  4. Spatially Resolved Imaging and Spectroscopy of Candidate Dual Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGurk, R. C.; Max, C. E.; Medling, A. M.; Shields, G. A.; Comerford, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    When galaxies merge, both central supermassive black holes are immersed in a dense and chaotic environment. If there is sufficient gas in the nuclear regions, one expects to see close pairs of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or dual AGNs, in a fraction of galaxy mergers. However, finding them remains a challenge. The presence of double-peaked [O iii] emission lines has been proposed as a technique to select dual AGNs efficiently. We studied a sample of double-peaked narrow [O iii] emitting AGNs from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7. By obtaining new and archival high spatial resolution images taken with the Keck II Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system and the near-infrared camera NIRC2, we show that 30% of 140 double-peaked [O iii] emission line SDSS AGNs have two spatial components within a 3″ radius. However, spatially resolved spectroscopy or X-ray observations are needed to confirm these galaxy pairs as systems containing two AGNs. We followed up three spatially double candidate dual AGNs with integral field spectroscopy from Keck OSIRIS and 10 candidates with long-slit spectroscopy from the Shane Kast Double Spectrograph at Lick Observatory. We find that the double-peaked emission lines in our sample of 12 candidates are caused by: one dual AGN (SDSS J114642.47+511029.6), one confirmed outflow and four likely outflows, two pairs of star-forming galaxies, one candidate indeterminate due to sky line interference, and three AGNs with spatially coincident double [O iii] peaks, likely due to unresolved complex narrow line kinematics, outflows, binary AGN, or small-scale jets.

  5. Non-thermal emission from the interaction of extragalactic jets with stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieyro, F. L.; Torres-Albà, N.; Bosch-Ramon, V.

    2017-01-01

    The central regions of galaxies are rich environments, with abundant stars and medium inhomogeneities. For galaxies hosting active galactic nuclei, the interaction of a relativistic jet with obstacles can lead to the formation of shocks, where particles can be accelerated up to relativistic energies. In this work, we analyze the non-thermal radiation produced by electrons accelerated in these shocks. We first characterize the stellar population inside the jet. Then, we study the transport of relativistic electrons, and compute their synchrotron and inverse Compton emission. In particular, we focus our research on AGN jets aligned with the line of sight, where the observed emission is significantly enhanced by Doppler boosting.

  6. The Importance of Jet Bending in Gamma-Ray AGNs—Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, P. J.; Tingay, S. J.

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the hypothesis that γ-ray-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have a greater tendency for jet bending than γ-ray-loud AGNs, revisiting the analysis of Tingay et al. We perform a statistical analysis using a large sample of 351 radio-loud AGNs along with γ-ray identifications from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Our results show no statistically significant differences in jet-bending properties between γ-ray-loud and γ-ray-quiet populations, indicating that jet bending is not a significant factor for γ-ray detection in AGNs.

  7. Shielding against galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, W.; Wilson, J. W.; Nealy, J. E.; Thibeault, S. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Shinn, J. L.; Kim, M.; Kiefer, R.

    1996-01-01

    Ions of galactic origin are modified but not attenuated by the presence of shielding materials. Indeed, the number of particles and the absorbed energy behind most shield materials increases as a function of shield thickness. The modification of the galactic cosmic ray composition upon interaction with shielding is the only effective means of providing astronaut protection. This modification is intimately conntected with the shield transport porperties and is a strong function of shield composition. The systematic behavior of the shield properites in terms of microscopic energy absorption events will be discussed. The shield effectiveness is examined with respect to convectional protection practice and in terms of a biological endpoint: the efficiency for reduction of the probability of transformation of shielded C3H1OT1/2 mouse cells. The relative advantage of developing new shielding technologies is discussed in terms of a shield performance as related to biological effect and the resulting uncertainty in estimating astronaut risk.

  8. Relativistic MHD simulations of core-collapse GRB jets: 3D instabilities and magnetic dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromberg, Omer; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Relativistic jets are associated with extreme astrophysical phenomena, like the core collapse of massive stars in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and the accretion on to supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei. It is generally accepted that these jets are powered electromagnetically, by the magnetized rotation of a central compact object (black hole or neutron star). However, how the jets produce the observed emission and survive the propagation for many orders of magnitude in distance without being disrupted by current-driven instabilities is the subject of active debate. We carry out time-dependent 3D relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of relativistic, Poynting-flux-dominated jets. The jets are launched self-consistently by the rotation of a strongly magnetized central object. This determines the natural degree of azimuthal magnetic field winding, a crucial factor that controls jet stability. We find that the jets are susceptible to two types of instability: (i) a global, external kink mode that grows on long time-scales. It bodily twists the jet, reducing its propagation velocity. We show analytically that in flat density profiles, like the ones associated with galactic cores, the external mode grows and may stall the jet. In the steep profiles of stellar envelopes the external kink weakens as the jet propagates outward. (ii) a local, internal kink mode that grows over short time-scales and causes small-angle magnetic reconnection and conversion of about half of the jet electromagnetic energy flux into heat. We suggest that internal kink instability is the main dissipation mechanism responsible for powering GRB prompt emission.

  9. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britt, C. T.; Hynes, R. I.; Jonker, P. G.; Maccarone, T.; Torres, M. A. P.; Steeghs, D.; Nelemans, G.; Johnson, C.; Greiss, S.

    2015-05-01

    The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) is a multi-wavelength survey of two 6×1 degree strips above and below the Galactic plane, including deep r' and i' imaging and time domain photometry from CTIO and shallow, wide-field X-ray imaging with Chandra. Targeting fields above |b|=1 avoids most of the copious extinction along the Galactic plane while maintaining high source density. This results in targets that are accessible to follow up in optical and NIR wavelengths. The X-ray observations are shallow to maximize the number of quiescent Low Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs) relative to Cataclysmic Variables (CVs). The goals of the GBS are to conduct a census of Low Mass X-ray Binaries in the Milky Way in order to constrain models of binary evolution, the common envelope phase in particular, and to expand the number of known LMXBs for optical follow up. Mass measurements in particular will help constrain the black hole (BH) mass distribution and the equation of state for neutron stars (NS). Constraining the BH mass distribution will constrain models of their formation in supernovae. The current population of Galactic BHs suffers from selection effects, which the GBS avoids by finding new objects while still in quiescence. We expect to find qLMXBs, magnetic CVs, RS CVn stars, and smaller numbers of other types of sources. After removing duplicates, there are 1640 unique X-ray sources in the 12 square degree survey area, which closely matches the predicted number of 1648. We are currently matching X-ray sources to counterparts in other wavelengths using new photometric and spectroscopic observations as well as in archival data where it exists, and searching for variability and periodicity in the counterparts in photometric data. So far, we have spectroscopically identified 27 interacting binaries including promising candidates for quiescent black holes.

  10. How supernovae launch galactic winds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, Drummond; Quataert, Eliot; Martizzi, Davide; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André

    2017-09-01

    We use idealized three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of global galactic discs to study the launching of galactic winds by supernovae (SNe). The simulations resolve the cooling radii of the majority of supernova remnants (SNRs) and thus self-consistently capture how SNe drive galactic winds. We find that SNe launch highly supersonic winds with properties that agree reasonably well with expectations from analytic models. The energy loading (η _E= \\dot{E}_wind/ \\dot{E}_SN) of the winds in our simulations are well converged with spatial resolution while the wind mass loading (η _M= \\dot{M}_wind/\\dot{M}_\\star) decreases with resolution at the resolutions we achieve. We present a simple analytic model based on the concept that SNRs with cooling radii greater than the local scaleheight break out of the disc and power the wind. This model successfully explains the dependence (or lack thereof) of ηE (and by extension ηM) on the gas surface density, star formation efficiency, disc radius and the clustering of SNe. The winds our simulations are weaker than expected in reality, likely due to the fact that we seed SNe preferentially at density peaks. Clustering SNe in time and space substantially increases the wind power.

  11. Simulating Galactic Winds on Supercomputers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Evan

    2017-01-01

    Galactic winds are a ubiquitous feature of rapidly star-forming galaxies. Observations of nearby galaxies have shown that winds are complex, multiphase phenomena, comprised of outflowing gas at a large range of densities, temperatures, and velocities. Describing how starburst-driven outflows originate, evolve, and affect the circumgalactic medium and gas supply of galaxies is an important challenge for theories of galaxy evolution. In this talk, I will discuss how we are using a new hydrodynamics code, Cholla, to improve our understanding of galactic winds. Cholla is a massively parallel, GPU-based code that takes advantage of specialized hardware on the newest generation of supercomputers. With Cholla, we can perform large, three-dimensional simulations of multiphase outflows, allowing us to track the coupling of mass and momentum between gas phases across hundreds of parsecs at sub-parsec resolution. The results of our recent simulations demonstrate that the evolution of cool gas in galactic winds is highly dependent on the initial structure of embedded clouds. In particular, we find that turbulent density structures lead to more efficient mass transfer from cool to hot phases of the wind. I will discuss the implications of our results both for the incorporation of winds into cosmological simulations, and for interpretations of observed multiphase winds and the circumgalatic medium of nearby galaxies.

  12. Constraints on galactic wind models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiksin, Avery

    2016-09-01

    Observational implications are derived for two standard models of supernovae-driven galactic winds: a freely expanding steady-state wind and a wind sourced by a self-similarly expanding superbubble including thermal heat conduction. It is shown that, for the steady-state wind, matching the measured correlation between the soft X-ray luminosity and star formation rate of starburst galaxies is equivalent to producing a scaled wind mass-loading factor relative to the star formation rate of 0.5-3, in agreement with the amount inferred from metal absorption line measurements. The match requires the asymptotic wind velocity v∞ to scale with the star formation rate dot{M}_{ast } (in M⊙ yr-1) approximately as v_∞ ≃ (700-1000) {{km s^{-1}}} {dot{M}_{ast }}^{1/6}. The implied mass injection rate is close to the amount naturally provided by thermal evaporation from the wall of a superbubble in a galactic disc, suggesting that thermal evaporation may be a major source of mass loading. The predicted mass-loading factors from thermal evaporation within the galactic disc alone, however, are somewhat smaller, 0.2-2, so that a further contribution from cloud ablation or evaporation within the wind may be required. Both models may account for the 1.4 GHz luminosity of unresolved radio sources within starburst galaxies for plausible parameters describing the distribution of relativistic electrons. Further observational tests to distinguish the models are suggested.

  13. Discovery of a Pseudobulge Galaxy Launching Powerful Relativistic Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotilainen, Jari K.; León-Tavares, Jonathan; Olguín-Iglesias, Alejandro; Baes, Maarten; Anórve, Christopher; Chavushyan, Vahram; Carrasco, Luis

    2016-12-01

    Supermassive black holes launching plasma jets at close to the speed of light, producing gamma-rays, have ubiquitously been found to be hosted by massive elliptical galaxies. Since elliptical galaxies are generally believed to be built through galaxy mergers, active galactic nuclei (AGN) launching relativistic jets are associated with the latest stages of galaxy evolution. We have discovered a pseudobulge morphology in the host galaxy of the gamma-ray AGN PKS 2004-447. This is the first gamma-ray emitter radio-loud AGN found to have been launched from a system where both the black hole and host galaxy have been actively growing via secular processes. This is evidence of an alternative black hole-galaxy co-evolutionary path to develop powerful relativistic jets, which is not merger driven.

  14. Magnetically driven relativistic jets and winds: Exact solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Contopoulos, J.

    1994-01-01

    We present self-consistent solutions of the full set of ideal MHD equations which describe steady-state relativistic cold outflows from thin accretion disks. The magnetic field forms a spiral which is anchored in the disk, rotates with it, and accelerates the flow out of the disk plane. The collimation at large distances depends on the total amount of electric current that flows along the jet. We considered various distributions of electric current and derived the result that in straight jets which extend to infinite distances, a strong electric current flows along their axis of symmetry. The asymptotic flow velocities are of the order of the initial rotational velocity at the base of the flow (a few tenths of the speed of light). The solutions are applied to both galactic (small-scale) and extragalactic (large-scale) jets.

  15. Relativistic HD and MHD modelling for AGN jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppens, R.; Porth, O.; Monceau-Baroux, R.; Walg, S.

    2013-12-01

    Relativistic hydro and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) provide a continuum fluid description for plasma dynamics characterized by shock-dominated flows approaching the speed of light. Significant progress in its numerical modelling emerged in the last two decades; we highlight selected examples of modern grid-adaptive, massively parallel simulations realized by our open-source software MPI-AMRVAC (Keppens et al 2012 J. Comput. Phys. 231 718). Hydrodynamical models quantify how energy transfer from active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets to their surrounding interstellar/intergalactic medium (ISM/IGM) gets mediated through shocks and various fluid instability mechanisms (Monceau-Baroux et al 2012 Astron. Astrophys. 545 A62). With jet parameters representative for Fanaroff-Riley type-II jets with finite opening angles, we can quantify the ISM volumes affected by jet injection and distinguish the roles of mixing versus shock-heating in cocoon regions. This provides insight in energy feedback by AGN jets, usually incorporated parametrically in cosmological evolution scenarios. We discuss recent axisymmetric studies up to full 3D simulations for precessing relativistic jets, where synthetic radio maps can confront observations. While relativistic hydrodynamic models allow one to better constrain dynamical parameters like the Lorentz factor and density contrast between jets and their surroundings, the role of magnetic fields in AGN jet dynamics and propagation characteristics needs full relativistic MHD treatments. Then, we can demonstrate the collimating properties of an overal helical magnetic field backbone and study differences between poloidal versus toroidal field dominated scenarios (Keppens et al 2008 Astron. Astrophys. 486 663). Full 3D simulations allow one to consider the fate of non-axisymmetric perturbations on relativistic jet propagation from rotating magnetospheres (Porth 2013 Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 429 2482). Self-stabilization mechanisms related to the detailed

  16. Jet Substructure Without Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP

    2011-08-19

    We present an alternative approach to identifying and characterizing jet substructure. An angular correlation function is introduced that can be used to extract angular and mass scales within a jet without reference to a clustering algorithm. This procedure gives rise to a number of useful jet observables. As an application, we construct a top quark tagging algorithm that is competitive with existing methods. In preparation for the LHC, the past several years have seen extensive work on various aspects of collider searches. With the excellent resolution of the ATLAS and CMS detectors as a catalyst, one area that has undergone significant development is jet substructure physics. The use of jet substructure techniques, which probe the fine-grained details of how energy is distributed in jets, has two broad goals. First, measuring more than just the bulk properties of jets allows for additional probes of QCD. For example, jet substructure measurements can be compared against precision perturbative QCD calculations or used to tune Monte Carlo event generators. Second, jet substructure allows for additional handles in event discrimination. These handles could play an important role at the LHC in discriminating between signal and background events in a wide variety of particle searches. For example, Monte Carlo studies indicate that jet substructure techniques allow for efficient reconstruction of boosted heavy objects such as the W{sup {+-}} and Z{sup 0} gauge bosons, the top quark, and the Higgs boson.

  17. Jet Signatures in the Spectra of Accreting Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O' Riordan, Michael; Pe'er, Asaf; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2016-03-01

    Jets are observed as radio emission in active galactic nuclei and during the low/hard state in X-ray binaries (XRBs), but their contribution at higher frequencies has been uncertain. We study the dynamics of jets in XRBs using the general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code HARM. We calculate the high-energy spectra and variability properties using a general-relativistic radiative transport code based on grmonty. We find the following signatures of jet emission: (i) a significant γ-ray peak above ˜1022 Hz, (ii) a break in the optical/UV spectrum, with a change from ν {L}ν ˜ {ν }0 to ν {L}ν ˜ ν , followed by another break at higher frequencies where the spectrum roughly returns to ν {L}ν ˜ {ν }0, and (iii) a pronounced synchrotron peak near or below ˜1014 Hz indicates that a significant fraction of any observed X-ray emission originates in the jet. We investigate the variability during a large-scale magnetic field inversion in which the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) jet is quenched and a new transient hot reconnecting plasmoid is launched by the reconnecting field. The ratio of the γ-rays to X-rays changes from {L}γ /{L}{{X}}\\gt 1 in the BZ jet to {L}γ /{L}{{X}}\\lt 1 during the launching of the transient plasmoid.

  18. Disk-Jet Connection in the Nearby Low Luminosity AGN M 81: A Proposal for VSOP-2 Key Science Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, H.; Asada, K.; Doi, A.; Kino, M.; Kameno, S.; VSOP-2 Science Working Group

    2009-08-01

    We propose a monitoring observation to probe the disk-jet connection in the nearby low luminosity AGN M 81 with VSOP-2 and an X-ray telescope. M 81 is the nearest Active Galactic Nuclei and VSOP-2 can resolve the region near the central black hole and jet-launching region. This proposal is one of the Key Science Programs. Key Science Programs (KSPs) for science observations of Active Galactic Nuclei, are made under the responsibility of the VSOP-2 mission and determined by the VSOP-2 Science Working Group, and by the VISC-2.

  19. Self-similar semi-analytical RMHD jet model: first steps towards a more comprehensive jet modelling for data fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markoff, Sera; Ceccobello, Chiara; Heemskerk, Martin; Cavecchi, Yuri; Polko, Peter; Meier, David

    2017-08-01

    Jets are ubiquitous and reveal themselves at different scales and redshifts, showing an extreme diversity in energetics, shapes and emission. Indeed jets are found to be characteristic features of black hole systems, such as X-ray binaries (XRBs) and active galactic nuclei (AGN), as well as of young stellar objects (YSOs) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Observations suggest that jets are an energetically important component of the system that hosts them, because the jet power appears to be comparable to the accretion power. Significant evidence has been found of the impact of jets not only in the immediate proximity of the central object, but as well on their surrounding environment, where they deposit the energy extracted from the accretion flow. Moreover, the inflow/outflow system produces radiation over the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from radio to X-rays. Therefore it is a compelling problem to be solved and deeply understood. I present a new integration scheme to solve radial self-similar, stationary, axisymmetric relativistic magneto-hydro-dynamics (MHD) equations describing collimated, relativistic outflows crossing smoothly all the singular points (the Alfvén point and the modified slow/fast points). For the first time, the integration can be performed all the way from the disk mid-plane to downstream of the modified fast point. I will discuss an ensemble of jet solutions showing diverse jet dynamics (jet Lorentz factor ~ 1-10) and geometric properties (i.e. shock height ~ 103 - 107 gravitational radii), which makes our model suitable for application to many different systems where a relativistic jet is launched.

  20. The Reversal of Time Sequence and abrupt direction change of Astrophysical Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Biping

    2015-08-01

    The discrepancy in the propagation times from different parts of a moving source can result in an apparent transverse velocity exceeding the speed of light, which is the well known scenario of superluminal motion.This work shows that the same effect of time delay can even reverse the time sequence of appearance of components in a parsec-scale jets of active galactic nuclei like 3C 279. At such a scale, a component, reproduced somewhere in jet earlier but more distant from the observer, travels longer time to the observer, so that it can emerge later than those ones with shorter distance to the observer which actually generated later.Interestingly, this scenario well explains the increasing samples of abrupt change of jet direction exhibited by the long base line observation of jets of active galactic nuclei.Revealing such an effect of time reversal is of importance in the understanding of the nature of jets in different systems from active galactic nuclei to X-ray binaries.

  1. Radiative versus Jet Mode in Radio Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardcastle, Martin

    2016-07-01

    In the local universe, the vast majority of radio-loud active galaxies show none of the conventional AGN apparatus of accretion disk, torus, corona, or broad/narrow-line regions. Instead such nuclear emission as they have appears to be completely dominated by emission directly from the jet; the accretion, which must be present to drive the jet, appears to be highly radiatively inefficient. However, the most radio-luminous objects in the universe are almost all quasars (type I or type II) which behave in the textbook manner, appearing as a normal radiatively efficient AGN with the addition of a jet. The past decade has seen a substantial evolution in our understanding of the physical origins of these differences, their relation to the host galaxy and environment, and their interpretation in terms of completely unified models of AGN, and I will review our current understanding of these issues in my talk.

  2. SAS-2 galactic gamma ray results, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Bignami, G. F.; Lamb, R. C.; Oegelman, H.; Oezel, M. E.; Tuemer, T.

    1976-01-01

    Continuing analysis of the data from the SAS-2 high energy gamma-ray experiment has produced an improved picture of the sky at photon energies above 35 MeV. On a large scale, the diffuse emission from the galactic plane is the dominant feature observed by SAS-2. This galactic plane emission is most intense between galactic longitude 310 and 45 deg, corresponding to a region within 7kpc of the galactic center. Within the high-intensity region, SAS-2 observes peaks around galactic longitudes 315 deg, 330 deg, 345 deg, 0 deg, and 35 deg. These peaks appear to be correlated with such galactic features and components as molecular hydrogen, atomic hydrogen, magnetic fields, cosmic ray concentrations, and photon fields.

  3. Evidence for an old Galactic bulge from RR Lyrae stars in Baade's window - Implications for the formation of the Galaxy and the age of the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Young-Wook

    1992-01-01

    Recent abundance measurements of RR Lyrae variables in the Baade's window field of the Galactic nuclear bulge are examined, and the observed metallicity distributions of the RR Lyraes in different Galactic radial zones are compared with those predicted for the HB population models. It is shown that the observed systematic variation with Galactocentric distance is only explained if the age of the stellar population increases, in the mean, with decreasing R(G). Thus, the oldest stellar population, the RR Lyraes in the Galactic nuclear bulge, is indeed older than that in the halo.

  4. Evidence for an old Galactic bulge from RR Lyrae stars in Baade's window - Implications for the formation of the Galaxy and the age of the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Young-Wook

    1992-01-01

    Recent abundance measurements of RR Lyrae variables in the Baade's window field of the Galactic nuclear bulge are examined, and the observed metallicity distributions of the RR Lyraes in different Galactic radial zones are compared with those predicted for the HB population models. It is shown that the observed systematic variation with Galactocentric distance is only explained if the age of the stellar population increases, in the mean, with decreasing R(G). Thus, the oldest stellar population, the RR Lyraes in the Galactic nuclear bulge, is indeed older than that in the halo.

  5. Evaluating Galactic Cosmic Ray Environment Models Using RaD-X Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, R. B.; Mertens, C. J.; Slaba, T. C.

    2016-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays enter Earth's atmosphere after interacting with the geomagnetic field. The primary galactic cosmic rays spectrum is fundamentally changed as it interacts with Earth's atmosphere through nuclear and atomic interactions. At points deeper in the atmosphere, such as at airline altitudes, the radiation environment is a combination of the primary galactic cosmic rays and the secondary particles produced through nuclear interactions. The RaD-X balloon experiment measured the atmospheric radiation environment above 20 km during 2 days in September 2015. These experimental measurements were used to validate and quantify uncertainty in physics-based models used to calculate exposure levels for commercial aviation. In this paper, the Badhwar-O'Neill 2014, the International Organization for Standardization 15390, and the German Aerospace Company galactic cosmic ray environment models are used as input into the same radiation transport code to predict and compare dosimetric quantities to RaD-X measurements. In general, the various model results match the measured tissue equivalent dose well, with results generated by the German Aerospace Center galactic cosmic ray environment model providing the best comparison. For dose equivalent and dose measured in silicon, however, the models were compared less favorably to the measurements.

  6. Evaluating galactic cosmic ray environment models using RaD-X flight data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, R. B.; Mertens, C. J.; Slaba, T. C.

    2016-10-01

    Galactic cosmic rays enter Earth's atmosphere after interacting with the geomagnetic field. The primary galactic cosmic rays spectrum is fundamentally changed as it interacts with Earth's atmosphere through nuclear and atomic interactions. At points deeper in the atmosphere, such as at airline altitudes, the radiation environment is a combination of the primary galactic cosmic rays and the secondary particles produced through nuclear interactions. The RaD-X balloon experiment measured the atmospheric radiation environment above 20 km during 2 days in September 2015. These experimental measurements were used to validate and quantify uncertainty in physics-based models used to calculate exposure levels for commercial aviation. In this paper, the Badhwar-O'Neill 2014, the International Organization for Standardization 15390, and the German Aerospace Company galactic cosmic ray environment models are used as input into the same radiation transport code to predict and compare dosimetric quantities to RaD-X measurements. In general, the various model results match the measured tissue equivalent dose well, with results generated by the German Aerospace Center galactic cosmic ray environment model providing the best comparison. For dose equivalent and dose measured in silicon, however, the models were compared less favorably to the measurements.

  7. Evaluating Galactic Cosmic Ray Environment Models Using RaD-X Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, R. B.; Mertens, C. J.; Slaba, T. C.

    2016-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays enter Earth's atmosphere after interacting with the geomagnetic field. The primary galactic cosmic rays spectrum is fundamentally changed as it interacts with Earth's atmosphere through nuclear and atomic interactions. At points deeper in the atmosphere, such as at airline altitudes, the radiation environment is a combination of the primary galactic cosmic rays and the secondary particles produced through nuclear interactions. The RaD-X balloon experiment measured the atmospheric radiation environment above 20 km during 2 days in September 2015. These experimental measurements were used to validate and quantify uncertainty in physics-based models used to calculate exposure levels for commercial aviation. In this paper, the Badhwar-O'Neill 2014, the International Organization for Standardization 15390, and the German Aerospace Company galactic cosmic ray environment models are used as input into the same radiation transport code to predict and compare dosimetric quantities to RaD-X measurements. In general, the various model results match the measured tissue equivalent dose well, with results generated by the German Aerospace Center galactic cosmic ray environment model providing the best comparison. For dose equivalent and dose measured in silicon, however, the models were compared less favorably to the measurements.

  8. Relativistic Particle-In-Cell Simulations of Particle Accleration in Relativistic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Medvedev, M.; Hartmann, D. H.; Fishman, J. F.

    2008-01-01

    Highly accelerated particles are observed in astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), microquasars, and Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations of relativistic electron-ion and electron-positron jets injected into a stationary medium show that efficient acceleration occurs downstream in the jet. In collisionless relativistic shocks particle acceleration is due to plasma waves and their associated instabilities, e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-stream instabilities, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability. Simulations show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly non-uniform, small-scale magnetic fields. The instability depends on strength and direction of the magnetic field. Particles in relativistic jets may be accelerated in a complicated dynamics of relativistic jets with magnetic field. We present results of our recent PIC simulations.

  9. Relativistic jet models for the BL Lacertae object Mrk 421 during three epochs of observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mufson, S. L.; Hutter, D. J.; Kondo, Y.; Wisniewski, W. Z.

    1988-01-01

    Coordinated observation of the nearby BL Lacertae object Mrk 421 obtained during May 1980, January 1984, and March 1984 are described. These observations give a time-frozen picture of the continuous spectrum of Mrk 421 at X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and radio wavelengths. The observed spectra have been fitted to an inhomogeneous relativistic jet model. In general, the models reproduce the data well. Many of the observed differences during the three epochs can be attributed to variations in the opening angle of the jet and in the angle that the jet makes to the line of sight. The jet models obtained here are compared with the homogeneous, spherically symmetric, synchrotron self-Compton models for this source. The models are also compared with the relativistic jet models obtained for other active galactic nuclei.

  10. A Universal Scaling for the Energetics of Relativistic Jets From Black Hole Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemmen, R. S.; Georganopoulos, M.; Guiriec, S.; Meyer, E. T.; Gehrels, N.; Sambruna, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Black holes generate collimated, relativistic jets which have been observed in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), microquasars, and at the center of some galaxies (active galactic nuclei; AGN). How jet physics scales from stellar black holes in GRBs to the supermassive ones in AGNs is still unknown. Here we show that jets produced by AGNs and GRBs exhibit the same correlation between the kinetic power carried by accelerated particles and the gamma-ray luminosity, with AGNs and GRBs lying at the low and high-luminosity ends, respectively, of the correlation. This result implies that the efficiency of energy dissipation in jets produced in black hole systems is similar over 10 orders of magnitude in jet power, establishing a physical analogy between AGN and GRBs.

  11. Relativistic Particle-In-Cell Simulations of Particle Accleration in Relativistic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Medvedev, M.; Hartmann, D. H.; Fishman, J. F.

    2008-01-01

    Highly accelerated particles are observed in astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), microquasars, and Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations of relativistic electron-ion and electron-positron jets injected into a stationary medium show that efficient acceleration occurs downstream in the jet. In collisionless relativistic shocks particle acceleration is due to plasma waves and their associated instabilities, e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-stream instabilities, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability. Simulations show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly non-uniform, small-scale magnetic fields. The instability depends on strength and direction of the magnetic field. Particles in relativistic jets may be accelerated in a complicated dynamics of relativistic jets with magnetic field. We present results of our recent PIC simulations.

  12. A universal scaling for the energetics of relativistic jets from black hole systems.

    PubMed

    Nemmen, R S; Georganopoulos, M; Guiriec, S; Meyer, E T; Gehrels, N; Sambruna, R M

    2012-12-14

    Black holes generate collimated, relativistic jets, which have been observed in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), microquasars, and at the center of some galaxies [active galactic nuclei (AGN)]. How jet physics scales from stellar black holes in GRBs to the supermassive ones in AGN is still unknown. Here, we show that jets produced by AGN and GRBs exhibit the same correlation between the kinetic power carried by accelerated particles and the gamma-ray luminosity, with AGN and GRBs lying at the low- and high-luminosity ends, respectively, of the correlation. This result implies that the efficiency of energy dissipation in jets produced in black hole systems is similar over 10 orders of magnitude in jet power, establishing a physical analogy between AGN and GRBs.

  13. Jet-launching structure resolved near the supermassive black hole in M87.

    PubMed

    Doeleman, Sheperd S; Fish, Vincent L; Schenck, David E; Beaudoin, Christopher; Blundell, Ray; Bower, Geoffrey C; Broderick, Avery E; Chamberlin, Richard; Freund, Robert; Friberg, Per; Gurwell, Mark A; Ho, Paul T P; Honma, Mareki; Inoue, Makoto; Krichbaum, Thomas P; Lamb, James; Loeb, Abraham; Lonsdale, Colin; Marrone, Daniel P; Moran, James M; Oyama, Tomoaki; Plambeck, Richard; Primiani, Rurik A; Rogers, Alan E E; Smythe, Daniel L; SooHoo, Jason; Strittmatter, Peter; Tilanus, Remo P J; Titus, Michael; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wright, Melvyn; Young, Ken H; Ziurys, Lucy M

    2012-10-19

    Approximately 10% of active galactic nuclei exhibit relativistic jets, which are powered by the accretion of matter onto supermassive black holes. Although the measured width profiles of such jets on large scales agree with theories of magnetic collimation, the predicted structure on accretion disk scales at the jet launch point has not been detected. We report radio interferometry observations, at a wavelength of 1.3 millimeters, of the elliptical galaxy M87 that spatially resolve the base of the jet in this source. The derived size of 5.5 ± 0.4 Schwarzschild radii is significantly smaller than the innermost edge of a retrograde accretion disk, suggesting that the M87 jet is powered by an accretion disk in a prograde orbit around a spinning black hole.

  14. The physics of galactic winds driven by active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Quataert, Eliot

    2012-09-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) drive fast winds in the interstellar medium of their host galaxies. It is commonly assumed that the high ambient densities and intense radiation fields in galactic nuclei imply short cooling times, thus making the outflows momentum conserving. We show that cooling of high-velocity shocked winds in AGN is in fact inefficient in a wide range of circumstances, including conditions relevant to ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), resulting in energy-conserving outflows. We further show that fast energy-conserving outflows can tolerate a large amount of mixing with cooler gas before radiative losses become important. For winds with initial velocity vin ≳ 10 000 km s-1, as observed in ultraviolet and X-ray absorption, the shocked wind develops a two-temperature structure. While most of the thermal pressure support is provided by the protons, the cooling processes operate directly only on the electrons. This significantly slows down inverse Compton cooling, while free-free cooling is negligible. Slower winds with vin ˜ 1000 km s-1, such as may be driven by radiation pressure on dust, can also experience energy-conserving phases but under more restrictive conditions. During the energy-conserving phase, the momentum flux of an outflow is boosted by a factor ˜vin/2vs by work done by the hot post-shock gas, where vs is the velocity of the swept-up material. Energy-conserving outflows driven by fast AGN winds (vin ˜ 0.1c) may therefore explain the momentum fluxes Ṗ≫LAGN/c of galaxy-scale outflows recently measured in luminous quasars and ULIRGs. Shocked wind bubbles expanding normal to galactic discs may also explain the large-scale bipolar structures observed in some systems, including around the Galactic Centre, and can produce significant radio, X-ray and γ-ray emission. The analytic solutions presented here will inform implementations of AGN feedback in numerical simulations, which typically do not include all the important

  15. Dielectronic Recombination In Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukic, D. V.; Schnell, M.; Savin, D. W.; Altun, Z.; Badnell, N.; Brandau, C.; Schmidt, E. W.; Müller, A.; Schippers, S.; Sprenger, F.; Lestinsky, M.; Wolf, A.

    XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of active galactic nuclei (AGN) show rich spectra of X-ray absorption lines. These observations have detected a broad unresolved transition array (UTA) between ˜ 15-17 Å. This is attributed to inner-shell photoexcitation of M-shell iron ions. Modeling these UTA features is currently limited by uncertainties in the low-temperature dielectronic recombination (DR) data for M-shell iron. In order to resolve this issue, and to provide reliable iron M-shell DR data for plasma modeling, we are carrying out a series of laboratory measurements using the heavy-ion Test Storage Ring (TSR) at the Max-Plank-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. Currently, laboratory measurements of low temperature DR can only be performed at storage rings. We use the DR data obtained at TSR, to calculate rate coefficients for plasma modeling and to benchmark theoretical DR calculations. Here we report our recent experimental results for DR of Fe XIV forming Fe XIII.

  16. Dielectronic Recombination In Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukic, D. V.; Schnell, M.; Savin, D. W.; Altun, Z.; Badnell, N.; Brandau, C.; Schmidt, E. W.; Mueller, A.; Schippers, S.; Sprenger, F.; Lestinsky, M.; Wolf, A.

    2006-01-01

    XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of active galactic nuclei (AGN) show rich spectra of X-ray absorption lines. These observations have detected a broad unresolved transition array (UTA) between approx. 15-17 A. This is attributed to inner-shell photoexcitation of M-shell iron ions. Modeling these UTA features is currently limited by uncertainties in the low-temperature dielectronic recombination (DR) data for M-shell iron. In order to resolve this issue, and to provide reliable iron M-shell DR data for plasma modeling, we are carrying out a series of laboratory measurements using the heavy-ion Test Storage Ring (TSR) at the Max-Plank-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. Currently, laboratory measurements of low temperature DR can only be performed at storage rings. We use the DR data obtained at TSR, to calculate rate coefficients for plasma modeling and to benchmark theoretical DR calculations. Here we report our recent experimental results for DR of Fe XIV forming Fe XIII.

  17. Interpretation of extragalactic jets

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of extragalatic radio jets is modeled. The basic hypothesis of these models is that extragalatic jets are outflows of matter which can be described within the framework of fluid dynamics and that the outflows are essentially continuous. The discussion is limited to the interpretation of large-scale (i.e., kiloparsec-scale) jets. The central problem is to infer the physical parameters of the jets from observed distributions of total and polarized intensity and angle of polarization as a function of frequency. 60 refs., 6 figs.

  18. The jet in crossflowa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagozian, Ann R.

    2014-10-01

    The jet in crossflow, or transverse jet, is a flowfield that has relevance to a wide range of energy and propulsion systems. Over the years, our group's studies on this canonical flowfield have focused on the dynamics of the vorticity associated with equidensity and variable density jets in crossflow, including the stability characteristics of the jet's upstream shear layer, as a means of explaining jet response to altered types of excitation. The jet's upstream shear layer is demonstrated to exhibit convectively unstable behavior at high jet-to-crossflow momentum flux ratios, transitioning to absolutely unstable behavior at low momentum flux and/or density ratios, with attendant differences in shear layer vorticity evolution and rollup. These differences in stability characteristics are shown to have a significant effect on how one optimally employs external excitation to control jet penetration and spread, depending on the flow regime and specific engineering application. Yet recent unexpected observations on altered transverse jet structure under different flow conditions introduce a host of unanswered questions, primarily but not exclusively associated with the nature of molecular mixing, that make this canonical flowfield one that is of great interest for more extensive exploration.

  19. Atomic Hydrogen in a Galactic Center Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Green, J. A.; Hill, A. S.; Lockman, F. J.; Dickey, J. M.; Gaensler, B. M.; Green, A. J.

    2013-06-01

    We describe a population of small, high-velocity, atomic hydrogen clouds, loops, and filaments found above and below the disk near the Galactic center. The objects have a mean radius of 15 pc, velocity widths of ~14 km s-1, and are observed at |z| heights up to 700 pc. The velocity distribution of the clouds shows no signature of Galactic rotation. We propose a scenario where the clouds are associated with an outflow from a central star-forming region at the Galactic center. We discuss the clouds as entrained material traveling at ~200 km s-1 in a Galactic wind.

  20. The precessing jets of 1E 1740.7-2942

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L.; Martí, Josep; Martínez-Aroza, José

    2015-12-01

    Context. The source 1E 1740.7-2942 is believed to be one of the two prototypical microquasars towards the Galactic center region whose X-ray states strongly resemble those of Cygnus X-1. Yet, the bipolar radio jets of 1E 1740.7-2942 are very reminiscent of a radio galaxy. The true nature of the object has thus remained an open question for nearly a quarter of a century. Aims: Our main goal here is to confirm the Galactic membership of 1E 1740.7-2942 by searching for morphological changes of its extended radio jets in human timescales. This work was triggered as a result of recent positive detection of fast structural changes in the large-scale jets of the very similar source GRS 1758-258. Methods: We carried out an in-depth exploration of the Very Large Array public archives and fully recalibrated all 1E 1740.7-2942 extended data sets in the C configuration of the array. We obtained and analyzed matching beam radio maps for five epochs, covering years 1992, 1993, 1994, 1997 and 2000, with an angular resolution of a few arcseconds. Results: We clearly detected structural changes in the arc-minute jets of 1E 1740.7-2942 on timescales of roughly a year, which set a firm distance upper limit of 12 kpc. Moreover, a simple precessing twin-jet model was simultaneously fitted to the five observing epochs available. The observed changes in the jet flow are strongly suggestive of a precession period of ~1.3 yr. Conclusions: The fitting of the precession model to the data yields a distance of ~5 kpc. This value, and the observed changes, rule out any remaining doubts about the 1E 1740.7-2942 Galactic nature. To our knowledge, this microquasar is the second whose jet precession ephemeris become available after SS433. This kind of information is relevant to the physics of compact objects, since the genesis of the precession phenomenon occurs very close to the interplay region between the accretion disk and the compact object in the system. Appendix A and a movie associated to

  1. Galactic Sources Detected in the NuSTAR Serendipitous Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomsick, John; Lansbury, George; Rahoui, Farid; Clavel, Maica; Fornasini, Francesca; Hong, JaeSub; Aird, James; Alexander, David M.; Bodaghee, Arash; Chiu, Jeng-Lun; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Hailey, Charles James; Harrison, Fiona; Krivonos, Roman; Mori, Kaya; Stern, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) provides an improvement in sensitivity at energies above 10 keV by two orders of magnitude over non-focusing satellites, making it possible to probe deeper into the Galaxy and Universe. Lansbury and collaborators recently completed a catalog of 497 sources serendipitously detected in the 3-24 keV band using 13 square degrees of NuSTAR coverage. Many of these NuSTAR "serendips" have counterparts at soft X-ray and other wavelengths, and about half of them have been classified, primarily via ground-based optical spectroscopy. While Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are, by far, the largest group within the classified sources, Galactic sources have also been identified based on optical spectra showing emission or absorption lines at zero redshift, previous classifications, or other observed features. We have carried out an optical and X-ray study of 16 Galactic serendips that include X-ray binaries, Cataclysmic Variables, and active stars. We focus, in particular, on constraints on the population of High-Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs) as their overall numbers and fraction that include black holes vs. neutron stars is relevant to predictions for the types of compact object mergers that we expect to see with gravitational wave detectors. Also, X-rays from HMXBs may be important for heating the early Universe. In addition to the HMXBs, we will report on results of observations of other serendips, including a relatively bright and variable source with unusual properties that may be an ultracompact X-ray binary. Finally, we discuss on-going work to classify more of the serendips in the Galactic plane.

  2. A Large-Scale Jet and FR I Radio Source in a Spiral Galaxy: The Host Properties and External Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledlow, Michael J.; Owen, Frazer N.; Yun, Min S.; Hill, John M.

    2001-05-01

    We have identified a large (~200 h-175 kpc), powerful double radio source whose host galaxy is clearly a disk and most likely a spiral. This FR I-like radio galaxy is located very near the center of the richness class 0 cluster A428. The existence of such an object violates a fundamental paradigm for radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs). In our first paper, we showed that this object was most consistent with a spiral host classification with optical emission-line ratios and colors suggestive of an active nucleus. However, we were not able to confirm actual radio jet emission based on the maps available at that time. In this paper, we present new, higher resolution radio imaging, a radio/millimeter continuum spectrum for the nucleus, a detection of H I absorption against the bright radio core, an upper limit to CO emission and the gas mass, and 70 (68 new) optical redshifts measured in the direction of A428. We confirm the existence of a radio jet at 20 cm, extending 42 h-175 into the southern lobe. At 3.6 cm, we also detect a nuclear jet similar in length to that in M87, although 10 times weaker. We believe that this is the first detection of a radio jet on these scales in a disk/spiral host galaxy. The nuclear radio spectrum is similar to many blazar- or quasar-like objects, suggesting that the galaxy harbors an imbedded and obscured AGN. We model a turnover in the spectrum at low frequencies as a result of free-free absorption. We detect very strong and narrow H I absorption, with nearly the entire 20 cm continuum flux of the core being absorbed, implying an unusually large optical depth (τ~1). The most consistent model is that we are viewing the nucleus through a disklike distribution of gas in the interstellar medium, possibly through a spiral arm or a warp to account for the above-average column density. From the radial velocity distribution, we find that A428 is in fact made up of at least two clumps of galaxies separated by ~3300 km s-1, which

  3. Galactic Building Blocks Seen Swarming Around Andromeda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-02-01

    Green Bank, WV - A team of astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) has made the first conclusive detection of what appear to be the leftover building blocks of galaxy formation -- neutral hydrogen clouds -- swarming around the Andromeda Galaxy, the nearest large spiral galaxy to the Milky Way. This discovery may help scientists understand the structure and evolution of the Milky Way and all spiral galaxies. It also may help explain why certain young stars in mature galaxies are surprisingly bereft of the heavy elements that their contemporaries contain. Andromeda Galaxy This image depicts several long-sought galactic "building blocks" in orbit of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). The newfound hydrogen clouds are depicted in a shade of orange (GBT), while gas that comprises the massive hydrogen disk of Andromeda is shown at high-resolution in blue (Westerbork Sythesis Radio Telescope). CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF, WSRT (Click on Image for Larger Version) "Giant galaxies, like Andromeda and our own Milky Way, are thought to form through repeated mergers with smaller galaxies and through the accretion of vast numbers of even lower mass 'clouds' -- dark objects that lack stars and even are too small to call galaxies," said David A. Thilker of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. "Theoretical studies predict that this process of galactic growth continues today, but astronomers have been unable to detect the expected low mass 'building blocks' falling into nearby galaxies, until now." Thilker's research is published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. Other contributors include: Robert Braun of the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy; Rene A.M. Walterbos of New Mexico State University; Edvige Corbelli of the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri in Italy; Felix J. Lockman and Ronald Maddalena of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virginia; and Edward Murphy of the

  4. Exploratory investigation of the HIPPO gas-jet target fluid dynamic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, Zach; Shi, Ke; Jemcov, Aleksandar; Couder, Manoel

    2016-08-01

    In order to optimize the performance of gas-jet targets for future nuclear reaction measurements, a detailed understanding of the dependence of the gas-jet properties on experiment design parameters is required. Common methods of gas-jet characterization rely on measuring the effective thickness using nuclear elastic scattering and energy loss techniques; however, these tests are time intensive and limit the range of design modifications which can be explored to improve the properties of the jet as a nuclear reaction target. Thus, a more rapid jet-characterization method is desired. We performed the first steps towards characterizing the gas-jet density distribution of the HIPPO gas-jet target at the University of Notre Dame's Nuclear Science Laboratory by reproducing results from 20Ne(α,α)20Ne elastic scattering measurements with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations performed with the state-of-the-art CFD software ANSYS Fluent. We find a strong sensitivity to experimental design parameters of the gas-jet target, such as the jet nozzle geometry and ambient pressure of the target chamber. We argue that improved predictive power will require moving to three-dimensional simulations and additional benchmarking with experimental data.

  5. Milky Way scattering properties and intrinsic sizes of active galactic nuclei cores probed by very long baseline interferometry surveys of compact extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushkarev, A. B.; Kovalev, Y. Y.

    2015-10-01

    We have measured the angular sizes of radio cores of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and analysed their sky distributions and frequency dependences to study synchrotron opacity in AGN jets and the strength of angular broadening in the interstellar medium. We have used archival very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data of more than 3000 compact extragalactic radio sources observed at frequencies, ν, from 2 to 43 GHz to measure the observed angular size of VLBI cores. We have found a significant increase in the angular sizes of the extragalactic sources seen through the Galactic plane (|b| ≲ 10°) at 2, 5 and 8 GHz, about one-third of which show significant scattering. These sources are mainly detected in directions to the Galactic bar, the Cygnus region and a region with galactic longitudes 220° ≲ l ≲ 260° (the Fitzgerald window). The strength of interstellar scattering of the AGNs is found to correlate with the Galactic Hα intensity, free-electron density and Galactic rotation measure. The dependence of scattering strengths on source redshift is insignificant, suggesting that the dominant scattering screens are located in our Galaxy. The observed angular size of Sgr A* is found to be the largest among thousands of AGNs observed over the sky; we discuss possible reasons for this strange result. Excluding extragalactic radio sources with significant scattering, we find that the angular size of opaque cores in AGNs scales typically as ν-1, confirming predictions of a conical synchrotron jet model with equipartition.

  6. First results from the NuSTAR "mini-survey" of the Galactic center region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailey, Charles J.

    2014-05-01

    One of the major science objectives of the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observatory is to perform the first sub-arcminute, hard X-ray survey of several square degrees of the Galactic plane, centered on a region near the Galactic center. As a prelude to the full survey, which began in July 2013, NuSTAR conducted a ˜500 ks, 0.3 × 0.4° "mini-survey" focused on Sgr A* and its environs. We present analysis of several candidate pulsar wind nebulae and filaments, which are revealed to be intense sources of X-ray emission at >10 keV.

  7. Theoretical interpretation of new jet results from the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitev, Ivan

    2011-10-01

    Jets physics in heavy ion reactions is an important new area of active research at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and at the Large Hadron Collider that paves the way for novel tests of QCD dynamics in dense nuclear matter. Recently, first results on the quenching of leading particles and jets from the LHC lead-lead run at a center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV per nucleon-nucleon pair became available. With this motivation, we present a theoretical analysis of the exciting new experimental findings. We emphasize the accuracy that can be achieved in next-to-leading order perturbative calculations and focus on the suppression the single and double inclusive jet cross sections. We demonstrate how the di-jet asymmetry, recently measured by ATLAS and CMS, can be related to these general results. The case of jets tagged by an electroweak boson is exemplified by the Z0+jet channel. We discuss the constraints that the inclusive Z0 measurements by CMS place on cold nuclear matter effects at the LHC. Finally, we clarify the relation between the suppression of inclusive jets, tagged jets and di-jets and the quenching of inclusive particles on the example of the recent ALICE and CMS hadron attenuation data. We conclude by discussing the insights in the in-medium modification of parton showers that the new LHC data provide and point to future directions and effective theories of QCD that can help improve the accuracy of the tools for jet tomography.

  8. Benchmark studies of thermal jet mixing in SFRs using a two-jet model

    SciTech Connect

    Omotowa, O. A.; Skifton, R.; Tokuhiro, A.

    2012-07-01

    To guide the modeling, simulations and design of Sodium Fast Reactors (SFRs), we explore and compare the predictive capabilities of two numerical solvers COMSOL and OpenFOAM in the thermal jet mixing of two buoyant jets typical of the outlet flow from a SFR tube bundle. This process will help optimize on-going experimental efforts at obtaining high resolution data for V and V of CFD codes as anticipated in next generation nuclear systems. Using the k-{epsilon} turbulence models of both codes as reference, their ability to simulate the turbulence behavior in similar environments was first validated for single jet experimental data reported in literature. This study investigates the thermal mixing of two parallel jets having a temperature difference (hot-to-cold) {Delta}T{sub hc}= 5 deg. C, 10 deg. C and velocity ratios U{sub c}/U{sub h} = 0.5, 1. Results of the computed turbulent quantities due to convective mixing and the variations in flow field along the axial position are presented. In addition, this study also evaluates the effect of spacing ratio between jets in predicting the flow field and jet behavior in near and far fields. (authors)

  9. Jet pump-drive system for heat removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, J. R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A jet pump, in combination with a TEMP, is employed to assure safe cooling of a nuclear reactor after shutdown. A TEMP, responsive to the heat from the coolant in the secondary flow path, automatically pumps the withdrawn coolant to a higher pressure and thus higher velocity compared to the main flow. The high velocity coolant is applied as a driver flow for the jet pump which has a main flow chamber located in the main flow circulation pump. Upon nuclear shutdown and loss of power for the main reactor pumping system, the TEMP/jet pump combination continues to boost the coolant flow in the direction it is already circulating. During the decay time for the nuclear reactor, the jet pump keeps running until the coolant temperature drops to a lower and safe temperature. At this lower temperature, the TEMP/jet jump combination ceases its circulation boosting operation. The TEMP/jet pump combination is automatic, self-regulating and provides an emergency pumping system free of moving parts.

  10. MAGNETIZED JETS DRIVEN BY THE SUN: THE STRUCTURE OF THE HELIOSPHERE REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Opher, M.; Drake, J. F.; Zieger, B.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2015-02-20

    The classic accepted view of the heliosphere is a quiescent, comet-like shape aligned in the direction of the Sun’s travel through the interstellar medium (ISM) extending for thousands of astronomical units (AUs). Here, we show, based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, that the tension (hoop) force of the twisted magnetic field of the Sun confines the solar wind plasma beyond the termination shock and drives jets to the north and south very much like astrophysical jets. These jets are deflected into the tail region by the motion of the Sun through the ISM similar to bent galactic jets moving through the intergalactic medium. The interstellar wind blows the two jets into the tail but is not strong enough to force the lobes into a single comet-like tail, as happens to some astrophysical jets. Instead, the interstellar wind flows around the heliosphere and into the equatorial region between the two jets. As in some astrophysical jets that are kink unstable, we show here that the heliospheric jets are turbulent (due to large-scale MHD instabilities and reconnection) and strongly mix the solar wind with the ISM beyond 400 AU. The resulting turbulence has important implications for particle acceleration in the heliosphere. The two-lobe structure is consistent with the energetic neutral atom (ENA) images of the heliotail from IBEX where two lobes are visible in the north and south and the suggestion from the Cassini ENAs that the heliosphere is “tailless.”.

  11. Magnetized Jets Driven By the Sun: The Structure of the Heliosphere Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opher, Merav

    2015-11-01

    The classic accepted view of the heliosphere is a quiescent, comet-like shape aligned in the direction of the Sun's travel through the interstellar medium (ISM) extending for thousands of astronomical units (AUs). Here, we show, based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, that the tension (hoop) force of the twisted magnetic field of the Sun confines the solar wind plasma beyond the termination shock and drives jets to the north and south very much like astrophysical jets. These jets are deflected into the tail region by the motion of the Sun through the ISM similar to bent galactic jets moving through the intergalactic medium. The interstellar wind blows the two jets into the tail but is not strong enough to force the lobes into a single comet-like tail, as happens to some astrophysical jets. Instead, the interstellar wind flows around the heliosphere and into the equatorial region between the two jets. As in some astrophysical jets that are kink unstable, we show here that the heliospheric jets are turbulent (due to large-scale MHD instabilities and reconnection) and strongly mix the solar wind with the ISM. The resulting turbulence has important implications for particle acceleration in the heliosphere. The two-lobe structure is consistent with the energetic neutral atom (ENA) images of the heliotail from IBEX where two lobes are visible in the north and south and the suggestion from the Cassini ENAs that the heliosphere is ``tailless.''

  12. Magnetized Jets Driven By the Sun: the Structure of the Heliosphere Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opher, M.; Drake, J. F.; Zieger, B.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2015-02-01

    The classic accepted view of the heliosphere is a quiescent, comet-like shape aligned in the direction of the Sun’s travel through the interstellar medium (ISM) extending for thousands of astronomical units (AUs). Here, we show, based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, that the tension (hoop) force of the twisted magnetic field of the Sun confines the solar wind plasma beyond the termination shock and drives jets to the north and south very much like astrophysical jets. These jets are deflected into the tail region by the motion of the Sun through the ISM similar to bent galactic jets moving through the intergalactic medium. The interstellar wind blows the two jets into the tail but is not strong enough to force the lobes into a single comet-like tail, as happens to some astrophysical jets. Instead, the interstellar wind flows around the heliosphere and into the equatorial region between the two jets. As in some astrophysical jets that are kink unstable, we show here that the heliospheric jets are turbulent (due to large-scale MHD instabilities and reconnection) and strongly mix the solar wind with the ISM beyond 400 AU. The resulting turbulence has important implications for particle acceleration in the heliosphere. The two-lobe structure is consistent with the energetic neutral atom (ENA) images of the heliotail from IBEX where two lobes are visible in the north and south and the suggestion from the Cassini ENAs that the heliosphere is “tailless.”

  13. Jet lag modification.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Emily; McGrane, Owen; Wedmore, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Athletes often are required to travel for sports participation, both for practice and competition. A number of those crossing multiple time zones will develop jet lag disorder with possible negative consequences on their performance. This review will discuss the etiology of jet lag disorder and the techniques that are available to shorten or minimize its effects. This includes both pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches.

  14. Jet measurements in ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loch, Peter; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-11-01

    The reconstruction of jets generated in the proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a center of mass energy of TeV with the ATLAS detector is discussed. Beginning with a brief review of the calorimeter signal definitions relevant for jet finding, and the use of reconstructed charged particle tracks, the jet reconstruction strategy is described in some detail. Emphasis is put on the jet energy scale (JES) calibration strategy applied for first data, which is based on a short sequence of data driven and simulation based calibrations and corrections to restore the measured jet energy to particle level. The level of understanding of the signal patterns entering the JES corrections is shown for selected variables in comparisons to simulations. The present systematic uncertainties on the JES, which can be as low as 2% for central jets, are presented and analyzed with respect to the individual fractional contributions entering their determination. Some characteristic jet reconstruction performance and selected results from the first year of jet physics with ATLAS in a newly accessible kinematic domain are shown in conclusion.

  15. Jet lag prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... be harder to adjust to because you lose time. Jet lag can make you feel like going to bed ... such as trying to adjust to the new time zone before you arrive. Images Jet lag prevention References Berry RB, Wagner MH. Patients with ...

  16. Diffuse γ-ray emission from misaligned active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Di Mauro, M.; Calore, F.; Donato, F.; Ajello, M.; Latronico, L.

    2013-12-20

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with jets seen at small viewing angles are the most luminous and abundant objects in the γ-ray sky. AGNs with jets misaligned along the line of sight appear fainter in the sky but are more numerous than the brighter blazars. Here, we calculate the diffuse γ-ray emission due to the population of misaligned AGNs (MAGNs) unresolved by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). Furthermore, a correlation between the γ-ray luminosity and the radio-core luminosity is established and demonstrated to be physical by statistical tests, as well as compatible with upper limits based on Fermi-LAT data for a large sample of radio-loud MAGNs. We constrain the derived γ-ray luminosity function by means of the source-count distribution of the radio galaxies detected by the Fermi-LAT. We finally calculate the diffuse γ-ray flux due to the whole MAGN population. These results demonstrate that MAGNs can contribute from 10% up to nearly the entire measured isotropic gamma-ray background. We evaluate a theoretical uncertainty on the flux of almost an order of magnitude.

  17. Diffuse γ-ray emission from misaligned active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Di Mauro, M.; Donato, F.; Calore, F.; Ajello, M.; Latronico, L.

    2014-01-10

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with jets seen at small viewing angles are the most luminous and abundant objects in the γ-ray sky. AGNs with jets misaligned along the line of sight appear fainter in the sky but are more numerous than the brighter blazars. We calculate the diffuse γ-ray emission due to the population of misaligned AGNs (MAGNs) unresolved by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). A correlation between the γ-ray luminosity and the radio-core luminosity is established and demonstrated to be physical by statistical tests, as well as compatible with upper limits based on Fermi-LAT data for a large sample of radio-loud MAGNs. We constrain the derived γ-ray luminosity function by means of the source-count distribution of the radio galaxies detected by the Fermi-LAT. We finally calculate the diffuse γ-ray flux due to the whole MAGN population. Our results demonstrate that MAGNs can contribute from 10% up to nearly the entire measured isotropic gamma-ray background. We evaluate a theoretical uncertainty on the flux of almost an order of magnitude.

  18. Diffuse γ-ray emission from misaligned active galactic nuclei

    DOE PAGES

    Di Mauro, M.; Calore, F.; Donato, F.; ...

    2013-12-20

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with jets seen at small viewing angles are the most luminous and abundant objects in the γ-ray sky. AGNs with jets misaligned along the line of sight appear fainter in the sky but are more numerous than the brighter blazars. Here, we calculate the diffuse γ-ray emission due to the population of misaligned AGNs (MAGNs) unresolved by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). Furthermore, a correlation between the γ-ray luminosity and the radio-core luminosity is established and demonstrated to be physical by statistical tests, as well as compatible with uppermore » limits based on Fermi-LAT data for a large sample of radio-loud MAGNs. We constrain the derived γ-ray luminosity function by means of the source-count distribution of the radio galaxies detected by the Fermi-LAT. We finally calculate the diffuse γ-ray flux due to the whole MAGN population. These results demonstrate that MAGNs can contribute from 10% up to nearly the entire measured isotropic gamma-ray background. We evaluate a theoretical uncertainty on the flux of almost an order of magnitude.« less

  19. Scale-invariant radio jets and varying black hole spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mościbrodzka, M.; Falcke, H.; Noble, S.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Compact radio cores associated with relativistic jets are often observed in both active galactic nuclei and X-ray binaries. Their radiative properties follow some general scaling laws that primarily depend on their masses and accretion rates. However, it has been suggested that black hole spin can also strongly influence the power and radio flux of these. Aims: We attempt to estimate the dependency of the radio luminosity of steady jets launched by accretion disks on black hole mass, accretion rate, and spin using numerical simulations. Methods: We make use of three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamical simulations of accretion disks around low-luminosity black holes in which the jet radio emission is produced by the jet sheath. Results: We find that the radio flux increases roughly by a factor of 6 as the black hole spin increases from a∗ ≈ 0 to a∗ = 0.98. This is comparable to the increase in accretion power with spin, meaning that the ratio between radio jet and accretion power hardly changes. Although our jet spine power scales as expected for the Blandford-Znajek process, the dependency of jet radio luminosity on the black hole spin is somewhat weaker. Also weakly rotating black holes can produce visible radio jets. The overall scaling of the radio emission with black hole mass and accretion rate is consistent with the scale-invariant analytical models used to explain the fundamental plane of black hole activity. Spin does not introduce a significant scatter in this model. Conclusions: The jet-sheath model can describe well-resolved accreting systems, such as Sgr A* and M 87, as well as the general scaling behavior of low-luminosity black holes. Hence the model should be applicable to a wide range of radio jets in sub-Eddington black holes. The black hole spin has an effect on the production of visible radio jet, but it may not be the main driver to produce visible radio jets. An extension of our findings to powerful quasars

  20. Event-by-event jet quenching

    SciTech Connect

    Fries, R.J.; Rodriguez, R.; Ramirez, E.

    2010-08-14

    High momentum jets and hadrons can be used as probes for the quark gluon plasma (QGP) formed in nuclear collisions at high energies. We investigate the influence of fluctuations in the fireball on jet quenching observables by comparing propagation of light quarks and gluons through averaged, smooth QGP fireballs with event-by-event jet quenching using realistic inhomogeneous fireballs. We find that the transverse momentum and impact parameter dependence of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} can be fit well in an event-by-event quenching scenario within experimental errors. However the transport coefficient {cflx q} extracted from fits to the measured nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} in averaged fireballs underestimates the value from event-by-event calculations by up to 50%. On the other hand, after adjusting {cflx q} to fit R{sub AA} in the event-by-event analysis we find residual deviations in the azimuthal asymmetry v{sub 2} and in two-particle correlations, that provide a possible faint signature for a spatial tomography of the fireball. We discuss a correlation function that is a measure for spatial inhomogeneities in a collision and can be constrained from data.

  1. Variability in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villforth, Carolin

    2011-01-01

    Variability is a property shared by practically all AGN. As the centers of AGN cannot be resolved on most wavelength, variability studies can be used to infer important information about the physical conditions in the centers of AGN. In this dissertation talk, I will discuss what optical polarization data can reveal about the properties of blazar jets and how variability selection can be used as an efficient technique for finding AGN.

  2. Multiple jet study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. E.; Kors, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    Test data is presented which allows determination of jet penetration and mixing of multiple cold air jets into a ducted subsonic heated mainstream flow. Jet-to-mainstream momentum flux ratios ranged from 6 to 60. Temperature profile data is presented at various duct locations up to 24 orifice diameters downstream of the plane of jet injection. Except for two configurations, all geometries investigated had a single row of constant diameter orifices located transverse to the main flow direction. Orifice size and spacing between orifices were varied. Both of these were found to have a significant effect on jet penetration and mixing. The best mixing of the hot and cold streams was achieved with duct height.

  3. Instability of rectangular jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Thies, Andrew T.

    1992-01-01

    The instability of rectangular jets is investigated using a vortex sheet model. It is shown that such jets support four linearly independent families of instability waves. Within each family there are infinitely many modes. A way to classify these modes according to the characteristics of their mode shapes or eigenfunctions is proposed. A parametric study of the instability wave characteristics has been carried out. A sample of the numerical results is reported here. It is found that the first and third modes of each instability wave family are corner modes. The pressure fluctuations associated with these instability waves are localized near the corners of the jet. The second mode, however, is a center mode with maximum fluctuations concentrated in the central portion of the jet flow. The center mode has the largest spatial growth rate. It is anticipated that as the instability waves propagate downstream the center mode would emerge as the dominant instability of the jet.

  4. Description of Jet Breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.

    1996-01-01

    In this article we review recent results on the breakup of cylindrical jets of a Newtonian fluid. Capillary forces provide the main driving mechanism and our interest is in the description of the flow as the jet pinches to form drops. The approach is to describe such topological singularities by constructing local (in time and space) similarity solutions from the governing equations. This is described for breakup according to the Euler, Stokes or Navier-Stokes equations. It is found that slender jet theories can be applied when viscosity is present, but for inviscid jets the local shape of the jet at breakup is most likely of a non-slender geometry. Systems of one-dimensional models of the governing equations are solved numerically in order to illustrate these differences.

  5. Relativistic Jets and Collapsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Woosley, S. E.

    2001-05-01

    In order to study the relativistic jets from collapsars, we have developed a special relativistic multiple-dimensional hydrodynamics code similar to the GENESIS code (Aloy et al., ApJS, 122, 151). The code is based on the PPM interpolation algorithm and Marquina's Riemann solver. Using this code, we have simulated the propagation of axisymmetric jets along the rotational axis of collapsed rotating stars (collapsars). Using the progenitors of MacFadyen, Woosley, and Heger, a relativistic jet is injected at a given inner boundary radius. This radius, the opening angle of the jet, its Lorentz factor, and its total energy are parameters of the problem. A highly collimated, relativistic outflow is observed at the surface of the star several seconds later. We will discuss the hydrodynamical focusing of the jet, it's break out properties, time evolution, and sensitivity to the adopted parameters.

  6. Jet Lag in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Aaron; Galvez, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Context: Prolonged transmeridian air travel can impart a physical and emotional burden on athletes in jet lag and travel fatigue. Jet lag may negatively affect the performance of athletes. Study Type: Descriptive review. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search for articles relating to jet lag was performed (1990-present), as was a search relating to jet lag and athletes (1983-January, 2012). The results were reviewed for relevance. Eighty-nine sources were included in this descriptive review. Results: Behavioral strategies are recommended over pharmacological strategies when traveling with athletes; pharmacological aides may be used on an individual basis. Strategic sleeping, timed exposure to bright light, and the use of melatonin are encouraged. Conclusions: There is strong evidence that mood and cognition are adversely affected by jet lag. Some measures of individual and team performance are adversely affected as well. PMID:23016089

  7. Instability of rectangular jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Thies, Andrew T.

    1992-01-01

    The instability of rectangular jets is investigated using a vortex sheet model. It is shown that such jets support four linearly independent families of instability waves. Within each family there are infinitely many modes. A way to classify these modes according to the characteristics of their mode shapes or eigenfunctions is proposed. A parametric study of the instability wave characteristics has been carried out. A sample of the numerical results is reported here. It is found that the first and third modes of each instability wave family are corner modes. The pressure fluctuations associated with these instability waves are localized near the corners of the jet. The second mode, however, is a center mode with maximum fluctuations concentrated in the central portion of the jet flow. The center mode has the largest spatial growth rate. It is anticipated that as the instability waves propagate downstream the center mode would emerge as the dominant instability of the jet.

  8. Jet physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Melese, P.

    1997-05-01

    We present high E{sub T} jet measurements from CDF at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The incfilusive jet cross section at {radical}s = 1800 GeV with {approximately} 5 times more data is compared to the published CDF results, preliminary D0 results, and next-to-leading order QCD predictions. The {summation}E{sub T} cross section is also compared to QCD predictions and the dijet angular distribution is used to place a limit on quark compositeness. The inclusive jet cross section at {radical}s = 630 GeV is compared with that at 1800 GeV to test the QCD predictions for the scaling of jet cross sections with {radical}s. Finally, we present momentum distributions of charged particles in jets and compare them to Modified Leading Log Approximation predictions.

  9. Introduction to Galactic Chemical Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteucci, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    In this lecture I will introduce the concept of galactic chemical evolution, namely the study of how and where the chemical elements formed and how they were distributed in the stars and gas in galaxies. The main ingredients to build models of galactic chemical evolution will be described. They include: initial conditions, star formation history, stellar nucleosynthesis and gas flows in and out of galaxies. Then some simple analytical models and their solutions will be discussed together with the main criticisms associated to them. The yield per stellar generation will be defined and the hypothesis of instantaneous recycling approximation will be critically discussed. Detailed numerical models of chemical evolution of galaxies of different morphological type, able to follow the time evolution of the abundances of single elements, will be discussed and their predictions will be compared to observational data. The comparisons will include stellar abundances as well as interstellar medium ones, measured in galaxies. I will show how, from these comparisons, one can derive important constraints on stellar nucleosynthesis and galaxy formation mechanisms. Most of the concepts described in this lecture can be found in the monograph by Matteucci (2012).

  10. Chemical complexity in galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Pintado, Jesus

    2007-12-01

    In recent years our knowledge of the chemical complexity in the nuclei of galaxies has dramatically changed. Recent observations of the nucleus of the Milky Way, of the starburst galaxy NGC253 and of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Arp220 have shown large abundance of complex organic molecules believed to be formed on grains. The Galactic center appears to be the largest repository of complex organic molecule like aldehydes and alcohols in the galaxy. We also measure large abundance of methanol in starburst galaxies and in ULIRGs suggesting that complex organic molecules are also efficiently produced in the central region of galaxies with strong star formation activity. From the systematic observational studies of molecular abundance in regions dominated by different heating processes like shocks, UV radiation, X-rays and cosmic rays in the center of the Milky Way, we are opening the possibility of using chemistry as a diagnostic tool to study the highly obscured regions of galactic centers. The templates found in the nucleus of the Milky Way will be used to establish the main mechanisms driving the heating and the chemistry of the molecular clouds in galaxies with different type of activity. The role of grain chemistry in the chemical complexity observed in the center of galaxies will be also briefly discussed.

  11. The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Jason; Aguirre, James; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Bradley, Eric Todd; Cyganowski, Claudia; Dowell, Darren; Drosback, Meredith; Dunham, Miranda K.; Evans, Neal J., II; hide

    2009-01-01

    The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) is a 1.1 millimeter continuum survey of the northern Galactic Plane made with Bolocam and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The coverage totals 170 square degrees, comprised of a contiguous range from -10.5 deg is less than or equal to 90.5 deg, 0.5 deg is less than or equal to b is less than or equal to 0.5 deg, with extended coverage in b in selected regions, and four targeted regions in the outer Galaxy, including: IC1396, toward the Perseus arm at l is approximately 111 deg, W3/4/5, and Gem OB1. Depths of the maps range from 30 to 60 mJy beam (sup 1). Approximately 8,400 sources were detected and the maps and source catalog have been made publicly available. Millimeter-wave thermal dust emission reveals dense regions within molecular clouds, thus the BGPS serves as a database for studies of the dense interstellar medium and star formation within the Milky Way.

  12. The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Jason; Aguirre, James; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Bradley, Eric Todd; Cyganowski, Claudia; Dowell, Darren; Drosback, Meredith; Dunham, Miranda K.; Evans, Neal J., II; Ginsburg, Adam; Harvey, Paul; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schlingman, Wayne; Shirley, Yancy L.; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Walawender, Josh; Williams, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) is a 1.1 millimeter continuum survey of the northern Galactic Plane made with Bolocam and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The coverage totals 170 square degrees, comprised of a contiguous range from -10.5 deg is less than or equal to 90.5 deg, 0.5 deg is less than or equal to b is less than or equal to 0.5 deg, with extended coverage in b in selected regions, and four targeted regions in the outer Galaxy, including: IC1396, toward the Perseus arm at l is approximately 111 deg, W3/4/5, and Gem OB1. Depths of the maps range from 30 to 60 mJy beam (sup 1). Approximately 8,400 sources were detected and the maps and source catalog have been made publicly available. Millimeter-wave thermal dust emission reveals dense regions within molecular clouds, thus the BGPS serves as a database for studies of the dense interstellar medium and star formation within the Milky Way.

  13. Galactic Variable Sky with EGRET and GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Digel, S.W.; /SLAC

    2006-11-28

    The characteristics of the largely-unidentified Galactic sources of gamma rays that were detected by EGRET are reviewed. Proposed source populations that may have the correct spatial, spectral, luminosity, and variability properties to be the origins of the EGRET sources are also presented. Finally, the prospects for studying Galactic gamma-ray sources with the GLAST LAT are reviewed.

  14. Dynamics of Gas Near the Galactic Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, A.; Binney, J.

    1994-10-01

    We simulate the flow of gas in the Binney et al. model of the bar at the centre of the Milky Way. We argue that the flow of a clumpy interstellar medium is most realistically simulated by a sticky-particle scheme, and investigate two such schemes. In both schemes orbits close to the cusped orbit rapidly become depopulated. This depopulation places a lower limit on the pattern speed since it implies that in the (1, v) plane the cusped orbit lies significantly inside the peak of the Hi terminal-velocity envelope at 1 20. We find that the size of the central molecular disc and the magnitudes of the observed forbidden velocities constrain the eccentricity of the Galactic bar to values similar to that arbitrarily assumed by Binney et al. We study the accretion by the nuclear disc of matter shed by dying bulge stars. We estimate that mass loss by the bulge can replenish the Hi in the nuclear disc within two bar rotation periods, in good agreement with the predictions of the simulations. When accretion of gas from the bulge is included, fine-scale irregular structure persists in the nuclear disc. This structure gives rise to features in longitude-velocity plots which depend significantly on viewing angle, and consequently give rise to asymmetries in longitude. These asymmetries are, however, much less pronounced than those in the observational plots. We conclude that the addition of hydrodynamics to the Binney et al. model does not resolve some important discrepancies between theory and observation. The model's basic idea does, however, have high a priori probability and has enjoyed some significant successes, while a number of potentially important physical processes - most notably the self-gravity of interstellar gas - are neglected in the present simulations. In view of the deficiencies of our simulations and interesting parallels we do observe between simulated and observational longitude-velocity plots, we believe it would be premature to reject the Binney et al

  15. 3-D RPIC simulations of relativistic jets: Particle acceleration, magnetic field generation, and emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.

    2006-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing (relativistic) jets and shocks, e.g., supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Fermi acceleration is the mechanism usually assumed for the acceleration of particles in astrophysical environments. Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets show that acceleration occurs within the downstream jet, rather than by the scattering of particles back and forth across the shock as in Fermi acceleration. Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the .shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants. We will review recent PIC simulations which show particle acceleration in jets.

  16. 3-D RPIC simulations of relativistic jets: Particle acceleration, magnetic field generation, and emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.

    2006-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing (relativistic) jets and shocks, e.g., supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Fermi acceleration is the mechanism usually assumed for the acceleration of particles in astrophysical environments. Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets show that acceleration occurs within the downstream jet, rather than by the scattering of particles back and forth across the shock as in Fermi acceleration. Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the .shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants. We will review recent PIC simulations which show particle acceleration in jets.

  17. Galactic Nuclei through the ``Lens" of HST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, S. M.

    1993-12-01

    HST has now imaged upwards of 50 galactic nuclei. The sample divides into two broad categories: early-type bulges/ellipticals, and spirals. Early-type nuclei tend to follow broad trends foreshadowed by earlier ground-based data, but with some important differences. Large early-type galaxies show ``break radii" that are analogous to classical core radii. However, inside these cores, most light profiles do not level out but continue to increase in shallow power laws inwards to the resolution limit (0.1\\arcsec). We call such nuclei ``soft cores." Small early-type galaxies are completely unresolved and show steep power-laws at all radii. We call these ``hard cores." Early-type galaxies of intermediate brightness seem to be divided into hard cores or soft cores according to rotation and isophote shape: rotating, disky E's have hard, steep cores, while non-rotating, boxy E's have soft cores and breaks. Thus, core properties seem to reinforce the division of ellipticals into two fundamentally different families that has been emerging for some time now based on other data. Core phase-space density shows an enormous range in early-type galaxies, decreasing by a factor of 100 million from the smallest ellipticals to the largest. Since phase-space density is believed to either remain constant or increase during mergers, this trend casts doubt on whether large E's could have formed by merging from progenitors that looked like present-day small E's. The smallest and closest elliptical, M32, is so dense that stellar collisions have likely been important over the age of the Universe. M32's relatively high stellar velocity dispersion ( ~ 100 km s(-1) ) favors runaway merging in collisions to form a black hole. Evidence for such a BH has been found from ground-based spectroscopy. Compared to early-type galaxies, spiral nuclei show a wider range of morphologies and physical phenomena, some quite exotic. Nuclear star clusters are common in spirals. The density is so high in the

  18. Research Opportunities on board Virgin Galactic's SpaceShipTwo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attenborough, S.; Pomerantz, W.; Stephens, K.

    2013-09-01

    Virgin Galactic is building the world's first commercial spaceline. Our suborbital spaceflight system, pictured in Figure 1, consists of two vehicles: WhiteKnightTwo (WK2) and SpaceShipTwo (SS2). WhiteKnightTwo is a four-engine, dual-fuselage jet aircraft capable of high-altitude heavy lift missions, including, but not limited to fulfilling its role as a mothership for SpaceShipTwo, an air-launched, suborbital spaceplane capable of routinely reaching an apogee up to 110 kilometers. In conjunction, these two vehicles allow access to space and to regions of the atmosphere ranging from the troposphere to the thermosphere; additionally, they provide extended periods of microgravity in a reliable and affordable way. SpaceShipTwo, with a payload capacity of up to 1,300 lbs. (~600 kg), features payload mounting interfaces that are compatible with standard architectures such as NASA Space Shuttle Middeck Lockers, Cargo Transfer Bags, and server racks, in addition to custom structures. With the standard interface, payloads are allowed access to the large 17 inch diameter cabin windows for external observations. Each dedicated research flight will be accompanied by a Virgin Galactic Flight Test Engineer, providing an opportunity for limited in-flight interaction. In addition, tended payloads - a flight that includes the researcher and his or her payload - are also an option. At a price point that is highly competitive with parabolic aircraft and sounding rockets and significantly cheaper than orbital flights, SpaceShipTwo is a unique platform that can provide frequent and repeatable research opportunities. Suborbital flights on SpaceShipTwo offer researchers several minutes of microgravity time and views of the external environment in the upper atmosphere and in outer space. In addition to serving as an important research platform in and of itself, SpaceShipTwo also offers researchers a means to test, iterate, and calibrate experiments designed for orbital platforms

  19. The mixed chemistry phenomenon in Galactic Bulge PNe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perea-Calderón, J. V.; García-Hernández, D. A.; García-Lario, P.; Szczerba, R.; Bobrowsky, M.

    2009-02-01

    Aims: We investigate the dual-dust chemistry phenomenon in planetary nebulae (PNe) and discuss reasons for its occurrence, by analyzing Spitzer/IRS spectra of a sample of 40 Galactic PNe among which 26 belong to the Galactic Bulge (GB). Methods: The mixed chemistry is derived from the simultaneous detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) features in the 6-14 μm range and crystalline silicates beyond 20 μm in the Spitzer/IRS spectra. Results: Out of the 26 planetary nebulae observed in the Galactic Bulge, 21 show signatures of dual-dust chemistry. Our observations reveal that the simultaneous presence of oxygen and carbon-rich dust features in the infrared spectra of [WC]-type planetary nebulae is not restricted to late/cool [WC]-type stars, as previously suggested in the literature, but is a common feature associated with all [WC]-type planetary nebulae. Surprisingly, we found that the dual-dust chemistry is seen also in all observed weak emission-line stars (wels), as well as in other planetary nebulae with central stars being neither [WC] nor wels. Most sources observed display crystalline silicate features in their spectra, with only a few PNe exhibiting, in addition, amorphous silicate bands. Conclusions: We appear to detect a recent change of chemistry at the end of the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) evolution in the low-mass, high-metallicity population of GB PNe observed. The deficit of C-rich AGB stars in this environment suggests that the process of PAH formation in PNe occurs at the very end of the AGB phase. In addition, the population of low-mass, O-rich AGB stars in the Galactic Bulge, do not exhibit crystalline silicate features in their spectra. Thus, the high detection rate of dual-dust chemistry that we find cannot be explained by long-lived O-rich (primordial or circumbinary) disks. Our most plausible scenario is a final thermal pulse on the AGB (or just after), which could produce enhanced mass loss, capable of removing

  20. Optimal Jet Finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, D. Yu.; Jankowski, E.; Tkachov, F. V.

    2003-09-01

    We describe a FORTRAN 77 implementation of the optimal jet definition for identification of jets in hadronic final states of particle collisions. We discuss details of the implementation, explain interface subroutines and provide a usage example. The source code is available from http://www.inr.ac.ru/~ftkachov/projects/jets/. Program summaryTitle of program: Optimal Jet Finder (OJF_014) Catalogue identifier: ADSB Program Summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADSB Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer: Any computer with the FORTRAN 77 compiler Tested with: g77/Linux on Intel, Alpha and Sparc; Sun f77/Solaris (thwgs.cern.ch); xlf/AIX (rsplus.cern.ch); MS Fortran PowerStation 4.0/Win98 Programming language used: FORTRAN 77 Memory required: ˜1 MB (or more, depending on the settings) Number of bytes in distributed program, including examples and test data: 251 463 Distribution format: tar gzip file Keywords: Hadronic jets, jet finding algorithms Nature of physical problem: Analysis of hadronic final states in high energy particle collision experiments often involves identification of hadronic jets. A large number of hadrons detected in the calorimeter is reduced to a few jets by means of a jet finding algorithm. The jets are used in further analysis which would be difficult or impossible when applied directly to the hadrons. Grigoriev et al. [ hep-ph/0301185] provide a brief introduction to the subject of jet finding algorithms and a general review of the physics of jets can be found in [Rep. Prog. Phys. 36 (1993) 1067]. Method of solution: The software we provide is an implementation of the so-called optimal jet definition ( OJD). The theory of OJD was developed by Tkachov [Phys. Rev. Lett. 73 (1994) 2405; 74 (1995) 2618; Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 12 (1997) 5411; 17 (2002) 2783]. The desired jet configuration is obtained as the one that minimizes Ω R, a certain function of the input particles and jet

  1. Simulations of Solar Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    Formation of a coronal jet from twisted field lines that have reconnected with the ambient field. The colors show the radial velocity of the plasma. [Adapted from Szente et al. 2017]How do jets emitted from the Suns surface contribute to its corona and to the solar wind? In a recent study, a team of scientists performed complex three-dimensional simulations of coronal jets to answer these questions.Small ExplosionsCoronal jets are relatively small eruptions from the Suns surface, with heights of roughly 100 to 10,000 km, speeds of 10 to 1,000 km/s, and lifetimes of a few minutes to around ten hours. These jets are constantly present theyre emitted even from the quiet Sun, when activity is otherwise low and weve observed them with a fleet of Sun-watching space telescopes spanning the visible, extreme ultraviolet (EUV), and X-ray wavelength bands.A comparison of simulated observations based on the authors model (left panels) to actual EUV and X-ray observations of jets (right panels). [Szente et al. 2017]Due to their ubiquity, we speculate that these jets might contribute to heating the global solar corona (which is significantly hotter than the surface below it, a curiosity known as the coronal heating problem). We can also wonder what role these jets might play in driving the overall solar wind.Launching a JetLed by Judit Szente (University of Michigan), a team of scientists has explored the impact of coronal jets on the global corona and solar wind with a series of numerical simulations. Szente and collaborators used three-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations that provide realistic treatment of the solar atmos