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Sample records for galactose

  1. Galactose-1-phospate uridyltransferase

    MedlinePlus

    ... normal diets, most galactose comes from the breakdown ( metabolism ) of lactose, which is found in milk and ... Elsevier; 2013:550. Zinn AB. Inborn errors of metabolism. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. ...

  2. Galactose adsorption on Ru(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatalo, Matti; Puisto, Mikko

    2014-03-01

    In order to understand the valorisation of biomass, it is essential to study the behavior of sugar molecules on catalytic surfaces. We have studied the adsorption of galactose molecules on the Ru(0001) surface using first principles calculations. We present results for the fully relaxed configurations of the molecule at different adsorption sites. We also compare the effect of the inclusion of the van der Waals interactions on both the energetics of the free galactose molecule and the adsorption energy of galactose on Ru(0001). We compare our results, obtained using periodically repeated supercells, to those obtained with cluster calculations.

  3. Endogenous galactose formation in galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Schadewaldt, Peter; Kamalanathan, Loganathan; Hammen, Hans-Werner; Kotzka, Jorg; Wendel, Udo

    2014-12-01

    Patients with classical galactosaemia (galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) deficiency) manifest clinical complications despite strict dietary galactose restriction. Therefore the significance of endogenous galactose production has been assessed. Previous in vivo studies primarily focused on patients homozygous for the most common genetic variant Q188R but little is known about other genetic variants. In the present study the endogenous galactose release in a group of non-Q188R homozygous galactosaemic patients (n = 17; 4-34 years) exhibiting comparably low residual GALT activity in red blood cells was investigated. Primed continuous infusion studies with D-[1-(13)C]galactose as substrate were conducted under post-absorptive conditions and in good metabolic control. The results demonstrate that all patients exhibiting residual GALT activity of <1.5% of control showed a comparable pathological pattern of increased endogenous galactose release irrespective of the underlying genetic variations. Possible implications of the findings towards a more differentiated dietary regimen in galactosaemia are discussed.

  4. Control of the receptor for galactose taxis in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Fahnestock, M; Koshland, D E

    1979-02-01

    The chemotactic response to galactose in wild-type Salmonella typhimurium is not inducible by galactose, but is inducible by fucose, a non-metabolizable analog. In a galactokinase mutant, however, the galactose receptor is inducible by galactose. These data indicate that the concentration of free galactose in the cell controls the levels of the galactose receptor. The intensities of the chemotactic responses were found to vary in proportion to the concentration of galactose receptors. In bacteria with higher levels of galactose receptors, the ribose response is inhibited by galactose. This supports the model in which the ribose and galactose receptors compete for a common component of the signaling system.

  5. Role of galactose in cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Elzi, David J; Song, Meihua; Shiio, Yuzuru

    2016-01-01

    Cellular senescence has been proposed to play critical roles in tumor suppression and organismal aging, but the molecular mechanism of senescence remains incompletely understood. Here we report that a putative lysosomal carbohydrate efflux transporter, Spinster, induces cellular senescence in human primary fibroblasts. Administration of d-galactose synergistically enhanced Spinster-induced senescence and this synergism required the transporter activity of Spinster. Intracellular d-galactose is metabolized to galactose-1-phosphate by galactokinase. Galactokinase-deficient fibroblasts, which accumulate intracellular d-galactose, displayed increased baseline senescence. Senescence of galactokinase-deficient fibroblasts was further enhanced by d-galactose administration and was diminished by restoration of wild-type galactokinase expression. Silencing galactokinase in normal fibroblasts also induced senescence. These results suggest a role for intracellular galactose in the induction of cellular senescence.

  6. Distinct roles of galactose-1P in galactose-mediated growth arrest of yeast deficient in galactose-1P uridylyltransferase (GALT) and UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase (GALE).

    PubMed

    Mumma, Jane Odhiambo; Chhay, Juliet S; Ross, Kerry L; Eaton, Jana S; Newell-Litwa, Karen A; Fridovich-Keil, Judith L

    2008-02-01

    Galactose is metabolized in humans and other species by the three-enzyme Leloir pathway comprised of galactokinase (GALK), galactose 1-P uridylyltransferase (GALT), and UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase (GALE). Impairment of GALT or GALE in humans results in the potentially lethal disorder galactosemia, and loss of either enzyme in yeast results in galactose-dependent growth arrest of cultures despite the availability of an alternate carbon source. In contrast, loss of GALK in humans is not life-threatening, and in yeast has no impact on the growth of cultures challenged with galactose. Further, the growth of both GALT-null and GALE-null yeast challenged with galactose is rescued by loss of GALK, thereby implicating the GALK reaction product, gal-1P, for a role in the galactose-sensitivity of both strains. However, the nature of that relationship has remained unclear. Here we have developed and applied a doxycycline-repressible allele of galactokinase to define the quantitative relationship between galactokinase activity, gal-1P accumulation, and growth arrest of galactose-challenged GALT or GALE-deficient yeast. Our results demonstrate a clear threshold relationship between gal-1P accumulation and galactose-mediated growth arrest in both GALT-null and GALE-null yeast, however, the threshold for the two strains is distinct. Further, we tested the galactose-sensitivity of yeast double-null for GALT and GALE, and found that although loss of GALT barely changed accumulation of gal-1P, it significantly lowered the accumulation of UDP-gal, and also dramatically rescued growth of the GALE-null cells. Together, these data suggest that while gal-1P alone may account for the galactose-sensitivity of GALT-null cells, other factors, likely to include UDP-gal accumulation, must contribute to the galactose-sensitivity of GALE-null cells.

  7. 21 CFR 862.1310 - Galactose test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Galactose test system. 862.1310 Section 862.1310....1310 Galactose test system. (a) Identification. A galactose test system is a device intended to measure galactose in blood and urine. Galactose measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1310 - Galactose test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Galactose test system. 862.1310 Section 862.1310....1310 Galactose test system. (a) Identification. A galactose test system is a device intended to measure galactose in blood and urine. Galactose measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: glucose-galactose malabsorption

    MedlinePlus

    ... the sugars glucose and galactose, which prevents proper digestion of these molecules and larger molecules made from ... are broken down into these simple sugars during digestion. Sucrose is broken down into glucose and another ...

  10. Lactose uptake driven by galactose efflux in Streptococcus thermophilus: Evidence for a galactose-lactose antiporter

    SciTech Connect

    Hutkins, R.W.; Ponne, C. )

    1991-04-01

    Galactose-nonfermenting (Gal{sup {minus}}) Streptococcus thermophilus TS2 releases galactose into the extracellular medium when grown in medium containing excess lactose. Starved and de-energized Gal{sup {minus}} cells, however, could be loaded with galactose to levels approximately equal to the extracellular concentration (0 to 50 mM). When loaded cells were separated from the medium and resuspended in fresh broth containing 5 mM lactose, galactose efflux occurred. De-energized, galactose-loaded cells, resuspended in buffer or medium, accumulated ({sup 14}C)lactose at a greater rate and to significantly higher intracellular concentrations than unloaded cells. Uptake of lactose by loaded cells was inhibited more than that by unloaded cells in the presence of extracellular galactose, indicating that a galactose gradient was involved in the exchange system. When de-energized, galactose-loaded cells were resuspended in carbohydrate-free medium at pH 6.7, a proton motive force ({Delta}p) of 86 to 90 mV was formed, whereas de-energized, nonloaded cells maintained a {Delta}p of about 56 mV. However, uptake of lactose by loaded cells occurred when the proton motive force was abolished by the addition of an uncoupler or in the presence of a proton-translocating ATPase inhibitor. These results support the hypothesis that galactose efflux in Gal{sup {minus}} S. thermophilus is electrogenic and that the exchange reaction (lactose uptake and galactose efflux) probably occurs via an antiporter system.

  11. Simultaneous uptake of galactose and glucose by Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Wong, T Y; Murdock, C A; Concannon, S P; Lockey, T D

    1991-01-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii growing on galactosides induced two distinct permeases for glucose and galactose. The apparent Vmax and Km of the galactose permease were 16 nmol galactose/min per 10(10) cells and 0.5 mM, respectively. The apparent Vmax and Km of the glucose permease were 7.8 nmol glucose/min per 10(10) cells and 0.04 mM, respectively. Excess glucose had no effect on the galactose uptake. However, excess galactose inhibited glucose transport. The galactosides-induced glucose permease also exhibited different uptake kinetics from that induced by glucose.

  12. Ligand interactions with galactose oxidase: mechanistic insights.

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, M M; Whittaker, J W

    1993-01-01

    Interactions between galactose oxidase and small molecules have been explored using a combination of optical absorption, circular dichroism, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies to detect complex formation and characterize the products. Anions bind directly to the cupric center in both active and inactive galactose oxidase, converting to complexes with optical and EPR spectra that are distinctly different from those of the starting aquo enzyme. Azide binding is coupled to stoichiometric proton uptake by the enzyme, reflecting the generation of a strong base (pKa > 9) in the active site anion adduct. At low temperature, the aquo enzyme converts to a form that exhibits the characteristic optical and EPR spectra of an anion complex, apparently reflecting deprotonation of the coordinated water. Anion binding results in a loss of the optical transition arising from coordinated tyrosine, implying displacement of the axial tyrosine ligand on forming the adduct. Nitric oxide binds to galactose oxidase, forming a specific complex exhibiting an unusual EPR spectrum with all g values below 2. The absence of Cu splitting in this spectrum and the observation that the cupric EPR signal from the active site metal ion is not significantly decreased in the complex suggest a nonmetal interaction site for NO in galactose oxidase. These results have been interpreted in terms of a mechanistic scheme where substrate binding displaces a tyrosinate ligand from the active site cupric ion, generating a base that may serve to deprotonate the coordinated hydroxyl group of the substrate, activating it for oxidation. The protein-NO interactions may probe a nonmetal O2 binding site in this enzyme. PMID:8386015

  13. Ght2⁺ is required for UDP-galactose synthesis from extracellular galactose by Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Hara, Futoshi; Tanaka, Naotaka; Tohda, Hideki; Takegawa, Kaoru

    2013-06-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe has eight hexose transporter genes, ght1 (+) to ght8 (+). Here we report that ght2 (+), which is highly expressed in the presence of glucose, is essential for UDP-galactose synthesis from extracellular galactose when cells grow on glucose. The galactosylation defect of a uge1Δ mutant defective in synthesis of UDP-galactose from glucose was suppressed in galactose-containing medium, but disruption of ght2 (+) in the uge1Δ mutant reversed suppression of the galactosylation defect. Expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae GAL2 in uge1Δght2Δ cells suppressed the defective galactosylation phenotype in galactose-containing medium. These results indicate that galactose is transported from the medium to the cytosol in a Ght2-dependent manner, and is then converted into UDP-galactose.

  14. Galactose metabolic genes in yeast respond to a ratio of galactose and glucose.

    PubMed

    Escalante-Chong, Renan; Savir, Yonatan; Carroll, Sean M; Ingraham, John B; Wang, Jue; Marx, Christopher J; Springer, Michael

    2015-02-03

    Natural environments are filled with multiple, often competing, signals. In contrast, biological systems are often studied in "well-controlled" environments where only a single input is varied, potentially missing important interactions between signals. Catabolite repression of galactose by glucose is one of the best-studied eukaryotic signal integration systems. In this system, it is believed that galactose metabolic (GAL) genes are induced only when glucose levels drop below a threshold. In contrast, we show that GAL gene induction occurs at a constant external galactose:glucose ratio across a wide range of sugar concentrations. We systematically perturbed the components of the canonical galactose/glucose signaling pathways and found that these components do not account for ratio sensing. Instead we provide evidence that ratio sensing occurs upstream of the canonical signaling pathway and results from the competitive binding of the two sugars to hexose transporters. We show that a mutant that behaves as the classical model expects (i.e., cannot use galactose above a glucose threshold) has a fitness disadvantage compared with wild type. A number of common biological signaling motifs can give rise to ratio sensing, typically through negative interactions between opposing signaling molecules. We therefore suspect that this previously unidentified nutrient sensing paradigm may be common and overlooked in biology.

  15. Galactose oxidation using (13)C in healthy and galactosemic children.

    PubMed

    Resende-Campanholi, D R; Porta, G; Ferrioli, E; Pfrimer, K; Ciampo, L A Del; Junior, J S Camelo

    2015-03-01

    Galactosemia is an inborn error of galactose metabolism that occurs mainly as the outcome of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) deficiency. The ability to assess galactose oxidation following administration of a galactose-labeled isotope (1-(13)C-galactose) allows the determination of galactose metabolism in a practical manner. We aimed to assess the level of galactose oxidation in both healthy and galactosemic Brazilian children. Twenty-one healthy children and seven children with galactosemia ranging from 1 to 7 years of age were studied. A breath test was used to quantitate (13)CO2 enrichment in exhaled air before and at 30, 60, and 120 min after the oral administration of 7 mg/kg of an aqueous solution of 1-(13)C-galactose to all children. The molar ratios of (13)CO2 and (12)CO2 were quantified by the mass/charge ratio (m/z) of stable isotopes in each air sample by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. In sick children, the cumulative percentage of (13)C from labeled galactose (CUMPCD) in the exhaled air ranged from 0.03% at 30 min to 1.67% at 120 min. In contrast, healthy subjects showed a much broader range in CUMPCD, with values from 0.4% at 30 min to 5.58% at 120 min. The study found a significant difference in galactose oxidation between children with and without galactosemia, demonstrating that the breath test is useful in discriminating children with GALT deficiencies.

  16. Galactose Epimerase Deficiency: Expanding the Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Dias Costa, Filipa; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Pinto, Carla; Dias, Andrea; Keldermans, Liesbeth; Quelhas, Dulce; Matthijs, Gert; Mooijer, Petra A; Diogo, Luísa; Jaeken, Jaak; Garcia, Paula

    2017-03-01

    Galactose epimerase deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism due to uridine diphosphate-galactose-4'-epimerase (GALE) deficiency. We report the clinical presentation, genetic and biochemical studies in two siblings with generalized GALE deficiency.Patient 1: The first child was born with a dysmorphic syndrome. Failure to thrive was noticed during the first year. Episodes of heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy, followed by liver failure, occurred between 12 and 42 months. The finding of a serum transferrin isoelectrofocusing (IEF) type 1 pattern led to the suspicion of a congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG). Follow-up disclosed psychomotor disability, deafness, and nuclear cataracts.Patient 2: The sibling of patient 1 was born with short limbs and hip dysplasia. She is deceased in the neonatal period due to intraventricular hemorrhage in the context of liver failure. Investigation disclosed galactosuria and normal transferrin glycosylation.Next-generation sequence panel analysis for CDG syndrome revealed the previously reported c.280G>A (p.[V94M]) homozygous mutation in the GALE gene. Enzymatic studies in erythrocytes (patient 1) and fibroblasts (patients 1 and 2) revealed markedly reduced GALE activity confirming generalized GALE deficiency. This report describes the fourth family with generalized GALE deficiency, expanding the clinical spectrum of this disorder, since major cardiac involvement has not been reported before.

  17. Rapid and efficient galactose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Quarterman, Josh; Skerker, Jeffrey M; Feng, Xueyang; Liu, Ian Y; Zhao, Huimin; Arkin, Adam P; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-07-10

    In the important industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, galactose metabolism requires energy production by respiration; therefore, this yeast cannot metabolize galactose under strict anaerobic conditions. While the respiratory dependence of galactose metabolism provides benefits in terms of cell growth and population stability, it is not advantageous for producing fuels and chemicals since a substantial fraction of consumed galactose is converted to carbon dioxide. In order to force S. cerevisiae to use galactose without respiration, a subunit (COX9) of a respiratory enzyme was deleted, but the resulting deletion mutant (Δcox9) was impaired in terms of galactose assimilation. Interestingly, after serial sub-cultures on galactose, the mutant evolved rapidly and was able to use galactose via fermentation only. The evolved strain (JQ-G1) produced ethanol from galactose with a 94% increase in yield and 6.9-fold improvement in specific productivity as compared to the wild-type strain. (13)C-metabolic flux analysis demonstrated a three-fold reduction in carbon flux through the TCA cycle of the evolved mutant with redirection of flux toward the fermentation pathway. Genome sequencing of the JQ-G1 strain revealed a loss of function mutation in a master negative regulator of the Leloir pathway (Gal80p). The mutation (Glu348*) in Gal80p was found to act synergistically with deletion of COX9 for efficient galactose fermentation, and thus the double deletion mutant Δcox9Δgal80 produced ethanol 2.4 times faster and with 35% higher yield than a single knockout mutant with deletion of GAL80 alone. When we introduced a functional COX9 cassette back into the JQ-G1 strain, the JQ-G1-COX9 strain showed a 33% reduction in specific galactose uptake rate and a 49% reduction in specific ethanol production rate as compared to JQ-G1. The wild-type strain was also subjected to serial sub-cultures on galactose but we failed to isolate a mutant capable of utilizing galactose without

  18. Improved galactose fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through inverse metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Sung; Hong, Min-Eui; Jung, Suk-Chae; Ha, Suk-Jin; Yu, Byung Jo; Koo, Hyun Min; Park, Sung Min; Seo, Jin-Ho; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk; Park, Jae Chan; Jin, Yong-Su

    2011-03-01

    Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is capable of fermenting galactose into ethanol, ethanol yield and productivity from galactose are significantly lower than those from glucose. An inverse metabolic engineering approach was undertaken to improve ethanol yield and productivity from galactose in S. cerevisiae. A genome-wide perturbation library was introduced into S. cerevisiae, and then fast galactose-fermenting transformants were screened using three different enrichment methods. The characterization of genetic perturbations in the isolated transformants revealed three target genes whose overexpression elicited enhanced galactose utilization. One confirmatory (SEC53 coding for phosphomannomutase) and two novel targets (SNR84 coding for a small nuclear RNA and a truncated form of TUP1 coding for a general repressor of transcription) were identified as overexpression targets that potentially improve galactose fermentation. Beneficial effects of overexpression of SEC53 may be similar to the mechanisms exerted by overexpression of PGM2 coding for phosphoglucomutase. While the mechanism is largely unknown, overexpression of SNR84, improved both growth and ethanol production from galactose. The most remarkable improvement of galactose fermentation was achieved by overexpression of the truncated TUP1 (tTUP1) gene, resulting in unrivalled galactose fermentation capability, that is 250% higher in both galactose consumption rate and ethanol productivity compared to the control strain. Moreover, the overexpression of tTUP1 significantly shortened lag periods that occurs when substrate is changed from glucose to galactose. Based on these results we proposed a hypothesis that the mutant Tup1 without C-terminal repression domain might bring in earlier and higher expression of GAL genes through partial alleviation of glucose repression. mRNA levels of GAL genes (GAL1, GAL4, and GAL80) indeed increased upon overexpression of tTUP. The results presented in this study illustrate

  19. Galactose-specific seed lectins from Cucurbitaceae.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Musti J; Marapakala, Kavitha; Sultan, Nabil Ali M; Kenoth, Roopa

    2015-01-01

    Lectins, the carbohydrate binding proteins have been studied extensively in view of their ubiquitous nature and wide-ranging applications. As they were originally found in plant seed extracts, much of the work on them was focused on plant seed lectins, especially those from legume seeds whereas much less attention was paid to the lectins from other plant families. During the last two decades many studies have been reported on lectins from the seeds of Cucurbitaceae species. The main focus of the present review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge on these proteins, especially with regard to their physico-chemical characterization, interaction with carbohydrates and hydrophobic ligands, 3-dimensional structure and similarity to type-II ribosome inactivating proteins. The future outlook of research on these galactose-specific proteins is also briefly considered.

  20. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase in erythrocytes (red blood cells... hereditary disease galactosemia (disorder of galactose metabolism) in infants. (b) Classification. Class II....

  1. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase in erythrocytes (red blood cells... hereditary disease galactosemia (disorder of galactose metabolism) in infants. (b) Classification. Class II....

  2. Galactose Expulsion during Lactose Metabolism in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris FD1 Due to Dephosphorylation of Intracellular Galactose 6-Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Benthin, Stig; Nielsen, Jens; Villadsen, John

    1994-01-01

    In Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris FD1, galactose and lactose are both transported and phosphorylated by phosphotransferase systems. Lactose 6-phosphate (lactose-6P) is hydrolyzed intracellularly to galactose-6P and glucose. Glucose enters glycolysis as glucose-6P, whereas galactose-6P is metabolized via the tagatose-6P pathway and enters glycolysis at the tagatose diphosphate and fructose diphosphate pool. Galactose would therefore be a gluconeogenic sugar in L. lactis subsp. cremoris FD1, but since fructose 1,6-diphosphatase is not present in this strain, galactose cannot serve as an essential biomass precursor (glucose-6P or fructose-6P) but only as an energy (ATP) source. Analysis of the growth energetics shows that transition from N limitation to limitation by glucose-6P or fructose-6P gives rise to a very high growth-related ATP consumption (152 mmol of ATP per g of biomass) compared with the value in cultures which are not limited by glucose-6P or fructose-6P (15 to 50 mmol of ATP per g of biomass). During lactose metabolism, the galactose flux through the tagatose-6P pathway (rmax = 1.2 h-1) is lower than the glucose flux through glycolysis (rmax = 1.5 h-1) and intracellular galactose-6P is dephosphorylated; this is followed by expulsion of galactose. Expulsion of a metabolizable sugar has not been reported previously, and the specific rate of galactose expulsion is up to 0.61 g of galactose g of biomass -1 h-1 depending on the lactose flux and the metabolic state of the bacteria. Galactose excreted during batch fermentation on lactose is reabsorbed and metabolized when lactose is depleted from the medium. In vitro incubation of galactose-6P (50 mM) and permeabilized cells (8 g/liter) gives a supernatant containing free galactose (50 mM) but no Pi (less than 0.5 mM). No organic compound except the liberated galactose is present in sufficient concentration to bind the phosphate. Phosphate is quantitatively recovered in the supernatant as Pi by hydrolysis

  3. PGM2 overexpression improves anaerobic galactose fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Saccharomyces cerevisiae galactose is initially metabolized through the Leloir pathway after which glucose 6-phosphate enters glycolysis. Galactose is controlled both by glucose repression and by galactose induction. The gene PGM2 encodes the last enzyme of the Leloir pathway, phosphoglucomutase 2 (Pgm2p), which catalyses the reversible conversion of glucose 1-phosphate to glucose 6-phosphate. Overexpression of PGM2 has previously been shown to enhance aerobic growth of S. cerevisiae in galactose medium. Results In the present study we show that overexpression of PGM2 under control of the HXT7'promoter from an integrative plasmid increased the PGM activity 5 to 6 times, which significantly reduced the lag phase of glucose-pregrown cells in an anaerobic galactose culture. PGM2 overexpression also increased the anaerobic specific growth rate whereas ethanol production was less influenced. When PGM2 was overexpressed from a multicopy plasmid instead, the PGM activity increased almost 32 times. However, this increase of PGM activity did not further improve aerobic galactose fermentation as compared to the strain carrying PGM2 on the integrative plasmid. Conclusion PGM2 overexpression in S. cerevisiae from an integrative plasmid is sufficient to reduce the lag phase and to enhance the growth rate in anaerobic galactose fermentation, which results in an overall decrease in fermentation duration. This observation is of particular importance for the future development of stable industrial strains with enhanced PGM activity. PMID:20507616

  4. The effect of enteric galactose on neonatal canine carbohydrate metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Kliegman, R.M.; Miettinen, E.L.; Kalhan, S.C.; Adam, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Newborn pups were assigned to a fasting group or to a group receiving intravenous glucose alimentation. Glucose turnover was determined during steady state equilibration of simultaneously infused (6-/sup 3/H) glucose. Thereafter, pups from each group received 0.625 g/Kg of either oral (U-/sup 14/C) galactose or (U-/sup 14/C) glucose. In fasted or intravenously alimented pups enteric glucose resulted in a rapid and sustained elevation of blood glucose concentrations. Systemic appearance of /sup 14/C label from enteric glucose increased rapidly as did the enrichment of blood (/sup 14/C) glucose specific activity. In those pups given enteric galactose, blood glucose values were equivalent to that in the glucose fed groups, however /sup 14/C appearing in blood glucose and blood glucose specific activity was significantly lower. The peak values for rates of appearance and disappearance of systemic glucose were significantly lower in pups fed galactose than among pups fed glucose. Glucose clearance was also significantly lower in these pups despite equivalent plasma insulin responses. Among fasting pups hepatic glycogen content was significantly higher in those given either oral glucose or galactose when compared to a completely starved control group. In contrast, among alimented pups galactose administration significantly enhanced hepatic glycogen content compared to those fed glucose. In addition, hepatic glycogen synthase (glucose-6-phosphate independent) activity was increased only among alimented pups fed galactose when compared to completely fasted pups. In conclusion these data suggest that following gastrointestinal galactose administration, hepatic carbohydrate uptake is augmented while glycogen synthesis may be enhanced. Augmented glycogen synthesis following galactose administration may reflect alterations in hepatic glycogen synthase activity or enhanced hepatic carbohydrate uptake.

  5. Mathematical model of galactose regulation and metabolic consumption in yeast.

    PubMed

    Mitre, Tina M; Mackey, Michael C; Khadra, Anmar

    2016-10-21

    The galactose network has been extensively studied at the unicellular level to broaden our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms governing galactose metabolism in multicellular organisms. Although the key molecular players involved in the metabolic and regulatory processes of this system have been known for decades, their interactions and chemical kinetics remain incompletely understood. Mathematical models can provide an alternative method to study the dynamics of this network from a quantitative and a qualitative perspective. Here, we employ this approach to unravel the main properties of the galactose network, including equilibrium binary and temporal responses, as a way to decipher its adaptation to actively-changing inputs. We combine its two main components: the genetic branch, which allows for bistable responses, and a metabolic branch, encompassing the relevant metabolic processes that can be repressed by glucose. We use both computational tools to estimate model parameters based on published experimental data, as well as bifurcation analysis to decipher the properties of the system in various parameter regimes. Our model analysis reveals that the interplay between the inducer (galactose) and the repressor (glucose) creates a bistable regime which dictates the temporal responses of the system. Based on the same bifurcation techniques, we explain why the system is robust to genetic mutations and molecular instabilities. These findings may provide experimentalists with a theoretical framework with which they can determine how the galactose network functions under various conditions.

  6. Galactose-α-1,3-galactose and Delayed Anaphylaxis, Angioedema, and Urticaria in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Joshua L.; Stallings, Amy P.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Oliveira, Walter M.; Workman, Lisa; James, Haley R.; Tripathi, Anubha; Lane, Charles J.; Matos, Luis; Heymann, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Despite a thorough history and comprehensive testing, many children who present with recurrent symptoms consistent with allergic reactions elude diagnosis. Recent research has identified a novel cause for “idiopathic” allergic reactions; immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody specific for the carbohydrate galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) has been associated with delayed urticaria and anaphylaxis that occurs 3 to 6 hours after eating beef, pork, or lamb. We sought to determine whether IgE antibody to α-Gal was present in sera of pediatric patients who reported idiopathic anaphylaxis or urticaria. METHODS: Patients aged 4 to 17 were enrolled in an institutional review board–approved protocol at the University of Virginia and private practice allergy offices in Lynchburg, VA. Sera was obtained and analyzed by ImmunoCAP for total IgE and specific IgE to α-Gal, beef, pork, cat epithelium and dander, Fel d 1, dog dander, and milk. RESULTS: Forty-five pediatric patients were identified who had both clinical histories supporting delayed anaphylaxis or urticaria to mammalian meat and IgE antibody specific for α-Gal. In addition, most of these cases had a history of tick bites within the past year, which itched and persisted. CONCLUSIONS: A novel form of anaphylaxis and urticaria that occurs 3 to 6 hours after eating mammalian meat is not uncommon among children in our area. Identification of these cases may not be straightforward and diagnosis is best confirmed by specific testing, which should certainly be considered for children living in the area where the Lone Star tick is common. PMID:23569097

  7. Structural basis for binding of fluorinated glucose and galactose to Trametes multicolor pyranose 2-oxidase variants with improved galactose conversion.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tien Chye; Spadiut, Oliver; Gandini, Rosaria; Haltrich, Dietmar; Divne, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Each year, about six million tons of lactose are generated from liquid whey as industrial byproduct, and optimally this large carbohydrate waste should be used for the production of value-added products. Trametes multicolor pyranose 2-oxidase (TmP2O) catalyzes the oxidation of various monosaccharides to the corresponding 2-keto sugars. Thus, a potential use of TmP2O is to convert the products from lactose hydrolysis, D-glucose and D-galactose, to more valuable products such as tagatose. Oxidation of glucose is however strongly favored over galactose, and oxidation of both substrates at more equal rates is desirable. Characterization of TmP2O variants (H450G, V546C, H450G/V546C) with improved D-galactose conversion has been given earlier, of which H450G displayed the best relative conversion between the substrates. To rationalize the changes in conversion rates, we have analyzed high-resolution crystal structures of the aforementioned mutants with bound 2- and 3-fluorinated glucose and galactose. Binding of glucose and galactose in the productive 2-oxidation binding mode is nearly identical in all mutants, suggesting that this binding mode is essentially unaffected by the mutations. For the competing glucose binding mode, enzyme variants carrying the H450G replacement stabilize glucose as the α-anomer in position for 3-oxidation. The backbone relaxation at position 450 allows the substrate-binding loop to fold tightly around the ligand. V546C however stabilize glucose as the β-anomer using an open loop conformation. Improved binding of galactose is enabled by subtle relaxation effects at key active-site backbone positions. The competing binding mode for galactose 2-oxidation by V546C stabilizes the β-anomer for oxidation at C1, whereas H450G variants stabilize the 3-oxidation binding mode of the galactose α-anomer. The present study provides a detailed description of binding modes that rationalize changes in the relative conversion rates of D-glucose and D-galactose

  8. Structural Basis for Binding of Fluorinated Glucose and Galactose to Trametes multicolor Pyranose 2-Oxidase Variants with Improved Galactose Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Gandini, Rosaria; Haltrich, Dietmar; Divne, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Each year, about six million tons of lactose are generated from liquid whey as industrial byproduct, and optimally this large carbohydrate waste should be used for the production of value-added products. Trametes multicolor pyranose 2-oxidase (TmP2O) catalyzes the oxidation of various monosaccharides to the corresponding 2-keto sugars. Thus, a potential use of TmP2O is to convert the products from lactose hydrolysis, D-glucose and D-galactose, to more valuable products such as tagatose. Oxidation of glucose is however strongly favored over galactose, and oxidation of both substrates at more equal rates is desirable. Characterization of TmP2O variants (H450G, V546C, H450G/V546C) with improved D-galactose conversion has been given earlier, of which H450G displayed the best relative conversion between the substrates. To rationalize the changes in conversion rates, we have analyzed high-resolution crystal structures of the aforementioned mutants with bound 2- and 3-fluorinated glucose and galactose. Binding of glucose and galactose in the productive 2-oxidation binding mode is nearly identical in all mutants, suggesting that this binding mode is essentially unaffected by the mutations. For the competing glucose binding mode, enzyme variants carrying the H450G replacement stabilize glucose as the α-anomer in position for 3-oxidation. The backbone relaxation at position 450 allows the substrate-binding loop to fold tightly around the ligand. V546C however stabilize glucose as the β-anomer using an open loop conformation. Improved binding of galactose is enabled by subtle relaxation effects at key active-site backbone positions. The competing binding mode for galactose 2-oxidation by V546C stabilizes the β-anomer for oxidation at C1, whereas H450G variants stabilize the 3-oxidation binding mode of the galactose α-anomer. The present study provides a detailed description of binding modes that rationalize changes in the relative conversion rates of D-glucose and D-galactose

  9. Contribution of galactose and fructose to glucose homeostasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the contributions of galactose and fructose to glucose formation, 6 subjects (26 +/- 2 years old; body mass index, 22.4 +/-0.2 kg/m2) (mean +/- SE) were studied during fasting conditions. Three subjects received a primed constant intravenous infusion of[6,6-2H2] glucose for 3 hours foll...

  10. Elemental and structural studies of the rat galactose cataract

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, C.V.; Unakar, N.J.; Bagchi, M.; Chylack, L.T. Jr.; Jampel, R.S.; Bobrowski, W.F.; Dang, L.; Tsui, J.Y.; Harding, D. )

    1989-01-01

    A series of rat galactose lenses, from 1 to 20 days on the 50% galactose diet, were frozen in the whole eye, and fractured from pole to pole in the frozen state. Lyophilized half-lenses were prepared for analysis by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Following elemental analysis, some specimens were embedded and sectioned for histological studies. Elemental X-ray maps, and/or profiles, were made for K, Na, Cl, Ca, P, and S. As early as two days on the galactose diet, a crescent-shaped region (streak) of Cl, Na, and Ca gain, and K loss develops near the equatorial surface. Between this region and the equatorial surface are the nucleated differentiating fiber cells which maintain low Cl, Na, and Ca, and high K (viable equatorial zone, VEZ). With time the streak expands anteriorly, centrally and posteriorly, eventually (by 20 days) including most of the lens. The VEZ, including the epithelium, however, is non-reactive to the galactose diet, which is deleterious to the fully differentiated fiber cells. Eventually, the VEZ undergoes a characteristic morphological change, apparently due in part to changes in its physical environment.

  11. Galactose promotes fat mobilization in obese lactating and nonlactating women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Galactose consumption as the only carbohydrate source, results in little increase in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations when compared with fasting. Lower insulin might promote endogenous lipolysis during meal absorption, which may facilitate fat loss. The objective was to test the hypothesis ...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1310 - Galactose test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Galactose test system. 862.1310 Section 862.1310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1310 - Galactose test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Galactose test system. 862.1310 Section 862.1310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1310 - Galactose test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Galactose test system. 862.1310 Section 862.1310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1315 Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. (a) Identification. A galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system is a device intended to measure the...

  16. Glycoconjugates as noninvasive probes of intrahepatic metabolism. III. Application to galactose assimilation by the intact rat

    SciTech Connect

    Hellerstein, M.K.; Munro, H.N.

    1988-04-01

    A tracer methodology has been developed for noninvasive assessment of intrahepatic metabolism of administered labeled sugars. In this procedure, we measure the output of the label from the liver in two glycoconjugates derived from hepatic UDP-glucose, namely, glucuronic acid formed through UDP-glucuronic acid and excreted in the urine following acetaminophen administration, and galactose formed through UDP-galactose and then secreted in the carbohydrate portion of glycoproteins in the plasma. Comparison of the distribution of label from various sugar precursors in these end-products can indicate exchanges between hepatic UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose, and UDP-glucuronic acid. In this study we apply the technique to explore whether the enzyme UDP-galactose-4-epimerase catalyzing the step UDP-galactose to UDP-glucose is nonequilibrium and therefore potentially has a regulatory role for utilization of free galactose. The specific activity in the two glycoconjugates was compared when either (1-3H)galactose or (U-14C)glucose was the infused precursor sugar. In rats under a variety of conditions (fasting, oral refeeding, intravenous administration of galactose), label from (1-3H)galactose accumulated in glycoprotein-bound galactose much more than in acetaminophen-bound glucuronic acid, in comparison to label from (U-14C)glucose, demonstrating limitation of the rate of transfer from UDP-galactose to UDP-glucose at the epimerase step. Accordingly, epimerase is suggested to have a regulatory role in the galactose assimilation pathway.

  17. Overlapping and distinct roles of Aspergillus fumigatus UDP-glucose 4-epimerases in galactose metabolism and the synthesis of galactose-containing cell wall polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mark J; Gravelat, Fabrice N; Cerone, Robert P; Baptista, Stefanie D; Campoli, Paolo V; Choe, Se-In; Kravtsov, Ilia; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Creuzenet, Carole; Liu, Hong; Berghuis, Albert M; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Filler, Scott G; Fontaine, Thierry; Sheppard, Donald C

    2014-01-17

    The cell wall of Aspergillus fumigatus contains two galactose-containing polysaccharides, galactomannan and galactosaminogalactan, whose biosynthetic pathways are not well understood. The A. fumigatus genome contains three genes encoding putative UDP-glucose 4-epimerases, uge3, uge4, and uge5. We undertook this study to elucidate the function of these epimerases. We found that uge4 is minimally expressed and is not required for the synthesis of galactose-containing exopolysaccharides or galactose metabolism. Uge5 is the dominant UDP-glucose 4-epimerase in A. fumigatus and is essential for normal growth in galactose-based medium. Uge5 is required for synthesis of the galactofuranose (Galf) component of galactomannan and contributes galactose to the synthesis of galactosaminogalactan. Uge3 can mediate production of both UDP-galactose and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) and is required for the production of galactosaminogalactan but not galactomannan. In the absence of Uge5, Uge3 activity is sufficient for growth on galactose and the synthesis of galactosaminogalactan containing lower levels of galactose but not the synthesis of Galf. A double deletion of uge5 and uge3 blocked growth on galactose and synthesis of both Galf and galactosaminogalactan. This study is the first survey of glucose epimerases in A. fumigatus and contributes to our understanding of the role of these enzymes in metabolism and cell wall synthesis.

  18. Fermentation of Glucose, Lactose, Galactose, Mannitol, and Xylose by Bifidobacteria

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Wytske; Stouthamer, A. H.

    1968-01-01

    For six strains of Bifidobacterium bifidum (Lactobacillus bifidus), fermentation balances of glucose, lactose, galactose, mannitol, and xylose were determined. Products formed were acetate, l(+)-lactate, ethyl alcohol, and formate. l(+)-Lactate dehydrogenase of all strains studied was found to have an absolute requirement for fructose-1,6-diphosphate. The phosphoroclastic enzyme could not be demonstrated in cell-free extracts. Cell suspensions fermented pyruvate to equimolar amounts of acetate and formate. Alcohol dehydrogenase was shown in cell-free extracts. Possible explanations have been suggested for the differences in fermentation balances found for different strains and carbon sources. By enzyme determinations, it was shown that bifidobacteria convert mannitol to fructose-6-phosphate by an inducible polyol dehydrogenase and fructokinase. For one strain of B. bifidum, molar growth yields of glucose, lactose, galactose, and mannitol were determined. The mean value of Y (ATP), calculated from molar growth yields and fermentation balances, was 11.3. PMID:5674058

  19. Effects of galactose feeding on aldose reductase gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, R R; Lyons, P A; Wang, A; Sainsbury, A J; Chung, S; Palmer, T N

    1993-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AR) is implicated in the pathogenesis of the diabetic complications and osmotic cataract. AR has been identified as an osmoregulatory protein, at least in the renal medulla. An outstanding question relates to the response of AR gene expression to diet-induced galactosemia in extrarenal tissues. This paper shows that AR gene expression in different tissues is regulated by a complex multifactorial mechanism. Galactose feeding in the rat is associated with a complex and, on occasions, multiphasic pattern of changes in AR mRNA levels in kidney, testis, skeletal muscle, and brain. These changes are not in synchrony with the temporal sequence of changes in tissue galactitol, galactose, and myoinositol concentrations. Moreover, galactose feeding results in changes in tissue AR activities that are not related, temporally or quantitatively, to the alterations in tissue AR mRNA or galactitol levels. It is concluded that AR gene expression and tissue AR activities are regulated by mechanisms that are not purely dependent on nonspecific alterations in intracellular metabolite concentrations. This conclusion is supported by the finding that chronic xylose feeding, despite being associated with intracellular xylitol accumulation, does not result in alterations in AR mRNA levels, at least in the kidney. PMID:8325980

  20. Spectroscopic studies of the active site of galactose oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Knowles, P.F.; Brown, R.D. III; Koenig, S.H.

    1995-07-19

    X-ray absorption and EPR spectroscopy have been used to probe the copper site structure in galactose oxidase at pH 4.5 and 7.0. the results suggest that there are no major differences in the structure of the tetragonal Cu(II) site at these pH values. Analysis of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) indicates that four N,O scatterers are present at approximately 2 {Angstrom}; these are presumably the equatorial ligands. In addition, the EXAFS data establish that oxidative activation to produce the active-site tyrosine radical does not cause major changes in the copper coordination environment. Therefore results obtained on the one-electron reduced enzyme, containing Cu(II) but not the tyrosine radical, probably also apply to the catalytically active Cu(II)/tyrosine radical state. Solvent water exchange, inhibitor binding, and substrate binding have been probed via nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) measurements. The NMRD profile of galactose oxidase is quantitatively consistent with the rapid exchange of a single, equatorial water ligand with a Cu(II)-O separation of about 2.4 {Angstrom}. Azide and cyanide displace this coordinated water. The binding of azide and the substrate dihydroxyacetone produce very similar effects on the NMRD profile of galactose oxidase, indicating that substrates also bind to the active site Cu(II) in an equatorial position.

  1. METABOLIC INTERMEDIATES IN ADAPTIVE FERMENTATION OF GALACTOSE BY YEAST

    PubMed Central

    Reiner, John M.

    1947-01-01

    Pyruvic acid, which is known to be an intermediate of glucose fermentation, was added to yeast during adaptation to galactose fermentation. It was found to neutralize the inhibition by sodium fluoride, and to decrease the apparent time of adaptation from 90 to about 45 or 60 minutes. In control experiments, it was shown that intact yeast is unable appreciably to ferment or decarboxylate alone, although it oxidizes the compound readily. Experiments in which galactose and pyruvate were added at various times and in different orders were used to eliminate the possible complications of the rates at which these compounds penetrate the cells. Under these conditions, it was not possible to reduce the time of adaptation below 45 minutes. It was concluded that the rôle of added pyruvate was to serve as a source of acetaldehyde, which in turn could accept hydrogen and be reduced to alcohol. Substances, such as triose phosphate, which could serve as hydrogen donors were not produced from galactose in appreciable quantities until 45 minutes had elapsed. This time was therefore inferred to be the true adaptation time, during which the first synthesis of adaptive enzymes occurred. Some determinations of the distribution of phosphorylated intermediates at various stages during the adaptive process were carried out. It was found that ATP, which usually serves to phosphorylate hexoses, accumulates during the preadaptive phase, diminishes rapidly after 60 minutes, and subsequently increases once more. The source of the ATP phosphate appeared to be PPA or triose phosphate initially present in the cells. It was inferred that the adaptive enzyme was concerned with the phosphorylation of galactose and the conversion of the phosphate ester to a glucose ester, which could then be fermented by the normal enzymes of the cell. Added ATP was found to stimulate adaptation to a considerable extent, but did not shorten the time of adaptation below 75 minutes. This seemed consistent with the r

  2. Timing of Gene Transcription in the Galactose Utilization System of Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Péter; Hunziker, Alexander; Erdőssy, János; Krishna, Sandeep; Semsey, Szabolcs

    2010-01-01

    In the natural environment, bacterial cells have to adjust their metabolism to alterations in the availability of food sources. The order and timing of gene expression are crucial in these situations to produce an appropriate response. We used the galactose regulation in Escherichia coli as a model system for understanding how cells integrate information about food availability and cAMP levels to adjust the timing and intensity of gene expression. We simulated the feast-famine cycle of bacterial growth by diluting stationary phase cells in fresh medium containing galactose as the sole carbon source. We followed the activities of six promoters of the galactose system as cells grew on and ran out of galactose. We found that the cell responds to a decreasing external galactose level by increasing the internal galactose level, which is achieved by limiting galactose metabolism and increasing the expression of transporters. We show that the cell alters gene expression based primarily on the current state of the cell and not on monitoring the level of extracellular galactose in real time. Some decisions have longer term effects; therefore, the current state does subtly encode the history of food availability. In summary, our measurements of timing of gene expression in the galactose system suggest that the system has evolved to respond to environments where future galactose levels are unpredictable rather than regular feast and famine cycles. PMID:20923764

  3. Sequential intrahepatic metabolic effects of enteric galactose alimentation in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Kliegman, R M; Morton, S

    1988-09-01

    We determined metabolic responses after enteric galactose alimentation in 5- to 7-day-old newborn rats fasted for 24 h. The glycemic response was attenuated after enteric galactose feeding compared with the response after enteric glucose-fed rat pups. 14C radioactivity in blood from galactose-fed pups was reduced as counts in blood galactose were lower than counts in blood glucose in glucose-fed pups. Nonetheless within 15 min, [14C] from galactose appeared in blood glucose suggesting rapid conversion of galactose to glucose. The plasma insulin response was also attenuated after galactose feeding compared with the insulin response after enteric glucose. Hepatic glycogen content increased rapidly after enteric galactose feeding and was higher than after glucose feeding at 60, 120, and 180 min. Significant glycogen synthesis after oral glucose was delayed and occurred at 240 min. Carbon radioactivity in glycogen was higher in galactose fed pups between 15 and 360 min of the study. Serial determination of hepatic metabolites revealed an increase of galactose-1-phosphate levels after oral galactose at 240 and 300 min and a transient decline of ATP at 15 min. Other hepatic metabolites did not demonstrate significant differences between the two groups. These data suggest that hepatic glycogen synthesis is more rapid and occurs sooner after galactose than after glucose alimentation in previously fasted newborn rats. Galactose may enter a more direct pathway for neonatal hepatic glycogen synthesis. The relatively delayed entry of glucose label into hepatic glycogen and the delay of net glycogen synthesis after oral glucose suggest that glucose entry is not direct and may require further metabolism before incorporation into glycogen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Free galactose concentrations in fresh and stored apples (Malus domestica) and processed apple products.

    PubMed

    Scaman, Christine H; Jim, Vickie Jin Wai; Hartnett, Carol

    2004-02-11

    Gas chromatography was used to quantitate free galactose in Braeburn, Fuji, Red Delicious, and Spartan apples during cold storage, after thermal processing of apple slices and in juice produced using clarification and/or liquifaction enzymes. Spartan had significantly higher galactose levels as compared to Red Delicious apples, but changes in galactose in all varieties during 9 months of cold storage were insignificant. Blanching and canning decreased galactose levels, but doubling the thermal processing during canning increased the free galactose concentration detected in plant tissue. An enzymatic liquefaction aid used to prepare apple juice dramatically increased the free galactose content while a clarification aid caused only a slight increase due to its selective action on soluble pectin. These findings provide useful information for dietitians to base diet recommendations for galactosemic patients.

  5. Leishmania major UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase salvages galactose for glycoconjugate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Damerow, Sebastian; Hoppe, Carolin; Bandini, Giulia; Zarnovican, Patricia; Buettner, Falk F R; Ferguson, Michael A J; Routier, Françoise H

    2015-10-01

    Leishmaniases are a set of tropical and sub-tropical diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania whose severity ranges from self-healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral infections. Leishmania parasites synthesise a wide array of cell surface and secreted glycoconjugates that play important roles in infection. These glycoconjugates are particularly abundant in the promastigote form and known to be essential for establishment of infection in the insect midgut and effective transmission to the mammalian host. Since they are rich in galactose, their biosynthesis requires an ample supply of UDP-galactose. This nucleotide-sugar arises from epimerisation of UDP-glucose but also from an uncharacterised galactose salvage pathway. In this study, we evaluated the role of the newly characterised UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase (USP) of Leishmania major in UDP-galactose biosynthesis. Upon deletion of the USP encoding gene, L. major lost the ability to synthesise UDP-galactose from galactose-1-phosphate but its ability to convert glucose-1-phosphate into UDP-glucose was fully maintained. Thus USP plays a role in UDP-galactose activation but does not significantly contribute to the de novo synthesis of UDP-glucose. Accordingly, USP was shown to be dispensable for growth and glycoconjugate biosynthesis under standard growth conditions. However, in a mutant seriously impaired in the de novo synthesis of UDP-galactose (due to deficiency of the UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase) addition of extracellular galactose increased biosynthesis of the cell surface lipophosphoglycan. Thus under restrictive conditions, such as those encountered by Leishmania in its natural habitat, galactose salvage by USP may play a substantial role in biosynthesis of the UDP-galactose pool. We hypothesise that USP recycles galactose from the blood meal within the midgut of the insect for synthesis of the promastigote glycocalyx and thereby contributes to successful vector infection.

  6. [Effect of various coumarins on the intestinal absorption of galactose in vivo (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ruano, M J; Bolufer, J; Larralde, J; Lluch, M

    1975-06-01

    The effect of various coumarins on the active transport of galactose by small intestine in chick and rat was studied, using the in vivo technique of sucessive absorptions. A 10(-4) M concentration of the different coumarins inhibits the absorption of galactose in the chick. This effect persists in successive absorptions without coumarin. In rat, inhibition of galactose active transport by coumarins was observed at 10(-3) M concentration.

  7. The DeLey-Doudoroff Pathway of Galactose Metabolism in Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Wong, T Y; Yao, X T

    1994-06-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii cell extracts reduced NAD and oxidized d-galactose to galactonate that subsequently was converted to 2-keto-3-deoxy-galactonate. Further metabolism of 2-keto-3-deoxy-galactonate required the presence of ATP and resulted in the formation of pyruvate and glyceraldehyde 3-P. Radiorespirometry indicated a preferential release of CO(2) at the first carbon position of the d-galactose molecule. This suggested that Azotobacter vinelandii metabolizes d-galactose via the DeLey-Doudoroff pathway. The first enzyme of this pathway, d-galactose dehydrogenase, was partially characterized. It has a molecular weight of about 74,000 Da and an isoelectric point of 6.15. The pH optimum of the galactose dehydrogenase was about 9. The apparent K(m)s for NAD and d-galactose were 0.125 and 0.56 mM, respectively. Besides d-galactose, the active fraction of this galactose dehydrogenase also oxidized l-arabinose effectively. The electron acceptor for d-galactose or l-arabinose oxidation, NAD, could not be replaced by NADP. These substrate specificities were different from those reported in Pseudomonas saccharophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Rhizobium meliloti.

  8. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1315 Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. (a)...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1315 Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. (a)...

  10. Galactose uncovers face recognition and mental images in congenital prosopagnosia: the first case report.

    PubMed

    Esins, Janina; Schultz, Johannes; Bülthoff, Isabelle; Kennerknecht, Ingo

    2014-09-01

    A woman in her early 40s with congenital prosopagnosia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder observed for the first time sudden and extensive improvement of her face recognition abilities, mental imagery, and sense of navigation after galactose intake. This effect of galactose on prosopagnosia has never been reported before. Even if this effect is restricted to a subform of congenital prosopagnosia, galactose might improve the condition of other prosopagnosics. Congenital prosopagnosia, the inability to recognize other people by their face, has extensive negative impact on everyday life. It has a high prevalence of about 2.5%. Monosaccharides are known to have a positive impact on cognitive performance. Here, we report the case of a prosopagnosic woman for whom the daily intake of 5 g of galactose resulted in a remarkable improvement of her lifelong face blindness, along with improved sense of orientation and more vivid mental imagery. All these improvements vanished after discontinuing galactose intake. The self-reported effects of galactose were wide-ranging and remarkably strong but could not be reproduced for 16 other prosopagnosics tested. Indications about heterogeneity within prosopagnosia have been reported; this could explain the difficulty to find similar effects in other prosopagnosics. Detailed analyses of the effects of galactose in prosopagnosia might give more insight into the effects of galactose on human cognition in general. Galactose is cheap and easy to obtain, therefore, a systematic test of its positive effects on other cases of congenital prosopagnosia may be warranted.

  11. Galactose uncovers face recognition and mental images in congenital prosopagnosia: The first case report

    PubMed Central

    Esins, Janina; Schultz, Johannes; Bülthoff, Isabelle; Kennerknecht, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    A woman in her early 40s with congenital prosopagnosia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder observed for the first time sudden and extensive improvement of her face recognition abilities, mental imagery, and sense of navigation after galactose intake. This effect of galactose on prosopagnosia has never been reported before. Even if this effect is restricted to a subform of congenital prosopagnosia, galactose might improve the condition of other prosopagnosics. Congenital prosopagnosia, the inability to recognize other people by their face, has extensive negative impact on everyday life. It has a high prevalence of about 2.5%. Monosaccharides are known to have a positive impact on cognitive performance. Here, we report the case of a prosopagnosic woman for whom the daily intake of 5 g of galactose resulted in a remarkable improvement of her lifelong face blindness, along with improved sense of orientation and more vivid mental imagery. All these improvements vanished after discontinuing galactose intake. The self-reported effects of galactose were wide-ranging and remarkably strong but could not be reproduced for 16 other prosopagnosics tested. Indications about heterogeneity within prosopagnosia have been reported; this could explain the difficulty to find similar effects in other prosopagnosics. Detailed analyses of the effects of galactose in prosopagnosia might give more insight into the effects of galactose on human cognition in general. Galactose is cheap and easy to obtain, therefore, a systematic test of its positive effects on other cases of congenital prosopagnosia may be warranted. PMID:24164936

  12. Selection of Galactose-Fermenting Streptococcus thermophilus in Lactose-Limited Chemostat Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Terence D.; Crow, Vaughan L.

    1984-01-01

    Stock cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus are essentially galactose negative (Gal−). Although both galactose 1-phosphate uridyl transferase and uridine-5-diphospho-glucose 4-epimerase are present, suggesting that the genes for the Leloir pathway exist, cells cannot induce high levels of galactokinase. Therefore, galactose is largely excreted when cultures are grown on lactose, and most strains cannot be readily adapted to grow on free galactose. Gal− cultures were grown in a chemostat under lactose limitation in which high concentrations of residual galactose were present. Under this selection pressure, Gal+ organisms eventually took over the culture with all four strains examined. Gal+ cells had induced galactokinase, and three of the four strains grew on free galactose with doubling times of 40 to 50 min. When Gal+ organisms were grown on lactose in batch culture, the galactose moiety was only partially utilized while lactose was still present. As lactose was exhausted, and catabolite repression was lifted, the Leloir pathway enzymes (especially galactokinase) were induced and the residual galactose fermented. Neither phospho-β-galactosidase activity nor the enzymes of the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway were detected in S. thermophilus. In contrast to Streptococcus cremoris and Streptococcus lactis, fermentation was homolactic with galactose in batch cultures and with lactose limitation in the chemostat. When mixed Gal+-Gal− cultures were repeatedly transferred in milk, the Gal− cells became the dominant cell type. The Gal− phenotype of stock cultures probably reflects their prolonged maintenance in milk. PMID:16346586

  13. Galactose inhibits auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles by two mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, S. P.; Cleland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Galactose inhibits auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles by at least two mechanisms. First, it inhibits auxin-induced H(+)-excretion needed for the initiation of rapid elongation. Galactose cannot be doing so by directly interfering with the ATPase since fusicoccin-induced H(+)-excretion is not affected. Secondly, galactose inhibits long-term auxin-induced growth, even in an acidic (pH 4.5) solution. This may be due to an inhibition of cell wall synthesis. However, galactose does not reduce the capacity of walls to be loosened by H+, given exogenously or excreted in response to fusicoccin.

  14. Energetics of galactose- and glucose-aromatic amino acid interactions: implications for binding in galactose-specific proteins.

    PubMed

    Sujatha, Mannargudi S; Sasidhar, Yellamraju U; Balaji, Petety V

    2004-09-01

    An aromatic amino acid is present in the binding site of a number of sugar binding proteins. The interaction of the saccharide with the aromatic residue is determined by their relative position as well as orientation. The position-orientation of the saccharide relative to the aromatic residue was found to vary in different sugar-binding proteins. In the present study, interaction energies of the complexes of galactose (Gal) and of glucose (Glc) with aromatic residue analogs have been calculated by ab initio density functional (U-B3LYP/ 6-31G**) theory. The position-orientations of the saccharide with respect to the aromatic residue observed in various Gal-, Glc-, and mannose-protein complexes were chosen for the interaction energy calculations. The results of these calculations show that galactose can interact with the aromatic residue with similar interaction energies in a number of position-orientations. The interaction energy of Gal-aromatic residue analog complex in position-orientations observed for the bound saccharide in Glc/Man-protein complexes is comparable to the Glc-aromatic residue analog complex in the same position-orientation. In contrast, there is a large variation in interaction energies of complexes of Glc- and of Gal- with the aromatic residue analog in position-orientations observed in Gal-protein complexes. Furthermore, the conformation wherein the O6 atom is away from the aromatic residue is preferred for the exocyclic -CH2OH group in Gal-aromatic residue analog complexes. The implications of these results for saccharide binding in Gal-specific proteins and the possible role of the aromatic amino acid to ensure proper positioning and orientation of galactose in the binding site have been discussed.

  15. Kinetic Analysis of Guanidine Hydrochloride Inactivation of β-Galactosidase in the Presence of Galactose

    PubMed Central

    Nwamba, Charles O.; Chilaka, Ferdinand C.

    2012-01-01

    Inactivation of purified β-Galactosidase was done with GdnHCl in the absence and presence of varying [galactose] at 50°C and at pH 4.5. Lineweaver-Burk plots of initial velocity data, in the presence and absence of guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) and galactose, were used to determine the relevant Km and Vmax values, with p-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside (pNPG) as substrate, S. Plots of ln([P]∞ − [P]t) against time in the presence of GdnHCl yielded the inactivation rate constant, A. Plots of A versus [S] at different galactose concentrations were straight lines that became increasingly less steep as the [galactose] increased, showing that A was dependent on [S]. Slopes and intercepts of the 1/[P]∞ versus 1/[S] yielded k+0 and k'+0, the microscopic rate constants for the free enzyme and the enzyme-substrate complex, respectively. Plots of k+0 and k'+0 versus [galactose] showed that galactose protected the free enzyme as well as the enzyme-substrate complex (only at the lowest and highest [galactose]) against GdnHCl inactivation. In the absence of galactose, GdnHCl exhibited some degree of non-competitive inhibition. In the presence of GdnHCl, galactose exhibited competitive inhibition at the lower [galactose] of 5 mM which changed to non-competitive as the [galactose] increased. The implications of our findings are further discussed. PMID:23008759

  16. Galactose promotes fat mobilization in obese lactating and non-lactating women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Galactose consumption results in a lower rise in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations when compared to glucose. The lower insulin might promote lipolysis during meal absorption. An isocaloric galactose drink, when compared to glucose, will sustain fat mobilization during meal consumption while...

  17. The galactose-induced decrease in phosphate levels leads to toxicity in yeast models of galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Machado, Caio M; De-Souza, Evandro A; De-Queiroz, Ana Luiza F V; Pimentel, Felipe S A; Silva, Guilherme F S; Gomes, Fabio M; Montero-Lomelí, Mónica; Masuda, Claudio A

    2017-02-14

    Classic galactosemia is an inborn error of metabolism caused by deleterious mutations in the GALT gene. A number of evidences indicate that the galactose-1-phosphate accumulation observed in patient cells is a cause of toxicity in this disease. Nevertheless, the consequent molecular events caused by the galactose-1-phosphate accumulation remain elusive. Here we show that intracellular inorganic phosphate levels decreased when yeast models of classic galactosemia were exposed to galactose. The decrease in phosphate levels is probably due to the trapping of phosphate in the accumulated galactose-1-phosphate since the deletion of the galactokinase encoding gene GAL1 suppressed this phenotype. Galactose-induced phosphate depletion caused an increase in glycogen content, an expected result since glycogen breakdown by the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase is dependent on inorganic phosphate. Accordingly, an increase in intracellular phosphate levels suppressed the galactose effect on glycogen content and conferred galactose tolerance to yeast models of galactosemia. These results support the hypothesis that the galactose-induced decrease in phosphate levels leads to toxicity in galactosemia and opens new possibilities for the development of better treatments for this disease.

  18. Crithidia fasciculata induces encystation of Entamoeba invadens in a galactose-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Cho, J; Eichinger, D

    1998-08-01

    The ability of the flagellate Crithidia fasciculata to induce encystation of the reptile pathogen, Entamoeba invadens, was studied in vitro. A specific ratio of flagellate to amoeba was required; both live and heat-killed C. fasciculata induced amoebic encystation. The interaction between the Crithidia and Entamoeba cells was found to be galactose-mediated because the addition of galactose to the culture medium, or the pretreatment of the flagellate with galactosidase, eliminated its ability to induce encystation. Galactose was also found to prevent the amoeba amoeba aggregation that normally occurs in axenic cultures of encystation-induced E. invadens. Both galactose and glcNAc completely inhibited cyst formation of these induced cultures, although the latter sugar did not prevent cell aggregation. These results indicate that a galactose-mediated interaction between E. invadens cells is an early step in the in vitro encystation pathway.

  19. Galactose therapy reduces proteinuria in patients with recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Robson, Kate; Hill, Prudence; Langsford, David; Dwyer, Karen; Goodman, David; Langham, Robyn

    2015-03-01

    Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is an important cause of end-stage kidney disease with a high rate of recurrent disease after kidney transplantation. Current therapy achieves remission in only half of patients. Recent interest has focused on the potential role of galactose in binding and inactivating the putative circulating permeability factor, supported by in vitro and clinical case report studies. Orally active and without major adverse effects, galactose has a favourable treatment profile compared with current immunosuppressive treatment options. We describe our experience using galactose therapy in two patients with recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis after renal transplantation. Galactose was associated with symptomatic improvement and stabilization of graft function in one case; the other case was complicated by concurrent malignancy. In both cases, we observed a marked reduction in proteinuria with galactose treatment.

  20. Binding of decomposition products of UDP-galactose to the microsomes and polyribosomes isolated from rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Kopacz-Jodczyk, T.; Galasinski, W.

    1987-10-01

    UDP-D-(U-/sup 14/C)galactose is decomposed to (U-/sup 14/C)galactose-1-phosphate and (U-/sup 14/C)galactose by rat liver microsomal and crude polyribosomal fractions, under conditions commonly used to assay of glycosyltransferase activities. UDP-D-(U-/sup 14/C)galactose, at neutral pH, is also chemically degraded to the (U-/sup 14/C)galactose-1,2-cyclic phosphate. The 1,2-cyclic phosphate derivative of galactose also exists in the commercial UDP-D-(U-/sup 14/C)galactose. It is a very important finding that products of the UDP-D-(U-/sup 14/C)galactose decomposition are tightly, although nonenzymatically, bound to tested subcellular fractions and may create a false impression of protein glycosylation. The application of controls containing all radioactive substances present in suitable samples is recommended in order to avoid incorrect interpretations of the results.

  1. Galactose supplementation in phosphoglucomutase-1 deficiency; review and outlook for a novel treatable CDG.

    PubMed

    Morava, Eva

    2014-08-01

    We recently redefined phosphoglucomutase-1 deficiency not only as an enzyme defect, involved in normal glycogen metabolism, but also an inborn error of protein glycosylation. Phosphoglucomutase-1 is a key enzyme in glycolysis and glycogenesis by catalyzing in the bidirectional transfer of phosphate from position 1 to 6 on glucose. Glucose-1-P and UDP-glucose are closely linked to galactose metabolism. Normal PGM1 activity is important for effective glycolysis during fasting. Activated glucose and galactose are essential for normal protein glycosylation. The complex defect involving abnormal concentrations of activated sugars leads to hypoglycemia and two major phenotypic presentations, one with primary muscle involvement and the other with severe multisystem disease. The multisystem phenotype includes growth delay and malformations, like cleft palate or uvula, and liver, endocrine and heart function with possible cardiomyopathy. The patients have normal intelligence. Decreased transferrin galactosylation is a characteristic finding on mass spectrometry. Previous in vitro studies in patient fibroblasts showed an improvement of glycosylation on galactose supplements. Four patients with PGM1 deficiency have been trialed on d-galactose (compassionate use), and showed improvement of serum transferrin hypoglycosylation. There was a parallel improvement of liver function, endocrine abnormalities and a decrease in the frequency of hypoglycemic episodes. No side effects have been observed. Galactose supplementation didn't seem to resolve all clinical symptoms. Adding complex carbohydrates showed an additional clinical amelioration. Based on the available clinical data we suggest to consider the use of 0.5-1g/kg/day d-galactose and maximum 50 g/day oral galactose therapy in PGM1-CDG. The existing data on galactose therapy have to be viewed as preliminary observations. A prospective multicenter trial is ongoing to evaluate the efficacy and optimal d-galactose dose of

  2. Galactose supplementation in phosphoglucomutase-1 deficiency; review and outlook for a novel treatable CDG

    PubMed Central

    Morava, Eva

    2014-01-01

    We recently redefined phosphoglucomutase-1 deficiency not only as an enzyme defect, involved in normal glycogen metabolism, but also an inborn error of protein glycosylation. Phosphoglucomutase-1 is a key enzyme in glycolysis and glycogenesis by catalyzing in the bidirectional transfer of phosphate from position 1 to 6 on glucose. Glucose-1-P and UDP-glucose are closely linked to galactose metabolism. Normal PGM1 activity is important for effective glycolysis during fasting. Activated glucose and galactose are essential for normal protein glycosylation. The complex defect involving abnormal concentrations of activated sugars leads to hypoglycemia and two major phenotypic presentations, one with primary muscle involvement and the other with severe multisystem disease. The multisystem phenotype includes growth delay and malformations, like cleft palate or uvula, and liver, endocrine and possible cardiomyopathy. The patients have normal intelligence. Decreased transferrin galactosylation is a characteristic finding on mass spectrometry. Previous in vitro studies in patient fibroblasts showed an improvement of glycosylation on galactose supplements. Four patients with PGM1 deficiency have been trialed on D-galactose (compassionate use), and showed improvement of serum transferrin hypoglycosylation. There was a parallel improvement of liver function, endocrine abnormalities and a decrease in the frequency of hypoglycemic episodes. No side effects have been observed. Galactose supplementation didn't seem to resolve all clinical symptoms. Adding complex carbohydrates showed an additional clinical amelioration. Based on the available clinical data we suggest to consider the use of 0.5–1g/kg/day D-galactose and maximum 50g/day oral galactose therapy in PGM1-CDG. The existing data on galactose therapy have to be viewed as preliminary observations. A prospective multicenter trial is ongoing to evaluate the efficacy and optimal D-galactose dose of galactose supplementation

  3. Insights into EPR effect versus lectin-mediated targeted delivery: biodegradable polycarbonate micellar nanoparticles with and without galactose surface decoration.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim Attia, Amalina Binte; Oh, Pamela; Yang, Chuan; Tan, Jeremy Pang Kern; Rao, Nithya; Hedrick, James L; Yang, Yi Yan; Ge, Ruowen

    2014-11-12

    Polymeric micelles with and without galactose are synthesized to study liver targeting ability in an orthotopic HCC rat model. Micelles with galactose accumulate more in the healthy liver tissue instead of HCC, while micelles without galactose amass in HCC by the EPR effect. These micelles show great potential as drug delivery carriers to target either the liver or HCC.

  4. Lithium induces ER stress and N-glycan modification in galactose-grown Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Tamás; Frank, Dorottya; Kátai, Emese; Yahiro, Rikki K K; Poór, Viktor S; Montskó, Gergely; Zrínyi, Zita; Kovács, Gábor L; Miseta, Attila

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that lithium had a significant impact on Ca(2+) regulation and induced unfolded protein response (UPR) in yeast cells grown on galactose due to inhibition of phosphoglucomutase (PGM), however the exact mechanism has not been established yet. In this study, we analysed lithium's effect in galactose-fed cells to clarify whether these ER-related changes are the result of a relative hypoglycemic state. Furthermore, we investigated whether the alterations in galactose metabolism impact protein post-translational modifications. Thus, Jurkat cells were incubated in glucose or galactose containing media with or without lithium treatment. We found that galactose-fed and lithium treated cells showed better survivability than fasting cells. We also found higher UDP-Hexose and glycogen levels in these cells compared to fasting cells. On the other hand, the UPR (X-box binding protein 1 mRNA levels) of galactose-fed and lithium treated cells was even greater than in fasting cells. We also found increased amount of proteins that contained N-linked N-acetyl-glucosamine, similar to what was reported in fasting cells by a recent study. Our results demonstrate that lithium treatment of galactose-fed cells can induce stress responses similar to hypoglycemia, however cell survival is still secured by alternative pathways. We propose that clarifying this process might be an important addition toward the better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate ER-associated stress response.

  5. Timing and Variability of Galactose Metabolic Gene Activation Depend on the Rate of Environmental Change.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Huu, Truong D; Gupta, Chinmaya; Ma, Bo; Ott, William; Josić, Krešimir; Bennett, Matthew R

    2015-07-01

    Modulation of gene network activity allows cells to respond to changes in environmental conditions. For example, the galactose utilization network in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is activated by the presence of galactose but repressed by glucose. If both sugars are present, the yeast will first metabolize glucose, depleting it from the extracellular environment. Upon depletion of glucose, the genes encoding galactose metabolic proteins will activate. Here, we show that the rate at which glucose levels are depleted determines the timing and variability of galactose gene activation. Paradoxically, we find that Gal1p, an enzyme needed for galactose metabolism, accumulates more quickly if glucose is depleted slowly rather than taken away quickly. Furthermore, the variability of induction times in individual cells depends non-monotonically on the rate of glucose depletion and exhibits a minimum at intermediate depletion rates. Our mathematical modeling suggests that the dynamics of the metabolic transition from glucose to galactose are responsible for the variability in galactose gene activation. These findings demonstrate that environmental dynamics can determine the phenotypic outcome at both the single-cell and population levels.

  6. IgG N-glycans as potential biomarkers for determining galactose tolerance in Classical Galactosaemia.

    PubMed

    Coss, K P; Byrne, J C; Coman, D J; Adamczyk, B; Abrahams, J L; Saldova, R; Brown, A Y; Walsh, O; Hendroff, U; Carolan, C; Rudd, P M; Treacy, E P

    2012-02-01

    N-glycan processing and assembly defects have been demonstrated in untreated and partially treated patients with Classical Galactosaemia. These defects may contribute to the ongoing pathophysiology of this disease. The aim of this study was to develop an informative method of studying differential galactose tolerance levels and diet control in individuals with Galactosaemia, compared to the standard biochemical markers. Ten Galactosaemia adults with normal intellectual outcomes were analyzed in the study. Five subjects followed galactose liberalization, increments of 300 mg to 4000 mg/day over 16 weeks, and were compared to five adult Galactosaemia controls on a galactose restricted diet. All study subjects underwent clinical and biochemical monitoring of red blood cell galactose-1-phosphate (RBC Gal-1-P) and urinary galactitol levels. Serum N-glycans were isolated and analyzed by normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography (NP-HPLC) with galactosylation of IgG used as a specific biomarker of galactose tolerance. IgG N-glycan profiles showed consistent individual alterations in response to diet liberalization. The individual profiles were improved for all, but one study subject, at a galactose intake of 1000 mg/day, with decreases in agalactosylated (G0) and increases in digalactosylated (G2) N-glycans. We conclude that IgG N-glycan profiling is an improved method of monitoring variable galactosylation and determining individual galactose tolerance in Galactosaemia compared to the standard methods.

  7. Cross-linked leucaena seed gum matrix: an affinity chromatography tool for galactose-specific lectins.

    PubMed

    Seshagirirao, Kottapalli; Leelavathi, Chaganti; Sasidhar, Vemula

    2005-05-31

    A cross-linked leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) seed gum (CLLSG) matrix was prepared for the isolation of galactose-specific lectins by affinity chromatography. The matrix was evaluated for affinity with a known galactose-specific lectin from the seeds of snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina). The matrix preparation was simple and inexpensive when compared to commercial galactose-specific matrices (i.e. about 1.5 US dollars/100 ml of matrix). The current method is also useful for the demonstration of the affinity chromatography technique in laboratories. Since leucaena seeds are abundant and inexpensive, and the matrix preparation is easy, CLLSG appears to be a promising tool for the separation of galactose-specific lectins.

  8. Polyvinylamine-G-galactose is a route to bioactivated silica surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Hajir; Pelton, Robert; Jin, Liqiang

    2014-01-01

    Polyvinylamine (PVAm) was derivatized with lactobionic acid to give PVAm-GAL with pendant galactose groups along the PVAm chain. The galactose substituents were shown to undergo two types of specific interactions: (1) condensation with phenylboronic acid moieties on polymers and on surfaces; and, (2) the specific binding of RCA120, a galactose-specific lectin. Surface binding and assembly was monitored with Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM-D) measurements. Multilayer assemblies based on boronic ester formation were destroyed by lowering the pH, or by introducing sorbitol. We propose that the physical adsorption of PVAm-GAL onto silica or other negatively charged support surfaces is a simple route to galactose-rich interfaces, possibly useful for affinity separations, cell targeting and cell culturing.

  9. Structural elucidation of polysaccharide containing 3-O-methyl galactose from fruiting bodies of Pleurotus citrinopileatus.

    PubMed

    He, Pengfei; Zhang, Anqiang; Zhou, Saijing; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J; Sun, Peilong

    2016-11-03

    A water-soluble polysaccharide containing 3-O-methyl galactose (PCP60W) was isolated from fruiting bodies of Pleurotus citrinopileatus and purified by anion-exchange and gel column chromatography. This polysaccharide has an average molecular weight of 2.74 × 10(4) Da and its structure was elucidated using monosaccharide composition and methylation analysis combined with one- and two-dimensional (COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HMQC and HMBC) NMR spectroscopy. PCP60W was shown to be a linear partially 3-O-methylated α-galactopyranan comprised of 6-linked galactose, 6-linked 3-O-methyl galactose and 4-linked glucose in a ratio of 3.0:1.0:0.6. This work provides additional evidence for the view that 3-O-methyl galactose is common to the genus Pleurotus.

  10. Diauxic Growth of Azotobacter vinelandii on Galactose and Glucose: Regulation of Glucose Transport by Another Hexose.

    PubMed

    Wong, T Y; Pei, H; Bancroft, K; Childers, G W

    1995-02-01

    The growth curve of Azotobacter vinelandii was biphasic when the organism was grown in a medium containing a mixture of galactose and glucose. Galactose was the primary carbon source; glucose was also consumed, but the rate at which it was consumed was lower than the rate at which galactose was consumed during the first phase of growth. Metabolic pathways for both sugars were induced. Cell cultures exhibited a second lag period as galactose was depleted. The length of this lag phase varied from 2 to 10 h depending on the pregrowth history of the cells. The second log growth phase occurred at the expense of the remaining glucose in the medium and was accompanied by induction of the high-maximum rate of metabolism glucose-induced glucose permease and increases in the levels of glucose metabolic enzymes. The second lag phase of diauxie may have been due to the time required for induction of the glucose-induced glucose permease.

  11. Impairments of astrocytes are involved in the D-galactose-induced brain aging

    SciTech Connect

    Lei Ming; Hua Xiangdong; Xiao Ming Ding Jiong; Han Qunying Hu Gang

    2008-05-16

    Astrocyte dysfunction is implicated in course of various age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Chronic injection of D-galactose can cause a progressive deterioration in learning and memory capacity and serve as an animal model of aging. To investigate the involvement of astrocytes in this model, oxidative stress biomarkers, biochemical and pathological changes of astrocytes were examined in the hippocampus of the rats with six weeks of D-galactose injection. D-galactose-injected rats displayed impaired antioxidant systems, an increase in nitric oxide levels, and a decrease in reduced glutathione levels. Consistently, western blotting and immunostaining of glial fibrillary acidic protein showed extensive activation of astrocytes. Double-immunofluorescent staining further showed activated astrocytes highly expressed inducible nitric oxide synthase. Electron microscopy demonstrated the degeneration of astrocytes, especially in the aggregated area of synapse and brain microvessels. These findings indicate that impairments of astrocytes are involved in oxidative stress-induced brain aging by chronic injection of D-galactose.

  12. Fucosyltransferases produce N-glycans containing core l-galactose.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Takao; Kajiura, Hiroyuki; Misaki, Ryo; Kitamura, Shinichi; Fujiyama, Kazuhito

    2017-01-29

    l-Galactose (l-Gal) containing N-glycans and cell wall polysaccharides have been detected in the l-Fuc deficient mur1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. The l-Gal residue is thought to be transferred from GDP-l-Gal, which is a structurally related analog of GDP-l-Fuc, but in vitrol-galactosylation activity has never been detected. In this study, we carried out preparative scale GDP-l-Gal synthesis using recombinant A. thaliana GDP-mannose-3',5'-epimerase. We also demonstrated the l-galactosylation assay of mouse α1,6-fucosyltransferase (MmFUT8) and A. thaliana α1,3-fucosyltransferase (AtFucTA). Both fucosyltransferases showed l-galactosylation activity from GDP-l-Gal to asparagine-linked N-acetyl-β-d-glucosamine of asialo-agalacto-bi-antennary N-glycan instead of l-fucosylation. In addition, the apparent Km values of MmFUT8 and AtFucTA suggest that l-Fuc was preferentially transferred to N-glycan compared with l-Gal by fucosyltransferases. Our results clearly demonstrate that MmFUT8 and AtFucTA transfer l-Gal residues from GDP-l-Gal and synthesize l-Gal containing N-glycan in vitro.

  13. Galactose decorated PLGA nanoparticles for hepatic delivery of acyclovir.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Swati; Agarwal, Abhinav; Gupta, Nishant Kumar; Saraogi, Gauravkant; Agrawal, Himanshu; Agrawal, G P

    2013-12-01

    The present study explores prospective of surface tailored nanoparticles for targeted delivery of acyclovir along with the interception of minimal side effects. Acyclovir loaded plain and galactosylated poly lectic co glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles were efficiently prepared and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency. The formulations were evaluated for in vitro drug release and hemolysis. Further, biodistribution study and fluorescent microscopic studies were carried out to determine the targeting potential of formulations. SEM revealed smooth morphology and spherical shape of the nanoparticles. In vitro, the galactosylated nanoparticles were found to be least hemolytic and exhibited a sustained release pattern. In vivo studies exhibited an augmented bioavailability, increased residence time and enhanced delivery of acyclovir to the liver upon galactosylation. It may therefore be concluded that galactose conjugated PLGA nanoparticles can be used suitably as vehicles for delivery of bioactives specifically to the hepatic tissues and may be thus exploited in the effective management of various liver disorders.

  14. Ethanol production from galactose by a newly isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae KL17.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hyung; Ryu, Jayoung; Huh, In Young; Hong, Soon-Kwang; Kang, Hyun Ah; Chang, Yong Keun

    2014-09-01

    A wild-type yeast strain with a good galactose-utilization efficiency was newly isolated from the soil, and identified and named Saccharomyces cerevisiae KL17 by 18s RNA sequencing. Its performance of producing ethanol from galactose was investigated in flask cultures with media containing various combination and concentrations of galactose and glucose. When the initial galactose concentration was 20 g/L, it showed 2.2 g/L/h of substrate consumption rate and 0.63 g/L/h of ethanol productivity. Although they were about 70 % of those with glucose, such performance of S. cerevisiae KL17 with galactose was considered to be quite high compared with other strains reported to date. Its additional merit was that its galactose metabolism was not repressed by the existence of glucose. Its capability of ethanol production under a high ethanol concentration was demonstrated by fed-batch fermentation in a bioreactor. A high ethanol productivity of 3.03 g/L/h was obtained with an ethanol concentration and yield of 95 and 0.39 g/L, respectively, when the cells were pre-cultured on glucose. When the cells were pre-cultured on galactose instead of glucose, fermentation time could be reduced significantly, resulting in an improved ethanol productivity of 3.46 g/L/h. The inhibitory effects of two major impurities in a crude galactose solution obtained from acid hydrolysis of galactan were assessed. Only 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) significantly inhibited ethanol fermentation, while levulinic acid (LA) was benign in the range up to 10 g/L.

  15. How strict is galactose restriction in adults with galactosaemia? International practice.

    PubMed

    Adam, S; Akroyd, R; Bernabei, S; Bollhalder, S; Boocock, S; Burlina, A; Coote, T; Corthouts, K; Dalmau, J; Dawson, S; Defourny, S; De Meyer, A; Desloovere, A; Devlin, Y; Diels, M; Dokoupil, K; Donald, S; Evans, S; Fasan, I; Ferguson, C; Ford, S; Forga, M; Gallo, G; Grünert, S C; Heddrich-Ellerbrok, M; Heidenborg, C; Jonkers, C; Lefebure, K; Luyten, K; MacDonald, A; Meyer, U; Micciche, A; Müller, E; Portnoi, P; Ripley, S; Robert, M; Robertson, L V; Rosenbaum-Fabian, S; Sahm, K; Schultz, S; Singleton, K; Sjöqvist, E; Stoelen, L; Terry, A; Thompson, S; Timmer, C; Vande Kerckhove, K; van der Ploeg, L; Van Driessche, M; van Rijn, M; van Teeffelen-Heithoff, A; Vitoria, I; Voillot, C; Wenz, J; Westbrook, M; Wildgoose, J; Zweers, H

    2015-05-01

    Dietary management of 418 adult patients with galactosaemia (from 39 centres/12 countries) was compared. All centres advised lactose restriction, 6 restricted galactose from galactosides ± fruits and vegetables and 12 offal. 38% (n=15) relaxed diet by: 1) allowing traces of lactose in manufactured foods (n=13) or 2) giving fruits, vegetables and galactosides (n=2). Only 15% (n=6) calculated dietary galactose. 32% of patients were lost to dietetic follow-up. In adult galactosaemia, there is limited diet relaxation.

  16. Gene Transcriptional and Metabolic Profile Changes in Mimetic Aging Mice Induced by D-Galactose

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue-Yue; Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Li, Rong-Hua; Mu, Chang-Kao; Wang, Chun-Lin; Song, Wei-Wei

    2015-01-01

    D-galactose injection has been shown to induce many changes in mice that represent accelerated aging. This mouse model has been widely used for pharmacological studies of anti-aging agents. The underlying mechanism of D-galactose induced aging remains unclear, however, it appears to relate to glucose and 1ipid metabolic disorders. Currently, there has yet to be a study that focuses on investigating gene expression changes in D-galactose aging mice. In this study, integrated analysis of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabonomics and gene expression profiles was used to investigate the changes in transcriptional and metabolic profiles in mimetic aging mice injected with D-galactose. Our findings demonstrated that 48 mRNAs were differentially expressed between control and D-galactose mice, and 51 potential biomarkers were identified at the metabolic level. The effects of D-galactose on aging could be attributed to glucose and 1ipid metabolic disorders, oxidative damage, accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), reduction in abnormal substance elimination, cell apoptosis, and insulin resistance. PMID:26176541

  17. The human synaptic vesicle protein, SV2A, functions as a galactose transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Madeo, Marianna; Kovács, Attila D; Pearce, David A

    2014-11-28

    SV2A is a synaptic vesicle membrane protein expressed in neurons and endocrine cells and involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. Although the exact function of SV2A still remains elusive, it was identified as the specific binding site for levetiracetam, a second generation antiepileptic drug. Our sequence analysis demonstrates that SV2A has significant homology with several yeast transport proteins belonging to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). Many of these transporters are involved in sugar transport into yeast cells. Here we present evidence showing, for the first time, that SV2A is a galactose transporter. We expressed human SV2A in hexose transport-deficient EBY.VW4000 yeast cells and demonstrated that these cells are able to grow on galactose-containing medium but not on other fermentable carbon sources. Furthermore, the addition of the SV2A-binding antiepileptic drug levetiracetam to the medium inhibited the galactose-dependent growth of hexose transport-deficient EBY.VW4000 yeast cells expressing human SV2A. Most importantly, direct measurement of galactose uptake in the same strain verified that SV2A is able to transport extracellular galactose inside the cells. The newly identified galactose transport capability of SV2A may have an important role in regulating/modulating synaptic function.

  18. Galactose content of legumes, caseinates, and some hard cheeses: implications for diet treatment of classic galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Van Calcar, Sandra C; Bernstein, Laurie E; Rohr, Frances J; Yannicelli, Steven; Berry, Gerard T; Scaman, Christine H

    2014-02-12

    There are inconsistent reports on the lactose and/or galactose content of some foods traditionally restricted from the diet for classic galactosemia. Therefore, samples of cheeses, caseinates, and canned black, pinto, kidney, and garbanzo beans were analyzed for free galactose content using HPLC with refractive index or pulsed amperometric detection. Galactose concentrations in several hard and aged cheeses and three mild/medium Cheddars, produced by smaller local dairies, was <10 mg/100 g sample compared to 55.4 mg/100 g sample in four sharp Cheddars produced by a multinational producer. Galactose in sodium and calcium caseinate ranged from undetectable to 95.5 mg/100 g sample. Free galactose level in garbanzo beans was lower than previously reported at 24.6 mg/100 g sample; black beans contained 5.3 mg/100 g, and free galactose was not detected in red kidney or pinto beans. These data provide a basis for recommending inclusion of legumes, caseinate-containing foods, and some aged hard cheeses that had been previously restricted in the diet for individuals with galactosemia.

  19. Gene Transcriptional and Metabolic Profile Changes in Mimetic Aging Mice Induced by D-Galactose.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue-Yue; Ji, Xiong-Fei; Fu, Jian-Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Li, Rong-Hua; Mu, Chang-Kao; Wang, Chun-Lin; Song, Wei-Wei

    2015-01-01

    D-galactose injection has been shown to induce many changes in mice that represent accelerated aging. This mouse model has been widely used for pharmacological studies of anti-aging agents. The underlying mechanism of D-galactose induced aging remains unclear, however, it appears to relate to glucose and 1ipid metabolic disorders. Currently, there has yet to be a study that focuses on investigating gene expression changes in D-galactose aging mice. In this study, integrated analysis of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabonomics and gene expression profiles was used to investigate the changes in transcriptional and metabolic profiles in mimetic aging mice injected with D-galactose. Our findings demonstrated that 48 mRNAs were differentially expressed between control and D-galactose mice, and 51 potential biomarkers were identified at the metabolic level. The effects of D-galactose on aging could be attributed to glucose and 1ipid metabolic disorders, oxidative damage, accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), reduction in abnormal substance elimination, cell apoptosis, and insulin resistance.

  20. Classical Galactosemia: Insight into Molecular Pathomechanisms by Differential Membrane Proteomics of Fibroblasts under Galactose Stress.

    PubMed

    Staubach, Simon; Müller, Stefan; Pekmez, Murat; Hanisch, Franz-Georg

    2017-02-03

    Classical galactosemia, a hereditary metabolic disease caused by the deficiency of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT; EC 2.7.712), results in an impaired galactose metabolism and serious long-term developmental affection of the CNS and ovaries, potentially related in part to endogenous galactose-induced protein dysglycosylation. In search for galactose-induced changes in membrane raft proteomes of GALT-deficient cells, we performed differential analyses of lipid rafts from patient-derived (Q) and sex- and age-matched control fibroblasts (H) in the presence or absence of the stressor. Label-based proteomics revealed of the total 454 (female) or 678 (male) proteins a proportion of ∼12% in at least one of four relevant ratios as fold-changed. GALT(-) cell-specific effects in the absence of stressor revealed cell-model-dependent affection of biological processes related to protein targeting to the plasma membrane (female) or to cellular migration (male). However, a series of common galactose-induced effects were observed, among them the strongly increased ER-stress marker GRP78 and calreticulin involved in N-glycoprotein quality control. The membrane-anchored N-glycoprotein receptor CD109 was concertedly decreased under galactose-stress together with cadherin-13, GLIPR1, glypican-1, and semaphorin-7A. A series of proteins showed opposite fold-changes in the two cell models, whereas others fluctuated in only one of the two models.

  1. UDP-galactose 4' epimerase (GALE) is essential for development of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Rebecca D; Sefton, Jennifer M I; Moberg, Kenneth H; Fridovich-Keil, Judith L

    2010-01-01

    UDP-galactose 4' epimerase (GALE) catalyzes the interconversion of UDP-galactose and UDP-glucose in the final step of the Leloir pathway; human GALE (hGALE) also interconverts UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. GALE therefore plays key roles in the metabolism of dietary galactose, in the production of endogenous galactose, and in maintaining the ratios of key substrates for glycoprotein and glycolipid biosynthesis. Partial impairment of hGALE results in the potentially lethal disorder epimerase-deficiency galactosemia. We report here the generation and initial characterization of a first whole-animal model of GALE deficiency using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Our results confirm that GALE function is essential in developing animals; Drosophila lacking GALE die as embryos but are rescued by the expression of a human GALE transgene. Larvae in which GALE has been conditionally knocked down die within days of GALE loss. Conditional knockdown and transgene expression studies further demonstrate that GALE expression in the gut primordium and Malpighian tubules is both necessary and sufficient for survival. Finally, like patients with generalized epimerase deficiency galactosemia, Drosophila with partial GALE loss survive in the absence of galactose but succumb in development if exposed to dietary galactose. These data establish the utility of the fly model of GALE deficiency and set the stage for future studies to define the mechanism(s) and modifiers of outcome in epimerase deficiency galactosemia.

  2. D-Galactose Causes Motor Coordination Impairment, and Histological and Biochemical Changes in the Cerebellum of Rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, André Felipe; Biasibetti, Helena; Zanotto, Bruna Stela; Sanches, Eduardo Farias; Schmitz, Felipe; Nunes, Vinícius Tejada; Pierozan, Paula; Manfredini, Vanusa; Magro, Débora Delwing Dal; Netto, Carlos Alexandre; Wyse, Angela T S

    2016-06-20

    Classical galactosemia is an inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism in which patients accumulate high concentration of galactose in the brain. The most common treatment is a galactose-restricted diet. However, even treated patients develop several complications. One of the most common symptoms is motor coordination impairment, including affected gait, balance, and speech, as well as tremor and ataxia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular galactose administration on motor coordination, as well as on histological and biochemical parameters in cerebellum of adult rats. Wistar rats received 5 μL of galactose (4 mM) or saline by intracerebroventricular injection. The animals performed the beam walking test at 1 and 24 h after galactose administration. Histological and biochemical parameters were performed 24 h after the injections. The results showed motor coordination impairment at 24 h after galactose injection. Galactose also decreased the number of cells in the molecular and granular layers of the cerebellum. The immunohistochemistry results suggest that the cell types lost by galactose are neurons and astrocytes in the spinocerebellum and neurons in the cerebrocerebellum. Galactose increased active caspase-3 immunocontent and acetylcholinesterase activity, decreased acetylcholinesterase immunocontent, glutathione, and BDNF levels, as well as caused protein and DNA damage. Our results suggest that galactose induces histological and biochemical changes in cerebellum, which can be associated with motor coordination impairment.

  3. Preparation of low galactose yogurt using cultures of Gal(+) Streptococcus thermophilus in combination with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    PubMed

    Anbukkarasi, Kaliyaperumal; UmaMaheswari, Thiyagamoorthy; Hemalatha, Thiagarajan; Nanda, Dhiraj Kumar; Singh, Prashant; Singh, Rameshwar

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus is an important lactic starter used in the production of yogurt. Most strains of S. thermophilus are galactose negative (Gal(-)) and are able to metabolize only glucose portion of lactose and expel galactose into the medium. This metabolic defect leads to the accumulation of free galactose in yogurt, resulting in galactosemia among consumers. Hence there is an absolute need to develop low galactose yogurt. Therefore, in this study, three galactose positive (Gal(+)) S. thermophilus strains from National Collection of Dairy Cultures (NCDC) viz. NCDC 659 (AJM), NCDC 660 (JM1), NCDC 661 (KM3) and a reference galactose negative (Gal(-)) S. thermophilus NCDC 218 were used for preparation of low galactose yogurt. In milk fermented using S. thermophilus isolates alone, NCDC 659 released less galactose (0.27 %) followed by NCDC 661 (0.3 %) and NCDC 660 (0.45 %) after 10 h at 42 °C. Milk was fermented in combination with Gal(-) L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NCDC 04, in which NCDC 659 released least galactose upto 0.49 % followed by NCDC 661 (0.51 %) and NCDC 660 (0.60 %) than reference Gal(-) NCDC 218(0.79 %). Low galactose yogurt was prepared following standard procedure using Gal(+) S. thermophilus isolates and Gal(-) L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NCDC 04 in 1:1 ratio. Among which low galactose yogurt by NCDC 659 combination contained less galactose 0.37 % followed by NCDC 661 (0.51 %), NCDC 660 (0.65 %) and reference Gal(-) NCDC 218 (0.98 %) after 4 h of fermentation. This study clearly reveals that Gal(+) S. thermophilus isolates can be paired with Gal(-) L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus for developing low galactose yogurt.

  4. The glucose-galactose paradox in neonatal murine hepatic glycogen synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kunst, C.; Kliegman, R.; Trindade, C. )

    1989-11-01

    In adults glucose incorporation to glycogen is indirect after recycling from lactate. In neonates galactose entry to glycogen exceeds that for glucose, but the pathway is unknown. The pathway of hexose incorporation to glycogen was studied in 5-7-day-old rats and 6-h-old rats injected intraperitoneally (IP) with either double-labeled (6-3H)glucose (nonrecycling), (U-14C)glucose (recycling), or (6-3H)glucose and (U-14C)galactose in saline. In another group of pups, 1 g/kg of glucose or galactose was administered in addition to tracers to determine glycemia and net glycogen synthesis between 15 and 180 min after injection. Blood glucose increased from 3.4 +/- 0.4 to 8.5 +/- 1.5 mM in 5-7-day-old pups in response to IP glucose; there was no glycemic response to galactose, although galactose levels increased from 0.5 to 6.3 mM at 15 min. Hepatic glycogen increased after IP glucose from 14 +/- 2 at 15 min to 30 +/- 3 at 120 min (P less than 0.01), whereas after IP galactose glycogen was 44 +/- 6 mumol/g at 120 min (P less than 0.05). After IP glucose, 3H and 14C disintegration per minute in glycogen increased slowly with 14C exceeding 3H at 120 and 180 min. In contrast IP (14C)galactose resulted in a much greater peak of 14C incorporation into glycogen. The ratio of 3H to 14C in glycogen relative to the injectate after IP glucose decreased from 0.69 +/- 0.12 to 0.36 +/- 0.03 (P less than 0.01) between 15 to 180 min, whereas the ratio after galactose was 0.20 +/- 0.007 to 0.15 +/- 0.02 at these times. The 6-h-old pups also demonstrated augmented incorporation of (14C)galactose in glycogen relative to (3H-14C)glucose. In contrast to 5-7-day-old pups there was no evidence of glucose recycling in 6-h-old pups. In conclusion galactose entry into glycogen exceeds that for glucose and is not dependent on recycling.

  5. Mistletoe lectin I in complex with galactose and lactose reveals distinct sugar-binding properties

    SciTech Connect

    Mikeska, Ruth; Arni, Raghuvir; Mikhailov, Albert; Gabdoulkhakov, Azat; Voelter, Wolfgang; Betzel, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The structures of mistletoe lectin I in complex with lactose and galactose reveal differences in binding by the two known sites in subdomains α1 and γ2 and suggest the presence of a third low-affinity site in subdomain β1. The structures of mistletoe lectin I (ML-I) from Viscum album complexed with lactose and galactose have been determined at 2.3 Å resolution and refined to R factors of 20.9% (R{sub free} = 23.6%) and 20.9 (R{sub free} = 24.6%), respectively. ML-I is a heterodimer and belongs to the class of ribosome-inactivating proteins of type II, which consist of two chains. The A-chain has rRNA N-glycosidase activity and irreversibly inhibits eukaryotic ribosomes. The B-chain is a lectin and preferentially binds to galactose-terminated glycolipids and glycoproteins on cell membranes. Saccharide binding is performed by two binding sites in subdomains α1 and γ2 of the ML-I B-chain separated by ∼62 Å from each other. The favoured binding of galactose in subdomain α1 is achieved via hydrogen bonds connecting the 4-hydroxyl and 3-hydroxyl groups of the sugar moiety with the side chains of Asp23B, Gln36B and Lys41B and the main chain of 26B. The aromatic ring of Trp38B on top of the preferred binding pocket supports van der Waals packing of the apolar face of galactose and stabilizes the sugar–lectin complex. In the galactose-binding site II of subdomain γ2, Tyr249B provides the hydrophobic stacking and the side chains of Asp235B, Gln238B and Asn256B are hydrogen-bonding partners for galactose. In the case of the galactose-binding site I, the 2-hydroxyl group also stabilizes the sugar–protein complex, an interaction thus far rarely detected in galactose-specific lectins. Finally, a potential third low-affinity galactose-binding site in subunit β1 was identified in the present ML-I structures, in which a glycerol molecule from the cryoprotectant buffer has bound, mimicking the sugar compound.

  6. D-Galactose as an autoinducer 2 inhibitor to control the biofilm formation of periodontopathogens.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Eun-Ju; Sim, Jaehyun; Sim, Jun; Lee, Julian; Choi, Bong-Kyu

    2016-09-01

    Autoinducer 2 (AI-2) is a quorum sensing molecule to which bacteria respond to regulate various phenotypes, including virulence and biofilm formation. AI-2 plays an important role in the formation of a subgingival biofilm composed mostly of Gram-negative anaerobes, by which periodontitis is initiated. The aim of this study was to evaluate D-galactose as an inhibitor of AI-2 activity and thus of the biofilm formation of periodontopathogens. In a search for an AI-2 receptor of Fusobacterium nucleatum, D-galactose binding protein (Gbp, Gene ID FN1165) showed high sequence similarity with the ribose binding protein (RbsB), a known AI-2 receptor of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. D-Galactose was evaluated for its inhibitory effect on the AI-2 activity of Vibrio harveyi BB152 and F. nucleatum, the major coaggregation bridge organism, which connects early colonizing commensals and late pathogenic colonizers in dental biofilms. The inhibitory effect of D-galactose on the biofilm formation of periodontopathogens was assessed by crystal violet staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy in the absence or presence of AI-2 and secreted molecules of F. nucleatum. D-Galactose significantly inhibited the AI-2 activity of V. harveyi and F. nucleatum. In addition, D-galactose markedly inhibited the biofilm formation of F. nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia induced by the AI-2 of F. nucleatum without affecting bacterial growth. Our results demonstrate that the Gbp may function as an AI-2 receptor and that galactose may be used for prevention of the biofilm formation of periodontopathogens by targeting AI-2 activity.

  7. Long-term oral galactose treatment prevents cognitive deficits in male Wistar rats treated intracerebroventricularly with streptozotocin.

    PubMed

    Salkovic-Petrisic, Melita; Osmanovic-Barilar, Jelena; Knezovic, Ana; Hoyer, Siegfried; Mosetter, Kurt; Reutter, Werner

    2014-02-01

    Basic and clinical research has demonstrated that dementia of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD) type is associated with dysfunction of the insulin-receptor (IR) system followed by decreased glucose transport via glucose transporter GLUT4 and decreased glucose metabolism in brain cells. An alternative source of energy is d-galactose (the C-4-epimer of d-glucose) which is transported into the brain by insulin-independent GLUT3 transporter where it might be metabolized to glucose via the Leloir pathway. Exclusively parenteral daily injections of galactose induce memory deterioration in rodents and are used to generate animal aging model, but the effects of oral galactose treatment on cognitive functions have never been tested. We have investigated the effects of continuous daily oral galactose (200 mg/kg/day) treatment on cognitive deficits in streptozotocin-induced (STZ-icv) rat model of sAD, tested by Morris Water Maze and Passive Avoidance test, respectively. One month of oral galactose treatment initiated immediately after the STZ-icv administration, successfully prevented development of the STZ-icv-induced cognitive deficits. Beneficial effect of oral galactose was independent of the rat age and of the galactose dose ranging from 100 to 300 mg/kg/day. Additionally, oral galactose administration led to the appearance of galactose in the blood. The increase of galactose concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid was several times lower after oral than after parenteral administration of the same galactose dose. Oral galactose exposure might have beneficial effects on learning and memory ability and could be worth investigating for improvement of cognitive deficits associated with glucose hypometabolism in AD.

  8. The effect of d-galactose induced oxidative stress on in vitro redox homeostasis in rat plasma and erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Delwing-de Lima, Daniela; Hennrich, Silmara Brietzig; Delwing-Dal Magro, Débora; Aurélio, Juliana Gruenwaldt Maia; Serpa, Ana Paula; Augusto, Thierry Waltrich; Pereira, Nariana Regina

    2017-02-01

    We, herein, investigated the in vitro effects of galactose on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS), total sulfhydryl content, and on the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) in the blood of 30- and 60-day-old rats. We also determined the influence of the antioxidants, trolox, ascorbic acid and glutathione, on the effects elicited by galactose on the parameters tested. Galactose was added to the assay at final concentrations of 0.1, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0mM. Control experiments were performed without the addition of galactose. Rats were sacrificed by decapitation without anesthesia and a blood sample was removed for analysis. Galactose, at 3.0mM, 5.0mM and 10.0mM, enhanced TBA-RS in the plasma of 60-day-old rats, while 10.0mM galactose reduced total sulfhydryl content in the plasma of 30-day-old rats; 5.0mM and 10.0mM galactose enhanced CAT activity in the erythrocytes of 30- and 60-day-old rats and 10.0mM galactose reduced SOD activity in the erythrocytes of 60-day-old rats. Galactose did not alter BuChE activity. Data showed that at the pathologically high concentration (greater than 5.0mM), galactose induces lipid peroxidation, reduces total sulfhydryl content and alters antioxidant defenses in the blood of rats. Trolox, ascorbic acid and glutathione addition prevented most alterations in oxidative stress parameters that were caused by galactose. Our findings lend support to a potential therapeutic strategy for this disease, which may include the use of antioxidants for ameliorating the damage caused by galactose.

  9. Serum galactose-deficient IgA1 levels in children with IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mengjie; Jiang, Xiaoyun; Rong, Liping; Xu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Lizhi; Qiu, Zeting; Mo, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is an immunopathologic diagnosis based on a renal biopsy, it is characterized by deposits of IgA-containing immune complexes in the mesangium. Adults with IgAN have a galactose-deficient IgA1 in the circulation and glomerular deposition. There are few studies on the glycosylation of serum IgA1 in children with IgAN. To measure the serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 in pediatric patients with IgAN, 72 biopsy-proven IgAN children were divided into 3 groups based on the clinical features: isolated hematuria group (24 patients), hematuria and proteinuria group (22 patients), and nephritic syndrome group (26 patients). They were also divided into 3 groups according to pathologic grading: grade I + II group (25 patients), grade III group (33 patients) and grade IV + V group (14 patients). 30 healthy children were recruited as a control group. We used vicia villosa lectin binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure the serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 in all groups and controls. Serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 in children with IgAN were higher than controls (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 among the different clinical and pathologic grading groups. The values of the area under the curve for galactose-deficient IgA1 levels were 0.976 (95% CI, 0.953-1.000). The cutoff point for galactose-deficient IgA1 levels was 0.125, with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 83.3%, with a positive predictive value of 92.6% and a negative predictive value of 73.5% (P < 0.01). Children with IgAN presented serum galactose-deficient IgA1, which has shown no relationship with the clinical manifestations and pathologic grading of the disease. Detection of serum galactose-deficient IgA1 levels by vicia villosa lectin binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has a certain clinical value in diagnosis of children with IgAN.

  10. Increased albumin permeation in eyes, aorta, and kidney of hypertensive rats fed galactose

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, R.G.; LaRose, L.; Chang, K.; Weigel, C.J.; Williamson, J.R.

    1986-03-01

    These experiments were undertaken to determine whether ingestion of galactose increases albumin permeation in the vasculature of hypertensive rats. 50% dextrin (control) or 50% galactose diets were fed to unilaterally nephrectomized, male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 g. Hypertension (systolic pressure >175 mmHg) was induced by weekly IM injections of 25 mg/kg DOCA and 1% saline drinking water; 3 months later /sup 125/I-albumin permeation was assessed in whole eyes, aorta and kidneys. /sup 125/I-albumin permeation was significantly increased in all 3 tissues of hypertensive rats (n = 9) vs controls (n = 9): aorta (3.30 +/- 0.19 (SD) vs 2.87 +/- 0.14), eye (3.15 +/- 0.14 vs 2.59 +/- 0.11), and kidney (6.58 +/- 0.63 vs 3.85 +/- 0.50). Albumin permeation was increased still further in hypertensive rats fed the galactose diet (n = 8): aorta (3.75 +/- 0.38), eye (3.82 +/- 0.17), and kidney (10.74 +/- 3.13). Hypertension +/- galactose feeding had no effect on albumin permeation in lung, skin, or brain. These findings indicate that: (1) hypertension increases albumin permeation in vessels affected by diabetic vascular diseases, and 2) hypertension-induced increases in albumin permeation are increased still further by galactose ingestion, presumably mediated by imbalances in polyol/insitol metabolism (analogous to those induced by diabetes) independent of hyperglycemia and/or insulinopenia.

  11. Anti-galactose antibodies do not bind to normal human red cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, M.M.B.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.

    1986-03-01

    The authors investigated the possibility that senescent cell IgG might have an anti-galactose (anti-gal) specificity as suggested by others. Anti-gal was isolated from normal human serum with ..cap alpha.. melibiose-agarose. The assays used were hemagglutination, rosetting, phagocytosis, and /sup 125/I protein A binding assay, immunoblotting, and glycine/HCL, pH 2.3, versus sugar elutions. Results revealed binding of anti-gal to rabbit but not human RBC. Immunoblotting of anti-gal revealed labeling of approx.29 bands in rabbit red cell membranes and no labeling of autologous human red cell membranes. The authors attempted to inhibit binding of anti-gal with various sugars. Melibiose caused enhancement rather than inhibition of agglutination when used at concentrations reported by previous investigators to cause inhibition. Neither ..cap alpha.. melibiose or galactose caused inhibition of phagocytosis of senescent cells. Senescent cell IgG was not displaced from freshly isolated old red cells by incubation with melibiose or galactose as determined by an /sup 125/I protein A binding assay. The authors were also unable to elute IgG from stored red cells with galactose. The authors conclude that senescent cell IgG does not have an anti-galactose specificity. The authors were unable to demonstrate an anti-gal antibody to normal human red cells.

  12. Alternative pathways of galactose assimilation: could inverse metabolic engineering provide an alternative to galactosemic patients?

    PubMed

    Lai, Kent; Klapa, Maria I

    2004-07-01

    The galactose assimilation pathway has been extensively studied as an example of a genetic regulatory switch. Besides the importance of this pathway as a tool in basic biological research, unraveling its structure and regulation is also of major medical importance. Impairment of galactose assimilation is the cause of the genetic metabolic disease known as "galactosemia", while the in vivo activity of the pathway affects the production of glycans. The latter have been connected to tumor metastasis, anti-cancer drug resistance and various cardiovascular diseases. Despite the vast amount of studies, however, galactose assimilation and its interaction with other parts of the metabolic network have not been fully elucidated yet. In yeast and higher eukaryotes, it is still being studied as comprising only the linear Leloir pathway. Recent observations, however, indicate that alternative pathways of galactose assimilation identified in prokaryotes and fungi might also be present in yeast. Such a result is valuable per se, because it could lead to the discovery of these pathways in humans. Even more importantly, these pathways provide alternative phenotypes with known genetic fingerprints that can be used in the context of classical and inverse metabolic engineering to examine and treat the mechanisms of defects of galactose assimilation.

  13. Bioethanol production from Gracilaria verrucosa using Saccharomyces cerevisiae adapted to NaCl or galactose.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trung Hau; Ra, Chae Hun; Sunwoo, InYung; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2016-12-18

    This study examined the pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and fermentation of the red macroalgae Gracilaria verrucosa using adapted saccharomyces cerevisiae to galactose or NaCl for the increase of bioethanol yield. Pretreatment with thermal acid hydrolysis to obtain galactose was carried out with 11.7% (w/v) seaweed slurry and 373 mM H2SO4 at 121 °C for 59 min. Glucose was obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis. Enzymatic saccharification was performed with a mixture of 16 U/mL Celluclast 1.5L and Viscozyme L at 45 °C for 48 h. Ethanol fermentation in 11.7% (w/v) seaweed hydrolysate was carried out using Saccharomyces cerevisiae KCTC 1126 adapted or non-adapted to high concentrations of galactose or NaCl. When non-adapted S. cerevisiae KCTC 1126 was used, the ethanol productivity was 0.09 g/(Lh) with an ethanol yield of 0.25. Ethanol productivity of 0.16 and 0.19 g/(Lh) with ethanol yields of 0.43 and 0.48 was obtained using S. cerevisiae KCTC 1126 adapted to high concentrations of galactose and NaCl, respectively. Adaptation of S. cerevisiae KCTC 1126 to galactose or NaCl increased the ethanol yield via adaptive evolution of the yeast.

  14. The role of water molecules in stereoselectivity of glucose/galactose-binding protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minsup; Cho, Art E.

    2016-11-01

    Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation methods, we attempted to explain the experimental results on ligand specificity of glucose/galactose-binding protein (GGBP) to β-D-glucose and β-D-galactose. For the simulation, a three-dimensional structure of GGBP was prepared, and homology modeling was performed to generate variant structures of GGBP with mutations at Asp14. Then, docking was carried out to find a reasonable β-D-glucose and β-D-galactose binding conformations with GGBP. Subsequent molecular dynamics simulations of β-D-glucose–GGBP and β-D-galactose–GGBP complexes and estimation of the orientation and stability of water molecules at the binding site revealed how water molecules influence ligand specificity. In our simulation, water molecules mediated interactions of β-D-glucose or β-D-galactose with residue 14 of GGBP. In this mechanism, the Phe16Ala mutant leaves both sugar molecules free to move, and the specific role of water molecules were eliminated, while the wild type, Asp14Asn mutant, and Asp14Glu mutant make hydrogen bond interactions with β-D-glucose more favorable. Our results demonstrate that bound water molecules at the binding site of GGBP are related to localized conformational change, contributing to ligand specificity of GGBP for β-D-glucose over β-D-galactose.

  15. Partial correction of neutrophil dysfunction by oral galactose therapy in glycogen storage disease type Ib.

    PubMed

    Letkemann, Rudolf; Wittkowski, Helmut; Antonopoulos, Aristotelis; Podskabi, Teodor; Haslam, Stuart M; Föll, Dirk; Dell, Anne; Marquardt, Thorsten

    2017-03-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD-Ib) is characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction. Mass spectrometric glycomic profiling of GSD-Ib neutrophils showed severely truncated N-glycans, lacking galactose. Experiments indicated the hypoglycosylation of the electron transporting subunit of NADPH oxidase, which is crucial for the defense against bacterial infections. In phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1) deficiency, an inherited disorder with an enzymatic defect just one metabolic step ahead, hypogalactosylation can be successfully treated by dietary galactose. We hypothesized the same pathomechanism in GSD-Ib and started a therapeutic trial with oral galactose and uridine. The aim was to improve neutrophil dysfunction through the correction of hypoglycosylation in neutrophils. The GSD-Ib patient was treated for 29weeks. Monitoring included glycomics analysis of the patient's neutrophils and neutrophil function tests including respiratory burst activity, phagocytosis and migration. Although no substantial restoration of neutrophil glycosylation was found, there was partial improvement of respiratory burst activity.

  16. Accumulation of myoinositol and rubidium ions in galactose-exposed rat lens

    SciTech Connect

    Kawaba, T.; Cheng, H.M.; Kinoshita, J.H.

    1986-10-01

    When rat lens is incubated in 30 mM galactose overnight, the extent of accumulation of rubidium ions (Rb) and myoinositol (MI) are affected, as well as the Na-K ATPase activity. Rb accumulation and Na-K ATPase activity are only slightly affected compared to the dramatic drop in MI accumulation. These changes are completely abolished by sorbinil, which blocks polyol formation, or by rendering the galactose medium hypertonic to offset the osmotic effect of polyol formation. On the other hand, the addition of excess MI to the galactose medium had no effect on correcting these changes. The results obtained are consistent with the polyol-osmotic theory of sugar cataract formation.

  17. A direct-sensing galactose chemoreceptor recently evolved in invasive strains of Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Day, Christopher J.; King, Rebecca M.; Shewell, Lucy K.; Tram, Greg; Najnin, Tahria; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren E.; Wilson, Jennifer C.; Fleetwood, Aaron D.; Zhulin, Igor B.; Korolik, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    A rare chemotaxis receptor, Tlp11, has been previously identified in invasive strains of Campylobacter jejuni, the most prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Here we use glycan and small-molecule arrays, as well as surface plasmon resonance, to show that Tlp11 specifically interacts with galactose. Tlp11 is required for the chemotactic response of C. jejuni to galactose, as shown using wild type, allelic inactivation and addition mutants. The inactivated mutant displays reduced virulence in vivo, in a model of chicken colonization. The Tlp11 sensory domain represents the first known sugar-binding dCache_1 domain, which is the most abundant family of extracellular sensors in bacteria. The Tlp11 signalling domain interacts with the chemotaxis scaffolding proteins CheV and CheW, and comparative genomic analysis indicates a likely recent evolutionary origin for Tlp11. We propose to rename Tlp11 as CcrG, Campylobacter ChemoReceptor for Galactose. PMID:27762269

  18. Isolation of the galactose-binding lectin that mediates the in vitro adherence of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Petri, W A; Smith, R D; Schlesinger, P H; Murphy, C F; Ravdin, J I

    1987-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica adheres to human colonic mucus, colonic epithelial cells, and other target cells via a galactose (Gal) or N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) inhibitable surface lectin. Blockade of this adherence lectin with Gal or GalNAc in vitro prevents amebic killing of target cells. We have identified and purified the adherence lectin by two methods: affinity columns derivatized with galactose monomers or galactose terminal glycoproteins, and affinity columns and immunoblots prepared with monoclonal antibodies that inhibit amebic adherence. By both methods the adherence lectin was identified as a 170-kD secreted and membrane-bound amebic protein. The surface location of the lectin was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence. Purified lectin competitively inhibited amebic adherence to target cells by binding to receptors on the target Chinese hamster ovary cells in a Gal-inhibitable manner. Images PMID:2890654

  19. Thermal treatment of galactose-branched polyelectrolyte microcapsules to improve drug delivery with reserved targetability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fu; Wu, Qi; Liu, Li-Jun; Chen, Zhi-Chun; Lin, Xian-Fu

    2008-06-05

    A novel multilayered drug delivery system by LbL assembly of galactosylated polyelectrolyte, which is possible to have the potential in hepatic targeting by the presence of galactose residues at the microcapsule's surface, is designed. Thermal treatment was performed on the capsules and a dramatic thermal shrinkage up to 60% decrease of capsule diameter above 50 degrees C was observed. This thermal behavior was then used to manipulate drug loading capacity and release rate. Heating after drug loading could seal the capsule shell, enhancing the loading capacity and reducing the release rate significantly. Excellent affinity between galactose-binding lectin and heated galactose-containing microcapsules were observed, indicating a stable targeting potential even after high temperature elevating up to 90 degrees C.

  20. Substitution of L-fucose by L-galactose in cell walls of arabidopsis mur1

    SciTech Connect

    Zablackis, E.; York, W.S.; Pauly, M.

    1996-06-21

    An Arabidopsis thaliana mutant (mur1) has less than 2 percent of the normal amounts of L-fucose in the primary cell walls of aerial portions of the plant. The survival of mur1 plants challenged the hypothesis that fucose is a required component of biologically active oligosaccharides derived from cell wall xyloglucan. However, the replacement of L-fucose (that is, 6-deoxyl-L-galactose) by L-galactose does not detectably alter the biological activity of the oligosaccharides derived from xyloglucan. Thus, essential structural and conformational features of xyloglucan and xyloglucan-derived oligosaccharides are retained when L-galactose replaces L-fucose. 29 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. A direct-sensing galactose chemoreceptor recently evolved in invasive strains of Campylobacter jejuni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Christopher J.; King, Rebecca M.; Shewell, Lucy K.; Tram, Greg; Najnin, Tahria; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren E.; Wilson, Jennifer C.; Fleetwood, Aaron D.; Zhulin, Igor B.; Korolik, Victoria

    2016-10-01

    A rare chemotaxis receptor, Tlp11, has been previously identified in invasive strains of Campylobacter jejuni, the most prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Here we use glycan and small-molecule arrays, as well as surface plasmon resonance, to show that Tlp11 specifically interacts with galactose. Tlp11 is required for the chemotactic response of C. jejuni to galactose, as shown using wild type, allelic inactivation and addition mutants. The inactivated mutant displays reduced virulence in vivo, in a model of chicken colonization. The Tlp11 sensory domain represents the first known sugar-binding dCache_1 domain, which is the most abundant family of extracellular sensors in bacteria. The Tlp11 signalling domain interacts with the chemotaxis scaffolding proteins CheV and CheW, and comparative genomic analysis indicates a likely recent evolutionary origin for Tlp11. We propose to rename Tlp11 as CcrG, Campylobacter ChemoReceptor for Galactose.

  2. Solubility and selective crystallization of lactose from solutions of its hydrolysis products glucose and galactose

    SciTech Connect

    Bourne, J.R.; Hegglin, M.; Prenosil, J.E.

    1983-06-01

    A high degree of conversion is desired when lactose is hydrolyzed to glucose and galactose. This produces, however, a high concentration of galactose, which is inhibitory for the enzyme catalyst (beta-galactosidase). The inhibition can be reduced by limiting the conversion per pass over the enzyme (e.g. to ca. 50%), separating unconverted lactose from the reactor effluent, and recycling it to the reactor inlet. (This allows the overall conversion to be raised to ca. 80-90%). The solubilities of lactose, glucose, and galactose have been determined at various temperatures and for sugar mixtures having different concentrations and degrees of hydrolysis. Various cooling crystallizations have defined convenient and simple processes for the selective separation of lactose from its hydrolysis products.

  3. Vascular filtration function in galactose-fed versus diabetic rats: The role of polyol pathway activity

    SciTech Connect

    Pugliese, G.; Tilton, R.G.; Speedy, A.; Chang, K.; Province, M.A.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R. )

    1990-07-01

    These studies were undertaken to assess the effects of increased galactose (v increased glucose) metabolism via the polyol pathway on vascular filtration function in the kidneys, eyes, nerves, and aorta. Quantitative radiolabeled tracer techniques were used to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and regional tissue vascular clearance of plasma 131I-bovine serum albumin (BSA) in five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats: nondiabetic controls, streptozotocin-diabetic rats, nondiabetic rats fed a 50% galactose diet, diabetic rats treated with sorbinil (an aldose reductase inhibitor), and galactose-fed rats treated with sorbinil. Sorbinil was added to the diet to provide a daily dose of approximately .2 mmol/kg body weight. After 2 months of diabetes or galactose ingestion, albumin clearance was increased twofold to fourfold in the eye (anterior uvea, choroid, and retina), sciatic nerve, aorta, and kidney; GFR was increased approximately twofold and urinary excretion of endogenous albumin and IgG were increased approximately 10-fold. Sorbinil treatment markedly reduced or completely prevented all of these changes in galactose-fed, as well as in diabetic rats. These observations support the hypothesis that increased metabolism of glucose via the sorbitol pathway is of central importance in mediating virtually all of the early changes in vascular filtration function associated with diabetes in the kidney, as well as in the eyes, nerves, and aorta. On the other hand, renal hypertrophy in diabetic rats and polyuria, hyperphagia, and impaired weight gain in galactose-fed and in diabetic rats were unaffected by sorbinil and therefore are unlikely to be mediated by increased polyol metabolism.

  4. Identification of Bacillus anthracis by Using Monoclonal Antibody to Cell Wall Galactose-N-Acetylglucosamine Polysaccharide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    which appear to be directed to an epitope associated with the galactose-N-acetyl-D- glucosamine polysaccharide. Both demonstrated specificity in their...liquid composed primarily of D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-glu - R medium (28) buffered with 50 mM Tris hydrochloride , pH cosamine (12, 13) (Gal-NAG...Ascites fluid (5 ml) was dialyzed (Cel-Line Associates, Inc., Newfield, N.J.). Suspensions against 20 mM Tris hydrochloride (pH 8.0) for 18 to 20 h, were

  5. Intracerebroventricular D-galactose administration impairs memory and alters activity and expression of acetylcholinesterase in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, André Felipe; Biasibetti, Helena; Zanotto, Bruna Stela; Sanches, Eduardo Farias; Pierozan, Paula; Schmitz, Felipe; Parisi, Mariana Migliorini; Barbé-Tuana, Florencia; Netto, Carlos Alexandre; Wyse, Angela T S

    2016-05-01

    Tissue accumulation of galactose is a hallmark in classical galactosemia. Cognitive deficit is a symptom of this disease which is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of galactose on memory (inhibitory avoidance and novel object recognition tasks) of adult rats. We also investigated the effects of galactose on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, immunocontent and gene expression in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Wistar rats received a single injection of galactose (4mM) or saline (control). For behavioral parameters, galactose was injected 1h or 24h previously to the testing. For biochemical assessment, animals were decapitated 1h, 3h or 24h after galactose or saline injection; hippocampus and cerebral cortex were dissected. Results showed that galactose impairs the memory formation process in aversive memory (inhibitory avoidance task) and recognition memory (novel object recognition task) in rats. The activity of AChE was increased, whereas the gene expression of this enzyme was decreased in hippocampus, but not in cerebral cortex. These findings suggest that these changes in AChE may, at least in part, to lead to memory impairment caused by galactose. Taken together, our results can help understand the etiopathology of classical galactosemia.

  6. [Galactose loading test in infants and small children suffering in recurrent bronchitis and other chronic illness (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Osváth, P; Fornai, K; Pozderka, B; Veres, B

    1981-08-01

    The authors performed galactose loading tests in children suffering from chronic diseases: recurrent bronchitis vomiting, diarrhoea, milk-intolerance, somatic and mental retardation, cramps. In 32 of the 92 examined cases galactose levels rose until pathological, pseudo- diabetic levels. Stillbirth, cataract, hyperbilirubinaemia, convulsions occurred among family members of 10 patients. Galactose-1-phosphat-uridyl-transferase levels were decreased only in 4 of the 17 patients examined. In the other cases some different pathway of galactose metabolism is suspected. Complete remission of symptoms was achieved with diet devoid of milk sugar (lactose) in 29 patients: one infant died and two others remained mentally retarded. According to the examinations presented minor deviations of galactose metabolism cause clinical symptoms more frequently in early life as it was supposed until now.

  7. Unveiling epimerization effects: a rotational study of α-D-galactose.

    PubMed

    Peña, Isabel; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L

    2015-06-25

    By studying its C4 epimer α-D-galactose, the effects of epimerization on the conformational behaviour of α-D-glucose have been unveiled. Using laser ablation of crystalline samples, four conformers of α-D-galactopyranose have been observed, for the first time, in a supersonic expansion by analyzing the Fourier transform rotational spectrum.

  8. The Chemopreventive Peptide Lunasin Inhibits d-Galactose- Induced Experimental Cataract in Rats.

    PubMed

    Dai, Guangzhi; Zhang, Ping; Ye, Pei; Zhang, Miaoqing; Han, Ning; Shuai, Haoyue; Tan, Shuhua

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative damage to the constituents of the eye lens is a major mechanism in the initiation and development of cataract. Lunasin, a 43-amino acids chemoprevention peptide, has been proved to possess potent anti-oxidative activity other than its established anticancer activities. Herein, we explored whether lunasin has preventative effects on d-galactose-induced experimental cataract in rat. After modeling, SD rats were administrated by instillation, 80 µM of lunasin eye drops to each eye thrice daily and consecutively for 30 days. As a result, lunasin treatment effectively inhibited the progression of d-galactose-induced experimental cataract, and protected the lenses of rats from oxidative damage and attenuated the lipid peroxidation through up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, and inhibited the activation of polyol pathway by decreasing AR activity. Additionally, in vitro studies proved that lunasin treatment could protect human lens epithelial cells (hLECs) against d-galactose induced cell damage and apoptosis, and up-regulate antioxidant enzymes. This is the first demonstration that lunasin could inhibit d-galactose-induced experimental cataract in rats by protecting against oxidative damage and inhibiting the activation of polyol pathway.

  9. Moderate exercise prevents neurodegeneration in D-galactose-induced aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Xu, Meng; Shen, Bo; Li, Man; Gao, Qian; Wei, Shou-gang

    2016-01-01

    D-galactose has been widely used in aging research because of its efficacy in inducing senescence and accelerating aging in animal models. The present study investigated the benefits of exercise for preventing neurodegeneration, such as synaptic plasticity, spatial learning and memory abilities, in mouse models of aging. D-galactose-induced aging mice were administered daily subcutaneous injections of D-galactose at the base of the neck for 10 consecutive weeks. Then, the mice were subjected to exercise training by running on a treadmill for 6 days a week. Shortened escape latency in a Morris water maze test indicated that exercise improved learning and memory in aging mice. The ameliorative changes were likely induced by an upregulation of Bcl-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, the repression of apoptosis factors such as Fas and Bax, and an increase in the activity of glucose transporters-1 and 4. The data suggest moderate exercise may retard or inhibit neurodegeneration in D-galactose-induced aging mice. PMID:27335566

  10. Phylogeny, structure, function, biosynthesis and evolution of sulfated galactose-containing glycans.

    PubMed

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2016-03-01

    Glycans are ubiquitous components of all organisms. The specificity of glycan structures works in molecular recognition in multiple biological processes especially cell-cell and cell-matrix signaling events. These events are mostly driven by functional proteins whose activities are ultimately regulated by interactions with carbohydrate moieties of cell surface glycoconjugates. Galactose is a common composing monosaccharide in glycoconjugates. Sulfation at certain positions of the galactose residues does not only increase affinity for some binding proteins but also makes the structures of the controlling glycans more specific to molecular interactions. Here the phylogenetic distribution of glycans containing the sulfated galactose unit is examined across numerous multicellular organisms. Analysis includes autotrophs and heterotrophs from both terrestrial and marine environments. Information exists more regarding the marine species. Although future investigations in molecular biology must be still performed in order to assure certain hypotheses, empirical evidences based on structural biology of the sulfated galactose-containing glycans among different species particularly their backbone and sulfation patterns clearly indicate great specificity in terms of glycosyltransferase and sulfotransferase activity. This set of information suggests that evolution has shaped the biosynthetic machinery of these glycans somewhat related to their potential functions in the organisms.

  11. Effect of anaerobiosis, dinitrophenol and fluoride on the active intestinal transport of galactose in snail.

    PubMed

    Barber, A; Jordana, R; Ponz, F

    1975-06-01

    The active transport of galactose across the intestinal wall (everted sacs) of the snail Cryptomphalus hortensis Müller has been studied in vitro, under several metabolic conditions. Anaerobiosis does not change the serosal/mucosal galactose gradients which are developed in oxygen atmosphere. Dinitrophenol (10(-4) M) greatly increased the O2 uptake by the tissue and clearly inhibits the sugar transport. At 5 times 10(-4) M concentration, DNP totally prevents the uphill transport while the O2 uptake is normal. The inhibition produced by DNP does not increase by anaerobiosis. Fluoride inhibits the galactose transport and also the O2 uptake. It is deduced that in snail intestine the energy for the active transport of galactose can be supplied by aerobic as much as by anaerobic metabolism. The inhibition by dinitrophenol seems to be independent of its uncoupling action on the oxidative phosphorylation. The inhibitory effect of NaF may be due both to glycolisis inhibition and to alteration of the digestive epithelium.

  12. The structural and molecular biology of type I galactosemia: Enzymology of galactose 1-phosphate uridylyltransferase.

    PubMed

    McCorvie, Thomas J; Timson, David J

    2011-09-01

    Reduced galactose 1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) activity is associated with the genetic disease type I galactosemia. This results in an increase in the cellular concentration of galactose 1-phosphate. The accumulation of this toxic metabolite, combined with aberrant glycoprotein and glycolipid biosynthesis, is likely to be the major factor in molecular pathology. The mechanism of GALT was established through classical enzymological methods to be a substituted enzyme in which the reaction with UDP-glucose results in the formation of a covalent, UMP-histidine adduct in the active site. The uridylated enzyme can then react with galactose 1-phosphate to form UDP-galactose. The structure of the enzyme from Escherichia coli reveals a homodimer containing one zinc (II) and one iron (II) ion per subunit. This enzymological and structural knowledge provides the basis for understanding the biochemistry of this critical step in the Leloir pathway. However, a high-resolution crystal structure of human GALT is required to assist greater understanding of the effects of disease-associated mutations.

  13. Production, purification, and characterization of a novel galactose oxidase from Fusarium acuminatum.

    PubMed

    Alberton, Dayane; Silva de Oliveira, Luciana; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Barbosa-Tessmann, Ione Parra

    2007-06-01

    Extra-cellular production of a novel galactose oxidase from Fusarium acuminatum using submerged fermentation was studied. Glucose (1.0% w/v) was used as the sole carbon source. Maximum galactose oxidase production (approximately 4.0 U/ml) was obtained when fermentation was carried out at 25 degrees C, with orbital shaking (100 rpm) and an initial medium of pH 7.0, for 96 h, using a 2% (v/v) inoculum made from a homogenized four-day-old liquid culture, in the presence of copper, manganese, and magnesium. The enzyme was purified by one-step affinity chromatography, with a recovery of 42% of the initial activity. The purified enzyme ran as a single band of 66 kDa in SDS-PAGE. Optimal pH and temperature for the enzyme activity were 8.0 and 30 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme was thermoinactivated at temperatures above 60 degrees C. The purified enzyme was active toward various substrates, including galactose, dihydroxyacetone, guar gum, lactose, melibiose, methyl-galactopyranoside, and raffinose. SDS was an inhibitor but EDTA, Tween 80, NH(4)(+), Na(+), Mg(2+), K(+), and glycerol were not. The Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) for galactose was estimated to be 16.2 mM, while maximal velocity (V(max)) was 0.27 micromol of H(2)O(2) . ml(-1) . min(-1).

  14. Interference of maltose, icodextrin, galactose, or xylose with some blood glucose monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Schleis, Thomas G

    2007-09-01

    Maltose, a disaccharide composed of two glucose molecules, is used in a number of biological preparations as a stabilizing agent or osmolality regulator. Icodextrin, which is converted to maltose, is present in a peritoneal dialysis solution. Galactose and xylose are found in some foods, herbs, and dietary supplements; they are also used in diagnostic tests. When some blood glucose monitoring systems are used--specifically, those that use test strips containing the enzymes glucose dehydrogenase-pyrroloquinolinequinone or glucose dye oxidoreductase--in patients receiving maltose, icodextrin, galactose, or xylose, interference of blood glucose levels can occur. Maltose, icodextrin, galactose, and xylose are misinterpreted as glucose, which can result in erroneously elevated serum glucose levels. This interference can result in the administration of insulin, which may lead to hypoglycemia. In severe cases of hypoglycemia, deaths have occurred. If patients are receiving maltose, icodextrin, galactose, or xylose, clinicians must review the package inserts of all test strips to determine the type of glucose monitoring system being used and to use only those systems whose tests strips contain glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, or glucose dehydrogenase-flavin adenine dinucleotide.

  15. Transcriptomic analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae physiology in the context of galactose assimilation perturbations.

    PubMed

    Syriopoulos, C; Panayotarou, A; Lai, K; Klapa, Maria I

    2008-09-01

    Despite being extensively studied in various organisms due to scientific, industrial and medical interest, the galactose assimilation function and regulation, and especially its interaction with other parts of cellular physiology, have not been fully elucidated yet. The post-genomic era holistic techniques ("omics") could assist towards this goal. In this paper, we holistically analyzed full-genome Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptional profiling data concerning its glucose- and galactose-grown wild-type (WT) physiology and its glucose-grown gal7-deficient (GAL7Delta) physiology, as these were obtained in the experiment described in Lai and Elsas (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2000, 271, 392-400). The gal7 gene encodes for the second enzyme of the galactose assimilation, Leloir, pathway, and its deficiency in humans causes a potentially lethal disease, named "classic galactosemia". Analysis of the galactose-grown compared to the glucose-grown WT physiology indicated a significant increase in the transcriptional expression of the ribosomal machinery and decrease in the transcriptional activity of the fatty acids' beta-oxidation at the peroxisomes. Comparison of GAL7Delta to WT physiology in glucose indicated a significant transcriptional increase in the mitochondrial activity and the rate of catabolism of disaccharides, including sucrose, mannose and trehalose, towards amplified biosynthesis of the main cell wall components. Comparison with other physiological conditions indicated strong correlation between the glucose-grown GAL7Delta transcriptional physiology and the WT growth under glucose derepression conditions. Finally, the acquired results and the large number of still unknown genes that were related to the galactose assimilation regulation indicated the need for further, specifically designed, perturbations and integrated analyses of multiple levels of cellular function.

  16. Increased ocular blood flow and /sup 125/I-albumin permeation in galactose-fed rats: inhibition by sorbinil

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, R.G.; Chang, K.; Weigel, C.; Eades, D.; Sherman, W.R.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R.

    1988-06-01

    125I-Albumin permeation and blood flow (assessed with 15 micron, 85Sr-labelled microspheres) were determined in the retina, choroid, anterior uvea, and brain of male Sprague-Dawley rats fed diets containing 50% dextrin (control) or 50% galactose. Blood flow was increased in the retina, choroid, and anterior uvea but not in the brain of rats fed galactose for 3 weeks and 3 months versus controls, and was normalized by sorbinil (an inhibitor of aldose reductase) in the 3-week group. After 8 months of galactose feeding, blood flow was reduced to normal levels in the retina and was slightly below normal in the choroid; blood flow remained elevated in the anterior uvea but was significantly lower than that observed at 3 weeks and at 3 months. In rats fed galactose for 8 months, sorbinil completely normalized blood flow in the choroid, and decreased, but did not normalize, blood flow in the anterior uvea. 125I-Albumin permeation was increased in the retina, choroid, and anterior uvea of rats fed 50% galactose for 3 weeks, 3 months, and 8 months versus controls, but was unchanged in the brain. Sorbinil normalized 125I-albumin permeation in all three ocular tissues in 8-month galactose-fed rats. Polyol levels were increased significantly in all three ocular tissues of 3-week galactose-fed rats; sorbinil markedly decreased, but did not normalize, polyol levels in all three tissues.

  17. Fap2 of Fusobacterium nucleatum is a galactose-inhibitable adhesin involved in coaggregation, cell adhesion, and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Coppenhagen-Glazer, S; Sol, A; Abed, J; Naor, R; Zhang, X; Han, Y W; Bachrach, G

    2015-03-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is a common oral anaerobe involved in periodontitis that is known to translocate and cause intrauterine infections. In the oral environment, F. nucleatum adheres to a large diversity of species, facilitating their colonization and creating biological bridges that stabilize the multispecies dental biofilm. Many of these interactions (called coadherences or coaggregations) are galactose sensitive. Galactose-sensitive interactions are also involved in the binding of F. nucleatum to host cells. Hemagglutination of some F. nucleatum strains is also galactose sensitive, suggesting that a single galactose-sensitive adhesin might mediate the interaction of fusobacteria with many partners and targets. In order to identify the fusobacterial galactose-sensitive adhesin, a system for transposon mutagenesis in fusobacteria was created. The mutant library was screened for hemagglutination deficiency, and three clones were isolated. All three clones were found to harbor the transposon in the gene coding for the Fap2 outer membrane autotransporter. The three fap2 mutants failed to show galactose-inhibitable coaggregation with Porphyromonas gingivalis and were defective in cell binding. A fap2 mutant also showed a 2-log reduction in murine placental colonization compared to that of the wild type. Our results suggest that Fap2 is a galactose-sensitive hemagglutinin and adhesin that is likely to play a role in the virulence of fusobacteria.

  18. A re-evaluation of life-long severe galactose restriction for the nutrition management of classic galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Van Calcar, Sandra C; Bernstein, Laurie E; Rohr, Frances J; Scaman, Christine H; Yannicelli, Steven; Berry, Gerard T

    2014-07-01

    The galactose-restricted diet is life-saving for infants with classic galactosemia. However, the benefit and extent of dietary galactose restriction required after infancy remain unclear and variation exists in practice. There is a need for evidence-based recommendations to better standardize treatment for this disorder. This paper reviews the association between diet treatment and outcomes in classic galactosemia and evaluates the contribution of food sources of free galactose in the diet. Recommendations include allowing all fruits, vegetables, legumes, soy products that are not fermented, various aged cheeses and foods containing caseinates. Further research directions are discussed.

  19. Food allergy to the carbohydrate galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal): four case reports and a review.

    PubMed

    Bircher, Andreas J; Hofmeier, Kathrin Scherer; Link, Susanne; Heijnen, Ingmar

    2017-02-01

    Until recently, food allergies to mammalian meats have been considered to be very rare. The observation that patients not previously exposed to the monoclonal chimeric antibody cetuximab suffered from severe anaphylaxis upon first exposure, led to the identification of galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose as a new relevant carbohydrate allergen. These patients later often suffered from anaphylactic reactions to red meat. Epidemiological data indicated that bites by the tick Amblyomma americanum in the USA, later also by Ixodes species in other continents, resulted in sensitisation to alpha-gal. On the other hand, in African patients with parasitic disorders, a high prevalence of anti-alpha-gal IgE, without clinical relevance, has been reported. In our four cases, one patient with a late onset of meat allergy had a history of a tick bite. The other three patients had symptoms from childhood or at a juvenile age. This indicates that in some patients, other ways of sensitisation may also take place. However, in patients without atopy, tick bite-induced IgE to alpha-gal may be more relevant. Diagnosis is based on a history of delayed onset of anaphylaxis. Skin tests with commercially available meat test solutions are often equivocal or negative; skin tests with raw meat and particularly pork kidney are more sensitive. Determination of specific IgE to alpha-gal is commercially available. The highest sensitivity is observed with skin and basophil activation tests with cetuximab which is, however, limited by its high costs.

  20. Human monoclonal macroglobulins with specificity for Klebsiella K polysaccharides that contain 3,4-pyruvylated-D-galactose and 4,6- pyruvylated-D-galactose

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Two human IgM myeloma proteins, IgMWEA and IgMMAY, were found to react with agar and Klebsiella polysaccharides that contain pyruvylated D- galactose (DGal). Quantitative precipitin data and precipitin inhibition studies with methyl alpha- and beta-glycosides of 4,6- pyruvylated-D-galactose showed their combining sites to be different, although each was directed against the pyruvylated-D-Gal, one reacting most specifically with Klebsiella polysaccharides with terminal nonreducing beta-linked 2,4 pyruvylated-D-Gal, whereas the other reacted equally well with Klebsiella polysaccharides that contain 3,4 beta-linked and 4,6 alpha-linked terminal nonreducing pyruvylated-DGal. Inhibition studies showed that both sites are directed toward one of the two space isomers of 3,4- or 4,6-pyruvylated DGal, the form in which the methyl group of the pyruvate is equatorial, or endo, and its carboxyl group axial, or exo, to the plane of the acetal ring. Coprecipitation studies showed the combining site of IgMWEA to be located on an (Fab')2 fragment and not on the (Fc)5mu fragment. The monoclonal peak in the serum of IgMMAY was specifically precipitated by Klebsiella polysaccharide. Myeloma proteins with specificities of this type may occur with reasonable frequency in humans and may be a consequence of clonal expansion from inapparent infection, carrier states, or disease produced by various Klebsiella organisms. PMID:6158553

  1. Ameliorative effect of black rice anthocyanin on senescent mice induced by D-galactose.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoling; Zhou, Yanhua; Wu, Tao; Hao, Lei

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the ameliorative effect of black rice anthocyanin (BACN) in senescent mice induced by D-galactose. The male mice were randomly divided into five groups, namely, the normal group, the model group and dosage groups (15, 30 and 60 mg kg(-1) of BACN). The model group and three dosage groups were continuously injected subcutaneously with D-galactose. The results suggested that superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly increased upon black rice anthocyanin treatment, while MDA and the activity of monoamine oxidase (MAO) significantly decreased. The expressions of superoxide dismutase genes (SOD1 and SOD2) in liver were up-regulated in black rice anthocyanin group, while the expression of the MAO-B gene was down-regulated. These findings demonstrated that the ameliorative effect of BACN might be achieved partly by altering endogenous antioxidant enzymatic and aging-related enzymatic activities and regulating SOD1, SOD2 and MAO-B gene expressions.

  2. Galactose-functionalized multi-responsive nanogels for hepatoma-targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Shaofeng; Gao, Shan; Wang, Weiwei; Zhang, Mingming; Zhang, Ju; Wang, Chun; Li, Chen; Kong, Deling; Zhao, Qiang

    2015-02-01

    We report here a hepatoma-targeting multi-responsive biodegradable crosslinked nanogel, poly(6-O-vinyladipoyl-d-galactose-ss-N-vinylcaprolactam-ss-methacrylic acid) P(ODGal-VCL-MAA), using a combination of enzymatic transesterification and emulsion copolymerization for intracellular drug delivery. The nanogel exhibited redox, pH and temperature-responsive properties, which can be adjusted by varying the monomer feeding ratio. Furthermore, the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of the nanogels was close to body temperature and can result in rapid thermal gelation at 37 °C. Scanning electron microscopy also revealed that the P(ODGal-VCL-MAA) nanogel showed uniform spherical monodispersion. With pyrene as a probe, the fluorescence excitation spectra demonstrated nanogel degradation in response to glutathione (GSH). X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed an amorphous property of DOX within the nanogel, which was used in this study as a model anti-cancer drug. Drug-releasing characteristics of the nanogel were examined in vitro. The results showed multi-responsiveness of DOX release by the variation of environmental pH values, temperature or the availability of GSH, a biological reductase. An in vitro cytotoxicity assay showed a higher anti-tumor activity of the galactose-functionalized DOX-loaded nanogels against human hepatoma HepG2 cells, which was, at least in part, due to specific binding between the galactose segments and the asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGP-Rs) in hepatic cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometric profiles further confirmed elevated cellular uptake of DOX by the galactose-functionalised nanogels. Thus, we report here a multi-responsive P(ODGal-VCL-MAA) nanogel with a hepatoma-specific targeting ability for anti-cancer drug delivery.We report here a hepatoma-targeting multi-responsive biodegradable crosslinked nanogel, poly(6-O-vinyladipoyl-d-galactose-ss-N-vinylcaprolactam-ss-methacrylic acid) P(ODGal-VCL-MAA), using

  3. GalR Acts as a Transcriptional Activator of galKT in the Presence of Galactose in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad; Shafeeq, Sulman; Manzoor, Irfan; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-01-01

    We explored the regulatory mechanism of Leloir pathway genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae D39. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of galKT is galactose dependent. By microarray analysis and quantitative RT-PCR, we further show the role of the transcriptional regulator GalR, present upstream of galKT, as a transcriptional activator of galKT in the presence of galactose. Moreover, we predict a 19-bp regulatory site (5'-GATAGTTTAGTAAAATTTT-3') for the transcriptional regulator GalR in the promoter region of galK, which is also highly conserved in other streptococci. Growth comparison of D39 ΔgalK with the D39 wild type grown in the presence of galactose shows that galK is required for the proper growth of S. pneumoniae on galactose.

  4. Galactose-inducible expression systems in Candida maltosa using promoters of newly-isolated GAL1 and GAL10 genes.

    PubMed

    Park, S M; Ohkuma, M; Masuda, Y; Ohta, A; Takagi, M

    1997-01-01

    The GAL1 and GAL10 gene cluster encoding the enzymes of galactose utilization was isolated from an asporogenic yeast, Candida maltosa. The structure of the gene cluster in which both genes were divergently transcribed from the central promoter region resembled those of some other yeasts. The expression of both genes was strongly induced by galactose and repressed by glucose in the medium. Galactose-inducible expression vectors in C. maltosa were constructed on low- and high-copy number plasmids using the promoter regions of both genes. With these vectors and the beta-galactosidase gene from Kluyveromyces lactis as a reporter, galactose-inducible expression was confirmed. Homologous overexpression of members of the cytochrome P-450 gene family in C. maltosa was also successful by using a high-copy-number vector under the control of these promoters.

  5. l-Galactose metabolism in Bacteroides vulgatus from the human gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Merlin Eric; Williams, Howard J; Hillerich, Brandan; Almo, Steven C; Raushel, Frank M

    2014-07-22

    A previously unknown metabolic pathway for the utilization of l-galactose was discovered in a prevalent gut bacterium, Bacteroides vulgatus. The new pathway consists of three previously uncharacterized enzymes that were found to be responsible for the conversion of l-galactose to d-tagaturonate. Bvu0219 (l-galactose dehydrogenase) was determined to oxidize l-galactose to l-galactono-1,5-lactone with kcat and kcat/Km values of 21 s(-1) and 2.0 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. The kinetic product of Bvu0219 is rapidly converted nonenzymatically to the thermodynamically more stable l-galactono-1,4-lactone. Bvu0220 (l-galactono-1,5-lactonase) hydrolyzes both the kinetic and thermodynamic products of Bvu0219 to l-galactonate. However, l-galactono-1,5-lactone is estimated to be hydrolyzed 300-fold faster than its thermodynamically more stable counterpart, l-galactono-1,4-lactone. In the final step of this pathway, Bvu0222 (l-galactonate dehydrogenase) oxidizes l-galactonate to d-tagaturonate with kcat and kcat/Km values of 0.6 s(-1) and 1.7 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. In the reverse direction, d-tagaturonate is reduced to l-galactonate with values of kcat and kcat/Km of 90 s(-1) and 1.6 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. d-Tagaturonate is subsequently converted to d-glyceraldehyde and pyruvate through enzymes encoded within the degradation pathway for d-glucuronate and d-galacturonate.

  6. Metabolic pathway of 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose in carrageenan-degrading microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Bok; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lim, Hyun Seung

    2016-05-01

    Complete hydrolysis of κ-carrageenan produces two sugars, D-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose (D-AnG). At present, however, we do not know how carrageenan-degrading microorganisms metabolize D-AnG. In this study, we investigated the metabolic pathway of D-AnG degradation by comparative genomic analysis of Cellulophaga lytica LIM-21, Pseudoalteromonas atlantica T6c, and Epulopiscium sp. N.t. morphotype B, which represent the classes Flavobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Clostridia, respectively. In this bioinformatic analysis, we found candidate common genes that were believed to be involved in D-AnG metabolism. We then experimentally confirmed the enzymatic function of each gene product in the D-AnG cluster. In all three microorganisms, D-AnG metabolizing genes were clustered and organized in operon-like arrangements, which we named as the dan operon (3,6-d-anhydro-galactose). Combining bioinformatic analysis and experimental data, we showed that D-AnG is metabolized to pyruvate and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate via four enzyme-catalyzed reactions in the following route: 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose → 3,6-anhydro-D-galactonate → 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-galactonate (D-KDGal) → 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D-galactonate → pyruvate + D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. The pathway of D-AnG degradation is composed of two parts: transformation of D-AnG to D-KDGal using two D-AnG specific enzymes and breakdown of D-KDGal to two glycolysis intermediates using two DeLey-Doudoroff pathway enzymes. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the metabolic pathway of D-AnG degradation.

  7. A novel reagentless sensing system for measuring glucose based on the galactose/glucose-binding protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salins, L. L.; Ware, R. A.; Ensor, C. M.; Daunert, S.

    2001-01-01

    The galactose/glucose-binding protein (GBP) is synthesized in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli in a precursor form and exported into the periplasmic space upon cleavage of a 23-amino-acid leader sequence. GBP binds galactose and glucose in a highly specific manner. The ligand induces a hinge motion in GBP and the resultant protein conformational change constitutes the basis of the sensing system. The mglB gene, which codes for GBP, was isolated from the chromosome of E. coli using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Since wild-type GBP lacks cysteines in its structure, introducing this amino acid by site-directed mutagenesis ensures single-label attachment at specific sites with a sulfhydro-specific fluorescent probe. Site-directed mutagenesis by overlap extension PCR was performed to prepare three different mutants to introduce a single cysteine residue at positions 148, 152, and 182. Since these residues are not involved in ligand binding and since they are located at the edge of the binding cleft, they experience a significant change in environment upon binding of galactose or glucose. The sensing system strategy is based on the fluorescence changes of the probe as the protein undergoes a structural change on binding. In this work a reagentless sensing system has been rationally designed that can detect submicromolar concentrations of glucose. The calibration plots have a linear working range of three orders of magnitude. Although the system can sense galactose as well, this epimer is not a potential interfering substance since its concentration in blood is negligible. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. Galacturonic acid inhibits the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on galactose, xylose, and arabinose.

    PubMed

    Huisjes, Eline H; de Hulster, Erik; van Dam, Jan C; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2012-08-01

    The efficient fermentation of mixed substrates is essential for the microbial conversion of second-generation feedstocks, including pectin-rich waste streams such as citrus peel and sugar beet pulp. Galacturonic acid is a major constituent of hydrolysates of these pectin-rich materials. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the main producer of bioethanol, cannot use this sugar acid. The impact of galacturonic acid on alcoholic fermentation by S. cerevisiae was investigated with anaerobic batch cultures grown on mixtures of glucose and galactose at various galacturonic acid concentrations and on a mixture of glucose, xylose, and arabinose. In cultures grown at pH 5.0, which is well above the pK(a) value of galacturonic acid (3.51), the addition of 10 g · liter(-1) galacturonic acid did not affect galactose fermentation kinetics and growth. In cultures grown at pH 3.5, the addition of 10 g · liter(-1) galacturonic acid did not significantly affect glucose consumption. However, at this lower pH, galacturonic acid completely inhibited growth on galactose and reduced galactose consumption rates by 87%. Additionally, it was shown that galacturonic acid strongly inhibits the fermentation of xylose and arabinose by the engineered pentose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain IMS0010. The data indicate that inhibition occurs when nondissociated galacturonic acid is present extracellularly and corroborate the hypothesis that a combination of a decreased substrate uptake rate due to competitive inhibition on Gal2p, an increased energy requirement to maintain cellular homeostasis, and/or an accumulation of galacturonic acid 1-phosphate contributes to the inhibition. The role of galacturonic acid as an inhibitor of sugar fermentation should be considered in the design of yeast fermentation processes based on pectin-rich feedstocks.

  9. Lactose, galactose and glucose determination in naturally "lactose free" hard cheese: HPAEC-PAD method validation.

    PubMed

    Monti, Lucia; Negri, Stefano; Meucci, Aurora; Stroppa, Angelo; Galli, Andrea; Contarini, Giovanna

    2017-04-01

    A chromatographic method by HPAEC-PAD was developed and in-house validated for the quantification of low sugar levels in hard cheese, specifically Grana Padano PDO cheese. Particular attention was paid to the extraction procedure, due to residual microbial and enzymatic activities. Specificity in detection and linearity were verified. Recoveries ranged from 93% for lactose to 98% for glucose and galactose. The obtained LOD and LOQ values were, respectively, 0.25 and 0.41mg/100g for lactose, 0.14 and 0.27mg/100g for galactose, and 0.16 and 0.26mg/100g for glucose. The method was applied to 59 samples of Grana Padano PDO cheese: galactose showed the highest concentration and variability among the samples (1.36±0.89), compared to both lactose (0.45±0.12) and glucose (0.46±0.13). Considering the very low levels of sugars detected, authentic PDO Grana Padano could be safely included in the diet of people suffering from lactose intolerance.

  10. Hsp90 Maintains Proteostasis of the Galactose Utilization Pathway To Prevent Cell Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Rajaneesh Karimpurath

    2016-01-01

    Hsp90 is a molecular chaperone that aids in the folding of its metastable client proteins. Past studies have shown that it can exert a strong impact on some cellular pathways by controlling key regulators. However, it is unknown whether several components of a single pathway are collectively regulated by Hsp90. Here, we observe that Hsp90 influences the protein abundance of multiple Gal proteins and the efficiency of galactose utilization even after the galactose utilization pathway (GAL pathway) is fully induced. The effect of Hsp90 on Gal proteins is not at the transcriptional level. Moreover, Gal1 is found to physically interact with Hsp90, and its stability is reduced in low-Hsp90 cells. When Hsp90 is compromised, several Gal proteins form protein aggregates that colocalize with the disaggregase Hsp104. These results suggest that Gal1 and other Gal proteins are probably the clients of Hsp90. An unbalanced GAL pathway has been known to cause fatal growth arrest due to accumulation of toxic galactose metabolic intermediates. It is likely that Hsp90 chaperones multiple Gal proteins to maintain proteostasis and prevent cell lethality especially in a fluctuating environment. PMID:26951197

  11. Structure–function characterization reveals new catalytic diversity in the galactose oxidase and glyoxal oxidase family

    PubMed Central

    Yin, DeLu (Tyler); Urresti, Saioa; Lafond, Mickael; Johnston, Esther M.; Derikvand, Fatemeh; Ciano, Luisa; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Henrissat, Bernard; Walton, Paul H.; Davies, Gideon J.; Brumer, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol oxidases, including carbohydrate oxidases, have a long history of research that has generated fundamental biological understanding and biotechnological applications. Despite a long history of study, the galactose 6-oxidase/glyoxal oxidase family of mononuclear copper-radical oxidases, Auxiliary Activity Family 5 (AA5), is currently represented by only very few characterized members. Here we report the recombinant production and detailed structure–function analyses of two homologues from the phytopathogenic fungi Colletotrichum graminicola and C. gloeosporioides, CgrAlcOx and CglAlcOx, respectively, to explore the wider biocatalytic potential in AA5. EPR spectroscopy and crystallographic analysis confirm a common active-site structure vis-à-vis the archetypal galactose 6-oxidase from Fusarium graminearum. Strikingly, however, CgrAlcOx and CglAlcOx are essentially incapable of oxidizing galactose and galactosides, but instead efficiently catalyse the oxidation of diverse aliphatic alcohols. The results highlight the significant potential of prospecting the evolutionary diversity of AA5 to reveal novel enzyme specificities, thereby informing both biology and applications. PMID:26680532

  12. Effects of rhein lysinate on D-galactose-induced aging mice

    PubMed Central

    ZHEN, YONG-ZHAN; LIN, YA-JUN; LI, KAI-JI; ZHANG, GUANG-LING; ZHAO, YU-FANG; WANG, MEI-MEI; WEI, JING-BO; WEI, JIE; HU, GANG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-aging effects of rhein lysinate (RHL), and to explore its mechanism of action in a D-galactose-induced aging mouse model. Aging was induced by D-galactose (100 mg/kg/day) that was subcutaneously injected to animals for 8 weeks. RHL was simultaneously administered once a day by intragastric gavage. The appetite, mental condition, body weight and organ index of the mice were monitored. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined, and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver, kidney and serum were measured by appropriate assay kits. Western blot analysis was used to detect proteins associated with age. The results indicated that RHL may improve the appetite, mental state and organ conditions of the model mice, improve the activities of SOD and GSH-Px, reduce MDA levels and modulate the expression of age-associated proteins (Sirtuin 1, p21 and p16) in D-galactose-induced mice. Therefore, RHL may be effective at suppressing the aging process through a combination of enhancing antioxidant activity, scavenging free radicals and modulating aging-associated gene expression. PMID:26889258

  13. Yulangsan polysaccharide improves redox homeostasis and immune impairment in D-galactose-induced mimetic aging.

    PubMed

    Doan, Van Minh; Chen, Chunxia; Lin, Xing; Nguyen, Van Phuc; Nong, Zhihuan; Li, Weisi; Chen, Qingquan; Ming, Jianjun; Xie, Qiuqiao; Huang, Renbin

    2015-05-01

    Yulangsan polysaccharide (YLSP) is a traditional Chinese medicine used in long-term treatment as a modulator of brain dysfunction and immunity. In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of YLSP against D-galactose-induced impairment of oxidative stress and the immune system and evaluated its possible mechanism of action. D-galactose was subcutaneously injected into the dorsal neck of mice daily for 8 weeks to establish the aging model. YLSP was simultaneously administered once daily. The results indicate that YLSP significantly improves the general appearance of the aging mice. YLSP significantly increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as super oxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and total anti-oxidation capability, while decreasing the content of malondialdehyde in different tissues, including the liver, brain, and serum. YLSP also increased the interleukin-2 level while decreasing the interleukin-6 level. Moreover, YLSP significantly inhibited advanced glycation end product formation. Furthermore, YLSP decreased p21 and p53 gene expressions in the liver and brain of D-galactose-treated mice. These results suggest that YLSP may have a protective effect suppressing the aging process by enhancing antioxidant activity and immunity, as well as modulating aging-related gene expression.

  14. The galactose-recognizing system of rat peritoneal macrophages; identification and characterization of the receptor molecule.

    PubMed

    Kelm, S; Schauer, R

    1988-08-01

    Resident rat peritoneal macrophages express a galactose-recognizing system, which mediates binding and uptake of cells and glycoproteins exposing terminal galactose residues. Here we describe the identification, isolation, and characterization of the corresponding receptor molecule. Using photoaffinity labelling of adherent peritoneal macrophages with the 4-azido-6-125I-salicylic acid derivative of anti-freeze glycoprotein 8 followed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography, we identified the receptor of these cells as a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 42 kDa. Furthermore, cell surface receptors were radioiodinated by an affinity-supported labelling technique using the conjugate of asialoorosomucoid and lactoperoxidase, followed by extraction and isolation by affinity chromatography. Finally, the native receptor was isolated and analysed. To estimate its binding activity in solutions, a suitable binding assay was developed, using the precipitation of receptor-ligand complex with polyethylene glycol to separate bound from unbound 125I-asialoorosomucoid, which was used as ligand. It is shown that the isolated receptor binds to galactose-exposing particles and distinguishes between sialidase-treated and -untreated erythrocytes, similar to peritoneal macrophages. The binding characteristics of the membrane-bound and the solubilized receptor are described in the following paper of Lee et al.

  15. Hsp90 mediates the crosstalk between galactose metabolism and cell morphology pathways in yeast.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Rajaneesh Karimpurath; Leu, Jun-Yi

    2017-02-01

    Galactose metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is carried out by a specialized GAL pathway consisting of structural and regulatory proteins. It is known that cells with unbalanced Gal proteins accumulate toxic metabolic intermediates and exhibit severe growth defects. Recently, we found that the molecular chaperone Hsp90 controls the abundance of multiple Gal proteins, possibly to prevent these defects. Hsp90 regulates various cellular processes including cell morphology in response to environmental cues. Yeast cells are known to resort to filamentous growth upon exposure to galactose or other environmental stresses. Our previous and current findings support the "Hsp90 titration model" of Hsp90 buffering, which links the cell morphology and galactose pathways. Our results suggest that, when a large proportion of Hsp90 molecules are used to help Gal proteins, the Hsp90 client proteins in cell morphology pathways are left unattended, leading to filamentous growth. It remains unclear whether this phenomenon serves any biological function or simply reflects a cellular constraint. Nonetheless, it provides an alternative explanation why the GAL pathway is degenerated in some yeast species.

  16. Hsp90 Maintains Proteostasis of the Galactose Utilization Pathway To Prevent Cell Lethality.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Rajaneesh Karimpurath; Leu, Jun-Yi

    2016-05-01

    Hsp90 is a molecular chaperone that aids in the folding of its metastable client proteins. Past studies have shown that it can exert a strong impact on some cellular pathways by controlling key regulators. However, it is unknown whether several components of a single pathway are collectively regulated by Hsp90. Here, we observe that Hsp90 influences the protein abundance of multiple Gal proteins and the efficiency of galactose utilization even after the galactose utilization pathway (GAL pathway) is fully induced. The effect of Hsp90 on Gal proteins is not at the transcriptional level. Moreover, Gal1 is found to physically interact with Hsp90, and its stability is reduced in low-Hsp90 cells. When Hsp90 is compromised, several Gal proteins form protein aggregates that colocalize with the disaggregase Hsp104. These results suggest that Gal1 and other Gal proteins are probably the clients of Hsp90. An unbalanced GAL pathway has been known to cause fatal growth arrest due to accumulation of toxic galactose metabolic intermediates. It is likely that Hsp90 chaperones multiple Gal proteins to maintain proteostasis and prevent cell lethality especially in a fluctuating environment.

  17. Large-scale production of UDP-galactose and globotriose by coupling metabolically engineered bacteria.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, S; Endo, T; Tabata, K; Ozaki, A

    1998-09-01

    A large-scale production system of uridine 5'-diphospho-galactose (UDP-Gal) has been established by the combination of recombinant Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium ammoniagenes. Recombinant E. coli that overexpress the UDP-Gal biosynthetic genes galT, galK, and galU were generated. C. ammoniagenes contribute the production of uridine triphosphate (UTP), a substrate for UDP-Gal biosynthesis, from orotic acid, an inexpensive precursor of UTP. UDP-Gal accumulated to 72 mM (44 g/L) after a 21 h reaction starting with orotic acid and galactose. When E. coli cells that expressed the alpha1,4-galactosyltransferase gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were coupled with this UDP-Gal production system, 372 mM (188 g/L) globotriose (Galalpha1-4Galbeta1-4Glc), a trisaccharide portion of verotoxin receptor, was produced after a 36 h reaction starting with orotic acid, galactose, and lactose. No oligosaccharide by-products were observed in the reaction mixture. The production of globotriose was several times higher than that of UDP-Gal. The strategy of producing sugar nucleotides by combining metabolically engineered recombinant E. coli with a nucleoside 5'-triphosphate producing microorganism, and the concept of producing oligosaccharides by coupling sugar nucleotide production systems with glycosyltransferases, can be applied to the manufacture of other sugar nucleotides and oligosaccharides.

  18. Protective effect of Millettia pulchra polysaccharide on cognitive impairment induced by D-galactose in mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xing; Huang, Zhongshi; Chen, Xiaoyu; Rong, Yanping; Zhang, Shijun; Jiao, Yang; Huang, Quanfang; Huang, Renbin

    2014-01-30

    A polysaccharide (PMP) was isolated from Millettia pulchra and purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The results showed that PMP was composed of d-glucose and d-arabinose in a molar ratio of 90.79% and 9.21%, with an average molecular weight of about 14,301 Da. Furthermore, the effect of PMP on cognitive impairment induced by d-galactose in mice was evaluated. Treatment with PMP significantly reversed d-galactose-induced learning and memory impairments, as measured by behavioral tests. One of the potential mechanisms of this action was to reduce oxidative stress and suppress inflammatory responses. Furthermore, our results also showed that PMP markedly reduced the content and deposition of β-amyloid peptide, improved the dysfunction of synaptic plasticity, increased the levels of acetylcholine, but decreased cholinesterase activity. These results suggest that PMP exerts an effective protection against d-galactose-induced cognitive impairment, and PMP may be a major bioactive ingredient in M. pulchra.

  19. IgG N-Glycosylation Galactose Incorporation Ratios for the Monitoring of Classical Galactosaemia.

    PubMed

    Stockmann, Henning; Coss, Karen P; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; Knerr, Ina; Fitzgibbon, Maria; Maratha, Ashwini; Wilson, James; Rudd, Pauline; Treacy, Eileen P

    2016-01-01

    Classical galactosaemia (OMIM #230400) is a rare disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by deficiency of the galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase enzyme (EC 2.7.7.12). The cause of the long-term complications, including neurological, cognitive and fertility problems in females, remains poorly understood. The relatively small number of patients with galactosaemia and the lack of validated biomarkers pose a substantial challenge for determining prognosis and monitoring disease progression and responses to new therapies. We report an improved method of automated robotic hydrophilic interaction ultra-performance liquid chromatography N-glycan analysis for the measurement of IgG N-glycan galactose incorporation ratios applied to the monitoring of adult patients with classical galactosaemia. We analysed 40 affected adult patients and 81 matched healthy controls. Significant differences were noted between the G0/G1 and G0/G2 incorporation ratios between galactosaemia patients and controls (p < 0.001 and <0.01, respectively). Our data indicate that the use of IgG N-glycosylation galactose incorporation analysis may be now applicable for monitoring patient dietary compliance, determining prognosis and the evaluation of potential new therapies.

  20. Effects of galactose adaptation in yeast for ethanol fermentation from red seaweed, Gracilaria verrucosa.

    PubMed

    Ra, Chae Hun; Kim, Yeong Jin; Lee, Sang Yoon; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2015-09-01

    A total monosaccharide concentration of 39.6 g/L, representing 74.0 % conversion of 53.5 g/L total carbohydrate from 80 g dw/L (8 % w/v) Gracilaria verrucosa slurry, was obtained by thermal acid hydrolysis and enzymatic saccharification. G. verrucosa hydrolysate was used as a substrate for ethanol production by 'separate hydrolysis and fermentation' (SHF). The ethanol production and yield (Y EtOH) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae KCCM 1129 with and without adaptation to high galactose concentrations were 18.3 g/L with Y EtOH of 0.46 and 13.4 g/L with Y EtOH of 0.34, respectively. Relationship between galactose adaptation effects and mRNA transcriptional levels were evaluated with GAL gene family, regulator genes of the GAL genetic switch and repressor genes in non-adapted and adapted S. cerevisiae. The development of galactose adaptation for ethanol fermentation of G. verrucosa hydrolysates allowed us to enhance the overall ethanol yields and obtain a comprehensive understanding of the gene expression levels and metabolic pathways involved.

  1. Identification of PblB mediating galactose-specific adhesion in a successful Streptococcus pneumoniae clone.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yu-Chia; Lin, Tzu-Lung; Lin, Che-Ming; Wang, Jin-Town

    2015-07-21

    The pneumococcal genome is variable and there are minimal data on the influence of the accessory genome on phenotype. Pneumococcal serotype 14 sequence type (ST) 46 had been the most prevalent clone causing pneumonia in children in Taiwan. A microarray was constructed using the genomic DNA of a clinical strain (NTUH-P15) of serotype 14 ST46. Using DNA hybridization, genomic variations in NTUH-P15 were compared to those of 3 control strains. Microarray analysis identified 7 genomic regions that had significant increases in hybridization signals in the NTUH-P15 strain compared to control strains. One of these regions encoded PblB, a phage-encoded virulence factor implicated (in Streptococcus mitis) in infective endocarditis. The isogenic pblB mutant decreased adherence to A549 human lung epithelial cell compared to wild-type NTUH-P15 strain (P = 0.01). Complementation with pblB restored the adherence. PblB is predicted to contain a galactose-binding domain-like region. Preincubation of NTUH-P15 with D-galactose resulted in decreases of adherence to A549 cell in a dose-dependent manner. Challenge of mice with NTUH-P15, isogenic pblB mutant and pblB complementation strains determined that PblB was required for bacterial persistence in the nasopharynx and lung. PblB, as an adhesin mediating the galactose-specific adhesion activity of pneumococci, promote pneumococcal clonal success.

  2. A direct-sensing galactose chemoreceptor recently evolved in invasive strains of Campylobacter jejuni

    DOE PAGES

    Day, Christopher J.; King, Rebecca M.; Shewell, Lucy K.; ...

    2016-10-20

    A rare chemotaxis receptor, Tlp11, has been previously identified in invasive strains of Campylobacter jejuni, the most prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Here we use glycan and small-molecule arrays, as well as surface plasmon resonance, to show that Tlp11 specifically interacts with galactose. Tlp11 is required for the chemotactic response of C. jejuni to galactose, as shown using wild type, allelic inactivation and addition mutants. The inactivated mutant displays reduced virulence in vivo, in a model of chicken colonization. The Tlp11 sensory domain represents the first known sugar-binding dCache_1 domain, which is the most abundant family of extracellular sensorsmore » in bacteria. The Tlp11 signalling domain interacts with the chemotaxis scaffolding proteins CheV and CheW, and comparative genomic analysis indicates a likely recent evolutionary origin for Tlp11. Lastly, we propose to rename Tlp11 as CcrG, Campylobacter ChemoReceptor for Galactose.« less

  3. Caffeine prevents d-galactose-induced cognitive deficits, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Faheem; Ali, Tahir; Ullah, Najeeb; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2015-11-01

    d-galactose has been considered a senescent model for age-related neurodegenerative disease. It induces oxidative stress which triggers memory impairment, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Caffeine act as anti-oxidant and has been used in various model of neurodegenerative disease. Nevertheless, the effect of caffeine against d-galactose aging murine model of age-related neurodegenerative disease elucidated. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of caffeine against d-galactose. We observed that chronic treatment of caffeine (3 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally (i.p) for 60 days) improved memory impairment and synaptic markers (Synaptophysin and PSD95) in the d-galactose treated rats. Chronic caffeine treatment reduced the oxidative stress via the reduction of 8-oxoguanine through immunofluorescence in the d-galactose-treated rats. Consequently caffeine treatment suppressed stress kinases p-JNK. Additionally, caffeine treatment significantly reduced the d-galactose-induced neuroinflammation through alleviation of COX-2, NOS-2, TNFα and IL-1β. Furthermore we also analyzed that caffeine reduced cytochrome C, Bax/Bcl2 ratio, caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP-1 level. Moreover by evaluating the immunohistochemical results of Nissl and Fluro-Jade B staining showed that caffeine prevented the neurodegeneration in the d-galactose-treated rats. Our results showed that caffeine prevents the d-galactose-induced oxidative stress and consequently alleviated neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration; and synaptic dysfunction and memory impairment. Therefore, we could suggest that caffeine might be a dietary anti-oxidant agent and a good candidate for the age-related neurodegenerative disorders.

  4. Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Strains of Entamoeba histolytica can be Differentiated by Monoclonal Antibodies to the Galactose-Specific Adherence Lectin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    AD- A235 913 DEVELOPMENT Ei ENGINEERING CENTER CRDEC-TR-268 PATHOGENIC AND NONPATHOGENIC STRAINS OF ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA CAN BE DIFFERENTIATED BY...Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Strains of Entamoeba Histolytica can be Differentiated by Monoclonal PR-IFJlX2XXRPEW Antibodies to the Galactose-Specific...galactose lectin produced by Entamoeba histolytica provide the basis for development of a model system for the environmental detection of adherence and

  5. Two genes in Arabidopsis thaliana encoding GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase are required for ascorbate biosynthesis and seedling viability.

    PubMed

    Dowdle, John; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Gatzek, Stephan; Rolinski, Susanne; Smirnoff, Nicholas

    2007-11-01

    Plants synthesize ascorbate from guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-mannose via L-galactose/L-gulose, although uronic acids have also been proposed as precursors. Genes encoding all the enzymes of the GDP-mannose pathway have previously been identified, with the exception of the step that converts GDP-L-galactose to L-galactose 1-P. We show that a GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase, encoded by the Arabidopsis thaliana VTC2 gene, catalyses this step in the ascorbate biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, a homologue of VTC2, At5g55120, encodes a second GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase with similar properties to VTC2. Two At5g55120 T-DNA insertion mutants (vtc5-1 and vtc5-2) have 80% of the wild-type ascorbate level. Double mutants were produced by crossing the loss-of-function vtc2-1 mutant with each of the two vtc5 alleles. These show growth arrest immediately upon germination and the cotyledons subsequently bleach. Normal growth was restored by supplementation with ascorbate or L-galactose, indicating that both enzymes are necessary for ascorbate generation. vtc2-1 leaves contain more mannose 6-P than wild-type. We conclude that the GDP-mannose pathway is the only significant source of ascorbate in A. thaliana seedlings, and that ascorbate is essential for seedling growth. A. thaliana leaves accumulate more ascorbate after acclimatization to high light intensity. VTC2 expression and GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase activity rapidly increase on transfer to high light, but the activity of other enzymes in the GDP-mannose pathway is little affected. VTC2 and At5g55120 (VTC5) expression also peak in at the beginning of the light cycle and are controlled by the circadian clock. The GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase step may therefore play an important role in controlling ascorbate biosynthesis.

  6. Of the milk sugars, galactose, but not prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharide, improves insulin sensitivity in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Julie J.; Xiao, Changting; Cant, John P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Consumption of dairy products reduces risk of type 2 diabetes. Milk proteins and fats exhibit anti-diabetic properties but milk sugars have been studied little in this context. Galactose from milk lactose is readily converted to glycogen in the liver but its effects on insulin sensitivity have not been assessed. Prebiotic oligosaccharides from milk alter gut microbiota and can thereby influence host metabolism. Our objective was to assess the effect on insulin sensitivity of dietary galactose compared to glucose and fructose, and fermentable galacto-oligosaccharides compared to non-fermentable methylcellulose. Methods Diets containing 15% of dry matter from glucose, fructose, galactose, galacto-oligosaccharides, or methylcellulose were fed to 36 rats per diet for 9 weeks. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps with [3-3H]glucose infusion and a steady-state 2-[1-14C]deoxyglucose bolus injection were used to assess insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake indices. Tissue was collected in fed, fasted and fasted, insulin-stimulated states. Results Galactose increased glucose infusion rate during the clamp by 53% and decreased endogenous glucose production by 57% compared to glucose and fructose. Fed-state hepatic glycogen content was greater with galactose compared to glucose and fructose, consistent with a potentiation of the insulin effect on glycogen synthase by dephosphorylation. Galactose decreased the fecal Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio while galacto-oligosaccharides increased abundance of fecal Bifidobacterium spp. 481-fold compared to methylcellulose, and also increased abundance of Lactobacillus spp. and Bacteroidetes. Galacto-oligosaccharides did not affect glucose infusion rate or endogenous glucose production during basal or clamp periods compared to methylcellulose. Conclusions Galactose at 15% of daily intake improved hepatic insulin sensitivity in rats compared to glucose and fructose. Galactose caused an increase in fed-state hepatic glycogen

  7. Metadynamics simulations reveal a Na+ independent exiting path of galactose for the inward-facing conformation of vSGLT.

    PubMed

    Bisha, Ina; Rodriguez, Alex; Laio, Alessandro; Magistrato, Alessandra

    2014-12-01

    Sodium-Galactose Transporter (SGLT) is a secondary active symporter which accumulates sugars into cells by using the electrochemical gradient of Na+ across the membrane. Previous computational studies provided insights into the release process of the two ligands (galactose and sodium ion) into the cytoplasm from the inward-facing conformation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus sodium/galactose transporter (vSGLT). Several aspects of the transport mechanism of this symporter remain to be clarified: (i) a detailed kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of the exit path of the two ligands is still lacking; (ii) contradictory conclusions have been drawn concerning the gating role of Y263; (iii) the role of Na+ in modulating the release path of galactose is not clear. In this work, we use bias-exchange metadynamics simulations to characterize the free energy profile of the galactose and Na+ release processes toward the intracellular side. Surprisingly, we find that the exit of Na+ and galactose is non-concerted as the cooperativity between the two ligands is associated to a transition that is not rate limiting. The dissociation barriers are of the order of 11-12 kcal/mol for both the ion and the substrate, in line with kinetic information concerning this type of transporters. On the basis of these results we propose a branched six-state alternating access mechanism, which may be shared also by other members of the LeuT-fold transporters.

  8. Growth and gas production of a novel obligatory heterofermentative Cheddar cheese nonstarter lactobacilli species on ribose and galactose.

    PubMed

    Ortakci, Fatih; Broadbent, Jeffery R; Oberg, Craig J; McMahon, Donald J

    2015-06-01

    An obligatory heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus wasatchii sp. nov., isolated from gassy Cheddar cheese was studied for growth, gas formation, salt tolerance, and survival against pasteurization treatments at 63°C and 72°C. Initially, Lb. wasatchii was thought to use only ribose as a sugar source and we were interested in whether it could also utilize galactose. We conducted experiments to determine the rate and extent of growth and gas production in carbohydrate-restricted (CR) de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe (MRS) medium under anaerobic conditions with various combinations of ribose and galactose at 12, 23, and 37°C, with 23°C being the optimum growth temperature of Lb. wasatchii among the 3 temperatures studied. When Lb. wasatchii was grown on ribose (0.1, 0.5, and 1%), maximum specific growth rates (µmax) within each temperature were similar. When galactose was the only sugar, compared with ribose, µmax was 2 to 4 times lower. At all temperatures, the highest final cell densities (optical density at 640 nm) of Lb. wasatchii were achieved in CR-MRS plus 1% ribose, 0.5% ribose and 0.5% galactose, or 1% ribose and 1% galactose. Similar µmax values and final cell densities were achieved when 50% of the ribose in CR-MRS was substituted with galactose. Such enhanced utilization of galactose in the presence of ribose to support bacterial growth has not previously been reported. It appears that Lb. wasatchii co-metabolizes ribose and galactose, utilizing ribose for energy and galactose for other functions such as cell wall biosynthesis. Co-utilization of both sugars could be an adaptation mechanism of Lb. wasatchii to the cheese environment to efficiently ferment available sugars for maximizing metabolism and growth. As expected, gas formation by the heterofermenter was observed only when galactose was present in the medium. Growth experiments with MRS plus 1.5% ribose at pH 5.2 or 6.5 with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5% NaCl revealed that Lb. wasatchii is

  9. Cyclic voltammetry at TCNQ and TTF-TCNQ modified platinum electrodes: A study of the glucose oxidase/glucose and galactose oxidase/galactose systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, P.D.; Skotheim, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    Recent work has shown that the synthetic metal TTF-TCNQ can be used as an electrode material for the oxidation of enzymes containing the prosthetic group flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). This direct electron transfer (direct in the sense that oxygen is not a mediator) between reduced enzyme and electrode, a process which does not occur to any measurable extent at a typical metal electrode, is not very well understood. In the present work, electron transfer between reduced glucose oxidase and TTF-TCNQ is investigated using cyclic voltammetry, and it is also shown that TCNQ itself can mediate this electron transfer between the enzyme and a platinum electrode. In addition to the glucose oxidase studies, cyclic voltammetric experiments have been performed on the galactose oxidase system, which contains a copper redox center rather than FAD. The results of these experiments demonstrate that the catalytic ability of TTF-TCNQ in enzyme-based electrochemical sensors is quite general. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Delayed anaphylaxis, angioedema, or urticaria after consumption of red meat in patients with IgE antibodies specific for galactose-α-1,3-galactose

    PubMed Central

    Commins, Scott P.; Satinover, Shama M.; Hosen, Jacob; Mozena, Jonathan; Borish, Larry; Lewis, Barrett D.; Woodfolk, Judith A.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Carbohydrate moieties are frequently encountered in food and can elicit IgE responses, the clinical significance of which has been unclear. Recent work, however, has shown that IgE antibodies to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal), a carbohydrate commonly expressed on nonprimate mammalian proteins, are capable of eliciting serious, even fatal, reactions. Objective We sought to determine whether IgE antibodies to α-gal are present in sera from patients who report anaphylaxis or urticaria after eating beef, pork, or lamb. Methods Detailed histories were taken from patients presenting to the University of Virginia Allergy Clinic. Skin prick tests (SPTs), intradermal skin tests, and serum IgE antibody analysis were performed for common indoor, outdoor, and food allergens. Results Twenty-four patients with IgE antibodies to α-gal were identified. These patients described a similar history of anaphylaxis or urticaria 3 to 6 hours after the ingestion of meat and reported fewer or no episodes when following an avoidance diet. SPTs to mammalian meat produced wheals of usually less than 4 mm, whereas intradermal or fresh-food SPTs provided larger and more consistent wheal responses. CAP-RAST testing revealed specific IgE antibodies to beef, pork, lamb, cow’s milk, cat, and dog but not turkey, chicken, or fish. Absorption experiments indicated that this pattern of sensitivity was explained by an IgE antibody specific for α-gal. Conclusion We report a novel and severe food allergy related to IgE antibodies to the carbohydrate epitope α-gal. These patients experience delayed symptoms of anaphylaxis, angioedema, or urticaria associated with eating beef, pork, or lamb. PMID:19070355

  11. The relevance of tick bites to the production of IgE antibodies to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose

    PubMed Central

    Commins, Scott P.; James, Hayley R.; Kelly, Elizabeth A.; Pochan, Shawna L.; Workman, Lisa J.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Kocan, Katherine M.; Fahy, John V.; Nganga, Lucy W.; Ronmark, Eva; Cooper, Philip J.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2009, we reported a novel form of delayed anaphylaxis to red meat, which is related to serum IgE antibodies to the oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal). Most of these patients had tolerated meat for many years previously. The implication is that some exposure in adult life had stimulated the production of these IgE antibodies. Objectives To investigate possible causes of this IgE antibody response, focusing on evidence related to tick bites, which are common in the region where these reactions occur. Methods Serum assays were carried out using biotinylated proteins and extracts bound to a streptavidin ImmunoCAP. Results Prospective studies on IgE antibodies in three subjects following tick bites showed an increase in IgE to alpha-gal of twenty-fold or greater. Other evidence included i) a strong correlation between histories of tick bites and IgE to alpha-gal (χ2=26.8, p<0.001), ii) evidence that these IgE antibodies are common in areas where the tick Amblyomma americanum is common, and iii) a significant correlation between IgE antibodies to alpha-gal and IgE antibodies to proteins derived from A. americanum (rs=0.75, p<0.001). Conclusion The results presented here provide evidence that tick bites are a cause, or possibly the only cause, of IgE specific for alpha-gal in this area of the United States. Both the number of subjects becoming sensitized and the titer of IgE antibodies to alpha-gal are striking. Here we report the first example of a response to an ectoparasite giving rise to an important form of food allergy. PMID:21453959

  12. Pioglitazone alleviates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and mito-oxidative damage in the d-galactose-induced mouse model.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Atish; Kumar, Anil

    2013-09-01

    Chronic injection of d-galactose can cause gradual deterioration in learning and memory capacity, and activates oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death in the brain of mice. Thus, it serves as an animal model of ageing. Recent evidence has shown that mild cognitive impairment in humans might be alleviated by treatment with piogliatzone (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists). To continue exploring the effects of piogliatzone in this model, we focused on behavioural alteration, oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in d-galactose-induced mice. The ageing model was established by administration of d-galactose (100 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. Pioglitazone (10 and 30 mg/kg) and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (15 mg/kg) were given daily to d-galactose-induced senescent mice. The cognitive behaviour of mice was monitored using the Morris water maze. The anti-oxidant status and apoptotic activity in the ageing mice was measured by determining mito-oxidative parameters and caspase-3 activity in brain tissue. Systemic administration of d-galactose significantly increased behavioural alterations, biochemical parameters, mitochondrial enzymes, and activations of caspase-3 and acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity as compared with the control group. Piogliatzone treatment significantly improved behavioural abnormalities, biochemical, cellular alterations, and attenuated the caspase-3 and acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity as compared with the control. Furthermore, pretreatment of BADGE (PPARγ antagonist) with pioglitazone reversed the protective effect of pioglitazone in d-galactose-induced mice. The present study highlights the protective effects of pioglitzone against d-galactose-induced memory dysfunction, mito-oxidative damage and apoptosis through activation of PPARγ receptors. These findings suggest that pioglitazone might be helpful for the prevention or alleviation of ageing.

  13. Cell-based galactosemia diagnosis system based on a galactose assay using a bioluminescent Escherichia coli array.

    PubMed

    Woo, Min-Ah; Kim, Moon Il; Cho, Daeyeon; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2013-11-19

    A new cell-based galactose assay system, which is comprised of two bioluminescent Escherichia coli strains immobilized within an agarose gel arrayed on a well plate, has been developed. For this purpose, a galT knockout strain [galT(-) cell] of E. coli was genetically constructed so that cell growth is not promoted by galactose but rather by glucose present in a sample. Another E. coli W strain (normal cell), which grows normally in the presence of either glucose or galactose, was employed. A luminescent reporter gene, which produces luminescence as cells grow, was inserted into both of the E. coli strains, so that cell growth could be monitored in a facile manner. The two strains were separately grown for 4 h on gel arrays to which test samples were individually supplied. The relative luminescence unit (RLU) values caused by cell growth were determined for each array, one of which is resulted by glucose only and the other of which is resulted by both glucose and galactose present in the sample. By employing this protocol, galactose concentrations present in the test sample are reflected in the differences between the RLU values for each array. The practical utility of the new assay system was demonstrated by its use in determining galactose levels in clinical blood spot specimens coming from newborn babies. Because it can be employed to diagnosis of galactosemia in newborn babies in a more rapid, convenient, and cost-effective manner, this cell-based solid-phase galactose assay system should become a powerful alternative to conventional methods, which require labor-intensive and time-consuming procedures and/or complicated and expensive equipment.

  14. Role of Adrenergic Receptors in Glucose, Fructose and Galactose-Induced Increases in Intestinal Glucose Uptake in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Salman, T M; Alada, A R A; Oyebola, D D O

    2014-12-29

    The study investigated the role of adrenergic receptors in glucose, fructose-, and galactose- induced increases in intestinal glucose uptake. Experiments were carried out on fasted male anaesthetized Nigerian local dogs divided into seven groups (with five dogs per group). Group I dogs were administered normal saline and served as control. Dogs in groups II, III and IV were intravenously infused with glucose (1.1 mg/kg/min), fructose (1.1 mg/kg/min) and galactose (1.1 mg/kg/min) respectively. Another three groups, V, VI and VII were pretreated with prazosin (0.2mg/kg), propranolol (0.5mg/kg) or a combination of prazosin (0.2mg/kg) and propranolol (0.5mg/kg) followed by glucose infusion, frutose infusion or galactose infusion respectively. Through a midline laparatomy, the upper jejunum was cannulated for blood flow measurement and blood samples were obtained for measurement of glucose content of the arterial blood and venous blood from the upper jejunal segment. Glucose uptake was calculated as the product of jejunal blood flow and the difference between arterial and venous glucose levels (A-V glucose). The results showed that pretreatment of the animal with prazosin had no effect on glucose and galactose induced increases in glucose uptake. However, pretreatment with propranolol completely abolished glucose, fructose and galactose-induced increases in intestinal glucose uptake. Prazosin also significantly reduced galactose-induced increase in intestinal glucose uptake. The results suggest that the increases in intestinal glucose uptake induced by glucose and fructose are mediated mostly by beta adrenergic receptors while that of galactose is mediated by both alpha and beta adrenergic receptors.

  15. Genetics and Evolution of the Salmonella Galactose-Initiated Set of O Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Peter R.; Cunneen, Monica M.; Liu, Bin; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers eight Salmonella serogroups, that are defined by O antigens with related structures and gene clusters. They include the serovars that are now most frequently isolated. Serogroups A, B1, B2, C2-C3, D1, D2, D3 and E have O antigens that are distinguished by having galactose as first sugar, and not N-acetyl glucosamine or N-acetyl galactosamine as in the other 38 serogroups, and indeed in most Enterobacteriaceae. The gene clusters for these galactose-initiated appear to have entered S. enterica since its divergence from E. coli, but sequence comparisons show that much of the diversification occurred long before this. We conclude that the gene clusters must have entered S. enterica in a series of parallel events. The individual gene clusters are discussed, followed by analysis of the divergence for those genes shared by two or more gene clusters, and a putative phylogenic tree for the gene clusters is presented. This set of O antigens provides a rare case where it is possible to examine in detail the relationships of a significant number of O antigens. In contrast the more common pattern of O-antigen diversity within a species is for there to be only a few cases of strains having related gene clusters, suggesting that diversity arose through gain of individual O-antigen gene clusters by lateral gene transfer, and under these circumstances the evolution of the diversity is not accessible. This paper on the galactose-initiated set of gene clusters gives new insights into the origins of O-antigen diversity generally. PMID:23874940

  16. Neuraminidase A-Exposed Galactose Promotes Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilm Formation during Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Blanchette, Krystle A.; Shenoy, Anukul T.; Milner, Jeffrey; Gilley, Ryan P.; McClure, Erin; Hinojosa, Cecilia A.; Kumar, Nikhil; Daugherty, Sean C.; Tallon, Luke J.; Ott, Sandra; King, Samantha J.; Ferreira, Daniela M.; Gordon, Stephen B.; Tettelin, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the nasopharynx. Herein we show that carbon availability is distinct between the nasopharynx and bloodstream of adult humans: glucose is absent from the nasopharynx, whereas galactose is abundant. We demonstrate that pneumococcal neuraminidase A (NanA), which cleaves terminal sialic acid residues from host glycoproteins, exposed galactose on the surface of septal epithelial cells, thereby increasing its availability during colonization. We observed that S. pneumoniae mutants deficient in NanA and β-galactosidase A (BgaA) failed to form biofilms in vivo despite normal biofilm-forming abilities in vitro. Subsequently, we observed that glucose, sucrose, and fructose were inhibitory for biofilm formation, whereas galactose, lactose, and low concentrations of sialic acid were permissive. Together these findings suggested that the genes involved in biofilm formation were under some form of carbon catabolite repression (CCR), a regulatory network in which genes involved in the uptake and metabolism of less-preferred sugars are silenced during growth with preferred sugars. Supporting this notion, we observed that a mutant deficient in pyruvate oxidase, which converts pyruvate to acetyl-phosphate under non-CCR-inducing growth conditions, was unable to form biofilms. Subsequent comparative transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses of planktonic and biofilm-grown pneumococci showed that metabolic pathways involving the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-phosphate and subsequently leading to fatty acid biosynthesis were consistently upregulated during diverse biofilm growth conditions. We conclude that carbon availability in the nasopharynx impacts pneumococcal biofilm formation in vivo. Additionally, biofilm formation involves metabolic pathways not previously appreciated to play an important role. PMID:27481242

  17. Mechanism of the anticataract effect of liposomal magnesium taurate in galactose-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Iezhitsa, Igor; Saad, Sarah Diyana Bt; Zakaria, Fatin Kamilah Bt; Agarwal, Puneet; Krasilnikova, Anna; Rahman, Thuhairah Hasrah Abdul; Rozali, Khairul Nizam Bin; Spasov, Alexander; Ozerov, Alexander; Alyautdin, Renad; Ismail, Nafeeza Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Increased lenticular oxidative stress and altered calcium/magnesium (Ca/Mg) homeostasis underlie cataractogenesis. We developed a liposomal formulation of magnesium taurate (MgT) and studied its effects on Ca/Mg homeostasis and lenticular oxidative and nitrosative stress in galactose-fed rats. Methods The galactose-fed rats were topically treated with liposomal MgT (LMgT), liposomal taurine (LTau), or corresponding vehicles twice daily for 28 days with weekly anterior segment imaging. At the end of the experimental period, the lenses were removed and subjected to analysis for oxidative and nitrosative stress, Ca and Mg levels, ATP content, Ca2+-ATPase, Na+,K+-ATPase, and calpain II activities. Results The LTau and LMgT groups showed significantly lower opacity index values at all time points compared to the corresponding vehicle groups (p<0.001). However, the opacity index in the LMgT group was lower than that in the LTau group (p<0.05). Significantly reduced oxidative and nitrosative stress was observed in the LTau and LMgT groups. The lens Ca/Mg ratio in LMgT group was decreased by 1.15 times compared to that in the LVh group. Calpain II activity in the LMgT group was decreased by 13% compared to the LVh group. The ATP level and Na+,K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase activities were significantly increased in the LMgT group compared to the LVh group (p<0.05). Conclusions Topical liposomal MgT delays cataractogenesis in galactose-fed rats by maintaining the lens mineral homeostasis and reducing lenticular oxidative and nitrosative stress. PMID:27440992

  18. Head-group acylation of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol is a common stress response, and the acyl-galactose acyl composition varies with the plant species and applied stress.

    PubMed

    Vu, Hieu Sy; Roth, Mary R; Tamura, Pamela; Samarakoon, Thilani; Shiva, Sunitha; Honey, Samuel; Lowe, Kaleb; Schmelz, Eric A; Williams, Todd D; Welti, Ruth

    2014-04-01

    Formation of galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols has been shown to be induced by leaf homogenization, mechanical wounding, avirulent bacterial infection and thawing after snap-freezing. Here, lipidomic analysis using mass spectrometry showed that galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols, formed in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves upon wounding, have acyl-galactose profiles that differ from those of wounded Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that different plant species accumulate different acyl-galactose components in response to the same stress. Additionally, the composition of the acyl-galactose component of Arabidopsis acMGDG (galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerol) depends on the stress treatment. After sub-lethal freezing treatment, acMGDG contained mainly non-oxidized fatty acids esterified to galactose, whereas mostly oxidized fatty acids accumulated on galactose after wounding or bacterial infection. Compositional data are consistent with acMGDG being formed in vivo by transacylation with fatty acids from digalactosyldiacylglycerols. Oxophytodienoic acid, an oxidized fatty acid, was more concentrated on the galactosyl ring of acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols than in galactolipids in general. Also, oxidized fatty acid-containing acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols increased cumulatively when wounded Arabidopsis leaves were wounded again. These findings suggest that, in Arabidopsis, the pool of galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols may serve to sequester oxidized fatty acids during stress responses.

  19. The potential of species-specific tagatose-6-phosphate (T6P) pathway in Lactobacillus casei group for galactose reduction in fermented dairy foods.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinglong; Shah, Nagendra P

    2017-04-01

    Residual lactose and galactose in fermented dairy foods leads to several industrial and health concerns. There is very little information pertaining to manufacture of fermented dairy foods that are low in lactose and galactose. In the present study, comparative genomic survey demonstrated the constant presence of chromosome-encoded tagatose-6-phosphate (T6P) pathway in Lactobacillus casei group. Lactose/galactose utilization tests and β-galactosidase assay suggest that PTS(Gal) system, PTS(Lac) system and T6P pathway are major contributors for lactose/galactose catabolism in this group of organisms. In addition, it was found than lactose catabolism by Lb. casei group accumulated very limited galactose in the MRS-lactose medium and in reconstituted skim milk, whereas Streptococcus thermophilus and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (Lb. bulgaricus) strains secreted high amount of galactose extracellularly. Moreover, co-culturing Lb. casei group with Str. thermophilus showed significant reduction in galactose content, while co-culturing Lb. casei group with Lb. bulgaricus showed significant reduction in lactose content but significant increase in galactose content in milk. Overall, the present study highlighted the potential of Lb. casei group for reducing galactose accumulation in fermented milks due to its species-specific T6P pathway.

  20. Galactose alters markers of oxidative stress and acetylcholinesterase activity in the cerebrum of rats: protective role of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Delwing-de Lima, Daniela; Fröhlich, Monique; Dalmedico, Leticia; Aurélio, Juliana Gruenwaldt Maia; Delwing-Dal Magro, Débora; Pereira, Eduardo Manoel; Wyse, Angela T S

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the in vitro effects of galactose at 0.1, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mM on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS), total sulfhydryl content, protein carbonyl content, on the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus of rats. We also investigated the influence of the antioxidants (each at 1 mM), α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and glutathione, on the effects elicited by galactose on the parameters tested. Results showed that galactose, at a concentration of 3.0 mM, enhanced TBA-RS levels in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and cerebellum of rats. In the cerebral cortex, galactose at concentrations of 5.0 and 10.0 mM increased TBA-RS and protein carbonyl content, and at 10.0 mM increased CAT activity and decreased AChE activity. In the cerebellum, galactose at concentrations of 5.0 and 10.0 mM increased TBA-RS, SOD and GSH-Px activities. In the hippocampus, galactose at concentrations of 5.0 and 10.0 mM increased TBA-RS and CAT activity and at 10.0 mM decreased GSH-Px. Data showed that at the pathologically high concentration (greater than 5.0 mM), galactose induces lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, alters antioxidant defenses in the cerebrum, and also alters cholinesterase activity. Trolox, ascorbic acid and glutathione addition prevented the majority of alterations in oxidative stress parameters and the decrease in AChE activity that were caused by galactose. Our findings lend support to a potential therapeutic strategy for this condition, which may include the use of appropriate antioxidants for ameliorating the damage caused by galactose.

  1. Adsorption characteristics of metal ions on chitosan chemically modified by D-galactose

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, Kazuo; Sumi, Hisaharu; Matsumoto, Michiaki

    1996-07-01

    The adsorption characteristics of metal ions on chitosan chemically modified by D-galactose were examined. The pH dependency on the distribution ratio was found to be affected by the valency of the metal ion, and the apparent adsorption equilibrium constants of the metal ions were determined. The order of adsorption of the metal ions is Ga > In > Nd > Eu for the trivalent metal ions and Cu > Ni > Co for the divalent metal ions. It is believed that amino and hydroxyl groups in the chitosan act as a chelating ligand.

  2. Bio-mimicking galactose oxidase and hemocyanin, two dioxygen-processing copper proteins.

    PubMed

    Gamez, Patrick; Koval, Iryna A; Reedijk, Jan

    2004-12-21

    The modelling of the active sites of metalloproteins is one of the most challenging tasks in bio-inorganic chemistry. Copper proteins form part of this stimulating field of research as copper enzymes are mainly involved in oxidation bio-reactions. Thus, the understanding of the structure-function relationship of their active sites will allow the design of effective and environmental friendly oxidation catalysts. This perspective illustrates some outstanding structural and functional synthetic models of the active site of copper proteins, with special attention given to models of galactose oxidase and hemocyanin.

  3. D-galactose catabolism in Penicillium chrysogenum: Expression analysis of the structural genes of the Leloir pathway.

    PubMed

    Jónás, Ágota; Fekete, Erzsébet; Németh, Zoltán; Flipphi, Michel; Karaffa, Levente

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we analyzed the expression of the structural genes encoding the five enzymes comprising the Leloir pathway of D-galactose catabolism in the industrial cell factory Penicillium chrysogenum on various carbon sources. The genome of P. chrysogenum contains a putative galactokinase gene at the annotated locus Pc13g10140, the product of which shows strong structural similarity to yeast galactokinase that was expressed on lactose and D-galactose only. The expression profile of the galactose-1-phosphate uridylyl transferase gene at annotated locus Pc15g00140 was essentially similar to that of galactokinase. This is in contrast to the results from other fungi such as Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma reesei and A. niger, where the ortholog galactokinase and galactose-1-phosphate uridylyl transferase genes were constitutively expressed. As for the UDP-galactose-4-epimerase encoding gene, five candidates were identified. We could not detect Pc16g12790, Pc21g12170 and Pc20g06140 expression on any of the carbon sources tested, while for the other two loci (Pc21g10370 and Pc18g01080) transcripts were clearly observed under all tested conditions. Like the 4-epimerase specified at locus Pc21g10370, the other two structural Leloir pathway genes - UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (Pc21g12790) and phosphoglucomutase (Pc18g01390) - were expressed constitutively at high levels as can be expected from their indispensable function in fungal cell wall formation.

  4. Host glycan sugar-specific pathways in Streptococcus pneumoniae: galactose as a key sugar in colonisation and infection [corrected].

    PubMed

    Paixão, Laura; Oliveira, Joana; Veríssimo, André; Vinga, Susana; Lourenço, Eva C; Ventura, M Rita; Kjos, Morten; Veening, Jan-Willem; Fernandes, Vitor E; Andrew, Peter W; Yesilkaya, Hasan; Neves, Ana Rute

    2015-01-01

    The human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is a strictly fermentative organism that relies on glycolytic metabolism to obtain energy. In the human nasopharynx S. pneumoniae encounters glycoconjugates composed of a variety of monosaccharides, which can potentially be used as nutrients once depolymerized by glycosidases. Therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesise that the pneumococcus would rely on these glycan-derived sugars to grow. Here, we identified the sugar-specific catabolic pathways used by S. pneumoniae during growth on mucin. Transcriptome analysis of cells grown on mucin showed specific upregulation of genes likely to be involved in deglycosylation, transport and catabolism of galactose, mannose and N acetylglucosamine. In contrast to growth on mannose and N-acetylglucosamine, S. pneumoniae grown on galactose re-route their metabolic pathway from homolactic fermentation to a truly mixed acid fermentation regime. By measuring intracellular metabolites, enzymatic activities and mutant analysis, we provide an accurate map of the biochemical pathways for galactose, mannose and N-acetylglucosamine catabolism in S. pneumoniae. Intranasal mouse infection models of pneumococcal colonisation and disease showed that only mutants in galactose catabolic genes were attenuated. Our data pinpoint galactose as a key nutrient for growth in the respiratory tract and highlights the importance of central carbon metabolism for pneumococcal pathogenesis.

  5. [Urinary metabolomics study of the effects of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi ethanol extract on D-galactose-induced rats].

    PubMed

    Chang, Yan-fen; Gong, Wen-xia; Zheng, Yan-hong; Li, Jian-wei; Zhou, Yu-zhi; Qin, Xue-mei; Du, Guan-hua

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-aging effects and reveal the underlying mechanism of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi ethanol extract (SBG) in D-galactose-induced rats. Fifty rats were randomly divided into five groups: vehicle control group, D-galactose group, and D-galactose combined with 50, 100, 200 mg x kg(-1) SBG. A rat aging model was induced by injecting subcutaneously D-galactose (100 mg x kg(-1)) for ten weeks. At the tenth week, the locomotor activity (in open-field test) and the learning and memory abilities (in Morris water maze test) were examined respectively. The urine was collected using metabolic cages and analyzed by high-resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy combined with multivariate statistical analyses. The SBG at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg x kg(-1) treatments groups could significantly ameliorate aging process in rats' cognitive performance. The 50, 100, 200 mg x kg(-1) SBG regulated citrate, pyruvate, lactate, trimethylamine (TMA), pantothenate, β-hydroxybutyrate in urine favorably toward the control group. These biochemical changes are related to the disturbance in energy metabolism, glycometabolism and microbiome metabolism, which is helpful to further understanding the D-galactose induced aging rats and the therapeutic mechanism of SBG.

  6. The use of single walled carbon nanotubes dispersed in a chitosan matrix for preparation of a galactose biosensor.

    PubMed

    Tkac, Jan; Whittaker, James W; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas

    2007-03-15

    Chitosan was chosen as a natural polymer for dispersion of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) based on its ability to efficiently solubilize SWNTs to form a stable dispersion. Moreover, chitosan films deposited on a surface of a glassy carbon (GC) electrode are mechanically stable. Further stabilisation of the chitosan film containing SWNT (CHIT-SWNT) was done by chemical crosslinking with glutaraldehyde and free aldehyde groups produced a substrate used for covalent immobilisation of galactose oxidase (GalOD). Different galactose biosensor configurations were tested with optimisation of composition of inner and outer membrane; and enzyme immobilisation procedure, as well. Detection of oxygen uptake by GalOD on CHIT-SWNT layer at -400 mV is robust and, when flow injection analysis (FIA) was applied for assays, a low detection limit (25 microM) and very high assay throughput rate (150 h-1) was achieved. This new galactose biosensor offers highly reliable detection of galactose with R.S.D. well below 2% and it has been successfully applied to assaying galactose in a blood sample with recovery index between 101.2 and 102.7%.

  7. Enhanced UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose by homologous overexpression of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Yebra, María J

    2011-07-20

    UDP-sugars are widely used as substrates in the synthesis of oligosaccharides catalyzed by glycosyltransferases. In the present work a metabolic engineering strategy aimed to direct the carbon flux towards UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose biosynthesis was successfully applied in Lactobacillus casei. The galU gene coding for UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (GalU) enzyme in L. casei BL23 was cloned under control of the inducible nisA promoter and it was shown to be functional by homologous overexpression. Notably, about an 80-fold increase in GalU activity resulted in approximately a 9-fold increase of UDP-glucose and a 4-fold increase of UDP-galactose. This suggested that the endogenous UDP-galactose 4-epimerase (GalE) activity, which inter-converts both UDP-sugars, is not sufficient to maintain the UDP-glucose/UDP-galactose ratio. The L. casei galE gene coding for GalE was cloned downstream of galU and the resulting plasmid was transformed in L. casei. The new recombinant strain showed about a 4-fold increase of GalE activity, however this increment did not affect that ratio, suggesting that GalE has higher affinity for UDP-galactose than for UDP-glucose. The L. casei strains constructed here that accumulate high intracellular levels of UDP-sugars would be adequate hosts for the production of oligosaccharides.

  8. Autoregulation of GAL4 transcription is essential for rapid growth of Kluyveromyces lactis on lactose and galactose.

    PubMed Central

    Czyz, M; Nagiec, M M; Dickson, R C

    1993-01-01

    Transcriptional induction of genes in the lactose-galactose regulon of the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis requires the GAL4 transcription activator protein. Previous data indicated that the concentration of GAL4 was tightly regulated under basal, inducing, and glucose repressing conditions but the mechanisms were unknown. In this paper we demonstrate that transcription of the GAL4 gene (KI-GAL4) increases 3- to 4-fold during induction of the regulon. This increase requires a KI-GAL4 binding site, UASG, in front of the KI-GAL4 gene, indicating that the KI-GAL4 protein autoregulates transcription of its own gene. Our data demonstrate that the autoregulatory circuit is essential for full induction of the lactose-galactose regulon and, hence, for rapid growth on lactose or galactose. Other data indicate that basal transcription of the KI-GAL4 gene is governed by unidentified promoter elements. The existence of the autoregulatory circuit reveals an important difference between the lactose-galactose regulon and its homologue in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the melibiose-galactose regulon. This difference may have evolved in response to different selective pressures encountered by the two organisms. PMID:8414996

  9. Synthesis of three different galactose-based methacrylate monomers for the production of sugar-based polymers.

    PubMed

    Desport, Jessica S; Mantione, Daniele; Moreno, Mónica; Sardón, Haritz; Barandiaran, María J; Mecerreyes, David

    2016-09-02

    Glycopolymers, synthetic sugar-containing macromolecules, are attracting ever-increasing interest from the chemistry community. Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) is an important building block for the synthesis of sugar based methacrylate monomers and polymers. Normally, glycidyl methacrylate shows some advantages such as reactivity against nucleophiles or milder synthetic conditions such as other reactive methacrylate monomers. However, condensation reactions of glycidyl methacrylate with for instance protected galactose monomer leads to a mixture of two products due to a strong competition between the two possible pathways: epoxide ring opening or transesterification. In this paper, we propose two alternative routes to synthesize regiospecific galactose-based methacrylate monomers using the epoxy-ring opening reaction. In the first alternative route, the protected galactose is first oxidized to the acid in order to make it more reactive against the epoxide of GMA. In the second route, the protected sugar was first treated with epichlorohydrin followed by the epoxy ring opening reaction with methacrylic acid, to create an identical analogue of the ring-opening product of GMA. These two monomers were polymerized using conventional radical polymerization and were compared to the previously known galactose-methacrylate one. The new polymers show similar thermal stability but lower glass transition temperature (Tg) with respect to the known galactose methacrylate polymer.

  10. A peculiar cause of anaphylaxis: no more steak? The journey to discovery of a newly recognized allergy to galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose found in mammalian meat.

    PubMed

    Wolver, Susan E; Sun, Diane R; Commins, Scott P; Schwartz, Lawrence B

    2013-02-01

    In recent years, a newly recognized allergic disease has been uncovered, and seemingly idiopathic causes of anaphylaxis now have an explanation. Individuals bitten by the lone star tick may develop IgE antibodies to the carbohydrate galactose-α-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal). Upon exposure of sensitized subjects to mammalian meat containing alpha-gal on glycoproteins or glycolipids, delayed anaphylaxis may ensue, often three to six hours after ingestion.1 Many of these individuals have negative allergy skin prick tests to meat, further obscuring the diagnosis. With the recent development of IgE alpha-gal tests, the clinical diagnosis can be confirmed in the laboratory.

  11. Elemental distribution in frozen-hydrated rat lenses with galactose cataract

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama-Ito, H. )

    1990-01-01

    The elemental distributions in frozen-hydrated rat lenses with galactose cataract were compared before and after the onset of the nuclear cataract to investigate the possible role of ion levels in the lens opacification due to the phase separation of the lens cytoplasm. The maps of the weight concentrations of the minor elements, S, Cl, K and Ca, on the basis of wet weight in the central plane of lens were obtained by X-ray analysis with the high energy ion microprobe at a resolution of 50 microns. Before the onset of the nuclear cataract, the distributions of Cl and K, were almost normal, except in the lens posterior periphery with high Cl and low K. In the lens with the nuclear opacity, sudden changes were observed. The Cl increased throughout the lens, and K decreased throughout the lens except at lens anterior thin layer. However, the totalized monovalent ion level changed only slightly. The Ca level increased throughout the lens after the onset of the nuclear cataract, suggesting a possible role of Ca in the nuclear opacification of galactose cataract of rats. The distributions of S were similar to the protein density distributions previously known both in the normal and in the cataractous lenses.

  12. Unusual Organization for Lactose and Galactose Gene Clusters in Lactobacillus helveticus

    PubMed Central

    Fortina, Maria Grazia; Ricci, Giovanni; Mora, Diego; Guglielmetti, Simone; Manachini, Pier Luigi

    2003-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the Lactobacillus helveticus lactose utilization genes were determined, and these genes were located and oriented relative to one another. The lacLM genes (encoding the β-galactosidase protein) were in a divergent orientation compared to lacR (regulatory gene) and lacS (lactose transporter). Downstream from lacM was an open reading frame (galE) encoding a UDP-galactose 4 epimerase, and the open reading frame had the same orientation as lacM. The lacR gene was separated from the downstream lacS gene by 2.0 kb of DNA containing several open reading frames that were derived from fragmentation of another permease gene (lacS′). Northern blot analysis revealed that lacL, lacM, and galE made up an operon that was transcribed in the presence of lactose from an upstream lacL promoter. The inducible genes lacL and lacM were regulated at the transcriptional level by the LacR repressor. In the presence of glucose and galactose galE was transcribed from its promoter, suggesting that the corresponding enzyme can be expressed constitutively. Lactose transport was inducible by addition of lactose to the growth medium. PMID:12788721

  13. Antisense-mediated depletion of tomato GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase increases susceptibility to chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Yan; Li, Dong; Deng, Yong-Sheng; Lv, Wei; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2013-02-15

    The GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP), which converts GDP-l-galactose to l-Gal-1-phosphate, is generally considered to be a key enzyme of the major ascorbate biosynthesis pathways in higher plants, but experimental evidence for its role in tomato is lacking. In the present study, the GGP gene was isolated from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and transient expression of SlGGP-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion protein in onion cells revealed the cytoplasmic and nucleus localization of the protein. Antisense transgenic tomato lines with only 50-75% ascorbate level of the wild type (WT) were obtained. Chilling treatment induced lower increase in AsA levels and redox ratio of ascorbate in antisense transgenic plants compared with WT plants. Under chilling stress, transgenic plants accumulated more malendialdehyde (MDA) and more O(2)(·-), leaked more electrolytes and showed lower maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), and oxidizable P700 compared with WT plants. Furthermore, the antisense transgenic plants exhibited significantly higher H(2)O(2) level and lower ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity. Our results suggested that GGP plays an important role in protecting plants against chilling stress by maintaining ascorbate pool and ascorbate redox state.

  14. The Leloir Pathway of Galactose Metabolism - A Novel Therapeutic Target for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tang, Manshu; Etokidem, Enoabasi; Lai, Kent

    2016-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal types of cancer worldwide, with poor prognosis and limited treatments. In order to identify novel therapeutic targets that will lead to development of effective therapies with manageable side effects, we tested the hypothesis that knocking-down galactokinase (GALK1) or galactose-1 phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) gene expression would control the growth of cultured hepatoma cells. Our results showed small interfering RNA (siRNA) against GALK1 or GALT inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells in culture. Western blot analysis revealed simultaneous down-regulation of multiple players of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) growth signaling pathway, as well as heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) and poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) data, however, showed no significant mRNA reduction of the encoded genes. Our study thus not only supports GALK1 and GALT as being possible novel targets for treating HCC, but also uncovers new post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that link the galactose metabolic pathway to protein expression of the PI3K/AKT pathway in hepatoma.

  15. Purification and molecular cloning of a new galactose-specific lectin from Bauhinia variegata seeds.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Luciano S; Nagano, Celso S; Oliveira, Taianá M; Moura, Tales R; Sampaio, Alexandre H; Debray, Henri; Pinto, Vicente P; Dellagostin, Odir A; Cavada, Benildo S

    2008-09-01

    A new galactose-specific lectin was purified from seeds of a Caesalpinoideae plant, Bauhinia variegata, by affinity chromatography on lactose-agarose. Protein extracts haemagglutinated rabbit and human erythrocytes (native and treated with proteolytic enzymes), showing preference for rabbit blood treated with papain and trypsin. Among various carbohydrates tested, the lectin was best inhibited by D-galactose and its derivatives, especially lactose. SDS-PAGE showed that the lectin, named BVL, has a pattern similar to other lectins isolated from the same genus, Bauhinia purpurea agglutinin (BPA). The molecular mass of BVL subunit is 32 871 Da, determined by MALDI-TOF spectrometry. DNA extracted from B.variegata young leaves and primers designed according to the B. purpurea lectin were used to generate specific fragments which were cloned and sequenced, revealing two distinct isoforms. The bvl gene sequence comprised an open reading frame of 876 base pairs which encodes a protein of 291 amino acids. The protein carried a putative signal peptide. The mature protein was predicted to have 263 amino acid residues and 28 963 Da in size.

  16. [Biochemical and clinical findings in congenital abnormalities of galactose metabolism (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sitzmann, F C; Kaloud, H; Istvan, L

    1975-01-10

    Current knowledge of the biochemical basis of abnormalities in galactose metabolism are discussed. The clinical picture, analysis of frequency and therapy are described. Although the galactokinase defect hat been described only rarely, abundant literature has been published on the Gal-1-PUT defect. Five variations of this defect are known (Duarte, Los Angeles, Rennes, Indiana and Negro variants), but these simulate only partially the clinical picture of galactosaemia. The UDP-Gal-4-epimerase defect has only once been described. Defects in galactose metabolism which show autosomal recessive inheritance are demonstrated in milk-fed infants by means of the Guthrie test. If the clinical picture arouses the suspicion of a defect in Gal-1-PUT or galactokinase, then a milk-free diet should be given until the diagnosis has been verified by enzyme analysis. Children who have been fed on a lactose-free diet show normal physical and mental development. If possible the entire family of the proband should undergo enzyme analysis in order to detect and to counsel all the heterozygotes in the family. Genetic counselling is considered to be absolutely indicated in this case. Termination of pregnancy is not indicated under any circumstances.

  17. Galactose-binding lectins as markers of pregnancy-related glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Horvat, B

    1993-01-01

    Protein extracts from pregnant mouse endometria were compared with those obtained from non-pregnant and pseudopregnant mice to detect early pregnancy-specific galactose-rich glycoproteins. Gradient gel electrophoresis combined with lectin overlay and lectin histochemistry were used to identify Ricinus communis I (RCA-I), R. communis II (RCA-II) and Cytisus scoparius (CSA) lectin binding glycoproteins. Using this approach, galactose-rich glycoproteins were identified that were maximally expressed in the estrus phase of non-pregnant endometria and also those that had peak expression in pregnancy. Lectin histochemistry revealed pregnancy related changes in three portions of mouse endometrium: endometrial glands, luminal epithelium and its basement membrane. Two major glycoproteins (RCA-I reactive 64 kDa and RCA-II reactive 35 kDa) were specifically expressed in peri-implantation endometrium on days 3 and 4 of pregnancy. The appearance of these glycoproteins during the period of the implantation window in mouse suggests that they could serve as markers of uterine receptivity to the implanting blastocyst.

  18. Puerarin Ameliorates D-Galactose Induced Enhanced Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Tau Hyperphosphorylation in Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Tao; Yin, Ni-Na; Han, Yong-Ming; Yuan, Fang; Duan, Yan-Jun; Shen, Feng; Zhang, Yan-Hong; Chen, Ze-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced neurogenesis has been reported in the hippocampus of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized with amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation, tau hyperphosphorylation, and progressive neuronal loss. Previously we reported that tau phosphorylation played an essential role in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and activation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3), a crucial tau kinase, could induce increased hippocampal neurogenesis. In the present study, we found that treatment of D-galactose rats with Puerarin could significantly improve behavioral performance and ameliorate the enhanced neurogenesis and microtubule-associated protein tau hyperphosphorylation in the hippocampus of D-galactose rat brains. FGF-2/GSK-3 signaling pathway might be involved in the effects of Puerarin on hippocampal neurogenesis and tau hyperphosphorylation. Our finding provides primary in vivo evidence that Puerarin can attenuate AD-like enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis and tau hyperphosphorylation. Our finding also suggests Puerarin can be served as a treatment for age-related neurodegenerative disorders, such as AD.

  19. Ovotoxic Effects of Galactose Involve Attenuation of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Bioactivity and Up-Regulation of Granulosa Cell p53 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sayani; Chakraborty, Pratip; Saha, Piyali; Bandyopadhyay, Soma Aditya; Banerjee, Sutapa; Kabir, Syed N.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical evidence suggests an association between galactosaemia and premature ovarian insufficiency (POI); however, the mechanism still remains unresolved. Experimental galactose toxicity in rats produces an array of ovarian dysfunction including ovarian development with deficient follicular reserve and follicular resistance to gonadotrophins that characterize the basic tenets of human POI. The present investigation explores if galactose toxicity in rats attenuates the bioactivity of gonadotrophins or interferes with their receptor competency, and accelerates the rate of follicular atresia. Pregnant rats were fed isocaloric food-pellets supplemented with or without 35% D-galactose from day-3 of gestation and continuing through weaning of the litters. The 35-day old female litters were autopsied. Serum galactose-binding capacity, galactosyltransferase (GalTase) activity, and bioactivity of FSH and LH together with their receptor competency were assessed. Ovarian follicular atresia was evaluated in situ by TUNEL. The in vitro effects of galactose were studied in isolated whole follicles in respect of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and expression of caspase 3, and in isolated granulosa cells in respect of mitochondrial membrane potential, expression of p53, and apoptosis. The rats prenatally exposed to galactose exhibited significantly decreased serum GalTase activity and greater degree of galactose-incorporation capacity of sera proteins. LH biopotency and LH-FSH receptor competency were comparable between the control and study population, but the latter group showed significantly attenuated FSH bioactivity and increased rate of follicular atresia. In culture, galactose increased follicular generation of ROS and expression of caspase 3. In isolated granulosa cells, galactose disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, stimulated p53 expression, and induced apoptosis in vitro; however co-treatment with either FSH or estradiol significantly prevented

  20. Synthesis and Biophysical Investigations of Oligonucleotides Containing Galactose-Modified DNA, LNA, and 2'-Amino-LNA Monomers.

    PubMed

    Ries, Annika; Kumar, Rajesh; Lou, Chenguang; Kosbar, Tamer; Vengut-Climent, Empar; Jørgensen, Per T; Morales, Juan C; Wengel, Jesper

    2016-11-18

    Galactose-modified thymidine, LNA-T, and 2'-amino-LNA-T nucleosides were synthesized, converted into the corresponding phosphoramidite derivatives and introduced into short oligonucleotides. Compared to the unmodified control strands, the galactose-modified oligonucleotides in general, and the N2'-functionalized 2'-amino-LNA derivatives in particular, showed improved duplex thermal stability against DNA and RNA complements and increased ability to discriminate mismatches. In addition, the 2'-amino-LNA-T derivatives induced remarkable 3'-exonuclease resistance. These results were further investigated using molecular modeling studies.

  1. [Protective effect of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides on subacute renal damages induced by D-galactose in mice and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Fan, Yan-ling; Xia, Jie-yu; Jia, Dao-yong; Zhang, Meng-si; Zhang, Yan-yan; Wang, Lu; Huang, Guo-ning; Wang, Ya-ping

    2015-11-01

    To explore the protective effect of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides(ASP) on subacute renal damages induced by D-galactose in mice and its mechanism. Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 3 groups, with 10 mice in each group. The D-galactose model group was subcutaneously injected with D-galactose (120 mg x kg(-1)), qd x 42; the ASP + D-galactose model group was intraperitoneally injected with ASP since the 8th day of the replication of the D-galactose model, qd x 35; and the normal control group was subcutaneously injected with saline at the same dose and time. On the 2nd day of after the injection, the peripheral blood was collected to measure the content of BUN, Crea, UA, Cys-C; paraffin sections were made to observe the renal histomorphology by HE staining; senescence-associated β-g-alactosidase (SA-β-Gal) stain was used to observe the relative optical density (ROD) in renal tissues; transmission electron microscopy was assayed to observe the renal ultrastructure; the renal tissue homogenate was prepared to measure the content of SOD, GSH-PX, MDA; the content of AGEs and 8-OH-dG were measured by ELISA. According to the result, compared with the D-galactose model group, the ASP + D-galactose model group showed obviously decreases in the content of BUN, Crea, UA, Cysc, AGES, 8-OH-dG, the number of hardening renal corpuscle, renal capsular space and renal tubular lumen, ROD of SA-β-Gal staining positive kidney cells, mesangial cells, basement membrane thickness, podocyte secondary processes fusion and MDA and increases in the number of normal renal corpuscle, ribosome and rough endoplasmic reticulum in podocytes, the activity of SOD and GSH-PX. In Conclusion, A. sinensis polysaccharides can antagonize kidney subacute damages induced by D-galactose in mice. Its protective mechanism may be correlated with the inhibition of the oxidative stress injury.

  2. Impact of Oxidative Stress on Ascorbate Biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas via Regulation of the VTC2 Gene Encoding a GDP-l-galactose Phosphorylase*

    PubMed Central

    Urzica, Eugen I.; Adler, Lital N.; Page, M. Dudley; Linster, Carole L.; Arbing, Mark A.; Casero, David; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Clarke, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    The l-galactose (Smirnoff-Wheeler) pathway represents the major route to l-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) biosynthesis in higher plants. Arabidopsis thaliana VTC2 and its paralogue VTC5 function as GDP-l-galactose phosphorylases converting GDP-l-galactose to l-galactose-1-P, thus catalyzing the first committed step in the biosynthesis of l-ascorbate. Here we report that the l-galactose pathway of ascorbate biosynthesis described in higher plants is conserved in green algae. The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome encodes all the enzymes required for vitamin C biosynthesis via the l-galactose pathway. We have characterized recombinant C. reinhardtii VTC2 as an active GDP-l-galactose phosphorylase. C. reinhardtii cells exposed to oxidative stress show increased VTC2 mRNA and l-ascorbate levels. Genes encoding enzymatic components of the ascorbate-glutathione system (e.g. ascorbate peroxidase, manganese superoxide dismutase, and dehydroascorbate reductase) are also up-regulated in response to increased oxidative stress. These results indicate that C. reinhardtii VTC2, like its plant homologs, is a highly regulated enzyme in ascorbate biosynthesis in green algae and that, together with the ascorbate recycling system, the l-galactose pathway represents the major route for providing protective levels of ascorbate in oxidatively stressed algal cells. PMID:22393048

  3. Quantification of Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridyltransferase Enzyme Activity by Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yijun; Ptolemy, Adam S.; Harmonay, Lauren; Kellogg, Mark; Berry, Gerard T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of galactosemia usually involves the measurement of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) activity. Traditional radioactive and fluorescent GALT assays are nonspecific, laborious, and/or lack sufficient analytical sensitivity. We developed a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)–based assay for GALT enzyme activity measurement. Method Our assay used stable isotope-labeled α-galactose-1-phosphate ([13C6]-Gal-1-P) as an enzyme substrate. Sample cleanup and separation were achieved by reversed-phase ion-pair chromatography, and the enzymatic product, isotope-labeled uridine diphosphate galactose ([13C6]-UDPGal), was detected by MS/MS at mass transition (571 > 323) and quantified by use of [13C6]-Glu-1-P (265 > 79) as an internal standard. Results The method yielded a mean (SD) GALT enzyme activity of 23.8 (3.8) µmol · (gHgb)−1 · h−1 in erythrocyte extracts from 71 controls. The limit of quantification was 0.04 µmol · (g Hgb)−1 · h−1 (0.2% of normal control value). Intraassay imprecision was determined at 4 different levels (100%, 25%, 5%, and 0.2% of the normal control values), and the CVs were calculated to be 2.1%, 2.5%, 4.6%, and 9.7%, respectively (n = 3). Interassay imprecision CVs were 4.5%, 6.7%, 8.2%, and 13.2% (n = 5), respectively. The assay recoveries at the 4 levels were higher than 90%. The apparent Km of the 2 substrates, Gal-1-P and UDPGlc, were determined to be 0.38 mmol/L and 0.071 mmol/L, respectively. The assay in erythrocytes of 33 patients with classical galactosemia revealed no detectable activity. Conclusions This LC-MS/MS–based assay for GALT enzyme activity will be useful for the diagnosis and study of biochemically heterogeneous patients with galactosemia, especially those with uncommon genotypes and detectable but low residual activities. PMID:20348403

  4. Role of Snf1p in Regulation of Intracellular Sorting of the Lactose and Galactose Transporter Lac12p in Kluyveromyces lactis†

    PubMed Central

    Wiedemuth, Christian; Breunig, Karin D.

    2005-01-01

    The protein kinase Snf1/AMPK plays a central role in carbon and energy homeostasis in yeasts and higher eukaryotes. To work out which aspects of the Snf1-controlled regulatory network are conserved in evolution, the Snf1 requirement in galactose metabolism was analyzed in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. Whereas galactose induction was only delayed, K. lactis snf1 mutants failed to accumulate the lactose/galactose H+ symporter Lac12p in the plasma membran,e as indicated by Lac12-green fluorescent protein fusions. In contrast to wild-type cells, the fusion protein was mostly intracellular in the mutant. Growth on galactose and galactose uptake could be restored by the KHT3 gene, which encodes a new transporter of the HXT subfamily of major facilitators These findings indicate a new role of Snf1p in regulation of sugar transport in K. lactis. PMID:15821131

  5. Determination of hepatic galactose elimination capacity using 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-galactose PET/CT: reproducibility of the method and metabolic heterogeneity in a normal pig liver model

    PubMed Central

    SØRENSEN, MICHAEL

    2011-01-01

    Objective A PET method is developed for non-invasive measurement of regional metabolic liver function using the galactose analog 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-galactose, FDGal. The aim of the present study was to determine the reproducibility of the method in pigs before translating it to human studies. Material and methods Five anesthetized pigs were studied twice within an interval of three days. A dynamic PET recording was performed with an injection of 100 MBq FDGal. Non-radioactive galactose was administered throughout the PET recordings to achieve near-saturated elimination kinetics. Arterial blood samples were collected for determination of blood concentrations of FDGal and galactose (cgal). Net metabolic clearance of FDGal, KFDGal, was calculated from linear representation of data. The approximate maximal hepatic removal rate, Vmax, of galactose (mmol/l tissue/min) was calculated as KFDGal cgal. The estimates from Day 1 and Day 2 were compared and the coefficient of variation, COV, of the estimates calculated. Functional heterogeneity in normal pig liver was evaluated as COV of the tissue concentration of radioactivity during quasi steady-state metabolism. Results There was no significant difference between Vmax from Day 1 and Day 2 (p = 0.38), and the reproducibility was good with a COV of 14% for the whole liver. In normal pig liver tissue, mean COV after an injection of FDGal was on average 15.6% with no day-to-day variation (p = 0.7). Conclusions The novel FDGal PET method for determination of hepatic metabolic function has a good reproducibility and is promising for future human studies of regional liver function. PMID:20695723

  6. Phycocyanin may suppress D-galactose-induced human lens epithelial cell apoptosis through mitochondrial and unfolded protein response pathways.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yu; Yuan, Zhijun; Li, Kepeng; Yang, Xuegan

    2012-11-23

    Apoptosis of lens epithelial cell (LEC) plays an important role in cataract formation, and its prevention may be one of the therapeutic strategies in treating cataract. This study used human lens epithelial cell (hLEC) line SRA01/04 to investigate the protective effect and mechanism of phycocyanin on glactose-induced apoptosis in hLEC. hLECs were cultured in D/F(12)-10% FBS medium containing 125mM d-galactose with or without phycocyanin. Cell viability was assessed by methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Cell apoptosis was elevated with Wright-Giemsa staining, AO/EB double staining, and DNA fragmentation assay. Mitochondrial apoptosis-associated molecules and unfolded protein response-associated molecules from cultured SRA01/04 cells were quantified using protein blot analysis. The results demonstrated that phycocyanin suppressed SRA01/04 cells' morphologic changes and apoptosis induced by d-galactose, inhibited the expression and activation of caspase 3, alternated the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and down-regulated the level of p53, GRP78, and CHOP in d-galactose-treated SRA01/04 cells. These results suggest that phycocyanin might suppress d-galactose-induced hLEC apoptosis through two pathways: mitochondrial pathway, involving p53 and Bcl-2 family protein expression, and unfolded protein response pathway, involving GRP78 and CHOP expression.

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of the mouse CGT gene encoding UDP-galactose ceramide-galactosyltransferase (cerebroside synthetase)

    SciTech Connect

    Bosio, A.; Binczek, E.; Stoffel, W.

    1996-07-01

    UDP-galactose ceramide galactosyltransferase, CGT, EC 2.4.1.45, is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cerebrosides and sulfatides, which are the most abundant glycosphingolipids in the myelin of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.

  8. The Rapid and Sensitive Quantitative Determination of Galactose by Combined Enzymatic and Colorimetric Method: Application in Neonatal Screening.

    PubMed

    Kianmehr, Anvarsadat; Mahrooz, Abdolkarim; Ansari, Javad; Oladnabi, Morteza; Shahbazmohammadi, Hamid

    2016-05-01

    The quantitative measurement of galactose in blood is essential for the early diagnosis, treatment, and dietary monitoring of galactosemia patients. In this communication, we aimed to develop a rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective combined method for galactose determination in dry blood spots. This procedure was based on the combination of enzymatic reactions of galactose dehydrogenase (GalDH), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), and alkaline phosphates with a colorimetric system. The incubation time and the concentration of enzymes used in new method were also optimized. The analytical performance was studied by the precision, recovery, linearity, and sensitivity parameters. Statistical analysis was applied to method comparison experiment. The regression equation and correlation coefficient (R (2)) were Y = 0.0085x + 0.032 and R (2) = 0.998, respectively. This assay exhibited a recovery in the range of 91.7-114.3 % and had the limit detection of 0.5 mg/dl for galactose. The between-run coefficient of variation (CV) was between 2.6 and 11.1 %. The within-run CV was between 4.9 and 9.2 %. Our results indicated that the new and reference methods were in agreement because no significant biases exist between them. Briefly, a quick and reliable combined enzymatic and colorimetric assay was presented for application in newborn mass screening and monitoring of galactosemia patients.

  9. Hepatocyte-targeting gene delivery using a lipoplex composed of galactose-modified aromatic lipid synthesized with click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sakashita, Mizuha; Mochizuki, Shinichi; Sakurai, Kazuo

    2014-10-01

    Highly efficient drug carriers targeting hepatocyte is needed for treatment for liver diseases such as liver cirrhosis and virus infections. Galactose or N-acetylgalactosamine is known to be recognized and incorporated into the cells through asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) that is exclusively expressed on hepatocyte and hepatoma. In this study, we synthesized a galactose-modified lipid with aromatic ring with click chemistry. To make a complex with DNA, termed 'lipoplex', we prepared a binary micelle composed of cationic lipid; dioleoyltrimethylammoniumpropane (DOTAP) and galactose-modified lipid (D/Gal). We prepared lipoplex from plasmid DNA (pDNA) and D/Gal and examined the cell specificity and transfection efficiency. The lipoplex was able to interact with ASGPR immobilized on gold substrate in the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor cell. The lipoplex induced high gene expression to HepG2 cells, a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, but not to A549 cells, a human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell line. The treatment with asialofetuin, which is a ligand for ASGPR and would work as a competitive inhibitor, before addition of the lipoplexes decreased the expression to HepG2 cells. These results indicate that D/Gal lipoplex was incorporated into HepG2 cells preferentially through ASGPR and the uptake was caused by galactose specific receptor. This delivery system to hepatocytes may overcome the problems for gene therapy and be used for treatment of hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis.

  10. Curcumin and hesperidin improve cognition by suppressing mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis induced by D-galactose in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Banji, Otilia J F; Banji, David; Ch, Kalpana

    2014-12-01

    D-galactose, a reducing sugar, induces oxidative stress resulting in alteration in mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis of neurons. Curcumin and hesperidin are antioxidants possessing multimodal functions; hence, their contribution in minimizing D-galactose induced ageing was assessed in the present study. A week prior to D-galactose treatment (150 mg/kg; s.c. for 56 days), animals were treated with curcumin alone, hesperidin alone and a combination of curcumin (50 and 100 mg/kg; orally) with hesperidin (10 and 25 mg/kg; orally) for 63 days. A naïve control was also maintained. Behavioural studies, tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, mitochondrial complexes, protein and lipid oxidation and glutathione levels were assessed in the brain mitochondrial fraction. Western blot analysis of caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3 and histological assessment of the CA1 region of the hippocampus were carried out. D-galactose induced significant cognitive deficits, biochemical changes and histological alterations. Individually, curcumin was more effective than hesperidin in reducing the levels of oxidized lipids, proteins, cleaved caspase-3 expression and mitochondrial enzymes. The combination reduced the expression of cleaved caspase-3, malondialdehyde, improved mitochondrial enzymes and glutathione levels. In combination, curcumin and hesperidin protect the morphological facets and improve biochemical functions of neurons thereby improving cognition.

  11. Metabolic flux screening of Saccharomyces cerevisiae single knockout strains on glucose and galactose supports elucidation of gene function.

    PubMed

    Velagapudi, Vidya R; Wittmann, Christoph; Schneider, Konstantin; Heinzle, Elmar

    2007-12-01

    New methods for an extended physiological characterization of yeast at a microtiter plate scale were applied to 27 deletion mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivated on glucose and galactose as sole carbon sources. In this way, specific growth rates, specific rates of glucose consumption and ethanol production were determined. Flux distribution, particularly concerning branching into the pentose phosphate pathway was determined using a new (13)C-labelling method using MALDI-ToF-mass spectrometry. On glucose, the growth was predominantly fermentative whereas on galactose respiration was more active with correspondingly lower ethanol production. Some deletion strains showed unexpected behavior providing very informative data about the function of the corresponding gene. Deletion of malic enzyme gene, MAE1, did not show any significant phenotype when grown on glucose but a drastically increased branching from glucose 6-phosphate into the pentose phosphate pathway when grown on galactose. This allows the conclusion that MAE1 is important for the supply of NADPH during aerobic growth on galactose.

  12. Bioproduction of D-Tagatose from D-Galactose Using Phosphoglucose Isomerase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manisha J; Patel, Arti T; Akhani, Rekha; Dedania, Samir; Patel, Darshan H

    2016-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 phosphoglucose isomerase was purified as an active soluble form by a single-step purification using Ni-NTA chromatography that showed homogeneity on SDS-PAGE with molecular mass ∼62 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH for the maximum isomerization activity with D-galactose were 60 °C and 7.0, respectively. Generally, sugar phosphate isomerases show metal-independent activity but PA-PGI exhibited metal-dependent isomerization activity with aldosugars and optimally catalyzed the D-galactose isomerization in the presence of 1.0 mM MnCl2. The apparent Km and Vmax for D-galactose under standardized conditions were calculated to be 1029 mM (±31.30 with S.E.) and 5.95 U/mg (±0.9 with S.E.), respectively. Equilibrium reached after 180 min with production of 567.51 μM D-tagatose from 1000 mM of D-galactose. Though, the bioconversion ratio is low but it can be increased by immobilization and enzyme engineering. Although various L-arabinose isomerases have been characterized for bioproduction of D-tagatose, P. aeruginosa glucose phosphate isomerase is distinguished from the other L-arabinose isomerases by its optimal temperature (60 °C) for D-tagatose production being mesophilic bacteria, making it an alternate choice for bulk production.

  13. Protective Effect of Artemisia annua L. Extract against Galactose-Induced Oxidative Stress in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Hye; Seo, Ji Yeon; Liu, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. (also called qinghao) has been well known as a source of antimalarial drug artemisinins. In addition, the herb was reported to have in vitro antioxidative activity. The present study investigated the protective effect of aqueous ethanol extract of Qinghao (AA extract) against D-galactose-induced oxidative stress in C57BL/6J mice. Feeding AA extract-containing diet lowered serum levels of malondialdehyde and 8-OH-dG that are biomarkers for lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, respectively. Furthermore, AA extract feeding enhanced the activity of NQO1, a typical antioxidant marker enzyme, in tissues such as kidney, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. In conclusion, AA extract was found to have antioxidative activity in mouse model. PMID:24988450

  14. A galactose-specific lectin from the hemolymph of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata martensii.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Mori, K

    1989-01-01

    1. A lectin in the serum of Pinctada fucata martensii was purified by a combination of affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B coupled with bovine submaxillary gland mucine, anion exchange chromatography on Mono Q and gel filtration on Superose 6. 2. The purified lectin was indicated to be homogeneous by polyacrylamide electrophoresis and rechromatography on Mono Q. 3. The purified lectin was approximately 440,000 in molecular weight and was composed of identical subunits with a molecular weight of approximately 20,000. 4. D-galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine gave a 50% inhibition of agglutination of horse erythrocytes by the lectin at 0.3 and 1.2 mM, respectively. 5. The antibody obtained from rabbit immunized with the purified lectin was monospecific to the lectin judged from the hemagglutination blocking test, immunoelectrophoresis and immunoblotting.

  15. A Rotational Study of D-Mannose and D-Galactose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena, I.; Daly, A. M.; Cabezas, C.; Mata, S.; Alonso, J. L.

    2013-06-01

    The rotational spectrum of two aldohexoses, D-mannose and D-galactose, has been investigated in the 6 - 12 GHz frequency range by means of a combination of laser ablation and broadband Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (CP-FTMW). Five conformers of α-D-mannopyranose and two of α-D-galactopyranose, showing the ^{4}C_{1} ring configuration, have been identified from the rotational constants in conjunction with ab initio computations. Stabilization factors, which include stereolectronic effects, such as anomeric effect or gauche effect, and the network of clockwise or anticlockwise hydrogen bonds have been analyzed in terms of the observed conformers. G. G. Brown, B. C. Dian, K. O. Douglass, S. M. Geyer, S. T. Shipman, B. H. Pate, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 2008, 79, 053103. S. Mata, I. Peña, C. Cabezas, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 2012, 280, 91.

  16. Effect of nanoscale confinement on dielectric relaxations in a 3wt.% water-galactose mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dong-Myeong; Kwon, Hyun-Joung; Kim, Hyung Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2012-04-01

    We studied the effect of nanoscale confinement on dielectric relaxations in a water-galactose mixture with 3 wt.% water content (WGMIX) in the temperature range that covered the supercooled and the glassy states. We used a confining matrix with nanoporous of 3.5 nm, 8 nm, and 18 nm. For pore sizes of 3.5 nm and 8 nm, the α-relaxation process in the confined WGMIX was significantly accelerated compared to that in bulk WGMIX and approached the Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation process as the pore size decreased. The correlation length predicted by the number of correlation unit theory is an order of a few nanometers and is consistent with our results. In addition, the stretched exponent of the α-relaxation decreased with decreasing as predicted by the coupling model.

  17. Microbial responses to various process disturbances in a continuous hydrogen reactor fed with galactose.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Park, Hee-Deung; Kim, Sang-Hyoun

    2017-02-01

    In this study, microbial responses of a continuous hydrogen reactor fed with galactose have been investigated. Process disturbances reduced H2 production performance as well as large fluctuations in microbial diversity. The peak values of the hydrogen yield (HY) was not influenced greatly during the steady state period, and accounted as 2.01 ± 0.05 and 2.14 ± 0.03 mol/mol galactoseadded, while hydraulic retention time (HRT) was at 12 and 8 h, respectively. Microbial community analysis via 454 pyrosequencing revealed that functional redundancy following changes in the microbial community distribution led to the stability of the fermentation performance. The butyrate to acetate (B/A) ratio well correlated with changes in the microbial community. The energy generation rate and energy yield resulted in the peak values of 134 kJ/L-d and 612 kJ/moladded.

  18. Structural basis for the unusual carbohydrate-binding specificity of jacalin towards galactose and mannose.

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Yves; Astoul, Corinne Houlès; Zamboni, Véronique; Peumans, Willy J; Menu-Bouaouiche, Laurence; Van Damme, Els J M; Barre, Annick; Rougé, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Evidence is presented that the specificity of jacalin, the seed lectin from jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia), is not directed exclusively against the T-antigen disaccharide Galbeta1,3GalNAc, lactose and galactose, but also against mannose and oligomannosides. Biochemical analyses based on surface-plasmon-resonance measurements, combined with the X-ray-crystallographic determination of the structure of a jacalin-alpha-methyl-mannose complex at 2 A resolution, demonstrated clearly that jacalin is fully capable of binding mannose. Besides mannose, jacalin also interacts readily with glucose, N-acetylneuraminic acid and N-acetylmuramic acid. Structural analyses demonstrated that the relatively large size of the carbohydrate-binding site enables jacalin to accommodate monosaccharides with different hydroxyl conformations and provided unambiguous evidence that the beta-prism structure of jacalin is a sufficiently flexible structural scaffold to confer different carbohydrate-binding specificities to a single lectin. PMID:11988090

  19. Galactose-Depleted Xyloglucan Is Dysfunctional and Leads to Dwarfism in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yingzhen; Peña, Maria J.; Renna, Luciana; Avci, Utku; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Tuomivaara, Sami T.; Li, Xuemei; Reiter, Wolf-Dieter; Brandizzi, Federica; Hahn, Michael G.; Darvill, Alan G.; York, William S.; O’Neill, Malcolm A.

    2015-01-01

    Xyloglucan is a polysaccharide that has important roles in the formation and function of the walls that surround growing land plant cells. Many of these plants synthesize xyloglucan that contains galactose in two different side chains (L and F), which exist in distinct molecular environments. However, little is known about the contribution of these side chains to xyloglucan function. Here, we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants devoid of the F side chain galactosyltransferase MURUS3 (MUR3) form xyloglucan that lacks F side chains and contains much less galactosylated xylose than its wild-type counterpart. The galactose-depleted xyloglucan is dysfunctional, as it leads to mutants that are dwarfed with curled rosette leaves, short petioles, and short inflorescence stems. Moreover, cell wall matrix polysaccharides, including xyloglucan and pectin, are not properly secreted and instead accumulate within intracellular aggregates. Near-normal growth is restored by generating mur3 mutants that produce no detectable amounts of xyloglucan. Thus, cellular processes are affected more by the presence of the dysfunctional xyloglucan than by eliminating xyloglucan altogether. To identify structural features responsible for xyloglucan dysfunction, xyloglucan structure was modified in situ by generating mur3 mutants that lack specific xyloglucan xylosyltransferases (XXTs) or that overexpress the XYLOGLUCAN L-SIDE CHAIN GALACTOSYLTRANSFERASE2 (XLT2) gene. Normal growth was restored in the mur3-3 mutant overexpressing XLT2 and in mur3-3 xxt double mutants when the dysfunctional xyloglucan was modified by doubling the amounts of galactosylated side chains. Our study assigns a role for galactosylation in normal xyloglucan function and demonstrates that altering xyloglucan side chain structure disturbs diverse cellular and physiological processes. PMID:25673778

  20. Misfolding of galactose 1-phosphate uridylyltransferase can result in type I galactosemia.

    PubMed

    McCorvie, Thomas J; Gleason, Tyler J; Fridovich-Keil, Judith L; Timson, David J

    2013-08-01

    Type I galactosemia is a genetic disorder that is caused by the impairment of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT; EC 2.7.7.12). Although a large number of mutations have been detected through genetic screening of the human GALT (hGALT) locus, for many it is not known how they cause their effects. The majority of these mutations are missense, with predicted substitutions scattered throughout the enzyme structure and thus causing impairment by other means rather than direct alterations to the active site. To clarify the fundamental, molecular basis of hGALT impairment we studied five disease-associated variants p.D28Y, p.L74P, p.F171S, p.F194L and p.R333G using both a yeast model and purified, recombinant proteins. In a yeast expression system there was a correlation between lysate activity and the ability to rescue growth in the presence of galactose, except for p.R333G. Kinetic analysis of the purified proteins quantified each variant's level of enzymatic impairment and demonstrated that this was largely due to altered substrate binding. Increased surface hydrophobicity, altered thermal stability and changes in proteolytic sensitivity were also detected. Our results demonstrate that hGALT requires a level of flexibility to function optimally and that altered folding is the underlying reason of impairment in all the variants tested here. This indicates that misfolding is a common, molecular basis of hGALT deficiency and suggests the potential of pharmacological chaperones and proteostasis regulators as novel therapeutic approaches for type I galactosemia.

  1. Neuroprotective effects of Caralluma tuberculata on ameliorating cognitive impairment in a d-galactose-induced mouse model.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Zahid; Atlas, Nagina; Nawaz, Waqas

    2016-12-01

    Cognitive deficiency and oxidative stress have been well documented in aging disorders including Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of Caralluma tuberculata methanolic extract (CTME) on cognitive impairment in mice induced with d-galactose. In this study we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of CTME on cognitive impairment in mice induced with d-galactose by conduction of behavioral and cognitive performance tests. In order to explore the possible role of CTME against d-galactose-induced oxidative damages, various biochemical indicators were assessed. Chronic administration of d-galactose (150mg/kgd, s.c.) for 7 weeks significantly impaired cognitive performance (in step-through passive, active avoidance test, Hole-Board test, Novel object recognition task and Morris water maze) and oxidative defense as compared to the control group. The results revealed that CTME treatment for two weeks (100, 200 and 300mg/kg p.o) significantly ameliorated cognitive performance and oxidative defense. All groups of CTME enhanced the learning and memory ability in step-through passive, active avoidance test, Hole-Board test Novel object recognition task and Morris water maze. Furthermore, high and middle level of CTME (300 and 200mg/kg p.o) significantly increased Total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, neprilysin (NEP), and β-site AβPP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) expression while Nitric Oxide (NO), Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) activity and Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and the level of Aβ1-42 and presenilin 1 (PS1) were decreased. The present study showed that CTME have a significant relieving effect on learning, memory and spontaneous activities in d-galactose-induced mice model, and ameliorates cognitive impairment and biochemical dysfunction in mice.

  2. Ameliorative effect of lotus seedpod proanthocyanidins on cognitive impairment and brain aging induced by D-galactose.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yu-Shi; Guo, Juan; Hu, Kun; Gao, Yong-Qing; Xie, Bi-Jun; Sun, Zhi-Da; Yang, Er-Ning; Hou, Fang-Li

    2016-02-01

    This study mainly investigated the ameliorative effect of lotus seedpod proanthocyanidins (LSPC) and the mechanism underlying such effect on cognitive impairment and brain aging induced by d-galactose. Aging mice induced by d-galactose (150 mg/kg, sc injection daily for 6 weeks) were chosen for the experiment. LSPCs (30, 60, and 90 mg/kg, ig) were provided after d-galactose injection. Learning and memory functions were detected by Y-maze and step-down avoidance tests. Then, some biochemical indexes related to cognitive ability and aging were measured. Histopathological feature and P53 protein expression in the hippocampus were observed. Results showed that the three different doses of LSPC could significantly ameliorate the learning and memory abilities impaired by d-galactose. LSPC significantly reduced the levels of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide (i.e. 90 mg/kg LSPC group vs. model group, P=0.008), reduced the content of β-amyloid peptide 1-42 (i.e. 90 mg/kg LSPC group vs. model group, P=0.009), decreased the activities of acetylcholinesterase, monoamine oxidase B, total nitric oxide synthase (i.e. 90 mg/kg LSPC group vs. model group, P=0.006), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase and synchronously increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the brain. Furthermore, LSPC could prevent neuron damage and could lessen the expression of P53 protein in the hippocampus. These findings demonstrated that LSPC effectively attenuated cognitive damage and improved parameters related to brain aging in senescent mice induced by d-galactose, and may be used to treat Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Constitutive expression in gal7 mutants of Kluyveromyces lactis is due to internal production of galactose as an inducer of the Gal/Lac regulon.

    PubMed Central

    Cardinali, G; Vollenbroich, V; Jeon, M S; de Graaf, A A; Hollenberg, C P

    1997-01-01

    The induction process of the galactose regulon has been intensively studied, but until now the nature of the inducer has remained unknown. We have analyzed a delta gal7 mutant of the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, which lacks the galactotransferase activity and is able to express the genes of the Gal/Lac regulon also in the absence of galactose. We found that this expression is semiconstitutive and undergoes a strong induction during the stationary phase. The gal1-209 mutant, which has a reduced kinase activity but retains its positive regulatory function, also shows a constitutive expression of beta-galactosidase, suggesting that galactose is the inducer. A gal10 deletion in delta gal7 or gal1-209 mutants reduces the expression to under wild-type levels. The presence of the inducer could be demonstrated in both delta gal7 crude extracts and culture medium by means of a bioassay using the induction in gal1-209 cells. A mutation in the transporter gene LAC12 decreases the level of induction in gal7 cells, indicating that galactose is partly released into the medium and then retransported into the cells. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of crude extracts from delta gal7 cells revealed the presence of 50 microM galactose. We conclude that galactose is the inducer of the Gal/Lac regulon and is produced via UDP-galactose through a yet-unknown pathway. PMID:9032299

  4. Characterization of a F280N variant of L-arabinose isomerase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans identified as a D-galactose isomerase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Baek-Joong; Hong, Seung-Hye; Shin, Kyung-Chul; Jo, Ye-Seul; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2014-11-01

    The double-site variant (C450S-N475K) L-arabinose isomerase (L-AI) from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans catalyzes the isomerization of D-galactose to D-tagatose, a functional sweetener. Using a substrate-docking homology model, the residues near to D-galactose O6 were identified as Met186, Phe280, and Ile371. Several variants obtained by site-directed mutagenesis of these three residues were analyzed, and a triple-site (F280N) variant enzyme exhibited the highest activity for D-galactose isomerization. The k cat/K m of the triple-site variant enzyme for D-galactose was 2.1-fold higher than for L-arabinose, whereas the k cat/K m of the double-site variant enzyme for L-arabinose was 43.9-fold higher than for D-galactose. These results suggest that the triple-site variant enzyme is a D-galactose isomerase. The conversion rate of D-galactose to D-tagatose by the triple-site variant enzyme was approximately 3-fold higher than that of the double-site variant enzyme for 30 min. However, the conversion yields of L-arabinose to L-ribulose by the triple-site and double-site variant enzymes were 10.6 and 16.0 % after 20 min, respectively. The triple-site variant enzyme exhibited increased specific activity, turnover number, catalytic efficiency, and conversion rate for D-galactose isomerization compared to the double-site variant enzyme. Therefore, the amino acid at position 280 determines the substrate specificity for D-galactose and L-arabinose, and the triple-site variant enzyme has the potential to produce D-tagatose on an industrial scale.

  5. Crystal Structure and Substrate Specificity of D-Galactose-6-Phosphate Isomerase Complexed with Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Kul; Pan, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    D-Galactose-6-phosphate isomerase from Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LacAB; EC 5.3.1.26), which is encoded by the tagatose-6-phosphate pathway gene cluster (lacABCD), catalyzes the isomerization of D-galactose-6-phosphate to D-tagatose-6-phosphate during lactose catabolism and is used to produce rare sugars as low-calorie natural sweeteners. The crystal structures of LacAB and its complex with D-tagatose-6-phosphate revealed that LacAB is a homotetramer of LacA and LacB subunits, with a structure similar to that of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (Rpi). Structurally, LacAB belongs to the RpiB/LacAB superfamily, having a Rossmann-like αβα sandwich fold as has been identified in pentose phosphate isomerase and hexose phosphate isomerase. In contrast to other family members, the LacB subunit also has a unique α7 helix in its C-terminus. One active site is distinctly located at the interface between LacA and LacB, whereas two active sites are present in RpiB. In the structure of the product complex, the phosphate group of D-tagatose-6-phosphate is bound to three arginine residues, including Arg-39, producing a different substrate orientation than that in RpiB, where the substrate binds at Asp-43. Due to the proximity of the Arg-134 residue and backbone Cα of the α6 helix in LacA to the last Asp-172 residue of LacB with a hydrogen bond, a six-carbon sugar-phosphate can bind in the larger pocket of LacAB, compared with RpiB. His-96 in the active site is important for ring opening and substrate orientation, and Cys-65 is essential for the isomerization activity of the enzyme. Two rare sugar substrates, D-psicose and D-ribulose, show optimal binding in the LacAB-substrate complex. These findings were supported by the results of LacA activity assays. PMID:24015281

  6. In vivo investigation on the potential of galangin, kaempferol and myricetin for protection of D-galactose-induced cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yongfang; Chen, Jinglou; Zhang, Wenting; Fu, Wei; Wu, Guanghua; Wei, Han; Wang, Qing; Ruan, Jinlan

    2012-12-15

    The potential of three natural flavonols (galangin, kaempferol and myricetin) to protect against D-galactose-induced cognitive impairment in mice was investigated. After 8 weeks treatment, the mice were assessed by behavioural tests. The levels of oxidative stress, the amount of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)-cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) signaling pathway in hippocampus were also analysed. It was found that all the three dietary flavonols could ameliorate the oxidative stress, enhance the activity of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and regulate the expression of ERK-CREB pathway in mice. However, only kaempferol and myricetin could significantly improve the learning and memory capability when compared with D-galactose model. Our results suggest that the presence of hydroxyl groups in the B ring of flavonols may have contribution to the neuroprotective activity.

  7. The crystal structure of a sodium galactose transporter reveals mechanistic insights into Na[superscript +]/sugar symport

    SciTech Connect

    Faham, S.; Watanabe, A.; Besserer, G.M.; Cascio, D.; Specht, A.; Hirayama, B.A.; Wright, E.M.; Abramson, J.

    2009-08-27

    Membrane transporters that use energy stored in sodium gradients to drive nutrients into cells constitute a major class of proteins. We report the crystal structure of a member of the solute sodium symporters (SSS), the Vibrio parahaemolyticus sodium/galactose symporter (vSGLT). The -3.0 angstrom structure contains 14 transmembrane (TM) helices in an inward-facing conformation with a core structure of inverted repeats of 5 TM helices (TM2 to TM6 and TM7 to TM11). Galactose is bound in the center of the core, occluded from the outside solutions by hydrophobic residues. Surprisingly, the architecture of the core is similar to that of the leucine transporter (LeuT) from a different gene family. Modeling the outward-facing conformation based on the LeuT structure, in conjunction with biophysical data, provides insight into structural rearrangements for active transport.

  8. Sorbitol dehydrogenase of Aspergillus niger, SdhA, is part of the oxido-reductive D-galactose pathway and essential for D-sorbitol catabolism.

    PubMed

    Koivistoinen, Outi M; Richard, Peter; Penttilä, Merja; Ruohonen, Laura; Mojzita, Dominik

    2012-02-17

    In filamentous fungi D-galactose can be catabolised through the oxido-reductive and/or the Leloir pathway. In the oxido-reductive pathway D-galactose is converted to d-fructose in a series of steps where the last step is the oxidation of d-sorbitol by an NAD-dependent dehydrogenase. We identified a sorbitol dehydrogenase gene, sdhA (JGI53356), in Aspergillus niger encoding a medium chain dehydrogenase which is involved in D-galactose and D-sorbitol catabolism. The gene is upregulated in the presence of D-galactose, galactitol and D-sorbitol. An sdhA deletion strain showed reduced growth on galactitol and growth on D-sorbitol was completely abolished. The purified enzyme converted D-sorbitol to D-fructose with K(m) of 50±5 mM and v(max) of 80±10 U/mg.

  9. Effects of pre-exercise ingestion of trehalose, galactose and glucose on subsequent metabolism and cycling performance.

    PubMed

    Jentjens, R L P G; Jeukendrup, A E

    2003-01-01

    The glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to different carbohydrates vary and these have been suggested to affect performance. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of pre-exercise ingestion of glucose (GLU), galactose (GAL) and trehalose (TRE) on metabolic responses at rest and during exercise and on subsequent time-trial (TT) performance. Eight well-trained male cyclists completed three exercise trials separated by at least 3 days. At 45 min before the start of exercise subjects consumed 500 ml of a beverage containing 75 g of either glucose, galactose or trehalose. The exercise trials consisted of 20 min of submaximal steady-state exercise (SS) at 65% of maximal power output immediately followed by a [mean (SEM)] 702 (25) kJ TT. Plasma glucose concentration 15 min postprandial was significantly higher in GLU compared to GAL and TRE ( P<0.05). This was accompanied by a more than twofold greater rise in plasma insulin concentration in GLU compared to GAL and TRE (118% and 145%, respectively). During SS exercise four subjects in GLU and one subject in TRE developed a rebound hypoglycaemia (plasma glucose concentration less than 3.5 mmol.l(-1)). No differences were observed in TT performance between the three trials. Pre-exercise ingestion of trehalose and galactose resulted in lower plasma glucose and insulin responses prior to exercise and reduced the prevalence of rebound hypoglycaemia. Despite the attenuated insulin and glucose responses at rest and during exercise following pre-exercise ingestion of galactose and trehalose, there was no difference in TT performance compared with pre-exercise ingestion of glucose.

  10. A Novel, Noncatalytic Carbohydrate-binding Module Displays Specificity for Galactose-containing Polysaccharides through Calcium-mediated Oligomerization*

    PubMed Central

    Montanier, Cedric Y.; Correia, Márcia A. S.; Flint, James E.; Zhu, Yanping; Baslé, Arnaud; McKee, Lauren S.; Prates, José A. M.; Polizzi, Samuel J.; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Lewis, Richard J.; Henrissat, Bernard; Fontes, Carlos M. G. A.; Gilbert, Harry J.

    2011-01-01

    The enzymic degradation of plant cell walls plays a central role in the carbon cycle and is of increasing environmental and industrial significance. The catalytic modules of enzymes that catalyze this process are generally appended to noncatalytic carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). CBMs potentiate the rate of catalysis by bringing their cognate enzymes into intimate contact with the target substrate. A powerful plant cell wall-degrading system is the Clostridium thermocellum multienzyme complex, termed the “cellulosome.” Here, we identify a novel CBM (CtCBM62) within the large C. thermocellum cellulosomal protein Cthe_2193 (defined as CtXyl5A), which establishes a new CBM family. Phylogenetic analysis of CBM62 members indicates that a circular permutation occurred within the family. CtCBM62 binds to d-galactose and l-arabinopyranose in either anomeric configuration. The crystal structures of CtCBM62, in complex with oligosaccharides containing α- and β-galactose residues, show that the ligand-binding site in the β-sandwich protein is located in the loops that connect the two β-sheets. Specificity is conferred through numerous interactions with the axial O4 of the target sugars, a feature that distinguishes galactose and arabinose from the other major sugars located in plant cell walls. CtCBM62 displays tighter affinity for multivalent ligands compared with molecules containing single galactose residues, which is associated with precipitation of these complex carbohydrates. These avidity effects, which confer the targeting of polysaccharides, are mediated by calcium-dependent oligomerization of the CBM. PMID:21454512

  11. Evidence for Conformational Mechanism on the Binding of TgMIC4 with β-Galactose-Containing Carbohydrate Ligand.

    PubMed

    Santos, Adriano; Carvalho, Fernanda C; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina; Zorzetto-Fernandes, André Luiz; Gimenez-Romero, David; Monzó, Isidro; Bueno, Paulo R

    2015-11-10

    A deeper understanding of the role of sialic/desialylated groups during TgMIC4-glycoproteins interactions has importance to better clarify the odd process of host cell invasion by members of the apicomplexan phylum. Within this context, we evaluated the interaction established by recombinant TgMIC4 (the whole molecule) with sialylated (bovine fetuin) and desialylated (asialofetuin) glycoproteins by using functionalized quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). A suitable receptive surface containing recombinant TgMIC4 for monitoring β-galactose-containing carbohydrate ligand (limit of quantification ∼ 40 μM) was designed and used as biomolecular recognition platform to study the binding and conformational mechanisms of TgMIC4 during the interaction with glycoprotein containing (fetuin), or not, terminal sialic group (asialofetuin). It was inferred that the binding/interaction monitoring depends on the presence/absence of sialic groups in target protein and is possible to be differentiated through a slower binding kinetic step using QCM-D approach (which we are inferring to be thus associated with β-galactose ligand). This slower binding/interaction step is likely supposed (from mechanical energetic analysis obtained in QCM-D measurements) to be involved with Toxoplasma gondii (the causative agent of toxoplasmosis) parasitic invasion accompanied by ligand (galactose) induced binding conformational change (i.e., cell internalization process can be additionally dependent on structural conformational changes, controlled by the absence of sialic groups and to the specific binding with galactose), in addition to TgMIC4-glycoprotein solely recognition binding process.

  12. Galactose-limited fed-batch cultivation of Escherichia coli for the production of lacto-N-tetraose.

    PubMed

    Baumgärtner, Florian; Sprenger, Georg A; Albermann, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Lacto-N-tetraose (Gal(β1-3)GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc) is one of the most abundant oligosaccharide structures in human milk. We recently described the synthesis of lacto-N-tetraose by a whole-cell biotransformation with recombinant Escherichia coli cells. However, only about 5% of the lactose was converted into lacto-N-tetraose by this approach. The major product obtained was the intermediate lacto-N-triose II (GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc). In order to improve the bioconversion of lactose to lacto-N-tetraose, we have investigated the influence of the carbon source on the formation of lacto-N-tetraose and on the intracellular availability of the glycosyltransferase substrates, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine and UDP-galactose. By growth of the recombinant E. coli cells on D-galactose, the yield of lacto-N-tetraose (810.8 mg L(-1) culture) was 3.6-times higher compared to cultivation on D-glucose. Using fed-batch cultivation with galactose as sole energy and carbon source, a large-scale synthesis of lacto-N-tetraose was demonstrated. During the 26 h feeding phase the growth rate (μ = 0.05) was maintained by an exponential galactose feed. In total, 16 g L(-1) lactose were fed and resulted in final yields of 12.72 ± 0.21 g L(-1) lacto-N-tetraose and 13.70 ± 0.10 g L(-1) lacto-N-triose II. In total, 173 g of lacto-N-tetraose were produced with a space-time yield of 0.37 g L(-1) h(-1).

  13. Stereoselective synthesis of UDP-2-(2-ketopropyl)galactose aided by di-tert-butylsilylene protecting group.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yasuharu; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Yukishige

    2015-10-01

    UDP-2-(2-ketopropyl)galactose (1) has been utilized as a valuable probe for profiling proteins modified by O-GlcNAc. In this work, we developed a protocol for efficient synthesis of 1. Thus, 2-methallylgalactose derivative 11, a synthetic intermediate for the compound 1, was prepared by stereoselective iodination and methallylation at C-2 position, through exploitation of 4,6-O-di-tert-butylsilylene protecting group.

  14. Structures and binding specificity of galactose- and mannose-binding lectins from champedak: differences from jackfruit lectins.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsen, Mads; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri Shafinaz; Othman, Shatrah; Hashim, Onn H; Cogdell, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    Galactose-binding and mannose-binding lectins from the champedak fruit, which is native to South-east Asia, exhibit useful potential clinical applications. The specificity of the two lectins for their respective ligands allows the detection of potential cancer biomarkers and monitoring of the glycosylated state of proteins in human serum and/or urine. To fully understand and expand the use of these natural proteins, their complete sequences and crystal structures are presented here, together with details of sugar binding.

  15. Evaluation of Galactose Adapted Yeasts for Bioethanol Fermentation from Kappaphycus alvarezii Hydrolyzates.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trung Hau; Ra, Chae Hun; Sunwoo, In Yung; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2016-07-28

    Bioethanol was produced from Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed biomass using separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). Pretreatment was evaluated for 60 min at 121°C using 12% (w/v) biomass slurry with 364 mM H2SO4. Enzymatic saccharification was then carried out at 45°C for 48 h using Celluclast 1.5 L. Ethanol fermentation with 12% (w/v) K. alvarezii hydrolyzate was performed using the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae KCTC1126, Kluyveromyces marxianus KCTC7150, and Candida lusitaniae ATCC42720 with or without prior adaptation to high concentrations of galactose. When non-adapted S. cerevisiae, K. marxianus, and C. lusitaniae were used, 11.5 g/l, 6.7 g/l, and 6.0 g/l of ethanol were produced, respectively. When adapted S. cerevisiae, K. marxianus, and C. lusitaniae were used, 15.8 g/l, 11.6 g/l, and 13.4 g/l of ethanol were obtained, respectively. The highest ethanol concentration was 15.8 g/l, with YEtOH = 0.43 and YT% = 84.3%, which was obtained using adapted S. cerevisiae.

  16. The Golgi localized bifunctional UDP-rhamnose/UDP-galactose transporter family of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Moreno, Ignacio; Temple, Henry; Herter, Thomas; Link, Bruce; Doñas-Cofré, Daniela; Moreno, Adrián; Saéz-Aguayo, Susana; Blanco, Francisca; Mortimer, Jennifer C; Schultink, Alex; Reiter, Wolf-Dieter; Dupree, Paul; Pauly, Markus; Heazlewood, Joshua L; Scheller, Henrik V; Orellana, Ariel

    2014-08-05

    Plant cells are surrounded by a cell wall that plays a key role in plant growth, structural integrity, and defense. The cell wall is a complex and diverse structure that is mainly composed of polysaccharides. The majority of noncellulosic cell wall polysaccharides are produced in the Golgi apparatus from nucleotide sugars that are predominantly synthesized in the cytosol. The transport of these nucleotide sugars from the cytosol into the Golgi lumen is a critical process for cell wall biosynthesis and is mediated by a family of nucleotide sugar transporters (NSTs). Numerous studies have sought to characterize substrate-specific transport by NSTs; however, the availability of certain substrates and a lack of robust methods have proven problematic. Consequently, we have developed a novel approach that combines reconstitution of NSTs into liposomes and the subsequent assessment of nucleotide sugar uptake by mass spectrometry. To address the limitation of substrate availability, we also developed a two-step reaction for the enzymatic synthesis of UDP-l-rhamnose (Rha) by expressing the two active domains of the Arabidopsis UDP-l-Rha synthase. The liposome approach and the newly synthesized substrates were used to analyze a clade of Arabidopsis NSTs, resulting in the identification and characterization of six bifunctional UDP-l-Rha/UDP-d-galactose (Gal) transporters (URGTs). Further analysis of loss-of-function and overexpression plants for two of these URGTs supported their roles in the transport of UDP-l-Rha and UDP-d-Gal for matrix polysaccharide biosynthesis.

  17. Effect of Colla corii asini (E'jiao) on D-galactose induced aging mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongliang; Liu, Maoxuan; Cao, Jichao; Cheng, Yanna; Zhuo, Chen; Xu, Hongyan; Tian, Shousheng; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Fengshan

    2012-01-01

    Colla corii asini (E'jiao), donkey-hide gelatin prepared by stewing and concentrating from Equus asinus L. donkey hide, is a traditional Chinese medicine preparation widely used in clinical hematic antanemic therapy in China. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential anti-aging effect of Colla corii asini and explore related mechanisms in D-galactose (gal) induced aging model mice. The mice were artificially induced aging by subcutaneously injection with D-gal at the dose of 100 mg/kg·d for 8 weeks. Colla corii asini was simultaneously treated to them once daily by intragastric gavage. Appetite, mental condition, body weight, and organ index were observed. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), as well as levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum, brain, and liver were determined by according assay kits. Western blotting analysis was used to detect p16 and p21 expression. Results indicated that Colla corii asini could improve appetite, mental condition, body weight, and organ condition of model mice, improve SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities, reduce MDA levels, and modulate age-related genes expression in D-gal induced mice. Therefore, Colla corii asini may have effect to suppress the aging process through enhancing antioxidant activity, scavenging free radicals, and modulating aging-related gene expression.

  18. Pneumococcal galactose catabolism is controlled by multiple regulators acting on pyruvate formate lyase

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bayati, Firas A. Y.; Kahya, Hasan F. H.; Damianou, Andreas; Shafeeq, Sulman; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Andrew, Peter W.; Yesilkaya, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Catabolism of galactose by Streptococcus pneumoniae alters the microbe’s metabolism from homolactic to mixed acid fermentation, and this shift is linked to the microbe’s virulence. However, the genetic basis of this switch is unknown. Pyruvate formate lyase (PFL) is a crucial enzyme for mixed acid fermentation. Functional PFL requires the activities of two enzymes: pyruvate formate lyase activating enzyme (coded by pflA) and pyruvate formate lyase (coded by pflB). To understand the genetic basis of mixed acid fermentation, transcriptional regulation of pflA and pflB was studied. By microarray analysis of ΔpflB, differential regulation of several transcriptional regulators were identified, and CcpA, and GlnR’s role in active PFL synthesis was studied in detail as these regulators directly interact with the putative promoters of both pflA and pflB, their mutation attenuated pneumococcal growth, and their expression was induced on host-derived sugars, indicating that these regulators have a role in sugar metabolism, and multiple regulators are involved in active PFL synthesis. We also found that the influence of each regulator on pflA and pflB expression was distinct in terms of activation and repression, and environmental condition. These results show that active PFL synthesis is finely tuned, and feed-back inhibition and activation are involved. PMID:28240278

  19. Elucidation of Substrate Specificity in Aspergillus nidulans UDP-Galactose-4-Epimerase

    PubMed Central

    Dalrymple, Sean A.; Ko, John; Sheoran, Inder; Kaminskyj, Susan G. W.; Sanders, David A. R.

    2013-01-01

    The frequency of invasive fungal infections has rapidly increased in recent years. Current clinical treatments are experiencing decreased potency due to severe host toxicity and the emergence of fungal drug resistance. As such, new targets and their corresponding synthetic pathways need to be explored for drug development purposes. In this context, galactofuranose residues, which are employed in fungal cell wall construction, but are notably absent in animals, represent an appealing target. Herein we present the structural and biochemical characterization of UDP-galactose-4-epimerase from Aspergillus nidulans which produces the precursor UDP-galactopyranose required for galactofuranose synthesis. Examination of the structural model revealed both NAD+ and UDP-glucopyranose were bound within the active site cleft in a near identical fashion to that found in the Human epimerase. Mutational studies on the conserved catalytic motif support a similar mechanism to that established for the Human counterpart is likely operational within the A. nidulans epimerase. While the Km and kcat for the enzyme were determined to be 0.11 mM and 12.8 s-1, respectively, a single point mutation, namely L320C, activated the enzyme towards larger N-acetylated substrates. Docking studies designed to probe active site affinity corroborate the experimentally determined activity profiles and support the kinetic inhibition results. PMID:24116166

  20. Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Coated with Galactose-Carrying Polymer for Hepatocyte Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Mi Kyong; Kim, In Yong; Kim, Eun Mi; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Lee, Chang-Moon; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Akaike, Toshihiro; Cho, Chong Su

    2007-01-01

    Our goal is to develop the functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) demonstrating the capacities to be delivered in liver specifically and to be dispersed in physiological environment stably. For this purpose, SPIONs were coated with polyvinylbenzyl-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-D-gluconamide (PVLA) having galactose moieties to be recognized by asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGP-R) on hepatocytes. For use as a control, we also prepared SPIONs coordinated with 2-pyrrolidone. The sizes, size distribution, structure, and coating of the nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electrophoretic light scattering spectrophotometer (ELS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), respectively. Intracellular uptake of the PVLA-coated SPIONs was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and their hepatocyte-specific delivery was also investigated through magnetic resonance (MR) images of rat liver. MRI experimental results indicated that the PVLA-coated SPIONs possess the more specific accumulation property in liver compared with control, which suggests their potential utility as liver-targeting MRI contrast agent. PMID:18317519

  1. Antiaging Effect of Inula britannica on Aging Mouse Model Induced by D-Galactose

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Long, Yuanyuan; Guo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The antiaging effect of Inula britannica flower total flavonoids (IBFTF) on aging mice induced by D-galactose and its mechanism was examined in this study. From the results, the biochemical indexes and histological analysis of skin tissues showed that IBFTF could effectively improve the antioxidant enzyme activity of the aging mice, enhance the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) of skin tissue, and decrease the malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Besides, IBFTF could maintain the skin collagen, hydroxyproline (Hyp), dermal thickness, and moisture content. Meanwhile, IBFTF could significantly reduce the number of cells arrested in G0/G1 phase, and from the point of view of protein and mRNA expression level in skin tissue, IBFTF could significantly increase the expression of Sirt1 and CyclinD1 but decrease the expression of p16 and p21, and its effect was not less than that of the well-known vitamin E (VE). Overall, these results seem to be implying that IBFTF is a potential natural anti-skin aging agent with great antioxidant ability. PMID:27066100

  2. Molecular basis of classic galactosemia from the structure of human galactose 1-phosphate uridylyltransferase.

    PubMed

    McCorvie, Thomas J; Kopec, Jolanta; Pey, Angel L; Fitzpatrick, Fiona; Patel, Dipali; Chalk, Rod; Shrestha, Leela; Yue, Wyatt W

    2016-06-01

    Classic galactosemia is a potentially lethal disease caused by the dysfunction of galactose 1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT). Over 300 disease-associated GALT mutations have been reported, with the majority being missense changes, although a better understanding of their underlying molecular effects has been hindered by the lack of structural information for the human enzyme. Here, we present the 1.9 Å resolution crystal structure of human GALT (hGALT) ternary complex, revealing a homodimer arrangement that contains a covalent uridylylated intermediate and glucose-1-phosphate in the active site, as well as a structural zinc-binding site, per monomer. hGALT reveals significant structural differences from bacterial GALT homologues in metal ligation and dimer interactions, and therefore is a zbetter model for understanding the molecular consequences of disease mutations. Both uridylylation and zinc binding influence the stability and aggregation tendency of hGALT. This has implications for disease-associated variants where p.Gln188Arg, the most commonly detected, increases the rate of aggregation in the absence of zinc likely due to its reduced ability to form the uridylylated intermediate. As such our structure serves as a template in the future design of pharmacological chaperone therapies and opens new concepts about the roles of metal binding and activity in protein misfolding by disease-associated mutants.

  3. Assessment of ataxia phenotype in a new mouse model of galactose-1 phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) deficiency.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wyman; Caston, Rose; Balakrishnan, Bijina; Siddiqi, Anwer; Parmar, Kamalpreet; Tang, Manshu; Feng, Merry; Lai, Kent

    2017-01-01

    Despite adequate dietary management, patients with classic galactosemia continue to have increased risks of cognitive deficits, speech dyspraxia, primary ovarian insufficiency, and abnormal motor development. A recent evaluation of a new galactose-1 phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT)-deficient mouse model revealed reduced fertility and growth restriction. These phenotypes resemble those seen in human patients. In this study, we further assess the fidelity of this new mouse model by examining the animals for the manifestation of a common neurological sequela in human patients: cerebellar ataxia. The balance, grip strength, and motor coordination of GALT-deficient and wild-type mice were tested using a modified rotarod. The results were compared to composite phenotype scoring tests, typically used to evaluate neurological and motor impairment. The data demonstrated abnormalities with varying severity in the GALT-deficient mice. Mice of different ages were used to reveal the progressive nature of motor impairment. The varying severity and age-dependent impairments seen in the animal model agree with reports on human patients. Finally, measurements of the cerebellar granular and molecular layers suggested that mutant mice experience cerebellar hypoplasia, which could have resulted from the down-regulation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  4. Effect of galactose on acid induced molten globule state of Soybean Agglutinin: Biophysical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Parvez; Naseem, Farha; Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2015-11-01

    In the present study the formation of molten globule-like unfolding intermediate Soybean Agglutinin (SBA) in acidic pH range has been established with the help of acrylamide quenching, intrinsic fluorescence, ANS fluorescence measurement, far UV CD and dynamic light scattering measurement. A marked increase in ANS fluorescence was observed at pH 2.2. Ksv of acrylamide quenching was found to be higher at pH 2.2 than that of native SBA at pH 7. Far UV CD spectra of pH induced state suggest that SBA shows significant retention of secondary structure closure to native. Hydrodynamic radius of SBA at pH 2.2 was found be more as compared to native state and also in other pH induced states. Further we checked the effect of galactose on the molten globule state of SBA. This study suggests that SBA exist as molten globule at pH 2.2 and this study will help in acid induced molten globule state of other proteins.

  5. Chronic administration of troxerutin protects mouse brain against D-galactose-induced impairment of cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Wu, Dong-Mei; Hu, Bin; Cheng, Wei; Zheng, Yuan-Lin; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Ye, Qin; Fan, Shao-Hua; Shan, Qun; Wang, Yong-Jian

    2010-02-01

    Previous evidence showed that administration of d-galactose (d-gal) increased ROS production and resulted in impairment of cholinergic system. Troxerutin, a natural bioflavonoid, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of troxerutin against d-gal-induced impairment of cholinergic system, and explored the potential mechanism of its action. Our results displayed that troxerutin administration significantly improved behavioral performance of d-gal-treated mice in step-through test and morris water maze task. One of the potential mechanisms of this action was decreased AGEs, ROS and protein carbonyl levels in the basal forebrain, hippocampus and front cortex of d-gal-treated mice. Furthermore, our results also showed that troxerutin significantly inhibited cholinesterase (AchE) activity, increased the expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 7 (nAchRalpha7) and enhanced interactions between nAchRalpha7 and either postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) or N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors subunit 1 (NMDAR1) in the basal forebrain, hippocampus and front cortex of d-gal-treated mice, which could help restore impairment of brain function.

  6. Steady state recycling chromatography with an integrated solvent removal unit - separation of glucose and galactose.

    PubMed

    Hellstén, Sanna; Siitonen, Jani; Mänttäri, Mika; Sainio, Tuomo

    2012-08-17

    A process concept where a solvent removal unit is integrated to a steady-state recycling chromatography process (SSR-SR) offers a possibility to significantly increase the performance of single column chromatographic separation. The advantages of solvent removal for a difficult separation task at conditions typical for industrial scale chromatography were demonstrated by investigating the performance of SSR-SR in separation of glucose and galactose. Two limits for the extent of solvent removal were imposed: maximum total concentration of the solution fed into the column (viscosity limit) and the maximum total concentration achievable in the solvent removal unit (solubility or osmotic pressure limit). The process was optimized using numerical simulation. Three SSR-SR configurations with different positions of the solvent removal unit were compared with (1) the conventional batch process, (2) SSR without solvent removal, and (3) batch process with solvent removal. SSR-SR was found to always improve the productivity. In addition, solvent removal reduced eluent consumption in most cases. The concentration limits and the concentration of the fresh feed were shown to determine which SSR-SR configuration yields the best performance.

  7. Effect of Culture Conditions on the Production of d-Galactose Oxidase by Dactylium dendroides1

    PubMed Central

    Markus, Z.; Miller, G.; Avigad, G.

    1965-01-01

    The effects on enzyme production of inoculum size and age, medium composition, and culture conditions were studied in shake flasks and in a pilot-plant fermentor. Using a medium consisting of glucose, yeast extract, and inorganic salts in deionized water, we found that the addition of Cu++ was essential for the formation of active enzyme. Cultures grown in the absence of added copper produced an inactive enzyme protein which could be activated by 10-3 M Cu++. Thiamine fulfilled all requirements for exogenous vitamins for growth and enzyme production. Glucose concentrations higher than 1% markedly suppressed enzyme formation. The mycelium inactivated the enzyme on prolonged incubation of the culture. Mycelial autolysates and sonic extracts were found to contain a thermostable and slowly dialyzable galactose oxidase-inactivating factor. The experiments suggest that this factor operates as a chelating agent which forms complexes with the copper of the enzyme. Copper ions (10-3 M) prevented enzyme inactivation and restored activity to samples previously inactivated by this factor. PMID:5867649

  8. Pituitary gene expression differs in D-galactose-induced cell senescence and steroid-induced prolactinomas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tiehui; Zhao, Binhai; Li, Jia; Zhang, Chunlei; Li, Hongzhi; Wu, Jiang; Zhang, Shiming; Hui, Guozhen

    2015-04-01

    In general, pituitary tumors are benign with low mitotic activity. Premature senescence has been considered to be a significant mechanism underlying this uniquely benign pituitary tumor. The present study aims to compare the expression of the associated proteins involved in premature senescence pathways among normal, aging and pituitary adenoma cells. We successfully induced the aging pituitary using continuous D‑galactose (D‑gal) injection as well as a prolactin‑secreting pituitary tumor via diethylstilbestrol implants. Compared with normal pituitary cells, the aging pituitary tissues revealed increased expression of IL‑6, C/EBPβ, p53, p21 and p16 and decreased expression of pituitary tumor transforming gene. In contrast, the expression of IL‑6, p21 and p16 was decreased in pituitary tumor cells compared with normal pituitary tissues. Taken together, multiple pathways including IL‑6/C/EBPβ, p53/p21 and p16 were activated in aging pituitary cells in response to D‑gal treatment. However, all these pathways were immune to pituitary tumors treated by chronic estrogen. The findings and the involvement of cytokines in a highly prevalent natural disease model (pituitary adenomas) indicate a potential use of this pathway as a target for effective therapy for tumor silencing and prevention of adenoma progression towards malignancy.

  9. Galactose grafting on poly(ε-caprolactone) substrates for tissue engineering: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Russo, Laura; Russo, Teresa; Battocchio, Chiara; Taraballi, Francesca; Gloria, Antonio; D'Amora, Ugo; De Santis, Roberto; Polzonetti, Giovanni; Nicotra, Francesco; Ambrosio, Luigi; Cipolla, Laura

    2015-03-20

    The grafting of galactose units onto poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) substrates by a wet chemistry two-step procedure is proposed. Even though a reduction of hardness from 0.58-0.31 GPa to 0.12-0.05 GPa is achieved, the chemical functionalization does not negatively affect the tensile modulus (332.2±31.3 MPa and 328.5±34.7 MPa for unmodified and surface-modified PCL, respectively) and strength (15.1±1.3 MPa and 14.8±1.5 MPa as assessed before and after the surface modification, respectively), as well as the mechanical behaviour evaluated through small punch test. XPS and enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA) demonstrate the presence, and also the correct exposition of the saccharidic epitope on PCL substrates. The introduction of carbohydrate moieties on the PCL surfaces clearly enhances the hydrophilicity of the substrate, as the water contact angle decreases from 82.1±5.8° to 62.1±4.2°. Furthermore, preliminary biological analysis shows human mesenchymal stem cell viability over time and an improvement of cell adhesion and spreading.

  10. Molecular basis of classic galactosemia from the structure of human galactose 1-phosphate uridylyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    McCorvie, Thomas J.; Kopec, Jolanta; Pey, Angel L.; Fitzpatrick, Fiona; Patel, Dipali; Chalk, Rod; Shrestha, Leela; Yue, Wyatt W.

    2016-01-01

    Classic galactosemia is a potentially lethal disease caused by the dysfunction of galactose 1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT). Over 300 disease-associated GALT mutations have been reported, with the majority being missense changes, although a better understanding of their underlying molecular effects has been hindered by the lack of structural information for the human enzyme. Here, we present the 1.9 Å resolution crystal structure of human GALT (hGALT) ternary complex, revealing a homodimer arrangement that contains a covalent uridylylated intermediate and glucose-1-phosphate in the active site, as well as a structural zinc-binding site, per monomer. hGALT reveals significant structural differences from bacterial GALT homologues in metal ligation and dimer interactions, and therefore is a zbetter model for understanding the molecular consequences of disease mutations. Both uridylylation and zinc binding influence the stability and aggregation tendency of hGALT. This has implications for disease-associated variants where p.Gln188Arg, the most commonly detected, increases the rate of aggregation in the absence of zinc likely due to its reduced ability to form the uridylylated intermediate. As such our structure serves as a template in the future design of pharmacological chaperone therapies and opens new concepts about the roles of metal binding and activity in protein misfolding by disease-associated mutants. PMID:27005423

  11. Osmanthus fragrans Flower Extract and Acteoside Protect Against d-Galactose-Induced Aging in an ICR Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lina; Mao, Shuqin; Lu, Baiyi; Yang, Jiajia; Zhou, Fei; Hu, Yinzhou; Jiang, Yirong; Shen, Canxi; Zhao, Yajing

    2016-01-01

    Osmanthus fragrans flower extract (OFE) is an organic extract from O. fragrans flower, which exhibits neuroprotective, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant effects. Therefore, the protective effect of OFE and acteoside against aging was studied. An aging ICR mouse model was established by chronically administering d-galactose (250 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. d-galactose induced spatial learning and memory impairments that were successfully inhibited by OFE and acteoside, which could shorten escape latency, improve platform crossing times, and increase zone time. The antioxidant potential of OFE and acteoside in vivo was evaluated by estimating the following: activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase and aging-related enzyme, particularly monoamine oxidase; contents of lipid peroxidation methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, advanced glycation end products, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (a DNA damage product); and levels of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2. OFE and acteoside also inhibited d-galactose-induced neurological aging by suppressing the increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein and neurotrophin-3. Considering the dose-dependent protective effects of OFE and acteoside, we concluded that OFE, rich in acteoside, was a good source of natural antiaging compounds.

  12. A galactose-binding lectin isolated from Aplysia kurodai (sea hare) eggs inhibits streptolysin-induced hemolysis.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Imtiaj; Watanabe, Miharu; Ishizaki, Naoto; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kawakami, Yasushi; Suzuki, Jun; Dogasaki, Chikaku; Rajia, Sultana; Kawsar, Sarkar M A; Koide, Yasuhiro; Kanaly, Robert A; Sugawara, Shigeki; Hosono, Masahiro; Ogawa, Yukiko; Fujii, Yuki; Iriko, Hideyuki; Hamako, Jiharu; Matsui, Taei; Ozeki, Yasuhiro

    2014-09-05

    A specific galactose-binding lectin was shown to inhibit the hemolytic effect of streptolysin O (SLO), an exotoxin produced by Streptococcus pyogenes. Commercially available lectins that recognize N-acetyllactosamine (ECA), T-antigen (PNA), and Tn-antigen (ABA) agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes, but had no effect on SLO-induced hemolysis. In contrast, SLO-induced hemolysis was inhibited by AKL, a lectin purified from sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) eggs that recognizes α-galactoside oligosaccharides. This inhibitory effect was blocked by the co-presence of d-galactose, which binds to AKL. A possible explanation for these findings is that cholesterol-enriched microdomains containing glycosphingolipids in the erythrocyte membrane become occupied by tightly stacked lectin molecules, blocking the interaction between cholesterol and SLO that would otherwise result in penetration of the membrane. Growth of S. pyogenes was inhibited by lectins from a marine invertebrate (AKL) and a mushroom (ABA), but was promoted by a plant lectin (ECA). Both these inhibitory and promoting effects were blocked by co-presence of galactose in the culture medium. Our findings demonstrate the importance of glycans and lectins in regulating mechanisms of toxicity, creation of pores in the target cell membrane, and bacterial growth.

  13. Esculetin, a Coumarin Derivative, Inhibits Aldose Reductase Activity in vitro and Cataractogenesis in Galactose-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chan-Sik; Kim, Junghyun; Lee, Yun Mi; Sohn, Eunjin; Kim, Jin Sook

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring coumarin compounds have received substantial attention due to their pharmaceutical effects. Esculetin is a coumarin derivative and a polyphenol compound that is used in a variety of therapeutic and pharmacological strategies. However, its effect on aldose reductase activity remains poorly understood. In this study, the potential beneficial effects of esculetin on lenticular aldose reductase were investigated in galactose-fed (GAL) rats, an animal model of sugar cataracts. Cataracts were induced in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats via a 50% galactose diet for 2 weeks, and groups of GAL rats were orally treated with esculetin (10 or 50 mg/kg body weight). In vehicle-treated GAL rats, lens opacification was observed, and swelling and membrane rupture of the lens fiber cells were increased. Additionally, aldose reductase was highly expressed in the lens epithelium and superficial cortical fibers during cataract development in the GAL rats. Esculetin reduced rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) activity in vitro, and esculetin treatment significantly inhibited lens opacity, as well as morphological alterations, such as swelling, vacuolation and liquefaction of lens fibers, via the inhibition of aldose reductase in the GAL rats. These results indicate that esculetin is a useful treatment for galactose-induced cataracts. PMID:26902086

  14. Affinity of a galactose-specific legume lectin from Dolichos lablab to adenine revealed by X-ray cystallography.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Kartika N; Latha, Vakada Lavanya; Rao, Rameshwaram Nagender; Nadimpalli, Siva Kumar; Suguna, Kaza

    2013-07-01

    Crystal structure analysis of a galactose-specific lectin from a leguminous food crop Dolichos lablab (Indian lablab beans) has been carried out to obtain insights into its quaternary association and lectin-carbohydrate interactions. The analysis led to the identification of adenine binding sites at the dimeric interfaces of the heterotetrameric lectin. Structural details of similar adenine binding were reported in only one legume lectin, Dolichos biflorus, before this study. Here, we present the structure of the galactose-binding D. lablab lectin at different pH values in the native form and in complex with galactose and adenine. This first structure report on this lectin also provides a high resolution atomic view of legume lectin-adenine interactions. The tetramer has two canonical and two DB58-like interfaces. The binding of adenine, a non-carbohydrate ligand, is found to occur at four hydrophobic sites at the core of the tetramer at the DB58-like dimeric interfaces and does not interfere with the carbohydrate-binding site. To support the crystallographic observations, the adenine binding was further quantified by carrying out isothermal calorimetric titration. By this method, we not only estimated the affinity of the lectin to adenine but also showed that adenine binds with negative cooperativity in solution.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of a galactose-specific lectin from Dolichos lablab

    SciTech Connect

    Lavanya Latha, V.; Kulkarni, Kiran A.; Nagender Rao, R.; Siva Kumar, N.; Suguna, K.

    2006-02-01

    The galactose-specific lectin from the seeds of a leguminous plant, D. lablab, has been crystallized. Molecular-replacement solution using 3.0 Å X-ray diffraction data showed the lectin to be a tetramer. The galactose-specific lectin from the seeds of Dolichos lablab has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique. The crystals belong to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 73.99, b = 84.13, c = 93.15 Å, α = 89.92, β = 76.01, γ = 76.99°. X-ray diffraction data to a resolution of 3.0 Å have been collected under cryoconditions (100 K) using a MAR imaging-plate detector system mounted on a rotating-anode X-ray generator. Molecular-replacement calculations carried out using the available structures of legume lectins as search models revealed that the galactose-specific lectin from D. lablab forms a tetramer similar to soybean agglutinin; two such tetramers are present in the asymmetric unit.

  16. Minocycline ameliorates D-galactose-induced memory deficits and loss of Arc/Arg3.1 expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Lu, Fen; Li, Wei; Xu, Jun; Sun, Xiao-Jing; Qin, Ling-Zhi; Zhang, Qian-Lin; Yao, Yong; Yu, Qing-Kai; Liang, Xin-Liang

    2016-10-01

    Dysfunction of learning and memory is widely found in many neurological diseases. Understanding how to preserve the normal function of learning and memory will be extremely beneficial for the treatment of these diseases. However, the possible protective effect of minocycline in memory impairment is unknown. We used the well-established D-galactose rat amnesia model and two behavioral tasks, the Morris water maze and the step-down task, for memory evaluation. Western blot and PCR were used to examine the protein and mRNA levels of Arc/Arg3.1. We report that minocycline supplementation ameliorates both the spatial and fear memory deficits caused by D-galactose. We also found that Arc/Arg3.1, c-fos, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels are decreased in the D-galactose animal model, and that minocycline reverses the protein and mRNA levels of Arc in the hippocampus, suggesting the potential role of Arc/Arg3.1 in minocycline's neuroprotective mechanism. Our study strongly suggests that minocycline can be used as a novel treatment for memory impairment in neurological diseases.

  17. Production and characterisation of potato patatin-galactose, galactooligosaccharides, and galactan conjugates of great potential as functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sooyoun; Karboune, Salwa; Archelas, Alain

    2014-09-01

    Potato proteins are of high interest because of their high nutritional quality and multiple health benefits, but they are currently undervalued due to their limited solubility and stability. Glycated patatin (PTT) with galactose, galactooligosaccharides (GOSs) and galactan were produced through the Maillard reaction and characterised structurally and functionally. Fourier-transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy data revealed important changes in total secondary structures through glycation with GOSs (61.2%) and galactan (36.7%) and also significant tertiary structural changes leading to an exposure of tryptophan residues. These structural changes led to more heat stable forms of PTT with a higher unfolding temperature (70-90 °C) than the unmodified protein (50-70 °C) and with higher antioxidant activity. PTT:galactose conjugates exhibited similar thermal stability and pH-structural behaviour to native PTT. However, the high level of galactose conjugation to PTT and increased exposure of hydrophobic residues led to a significant increase in its emulsifying stability at pH 3.

  18. HRT dependent performance and bacterial community population of granular hydrogen-producing mixed cultures fed with galactose.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Jong-Hun; Park, Hee-Deung; Yoon, Jeong-Jun; Kim, Sang-Hyoun

    2016-04-01

    The effects of hydraulic retention times (HRTs-6, 3 and 2 h) on H2 production, operational stability and bacterial population response in a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) were evaluated using galactose. A peak hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 25.9 L H2/L-d was obtained at a 3 h HRT with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 120 g/L-d, while the maximum hydrogen yield (HY) of 2.21 mol H2/mol galactose was obtained at a 6 h HRT (60 g galactose/L-d). Butyrate was dominant and the lactate concentration increased as HRT decreased, which significantly affected the HY. Biomass concentration (VSS) decreased from 16 to 3g/L at a 2 h HRT, leading to failure. A 3 h HRT supported the favorable growth of Clostridium species, as indicated by an increase in their populations from 25.4% to 27%, while significantly reducing Bacilli populations from 61.6% to 54.2%, indicating that this was the optimal condition.

  19. Substrate specificity of a galactose 6-phosphate isomerase from Lactococcus lactis that produces d-allose from d-psicose.

    PubMed

    Park, Ha-Young; Park, Chang-Su; Kim, Hye-Jung; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2007-10-15

    We purified recombinant galactose 6-phosphate isomerase (LacAB) from Lactococcus lactis using HiTrap Q HP and Phenyl-Sepharose columns. The purified LacAB had a final specific activity of 1.79units/mg to produce d-allose. The molecular mass of native galactose 6-phosphate isomerase was estimated at 135.5kDa using Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration, and the enzyme exists as a hetero-octamer of LacA and LacB subunits. The activity of galactose 6-phosphate isomerase was maximal at pH 7.0 and 30 degrees C, and enzyme activity was independent of metal ions. When 100g/L of d-psicose was used as the substrate, 25g/L of d-allose and 13g/L of d-altrose were simultaneously produced at pH 7.0 and 30 degrees C after 12h of incubation. The enzyme had broad specificity for various aldoses and ketoses. The interconversion of sugars with the same configuration except at the C2 position was driven by using a large amount of enzyme in extended reactions. The interconversion occurred via two isomerization reactions, i.e., the interconversion of d-allose<-->d-psicose<-->d-altrose, and d-allose to d-psicose reaction was faster than d-altrose to d-psicose reaction.

  20. Galactose recognition by a tetrameric C-type lectin, CEL-IV, containing the EPN carbohydrate recognition motif.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu; Kamiya, Takuro; Kusunoki, Masami; Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Hirabayashi, Jun; Goda, Shuichiro; Unno, Hideaki

    2011-03-25

    CEL-IV is a C-type lectin isolated from a sea cucumber, Cucumaria echinata. This lectin is composed of four identical C-type carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs). X-ray crystallographic analysis of CEL-IV revealed that its tetrameric structure was stabilized by multiple interchain disulfide bonds among the subunits. Although CEL-IV has the EPN motif in its carbohydrate-binding sites, which is known to be characteristic of mannose binding C-type CRDs, it showed preferential binding of galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine. Structural analyses of CEL-IV-melibiose and CEL-IV-raffinose complexes revealed that their galactose residues were recognized in an inverted orientation compared with mannose binding C-type CRDs containing the EPN motif, by the aid of a stacking interaction with the side chain of Trp-79. Changes in the environment of Trp-79 induced by binding to galactose were detected by changes in the intrinsic fluorescence and UV absorption spectra of WT CEL-IV and its site-directed mutants. The binding specificity of CEL-IV toward complex oligosaccharides was analyzed by frontal affinity chromatography using various pyridylamino sugars, and the results indicate preferential binding to oligosaccharides containing Galβ1-3/4(Fucα1-3/4)GlcNAc structures. These findings suggest that the specificity for oligosaccharides may be largely affected by interactions with amino acid residues in the binding site other than those determining the monosaccharide specificity.

  1. A direct-sensing galactose chemoreceptor recently evolved in invasive strains of Campylobacter jejuni

    SciTech Connect

    Day, Christopher J.; King, Rebecca M.; Shewell, Lucy K.; Tram, Greg; Najnin, Tahria; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren E.; Wilson, Jennifer C.; Fleetwood, Aaron D.; Zhulin, Igor B.; Korolik, Victoria

    2016-10-20

    A rare chemotaxis receptor, Tlp11, has been previously identified in invasive strains of Campylobacter jejuni, the most prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Here we use glycan and small-molecule arrays, as well as surface plasmon resonance, to show that Tlp11 specifically interacts with galactose. Tlp11 is required for the chemotactic response of C. jejuni to galactose, as shown using wild type, allelic inactivation and addition mutants. The inactivated mutant displays reduced virulence in vivo, in a model of chicken colonization. The Tlp11 sensory domain represents the first known sugar-binding dCache_1 domain, which is the most abundant family of extracellular sensors in bacteria. The Tlp11 signalling domain interacts with the chemotaxis scaffolding proteins CheV and CheW, and comparative genomic analysis indicates a likely recent evolutionary origin for Tlp11. Lastly, we propose to rename Tlp11 as CcrG, Campylobacter ChemoReceptor for Galactose.

  2. The D-galactose-binding lectin of the octocoral Sinularia lochmodes: characterization and possible relationship to the symbiotic dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Jimbo, M; Yanohara, T; Koike, K; Koike, K; Sakai, R; Muramoto, K; Kamiya, H

    2000-02-01

    A D-galactose binding lectin (SLL-2) was isolated from Sinularia lochmodes, an octocoral, by a combination of affinity chromatography on acid-treated agarose and FPLC on Superdex 200. SLL-2 agglutinated rabbit and horse erythrocytes while SLL-1, a minor component, reacted only with rabbit erythrocytes. SLL-2 is a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 122 kDa and is composed of eight identical subunits (15 kDa). The sequence of the amino terminal region of SLL-2 did not show any apparent homology to the sequences of other animal and plant lectins. D-Galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, lactose, and melibiose were moderate inhibitors to the agglutination of rabbit erythrocytes. In contrast, horse erythrocytes were much more susceptible to agglutination by SLL-2, which was inhibited by sugars and glycoproteins such as D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, lactose, melibiose, and porcine stomach mucin. SLL-2 showed considerable tolerance to heating and kept its activity after heating at 80 degrees C for 60 min. In immuno-histochemical studies using an anti-SLL-2 antiserum and protein A gold conjugate, SLL-2 was found to be present in high amounts in the nematocysts. SLL-2 was also detected on the surface of symbiotic dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium sp. cells irrespective whether they were surrounded with or without host cells. These observations suggest the presence of lectin-mediated interaction between symbiotic dinoflagellates and S. lochmodes.

  3. D-Galactose High-Dose Administration Failed to Induce Accelerated Aging Changes in Neurogenesis, Anxiety, and Spatial Memory on Young Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Armando; Magano, Sara; Marrana, Francisco; Andrade, José P

    2015-12-01

    The model of accelerated senescence with the prolonged administration of d-galactose is used in anti-aging studies because it mimics several aging-associated alterations such as increase of oxidative stress and decline of cognition. However, there is no standardized protocol for this aging model, and recently some reports have questioned its effectiveness. To clarify this issue, we used a model of high-dose d-galactose on 1-month-old male Wistar rats and studied the hippocampus, one of the most affected brain regions. In one group (n = 10), d-galactose was daily administered intraperitoneally (300 mg/kg) during 8 weeks whereas age-matched controls (n = 10) were injected intraperitoneally with saline. A third group (n = 10) was treated with the same dose of d-galactose and with oral epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) (2 grams/L), a green tea catechin with anti-oxidant and neuroprotective properties. After treatments, animals were submitted to open-field, elevated plus-maze and Morris water maze tests, and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus subgranular layer was quantified. There were no significant alterations when the three groups were compared in the number of doublecortin- and Ki-67-immunoreactive cells, and also on anxiety levels, spatial learning, and memory. Therefore, d-galactose was not effective in the induction of accelerated aging, and EGCG administered to d-galactose-treated animals did not improve behavior and had no effects on neurogenesis. We conclude that daily 300 mg/kg of d-galactose administered intraperitoneally may not be a suitable model for inducing age-related neurobehavioral alterations in young male Wistar rats. More studies are necessary to obtain a reliable and reproducible model of accelerated senescence in rodents using d-galactose.

  4. Melatonin attenuates D-galactose-induced memory impairment, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration via RAGE/NF-K B/JNK signaling pathway in aging mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ali, Tahir; Badshah, Haroon; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin acts as a pleiotropic agent in various age-related neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we examined the underlying neuroprotective mechanism of melatonin against D-galactose-induced memory and synaptic dysfunction, elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. D-galactose was administered (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.)) for 60 days. After 30 days of D-galactose administration, vehicle (same volume) or melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered for 30 days. Our behavioral (Morris water maze and Y-maze test) results revealed that chronic melatonin treatment alleviated D-galactose-induced memory impairment. Additionally, melatonin treatment reversed D-galactose-induced synaptic disorder via increasing the level of memory-related pre-and postsynaptic protein markers. We also determined that melatonin enhances memory function in the D-galactose-treated mice possibly via reduction of elevated ROS and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Furthermore, Western blot and morphological results showed that melatonin treatment significantly reduced D-galactose-induced neuroinflammation through inhibition of microgliosis (Iba-1) and astrocytosis (GFAP), and downregulating other inflammatory mediators such as p-IKKβ, p-NF-K B65, COX2, NOS2, IL-1β, and TNFα. Moreover, melatonin lowered the oxidative stress kinase p-JNK which suppressed various apoptotic markers, that is, cytochrome C, caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP-1, and prevent neurodegeneration. Hence, melatonin attenuated the D-galactose-induced memory impairment, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration possibly through RAGE/NF-K B/JNK pathway. Taken together, our data suggest that melatonin could be a promising, safe and endogenous compatible antioxidant candidate for age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD).

  5. Accurate prediction of death by serial determination of galactose elimination capacity in primary biliary cirrhosis: a comparison with the Mayo model.

    PubMed

    Reichen, J; Widmer, T; Cotting, J

    1991-09-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the predictive accuracy of serial determinations of galactose elimination capacity in 61 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Death was predicted from the time that the regression line describing the decline in galactose elimination capacity vs. time intersected a value of 4 mg.min-1.kg-1. Thirty-one patients exhibited decreasing galactose elimination capacity; in 11 patients it remained stable and in 19 patients only one value was available. Among those patients with decreasing galactose elimination capacity, 10 died and three underwent liver transplantation; prediction of death was accurate to 7 +/- 19 mo. This criterion incorrectly predicted death in two patients with portal-vein thrombosis; otherwise, it did better than or as well as the Mayo clinic score. The latter was also tested on our patients and was found to adequately describe risk in yet another independent population of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Cox regression analysis selected only bilirubin and galactose elimination capacity, however, as independent predictors of death. We submit that serial determination of galactose elimination capacity in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis may be a useful adjunct to optimize the timing of liver transplantation and to evaluate new pharmacological treatment modalities of this disease.

  6. Effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Vitex agnus-castus fruit on kidney of D-galactose-induced aging model in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Oroojan, A. A.; Ahangarpour, A.; Khorsandi, L.; Najimi, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a hydro-alcoholic extract of Vitex agnus-castus (VAC) fruit on blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and, kidney histology of a female mouse model of D-galactose induced aging. In this experimental study, 72 NMRI mice were divided into 6 groups: control, VAC, D-galactose, D-galactose+VAC, aging, and aging+VAC. D-galactose was injected for 45 days and, VAC extract administered in the last 7 days, twice a day. Serum BUN and Cr levels were not significantly changed in the D-galactose and natural aged animals in comparison to control group. Histological changes such as nuclear pyknosis, proximal cell swelling, infiltration of inflammatory cells, tubular dilatation and, vasodilatation were observed in both D-galactose and natural aged mice. Further, glomerules diameter was decreased in them. Administration of VAC could attenuate the histological alterations. These results indicate that VAC may have beneficial effects on aging and aging related kidney disease. PMID:27822252

  7. Enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol in pyruvate decarboxylase-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae through optimizing ratio of glucose/galactose.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Ji; Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Soo-Jung; Seo, Seung-Oh; Lane, Stephan; Park, Yong-Cheol; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-11-01

    Galactose and glucose are two of the most abundant monomeric sugars in hydrolysates of marine biomasses. While Saccharomyces cerevisiae can ferment galactose, its uptake is tightly controlled in the presence of glucose by catabolite repression. It is desirable to construct engineered strains capable of simultaneous utilization of glucose and galactose for producing biofuels and chemicals from marine biomass. The MTH1 gene coding for transcription factor in glucose signaling was mutated in a pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc)-deficient S. cerevisiae expressing heterologous 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) biosynthetic genes. The engineered S. cerevisiae strain consumed glucose and galactose simultaneously and produced 2,3-BD as a major product. Total sugar consumption rates increased with a low ratio of glucose/galactose, though, occurrence of the glucose depletion in a fed-batch fermentation decreased 2,3-BD production substantially. Through optimizing the profiles of sugar concentrations in a fed-batch cultivation with the engineered strain, 99.1 ± 1.7 g/L 2,3-BD was produced in 143 hours with a yield of 0.353 ± 0.022 g 2,3-BD/g sugars. This result suggests that simultaneous and efficient utilization of glucose and galactose by the engineered yeast might be applicable to the economical production of not only 2,3-BD, but also other biofuels and chemicals from marine biomass.

  8. UDP-galactose transporter gene hUGT1 expression in tobacco plants leads to hyper-galactosylated cell wall components.

    PubMed

    Abedi, Tayebeh; Khalil, Mohamed Farouk Mohamed; Asai, Toshihiko; Ishihara, Nami; Kitamura, Kenji; Ishida, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Nobukazu

    2016-05-01

    We reported previously that tobacco plants transformed with the human UDP-galactose transporter 1 gene (hUGT1-transgenic plants) displayed morphological, architectural, and physiological alterations, such as enhanced growth, increased accumulation of chlorophyll and lignin, and a gibberellin-responsive phenotype. In the present study, we demonstrated that hUGT1 expression altered the monosaccharide composition of cell wall matrix polysaccharides, such as pectic and hemicellulosic polysaccharides, which are biosynthesized in the Golgi lumen. An analysis of the monosaccharide composition of the cell wall matrix polysaccharides revealed that the ratio of galactose to total monosaccharides was significantly elevated in the hemicellulose II and pectin fractions of hUGT1-transgenic plants compared with that of control plants. A hyper-galactosylated xyloglucan structure was detected in hemicellulose II using oligosaccharide mass profiling. These results indicated that, because of the enhanced UDP-galactose transport from the cytosol to the Golgi apparatus by hUGT1, galactose incorporation in the cell wall matrix polysaccharides increased. This increased galactose incorporation may have contributed to increased galactose tolerance in hUGT1-transgenic plants.

  9. Galactose protects hepatocytes against TNF-α-induced apoptosis by promoting activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway in acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanmin; Zhu, Liuluan; Liang, Shuntao; Yao, Shanshan; Li, Rui; Liu, Sanhai; Ma, Yaluan; Zhou, Xiaobing; Zhang, Jinliang; Zeng, Hui; Wang, Xianbo

    2015-05-01

    Saccharides are reported to protect hepatocytes from acute liver injury through distinct mechanisms. To date, the protective role of galactose against acute liver injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactosamine (D-GalN) has been attributed to competition with D-GalN. Here, we showed that in addition to its effects on LPS/D-GalN and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)/D-GalN models, galactose improves hepatic injury in mice challenged with LPS alone or TNF-α/actinomycin D. Consistent with this result, galactose enhanced the viability of TNF-α-stimulated Chang Liver and Hu7.5 hepatic cell lines. Specifically, galactose prevented TNF-α-induced apoptosis of hepatocytes through promoting phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65. Additionally, galactose enhanced expression of the anti-apoptotic genes, c-IAP1 and A20, and inhibited cleavage of caspase-8 and caspase-3. These findings collectively suggest that galactose prevents TNF-α-induced liver injury through activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Considering that monosaccharides protect against liver injury via distinct mechanisms, these compounds may represent a promising clinical approach to treat acute liver failure.

  10. Metabolism of D-galactose is dispensable for the induction of the beta-galactosidase (bgaD) and lactose permease (lacpA) genes in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Anita; Fekete, Erzsébet; Flipphi, Michel; Karaffa, Levente

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we analyze the expression of the Aspergillus nidulans bgaD-lacpA gene couple (encoding an intracellular beta-galactosidase and a lactose permease) in the presence of D-galactose. This monosaccharide can be catabolized via alternative, independent pathways in this model organism. The inductive capabilities of intermediates of the two alternative routes of D-galactose utilization were addressed in loss-of-function mutants defective in a defined step in one of the two pathways. In a galactokinase (galE9) mutant, the cluster is strongly induced by D-galactose, suggesting that formation of Leloir pathway intermediates is not required. The expression profiles of bgaD and lacpA were similar in wild type, L-arabinitol dehydrogenase (araA1), and hexokinase (hxkA1) negative backgrounds, indicating that intermediates of the oxido-reductive pathway downstream of galactitol are not necessary either. Furthermore, bgaD-lacpA transcription was not induced in any of the tested strains when galactitol was provided as the growth substrate. An hxkA1/galE9 double mutant cannot grow on d-galactose at all, but still produced bgaD and lacpA transcripts upon transfer to d-galactose. We therefore concluded that the physiological inducer of the bgaD-lacpA gene cluster upon growth on D-galactose is the nonmetabolized sugar itself.

  11. Isolation and characterization of acetic acid-tolerant galactose-fermenting strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from a spent sulfite liquor fermentation plant.

    PubMed Central

    Lindén, T; Peetre, J; Hahn-Hägerdal, B

    1992-01-01

    From a continuous spent sulfite liquor fermentation plant, two species of yeast were isolated, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia membranaefaciens. One of the isolates of S. cerevisiae, no. 3, was heavily flocculating and produced a higher ethanol yield from spent sulfite liquor than did commercial baker's yeast. The greatest difference between isolate 3 and baker's yeast was that of galactose fermentation, even when galactose utilization was induced, i.e., when they were grown in the presence of galactose, prior to fermentation. Without acetic acid present, both baker's yeast and isolate 3 fermented glucose and galactose sequentially. Galactose fermentation with baker's yeast was strongly inhibited by acetic acid at pH values below 6. Isolate 3 fermented galactose, glucose, and mannose without catabolite repression in the presence of acetic acid, even at pH 4.5. The xylose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21) and xylitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.9) activities were determined in some of the isolates as well as in two strains of S. cerevisiae (ATCC 24860 and baker's yeast) and Pichia stipitis CBS 6054. The S. cerevisiae strains manifested xylose reductase activity that was 2 orders of magnitude less than the corresponding P. stipitis value of 890 nmol/min/mg of protein. The xylose dehydrogenase activity was 1 order of magnitude less than the corresponding activity of P. stipitis (330 nmol/min/mg of protein). Images PMID:1622236

  12. Anti-Aging Effect of Nigella Sativa Fixed Oil on D-Galactose-Induced Aging in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shahroudi, Mahdieh Jafari; Mehri, Soghra; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Aging is an unconscious and gradual process that can lead to changes in biological systems. Induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis, hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity are involved in the aging process. Regarding the antioxidant property of black seed oil, the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-aging effect of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) oil on d-galactose-induced aging in mice. Methods: For induction of aging, D-galactose (500 mg/kg, subcoutaneously SC) was administrated to male mice for 42 days. Animals were treated with D-galactose alone or with b lack seed oil (0.1, 0.2, 0.5 mL/kg, intraperitoneally (ip)). Additionally, vitamin E (200 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. At the end of treatment, the malondialdehyde (MDA) and the glutathione (GSH) contents in brain and liver tissues were measured. Also, enzymes in serum, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT), were determined. The levels of the proteins Bax, Bcl2, caspase-3 (pro and cleaved) in brain and liver tissues were evaluated. Results: Administration of D-galactose (500 mg/kg, SC) for 42 days increased serum levels of ALT and AST, as well as the MDA content, in brain and liver tissues, but decreased the GSH content. Additionally, the levels of apoptotic proteins, including Bax, procaspase-3 and caspase-3 cleaved, were markedly increased. N. sativa oil (0.1 and 0.2 mL/kg) diminished the levels of the biochemical markers ALT and AST. Administration of black seed oil (0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 mL/kg) reduced lipid peroxidation and at doses 0.1 and 0.2 mL/kg significantly recovered the GSH content. The oil decreased Bax/Bcl2 levels and at 0.1 mL/kg down-regulated the expressions of caspase-3 (pro and cleaved) proteins in brain and liver tissues. Conclusion: Through its antioxidant and anti-apoptosis properties, black seed oil exhibited an anti-aging effect in a model of aging induced with D-galactose. PMID:28392960

  13. Genes Involved in Control of Galactose Uptake in Lactobacillus brevis and Reconstitution of the Regulatory System in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Djordjevic, Gordana M.; Tchieu, Jason H.; Saier, Milton H.

    2001-01-01

    The heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus brevis transports galactose and the nonmetabolizable galactose analogue thiomethyl-β-galactoside (TMG) by a permease-catalyzed sugar:H+ symport mechanism. Addition of glucose to L. brevis cells loaded with [14C]TMG promotes efflux and prevents accumulation of the galactoside, probably by converting the proton symporter into a uniporter. Such a process manifests itself physiologically in phenomena termed inducer expulsion and exclusion. Previous evidence suggested a direct allosteric mechanism whereby the phosphocarrier protein, HPr, phosphorylated at serine-46 [HPr(Ser-P)], binds to the galactose:H+ symporter to uncouple sugar transport from proton symport. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of inducer control in L. brevis, we have cloned the genes encoding the HPr(Ser) kinase, HPr, enzyme I, and the galactose:H+ symporter. The sequences of these genes were determined, and the relevant phylogenetic trees are presented. Mutant HPr derivatives in which the regulatory serine was changed to either alanine or aspartate were constructed. The cloned galP gene was integrated into the chromosome of Bacillus subtilis, and synthesis of the mutant HPr proteins in this organism was shown to promote regulation of GalP, as expected for a direct allosteric mechanism. We have thus reconstituted inducer control in an organism that does not otherwise exhibit this phenomenon. These results are consistent with the conclusion that inducer exclusion and expulsion in L. brevis operates via a multicomponent signal transduction mechanism wherein the presence of glycolytic intermediates such as fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (the intracellular effector), derived from exogenous glucose (the extracellular effector), activates HPr(Ser) kinase (the sensor) to phosphorylate HPr on Ser-46 (the messenger), which binds to the galactose:H+ symporter (the target), resulting in uncoupling of sugar transport from proton symport (the response

  14. The effect of galactose ingestion on affect and perceived exertion in recreationally active females.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Lauren C; Backhouse, Susan H; Stevenson, Emma J

    2013-12-01

    The beneficial effects of acute carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation on exercise performance have been well described. Also reported is the attenuation of perceived exertion and enhancement of affect during prolonged exercise following CHO ingestion. However, no studies to date have assessed the impact of the type of CHO ingested on affective responses during moderate intensity exercise, lasting 60 min or less. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of consuming a galactose (GAL) CHO drink versus a glucose (GLU) CHO or placebo (PLA) drink before and during exercise on affect and perceived exertion. Nine recreationally active females undertook three trials, each consisting of running for 60 min at 65% VO2max followed immediately by a 90 min rest period. Prior to (300 ml) and at every 15 min during exercise (150 ml), participants consumed either a GLU or GAL drink each containing 45 g of CHO, or an artificially-sweetened PLA drink. Ratings of pleasure-displeasure and perceived activation were measured throughout exercise and the rest period and measures of perceived exertion were measured during exercise. Plasma glucose and serum insulin were significantly greater throughout exercise and rest following the GLU trial compared with the GAL and PLA trials (P<0.05). Measures of perceived activation and pleasure-displeasure were not enhanced nor RPE reduced as a result of ingestion of a CHO solution. In conclusion, the GAL beverage elicited a more favourable metabolic profile in the exercising females but this did not translate into an enhanced affective profile. Indeed, CHO ingestion had no noticeable effect on the assessed psychological indices during 60 min of moderate-intensity exercise in females. It is suggested that the maintenance of a positive affective profile may be explained more by the level of hydration as opposed to fuel availability. Therefore, those seeking to use beverages containing CHO to enhance their exercise experience

  15. Synthesis, self-assembly, and immunological activity of α-galactose-functionalized dendron-lipid amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Trant, John F; Jain, Namrata; Mazzuca, Delfina M; McIntosh, James T; Fan, Bo; Haeryfar, S M Mansour; Lecommandoux, Sebastien; Gillies, Elizabeth R

    2016-10-14

    Nanoassemblies presenting multivalent displays of biologically active carbohydrates are of significant interest for a wide array of biomedical applications ranging from drug delivery to immunotherapy. In this study, glycodendron-lipid hybrids were developed as a new and tunable class of dendritic amphiphiles. A modular synthesis was used to prepare dendron-lipid hybrids comprising distearylglycerol and 0 through 4th generation polyester dendrons with peripheral protected amines. Following deprotection of the amines, an isothiocyanate derivative of C-linked α-galactose (α-Gal) was conjugated to the dendron peripheries, affording amphiphiles with 1 to 16 α-Gal moieties. Self-assembly in water through a solvent exchange process resulted in vesicles for the 0 through 2(nd) generation systems and micelles for the 3(rd) and 4(th) generation systems. The critical aggregation concentrations decreased with increasing dendron generation, suggesting that the effects of increasing molar mass dominated over the effects of increasing the hydrophilic weight fraction. The binding of the assemblies to Griffonia simplicifolia Lectin I (GSL 1), a protein with specificity for α-Gal was studied by quantifying the binding of fluorescently labeled assemblies to GSL 1-coated beads. It was found that binding was enhanced for amphiphiles containing higher generation dendrons. Despite their substantial structural differences with the natural ligands for the CD1d receptor, the glycodendron-lipid hybrids were capable of stimulating invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, a class of innate-like T cells that recognize lipid and glycolipid antigens presented by CD1d and that are implicated in a wide range of diseases and conditions including but not limited to infectious diseases, diabetes and cancer.

  16. Oral administration of d-galactose induces cognitive impairments and oxidative damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Budni, Josiane; Pacheco, Robson; da Silva, Sabrina; Garcez, Michelle Lima; Mina, Francielle; Bellettini-Santos, Tatiani; de Medeiros, Jesiel; Voss, Bruna Constantino; Steckert, Amanda Valnier; Valvassori, Samira da Silva; Quevedo, João

    2016-04-01

    d-Galactose (d-gal) is a reducing sugar that can be used to mimic the characteristics of aging in rodents; however, the effects of d-gal administration by oral route are not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate if the oral administration of d-gal induces cognitive impairments, neuronal loss, and oxidative damage, mimicking an animal model of aging. Male adult Wistar rats (4 months old) received d-gal (100mg/kg) via the oral route for a period of 1, 2, 4, 6 or 8 weeks. The results showed cognitive impairments in the open-field test in the 4th and 6th weeks after d-gal administration, as well as an impairment in spatial memory in the radial maze test after the 6th week of d-gal administration. The results indicated increase of levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive species-TBARS-and carbonyl group content in the prefrontal cortex from the 4th week, and in all weeks of d-gal administration, respectively. An increase in the levels of TBARS and carbonyl group content was observed in the hippocampus over the entire period of d-gal treatment. In the 8th week of d-gal administration, we also observed reductions in synaptophysin and TAU protein levels in the prefrontal cortex. Thus, d-gal given by oral route caused cognitive impairments which were accompanied by oxidative damage. Therefore, these results indicate that orally administered d-gal can induce the behavioral and neurochemical alterations that are observed in the natural aging process. However, oral d-gal effect in rats deserve further studies to be better described.

  17. Conformational analysis of champedak galactose-binding lectin under different urea concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kameel, Nurul Iman Ahamed; Wong, Yin How; Shuib, Adawiyah Suriza; Tayyab, Saad

    2016-01-01

    Conformational analysis of champedak galactose-binding (CGB) lectin under different urea concentrations was studied in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2) using far-ultraviolet circular dichroism (far-UV CD), tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence and ANS fluorescence. In all cases, CGB lectin displayed a two-step, three-state transition. The first transition (from the native state to the intermediate state) started at ∼2.0 M urea and ended at ∼4.5 M urea, while the second transition (from the intermediate state to the completely denatured state) was characterized by the start- and end-points at ∼5.75 M and ∼7.5 M urea, respectively, when analyzed by the emission maximum of Trp fluorescence. A marked increase in the Trp fluorescence, ANS fluorescence and -CD values at 218 nm (-CD218 nm) represented the first transition, whereas a decrease in these parameters defined the second transition. On the other hand, emission maximum of the Trp fluorescence showed a continuous increase throughout the urea concentration range. Transformation of tetramer into monomer represented the first transition, whereas the second transition reflected the unfolding of monomer. Far-UV CD, Trp fluorescence and ANS fluorescence spectra were used to characterize the native, the intermediate and the completely denatured states of CGB lectin, obtained at 0.0 M, 5.0 M and 9.0 M urea, respectively. The intermediate state was characterized by the presence of higher secondary structures, increased ANS binding as well as increased Trp fluorescence intensity. A gradual decrease in the hemagglutination activity of CGB lectin was observed with increasing urea concentrations, showing complete loss at 4.0 M urea.

  18. Conformational stability and domain coupling in D-glucose/D-galactose-binding protein from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The monomeric D-glucose/D-galactose-binding protein (GGBP) from Escherichia coli (Mr 33000) is a periplasmic protein that serves as a high-affinity receptor for the active transport and chemotaxis towards both sugars. The effect of D-glucose binding on the thermal unfolding of the GGBP protein at pH 7.0 has been measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), far-UV CD and intrinsic tryptophanyl residue fluorescence (Trp fluorescence). All three techniques reveal reversible, thermal transitions and a midpoint temperature (Tm) increase from 50 to 63 °C produced by 10 mM D-glucose. Both in the absence and presence of D-glucose a single asymmetric endotherm for GGBP is observed in DSC, although each endotherm consists of two transitions about 4 °C apart in Tm values. In the absence of D-glucose, the protein unfolding is best described by two non-ideal transitions, suggesting the presence of unfolding intermediates. In the presence of D-glucose protein, unfolding is more co-operative than in the absence of the ligand, and the experimental data are best fitted to a model that assumes two ideal (two-state) sequential transitions. Thus D-glucose binding changes the character of the GGBP protein folding/unfolding by linking the two domains such that protein unfolding becomes a cooperative, two two-state process. A KA′ value of 5.6×106 M−1 at 63 °C for D-glucose binding is estimated from DSC results. The domain with the lower stability in DSC measurements has been identified as the C-terminal domain of GGBP from thermally induced Trp fluorescence changes. PMID:15032747

  19. d-Galactose High-Dose Administration Failed to Induce Accelerated Aging Changes in Neurogenesis, Anxiety, and Spatial Memory on Young Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Magano, Sara; Marrana, Francisco; Andrade, José P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The model of accelerated senescence with the prolonged administration of d-galactose is used in anti-aging studies because it mimics several aging-associated alterations such as increase of oxidative stress and decline of cognition. However, there is no standardized protocol for this aging model, and recently some reports have questioned its effectiveness. To clarify this issue, we used a model of high-dose d-galactose on 1-month-old male Wistar rats and studied the hippocampus, one of the most affected brain regions. In one group (n = 10), d-galactose was daily administered intraperitoneally (300 mg/kg) during 8 weeks whereas age-matched controls (n = 10) were injected intraperitoneally with saline. A third group (n = 10) was treated with the same dose of d-galactose and with oral epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) (2 grams/L), a green tea catechin with anti-oxidant and neuroprotective properties. After treatments, animals were submitted to open-field, elevated plus-maze and Morris water maze tests, and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus subgranular layer was quantified. There were no significant alterations when the three groups were compared in the number of doublecortin- and Ki-67–immunoreactive cells, and also on anxiety levels, spatial learning, and memory. Therefore, d-galactose was not effective in the induction of accelerated aging, and EGCG administered to d-galactose–treated animals did not improve behavior and had no effects on neurogenesis. We conclude that daily 300 mg/kg of d-galactose administered intraperitoneally may not be a suitable model for inducing age-related neurobehavioral alterations in young male Wistar rats. More studies are necessary to obtain a reliable and reproducible model of accelerated senescence in rodents using d-galactose. PMID:25936362

  20. Acute and long-term outcomes in a Drosophila melanogaster model of classic galactosemia occur independently of galactose-1-phosphate accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Daenzer, Jennifer M. I.; Jumbo-Lucioni, Patricia P.; Ryan, Emily L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Classic galactosemia (CG) is a potentially lethal inborn error of metabolism that results from the profound loss of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT), the second enzyme in the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism. Neonatal detection and dietary restriction of galactose minimizes or resolves the acute sequelae of CG, but fails to prevent the long-term complications experienced by a majority of patients. One of the substrates of GALT, galactose-1-phosphate (Gal-1P), accumulates to high levels in affected infants, especially following milk exposure, and has been proposed as the key mediator of acute and long-term pathophysiology in CG. However, studies of treated patients demonstrate no association between red blood cell Gal-1P level and long-term outcome severity. Here, we used genetic, epigenetic and environmental manipulations of a Drosophila melanogaster model of CG to test the role of Gal-1P as a candidate mediator of outcome in GALT deficiency. Specifically, we both deleted and knocked down the gene encoding galactokinase (GALK) in control and GALT-null Drosophila, and assessed the acute and long-term outcomes of the resulting animals in the presence and absence of dietary galactose. GALK is the first enzyme in the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism and is responsible for generating Gal-1P in humans and Drosophila. Our data confirmed that, as expected, loss of GALK lowered or eliminated Gal-1P accumulation in GALT-null animals. However, we saw no concomitant rescue of larval survival or adult climbing or fecundity phenotypes. Instead, we saw that loss of GALK itself was not benign and in some cases phenocopied or exacerbated the outcome seen in GALT-null animals. These findings strongly contradict the long-standing hypothesis that Gal-1P alone underlies pathophysiology of acute and long-term outcomes in GALT-null Drosophila and suggests that other metabolite(s) of galactose, and/or other pathogenic factors, might be involved. PMID

  1. Acute and long-term outcomes in a Drosophila melanogaster model of classic galactosemia occur independently of galactose-1-phosphate accumulation.

    PubMed

    Daenzer, Jennifer M I; Jumbo-Lucioni, Patricia P; Hopson, Marquise L; Garza, Kerry R; Ryan, Emily L; Fridovich-Keil, Judith L

    2016-11-01

    Classic galactosemia (CG) is a potentially lethal inborn error of metabolism that results from the profound loss of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT), the second enzyme in the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism. Neonatal detection and dietary restriction of galactose minimizes or resolves the acute sequelae of CG, but fails to prevent the long-term complications experienced by a majority of patients. One of the substrates of GALT, galactose-1-phosphate (Gal-1P), accumulates to high levels in affected infants, especially following milk exposure, and has been proposed as the key mediator of acute and long-term pathophysiology in CG. However, studies of treated patients demonstrate no association between red blood cell Gal-1P level and long-term outcome severity. Here, we used genetic, epigenetic and environmental manipulations of a Drosophila melanogaster model of CG to test the role of Gal-1P as a candidate mediator of outcome in GALT deficiency. Specifically, we both deleted and knocked down the gene encoding galactokinase (GALK) in control and GALT-null Drosophila, and assessed the acute and long-term outcomes of the resulting animals in the presence and absence of dietary galactose. GALK is the first enzyme in the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism and is responsible for generating Gal-1P in humans and Drosophila Our data confirmed that, as expected, loss of GALK lowered or eliminated Gal-1P accumulation in GALT-null animals. However, we saw no concomitant rescue of larval survival or adult climbing or fecundity phenotypes. Instead, we saw that loss of GALK itself was not benign and in some cases phenocopied or exacerbated the outcome seen in GALT-null animals. These findings strongly contradict the long-standing hypothesis that Gal-1P alone underlies pathophysiology of acute and long-term outcomes in GALT-null Drosophila and suggests that other metabolite(s) of galactose, and/or other pathogenic factors, might be involved.

  2. Mechanism of ginsenoside Rg1 renal protection in a mouse model of d-galactose-induced subacute damage.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yanling; Xia, Jieyu; Jia, Daoyong; Zhang, Mengsi; Zhang, Yanyan; Huang, Guoning; Wang, Yaping

    2016-09-01

    Context Ginseng is a widely used herbal medicine in China but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Objective The objectives of this work were to study the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on subacute murine renal damage induced by d-galactose and its mechanism. Materials and methods C57BL/6J mice were injected with 120 mg/kg/d (sc) d-galactose for 1 week, followed by a combined treatment of Rg1 20 mg/kg/d (ip) and 120 mg/kg/d d-galactose (sc) for 5 weeks. Mice were injected with the 0.9% saline 0.2 mL/d (sc) and 120 mg/kg/d d-galactose (sc) for 6 weeks in the control group and the d-galactose group, respectively. After 6 weeks, urea, creatinine, uric acid, cystatin (Cys-C), senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining positive kidney cells, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), malondialdehyde (MDA), glycation end products (AGEs) and 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) were measured. Results Treatment with Rg1 ameliorated kidney function and aging state (urea from 17.19 ± 1.09 to 15.77 ± 1.22 mmol·L (-) (1), creatinine from 29.40 ± 5.72 to 22.60 ± 3.97 μmol·L (-) (1), uric acid from 86.80 ± 5.97 to 72.80 ± 10.61 μmol·L (-) (1), Cys-C from 0.23 ± 0.03 to 0.18 ± 0.05 mg·L (-) (1), ROD of SA-β-gal from 56.32 ± 10.48 to 26.78 ± 7.34, SOD from 150.22 ± 19.07 to 190.56 ± 15.83 U·(mg·prot) (-1), MDA from 9.28 ± 1.59 to 3.17 ± 0.82 nmol·(mg·prot) (-1), GSH-PX from 15.68 ± 2.11 to 20.32 ± 2.96 U·(mg·prot) (-1) as well as regulated glomerulus morphology (glomerulus diameter from 775.77 ± 18.41 to 695.04 ± 14.61 μm, renal capsule width from 39.56 ± 3.51 to 31.42 ± 2.70 μm, glomerulus basement membrane from 206.03 ± 16.22 to 157.27 ± 15.70 nm, podocyte slit from 55.21 ± 8.55 to 37.63 ± 6.65 nm). Conclusions Ginsenoside Rg1 can antagonise d-galactose

  3. Oxidative Stress and Galactose-Deficient IgA1 as Markers of Progression in IgA Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Camilla, Roberta; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Daprà, Valentina; Loiacono, Elisa; Peruzzi, Licia; Amore, Alessandro; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Mazzucco, Gianna; Scolari, Francesco; Gharavi, Ali G.; Appel, Gerald B.; Troyanov, Stéphan; Novak, Jan; Julian, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives We assessed the activation of the oxidative stress pathway in patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN), while evaluating the classic marker of the disease (galactose-deficient serum IgA1). Design, setting, participants, & measurements Sera from 292 patients and 69 healthy controls from Italy and the United States were assayed for advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), free sulfhydryl groups on albumin (SH-Alb), and IgA1 with galactose-deficient hinge-region O-glycans (Gd-IgA1). Gd-IgA1 was detected by binding to Helix aspersa agglutinin (HAA) and expressed as total Gd-IgA1 or as degree of galactose deficiency relative to a standard Gd-IgA1 myeloma protein (%HAA). Results Sera from IgAN patients showed higher levels of Gd-IgA1, %HAA, and AOPPs, but lower levels of SH-Alb in comparison to that from healthy controls. Serum levels of AOPPs significantly correlated with serum Gd-IgA1 and %HAA. The relationship between these biomarkers and clinical features at sampling and during follow-up was assessed in 62 patients with long-term follow-up. AOPPs and %HAA correlated with proteinuria at sampling and independently associated with subsequent proteinuria. Levels of AOPPs correlated with rate of decline in renal function after sampling. The combination of a high level of AOPPs and a high level of %HAA associated with decline in estimated GFR. Conclusions Serum levels of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 are elevated and oxidative stress pathways are activated in patients with IgAN; the intensity of the stress correlated with expression and progression of the disease. We speculate that oxidative stress may modulate the nephrotoxicity of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 in IgAN. PMID:21784819

  4. Ultra fast and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry based assay for galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase and galactokinase deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Li, Yijun; Ptolemy, Adam S; Harmonay, Lauren; Kellogg, Mark; Berry, Gerard T

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis of transferase and galactokinase deficiency galactosemia usually involves the measurement of erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) and galactokinase (GALK) enzyme activity, respectively. The current gold standard assays for these enzymes are radioactive assays, which are laborious and/or incapable of measuring low enzyme activities. To further our knowledge of genotype-phenotype relationships, we had developed an assay for GALT activity alone using LC-MS/MS. In this study we generated a robust and sensitive LC-MS/MS based GALT and GALK assay using a novel normal phase chromatographic condition. We improved upon our earlier assay by drastically reducing the instrument run time and eliminating the use of an ion pairing reagent. Stable isotope labeled substrates were utilized in the GALT and GALK assays. The enzymatic products ([(13)C(6)]-uridine diphosphate galactose in GALT assay and [(13)C(6)]-galactose-1-phosphate in GALK assay) were quantified in a 3 min LC-MS/MS run. The assays were sensitive enough to allow for the quantification of enzyme activities as low as 0.2% and 0.3% of normal control values in the GALT and GALK assays, respectively. Thirty-three samples from non-galactosemic patients were assayed to have erythrocyte GALT activity of 23.4±4.2 and GALK activity of 1.8±0.47 (mean±SD) μmol⋅(g Hgb)(-1) h(-1). Erythrocyte GALT activities in a cohort of 16 patients with classic or severe galactosemia were measured: 4 patients had GALT activity less than 1% of normal control values and the remaining 12 had no detectable GALT activity. No GALK activity was detected in a GALK deficient sample we analyzed. Lastly, we tested the feasibility of adapting this LC-MS/MS based GALT/GALK assay as a newborn screening (NBS) test.

  5. Ultra Fast and Sensitive Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Based Assay for Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase and Galactokinase Deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yijun; Ptolemy, Adam S.; Harmonay, Lauren; Kellogg, Mark; Berry, Gerard T.

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of transferase and galactokinase deficiency galactosemia usually involves the measurement of erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) and galactokinase (GALK) enzyme activity, respectively. The current gold standard assays for these enzymes are radioactive assays, which are laborious and/or incapable of measuring low enzyme activities. To further our knowledge of genotype-phenotype relationships, we had developed an assay for GALT activity alone using LC-MS/MS. In this study we generated a robust and sensitive LC-MS/MS based GALT and GALK assay using a novel normal phase chromatographic condition. We improved upon our earlier assay by drastically reducing the instrument run time and eliminating the use of an ion pairing reagent. Stable isotope labeled substrates were utilized in the GALT and GALK assays. The enzymatic products ([13C6]-uridine diphosphate galactose in GALT assay and [13C6]-galactose-1-phosphate in GALK assay) were quantified in a 3 min LC-MS/MS run. The assays were sensitive enough to allow for the quantification of enzyme activities as low as 0.2% and 0.3% of normal control values in the GALT and GALK assays, respectively. Thirty-three samples from non-galactosemic patients were assayed to have erythrocyte GALT activity of 23.4 ± 4.2 and GALK activity of 1.8 ± 0.47 (mean ± SD) µmol·(g Hgb) −1·hr−1. Erythrocyte GALT activities in a cohort of 16 patients with classic galactosemia were measured: 4 patients had GALT activity less than 1% of normal control values and the remaining 12 had no detectable GALT activity. No GALK activity was detected in a GALK deficient sample we analzyed. Lastly, we tested the feasibility of adapting this LC-MS/MS based GALT/GALK assay as a newborn screening (NBS) test. PMID:20863731

  6. Fat-free yogurt made using a galactose-positive exopolysaccharide-producing recombinant strain of Streptococcus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Robitaille, G; Tremblay, A; Moineau, S; St-Gelais, D; Vadeboncoeur, C; Britten, M

    2009-02-01

    To prevent textural defects in low-fat and fat-free yogurts, fat substitutes are routinely added to milk. In situ production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) by starter cultures is an acknowledged alternative to the addition of biothickeners. With the aim of increasing in situ EPS production, a recombinant galactose-positive EPS(+) Streptococcus thermophilus strain, RD-534-S1, was generated and compared with the parent galactose-negative EPS(+) strain RD-534. The RD-534-S1 strain produced up to 84 mg/L of EPS during a single-strain milk fermentation process, which represented 1.3 times more than the EPS produced by strain RD-534. Under conditions that mimic industrial yogurt production, the starter culture consisting of RD-534-S1 and (EPS(-)) Lactobacillus bulgaricus L210R strain (RD-534-S1/L210R) led to an EPS production increase of 1.65-fold as compared with RD-534-S1 alone. However, the amount of EPS produced did not differ from that found in yogurts produced using an isogenic starter culture that included the parent S. thermophilus strain RD-534 and Lb. bulgaricus L210R (RD-534/L210R). Moreover, the gel characteristics of set-style yogurt and the rheological properties of stirred-style yogurt produced using RD-534-S1/L210R were similar to the values obtained for yogurts made with RD-534/L210R. In conclusion, it is possible to increase the production of EPS by ropy S. thermophilus strains through genetic engineering of galactose metabolism. However, when used in combination with Lb. bulgaricus for yogurt manufacture, the EPS overproduction of recombinant strain is not significant.

  7. Production of Normal Mammalian Organ Culture Using a Medium Containing Mem-Alpha, Leibovitz L 15, Glucose Galactose Fructose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Wolf, David A. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Normal mammalian tissue and the culturing process has been developed for the three groups of organ, structural and blood tissue. The cells are grown in vitro under micro- gravity culture conditions and form three dimensional cells aggregates with normal cell function. The microgravity culture conditions may be microgravity or simulated microgravity created in a horizontal rotating wall culture vessel. The medium used for culturing the cells, especially a mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal cells contains a mixture of Mem-alpha and Leibovits L15 supplemented with glucose, galactose and fructose.

  8. Optimizing a Male Reproductive Aging Mouse Model by d-Galactose Injection

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chun-Hou; Chen, Bing-Huei; Chiang, Han-Sun; Chen, Chiu-Wei; Chen, Mei-Feng; Ke, Chih-Chun; Wang, Ya-Yun; Lin, Wei-Ning; Wang, Chi-Chung; Lin, Ying-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The d-galactose (d-gal)-injected animal model, which is typically established by administering consecutive subcutaneous d-gal injections to animals for approximately six or eight weeks, has been frequently used for aging research. In addition, this animal model has been demonstrated to accelerate aging in the brain, kidneys, liver and blood cells. However, studies on aging in male reproductive organs that have used this animal model remain few. Therefore, the current study aimed to optimize a model of male reproductive aging by administering d-gal injections to male mice and to determine the possible mechanism expediting senescence processes during spermatogenesis. In this study, C57Bl/6 mice were randomized into five groups (each containing 8–10 mice according to the daily intraperitoneal injection of vehicle control or 100 or 200 mg/kg dosages of d-gal for a period of six or eight weeks). First, mice subjected to d-gal injections for six or eight weeks demonstrated considerably decreased superoxide dismutase activity in the serum and testis lysates compared to those in the control group. The lipid peroxidation in testis also increased in the d-gal-injected groups. Furthermore, the d-gal-injected groups exhibited a decreased ratio of testis weight/body weight and sperm count compared to the control group. The percentages of both immotile sperm and abnormal sperm increased considerably in the d-gal-injected groups compared to those of the control group. To determine the genes influenced by the d-gal injection during murine spermatogenesis, a c-DNA microarray was conducted to compare testicular RNA samples between the treated groups and the control group. The d-gal-injected groups exhibited RNA transcripts of nine spermatogenesis-related genes (Cycl2, Hk1, Pltp, Utp3, Cabyr, Zpbp2, Speer2, Csnka2ip and Katnb1) that were up- or down-regulated by at least two-fold compared to the control group. Several of these genes are critical for forming sperm-head morphologies

  9. Epimerization of D-glucose to L-galactose during the biosynthesis of a sulfated L-galactan in the ascidian tunic

    SciTech Connect

    Mourao, P.A.S. )

    1991-04-09

    The sulfated polysaccharides occurring in the tunic of ascidians are unique among known sulfated polysaccharides in that their major constituent sugar is galactose, which occurs exclusively in the L-enantiomeric form. In vitro incorporation experiments using tunic slices incubated with {sup 14}C-labeled sugars revealed that cells from this tissue epimerize D-isomers of hexose into L-galactose during the biosynthesis of their constituent polysaccharides. Compared with other hexoses, the precursor D-({sup 14}C)glucose has the highest rate of incorporation and produces the highest proportion of L-galactose units. This metabolic pathway is distinct from the epimerization of D-mannose to L-galactose through its guanosine 5{prime}-diphosphate nucleotide, described previously in an alga and in a snail. Therefore, the epimerization of D-glucose to L-galactose in the ascidian tunic occurs through a novel metabolic route, which involves inversion of the configuration of carbon atoms 2, 3, and 5 of the hexosyl moieties.

  10. Microchip in situ electrosynthesis of silver metallic oxide clusters for ultra-FAST detection of galactose in galactosemic newborns' urine samples.

    PubMed

    García-Carmona, Laura; Rojas, Daniel; González, María Cristina; Escarpa, Alberto

    2016-10-17

    This work describes for the first time the coupling of microfluidic chips (MC) to electrosynthetized silver metallic oxide clusters (AgMOCs). As an early demonstration of this novel approach, the ultrafast detection of galactose in galactosemic newborns' urine samples is proposed. AgMOCs were in situ electrosynthetized on integrated microchip platinum electrodes using a double pulse technique and characterized in full using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical techniques revealing the presence of silver oxides and electrocatalysis towards galactose as a galactosemia biomarker. Galactose detection in galactosemic newborns' urine samples proceeded in less than 30 s, differentiating between ill and healthy urine samples and requiring negligible urine sample consumption. The significance of the newborns' urine samples confirmed the analytical potency of the MC-AgMOCs approach for future implementation of screening for rare disease diagnosis such as galactosemia.

  11. Size-optimized galactose-capped gold nanoparticles for the colorimetric detection of heat-labile enterotoxin at nanomolar concentrations.

    PubMed

    Poonthiyil, Vivek; Golovko, Vladimir B; Fairbanks, Antony J

    2015-05-14

    The development of a galactose-capped gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric sensor for the detection of the lectin heat-labile enterotoxin is reported. Heat-labile enterotoxin is one of the pathogenic agents responsible for the intestinal disease called 'traveller's diarrhoea'. By means of specific interaction between galactose moieties attached to the surface of gold nanoparticles and receptors on the B-subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB), the gold nanoparticles reported here act as an efficient colorimetric sensor, which can detect the toxin at nanomolar concentrations. The effect of gold nanoparticle size on the detection sensitivity was investigated in detail. Amongst the various sizes of gold nanoparticles studied (2, 7, 12, and 20 nm), the 12 nm sized gold nanoparticles were found to be the most efficient, with a minimum heat-labile enterotoxin detection concentration of 100 nM. The red to purple colour change of the gold nanoparticle solution occurred within two minutes, indicating rapid toxin sensing.

  12. Protection of gerbils from amebic liver abscess by immunization with the galactose-specific adherence lectin of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Petri, W A; Ravdin, J I

    1991-01-01

    No protective antigens from Entamoeba histolytica have been previously defined. We tested the ability of the galactose-specific adherence lectin of E. histolytica to elicit a protective immune response in conjunction with Freund's incomplete and complete adjuvants. The gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) model of an experimental amebic liver abscess was used. Gerbils were immunized intraperitoneally or subcutaneously with 10 micrograms of the affinity-purified lectin in complete Freund's adjuvant and then at 2 and 4 weeks with 10 micrograms of the lectin in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. All of the immunized animals developed antilectin antibody titers of greater than 1/1,024 as measured by a radioimmunoassay. The gerbil antilectin antibodies were shown by Western immunoblotting to be directed to the heavy subunit but not the light subunit of the lectin. Immune gerbil sera inhibited amebic adherence by 100% at a 1/10 dilution. Immune and control gerbils were challenged at 6 weeks by the intrahepatic injection of 5 x 10(5) E. histolytica trophozoites. Four independent trials demonstrated complete protection from amebic liver abscess formation in 67% of lectin-immunized gerbils. Unexpectedly, liver abscess weights were significantly higher in the gerbils that failed to become immune than in the control animals. Our results demonstrate that the galactose lectin is a protective antigen and provide an immune-animal model to study the mechanisms of protection and potential disease exacerbation conferred by the antilectin immune response. Images PMID:1987067

  13. Structure of the capsular polysaccharide of Vibrio cholerae O139 synonym Bengal containing D-galactose 4,6-cyclophosphate.

    PubMed

    Knirel, Y A; Paredes, L; Jansson, P E; Weintraub, A; Widmalm, G; Albert, M J

    1995-09-01

    The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of Vibrio cholerae O139 synonym Bengal, which is thought to carry determinants of O-specificity, was isolated by phenol/water extraction followed by delipidation of the contaminating lipopolysaccharide at pH 4.2 and gel-permeation chromatography. The CPS contained D-galactose, 3,6-dideoxy-L-xylo-hexose (colitose, Col), 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose, 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-D-glucose (N-acetyl-D-quinovosamine, D-QuiNAc), D-galacturonic acid (D-GalA), and phosphate. The CPS was studied by NMR spectroscopy, methylation analysis, and selective degradations, including partial acid hydrolysis at pH 3.1 and dephosphorylation with aqueous 48% hydrofluoric acid, which both resulted in complete cleavage of Col. It was concluded that the CPS is built up of hexasaccharide repeating units containing inter alia D-galactose 4,6-cyclophosphate and having the following structure [structure: see text] These data basically confirm the structure of the V. cholerae CPS proposed on the basis of an NMR study [L. M. Preston et al. (1995) J. Bacteriol. 177, 835-838] and specify exactly the absolute configurations of the constituent monosaccharides and the position of the cyclic phosphate.

  14. Cytochalasin B as a probe of protein structure and substrate recognition by the galactose/H+ transporter of Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, M.T.; McDonald, T.P.; Horne, P.; Henderson, P.J.; Baldwin, S.A. )

    1991-05-05

    Cytochalasin B is a potent inhibitor of mammalian passive glucose transporters. The recent demonstration of sequence similarities between these proteins and several bacterial proton-linked sugar transporters suggested that cytochalasin B might be a useful tool for investigation of the galactose/H+ symport protein (GalP) of Escherichia coli. Equilibrium binding studies using membranes from a GalP-constitutive (GalPc) strain of E. coli revealed a single set of high affinity binding sites for cytochalasin B with a Kd of 0.8-2.2 microM. Binding was inhibited by D-glucose, but not by L-glucose. UV irradiation of the membranes in the presence of (4-{sup 3}H)cytochalasin B photolabeled principally a protein of apparent Mr 38,000, corresponding to the GalP protein. Labeling was inhibited by greater than 80% in the presence of 500 mM D-glucose or D-galactose, the major substrates of the GalP system. The extent of inhibition of photolabeling by different sugars and sugar analogues showed that the substrate specificity of GalP closely resembles that of the mammalian passive glucose transporters. Structural similarity to the latter was revealed by tryptic digestion of (4-{sup 3}H)cytochalasin B-photolabeled GalP, which yielded a radiolabeled fragment of apparent Mr 17,000-19,000, similar to that previously reported for the human erythrocyte glucose transporter.

  15. Splenocyte proliferation and anaphylaxis induced by BSA challenge in a D-galactose-induced aging mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Hun

    2016-01-01

    We previously found a cross-reactive autoantibody that bound to bovine serum albumin generated in a D-galactose-induced aging mouse model. Also, we confirmed that other reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) could induce the formation of autoantibody, and only following subcutaneous injection, not oral or intraperitoneal administration. Mice that had never been exposed to bovine serum albumin produced an anti-bovine serum albumin autoantibody following repeated subcutaneous injection of D-galactose (D-gal). In this study, we investigated the involvement of the adaptive immune system in the production of this autoantibody. In particular, we examined bovine serum albumin-induced splenocyte proliferation and bovine serum albumin-induced active cutaneous and systemic anaphylaxis in D-gal-treated mice. We find our results particularly interesting: bovine serum albumin stimulates splenocyte proliferation and induces both active cutaneous and systemic anaphylaxis in D-gal-treated mice. In summary, our results suggest that adaptive immune response participates in the autoantibody formation against bovine serum albumin in D-gal-treated mice. PMID:27833452

  16. Protein-bound carbohydrates in breast cancer. Liquid-chromatographic analysis for mannose, galactose, fucose, and sialic acid in serum.

    PubMed

    Mrochek, J E; Dinsmore, S R; Tormey, D C; Waalkes, T P

    1976-09-01

    We describr high-resolution chromatographic analysis for protein-bound sialic acid in serum, with use of a cerate oxidimetric detector. Values for sera from normal women averaged 680.5 mg/liter, with a coefficient of variation of 23%. Including data obtained by previously developed chromatographic procedures for protein-bound mannose, galactose, and fucsoe, we assessed sera from breast-cancer patients whose malignancy had been categorized as either stable, responsive, or progressive (based on clinical observations spaced from two to five months apart). All of 12 responsive patients had decreases of protein-bound fucose averaging 34.5% (SD, 16.1) and all of 10 patients with progressive disease had increases averaging 38.3% (SD 21.5). Changes in fucose averaged less than 6.7% (SD, 4.9) for eight patients with clinically stable breast cancer. Changes in protein-bound mannose, galactose, and sialic acid did not correlate as well as did fucose with the clinical disease status of the patients.

  17. Effects of temperature and glycerol and methanol-feeding profiles on the production of recombinant galactose oxidase in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Anasontzis, George E; Salazar Penã, Margarita; Spadiut, Oliver; Brumer, Harry; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of protein production from methanol-induced Pichia pastoris cultures is necessary to ensure high productivity rates and high yields of recombinant proteins. We investigated the effects of temperature and different linear or exponential methanol-feeding rates on the production of recombinant Fusarium graminearum galactose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.9) in a P. pastoris Mut+ strain, under regulation of the AOX1 promoter. We found that low exponential methanol feeding led to 1.5-fold higher volumetric productivity compared to high exponential feeding rates. The duration of glycerol feeding did not affect the subsequent product yield, but longer glycerol feeding led to higher initial biomass concentration, which would reduce the oxygen demand and generate less heat during induction. A linear and a low exponential feeding profile led to productivities in the same range, but the latter was characterized by intense fluctuations in the titers of galactose oxidase and total protein. An exponential feeding profile that has been adapted to the apparent biomass concentration results in more stable cultures, but the concentration of recombinant protein is in the same range as when constant methanol feeding is employed. © 2014 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:728–735, 2014 PMID:24493559

  18. Structural differences between two lectins from Cytisus scoparius, both specific for D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine.

    PubMed

    Young, N M; Watson, D C; Williams, R E

    1984-08-15

    Three lectin fractions were obtained from seeds of the leguminous plant Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom) by means of affinity chromatography on a N-acetyl-D-galactosamine medium. The first fraction, termed CSIa, was equally well inhibited in haemagglutination experiments by D-galactose and by N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and consisted of a group of isolectins formed from closely related polypeptide chains of approx. Mr 30000. The second fraction, CSIb, was closely related to CSIa in specificity, c.d. and other properties. The third fraction contained a homogeneous lectin, CSII, formed from subunits again of approx. Mr 30000. CSII was 100 times more readily inhibited by N-acetyl-D-galactosamine than by D-galactose. Despite the similarity in specificity, comparative studies of their amino acid composition, c.d. and N-terminal amino acid sequence showed that the CSIa and CSII lectins diverged considerably in structure. The lectin from Cytisus sessilifolius, specific for chitobiose, was also examined and resembled CSIa in composition and c.d. properties.

  19. Lactobacillus pentosus var. plantarum C29 ameliorates memory impairment and inflammaging in a D-galactose-induced accelerated aging mouse model.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jae-Yeon; Gu, Wan; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Jang, Se-Eun; Han, Myung Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2014-06-01

    Aging is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), cardiovascular disease and cancer. Oxidative stress is considered as a major factor that accelerates the aging process. To understand the ability of lactic acid bacteria to ameliorate memory impairment caused by aging, we investigated the effect of Lactobacillus pentosus var. plantarum (C29), which is known to protect against scopolamine-induced memory impairment, on oxidative stress (D-galactose)-induced memory impairment in mice. D-Galactose was subcutaneously injected to 20-week old male C57BL/6J mice for 10 weeks, with oral administration of C29 for the final 5 weeks. Excessive intake of D-galactose not only impaired memory, which was indicated by passive avoidance, Y-maze, and Morris water-maze tasks, but also reduced the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and hippocampal doublecortin (DCX) and the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). C29 treatment ameliorated D-galactose-induced memory impairment and reversed the suppression of BDNF and DCX expression and CREB activation. Moreover, C29 decreased the expression of a senescence marker p16 and inflammation markers p-p65, p-FOXO3a, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and inducible NO synthase (iNOS). C29 treatment inhibited D-galactose-induced expression of M1 polarization markers tumor necrosis factor-α and arginase II, and attenuated the d-galactose-suppressed expression of M2 markers IL-10, arginase I and CD206. Taken together, these findings suggest that C29 may ameliorate memory impairment and M1 macrophage-polarized inflammation caused by aging.

  20. The UDP-galactose translocator gene is mapped to band Xp11. 23-p11. 22 containing the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Locus

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, Takahiko; Hoshino, Masato; Aoki, Kazuhisa; Ayusawa, Dai; Kawakita, Masao ); Yamauchi, Masatake; Takahashi, Ei-ichi )

    1993-11-01

    The authors have cloned a segment of the human gene encoding UDP-galactose translocator by genetic complementation of its defective mutant in mouse FM3A cells. Chromosome mapping using fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed that the cloned gene hybridized to the Xp11.23-11.23 region of the X chromosome. This region is shared by the locus of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, an X-linked recessive immunodeficiency disorder, characterized by defective sugar chains on cell surface components. Genetic and phenotypic similarities suggest a possible link between UDP-galactose translocator and the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS).

  1. Evidence for an increase in positive surface charge and an increase in susceptibility to trypsin of Sarcophaga lectin (from the flesh fly, Sarcophaga peregrina) on its interaction with galactose, a hapten sugar of the lectin.

    PubMed

    Komano, H; Kurama, T; Nagasawa, Y; Natori, S

    1992-05-15

    When Sarcophaga lectin (from the flesh fly, Sarcophaga peregrina), an insect humoral lectin, was eluted from a column of DEAE-cellulose in the presence of galactose (a hapten sugar of this lectin), it emerged at a lower salt concentration than when galactose was absent. In the presence of galactose the lectin was, in addition, more susceptible to trypsin digestion. The lectin was found to have an affinity for basic proteins such as histone H3 and sarcotoxin IA, but this property was lost in the presence of galactose. These results suggested that the lectin changes its conformation on interaction with galactose. This change is suggested to result in the exposure of some hidden lysine and/or arginine residues.

  2. Evidence for an increase in positive surface charge and an increase in susceptibility to trypsin of Sarcophaga lectin (from the flesh fly, Sarcophaga peregrina) on its interaction with galactose, a hapten sugar of the lectin.

    PubMed Central

    Komano, H; Kurama, T; Nagasawa, Y; Natori, S

    1992-01-01

    When Sarcophaga lectin (from the flesh fly, Sarcophaga peregrina), an insect humoral lectin, was eluted from a column of DEAE-cellulose in the presence of galactose (a hapten sugar of this lectin), it emerged at a lower salt concentration than when galactose was absent. In the presence of galactose the lectin was, in addition, more susceptible to trypsin digestion. The lectin was found to have an affinity for basic proteins such as histone H3 and sarcotoxin IA, but this property was lost in the presence of galactose. These results suggested that the lectin changes its conformation on interaction with galactose. This change is suggested to result in the exposure of some hidden lysine and/or arginine residues. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. PMID:1599400

  3. Anti-Skin-Aging Effect of Epigallocatechin Gallate by Regulating Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Pathway on Aging Mouse Model Induced by D-Galactose.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiming; Li, Yifan; Zhu, Qiangqiang; Li, Tong; Lu, Hao; Wei, Nan; Huang, Yewei; Shi, Ruoyu; Ma, Xiao; Wang, Xuanjun; Sheng, Jun

    2017-03-23

    Epigallocatechin gallate(EGCG) is a monomer separated from tea catechins, as an well-known antioxidant, which helps fight wrinkles and rejuvenate skin cells. In this study, we investigated the anti-aging effect of EGCG, and to clarify underlying mechanism of skin aging in a D-galactose-induced aging mouse model. Forty-five male mice were divided into 5 groups and treated with different dose of EGCG, Vitamin C (VitC) to mice as a positive control. All groups except vehicle were established aging model induced by D-galactose (200mg/kg/day) that was subcutaneously injected to mice for 8 weeks. Two weeks after injection of D-galactose, EGCG and Vit C groups were simultaneously administered once a day by subcutaneously inject after 5hours for injecting D-galactose. The results show that EGCG can be absorbed by the skin. Overall, the conditions of the skin of EGCG-treatment groups were improved, the whole structure of skin were better than control groups, and the levels of oxidative stress and the expression of relate with EGFR proteins were significantly higher than control group after EGCG treatment. All these findings suggest that EGCG can resist skin senility effectively. And the EGFR with relate of downstream proteins are implicated in the skin aging.

  4. Protective effects of Petroselinum crispum (Mill) Nyman ex A. W. Hill leaf extract on D-galactose-induced oxidative stress in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Vora, Shreya R; Patil, Rahul B; Pillai, Meena M

    2009-05-01

    With an aim to examine the effect of ethanolic extract of P. crispum (Parsley) leaves on the D-galactose-induced oxidative stress in the brain of mouse, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) involved in oxygen radical (OR)-detoxification and antiperoxidative defense were measured in conjunction with an index of lipid peroxidation in mitochondrial fraction of various regions of the mouse brain. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity was observed in D-galactose-stressed mice, while catalase activity was increased. Treatment of D-galactose-stressed mice with the ethanolic extract of P. crispum showed protection against the induced oxidative stress in brain regions. Concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive product was greatly elevated in D-galactose stress-induced mice and was significantly reduced in the brain regions of these mice upon treatment with P. crispum. It is postulated that parsley shows a protective effect against mitochondrial oxidative damage in the mouse brain.

  5. Binding of fluorescently labeled cholera toxin subunit B to glycolipids in the human submandibular gland and inhibition of binding by periodate oxidation and by galactose.

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, S

    2016-01-01

    FITC-labeled cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) stained the surfaces of cells of mucous acini in the submandibular gland. CTB, also called choleragenoid, binds to the GM1 glycolipid in the cell membrane. The binding in most acini was inhibited by periodic acid oxidation of the sections, while some acini remained unaffected even after increased oxidation. Staining with the subunit was also reduced significantly by adding galactose to the incubation medium. Binding of CTB to cell surfaces apparently requires intact sialic groups on most, but not all, cell surfaces. Oxidation of the sialic acid residues may influence the structure of the sialylated GM1 molecules on the cell surface in different ways. It is possible that both the sialic acid residue and the terminal galactose are oxidized. Alternatively, the sialic acid may be resistant to acid hydrolysis in gangliosides in which the sialic acid is attached to the internal galactose residue linked to GalNAc, as in the GM1 glycolipid. Inhibition of the GM1 receptor binding to cholera toxin has potential for protection of humans against cholera. Galactose and agents that modify sialic acid inhibit the accessibility of the toxin to the GM1 carbohydrate receptor. Human milk contains high levels of sialic acid glycoconjugates that may provide defense mechanisms.

  6. Characterization of hypothetical protein VNG0128C from Halobacterium NRC-1 reveals GALE like activity and its involvement in Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Reshma, S V; Sathyanarayanan, Nitish; Nagendra, H G

    2015-01-01

    VNG0128C, a hypothetical protein from Halobacterium NRC-1, was chosen for detailed insilico and experimental investigations. Computational exercises revealed that VNG0128C functions as NAD(+) binding protein. The phylogenetic analysis with the homolog sequences of VNG0128C suggested that it could act as UDP-galactose 4-epimerase. Hence, the VNG0128C sequence was modeled using a suitable template and docking studies were performed with NAD and UDP-galactose as ligands. The binding interactions strongly indicate that VNG0128C could plausibly act as UDP-galactose 4-epimerase. In order to validate these insilico results, VNG0128C was cloned in pUC57, subcloned in pET22b(+), expressed in BL21 cells and purified using nickel affinity chromatography. An assay using blue dextran was performed to confirm the presence of NAD binding domain. To corroborate the epimerase like enzymatic role of the hypothetical protein, i.e. the ability of the enzyme to convert UDP-galactose to UDP-glucose, the conversion of NAD to NADH was measured. The experimental assay significantly correlated with the insilico predictions, indicating that VNG0128C has a NAD(+) binding domain with epimerase activity. Consequently, its key role in nucleotide-sugar metabolism was thus established. Additionally, the work highlights the need for a methodical characterization of hypothetical proteins (less studied class of biopolymers) to exploit them for relevant applications in the field of biology.

  7. Selenoprotein R Protects Human Lens Epithelial Cells against D-Galactose-Induced Apoptosis by Regulating Oxidative Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jie; Liu, Hongmei; Zhou, Jun; Huang, Kaixun

    2016-02-10

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient for humans. Much of selenium's beneficial influence on health is attributed to its presence within 25 selenoproteins. Selenoprotein R (SelR), known as methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (MsrB1), is a selenium-dependent enzyme that, like other Msrs, is required for lens cell viability. In order to investigate the roles of SelR in protecting human lens epithelial (hLE) cells against damage, the influences of SelR gene knockdown on d-galactose-induced apoptosis in hLE cells were studied. The results showed that both d-galactose and SelR gene knockdown by siRNA independently induced oxidative stress. When SelR-gene-silenced hLE cells were exposed to d-galactose, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) protein level was further increased, mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly decreased and accompanied by a release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. At the same time, the apoptosis cells percentage and the caspase-3 activity were visibly elevated in hLE cells. These results suggested that SelR might protect hLE cell mitochondria and mitigating apoptosis in hLE cells against oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by d-galactose, implying that selenium as a micronutrient may play important roles in hLE cells.

  8. Genome sequence of Vibrio sp. strain EJY3, an agarolytic marine bacterium metabolizing 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose as a sole carbon source.

    PubMed

    Roh, Hanseong; Yun, Eun Ju; Lee, Saeyoung; Ko, Hyeok-Jin; Kim, Sujin; Kim, Byung-Yong; Song, Heesang; Lim, Kwang-il; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Choi, In-Geol

    2012-05-01

    The metabolic fate of 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose (L-AHG) is unknown in the global marine carbon cycle. Vibrio sp. strain EJY3 is an agarolytic marine bacterium that can utilize L-AHG as a sole carbon source. To elucidate the metabolic pathways of L-AHG, we have sequenced the complete genome of Vibrio sp. strain EJY3.

  9. Selenoprotein R Protects Human Lens Epithelial Cells against d-Galactose-Induced Apoptosis by Regulating Oxidative Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jie; Liu, Hongmei; Zhou, Jun; Huang, Kaixun

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient for humans. Much of selenium’s beneficial influence on health is attributed to its presence within 25 selenoproteins. Selenoprotein R (SelR), known as methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (MsrB1), is a selenium-dependent enzyme that, like other Msrs, is required for lens cell viability. In order to investigate the roles of SelR in protecting human lens epithelial (hLE) cells against damage, the influences of SelR gene knockdown on d-galactose-induced apoptosis in hLE cells were studied. The results showed that both d-galactose and SelR gene knockdown by siRNA independently induced oxidative stress. When SelR-gene-silenced hLE cells were exposed to d-galactose, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) protein level was further increased, mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly decreased and accompanied by a release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. At the same time, the apoptosis cells percentage and the caspase-3 activity were visibly elevated in hLE cells. These results suggested that SelR might protect hLE cell mitochondria and mitigating apoptosis in hLE cells against oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by d-galactose, implying that selenium as a micronutrient may play important roles in hLE cells. PMID:26875981

  10. Synthesis of gamma-chaconine and gamma-solanine are catalyzed in potato by two separate glycosyltransferases: UDP-glucose:solanidine glucosyltransferase and UDP-galactose:solanidine galactosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Zimowski, J

    1997-01-01

    UDP-glucose:solanidine glucosyltransferase and UDP-galactose:solanidine galactosyltransferase from cytosol of potato sprouts were partially separated by Sephadex G-100 and Q-Sepharose chromatographies, proving the existence of different glycosylation systems in biosynthesis of alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine.

  11. 3,6-Anhydro-l-galactose, a rare sugar from agar, a new anticariogenic sugar to replace xylitol.

    PubMed

    Yun, Eun Ju; Lee, Ah Reum; Kim, Jung Hyun; Cho, Kyung Mun; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2017-04-15

    The significance for anticariogenic sugar substitutes is growing due to increasing demands for dietary sugars and rising concerns of dental caries. Xylitol is widely used as an anticariogenic sugar substitute, but the inhibitory effects of xylitol on Streptococcus mutans, the main cause of tooth decay, are exhibited only at high concentrations. Here, the inhibitory effects of 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose (AHG), a rare sugar from red macroalgae, were evaluated on S. mutans, in comparison with those of xylitol. In the presence of 5g/l of AHG, the growth of S. mutans was retarded. At 10g/l of AHG, the growth and acid production by S. mutans were completely inhibited. However, in the presence of xylitol, at a much higher concentration (i.e., 40g/l), the growth of S. mutans still occurred. These results suggest that AHG can be used as a new anticariogenic sugar substitute for preventing dental caries.

  12. Recent advances in phenoxyl radical complexes of salen-type ligands as mixed-valent galactose oxidase models

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Christopher T.; Stack, T. Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The interplay between redox-active transition metal ions and redox-active ligands in metalloenzyme sites is an area of considerable research interest. Galactose oxidase (GO) is the archetypical example, catalyzing the aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes via two one-electron cofactors: a copper atom and a cysteine-modified tyrosine residue. The electronic structure of the oxidized form of the enzyme (GOox) has been investigated extensively through small molecule analogues including metal-salen phenoxyl radical complexes. Similar to GOox, one-electron oxidized metal-salen complexes are mixed-valent species, in which molecular orbitals (MOs) with predominantly phenolate and phenoxyl π-character act as redox-active centers bridged by mixing with metal d-orbitals. A detailed evaluation of the electronic distribution in these odd electron species using a variety of spectroscopic, electrochemical, and theoretical techniques has led to keen insights into the electronic structure of GOox. PMID:23264696

  13. A systems approach to designing next generation vaccines: combining α-galactose modified antigens with nanoparticle platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phanse, Yashdeep; Carrillo-Conde, Brenda R.; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E.; Broderick, Scott; Kong, Chang Sun; Rajan, Krishna; Flick, Ramon; Mandell, Robert B.; Narasimhan, Balaji; Wannemuehler, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Innovative vaccine platforms are needed to develop effective countermeasures against emerging and re-emerging diseases. These platforms should direct antigen internalization by antigen presenting cells and promote immunogenic responses. This work describes an innovative systems approach combining two novel platforms, αGalactose (αGal)-modification of antigens and amphiphilic polyanhydride nanoparticles as vaccine delivery vehicles, to rationally design vaccine formulations. Regimens comprising soluble αGal-modified antigen and nanoparticle-encapsulated unmodified antigen induced a high titer, high avidity antibody response with broader epitope recognition of antigenic peptides than other regimen. Proliferation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells was also enhanced compared to a traditional adjuvant. Combining the technology platforms and augmenting immune response studies with peptide arrays and informatics analysis provides a new paradigm for rational, systems-based design of next generation vaccine platforms against emerging and re-emerging pathogens.

  14. Synthesis and immunodetection of 6-O-methyl-phosphoramidyl-α-D-galactose: a Campylobacter jejuni antigenic determinant.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yuening; Ma, Zuchao; Ewing, Cheryl P; Guerry, Patricia; Monteiro, Mario A

    2015-12-11

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of traveler's diarrhea. Previously, we have shown that a C. jejuni capsule polysaccharide (CPS) conjugate vaccine can fully prevent C.jejuni diarrhea in non-human primates. C.jejuni CPSs are decorated with non-stoichiometric amounts of O-methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN) units that are key serospecific markers. In the case of C.jejuni serotype complex HS23/36, the MeOPN are at positions 2 and 6 of the CPS galactose (Gal). We describe here the synthesis of the p-methoxyphenyl glycoside of MeOPN→6-α-D-Galp, and its immunodetection by antisera raised by C.jejuni CPS conjugates with MeOPN at primary positions. The synthetic approach in this work served as the foundation for a similar MeOPN→6-Gal construct used in a conjugate vaccine, whose synthesis, immunogenicity and efficacy will be described elsewhere.

  15. Galactose targeted pH-responsive copolymer conjugated with near infrared fluorescence probe for imaging of intelligent drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Fu, Liyi; Sun, Chunyang; Yan, Lifeng

    2015-01-28

    Theranostic polymeric nanomaterials are of special important in cancer treatment. Here, novel galactose targeted pH-responsive amphiphilic multiblock copolymer conjugated with both drug and near-infrared fluorescence (NIR) probe has been designed and prepared by a four-steps process: (1) ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of N-carboxy anhydride (NCA) monomers using propargylamine as initiator; (2) reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (OEGMA) and gal monomer by an azido modified RAFT agent; (3) combing the obtained two polymeric segments by click reaction; (4) NIR copolymer prodrug was synthesized by chemical linkage of both cyanine dye and anticancer drug doxorubicin to the block copolymer via amide bond and hydrazone, respectively. The obtained NIRF copolymers were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and its was measured by means of micelles dynamic light scattering (DLS), field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM), and UV-vis and fluorescence spectrophotometry. The prodrug has strong fluorescence in the near-infrared region, and a pH sensitive drug release was confirmed at pH of 5.4 via an in vitro drug release experiment. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry experiments of the prodrug on both HepG2 and NIH3T3 cells reveal that the galactose targeted polymeric prodrug shows a fast and enhanced endocytosis due to the specific interaction for HepG2 cells, indicating the as-prepared polymer is a candidate for theranosis of liver cancer.

  16. Mouse macrophage galactose-type lectin (mMGL) is critical for host resistance against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Alicia; Ruiz-Rosado, Juan de Dios; Terrazas, Luis I; Juárez, Imelda; Gomez-Garcia, Lorena; Calleja, Elsa; Camacho, Griselda; Chávez, Ana; Romero, Miriam; Rodriguez, Tonathiu; Espinoza, Bertha; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The C-type lectin receptor mMGL is expressed exclusively by myeloid antigen presenting cells (APC) such as dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (Mφ), and it mediates binding to glycoproteins carrying terminal galactose and α- or β-N-acetylgalactosamine (Gal/GalNAc) residues. Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) expresses large amounts of mucin (TcMUC)-like glycoproteins. Here, we show by lectin-blot that galactose moieties are also expressed on the surface of T. cruzi. Male mMGL knockout (-/-) and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice were infected intraperitoneally with 10(4) T. cruzi trypomastigotes (Queretaro strain). Following T. cruzi infection, mMGL-/- mice developed higher parasitemia and higher mortality rates compared with WT mice. Although hearts from T. cruzi-infected WT mice presented few amastigote nests, mMGL-/- mice displayed higher numbers of amastigote nests. Compared with WT, Mφ from mMGL-/- mice had low production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in response to soluble T. cruzi antigens (TcAg). Interestingly, upon in vitro T. cruzi infection, mMGL-/- Mφ expressed lower levels of MHC-II and TLR-4 and harbored higher numbers of parasites, even when mMGL-/- Mφ were previously primed with IFN-γ or LPS/IFN-γ. These data suggest that mMGL plays an important role during T. cruzi infection, is required for optimal Mφ activation, and may synergize with TLR-4-induced pathways to produce TNF-α, IL-1β and NO during the early phase of infection.

  17. GWAS for serum galactose-deficient IgA1 implicates critical genes of the O-glycosylation pathway.

    PubMed

    Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Li, Yifu; Moldoveanu, Zina; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Reily, Colin; Hou, Ping; Xie, Jingyuan; Mladkova, Nikol; Prakash, Sindhuri; Fischman, Clara; Shapiro, Samantha; LeDesma, Robert A; Bradbury, Drew; Ionita-Laza, Iuliana; Eitner, Frank; Rauen, Thomas; Maillard, Nicolas; Berthoux, Francois; Floege, Jürgen; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Hong; Scolari, Francesco; Wyatt, Robert J; Julian, Bruce A; Gharavi, Ali G; Novak, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Aberrant O-glycosylation of serum immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) represents a heritable pathogenic defect in IgA nephropathy, the most common form of glomerulonephritis worldwide, but specific genetic factors involved in its determination are not known. We performed a quantitative GWAS for serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) in 2,633 subjects of European and East Asian ancestry and discovered two genome-wide significant loci, in C1GALT1 (rs13226913, P = 3.2 x 10-11) and C1GALT1C1 (rs5910940, P = 2.7 x 10-8). These genes encode molecular partners essential for enzymatic O-glycosylation of IgA1. We demonstrated that these two loci explain approximately 7% of variability in circulating Gd-IgA1 in Europeans, but only 2% in East Asians. Notably, the Gd-IgA1-increasing allele of rs13226913 is common in Europeans, but rare in East Asians. Moreover, rs13226913 represents a strong cis-eQTL for C1GALT1 that encodes the key enzyme responsible for the transfer of galactose to O-linked glycans on IgA1. By in vitro siRNA knock-down studies, we confirmed that mRNA levels of both C1GALT1 and C1GALT1C1 determine the rate of secretion of Gd-IgA1 in IgA1-producing cells. Our findings provide novel insights into the genetic regulation of O-glycosylation and are relevant not only to IgA nephropathy, but also to other complex traits associated with O-glycosylation defects, including inflammatory bowel disease, hematologic disease, and cancer.

  18. Galactosemia caused by a point mutation that activates cryptic donor splice site in the galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Wadelius, C.; Lagerkvist, A. Uppsala Univ. ); Molin, A.K.; Larsson, A. ); Von Doebeln, U. )

    1993-08-01

    Galactosemia affects 1/84,000 in Sweden and is manifested in infancy when the child is exposed to galactose in the diet. If untreated there is a risk of severe early symptoms and, even with a lactose-free diet, late symptoms such as mental retardation and ovarial dysfunction may develop. In classical galactosemia, galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) (EC 2.7.7.12) is defective and the normal cDNA sequence of this enzyme has been characterized. Recently eight mutations leading to galactosemia were published. Heparinized venous blood was drawn from a patient with classical galactosemia. In the cDNA from the patient examined, an insertion of 54 bp was found at position 1087. Amplification of the relevant genomic region of the patient's DNA was performed. Exon-intron boundaries and intronic sequences thus determined revealed that the 54-bp insertion was located immediately downstream of exon 10. It was further found that the patient was heterozygous for a point mutation, changing a C to a T (in 5 of 9 clones) at the second base in the intron downstream of the insertion. This alteration creates a sequence which, as well as the ordinary splice site, differs in only two positions from the consensus sequence. It was found that the mutation occurred in only one of the 20 alleles from galactosemic patients and in none of the 200 alleles from normal controls. The mutation is inherited from the mother, who also was found to express the 54-bp-long insertion at the mRNA level. Sequences from the 5[prime] end of the coding region were determined after genomic amplification, revealing a sequence identical to that reported. The mutation on the paternal allele has not been identified. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Near-infrared fluorescence glucose sensing based on glucose/galactose-binding protein coupled to 651-Blue Oxazine

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Faaizah; Pickup, John C.

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •We showed that the NIR fluorophore, 651-Blue Oxazine, is solvatochromic (polarity sensitive). •Blue Oxazine was covalently attached to mutants of glucose/galactose-binding protein (GBP). •Fluorescence intensity of GBP-Blue Oxazine increased with addition of glucose. •Fluorescence from bead-immobilised GBP-Blue Oxazine was detectable through skin in vitro. •This shows proof-of-concept for non-invasive glucose sensing using GBP-Blue Oxazine. -- Abstract: Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dyes that are environmentally sensitive or solvatochromic are useful tools for protein labelling in in vivo biosensor applications such as glucose monitoring in diabetes since their spectral properties are mostly independent of tissue autofluorescence and light scattering, and they offer potential for non-invasive analyte sensing. We showed that the fluorophore 651-Blue Oxazine is polarity-sensitive, with a marked reduction in NIR fluorescence on increasing solvent polarity. Mutants of glucose/galactose-binding protein (GBP) used as the glucose receptor were site-specifically and covalently labelled with Blue Oxazine using click chemistry. Mutants H152C/A213R and H152C/A213R/L238S showed fluorescence increases of 15% and 21% on addition of saturating glucose concentrations and binding constants of 6 and 25 mM respectively. Fluorescence responses to glucose were preserved when GBP-Blue Oxazine was immobilised to agarose beads, and the beads were excited by NIR light through a mouse skin preparation studied in vitro. We conclude GBP-Blue Oxazine shows proof-of-concept as a non-invasive continuous glucose sensing system.

  20. Patients with IgA nephropathy have increased serum galactose-deficient IgA1 levels.

    PubMed

    Moldoveanu, Z; Wyatt, R J; Lee, J Y; Tomana, M; Julian, B A; Mestecky, J; Huang, W-Q; Anreddy, S R; Hall, S; Hastings, M C; Lau, K K; Cook, W J; Novak, J

    2007-06-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy is the most prevalent form of glomerulonephritis worldwide. A renal biopsy is required for an accurate diagnosis, as no convenient biomarker is currently available. We developed a serological test based upon the observation that this nephropathy is characterized by undergalactosylated IgA1 in the circulation and in mesangial immune deposits. In the absence of galactose, the terminal saccharide of O-linked chains in the hinge region of IgA1 is terminal or sialylated N-acetylgalactosamine. A lectin from Helix aspersa, recognizing N-acetylgalactosamine, was used to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that measures galactose-deficient IgA1 in serum. The median serum lectin-binding IgA1 level was significantly higher for 153 Caucasian adult patients with IgA nephropathy without progression to end-stage renal disease as compared with that for 150 healthy Caucasian adult controls. As the lectin-binding IgA1 levels for the controls were not normally distributed, the 90th percentile was used for determination of significant elevation. Using a value of 1076 U/ml as the upper limit of normal, 117 of the 153 patients with IgA nephropathy had an elevated serum lectin-binding IgA1 level. The sensitivity as a diagnostic test was 76.5%, with specificity 94%; the positive predictive value was 88.6% and the negative predictive value was 78.9%. We conclude that this lectin-binding assay may have potential as a noninvasive diagnostic test for IgA nephropathy.

  1. UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase from the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica: biochemical characterization of the enzyme and identification of inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zinsser, Veronika L; Lindert, Steffen; Banford, Samantha; Hoey, Elizabeth M; Trudgett, Alan; Timson, David J

    2015-03-01

    Leloir pathway enzyme uridine diphosphate (UDP)-galactose 4'-epimerase from the common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica (FhGALE) was identified and characterized. The enzyme can be expressed in, and purified from, Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme is active: the K(m) (470 μM) is higher than the corresponding human enzyme (HsGALE), whereas the k(cat) (2.3 s(-1)) is substantially lower. FhGALE binds NAD(+) and has shown to be dimeric by analytical gel filtration. Like the human and yeast GALEs, FhGALE is stabilized by the substrate UDP-galactose. Molecular modelling predicted that FhGALE adopts a similar overall fold to HsGALE and that tyrosine 155 is likely to be the catalytically critical residue in the active site. In silico screening of the National Cancer Institute Developmental Therapeutics Program library identified 40 potential inhibitors of FhGALE which were tested in vitro. Of these, 6 showed concentration-dependent inhibition of FhGALE, some with nanomolar IC50 values. Two inhibitors (5-fluoroorotate and N-[(benzyloxy)carbonyl]leucyltryptophan) demonstrated selectivity for FhGALE over HsGALE. These compounds also thermally destabilized FhGALE in a concentration-dependent manner. Interestingly, the selectivity of 5-fluoroorotate was not shown by orotic acid, which differs in structure by 1 fluorine atom. These results demonstrate that, despite the structural and biochemical similarities of FhGALE and HsGALE, it is possible to discover compounds which preferentially inhibit FhGALE.

  2. GWAS for serum galactose-deficient IgA1 implicates critical genes of the O-glycosylation pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Moldoveanu, Zina; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Reily, Colin; Hou, Ping; Xie, Jingyuan; Mladkova, Nikol; Prakash, Sindhuri; Fischman, Clara; Shapiro, Samantha; Bradbury, Drew; Ionita-Laza, Iuliana; Eitner, Frank; Rauen, Thomas; Maillard, Nicolas; Floege, Jürgen; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Hong; Scolari, Francesco; Wyatt, Robert J.; Julian, Bruce A.; Gharavi, Ali G.; Novak, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Aberrant O-glycosylation of serum immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) represents a heritable pathogenic defect in IgA nephropathy, the most common form of glomerulonephritis worldwide, but specific genetic factors involved in its determination are not known. We performed a quantitative GWAS for serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) in 2,633 subjects of European and East Asian ancestry and discovered two genome-wide significant loci, in C1GALT1 (rs13226913, P = 3.2 x 10−11) and C1GALT1C1 (rs5910940, P = 2.7 x 10−8). These genes encode molecular partners essential for enzymatic O-glycosylation of IgA1. We demonstrated that these two loci explain approximately 7% of variability in circulating Gd-IgA1 in Europeans, but only 2% in East Asians. Notably, the Gd-IgA1-increasing allele of rs13226913 is common in Europeans, but rare in East Asians. Moreover, rs13226913 represents a strong cis-eQTL for C1GALT1 that encodes the key enzyme responsible for the transfer of galactose to O-linked glycans on IgA1. By in vitro siRNA knock-down studies, we confirmed that mRNA levels of both C1GALT1 and C1GALT1C1 determine the rate of secretion of Gd-IgA1 in IgA1-producing cells. Our findings provide novel insights into the genetic regulation of O-glycosylation and are relevant not only to IgA nephropathy, but also to other complex traits associated with O-glycosylation defects, including inflammatory bowel disease, hematologic disease, and cancer. PMID:28187132

  3. Establishing New Cut-Off Limits for Galactose 1-Phosphate-Uridyltransferase Deficiency for the Dutch Newborn Screening Programme.

    PubMed

    Kemper, E A; Boelen, A; Bosch, A M; van Veen-Sijne, M; van Rijswijk, C N; Bouva, M J; Fingerhut, R; Schielen, P C J I

    2017-01-01

    Newborn screening for classical galactosemia in the Netherlands is performed by five laboratories and is based on the measurement of galactose 1-phosphate-uridyltransferase (GALT) activity and total galactose (TGAL) in heel prick blood spots. Unexpected problems with the GALT assay posed a challenge to switch to a new assay. The aim of this study was to make an analytical and clinical evaluation of GALT assays to replace the current assay and to establish new cut-off values (COVs).First, the manual assay from PerkinElmer (NG-1100) and the GSP assay were compared by analyzing 626 anonymous heel prick samples in parallel. Secondly, a manual GSP method was evaluated and 2,052 samples were compared with the automated GSP assay. Finally, a clinical evaluation was performed by collecting data from 93 referred newborns.No satisfactory correlation was observed between GALT activity measured with the manual NG-1100 assay and the automated GSP assay. An acceptable correlation was found between the manual and automated GSP assay. Intra- and inter-assay variation of the automated GSP were 1.8-10.0% and 3.1-13.9%, respectively. Evaluation of clinical data demonstrated that adjusting the COVs for GALT to 2.0 U/dl and TGAL to 1,100 μmol/l improved specificity of screening for classical galactosemia.An assay designed for automated processing to measure GALT activity in heel prick samples works equally well when processed manually. We therefore adopted both methods in the Dutch screening laboratories. As a result of this evaluation new COVs for GALT and TGAL have been introduced and are valid from July 2015.

  4. Lactose and galactose content in cheese results in overestimation of moisture by vacuum oven and microwave methods.

    PubMed

    Lee, H; Rankin, S A; Fonseca, L M; Milani, F X

    2014-05-01

    Moisture determination in cheese is a critical test for regulatory compliance, functionality, and economic reasons. Common methods for moisture determination in cheese rely upon the thermal volatilization of water from cheese and calculation of moisture content based on the resulting loss of mass. Residual sugars, such as lactose and galactose, are commonly present in cheeses at levels ranging from trace amounts to 5%. These sugars are capable of reacting with other compounds in cheese, especially under the thermal conditions required for moisture determination, to yield volatile reaction products. The hypothesis of this work is that residual sugars in cheese will be converted into volatile compounds over the course of moisture determination at a level sufficient to result in overestimated cheese moisture. A full-factorial statistical design was used to evaluate the effects of cheese type, sugar type, sugar level, method type, and all interactions. Cheddar and low-moisture, part-skim (LMPS) Mozzarella cheeses were prepared with 1, 3, and 5% added lactose or galactose, and subjected to either vacuum oven or microwave-based moisture determination methods. Browning index and colorimetry were measured to characterize the color and extent of browning. Volatile analyses were performed to provide chemical evidence of the reactions proposed. The presence of residual sugars altered moisture calculations as a function of cheese type, sugar type, sugar level, method type, and numerous interactions. At higher concentrations of residual sugar, the percentage moisture determinations were increased by values of up to 1.8. Measures of browning reactions, including browning index, colorimetry, and volatile profiles demonstrate that the proposed browning reactions played a causative role. This work establishes the need to consider cheese type, sugar type, sugar levels, and method type as a means of more accurately determining moisture levels.

  5. Raffinose Family Oligosaccharides Act As Galactose Stores in Seeds and Are Required for Rapid Germination of Arabidopsis in the Dark

    PubMed Central

    Gangl, Roman; Tenhaken, Raimund

    2016-01-01

    Raffinose synthase 5 (AtRS5, At5g40390) was characterized from Arabidopsis as a recombinant enzyme. It has a far higher affinity for the substrates galactinol and sucrose than any other raffinose synthase previously reported. In addition raffinose synthase 5 is also working as a galactosylhydrolase, degrading galactinol, and raffinose under certain conditions. Together with raffinose synthase 4, which is predominantly a stachyose synthase, both enzymes contribute to the raffinose family oligosaccharide (RFO) accumulation in seeds. A double knockout in raffinose synthase 4 and raffinose synthase 5 (ΔAtRS4,5) was generated, which is devoid of RFOs in seeds. Unstressed leaves of 4 week old ΔAtRS4,5 plants showed drastically 23.8-fold increased concentrations of galactinol. Unexpectedly, raffinose appeared again in drought stressed ΔAtRS4,5 plants, but not under other abiotic stress conditions. Drought stress leads to novel transcripts of raffinose synthase 6 suggesting that this isoform is a further stress inducible raffinose synthase in Arabidopsis. ΔAtRS4,5 seeds showed a 5 days delayed germination phenotype in darkness and an elevated expression of the transcription factor phytochrome interacting factor 1 (AtPIF1) target gene AtPIF6, being a repressor of germination. This prolonged dormancy is not seen during germination in the light. Exogenous galactose partially promotes germination of ΔAtRS4,5 seeds in the dark suggesting that RFOs act as a galactose store and repress AtPIF6 transcripts. PMID:27507985

  6. A novel cyclic squamosamide analogue compound FLZ improves memory impairment in artificial senescence mice induced by chronic injection of D-galactose and NaNO2.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Liu, Gengtao

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to access the protective effect of a novel synthesized squamosamide cyclic analogue, compound FLZ, on memory impairment in artificially senescent mice induced by chronic injection of D-galactose and sodium nitrite (NaNO(2)). Artificially senescent mouse model was induced by consecutive injection of D-galactose (120 mg/kg) and NaNO(2) (90 mg/kg) once daily for 60 days. Compound FLZ (75 and 150 mg/kg) was orally administered once daily for 30 days after D-galactose and NaNO(2) injection for 30 days. The water maze test was used to evaluate the learning and memory function of mice. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in serum were determined using different biochemical kits. The alterations in hippocampus morphology were assessed by light and electronic microscope. Immunoreactive cells of Bcl-2 in the hippocampus were counted by immunohistochemical staining, and Bcl-2 protein expression was analysed by Western blot method. The results indicate that injection of D-galactose and NaNO(2) induces memory impairment and neuronal damage in hippocampus of mice. In addition, serum SOD and GSH-Px activities decreased, while MDA level increased. Bcl-2-positive neurons and Bcl-2 protein expression in the hippocampus decreased remarkably. Oral administration of FLZ for 30 days significantly improved the cognitive deficits and the biochemical markers mentioned above, and also reduced the pathological alterations in mouse hippocampus. The results suggest that FLZ ameliorates memory deficits and pathological injury in artificially senescent mice induced by chronic injection of D-galactose and NaNO(2), indicating that FLZ is worth further studies for fighting antisenescence and dementia.

  7. Translocation and the alternative D-galacturonate pathway contribute to increasing the ascorbate level in ripening tomato fruits together with the D-mannose/L-galactose pathway

    PubMed Central

    Badejo, Adebanjo Ayobamidele; Wada, Keiko; Gao, Yongshun; Maruta, Takanori; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    The D-mannose/L-galactose pathway for the biosynthesis of vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid; AsA) has greatly improved the understanding of this indispensable compound in plants, where it plays multifunctional roles. However, it is yet to be proven whether the same pathway holds for all the different organs of plants, especially the fruit-bearing plants, at different stages of development. Micro-Tom was used here to elucidate the mechanisms of AsA accumulation and regulation in tomato fruits. The mRNA expression of the genes in the D-mannose/L-galactose pathway were inversely correlated with increasing AsA content of Micro-Tom fruits during ripening. Feeding L-[6-14C]AsA to Micro-Tom plants revealed that the bulk of the label from AsA accumulated in the source leaf was transported to the immature green fruits, and the rate of translocation decreased as ripening progressed. L-Galactose feeding, but neither D-galacturonate nor L-gulono-1,4-lactone, enhanced the content of AsA in immature green fruit. On the other hand, L-galactose and D-galacturonate, but not L-gulono-1,4-lactone, resulted in an increase in the AsA content of red ripened fruits. Crude extract prepared from insoluble fractions of green and red fruits showed D-galacturonate reductase- and aldonolactonase-specific activities, the antepenultimate and penultimate enzymes, respectively, in the D-galacturonate pathway, in both fruits. Taken together, the present findings demonstrated that tomato fruits could switch between different sources for AsA supply depending on their ripening stages. The translocation from source leaves and biosynthesis via the D-mannose/L-galactose pathway are dominant sources in immature fruits, while the alternative D-galacturonate pathway contributes to AsA accumulation in ripened Micro-Tom fruits. PMID:21984649

  8. Interleukin-1beta reduces galactose transport in intestinal epithelial cells in a NF-kB and protein kinase C-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Viñuales, Carmen; Gascón, Sonia; Barranquero, Cristina; Osada, Jesús; Rodríguez-Yoldi, Ma Jesús

    2013-09-15

    Interleukins (IL), aside from their role in the regulation of the immune cascade, they have also been shown to modulate intestinal transport function. IL-1β is a potent inflammatory cytokine involved in many important cellular functions. The aim of this work was to study the in vitro effect of IL-1β on d-galactose transport across intestinal epithelia in rabbit jejunum and Caco-2 cells. The results showed that d-galactose intestinal absorption was diminished in IL-1β treated jejunum rabbits without affecting the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity. The presence of IL-1 cell-surface receptors was confirmed by addition to tissue of a specific IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra). The cytokine did not inhibit either the uptake of d-galactose nor modified the sodium-glucose transport (SGLT1) protein levels in the brush border membrane vesicles, suggesting an indirect IL effect. The IL-inhibition was significantly reversed in the presence of inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The proteasome selective inhibitor completely abolished the IL-effect. Furthermore, the cytokine inhibition on galactose transport related to NF-kB activation was also confirmed in Caco-2 cells. In summary, the direct addition of IL-1β to intestinal epithelia inhibits d-galactose transport by a possible reduction in the SGLT1 activity. This event may be mediated by several transduction pathways activated during the inflammatory processes related to several protein kinases and nuclear factor, NF-kB. The IL-effect is independent of hormonal milieu and nervous stimuli.

  9. Genetic Interaction of Aspergillus nidulans galR, xlnR and araR in Regulating D-Galactose and L-Arabinose Release and Catabolism Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Joanna E; Gruben, Birgit S; Battaglia, Evy; Wiebenga, Ad; Majoor, Eline; de Vries, Ronald P

    2015-01-01

    In Aspergillus nidulans, the xylanolytic regulator XlnR and the arabinanolytic regulator AraR co-regulate pentose catabolism. In nature, the pentose sugars D-xylose and L-arabinose are both main building blocks of the polysaccharide arabinoxylan. In pectin and arabinogalactan, these two monosaccharides are found in combination with D-galactose. GalR, the regulator that responds to the presence of D-galactose, regulates the D-galactose catabolic pathway. In this study we investigated the possible interaction between XlnR, AraR and GalR in pentose and/or D-galactose catabolism in A. nidulans. Growth phenotypes and metabolic gene expression profiles were studied in single, double and triple disruptant A. nidulans strains of the genes encoding these paralogous transcription factors. Our results demonstrate that AraR and XlnR not only control pentose catabolic pathway genes, but also genes of the oxido-reductive D-galactose catabolic pathway. This suggests an interaction between three transcriptional regulators in D-galactose catabolism. Conversely, GalR is not involved in regulation of pentose catabolism, but controls only genes of the oxido-reductive D-galactose catabolic pathway.

  10. Purification, some properties of a D-galactose-binding leaf lectin from Erythrina indica and further characterization of seed lectin.

    PubMed

    Konozy, Emadeldin H E; Mulay, Ranjana; Faca, Vitor; Ward, Richard John; Greene, Lewis Joel; Roque-Barriera, Maria Cristina; Sabharwal, Sushma; Bhide, Shobhana V

    2002-10-01

    Lectin from a leaf of Erythrina indica was isolated by affinity chromatography on Lactamyl-Seralose 4B. Lectin gave a single band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). In SDS-gel electrophoresis under reducing and non-reducing conditions Erythrina indica leaf lectin (EiLL) split into two bands with subunit molecular weights of 30 and 33 kDa, whereas 58 kDa was obtained for the intact lectin by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. EiLL agglutinated all human RBC types, with a slight preference for the O blood group. Lectin was found to be a glycoprotein with a neutral sugar content of 9.5%. The carbohydrate specificity of lectin was directed towards D-galactose and its derivatives with pronounced preference for lactose. EiLL had pH optima at pH 7.0; above and below this pH lectin lost sugar-binding capability rapidly. Lectin showed broad temperature optima from 25 to 50 degrees C; however, at 55 degrees C EiLL lost more than 90% of its activity and at 60 degrees C it was totally inactivated. The pI of EiLL was found to be 7.6. The amino acid analysis of EiLL indicated that the lectin was rich in acidic as well as hydrophobic amino acids and totally lacked cysteine and methionine. The N-terminal amino acids were Val-Glu-Thr-IIe-Ser-Phe-Ser-Phe-Ser-Glu-Phe-Glu-Ala-Gly-Asn-Asp-X-Leu-Thr-Gln-Glu-Gly-Ala-Ala-Leu-. Chemical modification studies of both EiLL and Erythrina indica seed lectin (EiSL) with phenylglyoxal, DEP and DTNB revealed an absence of arginine, histidine and cysteine, respectively, in or near the ligand-binding site of both lectins. Modification of tyrosine with NAI led to partial inactivation of EiLL and EiSL; however, total inactivation was observed upon NBS-modification of two tryptophan residues in EiSL. Despite the apparent importance of these tryptophan residues for lectin activity they did not seem to have a direct role in binding haptenic sugar as D-galactose did not protect lectin from inactivation by NBS.

  11. Arabidopsis thaliana VTC4 encodes L-galactose-1-P phosphatase, a plant ascorbic acid biosynthetic enzyme.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Patricia L; Gatzek, Stephan; Wheeler, Glen L; Dowdle, John; Raymond, Marjorie J; Rolinski, Susanne; Isupov, Mikhail; Littlechild, Jennifer A; Smirnoff, Nicholas

    2006-06-09

    In plants, a proposed ascorbate (vitamin C) biosynthesis pathway occurs via GDP-D-mannose (GDP-D-Man), GDP-L-galactose (GDP-L-Gal), and L-galactose. However, the steps involved in the synthesis of L-Gal from GDP-L-Gal in planta are not fully characterized. Here we present evidence for an in vivo role for L-Gal-1-P phosphatase in plant ascorbate biosynthesis. We have characterized a low ascorbate mutant (vtc4-1) of Arabidopsis thaliana, which exhibits decreased ascorbate biosynthesis. Genetic mapping and sequencing of the VTC4 locus identified a mutation (P92L) in a gene with predicted L-Gal-1-P phosphatase activity (At3g02870). Pro-92 is within a beta-bulge that is conserved in related myo-inositol monophosphatases. The mutation is predicted to disrupt the positioning of catalytic amino acid residues within the active site. Accordingly, L-Gal-1-P phosphatase activity in vtc4-1 was approximately 50% of wild-type plants. In addition, vtc4-1 plants incorporate significantly more radiolabel from [2-(3)H]Man into L-galactosyl residues suggesting that the mutation increases the availability of GDP-L-Gal for polysaccharide synthesis. Finally, a homozygous T-DNA insertion line, which lacks a functional At3g02870 gene product, is also ascorbate-deficient (50% of wild type) and deficient in L-Gal-1-P phosphatase activity. Genetic complementation tests revealed that the insertion mutant and VTC4-1 are alleles of the same genetic locus. The significantly lower ascorbate and perturbed L-Gal metabolism in vtc4-1 and the T-DNA insertion mutant indicate that L-Gal-1-P phosphatase plays a role in plant ascorbate biosynthesis. The presence of ascorbate in the T-DNA insertion mutant suggests there is a bypass to this enzyme or that other pathways also contribute to ascorbate biosynthesis.

  12. Neuroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of dried fruits of Trapa bispinosa Roxb on lipofuscinogenesis and fluorescence product in brain of D-galactose induced ageing accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Ambikar, D B; Harle, U N; Khandare, R A; Bore, V V; Vyawahare, N S

    2010-04-01

    Effect of hydroalcoholic extract T. bispinosa (TB) was studied on fluorescence product and biochemical parameter like lipid peroxidation, catalase activity and glutathione peroxidase activity in the brain of female albino mice. Ageing was accelerated by the treatment of 0.5 ml 5% D-galactose for 15 days. This resulted in increased fluorescence product, increase lipid peroxidation and decrease antioxidant enzyme like glutathione peroxides and catalase in cerebral cortex. After cotreatment with hydroalcoholic extract of TB (500 mg/kg, po) there was decrease in fluorescence product in cerebral cortex. Moreover, TB inhibited increase lipid peroxidation and restores glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity in cerebral cortex as compare to ageing accelerated control group. To conclude TB found to be effective antioxidative agent which could to some extent reverse D-galactose induced ageing changes resulted due to oxidative damage.

  13. Effects of polyprenols from pine needles of Pinus massoniana on ameliorating cognitive impairment in a D-galactose-induced mouse model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; He, Ling; Yan, Ming; Zheng, Guang-yao; Liu, Xiao-yang

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficiency and oxidative stress have been well documented in aging and in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we assessed the therapeutic effect of polyprenols on D-galactose-induced cognitive impairment in mice by testing on of behavioral and cognitive performance. In order to explore the possible role of polyprenols against D-galactose-induced oxidative damages, we assessed various biochemical indicators. Chronic administration of D-galactose (150 mg/kg·d, s.c.) for 7 weeks significantly impaired cognitive performance (both in step-through passive and active avoidance tests) and locomotor activity (in open-field test) and the ability of spatial learning and memory (in Morris water maze test) compared with the control group. The results revealed that polyprenols treatment for 2 weeks significantly ameliorated model mice's cognitive performance and oxidative defense. All groups of polyprenols enhanced the learning and memory ability in step-through passive and active avoidance tests, locomotor activity in open-field test, and the ability of spatial learning and memory in Morris water maze test. Furthermore, high and middle level of polyprenols significantly increased total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity, neprilysin (NEP), and β-site AβPP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) expression, while nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and the level of Aβ1-42 and presenilin 1 (PS1) were decreased. Polyprenols have a significant relieving effect on learning, memory, and spontaneous activities in a D-galactose-induced mouse model and ameliorates cognitive impairment and biochemical dysfunction in mice. In summary, we have demonstrated that polyprenols may ameliorate memory and cognitive impairment via enhancing oxidative defense and affecting generation and dissimilation of Aβ-related enzymes, suggesting that

  14. L-arabinose/D-galactose 1-dehydrogenase of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii characterised and applied for bioconversion of L-arabinose to L-arabonate with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Aro-Kärkkäinen, Niina; Toivari, Mervi; Maaheimo, Hannu; Ylilauri, Mikko; Pentikäinen, Olli T; Andberg, Martina; Oja, Merja; Penttilä, Merja; Wiebe, Marilyn G; Ruohonen, Laura; Koivula, Anu

    2014-12-01

    Four potential dehydrogenases identified through literature and bioinformatic searches were tested for L-arabonate production from L-arabinose in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The most efficient enzyme, annotated as a D-galactose 1-dehydrogenase from the pea root nodule bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, was purified from S. cerevisiae as a homodimeric protein and characterised. We named the enzyme as a L-arabinose/D-galactose 1-dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.-), Rl AraDH. It belongs to the Gfo/Idh/MocA protein family, prefers NADP(+) but uses also NAD(+) as a cofactor, and showed highest catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m) towards L-arabinose, D-galactose and D-fucose. Based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and modelling studies, the enzyme prefers the α-pyranose form of L-arabinose, and the stable oxidation product detected is L-arabino-1,4-lactone which can, however, open slowly at neutral pH to a linear L-arabonate form. The pH optimum for the enzyme was pH 9, but use of a yeast-in-vivo-like buffer at pH 6.8 indicated that good catalytic efficiency could still be expected in vivo. Expression of the Rl AraDH dehydrogenase in S. cerevisiae, together with the galactose permease Gal2 for L-arabinose uptake, resulted in production of 18 g of L-arabonate per litre, at a rate of 248 mg of L-arabonate per litre per hour, with 86 % of the provided L-arabinose converted to L-arabonate. Expression of a lactonase-encoding gene from Caulobacter crescentus was not necessary for L-arabonate production in yeast.

  15. Gal80 proteins of Kluyveromyces lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are highly conserved but contribute differently to glucose repression of the galactose regulon.

    PubMed Central

    Zenke, F T; Zachariae, W; Lunkes, A; Breunig, K D

    1993-01-01

    We cloned the GAL80 gene encoding the negative regulator of the transcriptional activator Gal4 (Lac9) from the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. The deduced amino acid sequence of K. lactis GAL80 revealed a strong structural conservation between K. lactis Gal80 and the homologous Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein, with an overall identity of 60% and two conserved blocks with over 80% identical residues. K. lactis gal80 disruption mutants show constitutive expression of the lactose/galactose metabolic genes, confirming that K. lactis Gal80 functions in essentially in the same way as does S. cerevisiae Gal80, blocking activation by the transcriptional activator Lac9 (K. lactis Gal4) in the absence of an inducing sugar. However, in contrast to S. cerevisiae, in which Gal4-dependent activation is strongly inhibited by glucose even in a gal80 mutant, glucose repressibility is almost completely lost in gal80 mutants of K. lactis. Indirect evidence suggests that this difference in phenotype is due to a higher activator concentration in K. lactis which is able to overcome glucose repression. Expression of the K. lactis GAL80 gene is controlled by Lac9. Two high-affinity binding sites in the GAL80 promoter mediate a 70-fold induction by galactose and hence negative autoregulation by Gal80. Gal80 in turn not only controls Lac9 activity but also has a moderate influence on its rate of synthesis. Thus, a feedback control mechanism exists between the positive and negative regulators. By mutating the Lac9 binding sites of the GAL80 promoter, we could show that induction of GAL80 is required to prevent activation of the lactose/galactose regulon in glycerol or glucose plus galactose, whereas the noninduced level of Gal80 is sufficient to completely block Lac9 function in glucose. Images PMID:8246973

  16. Protective Effects of Selenium, Vitamin E, and Purple Carrot Anthocyanins on D-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Damage in Blood, Liver, Heart and Kidney Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Zhang, Yunlong; Yuan, Yuan; Sun, Yong; Qin, Yan; Deng, Zeyuan; Li, Hongyan

    2016-10-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the protective effects of selenium (Se), vitamin E (Vit E) and anthocyanins from purple carrots and their combination against the oxidative stress induced by D-galactose in rats. A total of 80 male rats were equally divided into 11 groups, one of which acted as control (I) just receiving intraperitoneal injections of physiological saline. The remaining ten groups (II-XI) were intraperitoneally injected with D-galactose at a dose of 400 mg kg(-1) body weight (BW) per day for 42 consecutive days. Rats in groups III-XI were treated with antioxidants via gavage per day as follows: group III: Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSC), IV: Se as sodium selenite (Na2SeO3), V: Se-enriched yeast (SeY), VI: Vit E as α-tocopherol acetate, VII: anthocyanin from purple carrots (APC), VIII: APC + Vit E, IX: SeMSC + APC+ Vit E, X: Na2SeO3 + APC + Vit E, XI: SeY + Ant + Vit E. The results showed that the rats treated with antioxidants (III-XI) showed significant decreases in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl protein (PCO) compared with the D-galactose-treated group (II) in the heart, liver, kidneys, and blood. Moreover, there were significant increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione (GSH) concentration, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the heart, liver, kidneys, and blood of antioxidant-treated animals (III-XI) than those in control group (I). In addition, the combined treatments of two or three antioxidants showed greater antioxidant activities than those of individual treatments, suggesting the synergistic antioxidant effects of Se, Vit E, and APC. In conclusion, all the antioxidants exhibited protective effects against D-galactose-induced oxidative damage in rats, and these antioxidants showed a synergistic effect.

  17. Genome Sequence of Vibrio sp. Strain EJY3, an Agarolytic Marine Bacterium Metabolizing 3,6-Anhydro-l-Galactose as a Sole Carbon Source

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Hanseong; Yun, Eun Ju; Lee, Saeyoung; Ko, Hyeok-Jin; Kim, Sujin; Kim, Byung-Yong; Song, Heesang; Lim, Kwang-il

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic fate of 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose (l-AHG) is unknown in the global marine carbon cycle. Vibrio sp. strain EJY3 is an agarolytic marine bacterium that can utilize l-AHG as a sole carbon source. To elucidate the metabolic pathways of l-AHG, we have sequenced the complete genome of Vibrio sp. strain EJY3. PMID:22535948

  18. In silico prediction of the effects of mutations in the human UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase gene: towards a predictive framework for type III galactosemia.

    PubMed

    McCorvie, Thomas J; Timson, David J

    2013-07-25

    The enzyme UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase (GALE) catalyses the reversible epimerisation of both UDP-galactose and UDP-N-acetyl-galactosamine. Deficiency of the human enzyme (hGALE) is associated with type III galactosemia. The majority of known mutations in hGALE are missense and private thus making clinical guidance difficult. In this study a bioinformatics approach was employed to analyse the structural effects due to each mutation using both the UDP-glucose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine bound structures of the wild-type protein. Changes to the enzyme's overall stability, substrate/cofactor binding and propensity to aggregate were also predicted. These predictions were found to be in good agreement with previous in vitro and in vivo studies when data was available and allowed for the differentiation of those mutants that severely impair the enzyme's activity against UDP-galactose. Next this combination of techniques were applied to another twenty-six reported variants from the NCBI dbSNP database that have yet to be studied to predict their effects. This identified p.I14T, p.R184H and p.G302R as likely severely impairing mutations. Although severely impaired mutants were predicted to decrease the protein's stability, overall predicted stability changes only weakly correlated with residual activity against UDP-galactose. This suggests other protein functions such as changes in cofactor and substrate binding may also contribute to the mechanism of impairment. Finally this investigation shows that this combination of different in silico approaches is useful in predicting the effects of mutations and that it could be the basis of an initial prediction of likely clinical severity when new hGALE mutants are discovered.

  19. Solid-state glycation of beta-lactoglobulin by lactose and galactose: localization of the modified amino acids using mass spectrometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Fenaille, François; Morgan, François; Parisod, Véronique; Tabet, Jean-Claude; Guy, Philippe A

    2004-01-01

    The Maillard reaction is commonly encountered during food processing or storage, and also in human nutrition, hence there is a need for analytical methodologies to identify and characterize the modified proteins. This paper reports specific methods using mass spectrometric techniques to localize protein modifications induced by lactose and galactose on beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) under solid-state glycation conditions. The extent of glycation was first determined by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS). The specific identification of lactose-modified amino acid residues was realized using both NanoESI-MS, NanoESI-MS/MS (neutral loss scanning modes) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) (with and without guanidination of lysine residues) on unfractionated digests. The results indicated that, after 8.25 h of incubation, the lysine residues were the main targets of lactose-induced modification. In addition to the 15 lysine residues, Leu1 (NH2 terminal) and the Arg124 were also found to be modified, thus leading to a total of 17 different modified amino acid residues (versus 15 found by LC/ESI-MS measurement). In a second set of experiments, different strategies consisting of constant neutral loss and precursor ion scanning were compared to characterize galactose-induced modifications. Owing to the high level of beta-Lg glycation, the combined use of these different strategies appeared to be necessary for determining the galactose-modified sites after 8.25 h of incubation. Thus, among the 22 galactose adducts deduced from the LC/ESI-MS measurement, apart from the N-terminal and classical lysine residues, we also observed a few arginine residues (Arg40, Arg124 and Arg148) that were modified, and also dialkylations on specific lysine residues (Lys47, Lys75).

  20. Electrochemical and spectroscopic effects of mixed substituents in bis(phenolate)–copper(II) galactose oxidase model complexes

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Russell C.; Lyons, Christopher T.; Wasinger, Erik C.; Stack, T. Daniel. P.

    2012-01-01

    Non-symmetric substitution of salen (1R1,R2) and reduced salen (2R1,R2) CuII-phenoxyl complexes with a combination of -tBu, -SiPr, and -OMe substituents leads to dramatic differences in their redox and spectroscopic properties, providing insight into the influence of the cysteine-modified tyrosine cofactor in the enzyme galactose oxidase (GO). Using a modified Marcus-Hush analysis, the oxidized copper complexes are characterized as Class II mixed-valent due to the electronic differentiation between the two substituted phenolates. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) assesses the degree of radical delocalization onto the single sulfur atom of non-symmetric [1tBu,SMe]+ at 7%, consistent with other spectroscopic and electrochemical results that suggest preferential oxidation of the -SMe bearing phenolate. Estimates of the thermodynamic free-energy difference between the two localized states (ΔG∘) and reorganizational energies (λR1R2) of [1R1,R2]+ and [2R1,R2]+ leads to accurate predictions of the spectroscopically observed IVCT transition energies. Application of the modified Marcus-Hush analysis to GO using parameters determined for [2R1,R2]+ predicts a νmax of ~ 13600 cm−1, well within the energy range of the broad Vis-NIR band displayed by the enzyme. PMID:22471355

  1. Lignans from Schisandra chinensis ameliorate cognition deficits and attenuate brain oxidative damage induced by D-galactose in rats.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tingxu; Shang, Lei; Wang, Mengshi; Zhang, Chenning; Zhao, Xu; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the neuroprotective effects of active compounds from Schisandra chinensis (Trucz.) Baill. (Magnoliaceae) against the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced neurotoxicity in rat. The Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected with D-gal (150 mg/(kg day)) for six weeks and orally administered with water extract or 95 % ethanol extract (partitioned with petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CF), ethyl acetate (EA) and n-Butanol (NB), respectively) of the fruits of Schisandra chinensis simultaneously. The alteration of cognitive functions was assessed by using Morris water maze and Step-down type passive avoidance test. The results demonstrated that PE fraction was the most effective fraction to ameliorate cognitive deficits. Further biochemical examination indicated that PE could attenuate the activities decreasing of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), the total antioxidant (T-AOC) induced by D-gal, and maintain the normal levels of glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the serum, prefrontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus of the brain of related rat, selectively. Meanwhile, the compounds of PE fraction were also identified as mainly lignans, thus, these results suggest that lignans from the PE fraction of Schisandra chinensis represented a potential source of medicine for the treatment of the aging-associated neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Anti-glycative and anti-inflammatory effects of protocatechuic acid in brain of mice treated by D-galactose.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shih-jei; Yin, Mei-chin

    2012-09-01

    Protocatechuic acid (PCA) at 0.5%, 1% or 2% was supplied to D-galactose (DG) treated mice for 8 week. PCA intake at 2% increased its deposit in brain. DG treatment increased brain level of reactive oxygen species, protein carbonyl, carboxymethyllysine, pentosidine, sorbitol, fructose and methylglyoxal (P<0.05). PCA intake, at 1% and 2%, lowered brain level of these parameters (P<0.05). DG treatments enhanced activity and protein expression of aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase, as well as declined glyoxalase I (GLI) activity and protein expression (P<0.05). PCA intake at 1% and 2% reduced activity and protein expression of AR (P<0.05), and at 2% restored GLI activity and expression (P<0.05). DG injection also elevated cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 activity and expression, and increased the release of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and prostaglandin E(2) in brain (P<0.05). PCA intake decreased these cytokines (P<0.05), and at 1% and 2% suppressed COX-2 activity and expression (P<0.05). PCA intake at 1% and 2% also lowered DG-induced elevation in activity, mRNA expression and protein production of nuclear factor kappa B p65 (P<0.05). These findings suggest that the supplement of protocatechuic acid might be helpful for the prevention or alleviation of aging.

  3. Recognition of the galactose- or N-acetylgalactosamine-binding lectin of Entamoeba histolytica by human immune sera.

    PubMed Central

    Petri, W A; Joyce, M P; Broman, J; Smith, R D; Murphy, C F; Ravdin, J I

    1987-01-01

    Cure of amebic liver abscess is associated with resistance to recurrent invasive amebiasis and the development of a humoral and cell-mediated immune response. We determined whether human immune sera contain blocking antibody for the 170-kilodalton (kDa) galactose or N-acetylgalactosamine (Gal/GalNAc)-binding lectin of Entamoeba histolytica. By Western blot (immunoblot) of whole amebae subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, all eight immune sera studied here prominently recognized a 170-kDa amebic protein. Western blot of the purified Gal/GalNAc lectin with pooled human immune sera (PHIS) confirmed that the 170-kDa band was the adherence lectin. Immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-metabolically-labeled amebae with the antilectin monoclonal antibody H8-5 and with PHIS demonstrated that the 170-kDa lectin was the major antigen recognized by PHIS. The in vitro adherence of E. histolytica trophozoites to CHO cells at 4 degrees C was inhibited by prior exposure of amebae to greater than or equal to 1.0% PHIS. The humoral response to the Gal/GalNAc-binding lectin of the parasite may contribute to the development of protective immunity against invasive amebiasis. Images PMID:2888730

  4. Antioxidant effects of the orientin and vitexin in Trollius chinensis Bunge in D-galactose-aged mice.

    PubMed

    An, Fang; Yang, Guodong; Tian, Jiaming; Wang, Shuhua

    2012-11-25

    Total flavonoids are the main pharmaceutical components of Trollius chinensis Bunge, and orientin and vitexin are the monomer components of total flavonoids in Trollius chinensis Bunge. In this study, an aged mouse model was established through intraperitoneal injection of D-galactose for 8 weeks, followed by treatment with 40, 20, or 10 mg/kg orientin, vitexin, or a positive control (vitamin E) via intragastric administration for an additional 8 weeks. Orientin, vitexin, and vitamin E improved the general medical status of the aging mice and significantly increased their brain weights. They also produced an obvious rise in total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels in the serum, and the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, Na(+)-K(+)-ATP enzyme, and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATP enzyme in the liver, brain and kidneys. In addition, they significantly reduced malondialdehyde levels in the liver, brain and kidney and lipofuscin levels in the brain. They also significantly improved the neuronal ultrastructure. The 40 mg/kg dose of orientin and vitexin had the same antioxidant capacity as vitamin E. These experimental findings indicate that orientin and vitexin engender anti-aging effects through their antioxidant capacities.

  5. Glutamine synthetase plays a role in D-galactose-induced astrocyte aging in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yao; Gao, Hongchang; Shi, Xiaojie; Wang, Na; Ai, Dongdong; Li, Juan; Ouyang, Li; Yang, Jianbo; Tian, Yueyang; Lu, Jianxin

    2014-10-01

    Astrocytes play multiple roles in physiological and pathological conditions in brain. However, little is known about the alterations of astrocytes in age-related changes, and few aging models of the astrocytes in vitro have been established. Therefore, in the present study, we used d-galactose (D-Gal) to establish astrocyte aging model to explore the alterations of astrocytes in brain aging. We also used (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectra to verify the metabolic changes in the cerebral cortex of mice injected with D-gal. The results showed that D-gal (55mM) treatment for 1 week induced senescence characteristics in cultured cortical astrocytes. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis showed that the levels of glutamine synthetase (GS) mRNA and protein were strikingly decreased in the cultured senescent astrocytes, and the senescent astrocytes showed less resistance to the glutamate-induced gliotoxicity. The impairments of glutamate-glutamine cycle and astrocytes were also found in the cerebral cortex of mice treatment with D-gal (100mg/kg) for 6 weeks, and the level of GS mRNA was also found to be reduced markedly, being consistent with the result obtained from the senescent astrocytes in vitro. These results indicate that astrocyte may be the predominant contributor to the pathogenic mechanisms of D-gal-induced brain aging in mice, and GS might be one of the potential therapeutic targets of the aged brain induced by D-gal.

  6. A galactose-functionalized dendritic siRNA-nanovector to potentiate hepatitis C inhibition in liver cells.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarayanan, Abirami; Reddy, B Uma; Raghav, Nallani; Ravi, Vijay Kumar; Kumar, Anuj; Maiti, Prabal K; Sood, A K; Jayaraman, N; Das, Saumitra

    2015-10-28

    A RNAi based antiviral strategy holds the promise to impede hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection overcoming the problem of emergence of drug resistant variants, usually encountered in the interferon free direct-acting antiviral therapy. Targeted delivery of siRNA helps minimize adverse 'off-target' effects and maximize the efficacy of therapeutic response. Herein, we report the delivery of siRNA against the conserved 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of HCV RNA using a liver-targeted dendritic nano-vector functionalized with a galactopyranoside ligand (DG). Physico-chemical characterization revealed finer details of complexation of DG with siRNA, whereas molecular dynamic simulations demonstrated sugar moieties projecting "out" in the complex. Preferential delivery of siRNA to the liver was achieved through a highly specific ligand-receptor interaction between dendritic galactose and the asialoglycoprotein receptor. The siRNA-DG complex exhibited perinuclear localization in liver cells and co-localization with viral proteins. The histopathological studies showed the systemic tolerance and biocompatibility of DG. Further, whole body imaging and immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the preferential delivery of the nucleic acid to mice liver. Significant decrease in HCV RNA levels (up to 75%) was achieved in HCV subgenomic replicon and full length HCV-JFH1 infectious cell culture systems. The multidisciplinary approach provides the 'proof of concept' for restricted delivery of therapeutic siRNAs using a target oriented dendritic nano-vector.

  7. Efficacy of low-power laser irradiation in the prevention of D-galactose-induced senescence in human dermal fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Chengbo; Wu, Shengnan; Xing, Da

    2011-03-01

    Low-power laser (He-Ne) irradiation (LPLI) has been found to modulate various biological effects, especially those involved in promoting cell proliferation and metabolic regulation. However, the underlying mechanisms that LPLI prevents human cell senescence remain undefined. Herein, we devised a model enabling cell senescence using D-galactose for two days then treat with or without LPLI(< 15J/cm2), and investigated whether LPLI delays cell senescent in human dermal fibroblasts cells (HDF-a). First in this study, using SA-β-gal staining, compared with control cell we detected a lower frequency of SA-β-gal staining under the treatment of LPLI. Moreover, we found the growth rates of cell with LPLI was higher using CCK-8 analysis. Additionally, we also found LPLI induced HDF-a entered the irreversible G1 arrest measured by flow cytometry system. Therefore, LPLI may promote cell proliferation by stimulating cell-cycle progression and delay human cell senescence. Taken together, Low-power laser irradiation delay HDF-a cells senescence provides new information for the mechanisms of biological effects of LPLI.

  8. Digestibility and prebiotic properties of potato rhamnogalacturonan I polysaccharide and its galactose-rich oligosaccharides/oligomers.

    PubMed

    Khodaei, Nastaran; Fernandez, Benoit; Fliss, Ismail; Karboune, Salwa

    2016-01-20

    Galactose-rich oligosaccharides/oligomers (oligo-RG I) were produced by the enzymatic treatment of potato galactan-rich rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I) with endo-β-1,4-galactanase and Depol 670L multi-enzymatic preparation. The digestibility study revealed that 81.6 and 79.3% of RG I and its corresponding oligomers remained unhydrolyzed, respectively. The prebiotic properties of RG I and its hydrolysates were investigated using a continuous culture system inoculated with immobilized fecal microbiota. Both RG I and oligo-RG I have stimulated the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp., with oligo-RG I hydrolysates being more selectively fermented by these beneficial bacteria. Furthermore, none of RG I nor its hydrolysates increased the populations of Bacteroidetes and Clostridium leptum. Total amounts of short chain fatty acids, generated upon the fermentation of oligo-RG I, were higher than those obtained with its parent RG I and the positive control (fructooligosaccharides). The overall study contributes to the understandings of the prebiotic properties of potato RG I and its corresponding oligosaccharides/oligomers.

  9. A Laterally Acquired Galactose Oxidase-Like Gene Is Required for Aerial Development during Osmotic Stress in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Liman, Recep; Facey, Paul D.; van Keulen, Geertje; Dyson, Paul J.; Del Sol, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that most Actinobacterial orthologs of S. coelicolor SCO2837, encoding a metal-dependent galactose oxidase-like protein, are found within Streptomyces and were probably acquired by horizontal gene transfer from fungi. Disruption of SCO2837 (glxA) caused a conditional bld phenotype that could not be reversed by extracellular complementation. Studies aimed at characterising the regulation of expression of glxA showed that it is not a target for other bld genes. We provide evidence that glxA is required for osmotic adaptation, although independently from the known osmotic stress response element SigB. glxA has been predicted to be part of an operon with the transcription unit comprising the upstream cslA gene and glxA. However, both phenotypic and expression studies indicate that it is also expressed from an independent promoter region internal to cslA. GlxA displays an in situ localisation pattern similar to that one observed for CslA at hyphal tips, but localisation of the former is independent of the latter. The functional role of GlxA in relation to CslA is discussed. PMID:23326581

  10. Phenolic components of the primary cell wall. Feruloylated disaccharides of D-galactose and L-arabinose from spinach polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Fry, S C

    1982-05-01

    1. Cell walls from rapidly growing cell suspension cultures of Spinacia oleracea L. contained ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid esterified with a water-insoluble polymer. 2. Prolonged treatment with trypsin did not release may feruloyl esters from dearabinofuranosylated cell walls, and the polymer was also insoluble in phenol/acetic acid/water (2:1:1, w/v/v). 3. Treatment of the cell walls with the fungal hydrolase preparation "Driselase' did liberate low-Mr feruloyl esters. The major esters were 4-O-(6-O-feruloyl-beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-D-galactose and 3?-O-feruloyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-L-arabinose. These two esters accounted for about 60% of the cell-wall ferulate. 4. It is concluded that the feruloylation of cell-wall polymers is not a random process, but occurs at very specific sites, probably on the arabinogalactan component of pectin. 5. The possible role of such phenolic substituents in cell-wall architecture and growth is discussed.

  11. Autoinducer 2 Signaling via the Phosphotransferase FruA Drives Galactose Utilization by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Resulting in Hypervirulence

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Lauren J.; Chen, Austen; Wang, Hui; Paton, Adrienne W.; Oggioni, Marco R.; McDevitt, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Communication between bacterial cells is crucial for the coordination of diverse cellular processes that facilitate environmental adaptation and, in the case of pathogenic species, virulence. This is achieved by the secretion and detection of small signaling molecules called autoinducers, a process termed quorum sensing. To date, the only signaling molecule recognized by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is autoinducer 2 (AI-2), synthesized by the metabolic enzyme LuxS (S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase) as a by-product of the activated methyl cycle. Homologues of LuxS are ubiquitous in bacteria, suggesting a key role in interspecies, as well as intraspecies, communication. Gram-negative bacteria sense and respond to AI-2 via the Lsr ABC transporter system or by the LuxP/LuxQ phosphorelay system. However, homologues of these systems are absent from Gram-positive bacteria and the AI-2 receptor is unknown. Here we show that in the major human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, sensing of exogenous AI-2 is dependent on FruA, a fructose-specific phosphoenolpyruvate-phosphotransferase system that is highly conserved in Gram-positive pathogens. Importantly, AI-2 signaling via FruA enables the bacterium to utilize galactose as a carbon source and upregulates the Leloir pathway, thereby leading to increased production of capsular polysaccharide and a hypervirulent phenotype. PMID:28119473

  12. The Macrophage Galactose-Type Lectin Can Function as an Attachment and Entry Receptor for Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wy Ching; Liong, Stella; Tate, Michelle D.; Irimura, Tatsuro; Denda-Nagai, Kaori; Brooks, Andrew G.; Londrigan, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    Specific protein receptors that mediate internalization and entry of influenza A virus (IAV) have not been identified for any cell type. Sialic acid (SIA), the primary attachment factor for IAV hemagglutinin, is expressed by numerous cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids, confounding efforts to identify specific receptors involved in virus infection. Lec1 Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) epithelial cells express cell surface SIA and bind IAV yet are largely resistant to infection. Here, we demonstrate that expression of the murine macrophage galactose-type lectin 1 (MGL1) by Lec1 cells enhanced Ca2+-dependent IAV binding and restored permissivity to infection. Lec1 cells expressing MGL1 were infected in the presence or absence of cell surface SIA, indicating that MGL1 can act as a primary receptor or as a coreceptor with SIA. Lec1 cells expressing endocytosis-deficient MGL1 mediated Ca2+-dependent IAV binding but were less sensitive to IAV infection, indicating that direct internalization via MGL1 can result in cellular infection. Together, these studies identify MGL1 as a cell surface glycoprotein that can act as an authentic receptor for both attachment and infectious entry of IAV. PMID:24257596

  13. Near-infrared fluorescence glucose sensing based on glucose/galactose-binding protein coupled to 651-Blue Oxazine.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faaizah; Pickup, John C

    2013-08-30

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dyes that are environmentally sensitive or solvatochromic are useful tools for protein labelling in in vivo biosensor applications such as glucose monitoring in diabetes since their spectral properties are mostly independent of tissue autofluorescence and light scattering, and they offer potential for non-invasive analyte sensing. We showed that the fluorophore 651-Blue Oxazine is polarity-sensitive, with a marked reduction in NIR fluorescence on increasing solvent polarity. Mutants of glucose/galactose-binding protein (GBP) used as the glucose receptor were site-specifically and covalently labelled with Blue Oxazine using click chemistry. Mutants H152C/A213R and H152C/A213R/L238S showed fluorescence increases of 15% and 21% on addition of saturating glucose concentrations and binding constants of 6 and 25mM respectively. Fluorescence responses to glucose were preserved when GBP-Blue Oxazine was immobilised to agarose beads, and the beads were excited by NIR light through a mouse skin preparation studied in vitro. We conclude GBP-Blue Oxazine shows proof-of-concept as a non-invasive continuous glucose sensing system.

  14. Identification of the Plasticity-Relevant Fucose-α(1−2)-Galactose Proteome from the Mouse Olfactory Bulb†

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Fucose-α(1−2)-galactose [Fucα(1−2)Gal] sugars have been implicated in the molecular mechanisms that underlie neuronal development, learning, and memory. However, an understanding of their precise roles has been hampered by a lack of information regarding Fucα(1−2)Gal glycoproteins. Here, we report the first proteomic studies of this plasticity-relevant epitope. We identify five classes of putative Fucα(1−2)Gal glycoproteins: cell adhesion molecules, ion channels and solute carriers/transporters, ATP-binding proteins, synaptic vesicle-associated proteins, and mitochondrial proteins. In addition, we show that Fucα(1−2)Gal glycoproteins are enriched in the developing mouse olfactory bulb (OB) and exhibit a distinct spatiotemporal expression that is consistent with the presence of a “glycocode” to help direct olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) axonal pathfinding. We find that expression of Fucα(1−2)Gal sugars in the OB is regulated by the α(1−2)fucosyltransferase FUT1. FUT1-deficient mice exhibit developmental defects, including fewer and smaller glomeruli and a thinner olfactory nerve layer, suggesting that fucosylation contributes to OB development. Our findings significantly expand the number of Fucα(1−2)Gal glycoproteins and provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms by which fucosyl sugars contribute to neuronal processes. PMID:19527073

  15. Studies on the thiol group of lactose synthetase A protein from human milk and on the binding of uridine diphosphate galactose to the enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Kitchen, B. J.; Andrews, P.

    1974-01-01

    The lactose synthetase activity of A protein from human milk was much decreased but not abolished by reaction with thiol-group reagents. Protection experiments indicated that a free thiol group on the enzyme is situated near the UDP-galactose binding site and inactivation of the enzyme with p-hydroxymercuribenzoate was probably due to prevention of UDP-galactose binding. Affinity chromatography showed that the mercuribenzoate substituent also decreased the affinity of A protein for N-acetylglucosamine but complex-formation between A protein–N-acetylglucosamine and α-lactalbumin was relatively unaffected. UDP-galactose appears to be bound to the enzyme mainly through its pyrophosphate group with Mn2+ ion and through the cis hydroxyls of ribose, whereas its hexose moiety has little if any affinity for the enzyme. Lactose synthetase activity remaining after the reaction with thiol-group reagents indicates that a free thiol group is not an essential part of the A protein active site. PMID:4375968

  16. l-xylo-3-Hexulose Reductase Is the Missing Link in the Oxidoreductive Pathway for d-Galactose Catabolism in Filamentous Fungi*

    PubMed Central

    Mojzita, Dominik; Herold, Silvia; Metz, Benjamin; Seiboth, Bernhard; Richard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In addition to the well established Leloir pathway for the catabolism of d-galactose in fungi, the oxidoreductive pathway has been recently identified. In this oxidoreductive pathway, d-galactose is converted via a series of NADPH-dependent reductions and NAD+-dependent oxidations into d-fructose. The pathway intermediates include galactitol, l-xylo-3-hexulose, and d-sorbitol. This study identified the missing link in the pathway, the l-xylo-3-hexulose reductase that catalyzes the conversion of l-xylo-3-hexulose to d-sorbitol. In Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) and Aspergillus niger, we identified the genes lxr4 and xhrA, respectively, that encode the l-xylo-3-hexulose reductases. The deletion of these genes resulted in no growth on galactitol and in reduced growth on d-galactose. The LXR4 was heterologously expressed, and the purified protein showed high specificity for l-xylo-3-hexulose with a Km = 2.0 ± 0.5 mm and a Vmax = 5.5 ± 1.0 units/mg. We also confirmed that the product of the LXR4 reaction is d-sorbitol. PMID:22654107

  17. Stepwise targeted drug delivery to liver cancer cells for enhanced therapeutic efficacy by galactose-grafted, ultra-pH-sensitive micelles.

    PubMed

    Yan, Guoqing; Wang, Jun; Hu, Liefeng; Wang, Xin; Yang, Guanqing; Fu, Shengxiang; Cheng, Xu; Zhang, Panpan; Tang, Rupei

    2017-03-15

    To promote drug accumulation and cell-killing ability at tumor tissue, we have prepared a stepwise targeted drug delivery system that can remain stealthy and long-circulating in the blood vessels, improve drug retention at extracellular stimuli, enhance cellular uptake through special targeting ligands, and then achieve rapid drug release to improve toxicity to tumor cells at intracellular stimuli. Herein, galactose-grafted, ultra-pH-sensitive drug carriers (POEAd-g-LA-DOX micelles), which could respond to both extracellular and intracellular pH, and combine with galactose-receptors in cell membrane, were constructed by a facile method, therefore achieving: (i) remaining stable at pH 7.4; (ii) responding to tumoral extracellular pH following gradually larger nanoparticles (NPs); (iii) conjugating receptors in the cell membrane of liver cancer through surface galactose-ligands of micelles; (iv) being sensitive to tumoral intracellular pH following further swelling for rapid drug release. In vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake measurement showed that POEAd-g-LA20-DOX micelle was more easily internalized and more toxic effect on tumor cells than free DOX. Moreover, in vivo biodistribution and tumor inhibition examinations demonstrated that POEAd-g-LA20-DOX formulation had more superior efficacy to significantly enhance drug accumulation in tumor, and then restrain tumor growth while decreasing drug concentration in heart.

  18. Effect of curd washing level on proteolysis and functionality of low-moisture mozzarella cheese made with galactose-fermenting culture.

    PubMed

    Osaili, Tareq M; Ayyash, Mutamed M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Shaker, Reyad R; Shah, Nagendra P

    2010-06-01

    The effect of curd washing on functional properties of low-moisture mozzarella cheese made with galactose-fermenting culture was investigated. A total of 4 curd washing levels (0%, 10%, 25%, 50% wt/wt) were used during low-moisture mozzarella cheese manufacture, and cheeses were stored for 63 d at 4 degrees C and the influence of curd washing on proteolysis and functionality of low-moisture mozzarella cheese were examined. Curd washing had a significant effect on moisture and ash contents. In general, moisture contents increased and ash contents decreased with increased curd washing levels. Low-moisture mozzarella cheese made with 10% curd washing levels showed higher proteolysis, meltability, and stretchability during storage than other experimental cheeses. In general, galactose contents decreased during storage; however, cheeses made with 25% and 50% curd washing levels had lower galactose contents than those with control or 10%. L-values (browning) decreased and proteolysis increased in low-moisture mozzarella cheeses during storage.

  19. Functional analysis of mutations in UDP-galactose-4-epimerase (GALE) associated with galactosemia in Korean patients using mammalian GALE-null cells.

    PubMed

    Bang, You-Lim; Nguyen, Trang T T; Trinh, Tram T B; Kim, Yun J; Song, Junghan; Song, Young-Han

    2009-04-01

    Galactosemia is caused by defects in the galactose metabolic pathway, which consists of three enzymes, including UDP-galactose-4-epimerase (GALE). We previously reported nine mutations in Korean patients with epimerase-deficiency galactosemia. In order to determine the functional consequences of these mutations, we expressed wild-type and mutant GALE proteins in 293T cells. GALE(E165K) and GALE(W336X) proteins were unstable, had reduced half-life, formed aggregates and were partly degraded by the proteasome complex. When expressed in GALE-null ldlD cells GALE(E165K), GALE(R239W), GALE(G302D) and GALE(W336X) had no detectable enzyme activity, although substantial amounts of protein were detected in western blots. The relative activities of other mutants were lower than that of wild-type. In addition, unlike wild-type, GALE(R239W) and GALE(G302D) were not able to rescue galactose-sensitive cell proliferation when stably expressed in ldlD cells. The four inactive mutant proteins did not show defects in dimerization or affect the activity of other mutant alleles identified in patients. Our observations show that altered protein stability is due to misfolding and that loss or reduction of enzyme activity is responsible for the molecular defects underlying GALE-deficiency galactosemia.

  20. Role of pyridoxamine in the formation of the Amadori/Heyns compounds and aggregates during the glycation of beta-lactoglobulin with galactose and tagatose.

    PubMed

    Corzo-Martínez, Marta; Moreno, F Javier; Olano, Agustín; Villamiel, Mar

    2010-01-13

    The effect of pyridoxamine on the Maillard reaction during the formation of conjugates of beta-lactoglobulin with galactose and tagatose under controlled conditions (pH 7, 0.44 aw, 40 and 50 degrees C, for 6 days) has been studied, for the first time, by means of the changes in reducing carbohydrates, formation of Amadori or Heyns compounds, and aggregates and browning development. The results showed the formation of interaction products between pyridoxamine and galactose or tagatose either in the presence or in the absence of beta-lactoglobulin, indicating that pyridoxamine competes with the free amino groups of beta-lactoglobulin for the carbonyl group of both carbohydrates. Thus, a small inhibitory effect of pyridoxamine on the initial stages of the Maillard reaction was pointed out. Furthermore, much lower aggregation and color formation rates were observed in the conjugates of beta-lactoglobulin galactose/tagatose with pyridoxamine than without this compound, supporting its potent inhibitory effect on the advanced and final stages of the Maillard reaction. These findings reveal the usefulness of food-grade inhibitors of the advanced stages of the Maillard reaction, such as pyridoxamine, that, in combination with mild storage conditions, could lead to the formation of safer neoglycoconjugates without impairing their nutritional quality.

  1. Polysaccharides from the Medicinal Mushroom Cordyceps taii Show Antioxidant and Immunoenhancing Activities in a D-Galactose-Induced Aging Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jian-Hui; Xiao, Dai-Min; Chen, Dai-Xiong; Xiao, Yu; Liang, Zong-Qi; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Cordyceps taii, an edible medicinal mushroom native to south China, is recognized as an unparalleled resource of healthy foods and drug discovery. In the present study, the antioxidant pharmacological properties of C. taii were systematically investigated. In vitro assays revealed the scavenging activities of the aqueous extract and polysaccharides of C. taii against various free radicals, that is, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion radical. The EC50 values for superoxide anion-free radical ranged from 2.04 mg/mL to 2.49 mg/mL, which was at least 2.6-fold stronger than that of antioxidant thiourea. The polysaccharides also significantly enhanced the antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and markedly decreased the malondialdehyde production of lipid peroxidation in a D-galactose-induced aging mouse model. Interestingly, the immune function of the administration group was significantly boosted compared with the D-galactose-induced aging model group. Therefore, the C. taii polysaccharides possessed potent antioxidant activity closely associated with immune function enhancement and free radical scavenging. These findings suggest that the polysaccharides are a promising source of natural antioxidants and antiaging drugs. Consequently, a preliminary chemical investigation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and revealed that the polysaccharides studied were mainly composed of glucose, mannose, and galactose. Fourier-transform infrared spectra also showed characteristic polysaccharide absorption bands. PMID:22536281

  2. Glucose represses the lactose-galactose regulon in Kluyveromyces lactis through a SNF1 and MIG1- dependent pathway that modulates galactokinase (GAL1) gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Dong, J; Dickson, R C

    1997-01-01

    Expression of the lactose-galactose regulon in Kluyveromyces lactis is induced by lactose or galactose and repressed by glucose. Some components of the induction and glucose repression pathways have been identified but many remain unknown. We examined the role of the SNF1 (KlSNF1) and MIG1 (KlMIG1) genes in the induction and repression pathways. Our data show that full induction of the regulon requires SNF1; partial induction occurs in a Klsnf1 -deleted strain, indicating that a KlSNF1 -independent pathway(s) also regulates induction. MIG1 is required for full glucose repression of the regulon, but there must be a KlMIG1 -independent repression pathway also. The KlMig1 protein appears to act downstream of the KlSnf1 protein in the glucose repression pathway. Most importantly, the KlSnf1-KIMig repression pathway operates by modulating KlGAL1 expression. Regulating KlGAL1 expression in this manner enables the cell to switch the regulon off in the presence of glucose. Overall, our data show that, while the Snf1 and Mig1 proteins play similar roles in regulating the galactose regulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and K.lactis , the way in which these proteins are integrated into the regulatory circuits are unique to each regulon, as is the degree to which each regulon is controlled by the two proteins. PMID:9278487

  3. Functional characterization and transcriptional analysis of galE gene encoding a UDP-galactose 4-epimerase in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.

    PubMed

    Li, Chien-Te; Liao, Chao-Tsai; Du, Shin-Chiao; Hsiao, Yu-Ping; Lo, Hsueh-Hsia; Hsiao, Yi-Min

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is the causative agent of black rot in crucifers, a disease that causes tremendous agricultural loss. In this study, the Xcc galE gene was characterized. Sequence and mutational analysis demonstrated that the Xcc galE encodes a UDP-galactose 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.2), which catalyzes the interconversion of UDP-galactose and UDP-glucose. Alanine substitution of the putative catalytic residues (Ser124, Tyr147, and Lys151) of GalE caused loss of epimerase activity. Further study showed that the Xcc galE mutant had reduced biofilm formation ability. Furthermore, reporter assays revealed that galE transcription exhibits a distinct expression profile under different culture conditions, is subject to catabolite repression, and is positively regulated by Clp and RpfF. In addition, the galE transcription initiation site was mapped. This is the first time that UDP-galactose 4-epimerase has been characterized in the crucifer pathogen Xcc.

  4. A galactose-functionalized dendritic siRNA-nanovector to potentiate hepatitis C inhibition in liver cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, Abirami; Reddy, B. Uma; Raghav, Nallani; Ravi, Vijay Kumar; Kumar, Anuj; Maiti, Prabal K.; Sood, A. K.; Jayaraman, N.; Das, Saumitra

    2015-10-01

    A RNAi based antiviral strategy holds the promise to impede hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection overcoming the problem of emergence of drug resistant variants, usually encountered in the interferon free direct-acting antiviral therapy. Targeted delivery of siRNA helps minimize adverse `off-target' effects and maximize the efficacy of therapeutic response. Herein, we report the delivery of siRNA against the conserved 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of HCV RNA using a liver-targeted dendritic nano-vector functionalized with a galactopyranoside ligand (DG). Physico-chemical characterization revealed finer details of complexation of DG with siRNA, whereas molecular dynamic simulations demonstrated sugar moieties projecting ``out'' in the complex. Preferential delivery of siRNA to the liver was achieved through a highly specific ligand-receptor interaction between dendritic galactose and the asialoglycoprotein receptor. The siRNA-DG complex exhibited perinuclear localization in liver cells and co-localization with viral proteins. The histopathological studies showed the systemic tolerance and biocompatibility of DG. Further, whole body imaging and immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the preferential delivery of the nucleic acid to mice liver. Significant decrease in HCV RNA levels (up to 75%) was achieved in HCV subgenomic replicon and full length HCV-JFH1 infectious cell culture systems. The multidisciplinary approach provides the `proof of concept' for restricted delivery of therapeutic siRNAs using a target oriented dendritic nano-vector.A RNAi based antiviral strategy holds the promise to impede hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection overcoming the problem of emergence of drug resistant variants, usually encountered in the interferon free direct-acting antiviral therapy. Targeted delivery of siRNA helps minimize adverse `off-target' effects and maximize the efficacy of therapeutic response. Herein, we report the delivery of siRNA against the conserved 5'-untranslated

  5. Histochemical specificity of beta-galactose binding lectins from Arachis hypogaea (peanut) and Ricinus communis (castor bean).

    PubMed

    Hennigar, L M; Hennigar, R A; Schulte, B A

    1987-09-01

    Previous histochemical studies have demonstrated disparities in the binding of two lectins with a nominal specificity for terminal beta-D-galactose. Biochemical studies have shown that the most complementary structure for binding peanut agglutinin (PNA) is the terminal disaccharide Gal-(beta 1----3)-GalNAc, whereas the most complementary structure for binding Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA I) is the terminal disaccharide Gal-(beta 1----4)-GlcNAc. However, it is not known if only these differences in affinity account for the different histochemical staining reactions observed on tissue sections. In the present study we compared the staining patterns of PNA and RCA I by inhibiting in situ the binding of each lectin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) with increasing concentrations of unlabeled PNA or RCA I. The PNA-HRP conjugate did not stain most tissue sites suspected of containing an abundance of glycoconjugates with terminal Gal-(beta 1----4)-GlcNAc. Moreover, unlabeled PNA failed to significantly inhibit strong RCA I-HRP staining in these sites. In loci thought to contain variable amounts of glycoconjugates with terminal Gal-(beta 1----3)-GalNAc, unlabeled RCA I decreased PNA-HRP reactivity only slightly or not at all, whereas weak to strong RCA I-HRP staining was diminished or abolished by unlabeled PNA. The results suggest that PNA staining is restricted to glycoconjugates with terminal Gal-(beta 1----3)-GalNAc. RCA I apparently reacts most strongly with glycoconjugates having the terminal disaccharide Gal-(beta 1----4)-GlcNAc, but also stains sites containing a moderate to abundant amount of glycoconjugates with the terminal Gal-(beta 1----3)-GalNAc sequence.

  6. Galactose-Deficient IgA1 as a Candidate Urinary Polypeptide Marker of IgA Nephropathy?

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; Allegri, Landino; Suzuki, Yusuke; Hall, Stacy; Moldoveanu, Zina; Wyatt, Robert J; Novak, Jan; Julian, Bruce A

    2016-01-01

    In patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN), circulatory IgA1 and IgA1 in mesangial deposits contain elevated amounts of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1). We hypothesized that a fraction of Gd-IgA1 from the glomerular deposits and/or circulation may be excreted into the urine and thus represent a disease-specific biomarker. Levels of urinary IgA and Gd-IgA1 were determined in 207 patients with IgAN, 205 patients with other renal diseases, and 57 healthy controls, recruited in USA, Japan, and Italy. Urinary IgA was similarly elevated in patients with IgAN and renal-disease controls compared with healthy controls. However, urinary Gd-IgA1 levels were higher in patients with IgAN (IgAN, 28.0 ± 17.9; disease controls, 20.6 ± 17.4 units/mg urinary creatinine; P < 0.0001). Lectin western blotting data confirmed these results. In IgAN patients, levels of urinary Gd-IgA1 correlated with proteinuria (P < 0.001). When we purified IgA from serum and urine of an IgAN patient, the relative proportion of Gd-IgA1 to total IgA1 was higher in the urine compared with serum, suggesting selective excretion of Gd-IgA1 in IgAN. In summary, urinary excretion of Gd-IgA1 was elevated in patients with IgAN and the urinary Gd-IgA1 levels correlated with proteinuria. Urinary Gd-IgA1 may thus represent a disease-specific biomarker of IgAN.

  7. Galactose-Deficient IgA1 as a Candidate Urinary Polypeptide Marker of IgA Nephropathy?

    PubMed Central

    Allegri, Landino; Hall, Stacy; Wyatt, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    In patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN), circulatory IgA1 and IgA1 in mesangial deposits contain elevated amounts of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1). We hypothesized that a fraction of Gd-IgA1 from the glomerular deposits and/or circulation may be excreted into the urine and thus represent a disease-specific biomarker. Levels of urinary IgA and Gd-IgA1 were determined in 207 patients with IgAN, 205 patients with other renal diseases, and 57 healthy controls, recruited in USA, Japan, and Italy. Urinary IgA was similarly elevated in patients with IgAN and renal-disease controls compared with healthy controls. However, urinary Gd-IgA1 levels were higher in patients with IgAN (IgAN, 28.0 ± 17.9; disease controls, 20.6 ± 17.4 units/mg urinary creatinine; P < 0.0001). Lectin western blotting data confirmed these results. In IgAN patients, levels of urinary Gd-IgA1 correlated with proteinuria (P < 0.001). When we purified IgA from serum and urine of an IgAN patient, the relative proportion of Gd-IgA1 to total IgA1 was higher in the urine compared with serum, suggesting selective excretion of Gd-IgA1 in IgAN. In summary, urinary excretion of Gd-IgA1 was elevated in patients with IgAN and the urinary Gd-IgA1 levels correlated with proteinuria. Urinary Gd-IgA1 may thus represent a disease-specific biomarker of IgAN. PMID:27647947

  8. Hyperbaric Oxygen Prevents Cognitive Impairments in Mice Induced by D-Galactose by Improving Cholinergic and Anti-apoptotic Functions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunxia; Huang, Luying; Nong, Zhihuan; Li, Yaoxuan; Chen, Wan; Huang, Jianping; Pan, Xiaorong; Wu, Guangwei; Lin, Yingzhong

    2017-01-11

    Our previous study demonstrated that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) improved cognitive impairments mainly by regulating oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and aging-related gene expression. However, a method for preventing cognitive dysfunction has yet to be developed. In the present study, we explored the protective effects of HBO on the cholinergic system and apoptosis in D-galactose (D-gal)-treated mice. A model of aging was established via systemic intraperitoneal injection of D-gal daily for 8 weeks. HBO was administered during the last 2 weeks of D-gal injection. Our results showed that HBO in D-gal-treated mice significantly improved behavioral performance on the open field test and passive avoidance task. Studies on the potential mechanisms of this effect showed that HBO significantly reduced oxidative stress and blocked the nuclear factor-κB pathway. Moreover, HBO significantly increased the levels of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholine and decreased the activity of acetylcholinesterase in the hippocampus. Furthermore, HBO markedly increased expression of the anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 and glial fibrillary acidic protein meanwhile decreased expression of the pro-apoptosis proteins Bax and caspase-3. Importantly, there was a significant reduction in expression of Aβ-related genes, such as amyloid precursor protein, β-site amyloid cleaving enzyme-1 and cathepsin B mRNA. These decreases were accompanied by significant increases in expression of neprilysin and insulin-degrading enzyme mRNA. Moreover, compared with the Vitamin E group, HBO combined with Vitamin E exhibited significant difference in part of the above mention parameters. These findings suggest that HBO may act as a neuroprotective agent in preventing cognitive impairments.

  9. Antisense down-regulation of the strawberry β-galactosidase gene FaβGal4 increases cell wall galactose levels and reduces fruit softening.

    PubMed

    Paniagua, Candelas; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Barceló-Muñoz, Marta; García-Gago, Juan A; Waldron, Keith W; Quesada, Miguel A; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Mercado, José A

    2016-02-01

    Strawberry softening is characterized by an increase in the solubilization and depolymerization of pectins from cell walls. Galactose release from pectin side chains by β-galactosidase enzymes has been proposed as one reason for the increase in soluble pectins. A putative β-galactosidase gene, FaβGal4, has been identified using a custom-made oligonucleotide-based strawberry microarray platform. FaβGal4 was expressed mainly in the receptacle during fruit ripening, and was positively regulated by abscisic acid and negatively regulated by auxins. To ascertain the role of FaβGal4 in strawberry softening, transgenic plants containing an antisense sequence of this gene under the control of the CaMV35S promoter were generated. Phenotypic analyses were carried out in transgenic plants during three consecutive growing seasons, using non-transformed plants as control. Two out of nine independent transgenic lines yielded fruits that were 30% firmer than control at the ripe stage. FaβGal4 mRNA levels were reduced by 70% in ripe fruits from these selected transgenic lines, but they also showed significant silencing of FaβGal1, although the genes did not share significant similarity. These two transgenic lines also showed an increase in pectin covalently bound to the cell wall, extracted using Na2CO3. The amount of galactose in cell walls from transgenic fruits was 30% higher than in control; notably, the galactose increase was larger in the 1 M KOH fraction, which is enriched in hemicellulose. These results suggest that FaβGal4 participates in the solubilization of covalently bound pectins during ripening, reducing strawberry fruit firmness.

  10. Anti-Apoptotic and Pro-Survival Effect of Alpinate Oxyphyllae Fructus (AOF) in a d-Galactose-Induced Aging Heart

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yung-Ming; Chang, Hen-Hong; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Lin, Hung-Jen; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Padma Viswanadha, Vijaya; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Chen, Ray-Jade; Chang, Hsin-Nung; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Aging, a natural biological/physiological phenomenon, is accelerated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and identified by a progressive decrease in physiological function. Several studies have shown a positive relationship between aging and chronic heart failure (HF). Cardiac apoptosis was found in age-related diseases. We used a traditional Chinese medicine, Alpinate Oxyphyllae Fructus (AOF), to evaluate its effect on cardiac anti-apoptosis and pro-survival. Male eight-week-old Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were segregated into five groups: normal control group (NC), d-Galactose-Induced aging group (Aging), and AOF of 50 (AL (AOF low)), 100 (AM (AOF medium)), 150 (AH (AOF high)) mg/kg/day. After eight weeks, hearts were measured by an Hematoxylin–Eosin (H&E) stain, Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-assays and Western blotting. The experimental results show that the cardiomyocyte apoptotic pathway protein expression increased in the d-Galactose-Induced aging groups, with dose-dependent inhibition in the AOF treatment group (AL, AM, and AH). Moreover, the expression of the pro-survival p-Akt (protein kinase B (Akt)), Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-xL) protein decreased significantly in the d-Galactose-induced aging group, with increased performance in the AOF treatment group with levels of p-IGFIR and p-PI3K (Phosphatidylinositol-3′ kinase (PI3K)) to increase by dosage and compensatory performance. On the other hand, the protein of the Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) pathway expression decreased in the aging groups and showed improvement in the AOF treatment group. Our results suggest that AOF strongly works against ROS-induced aging heart problems. PMID:27043531

  11. Anti-Apoptotic and Pro-Survival Effect of Alpinate Oxyphyllae Fructus (AOF) in a d-Galactose-Induced Aging Heart.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yung-Ming; Chang, Hen-Hong; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Lin, Hung-Jen; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Padma Viswanadha, Vijaya; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Chen, Ray-Jade; Chang, Hsin-Nung; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-03-29

    Aging, a natural biological/physiological phenomenon, is accelerated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and identified by a progressive decrease in physiological function. Several studies have shown a positive relationship between aging and chronic heart failure (HF). Cardiac apoptosis was found in age-related diseases. We used a traditional Chinese medicine, Alpinate Oxyphyllae Fructus (AOF), to evaluate its effect on cardiac anti-apoptosis and pro-survival. Male eight-week-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were segregated into five groups: normal control group (NC), d-Galactose-Induced aging group (Aging), and AOF of 50 (AL (AOF low)), 100 (AM (AOF medium)), 150 (AH (AOF high)) mg/kg/day. After eight weeks, hearts were measured by an Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) stain, Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-assays and Western blotting. The experimental results show that the cardiomyocyte apoptotic pathway protein expression increased in the d-Galactose-Induced aging groups, with dose-dependent inhibition in the AOF treatment group (AL, AM, and AH). Moreover, the expression of the pro-survival p-Akt (protein kinase B (Akt)), Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-xL) protein decreased significantly in the d-Galactose-induced aging group, with increased performance in the AOF treatment group with levels of p-IGFIR and p-PI3K (Phosphatidylinositol-3' kinase (PI3K)) to increase by dosage and compensatory performance. On the other hand, the protein of the Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) pathway expression decreased in the aging groups and showed improvement in the AOF treatment group. Our results suggest that AOF strongly works against ROS-induced aging heart problems.

  12. Antisense down-regulation of the strawberry β-galactosidase gene FaβGal4 increases cell wall galactose levels and reduces fruit softening

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, Candelas; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Barceló-Muñoz, Marta; García-Gago, Juan A.; Waldron, Keith W.; Quesada, Miguel A.; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Mercado, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Strawberry softening is characterized by an increase in the solubilization and depolymerization of pectins from cell walls. Galactose release from pectin side chains by β-galactosidase enzymes has been proposed as one reason for the increase in soluble pectins. A putative β-galactosidase gene, FaβGal4, has been identified using a custom-made oligonucleotide-based strawberry microarray platform. FaβGal4 was expressed mainly in the receptacle during fruit ripening, and was positively regulated by abscisic acid and negatively regulated by auxins. To ascertain the role of FaβGal4 in strawberry softening, transgenic plants containing an antisense sequence of this gene under the control of the CaMV35S promoter were generated. Phenotypic analyses were carried out in transgenic plants during three consecutive growing seasons, using non-transformed plants as control. Two out of nine independent transgenic lines yielded fruits that were 30% firmer than control at the ripe stage. FaβGal4 mRNA levels were reduced by 70% in ripe fruits from these selected transgenic lines, but they also showed significant silencing of FaβGal1, although the genes did not share significant similarity. These two transgenic lines also showed an increase in pectin covalently bound to the cell wall, extracted using Na2CO3. The amount of galactose in cell walls from transgenic fruits was 30% higher than in control; notably, the galactose increase was larger in the 1 M KOH fraction, which is enriched in hemicellulose. These results suggest that FaβGal4 participates in the solubilization of covalently bound pectins during ripening, reducing strawberry fruit firmness. PMID:26585222

  13. Antioxidative and Neuroprotective Effects of Curcumin in an Alzheimer's Disease Rat Model Co-Treated with Intracerebroventricular Streptozotocin and Subcutaneous D-Galactose.

    PubMed

    Huang, Han-Chang; Zheng, Bo-Wen; Guo, Yu; Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Jiang-Yan; Ma, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Zhao-Feng

    2016-04-05

    Epidemiological data imply links between the increasing incidences of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, an AD rat model was established by combining treatments with intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (icv-STZ) and subcutaneous D-galactose, and the effects of curcumin on depressing AD-like symptoms were investigated. In the AD model group, rats were treated with icv-STZ in each hippocampus with 3.0 mg/kg of bodyweight once and then were subcutaneously injected with D-galactose daily (125 mg/kg of bodyweight) for 7 weeks. In the curcumin-protective group, after icv-STZ treatment, rats were treated with D-galactose (the same as in the AD model group) and intraperitoneally injected with curcumin daily (10 mg/kg of bodyweight) for 7 weeks. Vehicle-treated rats were treated as control. Compared with the vehicle control, the amount of protein carbonylation and glutathione in liver, as well as malondialdehyde in serum, were upregulated but glutathione peroxidase activity in blood was downregulated in the AD model group. The shuttle index and locomotor activity of rats in the AD model group were decreased compared with the vehicle control group. Furthermore, AD model rats showed neuronal damage and neuron loss with formation of amyloid-like substances and neurofibrillary tangles, and the levels of both β-cleavage of AβPP and phosphorylation of tau (Ser396) were significantly increased compared with the vehicle control group. Notably, compared with the AD model group, oxidative stress was decreased and the abilities of active avoidance and locomotor activity were improved, as well as attenuated neurodegeneration, in the curcumin-protective group. These results imply the applications of this animal model for AD research and of curcumin in the treatment of AD.

  14. Comparison of /sup 3/H-galactose and /sup 3/H-glucose as precursors of hepatic glycogen in control-fed rats

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, J.E.; Garfield, S.A.; Hung, J.T.; Cardell, R.R. Jr.

    1989-05-01

    Labeling of hepatic glycogen derived from 3H-galactose and 3H-glucose was compared shortly after intravenous injection in control-fed rats. The rats were allowed to accumulate 5-8% glycogen prior to receiving label. Fifteen minutes to 2 hours after labeling, liver was excised and processed for routine light (LM) and electron microscopic (EM) radioautography (RAG) or biochemical analysis. After injection of 3H-galactose, LM-RAGs revealed that the percentage of heavily labeled hepatocytes increased from 37% after 15 minutes to 68% after 1 hour but showed no further increase after 2 hours. alpha-Amylase treatment removed most glycogen and incorporated label; thus few silver grains were observed, indicating little incorporation of label except into glycogen. EM-RAGs demonstrated that most label occurred where glycogen was located. Biochemical analysis showed initially a high blood level of label that rapidly plateaued at a reduced level by 5 minutes. Concomitantly, glycogen labeling determined by liquid scintillation counting reflected the increases observed in the RAGs. After injection of 3H-glucose, LM-RAGs revealed that only 12% of the hepatocytes were heavily labeled at 1 hour and 20% at 2 hours. In tissue treated with alpha-amylase, glycogen was depleted and label was close to background level at each interval observed. EM-RAGs showed most grains associated with glycogen deposits. Biochemically, blood levels of label persisted at a high level for 30 minutes and tissue levels increased slowly over the 2-hour period. This study shows that incorporation from 3H-galactose was more rapid than incorporation of 3H-glucose; however, label derived from both carbohydrates appeared to be incorporated mainly into glycogen.

  15. Comparison of dynamics of wildtype and V94M human UDP-galactose 4-epimerase-A computational perspective on severe epimerase-deficiency galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Timson, David J; Lindert, Steffen

    2013-09-10

    UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase (GALE) catalyzes the interconversion of UDP-galactose and UDP-glucose, an important step in galactose catabolism. Type III galactosemia, an inherited metabolic disease, is associated with mutations in human GALE. The V94M mutation has been associated with a very severe form of type III galactosemia. While a variety of structural and biochemical studies have been reported that elucidate differences between the wildtype and this mutant form of human GALE, little is known about the dynamics of the protein and how mutations influence structure and function. We performed molecular dynamics simulations on the wildtype and V94M enzyme in different states of substrate and cofactor binding. In the mutant, the average distance between the substrate and both a key catalytic residue (Tyr157) and the enzyme-bound NAD+ cofactor and the active site dynamics are altered making substrate binding slightly less stable. However, overall stability or dynamics of the protein is not altered. This is consistent with experimental findings that the impact is largely on the turnover number (kcat), with less substantial effects on Km. Active site fluctuations were found to be correlated in enzyme with substrate bound to just one of the subunits in the homodimer suggesting inter-subunit communication. Greater active site loop mobility in human GALE compared to the equivalent loop in Escherichia coli GALE explains why the former can catalyze the interconversion of UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine while the bacterial enzyme cannot. This work illuminates molecular mechanisms of disease and may inform the design of small molecule therapies for type III galactosemia.

  16. Manipulation of the Rice L-Galactose Pathway: Evaluation of the Effects of Transgene Overexpression on Ascorbate Accumulation and Abiotic Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gui-Yun; Liu, Ru-Ru; Zhang, Chang-Quan; Tang, Ke-Xuan; Sun, Ming-Fa; Yan, Guo-Hong; Liu, Qiao-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA) is the most abundant water-soluble antioxidant in plants, and it plays a crucial role in plant growth, development and abiotic stress tolerance. In the present study, six key Arabidopsis or rapeseed genes involved in AsA biosynthesis were constitutively overexpressed in an elite Japonica rice cultivar. These genes encoded the GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), GDP-mannose-3',5'-epimerase (GME), GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP), L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPP), L-galactose dehydrogenase (GDH), and L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH). The effects of transgene expression on rice leaf AsA accumulation were carefully evaluated. In homozygous transgenic seedlings, AtGGP transgenic lines had the highest AsA contents (2.55-fold greater than the empty vector transgenic control), followed by the AtGME and AtGDH transgenic lines. Moreover, with the exception of the AtGPP lines, the increased AsA content also provoked an increase in the redox state (AsA/DHA ratio). To evaluate salt tolerance, AtGGP and AtGME transgenic seedlings were exposed to salt stress for one week. The relative plant height, root length and fresh weight growth rates were significantly higher for the transgenic lines compared with the control plants. Altogether, our results suggest that GGP may be a key rate-limiting step in rice AsA biosynthesis, and the plants with elevated AsA contents demonstrated enhanced tolerance for salt stress. PMID:25938231

  17. Sugar composition of the pectic polysaccharides of charophytes, the closest algal relatives of land-plants: presence of 3-O-methyl-d-galactose residues

    PubMed Central

    O’Rourke, Christina; Gregson, Timothy; Murray, Lorna; Sadler, Ian H.; Fry, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims During evolution, plants have acquired and/or lost diverse sugar residues as cell-wall constituents. Of particular interest are primordial cell-wall features that existed, and in some cases abruptly changed, during the momentous step whereby land-plants arose from charophytic algal ancestors. Methods Polysaccharides were extracted from four charophyte orders [Chlorokybales (Chlorokybus atmophyticus), Klebsormidiales (Klebsormidium fluitans, K. subtile), Charales (Chara vulgaris, Nitella flexilis), Coleochaetales (Coleochaete scutata)] and an early-diverging land-plant (Anthoceros agrestis). ‘Pectins’ and ‘hemicelluloses’, operationally defined as extractable in oxalate (100 °C) and 6 m NaOH (37 °C), respectively, were acid- or Driselase-hydrolysed, and the monosaccharides analysed chromatographically. One unusual monosaccharide, ‘U’, was characterized by 1H/13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and also enzymically. Key Results ‘U’ was identified as 3-O-methyl-d-galactose (3-MeGal). All pectins, except in Klebsormidium, contained acid- and Driselase-releasable galacturonate, suggesting homogalacturonan. All pectins, without exception, released rhamnose and galactose on acid hydrolysis; however, only in ‘higher’ charophytes (Charales, Coleochaetales) and Anthoceros were these sugars also efficiently released by Driselase, suggesting rhamnogalacturonan-I. Pectins of ‘higher’ charophytes, especially Chara, contained little arabinose, instead possessing 3-MeGal. Anthoceros hemicelluloses were rich in glucose, xylose, galactose and arabinose (suggesting xyloglucan and arabinoxylan), none of which was consistently present in charophyte hemicelluloses. Conclusions Homogalacturonan is an ancient streptophyte feature, albeit secondarily lost in Klebsormidium. When conquering the land, the first embryophytes already possessed rhamnogalacturonan-I. In contrast, charophyte and land-plant hemicelluloses differ

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of a galactose-specific lectin from the seeds of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia).

    PubMed

    Chandran, Thyageshwar; Sharma, Alok; Vijayan, M

    2010-09-01

    A galactose-specific lectin from the seeds of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a four-chain type II ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) resulting from covalent association through a disulfide bridge between two identical copies of a two-chain unit. The available structural information on such four-chain RIPs is meagre. The bitter gourd lectin was therefore crystallized for structural investigation and the crystals have been characterized. It is anticipated that the structure of the orthorhombic crystals will be analysed using molecular replacement by taking advantage of its sequence, and presumably structural, homology to normal two-chain type II RIPs.

  19. Polymorphisms of the enzyme systems galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) and esterase D (EsD) in the province of Cádiz, southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Lucas, J J; Romero, J L; Vizcaya, M A; Arufe, M I

    1991-05-01

    Galactose-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) and esterase D (EsD) phenotypes were determined by isoelectric focusing in ultrathin-layer polyacrylamide gel (PAGIF) for 406 healthy subjects randomly chosen and residing in the province of Cádiz, in Southern Spain. The following gene frequencies were observed: for GALT, GALT1 = 0.952 970 3 and GALT2 = 0.047 029 71; for EsD, EsD1 = 0.895 320 2, EsD2 = 0.094 827 59, and EsD5 = 0.009 852 21.

  20. A case of classical galactosemia: identification and characterization of 3 distinct mutations in galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) gene in a single family.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ramandeep; Kaur, Gurjit; Thapa, Babu R; Prasad, Rajendra; Kulkarni, Ketan

    2011-07-01

    Galactosemia is an autosomal recessive disorder of galactose metabolism. In the very first instance of its kind from India, the authors report the presence of three different galatose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) gene mutations, associated with galactosemia, in a single Indian family. One of the three mutations, S307X, is a novel mutation (GenBank Accession number GQ355273) and is of nonsense nature causing the truncation of the GALT protein resulting in the decreased enzyme activity. The authors have also emphasized the importance of introduction of new born screening program for galactosemia and its genetic analysis in select settings across the country.

  1. Ginsenoside Rg1 prevents cognitive impairment and hippocampus senescence in a rat model of D-galactose-induced aging.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiahong; Mu, Xinyi; Zeng, Jin; Xu, Chunyan; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Mengsi; Li, Chengpeng; Chen, Jie; Li, Tinyu; Wang, Yaping

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis continues throughout the lifetime in the hippocampus, while the rate declines with brain aging. It has been hypothesized that reduced neurogenesis may contribute to age-related cognitive impairment. Ginsenoside Rg1 is an active ingredient of Panax ginseng in traditional Chinese medicine, which exerts anti-oxidative and anti-aging effects. This study explores the neuroprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on the hippocampus of the D-gal (D-galactose) induced aging rat model. Sub-acute aging was induced in male SD rats by subcutaneous injection of D-gal (120 mg/kg·d) for 42 days, and the rats were treated with ginsenoside Rg1 (20 mg/kg·d, intraperitoneally) or normal saline for 28 days after 14 days of D-gal injection. In another group, normal male SD rats were treated with ginsenoside Rg1 alone (20 mg/kg·d, intraperitoneally) for 28 days. It showed that administration of ginsenoside Rg1 significantly attenuated all the D-gal-induced changes in the hippocampus, including cognitive capacity, senescence-related markers and hippocampal neurogenesis, compared with the D-gal-treated rats. Further investigation showed that ginsenoside Rg1 protected NSCs/NPCs (neural stem cells/progenitor cells) shown by increased level of SOX-2 expression; reduced astrocytes activation shown by decrease level of Aeg-1 expression; increased the hippocampal cell proliferation; enhanced the activity of the antioxidant enzymes GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase) and SOD (Superoxide Dismutase); decreased the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, which are the proinflammatory cytokines; increased the telomere lengths and telomerase activity; and down-regulated the mRNA expression of cellular senescence associated genes p53, p21Cip1/Waf1 and p19Arf in the hippocampus of aged rats. Our data provides evidence that ginsenoside Rg1 can improve cognitive ability, protect NSCs/NPCs and promote neurogenesis by enhancing the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity in the hippocampus.

  2. Ginsenoside Rg1 Prevents Cognitive Impairment and Hippocampus Senescence in a Rat Model of D-Galactose-Induced Aging

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jin; Xu, Chunyan; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Mengsi; Li, Chengpeng; Chen, Jie; Li, Tinyu; Wang, Yaping

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis continues throughout the lifetime in the hippocampus, while the rate declines with brain aging. It has been hypothesized that reduced neurogenesis may contribute to age-related cognitive impairment. Ginsenoside Rg1 is an active ingredient of Panax ginseng in traditional Chinese medicine, which exerts anti-oxidative and anti-aging effects. This study explores the neuroprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on the hippocampus of the D-gal (D-galactose) induced aging rat model. Sub-acute aging was induced in male SD rats by subcutaneous injection of D-gal (120 mg/kg·d) for 42 days, and the rats were treated with ginsenoside Rg1 (20 mg/kg·d, intraperitoneally) or normal saline for 28 days after 14 days of D-gal injection. In another group, normal male SD rats were treated with ginsenoside Rg1 alone (20 mg/kg·d, intraperitoneally) for 28 days. It showed that administration of ginsenoside Rg1 significantly attenuated all the D-gal-induced changes in the hippocampus, including cognitive capacity, senescence-related markers and hippocampal neurogenesis, compared with the D-gal-treated rats. Further investigation showed that ginsenoside Rg1 protected NSCs/NPCs (neural stem cells/progenitor cells) shown by increased level of SOX-2 expression; reduced astrocytes activation shown by decrease level of Aeg-1 expression; increased the hippocampal cell proliferation; enhanced the activity of the antioxidant enzymes GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase) and SOD (Superoxide Dismutase); decreased the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, which are the proinflammatory cytokines; increased the telomere lengths and telomerase activity; and down-regulated the mRNA expression of cellular senescence associated genes p53, p21Cip1/Waf1 and p19Arf in the hippocampus of aged rats. Our data provides evidence that ginsenoside Rg1 can improve cognitive ability, protect NSCs/NPCs and promote neurogenesis by enhancing the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity in the hippocampus. PMID

  3. Acute kidney injury and inflammatory response of sepsis following cecal ligation and puncture in d-galactose-induced aging rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao; Hu, Jie; Mao, Zhi; Kang, Hongjun; Liu, Hui; Fu, Wanlei; Lv, Yangfan; Zhou, Feihu

    2017-01-01

    Background Recently, the d-galactose (d-gal)-induced mimetic aging rat model has been widely used in studies of age-associated diseases, which have shown that chronic d-gal exposure induces premature aging similar to natural aging in rats. With the increasing rate of sepsis in the geriatric population, an easy-access animal model for preclinical studies of elderly sepsis is urgently needed. This study investigates whether a sepsis model that is established in d-gal-induced aging rats can serve as a suitable model for preclinical studies of elderly patients with sepsis. Objective To investigate the acute kidney injury (AKI) and inflammatory response of sepsis following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in d-gal-induced aging rats. Methods Twelve-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into low-dose d-gal (L d-gal, 125 mg/kg/d), high-dose d-gal (H d-gal, 500 mg/kg/d), and control groups. After daily subcutaneous injection of d-gal for 6 weeks, the CLP method was used to establish a sepsis model. Results The mortality was 73.3%, 40%, and 33.3% in the H d-gal, L d-gal, and control groups, respectively. Blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α were markedly increased in the H d-gal group after establishment of the sepsis model (H d-gal vs control, P<0.05 at 12 h and 24 h post-CLP). The rate of severe AKI (RIFLE-F) at 24 h post-CLP was 43% for both the control and L d-gal groups and 80% for the H d-gal group. Conclusion High-dose- d-gal-induced aging rats are more likely to die from sepsis than are young rats, and probably this is associated with increased severity of septic AKI and an increased inflammatory response. Therefore, use of the high-dose- d-gal-induced aging rat model of sepsis for preclinical studies can provide more useful information for the treatment of sepsis in elderly patients.

  4. A Peptide Mimetic of 5-Acetylneuraminic Acid-Galactose Binds with High Avidity to Siglecs and NKG2D

    PubMed Central

    Eggink, Laura L.; Spyroulias, Georgios A.; Jones, Norman G.; Hanson, Carl V.; Hoober, J. Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified several peptide sequences that mimicked the terminal sugars of complex glycans. Using plant lectins as analogs of lectin-type cell-surface receptors, a tetravalent form of a peptide with the sequence NPSHPLSG, designated svH1C, bound with high avidity to lectins specific for glycans with terminal 5-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac)-galactose (Gal)/N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) sequences. In this report, we show by circular dichroism and NMR spectra that svH1C lacks an ordered structure and thus interacts with binding sites from a flexible conformation. The peptide binds with high avidity to several recombinant human siglec receptors that bind preferentially to Neu5Ac(α2,3)Gal, Neu5Ac(α2,6)GalNAc or Neu5Ac(α2,8)Neu5Ac ligands. In addition, the peptide bound the receptor NKG2D, which contains a lectin-like domain that binds Neu5Ac(α2,3)Gal. The peptide bound to these receptors with a KD in the range of 0.6 to 1 μM. Binding to these receptors was inhibited by the glycoprotein fetuin, which contains multiple glycans that terminate in Neu5Ac(α2,3)Gal or Neu5Ac(α2,6)Gal, and by sialyllactose. Binding of svH1C was not detected with CLEC9a, CLEC10a or DC-SIGN, which are lectin-type receptors specific for other sugars. Incubation of neuraminidase-treated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with svH1C resulted in binding of the peptide to a subset of the CD14+ monocyte population. Tyrosine phosphorylation of siglecs decreased dramatically when peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with 100 nM svH1C. Subcutaneous, alternate-day injections of svH1C into mice induced several-fold increases in populations of several types of immune cells in the peritoneal cavity. These results support the conclusion that svH1C mimics Neu5Ac-containing sequences and interacts with cell-surface receptors with avidities sufficient to induce biological responses at low concentrations. The attenuation of inhibitory receptors suggests that svH1C has

  5. The oral administration of D-galactose induces abnormalities within the mitochondrial respiratory chain in the brain of rats.

    PubMed

    Budni, Josiane; Garcez, Michelle Lima; Mina, Francielle; Bellettini-Santos, Tatiani; da Silva, Sabrina; Luz, Aline Pereira da; Schiavo, Gustavo Luiz; Batista-Silva, Hemily; Scaini, Giselli; Streck, Emílio Luiz; Quevedo, João

    2017-02-24

    D-Galactose (D-gal) chronic administration via intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes has been used as a model of aging and Alzheimer disease in rodents. Intraperitoneal and subcutaneous administration of D-gal causes memory impairments, a reduction in the neurogenesis of adult mice, an increase in the levels of the amyloid precursor protein and oxidative damage; However, the effects of oral D-gal remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the oral administration of D-gal induces abnormalities within the mitochondrial respiratory chain of rats. Male Wistar rats (4 months old) received D-gal (100 mg/kg v.o.), during the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th or 8th weeks by oral gavage. The activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes was measured in the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks after the administration of D-gal. The activity of the respiratory chain complex I was found to have increased in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in the 1st, 6th and 8th weeks, while the activity of the respiratory chain complex II increased in the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks within the hippocampus and in the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks within the prefrontal cortex. The activity of complex II-III increased within the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in each week of oral D-gal treatment. The activity of complex IV increased within the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in the 1st, 2nd, 6th and 8th weeks of treatment. After 4 weeks of treatment the activity increased only in hippocampus. In conclusion, the present study showed that the oral administration of D-gal increased the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, II, II-III and IV in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the administration of D-gal via the oral route seems to cause the alterations in the mitochondrial respiratory complexes observed in brain neurodegeneration.

  6. Effects of aluminum on the reduction of neural stem cells, proliferating cells, and differentiating neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus of D-galactose-treated mice via increasing oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Jong Whi; Yoo, Dae Young; Kim, Woosuk; Jung, Hyo Young; Choi, Jung Hoon; Hwang, In Koo; Seong, Je Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) accumulation increases with aging, and long-term exposure to Al is regarded as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of Al and/or D-galactose on neural stem cells, proliferating cells, differentiating neuroblasts, and mature neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. AlCl3 (40 mg/kg/day) was intraperitoneally administered to C57BL/6J mice for 4 weeks. In addition, vehicle (physiological saline) or D-galactose (100 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected to these mice immediately after AlCl3 treatment. Neural stem cells, proliferating cells, differentiating neuroblasts, and mature neurons were detected using the relevant marker for each cell type, including nestin, Ki67, doublecortin, and NeuN, respectively, via immunohistochemistry. Subchronic (4 weeks) exposure to Al in mice reduced neural stem cells, proliferating cells, and differentiating neuroblasts without causing any changes to mature neurons. This Al-induced reduction effect was exacerbated in D-galactose-treated mice compared to vehicle-treated adult mice. Moreover, exposure to Al enhanced lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus and expression of antioxidants such as Cu, Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase in D-galactose-treated mice. These results suggest that Al accelerates the reduction of neural stem cells, proliferating cells, and differentiating neuroblasts in D-galactose-treated mice via oxidative stress, without inducing loss in mature neurons. PMID:26243606

  7. Regulation of ascorbate biosynthesis in green algae has evolved to enable rapid stress-induced response via the VTC2 gene encoding GDP-l-galactose phosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Meireles, André; Neupert, Juliane; Zsigmond, Laura; Rosado-Souza, Laise; Kovács, László; Nagy, Valéria; Galambos, Anikó; Fernie, Alisdair R; Bock, Ralph; Tóth, Szilvia Z

    2017-04-01

    Ascorbate (vitamin C) plays essential roles in stress resistance, development, signaling, hormone biosynthesis and regulation of gene expression; however, little is known about its biosynthesis in algae. In order to provide experimental proof for the operation of the Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway described for higher plants and to gain more information on the regulation of ascorbate biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we targeted the VTC2 gene encoding GDP-l-galactose phosphorylase using artificial microRNAs. Ascorbate concentrations in VTC2 amiRNA lines were reduced to 10% showing that GDP-l-galactose phosphorylase plays a pivotal role in ascorbate biosynthesis. The VTC2 amiRNA lines also grow more slowly, have lower chlorophyll content, and are more susceptible to stress than the control strains. We also demonstrate that: expression of the VTC2 gene is rapidly induced by H2 O2 and (1) O2 resulting in a manifold increase in ascorbate content; in contrast to plants, there is no circadian regulation of ascorbate biosynthesis; photosynthesis is not required per se for ascorbate biosynthesis; and Chlamydomonas VTC2 lacks negative feedback regulation by ascorbate in the physiological concentration range. Our work demonstrates that ascorbate biosynthesis is also highly regulated in Chlamydomonas albeit via mechanisms distinct from those previously described in land plants.

  8. Changes in performance and bacterial communities in response to various process disturbances in a high-rate biohydrogen reactor fed with galactose.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong-Hoon; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Park, Jong-Hun; Park, Hee-Deung; Kim, Sang-Hyoun

    2015-01-01

    High-rate biohydrogen production was achieved via hybrid immobilized cells fed with galactose in a continuous reactor system. The hybrid immobilized cells were broken down after 20 days and began to form granules by self-aggregation. The peak hydrogen production rate (HPR) and hydrogen yield (HY) of 11.8 ± 0.6 LH2/L-d and 2.1 ± 0.1 mol H2/molgalactose(added), respectively, were achieved at the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8h with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 45 g/L-d. This is the highest yet reported for the employment of galactose in a continuous system. Various process disturbances including shock loading, acidification, alkalization and starvation were examined through bacterial community analysis via pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. The proportion of Clostridia increased during the stable biohydrogen production periods, while that of Bacilli increased when the reactor was disturbed. However, due to the stability of the self-aggregated granules, the process performance was regained within 4-7 days.

  9. Crystal structure of β1→6-galactosidase from Bifidobacterium bifidum S17: trimeric architecture, molecular determinants of the enzymatic activity and its inhibition by α-galactose.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Andre Schutzer; Camilo, Cesar Moises; Kadowaki, Marco Antonio; Muniz, Heloisa Dos S; Espirito Santo, Melissa; Murakami, Mario Tyago; Nascimento, Alessandro S; Polikarpov, Igor

    2016-11-01

    In a search for better comprehension of β-galactosidase function and specificity, we solved the crystal structures of the GH42 β-galactosidase BbgII from Bifidobacterium bifidum S17, a well-adapted probiotic microorganism from the human digestive tract, and its complex with d-α-galactose. BbgII is a three-domain molecule that forms barrel-shaped trimers in solution. BbgII interactions with d-α-galactose, a competitive inhibitor, showed a number of residues that are involved in the coordination of ligands. A combination of site-directed mutagenesis of these amino acid residues with enzymatic activity measurements confirmed that Glu161 and Glu320 are fundamental for catalysis and their substitution by alanines led to catalytically inactive mutants. Mutation Asn160Ala resulted in a two orders of magnitude decrease of the enzyme kcat without significant modification in its Km , whereas mutations Tyr289Phe and His371Phe simultaneously decreased kcat and increased Km values. Enzymatic activity of Glu368Ala mutant was too low to be detected. Our docking and molecular dynamics simulations showed that the enzyme recognizes and tightly binds substrates with β1→6 and β1→3 bonds, while binding of the substrates with β1→4 linkages is less favorable.

  10. Glucose repression of lactose/galactose metabolism in Kluyveromyces lactis is determined by the concentration of the transcriptional activator LAC9 (K1GAL4) [corrected

    PubMed Central

    Zachariae, W; Kuger, P; Breunig, K D

    1993-01-01

    In the budding yeast Kluyveromyces lactis glucose repression of genes involved in lactose and galactose metabolism is primarily mediated by LAC9 (or K1GAL4) the homologue of the well-known Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptional activator GAL4. Phenotypic difference in glucose repression existing between natural strains are due to differences in the LAC9 gene (Breunig, 1989, Mol.Gen.Genet. 261, 422-427). Comparison between the LAC9 alleles of repressible and non-repressible strains revealed that the phenotype is a result of differences in LAC9 gene expression. A two-basepair alteration in the LAC9 promoter region produces a promoter-down effect resulting in slightly reduced LAC9 protein levels under all growth conditions tested. In glucose/galactose medium any change in LAC9 expression drastically affects expression of LAC9 controlled genes e.g. those encoding beta-galactosidase or galactokinase revealing a strong dependence of the kinetics of induction on the LAC9 concentration. We propose that in tightly repressible strains the activator concentration drops below a critical threshold that is required for induction to occur. A model is presented to explain how small differences in activator levels are amplified to produce big changes in expression levels of metabolic genes. Images PMID:8441621

  11. D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-lactose non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis method based on Cu foam electrode.

    PubMed

    Jiaojiao, Jin; Yangyang, Ge; Gangying, Zheng; Yanping, Cai; Wei, Liu; Guohua, Hui

    2015-05-15

    Here, D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-lactose non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis method using Cu foam electrode had been investigated. Porous Cu foam material was prepared by electrodeposition strategy, and used as working electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) explained sweetener electro-oxidation process occurring on Cu foam electrode. Amperometric i-t scanning results demonstrated that Cu foam electrode fast responded to D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-lactose in linear concentration range between 0.18 mM and 3.47 mM with significant sensitivity of 1.79 mA cm(-2)mM(-1), 0.57 mA cm(-2)mM(-1), and 0.64 mA cm(-2)mM(-1), respectively. Limit of detection (LOD) was 9.30 μM, 29.40 μM, and 26 μM respectively (S/N=3). Sweetener species was decided by stochastic resonance (SR) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) eigen peak located noise intensities. Interference experiment results demonstrated that Cu foam electrode selectively responded to sweeteners against interference chemicals. The proposed method provides a promising way for sweetener non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis.

  12. Molecular cloning and expression of a new α-neoagarobiose hydrolase from Agarivorans gilvus WH0801 and enzymatic production of 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nan; Yang, Meng; Mao, Xiangzhao; Mu, Bozhong; Wei, Dongzhi

    2016-01-01

    A new α-neoagarobiose hydrolase (NABH) called AgaWH117 was cloned from Agarivorans gilvus WH0801. The gene encoding this hydrolase consists of 1,086 bp and encodes a protein containing 361 amino acids. This new NABH showed 74% amino acid sequence identity with other known NABHs. The molecular mass of the recombinant AgaWH117 was estimated to be 41 kDa. Purified AgaWH117 showed endolytic activity during neoagarobiose degradation, yielding 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose (l-AHG) and d-galactose as products. It showed a maximum activity at a temperature of 30 °C and a pH of 6.0 and was stable at temperatures below 30 °C. Its Km and Vmax values were 2.094 mg/mL and 6.982 U/mg, respectively. The cloning strategy used and AgaWH117 isolated in this study will provide information on the saccharification process of marine biomass. This study provides a method to produce l-AHG from agarose by using AgaWH117 without an acid and describes its one-step purification by using Bio-Gel P2 chromatography.

  13. Lower cell wall pectin solubilisation and galactose loss during early fruit development in apple (Malus x domestica) cultivar 'Scifresh' are associated with slower softening rate.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jovyn K T; Schröder, Roswitha; Brummell, David A; Sutherland, Paul W; Hallett, Ian C; Smith, Bronwen G; Melton, Laurence D; Johnston, Jason W

    2015-03-15

    Substantial differences in softening behaviour can exist between fruit even within the same species. Apple cultivars 'Royal Gala' and 'Scifresh' soften at different rates despite having a similar genetic background and producing similar amounts of ethylene during ripening. An examination of cell wall metabolism from the fruitlet to the ripe stages showed that in both cultivars pectin solubilisation increased during cell expansion, declined at the mature stage and then increased again during ripening. This process was much less pronounced in the slower softening 'Scifresh' than in 'Royal Gala' at every developmental stage examined, consistent with less cell separation and softening in this cultivar. Both cultivars also exhibited a progressive loss of pectic galactan and arabinan side chains during development. The cell wall content of arabinose residues was similar in both cultivars, but the galactose residue content in 'Scifresh' remained higher than that of 'Royal Gala' at every developmental stage. The higher content of cell wall galactose residue in 'Scifresh' cell walls correlated with a lower β-galactosidase activity and more intense immunolabelling of RG-I galactan side chains in both microscopy sections and glycan microarrays. A high cell wall galactan content has been associated with reduced cell wall porosity, which may restrict access of cell wall-modifying enzymes and thus maintain better structural integrity later in development. The data suggest that the composition and structure of the cell wall at very early development stages may influence subsequent cell wall loosening, and may even predispose the wall's ensuing properties.

  14. The macrophage galactose-type lectin-1 (MGL1) recognizes Taenia crassiceps antigens, triggers intracellular signaling, and is critical for resistance to this infection.

    PubMed

    Montero-Barrera, Daniel; Valderrama-Carvajal, Héctor; Terrazas, César A; Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Vera-Arias, Laura; Carrasco-Yépez, Maricela; Gómez-García, Lorena; Martínez-Saucedo, Diana; Becerra-Díaz, Mireya; Terrazas, Luis I

    2015-01-01

    C-type lectins are multifunctional sugar-binding molecules expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages that internalize antigens for processing and presentation. Macrophage galactose-type lectin 1 (MGL1) recognizes glycoconjugates expressing Lewis X structures which contain galactose residues, and it is selectively expressed on immature DCs and macrophages. Helminth parasites contain large amounts of glycosylated components, which play a role in the immune regulation induced by such infections. Macrophages from MGL1(-/-) mice showed less binding ability toward parasite antigens than their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Exposure of WT macrophages to T. crassiceps antigens triggered tyrosine phosphorylation signaling activity, which was diminished in MGL1(-/-) macrophages. Following T. crassiceps infection, MGL1(-/-) mice failed to produce significant levels of inflammatory cytokines early in the infection compared to WT mice. In contrast, MGL1(-/-) mice developed a Th2-dominant immune response that was associated with significantly higher parasite loads, whereas WT mice were resistant. Flow cytometry and RT-PCR analyses showed overexpression of the mannose receptors, IL-4Rα, PDL2, arginase-1, Ym1, and RELM-α on MGL1(-/-) macrophages. These studies indicate that MGL1 is involved in T. crassiceps recognition and subsequent innate immune activation and resistance.

  15. The Macrophage Galactose-Type Lectin-1 (MGL1) Recognizes Taenia crassiceps Antigens, Triggers Intracellular Signaling, and Is Critical for Resistance to This Infection

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Barrera, Daniel; Valderrama-Carvajal, Héctor; Terrazas, César A.; Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Vera-Arias, Laura; Carrasco-Yépez, Maricela; Gómez-García, Lorena; Martínez-Saucedo, Diana; Becerra-Díaz, Mireya; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2015-01-01

    C-type lectins are multifunctional sugar-binding molecules expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages that internalize antigens for processing and presentation. Macrophage galactose-type lectin 1 (MGL1) recognizes glycoconjugates expressing Lewis X structures which contain galactose residues, and it is selectively expressed on immature DCs and macrophages. Helminth parasites contain large amounts of glycosylated components, which play a role in the immune regulation induced by such infections. Macrophages from MGL1−/− mice showed less binding ability toward parasite antigens than their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Exposure of WT macrophages to T. crassiceps antigens triggered tyrosine phosphorylation signaling activity, which was diminished in MGL1−/− macrophages. Following T. crassiceps infection, MGL1−/− mice failed to produce significant levels of inflammatory cytokines early in the infection compared to WT mice. In contrast, MGL1−/− mice developed a Th2-dominant immune response that was associated with significantly higher parasite loads, whereas WT mice were resistant. Flow cytometry and RT-PCR analyses showed overexpression of the mannose receptors, IL-4Rα, PDL2, arginase-1, Ym1, and RELM-α on MGL1−/− macrophages. These studies indicate that MGL1 is involved in T. crassiceps recognition and subsequent innate immune activation and resistance. PMID:25664320

  16. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) extract prevents and improves D-galactose and NaNO2 induced memory impairment in mice

    PubMed Central

    Dashti-r, M.H.; Zeinali, F.; Anvari, M.; Hosseini, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of saffron extract on preventing D-galactose and NaNO2 induced memory impairment and improving learning and memory deficits in amnestic mice. In this study, the learning and memory functions in ovariectomized mice were examined by the one way passive and active avoidance tests. In active avoidance test, training in amnestic treated (AT) and amnestic prophylaxis (AP) groups, was improved so that there was a significant difference between them and the amnestic control (AC) group. In passive avoidance test, animal's step through latency, as an index for learning, in all test groups was significantly greater than control group. Total time spent in dark room (DS), which opposes the memory retention ability, in AC was significantly greater than AT group at 1 and 2 hours after full training, while there was not any significant difference between this index in AP and AT as compared with normal control (NC) group. Our findings indicate that saffron hydro-alcoholic extract prevents and improves amnesia induced by D-galactose and NaNO2 in mice. PMID:27418908

  17. Enzymatic production of 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose from agarose and its purification and in vitro skin whitening and anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Yun, Eun Ju; Lee, Saeyoung; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Bo Bae; Kim, Hee Taek; Lee, Sun Hee; Pelton, Jeffrey G; Kang, Nam Joo; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2013-04-01

    3,6-Anhydro-L-galactose (L-AHG) constitutes 50% of agarose, which is the main component of red macroalgae. No information is currently available on the mass production, metabolic fate, or physiological effects of L-AHG. Here, agarose was converted to L-AHG in the following three steps: pre-hydrolysis of agarose into agaro-oligosaccharides by using acetic acid, hydrolysis of the agaro-oligosaccharides into neoagarobiose by an exo-agarase, and hydrolysis of neoagarobiose into L-AHG and galactose by a neoagarobiose hydrolase. After these three steps, L-AHG was purified by adsorption and gel permeation chromatographies. The final product obtained was 95.6% pure L-AHG at a final yield of 4.0% based on the initial agarose. In a cell proliferation assay, L-AHG at a concentration of 100 or 200 μg/ mL did not exhibit any significant cytotoxicity. In a skin whitening assay, 100 μg/ mL of L-AHG showed significantly lower melanin production compared to arbutin. L-AHG at 100 and 200 μg/ mL showed strong anti-inflammatory activity, indicating the significant suppression of nitrite production. This is the first report on the production of high-purity L-AHG and its physiological activities.

  18. A new case of UDP-galactose transporter deficiency (SLC35A2-CDG): molecular basis, clinical phenotype, and therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Dörre, K; Olczak, M; Wada, Y; Sosicka, P; Grüneberg, M; Reunert, J; Kurlemann, G; Fiedler, B; Biskup, S; Hörtnagel, K; Rust, S; Marquardt, T

    2015-09-01

    Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a group of hereditary metabolic diseases characterized by abnormal glycosylation of proteins and lipids. Often, multisystem disorders with central nervous system involvement and a large variety of clinical symptoms occur. The main characteristics are developmental delay, seizures, and ataxia. In this paper we report the clinical and biochemical characteristics of a 5-year-old girl with a defective galactosylation of N-glycans, resulting in developmental delay, muscular hypotonia, epileptic seizures, inverted nipples, and visual impairment. Next generation sequencing revealed a de novo mutation (c.797G > T, p.G266V) in the X-chromosomal gene SLC35A2 (solute carrier family 35, UDP-galactose transporter, member A2; MIM 300896). While this mutation was found heterozygous, random X-inactivation of the normal allele will lead to loss of normal SLC35A2 activity in respective cells. The functional relevance of the mutation was demonstrated by complementation of UGT-deficient MDCK-RCA(r) and CHO-Lec8 cells by normal UGT-expression construct but not by the mutant version. The effect of dietary galactose supplementation on glycosylation was investigated, showing a nearly complete normalization of transferrin glycosylation.

  19. Late blowing of Cheddar cheese induced by accelerated ripening and ribose and galactose supplementation in presence of a novel obligatory heterofermentative nonstarter Lactobacillus wasatchensis.

    PubMed

    Ortakci, Fatih; Broadbent, Jeffery R; Oberg, Craig J; McMahon, Donald J

    2015-11-01

    Lactobacillus wasatchensis sp. nov. has been studied for growth and gas formation in a control Cheddar cheese and in cheese supplemented with 0.5% ribose, 0.5% galactose, or 0.25% ribose plus 0.25% galactose using regular and accelerated cheese ripening temperatures of 6 and 12°C, respectively. Milk was inoculated with (1) Lactococcus lactis starter culture, or (2) Lc. lactis starter culture plus Lb. wasatchensis (10(4) cfu/mL). In the control cheese with no added Lb. wasatchensis, starter numbers decreased from 10(7) initially to ~10(4) cfu/g over 23 wk of ripening at 6°C. When the cheese was ripened at 12°C, or if Lb. wasatchensis was added, the final starter counts were 1 log lower. In contrast, nonstarter lactic acid bacteria in the cheese increased from <10(2) cfu/g at press to 10(6) to 10(7) cfu/g after 23 wk, with higher numbers being observed with ripening at 12°C. In cheese with no added Lb. wasatchensis, levels of Lb. wasatchensis were initially below the enumeration threshold but counts of up to 10(3) cfu/g were detected after 23 wk. When the cheese was inoculated with Lb. wasatchensis, it could be enumerated throughout ripening, with final levels at 23 wk being dependent on whether ribose had been added to the cheese curd. With added ribose (with or without added galactose), Lb. wasatchensis grew to 10(7) to 10(8) cfu/g after 23 wk, whereas without added ribose it was 1 log lower. In all cheeses with added Lb. wasatchensis, greater gas formation was observed at 12°C, with most gas production occurring after ~16 wk. Very little gas production was detected in cheese without added Lb. wasatchensis ripened at 12°C or in cheese with added Lb. wasatchensis ripened at 6°C. Adding a combination of ribose and galactose caused more gas formation, putatively because of the ability of Lb. wasatchensis to co-utilize both sugars and grow to high numbers, and then produce gas from galactose as ribose levels were depleted. Even without sugar supplementation, gas

  20. Molecular simulation and docking studies of Gal1p and Gal3p proteins in the presence and absence of ligands ATP and galactose: implication for transcriptional activation of GAL genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Sanjay K.; Sasidhar, Yellamraju U.

    2012-07-01

    The Gal4p mediated transcriptional activation of GAL genes requires the interaction between Gal3p bound with ATP and galactose and Gal80p. Though numerous studies suggest that galactose and ATP activate Gal3p/Gal1p interaction with Gal80p, neither the mechanism of activation nor the interacting surface that binds to Gal80p is well understood. In this study we investigated the dynamics of Gal3p and Gal1p in the presence and absence of ligands ATP and galactose to understand the role played by dynamics in the function of these proteins through molecular dynamics simulation and protein-protein docking studies. We performed simulations totaling to 510 ns on both Gal1p and Gal3p proteins in the presence and absence of ligands ATP and galactose. We find that, while binding of ligands ATP and galactose to Gal3p/Gal1p do not affect the global conformation of proteins, some local conformational changes around upper-lip helix including insertion domain are observed. We observed that only in the presence of ATP and galactose, Gal3p displays opening and closing motion between the two domains. And because of this motion, a binding interface, which is largely hydrophobic, opens up on the surface of Gal3p and this surface can bind to Gal80p. From our simulation studies we infer probable docking sites for Gal80p on Gal3p/Gal1p, which were further ascertained by the docking of Gal80p on to ligand bound Gal1p and Gal3p proteins, and the residues at the interface between Gal3p and Gal80p are identified. Our results correlate quite well with the existing body of literature on functional and dynamical aspects of Gal1p and Gal3p proteins.

  1. Combination of best promoter and micellar catalyst for more than kilo-fold rate acceleration in favor of chromic acid oxidation of D-galactose to D-galactonic acid in aqueous media at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Rumpa; Ghosh, Aniruddha; Sar, Pintu; Saha, Indrajit; Ghosh, Sumanta K.; Mukherjee, Kakali; Saha, Bidyut

    2013-12-01

    Picolinic acid, 2,2‧-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline promoted Cr(VI) oxidation of D-galactose to D-galactonic acid in three representative aqueous micellar media has been studied. The anionic surfactant (SDS) accelerated the rate of reaction while the cationic surfactant (CPC) and neutral surfactant (TX-100) retarded the reaction rate. Combination of bipy and SDS is the best choice for chromic acid oxidation of D-galactose to D-galactonic acid in aqueous media although 1,10-phenanthroline is best promoter in absence of micellar catalyst.

  2. Identification and characterization of an Arabidopsis mutant with altered localization of NIP5;1, a plasma membrane boric acid channel, reveals the requirement for D-galactose in endomembrane organization.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Masataka; Wang, Sheliang; Kamiya, Takehiro; Shigenobu, Shuji; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Fujiwara, Toru; Naito, Satoshi; Takano, Junpei

    2014-04-01

    Endomembrane organization is important for various aspects of cell physiology, including membrane protein trafficking. To explore the molecular mechanisms regulating the trafficking of plasma membrane-localized proteins in plants, we screened for Arabidopsis mutants with defective localization of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-nodulin 26-like intrinsic protein (NIP)5;1. Fluorescence imaging-based screening led to the isolation of a mutant which accumulated abnormal intracellular aggregates labeled by GFP-NIP5;1. The aggregates appeared in epidermal cells in the root elongation zone and included the trans-Golgi network/early endosomes. Rough mapping and whole-genome sequencing identified the mutant as an allele of UDP-glucose 4-epimerase 4 (uge4)/root hair defective 1 (rhd1) /root epidermal bulgar 1 (reb 1), which was originally defined as a cell wall mutant. The responsible gene encodes UDP-glucose 4-epimerase 4 (UGE4), which functions in the biosynthesis of d-galactose, especially for the synthesis of the cell wall polysaccharide xyloglucan and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs). The endomembrane aggregates in the mutants were absent in the presence of d-galactose, indicative of a requirement for a d-galactose-containing component in endomembrane organization. Genetic and pharmacological analyses suggested that the aggregates were not caused by the disruption of cell wall polysaccharides or the cytoskeleton. Overall, our results suggest that UGE4 activity in d-galactose synthesis is required for the structure of cell wall polysaccharides and endomembrane organization.

  3. Using a Personal Glucose Meter and Alkaline Phosphatase for Point-of-Care Quantification of Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridyltransferase in Clinical Galactosemia Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; Xiang, Yu; Novak, Donna E; Hoganson, George E; Zhu, Junjie; Lu, Yi

    2015-10-01

    The personal glucose meter (PGM) was recently shown to be a general meter to detect many targets. Most studies, however, focus on transforming either target binding or enzymatic activity that cleaves an artificial substrate into the production of glucose. More importantly, almost all reports exhibit their methods by using artificial samples, such as buffers or serum samples spiked with the targets. To expand the technology to even broader targets and to validate its potential in authentic, more complex clinical samples, we herein report expansion of the PGM method by using alkaline phosphatase (ALP) that links the enzymatic activity of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase to the production of glucose, which allows point-of-care galactosemia diagnosis in authentic human clinical samples. Given the presence of ALP in numerous enzymatic assays for clinical diagnostics, the methods demonstrated herein advance the field closer to point-of-care detection of a wide range of targets in real clinical samples.

  4. A broader role for AmyR in Aspergillus niger: regulation of the utilisation of D-glucose or D-galactose containing oligo- and polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    vanKuyk, Patricia A; Benen, Jaques A E; Wösten, Han A B; Visser, Jaap; de Vries, Ronald P

    2012-01-01

    AmyR is commonly considered a regulator of starch degradation whose activity is induced by the presence of maltose, the disaccharide building block of starch. In this study, we demonstrate that the role of AmyR extends beyond starch degradation. Enzyme activity assays, genes expression analysis and growth profiling on D-glucose- and D-galactose-containing oligo- and polysaccharides showed that AmyR regulates the expression of some of the Aspergillus niger genes encoding α- and β-glucosidases, α- and β- galactosidases, as well as genes encoding α-amlyases and glucoamylases. In addition, we provide evidence that D-glucose or a metabolic product thereof may be the inducer of the AmyR system in A. niger and not maltose, as is commonly assumed.

  5. Characterization of a recombinant L-fucose isomerase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus that isomerizes L-fucose, D-arabinose, D-altrose, and L-galactose.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yo-Han; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2010-02-01

    A recombinant L-fucose isomerase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus was purified as a single 68 kDa band with an activity of 76 U mg(-1). The molecular mass of the native enzyme was 204 kDa as a trimer. The maximum activity for L-fucose isomerization was at pH 7 and 75 degrees C in the presence of 1 mM Mn(2+). Its half-life at 70 degrees C was 6.1 h. For aldose substrates, the enzyme displayed activity in decreasing order for L-fucose, with a k (cat) of 11,910 min(-1) and a K (m) of 140 mM, D-arabinose, D-altrose, and L-galactose. These aldoses were converted to the ketoses L-fuculose, D-ribulose, D-psicose, and L-tagatose, respectively, with 24, 24, 85, 55% conversion yields after 3 h.

  6. High-resolution crystal structure of Trypanosoma brucei UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase: a potential target for structure-based development of novel trypanocides.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Matthew P; Bond, Charles S; Roper, Janine R; Gourley, David G; Ferguson, Michael A J; Hunter, William N

    2003-02-01

    The crystal structure of UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase from the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei in complex with the cofactor NAD(+) and a fragment of the substrates, UDP, has been determined at 2.0 A resolution (1 A = 0.1 nm). This enzyme, recently proven to be essential for this pathogenic parasite, shares 33% sequence identity with the corresponding enzyme in the human host. Structural comparisons indicate that many of the protein-ligand interactions are conserved between the two enzymes. However, in the UDP-binding pocket there is a non-conservative substitution from Gly237 in the human enzyme to Cys266 in the T. brucei enzyme. Such a significant difference could be exploited by the structure-based design of selective inhibitors using the structure of the trypanosomatid enzyme as a template.

  7. Octanoyl galactose ester-modified microemulsion system self-assembled by coix seed components to enhance tumor targeting and hepatoma therapy

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Ding; Liu, Mingjian; Huang, Mengmeng; Wang, Lixiang; Chen, Yan; Liu, Congyan; Liu, Yuping

    2017-01-01

    A nanosized drug delivery platform with a combination of rational components and tumor targeting is significant for enhancement of anticancer therapy and reduction of side effects. In this study, we developed a octanoyl galactose ester-modified microemulsion system self-assembled by coix seed components (Gal(oct)-C-MEs), which improved the tumor accumulation through asialoglycoprotein receptor-mediated endocytosis and promoted the antitumor efficacy through multicomponent-mediated synergistic effect. Octanoyl galactose ester (Gal(oct)) with a yield of 82.3% was synthesized through a green enzymatic reaction and multidimensional characterization. Gal(oct)-C-MEs with a spherical shape had a small and uniform particle size (58.49±1.03 nm), narrow polydispersity index (0.09±0.01) and neutral surface charge (−5.82±0.57 mV). In the cellular uptake studies, the internalized Gal(oct)-C-ME was 2.28-fold higher relative to that of coix seed component-based microemulsions (C-MEs). The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of Gal(oct)-C-MEs against HepG2 cells was 46.5±2.4 μg/mL, which was notably higher than that of C-MEs. Importantly, the intratumor fluorescence of HepG2 xenograft-bearing nude mice treated with Cy5/Gal(oct)-C-MEs was 1.9-fold higher relative to treatment with Cy5/C-MEs. In the study of antitumor efficacy in vivo, HepG2 xenograft-bearing nude mice intragastrically administered Gal(oct)-C-MEs for 14 days exhibited the strongest inhibition of tumor growth and the lowest toxicity against liver and kidney among all the treatments. In summary, Gal(oct)-C-ME, as a highly effective and safe anticancer drug delivery system, showed promising potential for hepatoma therapy. PMID:28352174

  8. A C-type lectin (AiCTL-3) from bay scallop Argopecten irradians with mannose/galactose binding ability to bind various bacteria.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mengmeng; Song, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Jianmin; Mu, Changkao; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Huan; Zhou, Zhi; Liu, Xiaolin; Song, Linsheng

    2013-11-15

    C-type lectins are a family of Ca(2+)-dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins playing crucial roles in innate immunity of vertebrates and invertebrates. In the present study, the cDNA of a C-type lectin with one carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) of 127 amino acids was cloned from bay scallop Argopecten irradians (designated AiCTL-3) by rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) techniques based on expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis. The mRNA transcripts of AiCTL-3 could be detected in all the tested tissues including hepatopancreas, gonad, adductor muscle, heart, hemocytes, mantle and gill, with the highest expression level in hepatopancreas. After the challenges with Vibrio anguillarum and Micrococcus luteus, the mRNA expression level of AiCTL-3 was obviously up-regulated and reached the maximum level at 9h (11.87fold, P<0.01, and 20.02-fold, P<0.05, respectively). The recombinant AiCTL-3 (designated as rAiCTL-3) could bind LPS, PGN, and glucan in vitro, but could not bind mannan. And it also bound Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus as well as Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and V. anguillarum. With a Ca(2+) binding site 2 EPN (Glu-Pro-Asn) motif, rAiCTL-3 could bind both mannose and galactose which was quite different from those in vertebrate. Meanwhile, it could significantly enhance the phagocytosis of scallop hemocytes in vitro. The results clearly suggested that AiCTL-3 could serve not only as a PRR participated in the immune response against various PAMPs and bacteria in non-self recognition via mannose/galactose binding specificity but an opsonin playing an important part in clearance of invaders.

  9. Effects of the position of galactose units to Zn(II) phthalocyanine on the uptake and photodynamic activity towards breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantareva, V.; Kril, A.; Angelov, I.; Dimitrov, R.; Borisova, E.; Avramov, L.

    2012-06-01

    Zn(II)-phthalocyanines with tetra-substitution of D-galactose group on non-peripheral (nGalPc) and peripheral (pGalPc) positions have been studied as photodynamic sensitizers. The both complexes are water-soluble and highly aggregated in water and cell culture medium. The non-peripheral galactose units attached to the phthalocyanine macrocycle (nGalPc) lead to far red shift of absorbance maximum at 703 nm as compared to peripherally substituted pGalPc with maximum at 683 nm. The fluorescence maxima of the studied GalPcs were red shifted (8-14 nm) depending on the used solvent as compared to the absorption maxima. The relatively low fluorescence quantum yields in dimethylsulfoxide (0.06 for nGalPc and 0.21 for pGalPc) were determined. The singlet oxygen generation was determined with lower quantum yield for pGalPc (0.21) as compared to nGalPc (0.38). The lack of dark toxicity towards breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) in wide concentration range (0.125 - 10 μM) was observed. The uptake into the tumor cells and the subcellular localization in MCF-7 cells were determined with higher accumulation for pGalPc, compared to nGalPc. The in vitro photodynamic activity of GalPcs towards breast cancer cells was investigated for different dye concentrations and soft light parameters of 635 nm irradiation. The antitumor activity of nGalPc was superior to the pGalPc-induced cytotoxicity, due to higher generation of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species.

  10. Histochemical analysis of blood group antigens in human sublingual glands and pancreas. An application of high-performance liquid chromatography to estimate the quantity of galactose liberated from tissue sections by alpha-galactosidase digestion.

    PubMed

    Ito, N; Tabata, S; Kawahara, S; Hirano, Y; Nakajima, K; Uchida, K; Hirota, T

    1993-03-01

    Using immunostaining with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from three different sources as well as anti-B lectin, GSAI-B4 staining and alpha-galactosidase digestion, blood group B antigens were localized and analysed in tissue sections of sublingual glands from blood group B and AB individuals. Quantitative analysis of galactose was simultaneously carried out on the supernatant enzyme solution used for treating tissue sections by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, galactose liberated from the pancreas tissues of blood group B and AB individuals was also estimated by HPLC analysis in order to compare the content of antigens. mAb-B(H079) and GSAI-B4 reacted uniformly with the mucous cells from blood group B and AB secretors. On the other hand, other mAbs-B(B006 and A582) recognized the antigen in a limited number of cells or was even negative in some cases of blood group AB individuals. Only mAb-B(H079) recognized the B antigens in mucous cells from non-secretors. Digestion with alpha-galactosidase resulted in the consistent appearance of H and Le(b) antigens in the mucous cells of all the secretors examined, although the reduction of staining intensity with anti-B reagents was not so marked. Le(y) antigens also appeared in some cases after the enzyme digestion. In non-secretors, Le(b) and Le(y) antigens, but not H antigens, appeared in some mucous cells following enzyme digestion. HPLC analysis of galactose revealed that alpha-galactosidase can specifically liberate the terminal galactose residues of B antigens, and no marked difference was present in the content of liberated galactose from mucous cells of sublingual glands among the individuals investigated (8.5-11.7 nmoles cm-2). No galactose was detected in samples from the sublingual glands of non-secretors, and only a trace amount of galactose was detected in the samples from pancreas tissues. These results suggest that the observed difference in the reactivity of different reagents with

  11. GamR, the LysR-Type Galactose Metabolism Regulator, Regulates hrp Gene Expression via Transcriptional Activation of Two Key hrp Regulators, HrpG and HrpX, in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, M. Mamunur; Ikawa, Yumi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight of rice. For the virulence of the bacterium, the hrp genes, encoding components of the type III secretion system, are indispensable. The expression of hrp genes is regulated by two key hrp regulators, HrpG and HrpX: HrpG regulates hrpX, and HrpX regulates other hrp genes. Several other regulators have been shown to be involved in the regulation of hrp genes. Here, we found that a LysR-type transcriptional regulator that we named GamR, encoded by XOO_2767 of X. oryzae pv. oryzae strain MAFF311018, positively regulated the transcription of both hrpG and hrpX, which are adjacent to each other but have opposite orientations, with an intergenic upstream region in common. In a gel electrophoresis mobility shift assay, GamR bound directly to the middle of the upstream region common to hrpG and hrpX. The loss of either GamR or its binding sites decreased hrpG and hrpX expression. Also, GamR bound to the upstream region of either a galactose metabolism-related gene (XOO_2768) or a galactose metabolism-related operon (XOO_2768 to XOO_2771) located next to gamR itself and positively regulated the genes. The deletion of the regulator gene resulted in less bacterial growth in a synthetic medium with galactose as a sole sugar source. Interestingly, induction of the galactose metabolism-related gene was dependent on galactose, while that of the hrp regulator genes was galactose independent. Our results indicate that the LysR-type transcriptional regulator that regulates the galactose metabolism-related gene(s) also acts in positive regulation of two key hrp regulators and the following hrp genes in X. oryzae pv. oryzae. IMPORTANCE The expression of hrp genes encoding components of the type III secretion system is essential for the virulence of many plant-pathogenic bacteria, including Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. It is specifically induced during infection. Research has revealed that in this

  12. [Effect of FGF-21 on learning and memory ability and antioxidant capacity in brain tissue of D-galactose-induced aging mice].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yin-Hang; Ren, Gui-Ping; Liu, Yao-Nan; Qu, Su-Su; Bai, Fu-Liang; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Wen-Fei; Tian, Gui-You; Ye, Xian-Long; Li, De-Shan

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) on learning and memory abilities and antioxidant capacity of D-galactose-induced aging mice. Kunming mice (37.1 +/- 0.62) g were randomly divided into normal control group, model group and FGF-21 high, medium and low dose groups (n = 8). Each group was injected in cervical part subcutaneously with D-galactose 180 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) once a day for 8 weeks. At the same time, FGF-21-treated mice were administered with FGF-21 by giving subcutaneous injection in cervical part at the daily doses of 5, 2 and 1 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1). The normal control group was given with normal saline by subcutaneous injection in cervical part. At seventh week of the experiment, the learning and memory abilities of mice were determined by water maze and jumping stand tests. At the end of the experiment, the mice were sacrificed and the cells damage of hippocampus was observed by HE staining in each group. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the brain of mice were determined. The results showed that different doses of FGF-21 could reduce the time reaching the end (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) and the number of touching blind side (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in the water maze comparing with the model group. It could also prolong the latency time (P < 0.05) and decrease the number of errors (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in the step down test. The result of HE staining showed that FGF-21 could significantly reduce brain cell damage in the hippocampus. The ROS and MDA levels of three different doses FGF-21 treatment group reduced significantly than that of the model group [(5.58 +/- 1.07), (7.78 +/- 1.92), (9.03 +/- 1.77) vs (12.75 +/- 2.02) pmol (DCF) x min(-1) x mg(-1), P < 0.01 or P < 0.05], [(2.92 +/- 0.71), (4.21 +/- 0.81), (4.41 +/- 0.97) vs (5.62 +/- 0.63) nmol x mg(-1) (protein), P < 0

  13. Galactose-1 phosphate uridylyltransferase (GalT) gene: a novel positive regulator of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in mouse fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Bijina; Chen, Wyman; Tang, Manshu; Huang, Xiaoping; Cakici, Didem Demirbas; Siddiqi, Anwer; Berry, Gerard; Lai, Kent

    2016-01-01

    The vital importance of the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism has been repeatedly demonstrated by various uni-/multicellular model organisms, as well human patients who have inherited deficiencies of the key GAL enzymes. Yet, other than the obvious links to the glycolytic pathway and glycan biosynthetic pathways, little is known about how this metabolic pathway interacts with the rest of the metabolic and signaling networks. In this study, we compared the growth and the expression levels of the key components of the PI3K/Akt growth signaling pathway in primary fibroblasts derived from normal and galactose-1 phosphate uridylyltransferase (GalT)-deficient mice, the latter exhibited a subfertility phenotype in adult females and growth restriction in both sexes. The growth potential and the protein levels of the pAkt(Thr308), pAkt(Ser473), pan-Akt, pPdk1, and Hsp90 proteins were significantly reduced by 62.5%, 60.3%, 66%, 66%, and 50%, respectively in the GalT-deficient cells. Reduced expression of phosphorylated Akt proteins in the mutant cells led to diminished phosphorylation of Gsk-3β (−74%). Protein expression of BiP and pPten were 276% and 176% higher respectively in cells with GalT-deficiency. Of the 24 genes interrogated using QIAGEN RT2 Profiler PCR Custom Arrays, the mRNA abundance of Akt1, Pdpk1, Hsp90aa1 and Pi3kca genes were significantly reduced at least 2.03-, 1.37-, 2.45-, and 1.78-fold respectively in mutant fibroblasts. Both serum-fasted normal and GalT-deficient cells responded to Igf-1-induced activation of Akt phosphorylation at +15 minutes, but the mutant cells have lower phosphorylation levels. The steady-state protein abundance of Igf-1 receptor was also significantly reduced in mutant cells. Our results thus demonstrated that GalT deficiency can effect down-regulation of the PI3K/Akt growth signaling pathway in mouse fibroblasts through distinct mechanisms targeting both gene and protein expression levels. PMID:26773505

  14. The stacking tryptophan of galactose oxidase: a second coordination sphere residue that has profound effects on tyrosyl radical behavior and enzyme catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Melanie S.; Tyler, Ejan M.; Akyumani, Nana; Kurtis, Christian R.; Spooner, R. Kate; Deacon, Sarah E.; Tamber, Sunita; Firbank, Susan J.; Mahmoud, Khaled; Knowles, Peter F.; Phillips, Simon E. V.; McPherson, Michael J.; Dooley, David M.

    2008-01-01

    The function of the stacking tryptophan, W290, a second coordination sphere residue in galactose oxidase has been investigated via steady-state kinetics measurements, absorption, CD and EPR spectroscopy, and x -ray crystallography of the W290F, W290G, and W290H variants. Enzymatic turnover is significantly lower in the W290 variants. The Km for D-galactose for W290H is similar to wild type, whereas the Km is greatly elevated in W290G and W290F, suggesting a role for W290 in substrate binding/positioning via the –NH group of the indole ring. Hydrogen bonding between W290 and azide in the wild type-azide crystal structure are consistent with this function. W290 modulates the properties and reactivity of the redox-active tyrosine radical; the Y272 tyrosyl radical in both the W290G and W290H variants have elevated redox potentials and are highly unstable compared to the radical in W290F, which has similar properties to the wild type tyrosyl radical. W290 restricts the accessibility of the Y272 radical site to solvent. Crystal structures show that Y272 is significantly more solvent exposed in W290G variant but that W290F limits solvent access comparable to the wild-type indole side chain. Spectroscopic studies indicate that the Cu(II) ground states in the semi-reduced W290 variants are very similar to that of the wild-type protein. In addition, the electronic structures of W290X-azide complexes the variants are also closely similar to the wild type electronic structure. Azide binding and azide-mediated proton uptake by Y495 are perturbed in the variants, indicating that tryptophan also modulates the function of the catalytic base (Y495) in the wild-type enzyme. Thus, W290 plays multiple critical roles in enzyme catalysis, affecting substrate binding, the tyrosyl radical redox potential and stability, and the axial tyrosine function. PMID:17385891

  15. Galactose-1 phosphate uridylyltransferase (GalT) gene: A novel positive regulator of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Bijina; Chen, Wyman; Tang, Manshu; Huang, Xiaoping; Cakici, Didem Demirbas; Siddiqi, Anwer; Berry, Gerard; Lai, Kent

    2016-01-29

    The vital importance of the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism has been repeatedly demonstrated by various uni-/multicellular model organisms, as well human patients who have inherited deficiencies of the key GAL enzymes. Yet, other than the obvious links to the glycolytic pathway and glycan biosynthetic pathways, little is known about how this metabolic pathway interacts with the rest of the metabolic and signaling networks. In this study, we compared the growth and the expression levels of the key components of the PI3K/Akt growth signaling pathway in primary fibroblasts derived from normal and galactose-1 phosphate uridylyltransferase (GalT)-deficient mice, the latter exhibited a subfertility phenotype in adult females and growth restriction in both sexes. The growth potential and the protein levels of the pAkt(Thr308), pAkt(Ser473), pan-Akt, pPdk1, and Hsp90 proteins were significantly reduced by 62.5%, 60.3%, 66%, 66%, and 50%, respectively in the GalT-deficient cells. Reduced expression of phosphorylated Akt proteins in the mutant cells led to diminished phosphorylation of Gsk-3β (-74%). Protein expression of BiP and pPten were 276% and 176% higher respectively in cells with GalT-deficiency. Of the 24 genes interrogated using QIAGEN RT(2) Profiler PCR Custom Arrays, the mRNA abundance of Akt1, Pdpk1, Hsp90aa1 and Pi3kca genes were significantly reduced at least 2.03-, 1.37-, 2.45-, and 1.78-fold respectively in mutant fibroblasts. Both serum-fasted normal and GalT-deficient cells responded to Igf-1-induced activation of Akt phosphorylation at +15 min, but the mutant cells have lower phosphorylation levels. The steady-state protein abundance of Igf-1 receptor was also significantly reduced in mutant cells. Our results thus demonstrated that GalT deficiency can effect down-regulation of the PI3K/Akt growth signaling pathway in mouse fibroblasts through distinct mechanisms targeting both gene and protein expression levels.

  16. Synthesis, X-ray crystallography, spectroscopic characterization and spectroscopic/electrochemical evidence of formation of phenoxy free radical in active center analogs of galactose oxidase - [Cu(Salgly)H2O] and [Cu(Salphenylalanine)H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Biva; Medhi, Okhil K.

    2013-03-01

    The formation of phenolate free radical is the factor of high turnover for catalytic activity of galactose oxidase (GO) compared to that by inorganic complexes. A new active center analog of GO, [Cu(II)(Salphenylalanine)H2O] have been synthesized and its single crystal X-ray analysis was done. In aqueous surfactant micellar solution chemical oxidation as well as electrochemical oxidation of structural models of galactose oxidase - [Cu(II)Salgly·H2O] and [Cu(II)(Salphenylalanine)·H2O], have been found to generate free radical originating at the phenolate group. Formation of the free radical have been proved by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, electronic spectroscopy and electrochemistry.

  17. Chongcao-Shencha Attenuates Liver and Kidney Injury through Attenuating Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Response in D-Galactose-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cailan; Mo, Zhizhun; Xie, Jianhui; Xu, Lieqiang; Tan, Lihua; Luo, Dandan; Chen, Hanbin; Yang, Hongmei; Li, Yucui; Su, Ziren; Su, Zuqing

    2016-01-01

    The Chongcao-Shencha (CCSC), a Chinese herbal compound formula, has been widely used as food material and medicine for enhancing physical strength. The present study investigated the possible effect of CCSC in alleviating the liver and kidney injury in D-galactose- (D-gal-) treated mice and the underlying mechanism. Mice were given a subcutaneous injection of D-gal (200 mg/kg) and orally administered CCSC (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg) daily for 8 weeks. Results indicated that CCSC increased the depressed body weight and organ index induced by D-gal, ameliorated the histological deterioration, and decreased the levels of ALT, AST, BUN, and CRE as compared with D-gal group. Furthermore, CCSC not only elevated the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, and GPx but also upregulated the mRNA expression of SOD1, CAT, and GPx1, while decreasing the MDA level in D-gal-treated mice. Results of western blotting analysis showed that CCSC significantly inhibited the upregulation of expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, p-p65, p-IκBα, COX2, and iNOS and inhibited the downregulation of IκBα protein expression caused by D-gal. This study demonstrated that CCSC could attenuate the liver and kidney injury in D-gal-treated mice, and the mechanism might be associated with attenuating oxidative stress and inflammatory response. PMID:27340415

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of frutalin, an α-D-galactose-specific lectin from Artocarpus incisa seeds.

    PubMed

    Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina de Oliveira; D'Muniz Pereira, Humberto; Vieira Neto, Antonio Eufrasio; Mendes Batista Moreno, Frederico Bruno; Duarte Pinto Lobo, Marina; de Sousa, Felipe Domingos; Moreira, Renato de Azevedo

    2015-10-01

    Frutalin is an α-D-galactose-specific carbohydrate-binding glycoprotein with antitumour properties and is a powerful tool for tumour biomarker discovery. The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of this lectin, which was isolated from Artocarpus incisa seeds, are reported here. Frutalin was purified and submitted to mass-spectrometric analysis. Diverse masses at approximately 16 kDa were observed in the deconvoluted spectra, which support the presence of isoforms. The best frutalin crystals were grown within a week in 0.1 M citric acid pH 3.5 which contained 25% PEG 3350 as a precipitant at 293 K, and diffracted to a maximum resolution of 1.81 Å. The monoclinic crystals belonged to space group I2, with unit-cell parameters a = 76.17, b = 74.56, c = 118.98 Å, β = 96.56°. A molecular-replacement solution was obtained which indicated the presence of four monomers per asymmetric unit. Crystallographic refinement of the structure is in progress.

  19. The effect of pH on the glucose response of the glucose-galactose binding protein L255C labeled with Acrylodan.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Mayyada M H; Brown, Sheniqua R; Mupparapu, KarunaSri; Tolosa, Leah

    2016-05-01

    The glucose-galactose binding protein (GGBP) is used as an optical biosensor in medical and bioprocess applications. This paper investigates the effect of pH on the behavior of GGBP-L255C labeled with Acrylodan for the purpose of finding the optimum conditions for sensing purposes as well as for protein preparation, purification and storage. The Acrylodan-GGBP fluorescence response in absence and presence of glucose was measured under varying buffer and pH conditions. Dissociation constants (Kd) and Gibbs free energies (ΔG) for the protein-glucose binding were calculated. Binding was found to be energetically favored at slightly acidic to neutral conditions, specifically close to the pI of GBP (∼ 5.0). Minimal fluorescence response to glucose was exhibited at pH 3.0 accompanied by a blue shift in the steady state fluorescence spectrum. In contrast, an almost 45% response to glucose was shown at pH 4.5-9.0 with a 13-nm red shift. Frequency domain lifetime measurements and quenching with KI suggest that at highly acidic conditions both the glucose-free and the glucose-bound protein are in a conformation distinct from those observed at higher pH values.

  20. In Vivo Antioxidant and Anti-Skin-Aging Activities of Ethyl Acetate Extraction from Idesia polycarpa Defatted Fruit Residue in Aging Mice Induced by D-Galactose

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Ran-ran; Chen, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Two different concentrations of D-galactose (D-gal) induced organism and skin aging in Kunming mice were used to examine comprehensively the antioxidant and antiaging activities of ethyl acetate extraction (EAE) from Idesia polycarpa defatted fruit residue for the first time. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of EAE was 13.09 ± 0.11 μmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/mg, which showed EAE had great in vitro free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity. Biochemical indexes and morphological analysis of all tested tissues showed that EAE could effectively improve the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of the antioxidant defense system of the aging mice, enhance the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) of tissues and serum, increase glutathione (GSH) content and decrease the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and maintain the skin collagen, elastin, and moisture content. Meanwhile, EAE could effectively attenuate the morphological damage in brain, liver, kidney, and skin induced by D-gal and its effect was not less than that of the well-known L-ascorbic acid (VC) and α-tocopherol (VE). Overall, EAE is a potent natural antiaging agent with great antioxidant activity, which can be developed as a new medicine and cosmetic for the treatment of age-related conditions. PMID:24971146

  1. Tryptophan environment, secondary structure and thermal unfolding of the galactose-specific seed lectin from Dolichos lablab: fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Nabil Ali Mohammed; Rao, Rameshwaram Nagender; Nadimpalli, Siva Kumar; Swamy, Musti J

    2006-07-01

    Fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic studies were carried out on the galactose-specific lectin from Dolichos lablab seeds (DLL-II). The microenvironment of the tryptophan residues in the lectin under native and denaturing conditions were investigated by quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of the protein by a neutral quencher (acrylamide), an anionic quencher (iodide ion) and a cationic quencher (cesium ion). The results obtained indicate that the tryptophan residues of DLL-II are largely buried in the hydrophobic core of the protein matrix, with positively charged side chains residing close to at least some of the tryptophan residues under the experimental conditions. Analysis of the far UV CD spectrum of DLL-II revealed that the secondary structure of the lectin consists of 57% alpha-helix, 21% beta-sheet, 7% beta-turns and 15% unordered structures. Carbohydrate binding did not significantly alter the secondary and tertiary structures of the lectin. Thermal unfolding of DLL-II, investigated by monitoring CD signals, showed a sharp transition around 75 degrees C both in the far UV region (205 nm) and the near UV region (289 nm), which shifted to ca. 77-78 degrees C in the presence of 0.1 M methyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, indicating that ligand binding leads to a moderate stabilization of the lectin structure.

  2. Involvement of viral envelope GP2 in Ebola virus entry into cells expressing the macrophage galactose-type C-type lectin

    SciTech Connect

    Usami, Katsuaki; Matsuno, Keita; Igarashi, Manabu; Denda-Nagai, Kaori; Takada, Ayato; Irimura, Tatsuro

    2011-04-01

    Highlights: {yields} Ebola virus infection is mediated by binding to and fusion with the target cells. {yields} Structural feature of the viral glycoprotein determines the infectivity. {yields} Surface C-type lectin, MGL, of macrophages and dendritic cells mediate the infection. {yields} GP2, one of glycoprotein subunits, plays an essential role in MGL-mediated infection. {yields} There is a critical amino acid residue involved in high infectivity. -- Abstract: Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is initiated by the interaction of the viral surface envelope glycoprotein (GP) with the binding sites on target cells. Differences in the mortality among different species of the Ebola viruses, i.e., Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) and Reston ebolavirus (REBOV), correspond to the in vitro infectivity of the pseudo-typed virus constructed with the GPs in cells expressing macrophage galactose-type calcium-type lectin (MGL/CD301). Through mutagenesis of GP2, the transmembrane-anchored subunit of GP, we found that residues 502-527 of the GP2 sequence determined the different infectivity between VSV-ZEBOV GP and -REBOV GP in MGL/CD301-expressing cells and a histidine residue at position 516 of ZEBOV GP2 appeared essential in the differential infectivity. These findings may provide a clue to clarify a molecular basis of different pathogenicity among EBOV species.

  3. Spectral characteristics of the mutant form GGBP/H152C of D-glucose/D-galactose-binding protein labeled with fluorescent dye BADAN: influence of external factors

    PubMed Central

    Fonin, Alexander V.; Stepanenko, Olga V.; Povarova, Olga I.; Volova, Catherine A.; Philippova, Elizaveta M.; Bublikov, Grigory S.; Kuznetsova, Irina M.; Demchenko, Alexander P.

    2014-01-01

    The mutant form GGBP/H152C of the D-glucose/D-galactose-binding protein with the solvatochromic dye BADAN linked to cysteine residue Cys 152 can be used as a potential base for a sensitive element of glucose biosensor system. We investigated the influence of various external factors on the physical-chemical properties of GGBP/H152C-BADAN and its complex with glucose. The high affinity (Kd = 8.5 µM) and high binding rate of glucose make GGBP/H152C-BADAN a good candidate to determine the sugar content in biological fluids extracted using transdermal techniques. It was shown that changes in the ionic strength and pH of solution within the physiological range did not have a significant influence on the fluorescent characteristics of GGBP/H152C-BADAN. The mutant form GGBP/H152C has relatively low resistance to denaturation action of GdnHCl and urea. This result emphasizes the need to find more stable proteins for the creation of a sensitive element for a glucose biosensor system. PMID:24711960

  4. The human gene CGT encoding the UDP-galactose ceramide galactosyl transferase (cerebroside synthase): Cloning, characterization, and assignment to human chromosome 4, band q26

    SciTech Connect

    Bosio, A.; Binczek, E.; Stoffel, W.

    1996-05-15

    We have previously cloned the human UDP-galactose ceramide galactosyltransferase (CGT, E.C. 2.4.1.45) cDNA. Its open reading frame encodes the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of the glycosphingolipids, cerebrosides and sulfatides, essential constituents of the myelin membrane of the central nervous system (CNS) and PNS. Expression of the CGT gene and of the myelin-specific proteins in the terminal differentiated oligodendrocyte of CNS and in Schwann cells of PNS is cell-specific and highly time-regulated. The CGT gene therefore is important in the differentiation program of the oligodendrocyte lineage. Here we report the structural organization and the chromosomal localization of the human CGT gene. The coding sequence is separated into five exons, which are distributed over >40 kb. The CGT locus was mapped to the distal region of human chromosome 4, band q26. The organization of the CGT gene and of the UGT (uridylglucuronosyl-transferases) gene family suggests a correlation to functional domains of the encoded proteins. 19 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Rutin, a Flavonoid That Is a Main Component of Saussurea involucrata, Attenuates the Senescence Effect in D-Galactose Aging Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying-Chen; Lin, Hsueh-Yi; Su, Kang-Yi; Chen, Chien-Hsu; Yu, Yung-Lung; Lin, Chai-Ching; Yu, Sung-Liang; Yan, Hong-Young; Su, Kuo-Jung; Chen, Yi-Lin Sophia

    2012-01-01

    Saussurea involucrata (Kar. et Kir.), known as the snow lotus, grows in the Tian Shan and A'er Tai areas of China. It has recently been reported that the ethyl acetate extract of S. involucrata (SI-2) can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. This study investigated the protective effect of ethyl acetate extract of S. involucrata (SI-2) or rutin, a flavonoid extracted from ethyl acetate extract of S. involucrata (SI-2), on D-galactose- (D-gal-) induced brain injury in mice. Administering SI-2 or rutin (30 mg/kg/d and 30 mg/kg/d) for 6 weeks, concomitant with D-gal injection, significantly increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and decreased the MDA level in plasma. Furthermore, the result showed that the percentages of cleaved caspase-3 and PARP in the D-gal-treated mice were much higher than those in the control. Pretreatment using SI-2 or rutin decreased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 via downregulation of NF-kappaB, resulting in a decrease in lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, our results also showed that oral administration of rutin to these mice significantly improved behavioral performance in a step-through passive avoidance task and these results suggest that SI-2 or rutin exerts potent antiaging effects on D-gal in mice via antioxidative mechanisms. PMID:22952557

  6. Response surface methodology to optimize partition and purification of two recombinant oxidoreductase enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase and d-galactose dehydrogenase in aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Shahbaz Mohammadi, Hamid; Mostafavi, Seyede Samaneh; Soleimani, Saeideh; Bozorgian, Sajad; Pooraskari, Maryam; Kianmehr, Anvarsadat

    2015-04-01

    Oxidoreductases are an important family of enzymes that are used in many biotechnological processes. An experimental design was applied to optimize partition and purification of two recombinant oxidoreductases, glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) from Bacillus subtilis and d-galactose dehydrogenase (GalDH) from Pseudomonas fluorescens AK92 in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS). Response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was performed to optimize critical factors like polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration, concentration of salt and pH value. The best partitioning conditions was achieved in an ATPS composed of 12% PEG-6000, 15% K2HPO4 with pH 7.5 at 25°C, which ensured partition coefficient (KE) of 66.6 and 45.7 for GDH and GalDH, respectively. Under these experimental conditions, the activity of GDH and GalDH was 569.5U/ml and 673.7U/ml, respectively. It was found that these enzymes preferentially partitioned into the top PEG-rich phase and appeared as single bands on SDS-PAGE gel. Meanwhile the validity of the response model was confirmed by a good agreement between predicted and experimental results. Collectively, according to the obtained data it can be inferred that the ATPS optimization using RSM approach can be applied for recovery and purification of any enzyme from oxidoreductase family.

  7. The metastability of human UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase (GALE) is increased by variants associated with type III galactosemia but decreased by substrate and cofactor binding.

    PubMed

    Pey, Angel L; Padín-Gonzalez, Esperanza; Mesa-Torres, Noel; Timson, David J

    2014-11-15

    Type III galactosemia is an inherited disease caused by mutations which affect the activity of UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase (GALE). We evaluated the impact of four disease-associated variants (p.N34S, p.G90E, p.V94M and p.K161N) on the conformational stability and dynamics of GALE. Thermal denaturation studies showed that wild-type GALE denatures at temperatures close to physiological, and disease-associated mutations often reduce GALE's thermal stability. This denaturation is under kinetic control and results partly from dimer dissociation. The natural ligands, NAD(+) and UDP-glucose, stabilize GALE. Proteolysis studies showed that the natural ligands and disease-associated variations affect local dynamics in the N-terminal region of GALE. Proteolysis kinetics followed a two-step irreversible model in which the intact protein is cleaved at Ala38 forming a long-lived intermediate in the first step. NAD(+) reduces the rate of the first step, increasing the amount of undigested protein whereas UDP-glucose reduces the rate of the second step, increasing accumulation of the intermediate. Disease-associated variants affect these rates and the amounts of protein in each state. Our results also suggest communication between domains in GALE. We hypothesize that, in vivo, concentrations of natural ligands modulate GALE stability and that it should be possible to discover compounds which mimic the stabilising effects of the natural ligands overcoming mutation-induced destabilization.

  8. Gcn4p and the Crabtree effect of yeast: drawing the causal model of the Crabtree effect in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and explaining evolutionary trade-offs of adaptation to galactose through systems biology.

    PubMed

    Martínez, José L; Bordel, Sergio; Hong, KuFk-Ki; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-06-01

    By performing an integrated comparative analysis on the physiology and transcriptome of four different S. cerevisiae strains growing on galactose and glucose, it was inferred that the transcription factors Bas1p, Pho2p, and Gcn4p play a central role in the regulatory events causing the Crabtree effect in S. cerevisiae. The analysis also revealed that a point mutation in the RAS2 observed in a galactose-adapted strain causes a lower Crabtree effect and growth rate on glucose by decreasing the activity of Gcn4p while at the same time is at the origin of higher growth rate on galactose due to a lower activity of the transcriptional repressor Sok2p. The role of Gcn4p on the trade-off effect observed on glucose was confirmed experimentally. This was done by showing that the point mutation in RAS2 does not result in a lower growth rate on glucose if it is introduced in a GCN4-negative background.

  9. Comparative Positron-Emission Tomography (PET) Imaging and Phototherapeutic Potential of 124I- Labeled Methyl- 3-(1′-iodobenzyloxyethyl) pyropheophorbide-a vs. the Corresponding Glucose- and Galactose-Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Suresh K.; Sajjad, Munawwar; Chen, Yihui; Zheng, Xiang; Yao, Rutao; Missert, Joseph R.; Batt, Carrie; Nabi, Hani A.; Oseroff, Allan R.; Pandey, Ravindra K.

    2009-01-01

    In our present study, 3-(1′-m-iodobenzyloxyethyl) pyropheophorbide-a methyl ester 1, 3-(1′-m-iodobenzyloxyethyl)-172-{(2-deoxy)glucose} pyropheophorbide-a 2, and 3-(1′-m-iodo benzyloxyethyl)-172-{(1-deoxy)galactose} pyropheophorbide-a 3 were synthesized and converted into the corresponding 124I- labeled analogs by reacting the intermediate trimethyltin analogs with Na124I. Photosensitizers 1–3 were evaluated for the PDT efficacy in C3H mice bearing RIF tumors at variable doses and showed a significant long-term tumor cure. Among the compounds investigated, the non-carbohydrate analog 1 was most effective. These results were in contrast to the in vitro data, where compared to the parent analog the corresponding galactose-and glucose derivatives showed enhanced cell kill. Among the corresponding 124I-labeled in analogs, excellent tumor images were obtained from compound 1 both tumor models (RIF and Colon-26) and the best tumor contrast was observed at 72 h post injection. Conjugating a glucose moiety to photosensitizer 1 diminished its tumor uptake, whereas with time the corresponding galactose analog showed improved tumor contrast. PMID:19090663

  10. Contact-dependent transfer of the galactose-specific lectin of Entamoeba histolytica to the lateral surface of enterocytes in culture.

    PubMed

    Leroy, A; De Bruyne, G; Mareel, M; Nokkaew, C; Bailey, G; Nelis, H

    1995-11-01

    In a study to investigate early interactions of Entamoeba histolytica with epithelial cell monolayers, we found that a monoclonal antibody (MAb), CD6, against an ameba surface antigen recognized the lateral surface of epithelial cells after coculture with trophozoites. Display of the CD6 antigen on the epithelial cells necessitated contact with active trophozoites. It was found neither at 4 degrees C, nor with prefixed trophozoites, nor with trophozoite-conditioned media, nor when a filter prevented direct contact. Monolayers exposed to amebic sonicates or detergent lysates showed random immunostaining. Access to the antigenic site was limited, as immunostaining occurred predominantly with subconfluent monolayers. CD6 epithelial cell binding was first observed after 5 min of coculture; trophozoite-mediated target cell lysis was not detected until 15 min following coculture. Epithelial cell immunostaining occurred with some other ameba-specific antibodies but not with MAbs raised against the 170-kDa subunit of the galactose-N-acetylgalactosamine (Gal/GalNAc)-specific lectin. The CD6 MAb as well as some other ameba-specific antibodies immunoprecipitated from trophozoite lysates the same bands as the MAbs against the cysteine-rich domain of the 170-kDa subunit of the Gal/GalNAc-specific lectin. Why the latter MAbs failed to stain epithelial cells in the vicinity of attached trophozoites is presently unknown. We concluded that E. histolytica trophozoites transferred the intact amebic Gal/GalNAc-specific lectin or a portion of it to the lateral surface of epithelial cells. This juxtacrine transfer preceded killing of target cells.

  11. Fibroblast growth factor 21 protects mouse brain against D-galactose induced aging via suppression of oxidative stress response and advanced glycation end products formation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yinhang; Bai, Fuliang; Wang, Wenfei; Liu, Yaonan; Yuan, Qingyan; Qu, Susu; Zhang, Tong; Tian, Guiyou; Li, Siming; Li, Deshan; Ren, Guiping

    2015-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone secreted predominantly in the liver, pancreas and adipose tissue. Recently, it has been reported that FGF21-Transgenic mice can extend their lifespan compared with wild type counterparts. Thus, we hypothesize that FGF21 may play some roles in aging of organisms. In this study d-galactose (d-gal)-induced aging mice were used to study the mechanism that FGF21 protects mice from aging. The three-month-old Kunming mice were subcutaneously injected with d-gal (180mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) for 8weeks and administered simultaneously with FGF21 (1, 2 or 5mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)). Our results showed that administration of FGF21 significantly improved behavioral performance of d-gal-treated mice in water maze task and step-down test, reduced brain cell damage in the hippocampus, and attenuated the d-gal-induced production of MDA, ROS and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). At the same time, FGF21 also markedly renewed the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total anti-oxidation capability (T-AOC), and decreased the enhanced total cholinesterase (TChE) activity in the brain of d-gal-treated mice. The expression of aldose reductase (AR), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) and member-anchored receptor for AGEs (RAGE) declined significantly after FGF21 treatment. Furthermore, FGF21 suppressed inflamm-aging by inhibiting IκBα degradation and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. The expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, decreased significantly. In conclusion, these results suggest that FGF21 protects the aging mice brain from d-gal-induced injury by attenuating oxidative stress damage and decreasing AGE formation.

  12. Aldose reductase inhibitor counteracts the enhanced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-10 and improves corneal wound healing in galactose-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Takafumi; Tomomatsu, Takeshi; Matsumura, Takehiro; Takihara, Yuji; Inatani, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the effect of an aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI) and the role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-10 on recovery after corneal epithelium removal in a rat diabetic keratopathy model. Methods Three-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were fed the following diets for 6 weeks: normal MF chow (MF), 50% galactose (Gal), and 50% Gal containing 0.01% ARI (Gal +ARI). The corneal epithelium was removed using n-heptanol, and the area of epithelial defects was photographed and measured every 24 h. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the expression profile of MMP-10 and integrin α3. Results Compared to the MF control group, the amount of galactitol in the Gal group increased approximately 200-fold, which was reduced to sevenfold by ARI treatment. The area of corneal erosion in the Gal group was significantly larger than in the MF group at 72 h and thereafter (p<0.01, unpaired t test). The expression level of MMP-10 was enhanced at both the protein and mRNA levels by exposure to a high concentration of Gal, while integrin α3 expression decreased at the protein level but remained unchanged at the mRNA level. Delayed epithelial wound healing and alterations in the expression levels of MMP-10 and integrin α3 were normalized by ARI. The corneal erosion closure rate was significantly decreased with topical recombinant MMP-10. Conclusions These studies confirm that the increased expression of MMP-10 induced by Gal feeding is counteracted by ARI treatment and suggest a role of MMP-10 in modulating corneal epithelial wound healing. PMID:24339723

  13. Standardized extract of Bacopa monniera (BESEB CDRI-08) attenuates contextual associative learning deficits in the aging rat's brain induced by D-galactose.

    PubMed

    Prisila Dulcy, Charles; Singh, Hemant K; Preethi, Jayakumar; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2012-10-01

    In this study, we examined the neuroprotective effect of standardized Bacopa monniera extract (BME: BESEB CDRI-08) against the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced brain aging in rats. Experimental groups were subjected to contextual-associative learning task. We found that the administration of BME in the D-gal-treated group attenuated contextual-associative learning deficits; the individuals showed more correct responses and retrieved the reward with less latency. Subsequent analysis showed that the BME administration significantly decreased advance glycation end product (AGE) in serum and increased the activity of antioxidant response element (ARE) and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and nuclear transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), accompanied by a reduction in the level of serotonin (5-HT) in the hippocampus. The BME treatment also reversed D-gal-induced brain aging by upregulating the levels of the presynaptic proteins synaptotagmin I (SYT1) and synaptophysin (SYP) and the postsynaptic proteins Ca(2+) /calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (αCaMKII) and postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) in the hippocampus during synaptic plasticity. A significant finding is that the D-gal- + BME-treated rats exhibited more correct responses in contextual-associative learning than D-gal alone-treated rats. Our findings suggest that BME treatment attenuates D-gal-induced brain aging and regulates the level of antioxidant enzymes, Nrf2 expression, and the level of 5-HT, which was accompanied by concomitantly increased levels of synaptic proteins SYT1, SYP, αCaMKII, p-αCaMKII, and PSD-95.

  14. Galactose conjugated platinum(II) complex targeting the Warburg effect for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng; Li, Hong; Liu, Ran; Gao, Xiangqian; Zhang, Menghua; Liu, Pengxing; Fu, Zheng; Yang, Jinna; Zhang-Negrerie, Daisy; Gao, Qingzhi

    2016-03-03

    Malignant neoplasms exhibit a higher rate of glycolysis than normal cells; this is known as the Warburg effect. To target it, a galactose-conjugated (trans-R,R-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine)-2-chloromalonato-platinum(II) complex (Gal-Pt) was designed, synthesized, and evaluated in five human cancer cell lines and against two different xenograft tumour models. Gal-Pt exhibits much higher aqueous solubility (over 25 times) and improved cytotoxicity than oxaliplatin, especially in human colon (HT29) and lung (H460) cancer cell lines. The safety profile of Gal-Pt was investigated in vivo by exploring the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and animal mortality rate. The ratios of the animal lethal dosage values to the cytotoxicity in HT29 (LD50/IC50) showed that Gal-Pt was associated with an increased therapeutic index by over 30-fold compared to cisplatin and oxaliplatin. We evaluated in vivo antitumor activity by single agent intravenous treatment comparison studies of Gal-Pt (50 mg/kg as 65% MTD) and cisplatin (3 mg/kg, as 80% MTD) in a H460 lung cancer xenograft model, and with oxaliplatin (7 mg/kg, as 90% MTD) in a HT29 colon cancer xenograft model. The results show that Gal-Pt was more efficacious against H460 than cisplatin, and had superior potency in HT29 cells compared to oxaliplatin under nontoxic dosage conditions. The dependency between cytotoxicity of Gal-Pt and glucose transporters (GLUTs) was investigated by using quercetin as an inhibitor of GLUTs in HT29 cells. The cytotoxic potency of Gal-Pt was highly reduced by the inhibitor, suggesting that the uptake of Gal-Pt was regulated by glucose transporters. The GLUT mediated transportability and cellular uptake of Gal-Pt was also demonstrated using a fluorescent glucose bioprobe in HT29 competition assay.

  15. Identification and functional analysis of three distinct mutations in the human galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase gene associated with galactosemia in a single family

    SciTech Connect

    Fridovich-Keil, J.L.; Langley, S.D.; Mazur, L.A.; Lennon, J.C.; Dembure, P.O.; Elsas, L.J. II

    1995-03-01

    We have identified three mutations associated with transferase-deficiency galactosemia in a three-generation family including affected members in two generations and have modeled all three mutations in a yeast-expression system. A sequence of pedigree, biochemical, and molecular analyses of the galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) enzyme and genetic locus in both affected and carrier individuals revealed three distinct base substitutions in this family, two (Q188R and S135L) that had been reported previously and one (V151A) that was novel. Biochemical analyses of red-blood-cell lysates from the relevant family members suggested that each of these mutations was associated with dramatic impairment of GALT activity in these cells. While this observation was consistent with our previous findings concerning the Q188R mutation expressed both in humans and in a yeast-model system, it was at odds with a report by Reichardt and colleagues, indicating that in their COS cell-expression system the S135L substitution behaved as a neutral polymorphism. To address this apparent paradox, as well as to investigate the functional significance of the newly identified V151A substitution, all three mutations were recreated by site-directed mutagenesis of the otherwise wild-type human GALT sequence and were expressed both individually and in the appropriate allelic combinations in a GALT-deficient strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results of these yeast-modeling studies were fully consistent with the patient data, leading us to conclude that, at least within the context of the cell types studied, in the homozygous state Q188R is a mutation that eliminates GALT activity, and S135L and V151A are both mutations that impair GALT activity to <6% of wild-type values. 22 refs., 5 figs.

  16. A yeast model reveals biochemical severity associated with each of three variant alleles of galactose-1P uridylyltransferase segregating in a single family.

    PubMed

    Chhay, J S; Openo, K K; Eaton, J S; Gentile, M; Fridovich-Keil, J L

    2008-02-01

    Classic galactosaemia is a potentially lethal inborn error of metabolism that results from profound impairment of galactose-1P uridylyltransferase (GALT). Like many autosomal recessive disorders, classic galactosaemia demonstrates marked allelic heterogeneity; many if not most patients are compound heterozygotes. Owing in part to the fact that most GALT mutations are never observed in patients in the homozygous state, in part to concerns of possible allelic interaction, and in part to the broad range of GALT activity levels associated with the affected, carrier, and control states, definition of the specific functional consequence of individual variant GALT alleles from studies of clinical samples alone can be a challenging task. To overcome this problem we previously developed and applied a null-background yeast system to enable functional analyses of human GALT alleles expressed individually or in defined pairs. We report here the application of this system to characterize three distinct variant alleles of GALT identified within a single family. Of these alleles, one carried a missense mutation (K285N) that has previously been reported and characterized, one carried a nonsense mutation (R204X) that has previously been reported but not characterized, and the third carried a missense substitution (T268N) that was novel. Our studies reported here reconfirm the profound nature of the K285N mutation, demonstrate that the R204X mutation severely compromises both expression and function of human GALT, and finally implicate T268N as one of a very small number of naturally occurring rare but neutral missense polymorphisms in human GALT.

  17. Ergothioneine and melatonin attenuate oxidative stress and protect against learning and memory deficits in C57BL/6J mice treated with D-galactose.

    PubMed

    Song, T-Y; Lin, H-C; Chen, C-L; Wu, J-H; Liao, J-W; Hu, M-L

    2014-09-01

    Male C57BL/6J mice treated with D-galactose (DG) were used to examine the effects of ergothioneine (EGT), melatonin (MEL), or their combination (EGT+MEL) on learning and memory abilities. The mice were divided into five groups and injected subcutaneously with DG (0.3 mL of 1% DG/mouse) except for group 1 (normal controls). Group 3 was orally supplemented with EGT [0.5 mg/kg body weight (bw)], group 4 with MEL (10 mg/kg bw, p.o.), and group 5 with EGT+MEL. EGT and MEL were provided daily for 88 days, while DG was provided between days 7 to 56. Active avoidance task and Morris water-maze task were used to evaluate learning and memory abilities. DG treatment markedly increased escape latency and decreased the number of avoidance in the active avoidance test, whereas EGT and MEL alone significantly improved the performance. DG also impaired the learning and memory abilities in the water-maze task, and EGT and MEL alone also significantly improved the performance. EGT+MEL produced the strongest effects in both tasks. EGT and MEL alone markedly decreased β-amyloid protein accumulation in the hippocampus and significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation and maintained glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio and superoxide dismutase activity in brain tissues of DG-treated mice. MEL alone completely prevented the rise in brain acetylcholine esterase activity induced by DG, whereas EGT and EGT+MEL were only partially effective. Overall, EGT, MEL, and, in particular, the combination of EGT and MEL effectively protect against learning and memory deficits in C57BL/6J mice treated with DG, possibly through attenuation of oxidative damage.

  18. UDP-galactose (SLC35A2) and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (SLC35A3) Transporters Form Glycosylation-related Complexes with Mannoside Acetylglucosaminyltransferases (Mgats)*

    PubMed Central

    Maszczak-Seneczko, Dorota; Sosicka, Paulina; Kaczmarek, Beata; Majkowski, Michał; Luzarowski, Marcin; Olczak, Teresa; Olczak, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    UDP-galactose transporter (UGT; SLC35A2) and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine transporter (NGT; SLC35A3) form heterologous complexes in the Golgi membrane. NGT occurs in close proximity to mannosyl (α-1,6-)-glycoprotein β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (Mgat5). In this study we analyzed whether NGT and both splice variants of UGT (UGT1 and UGT2) are able to interact with four different mannoside acetylglucosaminyltransferases (Mgat1, Mgat2, Mgat4B, and Mgat5). Using an in situ proximity ligation assay, we found that all examined glycosyltransferases are in the vicinity of these UDP-sugar transporters both at the endogenous level and upon overexpression. This observation was confirmed via the FLIM-FRET approach for both NGT and UGT1 complexes with Mgats. This study reports for the first time close proximity between endogenous nucleotide sugar transporters and glycosyltransferases. We also observed that among all analyzed Mgats, only Mgat4B occurs in close proximity to UGT2, whereas the other three Mgats are more distant from UGT2, and it was only possible to visualize their vicinity using proximity ligation assay. This strongly suggests that the distance between these protein pairs is longer than 10 nm but at the same time shorter than 40 nm. This study adds to the understanding of glycosylation, one of the most important post-translational modifications, which affects the majority of macromolecules. Our research shows that complex formation between nucleotide sugar transporters and glycosyltransferases might be a more common phenomenon than previously thought. PMID:25944901

  19. Labeling of hepatic glycogen after short- and long-term stimulation of glycogen synthesis in rats injected with 3H-galactose

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, J.E.; Garfield, S.A.; Hung, J.T.; Cardell, R.R. Jr. )

    1990-08-01

    The effects of short- and long-term stimulation of glycogen synthesis elicited by dexamethasone were studied by light (LM) and electron (EM) microscopic radioautography (RAG) and biochemical analysis. Adrenalectomized rats were fasted overnight and pretreated for short- (3 hr) or long-term (14 hr) periods with dexamethasone prior to intravenous injection of tracer doses of 3H-galactose. Analysis of LM-RAGs from short-term rats revealed that about equal percentages (44%) of hepatocytes became heavily or lightly labeled 1 hr after labeling. The percentage of heavily labeled cells increased slightly 6 hr after labeling, and unlabeled glycogen became apparent in some hepatocytes. The percentage of heavily labeled cells had decreased somewhat 12 hr after labeling, and more unlabeled glycogen was evident. In the long-term rats 1 hr after labeling, a higher percentage of heavily labeled cells (76%) was observed compared to short-term rats, and most glycogen was labeled. In spite of the high amount of labeling seen initially, the percentage of heavily labeled hepatocytes had decreased considerably to 55% by 12 hr after injection; and sparsely labeled and unlabeled glycogen was prevalent. The EM-RAGs of both short- and long-term rats were similar. Silver grains were associated with glycogen patches 1 hr after labeling; 12 hr after labeling, the glycogen patches had enlarged; and label, where present, was dispersed over the enlarged glycogen clumps. Analysis of DPM/mg tissue corroborated the observed decrease in label 12 hr after administration in the long-term animals. The loss of label observed 12 hr after injection in the long-term pretreated rats suggests that turnover of glycogen occurred during this interval despite the net accumulation of glycogen that was visible morphologically and evident from biochemical measurement.

  20. D-galactose induces a mitochondrial complex I deficiency in mouse skeletal muscle: potential benefits of nutrient combination in ameliorating muscle impairment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Liao; Liu, Xin; Liu, Jing; Li, Hua; Yang, Yanshen; Liu, Jia; Guo, Zihao; Xiao, Ke; Zhang, Chen; Liu, Jiankang; Zhao-Wilson, Xi; Long, Jiangang

    2014-03-01

    Accumulating research has shown that chronic D-galactose (D-gal) exposure induces symptoms similar to natural aging in animals. Therefore, rodents chronically exposed to D-gal are increasingly used as a model for aging and delay-of-aging pharmacological research. Mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to play a vital role in aging and age-related diseases; however, whether mitochondrial dysfunction plays a significant role in mice exposed to D-gal remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated cognitive dysfunction, locomotor activity, and mitochondrial dysfunction involved in D-gal exposure in mice. We found that D-gal exposure (125 mg/kg/day, 8 weeks) resulted in a serious impairment in grip strength in mice, whereas spatial memory and locomotor coordination remained intact. Interestingly, muscular mitochondrial complex I deficiency occurred in the skeletal muscle of mice exposed to D-gal. Mitochondrial ultrastructure abnormality was implicated as a contributing factor in D-gal-induced muscular impairment. Moreover, three combinations (A, B, and C) of nutrients applied in this study effectively reversed D-gal-induced muscular impairment. Nutrient formulas B and C were especially effective in reversing complex I dysfunction in both skeletal muscle and heart muscle. These findings suggest the following: (1) chronic exposure to D-gal first results in specific muscular impairment in mice, rather than causing general, premature aging; (2) poor skeletal muscle strength induced by D-gal might be due to the mitochondrial dysfunction caused by complex I deficiency; and (3) the nutrient complexes applied in the study attenuated the skeletal muscle impairment, most likely by improving mitochondrial function.

  1. Swimming attenuates D-galactose-induced brain aging via suppressing miR-34a-mediated autophagy impairment and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kou, Xianjuan; Li, Jie; Liu, Xingran; Chang, Jingru; Zhao, Qingxia; Jia, Shaohui; Fan, Jingjing; Chen, Ning

    2017-03-16

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be involved in many neurodegenerative diseases. In order to explore the regulatory role of miR-34a in aging-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) during exercise intervention, we constructed a rat model with (D-galactose) D-gal-induced oxidative stress and cognitive impairment coupled with dysfunctional autophagy and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics, determined the mitigation of cognitive impairment of D-gal-induced aging rats during swimming intervention, and evaluated miR-34a-mediated functional status of autophagy and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics. Meanwhile, whether the up-regulation of miR-34a can lead to dysfunctional autophagy and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics was confirmed in human SH-SY5Y cells with silenced miR-34a by the transfection of miR-34a inhibitor. Results indicated that swimming intervention could significantly attenuate cognitive impairment, rescue the up-regulation of miR-34a, mitigate the dysfunctional autophagy, and inhibit the increase of Drp1 in D-gal-induced aging model rats. In contrast, miR-34a inhibitor in cell model not only attenuated D-gal-induced autophagy impairment, but also decreased the expression of Drp1 and Mfn2. Therefore, swimming training can attenuate the impairment of miR-34a-mediated autophagy and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics during D-gal-induced aging process in rat hippocampal tissue, which may be one of the mechanisms for delaying brain aging through swimming training, and miR-34a could be the novel therapeutic target for aging-related diseases such as AD.

  2. Preparation of novel butyryl galactose ester-modified coix component microemulsions and evaluation on hepatoma-targeting in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming Jian; Qu, Ding; Chen, Yan; Liu, Cong Yan; Liu, Yu Ping; Ding, Xue Fang

    2016-11-01

    The butyryl galactose ester-modified coix component microemulsions (But-Gal-CMEs) was developed for enhanced liver tumor-specific targeting. The study was aimed to evaluate the hepatoma-targeting potential of But-Gal-CMEs in vitro and in vivo. But-Gal-CMEs with a uniform spherical shape exhibited a small particle size (56.68 ± 0.07 nm), a narrow polydispersity (PDI, 0.144 ± 0.005) and slightly negative surface charge (-0.102 ± 0.008 mV). In the cell uptake studies, But-Gal-CMEs showed a significant enhancement on the intracellular fluorescent intensity on HepG2 cells model, which was 1.93-fold higher relative to coix component microemulsions (CMEs). The IC50 of But-Gal-CMEs against HepG2 cells was 64.250 μg/mL, which was notably stronger than that of CMEs. In the cell apoptosis studies, compared with CMEs, But-Gal-CMEs (50 μg/mL) treatment resulted in a 1.34-fold rise in total apoptosis cells of HepG2. In the biodistribution studies in vivo, the intratumorous fluorescence of Cy5-loaded But-Gal-CMEs was 1.43-fold higher relative to that of Cy5-loaded CMEs, suggesting an obviously enhanced accumulation in the tumor sites. Taken as together, But-Gal could be incorporated into the coix component microemulsions as a novel ligand for realizing hepatoma-targeting drugs delivery.

  3. Trimeric crystal structure of the glycoside hydrolase family 42 beta-galactosidase from Thermus thermophilus A4 and the structure of its complex with galactose.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Masafumi; Fushinobu, Shinya; Ohtsu, Naomi; Motoshima, Hidemasa; Matsuzawa, Hiroshi; Shoun, Hirofumi; Wakagi, Takayoshi

    2002-09-06

    The beta-galactosidase from an extreme thermophile, Thermus thermophilus A4 (A4-beta-Gal), is thermostable and belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 42 (GH-42). As the first known structures of a GH-42 enzyme, we determined the crystal structures of free and galactose-bound A4-beta-Gal at 1.6A and 2.2A resolution, respectively. A4-beta-Gal forms a homotrimeric structure resembling a flowerpot. Each monomer has an active site located inside a large central tunnel. The N-terminal domain of A4-beta-Gal has a TIM barrel fold, as predicted from hydrophobic cluster analysis. The putative catalytic residues of A4-beta-Gal (Glu141 and Glu312) superimpose well with the catalytic residues of Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase. The environment around the catalytic nucleophile (Glu312) is similar to that in the case of E.coli beta-galactosidase, but the recognition mechanism for a substrate is different. Trp182 of the next subunit of the trimer constitutes a part of the active-site pocket, indicating that the trimeric structure is essential for the enzyme activity. Structural comparison with other glycoside hydrolases revealed that many features of the 4/7 superfamily are conserved in the A4-beta-Gal structure. On the basis of the results of 1H NMR spectroscopy, A4-beta-Gal was determined to be a "retaining" enzyme. Interestingly, the active site was similar with those of retaining enzymes, but the overall fold of the TIM barrel domain was very similar to that of an inverting enzyme, beta-amylase.

  4. Pradimicin A, a D-mannose-binding antibiotic, binds pyranosides of L-fucose and L-galactose in a calcium-sensitive manner.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yu; Watanabe, Yasunori; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Ito, Yukishige; Ojika, Makoto

    2015-08-01

    Pradimicin A (PRM-A) is a unique antibiotic with a lectin-like ability to bind D-mannose (D-Man) in the presence of Ca(2+) ion. Although accumulated evidences suggest that PRM-A recognizes the 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxyl groups of D-Man, BMY-28864, an artificial PRM-A derivative, was shown not to bind L-fucose (L-Fuc) and L-galactose (lLGal), both of which share the characteristic array of the three hydroxyl groups with D-Man. To obtain a plausible explanation for this inconsistency, we performed co-precipitation experiments of PRM-A with L-Fuc, L-Gal, and their methyl pyranosides (L-Fuc-OMe, L-Gal-OMe) by taking advantage of aggregate-forming propensity of the binary [PRM-A/Ca(2+)] complex. While L-Fuc and L-Gal were hardly incorporated into the aggregate, L-Fuc-OMe and L-Gal-OMe were found to exhibit significant binding to PRM-A. However, increased Ca(2+) concentration abolished this binding, raising the possibility that poor binding of L-Fuc and L-Gal to PRM-A is attributed to their chelation with Ca(2+) ion. This possibility was partly supported by (1)H NMR analysis that detected interaction of L-Fuc and L-Gal with Ca(2+) ion in aqueous solution. These results collectively indicate that PRM-A binds pyranosides of L-Fuc and L-Gal when Ca(2+) concentration is not excessive to trap these sugars by chelation but sufficient to form the [PRM-A/Ca(2+)] complex.

  5. Tissue- and cell-specific localization of galectins, β-galactose-binding animal lectins, and their potential functions in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Nio-Kobayashi, Junko

    2017-01-01

    Fifteen galectins, β-galactose-binding animal lectins, are known to be distributed throughout the body. We herein summarize current knowledge on the tissue- and cell-specific localization of galectins and their potential functions in health and disease. Galectin-3 is widely distributed in epithelia, including the simple columnar epithelium in the gut, stratified squamous epithelium in the gut and skin, and transitional epithelium and several regions in nephrons in the urinary tract. Galectin-2 and galectin-4/6 are gut-specific, while galectin-7 is found in the stratified squamous epithelium in the gut and skin. The reproductive tract mainly contains galectin-1 and galectin-3, and their expression markedly changes during the estrous/menstrual cycle. The galectin subtype expressed in the corpus luteum (CL) changes in association with luteal function. The CL of women and cows displays a "galectin switch" with coordinated changes in the major galectin subtype and its ligand glycoconjugate structure. Macrophages express galectin-3, which may be involved in phagocytotic activity. Lymphoid tissues contain galectin-3-positive macrophages, which are not always stained with the macrophage marker, F4/80. Subsets of neurons in the brain and dorsal root ganglion express galectin-1 and galectin-3, which may contribute to the regeneration of damaged axons, stem cell differentiation, and pain control. The subtype-specific contribution of galectins to implantation, fibrosis, and diabetes are also discussed. The function of galectins may differ depending on the tissues or cells in which they act. The ligand glycoconjugate structures mediated by glycosyltransferases including MGAT5, ST6GAL1, and C2GnT are important for revealing the functions of galectins in healthy and disease states.

  6. The signal for glucose repression of the lactose-galactose regulon is amplified through subtle modulation of transcription of the Kluyveromyces lactis Kl-GAL4 activator gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kuzhandaivelu, N; Jones, W K; Martin, A K; Dickson, R C

    1992-01-01

    Induction of the lactose-galactose regulon is strongly repressed by glucose in some but not all strains of Kluyveromyces lactis. We show here that in strongly repressed strains, two to three times less Kl-GAL4 mRNA is synthesized and that expression of structural genes in the regulon such as LAC4, the structural gene for beta-galactosidase, is down regulated 40-fold or more. Comparative analysis of strains having a strong or weak repression phenotype revealed a two-base difference in the promoter of the Kl-GAL4 (also called LAC9) positive regulatory gene. This two-base difference is responsible for the strong versus the weak repression phenotype. The two base changes are symmetrically located in a DNA sequence having partial twofold rotational symmetry (14 of 21 bases). We hypothesize that this region functions as a sensitive regulatory switch, an upstream repressor sequence (URS). According to our model, the presence of glucose in the culture medium signals, by an unidentified pathway, a repressor protein to bind the URS. Binding reduces transcription of the Kl-GAL4 gene so that the concentration of the Kl-GAL4 protein falls below the level needed for induction of LAC4 and other genes in the regulon. For strains showing weak glucose repression, we hypothesize that the two base changes in the URS reduce repressor binding so that the regulon is not repressed. Our results illustrate an important principle of genetic regulation: a small (2- to 3-fold) change in the concentration of a regulatory protein can produce a large (40-fold or greater) change in expression of structural genes. This mechanism of signal amplification could play a role in many biological phenomena that require regulated transcription. Images PMID:1569929

  7. Changes in Nephritogenic Serum Galactose-Deficient IgA1 in IgA Nephropathy following Tonsillectomy and Steroid Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; Sato, Daisuke; Kano, Tatsuya; Yanagawa, Hiroyuki; Matsuzaki, Keiichi; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Novak, Jan; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that galactose-deficient IgA1 (GdIgA1) has an important role in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Although emerging data suggest that serum GdIgA1 can be a useful non-invasive IgAN biomarker, the localization of nephritogenic GdIgA1-producing B cells remains unclear. Recent clinical and experimental studies indicate that immune activation tonsillar toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 may be involved in the pathogenesis of IgAN. Here we assessed the possibility of GdIgA1 production in the palatine tonsils in IgAN patients. Methods We assessed changes in serum GdIgA1 levels in IgAN patients with clinical remission of hematuria and proteinuria following combined tonsillectomy and steroid pulse therapy. Further, the association between clinical outcome and tonsillar TLR9 expression was evaluated. Results Patients (n = 37) were divided into two groups according to therapy response. In one group, serum GdIgA1 levels decreased after tonsillectomy (59%) alone, whereas in the other group most levels only decreased after the addition of steroid pulse therapy to tonsillectomy (41%). The former group showed significantly higher tonsillar TLR9 expression and better improvement in hematuria immediately after tonsillectomy than the latter group. Conclusions The present study indicates that the palatine tonsils are probably a major sites of GdIgA1-producing cells. However, in some patients these cells may propagate to other lymphoid organs, which may partially explain the different responses observed to tonsillectomy alone. These findings help to clarify some of the clinical observations in the management of IgAN, and may highlight future directions for research. PMID:24586974

  8. Serum Galactose-Deficient IgA1 Level Is Not Associated with Proteinuria in Children with IgA Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, M. Colleen; Afshan, Sabahat; Sanders, John T.; Kane, Oulimata; Eison, T. Matthew; Lau, Keith K.; Moldoveanu, Zina; Julian, Bruce A.; Novak, Jan; Wyatt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Percentage of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) relative to total IgA in serum was recently reported to correlate with proteinuria at time of sampling and during follow-up for pediatric and adult patients with IgA nephropathy. We sought to determine whether this association exists in another cohort of pediatric patients with IgA nephropathy. Methods. Subjects were younger than 18 years at entry. Blood samples were collected on one or more occasions for determination of serum total IgA and Gd-IgA1. Gd-IgA1 was expressed as serum level and percent of total IgA. Urinary protein/creatinine ratio was calculated for random specimens. Spearman's correlation coefficients assessed the relationship between study variables. Results. The cohort had 29 Caucasians and 11 African-Americans with a male : female ratio of 1.9 : 1. Mean age at diagnosis was 11.7 ± 3.7 years. No statistically significant correlation was identified between serum total IgA, Gd-IgA1, or percent Gd-IgA1 versus urinary protein/creatinine ratio determined contemporaneously with biopsy or between average serum Gd-IgA1 or average percent Gd-IgA1 and time-average urinary protein/creatinine ratio. Conclusion. The magnitude of proteinuria in this cohort of pediatric patients with IgA nephropathy was influenced by factors other than Gd-IgA1 level, consistent with the proposed multi-hit pathogenetic pathways for this renal disease. PMID:22754697

  9. Structure of the O-antigen of Vibrio cholerae O155 that shares a putative D-galactose 4,6-cyclophosphate-associated epitope with V. cholerae O139 Bengal.

    PubMed

    Senchenkova, S N; Zatonsky, G V; Shashkov, A S; Knirel, Y A; Jansson, P E; Weintraub, A; Albert, M J

    1998-05-15

    The O-specific polysaccharide of Vibrio cholerae 0155 was studied by sugar and methylation analyses, dephosphorylation with 48% hydrofluoric acid, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy, including two-dimensional COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, and heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (HSQC) experiments. The following structure of the pentasaccharide repeating unit of the polysaccharide was established: carbohydrate sequence [see text]. An unusual component, D-galactose 4,6-cyclophosphate, has been reported previously as a component of the capsular polysaccharide and O-antigen of V. cholerae O139 Bengal and appears to be responsible for the known serological cross-reactivity between V. cholerae O139 and O155.

  10. De novo synthesis of a 2-acetamido-4-amino-2,4,6-trideoxy-D-galactose (AAT) building block for the preparation of a Bacteroides fragilis A1 polysaccharide fragment.

    PubMed

    Pragani, Rajan; Stallforth, Pierre; Seeberger, Peter H

    2010-04-02

    Zwitterionic polysaccharides (ZPSs) are potent T-cell activators that naturally occur on the cell surface of bacteria and show potential as immunostimulatory agents. An unusual, yet important component of many ZPSs is 2-acetamido-4-amino-2,4,6-trideoxy-D-galactose (AAT). AAT building block 2 was prepared via a de novo synthesis from N-Cbz-L-threonine 5. Furthermore, building block 2 was used to synthesize disaccharide 15 that constitutes a fragment of zwitterionic polysaccharide A1 (PS A1) found in Bacteroides fragilis.

  11. Clinical and molecular spectra in galactosemic patients from neonatal screening in northeastern Italy: structural and functional characterization of new variations in the galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) gene.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, E; Marabotti, A; Burlina, A P; Cazzorla, C; D'Apice, M R; Giordano, L; Fasan, I; Novelli, G; Facchiano, A; Burlina, A B

    2015-04-01

    Classical galactosemia is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism due to mutations of the GALT gene leading to toxic accumulation of galactose and derived metabolites. With the benefit of early diagnosis by neonatal screening and early therapy, the acute presentation of classical galactosemia can be prevented. However, despite early diagnosis and treatment, the long term outcome for these patients is still unpredictable because they may go on to develop cognitive disability, speech problems, neurological and/or movement disorders and, in females, ovarian dysfunction. The objectives of the current study were to report our experience with a group of galactosemic patients identified through the neonatal screening programs in northeastern Italy during the last 30years. No neonatal deaths due to galactosemia complications occurred after the introduction of the neonatal screening program. However, despite the early diagnosis and dietary treatment, the patients with classical galactosemia showed one or more long-term complications. A total of 18 different variations in the GALT gene were found in the patient cohort: 12 missense, 2 frameshift, 1 nonsense, 1 deletion, 1 silent variation, and 1 intronic. Six (p.R33P, p.G83V, p.P244S, p.L267R, p.L267V, p.E271D) were new variations. The most common variation was p.Q188R (12 alleles, 31.5%), followed by p.K285N (6 alleles, 15.7%) and p.N314D (6 alleles, 15.7%). The other variations comprised 1 or 2 alleles. In the patients carrying a new mutation, the biochemical analysis of GALT activity in erythrocytes showed an activity of <1%. In silico analysis (SIFT, PolyPhen-2 and the computational analysis on the static protein structure) showed potentially damaging effects of the six new variations on the GALT protein, thus expanding the genetic spectrum of GALT variations in Italy. The study emphasizes the difficulty in establishing a genotype-phenotype correlation in classical galactosemia and underlines the importance of

  12. Galactose-installed photo-crosslinked pH-sensitive degradable micelles for active targeting chemotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yan; Song, Yuan; Yang, Weijing; Meng, Fenghua; Liu, Haiyan; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2014-11-10

    In this study, we designed and developed galactose-installed photo-crosslinked pH-sensitive degradable micelles (Gal-CLMs) for active targeting chemotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma in mice. Gal-CLMs were readily obtained from co-self-assembly of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(mono-2,4,6-trimethoxy benzylidene-pentaerythritol carbonate-co-acryloyl carbonate) (PEG-b-P(TMBPEC-co-AC)) and Gal-PEG-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (Gal-PEG-b-PCL) copolymers followed by photo-crosslinking. Notably, paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded Gal-CLMs (Gal-PTX-CLMs) showed a narrow distribution (PDI=0.08-0.12) with average sizes ranging from 92.1 to 136.3nm depending on the Gal contents. The release of PTX from Gal-CLMs while inhibited at physiological pH was enhanced under endosomal pH conditions. MTT assays in asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) over-expressing HepG2 cells demonstrated that half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of Gal-PTX-CLMs decreased from 11.7 to 2.9 to 1.1μg/mL with increasing Gal contents from 10% to 20% to 30%, supporting receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism. The in vivo biodistribution studies in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 tumor-bearing nude mice displayed that Gal20-PTX-CLMs resulted in significantly enhanced drug accumulation in the tumors over non-targeting PTX-CLM counterpart. In accordance, Gal20-PTX-CLMs caused much greater tumor growth inhibition than non-targeting PTX-CLMs as well as non-crosslinking Gal20-PTX-NCLM controls (average tumor volume: ca. 35mm(3)versus 144mm(3) and 130mm(3), respectively). Histological analysis showed that Gal20-PTX-CLMs induced more extensive apoptosis of tumor cells while less damage to normal liver and kidney compared to Taxol. Ligand-installed photo-crosslinked pH-responsive degradable micelles have a great potential for targeted cancer chemotherapy.

  13. Calorie restriction down-regulates expression of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin in normal and D-galactose-induced aging mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shougang; Shi, Wenli; Li, Man; Gao, Qian

    2014-02-01

    It has been shown that iron progressively accumulates in the brain with age. Calorie restriction (CR) may allay many of the adverse effects of aging on the brain, yet the underlying mechanisms, in particular in relation to brain iron metabolism, remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of CR in the regulation of cerebral cellular iron homeostasis. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups of eight. The control group was fed a conventional diet ad libitum; the CR group received 70% of the calories of the control mouse intake per day; the D-galactose (D-gal) group received subcutaneous injection of D-gal at a dose of 100 mg/kg once daily to produce mouse model of aging; the D-gal plus CR group received both of the two interventions for 14 weeks. The Morris water maze (MWM) was employed to test the cognitive performance of all animals, and the expression of iron regulatory genes, ferroportin and hepcidin, in the cortex and hippocampus were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Compared to the controls, the D-gal group mice showed significant spatial reference memory deficits in the MWM test, whereas the D-gal-CR group mice exhibited almost normal cognitive function, indicating that CR protects against D-gal-induced learning and memory impairment. Hepcidin mRNA expression was increased in the D-gal group, decreased in the CR group, and was basically unchanged in the D-gal-CR group. There was no statistical difference in the transmembrane iron exporter ferroportin expression between control and any of the experimental groups. The results suggest that the anti-aging effects of CR might partially lie in its capacity to reduce or avoid age-related iron accumulation in the brain through down-regulating expression of brain hepcidin--the key negative regulator for intracellular iron efflux--and that facilitating the balance of brain iron metabolism may be a promising anti-aging measure.

  14. Effect of Immunosuppressive Drugs on the Changes of Serum Galactose-Deficient IgA1 in Patients with IgA Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jeong; Schaub, Stefan; Molyneux, Karen; Koller, Michael T.; Stampf, Susanne; Barratt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) and IgA-IgG complexes are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). We aimed therefore to determine the impact of immunosuppression on the serum levels of Gd-IgA1, total IgA1 and IgA-IgG complexes in IgAN patients. In a retrospective study, serum samples from IgAN patients collected before transplantation (t0) and at 3- and 6-month posttransplant (t3 & t6) were used to measure the levels of Gd-IgA1, total IgA1 and IgA-IgG complexes. The area under the curves (AUC) of immunosuppressants was calculated by the plot of plasma trough level or dosage of each immunosuppressant versus time and was interpreted as the extent of drug exposure. Thirty-six out of 64 IgAN patients, who underwent kidney transplantation between 2005 and 2012, were enrolled. From t0 to t3, serum Gd-IgA1 and total IgA1 decreased significantly (24.7 AU (18.6–36.1) to 17.2 (13.1–29.5) (p<0.0001); 4.1 mg/ml (3.6–5.1) to 3.4 (3.0–4.1) (p = 0.0005)), whereas IgA-IgG complexes remained similar. From t3 to t6, Gd-IgA1 and IgA-IgG complexes significantly increased (17.2 AU (13.1–29.5) to 23.9 (16.8–32.0) (p = 0.0143); OD 0.16 (0.06–0.31) to 0.26 (0.14–0.35) (p = 0.0242)), while total IgA1 remained similar. According to median regression analysis, AUC of prednisone t0-6 was significantly associated with the decrease of Gd-IgA1 t0-6 (P = 0.01) and IgA1 t0-6 (p = 0.002), whereas AUC of tacrolimus t0-6 was associated with the decrease of IgA1 t0-6 (p = 0.02). AUC of prednisone t0-3 was associated with the decrease of IgA-IgG complexes t0-3 (p = 0.0036). The association of AUC prednisone t0-6 with Gd-IgA1 t0-6 remained highly significant after adjustment for other immunosuppressants (p = 0.0036). Serum levels of Gd-IgA1, total IgA1 and IgA-IgG in patients with IgAN vary according to the changing degrees of immunosuppression. The exposure to prednisone most clearly influenced the serum levels of Gd-IgA1. PMID:27930655

  15. Hippocampal Neurochemical Changes in Senescent Mice Induced with Chronic Injection of D-Galactose and NaNO2: An In Vitro High-Resolution NMR Spectroscopy Study at 9.4T

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yaowen; Pang, Li; Li, Haihong; Cao, Zhen; You, Kezeng; Dai, Haiyang; Wu, Renhua

    2014-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) has been used to provide useful information about the neurochemical changes reflecting early pathological alterations in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. In this study, we have longitudinally measured the hippocampal neurochemical profile in vitro in senescent mice induced with chronic injection of D-Galactose and NaNO2, at different time point from day 30 to day 70 with a 10-day interval. Pathological brain alterations induced by D-Galactose and NaNO2 were monitored through hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, Congo red staining and bielschowsky silver staining, and the cognition deficits were assessed via Morris Water Maze (MWM) test. This D-galactose and NaNO2 treated mouse model, characterized by an early-onset memory dysfunction, a robust neuronal loss, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in hippocampal subdivision, well mimics a prodromal Alzheimer's phenotype. Consistent with previously published in vivo 1H MRS findings in human AD patients and AD transgenic mice, our in vitro 1H MRS on the perchloric acid extractions of hippocampus in senescent mice observed significant decreases of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and Glutamate (Glu) but an increase in Myo-inositol (mIns). Elevated mIns occurred prior to the reduction of NAA and Glu during the progression of aging. In addition, changes in mIns, NAA and Glu were found to precede pathological abnormalities. Overall, our in vitro findings in senescent mice validated the concept that hippocampal neurochemical alternations preceded the pathological changes of the brain, and could serve as potential markers of AD progression. Reductions of NAA and Glu can be interpreted in terms of neuronal degeneration and dysfunctions in glutamatergic activity that may contribute to the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying AD. Elevated mIns might be related to glial activation. Further experiments are needed to explore the potential value of mIns in the early diagnosis of AD

  16. Identification of potential glycan cancer markers with sialic acid attached to sialic acid and up-regulated fucosylated galactose structures in epidermal growth factor receptor secreted from A431 cell line.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shiaw-Lin; Taylor, Allen D; Lu, Qiaozhen; Hanash, Samir M; Im, Hogune; Snyder, Michael; Hancock, William S

    2013-05-01

    We have used powerful HPLC-mass spectrometric approaches to characterize the secreted form of epidermal growth factor receptor (sEGFR). We demonstrated that the amino acid sequence lacked the cytoplasmic domain and was consistent with the primary sequence reported for EGFR purified from a human plasma pool. One of the sEGFR forms, attributed to the alternative RNA splicing, was also confirmed by transcriptional analysis (RNA sequencing). Two unusual types of glycan structures were observed in sEGFR as compared with membrane-bound EGFR from the A431 cell line. The unusual glycan structures were di-sialylated glycans (sialic acid attached to sialic acid) at Asn-151 and N-acetylhexosamine attached to a branched fucosylated galactose with N-acetylglucosamine moieties (HexNAc-(Fuc)Gal-GlcNAc) at Asn-420. These unusual glycans at specific sites were either present at a much lower level or were not observable in membrane-bound EGFR present in the A431 cell lysate. The observation of these di-sialylated glycan structures was consistent with the observed expression of the corresponding α-N-acetylneuraminide α-2,8-sialyltransferase 2 (ST8SiA2) and α-N-acetylneuraminide α-2,8-sialyltransferase 4 (ST8SiA4), by quantitative real time RT-PCR. The connectivity present at the branched fucosylated galactose was also confirmed by methylation of the glycans followed by analysis with sequential fragmentation in mass spectrometry. We hypothesize that the presence of such glycan structures could promote secretion via anionic or steric repulsion mechanisms and thus facilitate the observation of these glycan forms in the secreted fractions. We plan to use this model system to facilitate the search for novel glycan structures present at specific sites in sEGFR as well as other secreted oncoproteins such as Erbb2 as markers of disease progression in blood samples from cancer patients.

  17. Protective effects of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) peel phenolics on H2O2-induced oxidative damages in HepG2 cells and d-galactose-induced aging mice.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yongliang; Ma, Qingyu; Guo, Yan; Sun, Liping

    2017-01-27

    Rambutan peel phenolic (RPP) extracts were prepared via dynamic separation with macroporous resin. The total phenolic content and individual phenolics in RPP were determined. Results showed that the total phenolic content of RPP was 877.11 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g extract. The content of geranin (122.18 mg/g extract) was the highest among those of the 39 identified phenolic compounds. RPP protected against oxidative stress in H2O2-induced HepG2 cells in a dose-response manner. The inhibitory effects of RPP on cell apoptosis might be related to its inhibitory effects on the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and increased effects on superoxide dismutase activity. The in vivo anti-aging activity of RPP was evaluated using an aging mice model that was induced by d-galactose (d-gal). The results showed that RPP enhanced the antioxidative status of experimental mice. Moreover, histological analysis indicated that RPP effectively reduced d-gal-induced liver and kidney tissue damage in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, RPP can be used as a natural antioxidant and anti-aging agent in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

  18. Amino acid sequence of the Fv region of a human monoclonal IgM (protein WEA) with antibody activity against 3,4-pyruvylated galactose in Klebsiella polysaccharides K30 and K33.

    PubMed Central

    Goñi, F; Frangione, B

    1983-01-01

    We have determined the amino acid sequence of the Fv [variable heavy (VH) and variable light (VL)] region of a human monoclonal IgM-kappa with antibody activity against 3,4-pyruvylated galactose, isolated from the plasma of patient WEA with Waldenström macroglobulinemia. The VH region has 114 residues, belongs to subgroup III, and has a very short third complementarity-determining region (CDR3), probably due to a small D segment/or an unusual D-J rearrangement (D, diversity; J, joining). The VL region has 108 residues and belongs to subgroup V kappa I. Compared to other members of the human VHIII and V kappa I families, WEA Fv does not appear to have significant differences within the framework residues but has unique CDRs that might be responsible for the particular antibody activity. Another IgM-kappa (GAL), which has an as-yet-undetermined antibody activity, shares a striking homology in V kappa with WEA, including an identical CDR1. PMID:6410398

  19. l-Arabinose Isomerase and d-Xylose Isomerase from Lactobacillus reuteri: Characterization, Coexpression in the Food Grade Host Lactobacillus plantarum, and Application in the Conversion of d-Galactose and d-Glucose

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The l-arabinose isomerase (l-AI) and the d-xylose isomerase (d-XI) encoding genes from Lactobacillus reuteri (DSMZ 17509) were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The proteins were purified to homogeneity by one-step affinity chromatography and characterized biochemically. l-AI displayed maximum activity at 65 °C and pH 6.0, whereas d-XI showed maximum activity at 65 °C and pH 5.0. Both enzymes require divalent metal ions. The genes were also ligated into the inducible lactobacillal expression vectors pSIP409 and pSIP609, the latter containing a food grade auxotrophy marker instead of an antibiotic resistance marker, and the l-AI- and d-XI-encoding sequences/genes were coexpressed in the food grade host Lactobacillus plantarum. The recombinant enzymes were tested for applications in carbohydrate conversion reactions of industrial relevance. The purified l-AI converted d-galactose to d-tagatose with a maximum conversion rate of 35%, and the d-XI isomerized d-glucose to d-fructose with a maximum conversion rate of 48% at 60 °C. PMID:24443973

  20. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase variants: a unique variant (G6PD Kobe) showed an extremely increased affinity for galactose 6-phosphate and a new variant (G6PD Sapporo) resembling G6PD Pea Ridge.

    PubMed

    Fujii, H; Miwa, S; Tani, K; Takegawa, S; Fujinami, N; Takahashi, K; Nakayama, S; Konno, M; Sato, T

    1981-01-01

    Two new glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variants associated with chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia were discovered, G6PD Kobe was found in a 16-year-old male associated with hemolytic crisis after upper respiratory infection. The enzyme activity of the variant was about 22% of that of the normal enzyme. The main enzymatic characteristics were slower than normal anodal electrophoretic mobility, high Km G6P, increased thermal-instability, an acidic pH optimum, and an extremely increased affinity for the substrate analogue, galactose 6-phosphate (Gal-6P). G6PD Sapporo was found in a 3-year-old male associated with drug-induced hemolysis. The enzyme activity was extremely low, being 3.6% of normal. In addition, this variant showed high Ki NADPH and thermal-instability. G6PD Kobe utilized the artificial substrate Gal-6P effectively as compared with the common natural substrate, glucose 6-phosphate. In G6PD Sapporo, NADPH could not exert the effect of product inhibition. The structural changes of these variants are expected to occur at the portions inducing conformational changes of the substrate binding site of the enzyme.

  1. Preparation of Nucleosides Derived from 2-Nitroimidazole and d-Arabinose, d-Ribose, and d-Galactose by the Vorbrüggen Method and Their Conversion to Potential Precursors for Tracers To Image Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    2-Nitroimidazole was silylated using hexaethyldisilazane and then reacted with 1-O-acetyl derivatives of d-arabinose, d-ribose, and d-galactose in acetonitrile at mild temperatures (−20 °C to rt), catalyzed by triethylsilyl triflate (Vorbrüggen conditions). The α-anomer was formed in the former case and the β-anomers in the latter two cases (highly) selectively. When d-arabinose and d-ribose were silylated with tert-butyldiphenylsilyl chloride in pyridine at the hydroxyl groups at C-5 and acetylated at the other ones in a one-pot reaction, mixtures of anomeric 1-O-acetyl derivatives were obtained. These were coupled by the Vorbrüggen method and then deblocked at C-5 and tosylated to give precursors for tracers to image hypoxia in four steps without using Hg(CN)2 necessary for other methods. The Vorbrüggen conditions enable a shorter route to azomycin nucleoside analogues than the previous coupling procedures. PMID:21905640

  2. Light and abiotic stresses regulate the expression of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase and levels of ascorbic acid in two kiwifruit genotypes via light-responsive and stress-inducible cis-elements in their promoters.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Liang, Dong; Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-09-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA) plays an essential role in plants by protecting cells against oxidative damage. GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) is the first committed gene for AsA synthesis. Our research examined AsA levels, regulation of GGP gene expression, and how these are related to abiotic stresses in two species of Actinidia (kiwifruit). When leaves were subjected to continuous darkness or light, ABA or MeJA, heat, or a hypoxic environment, we found some correlation between the relative levels of GGP mRNA and AsA concentrations. In transformed tobacco plants, activity of the GGP promoter was induced by all of these treatments. However, the degree of inducibility in the two kiwifruit species differed among the GGP promoter deletions. We deduced that the G-box motif, a light-responsive element, may have an important function in regulating GGP transcripts under various light conditions in both A. deliciosa and A. eriantha. Other elements such as ABRE, the CGTCA motif, and HSE might also control the promoter activities of GGP in kiwifruit. Altogether, these data suggest that GGP expression in the two kiwifruit species is regulated by light or abiotic stress via the relative cis-elements in their promoters. Furthermore, GGP has a critical role in modulating AsA concentrations in kiwifruit species under abiotic stresses.

  3. Effect of ortho-SR groups on O-H bond strength and H-atom donating ability of phenols: a possible role for the Tyr-Cys link in galactose oxidase active site?

    PubMed

    Amorati, Riccardo; Catarzi, Francesca; Menichetti, Stefano; Pedulli, Gian Franco; Viglianisi, Caterina

    2008-01-09

    Rotation about the Ar-S bond in ortho-(alkylthio)phenols strongly affects the bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) and the reactivity of the OH group. Newly synthesized sulfur containing heterocycles 3 and 4, where the -SR group is almost coplanar with the phenolic ring, are characterized by unusually low BDE(O-H) values (79.6 and 79.2 kcal/mol, respectively) and by much higher reactivities toward peroxyl radicals than the ortho-methylthio derivative 1 (82.0 kcal/mol). The importance of the intramolecular hydrogen bond (IHB) in determining the BDE(O-H) was demonstrated by FT-IR experiments, which showed that in heterocycles 3 and 4 the IHB between the phenolic OH group and the S atom is much weaker than that present in 1. Since the IHB can be formed only if the -SR group adopts an out-of-plane geometry, this interaction is possible only in the methylthio derivative 1 and not in 3 and 4. The additive contribution to the phenolic BDE(O-H) of the -SR substituent therefore varies from -3.1 to +2.8 kcal/mol for the in-plane and out-of-plane conformations, respectively. These results may be relevant to understanding the role of the tyrosine-cysteine link in the active site of galactose oxidase, an important enzyme that catalyzes the two-electron aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes. The switching of the ortho -SR substituent between perpendicular and planar conformations may account for the catalytic efficiency of this enzyme.

  4. Close-up of the immunogenic α1,3-galactose epitope as defined by a monoclonal chimeric immunoglobulin E and human serum using saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR.

    PubMed

    Plum, Melanie; Michel, Yvonne; Wallach, Katharina; Raiber, Tim; Blank, Simon; Bantleon, Frank I; Diethers, Andrea; Greunke, Kerstin; Braren, Ingke; Hackl, Thomas; Meyer, Bernd; Spillner, Edzard

    2011-12-16

    Anaphylaxis mediated by carbohydrate structures is a controversially discussed phenomenon. Nevertheless, IgE with specificity for the xenotransplantation antigen α1,3-Gal (α-Gal) are associated with a delayed type of anaphylaxis, providing evidence for the clinical relevance of carbohydrate epitopes in allergy. The aim of this study was to dissect immunoreactivity, interaction, and fine epitope of α-Gal-specific antibodies to obtain insights into the recognition of carbohydrate epitopes by IgE antibodies and their consequences on a molecular and cellular level. The antigen binding moiety of an α-Gal-specific murine IgM antibody was employed to construct chimeric IgE and IgG antibodies. Reactivity and specificity of the resulting antibodies were assessed by means of ELISA and receptor binding studies. Using defined carbohydrates, interaction of the IgE and human serum was assessed by mediator release assays, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and saturation transfer difference NMR analyses. The α-Gal-specific chimeric IgE and IgG antibodies were proven functional regarding interaction with antigen and Fc receptors. SPR measurements demonstrated affinities in the micromolar range. In contrast to a reference antibody, anti-Gal IgE did not induce mediator release, potentially reflecting the delayed type of anaphylaxis. The α1,3-Gal epitope fine structures of both the recombinant IgE and affinity-purified serum were defined by saturation transfer difference NMR, revealing similar contributions of carbohydrate residues and participation of both galactose residues in interaction. The antibodies generated here constitute the principle underlying α1,3-Gal-mediated anaphylaxis. The complementary data of affinity and fine specificity may help to elucidate the recognition of carbohydrates by the adaptive immune response and the molecular requirements of carbohydrate-based anaphylaxis.

  5. Replacement of the glucose phosphotransferase transport system by galactose permease reduces acetate accumulation and improves process performance of Escherichia coli for recombinant protein production without impairment of growth rate.

    PubMed

    De Anda, Ramón; Lara, Alvaro R; Hernández, Vanessa; Hernández-Montalvo, Verónica; Gosset, Guillermo; Bolívar, Francisco; Ramírez, Octavio T

    2006-05-01

    Acetate accumulation under aerobic conditions is a common problem in Escherichia coli cultures, as it causes a reduction in both growth rate and recombinant protein productivity. In this study, the effect of replacing the glucose phosphotransferase transport system (PTS) with an alternate glucose transport activity on growth kinetics, acetate accumulation and production of two model recombinant proteins, was determined. Strain VH32 is a W3110 derivative with an inactive PTS. The promoter region of the chromosomal galactose permease gene galP of VH32 was replaced by the strong trc promoter. The resulting strain, VH32GalP+ acquired the capacity to utilize glucose as a carbon source. Strains W3110 and VH32GalP+ were transformed for the production of recombinant TrpLE-proinsulin accumulated as inclusion bodies (W3110-PI and VH32GalP+-PI) and for production of soluble intracellular green fluorescent protein (W3110-pV21 and VH32GalP+-pV21). W3110-pV21 and VH32GalP+-pV21 were grown in batch cultures. Maximum recombinant protein concentration, as determined from fluorescence, was almost four-fold higher in VH32GalP+-pV21, relative to W3110-pV21. Maximum acetate concentration reached 2.8 g/L for W3110-pV21 cultures, whereas a maximum of 0.39 g/L accumulated in VH32GalP+-pV21. W3110-PI and VH32GalP+-PI were grown in batch and fed-batch cultures. Compared to W3110-PI, the engineered strain maintained similar production and growth rate capabilities while reducing acetate accumulation. Specific glucose consumption rate was lower and product yield on glucose was higher in VH32GalP+-PI fed-batch cultures. Altogether, strains with the engineered glucose uptake system showed improved process performance parameters for recombinant protein production over the wild-type strain.

  6. Diversity of Streptococcus salivarius ptsH Mutants That Can Be Isolated in the Presence of 2-Deoxyglucose and Galactose and Characterization of Two Mutants Synthesizing Reduced Levels of HPr, a Phosphocarrier of the Phosphoenolpyruvate:Sugar Phosphotransferase System

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Suzanne; Brochu, Denis; Vadeboncoeur, Christian

    2001-01-01

    In streptococci, HPr, a phosphocarrier of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase transport system (PTS), undergoes multiple posttranslational chemical modifications resulting in the formation of HPr(His∼P), HPr(Ser-P), and HPr(Ser-P)(His∼P), whose cellular concentrations vary with growth conditions. Distinct physiological functions are associated with specific forms of HPr. We do not know, however, the cellular thresholds below which these forms become unable to fulfill their functions and to what extent modifications in the cellular concentrations of the different forms of HPr modify cellular physiology. In this study, we present a glimpse of the diversity of Streptococcus salivarius ptsH mutants that can be isolated by positive selection on a solid medium containing 2-deoxyglucose and galactose and identify 13 amino acids that are essential for HPr to properly accomplish its physiological functions. We also report the characterization of two S. salivarius mutants that produced approximately two- and threefoldless HPr and enzyme I (EI) respectively. The data indicated that (i) a reduction in the synthesis of HPr due to a mutation in the Shine-Dalgarno sequence of ptsH reduced ptsI expression; (ii) a threefold reduction in EI and HPr cellular levels did not affect PTS transport capacity; (iii) a twofold reduction in HPr synthesis was sufficient to reduce the rate at which cells metabolized PTS sugars, increase generation times on PTS sugars and to a lesser extent on non-PTS sugars, and impede the exclusion of non-PTS sugars by PTS sugars; (iv) a threefold reduction in HPr synthesis caused a strong derepression of the genes coding for α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase, and galactokinase when the cells were grown at the expense of a PTS sugar but did not affect the synthesis of α-galactosidase when cells were grown at the expense of lactose, a noninducing non-PTS sugar; and (v) no correlation was found between the magnitude of enzyme derepression and

  7. A biologically active peptide mimetic of N-acetylgalactosamine/galactose

    PubMed Central

    Eggink, Laura L; Hoober, J Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Background Glycosylated proteins and lipids are important regulatory factors whose functions can be altered by addition or removal of sugars to the glycan structure. The glycans are recognized by sugar-binding lectins that serve as receptors on the surface of many cells and facilitate initiation of an intracellular signal that changes the properties of the cells. We identified a peptide that mimics the ligand of an N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-specific lectin and asked whether the peptide would express specific biological activity. Findings A 12-mer phage display library was screened with a GalNAc-specific lectin to identify an amino acid sequence that binds to the lectin. Phage particles that were eluted from the lectin with free GalNAc were considered to have been bound to a GalNAc-binding site. Peptides were synthesized with the selected sequence as a quadravalent structure to facilitate receptor crosslinking. Treatment of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells for 24 h with the peptide stimulated secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) but not of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The secretion of IL-21 was stimulated as strongly with the peptide as with interferon-γ. Conclusion The data indicate that the quadravalent peptide has biological activity with a degree of specificity. These effects occurred at concentrations in the nanomolar range, in contrast to free sugars that generally bind to proteins in the micro- to millimolar range. PMID:19284521

  8. Galactose Oxidase in Stereospecific Oxidation of Primary Alcohols.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-03

    agent (9), and it leaves a bitter aftertaste. Aspartame is the methyl ester of aspartylphenylalanine. While aspartame i4 not known to be a carcinogen...high blood levels of phenylalanine, one of the metabolic products of aspartame , is associated with mental retardation (10). It has been suggested...of dietetic sweeteners available were cyclamates and saccharin. More recently, aspartame has become widely used. All of these sweeteners have

  9. The relationship between red meat allergy and sensitization to gelatin and galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Raymond James; James, Hayley; Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Commins, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background We have observed patients clinically allergic to red meat and meat-derived gelatin. Objective We describe a prospective evaluation of the clinical significance of gelatin sensitization, the predictive value of a positive test and an examination of the relationship between allergic reactions to red meat and sensitization to gelatin and alpha-Gal. Methods Adult patients evaluated 1997-2011 for suspected allergy/anaphylaxis to medication, insect venom or food were skin tested with gelatin colloid. In vitro (ImmunoCap) testing was undertaken where possible. Results Positive gelatin tests were observed in 40/1335 individuals; 30/40 patients with red meat allergy (12 also clinically allergic to gelatin); 2/2 with gelatin colloid anaphylaxis; 4/172 with idiopathic anaphylaxis (all responded to intravenous gelatin challenge of 0.02 to 0.4g); 4/368 with drug allergy. Testing was negative in all patients with venom allergy (n=241), non-meat food allergy (n=222), and miscellaneous disorders (n=290). ImmunoCap was positive to alpha-Gal in 20/24 meat allergics and in 20/22 with positive gelatin skin tests. The results of gelatin skin testing and anti-alpha-Gal IgE were strongly correlated (r=0.46; P<0.01). Alpha-Gal was detected in bovine gelatin colloids at concentrations of ~ 0.44 to 0.52ug/gm gelatin by inhibition radioimmunoassay. Conclusion Most patients allergic to red meat were sensitized to gelatin and a subset was clinically allergic to both. The detection of alpha-Gal in gelatin and correlation between the results of alpha-Gal and gelatin testing raises the possibility that alpha-Gal IgE may be the target of reactivity to gelatin. The pathogenic relationship between tick bites and sensitization to red meat, alpha-Gal and gelatin (with or without clinical reactivity) remains uncertain. PMID:22480538

  10. Troxerutin protects the mouse liver against oxidative stress-mediated injury induced by D-galactose.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-feng; Fan, Shao-hua; Zheng, Yuan-lin; Lu, Jun; Wu, Dong-mei; Shan, Qun; Hu, Bin

    2009-09-09

    Troxerutin, a trihydroxyethylated derivative of rutin, has been well-demonstrated to exert hepatoprotective properties. In the present study, we attempted to explore whether the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms were involved in troxerutin-mediated protection from D-gal-induced liver injury. The effects of troxerutin on liver lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymatic activities, and the expression of inflammatory mediator were investigated in D-gal-treated mice. The results showed that troxerutin largely attenuated the D-gal-induced TBARS content increase and also markedly renewed the activities of Cu, Zn-SOD, CAT, and GPx in the livers of D-gal-treated mice. Furthermore, troxerutin inhibited the upregulation of the expression of NF-kappaB p65, iNOS, and COX-2 induced by D-gal. D-Gal-induced tissue architecture changes and serum ALT and AST increases were effectively suppressed by troxerutin. In conclusion, these results suggested that troxerutin could protect the mouse liver from D-gal-induced injury by attenuating lipid peroxidation, renewing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and suppressing inflammatory response. This study provided novel insights into the mechanisms of troxerutin in the protection of the liver.

  11. Reaction of uridine diphosphate galactose 4-epimerase with a suicide inactivator

    SciTech Connect

    Flentke, G.R.; Frey, P.A. )

    1990-03-06

    UDPgalactose 4-epimerase from Escherichia coli is rapidly inactivated by the compounds uridine 5{prime}-diphosphate chloroacetol (UDC) and uridine 5{prime}-diphosphate bromoacetol (UCB). Both UDC and UDB inactivate the enzyme in neutral solution concomitant with the appearance of chromophores absorbing maximally at 325 and 328 nm, respectively. The reaction of UDC with the enzyme follows saturation kinetics characterized by a K{sub D} of 0.110 mM and k{sub inact} of 0.84 min{sup {minus}1} at pH 8.5 and ionic strength 0.2 M. The inactivation by UDC is competitively inhibited by competitive inhibitors of UDPgalactose 4-epimerase, and it is accompanied by the tight but noncovalent binding of UDC to the enzyme in a stoichiometry of 1 mol of UDC/mol of enzyme dimer, corresponding to 1 mol of UDC/mol of enzyme-bound NAD{sup +}. The inactivation of epimerase by uridine 5{prime}-diphosphate ({sup 2}H{sub 2})chloroacetol proceeds with a primary kinetic isotope effect (k{sub H}/k{sub D}) of 1.4. The inactivation mechanism is proposed to involve a minimum of three steps: (a) reversible binding of UDC to the active site of UDPgalactose 4-epimerase; (b) enolization of the chloroacetol moiety of enzyme-bound UDC, catalyzed by an enzymic general base at the active site; (c) alkylation of the nicotinamide ring of NAD{sup +} at the active site by the chloroacetol enolate. The resulting adduct between UDC and NAD{sup +} is proposed to be the chromophore with {lambda}{sub max} at 325 nm. The enzymic general base required to facilitate proton transfer in redox catalysis by this enzyme may be the general base that facilitates enolization of the chloroacetol moiety of UDC in the inactivation reaction.

  12. Polymerization-Induced Self-Assembly of Galactose-Functionalized Biocompatible Diblock Copolymers for Intracellular Delivery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in polymer science are enabling substantial progress in nanobiotechnology, particularly in the design of new tools for enhanced understanding of cell biology and for smart drug delivery formulations. Herein, a range of novel galactosylated diblock copolymer nano-objects is prepared directly in concentrated aqueous solution via reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer polymerization using polymerization-induced self-assembly. The resulting nanospheres, worm-like micelles, or vesicles interact in vitro with galectins as judged by a turbidity assay. In addition, galactosylated vesicles are highly biocompatible and allow intracellular delivery of an encapsulated molecular cargo. PMID:23941545

  13. Gene regulation of UDP-galactose synthesis and transport: Potential rate limiting processes in initiation of milk production in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactose synthesis is believed to be rate-limiting for milk production. However, understanding the molecular events controlling lactose synthesis in humans is still rudimentary. We have utilized our established model of the RNA isolated from breast milk fat globule from 7 healthy exclusively breastfe...

  14. Structural and binding studies of a C-type galactose-binding lectin from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom.

    PubMed

    Sartim, Marco A; Pinheiro, Matheus P; de Pádua, Ricardo A P; Sampaio, Suely V; Nonato, M Cristina

    2017-02-01

    BJcuL is a snake venom galactoside-binding lectin (SVgalL) isolated from Bothrops jararacussu and is involved in a wide variety of biological activities including triggering of pro-inflammatory response, disruption of microbial biofilm structure and induction of apoptosis. In the present work, we determined the crystallographic structure of BJcuL, the first holo structure of a SVgalL, and introduced the fluorescence-based thermal stability assay (Thermofluor) as a tool for screening and characterization of the binding mechanism of SVgalL ligands. BJcuL structure revealed the existence of a porous and flexible decameric arrangement composed of disulfide-linked dimers related by a five-fold symmetry. Each monomer contains the canonical carbohydrate recognition domain, a calcium ion required for BJcuL lectinic activity and a sodium ion required for protein stabilization. BJcuL thermostability was found to be induced by calcium ion and galactoside sugars which exhibit hyperbolic saturation profiles dependent on ligand concentration. Serendipitously, the gentamicin group of aminoglycoside antibiotics (gAGAs) was also identified as BJcuL ligands. On contrast, gAGAs exhibited a sigmoidal saturation profile compatible with a cooperative mechanism of binding. Thermofluor, hemagglutination inhibition assay and molecular docking strategies were used to identify a distinct binding site in BJcuL localized at the dimeric interface near the fully conserved intermolecular Cys86-Cys86 disulfide bond. The hybrid approach used in the present work provided novel insights into structural behavior and functional diversification of SVgaLs.

  15. The uniform galactose 4-sulfate structure in the carbohydrate-protein linkage region of human urinary trypsin inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yamada, S; Oyama, M; Yuki, Y; Kato, K; Sugahara, K

    1995-10-15

    The carbohydrate-protein linkage region of a chondroitin 4-sulfate chain attached to urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI) was isolated from human urine and characterized structurally. The chondroitin 4-sulfate chain was released from UTI by beta-elimination using alkaline NaBH4 then digested with chondroitinase ABC. These treatments resulted in only a single hexasaccharide alditol derived from the carbohydrate-protein linkage region. Chemical and enzymic analyses and 600-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy revealed that the hexasaccharide alditol had the following structure: delta HexA alpha 1-3GalNAc(4-sulfate) beta 1-4GlcA beta 1- 3Gal(4-sulfate) beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Xyl-ol, where delta HexA, GlcA and Xyl-ol represent 4-deoxy-alpha-L-threo-hex-4-enepyranosyluronic acid, D-glucuronic acid and D-xylitol, respectively. This structure contained the novel 4-sulfated Gal residue, which was first demonstrated in one of the three linkage hexasaccharide-serines isolated from chondroitin 4-sulfate of rat chondrosarcoma [Sugahara, K., Yamashina, I., de Waard, P., Van Halbeek, H. & Vliegenhart, J. F. G. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 10168-10174]. This disulfated structure was recently identified as the sole structural component in the linkage hexasaccharide alditol fraction isolated from inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor (ITI) in human plasma [Yamada, S., Oyama, M., Kinugasa, H., Nakagawa, T., Kawasaki, T., Nagasawa, S., Khoo, K.-H., Morris, H.R., Dell, A. & Sugahara, K. (1995) Glycobiology 5, 335-341]. The structural uniformity in the linkage hexasaccharide structure of ITI and UTI is in marked contrast to the heterogeneity demonstrated in the linkage hexasaccharides isolated from cartilaginous chondroitin sulfate whose linkage regions are sometimes but not always phosphorylated on the Xyl residue or sulfated on the Gal residue(s). The uniform structure containing the novel 4-sulfated Gal residue in the linkage region of UTI and ITI may imply its significance in the biosynthetic mechanism of chondroitin sulfate.

  16. Measurement of glucose concentration in interstitial fluid by surface plasmon resonance with D-galactose/D-glucose binding protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D. C.; Zhang, J. X.; Wu, P.; Huang, F. X.; Song, B.; Xu, K. X.

    2009-08-01

    A novel minimally invasive way to measure blood glucose concentration is proposed by combining interstitial fluid transdermal extraction and surface plasma resonance (SPR) detecting. 55K Hz low-frequency ultrasound pulse is applied for less than 30 seconds to enhance the skin permeability and then interstitial fluid is extracted out of skin by vacuum. The mathematical model to express the correlation between interstitial fluid glucose and blood glucose is also developed by considering the changes of the skin conductivity. The glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid is determined using an optical SPR biological sensor that measures the refractive index. A protein-glucose binding technology using Dgalactose/ D-glucose Binding Protein for specific absorption of glucose is employed to increase SPR measurement precision. By immobilizing GGBP onto the surface of the SPR sensor, the experimental result indicates the detecting resolution of glucose rises to 1mg/L, the system succeeds in distinguishing glucose from other components in mixture. The feasibility of this method is validated for clinical application with the requirements of bloodless, painless, continuous glucose monitoring and a prototype microfluidic diabetes-monitoring device is under development.

  17. The anti-inflamm-aging and hepatoprotective effects of huperzine A in D-galactose-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Qingwei; Liu, Fang; Gao, Zhanjuan; Kong, Deqiu; Hu, Xiaona; Shi, Dongmei; Bao, Zhijun; Yu, Zhuowei

    2013-03-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to a chronic inflammatory process referred to as "inflamm-aging". Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) can enhance cholinergic transmission and act as anti-inflammatory agents via immunocompetent cells expressing α-7 acetylcholine receptors (AChR). The present study explores the possible role of huperzine A, a reversible and selective AChEI, against D-gal-induced oxidative damage, cell toxicity and inflamm-aging in rat livers. In two-month-old rats with normal liver function, an 8-week administration of D-gal (300 mg/kg subcutaneously (s.c.) injected), significantly increased hepatic impairment, ROS generation and oxidative damage, hepatic senescence, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and inflammatory responses. An 8-week co-administration of both D-gal (300 mg/kg s.c.) and huperzine A (0.1 mg/kg s.c.) not only significantly decreased hepatic function impairment, ROS generation, oxidative damage, but also suppressed inflamm-aging by inhibiting hepatic replicative senescence, AChE activity, IκBα degradation, NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and inflammatory responses. The expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA and proteins, such as TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6 decrease significantly, and the protein levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 display an obvious increase. These findings indicated that D-gal-induced hepatic injury and inflamm-aging in the rat liver was associated with the development of a pro-inflammatory phenotype in this organ. D-gal induced damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) because oxidative damages might play an important role in D-gal-induced hepatic sterile inflammation. Huperzine A exhibited protective effects against D-gal-induced hepatotoxicity and inflamm-aging by inhibiting AChE activity and via the activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. The huperzine A mechanism might be involved in the inhibition of DAMPs-mediated NF-κB nuclear localization and activation.

  18. Structure of the O-specific polysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O45 containing 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-D-galactose.

    PubMed

    Perepelov, Andrei V; Bartodziejska, Beata; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Shashkov, Alexander S; Rozalski, Antoni; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2003-02-07

    An O-specific polysaccharide was isolated by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O45 and studied by sugar and methylation analyses along with 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, including 2D COSY, TOCSY, ROESY, H-detected 1H,13C HSQC and HMBC experiments. The following structure of the pentasaccharide repeating unit of the polysaccharide was established:-->6)-alpha-D-GlcpNAc-(1-->4)-alpha-D-GalpNAc-(1-->4)-alpha-D-GalpA-(1-->3)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1-->2)-beta-D-Fucp3NAc4Ac-(1-->where Fuc3NAc4Ac is 3-acetamido-4-O-acetyl-3,6-dideoxygalactose. A cross-reactivity of anti-P. vulgaris O45 serum was observed with several other Proteus lipopolysaccharides, which contains Fuc3N derivatives.

  19. Head-group acylation of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol is a common stress response, but the acyl-galactose acyl composition varies with the plant species and applied stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Head group acylation of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol is a plant lipid modification occurring during bacterial infection. Little is known about the range of stresses that induce this lipid modification, the molecular species induced, and the function of the modification. Lipidomic analysis using trip...

  20. Fluorescence-based sensing of glucose using engineered glucose/galactose-binding protein: A comparison of fluorescence resonance energy transfer and environmentally sensitive dye labelling strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Faaizah; Gnudi, Luigi; Pickup, John C.

    2008-01-04

    Fluorescence-based glucose sensors using glucose-binding protein (GBP) as the receptor have employed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and environmentally sensitive dyes, but with widely varying sensitivity. We therefore compared signal changes in (a) a FRET system constructed by transglutaminase-mediated N-terminal attachment of Alexa Fluor 488/555 as donor and QSY 7 as acceptor at Cys 152 or 182 mutations with (b) GBP labelled with the environmentally sensitive dye badan at C152 or 182. Both FRET systems had a small maximal fluorescence change at saturating glucose (7% and 16%), badan attached at C152 was associated with a 300% maximal fluorescence increase with glucose, though with badan at C182 there was no change. We conclude that glucose sensing based on GBP and FRET does not produce a larger enough signal change for clinical use; both the nature of the environmentally sensitive dye and its site of conjugation seem important for maximum signal change; badan-GBP152C has a large glucose-induced fluorescence change, suitable for development as a glucose sensor.

  1. Multigram-scale synthesis of an orthogonally protected 2-acetamido-4-amino-2,4,6-trideoxy-D-galactose (AAT) building block.

    PubMed

    Christina, A E; Blas Ferrando, V M; de Bordes, F; Spruit, W A; Overkleeft, H S; Codée, J D C; van der Marel, G A

    2012-07-15

    Reported is the gram-scale synthesis of tert-butyldiphenylsilyl 4-(N-benzyloxycarbonyl)-amino-2-azido-2,4,6-trideoxy-β-D-galactopyranoside, which represents an orthogonally protected 2,4-diamino-D-fucose building block, a common constituent of various zwitterionic polysaccharides. The building block has been synthesized from D-glucosamine in 19% overall yield over 14 steps, requiring 5 chromatographic purifications. The key step in the synthesis is the introduction of the C-4 amino substituent, which has been accomplished by a one-pot three step procedure, involving regioselective C-3-O-trichloroacetimidate formation, C-4-O-triflation, and intramolecular substitution. The building block can be used as an acceptor and is readily transformed into a donor glycoside.

  2. Copper(II) complex of new non-innocent O-aminophenol-based ligand as biomimetic model for galactose oxidase enzyme in aerobic oxidation of alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaei, Elham; Bahrami, Hadiseh; Pevec, Andrej; Kozlevčar, Bojan; Jagličić, Zvonko

    2017-04-01

    Mononuclear copper(II) complex of tetra-dentate o-aminophenol-based ligand (H2LBAPP) has been synthesized and characterized. The three dentate precursor (HLBAP) of the final ligand was synthesized first, while the title four-dentate copper bound ligand was synthesized in situ, isolated only in the final copper species [CuLBAPP]. This copper coordination complex reveals a distorted square-planar geometry around the copper(II) centre by one oxygen and three nitrogen atoms from the coordinating ligand. The ligand is thus twice deprotonated via hydroxy and amine groups. The complex is red, non-typical for copper(II), but the effective magnetic moment of 1.86 B M. and a single isotropic symmetry EPR signal with g 2.059 confirm a S = 1/2 diluted spin system, without copper-copper magnetic coupling. Electrochemical oxidation of this complex yields the corresponding Cu(II)-phenyl radical species. Finally, the title complex CuLBAPP has shown good and selective catalytic activity towards alcohol to aldehyde oxidation, at aerobic room temperature conditions, for a set of different alcohols.

  3. Molecular cloning of pigeon UDP-galactose:beta-D-galactoside alpha1,4-galactosyltransferase and UDP-galactose:beta-D-galactoside beta1,4-galactosyltransferase, two novel enzymes catalyzing the formation of Gal alpha1-4Gal beta1-4Gal beta1-4GlcNAc sequence.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Noriko; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2010-02-19

    We previously found that pigeon IgG possesses unique N-glycan structures that contain the Gal alpha1-4Gal beta1-4Gal beta1-4GlcNAc sequence at their nonreducing termini. This sequence is most likely produced by putative alpha1,4- and beta1,4-galactosyltransferases (GalTs), which are responsible for the biosynthesis of the Gal alpha1-4Gal and Gal beta1-4Gal sequences on the N-glycans, respectively. Because no such glycan structures have been found in mammalian glycoproteins, the biosynthetic enzymes that produce these glycans are likely to have distinct substrate specificities from the known mammalian GalTs. To study these enzymes, we cloned the pigeon liver cDNAs encoding alpha4GalT and beta4GalT by expression cloning and characterized these enzymes using the recombinant proteins. The deduced amino acid sequence of pigeon alpha4GalT has 58.2% identity to human alpha4GalT and 68.0 and 66.6% identity to putative alpha4GalTs from chicken and zebra finch, respectively. Unlike human and putative chicken alpha4GalTs, which possess globotriosylceramide synthase activity, pigeon alpha4GalT preferred to catalyze formation of the Gal alpha1-4Gal sequence on glycoproteins. In contrast, the sequence of pigeon beta4GalT revealed a type II transmembrane protein consisting of 438 amino acid residues, with no significant homology to the glycosyltransferases so far identified from mammals and chicken. However, hypothetical proteins from zebra finch (78.8% identity), frogs (58.9-60.4%), zebrafish (37.1-43.0%), and spotted green pufferfish (43.3%) were similar to pigeon beta4GalT, suggesting that the pigeon beta4GalT gene was inherited from the common ancestors of these vertebrates. The sequence analysis revealed that pigeon beta4GalT and its homologs form a new family of glycosyltransferases.

  4. The ortholog of human solute carrier family 35 member B1 (UDP-galactose transporter-related protein 1) is involved in maintenance of ER homeostasis and essential for larval development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Dejima, Katsufumi; Murata, Daisuke; Mizuguchi, Souhei; Nomura, Kazuko H; Gengyo-Ando, Keiko; Mitani, Shohei; Kamiyama, Shin; Nishihara, Shoko; Nomura, Kazuya

    2009-07-01

    Although the solute carrier 35B1 (SLC35B1) is evolutionarily conserved, its functions in metazoans remain unknown. To elucidate its function, we examined developmental roles of an SLC35B1 family gene (HUT-1: homolog of UDP-Gal transporter) in Caenorhabditis elegans. We isolated a deletion mutant of the gene and characterized phenotypes of the mutant and hut-1 RNAi-treated worms. GFP-HUT-1 reporter analysis was performed to examine gene expression patterns. We also tested whether several nucleotide sugar transporters can compensate for hut-1 deficiency. The hut-1 deletion mutant and RNAi worms showed larval growth defect and lethality with disrupted intestinal morphology. Inactivation of hut-1 induced chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and hut-1 showed genetic interactions with the atf-6, pek-1, and ire-1 genes involved in unfolded protein response signaling. ER ultrastructure and ER marker distribution in hut-1-deficient animals showed that HUT-1 is required for maintenance of ER structure. Reporter analysis revealed that HUT-1 is an ER protein ubiquitously expressed in tissues, including the intestine. Lethality and the ER stress phenotype of the mutant were rescued with the human hut-1 ortholog UGTrel1. These results indicate important roles for hut-1 in development and maintenance of ER homeostasis in C. elegans.

  5. 75 FR 8920 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Danisco USA, Inc., Sweeteners Division (Xylitol, Xylose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... (Xylitol, Xylose, Galactose and Mannose); Thomson, IL Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade..