Wong, Peiyan; Kaas, Jon H.
In the present study, galago brains were sectioned in the coronal, sagittal or horizontal planes, and sections were processed with several different histochemical and immunohistochemical procedures to reveal the architectonic characteristics of the various cortical areas. The histochemical methods used included the traditional Nissl, cytochrome oxidase and myelin stains, as well as a zinc stain, which reveals free ionic zinc in the axon terminals of neurons. Immunohistochemical methods include parvalbumin (PV) and calbindin (CB), both calcium-binding proteins, and the vesicle glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2). These different procedures revealed similar boundaries between areas, which suggests that functionally relevant borders were being detected. These results allowed a more precise demarcation of previously identified areas. As thalamocortical terminations lack free ionic zinc, primary cortical areas were most clearly revealed by the zinc stain, due to the poor zinc staining of layer 4. Area 17 was especially prominent, as the broad layer 4 was nearly free of zinc stain. However, this feature was less pronounced in the primary auditory and somatosensory cortex. As VGluT2 is expressed in thalamocortical terminations, layer 4 of primary sensory areas was darkly stained for VGluT2. Primary motor cortex had reduced VGluT2 staining, and increased zinc-enriched terminations in the poorly developed granular layer 4 compared to the adjacent primary somatosensory area. The middle temporal visual (MT) showed increased PV and VGluT2 staining compared to the surrounding cortical areas. The resulting architectonic maps of cortical areas in galagos can usefully guide future studies of cortical organizations and functions. PMID:20201060
Sawyer, Eva Kille; Liao, Chia-Chi; Qi, Hui-Xin; Balaram, Pooja; Matrov, Denis; Kaas, Jon H.
Galagos are prosimian primates that resemble ancestral primates more than most other extant primates. As in many other mammals, the facial vibrissae of galagos are distributed across the upper and lower jaws and above the eye. In rats and mice, the mystacial macrovibrissae are represented throughout the ascending trigeminal pathways as arrays of cytoarchitecturally distinct modules, with each module having a nearly one-to-one relationship with a specific facial whisker. The macrovibrissal representations are termed barrelettes in the trigeminal somatosensory brainstem, barreloids in the ventroposterior medial subnucleus of the thalamus, and barrels in primary somatosensory cortex. Despite the presence of facial whiskers in all nonhuman primates, barrel-like structures have not been reported in primates. By staining for cytochrome oxidase, Nissl, and vesicular glutamate transporter proteins, we show a distinct array of barrelette-like and barreloid-like modules in the principal sensory nucleus, the spinal trigeminal nucleus, and the ventroposterior medial subnucleus of the galago, Otolemur garnetti. Labeled terminals of primary sensory neurons in the brainstem and cell bodies of thalamocortically projecting neurons demonstrate that barrelette-like and barreloid-like modules are located in areas of these somatosensory nuclei that are topographically consistent with their role in facial touch. Serendipitously, the plane of section that best displays the barreloid-like modules reveals a remarkably distinct homunculus-like patterning which, we believe, is one of the clearest somatotopic maps of an entire body surface yet found. PMID:26038561
Miller, Daniel J; Lackey, Elizabeth P; Hackett, Troy A; Kaas, Jon H
Change in the timeline of neurobiological growth is an important source of biological variation, and thus phenotypic evolution. However, no study has to date investigated sensory system development in any of the prosimian primates that are thought to most closely resemble our earliest primate ancestors. Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter critical to normal brain function by regulating synaptic plasticity associated with attention and learning. Myelination is an important structural component of the brain because it facilitates rapid neuronal communication. In this work we investigated the expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the density of myelinated axons throughout postnatal development in the inferior colliculus (IC), medial geniculate complex (MGC), and auditory cortex (auditory core, belt, and parabelt) in Garnett's greater galago (Otolemur garnetti). We found that the IC and MGC exhibit relatively high myelinated fiber length density (MFLD) values at birth and attain adult-like values by the species-typical age at weaning. In contrast, neocortical auditory fields are relatively unmyelinated at birth and only attain adult-like MFLD values by the species-typical age at puberty. Analysis of AChE expression indicated that, in contrast to evidence from rodent samples, the adult-like distribution of AChE in the core area of auditory cortex, dense bands in layers I, IIIb/IV, and Vb/VI, is present at birth. These data indicate the differential developmental trajectory of central auditory system structures and demonstrate the early onset of adult-like AChE expression in primary auditory cortex in O. garnetti, suggesting the auditory system is more developed at birth in primates compared to rodents. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jones, Carissa P; Apple, Troy M; Burton, Bryce J; Sanders, Melinda E; Boyd, Kelli L; Salleng, Kenneth J
In humans, phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare fibroepithelial tumors that are further characterized as benign, borderline, or malignant according to their histomorphologic features. Phyllodes tumors are poorly responsive to treatment other than excision. NHP have a much lower frequency of mammary neoplasia than do humans, and none of the lesions reported previously in NHP are consistent with phyllodes tumors. Here we present the case of a mammary tumor in a northern greater galago (Otolemur garnettii) that was histologically characteristic of a malignant phyllodes tumor. An 11-y-old, multiparous, pregnant galago presented with a mass in the right middle mammary gland. A fine-needle aspirate yielded neoplastic epithelial cells. Because the animal was pregnant and showed no signs of skin ulceration, pain, or distress, she was allowed to deliver and nurse the infant. At 20 wk after initial presentation, the infant was weaned and the mother was euthanized. At necropsy, the mammary mass measured 3.5 × 2.5 × 1.5 cm, a 13-fold increase in volume since initial presentation. There was no evidence of metastasis in draining lymph nodes, lungs, or any other tissue examined. The tumor was composed of neoplastic stromal, glandular, and adipose tissues and was diagnosed as a malignant phyllodes tumor in light of its high stromal cellularity, high mitotic rate, and marked atypia. This tumor also exhibited liposarcomatous differentiation, which occurs frequently in malignant phyllodes tumors. To our knowledge, this report represents the first described case involving an NHP of a mammary tumor with characteristics consistent with human phyllodes tumors.
Jones, Carissa P; Apple, Troy M; Burton, Bryce J; Sanders, Melinda E; Boyd, Kelli L; Salleng, Kenneth J
In humans, phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare fibroepithelial tumors that are further characterized as benign, borderline, or malignant according to their histomorphologic features. Phyllodes tumors are poorly responsive to treatment other than excision. NHP have a much lower frequency of mammary neoplasia than do humans, and none of the lesions reported previously in NHP are consistent with phyllodes tumors. Here we present the case of a mammary tumor in a northern greater galago (Otolemur garnettii) that was histologically characteristic of a malignant phyllodes tumor. An 11-y-old, multiparous, pregnant galago presented with a mass in the right middle mammary gland. A fine-needle aspirate yielded neoplastic epithelial cells. Because the animal was pregnant and showed no signs of skin ulceration, pain, or distress, she was allowed to deliver and nurse the infant. At 20 wk after initial presentation, the infant was weaned and the mother was euthanized. At necropsy, the mammary mass measured 3.5 × 2.5 × 1.5 cm, a 13-fold increase in volume since initial presentation. There was no evidence of metastasis in draining lymph nodes, lungs, or any other tissue examined. The tumor was composed of neoplastic stromal, glandular, and adipose tissues and was diagnosed as a malignant phyllodes tumor in light of its high stromal cellularity, high mitotic rate, and marked atypia. This tumor also exhibited liposarcomatous differentiation, which occurs frequently in malignant phyllodes tumors. To our knowledge, this report represents the first described case involving an NHP of a mammary tumor with characteristics consistent with human phyllodes tumors. PMID:27780011
Fan, Reuben H.; Baldwin, Mary K.L.; Jermakowicz, Walter J.; Casagrande, Vivien A.; Kaas, Jon H.; Roe, Anna W.
Currently, we lack consensus regarding the organization along the anterior border of dorsomedial V2 in primates. Previous studies suggest that this region could be either the dorsomedial area, characterized by both an upper and a lower visual field representation, or the dorsal aspect of area V3, which only contains a lower visual field representation. We examined these proposals by using optical imaging of intrinsic signals to investigate this region in the prosimian galago (Otole-mur garnettii). Galagos represent the prosimian radiation of surviving primates; cortical areas that bear strong resemblances across members of primates provide a strong argument for their early origin and conserved existence. Based on our mapping of horizontal and vertical meridian representations, visuotopy, and orientation preference, we find a clear lower field representation anterior to dorsal V2 but no evidence of any upper field representation. We also show statistical differences in orientation preference patches between V2 and V3. We additionally supplement our imaging results with electrode array data that reveal differences in the average spatial frequency preference, average temporal frequency preference, and sizes of the receptive fields between V1, V2, and V3. The lack of upper visual field representation along with the differences between the neighboring visual areas clearly distinguish the region anterior to dorsal V2 from earlier visual areas and argue against a DM that lies along the dorsomedial border of V2. We submit that the region of the cortex in question is the dorsal aspect of V3, thus strengthening the possibility that V3 is conserved among primates. PMID:22628051
Burrows, Anne M; Smith, Timothy D
The functional morphology of the primate craniomandibular complex and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) components is frequently discussed in terms of gross skeletal structure. At the histomorphologic level, however, the TMJ has only been studied in Old World anthropoids. The present study is designed to describe the microanatomy of the condylar cartilage of the TMJ in two closely related species of greater galago: the exudativorous Otolemur crassicaudatus and the frugivorous O. garnettii. TMJs with intact joint capsules were harvested from adult, cadaveric specimens of these species (four O. crassicaudatus and five O. garnettii). The samples were decalcified, processed for paraffin sectioning, and sectioned at 10-18 microm in the coronal plane. The samples were then stained with hematoxylin/eosin, Gomori trichrome, and Alcian blue, and examined with a photomicroscope. Generally, condylar cartilage in O. crassicaudatus was thickest both laterally and centrally, while O. garnettii had the relatively thickest cartilage laterally. Both species displayed a superficial articular zone, a middle proliferative zone, and a deeply located hypertrophic zone in the condylar cartilage. O. crassicaudatus typically had the greatest cell density in each of these zones. In addition, O. crassicaudatus had focal concentrations of Alcian blue laterally and centrally, while O. garnettii had the greatest reactivity in the central portion only. These results suggest that O. crassicaudatus may be specialized to resist greater compressive force at the TMJ condylar cartilage in specific regions of the mandibular condyle.
Cooke, Dylan F.; Stepniewska, Iwona; Miller, Daniel J.; Kaas, Jon H.
We examined the functional macrocircuitry of frontoparietal networks in the neocortex of prosimian primates (Otolemur garnettii) using a microfluidic thermal regulator to reversibly deactivate selected regions of motor cortex (M1). During deactivation of either forelimb or mouth/face movement domains within M1, we used long-train intracortical microstimulation techniques to evoke movements from the rostral division of posterior parietal cortex (PPCr). We found that deactivation of M1 movement domains in most instances abolished movements evoked in PPCr. The most common effect of deactivating M1 was to abolish evoked movements in a homotopic domain in PPCr. For example, deactivating M1 forelimb lift domains resulted in loss of evoked movement in forelimb domains in PPCr. However, at some sites, we also observed heterotopic effects; deactivating a specific domain in M1 (e.g., forelimb lift) resulted in loss of evoked movement in a different movement domain in PPCr (e.g., hand-to-mouth or eye-blink). At most sites examined in PPCr, rewarming M1 resulted in a reestablishment of the baseline movement at the same amplitude as that observed before cooling. However, at some sites, reactivation did not result in a return to baseline movement or to the full amplitude of the baseline movement. We discuss our findings in the context of frontoparietal circuits and how they may subserve a repertoire of ecologically relevant behaviors. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) of primates integrates sensory information used to guide movements. Different modules within PPC and motor cortex (M1) appear to control various motor behaviors (e.g., reaching, defense, and feeding). How these modules work together may vary across species and may explain differences in dexterity and even the capacity for tool use. We investigated the functional connectivity of these modules in galagos, a prosimian primate with relatively simple frontoparietal circuitry. By deactivating a
Schneiderová, Irena; Zouhar, Jan; Štefanská, Lucie; Bolfíková, Barbora Černá; Lhota, Stanislav; Brandl, Pavel
Almost nothing is known about the natural vocal behavior of lesser galagos living in zoos. This is perhaps because they are usually kept in nocturnal exhibits separated from the visitors by a transparent and acoustically insulating glass barrier. The aim of the present study was therefore to fill this gap in knowledge of the vocal behavior of lesser galagos from zoos. This knowledge might be beneficial because the vocalizations of these small primates can be used for species determination. We performed a 10-day-long acoustic monitoring of vocal activity in each of seven various groups of Galago senegalensis and G. moholi living at four zoos. We quantitatively evaluated the occurrence of four loud vocalization types present in both species, including the most species-specific advertisement call. We found that qualitative as well as quantitative differences exist in the vocal behavior of the studied groups. We confirmed that the observed vocalization types can be collected from lesser galagos living at zoos, and the success can be increased by selecting larger and more diverse groups. We found two distinct patterns of diel vocal activity in the most vocally active groups. G. senegalensis groups were most vocally active at the beginning and at the end of their activity period, whereas one G. moholi group showed an opposite pattern. The latter is surprising, as it is generally accepted that lesser galagos emit advertisement calls especially at dawn and dusk, i.e., at the beginning and at the end of their diel activity.
Taufik, Epi; Fukuda, Kenji; Senda, Akitsugu; Saito, Tadao; Williams, Cathy; Tilden, Chris; Eisert, Regina; Oftedal, Olav; Urashima, Tadasu
The structures of milk oligosaccharides were characterized for four strepsirrhine primates to examine the extent to which they resemble milk oligosaccharides in other primates. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were isolated from milk of the greater galago (Galagidae: Otolemur crassicaudatus), aye-aye (Daubentoniidae: Daubentonia madagascariensis), Coquerel's sifaka (Indriidae: Propithecus coquereli) and mongoose lemur (Lemuridae: Eulemur mongoz), and their chemical structures were characterized by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. The oligosaccharide patterns observed among strepsirrhines did not appear to correlate to phylogeny, sociality or pattern of infant care. Both type I and type II neutral oligosaccharides were found in the milk of the aye-aye, but type II predominate over type I. Only type II oligosaccharides were identified in other strepsirrhine milks. α3'-GL (isoglobotriose, Gal(α1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc) was found in the milks of Coquerel's sifaka and mongoose lemur, which is the first report of this oligosaccharide in the milk of any primate species. 2'-FL (Fuc(α1-2)Gal(β1-4)Glc) was found in the milk of an aye-aye with an ill infant. Oligosaccharides containing the Lewis x epitope were found in aye-aye and mongoose lemur milk. Among acidic oligosaccharides, 3'-N-acetylneuraminyllactose (3'-SL-NAc, Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc) was found in all studied species, whereas 6'-N-acetylneuraminyllactose (6'-SL-NAc, Neu5Ac(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)Glc) was found in all species except greater galago. Greater galago milk also contained 3'-N-glycolylneuraminyllactose (3'-SL-NGc, Neu5Gc(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc). The finding of a variety of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides in the milks of strepsirrhines, as previously reported for haplorhines, suggests that such constituents are ancient rather than derived features, and are as characteristic of primate lactation is the classic disaccharide, lactose.
Rogers, L J; Ward, J P; Stafford, D
Eye-preference has been measured in the small-eared bushbaby, Otolemur garnettii, using two testing conditions, one requiring the subject to look through a grid and the other involving trained looking through a small hole. Monocular eye use was scored for viewing a variety of stimuli. The six subjects (four adult females and two babies) tested using the grid showed left-eye dominance for viewing the tester. Five subjects were tested for viewing food and all were similarly left-eye preferent. That is, there was indication of an eye preference at the group level. The eye preference did not correlate with handedness for food reaching or holding in the same individuals. When three of the subjects were tested viewing the more arousing stimulus of their babies held in the tester's hand, the eye-preference changed; there was either no preference or a weaker left-eye preference. One subject was tested with novel stimuli (a toy monkey, the tester wearing a mask and a rubber snake) and showed a significant shift to a right-eye preference for viewing two of these stimuli. Increased arousal, or fear, was apparent in the latter tests. Comparison is made to eye dominance data for humans.
Maina, J N
The lung of the lesser bushbaby (Galago senegalensis) has been investigated morphologically and morphometrically using the transmission and scanning electron microscopes. Grossly and microscopically, the bushbaby lung was found to be essentially similar to that of the other primates and the mammals in general. Subtle morphometric differences were, however, observed, with the bushbaby lung being generally structurally less sophisticated than that of the other primates on which comparable data are available, except for man. The weight-specific surface area of the blood-gas (tissue) barrier in G. senegalensis was 25 cm2 g-1. The thickness of the blood-gas barrier was 0.355 micron and the weight specific total anatomical pulmonary diffusing capacity 0.045 mlO2 sec-1 mbar1 kg-1. The morphological similarity of the galago lung to that of man gives sufficient grounds to justify its possible use in human pulmonary studies but caution has been called for in the general utilisation of primate tissues without first establishing their morphological characteristics, just because the primates are taken to be evolutionally close to man. The dearth of morphological studies on the various organ systems of the prosimians is pointed out. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:2272898
Bushbabies (Galago senegalensis) are renowned for their phenomenal jumping capacity. It was postulated that mechanical power amplification must be involved. Dynamic analysis of the vertical jumps performed by two bushbabies confirms the need for a power amplifier. Inverse dynamics coupled to a geometric musculo-skeletal model were used to elucidate the precise nature of the mechanism powering maximal vertical jumps. Most of the power required for jumping is delivered by the vastus muscle-tendon systems (knee extensor). Comparison with the external joint-powers revealed, however, an important power transport from this extensor (about 65%) to the ankle and the midfoot via the bi-articular calf muscles. Peak power output likely implies elastic recoil of the complex aponeurotic system of the vastus muscle. Patterns of changes in length and tension of the muscle-tendon complex during different phases of the jump were found which provide strong evidence for substantial power amplification (times 15). It is argued here that the multiple internal connective tissue sheets and attachment structures of the well-developed bundles of the vastus muscle become increasingly stretched during preparatory crouching and throughout the extension phase, except for the last 13 ms of the push-off (i.e. when power requirements peak). Then, tension in the knee extensors abruptly falls from its maximum, allowing the necessary fast recoil of the tensed tendon structures to occur.
Stepniewska, Iwona; Friedman, Robert M; Gharbawie, Omar A; Cerkevich, Christina M; Roe, Anna W; Kaas, Jon H
The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) of monkeys and prosimian galagos contains a number of subregions where complex, behaviorally meaningful movements, such as reaching, grasping, and body defense, can be evoked by electrical stimulation with long trains of electrical pulses through microelectrodes. Shorter trains of pulses evoke no or simple movements. One possibility for the difference in effectiveness of intracortical microstimulation is that long trains activate much larger regions of the brain. Here, we show that long-train stimulation of PPC does not activate widespread regions of frontal motor and premotor cortex but instead, produces focal, somatotopically appropriate activations of frontal motor and premotor cortex. Shorter stimulation trains activate the same frontal foci but less strongly, showing that longer stimulus trains do not produce less specification. Because the activated sites in frontal cortex correspond to the locations of direct parietal-frontal anatomical connections from the stimulated PPC subregions, the results show the usefulness of optical imaging in conjunction with electrical stimulation in showing functional pathways between nodes in behavior-specific cortical networks. Thus, long-train stimulation is effective in evoking ethologically relevant sequences of movements by activating nodes in a cortical network for a behaviorally relevant period rather than spreading activation in a nonspecific manner.
Huq, Emranul; Wall, Christine E; Taylor, Andrea B
Galago senegalensis is a habitual arboreal leaper that engages in rapid spinal extension during push-off. Large muscle excursions and high contraction velocities are important components of leaping, and experimental studies indicate that during leaping by G. senegalensis, peak power is facilitated by elastic storage of energy. To date, however, little is known about the functional relationship between epaxial muscle fiber architecture and locomotion in leaping primates. Here, fiber architecture of select epaxial muscles is compared between G. senegalensis (n = 4) and the slow arboreal quadruped, Nycticebus coucang (n = 4). The hypothesis is tested that G. senegalensis exhibits architectural features of the epaxial muscles that facilitate rapid and powerful spinal extension during the take-off phase of leaping. As predicted, G. senegalensis epaxial muscles have relatively longer, less pinnate fibers and higher ratios of tendon length-to-fiber length, indicating the capacity for generating relatively larger muscle excursions, higher whole-muscle contraction velocities, and a greater capacity for elastic energy storage. Thus, the relatively longer fibers and higher tendon length-to-fiber length ratios can be functionally linked to leaping performance in G. senegalensis. It is further predicted that G. senegalensis epaxial muscles have relatively smaller physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSAs) as a consequence of an architectural trade-off between fiber length (excursion) and PCSA (force). Contrary to this prediction, there are no species differences in relative PCSAs, but the smaller-bodied G. senegalensis trends towards relatively larger epaxial muscle mass. These findings suggest that relative increase in muscle mass in G. senegalensis is largely attributable to longer fibers. The relative increase in erector spinae muscle mass may facilitate sagittal flexibility during leaping. The similarity between species in relative PCSAs provides empirical support for
Conley, Michael; Schmechel, Donald E.; Diamond, Irving T.
Immunocytochemical methods were used to compare the distributions of somatostatin-14 (SOM) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in the medial and lateral tiers of the visual sector of the thalamic reticular nucleus in the bushbaby, Galago. As expected, all of the neurons in the visual sector were immunoreactive for GAD, the synthesizing enzyme for GABA, but the distribution of SOM-immunoreactive cells was not uniform. It appeared that every cell in the medial tier was immunoreactive for SOM, but that very few cells in the lateral tier contained this neuropeptide. The significance of the difference in reticular neuron SOM content could be related to the functional differences between the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, which is connected reciprocally with the lateral tier, and the pulvinar nucleus, which is connected reciprocally with the medial tier.
Qi, Hui-Xin; Gharbawie, Omar A.; Wong, Peiyan; Kaas, Jon H.
The architectonic features of the ventroposterior nucleus (VP) were visualized in coronal brain sections from two macaque monkeys, two owl monkeys, two squirrel monkeys, and three galagos that were processed for cytochrome oxidase, Nissl bodies, or the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGluT2). The traditional ventroposterior medial (VPM) and ventroposterior lateral (VPL) subnuclei were easily identified, as well as the forelimb and hindlimb compartments of VPL, as they were separated by poorly staining, cell-poor septa. Septa also separated other cell groups within VPM and VPL, specifically in the medial compartment of VPL representing the hand (hand VPL). In one squirrel monkey and one galago we demonstrated that these five groups of cells represent digits 1–5 in a mediolateral sequence by injecting tracers into the cortical representation of single digits, defined by microelectrode recordings, and relating concentrations of labeled neurons to specific cell groups in hand VPL. The results establish the existence of septa that isolate the representation of the five digits in VPL of primates and demonstrate that the isolated cell groups represent digits 1–5 in a mediolateral sequence. The present results show that the septa are especially prominent in brain sections processed for vGluT2, which is expressed in the synaptic terminals of excitatory neurons in most nuclei of the brainstem and thalamus. As vGluT2 is expressed in the synaptic terminations from dorsal columns and trigeminal brainstem nuclei, the effectiveness of vGluT2 preparations in revealing septa in VP likely reflects a lack of synapses using glutamate in the septa. J. Comp. Neurol. 519:738–758, 2011. PMID:21246552
Fogassi, L; Gallese, V; Gentilucci, M; Luppino, G; Matelli, M; Rizzolatti, G
We mapped the motor areas of the prosimian Galago crassicaudatus using intracortical electrical microstimulation and morphological and histochemical (cytochrome oxidase) techniques. Stimulation data showed that on the brain convexity there is an area (area Frontalis posterior, F post.) from which movements could be evoked at low threshold (< 10 microA). This area is somatotopically organized, with the leg represented medially, the arm centrally and the face and mouth laterally. Proximal and distal movements are not segregated. Most of the evoked movements, even at threshold, consist of movements involving two or more joints. F post. is characterized by a three-band cytochrome oxidase activity pattern. It has an agranular structure, but it lacks pyramidal cells that are larger than those observed in other areas. In front of F post. there is an area histochemically similar to it, Frontalis intermedialis (F int.). This area consists of two cytoarchitectonic divisions: an agranular division (F int. pars caudalis) and a disgranular division (F int. pars rostralis). The excitability threshold of F int. is relatively high (10 to 30 microA). Eye, ear and neck movements are elicited from its lateral part, whereas trunk movements associated with limb movements are elicited from its medial part. Caudal to F post., there is another region from which movements can be evoked with currents between 10 to 30 microA. This region has the same medio-lateral somatotopic arrangement of F post. Typically, single joint movements are elicited from it. Proximal and distal movements are not segregated. In spite of its homogeneity in terms of motor response, the posterior excitable region is formed by two anatomically separate areas: anterior somatic area (S ant.) and posterior somatic area (S post.). S ant. has a typical koniocortex structure, whereas S post, resembles the parakoniocortex as defined by Sanides (J. Hirnforsch., 9 (1967) 225-252). Histochemically both areas are made up of four
Elston, Guy N; Elston, Alejandra; Casagrande, Vivien; Kaas, Jon H
Typically, cognitive abilities of humans have been attributed to their greatly expanded cortical mantle, granular prefrontal cortex (gPFC) in particular. Recently we have demonstrated systematic differences in microstructure of gPFC in different species. Specifically, pyramidal cells in adult human gPFC are considerably more spinous than those in the gPFC of the macaque monkey, which are more spinous than those in the gPFC of marmoset and owl monkeys. As most cortical dendritic spines receive at least one excitatory input, pyramidal cells in these different species putatively receive different numbers of inputs. These differences in the gPFC pyramidal cell phenotype may be of fundamental importance in determining the functional characteristics of prefrontal circuitry and hence the cognitive styles of the different species. However, it remains unknown as to why the gPFC pyramidal cell phenotype differs between species. Differences could be attributed to, among other things, brain size, relative size of gPFC, or the lineage to which the species belong. Here we investigated pyramidal cells in the dorsolateral gPFC of the prosimian galago to extend the basis for comparison. We found these cells to be less spinous than those in human, macaque, and marmoset. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Carey, R G; Fitzpatrick, D; Diamond, I T
We have examined the origin of the subcortical projections to the superficial layers of the striate cortex in Tupaia glis and Galago senegalensis by using the retrograde transport of HRP. Crystals of HRP were laid directly on the moist pial surface of the cortex which had been gently pricked with a small glass pipette. The diffusion of HRP was limited to layers I and II by restricting the length of time that the HRP was in contact with the surface. Following the application of HRP to the striate cortex, labeled cells were found in restricted regions of the lateral geniculate body of both species. Layers 4 and 5 of galago and layer 3 of tree shrew contained dense clusters of labeled cells. Labeled neurons were also found in the zones between the layers of the lateral geniculate body in both species and these cells were always in register with the labeled cells within the layers. In galago, curved columns of labeled cells were observed in the inferior and superior subdivisions of the pulvinar nucleus. These columns were arranged in the shape of two arcs, joined at the fiber bundle which separates the two subdivisions. The position of the bands in the pulvinar nucleus varied with the locus of the application in the striate cortex. While no labeled cells were seen in the body of the pulvinar nucleus of tree shrew, small labeled neurons were found in the external medullary lamina forming the capsule of the pulvinar nucleus. These cells were continuous with a larger population of labeled cells in the lateral intermediate nucleus. In both species, labeled cells were also found in the intralaminar nuclei (particularly the paracentral nucleus) and in the dorsal-caudal portion of the claustrum. In the claustrum, few unlabeled neurons were present within the zone containing labeled cells. In conclusion, layer I os striate cortex appears to be the site of convergence of several projection systems originating from principal and intralaminar thalamic nuclei as well as the
Veilleux, Carrie C; Kirk, E Christopher
Studies of visual acuity in primates have shown that diurnal haplorhines have higher acuity (30-75 cycles per degree (c/deg)) than most other mammals. However, relatively little is known about visual acuity in non-haplorhine primates, and published estimates are only available for four strepsirrhine genera (Microcebus, Otolemur, Galago, and Lemur). We present here the first measurements of visual acuity in a cathemeral strepsirrhine species, the blue-eyed black lemur (Eulemur macaco flavifrons). Acuity in two subjects, a 3-year-old male and a 16-year-old female, was assessed behaviorally using a two-alternative forced choice discrimination task. Visual stimuli consisted of high contrast square wave gratings of seven spatial frequencies. Acuity threshold was determined using a 70% correct response criterion. Results indicate a maximum visual acuity of 5.1 c/deg for the female (1718 trials) and 3.8 c/deg for the male (846 trials). These values for E. macaco are slightly lower than those reported for diurnal Lemur catta, and are generally comparable to those reported for nocturnal Microcebus murinus and Otolemur crassicaudatus. To examine ecological sources of variation in primate visual acuity, we also calculated maximum theoretical acuity for Cheirogaleus medius (2.8 c/deg) and Tarsius syrichta (8.9 c/deg) using published data on retinal ganglion cell density and eye morphology. These data suggest that visual acuity in primates may be influenced by activity pattern, diet, and phylogenetic history. In particular, the relatively high acuity of T. syrichta and Galago senegalensis suggests that visual predation may be an important selective factor favoring high visual acuity in primates.
Watson, Sheree L; McCoy, John G; Fontenot, M Babette; Hanbury, David B; Ward, Christopher P
Self-injurious behavior (SIB) among captive primates is a recurring problem for those who manage such facilities. Its prevalence highlights the need for research evaluating the effectiveness of potential treatment approaches. In the present study, 4 wk of dietary supplementation with L-tryptophan (100 mg daily) was evaluated for the treatment of self-inflicted wounds in 22 small-eared bushbabies, a prosimian primate, with a history of SIB. The treatment significantly reduced stereotypy and was associated with a reduction in wound area and severity. In terms of physiologic measures, preexisting high levels of cortisol were reduced in bushbabies with SIB, whereas serotonin concentrations were increased after 4 wk of treatment. Results indicate that L-tryptophan as a dietary supplement may be a viable adjunct to standard husbandry procedures for animals exhibiting maladaptive behaviors such as stereotypy and SIB. PMID:19383216
Bersacola, Elena; Svensson, Magdalena S; Bearder, Simon K
The African nocturnal primates (galagos, pottos, and angwantibos: suborder Strepsirrhini) are the result of the first major primate radiation event in Africa, and are found in different primate communities spread across the entire sub-Saharan Africa. Thus, they represent an interesting group of taxa to investigate community strategies to avoid interspecific competition. Here, we present the result of the first study on nocturnal primate communities in western Angola. We aimed to identify habitat factors influencing strepsirrhine abundance, collect evidence of spatial niche segregation, and discuss possible indications of competitive exclusion in this region. We conducted nocturnal surveys at four study sites: Kumbira, Bimbe, Northern Scarp, and Calandula. At each encounter we recorded species, group size, height of animals above ground, and GPS location. We sampled vegetation using the point-centered quarter method and collected data on canopy cover, disturbance, and undergrowth density. We observed a total of five strepsirrhine species with varying community structures. We did not encounter Galagoides thomasi but we recorded a new species Galagoides sp. nov. 4. Levels of disturbance, canopy cover and undergrowth density were the habitat factors that most influenced variation in abundance of Galagoides demidovii and Perodicticus edwardsi, the latter also preferring the habitat with higher tree density. Vertical separation between sympatric strepsirrhines was strongest in Northern Scarp, where overall relative abundance was also highest. Competitive exclusion between G. thomasi and G. sp. nov. 4 may explain why the former was not present within the Angolan Escarpment sites. We observed coexistence between mainly allopatric Otolemur crassicaudatus and P. edwardsi in Kumbira, and of Galago moholi and G. demidovii in Calandula. Both unusual combinations showed some levels of spatial segregation. Habitat characteristics of the Escarpment region are likely to allow for
Fulwood, Ethan L; Kramer, Andrew
This study examines the effect of a measurement size bias in coefficients of variation on the evaluation of intraspecific skeletal variability in a sample of eight prosimian species (Eulemur fulvus, Hapalemur griseus, Lemur catta, Varecia variegata, Galago senegalensis, Otolemur crassicaudatus, Nycticebus coucang, and Tarsius syrichta). Measurements with smaller means were expected to have higher coefficients of variation (CVs) due to the impact of instrumental precision on the ability to assess variability. This was evaluated by testing for a negative correlation between CVs and means in the total sample, within each species, and within each measurement, and by testing for the leveraging impact of small measurements on the significance of comparisons of variability between regions of the prosimian skeleton. Three comparisons were made: cranial versus postcranial variability, epiphysis versus diaphysis variability, and forelimb versus hindlimb variability. CVs were significantly negatively correlated with means within the total sample (r(2) = 0.208, P < 0.0001) and within each species. CVs and means were significantly correlated within only three of the measurements, which may reflect the relatively low body size range of the species studied. As predicted by the higher variability of smaller measurements, removing the smallest measurements from comparisons of variable classes containing measurements of different mean magnitudes pushed the comparisons below significance. These results indicate caution should be exercised when using CVs to assess variability across sets of measurements with different means.
Calvey, Tanya; Patzke, Nina; Kaswera-Kyamakya, Consolate; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Bertelsen, Mads F; Pettigrew, John D; Manger, Paul R
The nuclear organization of the cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems in the brains of three species of strepsirrhine primates is presented. We aimed to investigate the nuclear complement of these neural systems in comparison to those of simian primates, megachiropterans and other mammalian species. The brains were coronally sectioned and immunohistochemically stained with antibodies against choline acetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase, serotonin and orexin-A. The nuclei identified were identical among the strepsirrhine species investigated and identical to previous reports in simian primates. Moreover, a general similarity to other mammals was found, but specific differences in the nuclear complement highlighted potential phylogenetic interrelationships. The central feature of interest was the structure of the locus coeruleus complex in the primates, where a central compactly packed core (A6c) of tyrosine hydroxylase immunopositive neurons was surrounded by a shell of less densely packed (A6d) tyrosine hydroxylase immunopositive neurons. This combination of compact and diffuse divisions of the locus coeruleus complex is only found in primates and megachiropterans of all the mammalian species studied to date. This neural character, along with variances in a range of other neural characters, supports the phylogenetic grouping of primates with megachiropterans as a sister group.
Burrows, Anne M; Rogers-Vizena, Carolyn R; Li, Ly; Mendelson, Bryan
The human face has the greatest mobility and facial display repertoire among all primates. However, the variables that account for this are not clear. Humans and other anthropoids have remarkably similar mimetic musculature. This suggests that differences among the mimetic muscles alone may not account for the increased mobility and facial display repertoire seen in humans. Furthermore, anthropoids themselves outpace prosimians in these categories: humans > other anthropoids > prosimians. This study was undertaken to clarify the morphological underpinnings of the increased mobility and display repertoire of the human face by investigating the SMAS (the superficial musculo-aponeurotic system), a connective tissue layer enclosing the mimetic musculature located between the skin and deep fascia/periosteum. Full-thickness samples from the face near the zygoma region from the anthropoids Homo sapiens (humans, N = 3), Pan troglodytes (chimpanzees, N = 3), Hylobates muelleri (gibbons, N = 1), and Macaca mulatta (rhesus macaque, N = 3) and the prosimians Tarsius bancanus (tarsiers, N = 1), and Otolemur crassicaudatus (galagos, N = 2) were used. All samples were processed for paraffin-based histology and stained sections were viewed under light microscopy to determine if a SMAS layer could be identified. Results indicate that a SMAS layer was present in all anthropoid species but neither of the prosimian species. This connective tissue layer may be a factor in the increased facial mobility and facial display repertoire present in these species. Anat Rec, 299:1779-1788, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
[Comparative anatomical studies on the Jacobson organs of Nycticebus coucang Boddaert, 1785 (Prosimiae, Lorisidae) and Galago crassicaudatus E. Geoffroy, 1812 (Prosimiae, Lorisidae). I. Nycticebus coucang].
The goal of this research was to study the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the vomeronasal organ in Nycticebus coucang. Based on numerous measurements in cross-sections of all parts of the organ, three-dimensional graphs of the vomeronasal cartilage, the organ and the system of blood-vessels, situated around the organ, were drawn. Nycticebus has a well developed vomeronasal organ exhibiting a well developed sensory epithelium. The oral end of the organ opens into the middle part of the nasopalatine duct, which has an open connection with the cavum nasi and the cavum oris. The cartilago paraseptalis is connected with the cartilago ductus nasopalatini by the sickle-shaped part of the cartilago paraseptalis. An "outer bar", which is present in the vomeronasal cartilage of Tupaia, is absent in Nycticebus. The oral part of the organ contains nonciliated, pseudostratified epithelium with secretory crypts and goblet cells. In the main part of the organ the dorso-lateral wall consists of nonsensory, nonciliated, pseudostratified epithelium, while the sensory epithelium is situated in the dorsolateral wall. Serous glands, which are situated dorsal to the organ, open into the organ at its dorsal margin. Caudal to this part there is a long part of the organ without sensory epithelium. At its caudal end the organ is branched. The sensory epithelium of the vomeronasal organ is thicker than the sensory epithelium of the nose. It contains a nucleus-free space between the nuclei of supporting cells and the nuclei of sensory cells. The sensory epithelium contains about 92 000 receptor cells/mm2. Capillaries could not be seen in the epithelia of the organ. The vessels, which accompany the organ, are veins and capillaries. The dorsal veins exhibit thicker walls and a wider lumen than the ventral ones and are therefore better suited for the pumping-mechanism, as suggested by BROMAN (1920). Connective tissue, surrounding the organ, aids the pumping-mechanism of the veins.
part of the Lemur toolkit. Galago supports indexing of large scale data in a distributed cluster environment with a MapReduce -like framework called...english wikipedia concepts. In Con- ference on Language Resources and Evaluation.
Poelma, F G
Pneumocystis carinii was found to be present in the lungs of twenty-three zoo animals in the Netherlands. The following species were represented: red kangaroo, common tree shrew, Senegal-Galago, Demidoff's-Galago, brown howler monkey, woolly monkey, long-haired spider monkey, white-eared marmoset, chimpanzee, three-toed sloth, palm squirrel, red panda, fennec fox, tree hyrax and large-toothed hyrax.
Gurgurewicz, Joanna; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Wisniewski, Lukasz; Mege, Daniel; Rickman, Hans
Field geoscientists need to collect three-dimensional data in order characterise the lithologic succession and structure of terrains, reconstruct their evolution, and eventually reveal the history of a portion of the planet. This is achieved by walking up and down mountains and valleys, conducting and interpreting geological and geophysical traverses, and reading measures made at station located at key sites on mountain peaks or rocky promontories. These activities have been denied to conventional planetary exploration rovers because engineering constraints for landing are strong, especially in terms of allowed terrain roughness and slopes. There are few limitations in the type of scientific payload conventional exploration rovers can carry, from geology and geophysics to geochemistry and exobiology. They lack two skills, however: the ability of working on rugged or unstable terrain, like in canyons and mountains, and on solid bodies having gravity too low for the friction between the wheels and the ground to generate robot displacement. ASTRONIKA Ltd. and the Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences are designing Galago, the Highland Terrain Hopper, a small (Ø~50-100 cm), light (5-10 kg), and robust locomotion system, which addresses the challenge of accessing most areas on low-gravity planetary body for performing scientific observations and measurements, alone or as part of a commando. Galago is symmetric and can jump accurately to a height of 4.5 m on Mars, 9 m on the Moon, and much more on Phobos and other small bodies. For one Galago, a nominal horizontal travel distance of 5 km (1000 jumps) is currently planned with the considered energy source, a battery reloaded by solar panels. Galago may assist other types of robots, or humans, in accessing difficult terrain, or even replace them for specific measurements or campaigning. Its three independent legs make possible several types of motions: accurate jumping (to any place identified in advance
McDeavitt, Sean M
Overview Fast reactors were evaluated to enable the transmutation of transuranic isotopes generated by nuclear energy systems. The motivation for this was that TRU isotopes have high radiotoxicity and relatively long half-lives, making them unattractive for disposal in a long-term geologic repository. Fast reactors provide an efficient means to utilize the energy content of the TRUs while destroying them. An enabling technology that requires research and development is the fabrication metallic fuel containing TRU isotopes using powder metallurgy methods. This project focused upon developing a powder metallurgical fabrication method to produce U-Zr-transuranic (TRU) alloys at relatively low processing temperatures (500ºC to 600ºC) using either hot extrusion or alpha-phase sintering for charecterization. Researchers quantified the fundamental aspects of both processing methods using surrogate metals to simulate the TRU elements. The process produced novel solutions to some of the issues relating to metallic fuels, such as fuel-cladding chemical interactions, fuel swelling, volatility losses during casting, and casting mold material losses. Workscope There were two primary tasks associated with this project: 1. Hot working fabrication using mechanical alloying and extrusion • Design, fabricate, and assemble extrusion equipment • Extrusion database on DU metal • Extrusion database on U-10Zr alloys • Extrusion database on U-20xx-10Zr alloys • Evaluation and testing of tube sheath metals 2. Low-temperature sintering of U alloys • Design, fabricate, and assemble equipment • Sintering database on DU metal • Sintering database on U-10Zr alloys • Liquid assisted phase sintering on U-20xx-10Zr alloys Appendices Outline Appendix A contains a Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCR&D) poster and contact presentation where TAMU made primary contributions. Appendix B contains MSNE theses and final defense presentations by David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich
Stepniewska, Iwona; Preuss, Todd M; Kaas, Jon H
In order to compare connections of premotor cortical areas of New World monkeys with those of Old World macaque monkeys and prosimian galagos, we placed injections of fluorescent tracers and wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) in dorsal (PMD) and ventral (PMV) premotor areas of owl monkeys. Motor areas and injection sites were defined by patterns of movements electrically evoked from the cortex with microelectrodes. Labeled neurons and axon terminals were located in brain sections cut either in the coronal plane or parallel to the surface of flattened cortex, and they related to architectonically and electrophysiologically defined cortical areas. Both the PMV and PMD had connections with the primary motor cortex (M1), the supplementary motor area (SMA), cingulate motor areas, somatosensory areas S2 and PV, and the posterior parietal cortex. Only the PMV had connections with somatosensory areas 3a, 1, 2, PR, and PV. The PMD received inputs from more caudal portions of the cortex of the lateral sulcus and more medial portions of the posterior parietal cortex than the PMV. The PMD and PMV were only weakly interconnected. New World owl monkeys, Old World macaque monkeys, and galagos share a number of PMV and PMD connections, suggesting preservation of a common sensorimotor network from early primates. Comparisons of PMD and PMV connectivity with the cortex of the lateral sulcus and posterior parietal cortex of owl monkeys, galagos, and macaques help identify areas that could be homologous.
Kanber, Deniz; Buiting, Karin; Roos, Christian; Gromoll, Jörg; Kaya, Sabine; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Lohmann, Dietmar
The human RB1 gene is imprinted due to a differentially methylated CpG island in intron 2. This CpG island is part of PPP1R26P1, a truncated retrocopy of PPP1R26, and serves as a promoter for an alternative RB1 transcript. We show here by in silico analyses that the parental PPP1R26 gene is present in the analysed members of Haplorrhini, which comprise Catarrhini (Old World Monkeys, Small apes, Great Apes and Human), Platyrrhini (New World Monkeys) and tarsier, and Strepsirrhini (galago). Interestingly, we detected the retrocopy, PPP1R26P1, in all Anthropoidea (Catarrhini and Platyrrhini) that we studied but not in tarsier or galago. Additional retrocopies are present in human and chimpanzee on chromosome 22, but their distinct composition indicates that they are the result of independent retrotransposition events. Chimpanzee and marmoset have further retrocopies on chromosome 8 and chromosome 4, respectively. To examine the origin of the RB1 imprint, we compared the methylation patterns of the parental PPP1R26 gene and its retrocopies in different primates (human, chimpanzee, orangutan, rhesus macaque, marmoset and galago). Methylation analysis by deep bisulfite sequencing showed that PPP1R26 is methylated whereas the retrocopy in RB1 intron 2 is differentially methylated in all primates studied. All other retrocopies are fully methylated, except for the additional retrocopy on marmoset chromosome 4, which is also differentially methylated. Using an informative SNP for the methylation analysis in marmoset, we could show that the differential methylation pattern of the retrocopy on chromosome 4 is allele-specific. We conclude that the epigenetic fate of a PPP1R26 retrocopy after integration depends on the DNA sequence and selective forces at the integration site. PMID:24282601
Highfill, Lauren; Hanbury, David; Kristiansen, Rachel; Kuczaj, Stan; Watson, Sheree
Animal personality research has become increasingly popular over the past few decades. The two main methods used to examine individual differences in animals are rating and coding. The rating method involves human scoring of an animal's behavioral tendencies along various behavioral dimensions, such ratings are typically based on the human rater's experience with the animal. The coding method also requires humans to score an animal's behavior, but differs in that the scoring is based on the animal's immediate behavior in a specific context. This brief report describes the use of both the rating and coding methods to examine personality within a group of 10 Garnett's bushbabies (Otolemur garnettii). The results indicated that individual personalities do exist in bushbabies, but also suggested that the rating method is heavily influenced by the rater's experience with an animal. Consequently, it is important that the nature of the rater's interactions with the target animals be considered when using the rating method to assess animal personality.
Daniels, G R; Deininger, P L
We have analyzed repetitive DNA sequences in a prosimian, Galago crassicaudatus, and found that there are two distinct, highly repetitive families of sequences related to the human Alu family. The Type I family is closely analogous to the human Alu Family. The Type II family of repeats, which appears to be present in higher copy number, has a right half that is almost identical to the Type I family. However, the left half of the Type II sequence shows only limited homology to the galago Type I or human Alu families. A comparison of homologous sequences in the left half indicated that they are centered in regions of the Alu family which function as RNA polymerase III promoters. We have also observed at least one example of a Type II left half that was integrated into the genome independent of the Alu family right half sequence. The Type II family appears to be of much more recent evolutionary origin than the Type I and may have arisen by the independent integration of a RNA polymerase III promoter adjacent to the right half of a Type I Alu family sequence. PMID:6647032
Matera, A G; Weiner, A M; Schmid, C W
The organization of U2 genes was compared in apes, Old World monkeys, and the prosimian galago. In humans and all apes (gibbon, orangutan, gorilla, and chimpanzee), the U2 genes were organized as a tandem repeat of a 6-kb element; however, the restriction maps of the 6-kb elements in these divergent species differed slightly, demonstrating that mechanisms must exist for maintaining sequence homogeneity within this tandem array. In Old World monkeys, the U2 genes were organized as a tandem repeat of an 11-kb element; the restriction maps of the 11-kb elements in baboon and two closely related macaques, bonnet and rhesus monkeys, also differed slightly, confirming that efficient sequence homogenization is an intrinsic property of the U2 tandem array. Interestingly, the 11-kb monkey repeat unit differed from the 6-kb hominid repeat unit by a 5-kb block of monkey-specific sequence. Finally, we found that the U2 genes of the prosimian galago were dispersed rather than tandemly repeated, suggesting that the hominid and Old World monkey U2 tandem arrays resulted from independent amplifications of a common ancestral U2 gene. Alternatively, the 5-kb monkey-specific sequence could have been inserted into the 6-kb array or deleted from the 11-kb array soon after divergence of the hominid and Old World monkey lineages. Images PMID:2233721
Sesma, M A; Irvin, G E; Kuyk, T K; Norton, T T; Casagrande, V A
In many mammalian species, rearing with one eyelid closed produces a loss of vision in the deprived eye and a change in cell size in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). In cats, the reduction in the size of deprived LGN cells has been correlated with a loss of one functional class of cells, Y cells. In primates, such as galago, LGN cells also exhibit marked changes in size with deprivation. In the present study we recorded from single cells in the LGN of monocularly deprived galagos to determine if such changes in cell size would be accompanied by changes in physiological properties. The results revealed no alterations in the distribution or functional properties of any cell class. The differences in the effects of monocular deprivation on the function of LGN cells in cats and primates are most easily explained by a fundamental difference in visual system anatomy. In cats, different classes of retinal afferents (X vs. Y) are in a position to compete for postsynaptic LGN neurons: in primates, segregation of cell classes into different layers may preclude such developmental interactions. PMID:6585797
In this preliminary report the divergence times for the major primate groups are given, calculated from a study by comparative determinant analysis of 69 proteins (equaling 0.1% of the whole genetic information). With an origin of the primate order set at 80 million years before present, the ages of the last common ancestors (LCAs) of man and the major primate groups obtained this way are as follows: Pan troglodytes 5.2; Gorilla gorilla 7.4; Pongo pygmaeus 19.2; Hylobates lar 20.3; Old World monkeys 31.4; Lagothrix lagotricha 46.0; Cebus albifrons 59.5; three lemur species 67.0, and Galago crassicaudatus 73.3 million years. The LCA results and the approach are shortly discussed. A full account of this extended investigation including results on nonprimate mammals and on the determinant structures and the immunologically derived evolutionary rates of the proteins analyzed will be published elsewhere.
Zehr, Sarah M; Roach, Richard G; Haring, David; Taylor, Julie; Cameron, Freda H; Yoder, Anne D
Since its establishment in 1966, the Duke Lemur Center (DLC) has accumulated detailed records for nearly 4,200 individuals from over 40 strepsirrhine primate taxa-the lemurs, lorises, and galagos. Here we present verified data for 3,627 individuals of 27 taxa in the form of a life history table containing summarized species values for variables relating to ancestry, reproduction, longevity, and body mass, as well as the two raw data files containing direct and calculated variables from which this summary table is built. Large sample sizes, longitudinal data that in many cases span an animal's entire life, exact dates of events, and large numbers of individuals from closely related yet biologically diverse primate taxa make these datasets unique. This single source for verified raw data and systematically compiled species values, particularly in combination with the availability of associated biological samples and the current live colony for research, will support future studies from an enormous spectrum of disciplines.
Hostetler, J R; Cannon, M S; Belt, W D
Crystalloids of what appear to be smooth reticulum have been observed in the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis in both the stressed and nonstressed adrenal gland of the Siamese tree shrew (Tupaia glis). No crystalloids are observed in the zona glomerulosa. Similar crystalloids have been described in other steroid-secreting organs, including the antebrachial organ of the lemur (Lemur catta), the parotoid gland of Bufo alvarius and in sebaceous gland cells of the Galagos and Macaques. Moreover, the crystalloids in the present investigation resemble the paracrystalline arrays of smooth reticulum present in the adrenal cortex of the fetal guinea pig. The crystalloids show much variation in degree of organization, sometimes appearing as wavy tubules parallel with one another or as fused tubules having a "donut" configuration. In addition, the crystalloids are nearly identical to configurations which have been described in mitochondrial cristae of the protozoan, Pelomyxa carolinensis.
Dai, Q X; Yao, Y F; Qi, Z C; Huang, Y; Ni, Q Y; Zhang, M W; Xu, H L
In this study, the complete coding region sequence of an innate immune-related TLR4 gene was obtained from the Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) genome via PCR and direct sequencing. The sequence had a total length of 2481 bp, contained 3 complete exons, and encoded 826 amino acids (AAs); its isoelectric point was 5.703, and the molecular weight was 94.72 kDa. The high structure prediction showed that the protein was comprised of one extracellular region, one transmembrane region, and one intracellular region. There were 48 potential functional sites in the protein, including glycosylation, phosphorylation, and acetylation sites. A homology analysis among 9 primate species, including the Tibetan macaque, human, chimpanzee, gibbon, rhesus macaque, cynomolgus monkey, pig-tailed monkey, squirrel monkey, and small-eared galago, showed that the homology of the nucleotide and AA sequences ranged from 60.9-99.5% and 51.4- 99.0%, respectively. Higher variability was identified in the extracellular region of the TLR4 protein, and its variable sites accounted for 88.79% (AA) of the total variable sites. Additionally, the number of AAs at the 3' end of the intracellular region was notably different among the primate lineages. The phylogenetic tree based on TLR4 gene exons of 9 primate species showed that the Tibetan macaque clustered with the rhesus macaque, cynomolgus monkey, and pig-tailed monkey; it was most distant from the small-eared galago. This study will provide an important basis for further study on the expression, regulation, and polymorphism of the TLR4 gene and the relationship between polymorphisms and host disease susceptibility.
Qi, Hui-Xin; Reed, Jamie L; Franca, Joao G; Jain, Neeraj; Kajikawa, Yoshinao; Kaas, Jon H
In somatosensory cortex, tactile stimulation within the neuronal receptive field (RF) typically evokes a transient excitatory response with or without postexcitatory inhibition. Here, we describe neuronal responses in which stimulation on the hand is followed by suppression of the ongoing discharge. With the use of 16-channel microelectrode arrays implanted in the hand representation of primary somatosensory cortex of New World monkeys and prosimian galagos, we recorded neuronal responses from single units and neuron clusters. In 66% of our sample, neuron activity tended to display suppression of firing when regions of skin outside of the excitatory RF were stimulated. In a small proportion of neurons, single-site indentations suppressed firing without initial increases in response to any of the tested sites on the hand. Latencies of suppressive responses to skin indentation (usually 12-34 ms) were similar to excitatory response latencies. The duration of inhibition varied across neurons. Although most observations were from anesthetized animals, we also found similar neuron response properties in one awake galago. Notably, suppression of ongoing neuronal activity did not require conditioning stimuli or multi-site stimulation. The suppressive effects were generally seen following single-site skin indentations outside of the neuron's minimal RF and typically on different digits and palm pads, which have not often been studied in this context. Overall, the characteristics of widespread suppressive or inhibitory response properties with and without initial facilitative or excitatory responses add to the growing evidence that neurons in primary somatosensory cortex provide essential processing for integrating sensory stimulation from across the hand.
Rockoff, Emily C; Balaram, Pooja; Kaas, Jon H
Blobs are a modular component of the primary visual cortex (area 17) of all primates, but not of other mammals closely related to primates. They are characterized as an even distribution of patches, puffs, or blobs of dense cytochrome oxidase (CO) expression in layer III of area 17, and are now known to differ from surrounding, nonblob cortex in thalamic, intrinsic, and extrastriate connections. Previous studies have also recognized a blob-like pattern of myelin-dense patches in layer III of area 17 of primates, and more recently the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT)-2 isoform of the VGLUT family has been found to selectively distribute to layer III patches in a similar blob-like pattern. Here, we sought to determine if the blob-like patterns all identify the same modular structures in area 17 of primates by staining alternate brain sections cut parallel to the surface of area 17 of a prosimian primate (Otolemur garnettii) for CO, myelin, and VGLUT2. By aligning the sections from the three preparations, we provide clear evidence that the three preparations all identify the same modular blob structures. The results provide a further understanding of the functional nature of the blobs by demonstrating that their higher level of CO activity is related to thalamic inputs from the lateral geniculate nucleus that use VGLUT2 as their main glutamate transporter, and via myelinated axons.
Rockoff, Emily C; Balaram, Pooja; Kaas, Jon H
Blobs are a modular component of the primary visual cortex (area 17) of all primates, but not of other mammals closely related to primates. They are characterized as an even distribution of patches, puffs, or blobs of dense cytochrome oxidase (CO) expression in layer III of area 17, and are now known to differ from surrounding, nonblob cortex in thalamic, intrinsic, and extrastriate connections. Previous studies have also recognized a blob-like pattern of myelin-dense patches in layer III of area 17 of primates, and more recently the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT)-2 isoform of the VGLUT family has been found to selectively distribute to layer III patches in a similar blob-like pattern. Here, we sought to determine if the blob-like patterns all identify the same modular structures in area 17 of primates by staining alternate brain sections cut parallel to the surface of area 17 of a prosimian primate (Otolemur garnettii) for CO, myelin, and VGLUT2. By aligning the sections from the three preparations, we provide clear evidence that the three preparations all identify the same modular blob structures. The results provide a further understanding of the functional nature of the blobs by demonstrating that their higher level of CO activity is related to thalamic inputs from the lateral geniculate nucleus that use VGLUT2 as their main glutamate transporter, and via myelinated axons. PMID:26097384
Lesniak, Karen T
This study was performed to examine the effects of intercessory prayer (IP) on wound healing and related physiological and behavioral factors in nonhuman primates. Twenty-two bush babies (Otolemur garnettii) with chronic self-injurious behavior (SIB) were stratified by wound severity and matched by total wound area. The animals were then randomized to IP and L-tryptophan or L-tryptophan only for treatment of SIB and related wounds. The IP intervention was conducted in a double-blind, randomized manner. Prayer was conducted daily for 4 weeks. Initiation of prayer was coincident with the first day of L-tryptophan administration. Physiological and behavioral variables were assessed at baseline and end of study. Following IP/L-tryptophan treatment, prayer-group animals had a reduction in wound size compared to non-prayer animals (P=.028). Prayer-group animals had a greater increase in red blood cells (P=.006), hemoglobin (P=.01), and hematocrit (P=.018); a greater reduction in both mean corpuscular hemoglobin (P=.023) and corpuscular volume (P=.008); and a reduction in wound grooming (P=.01) and total grooming behaviors (P=.04) than non-prayer-group animals. The results of this study are consistent with prior human trials of IP effectiveness, but suggest IP-induced health improvements may be independent of confounds associated with human participants. Findings may provide direction for study of the mechanisms of IP-induced health improvements in both human and animal models.
Bearder, S K; Nekaris, K A I; Curtis, D J
This paper examines the importance of vision in the lives of nocturnal primates in comparison to diurnal and cathemeral species. Vision is the major sense in all primates and there is evidence that the eyesight of nocturnal species is more acute and variable than has previously been recognized. Case studies of the behaviour of a galago and a loris in open woodland habitats in relation to ambient light show that Galago moholi males are more likely to travel between clumps of vegetation along the ground when the moon is up, and during periods of twilight, whereas they retreat to more continuous vegetation and travel less when the moon sets. This is interpreted as a strategy for avoiding predators that hunt on the ground when it is dark. The travel distances of Loris lydekkerianus are not affected by moonlight but this species reduces its choice of food items from more mobile prey to mainly ants when the moon sets, indicating the importance of light when searching for high-energy supplements to its staple diet. Evidence is presented for the first time to indicate key aspects of nocturnal vision that would benefit from further research. It is suggested that the light and dark facial markings of many species convey information about species and individual identity when animals approach each other at night. Differences in the colour of the reflective eye-shine, and behavioural responses displayed when exposed to white torchlight, point to different kinds of nocturnal vision that are suited to each niche, including the possibility of some degree of colour discrimination. The ability of even specialist nocturnal species to see well in broad daylight demonstrates an inherent flexibility that would enable movement into diurnal niches. The major differences in the sensitivity and perceptual anatomy of diurnal lemurs compared to diurnal anthropoids, and the emergence of cathemerality in lemurs, is interpreted as a reflection of evolution from different ancestral stocks in very
Mohammadparast, Saeid; Bayat, Hadi; Biglarian, Akbar; Ohadi, Mina
Adaptive evolution may be linked with the genomic distribution and function of short tandem repeats (STRs). Proximity of the core promoter STRs to the +1 transcription start site (TSS), and their mutable nature are characteristics that highlight those STRs as a novel source of interspecies variation. The PAXBP1 gene (alternatively known as GCFC1) core promoter contains the longest STR identified in a Homo sapiens gene core promoter. Indeed, this core promoter is a stretch of four consecutive CT-STRs. In the current study, we used the Ensembl, NCBI, and UCSC databases to analyze the evolutionary trend and functional implication of this CT-STR complex in six major lineages across vertebrates, including primates, non-primate mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. We observed exceptional expansion (≥4-repeats) and conservation of this CT-STR complex across primates, except prosimians, Microcebus murinus and Otolemur garnettii (Fisher exact P<4.1×10(-7)). H. sapiens has the most complex STR formula, and longest repeats. Macaca mulatta and Callithrix jacchus monkeys have the simplest STR formulas, and shortest repeat numbers. CT≥4-repeats were not detected in non-primate lineages. Different length alleles across the PAXBP1 core promoter CT-STRs significantly altered gene expression in vitro (P<0.001, t-test). PAXBP1 has a crucial role in craniofacial development, myogenesis, and spine morphogenesis, properties that have been diverged between primates and non-primates. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of expansion and conservation of a STR complex co-occurring specifically with the primate lineage.
Vinyard, Christopher J; Taylor, Andrea B
The architectural arrangement of the fibers within a muscle has a significant impact on how a muscle functions. Recent work on primate jaw-muscle architecture demonstrates significant associations with dietary variation and feeding behaviors. In this study, the relationship between masseter and temporalis muscle architecture and jaw-muscle activity patterns is explored using Belanger's treeshrews and 11 primate species, including two genera of strepsirrhines (Lemur and Otolemur) and five genera of anthropoids (Aotus, Callithrix, Cebus, Macaca, and Papio). Jaw-muscle weights, fiber lengths, and physiologic cross-sectional areas (PCSA) were quantified for this preliminary analysis or collected from the literature and compared to published electromyographic recordings from these muscles. Results indicate that masseter architecture is unrelated to the superficial masseter working-side/balancing-side (W/B) ratio across primate species. Alternatively, relative temporalis architecture is correlated with temporalis W/B ratios across primates. Specifically, relative temporalis PCSA is inversely related to the W/B ratio for the anterior temporalis, indicating that as animals recruit a larger relative percentage of their balancing-side temporalis, they possess the ability to generate relatively larger amounts of force from these muscles. These findings support three broader conclusions. First, masseter muscle architecture may have experienced divergent evolution across different primate clades related to novel functional roles in different groups. Second, the temporalis may be functionally constrained (relative to the masseter) across primates in its functional role of creating vertical occlusal forces during chewing. Finally, the contrasting results for the masseter and temporalis suggest that the fiber architecture of these muscles has evolved as distinct functional units in primates.
Vinyard, Christopher J.; Taylor, Andrea B.
The architectural arrangement of the fibers within a muscle has a significant impact on how a muscle functions. Recent work on primate jaw-muscle architecture demonstrates significant associations with dietary variation and feeding behaviors. In this study, the relationship between masseter and temporalis muscle architecture and jaw-muscle activity patterns is explored using Belanger's treeshrews and 11 primate species, including three genera of strepsirrhines (Lemur, Otolemur) and five genera of anthropoids (Aotus, Callithrix, Cebus, Macaca, Papio). Jaw-muscle weights, fiber lengths and physiologic cross-sectional areas (PCSA) were quantified for this preliminary analysis or collected from the literature and compared to published electromyographic (EMG) recordings from these muscles. Results indicate that masseter architecture is unrelated to the superficial masseter working-side/balancing-side (W/B) ratio across primate species. Alternatively, relative temporalis architecture is correlated with temporalis W/B ratios across primates. Specifically, relative temporalis PCSA is inversely related to the W/B ratio for the anterior temporalis indicating that as animals recruit a larger relative percentage of their balancing-side temporalis, they possess the ability to generate relatively larger amounts of force from these muscles. These findings support three broader conclusions. First, masseter muscle architecture may have experienced divergent evolution across different primate clades related to novel functional roles in different groups. Second, the temporalis may be functionally constrained (relative to the masseter) across primates in its functional role of creating vertical occlusal forces during chewing. Finally, the contrasting results for the masseter and temporalis suggest that the fiber architecture of these muscles has evolved as distinct functional units in primates. PMID:20235313
Tabuce, Rodolphe; Marivaux, Laurent; Lebrun, Renaud; Adaci, Mohammed; Bensalah, Mustapha; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Fara, Emmanuel; Gomes Rodrigues, Helder; Hautier, Lionel; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Lazzari, Vincent; Mebrouk, Fateh; Peigné, Stéphane; Sudre, Jean; Tafforeau, Paul; Valentin, Xavier; Mahboubi, Mahammed
Recent fossil discoveries have demonstrated that Africa and Asia were epicentres for the origin and/or early diversification of the major living primate lineages, including both anthropoids (monkeys, apes and humans) and crown strepsirhine primates (lemurs, lorises and galagos). Competing hypotheses favouring either an African or Asian origin for anthropoids rank among the most hotly contested issues in paleoprimatology. The Afrocentric model for anthropoid origins rests heavily on the >45 Myr old fossil Algeripithecus minutus from Algeria, which is widely acknowledged to be one of the oldest known anthropoids. However, the phylogenetic position of Algeripithecus with respect to other primates has been tenuous because of the highly fragmentary fossils that have documented this primate until now. Recently recovered and more nearly complete fossils of Algeripithecus and contemporaneous relatives reveal that they are not anthropoids. New data support the idea that Algeripithecus and its sister genus Azibius are the earliest offshoots of an Afro–Arabian strepsirhine clade that embraces extant toothcombed primates and their fossil relatives. Azibius exhibits anatomical evidence for nocturnality. Algeripithecus has a long, thin and forwardly inclined lower canine alveolus, a feature that is entirely compatible with the long and procumbent lower canine included in the toothcomb of crown strepsirhines. These results strengthen an ancient African origin for crown strepsirhines and, in turn, strongly challenge the role of Africa as the ancestral homeland for anthropoids. PMID:19740889
Channon, Anthony J.; Usherwood, James R.; Crompton, Robin H.; Günther, Michael M.; Vereecke, Evie E.
The distance that animals leap depends on their take-off angle and velocity. The velocity is generated solely by mechanical work during the push-off phase of standing-start leaps. Gibbons are capable of exceptional leaping performance, crossing gaps in the forest canopy exceeding 10 m, yet possess none of the adaptations possessed by specialist leapers synonymous with maximizing mechanical work. To understand this impressive performance, we recorded leaps of the gibbons exceeding 3.7 m. Gibbons perform more mass-specific work (35.4 J kg−1) than reported for any other species to date, accelerating to 8.3 ms−1 in a single movement and redefining our estimates of work performance by animals. This energy (enough for a 3.5 m vertical leap) is 60 per cent higher than that achieved by galagos, which are renowned for their remarkable leaping performance. The gibbons' unusual morphology facilitates a division of labour among the hind limbs, forelimbs and trunk, resulting in modest power requirements compared with more specialized leapers. PMID:21831879
Channon, Anthony J; Usherwood, James R; Crompton, Robin H; Günther, Michael M; Vereecke, Evie E
The distance that animals leap depends on their take-off angle and velocity. The velocity is generated solely by mechanical work during the push-off phase of standing-start leaps. Gibbons are capable of exceptional leaping performance, crossing gaps in the forest canopy exceeding 10 m, yet possess none of the adaptations possessed by specialist leapers synonymous with maximizing mechanical work. To understand this impressive performance, we recorded leaps of the gibbons exceeding 3.7 m. Gibbons perform more mass-specific work (35.4 J kg(-1)) than reported for any other species to date, accelerating to 8.3 ms(-1) in a single movement and redefining our estimates of work performance by animals. This energy (enough for a 3.5 m vertical leap) is 60 per cent higher than that achieved by galagos, which are renowned for their remarkable leaping performance. The gibbons' unusual morphology facilitates a division of labour among the hind limbs, forelimbs and trunk, resulting in modest power requirements compared with more specialized leapers.
Bromley, Keith M.; Hacia, Joseph G.; Bromage, Timothy G.; Snead, Malcolm L.; Moradian-Oldak, Janet; Paine, Michael L.
Strepsirrhines are members of a primate suborder that has a distinctive set of features associated with the development of the dentition. Amelogenin (AMEL), the better known of the enamel matrix proteins, forms 90% of the secreted organic matrix during amelogenesis. Although AMEL has been sequenced in numerous mammalian lineages, the only reported strepsirrhine AMEL sequences are those of the ring-tailed lemur and galago, which contain a set of additional proline-rich tandem repeats absent in all other primates species analyzed to date, but present in some non-primate mammals. Here, we first determined that these repeats are present in AMEL from three additional lemur species and thus are likely to be widespread throughout this group. To evaluate the functional relevance of these repeats in strepsirrhines, we engineered a mutated murine amelogenin sequence containing a similar proline-rich sequence to that of Lemur catta. In the monomeric form, the MQP insertions had no influence on the secondary structure or refolding properties, whereas in the assembled form, the insertions increased the hydrodynamic radii. We speculate that increased AMEL nanosphere size may influence enamel formation in strepsirrhine primates. PMID:21437261
Bergmanson, J P; Ruben, M; Chu, L W
The comparative corneal epithelial effects of rigid gas permeable and soft contact lenses are reported in the present preliminary study using two bush baby monkeys (Galago senegalensis). Both types of lenses produced early cell death among the surface squamous cells while internally the epithelium and its nerve fibers remained normal. Sporadically small abnormal groups of cells involving two to three of the surface layers were observed in both the hard and soft lens wearing corneas. It was concluded that this represented superficial punctate keratitis (SPK). Small superficial intracellular epithelial cysts with membranous contents were infrequently noted in the gas permeable lens wearing cornea and it is suggested here that they were mild forms or precursors of those seen clinically in human corneas. Since the gas permeable lens met the corneal oxygen requirement it is postulated that the traumatic effect of the rigidity of the lens caused the cystic formation to occur. The relative hypoxia induced by the soft contact lens resulted in a mild superficial epithelial edema.
Fischer, Kathleen E; Austad, Steven N
Nonhuman primate (NHP) aging research has traditionally relied mainly on the rhesus macaque. But the long lifespan, low reproductive rate, and relatively large body size of macaques and related Old World monkeys make them less than ideal models for aging research. Manifold advantages would attend the use of smaller, more rapidly developing, shorter-lived NHP species in aging studies, not the least of which are lower cost and the ability to do shorter research projects. Arbitrarily defining "small" primates as those weighing less than 500 g, we assess small, relatively short-lived species among the prosimians and callitrichids for suitability as models for human aging research. Using the criteria of availability, knowledge about (and ease of) maintenance, the possibility of genetic manipulation (a hallmark of 21st century biology), and similarities to humans in the physiology of age-related changes, we suggest three species--two prosimians (Microcebus murinus and Galago senegalensis) and one New World monkey (Callithrix jacchus)--that deserve scrutiny for development as major NHP models for aging studies. We discuss one other New World monkey group, Cebus spp., that might also be an effective NHP model of aging as these species are longer-lived for their body size than any primate except humans.
Vinicius, Lucio; Mumby, Hannah S
The comparative analysis of animal growth still awaits full integration into life-history studies, partially due to the difficulty of defining a comparable measure of growth rate across species. Using growth data from 50 primate species, we introduce a modified "general growth model" and a dimensionless growth rate coefficient β that controls for size scaling and phylogenetic effects in the distribution of growth rates. Our results contradict the prevailing idea that slow growth characterizes primates as a group: the observed range of β values shows that not all primates grow slowly, with galago species exhibiting growth rates similar or above the mammalian average, while other strepsirrhines and most New World monkeys show limited reduction in growth rates. Low growth rate characterizes apes and some papionines. Phylogenetic regressions reveal associations between β and life-history variables, providing tests for theories of primate growth evolution. We also show that primate slow growth is an exclusively postnatal phenomenon. Our study exemplifies how the dimensionless approach promotes the integration of growth rate data into comparative life-history analysis, and demonstrates its potential applicability to other cases of adaptive diversification of animal growth patterns.
Scheun, Juan; Bennett, Nigel C.; Ganswindt, Andre; Nowack, Julia
Urbanisation has become a severe threat to pristine natural areas, causing habitat loss and affecting indigenous animals. Species occurring within an urban fragmented landscape must cope with changes in vegetation type as well as high degrees of anthropogenic disturbance, both of which are possible key mechanisms contributing to behavioural changes and perceived stressors. We attempted to elucidate the effects of urbanisation on the African lesser bushbaby, Galago moholi, by (1) recording activity budgets and body condition (body mass index, BMI) of individuals of urban and rural populations and (2) further determining adrenocortical activity in both populations as a measure of stress via faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels, following successful validation of an appropriate enzyme immunoassay test system (adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge test). We found that both sexes of the urban population had significantly higher BMIs than their rural counterparts, while urban females had significantly higher fGCM concentrations than rural females. While individuals in the urban population fed mainly on provisioned anthropogenic food sources and spent comparatively more time resting and engaging in aggressive interactions, rural individuals fed almost exclusively on tree exudates and spent more time moving between food sources. Although interactions with humans are likely to be lower in nocturnal than in diurnal species, our findings show that the impact of urbanisation on nocturnal species is still considerable, affecting a range of ecological and physiological aspects.
Kaas, Jon H; Stepniewska, Iwona
Posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is an extensive region of the human brain that develops relatively late and is proportionally large compared with that of monkeys and prosimian primates. Our ongoing comparative studies have led to several conclusions about the evolution of this posterior parietal region. In early placental mammals, PPC likely was a small multisensory region much like PPC of extant rodents and tree shrews. In early primates, PPC likely resembled that of prosimian galagos, in which caudal PPC (PPCc) is visual and rostral PPC (PPCr) has eight or more multisensory domains where electrical stimulation evokes different complex motor behaviors, including reaching, hand-to-mouth, looking, protecting the face or body, and grasping. These evoked behaviors depend on connections with functionally matched domains in premotor cortex (PMC) and motor cortex (M1). Domains in each region compete with each other, and a serial arrangement of domains allows different factors to influence motor outcomes successively. Similar arrangements of domains have been retained in New and Old World monkeys, and humans appear to have at least some of these domains. The great expansion and prolonged development of PPC in humans suggest the addition of functionally distinct territories. We propose that, across primates, PMC and M1 domains are second and third levels in a number of parallel, interacting networks for mediating and selecting one type of action over others.
Nakagama, Hayato; Tanaka, Shigeru
There are regularly arranged blobs that contain neurons labeled by cytochrome oxidase (CO) in the supragranular layer of the primary visual cortex (V1) of monkeys and cats. This theoretical study demonstrates that CO-blob-like patterns can be reproduced based on the thermodynamic model for the activity-dependent self-organization of afferent inputs from two different groups of neurons to the supragranular layer of the visual cortex. Computer simulation based on the model shows that within a particular parameter range each blob is centered in the ocular dominance (OD) band, as observed in macaque monkeys and galagos. Furthermore, by increasing the strength of correlation in activity between inputs from the two eyes, nearby blobs merge across OD borders, as seen in the cat visual cortex. Finally, for monocular deprivation, blobs in the deprived eyes shrink as observed in monkeys and cats. For binocular deprivation, less intensely labeled blobs were reproduced, while the blob density did not change as observed in monkeys.
Lachica, E A; Casagrande, V A
The primate lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is composed of large, medium, and small cells located, respectively, in magnocellular (M), parvocellular (P), and specialized layers (intercalated and S-layers in simians, koniocellular (K) layers in prosimians). Several studies have examined the physiology and connections of M and P LGN cells and have concluded that they provide separate contributions to visual perception via separate pathways. Less is known about the structure and contributions of the small LGN cells. This study examined the distribution and structure of K LGN cell axons in the cortex of the prosimian, Galago crassicaudatus. Wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase, or Phaseonlus vulgaris leucoaglutinin, was injected into the LGN K layers to demonstrate the overall axon projection pattern and the details of individual axons, respectively. Location of axons within striate cortex was specified relative to boundaries determined by Nissl or cytochrome oxidase (CO) stains on the same or adjacent sections. Our results show that K LGN axons end as single complex arbors within one CO blob zone in layer III; they never terminate in interblob zones. These axons also emit a collateral in layer I that arborizes more broadly and spans both CO blob and interblob zones. These data, together with data on K cell physiology and intralaminar cortical connections, suggest that the LGN small cell pathway could modulate the activity of the other two pathways in striate cortex and contribute directly to visual perception.
Zehr, Sarah M; Roach, Richard G; Haring, David; Taylor, Julie; Cameron, Freda H; Yoder, Anne D
Since its establishment in 1966, the Duke Lemur Center (DLC) has accumulated detailed records for nearly 4,200 individuals from over 40 strepsirrhine primate taxa—the lemurs, lorises, and galagos. Here we present verified data for 3,627 individuals of 27 taxa in the form of a life history table containing summarized species values for variables relating to ancestry, reproduction, longevity, and body mass, as well as the two raw data files containing direct and calculated variables from which this summary table is built. Large sample sizes, longitudinal data that in many cases span an animal’s entire life, exact dates of events, and large numbers of individuals from closely related yet biologically diverse primate taxa make these datasets unique. This single source for verified raw data and systematically compiled species values, particularly in combination with the availability of associated biological samples and the current live colony for research, will support future studies from an enormous spectrum of disciplines. PMID:25977776
Simons, E L; Rasmussen, D T
New crania of the Oligocene anthropoidean Aegyptopithecus provide a test of the hypothesized tarsier-anthropoidean clade. Three cranial characters shared by Tarsius and some modern anthropoideans (apical interorbital septum, postorbital septum, "perbullar" carotid pathway) were examined. 1) An apical interorbital septum is absent in Aegyptopithecus. A septum does occur in Galago senegalensis (Lorisidae) and Microcebus murinus (Cheirogaleidae), so the presence of a septum is not strong evidence favoring a tarsiiform-anthropoidean clade. 2) In Aegyptopithecus and other anthropoideans, the postorbital septum is formed mainly by a periorbital flange of the zygomatic that extends medially from the lateral orbital margin onto or near the braincase. The postorbital plate of Tarsius is formed by frontal and alisphenoid flanges that extend laterally from the braincase to the zygomatic's frontal process, which is not broader than the postorbital bars of other prosimians. Periorbital flanges evolved in Tarsius for support or protection of the enormous eyes, as suggested by the occurrence of maxillary and frontal flanges that cup portions of the eye but do not separate it from temporal muscles. 3) The internal carotid artery of Aegyptopithecus enters the bulla posteriorly and crosses the anteroventral part of the promontorium. The tympanic cavity was probably separated from the anteromedial cavity by a septum stretching from the carotid channel to the ventrolateral bullar wall. In Tarsius, the carotid pathway is prepromontorial, and a septum stretches from the carotid channel to the posteromedial bullar wall. Quantitative analyses indicate that anterior carotid position has evolved because of erect head posture. The cranium of Oligocene anthropoideans thus provides no support for the hypothesized tarsier-anthropoidean clade.
Heckman, Kellie L; Rasoazanabary, Emilienne; Machlin, Erica; Godfrey, Laurie R; Yoder, Anne D
Background The past decade has seen a remarkable increase in the number of recognized mouse lemur species (genus Microcebus). As recently as 1994, only two species of mouse lemur were recognized according to the rules of zoological nomenclature. That number has now climbed to as many as fifteen proposed species. Indeed, increases in recognized species diversity have also characterized other nocturnal primates – galagos, sportive lemurs, and tarsiers. Presumably, the movement relates more to a previous lack of information than it does to any recent proclivity for taxonomic splitting. Due to their nocturnal habits, one can hypothesize that mouse lemurs will show only minimal variation in pelage coloration as such variation should be inconsequential for the purposes of mate and/or species recognition. Even so, current species descriptions for nocturnal strepsirrhines place a good deal of emphasis on relatively fine distinctions in pelage coloration. Results Here, we report results from a multi-year study of mouse lemur populations from Beza Mahafaly in southern Madagascar. On the basis of morphological and pelage variation, we initially hypothesized the presence of up to three species of mouse lemurs occurring sympatrically at this locality, one of which appeared to be undescribed. Genetic analysis reveals definitively, however, that all three color morphs belong to a single recognized species, Microcebus griseorufus. Indeed, in some cases, the three color morphs can be characterized by identical mitochondrial haplotypes. Conclusion Given these results, we conclude that investigators should always proceed with caution when using a single data source to identify novel species. A synthetic approach that combines morphological, genetic, geographic, and ecological data is most likely to reveal the true nature of species diversity. PMID:17109740
Balaram, Pooja; Kaas, Jon H
Primary visual cortex (V1) is clearly distinguishable from other cortical areas by its distinctive pattern of neocortical lamination across mammalian species. In some mammals, primates in particular, the layers of V1 are further divided into a number of sublayers based on their anatomical and functional characteristics. While these sublayers are easily recognizable across a range of primates, the exact number of divisions in each layer and their relative position within the depth of V1 has been inconsistently reported, largely due to conflicting schemes of nomenclature for the V1 layers. This conflict centers on the definition of layer 4 in primate V1, and the subdivisions of layer 4 that can be consistently identified across primate species. Brodmann's (1909) laminar scheme for V1 delineates three subdivisions of layer 4 in primates, based on cellular morphology and geniculate inputs in anthropoid monkeys. In contrast, Hässler's (1967) laminar scheme delineates a single layer 4 and multiple subdivisions of layer 3, based on comparisons of V1 lamination across the primate lineage. In order to clarify laminar divisions in primate visual cortex, we performed NeuN and VGLUT2 immunohistochemistry in V1 of chimpanzees, Old World macaque monkeys, New World squirrel, owl, and marmoset monkeys, prosimian galagos and mouse lemurs, and non-primate, but highly visual, tree shrews. By comparing the laminar divisions identified by each method across species, we find that Hässler's (1967) laminar scheme for V1 provides a more consistent representation of neocortical layers across all primates, including humans, and facilitates comparisons of V1 lamination with non-primate species. These findings, along with many others, support the consistent use of Hässler's laminar scheme in V1 research.
Heckman, Kellie L; Rasoazanabary, Emilienne; Machlin, Erica; Godfrey, Laurie R; Yoder, Anne D
The past decade has seen a remarkable increase in the number of recognized mouse lemur species (genus Microcebus). As recently as 1994, only two species of mouse lemur were recognized according to the rules of zoological nomenclature. That number has now climbed to as many as fifteen proposed species. Indeed, increases in recognized species diversity have also characterized other nocturnal primates--galagos, sportive lemurs, and tarsiers. Presumably, the movement relates more to a previous lack of information than it does to any recent proclivity for taxonomic splitting. Due to their nocturnal habits, one can hypothesize that mouse lemurs will show only minimal variation in pelage coloration as such variation should be inconsequential for the purposes of mate and/or species recognition. Even so, current species descriptions for nocturnal strepsirrhines place a good deal of emphasis on relatively fine distinctions in pelage coloration. Here, we report results from a multi-year study of mouse lemur populations from Beza Mahafaly in southern Madagascar. On the basis of morphological and pelage variation, we initially hypothesized the presence of up to three species of mouse lemurs occurring sympatrically at this locality, one of which appeared to be undescribed. Genetic analysis reveals definitively, however, that all three color morphs belong to a single recognized species, Microcebus griseorufus. Indeed, in some cases, the three color morphs can be characterized by identical mitochondrial haplotypes. Given these results, we conclude that investigators should always proceed with caution when using a single data source to identify novel species. A synthetic approach that combines morphological, genetic, geographic, and ecological data is most likely to reveal the true nature of species diversity.
Rosenberger, Alfred L; Smith, Tim D; DeLeon, Valerie B; Burrows, Anne M; Schenck, Robert; Halenar, Lauren B
We introduce a new method to geometrically reconstruct eye volume and placement in small-bodied primates based on the three-dimensional contour of the intraorbital surface. We validate it using seven species of living primates, with dry skulls and wet dissections, and test its application on seven species of Paleogene fossils of interest. The method performs well even when the orbit is damaged and incomplete, lacking the postorbital bar and represented only by the orbital floor. Eye volume is an important quantity for anatomic and metabolic reasons, which due to differences in eye set, or position within (or outside) the bony orbit, can be underestimated in living and fossil forms when calculated from aperture diameter. Our Ectopic Index quantifies how much the globe's volume protrudes anteriorly from the aperture. Lemur, Notharctus and Rooneyia resemble anthropoids, with deeply recessed eyes protruding 11%-13%. Galago and Tarsius are the other extreme, at 47%-56%. We argue that a laterally oriented aperture has little to do with line-of-sight in euprimates, as large ectopic eyes can position the cornea to enable a directly forward viewing axis, and soft tissue positions the eyes facing forward in megachiropteran bats, which have unenclosed, open eye sockets. The size and set of virtual eyes reconstructed from 3D cranial models confirm that eyes were large to hypertrophic in Hemiacodon, Necrolemur, Microchoerus, Pseudoloris and Shoshonius, but eye size in Rooneyia may have been underestimated by measuring the aperture, as in Aotus. Anat Rec, 299:1671-1689, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Alaverdashvili, Mariam; Whishaw, Ian Q
Many animal species use their forelimbs to assist in eating, such as occurs in a reach-to-eat task (skilled reaching) in which a forelimb is extended to grasp food that is placed in the mouth for eating. It is unclear the extent to which the skilled reaching movements of different species share common ancestry and so are homologous or evolved independently and so are analogous (homoplasy). Here hand shaping (the movements of the hand and digits) that occur as the hand is transported to the target, were examined using high-speed (1000 frames/s) video recording and kinematic measurement (Peak Motus) in the rat (Rattus norvegicus) and human (Homo sapiens). Ten movement similarities were identified from the point that the limb initiated transport towards the food item to the point that the food was grasped. The digits were closed and semi-flexed as the hand was lifted (released from a substrate) and supinated. They closed further as the hand was collected for aiming. They then extended as the hand was transported to the target and then opened in conjunction with pronation to orient the hand for grasping (manipulation). Finally the digits were flexed and closed for grasping. These movements occurred at approximately the same point of limb transport in both species even though the rat used a whole paw grasp and the humans used a pincer grasp. Bushbabies (Galago garnettii), titi monkeys (Callicebus brunneus), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus) displayed similar hand shaping in skilled reaching despite species differences in grasping movements. Homologous hand shaping in the rodent clade and the primate clade and within the primate lineage is discussed in relation to its possible derivation from hand shaping movements associated with stepping.
Narat, Victor; Pennec, Flora; Simmen, Bruno; Ngawolo, Jean Christophe Bokika; Krief, Sabrina
Habituation is the term used to describe acceptance by wild animals of a human observer as a neutral element in their environment. Among primates, the process takes from a few days for Galago spp. to several years for African apes. There are also intraspecies differences reflecting differences in habitat, home range, and ape-human relationship history. Here, we present the first study of the process of bonobo habituation in a fragmented habitat, a forest-savanna mosaic in the community-based conservation area led by the Congolese nongovernmental organization Mbou-Mon-Tour, Democratic Republic of the Congo. In this area, local people use the forest almost every day for traditional activities but avoid bonobos because of a traditional taboo. Because very few flight reactions were observed during habituation, we focused on quantitative parameters to assess the development of ape tolerance and of the tracking efficiency of observer teams. During the 18-month study period (May 2012-October 2013), 4043 h (319 days) were spent in the forest and bonobos were observed for a total of 405 h (196 contacts on 134 days). The average contact duration was stable over time (124 min), but the minimal distance during a contact decreased with habituation effort. Moreover, bonobo location and tracking efficiency, daily ratio of contact time to habituation effort, and the number of observations at ground level were positively correlated with habituation effort. Our observations suggest that bonobos become habituated relatively rapidly. These results are discussed in relation to the habitat type, ape species, and the local sociocultural context of villagers. The habituation process involves changes in ape behavior toward observers and also more complex interactions concerning the ecosystem, including the building of an efficient local team. Before starting a habituation process, knowledge of the human sociocultural context is essential to assess the balance between risks and benefits.
Copes, Lynn E; Kimbel, William H
Extremely thick cranial vaults have been noted as a diagnostic characteristic of Homo erectus since the first fossil of the species was identified, but relatively little work has been done on elucidating its etiology or variation across fossils, living humans, or extant non-human primates. Cranial vault thickness (CVT) is not a monolithic trait, and the responsiveness of its layers to environmental stimuli is unknown. We obtained measurements of cranial vault thickness in fossil hominins from the literature and supplemented those data with additional measurements taken on African fossil specimens. Total CVT and the thickness of the cortical and diploë layers individually were compared to measures of CVT in extant species measured from more than 500 CT scans of human and non-human primates. Frontal and parietal CVT in fossil primates was compared to a regression of CVT on cranial capacity calculated for extant species. Even after controlling for cranial capacity, African and Asian H. erectus do not have uniquely high frontal or parietal thickness residuals, either among hominins or extant primates. Extant primates with residual CVT thickness similar to or exceeding H. erectus (depending on the sex and bone analyzed) include Nycticebus coucang, Perodicticus potto, Alouatta caraya, Lophocebus albigena, Galago alleni, Mandrillus sphinx, and Propithecus diadema. However, the especially thick vaults of extant non-human primates that overlap with H. erectus values are composed primarily of cortical bone, while H. erectus and other hominins have diploë-dominated vault bones. Thus, the combination of thick vaults comprised of a thickened diploë layer may be a reliable autapomorphy for members of the genus Homo.
Boyer, Doug M; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Godinot, Marc
Questions surrounding the origin and early evolution of primates continue to be the subject of debate. Though anatomy of the skull and inferred dietary shifts are often the focus, detailed studies of postcrania and inferred locomotor capabilities can also provide crucial data that advance understanding of transitions in early primate evolution. In particular, the hand skeleton includes characteristics thought to reflect foraging, locomotion, and posture. Here we review what is known about the early evolution of primate hands from a comparative perspective that incorporates data from the fossil record. Additionally, we provide new comparative data and documentation of skeletal morphology for Paleogene plesiadapiforms, notharctines, cercamoniines, adapines, and omomyiforms. Finally, we discuss implications of these data for understanding locomotor transitions during the origin and early evolutionary history of primates. Known plesiadapiform species cannot be differentiated from extant primates based on either intrinsic hand proportions or hand-to-body size proportions. Nonetheless, the presence of claws and a different metacarpophalangeal [corrected] joint form in plesiadapiforms indicate different grasping mechanics. Notharctines and cercamoniines have intrinsic hand proportions with extremely elongated proximal phalanges and digit rays relative to metacarpals, resembling tarsiers and galagos. But their hand-to-body size proportions are typical of many extant primates (unlike those of tarsiers, and possibly Teilhardina, which have extremely large hands). Non-adapine adapiforms and omomyids exhibit additional carpal features suggesting more limited dorsiflexion, greater ulnar deviation, and a more habitually divergent pollex than observed plesiadapiforms. Together, features differentiating adapiforms and omomyiforms from plesiadapiforms indicate increased reliance on vertical prehensile-clinging and grasp-leaping, possibly in combination with predatory behaviors in
Lachica, E A; Casagrande, V A
The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of every primate examined contains a set of small relay cells in addition to separate sets of magnocellular and parvocellular relay cells. These small cells receive a direct retinal projection, and an indirect retinal projection via the superior colliculus (SC). Receptive-field analyses of the small LGN cells in the bush baby, a lorisiform primate, indicate that this cell class is composed of subclasses, similar in physiology to cat W cells. In an effort to identify some of these subclasses, we have examined the morphological features of retinal and collicular axonal arbors that end on small W-like cells in the LGN of the bush baby, Galago crassicaudatus. Small cells in this species are found in a prominent pair of koniocellular (K) layers as well as the interlaminar zones (ILZs). Retinal arbors were examined by bulk iontophoretic injection of horseradish peroxidase into the optic tract. Collicular arbors were filled via iontophoretic injection of biocytin into the superficial layers of the SC. Forty-eight axon arbors were completely reconstructed and quantitatively evaluated. Our findings show that retinal and collicular axon terminals differ in morphology on the basis of a number of criteria. Our analyses also suggest that retinal axons may have a stronger influence on K cells and collicular axons have a stronger influence of ILZ cells. The ramifications of these findings are provocative since these small LGN cells are known to project directly to the cytochrome-oxidase (CO) blobs within striate cortex. This relationship suggests that CO blob cells receive complex visual input not only from magnocellular and parvocellular LGN cells, but also from small cell pathways that are differentially influenced by retinal and collicular cells.
Maraia, R; Sakulich, A L; Brinkmann, E; Green, E D
Ro ribonucleoproteins are composed of Y RNAs and the Ro 60 kDa protein. While the Ro 60 kDa protein is implicated in an RNA discard pathway that recognizes 3'-extended 5S rRNAs, the function of Y RNAs remains unknown [O'Brien,C.A. and Wolin,S.L. (1995) Genes Dev. 8,2891-2903]. Y5 RNA occupies a large fraction of Ro 60 kDa protein in human Ro RNPs, contains an atypical 3'-extension not found on other Y RNAs, and constitutes an RNA antigen in certain autoimmune patients [Boulanger et al. (1995) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 99, 29-36]. An overabundance of Y RNA retroposed pseudogenes has previously complicated the isolation of mammalian Y RNA genes. The source gene for Y5 RNA was isolated from human DNA as well as from Galago senegalis DNA. Authenticity of the hY5 RNA gene was demonstrated in vivo and its activity was compared with the hY4 RNA gene that also uses a type 3 promoter for RNA polymerase III. The hY5 RNA gene was subsequently found to reside within a few hundred thousand base pairs of other Y RNA genes and the linear order of the four human Y RNA genes on chromosome 7q36 was determined. Phylogenetic comparative analyses of promoter and RNA structure indicate that the Y5 RNA gene has been subjected to positive selection during primate evolution. Consistent with the proposal of O'Brien and Harley [O'Brian,C.A. and Wolin,S.L. (1992) Gene 116, 285-289], analysis of flanking sequences suggest that the hY5 RNA gene may have originated as a retroposon. PMID:8836182
Gharbawie, Omar A.; Burish, Mark J.; Kaas, Jon H.
Parietal and frontal cortex are central to controlling forelimb movements. We previously showed that movements such as reach, grasp, and defense can be evoked from primary motor (M1), premotor (PMC), and posterior parietal (PPC) cortex when 500-ms trains of electrical pulses are delivered via microelectrodes. Stimulation sites that evoked a specific movement clustered into domains, which shared a topographic pattern in New World monkeys and prosimian galagos. Matched functional domains in parietal and frontal cortex were preferentially interconnected. We reasoned that matched functional domains form parallel networks involved in specific movements. To test the roles of domains in M1, PMC, and PPC, we systematically inactivated with muscimol domains in one region and determined if functional changes occurred in matching domains in other regions. The most common changes were higher current thresholds for stimulation-evoked movements and shorter, not fully developed, trajectories of movements. Inactivations of an M1 functional domain greatly reduced or abolished movements evoked from the matching domains in PMC or PPC, whereas movements evoked from nonmatching domains remained mostly unaffected. In contrast, inactivating PMC or PPC domains did not consistently abolish the ability to evoke movements from matching M1 domains. However, inactivation of PMC domains suppressed or altered the movements evoked from PPC domains. Thus movement sequences evoked from PMC depend on M1 and movement sequences evoked from PPC depend on both M1 and PMC. Overall, the results support the conclusion that PPC, PMC, and M1 are subdivided into functional domains that are hierarchically related within parallel networks. PMID:24353298
Kappeler, P M
In contrast to the majority of primates, many prosimians, some New World monkeys, and the great apes rest in tree holes or self-constructed nests during their inactive periods. The goal of this comparative study was to examine possible functions of this interspecific variation. Information on resting behavior, maternal behavior, and basic life-history traits was gleaned from the literature and mapped onto a phylogenetic tree of primates for various comparative tests. Parsimony-based reconstructions revealed that only the use of nests or tree holes as shelters for young infants can be unequivocally reconstructed for various higher taxa, suggesting that it is functionally different from the use of shelters by adults (who may be accompanied by infants). Further reconstructions revealed that the ancestral primate was most likely nocturnal and solitary and produced a single infant that was initially left in a shelter and later carried orally to a parking place in the vegetation--a combination of traits exhibited by many living galagos. Evolutionary losses of the use of nests were concentrated among diurnal and nonsolitary taxa and weakly associated with evolutionary increases in body size. Thus, protective functions of nests or tree holes used by prosimians are either secondary or there are alternative ways of obtaining protection. Because the evolution of larger litters was significantly associated with the presence of shelters, the presence of relatively altricial young among prosimians best explains the use of nests and tree holes, which are in most but not all cases also used by adults. These shelters therefore play an integral part in the life-history strategies of primitive primates and their ancestors and evolved secondarily among anthropoids for other purposes.
Marivaux, Laurent; Ramdarshan, Anusha; Essid, El Mabrouk; Marzougui, Wissem; Ammar, Hayet Khayati; Lebrun, Renaud; Marandat, Bernard; Merzeraud, Gilles; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Vianey-Liaud, Monique
Background Molecular clock estimates of crown strepsirhine origins generally advocate an ancient antiquity for Malagasy lemuriforms and Afro-Asian lorisiforms, near the onset of the Tertiary but most often extending back to the Late Cretaceous. Despite their inferred early origin, the subsequent evolutionary histories of both groups (except for the Malagasy aye-aye lineage) exhibit a vacuum of lineage diversification during most part of the Eocene, followed by a relative acceleration in diversification from the late Middle Eocene. This early evolutionary stasis was tentatively explained by the possibility of unrecorded lineage extinctions during the early Tertiary. However, this prevailing molecular view regarding the ancient origin and early diversification of crown strepsirhines must be viewed with skepticism due to the new but still scarce paleontological evidence gathered in recent years. Methodological/Principal Findings Here, we describe new fossils attributable to Djebelemur martinezi, a≈50 Ma primate from Tunisia (Djebel Chambi). This taxon was originally interpreted as a cercamoniine adapiform based on limited information from its lower dentition. The new fossils provide anatomical evidence demonstrating that Djebelemur was not an adapiform but clearly a distant relative of lemurs, lorises and galagos. Cranial, dental and postcranial remains indicate that this diminutive primate was likely nocturnal, predatory (primarily insectivorous), and engaged in a form of generalized arboreal quadrupedalism with frequent horizontal leaping. Djebelemur did not have an anterior lower dentition as specialized as that characterizing most crown strepsirhines (i.e., tooth-comb), but it clearly exhibited a transformed antemolar pattern representing an early stage of a crown strepsirhine-like adaptation (“pre-tooth-comb”). Conclusions/Significance These new fossil data suggest that the differentiation of the tooth-comb must postdate the djebelemurid divergence, a view
Clark, Fay E; Melfi, Vicky A
Environmental enrichment (EE) is an integral aspect of modern zoo animal management but, empirical evaluation of it is biased toward species housed in single-species groups. Nocturnal houses, where several nocturnal species are housed together, are particularly overlooked. This study investigated whether three species (nine-banded armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus; Senegal bush babies, Galago senegalensis; two-toed sloths, Choloepus didactylus) in the nocturnal house at Paignton Zoo Environmental Park, UK could be enriched using food-based and sensory EE. Subjects were an adult male and female of each species. EE was deemed effective if it promoted target species-typical behaviors, behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones. Results from generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that food-based EE elicited the most positive behavioral effects across species. One set of food-based EEs (Kong®, termite mound and hanging food) presented together was associated with a significant increase in species-typical behaviors, increased behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones in armadillos and bush babies. Although one type of sensory EE (scented pine cones) increased overall exhibit use in all species, the other (rainforest sounds) was linked to a significant decrease in species-typical behavior in bush babies and sloths. There were no intra or interspecies conflicts over EE, and commensalism occurred between armadillos and bush babies. Our data demonstrate that simple food-based and sensory EE can promote positive behavioral changes in a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit. We suggest that both food and sensory EE presented concurrently will maximize opportunities for naturalistic activity in all species.
Christensen, Henrik; Bertelsen, Mads F; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Bisgaard, Magne
Pasteurella species B has so far only been reported from the oral cavity of dogs, cats and a ferret. In the present study, information from 15 recent isolates from different sources, including African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris), banded mongoose (Mungos mungo), Moholi bushbabies (Galago moholi) and pneumonia of a cat, were compared to five strains investigated previously from bite wounds in humans inflicted by a cat and dog and from gingiva of a cat. rpoB gene sequence comparison showed that 17 isolates, including the reference strain (CCUG 19794(T)), had identical sequences, whereas two were closely related and demonstrated 97.9 and 99.6 % similarity to strain CCUG 19794(T), respectively; the type strain of Pasteurella stomatis was the most closely related strain, with 92.3 % similarity. This is within the mean range (76-100 %) of rpoB gene sequence similarity between species of the same genus within the family Pasteurellaceae. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of four strains selected based on rpoB sequence comparison showed at least 99.7 % similarity between strains of Pasteurella species B, with 96.2 % similarity to the type strain of the closest related species (Pasteurella canis), indicating that Pasteurella species B should have separate species status. Separate species status was also documented when recN sequence comparisons were converted to a genome similarity of 93.7 % within Pasteurella species B and 59.0 % to the type strain of the closest related species (P. canis). Based on analysis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic data, and since most isolates originate from the oral cavities of a diverse group of animals, it is suggested that these bacteria be classified as Pasteurella oralis sp. nov.; the type strain is P683(T) ( = CCUG 19794(T) = CCM 7950(T) = strain 23193(T) = MCCM 00102(T)), obtained from a cat. Previous reports of the type strain have shown ubiquinone-8, demethylmenaquinone-8 and menaquinone-8 as the major quinones. Polyamines in the type
Brauer, K; Werner, L; Winkelmann, E; Lüth, H J
terminal zones, this finding could be a reference for their retinal origin. 6. Laminae 5, 4, 2, and 1 have a remarkable higher content of AChe than the laminae 6 and 3. The low level of ACHE in lamina 3 of the tree shrew's dLGN corresponds to the less activity of ACHE in the laminae 4 and 5 of Galago senegalensis (Fitzpatrick and Diamond, 1979), which like lamina 3 in Tupaia's dLGN project to layer I of the visual cortex (Carey et al., 1979).
DeBruyn, E J; Casagrande, V A; Beck, P D; Bonds, A B
1. This study describes the response properties of V1 cortical cells in a nocturnal primate and examines the receptive field organization of these cells in relationship to anatomically defined layers and cytochrome oxidase (CO) rich blobs and CO poor interblob compartments. Visual resolution and contrast sensitivity are consistent with other physiological and behavioral measures in this species. Comparisons are made with response properties of the same zones in macaque monkey, as well as of area 17 of a distantly related species (cat) that also occupies a nocturnal niche. 2. The responses of single cells to drifting sinusoidal gratings were recorded in V1 (striate cortex) of anesthetized, paralyzed bush babies (Galago crassicaudatus). Cells tended to be grouped with respect to ocular dominance, orientation preference, and direction selectivity. There was a high proportion of monocularly driven cells as in macaque monkey. Only 6% of the cells were nonoriented. These were poorly tuned complex cells and bore no resemblance to nonoriented lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)-like cells reported in layer IV of macaque monkeys. Unidirectional cells were most frequently encountered in cortical layers that receive input from the magnocellular layers of the LGN. 3. Cells were classified as simple (31%) or complex (69%) according to standard criteria. Simple cells were significantly more narrowly tuned than complex cells for both orientation and spatial frequency. Complex cells had significantly higher average optimal spatial frequencies and spatial frequency cutoffs than simple cells. Contrast sensitivity of simple and complex cells averaged 38 and 34, respectively. Spatial resolution and sensitivity of these cells matches behavioral measures in bush baby. The spatial and temporal resolution of bush baby cells are similar to those of cats, which is likely related to the nocturnal niche of both species. 4. Cells in supragranular (I-III) and infragranular (V, VI) layers differed
Hylander, William L; Wall, Christine E; Vinyard, Christopher J; Ross, Callum; Ravosa, Mathew R; Williams, Susan H; Johnson, Kirk R
The major purpose of this study is to analyze anterior and posterior temporalis muscle force recruitment and firing patterns in various anthropoid and strepsirrhine primates. There are two specific goals for this project. First, we test the hypothesis that in addition to transversely directed muscle force, the evolution of symphyseal fusion in primates may also be linked to vertically directed balancing-side muscle force during chewing (Hylander et al.  Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 112:469-492). Second, we test the hypothesis of whether strepsirrhines retain the hypothesized primitive mammalian condition for the firing of the anterior temporalis, whereas anthropoids have the derived condition (Weijs  Biomechanics of Feeding in Vertebrates; Berlin: Springer-Verlag, p. 282-320). Electromyographic (EMG) activities of the left and right anterior and posterior temporalis muscles were recorded and analyzed in baboons, macaques, owl monkeys, thick-tailed galagos, and ring-tailed lemurs. In addition, as we used the working-side superficial masseter as a reference muscle, we also recorded and analyzed EMG activity of the left and right superficial masseter in these primates. The data for the anterior temporalis provided no support for the hypothesis that symphyseal fusion in primates is linked to vertically directed jaw muscle forces during mastication. Thus, symphyseal fusion in primates is most likely mainly linked to the timing and recruitment of transversely directed forces from the balancing-side deep masseter (Hylander et al.  Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 112:469-492). In addition, our data demonstrate that the firing patterns for the working- and balancing-side anterior temporalis muscles are near identical in both strepsirrhines and anthropoids. Their working- and balancing-side anterior temporalis muscles fire asynchronously and reach peak activity during the power stroke. Similarly, their working- and balancing-side posterior temporalis muscles also fire