Science.gov

Sample records for galaxies hosting x-ray-selected

  1. Host Galaxy Properties of the Swift BAT Ultra Hard X-Ray Selected AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Gehrels, Neil; Valencic, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    We have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected (14-195 keV) AGN with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (z<0.05), moderate luminosity AGN from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) sample. The BAT AGN host galaxies have intermediate optical colors (u -- r and g -- r) that are bluer than a comparison sample of inactive galaxies and optically selected AGN from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are chosen to have the same stellar mass. Based on morphological classifications from the RC3 and the Galaxy Zoo, the bluer colors of BAT AGN are mainly due to a higher fraction of mergers and massive spirals than in the comparison samples. BAT AGN in massive galaxies (log Stellar Mass >10.5) have a 5 to 10 times higher rate of spiral morphologies than in SDSS AGN or inactive galaxies. We also see enhanced far-IR emission in BAT AGN suggestive of higher levels of star formation compared to the comparison samples. BAT AGN are preferentially found in the most massive host galaxies with high concentration indexes indicative of large bulge-to-disk ratios and large supermassive black holes. The narrow-line (NL) BAT AGN have similar intrinsic luminosities as the SDSS NL Seyferts based on measurements of [O III] Lambda 5007. There is also a correlation between the stellar mass and X-ray emission. The BAT AGN in mergers have bluer colors and greater ultra hard X-ray emission compared to the BAT sample as whole. In agreement with the Unified Model of AGN, and the relatively unbiased nature of the BAT sources, the host galaxy colors and morphologies are independent of measures of obscuration such as X-ray column density or Seyfert type. The high fraction of massive spiral galaxies and galaxy mergers in BAT AGN suggest that host galaxy morphology is related to the activation and fueling of local AGN.

  2. HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES OF THE SWIFT BAT ULTRA HARD X-RAY SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain

    We have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected (14-195 keV) active galactic nucleus (AGN) with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (z < 0.05), moderate luminosity AGNs from the Swift BAT sample. The BAT AGN host galaxies have intermediate optical colors (u - r and g - r) that are bluer than a comparison sample of inactive galaxies and optically selected AGNs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are chosen to have the same stellar mass. Based on morphological classifications from the RC3 and the Galaxy Zoo, the bluer colors of BATmore » AGNs are mainly due to a higher fraction of mergers and massive spirals than in the comparison samples. BAT AGNs in massive galaxies (log M{sub *} >10.5) have a 5-10 times higher rate of spiral morphologies than in SDSS AGNs or inactive galaxies. We also see enhanced far-infrared emission in BAT AGN suggestive of higher levels of star formation compared to the comparison samples. BAT AGNs are preferentially found in the most massive host galaxies with high concentration indexes indicative of large bulge-to-disk ratios and large supermassive black holes. The narrow-line (NL) BAT AGNs have similar intrinsic luminosities as the SDSS NL Seyferts based on measurements of [O III] {lambda}5007. There is also a correlation between the stellar mass and X-ray emission. The BAT AGNs in mergers have bluer colors and greater ultra hard X-ray emission compared to the BAT sample as a whole. In agreement with the unified model of AGNs, and the relatively unbiased nature of the BAT sources, the host galaxy colors and morphologies are independent of measures of obscuration such as X-ray column density or Seyfert type. The high fraction of massive spiral galaxies and galaxy mergers in BAT AGNs suggest that host galaxy morphology is related to the activation and fueling of local AGN.« less

  3. The environment of x ray selected BL Lacs: Host galaxies and galaxy clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtz, Ron; Stocke, John T.; Ellingson, Erica; Yee, Howard K. C.

    1993-01-01

    Using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we have imaged a complete, flux-limited sample of Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey BL Lacertae objects in order to study the properties of BL Lac host galaxies and to use quantitative methods to determine the richness of their galaxy cluster environments.

  4. The host galaxies of ultra hard X-ray selected AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koss, Michael J.

    One of the great mysteries surrounding active galactic nuclei (AGN) is their triggering mechanism. Since the discovery that almost all massive galaxies host nuclear supermassive black holes, it has become clear that a trigger mechanism is required to 'turn on' and continue to fuel the central black hole. While it is established that accretion processes are responsible for the energy emitted, the source of the accreting material is still controversial. Furthermore, the energy input from phases of black hole growth is thought to be a key regulator in the formation of galaxies and the establishment of various scaling relations. Theorists often invoke galaxy mergers as the violent mechanism to drive gas into the central regions and ignite luminous quasars, but among more common moderate luminosity AGN, there has been great controversy whether secular processes or mergers dominate AGN fueling. A survey in the ultra hard X-ray band (14--195 keV) is an important new way to answer the fundamental question of AGN fueling. This method is independent of selection effects such as dust extinction and obscuration that plague surveys at other wavelengths because of the ability of the primary continuum to easily pass through large columns of obscuring gas and dust (<10 24 cm-2). In this PhD, we have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected AGN with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (z<0.05), moderate luminosity AGN from the Swift BAT sample. We find that these AGN show much higher rates of both mergers and massive spirals suggesting both mergers and accretion of cold gas in late type systems are important in AGN fueling. We also find that the most common AGN survey technique, optical line diagnostics, is heavily biased against finding AGN in mergers or spirals. Finally, in agreement with the merger driven AGN link, we find that dual AGN systems may be more common than current observation suggest since some of them are only detected using high

  5. Host Galaxy Morphologies Of Hard X-ray Selected AGN From The Swift BAT Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, R.; Veilleux, S.

    2009-01-01

    Surveys of AGN taken in the optical, UV, and soft X-rays miss an important population of obscured AGN only visible in the hard X-rays and mid-IR wavelengths. The SWIFT BAT survey in the hard X-ray range (14-195 keV) has provided a uniquely unbiased sample of 258 AGN unaffected by galactic or circumnuclear absorption. Optical imaging of this unbiased sample provides a new opportunity to understand how the environments of the host galaxies are linked to AGN. For these host galaxies, only a fraction, 29%, have high quality optical images, predominately from the SDSS. In addition, about 33% show peculiar morphologies and interaction. In 2008, we observed 110 of these targets at Kitt Peak with the 2.1m in the SDSS bands over 17 nights. Using these observations and SDSS data we review the relationships between color, morphology, merger activity, star formation, and AGN luminosity.

  6. Host Galaxy Properties of SWIFT Hard X-ray Selected AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, R.; Veilleux, S.; Winter, L.

    2010-01-01

    Surveys of AGN taken in the optical, UV, and soft X-rays miss an important population of obscured AGN only visible in the hard X-rays and mid-IR wavelengths. The SWIFT BAT survey in the hard X-ray range (14-195 keV) has provided a uniquely unbiased sample of 258 AGN unaffected by galactic or circumnuclear absorption. Optical imaging of this unbiased sample provides a new opportunity to understand how the environments of the host galaxies are linked to AGN. In 2008, we observed 110 of these targets at Kitt Peak with the 2.1m in the SDSS ugriz bands over 17 nights. Using these observations and SDSS data we review the relationships between color, morphology, merger activity, star formation, and AGN luminosity.

  7. The Host Galaxies of X-Ray Selected Active Galactic Nuclei to z - 2.5: Structure, Star-Formation and Their Relationships from CANDELS and Herschel/Pacs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosario, D.J.; McIntosh, D. H.; van der Wel, A.; Kartaltepe, J.; Lang, P.; Santini, P.; Wuyts, S.; Lutz, D.; Rafelski, M.; Villforth, C.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We study the relationship between the structure and star-formation rate (SFR) of X-ray selected low and moderate luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the two Chandra Deep Fields, using Hubble Space Telescope imaging from the Cosmic Assembly Near Infrared Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and deep far-infrared maps from the PEP+GOODS-Herschel survey. We derive detailed distributions of structural parameters and FIR luminosities from carefully constructed control samples of galaxies, which we then compare to those of the AGNs. At z is approximately 1, AGNs show slightly diskier light profiles than massive inactive (non-AGN) galaxies, as well as modestly higher levels of gross galaxy disturbance (as measured by visual signatures of interactions and clumpy structure). In contrast, at z 2, AGNs show similar levels of galaxy disturbance as inactive galaxies, but display a red central light enhancement, which may arise due to a more pronounced bulge in AGN hosts or due to extinguished nuclear light. We undertake a number of tests of both these alternatives, but our results do not strongly favour one interpretation over the other. The mean SFR and its distribution among AGNs and inactive galaxies are similar at z greater than 1.5. At z less than 1, however, clear and significant enhancements are seen in the SFRs of AGNs with bulge-dominated light profiles. These trends suggest an evolution in the relation between nuclear activity and host properties with redshift towards a minor role for mergers and interactions at z greater than 15

  8. Far-ultraviolet and optical spectrophotometry of X-ray selected Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, J. T.; Bowyer, S.; Grewing, M.

    1986-01-01

    Five X-ray selected Seyfert galaxies were examined via near-simultaneous far-ultraviolet and optical spectrophotometry in an effort to test models for excitation of emission lines by X-ray and ultraviolet continuum photoionization. The observed Ly-alpha/H-beta ratio in the present sample averages 22, with an increase found toward the high-velocity wings of the H lines in the spectrum of at least one of the Seyfert I nuclei. It is suggested that Seyfert galaxies with the most high-velocity gas exhibit the highest Ly-alpha/H-beta ratios at all velocities in the line profiles, and that sometimes this ratio may be highest for the highest velocity material in the broad-line clouds. Since broad-lined objects are least affected by Ly-alpha trapping effects, they have Ly-alpha/H-beta ratios much closer to those predicted by early photoionization calculations.

  9. a Snapshot Survey of X-Ray Selected Central Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edge, Alastair

    1999-07-01

    Central cluster galaxies are the most massive stellar systems known and have been used as standard candles for many decades. Only recently have central cluster galaxies been recognised to exhibit a wide variety of small scale {<100 pc} features that can only be reliably detected with HST resolution. The most intriguing of these are dust lanes which have been detected in many central cluster galaxies. Dust is not expected to survive long in the hostile cluster environment unless shielded by the ISM of a disk galaxy or very dense clouds of cold gas. WFPC2 snapshot images of a representative subset of the central cluster galaxies from an X-ray selected cluster sample would provide important constraints on the formation and evolution of dust in cluster cores that cannot be obtained from ground-based observations. In addition, these images will allow the AGN component, the frequency of multiple nuclei, and the amount of massive-star formation in central cluster galaxies to be ass es sed. The proposed HST observatio ns would also provide high-resolution images of previously unresolved gravitational arcs in the most massive clusters in our sample resulting in constraints on the shape of the gravitational potential of these systems. This project will complement our extensive multi-frequency work on this sample that includes optical spectroscopy and photometry, VLA and X-ray images for the majority of the 210 targets.

  10. Spectral properties of X-ray selected narrow emission line galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Colmenero, E.

    1998-03-01

    This thesis reports a study of the X-ray and optical properties of two samples of X-ray selected Narrow Emission Line Galaxies (NELGs), and their comparison with the properties of broad line Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). One sample (18 NELGs) is drawn from the ROSAT International X-ray Optical Survey (RIXOS), the other (19 NELGs and 33 AGN) from the ROSAT UK Deep Survey. ROSAT multi-channel X-ray spectra have been extracted and fitted with power-law, bremsstrahlung and black body models for the brighter RIXOS sources. In most cases, power-law and bremsstrahlung models provide the best results. The average spectral energy index, alpha, of the RIXOS NELGs is 0.96 +/- 0.07, similar to that of AGN (alpha~1). For the fainter RIXOS NELGs, as well as for all the UK Deep Survey sources, counts in three spectral bands have been extracted and fitted with a power-law model, assuming the Galactic value for N_H. The brighter RIXOS sources demonstrated that the results obtained by these two different extraction and fitting procedures provide consistent results. Two average X-ray spectra, one for the NELGs and another for the AGN, were created from the UK Deep Survey sources. The power-law slope of the average NELG is alpha = 0.45 +/- 0.09, whilst that of the AGN is alpha = 0.96 +/- 0.03. ROSAT X-ray surveys have shown that the fractional surface density of NELGs increases with respect to AGN at faint fluxes (<= 2e-15 ergs cm-2 s-1), thus suggesting that NELGs are important contributors to the residual soft (<2 keV) X-ray background (XRB). Moreover, the spectral slope of this background (alpha~0.4, 1-10 keV) is harder than that of AGN (alpha~1), which are known to contribute most of the XRB at higher flux levels. The work presented in this thesis shows unequivocally for the first time that the integrated spectrum of the faintest NELGs (alpha~0.4) is consistent with that of the soft X-ray background, finally reconciling it with the properties of the sources that are thought to

  11. Spectral properties of x-ray selected narrow emission line galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero Colmenero, Encarnacion

    This thesis reports a study of the X-ray and optical properties of two samples of X-ray selected Narrow Emission Line Galaxies (NELGs), and their comparison with the properties of broad line Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). One sample (18 NELGs) is drawn from the ROSAT International X-ray Optical Survey (RIXOS), the other (19 NELGs and 33 AGN) from the ROSAT UK Deep Survey. ROSAT multi-channel X-ray spectra have been extracted and fitted with power-law, bremsstrahlung and black body models for the brighter RIXOS sources. In most cases, power-law and bremsstrahlung models provide the best results. The average spectral energy index, alpha, of the RIXOS NELGs is 0.96 +/- 0.07, similar to that of AGN (alpha ~ 1). For the fainter RIXOS NELGs, as well as for all the UK Deep Survey sources, counts in three spectral bands have been extracted and fitted with a power-law model, assuming the Galactic value for NH. The brighter RIXOS sources demonstrated that the results obtained by these two different extraction and fitting procedures provide consistent results. Two average X-ray spectra, one for the NELGs and another for the AGN, were created from the UK Deep Survey sources. The power-law spectral slope of the average NELG is S = 0.45 +/- 0.09, whilst that of the AGN is S = 0.96 +/- 0.03. ROSAT X-ray surveys have shown that the fractional surface density of NELGs increases with respect to AGN at faint fluxes (< 2 x 10-15erg cm-2 s -1), thus suggesting that NELGs are important contributors to the residual soft (< 2 keV) X-ray background (XRB). Moreover, the spectral slope of this background (S ~ 0.4, 1-10 keV) is harder than that of AGN (S ~ 1), which are known to contribute most of the XRB at higher flux levels. The work presented in this thesis shows unequivocally for the first time that the integrated spectrum of the faintest NELGs (alpha ~ 0.4) is consistent with that of the soft X-ray background, finally reconciling it with the properties of the sources that are thought to

  12. The active galactic nucleus population in X-ray-selected galaxy groups at 0.5 < Z < 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Semyeong; Woo, Jong-Hak; Matsuoka, Kenta

    2014-07-20

    We use Chandra data to study the incidence and properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in 16 intermediate redshift (0.5 < z < 1.1) X-ray-selected galaxy groups in the Chandra Deep Field-South. We measure an AGN fraction of f(L{sub X,H}>10{sup 42};M{sub R}<−20)=8.0{sub −2.3}{sup +3.0}% at z-bar ∼0.74, approximately a factor of two higher than the AGN fraction found for rich clusters at comparable redshift. This extends the trend found at low redshift for groups to have higher AGN fractions than clusters. Our estimate of the AGN fraction is also more than a factor of three higher than that of lowmore » redshift X-ray-selected groups. Using optical spectra from various surveys, we also constrain the properties of emission-line selected AGNs in these groups. In contrast to the large population of X-ray AGNs (N(L{sub X,{sub H}} > 10{sup 41} erg s{sup –1}) = 25), we find only four emission-line AGNs, three of which are also X-ray bright. Furthermore, most of the X-ray AGNs in our groups are optically dull (i.e., lack strong emission-lines), similar to those found in low redshift X-ray groups and clusters of galaxies. This contrasts with the AGN population found in low redshift optically selected groups which are dominated by emission-line AGNs. The differences between the optically and X-ray-selected AGNs populations in groups are consistent with a scenario where most AGNs in the densest environments are currently in a low accretion state.« less

  13. A cooling flow in a high-redshift, X-ray-selected cluster of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesci, Roberto; Gioia, Isabella M.; Maccacaro, Tommaso; Morris, Simon L.; Perola, Giuseppe C.; Schild, Rudolph E.; Wolter, Anna

    1989-09-01

    The X-ray cluster of galaxies IE 0839.9 + 2938 was serendipitously discovered with the Einstein Observatory. CCD imaging at R and V wavelengths show that the color of the dominant elliptical galaxy of this cluster is significantly bluer than the colors of the next brightest cluster galaxies. Strong emission lines, typical of cD galaxies with cooling flows, are present in the spectrum of the dominant galaxy, from which a redshift of 0.193 is derived. The emitting line region is spatially resolved with an extension of about 13 kpc. All the collected data suggest that this cluster is one of the most distant cooling flow clusters known to date.

  14. A cooling flow in a high-redshift, X-ray-selected cluster of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesci, Roberto; Perola, Giuseppe C.; Gioia, Isabella M.; Maccacaro, Tommaso; Morris, Simon L.

    1989-01-01

    The X-ray cluster of galaxies IE 0839.9 + 2938 was serendipitously discovered with the Einstein Observatory. CCD imaging at R and V wavelengths show that the color of the dominant elliptical galaxy of this cluster is significantly bluer than the colors of the next brightest cluster galaxies. Strong emission lines, typical of cD galaxies with cooling flows, are present in the spectrum of the dominant galaxy, from which a redshift of 0.193 is derived. The emitting line region is spatially resolved with an extension of about 13 kpc. All the collected data suggest that this cluster is one of the most distant cooling flow clusters known to date.

  15. A cooling flow in a high-redshift, X-ray-selected cluster of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Nesci, R.; Perola, G.C.; Gioia, I.M.

    The X-ray cluster of galaxies IE 0839.9 + 2938 was serendipitously discovered with the Einstein Observatory. CCD imaging at R and V wavelengths show that the color of the dominant elliptical galaxy of this cluster is significantly bluer than the colors of the next brightest cluster galaxies. Strong emission lines, typical of cD galaxies with cooling flows, are present in the spectrum of the dominant galaxy, from which a redshift of 0.193 is derived. The emitting line region is spatially resolved with an extension of about 13 kpc. All the collected data suggest that this cluster is one of themore » most distant cooling flow clusters known to date. 28 refs.« less

  16. X-ray-selected galaxy groups in Boötes

    SciTech Connect

    Vajgel, Bruna; Lopes, Paulo A. A.; Jones, Christine

    2014-10-10

    We present the X-ray and optical properties of the galaxy groups selected in the Chandra X-Boötes survey. We used follow-up Chandra observations to better define the group sample and their X-ray properties. Group redshifts were measured from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey spectroscopic data. We used photometric data from the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey to estimate the group richness (N {sub gals}) and the optical luminosity (L {sub opt}). Our final sample comprises 32 systems at z < 1.75 with 14 below z = 0.35. For these 14 systems, we estimate velocity dispersions (σ {sub gr}) and performmore » a virial analysis to obtain the radii (R {sub 200} and R {sub 500}) and total masses (M {sub 200} and M {sub 500}) for groups with at least 5 galaxy members. We use the Chandra X-ray observations to derive the X-ray luminosity (L{sub X} ). We examine the performance of the group properties σ{sub gr}, L {sub opt}, and L{sub X} , as proxies for the group mass. Understanding how well these observables measure the total mass is important to estimate how precisely the cluster/group mass function is determined. Exploring the scaling relations built with the X-Boötes sample and comparing these with samples from the literature, we find a break in the L{sub X} -M {sub 500} relation at approximately M {sub 500} = 5 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉} (for M {sub 500} > 5 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉}, M{sub 500}∝L{sub X}{sup 0.61±0.02}, while for M {sub 500} ≤ 5 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉}, M{sub 500}∝L{sub X}{sup 0.44±0.05}). Thus, the mass-luminosity relation for galaxy groups cannot be described by the same power law as galaxy clusters. A possible explanation for this break is the dynamical friction, tidal interactions, and projection effects that reduce the velocity dispersion values of the galaxy groups. By extending the cluster luminosity function to the group regime, we predict the number of groups that new X-ray surveys, particularly eROSITA, will detect. Based on our

  17. Search For Gamma-Ray Emission From X-Ray-Selected Seyfert Galaxies With Fermi -LAT

    DOE PAGES

    Ackermann, M.

    2012-02-23

    We report on a systematic investigation of the γ-ray properties of 120 hard Xray– selected Seyfert galaxies classified as ‘radio-quiet’ objects, utilizing the threeyear accumulation of Fermi–LAT data. Our sample of Seyfert galaxies is selected using the Swift–BAT 58-month catalog, restricting the analysis to the bright sources with average hard X-ray fluxes F14-195 keV ≥ 2.5 × 10 -11 erg cm -2 s -1 at high Galactic latitudes (|b| > 10°). In order to remove ‘radio-loud’ objects from the sample, we use the ‘hard X-ray radio loudness parameter’, RrX , defined as the ratio of the total 1.4 GHz radiomore » to 14 - 195 keV hard X-ray energy fluxes. Among 120 X-ray bright Seyfert galaxies with RrX < 10-4, we did not find a statistically significant γ-ray excess (TS > 25) positionally coincident with any target Seyferts, with possible exceptions of ESO 323–G077 and NGC 6814. The mean value of the 95% confidence level γ-ray upper limit for the integrated photon flux above 100 MeV from the analyzed Seyferts is ≃ 4×10 -9 ph cm -2 s -1 , and the upper limits derived for several objects reach ≃ 1 × 10 -9 ph cm -2 s -1 . Our results indicate that no prominent γ-ray emission component related to active galactic nucleus activity is present in the spectra of Seyferts around GeV energies. The Fermi–LAT upper limits derived for our sample probe the ratio of γ-ray to X-ray luminosities L /LX < 0.1, and even < 0.01 in some cases. The obtained results impose novel constraints on the models for high energy radiation of ‘radio-quiet’ Seyfert galaxies.« less

  18. Optical Substructure and BCG Offsets of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich and X-ray Selected Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Paulo AA; Trevisan, M.; Laganá, T. F.; Durret, F.; Ribeiro, A. LB; Rembold, S. B.

    2018-05-01

    We used optical imaging and spectroscopic data to derive substructure estimates for local Universe (z < 0.11) galaxy clusters from two different samples. The first was selected through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect by the Planck satellite and the second is an X-ray selected sample. In agreement to X-ray substructure estimates we found that the SZ systems have a larger fraction of substructure than the X-ray clusters. We have also found evidence that the higher mass regime of the SZ clusters, compared to the X-ray sample, explains the larger fraction of disturbed objects in the Planck data. Although we detect a redshift evolution in the substructure fraction, it is not sufficient to explain the different results between the higher-z SZ sample and the X-ray one. We have also verified a good agreement (˜60%) between the optical and X-ray substructure estimates. However, the best level of agreement is given by the substructure classification given by measures based on the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), either the BCG-X-ray centroid offset, or the magnitude gap between the first and second BCGs. We advocate the use of those two parameters as the most reliable and cheap way to assess cluster dynamical state. We recommend an offset cut of ˜0.01 ×R500 to separate relaxed and disturbed clusters. Regarding the magnitude gap the separation can be done at Δm12 = 1.0. The central galaxy paradigm (CGP) may not be valid for ˜20% of relaxed massive clusters. This fraction increases to ˜60% for disturbed systems.

  19. SPIDERS: the spectroscopic follow-up of X-ray-selected clusters of galaxies in SDSS-IV

    DOE PAGES

    Clerc, N.; Merloni, A.; Zhang, Y. -Y.; ...

    2016-09-05

    SPIDERS (The SPectroscopic IDentification of ERosita Sources) is a programme dedicated to the homogeneous and complete spectroscopic follow-up of X-ray active galactic nuclei and galaxy clusters over a large area (~7500 deg 2) of the extragalactic sky. SPIDERS is part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-IV project, together with the Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and the Time-Domain Spectroscopic Survey. This study describes the largest project within SPIDERS before the launch of eROSITA: an optical spectroscopic survey of X-ray-selected, massive (~10 14–10 15 M⊙) galaxy clusters discovered in ROSAT and XMM–Newton imaging. The immediate aim is to determine precisemore » (Δz ~ 0.001) redshifts for 4000–5000 of these systems out to z ~ 0.6. The scientific goal of the program is precision cosmology, using clusters as probes of large-scale structure in the expanding Universe. We present the cluster samples, target selection algorithms and observation strategies. We demonstrate the efficiency of selecting targets using a combination of SDSS imaging data, a robust red-sequence finder and a dedicated prioritization scheme. We describe a set of algorithms and work-flow developed to collate spectra and assign cluster membership, and to deliver catalogues of spectroscopically confirmed clusters. We discuss the relevance of line-of-sight velocity dispersion estimators for the richer systems. We illustrate our techniques by constructing a catalogue of 230 spectroscopically validated clusters (0.031 < z < 0.658), found in pilot observations. Finally, we discuss two potential science applications of the SPIDERS sample: the study of the X-ray luminosity-velocity dispersion (LX–σ) relation and the building of stacked phase-space diagrams.« less

  20. SPIDERS: the spectroscopic follow-up of X-ray selected clusters of galaxies in SDSS-IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerc, N.; Merloni, A.; Zhang, Y.-Y.; Finoguenov, A.; Dwelly, T.; Nandra, K.; Collins, C.; Dawson, K.; Kneib, J.-P.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E.; Sadibekova, T.; Brownstein, J.; Lin, Y.-T.; Ridl, J.; Salvato, M.; Schwope, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Seo, H.-J.; Tinker, J.

    2016-12-01

    SPIDERS (The SPectroscopic IDentification of eROSITA Sources) is a programme dedicated to the homogeneous and complete spectroscopic follow-up of X-ray active galactic nuclei and galaxy clusters over a large area (˜7500 deg2) of the extragalactic sky. SPIDERS is part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-IV project, together with the Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and the Time-Domain Spectroscopic Survey. This paper describes the largest project within SPIDERS before the launch of eROSITA: an optical spectroscopic survey of X-ray-selected, massive (˜1014-1015 M⊙) galaxy clusters discovered in ROSAT and XMM-Newton imaging. The immediate aim is to determine precise (Δz ˜ 0.001) redshifts for 4000-5000 of these systems out to z ˜ 0.6. The scientific goal of the program is precision cosmology, using clusters as probes of large-scale structure in the expanding Universe. We present the cluster samples, target selection algorithms and observation strategies. We demonstrate the efficiency of selecting targets using a combination of SDSS imaging data, a robust red-sequence finder and a dedicated prioritization scheme. We describe a set of algorithms and work-flow developed to collate spectra and assign cluster membership, and to deliver catalogues of spectroscopically confirmed clusters. We discuss the relevance of line-of-sight velocity dispersion estimators for the richer systems. We illustrate our techniques by constructing a catalogue of 230 spectroscopically validated clusters (0.031 < z < 0.658), found in pilot observations. We discuss two potential science applications of the SPIDERS sample: the study of the X-ray luminosity-velocity dispersion (LX-σ) relation and the building of stacked phase-space diagrams.

  1. Galaxies in X-ray Selected Clusters and Groups in Dark Energy Survey Data: Stellar Mass Growth of Bright Central Galaxies Since z~1.2

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Y.; Miller, C.; McKay, T.; ...

    2016-01-10

    Using the science verification data of the Dark Energy Survey for a new sample of 106 X-ray selected clusters and groups, we study the stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies (BCGs) since redshift z ~ 1.2. Compared with the expectation in a semi-analytical model applied to the Millennium Simulation, the observed BCGs become under-massive/under-luminous with decreasing redshift. We incorporate the uncertainties associated with cluster mass, redshift, and BCG stellar mass measurements into analysis of a redshift-dependent BCG-cluster mass relation.

  2. SEARCH FOR GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM X-RAY-SELECTED SEYFERT GALAXIES WITH FERMI-LAT

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.

    We report on a systematic investigation of the {gamma}-ray properties of 120 hard X-ray-selected Seyfert galaxies classified as 'radio-quiet' objects, utilizing the three-year accumulation of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. Our sample of Seyfert galaxies is selected using the Swift Burst Alert Telescope 58 month catalog, restricting the analysis to the bright sources with average hard X-ray fluxes F{sub 14-195keV} {>=} 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at high Galactic latitudes (|b| > 10 Degree-Sign ). In order to remove 'radio-loud' objects from the sample, we use the 'hard X-ray radio loudness parameter', R{sub rX}, definedmore » as the ratio of the total 1.4 GHz radio to 14-195 keV hard X-ray energy fluxes. Among 120 X-ray bright Seyfert galaxies with R{sub rX} <10{sup -4}, we did not find a statistically significant {gamma}-ray excess (TS > 25) positionally coincident with any target Seyferts, with possible exceptions of ESO 323-G077 and NGC 6814. The mean value of the 95% confidence level {gamma}-ray upper limit for the integrated photon flux above 100 MeV from the analyzed Seyferts is {approx_equal} 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} , and the upper limits derived for several objects reach {approx_equal} 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} . Our results indicate that no prominent {gamma}-ray emission component related to active galactic nucleus activity is present in the spectra of Seyferts around GeV energies. The Fermi-LAT upper limits derived for our sample probe the ratio of {gamma}-ray to X-ray luminosities L{sub {gamma}}/L{sub X} < 0.1, and even <0.01 in some cases. The obtained results impose novel constraints on the models for high-energy radiation of 'radio-quiet' Seyfert galaxies.« less

  3. NARROW-LINE X-RAY-SELECTED GALAXIES IN THE CHANDRA -COSMOS FIELD. I. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPIC CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Pons, E.; Watson, M. G.; Elvis, M.

    2016-04-20

    The COSMOS survey is a large and deep survey with multiwavelength observations of sources from X-rays to the UV, allowing an extensive study of their properties. The central 0.9 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field have been observed by Chandra with a sensitivity up to 1.9 × 10{sup −16} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} in the full (0.5–10 keV) band. Photometric and spectroscopic identification of the Chandra -COSMOS (C-COSMOS) sources is available from several catalogs and campaigns. Despite the fact that the C-COSMOS galaxies have a reliable spectroscopic redshift in addition to a spectroscopic classification, the emission-line properties of thismore » sample have not yet been measured. We present here the creation of an emission-line catalog of 453 narrow-line sources from the C-COSMOS spectroscopic sample. We have performed spectral fitting for the more common lines in galaxies ([O ii] λ 3727, [Ne iii] λ 3869, H β , [O iii] λλ 4959, 5007, H α , and [N ii] λλ 6548, 6584). These data provide an optical classification for 151 (i.e., 33%) of the C-COSMOS narrow-line galaxies based on emission-line diagnostic diagrams.« less

  4. Galaxies in x-ray selected clusters and groups in Dark Energy Survey Data I: Stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies since Z similar to 1.2

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Miller, C.; McKay, T.

    2016-01-10

    Using the science verification data of the Dark Energy Survey for a new sample of 106 X-ray selected clusters and groups, we study the stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies (BCGs) since redshift z similar to 1.2. Compared with the expectation in a semi-analytical model applied to the Millennium Simulation, the observed BCGs become under-massive/under-luminous with decreasing redshift. We incorporate the uncertainties associated with cluster mass, redshift, and BCG stellar mass measurements into an analysis of a redshift-dependent BCG-cluster mass relation, m(*) proportional to (M-200/1.5 x 10(14)M(circle dot))(0.24 +/- 0.08)(1+z)(-0.19 +/- 0.34), and compare the observed relation to themore » model prediction. We estimate the average growth rate since z = 1.0 for BCGs hosted by clusters of M-200,M-z = 10(13.8)M(circle dot); at z = 1.0: m(*, BCG) appears to have grown by 0.13 +/- 0.11 dex, in tension at the similar to 2.5 sigma significance level with the 0.40 dex growth rate expected from the semi-analytic model. We show that the build-up of extended intracluster light after z = 1.0 may alleviate this tension in BCG growth rates.« less

  5. Analysis of Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect mass–observable relations using South Pole Telescope observations of an X-ray selected sample of low-mass galaxy clusters and groups

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.; Mohr, J.; Saro, A.

    2015-02-26

    We use microwave observations from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) to examine the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signatures of a sample of 46 X-ray selected groups and clusters drawn from similar to 6 deg(2) of the XMM-Newton Blanco Cosmology Survey. These systems extend to redshift z = 1.02 and probe the SZE signal to the lowest X-ray luminosities (>= 10(42) erg s(-1)) yet; these sample characteristics make this analysis complementary to previous studies. We develop an analysis tool, using X-ray luminosity as a mass proxy, to extract selection-bias-corrected constraints on the SZE significance and Y-500 mass relations. The former is inmore » good agreement with an extrapolation of the relation obtained from high-mass clusters. However, the latter, at low masses, while in good agreement with the extrapolation from the high-mass SPT clusters, is in tension at 2.8 sigma with the Planck constraints, indicating the low-mass systems exhibit lower SZE signatures in the SPT data. We also present an analysis of potential sources of contamination. For the radio galaxy point source population, we find 18 of our systems have 843 MHz Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey sources within 2 arcmin of the X-ray centre, and three of these are also detected at significance >4 by SPT. Of these three, two are associated with the group brightest cluster galaxies, and the third is likely an unassociated quasar candidate. We examine the impact of these point sources on our SZE scaling relation analyses and find no evidence of biases. We also examine the impact of dusty galaxies using constraints from the 220 GHz data. The stacked sample provides 2.8 sigma significant evidence of dusty galaxy flux, which would correspond to an average underestimate of the SPT Y-500 signal that is (17 +/- 9) per cent in this sample of low-mass systems. Finally, we explore the impact of future data from SPTpol and XMM-XXL, showing that it will lead to a factor of 4 to 5 tighter constraints on these SZE

  6. Analysis of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect mass-observable relations using South Pole Telescope observations of an X-ray selected sample of low-mass galaxy clusters and groups

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.; Mohr, J.; Saro, A.

    2015-02-25

    We use microwave observations from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) to examine the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signatures of a sample of 46 X-ray selected groups and clusters drawn from ~6 deg 2 of the XMM–Newton Blanco Cosmology Survey. These systems extend to redshift z = 1.02 and probe the SZE signal to the lowest X-ray luminosities (≥10 42 erg s -1) yet; these sample characteristics make this analysis complementary to previous studies. We develop an analysis tool, using X-ray luminosity as a mass proxy, to extract selection-bias-corrected constraints on the SZE significance and Y_500 mass relations. The former is in good agreement with anmore » extrapolation of the relation obtained from high-mass clusters. However, the latter, at low masses, while in good agreement with the extrapolation from the high-mass SPT clusters, is in tension at 2.8σ with the Planck constraints, indicating the low-mass systems exhibit lower SZE signatures in the SPT data. We also present an analysis of potential sources of contamination. For the radio galaxy point source population, we find 18 of our systems have 843 MHz Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey sources within 2 arcmin of the X-ray centre, and three of these are also detected at significance >4 by SPT. Of these three, two are associated with the group brightest cluster galaxies, and the third is likely an unassociated quasar candidate. We examine the impact of these point sources on our SZE scaling relation analyses and find no evidence of biases. We also examine the impact of dusty galaxies using constraints from the 220 GHz data. The stacked sample provides 2.8σ significant evidence of dusty galaxy flux, which would correspond to an average underestimate of the SPT Y_500 signal that is (17 ± 9)per cent in this sample of low-mass systems. Finally, we explore the impact of future data from SPTpol and XMM-XXL, showing that it will lead to a factor of 4 to 5 tighter constraints on these SZE mass

  7. Discovery of the X-ray selected galaxy cluster XMMU J0338.8+0021 at z = 1.49. Indications of a young system with a brightest galaxy in formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastasi, A.; Fassbender, R.; Böhringer, H.; Šuhada, R.; Rosati, P.; Pierini, D.; Verdugo, M.; Santos, J. S.; Schwope, A. D.; de Hoon, A.; Kohnert, J.; Lamer, G.; Mühlegger, M.; Quintana, H.

    2011-08-01

    We report the discovery of a galaxy cluster at z = 1.490 originally selected as an extended X-ray source in the XMM-Newton Distant Cluster Project. Further observations carried out with the VLT-FORS2 spectrograph allowed the spectroscopic confirmation of seven secure cluster members, providing a median system redshift of z = 1.490 ± 0.009. The color-magnitude diagram of XMMU J0338.8+0021 reveals the presence of a well-populated red sequence with z - H ≈ 3, albeit with an apparent significant scatter in color. Since we do not detect indications of any strong star formation activity in these objects, the color spread could represent the different stellar ages of the member galaxies. In addition, we found the brightest cluster galaxy in a very active dynamical state, with an interacting, merging companion located at a physical projected distance of d ≈ 20 kpc. From the X-ray luminosity, we estimate a cluster mass of M200 ~ 1.2 × 1014 M⊙. The data appear to be consistent with a scenario in which XMMU J0338.8+0021 is a young system, possibly caught in a moment of active ongoing mass assembly. Based on observations under programme ID 084.A-0844 collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, and observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).Tables 1, 2 and Figs. 3-6 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. The role of host galaxy for the environmental dependence of active nuclei in local galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Richard I.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Erwin, P.; Burtscher, L.; Contursi, A.; Genzel, R.; Janssen, A.; Koss, M.; Lin, M.-Y.; Lutz, D.; Maciejewski, W.; Müller-Sánchez, F.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Ricci, C.; Riffel, R.; Riffel, R. A.; Rosario, D.; Schartmann, M.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Shimizu, T.; Sternberg, A.; Sturm, E.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Tacconi, L.; Veilleux, S.

    2017-04-01

    We discuss the environment of local hard X-ray selected active galaxies, with reference to two independent group catalogues. We find that the fraction of these AGN in S0 host galaxies decreases strongly as a function of galaxy group size (halo mass) - which contrasts with the increasing fraction of galaxies of S0 type in denser environments. However, there is no evidence for an environmental dependence of AGN in spiral galaxies. Because most AGN are found in spiral galaxies, this dilutes the signature of environmental dependence for the population as a whole. We argue that the differing results for AGN in disc-dominated and bulge-dominated galaxies are related to the source of the gas fuelling the AGN, and so may also impact the luminosity function, duty cycle and obscuration. We find that there is a significant difference in the luminosity function for AGN in spiral and S0 galaxies, and tentative evidence for some difference in the fraction of obscured AGN.

  9. The nature of X-ray selected star candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Paronyan, G. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Gigoyan, K. S.; Gyulzadyan, M. V.; Kostandyan, G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The joint HRC/BHRC catalogue of optical identifications of ROSAT BSC and FSC X-ray sources is based on merging the Hamburg-ROSAT Catalogue (HRC) and Byurakan-Hamburg-ROSAT Catalogue (BHRC). Both have been made by optical identifications of X-ray sources based on low-dispersion spectra of the Hamburg QuasarSurvey (HQS) using the ROSAT Catalogues. HRC/BHRC contains a sample of 8132 (5341+2791) optically identified X-ray sources with count rate (CR) of photons ≥ 0.04 ct/s in the area of the low-dispersion Hamburg Quasar Survey (HQS), |b| ≥ 20° and δ ≥ 0°. Based on low-dispersion spectral classification, there are 4253 AGN, 492 galaxies, 1800 stars and 1587 unknown objects in the sample. 1800 star candidates include 1429 objects listed in SDSS DR12 photometric catalogue and 433 given in SDSS spectroscopic catalogue. Using these spectra, we have carried out classification of these star candidates to reveal new interesting objects, as well as to define the true content of our sample. 34 cataclysmic variables (including 7 new ones), 19 white dwarfs, 19 late-type stars (K-M and C types), 16 early type stars (O-B), 40 hot coronal stars (A-F types), 2 composite spectrum objects, and 17 bright stars have been revealed, as well as 286 objects which turned out to be extragalactic ones; 75 emission-line galaxies (HII/SB and AGN, including QSOs, Seyferts, and LINERs) and 211 absorption line galaxies were revealed (wrong classifications in HRC/BHRC due to their faint images and low-quality spectra). We have retrieved multiwavelength data from recent catalogues and carried out statistical investigations of the multiwavelength properties for the whole sample of stars. All stars have been found in GSC 2.3.2, as well as most of them are in GALEX, USNO-B1.0, 2MASS and WISE catalogues. Relations between the radiation fluxes in different bands from X-ray to radio for different types of sources are studied and analysis of their characteristics is made. X-ray selected stars are an

  10. Active Galactic Nucleus Host Galaxy Morphologies in COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabor, J. M.; Impey, C. D.; Jahnke, K.; Simmons, B. D.; Trump, J. R.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Brusa, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Schinnerer, E.; Smolčić, V.; Salvato, M.; Rhodes, J. D.; Mobasher, B.; Capak, P.; Massey, R.; Leauthaud, A.; Scoville, N.

    2009-01-01

    We use Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys images and a photometric catalog of the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field to analyze morphologies of the host galaxies of ~400 active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates at redshifts 0.3 < z < 1.0. We compare the AGN hosts with a sample of nonactive galaxies drawn from the COSMOS field to match the magnitude and redshift distribution of the AGN hosts. We perform two-dimensional surface brightness modeling with GALFIT to yield host galaxy and nuclear point source magnitudes. X-ray-selected AGN host galaxy morphologies span a substantial range that peaks between those of early-type, bulge-dominated and late-type, disk-dominated systems. We also measure the asymmetry and concentration of the host galaxies. Unaccounted for, the nuclear point source can significantly bias results of these measured structural parameters, so we subtract the best-fit point source component to obtain images of the underlying host galaxies. Our concentration measurements reinforce the findings of our two-dimensional morphology fits, placing X-ray AGN hosts between early- and late-type inactive galaxies. AGN host asymmetry distributions are consistent with those of control galaxies. Combined with a lack of excess companion galaxies around AGN, the asymmetry distributions indicate that strong interactions are no more prevalent among AGN than normal galaxies. In light of recent work, these results suggest that the host galaxies of AGN at these X-ray luminosities may be in a transition from disk-dominated to bulge-dominated, but that this transition is not typically triggered by major mergers. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA Inc, under NASA contract NAS 5-26555; also based on data collected at: the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; the XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with

  11. The star-forming properties of an ultra-hard x-ray selected sample of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Thomas Taro

    This thesis provides a comprehensive examination of star formation in the host galaxies of active galactic nuclei or AGN. AGN are bright, central regions of galaxies that are powered through accretion onto a supermassive black hole (SMBH). Through accretion and the loss of gravitational potential energy, AGN emit powerful radiation over all wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. This radiation can influence the AGN's host galaxy through what is known as AGN ``feedback'' and is thought to suppress star formation as well as stop accretion onto the SMBH leading to a co-evolution between the SMBH and its host galaxy. Theoretical models have long invoked AGN feedback to be able reproduce the galaxy population we see today but observations have been unclear as to whether AGN actually have an effect on star formation. To address this question, we selected a large sample of local ( z < 0.05) AGN based on their detection at ultra-hard X-ray energies (14-195 keV) with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). Ultra-hard X-ray selection frees our sample from selection effects and biases due to obscuration and host galaxy contamination that can hinder other AGN samples. With these 313 BAT AGN we conducted a far-infrared survey using the HerschelSpace Observatory. We use the far-infrared imaging to probe the cold dust that traces recent star formation in the galaxy and construct spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from 12-500 \\micron. We decompose the SEDs to remove the AGN contribution and measure infrared luminosity which provides us with robust estimates of the star formation rate (SFR). Through a comparison with a stellar-mass matched non-AGN sample, we find that AGN host galaxies have larger dust masses, dust temperatures, and SFRs, confirming the results of previous studies that showed the optical colors of the BAT AGN are bluer than non-AGN. We find that the AGN luminosity as probed by the 14-195 keV luminosity is not related to the SFR of the host galaxy suggesting

  12. AGN host galaxy mass function in COSMOS. Is AGN feedback responsible for the mass-quenching of galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiorno, A.; Schulze, A.; Merloni, A.; Zamorani, G.; Ilbert, O.; La Franca, F.; Peng, Y.; Piconcelli, E.; Mainieri, V.; Silverman, J. D.; Brusa, M.; Fiore, F.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the role of supermassive black holes in the global context of galaxy evolution by measuring the host galaxy stellar mass function (HGMF) and the specific accretion rate, that is, λSAR, the distribution function (SARDF), up to z ~ 2.5 with ~1000 X-ray selected AGN from XMM-COSMOS. Using a maximum likelihood approach, we jointly fit the stellar mass function and specific accretion rate distribution function, with the X-ray luminosity function as an additional constraint. Our best-fit model characterizes the SARDF as a double power-law with mass-dependent but redshift-independent break, whose low λSAR slope flattens with increasing redshift while the normalization increases. This implies that for a given stellar mass, higher λSAR objects have a peak in their space density at earlier epoch than the lower λSAR objects, following and mimicking the well-known AGN cosmic downsizing as observed in the AGN luminosity function. The mass function of active galaxies is described by a Schechter function with an almost constant M∗⋆ and a low-mass slope α that flattens with redshift. Compared to the stellar mass function, we find that the HGMF has a similar shape and that up to log (M⋆/M⊙) ~ 11.5, the ratio of AGN host galaxies to star-forming galaxies is basically constant (~10%). Finally, the comparison of the AGN HGMF for different luminosity and specific accretion rate subclasses with a previously published phenomenological model prediction for the "transient" population, which are galaxies in the process of being mass-quenched, reveals that low-luminosity AGN do not appear to be able to contribute significantly to the quenching and that at least at high masses, that is, M⋆ > 1010.7 M⊙, feedback from luminous AGN (log Lbol ≳ 46 [erg/s]) may be responsible for the quenching of star formation in the host galaxy.

  13. Black hole growth and starburst activity at z = 0.6-4 in the Chandra Deep Field South. Host galaxies properties of obscured AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusa, M.; Fiore, F.; Santini, P.; Grazian, A.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Hasinger, G.; Merloni, A.; Civano, F.; Fontana, A.; Mainieri, V.

    2009-12-01

    Aims: The co-evolution of host galaxies and the active black holes which reside in their centre is one of the most important topics in modern observational cosmology. Here we present a study of the properties of obscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) detected in the CDFS 1 Ms observation and their host galaxies. Methods: We limited the analysis to the MUSIC area, for which deep K-band observations obtained with ISAAC@VLT are available, ensuring accurate identifications of the counterparts of the X-ray sources as well as reliable determination of photometric redshifts and galaxy parameters, such as stellar masses and star formation rates. In particular, we: 1) refined the X-ray/infrared/optical association of 179 sources in the MUSIC area detected in the Chandra observation; 2) studied the host galaxies observed and rest frame colors and properties. Results: We found that X-ray selected (LX ⪆ 1042 erg s-1) AGN show Spitzer colors consistent with both AGN and starburst dominated infrared continuum; the latter would not have been selected as AGN from infrared diagnostics. The host galaxies of X-ray selected obscured AGN are all massive (Mast > 1010 M_⊙) and, in 50% of the cases, are also actively forming stars (1/SSFR < tHubble) in dusty environments. The median L/LEdd value of the active nucleus is between 2% and 10% depending on the assumed MBH/Mast ratio. Finally, we found that the X-ray selected AGN fraction increases with the stellar mass up to a value of 30% at z > 1 and Mast > 3 × 1011 M_⊙, a fraction significantly higher than in the local Universe for AGN of similar luminosities. Tables [see full textsee full textsee full text] and [see full textsee full textsee full text] are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. Spectroscopic observations of X-ray selected late type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takalo, L. O.

    1988-01-01

    A spectroscopic survey of nine X-ray selected late type stars was conducted. These stars are serendipitously discovered EINSTEIN X-ray sources, selected from two large x-ray surveys: the Columbia Astrophysical Laboratory survey (five stars) and the CFA Medium Sensitivity survey (four stars). Four of the Columbia survey stars were found to be short period binaries. The fifth was found to be an active single G dwarf. None of the Medium Sensitivity survey stars were found to be either binaries or active stars. Activity was measured by comparing the H-alpha and the CaII infrared triplet (8498, 8542) lines in these stars to the lines in inactive stars of similar spectral type. A correlation was found between the excess H-alpha lime emission and V sin(i) and between the excess H-alpha line emission and X-ray luminosity. No correlation was found between the infrared line emission and any other measured quantity.

  15. Host Galaxy Properties Of The Swift Bat Hard X-ray Survey Of Agn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, R.; Veilleux, S.; Winter, L.

    2010-03-01

    Surveys of AGN taken in the optical, UV, and soft X-rays miss an important population of obscured AGN only visible in the hard X-rays and mid-IR wavelengths. The SWIFT BAT survey in the hard X-ray range (14-195 keV) has provided a uniquely unbiased sample of AGN unaffected by galactic or circumnuclear absorption. Optical imaging of this unbiased sample provides a new opportunity to understand how the environments of the host galaxies are linked to AGN. In 2008, we observed 90 of these targets at Kitt Peak with the 2.1m in the SDSS ugriz bands over 17 nights. Using these observations and SDSS data we review the relationships between color, morphology, merger activity, stellar mass, star formation, and AGN luminosity for a sample of 145 AGN Hard X-ray Selected AGN.

  16. Host galaxy identification for supernova surveys

    DOE PAGES

    Gupta, Ravi R.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kovacs, Eve; ...

    2016-11-08

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations withinmore » their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate "hostless" SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.« less

  17. HOST GALAXY IDENTIFICATION FOR SUPERNOVA SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Ravi R.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kovacs, Eve

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, and so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within theirmore » host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate “hostless” SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.« less

  18. Host galaxy identification for supernova surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Ravi R.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kovacs, Eve

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations withinmore » their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate "hostless" SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.« less

  19. HOST GALAXY IDENTIFICATION FOR SUPERNOVA SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Ravi R.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kovacs, Eve

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, and so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within theirmore » host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate "hostless" SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.« less

  20. CATALOG AND STATISTICAL STUDY OF X-RAY SELECTED BL LACERTAE OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kapanadze, Bidzina Z., E-mail: bidzina_kapandaze@iliauni.edu.ge

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a catalog of 312 X-ray selected BL Lacerate objects (XBLs), optically identified through the end of 2011. It contains the names from different surveys, equatorial coordinates, redshifts, multifrequency flux values, and luminosities for each source. In addition, the different characteristics of XBLs are statistically investigated (redshift, radio/optical/X-ray luminosities, central black hole (BH) mass, synchrotron peak frequency, broadband spectral indices, optical flux variability). Their values are collected through an extensive bibliographic and database search or calculated by us. The redshifts range from 0.031 to 0.702 with a maximum of the distribution at z = 0.223. The 1.4 GHzmore » luminosities of XBLs log {nu}L{sub {nu}} {approx} 39-42 erg s{sup -1} while optical V and X-ray 0.1-2.4 keV bands show log {nu}L{sub {nu}} {approx} 43-46 erg s{sup -1}. The XBL hosts are elliptical galaxies with effective radii r{sub eff} = 3.2625.40 kpc and ellipticities, in = 0.040.52. Their R-band absolute magnitudes M{sub R} range from -21.11 mag to -24.86 mag with a mean value of -22.83 mag. The V - R indices of the hosts span from 0.61 to 1.52 and reveal a fourth-degree polynomial relationship with z that enables us to evaluate the redshifts of five sources whose V - R indices were determined from the observations but whose irredshifts values are either not found or not confirmed. The XBL nuclei show a wider range of 7.31 mag for M{sub R} with the highest luminosity corresponding to M{sub R} = -27.24 mag. The masses of central BHs are found in the interval log M{sub BH} = 7.39-9.30 solar masses (with distribution maximum at log M{sub BH}/M{sub Sun} = 8.30). The synchrotron peak frequencies are spread over the range log {nu}{sub peak} = 14.56-19.18 Hz with a peak of the distribution at log {nu}{sub peak} = 16.60 Hz. The broadband radio-to-optical ({alpha}{sub ro}), optical-to-X-ray ({alpha}{sub ox}), and radio-to-X-ray ({alpha}{sub rx}) spectral indices

  1. Near-infrared Variability of Obscured and Unobscured X-Ray-selected AGNs in the COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, P.; Lira, P.; Cartier, R.; Pérez, V.; Miranda, N.; Yovaniniz, C.; Arévalo, P.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Fynbo, J.; Dunlop, J.; Coppi, P.; Marchesi, S.

    2017-11-01

    We present our statistical study of near-infrared (NIR) variability of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the COSMOS field, using UltraVISTA data. This is the largest sample of AGN light curves in YJHKs bands, making it possible to have a global description of the nature of AGNs for a large range of redshifts and for different levels of obscuration. To characterize the variability properties of the sources, we computed the structure function. Our results show that there is an anticorrelation between the structure function A parameter (variability amplitude) and the wavelength of emission and a weak anticorrelation between A and the bolometric luminosity. We find that broad-line (BL) AGNs have a considerably larger fraction of variable sources than narrow-line (NL) AGNs and that they have different distributions of the A parameter. We find evidence that suggests that most of the low-luminosity variable NL sources correspond to BL AGNs, where the host galaxy could be damping the variability signal. For high-luminosity variable NL sources, we propose that they can be examples of “true type II” AGNs or BL AGNs with limited spectral coverage, which results in missing the BL emission. We also find that the fraction of variable sources classified as unobscured in the X-ray is smaller than the fraction of variable sources unobscured in the optical range. We present evidence that this is related to the differences in the origin of the obscuration in the optical and X-ray regimes.

  2. Discovery of low-redshift X-ray selected quasars - New clues to the QSO phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, J. E.; Forman, W. R.; Steiner, J. E.; Canizares, C. R.; Mcclintock, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The identification of six X-ray sources discovered by the Einstein Observatory with X-ray quasars is reported, and the properties of these X-ray selected quasars are discussed. The four high-latitude fields of 1 sq deg each in which the Einstein imaging proportional counter detected serendipitous X-ray sources at intermediate exposures of 10,000 sec were observed by 4-m and 1.5-m telescopes, and optical sources with uv excesses and emission line spectra typical of many low-redshift quasars and Seyfert 1 galaxies were found within the 1-arcsec error boxes of the X-ray sources. All six quasars identified were found to be radio quiet, with low redshift and relatively faint optical magnitudes, and to be similar in space density, colors and magnitude versus redshift relation to an optically selected sample at the same mean magnitude. X-ray luminosity was found to be well correlated with both continuum and broad-line emission luminosities for the known radio-quiet quasars and Seyfert 1 galaxies, and it was observed that the five objects with the lowest redshifts have very similar X-ray/optical luminosity ratios despite tenfold variations in X-ray luminosity. It is concluded that photoionization by a continuum extending to X-ray energies is the dominant excitation mechanism in radio-quiet quasars.

  3. Probing BL Lac and Cluster Evolution via a Wide-angle, Deep X-ray Selected Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlman, E.; Jones, L.; White, N.; Angelini, L.; Giommi, P.; McHardy, I.; Wegner, G.

    1994-12-01

    The WARPS survey (Wide-Angle ROSAT Pointed Survey) has been constructed from the archive of all public ROSAT PSPC observations, and is a subset of the WGACAT catalog. WARPS will include a complete sample of >= 100 BL Lacs at F_x >= 10(-13) erg s(-1) cm(-2) . A second selection technique will identify ~ 100 clusters at 0.15Galaxies). We will detail the search methods used in producing these samples, as well as their benefits. Only 171 BL Lacs are known and the largest complete samples are also small, with 20-50 objects each. Current data shows a discrepancy between XBL (X-ray selected BL Lac) and RBL (Radio-selected BL Lac) evolution, with = 0.304 +/- 0.062 for XBLs but = 0.60 +/- 0.05 for RBLs. Models of the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) are also poorly constrained. WARPS will allow us to compute an accurate XLF, decreasing the error bars above by over a factor of two. We will also test for low-luminosity BL Lacs, whose non-thermal nuclear sources are dim compared to the host galaxy. Browne and Marcha (1993) claim the EMSS missed most of these objects and is incomplete. If their predictions are correct, 20-40% of the BL Lacs we find will fall in this category, enabling us to probe the evolution and internal workings of BL Lacs at lower luminosities than ever before. By removing likely QSOs before optical spectroscopy, WARPS requires only modest amounts of telescope time. It will extend measurement of the cluster XLF both to higher redshifts (z>0.5) and lower luminosities (LX<1x10(44) erg s(-1) ) than previous measurements, confirming or rejecting the 3sigma detection of negative evolution found in the EMSS, and constraining Cold Dark Matter cosmologies. Faint NELGs are a recently discovered major contributor to the X-ray background. They are a mixture of Sy2s, starbursts and galaxies of unknown type. Detailed classification and evolution of their XLF will be determined for the first time.

  4. Distant Galaxy Clusters Hosting Extreme Central Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The recently-discovered Phoenix cluster harbors the most star-forming central cluster galaxy of any cluster in the known Universe, by nearly a factor of 10. This extreme system appears to be fulfilling early cooling flow predictions, although the lack of similar systems makes any interpretation difficult. In an attempt to find other "Phoenix-like" clusters, we have cross-correlated archival all-sky surveys (in which Phoenix was detected) and isolated 4 similarly-extreme systems which are also coincident in position and redshift with an overdensity of red galaxies. We propose here to obtain Chandra observations of these extreme, Phoenix-like systems, in order to confirm them as relaxed, rapidly-cooling galaxy clusters.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Type 2 AGN host galaxies in Chandra-COSMOS (Suh+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, H.; Civano, F.; Hasinger, G.; Lusso, E.; Lanzuisi, G.; Marchesi, S.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Allevato, V.; Cappelluti, N.; Capak, P. L.; Elvis, M.; Griffiths, R. E.; Laigle, C.; Lira, P.; Riguccini, L.; Rosario, D. J.; Salvato, M.; Schawinski, K.; Vignali, C.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the star formation properties of a large sample of ~2300 X-ray-selected Type 2 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) host galaxies out to z~3 in the Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey in order to understand the connection between the star formation and nuclear activity. Making use of the existing multi-wavelength photometric data available in the COSMOS field, we perform a multi-component modeling from far-infrared to near-ultraviolet using a nuclear dust torus model, a stellar population model and a starburst model of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Through detailed analyses of SEDs, we derive the stellar masses and the star formation rates (SFRs) of Type 2 AGN host galaxies. The stellar mass of our sample is in the range of 9host galaxies have, on average, similar SFRs compared to the normal star-forming galaxies with similar Mstellar and redshift ranges, suggesting no significant evidence for enhancement or quenching of star formation. This could be interpreted in a scenario, where the relative massive galaxies have already experienced substantial growth at higher redshift (z>3), and grow slowly through secular fueling processes hosting moderate-luminosity AGNs. (1 data file).

  6. Study of GRBs Hosts Galaxies Vicinity Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, S.; Vasquez, N.; Hoyle, F.

    2017-07-01

    The study of GRBs host galaxies and its vicinity could provide constrains on the progenitor and an opportunity to use these violent explosions to characterize the nature of the highredshift universe. Studies of GRB host galaxies reveal a population of starforming galaxies with great diversity, spanning a wide range of masses, star formation rate, and redshifts. In order to study the galactic ambient of GRBs we used the S. Savaglio catalog from 2015 where 245 GRBs are listed with RA-Dec position and z. We choose 22 GRBs Hosts galaxies from Savaglio catalog and SDSS DR12, with z range 0galaxies, in a local vicinity of 10 h-1 Mpc radius to determine some photometric and population characteristics. We calculate the volumetric density populatation of glalaxies around the GRB Hosts within a volume of an sphere whit radius of 10 h-1 Mpc and find a low density compared with a typical group of galaxies. In order to know the galaxies stellar formation state, in regions where GRBs are formed, we made an analysis of color index using SDSS data of μ [λ 3543], r[λ 6231] and calculate the indexes μ-r. We find a value μ-r=2.63, it means that the galactic ambient of GRBs Host regions are statistically redder than void and wall regions on a indirect way (Voids:μ-r=2.043; Walls:μ-r=2.162). Futhermore, we used a inverse concentration index analysis, ICI=R50/R90 and find that galaxies in GRBs Hosts vicinity are also of slightly early type than void and wall galaxies. With this work we provide characteristics on the regions for future works related with highredsift universe that using the GRBs.

  7. The Luminosity Function of QSO Host Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Timothy S.; Casertano, Stefano; Turnshek, David A.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present some results from our HST archival image study of 71 QSO host galaxies. The objects are selected to have z less than or equal to 0.46 and total absolute magnitude M(sub v) less than or equal to -23 in our adopted cosmology (H(sub 0) = 50 kilometers per second Mpc(sup-1), q(sub 0) = 0.5, lambda = 0)). The aim of this initial study is to investigate the composition of the sample with respect to host morphology and radio loudness, as well as derive the QSO host galaxy luminosity function. We have analyzed available WFPC2 images in R or I band (U in one case), using a uniform set of procedures. The host galaxies span a narrow range of luminosities and are exceptionally bright, much more so than normal galaxies, usually L greater than L*(sub v). The QSOs are almost equally divided among three subclasses: radio-loud QSOs with elliptical hosts, radio-quiet QSOs with elliptical hosts, and radio-quiet QSOs with spiral hosts. Radio-loud QSOs with spiral hosts are extremely rare. Using a weighting procedure, we derive the combined luminosity function of QSO host galaxies. We find that the luminosity function of QSO hosts differs in shape from that of normal galaxies but that they coincide at the highest luminosities. The ratio of the number of quasar hosts to the number of normal galaxies at a luminosity L*(sub v) is R = (Lv/11.48L*(sub v))(sup 2.46), where L*(sub v) corresponds to M*(sub v)= -22.35, and a QSO is defined to be an object with total nuclear plus host light M(sub v) less than or equal to -23. This ratio can be interpreted as the probability that a galaxy with luminosity L(sub V) will host a QSO at redshift z approximately equal to 0.26.

  8. The Swift GRB Host Galaxy Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perley, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    I introduce the Swift Host Galaxy Legacy Survey (SHOALS), a comprehensive multiwavelength program to characterize the demographics of the GRB host population across its entire redshift range. Using unbiased selection criteria we have designated a subset of 130 Swift gamma-ray bursts which are now being targeted with intensive observational follow-up. Deep Spitzer imaging of every field has already been obtained and analyzed, with major programs ongoing at Keck, GTC, and Gemini to obtain complementary optical/NIR photometry to enable full SED modeling and derivation of fundamental physical parameters such as mass, extinction, and star-formation rate. Using these data I will present an unbiased measurement of the GRB host-galaxy luminosity and mass functions and their evolution with redshift between z=0 and z=5, compare GRB hosts to other star-forming galaxy populations, and discuss implications for the nature of the GRB progenitor and the ability of GRBs to probe cosmic star-formation.

  9. X-ray selected stars in HRC and BHRC catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Paronyan, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    A joint HRC/BHRC Catalogue has been created based on merging of Hamburg ROSAT Catalogue (HRC) and Byurakan Hamburg ROSAT Catalogue (BHRC). Both have been made by optical identifications of X-ray sources based on low-dispersion spectra of the Hamburg Quasar Survey (HQS) using ROSAT Catalogues. As a result, the largest sample of 8132 (5341+2791) optically identified X-ray sources was created having count rate (CR) of photons ≤ 0.04 ct/s in the area with galactic latitudes |b|≤ 20° and declinations d≤ 0°.There are 4253 AGN, 492 galaxies, 1800 stars and 1587 unknown objects in the sample. All stars have been found in GSC 2.3.2, as well as most of them are in GALEX, USNO-B1.0, 2MASS and WISE catalogues. In addition, 1429 are in SDSS DR9 and 204 have SDSS spectra. For these stars we have carried out spectral classification and along with the bright stars, many new cataclysmic variables (CV), white dwarfs (WD) and late-type stars (K-M and C) have been revealed. For all stars, statistical studies of their multiwavelength properties have been made. An attempt to find a connection between the radiation fluxes in different bands for different types of sources, and identify their characteristics was made as well.

  10. Star formation quenching in quasar host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniani, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    Galaxy evolution is likely to be shaped by negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). In the whole range of redshifts and luminosities studied so far, galaxies hosting an AGN frequently show fast and extended outflows consisting in both ionised and molecular gas. Such outflows could potentially quench the start formation within the host galaxy, but a clear evidence of negative feedback in action is still missing. Hereby I will analyse integral-field spectroscopic data for six quasars at z ˜2.4 obtained with SINFONI in the H- and K-band. All the quasars show [OIII]λ5007 line detection of fast, extended outflows. Also, the high signal-to-noise SINFONI observations allow the identification of faint narrow Hα emission (FWHM < 500 km/s), which is spatially extended and associated with star formation in the host galaxy. On paper fast outflows are spatially anti-correlated with star-formation powered emission, i.e. star formation is suppressed in the area affected by the outflow. Nonetheless as narrow, spatially-extended Hα emission, indicating star formation rates of at least 50 - 100 M⊙/yr, has been detected, either AGN feedback is not affecting the whole host galaxy, or star formation is completely quenched only by several feedback episodes. On the other hand, a positive feedback scenario, supported by narrow emission in Hα extending along the edges of the outflow cone, suggests that galaxy-wide outflows could also have a twofold role in the evolution of the host galaxy. Finally, I will present CO(3-2) ALMA data for three out of the six QSOs observed with SINFONI. Flux maps obtained for the CO(3-2) transition suggest that molecular gas within the host galaxy is swept away by fast winds. A negative-feedback scenario is supported by the inferred molecular gas mass in all three objects, which is significantly below what observed in non-active main-sequence galaxies at high-z.

  11. Tidal Disruption Events Prefer Unusual Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcavi, Iair; French, K. Decker; Zabludoff, Ann I.

    2016-06-01

    A star passing close to a supermassive black hole (SMBH) can be torn apart in a Tidal Disruption Events (TDE). TDEs that are accompanied by observable flares are now being discovered in transient surveys and are revealing the presence and the properties of otherwise-quiescent SMBHs. Recently, it was discovered that TDEs show a strong preference for rare post-starburst galaxies, (i.e. galaxies that have undergone intense star formation but are no longer forming stars today). We quantify this preference and find that TDEs are approximately 30-200 times more likely to occur in post-starburst hosts (compared to the general SDSS galaxy population), with the enhancement factor depending on the star formation history of the galaxy. This surprising host-galaxy preference connects the until-now disparate TDE subclasses of UV/optical-dominated TDEs and X-ray-dominated TDEs, and serves as the basis for TDE-targeted transient surveys. Post-starburst galaxies may be post-mergers, with binary SMBH systems that are still spiraling in. Such systems could enhance the TDE rate, but it is not yet clear if models can quantitatively reproduce the observed enhancement. Alternative explanations for enhanced TDE rate in post-starbursts include non-spherical post-merger central potentials and enhanced rates of giant stars.

  12. Host Galaxies Of Luminous Z ˜ 0.6 Quasars: Major Mergers Are Not Prevalent At The Highest Agn Luminosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villforth, Carolin; Hamilton, T.; Pawlik, M. M.; Hewlett, T.; Rowlands, K.; Herbst, H.; Shankar, F.; Fontana, A.; Hamann, F.; Koekemoer, A.; Pforr, J.; Trump, J.; Wuyts, S.

    2017-06-01

    Galaxy interactions are thought to be one of the main triggers of active galactic nuclei (AGN), especially at high luminosities, where the accreted gas mass during the AGN lifetime is substantial. Evidence for a connection between mergers and AGN, however, remains mixed. Possible triggering mechanisms remain particularly poorly understood for luminous AGN, which are thought to require triggering by major mergers, rather than secular processes. We analyse the host galaxies of a sample of 20 optically and X-ray selected luminous AGN (log(Lbol [erg s-1]) > 45) at z ˜ 0.6 using Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 data in the F160W/H band. 15/20 sources have resolved host galaxies. We create a control sample of mock AGN by matching the AGN host galaxies to a control sample of non-AGN galaxies. Visual signs of disturbances are found in about 25 per cent of sources in both the AGN hosts and control galaxies. Using both visual classification and quantitative morphology measures, we show that the levels of disturbance are not enhanced when compared to a matched control sample. We find no signs that major mergers play a dominant role in triggering AGN at high luminosities, suggesting that minor mergers and secular processes dominate AGN triggering up to the highest AGN luminosities. The upper limit on the enhanced fraction of major mergers is ≤20 per cent. While major mergers might increase the incidence of luminous AGN, they are not the prevalent triggering mechanism in the population of unobscured AGN.

  13. Host galaxies of luminous z ˜ 0.6 quasars: major mergers are not prevalent at the highest AGN luminosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villforth, C.; Hamilton, T.; Pawlik, M. M.; Hewlett, T.; Rowlands, K.; Herbst, H.; Shankar, F.; Fontana, A.; Hamann, F.; Koekemoer, A.; Pforr, J.; Trump, J.; Wuyts, S.

    2017-04-01

    Galaxy interactions are thought to be one of the main triggers of active galactic nuclei (AGN), especially at high luminosities, where the accreted gas mass during the AGN lifetime is substantial. Evidence for a connection between mergers and AGN, however, remains mixed. Possible triggering mechanisms remain particularly poorly understood for luminous AGN, which are thought to require triggering by major mergers, rather than secular processes. We analyse the host galaxies of a sample of 20 optically and X-ray selected luminous AGN (log(Lbol [erg s-1]) > 45) at z ˜ 0.6 using Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 data in the F160W/H band. 15/20 sources have resolved host galaxies. We create a control sample of mock AGN by matching the AGN host galaxies to a control sample of non-AGN galaxies. Visual signs of disturbances are found in about 25 per cent of sources in both the AGN hosts and control galaxies. Using both visual classification and quantitative morphology measures, we show that the levels of disturbance are not enhanced when compared to a matched control sample. We find no signs that major mergers play a dominant role in triggering AGN at high luminosities, suggesting that minor mergers and secular processes dominate AGN triggering up to the highest AGN luminosities. The upper limit on the enhanced fraction of major mergers is ≤20 per cent. While major mergers might increase the incidence of luminous AGN, they are not the prevalent triggering mechanism in the population of unobscured AGN.

  14. Galaxies and Their Host Dark Matter Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, ChangHoon

    Through their connection with dark matter structures, galaxies act as tracers of the underlying matter distribution in the Universe. Their observed spatial distribution allows us to precisely measure large scale structure and effectively test cosmological models that explain the content, geometry, and history of the Universe. Current observations from galaxy surveys such as the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey have already probed vast cosmic volumes with millions of galaxies and ushered in an era of precision cosmology. The next surveys will probe over an order of magnitude more. With this unprecedented statistical power, the bottleneck of scientific discovery is in the methodology. In this dissertation, I address major methodological challenges in constraining cosmology with the large-scale distribution of galaxies. I develop a robust framework for treating systematic effects, which significantly bias galaxy clustering measurements. I apply new innovative approaches to probabilistic parameter inference that challenge and test the in- correct assumptions of the standard approach. Furthermore, I use precise predictions of structure formation from cosmology and observations of galaxies during the last eight billion years to develop detailed models of how galaxies are impacted by their host dark matter structures. These models provide key insight into the galaxy-halo connection, which bridges the gap between cosmology theory and observations. They also answer crucial questions of how galaxies form and evolve. The developments in this dissertation will help unlock the full potential of future observations and allow us to precisely test cosmological models, General Relativity and modified gravity scenarios, and even particle physics theory beyond the Standard Model.

  15. Host Galaxies of Dust-Reddened QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, T.; Lacy, M.; Becker, R.; Gregg, M.; Helfand, D.; White, R.

    2005-12-01

    We present Hubble/ACS observations of 13 dust-reddened Type 1 quasars to study the properties of their host galaxies. The quasars have a mean reddening of E(B-V) = 0.8 and lie at moderate redshifts (0.4 < z < 1.0). Images were taken in I and g' band during one or two Hubble orbits. After correcting for absorption the absolute magnitudes of the quasars lie around MV = -27. We are just probing the tip of the luminosity iceberg and there must be many more obscured quasars at these redshifts. The images show extensive merger activity such as tidal tails and various compact halos even before subtracting the quasar contribution. The red quasar phenomenon is likely to be an evolutionary effect. The young quasar is obscured while the dust of the merging galaxies is still settling in. None of the quasars fit a perfect elliptical profile after subtracting the PSF as all of them show many irregularities. The host galaxies also seem to be having bluer colors that typical galaxies, although there is a large scatter in the data. This would argue for recent star-formation most likely triggered my the merger, in concordance with models arguing the emergence of AGN from dusty Starburst galaxies. This work was partly performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  16. Optical and radio properties of X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocke, J. T.; Liebert, J.; Schmidt, G.; Gioia, I. M.; Maccacaro, T.

    1985-01-01

    The eight BL Lac objects from the HEAO 1 A-2 all-sky survey and from the Einstein medium-sensitivity survey (MSS) form a flux-limited complete X-ray selected sample. The optical and radio properties of the MSS BL Lac objects are presented and compared with those of the HEAO 1 A-2 sample and with those of radio-selected BL Lac objects. The X-ray selected BL Lac objects possess smaller polarized fractions and less violent optical variability than radio-selected BL Lac objects. These properties are consistent with the substantial starlight fraction seen in the optical spectra of a majority of these objects. This starlight allows a determination of definite redshifts for two of four MSS BL Lac objects and a probable redshift for a third. These redshifts are 0.2, 0.3, and 0.6. Despite the differences in characteristics between the X-ray selected and radio-selected samples, it is concluded that these eight objects possess most of the basic qualities of BL Lac objects and should be considered members of that class. Moreover, as a class, these X-ray selected objects have the largest ratio of X-ray to optical flux of any active galactic nuclei yet discovered.

  17. The Swift GRB Host Galaxy Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perley, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    I will describe the Swift Host Galaxy Legacy Survey (SHOALS), a comprehensive multiwavelength program to characterize the demographics of the GRB host population and its redshift evolution from z=0 to z=7. Using unbiased selection criteria we have designated a subset of 119 Swift gamma-ray bursts which are now being targeted with intensive observational follow-up. Deep Spitzer imaging of every field has already been obtained and analyzed, with major programs ongoing at Keck, GTC, Gemini, VLT, and Magellan to obtain complementary optical/NIR photometry and spectroscopy to enable full SED modeling and derivation of fundamental physical parameters such as mass, extinction, and star-formation rate. Using these data I will present an unbiased measurement of the GRB host-galaxy luminosity and mass distributions and their evolution with redshift, compare GRB hosts to other star-forming galaxy populations, and discuss implications for the nature of the GRB progenitor and the ability of GRBs to serve as tools for measuring and studying cosmic star-formation in the distant universe.

  18. Circumnuclear Structures in Megamaser Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pjanka, Patryk; Greene, Jenny E.; Seth, Anil C.; Braatz, James A.; Henkel, Christian; Lo, Fred K. Y.; Läsker, Ronald

    2017-08-01

    Using the Hubble Space Telescope, we identify circumnuclear (100-500 pc scale) structures in nine new H2O megamaser host galaxies to understand the flow of matter from kpc-scale galactic structures down to the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at galactic centers. We double the sample analyzed in a similar way by Greene et al. and consider the properties of the combined sample of 18 sources. We find that disk-like structure is virtually ubiquitous when we can resolve <200 pc scales, in support of the notion that non-axisymmetries on these scales are a necessary condition for SMBH fueling. We perform an analysis of the orientation of our identified nuclear regions and compare it with the orientation of megamaser disks and the kpc-scale disks of the hosts. We find marginal evidence that the disk-like nuclear structures show increasing misalignment from the kpc-scale host galaxy disk as the scale of the structure decreases. In turn, we find that the orientation of both the ˜100 pc scale nuclear structures and their host galaxy large-scale disks is consistent with random with respect to the orientation of their respective megamaser disks.

  19. Hα Imaging of Nearby Seyfert Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theios, Rachel L.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Ross, Nathaniel R.

    2016-05-01

    We used narrowband (Δλ = 70 Å) interference filters with the CCD imaging camera on the Nickel 1.0 m telescope at Lick Observatory to observe 31 nearby (z < 0.03) Seyfert galaxies in the 12 μm active galaxy sample. We obtained pure emission-line images of each galaxy, which reach down to a flux limit of 7.3 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1 arcsec-2, and corrected these images for [N II] emission and extinction. We separated the Hα emission line of the “nucleus” (central 100-1000 pc) from that of the host galaxy. The extended Hα emission is expected to be powered by newly formed hot stars, and indeed correlates well with other indicators of current star formation rates (SFRs) in these galaxies: extended 7.7 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, total far-infrared, and radio luminosity. Relative to what would be expected from recent star formation, there is a 0.8 dex excess of radio emission in our Seyfert galaxies. The Hα luminosity we measured in the centers of our galaxies is dominated by the active galactic nucleus (AGN), and is linearly correlated with the hard X-ray luminosity. There is, however, an upward offset of 1 dex in this correlation for the Seyfert 1s, because their nuclear Hα emission includes a strong additional contribution from the broad-line region. We found a correlation between SFR and AGN luminosity. In spite of selection effects, we concluded that the absence of bright Seyfert nuclei in galaxies with low SFRs is real, albeit only weakly significant. Finally, we used our measured spatial distributions of Hα emission to determine what these Seyfert galaxies would look like when observed through fixed apertures (e.g., a spectroscopic fiber) at high redshifts. We found that although all of these Seyfert galaxies would be detectable emission-line galaxies at any redshift, most of them would appear to be dominated by (>67%) their H II region emission. Only the most luminous AGNs (log(L Hα /erg s-1) > 41.5) would still be identified as such at z

  20. The clustering amplitude of X-ray-selected AGN at z ˜ 0.8: evidence for a negative dependence on accretion luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountrichas, G.; Georgakakis, A.; Menzel, M.-L.; Fanidakis, N.; Merloni, A.; Liu, Z.; Salvato, M.; Nandra, K.

    2016-04-01

    The northern tile of the wide-area and shallow XMM-XXL X-ray survey field is used to estimate the average dark matter halo mass of relatively luminous X-ray-selected active galactic nucleus (AGN) [log {L}_X (2-10 keV)= 43.6^{+0.4}_{-0.4} erg s^{-1}] in the redshift interval z = 0.5-1.2. Spectroscopic follow-up observations of X-ray sources in the XMM-XXL field by the Sloan telescope are combined with the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey spectroscopic galaxy survey to determine the cross-correlation signal between X-ray-selected AGN (total of 318) and galaxies (about 20 000). We model the large scales (2-25 Mpc) of the correlation function to infer a mean dark matter halo mass of log M / (M_{{⊙}} h^{-1}) = 12.50 ^{+0.22} _{-0.30} for the X-ray-selected AGN sample. This measurement is about 0.5 dex lower compared to estimates in the literature of the mean dark matter halo masses of moderate-luminosity X-ray AGN [LX(2-10 keV) ≈ 1042-1043 erg s- 1] at similar redshifts. Our analysis also links the mean clustering properties of moderate-luminosity AGN with those of powerful ultraviolet/optically selected QSOs, which are typically found in haloes with masses few times 1012 M⊙. There is therefore evidence for a negative luminosity dependence of the AGN clustering. This is consistent with suggestions that AGN have a broad dark matter halo mass distribution with a high mass tail that becomes subdominant at high accretion luminosities. We further show that our results are in qualitative agreement with semi-analytic models of galaxy and AGN evolution, which attribute the wide range of dark matter halo masses among the AGN population to different triggering mechanisms and/or black hole fuelling modes.

  1. Studies of an x ray selected sample of cataclysmic variables. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silber, Andrew D.

    1986-01-01

    Just prior to the thesis research, an all-sky survey in hard x rays with the HEAO-1 satellite and further observations in the optical resulted in a catalog of about 700 x-ray sources with known optical counterparts. This sample includes 43 cataclysmic variables, which are binaries consisting of a detached white-dwarf and a Roche lobe filling companion star. This thesis consists of studies of the x-ray selected sample of catalcysmic variables.

  2. Optical polarimetry and photometry of X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jannuzi, Buell T.; Smith, Paul S.; Elston, Richard

    1993-01-01

    We present the data from 3 years of monitoring the optical polarization and apparent brightness of 37 X-ray-selected BL Lacertae objects. The monitored objects include a complete sample drawn from the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey. We confirm the BL Lac identifications for 15 of these 22 objects. We include descriptions of the objects and samples in our monitoring program and of the existing complete samples of BL Lac objects, highly polarized quasars, optically violent variable quasars, and blazars.

  3. Observations of High-Redshift X-Ray Selected Clusters with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muchovej, Stephen; Carlstrom, John E.; Cartwright, John; Greer, Christopher; Hawkins, David; Hennessey, Ryan; Joy, Marshall; Lamb, James; Leitch, Erik M.; Loh, Michael; hide

    2006-01-01

    We report measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in three high redshift (0.89 less than or equal to z less than or equal to 1.03), X-ray selected galaxy clusters. The observations were obtained at 30 GHz during the commissioning period of a new, eight-element interferometer - the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array (SZA) - built for dedicated SZ effect observations. The SZA observations are sensitive to angular scales larger than those subtended by the virial radii of the clusters. Assuming isothermality and hydrostatic equilibrium for the intracluster medium, and gas-mass fractions consistent with those for clusters at moderate redshift, we calculate electron temperatures, gas masses, and total cluster masses from the SZ data. The SZ-derived masses, integrated approximately to the virial radii, are 1.9 (sup +0.5)(sub -0.4) x 10(exp 14) solar mass for Cl J1415.1+3612, 3.4 (sup +0.6)(sub -0.5) x 10(exp 14) solar mass for Cl J1429.0+4241 and 7.2 (sup +1.3)(sub -0.9) x 10(exp 14) solar mass for Cl J1226.9+3332. The SZ-derived quantities are in good agreement with the cluster properties derived from X-ray measurements.

  4. Observations of High-Redshift X-Ray Selected Clusters with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muchovej, Stephen; Carlstrom, John E.; Cartwright, John; Greer, Christopher; Hawkins, David; Hennessy, Ryan; Joy, Marshall; Lamb, James W.; Leitch, Erik M.; Loh, Michael; hide

    2006-01-01

    We report measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in three highredshift (0.89 less than or equal to z less than or equal to 1.03), X-ray selected galaxy clusters. The observations were obtained at 30 GHz during the commissioning period of a new, eight-element interferometer - the Sunyaev-Zel dovich Array (SZA) - built for dedicated SZ effect observations. The SZA observations are sensitive to angular scales larger than those subtended by the virial radii of the clusters. Assuming isothermality and hydrostatic equilibrium for the intracluster medium, and gas-mass fractions consistent with those for clusters at moderate redshift, we calculate electron temperatures, gas masses, and total cluster masses from the SZ data. The SZ-derived masses, integrated approximately to the virial radii, are 1.9(sup +0.5)(sub -0.4) x 10(sup 14) solar mass for ClJ1415.1+3612, 3.4 (sup +0.6)(sup -0.5) x 10(sup 14) solar mass for ClJ1429.0+4241 and 7.2(sup +1.3)(sub -0.9) x 10(sup 14) solar mass for ClJ1226.9+3332. The SZ-derived quantities are in good agreement with the cluster properties derived from X-ray measurements.

  5. Tidal Disruption Event Host Galaxies in the Context of the Local Galaxy Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law-Smith, Jamie; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Ellison, Sara L.; Foley, Ryan J.

    2017-11-01

    We study the properties of tidal disruption event (TDE) host galaxies in the context of a catalog of ˜500,000 galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We explore whether selection effects can account for the overrepresentation of TDEs in E+A/post-starburst galaxies by creating matched galaxy samples. Accounting for possible selection effects due to black hole (BH) mass, redshift completeness, strong active galactic nucleus presence, bulge colors, and surface brightness can reduce the apparent overrepresentation of TDEs in E+A host galaxies by a factor of ˜4 (from ˜×100-190 to ˜×25-48), but cannot fully explain the preference. We find that TDE host galaxies have atypical photometric properties compared to similar, “typical” galaxies. In particular, TDE host galaxies tend to live in or near the “green valley” between star-forming and passive galaxies, and have bluer bulge colors ({{Δ }}(g-r)≈ 0.3 mag), lower half-light surface brightnesses (by ˜1 mag/arcsec2), higher Sérsic indices ({{Δ }}{n}{{g}}≈ 3), and higher bulge-to-total-light ratios ({{Δ }}B/T≈ 0.5) than galaxies with matched BH masses. We find that TDE host galaxies appear more centrally concentrated and that all have high galaxy Sérsic indices and B/T fractions—on average in the top 10% of galaxies of the same BH mass—suggesting a higher nuclear stellar density. We identify a region in the Sérsic index and BH mass parameter space that contains ˜2% of our reference catalog galaxies but ≥slant 60 % of TDE host galaxies. The unique photometric properties of TDE host galaxies may be useful for selecting candidate TDEs for spectroscopic follow-up observations in large transient surveys.

  6. A complete hard X-ray selected sample of local, luminous AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtscher, Leonard; Davies, Ric; Lin, Ming-yi; Orban de Xivry, Gilles; Rosario, David

    2016-08-01

    Choosing a very well defined sample is essential for studying the AGN phenomenon. Only the most luminous AGNs can be expected to require a coherent feeding mechanism to sustain their activity and since host galaxy properties and AGN activity are essentially uncorrelated, nuclear scales must be resolved in order to shed light on the feeding mechanisms of AGNs. For these reasons we are compiling a sample of the most powerful, local AGNs. In this talk we present our on-going programme to observe a complete volume limited sample of nearby active galaxies selected by their 14-195 keV luminosity, and outline its rationale for studying the mechanisms regulating gas inflow and outflow.

  7. First neutral atomic hydrogen images of quasar host galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, J.; Ho, P. T. P.

    1999-12-01

    Violent galactic encounters or mergers are the leading contenders for triggering luminous quasar activity at low redshifts: such interactions can lead to the concentration of gas in the host galactic nucleus, thus fueling the suspected central supermassive black hole. Here the authors image quasar host galaxies in the redshifted 21-cm line emission of neutral atomic hydrogen (H I) gas, which in nearby galaxies has proven to be a particularly sensitive as well as enduring tracer of tidal interactions. The three quasars studied have different optical environments normally seen around low-redshift quasars, ranging from a perhaps mildly interacting system to a relatively undisturbed host with a projected neighbouring galaxy to an isolated and apparently serene host galaxy. By contrast with their optical appearences, all three quasar host galaxies exhibit ongoing or remnant tidal H I disruptions tracing galactic encounters or mergers. These observations provide a better understanding of the likely stage of their interaction.

  8. Galaxy Zoo: evidence for rapid, recent quenching within a population of AGN host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smethurst, R. J.; Lintott, C. J.; Simmons, B. D.; Schawinski, K.; Bamford, S. P.; Cardamone, C. N.; Kruk, S. J.; Masters, K. L.; Urry, C. M.; Willett, K. W.; Wong, O. I.

    2016-12-01

    We present a population study of the star formation history of 1244 Type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGN) host galaxies, compared to 6107 inactive galaxies. A Bayesian method is used to determine individual galaxy star formation histories, which are then collated to visualize the distribution for quenching and quenched galaxies within each population. We find evidence for some of the Type 2 AGN host galaxies having undergone a rapid drop in their star formation rate within the last 2 Gyr. AGN feedback is therefore important at least for this population of galaxies. This result is not seen for the quenching and quenched inactive galaxies whose star formation histories are dominated by the effects of downsizing at earlier epochs, a secondary effect for the AGN host galaxies. We show that histories of rapid quenching cannot account fully for the quenching of all the star formation in a galaxy's lifetime across the population of quenched AGN host galaxies, and that histories of slower quenching, attributed to secular (non-violent) evolution, are also key in their evolution. This is in agreement with recent results showing that both merger-driven and non-merger processes are contributing to the co-evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes. The availability of gas in the reservoirs of a galaxy, and its ability to be replenished, appear to be the key drivers behind this co-evolution.

  9. Cosmic evolution and metal aversion in superluminous supernova host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, S.; Krühler, T.; Leloudas, G.; Gorosabel, J.; Mehner, A.; Buchner, J.; Kim, S.; Ibar, E.; Amorín, R.; Herrero-Illana, R.; Anderson, J. P.; Bauer, F. E.; Christensen, L.; de Pasquale, M.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Gallazzi, A.; Hjorth, J.; Morrell, N.; Malesani, D.; Sparre, M.; Stalder, B.; Stark, A. A.; Thöne, C. C.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2018-01-01

    The SUperluminous Supernova Host galaxIES survey aims to provide strong new constraints on the progenitors of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) by understanding the relationship to their host galaxies. We present the photometric properties of 53 H-poor and 16 H-rich SLSN host galaxies out to z ∼ 4. We model their spectral energy distributions to derive physical properties, which we compare with other galaxy populations. At low redshift, H-poor SLSNe are preferentially found in very blue, low-mass galaxies with high average specific star formation rates. As redshift increases, the host population follows the general evolution of star-forming galaxies towards more luminous galaxies. After accounting for secular evolution, we find evidence for differential evolution in galaxy mass, but not in the B band and the far-ultraviolet luminosity (3σ confidence). Most remarkable is the scarcity of hosts with stellar masses above 1010 M⊙ for both classes of SLSNe. In case of H-poor SLSNe, we attribute this to a stifled production efficiency above ∼0.4 solar metallicity. However, we argue that, in addition to low metallicity, a short-lived stellar population is also required to regulate the SLSN production. H-rich SLSNe are found in a very diverse population of star-forming galaxies. Still, the scarcity of massive hosts suggests a stifled production efficiency above ∼0.8 solar metallicity. The large dispersion of the H-rich SLSNe host properties is in stark contrast to those of gamma-ray burst, regular core-collapse SN, and H-poor SLSNe host galaxies. We propose that multiple progenitor channels give rise to this subclass.

  10. The intraday variability in the radio-selected and X-ray-selected BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, J. M.; Xie, G. Z.; Li, K. H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, W. W.

    1998-10-01

    Seven BL Lac objects have been photometrically observed in an effort to study the difference of optical intraday variability between the radio-selected BL Lac objects (RBLs) and X-ray-selected BL Lac objects (XBLs). The objects we observed are selected arbitrarily. They are four RBLs, PKS 0735+178, PKS 0754+101, OJ 287 and BL Lac, and three XBLs, H 0323+022, H 0548-322 and H 2154-304. During the observation all of them exhibited microvariation, and H 0323+022 and H 0548-322 sometimes showed brightness oscillation. PKS 0735+178 and BL Lac were in their faint states and not very active. It seems that RBLs do not show microvariability more frequently than XBLs. Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5)

  11. Discovery of a bright quasar without a massive host galaxy.

    PubMed

    Magain, Pierre; Letawe, Géraldine; Courbin, Frédéric; Jablonka, Pascale; Jahnke, Knud; Meylan, Georges; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2005-09-15

    A quasar is thought to be powered by the infall of matter onto a supermassive black hole at the centre of a massive galaxy. Because the optical luminosity of quasars exceeds that of their host galaxy, disentangling the two components can be difficult. This led in the 1990s to the controversial claim of the discovery of 'naked' quasars. Since then, the connection between quasars and galaxies has been well established. Here we report the discovery of a quasar lying at the edge of a gas cloud, whose size is comparable to that of a small galaxy, but whose spectrum shows no evidence for stars. The gas in the cloud is excited by the quasar itself. If a host galaxy is present, it is at least six times fainter than would normally be expected for such a bright quasar. The quasar is interacting dynamically with a neighbouring galaxy, whose gas might be feeding the black hole.

  12. A Spatially Resolved Study of the GRB 020903 Host Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorp, Mallory D.; Levesque, Emily M.

    2018-03-01

    GRB 020903 is a long-duration gamma-ray burst with a host galaxy close enough and extended enough for spatially resolved observations, making it one of less than a dozen GRBs where such host studies are possible. GRB 020903 lies in a galaxy host complex that appears to consist of four interacting components. Here we present the results of spatially resolved spectroscopic observations of the GRB 020903 host. By taking observations at two different position angles, we were able to obtain optical spectra (3600–9000 Å) of multiple regions in the galaxy. We confirm redshifts for three regions of the host galaxy that match that of GRB 020903. We measure the metallicity of these regions, and find that the explosion site and the nearby star-forming regions both have comparable subsolar metallicities. We conclude that, in agreement with past spatially resolved studies of GRBs, the GRB explosion site is representative of the host galaxy as a whole rather than localized in a metal-poor region of the galaxy.

  13. Broad-band characteristics of seven new hard X-ray selected cataclysmic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, F.; de Martino, D.; Mukai, K.; Russell, D. M.; Falanga, M.; Masetti, N.; Ferrigno, C.; Israel, G.

    2017-10-01

    We present timing and spectral analysis of a sample of seven hard X-ray selected cataclysmic variable candidates based on simultaneous X-ray and optical observations collected with XMM-Newton, complemented with Swift/BAT and INTEGRAL /IBIS hard X-ray data and ground-based optical photometry. For six sources, X-ray pulsations are detected for the first time in the range of ˜296-6098 s, identifying them as members of the magnetic class. Swift J0927.7-6945, Swift J0958.0-4208, Swift J1701.3-4304, Swift J2113.5+5422 and possibly PBC J0801.2-4625 are intermediate polars (IPs), while Swift J0706.8+0325 is a short (1.7 h) orbital period polar, the 11th hard X-ray-selected identified so far. X-ray orbital modulation is also observed in Swift J0927.7-6945 (5.2 h) and Swift J2113.5+5422 (4.1 h). Swift J1701.3-4304 is discovered as the longest orbital period (12.8 h) deep eclipsing IP. The spectra of the magnetic systems reveal optically thin multitemperature emission between 0.2 and 60 keV. Energy-dependent spin pulses and the orbital modulation in Swift J0927.7-6945 and Swift J2113.5+5422 are due to intervening local high-density absorbing material (NH ˜ 1022 - 23 cm-2). In Swift J0958.0-4208 and Swift J1701.3-4304, a soft X-ray blackbody (kT ˜ 50 and ˜80 eV) is detected, adding them to the growing group of `soft' IPs. White dwarf masses are determined in the range of ˜ 0.58-1.18 M⊙, indicating massive accreting primaries in five of them. Most sources accrete at rates lower than the expected secular value for their orbital period. Formerly proposed as a long-period (9.4 h) nova-like CV, Swift J0746.3-1608 shows peculiar spectrum and light curves suggesting either an atypical low-luminosity CV or a low-mass X-ray binary.

  14. Galaxies of all Shapes Host Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This artist's concept illustrates the two types of spiral galaxies that populate our universe: those with plump middles, or central bulges (upper left), and those lacking the bulge (foreground).

    New observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope provide strong evidence that the slender, bulgeless galaxies can, like their chubbier counterparts, harbor supermassive black holes at their cores. Previously, astronomers thought that a galaxy without a bulge could not have a supermassive black hole. In this illustration, jets shooting away from the black holes are depicted as thin streams.

    The findings are reshaping theories of galaxy formation, suggesting that a galaxy's 'waistline' does not determine whether it will be home to a big black hole.

  15. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo

    2017-09-01

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness is mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.

  16. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    SciTech Connect

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo, E-mail: b.cervantes@irya.unam.mx, E-mail: o.sanchez@irya.unam.mx

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness ismore » mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.« less

  17. Deficiency of ''Thin'' Stellar Bars in Seyfert Host Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlosman, Isaac; Peletier, Reynier F.; Knapen, Johan

    1999-01-01

    Using all available major samples of Seyfert galaxies and their corresponding control samples of closely matched non-active galaxies, we find that the bar ellipticities (or axial ratios) in Seyfert galaxies are systematically different from those in non-active galaxies. Overall, there is a deficiency of bars with large ellipticities (i.e., 'fat' or 'weak' bars) in Seyferts, compared to non-active galaxies. Accompanied with a large dispersion due to small number statistics, this effect is strictly speaking at the 2 sigma level. To obtain this result, the active galaxy samples of near-infrared surface photometry were matched to those of normal galaxies in type, host galaxy ellipticity, absolute magnitude, and, to some extent, in redshift. We discuss possible theoretical explanations of this phenomenon within the framework of galactic evolution, and, in particular, of radial gas redistribution in barred galaxies. Our conclusions provide further evidence that Seyfert hosts differ systematically from their non-active counterparts on scales of a few kpc.

  18. Type II supernovae in low luminosity host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, C. P.; Anderson, J. P.; Sullivan, M.; Dessart, L.; González-Gaitan, S.; Galbany, L.; Dimitriadis, G.; Arcavi, I.; Bufano, F.; Chen, T.-W.; Dennefeld, M.; Gromadzki, M.; Haislip, J. B.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Howell, D. A.; Inserra, C.; Kankare, E.; Leloudas, G.; Maguire, K.; McCully, C.; Morrell, N.; E, F. Olivares; Pignata, G.; Reichart, D. E.; Reynolds, T.; Smartt, S. J.; Sollerman, J.; Taddia, F.; Takáts, K.; Terreran, G.; Valenti, S.; Young, D. R.

    2018-06-01

    We present an analysis of a new sample of type II core-collapse supernovae (SNe II) occurring within low-luminosity galaxies, comparing these with a sample of events in brighter hosts. Our analysis is performed comparing SN II spectral and photometric parameters and estimating the influence of metallicity (inferred from host luminosity differences) on SN II transient properties. We measure the SN absolute magnitude at maximum, the light-curve plateau duration, the optically thick duration, and the plateau decline rate in the V -band, together with expansion velocities and pseudo-equivalent-widths (pEWs) of several absorption lines in the SN spectra. For the SN host galaxies, we estimate the absolute magnitude and the stellar mass, a proxy for the metallicity of the host galaxy. SNe II exploding in low luminosity galaxies display weaker pEWs of Fe II λ5018, confirming the theoretical prediction that metal lines in SN II spectra should correlate with metallicity. We also find that SNe II in low-luminosity hosts have generally slower declining light curves and display weaker absorption lines. We find no relationship between the plateau duration or the expansion velocities with SN environment, suggesting that the hydrogen envelope mass and the explosion energy are not correlated with the metallicity of the host galaxy. This result supports recent predictions that mass-loss for red supergiants is independent of metallicity.

  19. Associating Fast Radio Bursts with Their Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftekhari, T.; Berger, E.

    2017-11-01

    The first precise localization of a fast radio burst (FRB) sheds light on the nature of these mysterious bursts and the physical mechanisms that power them. Increasing the sample of FRBs with robust host galaxy associations is the key impetus behind ongoing and upcoming searches and facilities. Here, we quantify the robustness of FRB host galaxy associations as a function of localization area and galaxy apparent magnitude. We also explore the use of FRB dispersion measures to constrain the source redshift, thereby reducing the number of candidate hosts. We use these results to demonstrate that even in the absence of a unique association, a constraint can be placed on the maximum luminosity of a host galaxy as a function of localization and dispersion measure (DM). We find that localizations of ≲ 0.5\\text{'}\\text{'} are required for a chance coincidence probability of ≲ 1 % for dwarf galaxies at z≳ 0.1; if some hosts have luminosities of ˜ {L}\\ast , then localizations of up to ≈ 5\\prime\\prime may suffice at z˜ 0.1. Constraints on the redshift from the DM only marginally improve the association probability unless the DM is low, ≲ 400 pc cm-3. This approach also relies on the determination of galaxy redshifts, which is challenging at z≳ 0.5 if the hosts are dwarf galaxies. Finally, interesting limits on the maximum host luminosity require localizations of ≲ 5\\prime\\prime at z≳ 0.1. Even a few such localizations will explain the nature of FRB progenitors, their possible diversity, and their use as cosmological tools.

  20. Near-infrared properties of quasar and Seyfert host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Kim Katris

    1994-01-01

    We present near-infrared images of nearly 100 host galaxies of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Our quasar sample is comprised of the 50 quasars from the Palomar Green Bright Quasar Survey with redshifts z less than or equal to 0.3. We have restricted the redshift range to ensure adequate spatial resolution, galaxy detectability, and minimal distance-dependent effects, while still giving a large sample of objects. For lower-luminosity AGN we have chosen to image the CfA Seyfert sample. This sample is composed of 48 Seyferts, roughly equally divided among types 1, 1.5-1.9, and 2. This sample was spectroscopically selected, and, therefore, is not biased towards Seyferts with significant star formation. Taken together, these samples allow a statistical look at the continuity of host galaxy properties over a factor of 10,000 in nuclear luminosity. We find the near-infrared light to be a good tracer of luminous mass in these galaxies. The Seyferts are found in galaxies of type SO to Sc. The radio quiet quasars live in similar kinds of galaxies spanning the same range of mass centered around L(*). However, for the most luminous quasars, there is a correlation between the minimum host galaxy mass and the luminosity of the active nucleus. Radio-loud quasars are generally found in hosts more massive than an L(*) galaxy. We also detect a population of low mass host galaxies with very low luminosity Seyfert nuclei. The low luminosity quasars and the Seyferts both tend to lie in host galaxies seen preferentially face-on, which suggests there is a substantial amount of obscuration coplanar with the galaxian disk. The obscuration must be geometrically thick (thickness-to-radius approximately 1) and must cover a significant fraction of the narrow line region (r greater than 100 pc). We have examined our images for signs of perturbations that could drive fuel toward the galaxy nucleus, but there are none we can identify at a significant level. The critical element for fueling is

  1. Near-Infrared Properties of Quasar and Seyfert Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Kim Katris

    1995-01-01

    We present near-infrared images of nearly 100 host galaxies of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Our quasar sample is comprised of the 50 quasars from the Palomar Green Bright Quasar Survey with redshifts z\\<= 0.3. We have restricted the redshift range to ensure adequate spatial resolution, galaxy detectability, and minimal distance-dependent effects, while still giving a large sample of objects. For lower-luminosity AGN we have chosen to image the CfA Seyfert sample. This sample is composed of 48 Seyferts, roughly equally divided among types 1, 1.5-1.9, and 2. This sample was spectroscopically selected, and, therefore, is not biased towards Seyferts with significant star formation. Taken together, these samples allow a statistical look at the continuity of host-galaxy properties over a factor of 10,000 in nuclear luminosity. We find the near-infrared light to be a good tracer of luminous mass in these galaxies. The Seyferts are found in galaxies of type S0 to Sc. The radio quiet quasars live in similar kinds of galaxies spanning the same range of mass centered around L*. However, for the most luminous quasars, there is a correlation between the minimum host-galaxy mass and the luminosity of the active nucleus. Radio-loud quasars are generally found in hosts more massive than an L* galaxy. We also detect a population of low-mass host galaxies with very low-luminosity Seyfert nuclei. The low luminosity quasars and the Seyferts both tend to lie in host galaxies seen preferentially face-on, which suggests there is a substantial amount of obscuration coplanar with the galaxian disk. The obscuration must be geometrically thick (thickness-to-radius ~1) and must cover a significant fraction of the narrow line region (r>100 pc). We have examined our images for signs of perturbations that could drive fuel toward the galaxy nucleus, but there are none we can identify at a significant level. The critical element for fueling is evidently not reflected clearly in the large scale

  2. Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxies Have "Normal" Luminosities.

    PubMed

    Schaefer

    2000-04-10

    The galactic environment of gamma-ray bursts can provide good evidence about the nature of the progenitor system, with two old arguments implying that the burst host galaxies are significantly subluminous. New data and new analysis have now reversed this picture: (1) Even though the first two known host galaxies are indeed greatly subluminous, the next eight hosts have absolute magnitudes typical for a population of field galaxies. A detailed analysis of the 16 known hosts (10 with redshifts) shows them to be consistent with a Schechter luminosity function with R*=-21.8+/-1.0, as expected for normal galaxies. (2) Bright bursts from the Interplanetary Network are typically 18 times brighter than the faint bursts with redshifts; however, the bright bursts do not have galaxies inside their error boxes to limits deeper than expected based on the luminosities for the two samples being identical. A new solution to this dilemma is that a broad burst luminosity function along with a burst number density varying as the star formation rate will require the average luminosity of the bright sample (>6x1058 photons s-1 or>1.7x1052 ergs s-1) to be much greater than the average luminosity of the faint sample ( approximately 1058 photons s-1 or approximately 3x1051 ergs s-1). This places the bright bursts at distances for which host galaxies with a normal luminosity will not violate the observed limits. In conclusion, all current evidence points to gamma-ray burst host galaxies being normal in luminosity.

  3. Optical Studies of 15 Hard X-Ray Selected Cataclysmic Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Thorstensen, John R.; Cho, Patricia; Collver, Gabriel; Motsoaledi, Mokhine; Breytenbach, Hannes; Buckley, David A. H.; Woudt, Patrick A.

    2018-06-01

    We conducted time-resolved optical spectroscopy and/or time-series photometry of 15 cataclysmic binaries that were discovered in hard X-ray surveys by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope and the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, with the goal of measuring their orbital periods and searching for spin periods. Four of the objects in this study are new optical identifications: Swift J0535.2+2830, Swift J2006.4+3645, IGR J21095+4322, and Swift J2116.5+5336. Coherent pulsations are detected from three objects for the first time, Swift J0535.2+2830 (1523 s), 2PBC J1911.4+1412 (747 s), and 1SWXRT J230642.7+550817 (464 s), indicating that they are intermediate polars (IPs). We find two new eclipsing systems in time-series photometry: 2PBC J0658.0‑1746, a polar with a period of 2.38 hr, and Swift J2116.5+5336, a disk system that has an eclipse period of 6.56 hr. Exact or approximate spectroscopic orbital periods are found for six additional targets. Of note is the long 4.637-day orbit for Swift J0623.9‑0939, which is revealed by the radial velocities of the photospheric absorption lines of the secondary star. We also discover a 12.76 hr orbital period for RX J2015.6+3711, which confirms that the previously detected 2.00 hr X-ray period from this star is the spin period of an IP, as inferred by Coti Zelati et al. These results support the conclusion that hard X-ray selection favors magnetic CVs, with IPs outnumbering polars.

  4. CHANDRA X-RAY AND HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING OF OPTICALLY SELECTED KILOPARSEC-SCALE BINARY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. HOST GALAXY MORPHOLOGY AND AGN ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Shangguan, Jinyi; Ho, Luis C.; Liu, Xin

    Binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provide clues to how gas-rich mergers trigger and fuel AGNs and how supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs evolve in a gas-rich environment. While significant effort has been invested in their identification, the detailed properties of binary AGNs and their host galaxies are still poorly constrained. In a companion paper, we examined the nature of ionizing sources in the double nuclei of four kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs with redshifts between 0.1 and 0.2. Here, we present their host galaxy morphology based on F336W ( U -band) and F105W ( Y -band) images taken by the Wide Fieldmore » Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope . Our targets have double-peaked narrow emission lines and were confirmed to host binary AGNs with follow-up observations. We find that kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs occur in galaxy mergers with diverse morphological types. There are three major mergers with intermediate morphologies and a minor merger with a dominant disk component. We estimate the masses of the SMBHs from their host bulge stellar masses and obtain Eddington ratios for each AGN. Compared with a representative control sample drawn at the same redshift and stellar mass, the AGN luminosities and Eddington ratios of our binary AGNs are similar to those of single AGNs. The U − Y color maps indicate that clumpy star-forming regions could significantly affect the X-ray detection of binary AGNs, e.g., the hardness ratio. Considering the weak X-ray emission in AGNs triggered in merger systems, we suggest that samples of X-ray-selected AGNs may be biased against gas-rich mergers.« less

  5. The SEDs and Host Galaxies of the Dustiest GRB Afterglows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruhler, T.; Greiner, J.; Schady, P.; Savaglio, S.; Afonso, P. M. J.; Clemens, C.; Elliott, J.; Filgas, R.; Gruber, D.; Kann, D. A.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The afterglows and host galaxies of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) offer unique opportunities to study star-forming galaxies in the high-z Universe, Until recently, however. the information inferred from GRB follow-up observations was mostly limited to optically bright afterglows. biasing all demographic studies against sight-lines that contain large amounts of dust. Aims. Here we present afterglow and host observations for a sample of bursts that are exemplary of previously missed ones because of high visual extinction (A(sub v) (Sup GRB) approx > 1 mag) along the sight-line. This facilitates an investigation of the properties, geometry and location of the absorbing dust of these poorly-explored host galaxies. and a comparison to hosts from optically-selected samples. Methods. This work is based on GROND optical/NIR and Swift/XRT X-ray observations of the afterglows, and multi-color imaging for eight GRB hosts. The afterglow and galaxy spectral energy distributions yield detailed insight into physical properties such as the dust and metal content along the GRB sight-line as well as galaxy-integrated characteristics like the host's stellar mass, luminosity. color-excess and star-formation rate. Results. For the eight afterglows considered in this study we report for the first time the redshift of GRBs 081109 (z = 0.97S7 +/- 0.0005). and the visual extinction towards GRBs 0801109 (A(sub v) (Sup GRB) = 3.4(sup +0.4) (sub -0.3) mag) and l00621A (A(sub v) (Sup GRB) = 3.8 +/- 0.2 mag), which are among the largest ever derived for GRB afterglows. Combined with non-extinguished GRBs. there is a strong anti-correlation between the afterglow's metals-to-dust ratio and visual extinction. The hosts of the dustiest afterglows are diverse in their properties, but on average redder(((R - K)(sub AB)) approximates 1.6 mag), more luminous ( approximates 0.9 L (sup *)) and massive ((log M(sup *) [M(solar]) approximates 9.8) than the hosts of optically-bright events. We hence probe

  6. THE EXTREMELY RED HOST GALAXY OF GRB 080207

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Leslie; Cresci, Giovanni; Palazzi, Eliana

    2011-08-01

    We present optical, near-infrared, and Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations of the host galaxy of the dark Swift gamma-ray burst GRB 080207. The host is faint, with extremely red optical-infrared colors (R - K = 6.3, 24 {mu}m/R-band flux {approx}1000) making it an extremely red object (ERO) and a dust-obscured galaxy (DOG). The spectral energy distribution (SED) shows the clear signature of the 1.6 {mu}m photometric 'bump', typical of evolved stellar populations. We use this bump to establish the photometric redshift z{sub phot} as 2.2{sup +0.2}{sub -0.3}, using a vast library of SED templates, including M 82. The star formationmore » rate (SFR) inferred from the SED fitting is {approx}119 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, the stellar mass 3 x 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}, and A{sub V} extinction from 1 to 2 mag. The ERO and DOG nature of the host galaxy of the dark GRB 080207 may be emblematic of a distinct class of dark GRB hosts, with high SFRs, evolved and metal-rich stellar populations, and significant dust extinction within the host galaxy.« less

  7. X-ray Selected Symbiotic Candidates in the Galactic Bulge Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, Robert I.; Wetuski, Joshua` D.; Jonker, Peter; Torres, Manuel; Heinke, Craig O.; Maccarone, Tom; Steeghs, Danny; Britt, Christopher; Johnson, Christopher; Nelemans, Gijs

    2017-06-01

    The Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) is a broad, shallow survey of Bulge X-ray sources with extensive multiwavelength support. The limiting sensitivity, about 2×1032 erg/s at the Bulge distance, is well suited to finding symbiotic X-ray binaries (SyXBs) containing neutron stars accreting from a cool giant wind, as well as X-ray bright white dwarf systems. Giant counterparts can be securely detected in IR photometry, allowing us to estimate the total number of symbiotics detected by the GBS, and identify a good number of promising candidates. Such an X-ray selected symbiotic sample may be quite different to the traditional symbiotic star population which is usually selected by optical spectroscopy, and consequently biased towards systems with rich line emission. Of the 1640 unique X-ray sources identified by the GBS we find 91 significant matches with candidate Bulge giants. We expect 68 coincidences, so estimate a total sample of about 23 X-ray emitting cool giants detected by the GBS. Most of these are likely to be SyXBs or symbiotics of some type. Narrowing our search to sources coincident to 1", we find 23 matches, with only 8 coincidences expected, so this subsample has a relatively high purity, and likely includes most of the GBS symbiotics. The properties of this subsample are mostly consistent with cool giants, with typical SEDs, long-term lightcurves, and spectra. The sources are inconsistent in color with nearby M dwarfs and show small proper motions, so the foreground contamination is likely small. We present a selection of the best studied objects, focusing on one extremely variable X-ray source coincident with a carbon giant. This is quite an unusual object as carbon stars are rare in the Bulge. The scientific results reported in this article are based on observations made by the Chandra X-ray Observatory and data obtained from the Chandra Data Archive. Support for this work was provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through Chandra

  8. Type Ia supernova host galaxies as seen with IFU spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanishev, V.; Rodrigues, M.; Mourão, A.; Flores, H.

    2012-09-01

    Context. Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been widely used in cosmology as distance indicators. However, to fully exploit their potential in cosmology, a better control over systematic uncertainties is required. Some of the uncertainties are related to the unknown nature of the SN Ia progenitors. Aims: We aim to test the use of integral field unit (IFU) spectroscopy for correlating the properties of nearby SNe Ia with the properties of their host galaxies at the location of the SNe. The results are to be compared with those obtained from an analysis of the total host spectrum. The goal is to explore this path of constraining the nature of the SN Ia progenitors and further improve the use of SNe Ia in cosmology. Methods: We used the wide-field IFU spectrograph PMAS/PPAK at the 3.5 m telescope of Calar Alto Observatory to observe six nearby spiral galaxies that hosted SNe Ia. Spatially resolved 2D maps of the properties of the ionized gas and the stellar populations were derived. Results: Five of the observed galaxies have an ongoing star formation rate of 1-5 M⊙ yr-1 and mean stellar population ages ~5 Gyr. The sixth galaxy shows no star formation and has an about 12 Gyr old stellar population. All galaxies have stellar masses larger than 2 × 1010 M⊙ and metallicities above solar. Four galaxies show negative radial metallicity gradients of the ionized gas up to -0.058 dex kpc-1 and one has nearly uniform metallicity with a possible shallow positive slope. The stellar components show shallower negative metallicity gradients up to -0.03 dex kpc-1. We find no clear correlation between the properties of the galaxy and those of the supernovae, which may be because of the small ranges spanned by the galaxy parameters. However, we note that the Hubble residuals are on average positive while negative Hubble residuals are expected for SNe Ia in massive hosts such as the galaxies in our sample. Conclusions: The IFU spectroscopy on 4-m telescopes is a viable technique for

  9. QSO Narrow [OIII] Line Width and Host Galaxy Luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonning, E. W.; Shields, G. A.; Salviander, S.

    2004-05-01

    Established correlations between galaxy bulge luminosity L, black hole mass MBH, and stellar velocity dispersion sigma in galaxies suggest a close relationship between the growth of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. Measurements of the MBH - sigma relationship as a function of cosmic time may shed light on the origin of this relationship. One approach is to derive MBH and sigma from the widths of QSO broad and narrow lines, respectively (Shields et al. 2003, ApJ, 583, 124; Nelson 2000, ApJ, 544, L91). We investigate the utility of using the velocity of the narrow line emitting gas as a surrogate for stellar velocity dispersion in QSOs by examining host magnitudes and [OIII] line widths for low redshift QSOs. For our limited range of L, the increase in sigma with L predicted by the Faber-Jackson relation is substantially obscured by scatter. However, sigma([O III]) is consistent in the mean with host galaxy luminosity. EWB is a NASA GSRP fellow. GAS and SS are supported under Texas Advanced Research Program grant 003658-0177-2001 and NSF grant AST-0098594.

  10. REVISITING THE FIRST GALAXIES: THE EFFECTS OF POPULATION III STARS ON THEIR HOST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Muratov, Alexander L.; Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Zemp, Marcel

    2013-08-01

    We revisit the formation and evolution of the first galaxies using new hydrodynamic cosmological simulations with the adaptive refinement tree code. Our simulations feature a recently developed model for H{sub 2} formation and dissociation, and a star formation recipe that is based on molecular rather than atomic gas. Here, we develop and implement a recipe for the formation of metal-free Population III (Pop III) stars in galaxy-scale simulations that resolve primordial clouds with sufficiently high density. We base our recipe on the results of prior zoom-in simulations that resolved the protostellar collapse in pre-galactic objects. We find the epoch duringmore » which Pop III stars dominated the energy and metal budget of the first galaxies to be short-lived. Galaxies that host Pop III stars do not retain dynamical signatures of their thermal and radiative feedback for more than 10{sup 8} years after the lives of the stars end in pair-instability supernovae, even when we consider the maximum reasonable efficiency of the feedback. Though metals ejected by the supernovae can travel well beyond the virial radius of the host galaxy, they typically begin to fall back quickly, and do not enrich a large fraction of the intergalactic medium. Galaxies with a total mass in excess of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun} re-accrete most of their baryons and transition to metal-enriched Pop II star formation.« less

  11. Revisiting The First Galaxies: The effects of Population III stars on their host galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Muratov, Alexander L.; Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2013-07-12

    We revisit the formation and evolution of the first galaxies using new hydrodynamic cosmological simulations with the adaptive refinement tree code. Our simulations feature a recently developed model for H 2 formation and dissociation, and a star formation recipe that is based on molecular rather than atomic gas. Here, we develop and implement a recipe for the formation of metal-free Population III (Pop III) stars in galaxy-scale simulations that resolve primordial clouds with sufficiently high density. We base our recipe on the results of prior zoom-in simulations that resolved the protostellar collapse in pre-galactic objects. We find the epoch duringmore » which Pop III stars dominated the energy and metal budget of the first galaxies to be short-lived. Galaxies that host Pop III stars do not retain dynamical signatures of their thermal and radiative feedback for more than 10 8 years after the lives of the stars end in pair-instability supernovae, even when we consider the maximum reasonable efficiency of the feedback. Though metals ejected by the supernovae can travel well beyond the virial radius of the host galaxy, they typically begin to fall back quickly, and do not enrich a large fraction of the intergalactic medium. Galaxies with a total mass in excess of 3 × 10 6 M ⊙ re-accrete most of their baryons and transition to metal-enriched Pop II star formation.« less

  12. Radio morphology and parent population of X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurent-Muehleisen, S. A.; Kollgaard, R. I.; Moellenbrock, G. A.; Feigelson, E. D.

    1993-01-01

    High-dynamic range (typically 1700:1) radio maps of 15 X-ray BL Lac (XBL) objects from the HEAO-1 Large Area Sky Survey are presented. Morphological characteristics of these sources are compared with Fanaroff-Riley (FR) class I radio galaxies in the context of unified schemes, with reference to one-sided kiloparsec-scale emission. Evidence that cluster membership of XBLs is significantly higher than previously thought is also presented. It is shown that the extended radio powers, X-ray emission, core-to-lobe ratios, and linear sizes of the radio selected BL Lac (RBL) and XBL populations are consistent with an FR I radio galaxy parent population. A source list and VLA observing log and map parameters are provided.

  13. SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AND THEIR HOST SPHEROIDS. I. DISASSEMBLING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Savorgnan, G. A. D.; Graham, A. W., E-mail: gsavorgn@astro.swin.edu.au

    Several recent studies have performed galaxy decompositions to investigate correlations between the black hole mass and various properties of the host spheroid, but they have not converged on the same conclusions. This is because their models for the same galaxy were often significantly different and not consistent with each other in terms of fitted components. Using 3.6 μm Spitzer imagery, which is a superb tracer of the stellar mass (superior to the K band), we have performed state-of-the-art multicomponent decompositions for 66 galaxies with directly measured black hole masses. Our sample is the largest to date and, unlike previous studies, containsmore » a large number (17) of spiral galaxies with low black hole masses. We paid careful attention to the image mosaicking, sky subtraction, and masking of contaminating sources. After a scrupulous inspection of the galaxy photometry (through isophotal analysis and unsharp masking) and—for the first time—2D kinematics, we were able to account for spheroids; large-scale, intermediate-scale, and nuclear disks; bars; rings; spiral arms; halos; extended or unresolved nuclear sources; and partially depleted cores. For each individual galaxy, we compared our best-fit model with previous studies, explained the discrepancies, and identified the optimal decomposition. Moreover, we have independently performed one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) decompositions and concluded that, at least when modeling large, nearby galaxies, 1D techniques have more advantages than 2D techniques. Finally, we developed a prescription to estimate the uncertainties on the 1D best-fit parameters for the 66 spheroids that takes into account systematic errors, unlike popular 2D codes that only consider statistical errors.« less

  14. Supermassive Black Holes and Their Host Spheroids. I. Disassembling Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savorgnan, G. A. D.; Graham, A. W.

    2016-01-01

    Several recent studies have performed galaxy decompositions to investigate correlations between the black hole mass and various properties of the host spheroid, but they have not converged on the same conclusions. This is because their models for the same galaxy were often significantly different and not consistent with each other in terms of fitted components. Using 3.6 μm Spitzer imagery, which is a superb tracer of the stellar mass (superior to the K band), we have performed state-of-the-art multicomponent decompositions for 66 galaxies with directly measured black hole masses. Our sample is the largest to date and, unlike previous studies, contains a large number (17) of spiral galaxies with low black hole masses. We paid careful attention to the image mosaicking, sky subtraction, and masking of contaminating sources. After a scrupulous inspection of the galaxy photometry (through isophotal analysis and unsharp masking) and—for the first time—2D kinematics, we were able to account for spheroids large-scale, intermediate-scale, and nuclear disks bars rings spiral arms halos extended or unresolved nuclear sources; and partially depleted cores. For each individual galaxy, we compared our best-fit model with previous studies, explained the discrepancies, and identified the optimal decomposition. Moreover, we have independently performed one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) decompositions and concluded that, at least when modeling large, nearby galaxies, 1D techniques have more advantages than 2D techniques. Finally, we developed a prescription to estimate the uncertainties on the 1D best-fit parameters for the 66 spheroids that takes into account systematic errors, unlike popular 2D codes that only consider statistical errors.

  15. Starburst-driven Superwinds in Quasar Host Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Barthel, Peter; Podigachoski, Pece; Wilkes, Belinda

    2017-07-01

    During the past five decades astronomers have been puzzled by the presence of strong absorption features including metal lines, observed in the optical and ultraviolet spectra of quasars, signaling inflowing and outflowing gas winds with relative velocities up to several thousands of km s{sup −1}. In particular, the location of these winds—close to the quasar, further out in its host galaxy, or in its direct environment—and the possible impact on their surroundings have been issues of intense discussion and uncertainty. Using our Herschel Space Observatory data, we report a tendency for this so-called associated metal absorption to occur along withmore » prodigious star formation in the quasar host galaxy, indicating that the two phenomena are likely to be interrelated, that the gas winds likely occur on the kiloparsec scale and would then have a strong impact on the interstellar medium of the galaxy. This correlation moreover would imply that the unusually high cold dust luminosities in these quasars are connected with ongoing star formation. Given that we find no correlation with the AGN strength, the wind feedback that we establish in these radio-loud objects is most likely associated with their host star formation rather than with their black hole accretion.« less

  16. SDSS IV MaNGA - Properties of AGN Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Avila-Reese, V.; Hernandez-Toledo, H.; Cortes-Suárez, E.; Rodríguez-Puebla, A.; Ibarra-Medel, H.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Negrete, C. A.; Calette, A. R.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Ortega-Minakata, R. A.; Aquino, E.; Valenzuela, O.; Clemente, J. C.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Riffel, R.; Schimoia, J.; Riffel, R. A.; Rembold, S. B.; Brownstein, J. R.; Pan, K.; Yates, R.; Mallmann, N.; Bitsakis, T.

    2018-04-01

    We present the characterization of the main properties of a sample of 98 AGN host galaxies, both type-II and type-I, in comparison with those of ≍2700 non-active galaxies observed by the MaNGA survey. We found that AGN hosts are morphologically early-type or early-spirals. AGN hosts are, on average, more massive, more compact, more centrally peaked and more pressure-supported systems. They are located in the intermediate/transition region between starforming and non-star-forming galaxies (i.e., the so-called green valley). We consider that they are in the process of halting/quenching the star formation. The analysis of the radial distributions of different properties shows that the quenching happens from inside-out involving both a decrease of the effciency of the star formation and a deficit of molecular gas. The data-products of the current analysis are distributed as a Value Added Catalog within the SDSS-DR14.

  17. ARE SOME MILKY WAY GLOBULAR CLUSTERS HOSTED BY UNDISCOVERED GALAXIES?

    SciTech Connect

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Crnojević, Denija; Sand, David J., E-mail: dennis.zaritsky@gmail.com

    2016-07-20

    The confirmation of a globular cluster (GC) in the recently discovered ultrafaint galaxy Eridanus II (Eri II) motivated us to examine the question posed in the title. After estimating the halo mass of Eri II using a published stellar mass—halo mass relation, the one GC in this galaxy supports extending the relationship between the number of GCs hosted by a galaxy and the galaxy’s total mass about two orders of magnitude in stellar mass below the previous limit. For this empirically determined specific frequency of between 0.06 and 0.39 GCs per 10{sup 9} M {sub ⊙} of total mass, themore » surviving Milky Way (MW) subhalos with masses smaller than 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙} could host as many as 5–31 GCs, broadly consistent with the actual population of outer halo MW GCs, although matching the radial distribution in detail remains a challenge. Using a subhalo mass function from published high-resolution numerical simulations and a Poissonian model for populating those halos with the aforementioned empirically constrained frequency, we find that about 90% of these GCs lie in lower-mass subhalos than that of Eri II. From what we know about the stellar mass–halo mass function, the subhalo mass function, and the mass-normalized GC specific frequency, we conclude that some of the MW’s outer halo GCs are likely to be hosted by undetected subhalos with extremely modest stellar populations.« less

  18. Toward An Understanding of Cluster Evolution: A Deep X-Ray Selected Cluster Catalog from ROSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Christine; Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In the past year, we have focussed on studying individual clusters found in this sample with Chandra, as well as using Chandra to measure the luminosity-temperature relation for a sample of distant clusters identified through the ROSAT study, and finally we are continuing our study of fossil groups. For the luminosity-temperature study, we compared a sample of nearby clusters with a sample of distant clusters and, for the first time, measured a significant change in the relation as a function of redshift (Vikhlinin et al. in final preparation for submission to Cape). We also used our ROSAT analysis to select and propose for Chandra observations of individual clusters. We are now analyzing the Chandra observations of the distant cluster A520, which appears to have undergone a recent merger. Finally, we have completed the analysis of the fossil groups identified in ROM observations. In the past few months, we have derived X-ray fluxes and luminosities as well as X-ray extents for an initial sample of 89 objects. Based on the X-ray extents and the lack of bright galaxies, we have identified 16 fossil groups. We are comparing their X-ray and optical properties with those of optically rich groups. A paper is being readied for submission (Jones, Forman, and Vikhlinin in preparation).

  19. Luminosity function and cosmological evolution of X-ray selected quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccacaro, T.; Gioia, I. M.

    1983-01-01

    The preliminary analysis of a complete sample of 55 X-ray sources is presented as part of the Medium Sensitivity Survey of the Einstein Observatory. A pure luminosity evolutionary law is derived in order to determine the uniform distribution of the sources and the rates of evolution for Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) observed by X-ray and optical techniques are compared. A nonparametric representation of the luminosity function is fitted to the observational data. On the basis of the reduced data, it is determined that: (1) AGNs evolve cosmologically; (2) less evolution is required to explain the X-ray data than the optical data; (3) the high-luminosity portion of the X-ray luminosity can be described by a power-law with a slope of gamma = 3.6; and (4) the X-ray luminosity function flattens at low luminosities. Some of the implications of the results for conventional theoretical models of the evolution of quasars and Seyfert galaxies are discussed.

  20. The Influence of Host Galaxies in Type Ia Supernova Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Syed A.; Mould, Jeremy; Lidman, Chris; Ruhlmann-Kleider, Vanina; Zhang, Bonnie R.

    2017-10-01

    We use a sample of 1338 spectroscopically confirmed and photometrically classified Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) sourced from Carnegie Supernova Project, Center for Astrophysics Supernova Survey, Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II, and SuperNova Legacy Survey SN samples to examine the relationships between SNe Ia and the galaxies that host them. Our results provide confirmation with improved statistical significance that SNe Ia, after standardization, are on average more luminous in massive hosts (significance >5σ), and decline more rapidly in massive hosts (significance >9σ) and in hosts with low specific star formation rates (significance >8σ). We study the variation of these relationships with redshift and detect no evolution. We split SNe Ia into pairs of subsets that are based on the properties of the hosts and fit cosmological models to each subset. Including both systematic and statistical uncertainties, we do not find any significant shift in the best-fit cosmological parameters between the subsets. Among different SN Ia subsets, we find that SNe Ia in hosts with high specific star formation rates have the least intrinsic scatter (σ int = 0.08 ± 0.01) in luminosity after standardization.

  1. The Influence of Host Galaxies in Type Ia Supernova Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Uddin, Syed A.; Mould, Jeremy; Lidman, Chris

    We use a sample of 1338 spectroscopically confirmed and photometrically classified Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) sourced from Carnegie Supernova Project, Center for Astrophysics Supernova Survey, Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II, and SuperNova Legacy Survey SN samples to examine the relationships between SNe Ia and the galaxies that host them. Our results provide confirmation with improved statistical significance that SNe Ia, after standardization, are on average more luminous in massive hosts (significance >5 σ ), and decline more rapidly in massive hosts (significance >9 σ ) and in hosts with low specific star formation rates (significance >8 σ ). We studymore » the variation of these relationships with redshift and detect no evolution. We split SNe Ia into pairs of subsets that are based on the properties of the hosts and fit cosmological models to each subset. Including both systematic and statistical uncertainties, we do not find any significant shift in the best-fit cosmological parameters between the subsets. Among different SN Ia subsets, we find that SNe Ia in hosts with high specific star formation rates have the least intrinsic scatter ( σ {sub int} = 0.08 ± 0.01) in luminosity after standardization.« less

  2. Strong bimodality in the host halo mass of central galaxies from galaxy-galaxy lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; Wang, Wenting; Zu, Ying; White, Simon; Henriques, Bruno; More, Surhud

    2016-04-01

    We use galaxy-galaxy lensing to study the dark matter haloes surrounding a sample of locally brightest galaxies (LBGs) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We measure mean halo mass as a function of the stellar mass and colour of the central galaxy. Mock catalogues constructed from semi-analytic galaxy formation simulations demonstrate that most LBGs are the central objects of their haloes, greatly reducing interpretation uncertainties due to satellite contributions to the lensing signal. Over the full stellar mass range, 10.3 < log [M*/M⊙] < 11.6, we find that passive central galaxies have haloes that are at least twice as massive as those of star-forming objects of the same stellar mass. The significance of this effect exceeds 3σ for log [M*/M⊙] > 10.7. Tests using the mock catalogues and on the data themselves clarify the effects of LBG selection and show that it cannot artificially induce a systematic dependence of halo mass on LBG colour. The bimodality in halo mass at fixed stellar mass is reproduced by the astrophysical model underlying our mock catalogue, but the sign of the effect is inconsistent with recent, nearly parameter-free age-matching models. The sign and magnitude of the effect can, however, be reproduced by halo occupation distribution models with a simple (few-parameter) prescription for type dependence.

  3. The Star Formation Reference Survey - II. Activity demographics and host-galaxy properties for infrared-selected galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maragkoudakis, A.; Zezas, A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.

    2018-04-01

    We present activity demographics and host-galaxy properties of infrared-selected galaxies in the local Universe, using the representative Star Formation Reference Survey (SFRS). Our classification scheme is based on a combination of optical emission-line diagrams (BPT) and infrared (IR)-colour diagnostics. Using the weights assigned to the SFRS galaxies based on its parent sample, a far-IR-selected sample comprises 71 per cent H II galaxies, 13 per cent Seyferts, 3 per cent transition objects (TOs), and 13 per cent low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs). For the SFRS H II galaxies, we derive nuclear star formation rates and gas-phase metallicities. We measure host-galaxy metallicities for all galaxies with available long-slit spectroscopy and abundance gradients for a subset of 12 face-on galaxies. The majority of H II galaxies show a narrow range of metallicities, close to solar, and flat metallicity profiles. Based on their host-galaxy and nuclear properties, the dominant ionizing source in the far-infrared selected TOs is star-forming activity. LINERs are found mostly in massive hosts (median of 1010.5 M⊙), median L(60 μm) = 109 L⊙, median dust temperatures of F60/F100 = 0.36, and median LH α surface density of 1040.2 erg s-1kpc-2, indicating older stellar populations as their main ionizing source rather than active galactic nucleus activity.

  4. Quasar Host Galaxies/Neptune Rotation/Galaxy Building Blocks/Hubble Deep Field/Saturn Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Computerized animations simulate a quasar erupting in the core of a normal spiral galaxy, the collision of two interacting galaxies, and the evolution of the universe. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images show six quasars' host galaxies (including spirals, ellipticals, and colliding galaxies) and six clumps of galaxies approximately 11 billion light years away. A false color time lapse movie of Neptune displays the planet's 16-hour rotation, and the evolution of a storm on Saturn is seen though a video of the planet's rotation. A zoom sequence starts with a ground-based image of the constellation Ursa major and ends with the Hubble Deep Field through progressively narrower and deeper views.

  5. The host galaxy of a fast radio burst.

    PubMed

    Keane, E F; Johnston, S; Bhandari, S; Barr, E; Bhat, N D R; Burgay, M; Caleb, M; Flynn, C; Jameson, A; Kramer, M; Petroff, E; Possenti, A; van Straten, W; Bailes, M; Burke-Spolaor, S; Eatough, R P; Stappers, B W; Totani, T; Honma, M; Furusawa, H; Hattori, T; Morokuma, T; Niino, Y; Sugai, H; Terai, T; Tominaga, N; Yamasaki, S; Yasuda, N; Allen, R; Cooke, J; Jencson, J; Kasliwal, M M; Kaplan, D L; Tingay, S J; Williams, A; Wayth, R; Chandra, P; Perrodin, D; Berezina, M; Mickaliger, M; Bassa, C

    2016-02-25

    In recent years, millisecond-duration radio signals originating in distant galaxies appear to have been discovered in the so-called fast radio bursts. These signals are dispersed according to a precise physical law and this dispersion is a key observable quantity, which, in tandem with a redshift measurement, can be used for fundamental physical investigations. Every fast radio burst has a dispersion measurement, but none before now have had a redshift measurement, because of the difficulty in pinpointing their celestial coordinates. Here we report the discovery of a fast radio burst and the identification of a fading radio transient lasting ~6 days after the event, which we use to identify the host galaxy; we measure the galaxy's redshift to be z = 0.492 ± 0.008. The dispersion measure and redshift, in combination, provide a direct measurement of the cosmic density of ionized baryons in the intergalactic medium of ΩIGM = 4.9 ± 1.3 per cent, in agreement with the expectation from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, and including all of the so-called 'missing baryons'. The ~6-day radio transient is largely consistent with the radio afterglow of a short γ-ray burst, and its existence and timescale do not support progenitor models such as giant pulses from pulsars, and supernovae. This contrasts with the interpretation of another recently discovered fast radio burst, suggesting that there are at least two classes of bursts.

  6. A Comparison of Seyfert 1 and 2 Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Robertis, M.; Virani, S.

    2000-12-01

    Wide-field, R-band CCD data of 15 Seyfert 1 and 15 Seyfert 2 galaxies taken from the CfA survey were analysed in order to compare the properties of their host galaxies. As well, B-band images for a subset of 12 Seyfert 1s and 7 Seyfert 2s were acquired and analysed in the same way. A robust technique for decomposing the three components---nucleus, bulge and disk---was developed in order determine the structural parameters for each galaxy. In effect, the nuclear contribution was removed empirically by using a spatially nearby, high signal-to-noise ratio point source as a template. Profile fits to the bulge+disk ignored data within three seeing disks of the nucleus. Of the many parameters that were compared between Seyfert 1s and 2s, only two distributions differed at greater than the 95% confidence level for the K-S test: the magnitude of the nuclear component, and the radial color gradient outside the nucleus. The former is expected. The latter could be consistent with some proposed evolutionary models. There is some suggestion that other parameters may differ, but at a lower confidence level.

  7. Chandra X-Ray and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Optically Selected Kiloparsec-scale Binary Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Host Galaxy Morphology and AGN Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangguan, Jinyi; Liu, Xin; Ho, Luis C.; Shen, Yue; Peng, Chien Y.; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    Binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provide clues to how gas-rich mergers trigger and fuel AGNs and how supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs evolve in a gas-rich environment. While significant effort has been invested in their identification, the detailed properties of binary AGNs and their host galaxies are still poorly constrained. In a companion paper, we examined the nature of ionizing sources in the double nuclei of four kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs with redshifts between 0.1 and 0.2. Here, we present their host galaxy morphology based on F336W (U-band) and F105W (Y-band) images taken by the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Our targets have double-peaked narrow emission lines and were confirmed to host binary AGNs with follow-up observations. We find that kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs occur in galaxy mergers with diverse morphological types. There are three major mergers with intermediate morphologies and a minor merger with a dominant disk component. We estimate the masses of the SMBHs from their host bulge stellar masses and obtain Eddington ratios for each AGN. Compared with a representative control sample drawn at the same redshift and stellar mass, the AGN luminosities and Eddington ratios of our binary AGNs are similar to those of single AGNs. The U - Y color maps indicate that clumpy star-forming regions could significantly affect the X-ray detection of binary AGNs, e.g., the hardness ratio. Considering the weak X-ray emission in AGNs triggered in merger systems, we suggest that samples of X-ray-selected AGNs may be biased against gas-rich mergers. Based, in part, on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program number GO 12363.

  8. Image decomposition of barred galaxies and AGN hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, Dimitri Alexei

    2008-02-01

    I present the results of multicomponent decomposition of V and R broad-band images of a sample of 17 nearby galaxies, most of them hosting bars and active galactic nuclei (AGN). I use BUDDA v2.1 to produce the fits, allowing the inclusion of bars and AGN in the models. A comparison with previous results from the literature shows a fairly good agreement. It is found that the axial ratio of bars, as measured from ellipse fits, can be severely underestimated if the galaxy axisymmetric component is relatively luminous. Thus, reliable bar axial ratios can only be determined by taking into account the contributions of bulge and disc to the light distribution in the galaxy image. Through a number of tests, I show that neglecting bars when modelling barred galaxies can result in an overestimation of the bulge-to-total luminosity ratio of a factor of 2. Similar effects result when bright, type 1 AGN are not considered in the models. By artificially redshifting the images, I show that the structural parameters of more distant galaxies can in general be reliably retrieved through image fitting, at least up to the point where the physical spatial resolution is ~1.5kpc. This corresponds, for instance, to images of galaxies at z = 0.05 with a seeing full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 1.5arcsec, typical of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). In addition, such a resolution is also similar to what can be achieved with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and ground-based telescopes with adaptive optics, at z ~ 1-2. Thus, these results also concern deeper studies such as COSMOS and SINS. This exercise shows that disc parameters are particularly robust, but bulge parameters are prone to errors if its effective radius is small compared to the seeing radius, and might suffer from systematic effects. For instance, the bulge-to-total luminosity ratio is systematically overestimated, on average, by 0.05 (i.e. 5 per cent of the galaxy total luminosity). In this low-resolution regime, the

  9. The middle infrared properties of OH megamaser host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. S.; Wang, J. Z.; Di, G. X.; Zhu, Q. F.; Guo, Q.; Wang, J.

    2014-10-01

    We compiled all 119 OH maser galaxies (110 out of them are megamasers, i.e., LOH> 10 L⊙) published so far and cross-identified these OH masers with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) catalog, to investigate the middle infrared (MIR) properties of OH maser galaxies. The WISE magnitude data at the 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 μm (W1 to W4) are collected for the OH maser sample and one control sample, which are non-detection sources. The color-color diagrams show that both OH megamaser (OHM) and non-OHM (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs) are far away from the single blackbody model line and many of them can follow the path described by the power-law model. The active galaxy nuclei (AGN) fraction is about ~40% for both OHM and non-OHM (U)LIRGs, according to the AGN criteria W1 - W2 ≥ 0.8. Among the Arecibo survey sample, OHM sources tend to have a lower luminosity at short MIR wavelengths (e.g., 3.4 μm and 4.6 μm) than that of non-OHM sources, which should come from the low OHM fraction among the survey sample with large 3.4 μm and 4.6 μm luminosity. The OHM fraction tends to increase with cooler MIR colors (larger F22 μm/F3.4 μm). These may be good for sample selection when searching OH megamasers, such as excluding extreme luminous sources at short MIR wavelengths, choosing sources with cooler MIR colors. In the case of the power-law model, we derived the spectral indices for our samples. For the Arecibo survey sample, OHM (U)LIRGs tend to have larger spectral index α22-12 than non-OHM sources, which agrees with previous results. One significant correlation exists between the WISE infrared luminosity at 22μm and the color [W1]-[W4] for the Arecibo OHM hosts. These clues should provide suitable constraints on the sample selection for OH megamaser surveys by future advanced telescopes (e.g., FAST). In addition, the correlation of maser luminosity and the MIR luminosity of maser hosts tends to be non-significant, which may indirectly support

  10. Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy of Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharwächter, J.; Husemann, B.; Busch, G.; Komossa, S.; Dopita, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    We present optical integral field spectroscopy for five z< 0.062 narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies, probing their host galaxies at ≳ 2{--}3 {kpc} scales. Emission lines from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) and the large-scale host galaxy are analyzed separately, based on an AGN-host decomposition technique. The host galaxy gas kinematics indicates large-scale gas rotation in all five sources. At the probed scales of ≳ 2{--}3 {kpc}, the host galaxy gas is found to be predominantly ionized by star formation without any evidence of a strong AGN contribution. None of the five objects shows specific star formation rates (SFRs) exceeding the main sequence of low-redshift star-forming galaxies. The specific SFRs for MCG-05-01-013 and WPVS 007 are roughly consistent with the main sequence, while ESO 399-IG20, MS 22549-3712, and TON S180 show lower specific SFRs, intermediate to the main sequence and the red quiescent galaxies. The host galaxy metallicities, derived for the two sources with sufficient data quality (ESO 399-IG20 and MCG-05-01-013), indicate central oxygen abundances just below the low-redshift mass-metallicity relation. Based on this initial case study, we outline a comparison of AGN and host galaxy parameters as a starting point for future extended NLS1 studies with similar methods.

  11. Identification and properties of host galaxies of RCR radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhelenkova, O. P.; Soboleva, N. S.; Majorova, E. K.; Temirova, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    FIRST and NVSS radio maps are used to cross identify the radio sources of the RCR catalog, which is based on observational data obtained in several runs of the "Cold" survey, with the SDSS and DPOSS digital optical sky surveys and the 2MASS, LAS UKIDSS, and WISE infrared surveys. Digital images in various filters and the coadded gri-band SDSS images, red and infrared DPOSS images, JHK-band UKIDSS images, and JHK-band 2MASS images are analyzed for the sources with no optical candidates found in the above catalogs. Our choice of optical candidates was based on the data on the structure of the radio source, its photometry, and spectroscopy (where available). We found reliable identifications for 86% of the radio sources; possible counterparts for 8% of the sources, and failed to find any optical counterparts for 6% of the sources because their host objects proved to be fainter than the limiting magnitude of the corresponding surveys. A little over half of all the identifications proved to be galaxies; about one quarter were quasars, and the types of the remaining objects were difficult to determine because of their faintness. A relation between the luminosity and the radioloudness index was derived and used to estimate the 1.4 and 3.94 GHz luminosities for the sources with unknown redshifts. We found 3% and 60% of all the RCR radio sources to be FRI-type objects ( L ≲ 1024 W/Hz at 1.4 GHz) and powerful FRII-type galaxies ( L ≳ 1026.5 W/Hz), respectively, whereas the rest are sources including objects of the FRI, FRII, and mixed FRI-FRII types. Unlike quasars, galaxies show a trend of decreasing luminosity with decreasing flux density. Note that identification would be quite problematic without the software and resources of the virtual observatory.

  12. Understanding the Host Galaxies of Tidal Disruption Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Nicholas; Generozov, Aleksey; Vasiliev, Eugene; Metzger, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that stellar tidal disruption events (TDE) are strongly overrepresented in rare, post-starburst galaxies. Several dynamical mechanisms have been proposed to elevate their TDE rates, ranging from central stellar overdensities to the presence of supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. These, and other, dynamical hypotheses can be disentangled by comparing observations to theoretical predictions for the TDE delay time distribution (DTD). We show that SMBH binaries are a less plausible solution for the post-starburst preference, as they can only reproduce the observed DTD with extensive fine-tuning. The overdensity hypothesis produces a reasonable match to the observed DTD (based on the limited data currently available), provided that the initial stellar density profile created during the starburst, ρ(r), is exceptional in both steepness and normalization. In particular, explaining the post-starburst preference requires ρ∝r‑γ with γ>2.5, i.e. much steeper than the classic Bahcall-Wolf equilibrium profile of γ=7/4. Radial velocity anisotropies also represent a promising explanation, provided that initial anisotropy parameters of β0≈0.5 are sustainable against the radial orbit instability. As the sample of TDEs with well-studied host galaxies grows, the DTD will become a powerful tool for constraining the exceptional dynamical properties of post-starburst galactic nuclei.

  13. Correlations of the IR Luminosity and Eddington Ratio with a Hard X-ray Selected Sample of AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzy, Richard F.; Winter, Lisa M.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Tueller, Jack

    2008-01-01

    We use the SWIFT Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) sample of hard x-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) with a median redshift of 0.03 and the 2MASS J and K band photometry to examine the correlation of hard x-ray emission to Eddington ratio as well as the relationship of the J and K band nuclear luminosity to the hard x-ray luminosity. The BAT sample is almost unbiased by the effects of obscuration and thus offers the first large unbiased sample for the examination of correlations between different wavelength bands. We find that the near-IR nuclear J and K band luminosity is related to the BAT (14 - 195 keV) luminosity over a factor of 10(exp 3) in luminosity (L(sub IR) approx.equals L(sub BAT)(sup 1.25) and thus is unlikely to be due to dust. We also find that the Eddington ratio is proportional to the x-ray luminosity. This new result should be a strong constraint on models of the formation of the broad band continuum.

  14. Mid- and Near-infrared spectral properties of a sample of Swift-BAT X-ray selected AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Angel; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Malkan, Matthew A.; Ichikawa, Kohei; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Shirahata, M.; Nakagawa, Takao; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Oyabu, Shinki

    2015-08-01

    We present a comparative study of the mid- (MIR) to near-infrared (NIR) properties of a sample of X-ray selected AGNs from the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) 70-month all-sky hard X-ray (14-195 keV) survey. For a sample of 78 AGNs, including both Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 sources with black hole masses derived from 2MASS K-band magnitudes and literature, we obtain spectroscopic data from the IRC (2.5 - 5 μm) and IRS (in the 5-14 μm band) instruments onboard the Akari and Spitzer satellites, respectively. We test possible correlations between the 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.2 and 12.7 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features, the continuum slope and CO optical depth, as well as CO2, H2O, and amorphous silicates. Using the 3.3, 6.2 and 11.3 μm PAH emission features as a proxy for the star-formation rate (SFR) we report the AGN type and Eddington-ratio dependences of circum-nuclear star formation.

  15. The Host Galaxies of Nearby, Optically Luminous, AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petric, Andreea

    2016-01-01

    Coevolution of galaxies and their central black holes (BH) has been the central theme of much of recent extragalactic astronomical research. Observations of the dynamics of stars and gas in the nuclear regions of nearby galaxies suggest that the majority of spheroidal galaxies in the local Universe contain massive BHs and that the masses of those central BH correlate with the velocity dispersions of the stars in the spheroid and the bulge luminosity. Cold ISM is the basic fuel for star-formation and BH growth so its study is essential to understanding how galaxies evolve.I will present high sensitivity observations taken with the Herschel Space Observatory to measure the cold dust content in a sample of 85 nearby (z <= 0.5) QSOs chosen from the optically luminous broad-line PG QSOs sample (QSO1s) and in a complementary sample of 85 narrow-line QSOs (QSO2s) chosen to match the redshift and optical luminosity distribution of the broad-line targets. The FIR data are combined with NIR and MIR measurements from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer to determine their IR spectral energy distributions which we use to assess and compare the aggregate dust properties of QSO1s and QSO2s. I will also present NIR spectroscopy obtained with Gemini's Near-Infrared Spectrograph of a sub-sample of QSO2s and QSO1s which I use to compare the ratio of cold to warm H2 gas that emits in the NIR in the hosts of QSO1s and QSO2s.Finally I will present a comparison of star-formation in QSO1s and QSO2s. For both QSO1s and QSO2s 3stimates of star-formation rates that are based on the total IR continuum emission correlate with those based on the 11.3 micron PAH feature. However, for the QSO1s, star-formation rates estimated from the FIR continuum are higher than those estimated from the 11.3 micron PAH emission. This result can be attributed to a variety of factors including the possible destruction of the PAHs and that, in some sources, a fraction of the

  16. Radio Galaxy Zoo: Machine learning for radio source host galaxy cross-identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alger, M. J.; Banfield, J. K.; Ong, C. S.; Rudnick, L.; Wong, O. I.; Wolf, C.; Andernach, H.; Norris, R. P.; Shabala, S. S.

    2018-05-01

    We consider the problem of determining the host galaxies of radio sources by cross-identification. This has traditionally been done manually, which will be intractable for wide-area radio surveys like the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU). Automated cross-identification will be critical for these future surveys, and machine learning may provide the tools to develop such methods. We apply a standard approach from computer vision to cross-identification, introducing one possible way of automating this problem, and explore the pros and cons of this approach. We apply our method to the 1.4 GHz Australian Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) observations of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS) and the ESO Large Area ISO Survey South 1 (ELAIS-S1) fields by cross-identifying them with the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) survey. We train our method with two sets of data: expert cross-identifications of CDFS from the initial ATLAS data release and crowdsourced cross-identifications of CDFS from Radio Galaxy Zoo. We found that a simple strategy of cross-identifying a radio component with the nearest galaxy performs comparably to our more complex methods, though our estimated best-case performance is near 100 per cent. ATLAS contains 87 complex radio sources that have been cross-identified by experts, so there are not enough complex examples to learn how to cross-identify them accurately. Much larger datasets are therefore required for training methods like ours. We also show that training our method on Radio Galaxy Zoo cross-identifications gives comparable results to training on expert cross-identifications, demonstrating the value of crowdsourced training data.

  17. ON THE HOST GALAXY OF GRB 150101B AND THE ASSOCIATED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Chen; Fang, Taotao; Wang, Junfeng

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the host galaxy of short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) 150101B. Follow-up optical and X-ray observations suggested that the host galaxy, 2MASX J12320498-1056010, likely harbors low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our modeling of the spectral energy distribution has confirmed the nature of the AGN, making it the first reported GRB host that contains an AGN. We have also found the host galaxy is a massive elliptical galaxy with stellar population of ∼5.7 Gyr, one of the oldest among the short-duration GRB hosts. Our analysis suggests that the host galaxy can be classified as an X-ray bright,more » optically normal galaxy, and the central AGN is likely dominated by a radiatively inefficient accretion flow. Our work explores an interesting connection that may exist between GRB and AGN activities of the host galaxy, which can help in understanding the host environment of the GRB events and the roles of AGN feedback.« less

  18. Type Ia supernova Hubble residuals and host-galaxy properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, A. G.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.

    2014-03-20

    Kim et al. introduced a new methodology for determining peak-brightness absolute magnitudes of type Ia supernovae from multi-band light curves. We examine the relation between their parameterization of light curves and Hubble residuals, based on photometry synthesized from the Nearby Supernova Factory spectrophotometric time series, with global host-galaxy properties. The K13 Hubble residual step with host mass is 0.013 ± 0.031 mag for a supernova subsample with data coverage corresponding to the K13 training; at <<1σ, the step is not significant and lower than previous measurements. Relaxing the data coverage requirement of the Hubble residual step with the host massmore » is 0.045 ± 0.026 mag for the larger sample; a calculation using the modes of the distributions, less sensitive to outliers, yields a step of 0.019 mag. The analysis of this article uses K13 inferred luminosities, as distinguished from previous works that use magnitude corrections as a function of SALT2 color and stretch parameters: steps at >2σ significance are found in SALT2 Hubble residuals in samples split by the values of their K13 x(1) and x(2) light-curve parameters. x(1) affects the light-curve width and color around peak (similar to the Δm {sub 15} and stretch parameters), and x(2) affects colors, the near-UV light-curve width, and the light-curve decline 20-30 days after peak brightness. The novel light-curve analysis, increased parameter set, and magnitude corrections of K13 may be capturing features of SN Ia diversity arising from progenitor stellar evolution.« less

  19. The Luminosity Function of the Host Galaxies of QSOs and BL Lac Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carangelo, Nicoletta; Falomo, Renato; Treves, Aldo

    A clear insight of the galaxies hosting active galactic nuclei is of fundamental importance for understanding the processes of galaxies and nuclei formation and their cosmic evolution. A good characterization of the host galaxies properties requires images of excellent quality in order to disentangle the light of the galaxy from that of the bright nucleus. To this aim HST has provided a major improvement of data on QSOs (Disney et al. 1995; Bahcall et al. 1996,1997; Boyce et al. 1998; McLure et al. 1999; Hamilton et al. 2000; Kukula et al. 2001) and BL Lacs (Scarpa et al. 2000, Urry et al. 2000).

  20. Probing large-scale structure with large samples of X-ray selected AGN. I. Baryonic acoustic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hütsi, Gert; Gilfanov, Marat; Kolodzig, Alexander; Sunyaev, Rashid

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the potential of large X-ray-selected AGN samples for detecting baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO). Though AGN selection in X-ray band is very clean and efficient, it does not provide redshift information, and thus needs to be complemented with an optical follow-up. The main focus of this study is (i) to find the requirements needed for the quality of the optical follow-up and (ii) to formulate the optimal strategy of the X-ray survey, in order to detect the BAO. We demonstrate that redshift accuracy of σ0 = 10-2 at z = 1 and the catastrophic failure rate of ffail ≲ 30% are sufficient for a reliable detection of BAO in future X-ray surveys. Spectroscopic quality redshifts (σ0 = 10-3 and ffail ~ 0) will boost the confidence level of the BAO detection by a factor of ~2. For meaningful detection of BAO, X-ray surveys of moderate depth of Flim ~ few 10-15 erg s-1/cm2 covering sky area from a few hundred to ~ten thousand square degrees are required. The optimal strategy for the BAO detection does not necessarily require full sky coverage. For example, in a 1000 day-long survey by an eROSITA type telescope, an optimal strategy would be to survey a sky area of ~9000 deg2, yielding a ~16σ BAO detection. A similar detection will be achieved by ATHENA+ or WFXT class telescopes in a survey with a duration of 100 days, covering a similar sky area. XMM-Newton can achieve a marginal BAO detection in a 100-day survey covering ~400 deg2. These surveys would demand a moderate-to-high cost in terms the optical follow-ups, requiring determination of redshifts of ~105 (XMM-Newton) to ~3 × 106 objects (eROSITA, ATHENA+, and WFXT) in these sky areas.

  1. EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTION OF X-RAY-SELECTED BROAD-LINE AGNs AT 1.0 < z < 2.2

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Hyewon; Hasinger, Günther; Steinhardt, Charles

    2015-12-20

    We investigate the Eddington ratio distribution of X-ray-selected broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the redshift range 1.0 < z < 2.2, where the number density of AGNs peaks. Combining the optical and Subaru/Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph near-infrared spectroscopy, we estimate black hole masses for broad-line AGNs in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), Extended Chandra Deep Field South (E-CDF-S), and the XMM-Newton Lockman Hole (XMM-LH) surveys. AGNs with similar black hole masses show a broad range of AGN bolometric luminosities, which are calculated from X-ray luminosities, indicating that the accretion rate of black holes is widely distributed. We find a substantial fraction ofmore » massive black holes accreting significantly below the Eddington limit at z ≲ 2, in contrast to what is generally found for luminous AGNs at high redshift. Our analysis of observational selection biases indicates that the “AGN cosmic downsizing” phenomenon can be simply explained by the strong evolution of the comoving number density at the bright end of the AGN luminosity function, together with the corresponding selection effects. However, one might need to consider a correlation between the AGN luminosity and the accretion rate of black holes, in which luminous AGNs have higher Eddington ratios than low-luminosity AGNs, in order to understand the relatively small fraction of low-luminosity AGNs with high accretion rates in this epoch. Therefore, the observed downsizing trend could be interpreted as massive black holes with low accretion rates, which are relatively fainter than less-massive black holes with efficient accretion.« less

  2. The host galaxy/AGN connection in nearby early-type galaxies. Is there a miniature radio-galaxy in every "core" galaxy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmaverde, B.; Capetti, A.

    2006-02-01

    This is the second of a series of three papers exploring the connection between the multiwavelength properties of AGN in nearby early-type galaxies and the characteristics of their hosts. We selected two samples with 5 GHz VLA radio flux measurements down to 1 mJy, reaching levels of radio luminosity as low as 1036 erg s-1. In Paper I we presented a study of the surface brightness profiles for the 65 objects with available archival HST images out of the 116 radio-detected galaxies. We classified early-type galaxies into "core" and "power-law" galaxies, discriminating on the basis of the slope of their nuclear brightness profiles, following the Nukers scheme. Here we focus on the 29 core galaxies (hereafter CoreG). We used HST and Chandra data to isolate their optical and X-ray nuclear emission. The CoreG invariably host radio-loud nuclei, with an average radio-loudness parameter of Log R = L5 {GHz} / LB ˜ 3.6. The optical and X-ray nuclear luminosities correlate with the radio-core power, smoothly extending the analogous correlations already found for low luminosity radio-galaxies (LLRG) toward even lower power, by a factor of ˜ 1000, covering a combined range of 6 orders of magnitude. This supports the interpretation of a common non-thermal origin of the nuclear emission also for CoreG. The luminosities of the nuclear sources, most likely dominated by jet emission, set firm upper limits, as low as L/L_Edd ˜ 10-9 in both the optical and X-ray band, on any emission from the accretion process. The similarity of CoreG and LLRG when considering the distributions host galaxies luminosities and black hole masses, as well as of the surface brightness profiles, indicates that they are drawn from the same population of early-type galaxies. LLRG represent only the tip of the iceberg associated with (relatively) high activity levels, with CoreG forming the bulk of the population. We do not find any relationship between radio-power and black hole mass. A minimum black hole

  3. Host galaxy properties of calcium II and sodium I quasar absorption-line systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherinka, Brian

    Many questions remain within the areas of galaxy formation and evolution. Understanding the origin of gas in galaxy environments, whether as tidal debris, infalling High Velocity Clouds, galaxy outflows, or as gaseous material residing in galaxy disks, is an important step in answering those questions. Quasar absorption-lines can often be used to probe the environments of intervening galaxies. Traditionally, quasar absorption-lines are studied independently of the host galaxy but this method denies us the exploration of the connection between galaxy and environment. Instead, one can select pairs of known galaxies and quasars. This gives much more information regarding the host galaxy and allows us to better connect galaxy properties with associated absorbers. We use the seventh data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to generate a sample of spectroscopic galaxy-quasar pairs. We cross-correlated a sample of 105,000 quasars and ˜800,000 galaxies to produce ˜98,000 galaxy-quasar pairs, with the quasar projected within 100 kpc of the galaxy. Adopting an automated line-finding algorithm and using the galaxy redshift as a prior, we search through all quasar spectra and identify Ca II and Na I absorption due to the intervening galaxy. This procedure produced 1745 Ca II absorbers and 4500 Na I absorbers detected at or above 2σ. Stacking analysis of a subset of absorbers at z > 0.01, with significances at or above 3σ, showed strong Ca II and Na I features around external galaxies. Using the same subset of absorbers at z > 0.01, we looked for correlations between absorber and galaxy properties and examined differences in galaxy properties between the absorbers and non-absorbers. We found no correlations with absorber strength or differences between many galaxy properties at the 3σ level. The lack of correlations and differences between absorbers and non-absorbers suggest a ubiquitous nature for Ca II and Na I around all types of galaxies, with the absorbers showing

  4. Long-Duration Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxies in Emission and Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perley, Daniel A.; Niino, Yuu; Tanvir, Nial R.; Vergani, Susanna D.; Fynbo, Johan P. U.

    2016-12-01

    The galaxy population hosting long-duration GRBs provides a means to constrain the progenitor and an opportunity to use these violent explosions to characterize the nature of the high-redshift universe. Studies of GRB host galaxies in emission reveal a population of star-forming galaxies with great diversity, spanning a wide range of masses, metallicities, and redshifts. However, as a population GRB hosts are significantly less massive and poorer in metals than the hosts of other core-collapse transients, suggesting that GRB production is only efficient at metallicities significantly below Solar. GRBs may also prefer compact galaxies, and dense and/or central regions of galaxies, more than other types of core-collapse explosion. Meanwhile, studies of hosts in absorption against the luminous GRB optical afterglow provide a unique means of unveiling properties of the ISM in even the faintest and most distant galaxies; these observations are helping to constrain the chemical evolution of galaxies and the properties of interstellar dust out to very high redshifts. New ground- and space-based instrumentation, and the accumulation of larger and more carefully-selected samples, are continually enhancing our view of the GRB host population.

  5. A Bayesian approach to multi-messenger astronomy: identification of gravitational-wave host galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, XiLong; Messenger, Christopher; Heng, Ik Siong

    We present a general framework for incorporating astrophysical information into Bayesian parameter estimation techniques used by gravitational wave data analysis to facilitate multi-messenger astronomy. Since the progenitors of transient gravitational wave events, such as compact binary coalescences, are likely to be associated with a host galaxy, improvements to the source sky location estimates through the use of host galaxy information are explored. To demonstrate how host galaxy properties can be included, we simulate a population of compact binary coalescences and show that for ∼8.5% of simulations within 200 Mpc, the top 10 most likely galaxies account for a ∼50% ofmore » the total probability of hosting a gravitational wave source. The true gravitational wave source host galaxy is in the top 10 galaxy candidates ∼10% of the time. Furthermore, we show that by including host galaxy information, a better estimate of the inclination angle of a compact binary gravitational wave source can be obtained. We also demonstrate the flexibility of our method by incorporating the use of either the B or K band into our analysis.« less

  6. Violent Tidal Disruptions of Atomic Hydrogen Gas in Quasar Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jeremy; Ho, Paul T. P.

    1999-01-01

    Violent galactic encounters or mergers are the leading contenders for triggering luminous quasar activity at low redshifts: such interactions can lead to the concentration of gas in the host galactic nucleus, thus fueling the suspected central supermassive black hole. Although optical images show a number of violently interacting systems, in many cases, the evidence for such interactions is only circumstantial (e.g., asymmetric optical morphologies, projected nearby companion galaxies) or not at all apparent. Here we image quasar host galaxies for the first time in the redshifted 21 cm line emission of neutral atomic hydrogen (H I) gas, which, in nearby galaxies, has proved to be a particularly sensitive as well as enduring tracer of tidal interactions. The three quasars studied have different optical environments that are normally seen around low-redshift quasars, ranging from a perhaps mildly interacting system to a relatively undisturbed host with a projected neighboring galaxy to an isolated and apparently serene host galaxy. By contrast with their optical appearances, all three quasar host galaxies exhibit ongoing or remnant tidal H I disruptions tracing galactic encounters or mergers. These observations demonstrate the utility of H I at revealing tidal interactions in quasar host galaxies and, combined with optical studies, provide a fuller understanding of the likely stage of the interaction.

  7. Morphologies of mid-IR variability-selected AGN host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polimera, Mugdha; Sarajedini, Vicki; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Fazio, Giovanni G.

    2018-05-01

    We use multi-epoch 3.6 and 4.5 μm data from the Spitzer Extended Deep Survey (SEDS) to probe the AGN population among galaxies to redshifts ˜3 via their mid-IR variability. About 1 per cent of all galaxies in our survey contain varying nuclei, 80 per cent of which are likely to be AGN. Twenty-three per cent of mid-IR variables are also X-ray sources. The mid-IR variables have a slightly greater fraction of weakly disturbed morphologies compared to a control sample of normal galaxies. The increased fraction of weakly distorted hosts becomes more significant when we remove the X-ray emitting AGN, while the frequency of strongly disturbed hosts remains similar to the control galaxy sample. These results suggest that mid-IR variability identifies a unique population of obscured, Compton-thick AGN revealing elevated levels of weak distortion among their host galaxies.

  8. A Hubble Space Telescope imaging study of four FeLoBAL quasar host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawther, D.; Vestergaard, M.; Fan, X.

    2018-04-01

    We study the host galaxies of four Iron Low-Ionization Broad Absorption-line Quasars (FeLoBALs), using Hubble Space Telescope imaging data, investigating the possibility that they represent a transition between an obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) and an ordinary optical quasar. In this scenario, the FeLoBALs represent the early stage of merger-triggered accretion, in which case their host galaxies are expected to show signs of an ongoing or recent merger. Using PSF subtraction techniques, we decompose the images into host galaxy and AGN components at rest-frame ultraviolet and optical wavelengths. The ultraviolet is sensitive to young stars, while the optical probes stellar mass. In the ultraviolet we image at the BAL absorption trough wavelengths so as to decrease the contrast between the quasar and host galaxy emission. We securely detect an extended source for two of the four FeLoBALs in the rest-frame optical; a third host galaxy is marginally detected. In the rest-frame UV we detect no host emission; this constrains the level of unobscured star formation. Thus, the host galaxies have observed properties that are consistent with those of non-BAL quasars with the same nuclear luminosity, i.e. quiescent or moderately star-forming elliptical galaxies. However, we cannot exclude starbursting hosts that have the stellar UV emission obscured by modest amounts of dust reddening. Thus, our findings also allow the merger-induced young quasar scenario. For three objects, we identify possible close companion galaxies that may be gravitationally interacting with the quasar hosts.

  9. The galaxy-dark matter halo connection: which galaxy properties are correlated with the host halo mass?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, S.; Baugh, C. M.; Norberg, P.; Padilla, N.

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate how the properties of a galaxy depend on the mass of its host dark matter subhalo, using two independent models of galaxy formation. For the cases of stellar mass and black hole mass, the median property value displays a monotonic dependence on subhalo mass. The slope of the relation changes for subhalo masses for which heating by active galactic nuclei becomes important. The median property values are predicted to be remarkably similar for central and satellite galaxies. The two models predict considerable scatter around the median property value, though the size of the scatter is model dependent. There is only modest evolution with redshift in the median galaxy property at a fixed subhalo mass. Properties such as cold gas mass and star formation rate, however, are predicted to have a complex dependence on subhalo mass. In these cases, subhalo mass is not a good indicator of the value of the galaxy property. We illustrate how the predictions in the galaxy property-subhalo mass plane differ from the assumptions made in some empirical models of galaxy clustering by reconstructing the model output using a basic subhalo abundance matching scheme. In its simplest form, abundance matching generally does not reproduce the clustering predicted by the models, typically resulting in an overprediction of the clustering signal. Using the predictions of the galaxy formation model for the correlations between pairs of galaxy properties, the basic abundance matching scheme can be extended to reproduce the model predictions more faithfully for a wider range of galaxy properties. Our results have implications for the analysis of galaxy clustering, particularly for low abundance samples.

  10. Soft X-Ray Observations of a Complete Sample of X-Ray--selected BL Lacertae Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlman, Eric S.; Stocke, John T.; Wang, Q. Daniel; Morris, Simon L.

    1996-01-01

    We present the results of ROSAT PSPC observations of the X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects (XBLs) in the complete Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EM MS) sample. None of the objects is resolved in their respective PSPC images, but all are easily detected. All BL Lac objects in this sample are well-fitted by single power laws. Their X-ray spectra exhibit a variety of spectral slopes, with best-fit energy power-law spectral indices between α = 0.5-2.3. The PSPC spectra of this sample are slightly steeper than those typical of flat ratio-spectrum quasars. Because almost all of the individual PSPC spectral indices are equal to or slightly steeper than the overall optical to X-ray spectral indices for these same objects, we infer that BL Lac soft X-ray continua are dominated by steep-spectrum synchrotron radiation from a broad X-ray jet, rather than flat-spectrum inverse Compton radiation linked to the narrower radio/millimeter jet. The softness of the X-ray spectra of these XBLs revives the possibility proposed by Guilbert, Fabian, & McCray (1983) that BL Lac objects are lineless because the circumnuclear gas cannot be heated sufficiently to permit two stable gas phases, the cooler of which would comprise the broad emission-line clouds. Because unified schemes predict that hard self-Compton radiation is beamed only into a small solid angle in BL Lac objects, the steep-spectrum synchrotron tail controls the temperature of the circumnuclear gas at r ≤ 1018 cm and prevents broad-line cloud formation. We use these new ROSAT data to recalculate the X-ray luminosity function and cosmological evolution of the complete EMSS sample by determining accurate K-corrections for the sample and estimating the effects of variability and the possibility of incompleteness in the sample. Our analysis confirms that XBLs are evolving "negatively," opposite in sense to quasars, with Ve/Va = 0.331±0.060. The statistically significant difference between the values for

  11. The Host Galaxies of Type Ia Supernovae Discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Sullivan, M.; McGuire, K.; Hook, I. M.; Nugent, P. E.; Howell, D. A.; Arcavi, I.; Botyanszki, J.; Cenko, Stephen Bradley; DeRose, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the host galaxies of 82 low-redshift type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We determine star-formation rates, gas-phase stellar metallicities, and stellar masses and ages of these objects. As expected, strong correlations between the SN Ia light-curve width (stretch) and the host age mass metallicity are found: fainter, faster-declining events tend to be hosted by older massive metal-rich galaxies. There is some evidence that redder SNe Ia explode in higher metallicity galaxies, but we found no relation between the SN colour and host galaxy extinction based on the Balmer decrement, suggesting that the colour variation of these SNe does not primarily arise from this source. SNe Ia in higher-mass metallicity galaxies also appear brighter after stretch colour corrections than their counterparts in lower mass hosts, and the stronger correlation is with gas-phase metallicity suggesting this may be the more important variable. We also compared the host stellar mass distribution to that in galaxy targeted SN surveys and the high-redshift untargeted Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). SNLS has many more low mass galaxies, while the targeted searches have fewer. This can be explained by an evolution in the galaxy stellar mass function, coupled with a SN delay-time distribution proportional to t1. Finally, we found no significant difference in the mass--metallicity relation of our SN Ia hosts compared to field galaxies, suggesting any metallicity effect on the SN Ia rate is small.

  12. Host galaxies of type ia supernovae from the nearby supernova factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childress, Michael Joseph

    Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) are excellent distance indicators, yet the full details of the underlying physical mechanism giving rise to these dramatic stellar deaths remain unclear. As large samples of cosmological SNe Ia continue to be collected, the scatter in brightnesses of these events is equally affected by systematic errors as statistical. Thus we need to understand the physics of SNe Ia better, and in particular we must know more about the progenitors of these SNe so that we can derive better estimates for their true intrinsic brightnesses. The host galaxies of SNe Ia provide important indirect clues as to the nature of SN Ia progenitors. In this Thesis we utilize the host galaxies of SNe Ia discovered by the Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) to pursue several key investigations into the nature of SN Ia progenitors and their effects on SN Ia brightnesses. We first examine the host galaxy of SN 2007if, an important member of the subclass of SNe Ia whose extreme brightnesses indicate a progenitor that exceeded the canonical Chandrasekhar-mass value presumed for normal SNe Ia, and show that the host galaxy of this SN is composed of very young stars and has extremely low metallicity, providing important constraints on progenitor scenarios for this SN. We then utilize the full sample of SNfactory host galaxy masses (measured from photometry) and metallicities (derived from optical spectroscopy) to examine several global properties of SN Ia progenitors: (i) we show that SN Ia hosts show tight agreement with the normal galaxy mass-metallicity relation; (ii) comparing the observed distribution of SN Ia host galaxy masses to a theoretical model that couples galaxy physics to the SN Ia delay time distribution (DTD), we show the power of the SN Ia host mass distribution in constraining the SN Ia DTD; and (iii) we show that the lack of ultra-low metallicities in the SNfactory SN Ia host sample gives provisional support for the theorized low-metallicity inhibition of

  13. Ionised outflows in z ~ 2.4 quasar host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniani, S.; Marconi, A.; Maiolino, R.; Balmaverde, B.; Brusa, M.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Cicone, C.; Comastri, A.; Cresci, G.; Fiore, F.; Feruglio, C.; La Franca, F.; Mainieri, V.; Mannucci, F.; Nagao, T.; Netzer, H.; Piconcelli, E.; Risaliti, G.; Schneider, R.; Shemmer, O.

    2015-08-01

    Aims: Outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are invoked by galaxy evolutionary models to quench star formation and to explain the origin of the relations observed locally between super-massive black holes and their host galaxies. We here aim to detect extended ionised outflows in luminous quasars, where we expect the highest activity both in star formation and in black-hole accretion. Currently, there are only a few studies based on spatially resolved observations of outflows at high redshift, z > 2. Methods: We analysed a sample of six luminous (L > 1047 erg/s) quasars at z ~ 2.4, observed in H-band using the near-IR integral field spectrometer SINFONI at the VLT. We performed a kinematic analysis of the [Oiii] emission line at λ = 5007 Å. Results: We detect fast, spatially extended outflows in five out of six targets. [Oiii]λ5007 has a complex gas kinematic, with blue-shifted velocities of a few hundreds of km s-1 and line widths up to 1500 km s-1. Using the spectroastrometric method, we infer a size of the ionised outflows of up to ~2 kpc. The properties of the ionised outflows, mass outflow rate, momentum rate, and kinetic power, are correlated with the AGN luminosity. The increase in outflow rate with increasing AGN luminosity is consistent with the idea that a luminous AGN pushes away the surrounding gas through fast outflows that are driven by radiation pressure, which depends on the emitted luminosity. Conclusions: We derive mass outflow rates of about 6-700 M⊙ yr-1 for our sample, which are lower than those observed in molecular outflows. The physical properties of ionised outflows show dependences on AGN luminosity that are similar to those of molecular outflows, but indicate that the mass of ionised gas is lower than that of molecular outflows. Alternatively, this discrepancy between ionised and molecular outflows could be explained with different acceleration mechanisms. Based on Observations collected at the European Organisation for

  14. DUST-CORRECTED COLORS REVEAL BIMODALITY IN THE HOST-GALAXY COLORS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AT z {approx} 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cardamone, Carolin N.; Megan Urry, C.; Brammer, Gabriel

    2010-09-20

    Using new, highly accurate photometric redshifts from the MUSYC medium-band survey in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (ECDF-S), we fit synthetic stellar population models to compare active galactic nucleus (AGN) host galaxies to inactive galaxies at 0.8 {<=} z {<=} 1.2. We find that AGN host galaxies are predominantly massive galaxies on the red sequence and in the green valley of the color-mass diagram. Because both passive and dusty galaxies can appear red in optical colors, we use rest-frame near-infrared colors to separate passively evolving stellar populations from galaxies that are reddened by dust. As with the overall galaxy population,more » {approx}25% of the 'red' AGN host galaxies and {approx}75% of the 'green' AGN host galaxies have colors consistent with young stellar populations reddened by dust. The dust-corrected rest-frame optical colors are the blue colors of star-forming galaxies, which imply that these AGN hosts are not passively aging to the red sequence. At z {approx} 1, AGN activity is roughly evenly split between two modes of black hole growth: the first in passively evolving host galaxies, which may be heating up the galaxy's gas and preventing future episodes of star formation, and the second in dust-reddened young galaxies, which may be ionizing the galaxy's interstellar medium and shutting down star formation.« less

  15. Globular cluster systems and their host galaxies: comparison of spatial distributions and colors

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, Jonathan R.; Rhode, Katherine L., E-mail: jhargis@haverford.edu

    2014-11-20

    We present a study of the spatial and color distributions of four early-type galaxies and their globular cluster (GC) systems observed as part of our ongoing wide-field imaging survey. We use BVR KPNO 4 m+MOSAIC imaging data to characterize the galaxies' GC populations, perform surface photometry of the galaxies, and compare the projected two-dimensional shape of the host galaxy light to that of the GC population. The GC systems of the ellipticals NGC 4406 and NGC 5813 both show an elliptical distribution consistent with that of the host galaxy light. Our analysis suggests a similar result for the giant ellipticalmore » NGC 4472, but a smaller GC candidate sample precludes a definite conclusion. For the S0 galaxy NGC 4594, the GCs have a circular projected distribution, in contrast to the host galaxy light, which is flattened in the inner regions. For NGC 4406 and NGC 5813, we also examine the projected shapes of the metal-poor and metal-rich GC subpopulations and find that both subpopulations have elliptical shapes that are consistent with those of the host galaxy light. Lastly, we use integrated colors and color profiles to compare the stellar populations of the galaxies to their GC systems. For each galaxy, we explore the possibility of color gradients in the individual metal-rich and metal-poor GC subpopulations. We find statistically significant color gradients in both GC subpopulations of NGC 4594 over the inner ∼5 effective radii (∼20 kpc). We compare our results to scenarios for the formation and evolution of giant galaxies and their GC systems.« less

  16. Spatially resolved analysis of superluminous supernovae PTF 11hrq and PTF 12dam host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cikota, Aleksandar; De Cia, Annalisa; Schulze, Steve; Vreeswijk, Paul M.; Leloudas, Giorgos; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Perley, Daniel A.; Cikota, Stefan; Kim, Sam; Patat, Ferdinando; Lunnan, Ragnhild; Quimby, Robert; Yaron, Ofer; Yan, Lin; Mazzali, Paolo A.

    2017-08-01

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) are the most luminous supernovae in the Universe. They are found in extreme star-forming galaxies and are probably connected with the death of massive stars. One hallmark of very massive progenitors would be a tendency to explode in very dense, UV-bright and blue regions. In this paper, we investigate the resolved host galaxy properties of two nearby hydrogen-poor SLSNe, PTF 11hrq and PTF 12dam. For both galaxies Hubble Space Telescope multifilter images were obtained. Additionally, we perform integral field spectroscopy of the host galaxy of PTF 11hrq using the Very Large Telescope Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (VLT/MUSE), and investigate the line strength, metallicity and kinematics. Neither PTF 11hrq nor PTF 12dam occurred in the bluest part of their host galaxies, although both galaxies have overall blue UV-to-optical colours. The MUSE data reveal a bright starbursting region in the host of PTF 11hrq, although far from the SN location. The SN exploded close to a region with disturbed kinematics, bluer colour, stronger [O III] and lower metallicity. The host galaxy is likely interacting with a companion. PTF 12dam occurred in one of the brightest pixels, in a starbursting galaxy with a complex morphology and a tidal tail, where interaction is also very likely. We speculate that SLSN explosions may originate from stars generated during star formation episodes triggered by interaction. High-resolution imaging and integral field spectroscopy are fundamental for a better understanding of SLSNe explosion sites and how star formation varies across their host galaxies.

  17. A molecular gas-rich GRB host galaxy at the peak of cosmic star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabsalmani, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Dannerbauer, H.; Feruglio, C.; Daddi, E.; Ciesla, L.; Charmandaris, V.; Japelj, J.; Vergani, S. D.; Duc, P.-A.; Basa, S.; Bournaud, F.; Elbaz, D.

    2018-05-01

    We report the detection of the CO(3-2) emission line from the host galaxy of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 080207 at z = 2.086. This is the first detection of molecular gas in emission from a GRB host galaxy beyond redshift 1. We find this galaxy to be rich in molecular gas with a mass of 1.1 × 10^{11} M_{{\\odot }} assuming αCO = 4.36 M_{{\\odot }} (K km s^{-1} pc^2)^{-1}. The molecular gas mass fraction of the galaxy is ˜0.5, typical of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) with similar stellar masses and redshifts. With an SFR_{FIR} of 260 M_{{\\odot }} yr^{-1}, we measure a molecular gas depletion time-scale of 0.43 Gyr, near the peak of the depletion time-scale distribution of SFGs at similar redshifts. Our findings are therefore in contradiction with the proposed molecular gas deficiency in GRB host galaxies. We argue that the reported molecular gas deficiency for GRB hosts could be the artefact of improper comparisons or neglecting the effect of the typical low metallicities of GRB hosts on the CO-to-molecular-gas conversion factor. We also compare the kinematics of the CO(3-2) emission line to that of the H α emission line from the host galaxy. We find the H α emission to have contributions from two separate components, a narrow and a broad one. The narrow component matches the CO emission well in velocity space. The broad component, with a full width at half-maximum of ˜1100 km s^{-1}, is separated by +390 km s^{-1} in velocity space from the narrow component. We speculate this broad component to be associated with a powerful outflow in the host galaxy or in an interacting system.

  18. Bar Frequency & Galaxy Host Properties using the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Kartik; Mizusawa, T.; Kim, T.; Munoz-Mateos, J.; Regan, M. W.; de Swardt, B.; Gadotti, D.; S4G Team

    2011-01-01

    Using the volume limited sample of 2,331 nearby galaxies from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G), we have classified the frequency of barred spiral galaxies. The literature abounds with frequency ranges from as low as 20% to as high as 80% but these variations are driven by the quality of the data, the sample size and the methodology of the studies. Using the 3.6 and 4.5 micron IRAC images from S4G, we are able to make a definitive measurement of the local bar fraction as a function of the galaxy host and environment. We present the results from this survey and discuss how the current bar fraction compares to the declining frequency of bars from the present day to z 1.

  19. Bulgeless Galaxies Hosting 107 M⊙ AGN in Galaxy Zoo: The Growth of Black Holes via Secular Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Brooke; Lintott, C. J.; Schawinski, K.; Moran, E. C.; Han, A.; Kaviraj, S.; Masters, K. L.; Urry, C. M.; Willett, K.; Bamford, S. P.; Nichol, R.

    2013-01-01

    The growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) appears to proceed via multiple pathways including mergers and secular processes, but these are difficult to disentangle for most galaxies given their complex evolutionary histories. In order to understand the effects of secular galaxy evolution on black hole growth, we require a sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in galaxies with a calm formation history free of significant mergers, a population that heretofore has been difficult to locate. Here we present a sample of 13 AGN in massive galaxies lacking the classical bulges believed inevitably to result from mergers; they also either lack or have extremely small pseudobulges, meaning they have had very calm accretion histories. This is the largest sample to date of massive, bulgeless AGN host galaxies selected without any direct restriction on the SMBH mass. The broad-line objects in the sample have black hole masses of 106-7 M⊙ Eddington arguments imply similar masses for the rest of the sample, meaning these black holes have grown substantially in the absence of mergers or other bulge-building processes such as violent disk instabilities. The black hole masses are systematically higher than expected from established bulge-black hole relations. However, these systems may be consistent with the correlation between black hole mass and total stellar mass. We discuss these results in the context of other studies and consider the implication that the details of stellar galaxy evolution and dynamics may not be fundamental to the co-evolution of galaxies and black holes.

  20. Investigating a population of infrared-bright gamma-ray burst host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrimes, Ashley A.; Stanway, Elizabeth R.; Levan, Andrew J.; Davies, Luke J. M.; Angus, Charlotte R.; Greis, Stephanie M. L.

    2018-07-01

    We identify and explore the properties of an infrared-bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) host population. Candidate hosts are selected by coincidence with sources in WISE, with matching to random coordinates and a false alarm probability analysis showing that the contamination fraction is ˜0.5. This methodology has already identified the host galaxy of GRB 080517. We combine survey photometry from Pan-STARRS, SDSS, APASS, 2MASS, GALEX, and WISE with our own WHT/ACAM and VLT/X-shooter observations to classify the candidates and identify interlopers. Galaxy SED fitting is performed using MAGPHYS, in addition to stellar template fitting, yielding 13 possible IR-bright hosts. A further seven candidates are identified from the previously published work. We report a candidate host for GRB 061002, previously unidentified as such. The remainder of the galaxies have already been noted as potential hosts. Comparing the IR-bright population properties including redshift z, stellar mass M⋆, star formation rate SFR, and V-band attenuation AV to GRB host catalogues in the literature, we find that the infrared-bright population is biased towards low z, high M⋆, and high AV. This naturally arises from their initial selection - local and dusty galaxies are more likely to have the required IR flux to be detected in WISE. We conclude that while IR-bright GRB hosts are not a physically distinct class, they are useful for constraining existing GRB host populations, particularly for long GRBs.

  1. Investigating a population of infrared-bright gamma-ray burst host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrimes, Ashley A.; Stanway, Elizabeth R.; Levan, Andrew J.; Davies, Luke J. M.; Angus, Charlotte R.; Greis, Stephanie M. L.

    2018-04-01

    We identify and explore the properties of an infrared-bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) host population. Candidate hosts are selected by coincidence with sources in WISE, with matching to random coordinates and a false alarm probability analysis showing that the contamination fraction is ˜ 0.5. This methodology has already identified the host galaxy of GRB 080517. We combine survey photometry from Pan-STARRS, SDSS, APASS, 2MASS, GALEX and WISE with our own WHT/ACAM and VLT/X-shooter observations to classify the candidates and identify interlopers. Galaxy SED fitting is performed using MAGPHYS, in addition to stellar template fitting, yielding 13 possible IR-bright hosts. A further 7 candidates are identified from previously published work. We report a candidate host for GRB 061002, previously unidentified as such. The remainder of the galaxies have already been noted as potential hosts. Comparing the IR-bright population properties including redshift z, stellar mass M⋆, star formation rate SFR and V-band attenuation AV to GRB host catalogues in the literature, we find that the infrared-bright population is biased toward low z, high M⋆ and high AV. This naturally arises from their initial selection - local and dusty galaxies are more likely to have the required IR flux to be detected in WISE. We conclude that while IR-bright GRB hosts are not a physically distinct class, they are useful for constraining existing GRB host populations, particularly for long GRBs.

  2. Galaxies of all Shapes Host Black Holes Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-01-10

    Observations from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope provide strong evidence that the slender, bulgeless galaxies can, like their chubbier counterparts, harbor supermassive black holes at their cores in this artist concept.

  3. Do Typical Galaxies in Adolescence Already Host Growing Black Holes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trump, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    This archival grism proposal achieves a 100-fold gain in high-quality {5+sigma} information for discovering which properties of adolescent {0.7galaxies of typical mass and SFR are linked to AGN activity. We propose to analyze 147 WFC3 G141 and 111 ACS 800L pointings of 2-orbit grism data in the CANDELS fields, for a sample of 3000 galaxies reaching SFR 5 Msun/yr and stellar masses of log{M*/Msun} 9 at z 1.5. We will leverage spatially-resolved line ratios to uniquely distinguish a nuclear AGN from extended low-metallicity or shocked gas. Compared to our 30-galaxy published sample that hints at AGNs in low-mass z 2 galaxies {Trump et al. 2011}, this 3000 galaxy sample enables a 100-fold gain in divisions by galaxy morphology, SFR, and stellar mass to discover which galaxy properties correlate most with rapid SMBH growth. We will stack the deep {0.8-4 Ms} Chandra data available in these fields as an independent check of the grism AGN/SF diagnostics. The unique ancillary data in these fields also include ACS+WFC3 imaging for morphologies, deep multiwavelength data for well-sampled SEDs and stellar masses, and previous optical {and future near-IR} spectroscopy to supplement the G141 coverage. Based on discussions with the GOODS-N and 3D-HST teams, our proposed AGN science does not overlap with their proposed or funded science goals. As a value-added product for the community we will release, via the public Rainbow-CANDELS database server, an atlas of spatial maps of emission lines and line ratios {and associated errors} for the entire sample of 3000 galaxies.

  4. Morphological Differences Between Seyfert Hosts and Normal Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlosman, Isaac

    Using new sub-arcsecond resolution imaging we compare large-scale stellar bar fraction in CfA sample of Seyferts and a closely matched control sample of normal galaxies. We find a difference between the samples on the 2.5σ level. We further compare the axial ratios of bars in all available samples quoted in the literature and find a deficiency of small axial ratio bars in Seyferts compared to normal galaxies.

  5. Scaling Relations Between Warm Galactic Outflows and Their Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, John; Tremonti, Christy A.; Leitherer, Claus; Chen, Yanmei; Wofford, Aida; Lundgren, Britt

    2015-10-01

    We report on a sample of 48 nearby, star-forming galaxies observed with the Cosmic Origin Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We measure the kinematics of warm gas in galactic outflows using a combination of four Si ii absorption lines. We use multi-wavelength ancillary data to estimate stellar masses (M*), star formation rates (SFR), circular velocities (vcirc), and morphologies. The galaxies cover four orders of magnitude in M* and SFR, and sample a wide range of morphologies from starbursting mergers to normal star-forming galaxies. We derive 3.0-3.5σ relations between outflow velocity and SFR, M*, and vcirc. The outflow velocities scale as SFR0.08-0.22, {M}*0.12-0.20 and {v}{circ}0.44-0.87, with the range depending on whether we use a maximum or a central velocity to quantify the outflow velocity. After accounting for their increased SFR, mergers drive 32% faster outflows than non-merging galaxies, with all of the highest velocity outflows arising from mergers. Low-mass galaxies (log(M*/ M⊙) < 10.5) lose some low-ionization gas through galactic outflows, while more massive galaxies retain all of their low-ionization gas, unless they undergo a merger.

  6. Understanding the Progenitors of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts via their Host Galaxies: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenko, S. Brad

    2014-08-01

    While massive star core-collapse is known to power long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the origin of short GRBs remains unconfirmed. Studies of the host galaxies of short GRBs provide critical constraints on their progenitors, particularly if (as expected) short GRBs result from the neutron star mergers. Here we request deep Keck/LRIS imaging of short GRBs lacking securely identified hosts. By constraining the fraction of events that appear to have been 'kicked' out of their host galaxy in a more unbiased manner than past efforts, we aim to infer fundamental properties about the formation and evolution of binary neutron star systems.

  7. The Relation between Luminous AGNs and Star Formation in Their Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lei; Rieke, G. H.; Egami, E.; Haines, C. P.; Pereira, M. J.; Smith, G. P.

    2015-08-01

    We study the relation of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to star formation in their host galaxies. Our sample includes 205 Type-1 and 85 Type-2 AGNs, 162 detected with Herschel, from fields surrounding 30 galaxy clusters in the Local Cluster Substructure Survey. The sample is identified by optical line widths and ratios after selection to be brighter than 1 mJy at 24 μm. We show that Type-2 AGN [O iii]λ5007 line fluxes at high z can be contaminated by their host galaxies with typical spectrograph entrance apertures (but our sample is not compromised in this way). We use spectral energy distribution (SED) templates to decompose the galaxy SEDs and estimate star formation rates (SFRs), AGN luminosities, and host galaxy stellar masses (described in an accompanying paper). The AGNs arise from massive black holes (˜ 3× {10}8{M}⊙ ) accreting at ˜10% of the Eddington rate and residing in galaxies with stellar mass \\gt 3× {10}10{M}⊙ ; those detected with Herschel have IR luminosity from star formation in the range of {L}{SF,{IR}}˜ {10}10-{10}12{L}⊙ . We find that (1) the specific SFRs in the host galaxies are generally consistent with those of normal star-forming (main sequence) galaxies; (2) there is a strong correlation between the luminosities from star formation and the AGN; and (3) the correlation may not result from a causal connection, but could arise because the black hole mass (and hence AGN Eddington luminosity) and star formation are both correlated with the galaxy mass.

  8. Energy input from quasars regulates the growth and activity of black holes and their host galaxies.

    PubMed

    Di Matteo, Tiziana; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars

    2005-02-10

    In the early Universe, while galaxies were still forming, black holes as massive as a billion solar masses powered quasars. Supermassive black holes are found at the centres of most galaxies today, where their masses are related to the velocity dispersions of stars in their host galaxies and hence to the mass of the central bulge of the galaxy. This suggests a link between the growth of the black holes and their host galaxies, which has indeed been assumed for a number of years. But the origin of the observed relation between black hole mass and stellar velocity dispersion, and its connection with the evolution of galaxies, have remained unclear. Here we report simulations that simultaneously follow star formation and the growth of black holes during galaxy-galaxy collisions. We find that, in addition to generating a burst of star formation, a merger leads to strong inflows that feed gas to the supermassive black hole and thereby power the quasar. The energy released by the quasar expels enough gas to quench both star formation and further black hole growth. This determines the lifetime of the quasar phase (approaching 100 million years) and explains the relationship between the black hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion.

  9. Do Nuclear Star Clusters and Supermassive Black Holes Follow the Same Host-Galaxy Correlations?

    DOE PAGES

    Erwin, Peter; Gadotti, Dimitri Alexei

    2012-01-01

    Smore » tudies have suggested that there is a strong correlation between the masses of nuclear star clusters (NCs) and their host galaxies, a correlation which is said to be an extension of the well-known correlations between supermassive black holes (MBHs) and their host galaxies. But careful analysis of disk galaxies—including 2D bulge/disk/bar decompositions—shows that while MBHs correlate with the stellar mass of the bulge component of galaxies, the masses of NCs correlate much better with the total galaxy stellar mass. In addition, the mass ratio M NC / M ⋆ ,  tot for NCs in spirals (at least those with Hubble types c and later) is typically an order of magnitude smaller than the mass ratio M BH / M ⋆ ,  bul of MBHs. The absence of a universal “central massive object” correlation argues against common formation and growth mechanisms for both MBHs and NCs. We also discuss evidence for a break in the NC-host galaxy correlation, galaxies with Hubble types earlier than bc appear to host systematically more massive NCs than do types c and later.« less

  10. A statistical study of H i gas in nearby narrow-line AGN-hosting galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Yi-Nan; Wu, Hong, E-mail: zyn@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: hwu@bao.ac.cn

    As a quenching mechanism, active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback could suppress on going star formation in host galaxies. On the basis of a sample of galaxies selected from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) H i survey, the dependence of the H i mass (M{sub H} {sub i}), stellar mass (M{sub *}), and H i-to-stellar mass ratio (M{sub H} {sub i}/M{sub *}) on various tracers of AGN activity are presented and analyzed in this paper. Almost all the AGN hostings in this sample are gas-rich galaxies, and there is not any evidence to indicate that the AGN activity could increasemore » or decrease either M{sub H} {sub i} or M{sub H} {sub i}/M{sub *}. The position of the cold neutral gas cannot be fixed accurately based only on available H i data, due to the large beam size of ALFALFA survey. In addition, even though AGN hostings are more easily detected by an H i survey compared with absorption line galaxies, these two types of galaxies show similar star formation history. If an AGN hosting would ultimately evolve into an old red galaxy with low cold gas, then when and how the gas has been exhausted must be solved by future hypotheses and observations.« less

  11. Supermassive black holes and central star clusters: Connection with the host galaxy kinematics and color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasov, A. V.; Cherepashchuk, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between the masses of the central, supermassive black holes ( M bh) and of the nuclear star clusters ( M nc) of disk galaxies with various parameters galaxies are considered: the rotational velocity at R = 2 kpc V (2), the maximum rotational velocity V max, the indicative dynamical mass M 25, the integrated mass of the stellar population M *, and the integrated color index B-V. The rotational velocities andmasses of the central objects were taken from the literature. Themass M nc correlatesmore closely with the kinematic parameters and the disk mass than M bh, including with the velocity V max, which is closely related to the virial mass of the dark halo. On average, lenticular galaxies are characterized by higher masses M bh compared to other types of galaxies with similar characteristics. The dependence of the blackhole mass on the color index is bimodal: galaxies of the red group (red-sequence) with B-V >0.6-0.7 which are mostly early-type galaxies with weak star formation, differ appreciably from blue galaxies, which have higher values of M nc and M bh. At the dependences we consider between the masses of the central objects and the parameters of the host galaxies (except for the dependence of M bh on the central velocity dispersion), the red-group galaxies have systematically higher M bh values, even when the host-galaxy parameters are similar. In contrast, in the case of nuclear star clusters, the blue and red galaxies form unified sequences. The results agree with scenarios in which most red-group galaxies form as a result of the partial or complete loss of interstellar gas in a stage of high nuclear activity in galaxies whose central black-hole masses exceed 106-107 M ⊙ (depending on the mass of the galaxy itself). The bulk of disk galaxies with M bh > 107 M ⊙ are lenticular galaxies (types S0, E/S0) whose disks are practically devoid of gas.

  12. Imaging the host galaxies of high-redshift radio-quiet QSOs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowenthal, James D.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Lehnert, Matthew, D.; Elias, J. H.

    1995-01-01

    We present new deep K-band and optical images of four radio-quiet QSOs at z approximately = 1 and six radio-quiet QSOs at z approximately = 2.5, as well as optical images only of six more at z approximately = 2.5. We have examined the images carefully for evidence of extended 'fuzz' from any putative QSO host galaxy. None of the z approximately = 2.5 QSOs shows any extended emission, and only two of the z approximately = 1 QSOs show marginal evidence for extended emission. Our 3 sigma detection limits in the K images, m(sub K) approximately = 21 for an isolated source, would correspond approximately to an unevolved L(sup star) elliptical galaxy at z = 2.5 or 2-3 mag fainter than an L(sup star) elliptical at z = 1, although our limits on host galaxy light are weaker than this due to the difficulty of separating galaxy light from QSO light. We simulate simple models of disk and elliptical host galaxies, and find that the marginal emission around the two z approximately = 1 QSOs can be explained by disks or bulges that are approximately 1-2 mag brighter than an unevolved L(sup star) galaxy in one case and approximately 1.5-2.5 mag brighter than L(sub star) in the other. For two other z approximately = 1 QSOs, we have only upper limits (L approximately = L(sup star)). The hosts of the high-redshift sample must be no brighter than about 3 mag above an unevolved L(sup star) galaxy, and are at least 1 magnitude fainter than the hosts of radio-loud QSOs at the same redshift. If the easily detected K-band light surrounding a previous sample of otherwise similar but radio-loud QSOs is starlight, then it must evolve on timescales of greater than or approximately equal to 10(exp 8) yr (e.g., Chambers & Charlot 1990); therefore our non-detection of host galaxy fuzz around radio-quiet QSOs supports the view that high-redshift radio-quiet and radio-loud QSOs inhabit different host objects, rather than being single types of objects that turn their radio emission on and off over

  13. Molecular gas in the host galaxy of a quasar at redshift z = 6.42.

    PubMed

    Walter, Fabian; Bertoldi, Frank; Carilli, Chris; Cox, Pierre; Lo, K Y; Neri, Roberto; Fan, Xiaohui; Omont, Alain; Strauss, Michael A; Menten, Karl M

    2003-07-24

    Observations of molecular hydrogen in quasar host galaxies at high redshifts provide fundamental constraints on galaxy evolution, because it is out of this molecular gas that stars form. Molecular hydrogen is traced by emission from the carbon monoxide molecule, CO; cold H2 itself is generally not observable. Carbon monoxide has been detected in about ten quasar host galaxies with redshifts z > 2; the record-holder is at z = 4.69 (refs 1-3). Here we report CO emission from the quasar SDSS J114816.64 + 525150.3 (refs 5, 6) at z = 6.42. At that redshift, the Universe was only 1/16 of its present age, and the era of cosmic reionization was just ending. The presence of about 2 x 1010 M\\circ of H2 in an object at this time demonstrates that molecular gas enriched with heavy elements can be generated rapidly in the youngest galaxies.

  14. The XXL Survey. XII. Optical spectroscopy of X-ray-selected clusters and the frequency of AGN in superclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulouridis, E.; Poggianti, B.; Altieri, B.; Valtchanov, I.; Jaffé, Y.; Adami, C.; Elyiv, A.; Melnyk, O.; Fotopoulou, S.; Gastaldello, F.; Horellou, C.; Pierre, M.; Pacaud, F.; Plionis, M.; Sadibekova, T.; Surdej, J.

    2016-06-01

    Context. This article belongs to the first series of XXL publications. It presents multifibre spectroscopic observations of three 0.55 deg2 fields in the XXL Survey, which were selected on the basis of their high density of X-ray-detected clusters. The observations were obtained with the AutoFib2+WYFFOS (AF2) wide-field fibre spectrograph mounted on the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope. Aims: The paper first describes the scientific rationale, the preparation, the data reduction, and the results of the observations, and then presents a study of active galactic nuclei (AGN) within three superclusters. Methods: To determine the redshift of galaxy clusters and AGN, we assign high priority to a) the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), b) the most probable cluster galaxy candidates, and c) the optical counterparts of X-ray point-like sources. We use the outcome of the observations to study the projected (2D) and the spatial (3D) overdensity of AGN in three superclusters. Results: We obtained redshifts for 455 galaxies in total, 56 of which are counterparts of X-ray point-like sources. We were able to determine the redshift of the merging supercluster XLSSC-e, which consists of six individual clusters at z ~ 0.43, and we confirmed the redshift of supercluster XLSSC-d at z ~ 0.3. More importantly, we discovered a new supercluster, XLSSC-f, that comprises three galaxy clusters also at z ~ 0.3. We find a significant 2D overdensity of X-ray point-like sources only around the supercluster XLSSC-f. This result is also supported by the spatial (3D) analysis of XLSSC-f, where we find four AGN with compatible spectroscopic redshifts and possibly one more with compatible photometric redshift. In addition, we find two AGN (3D analysis) at the redshift of XLSSC-e, but no AGN in XLSSC-d. Comparing these findings with the optical galaxy overdensity we conclude that the total number of AGN in the area of the three superclusters significantly exceeds the field expectations. All of the

  15. PSFGAN: a generative adversarial network system for separating quasar point sources and host galaxy light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Dominic; Launet, Barthelemy; Schawinski, Kevin; Zhang, Ce; Koss, Michael; Turp, M. Dennis; Sartori, Lia F.; Zhang, Hantian; Chen, Yiru; Weigel, Anna K.

    2018-06-01

    The study of unobscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) and quasars depends on the reliable decomposition of the light from the AGN point source and the extended host galaxy light. The problem is typically approached using parametric fitting routines using separate models for the host galaxy and the point spread function (PSF). We present a new approach using a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) trained on galaxy images. We test the method using Sloan Digital Sky Survey r-band images with artificial AGN point sources added that are then removed using the GAN and with parametric methods using GALFIT. When the AGN point source is more than twice as bright as the host galaxy, we find that our method, PSFGAN, can recover point source and host galaxy magnitudes with smaller systematic error and a lower average scatter (49 per cent). PSFGAN is more tolerant to poor knowledge of the PSF than parametric methods. Our tests show that PSFGAN is robust against a broadening in the PSF width of ± 50 per cent if it is trained on multiple PSFs. We demonstrate that while a matched training set does improve performance, we can still subtract point sources using a PSFGAN trained on non-astronomical images. While initial training is computationally expensive, evaluating PSFGAN on data is more than 40 times faster than GALFIT fitting two components. Finally, PSFGAN is more robust and easy to use than parametric methods as it requires no input parameters.

  16. Resolving the host galaxy of a distant blazar with LBT/LUCI 1 + ARGOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, E. P.; Georgiev, I. Y.; Decarli, R.; Terzić, T.; Busoni, L.; Gässler, W.; Mazzoni, T.; Borelli, J.; Rosensteiner, M.; Ziegleder, J.; Bonaglia, M.; Rabien, S.; Buschkamp, P.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Rahmer, G.; Kulas, M.; Peter, D.

    2018-05-01

    BL Lac objects emitting in the very high energy (VHE) regime are unique tools to peer into the properties of the extragalactic background light (EBL). However, due to the typical absence of features in their spectra, the determination of their redshifts has proven challenging. In this work, we exploit the superb spatial resolution delivered by the new Advanced Rayleigh guided Ground layer adaptive Optics System (ARGOS) at the Large Binocular Telescope to detect the host galaxy of HESS J1943+213, a VHE emitting BL Lac shining through the Galaxy. Deep H-band imaging collected during the ARGOS commissioning allowed us to separate the contribution of the nuclear emission and to unveil the properties of the host galaxy with unprecedented detail. The host galaxy is well fitted by a Sérsic profile with index of n ˜ 2 and total magnitude of HHost ˜ 16.15 mag. Under the assumption that BL Lac host galaxies are standard candles, we infer a redshift of z ˜ 0.21. In the framework of the current model for the EBL, this value is in agreement with the observed dimming of the VHE spectrum due to the annihilation of energetic photons on the EBL

  17. The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey. I. Sample Selection and Redshift Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perley, D. A.; Kruhler, T.; Schulze, S.; Postigo, A. De Ugarte; Hjorth, J.; Berger, E.; Cenko, S. B.; Chary, R.; Cucchiara, A.; Ellis, R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey (SHOALS), a multi-observatory high redshift galaxy survey targeting the largest unbiased sample of long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) hosts yet assembled (119 in total). We describe the motivations of the survey and the development of our selection criteria, including an assessment of the impact of various observability metrics on the success rate of afterglow-based redshift measurement. We briefly outline our host galaxy observational program, consisting of deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging of every field supplemented by similarly deep, multicolor optical/near-IR photometry, plus spectroscopy of events without preexisting redshifts. Our optimized selection cuts combined with host galaxy follow-up have so far enabled redshift measurements for 110 targets (92%) and placed upper limits on all but one of the remainder. About 20% of GRBs in the sample are heavily dust obscured, and at most 2% originate from z > 5.5. Using this sample, we estimate the redshift-dependent GRB rate density, showing it to peak at z approx. 2.5 and fall by at least an order of magnitude toward low (z = 0) redshift, while declining more gradually toward high (z approx. 7) redshift. This behavior is consistent with a progenitor whose formation efficiency varies modestly over cosmic history. Our survey will permit the most detailed examination to date of the connection between the GRB host population and general star-forming galaxies, directly measure evolution in the host population over cosmic time and discern its causes, and provide new constraints on the fraction of cosmic star formation occurring in undetectable galaxies at all redshifts.

  18. The ROSAT Brightest Cluster Sample - III. Optical spectra of the central cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, C. S.; Allen, S. W.; Ebeling, H.; Edge, A. C.; Fabian, A. C.

    1999-07-01

    We present new spectra of dominant galaxies in X-ray-selected clusters of galaxies, which combine with our previously published spectra to form a sample of 256 dominant galaxies in 215 clusters. 177 of the clusters are members of the ROSAT Brightest Cluster Sample (BCS; Ebeling et al.), and 17 have no previous measured redshift. This is the first paper in a series correlating the properties of brightest cluster galaxies and their host clusters in the radio, optical and X-ray wavebands. 27 per cent of the central dominant galaxies have emission-line spectra, all but five with line intensity ratios typical of cooling flow nebulae. A further 6 per cent show only [N ii]lambdalambda6548,6584 with Hα in absorption. We find no evidence for an increase in the frequency of line emission with X-ray luminosity. Purely X-ray-selected clusters at low redshift have a higher probability of containing line emission. The projected separation between the optical position of the dominant galaxy and its host cluster X-ray centroid is less for the line-emitting galaxies than for those without line emission, consistent with a closer association of the central galaxy and the gravitational centre in cooling flow clusters. The more Hα-luminous galaxies have larger emission-line regions and show a higher ratio of Balmer to forbidden line emission, although there is a continuous trend of ionization behaviour across four decades in Hα luminosity. Galaxies with the more luminous line emission [L(Hα)> 10^41ergs^-1] show a significantly bluer continuum, whereas lower luminosity and [N ii]-only line emitters have continua that differ little from those of non-line-emitting dominant galaxies. Values of the Balmer decrement in the more luminous systems commonly imply intrinsic reddening of E(B-V)~0.3 and, when this is corrected for, the excess blue light can be characterized by a population of massive young stars. Several of the galaxies require a large population of O stars, which also provide

  19. The Spitzer/Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Extended Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perley, Daniel; Berger, Edo; Butler, Nathaniel; Cenko, S. Bradley; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cucchiara, Antonino; Ellis, Richard; Fong, Wen-fai; Fruchter, Andrew; Fynbo, Johan; Gehrels, Neil; Graham, John; Greiner, Jochen; Hjorth, Jens; Hunt, Leslie; Jakobsson, Pall; Kruehler, Thomas; Laskar, Tanmoy; Le Floc'h, Emerich; Levan, Andrew; Levesque, Emily; Littlejohns, Owen; Malesani, Daniele; Michalowski, Michal; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Salvaterra, Ruben; Schulze, Steve; Schady, Patricia; Tanvir, Nial; de Ugarte Postigo, Antonio; Vergani, Susanna

    2014-12-01

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts act as beacons to the sites of star-formation in the distant universe. GRBs reveal galaxies too faint and star-forming regions too dusty to characterize in detail using any other method, and provide a powerful independent constraint on the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate density at high-redshift. However, a full understanding of the GRB phenomenon and its relation to cosmic star-formation requires connecting the observations obtained from GRBs to the properties of the galaxies hosting them. The large majority of GRBs originate at moderate to high redshift (z>1) and Spitzer has proven crucial for understanding the host population, given its unique ability to observe the rest-frame NIR and its unrivaled sensitivity and efficiency. We propose to complete a comprehensive public legacy survey of the Swift GRB host population to build on our earlier successes and push beyond the statistical limits of previous, smaller efforts. Our survey will enable a diverse range of GRB and galaxy science including: (1) to quantitatively and robustly map the connection between GRBs and cosmic star-formation to constrain the GRB progenitor and calibrate GRB rate-based measurements of the high-z cosmic star-formation rate; (2) to constrain the luminosity function of star-forming galaxies at the faint end and at high redshift; (3) to understand how the ISM properties seen in absorption in high-redshift galaxies unveiled by GRBs - metallicity, dust column, dust properties - connect to global properties of the host galaxies such as mass and age. Building on a decade of experience at both observatories, our observations will create an enduring joint Swift-Spitzer legacy sample and provide the definitive resource with which to examine all aspects of the GRB/galaxy connection for years and possibly decades to come.

  20. The MUSE view of the host galaxy of GRB 100316D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzo, L.; Thöne, C. C.; Schulze, S.; Mehner, A.; Flores, H.; Cano, Z.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Kann, D. A.; Amorín, R.; Anderson, J. P.; Bauer, F. E.; Bensch, K.; Christensen, L.; Covino, S.; Della Valle, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Jakobsson, P.; Klose, S.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Leloudas, G.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Møller, P.; Puech, M.; Rossi, A.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Vergani, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    The low distance, z = 0.0591, of GRB 100316D and its association with SN 2010bh represent two important motivations for studying this host galaxy and the GRB's immediate environment with the integral field spectrographs like Very Large Telescope/Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer. Its large field of view allows us to create 2D maps of gas metallicity, ionization level and the star formation rate (SFR) distribution maps, as well as to investigate the presence of possible host companions. The host is a late-type dwarf irregular galaxy with multiple star-forming regions and an extended central region with signatures of on-going shock interactions. The gamma-ray burst (GRB) site is characterized by the lowest metallicity, the highest SFR and the youngest (∼20-30 Myr) stellar population in the galaxy, which suggest a GRB progenitor stellar population with masses up to 20-40 M⊙. We note that the GRB site has an offset of ∼660 pc from the most luminous SF region in the host. The observed SF activity in this galaxy may have been triggered by a relatively recent gravitational encounter between the host and a small undetected (LH α ≤ 1036 erg s-1) companion.

  1. Two peculiar fast transients in a strongly lensed host galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodney, S. A.; Balestra, I.; Bradac, M.; Brammer, G.; Broadhurst, T.; Caminha, G. B.; Chirivı, G.; Diego, J. M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Foley, R. J.; Graur, O.; Grillo, C.; Hemmati, S.; Hjorth, J.; Hoag, A.; Jauzac, M.; Jha, S. W.; Kawamata, R.; Kelly, P. L.; McCully, C.; Mobasher, B.; Molino, A.; Oguri, M.; Richard, J.; Riess, A. G.; Rosati, P.; Schmidt, K. B.; Selsing, J.; Sharon, K.; Strolger, L.-G.; Suyu, S. H.; Treu, T.; Weiner, B. J.; Williams, L. L. R.; Zitrin, A.

    2018-04-01

    A massive galaxy cluster can serve as a magnifying glass for distant stellar populations, as strong gravitational lensing magnifies background galaxies and exposes details that are otherwise undetectable. In time-domain astronomy, imaging programmes with a short cadence are able to detect rapidly evolving transients, previously unseen by surveys designed for slowly evolving supernovae. Here, we describe two unusual transient events discovered in a Hubble Space Telescope programme that combined these techniques with high-cadence imaging on a field with a strong-lensing galaxy cluster. These transients were faster and fainter than any supernovae, but substantially more luminous than a classical nova. We find that they can be explained as separate eruptions of a luminous blue variable star or a recurrent nova, or as an unrelated pair of stellar microlensing events. To distinguish between these hypotheses will require clarification of the cluster lens models, along with more high-cadence imaging of the field that could detect related transient episodes. This discovery suggests that the intersection of strong lensing with high-cadence transient surveys may be a fruitful path for future astrophysical transient studies.

  2. Multi-Wavelength Analysis of Active Galactic Nuclei and Host Galaxies Physical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azadi, Mojegan

    In this dissertation we study the properties of active galactic nuclei (AGN), which are powered by the accretion activity of supermassive black holes residing at the centers of galaxies. While observations propose that growth of AGN and galaxies are globally tied, we investigate whether this connection exists in individual galaxies. We also investigate various AGN selection techniques and star formation rate (SFR) estimates using multi-wavelength data from Chandra, Spitzer and rest-frame optical spectra from the Keck telescope. We find that combining multi-wavelength identification techniques provides a more complete AGN sample, as each selection method suffers from selection biases. In particular, all selection techniques are biased against identifying AGN in lower mass galaxies. Once stellar mass selection biases are taken into account, we find that AGN reside in galaxies with similar physical properties (i.e., SFR) as inactive galaxies. We find that while AGN are prevalent in both star-forming and quiescent galaxies, AGN of a given accretion rate are more likely to reside in star-forming galaxies. The probability of fueling an AGN does not strongly depend on SFR for a star-forming galaxy, though it decreases when star formation is shut down in quiescent galaxies. We also find no evidence for a strong correlation between SFR or stellar mass of the host galaxy and AGN luminosity. These results indicate that while both AGN and galaxy growth are reliant on the same fuel, enhanced star formation activity does not necessarily go hand-in-hand with increased AGN activity. While the star formation activity of galaxies can be traced with various indicators, our investigations indicate that extrapolations from mid-infrared data using calibrations based on local galaxies overestimates SFRs at higher redshift. We show that a combina- tion of mid-infrared and far-infrared data provide a more reliable SFR estimation than the mid-infrared data alone. We also find that the

  3. The Host Galaxies Of UV-selected AGNs At z 2-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainline, Kevin; Shapley, A.; Greene, J.; Steidel, C.

    2012-01-01

    An important goal for studies of galaxy formation consists of tracing a direct evolutionary connection between the growth of supermassive black holes powering active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and the build-up of stellar mass in their host galaxies. In the local universe, AGNs are preferentially found in bulge-dominated galaxies, but the AGN demographics at earlier epochs are not as well understood. We present a rest-frame UV composite spectrum for a sample of 33 z 2-3 AGNs drawn from the UV-selected Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG) survey. This spectrum shows many emission and absorption features, such as HI Lyman-alpha, NV 1240, NIV] 1483, 1486, CIV 1548, 1550, HeII 1640, and CIII] 1907, 1909. Redshifted SiIV 1394 absorption provides evidence for outflowing high-ionization gas in these objects at speeds of 103 km/s. Finally, using optical, near-IR, and mid-IR photometry, which cover the rest-frame UV to near-IR portions of the galaxies' spectral energy distributions, we perform stellar population synthesis modeling of the sample. Based on these results, we explore the relationship in the host galaxy between AGN activity, maturity of the stellar population, and regulation of star formation.

  4. Accreting SMBH in the COSMOS field: the connection to their host galaxies .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merloni, A.; Bongiorno, A.

    Using the rich multi-band photometry in the COSMOS field we explore the host galaxy properties of a large, complete, sample of X-ray and spectroscopically selected AGN. Based on a two-components fit to their Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) we derive rest-frame magnitudes, colours, stellar masses and star formation rates up to z˜ 3. The probability for a galaxy to host a black hole growing at any given specific accretion rate (the ratio of X-ray luminosity to the host stellar mass) is independent of the galaxy mass and follows a power-law distribution in L_X/M. By looking at the normalisation of such a probability distribution, we show how the incidence of AGN increases with redshift as rapidly as (1+z)4.2, in close resemblance with the overall evolution of the specific star formation rate. Although AGN activity and star formation appear to have a common triggering mechanism, we do not find any 'smoking gun' signalling powerful AGN influence on the global properties of their host galaxies.

  5. Host galaxy properties of mergers of stellar binary black holes and their implications for advanced LIGO gravitational wave sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Liang; Lu, Youjun; Zhao, Yuetong

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the host galaxy properties of stellar binary black hole (SBBH) mergers is important for revealing the origin of the SBBH gravitational wave sources detected by advanced LIGO and helpful for identifying their electromagnetic counterparts. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the host galaxy properties of SBBHs by implementing semi-analytical recipes for SBBH formation and merger into cosmological galaxy formation model. If the time delay between SBBH formation and merger ranges from ≲ Gyr to the Hubble time, SBBH mergers at redshift z ≲ 0.3 occur preferentially in big galaxies with stellar mass M* ≳ 2 × 1010 M⊙ and metallicities Z peaking at ˜0.6 Z⊙. However, the host galaxy stellar mass distribution of heavy SBBH mergers (M•• ≳ 50 M⊙) is bimodal with one peak at ˜109 M⊙ and the other peak at ˜2 × 1010 M⊙. The contribution fraction from host galaxies with Z ≲ 0.2 Z⊙ to heavy mergers is much larger than that to less heavy mergers. If SBBHs were formed in the early Universe (e.g. z > 6), their mergers detected at z ≲ 0.3 occur preferentially in even more massive galaxies with M* > 3 × 1010 M⊙ and in galaxies with metallicities mostly ≳ 0.2 Z⊙ and peaking at Z ˜ 0.6 Z⊙, due to later cosmic assembly and enrichment of their host galaxies. SBBH mergers at z ≲ 0.3 mainly occur in spiral galaxies, but the fraction of SBBH mergers that occur in elliptical galaxies can be significant if those SBBHs were formed in the early Universe; and about two-thirds of those mergers occur in the central galaxies of dark matter haloes. We also present results on the host galaxy properties of SBBH mergers at higher redshift.

  6. The Host Galaxy and the Extended Emission-Line Region of the Radio Galaxy 3C 79

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hai; Stockton, Alan

    2008-04-01

    We present extensive ground-based spectroscopy and HST imaging of 3C 79, an FR II radio galaxy associated with a luminous extended emission-line region (EELR). Surface brightness modeling of an emission-line-free HST R-band image reveals that the host galaxy is a massive elliptical with a compact companion 0.8'' away and 4 mag fainter. The host galaxy spectrum is best described by an intermediate-age (1.3 Gyr) stellar population (4% by mass), superimposed on a 10 Gyr old population and a power law (αλ = - 1.8); the stellar populations are consistent with supersolar metallicities, with the best fit given by the 2.5 Z⊙ models. We derive a dynamical mass of 4 × 1011 M⊙ within the effective radius from the velocity dispersion. The EELR spectra clearly indicate that the EELR is photoionized by the hidden central engine. Photoionization modeling shows evidence that the gas metallicity in both the EELR and the nuclear narrow-line region is mildly subsolar (0.3-0.7 Z⊙), significantly lower than the supersolar metallicities deduced from typical active galactic nuclei in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The more luminous filaments in the EELR exhibit a velocity field consistent with a common disk rotation. Fainter clouds, however, show high approaching velocities that are uncoupled from this apparent disk rotation. The striking similarities between this EELR and the EELRs around steep-spectrum radio-loud quasars provide further evidence for the orientation-dependent unification schemes. The metal-poor gas is almost certainly not native to the massive host galaxy. We suggest that the close companion galaxy could be the tidally stripped bulge of a late-type galaxy that is merging with the host galaxy. The interstellar medium of such a galaxy is probably the source for the low-metallicity gas in 3C 79. Based in part on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative

  7. The red-sequence of 72 WINGS local galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentinuzzi, T.; Poggianti, B. M.; Fasano, G.; D'Onofrio, M.; Moretti, A.; Ramella, M.; Biviano, A.; Fritz, J.; Varela, J.; Bettoni, D.; Vulcani, B.; Moles, M.; Couch, W. J.; Dressler, A.; Kjærgaard, P.; Omizzolo, A.; Cava, A.

    2011-12-01

    We study the color - magnitude red sequence and blue fraction of 72 X-ray selected galaxy clusters at z = 0.04-0.07 from the WINGS survey, searching for correlations between the characteristics of the red sequence (RS) and the environment. We consider the slope and scatter of the red sequence, the number ratio of red luminous-to-faint galaxies, the blue fraction, and the fractions of ellipticals, S0s, and spirals that compose the RS. None of these quantities correlate with the cluster velocity dispersion, X-ray luminosity, number of cluster substructures, BCG prevalence over next brightest galaxies, and the spatial concentration of ellipticals. The properties of the RS, instead, depend strongly on local galaxy density. Higher density regions have a smaller RS scatter, a higher luminous-to-faint ratio, a lower blue fraction, and a lower spiral fraction on the RS. Our results clearly illustrate the prominent effect of the local density in setting the epoch when galaxies become passive and join the red sequence, as opposed to the mass of the galaxy host structure.

  8. The Host Galaxy and Redshift of the Repeating Fast Radio Burst FRB 121102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tendulkar, S. P.; Bassa, C. G.; Cordes, J. M.; Bower, G. C.; Law, C. J.; Chatterjee, S.; Adams, E. A. K.; Bogdanov, S.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Butler, B. J.; Demorest, P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kaspi, V. M.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Maddox, N.; Marcote, B.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Paragi, Z.; Ransom, S. M.; Scholz, P.; Seymour, A.; Spitler, L. G.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Wharton, R. S.

    2017-01-01

    The precise localization of the repeating fast radio burst (FRB 121102) has provided the first unambiguous association (chance coincidence probability p ≲ 3 × 10-4) of an FRB with an optical and persistent radio counterpart. We report on optical imaging and spectroscopy of the counterpart and find that it is an extended (0.″6-0.″8) object displaying prominent Balmer and [O III] emission lines. Based on the spectrum and emission line ratios, we classify the counterpart as a low-metallicity, star-forming, m r‧ = 25.1 AB mag dwarf galaxy at a redshift of z = 0.19273(8), corresponding to a luminosity distance of 972 Mpc. From the angular size, the redshift, and luminosity, we estimate the host galaxy to have a diameter ≲4 kpc and a stellar mass of M * ˜ (4-7) × 107 M ⊙, assuming a mass-to-light ratio between 2 to 3 M ⊙ L ⊙ -1. Based on the Hα flux, we estimate the star formation rate of the host to be 0.4 M ⊙ yr-1 and a substantial host dispersion measure (DM) depth ≲324 pc cm-3. The net DM contribution of the host galaxy to FRB 121102 is likely to be lower than this value depending on geometrical factors. We show that the persistent radio source at FRB 121102’s location reported by Marcote et al. is offset from the galaxy’s center of light by ˜200 mas and the host galaxy does not show optical signatures for AGN activity. If FRB 121102 is typical of the wider FRB population and if future interferometric localizations preferentially find them in dwarf galaxies with low metallicities and prominent emission lines, they would share such a preference with long gamma-ray bursts and superluminous supernovae.

  9. Modelling the flaring activity of the high-z, hard X-ray-selected blazar IGR J22517+2217: Flaring activity of IGR J22517+2217

    DOE PAGES

    Lanzuisi, G.; De Rosa, A.; Ghisellini, G.; ...

    2012-03-21

    We present new Suzaku and Fermi data and re-analysed archival hard X-ray data from the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) and Swift–Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) surveys to investigate the physical properties of the luminous, high-redshift, hard X-ray-selected blazar IGR J22517+2217, through the modelling of its broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) in two different activity states. Through analysis of new Suzaku data and flux-selected data from archival hard X-ray observations, we build the source SED in two different states, one for the newly discovered flare that occurred in 2005 and one for the following quiescent period. Both SEDs are strongly dominatedmore » by the high-energy hump peaked at 10 20–10 22 Hz, which is at least two orders of magnitude higher than the low-energy (synchrotron) one at 10 11–10 14 Hz and varies by a factor of 10 between the two states. In both states the high-energy hump is modelled as inverse Compton emission between relativistic electrons and seed photons produced externally to the jet, while the synchrotron self-Compton component is found to be negligible. In our model the observed variability can be accounted for by a variation of the total number of emitting electrons and by a dissipation region radius changing from inside to outside the broad-line region as the luminosity increases. In its flaring activity, IGR J22517+2217 is revealed as one of the most powerful jets among the population of extreme, hard X-ray-selected, high-redshift blazars observed so far.« less

  10. Elemental gas-phase abundances of intermediate redshift type Ia supernova star-forming host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Raya, M. E.; Galbany, L.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Mollá, M.; González-Gaitán, S.; Vílchez, J. M.; Carnero, A.

    2018-05-01

    The maximum luminosity of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) depends on the oxygen abundance of the regions of the host galaxies, where they explode. This metallicity dependence reduces the dispersion in the Hubble diagram (HD) when included with the traditional two-parameter calibration of SN Ia light-curve parameters and absolute magnitude. In this work, we use empirical calibrations to carefully estimate the oxygen abundance of galaxies hosting SNe Ia from the SDSS-II/SN (Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova) survey at intermediate redshift by measuring their emission-line intensities. We also derive electronic temperature with the direct method for a small fraction of objects for consistency. We find a trend of decreasing oxygen abundance with increasing redshift for the most massive galaxies. Moreover, we study the dependence of the HD residuals (HR) with galaxy oxygen abundance obtaining a correlation in line with those found in other works. In particular, the HR versus oxygen abundance shows a slope of -0.186 ± 0.123 mag dex-1 (1.52σ) in good agreement with theoretical expectations. This implies smaller distance modulii after corrections for SNe Ia in metal-rich galaxies. Based on our previous results on local SNe Ia, we propose this dependence to be due to the lower luminosity of the SNe Ia produced in more metal-rich environments.

  11. The Host Galaxies of Fast-Ejecta Core-Collapse Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Patrick L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Modjaz, Maryam; Kocevski, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Spectra of broad-lined Type Ic supernovae (SN Ic-BL), the only kind of SN observed at the locations of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs), exhibit wide features indicative of high ejecta velocities ((is) approximately 0.1c). We study the host galaxies of a sample of 245 low-redshift (z (is) less than 0.2) core-collapse SN, including 17 SN Ic-BL, discovered by galaxy-untargeted searches, and 15 optically luminous and dust-obscured z (is) less than 1.2 LGRBs. We show that, in comparison with SDSS galaxies having similar stellar masses, the hosts of low-redshift SN Ic- BL and z (is) is less than 1.2 LGRBs have high stellar-mass and star-formation-rate densities. Core-collapse SN having typical ejecta velocities, in contrast, show no preference for such galaxies. Moreover, we find that the hosts of SN Ic-BL, unlike those of SN Ib/Ic and SN II, exhibit high gas velocity dispersions for their stellar masses. The patterns likely reflect variations among star-forming environments, and suggest that LGRBs can be used as probes of conditions in high-redshift galaxies. They may be caused by efficient formation of massive binary progenitors systems in densely star-forming regions, or, less probably, a higher fraction of stars created with the initial masses required for a SN Ic-BL or LGRB. Finally, we show that the preference of SN Ic-BL and LGRBs for galaxies with high stellar-mass and star-formation-rate densities cannot be attributed to a preference for low metal abundances but must reflect the influence of a separate environmental factor.

  12. A Search for Molecular Gas in the Host Galaxy of FRB 121102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Geoffrey C.; Rao, Ramprasad; Krips, Melanie; Maddox, Natasha; Bassa, Cees; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Law, C. J.; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; van Langevelde, Huib Jan; Paragi, Zsolt; Butler, Bryan J.; Chatterjee, Shami

    2018-06-01

    We present Submillimeter Array and Northern Extended Millimeter Array observations of the host galaxy of FRB 121102 in the CO 3–2 and 1–0 transitions, respectively. We do not detect emission from either transition. We set 3σ upper limits to the CO luminosity L CO < 2.5 × 107 K km s‑1 pc‑2 for CO 3–2 and L CO < 2.3 × 109 K km s‑1 pc‑2 for CO 1–0. For Milky Way–like star formation properties, we set a 3σ upper limit on the H2 mass of 2.5 × 108 M ⊙, slightly less than the predictions for the H2 mass based on the star formation rate. The true constraint on the H2 mass may be significantly higher, however, because of the reduction in CO luminosity that is common for low-metallicity dwarf galaxies like the FRB host galaxy. These results demonstrate the challenge of identifying the nature of FRB progenitors through study of the host galaxy molecular gas. We also place a limit of 42 μJy (3σ) on the continuum flux density of the persistent radio source at 97 GHz, consistent with a power-law extrapolation of the low-frequency spectrum, which may arise from an active galactic nucleus or other nonthermal source.

  13. THE HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES OF VARIABILITY SELECTED AGN IN THE PAN-STARRS1 MEDIUM DEEP SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Heinis, S.; Gezari, S.; Kumar, S.

    2016-07-20

    We study the properties of 975 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected by variability in the Pan-STARRS1 Medium deep Survey. Using complementary multi-wavelength data from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared, we use spectral energy distribution fitting to determine the AGN and host properties at z < 1 and compare to a well-matched control sample. We confirm the trend previously observed: that the variability amplitude decreases with AGN luminosity, but we also observe that the slope of this relation steepens with wavelength, resulting in a “redder when brighter” trend at low luminosities. Our results show that AGNs are hosted by more massivemore » hosts than control sample galaxies, while the rest frame dust-corrected NUV r color distribution of AGN hosts is similar to control galaxies. We find a positive correlation between the AGN luminosity and star formation rate (SFR), independent of redshift. AGN hosts populate the entire range of SFRs within and outside of the Main Sequence of star-forming galaxies. Comparing the distribution of AGN hosts and control galaxies, we show that AGN hosts are less likely to be hosted by quiescent galaxies and more likely to be hosted by Main Sequence or starburst galaxies.« less

  14. Host Galaxies, Obscuration, and Nuclear Structure of Three Nearby Compact Symmetric Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlman, Eric S.; Stocke, John T.; Conway, John; Reynolds, Chris

    2001-08-01

    We present three-band Hubble Space Telescope imaging of three nearby (z<=0.1) compact symmetric objects: 4C 31.04, 1946+708, and 1146+596. These objects were chosen on the basis of proximity to Earth as well as H I 21 cm line absorption. The inner H-band isophotes of these galaxies are well fitted by Nuker models, typical of nearby elliptical galaxies. Each shows a significant flattening in the isophotal profile at radii ~0.5", as well as significant variations in ellipticity and P.A. However, as previous authors have noted, neither is uncommon for elliptical galaxies. All three objects show modest departures from Nuker law models at radii of 1-5 h-160 kpc. Each galaxy shows large well-distributed dust features, which are somewhat concentrated in the nuclear regions in features that resemble disks or tori. We find that the amount of dust in these galaxies is about 10 times higher than normal for elliptical galaxies and radio galaxy hosts. The major axes of the nuclear dust disks tend to be oriented roughly perpendicular to the radio axis. One galaxy, 4C 31.04, exhibits bright nuclear regions well aligned with the radio axis, while another, 1146+596, shows a significant near-IR excess resembling a stellar bar along its dust disk. The combination of outwardly normal isophotal profiles with significant variations in P.A. and ellipticity is consistent with the host galaxies being relatively recent merger remnants and the mergers having occurred >~108 yr ago. Such a merger could have ``triggered'' the onset of the current active phase seen in these objects, but our data require a significant time delay between the merger event and the onset of nuclear activity. However, these data are also consistent with the hypothesis that the onset of nuclear activity in radio galaxies is due to relatively minor ``feeding'' events and/or the formation of ``bars within bars,'' events which would disturb the internal kinematics only slightly.

  15. NUCLEAR ACTIVITY IS MORE PREVALENT IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rosario, D. J.; Lutz, D.; Berta, S.

    2013-07-01

    We explore the question of whether low and moderate luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are preferentially found in galaxies that are undergoing a transition from active star formation (SF) to quiescence. This notion has been suggested by studies of the UV-optical colors of AGN hosts, which find them to be common among galaxies in the so-called Green Valley, a region of galaxy color space believed to be composed mostly of galaxies undergoing SF quenching. Combining the deepest current X-ray and Herschel/PACS far-infrared (FIR) observations of the two Chandra Deep Fields with redshifts, stellar masses, and rest-frame photometry derived from themore » extensive and uniform multi-wavelength data in these fields, we compare the rest-frame U - V color distributions and star formation rate distributions of AGNs and carefully constructed samples of inactive control galaxies. The UV-to-optical colors of AGNs are consistent with equally massive inactive galaxies at redshifts out to z {approx} 2, but we show that such colors are poor tracers of SF. While the FIR distributions of both star-forming AGNs and star-forming inactive galaxies are statistically similar, we show that AGNs are preferentially found in star-forming host galaxies, or, in other words, AGNs are less likely to be found in weakly star-forming or quenched galaxies. We postulate that, among X-ray-selected AGNs of low and moderate accretion luminosities, the supply of cold gas primarily determines the accretion rate distribution of the nuclear black holes.« less

  16. Stellar Photometric Structures of the Host Galaxies of Nearby Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Minjin; Ho, Luis C.; Peng, Chien Y.

    2017-10-01

    We present detailed image analysis of rest-frame optical images of 235 low-redshift ( z ≲ 0.35) Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed with the Hubble Space Telescope . The high-resolution images enable us to perform rigorous two-dimensional image modeling to decouple the luminous central point source from the host galaxy, which, when warranted, is further decomposed into its principal structural components (bulge, bar, and disk). In many cases, care must be taken to account for structural complexities such as spiral arms, tidal features, and overlapping or interacting companion galaxies. We employ Fourier modes to characterize the degree of asymmetrymore » of the light distribution of the stars as a quantitative measure of morphological distortion due to interactions or mergers. We examine the dependence of the physical parameters of the host galaxies on the properties of the AGNs, namely, radio-loudness and the width of the broad emission lines. In accordance with previous studies, narrow-line (H β FWHM ≤ 2000 km s{sup −1}) Type 1 AGNs, in contrast to their broad-line (H β FWHM > 2000 km s{sup −1}) counterparts, are preferentially hosted in later-type, lower-luminosity galaxies, which have a higher incidence of pseudo-bulges, are more frequently barred, and are less morphologically disturbed. This suggests that narrow-line Type 1 AGNs experienced a more quiescent evolutionary history driven primarily by internal secular evolution instead of external dynamical perturbations. The fraction of AGN hosts showing merger signatures is larger for more luminous sources. Radio-loud AGNs generally preferentially live in earlier-type (bulge-dominated), more massive hosts, although a minority of them appear to contain a significant disk component. We do not find convincing evidence for enhanced merger signatures in the radio-loud population.« less

  17. Novel Relationship among Spiral Arm Pitch Angles (p) and momentum parameter of the host spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Baidhany, Ismaeel; Rashid, Hayfa G.; Chiad, Sami S.; Habubi, Nadir F.; Jandow, Nidhal N.; Jabbar, Wasmaa A.; Abass, khalid H.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we have found a novel relationship among spiral arm pitch angles (p) and momentum parameter of the host spiral galaxies. In this study, we measured the momentum parameter for specimen of Spitzer/IRAC 3.6 μm images of 41 spiral galaxies evaluated employing a relation(Mbulge σ*/c)where Mbulge is mass of the bulge and σ* is the stellar velocity dispersion. We have taken velocity dispersions (σ*) from the literature. In order to determine the spiral arm pitch angles. The selection of specimen of nearly face-on spiral galaxies and employ IRAF ellipse to indicate the ellipticity and major-axis position angle so as to deproject the images to face-on, employing 2D Fast Fourier Transform decomposition mehtod. The specified bulge mass (Mbulge) using the virial theorem was include.

  18. Connections between Star Cluster Populations and Their Host Galaxy Nuclear Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chao; de Grijs, Richard; Ho, Luis C.

    2018-04-01

    Nuclear rings are excellent laboratories for probing diverse phenomena such as the formation and evolution of young massive star clusters and nuclear starbursts, as well as the secular evolution and dynamics of their host galaxies. We have compiled a sample of 17 galaxies with nuclear rings, which are well resolved by high-resolution Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope imaging. For each nuclear ring, we identified the ring star cluster population, along with their physical properties (ages, masses, and extinction values). We also determined the integrated ring properties, including the average age, total stellar mass, and current star formation rate (SFR). We find that Sb-type galaxies tend to have the highest ring stellar mass fraction with respect to the host galaxy, and this parameter is correlated with the ring’s SFR surface density. The ring SFRs are correlated with their stellar masses, which is reminiscent of the main sequence of star-forming galaxies. There are striking correlations between star-forming properties (i.e., SFR and SFR surface density) and nonaxisymmetric bar parameters, appearing to confirm previous inferences that strongly barred galaxies tend to have lower ring SFRs, although the ring star formation histories turn out to be significantly more complicated. Nuclear rings with higher stellar masses tend to be associated with lower cluster mass fractions, but there is no such relation for the ages of the rings. The two youngest nuclear rings in our sample, NGC 1512 and NGC 4314, which have the most extreme physical properties, represent the young extremity of the nuclear ring age distribution.

  19. Copious Amounts of Dust and Gas in a z = 7.5 Quasar Host Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venemans, Bram P.; Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Bañados, Eduardo; Carilli, Chris; Winters, Jan Martin; Schuster, Karl; da Cunha, Elisabete; Fan, Xiaohui; Farina, Emanuele Paolo; Mazzucchelli, Chiara; Rix, Hans-Walter; Weiss, Axel

    2017-12-01

    We present IRAM/NOEMA and JVLA observations of the quasar J1342+0928 at z = 7.54 and report detections of copious amounts of dust and [C II] emission in the interstellar medium (ISM) of its host galaxy. At this redshift, the age of the universe is 690 Myr, about 10% younger than the redshift of the previous quasar record holder. Yet, the ISM of this new quasar host galaxy is significantly enriched by metals, as evidenced by the detection of the [C II] 158 μm cooling line and the underlying far-infrared (FIR) dust continuum emission. To the first order, the FIR properties of this quasar host are similar to those found at a slightly lower redshift (z˜ 6), making this source by far the FIR-brightest galaxy known at z≳ 7.5. The [C II] emission is spatially unresolved, with an upper limit on the diameter of 7 kpc. Together with the measured FWHM of the [C II] line, this yields a dynamical mass of the host of < 1.5× {10}11 {M}⊙ . Using standard assumptions about the dust temperature and emissivity, the NOEMA measurements give a dust mass of (0.6{--}4.3)× {10}8 {M}⊙ . The brightness of the [C II] luminosity, together with the high dust mass, imply active ongoing star formation in the quasar host. Using [C II]-SFR scaling relations, we derive star formation rates of 85-545 {M}⊙ yr-1 in the host, consistent with the values derived from the dust continuum. Indeed, an episode of such past high star formation is needed to explain the presence of ˜108 M ⊙ of dust implied by the observations.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Host galaxies of Superluminous Supernovae (Angus+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, C. R.; Levan, A. J.; Perley, D. A.; Tanvir, N. R.; Lyman, J. D.; Stanway, E. R.; Fruchter, A. S.

    2016-11-01

    Here we use nIR and rest-frame UV observations of a sample of 21 SLSN host galaxies, within a redshift range of 0.019 SCP 06F6). This HST sample (programme GO-13025; PI: Levan) comprised 21 targets, based on the sample of Neill et al. (2011ApJ...727...15N), supplemented with luminous SNe from the literature (up to 2012 Jan). (6 data files).

  1. DISSECTING THE QUASAR MAIN SEQUENCE: INSIGHT FROM HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jiayi; Shen, Yue

    2015-05-01

    The diverse properties of broad-line quasars appear to follow a well-defined main sequence along which the optical Fe ii strength increases. It has been suggested that this sequence is mainly driven by the Eddington ratio (L/L{sub Edd}) of the black hole (BH) accretion. Shen and Ho demonstrated with quasar clustering analysis that the average BH mass decreases with increasing Fe ii strength when quasar luminosity is fixed, consistent with this suggestion. Here we perform an independent test by measuring the stellar velocity dispersion σ{sub *} (hence, the BH mass via the M–σ{sub *} relation) from decomposed host spectra in low-redshiftmore » Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars. We found that at fixed quasar luminosity, σ{sub *} systematically decreases with increasing Fe ii strength, confirming that the Eddington ratio increases with Fe ii strength. We also found that at fixed luminosity and Fe ii strength, there is little dependence of σ{sub *} on the broad Hβ FWHM. These new results reinforce the framework that the Eddington ratio and orientation govern most of the diversity seen in broad-line quasar properties.« less

  2. DEMOGRAPHICS OF THE GALAXIES HOSTING SHORT-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, W.; Berger, E.; Chornock, R.

    We present observations of the afterglows and host galaxies of three short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs): 100625A, 101219A, and 110112A. We find that GRB 100625A occurred in a z = 0.452 early-type galaxy with a stellar mass of Almost-Equal-To 4.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} and a stellar population age of Almost-Equal-To 0.7 Gyr, and GRB 101219A originated in a star-forming galaxy at z = 0.718 with a stellar mass of Almost-Equal-To 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, a star formation rate of Almost-Equal-To 16 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, and a stellar population age of Almost-Equal-To 50 Myr. We alsomore » report the discovery of the optical afterglow of GRB 110112A, which lacks a coincident host galaxy to i {approx}> 26 mag, and we cannot conclusively identify any field galaxy as a possible host. From afterglow modeling, the bursts have inferred circumburst densities of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -4}-1 cm{sup -3} and isotropic-equivalent gamma-ray and kinetic energies of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 50}-10{sup 51} erg. These three events highlight the diversity of galactic environments that host short GRBs. To quantify this diversity, we use the sample of 36 Swift short GRBs with robust associations to an environment ({approx}1/2 of 68 short bursts detected by Swift to 2012 May) and classify bursts originating from four types of environments: late-type ( Almost-Equal-To 50%), early-type ( Almost-Equal-To 15%), inconclusive ( Almost-Equal-To 20%), and ''host-less'' (lacking a coincident host galaxy to limits of {approx}> 26 mag; Almost-Equal-To 15%). To find likely ranges for the true late- and early-type fractions, we assign each of the host-less bursts to either the late- or early-type category using probabilistic arguments and consider the scenario that all hosts in the inconclusive category are early-type galaxies to set an upper bound on the early-type fraction. We calculate most likely ranges for the late- and early-type fractions of Almost

  3. The effect of host cluster gravitational tidal forces on the internal dynamics of spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    New empirical observation by Bidin, Carraro, Mendez & Smith finds ``a lack of dark matter in the Solar neighborhood" (2012 ApJ 751, 30). This, and the discovery of a vast polar structure of Milky Way satellites by Pawlowski, Pflamm-Altenburg & Kroupa (2012 MNRAS 423, 1109), conflict with the prevailing interpretation of the measured Galactic rotation curve. Simulating the dynamical effects of host cluster tidal forces on galaxy disks reveals radial migration in a spiral structure and an orbital velocity that accelerates with increasing galactocentric radial coordinate. A virtual ``toy model,'' which is based on an Earth-orbiting system of particles and is physically realizable in principle, is available at GravitySim.net. Given the perturbing gravitational effect of the host cluster on a spiral galaxy disk and that a similar effect does not exist for the Solar System, the two systems represent distinct classes of gravitational dynamical systems. The observed `flat' and accelerating rotation curves of spiral galaxies can be attributed to gravitational interaction with the host cluster; no `dark matter halo' is required to explain the observable.

  4. Missing GRB host galaxies in deep mid-infrared observations: implications on the use of GRBs as star formation tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Floc'h, Emeric; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Forrest, Bill; Mirabel, Félix; Armus, Lee; Devost, Daniel

    2006-05-01

    We report on the first mid-infrared observations of 16 GRB host galaxies performed with the Spitzer Space Telescope, and investigate the presence of evolved stellar populations and dust-enshrouded star-forming activity associated with GRBs. Only a very small fraction of our sample is detected by Spitzer, which is not consistent with recent works suggesting the presence of a GRB host population dominated by massive and strongly-starbursting galaxies (SFR >~ 100Msolaryr-1). Should the GRB hosts be representative of star-forming galaxies at high redshift, models of galaxy evolution indicate that >~ 50% of GRB hosts would be easily detected at the depth of our mid-infrared observations. Unless our sample suffers from a strong observational bias which remains to be understood, we infer in this context that the GRBs identified with the current techniques can not be directly used as unbiased probes of the global and integrated star formation history of the Universe.

  5. A catalogue of faint local radio AGN and the properties of their host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofthouse, E. K.; Kaviraj, S.; Smith, D. JB; Hardcastle, M. J.

    2018-05-01

    We present a catalogue of local (z < 0.1) galaxies that contain faint AGN. We select these objects by identifying galaxies that exhibit a significant excess in their radio luminosities, compared to what is expected from the observed levels of star-formation activity in these systems. This is achieved by comparing the optical (spectroscopic) star formation rate (SFR) to the 1.4 GHz luminosity measured from the FIRST survey. The majority of the AGN identified in this study are fainter than those in previous work, such as in the Best and Heckman (2012) catalogue. We show that these faint AGN make a non-negligible contribution to the radio luminosity function at low luminosities (below 1022.5 W Hz-1), and host ˜13 per cent of the local radio luminosity budget. Their host galaxies are predominantly high stellar-mass systems (with a median stellar mass of 1011M⊙), are found across a range of environments (but typically in denser environments than star-forming galaxies) and have early-type morphologies. This study demonstrates a general technique to identify AGN in galaxy populations where reliable optical SFRs can be extracted using spectro-photometry and where radio data are also available so that a radio excess can be measured. Our results also demonstrate that it is unsafe to infer SFRs from radio emission alone, even if bright AGN have been excluded from a sample, since there is a significant population of faint radio AGN which may contaminate the radio-derived SFRs.

  6. The connection between the host halo and the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Yu; Benson, Andrew; Mao, Yao -Yuan; ...

    2016-10-11

    Many properties of the Milky Way's (MW) dark matter halo, including its mass-assembly history, concentration, and subhalo population, remain poorly constrained. We explore the connection between these properties of the MW and its satellite galaxy population, especially the implication of the presence of the Magellanic Clouds for the properties of the MW halo. Using a suite of high-resolution N-body simulations of MW-mass halos with a fixed finalmore » $${M}_{\\mathrm{vir}}\\sim {10}^{12.1}\\,{M}_{\\odot }$$, we find that the presence of Magellanic Cloud-like satellites strongly correlates with the assembly history, concentration, and subhalo population of the host halo, such that MW-mass systems with Magellanic Clouds have lower concentration, more rapid recent accretion, and more massive subhalos than typical halos of the same mass. Using a flexible semi-analytic galaxy formation model that is tuned to reproduce the stellar mass function of the classical dwarf galaxies of the MW with Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo, we show that adopting host halos with different mass-assembly histories and concentrations can lead to different best-fit models for galaxy-formation physics, especially for the strength of feedback. These biases arise because the presence of the Magellanic Clouds boosts the overall population of high-mass subhalos, thus requiring a different stellar-mass-to-halo-mass ratio to match the data. These biases also lead to significant differences in the mass–metallicity relation, the kinematics of low-mass satellites, the number counts of small satellites associated with the Magellanic Clouds, and the stellar mass of MW itself. Finally, observations of these galaxy properties can thus provide useful constraints on the properties of the MW halo.« less

  7. An evolutionary missing link? A modest-mass early-type galaxy hosting an oversized nuclear black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, Jacco Th.; Sansom, Anne E.

    2015-11-01

    SAGE1C J053634.78-722658.5 is a galaxy at redshift z = 0.14, discovered behind the Large Magellanic Cloud in the Spitzer Space Telescope`Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution' Spectroscopy survey. It has very strong silicate emission at 10 μm but negligible far-IR and UV emission. This makes it a candidate for a bare active galactic nuclei (AGN) source in the IR, perhaps seen pole-on, without significant IR emission from the host galaxy. In this paper we present optical spectra taken with the Southern African Large Telescope to investigate the nature of the underlying host galaxy and its AGN. We find broad H α emission characteristic of an AGN, plus absorption lines associated with a mature stellar population (>9 Gyr), and refine its redshift determination to z = 0.1428 ± 0.0001. There is no evidence for any emission lines associated with star formation. This remarkable object exemplifies the need for separating the emission from any AGN from that of the host galaxy when employing IR diagnostic diagrams. We estimate the black hole mass, MBH = 3.5 ± 0.8 × 108 M⊙, host galaxy mass, M_stars=2.5^{2.5}_{1.2}× 10^{10} M⊙, and accretion luminosity, Lbol(AGN) = 5.3 ± 0.4 × 1045 erg s-1 (≈12 per cent of the Eddington luminosity), and find the AGN to be more prominent than expected for a host galaxy of this modest size. The old age is in tension with the downsizing paradigm in which this galaxy would recently have transformed from a star-forming disc galaxy into an early-type, passively evolving galaxy.

  8. Hosts and environments of low luminosity active galaxies in the local universe: The care and feeding of weak AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parejko, John Kenneth

    The observed relationship between the mass of a galaxy's supermassive black hole and the galaxy's bulge mass suggests a relationship between the growth of the galaxy and the growth of its central black hole. When these black holes grow, they release phenomenal amounts of energy into their surroundings, possibly disrupting further growth of the galaxy. The feeding (inflowing matter) and feedback (outflowing energy) of a galaxy's central black hole may be intimately related to the properties of the host's environment, on scales many orders of magnitude beyond the black hole's gravitational influence. While feeding, a massive black hole reveals itself as an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), but only a few percent of all galaxies show evidence of an AGN. This thesis focuses on this question: What distinguishes galaxies that are currently hosting actively accreting black holes from those that are not? We use the vast data set provided by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) to study the environments of a well defined sample of AGN hosts. To reduce contamination by galaxies that do not harbor actively accreting black holes, we define a clear, unambiguous sample of local AGN. Using this sample, we search for AGN in merging galaxies and measure the 2-point cross-correlation function of AGN and all galaxies to estimate the environments of AGN hosts compared to non-AGN hosts. We also describe trends in different subsamples of AGN, including luminosity and classification sub-type. Finally, we show how these techniques may be applied to future data sets such as forthcoming SDSS III data and X-ray data from the eROSITA satellite.

  9. The Host Galaxy and Redshift of the Repeating Fast Radio Burst FRB 121102

    SciTech Connect

    Tendulkar, S. P.; Kaspi, V. M.; Bassa, C. G.

    The precise localization of the repeating fast radio burst (FRB 121102) has provided the first unambiguous association (chance coincidence probability p ≲ 3 × 10{sup −4}) of an FRB with an optical and persistent radio counterpart. We report on optical imaging and spectroscopy of the counterpart and find that it is an extended (0.″6–0.″8) object displaying prominent Balmer and [O iii] emission lines. Based on the spectrum and emission line ratios, we classify the counterpart as a low-metallicity, star-forming, m{sub r′} = 25.1 AB mag dwarf galaxy at a redshift of z = 0.19273(8), corresponding to a luminosity distance ofmore » 972 Mpc. From the angular size, the redshift, and luminosity, we estimate the host galaxy to have a diameter ≲4 kpc and a stellar mass of M {sub *} ∼ (4–7) × 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙}, assuming a mass-to-light ratio between 2 to 3 M {sub ⊙} L {sub ⊙} {sup −1}. Based on the H α flux, we estimate the star formation rate of the host to be 0.4 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} and a substantial host dispersion measure (DM) depth ≲324 pc cm{sup −3}. The net DM contribution of the host galaxy to FRB 121102 is likely to be lower than this value depending on geometrical factors. We show that the persistent radio source at FRB 121102’s location reported by Marcote et al. is offset from the galaxy’s center of light by ∼200 mas and the host galaxy does not show optical signatures for AGN activity. If FRB 121102 is typical of the wider FRB population and if future interferometric localizations preferentially find them in dwarf galaxies with low metallicities and prominent emission lines, they would share such a preference with long gamma-ray bursts and superluminous supernovae.« less

  10. Erratum: ``CO Line Width Differences in Early Universe Molecular Emission-Line Galaxies: Submillimeter Galaxies versus QSO Hosts'' (AJ, 131, 2763 [2006])

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carilli, C. L.; Wang, Ran

    2006-11-01

    It has been pointed out to us that in three dimensions the mean angle of randomly oriented disks with respect to the sky plane is <θ>=30deg, and not the 45° assumed in the original paper. This lower angle for the (assumed) random distribution of submillimeter galaxies, coupled with the factor of 2.3 lower mean CO line width for high-z, far-IR-luminous QSO host galaxies relative to the submillimeter galaxies, implies a mean angle with respect to the sky plane for the QSO host galaxies of <θ>QSO=13deg, as opposed to the 18° quoted in the original paper. We thank Pat Hall for bringing this to our attention.

  11. The Post-starburst Evolution of Tidal Disruption Event Host Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    French, K. Decker; Zabludoff, Ann; Arcavi, Iair

    We constrain the recent star formation histories of the host galaxies of eight optical/UV-detected tidal disruption events (TDEs). Six hosts had quick starbursts of <200 Myr duration that ended 10–1000 Myr ago, indicating that TDEs arise at different times in their hosts’ post-starburst evolution. If the disrupted star formed in the burst or before, the post-burst age constrains its mass, generally excluding O, most B, and highly massive A stars. If the starburst arose from a galaxy merger, the time since the starburst began limits the coalescence timescale and thus the merger mass ratio to more equal than 12:1 inmore » most hosts. This uncommon ratio, if also that of the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) binary, disfavors the scenario in which the TDE rate is boosted by the binary but is insensitive to its mass ratio. The stellar mass fraction created in the burst is 0.5%–10% for most hosts, not enough to explain the observed 30–200× boost in TDE rates, suggesting that the host’s core stellar concentration is more important. TDE hosts have stellar masses 10{sup 9.4}–10{sup 10.3} M {sub ☉}, consistent with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey volume-corrected, quiescent Balmer-strong comparison sample and implying SMBH masses of 10{sup 5.5}–10{sup 7.5} M {sub ☉}. Subtracting the host absorption line spectrum, we uncover emission lines; at least five hosts have ionization sources inconsistent with star formation that instead may be related to circumnuclear gas, merger shocks, or post-AGB stars.« less

  12. GRB host galaxies with VLT/X-Shooter: properties at 0.8 < z < 1.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piranomonte, S.; Japelj, J.; Vergani, S. D.; Savaglio, S.; Palazzi, E.; Covino, S.; Flores, H.; Goldoni, P.; Cupani, G.; Krühler, T.; Mannucci, F.; Onori, F.; Rossi, A.; D'Elia, V.; Pian, E.; D'Avanzo, P.; Gomboc, A.; Hammer, F.; Randich, S.; Fiore, F.; Stella, L.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2015-10-01

    Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) are associated with the death of massive stars. Their host galaxies therefore represent a unique class of objects tracing star formation across the observable Universe. Indeed, recently accumulated evidence shows that GRB hosts do not differ substantially from general population of galaxies at high (z > 2) redshifts. However, it has been long recognized that the properties of z < 1.5 hosts, compared to general star-forming population, are unusual. To better understand the reasons for the supposed difference in LGRB hosts properties at z < 1.5, we obtained Very Large Telescope (VLT)/X-Shooter spectra of six hosts lying in the redshift range of 0.8 < z < 1.3. Some of these hosts have been observed before, yet we still lack well-constrained information on their characteristics such as metallicity, dust extinction and star formation rate (SFR). We search for emission lines in the VLT/X-Shooter spectra of the hosts and measure their fluxes. We perform a detailed analysis, estimating host average extinction, SFRs, metallicities and electron densities where possible. Measured quantities of our hosts are compared to a larger sample of previously observed GRB hosts at z < 2. SFRs and metallicities are measured for all the hosts analysed in this paper and metallicities are well determined for four hosts. The mass-metallicity relation, the fundamental metallicity relation and SFRs derived from our hosts occupy similar parameter space as other host galaxies investigated so far at the same redshift. We therefore conclude that GRB hosts in our sample support the found discrepancy between the properties of low-redshift GRB hosts and the general population of star-forming galaxies.

  13. Using diffusion k-means for simple stellar population modeling of low S/N quasar host galaxy spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, Gregory; Tremonti, Christina A.; Hooper, Eric; Wolf, Marsha J.; Sheinis, Andrew; Richards, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Quasar host galaxies (QHGs) represent a unique stage in galaxy evolution that can provide a glimpse into the relationship between an active supermassive black hole (SMBH) and its host galaxy. However, observing the hosts of high luminosity, unobscured quasars in the optical is complicated by the large ratio of quasar to host galaxy light. One strategy in optical spectroscopy is to use offset longslit observations of the host galaxy. This method allows the centers of QHGs to be analyzed apart from other regions of their host galaxies. But light from the accreting black hole's point spread function still enters the host galaxy observations, and where the contrast between the host and intervening quasar light is favorable, the host galaxy is faint, producing low signal-to-noise (S/N) data. This stymies traditional stellar population methods that might rely on high S/N features in galaxy spectra to recover key galaxy properties like its star formation history (SFH). In response to this challenge, we have developed a method of stellar population modeling using diffusion k-means (DFK) that can recover SFHs from rest frame optical data with S/N ~ 5 Å^-1. Specifically, we use DFK to cultivate a reduced stellar population basis set. This DFK basis set of four broad age bins is able to recover a range of SFHs. With an analytic description of the seeing, we can use this DFK basis set to simultaneously model the SFHs and the intervening quasar light of QHGs as well. We compare the results of this method with previous techniques using synthetic data and find that our new method has a clear advantage in recovering SFHs from QHGs. On average, the DFK basis set is just as accurate and decisively more precise. This new technique could be used to analyze other low S/N galaxy spectra like those from higher redshift or integral field spectroscopy surveys.This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant no. DGE -0718123 and the Advanced

  14. Spatially Resolved MaNGA Observations of the Host Galaxy of Superluminous Supernova 2017egm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting-Wan; Schady, Patricia; Xiao, Lin; Eldridge, J. J.; Schweyer, Tassilo; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Yu, Po-Chieh; Smartt, Stephen J.; Inserra, Cosimo

    2017-11-01

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) are found predominantly in dwarf galaxies, indicating that their progenitors have a low metallicity. However, the most nearby SLSN to date, SN 2017egm, occurred in the spiral galaxy NGC 3191, which has a relatively high stellar mass and correspondingly high metallicity. In this Letter, we present detailed analysis of the nearby environment of SN 2017egm using MaNGA IFU data, which provides spectral data on kiloparsec scales. From the velocity map we find no evidence that SN 2017egm occurred within some intervening satellite galaxy, and at the SN position most metallicity diagnostics yield a solar and above solar metallicity (12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})∼ 8.8{--}9.1). Additionally, we measure a small Hα equivalent width (EW) at the SN position of just 34 Å, which is one of the lowest EWs measured at any SLSN or gamma-ray burst position, and indicative of the progenitor star being comparatively old. We also compare the observed properties of NGC 3191 with other SLSN host galaxies. The solar-metallicity environment at the position of SN 2017egm presents a challenge to our theoretical understanding, and our spatially resolved spectral analysis provides further constraints on the progenitors of SLSNe.

  15. The Role of Radiation Pressure in the Narrow Line Regions of Seyfert Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Rebecca L.; Dopita, Michael A.; Kewley, Lisa; Groves, Brent; Sutherland, Ralph; Hampton, Elise J.; Shastri, Prajval; Kharb, Preeti; Bhatt, Harish; Scharwächter, Julia; Jin, Chichuan; Banfield, Julie; Zaw, Ingyin; James, Bethan; Juneau, Stéphanie; Srivastava, Shweta

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the relative significance of radiation pressure and gas pressure in the extended narrow line regions (ENLRs) of four Seyfert galaxies from the integral field Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7). We demonstrate that there exist two distinct types of starburst-active galactic nucleus (AGN) mixing curves on standard emission line diagnostic diagrams, which reflect the balance between gas pressure and radiation pressure in the ENLR. In two of the galaxies the ENLR is radiation pressure dominated throughout and the ionization parameter remains constant (log U ˜ 0). In the other two galaxies radiation pressure is initially important, but gas pressure becomes dominant as the ionization parameter in the ENLR decreases from log U ˜ 0 to -3.2 ≲ log U ≲ -3.4. Where radiation pressure is dominant, the AGN regulates the density of the interstellar medium on kiloparsec scales and may therefore have a direct impact on star formation activity and/or the incidence of outflows in the host galaxy to scales far beyond the zone of influence of the black hole. We find that both radiation pressure dominated and gas pressure dominated ENLRs are dynamically active with evidence for outflows, indicating that radiation pressure may be an important source of AGN feedback even when it is not dominant over the entire ENLR.

  16. Examining the Center: Positions, Dominance, and Star Formation Rates of Most Massive Group Galaxies at Intermediate Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, Jennifer L.; Parker, Laura C.; McGee, Sean; Mulchaey, John S.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Balogh, Michael; Wilman, David; Group Environment Evolution Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The group environment is believed to be the stage for many galaxy transformations, helping evolve blue star-forming galaxies to red passive ones. In local studies of galaxy clusters, the central member is usually a single dominant giant galaxy at the center of the potential with little star formation thought to be the result of galaxy mergers. In nearby groups, a range of morphologies and star formation rates are observed and the formation history is less clear. Further, the position and dominance of the central galaxy cannot be assumed in groups, which are less massive and evolved than clusters. To understand the connections between global group properties and properties of the central group galaxy at intermediate redshift, we examine galaxy groups from the Group Environment and Evolution Collaboration (GEEC) catalog, including both optically- and X-ray-selected groups at redshift z~0.4. The sample is diverse, containing a range in overall mass and evolutionary state. The number of groups is significant, membership is notably complete, and measurements span the IR to the UV allowing the properties of the members to be connected to those of the host groups. Having investigated trends in the global group properties previously, including mass and velocity substructure, we turn our attention now to the galaxy populations, focusing on the central regions of these systems. The most massive and second most massive group galaxies are identified by their stellar mass. The positions of the most massive galaxies (MMGs) are determined with respect to both the luminosity-weighted and X-ray center. Star formation rates are used to explore the fraction of passive/quiescent versus star-forming MMGs and the dominance of the MMGs in our group sample is also tested. Determinations of these characteristics and trends constitute the important first steps toward a detailed understanding of the relationships between the properties of host groups and their most massive galaxies and the

  17. GALAXY ZOO: THE FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT CO-EVOLUTION OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AND THEIR EARLY- AND LATE-TYPE HOST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Schawinski, Kevin; Urry, C. Megan; Virani, Shanil

    We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and visual classifications of morphology from the Galaxy Zoo project to study black hole growth in the nearby universe (z < 0.05) and to break down the active galactic nucleus (AGN) host galaxy population by color, stellar mass, and morphology. We find that the black hole growth at luminosities L[O{sub III}]>10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} in early- and late-type galaxies is fundamentally different. AGN host galaxies as a population have a broad range of stellar masses (10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} M{sub sun}), reside in the green valley of the color-mass diagram andmore » their central black holes have median masses around 10{sup 6.5} M{sub sun}. However, by comparing early- and late-type AGN host galaxies to their non-active counterparts, we find several key differences: in early-type galaxies, it is preferentially the galaxies with the least massive black holes that are growing, while in late-type galaxies, it is preferentially the most massive black holes that are growing. The duty cycle of AGNs in early-type galaxies is strongly peaked in the green valley below the low-mass end (10{sup 10} M{sub sun}) of the red sequence at stellar masses where there is a steady supply of blue cloud progenitors. The duty cycle of AGNs in late-type galaxies on the other hand peaks in massive (10{sup 11} M{sub sun}) green and red late-types which generally do not have a corresponding blue cloud population of similar mass. At high-Eddington ratios (L/L{sub Edd}>0.1), the only population with a substantial fraction of AGNs are the low-mass green valley early-type galaxies. Finally, the Milky Way likely resides in the 'sweet spot' on the color-mass diagram where the AGN duty cycle of late-type galaxies is highest. We discuss the implications of these results for our understanding of the role of AGNs in the evolution of galaxies.« less

  18. ON THE DEPENDENCE OF TYPE Ia SNe LUMINOSITIES ON THE METALLICITY OF THEIR HOST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno-Raya, Manuel E.; Mollá, Mercedes; López-Sánchez, Ángel R.

    The metallicity of the progenitor system producing a type Ia supernova (SN Ia) could play a role in its maximum luminosity, as suggested by theoretical predictions. We present an observational study to investigate if such a relationship exists. Using the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) we have obtained intermediate-resolution spectroscopy data of a sample of 28 local galaxies hosting SNe Ia, for which distances have been derived using methods independent of those based on SN Ia parameters. From the emission lines observed in their optical spectra, we derived the gas-phase oxygen abundance in the region where each SN Ia exploded. Our datamore » show a trend, with an 80% of chance not being due to random fluctuation, between SNe Ia absolute magnitudes and the oxygen abundances of the host galaxies, in the sense that luminosities tend to be higher for galaxies with lower metallicities. This result seems likely to be in agreement with both the theoretically expected behavior and with other observational results. This dependence M{sub B}–Z might induce systematic errors when it is not considered when deriving SNe Ia luminosities and then using them to derive cosmological distances.« less

  19. A CCD Color Comparison of Seyfert 1 and 2 Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virani, S. N.; De Robertis, M. M.

    2001-05-01

    Wide-field, R-band CCD data of 15 Seyfert 1 and 15 Seyfert 2 galaxies taken from the CfA survey were analysed in order to compare the properties of their host galaxies. Also, B-band images for a subset of 12 Seyfert 1s and 7 Seyfert 2s were acquired and analysed in the same way. The nuclear contribution of the Seyfert host galaxies was modeled and removed empirically by using a robust technique for decomposing the nucleus, bulge and disk components (see Virani et al. 2000, De Robertis and Virani, 2001). Profile fits to the remaining bulge+disk light were then performed. Of the many B-R color comparisons that were performed (i.e., component colors, color gradient, etc.) between Seyfert 1s and 2s, only two distributions differed at greater than the 95% confidence level for the K-S test: the magnitude of the nuclear component, and the radial color gradient outside the nucleus. The former is expected. The latter could be consistent with some proposed evolutionary models. There is some suggestion that other parameters may differ, but at a lower confidence level. Color contour maps and results from all tests performed (K-S test and Wilcoxon-Rank Sum Test) are presented.

  20. Exploring Damped Ly Alpha System Host Galaxies Using Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toy, Vicki L.; Cucchiara, Antonino; Veilleux, Sylvain; Fumagalli, Michele; Rafelski, Marc; Rahmati, Alireza; Cenko, S. Bradley; Capone, John I.; Pasham, Dheeraj R.

    2016-01-01

    We present a sample of 45 Damped Ly-Alpha system [DLA; H I-N is greater than or equal to 2 x 10(exp. 20) cm(exp. -2)] counterparts (33 detections, 12 upper limits) which host gamma-ray bursts (GRB-DLAs) in order to investigate star formation and metallicity within galaxies hosting DLAs. Our sample spans z is approx. 2 - 6 and is nearly three times larger than any previously detected DLA counterparts survey based on quasar line-of-sight searches (QSO-DLAs). We report star formation rates (SFRs) from rest-frame UV photometry and spectral energy distribution modeling. We find that DLA counterpart SFRs are not correlated with either redshift or H I column density. Thanks to the combination of Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based observations, we also investigate DLA host star formation efficiency. Our GRB-DLA counterpart sample spans both higher efficiency and low efficiency star formation regions compared to the local Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, local star formation laws, and z is approximately 3 cosmological simulations. We also compare the depletion times of our DLA hosts sample to other objects in the local universe; our sample appears to deviate from the star formation efficiencies measured in local spiral and dwarf galaxies. Furthermore, we find similar efficiencies as local inner disks, SMC, and Lyman-break galaxy outskirts. Finally, our enrichment time measurements show a spread of systems with under- and over-abundance of metals, which may suggest that these systems had episodic star formation and a metal enrichment/depletion as a result of strong stellar feedback and/or metal inflow/outflow.

  1. Revealing the Host Galaxy of a Quasar 2175 Å Dust Absorber at z =  2.12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Brammer, Gabriel; Ge, Jian; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Lundgren, Britt

    2018-04-01

    We report the first detection of the host galaxy of a strong 2175 Å dust absorber at z = 2.12 toward the background quasar SDSS J121143.42+083349.7 using Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3) IR F140W direct imaging and G141 grism spectroscopy. The spectroscopically confirmed host galaxy is located at a small impact parameter of ∼5.5 kpc (∼0.″65). The F140W image reveals a disk-like morphology with an effective radius of 2.24 ± 0.08 kpc. The extracted 1D spectrum is dominated by a continuum with weak emission lines ([O III] and [O II]). The [O III]-based unobscured star formation rate (SFR) is 9.4 ± 2.6 M ⊙ yr‑1, assuming an [O III]/Hα ratio of 1. The moderate 4000 Å break (Dn(4000) index ∼1.3) and Balmer absorption lines indicate that the host galaxy contains an evolved stellar population with an estimated stellar mass M * of (3–7) × 1010 M ⊙. The SFR and M * of the host galaxy are comparable to, though slightly lower than, those of typical emission-selected galaxies at z ∼ 2. As inferred from our absorption analysis in Ma et al., the host galaxy is confirmed to be a chemically enriched, evolved, massive, and star-forming disk-like galaxy that is likely in the transition from a blue star-forming galaxy to a red quiescent galaxy.

  2. Host galaxy and environment of the BL Lacertae object PKS 0548-322: Observations with subarcsecond resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falomo, Renato; Pesce, Joseph E.; Treves, Aldo

    1995-01-01

    We report on direct, subarcsecond resolution imaging of the nebulosity and spectroscopy of galaxies in the field of the BL Lacertae object PKS 0548-322. Surface photometry of the nebulosity is used to derive the properties of the host galaxy (M(sub V) = -23.4), which exhibits signs of interaction with a close companion galaxy at approximately 25 kpc. The radial brightness profile of the nebulosity is well fitted by the contribution of a bulge (r(exp 1/4)) plus a point source and a small internal disk. An analysis of the galaxies in the field shows that the source is located in a rich cluster of galaxies. Spectra of five galaxies in the field indicate that they are at the same redshift as the BL Lac object, thus supporting the imaging result of a surrounding cluster associated with the BL Lac. This cluster is most likely Abell S0549.

  3. [C ii] 158-μm emission from the host galaxies of damped Lyman-alpha systems.

    PubMed

    Neeleman, Marcel; Kanekar, Nissim; Prochaska, J Xavier; Rafelski, Marc; Carilli, Chris L; Wolfe, Arthur M

    2017-03-24

    Gas surrounding high-redshift galaxies has been studied through observations of absorption line systems toward background quasars for decades. However, it has proven difficult to identify and characterize the galaxies associated with these absorbers due to the intrinsic faintness of the galaxies compared with the quasars at optical wavelengths. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array, we report on detections of [C ii] 158-μm line and dust-continuum emission from two galaxies associated with two such absorbers at a redshift of z ~ 4. Our results indicate that the hosts of these high-metallicity absorbers have physical properties similar to massive star-forming galaxies and are embedded in enriched neutral hydrogen gas reservoirs that extend well beyond the star-forming interstellar medium of these galaxies. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Stellar Photometric Structures of the Host Galaxies of Nearby Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minjin; Ho, Luis C.; Peng, Chien Y.; Barth, Aaron J.; Im, Myungshin

    2017-10-01

    We present detailed image analysis of rest-frame optical images of 235 low-redshift (z ≲ 0.35) Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed with the Hubble Space Telescope. The high-resolution images enable us to perform rigorous two-dimensional image modeling to decouple the luminous central point source from the host galaxy, which, when warranted, is further decomposed into its principal structural components (bulge, bar, and disk). In many cases, care must be taken to account for structural complexities such as spiral arms, tidal features, and overlapping or interacting companion galaxies. We employ Fourier modes to characterize the degree of asymmetry of the light distribution of the stars as a quantitative measure of morphological distortion due to interactions or mergers. We examine the dependence of the physical parameters of the host galaxies on the properties of the AGNs, namely, radio-loudness and the width of the broad emission lines. In accordance with previous studies, narrow-line (Hβ FWHM ≤ 2000 km s-1) Type 1 AGNs, in contrast to their broad-line (Hβ FWHM > 2000 km s-1) counterparts, are preferentially hosted in later-type, lower-luminosity galaxies, which have a higher incidence of pseudo-bulges, are more frequently barred, and are less morphologically disturbed. This suggests that narrow-line Type 1 AGNs experienced a more quiescent evolutionary history driven primarily by internal secular evolution instead of external dynamical perturbations. The fraction of AGN hosts showing merger signatures is larger for more luminous sources. Radio-loud AGNs generally preferentially live in earlier-type (bulge-dominated), more massive hosts, although a minority of them appear to contain a significant disk component. We do not find convincing evidence for enhanced merger signatures in the radio-loud population. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute

  5. Quasar outflows at z ≥ 6: the impact on the host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barai, Paramita; Gallerani, Simona; Pallottini, Andrea; Ferrara, Andrea; Marconi, Alessandro; Cicone, Claudia; Maiolino, Roberto; Carniani, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    We investigate quasar outflows at z ≥ 6 by performing zoom-in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. By employing the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code GADGET-3, we zoom in the 2R200 region around a 2 × 1012 M⊙ halo at z = 6, inside a (500 Mpc)3 comoving volume. We compare the results of our active galactic nuclei (AGN) runs with a control simulation in which only stellar/SN feedback is considered. Seeding 105 M⊙ black holes (BHs) at the centres of 109 M⊙ haloes, we find the following results. BHs accrete gas at the Eddington rate over z = 9-6. At z = 6, our most-massive BH has grown to MBH = 4 × 109 M⊙. Fast (vr > 1000 km s-1), powerful (\\dot{M}_out ˜ 2000 M_{⊙} yr-1) outflows of shock-heated low-density gas form at z ∼ 7, and propagate up to hundreds kpc. Star formation is quenched over z = 8-6, and the total star formation rate (SFR surface density near the galaxy centre) is reduced by a factor of 5 (1000). We analyse the relative contribution of multiple physical process: (i) disrupting cosmic filamentary cold gas inflows, (ii) reducing central gas density, (iii) ejecting gas outside the galaxy; and find that AGN feedback has the following effects at z = 6. The inflowing gas mass fraction is reduced by ∼ 12 per cent, the high-density gas fraction is lowered by ∼ 13 per cent, and ∼ 20 per cent of the gas outflows at a speed larger than the escape velocity (500 km s-1). We conclude that quasar-host galaxies at z ≥ 6 are accreting non-negligible amount of cosmic gas, nevertheless AGN feedback quenches their star formation dominantly by powerful outflows ejecting gas out of the host galaxy halo.

  6. THE CLUSTERING OF ALFALFA GALAXIES: DEPENDENCE ON H I MASS, RELATIONSHIP WITH OPTICAL SAMPLES, AND CLUES OF HOST HALO PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Papastergis, Emmanouil; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.

    We use a sample of ≈6000 galaxies detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21 cm survey to measure the clustering properties of H I-selected galaxies. We find no convincing evidence for a dependence of clustering on galactic atomic hydrogen (H I) mass, over the range M{sub H{sub I}} ≈ 10{sup 8.5}-10{sup 10.5} M{sub ☉}. We show that previously reported results of weaker clustering for low H I mass galaxies are probably due to finite-volume effects. In addition, we compare the clustering of ALFALFA galaxies with optically selected samples drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We findmore » that H I-selected galaxies cluster more weakly than even relatively optically faint galaxies, when no color selection is applied. Conversely, when SDSS galaxies are split based on their color, we find that the correlation function of blue optical galaxies is practically indistinguishable from that of H I-selected galaxies. At the same time, SDSS galaxies with red colors are found to cluster significantly more than H I-selected galaxies, a fact that is evident in both the projected as well as the full two-dimensional correlation function. A cross-correlation analysis further reveals that gas-rich galaxies 'avoid' being located within ≈3 Mpc of optical galaxies with red colors. Next, we consider the clustering properties of halo samples selected from the Bolshoi ΛCDM simulation. A comparison with the clustering of ALFALFA galaxies suggests that galactic H I mass is not tightly related to host halo mass and that a sizable fraction of subhalos do not host H I galaxies. Lastly, we find that we can recover fairly well the correlation function of H I galaxies by just excluding halos with low spin parameter. This finding lends support to the hypothesis that halo spin plays a key role in determining the gas content of galaxies.« less

  7. First measurement of H I 21 cm emission from a GRB host galaxy indicates a post-merger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabsalmani, Maryam; Roychowdhury, Sambit; Zwaan, Martin A.; Kanekar, Nissim; Michałowski, Michał J.

    2015-11-01

    We report the detection and mapping of atomic hydrogen in H I 21 cm emission from ESO 184-G82, the host galaxy of the gamma-ray burst 980425. This is the first instance where H I in emission has been detected from a galaxy hosting a gamma-ray burst (GRB). ESO 184-G82 is an isolated galaxy and contains a Wolf-Rayet region close to the location of the GRB and the associated supernova, SN 1998bw. This is one of the most luminous H II regions identified in the local Universe, with a very high inferred density of star formation. The H I 21 cm observations reveal a high H I mass for the galaxy, twice as large as the stellar mass. The spatial and velocity distribution of the H I 21 cm emission reveals a disturbed rotating gas disc, which suggests that the galaxy has undergone a recent minor merger that disrupted its rotation. We find that the Wolf-Rayet region and the GRB are both located in the highest H I column density region of the galaxy. We speculate that the merger event has resulted in shock compression of the gas, triggering extreme star formation activity, and resulting in the formation of both the Wolf-Rayet region and the GRB. The high H I column density environment of the GRB is consistent with the high H I column densities seen in absorption in the host galaxies of high-redshift GRBs.

  8. A Compact Group of Galaxies at z = 2.48 Hosting an AGN-driven Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan

    2015-12-01

    We present observations of a remarkable compact group of galaxies at z = 2.48. Four galaxies, all within 40 kpc of each other, surround a powerful high-redshift radio source. This group comprises two compact red passive galaxies and a pair of merging galaxies. One of the red galaxies, with an apparent stellar mass of 3.6 × 1011M⊙ and an effective radius of 470 pc, is one of the most extreme examples of a massive quiescent compact galaxy found so far. One of the pair of merging galaxies hosts the active galactic nucleus (AGN) producing the large powerful radio structure. The merger is massive and enriched, consistent with the mass-metallicity relation expected at this redshift. Close to the merging nuclei, the emission lines exhibit broad and asymmetric profiles that suggest outflows powered either by a very young expanding radio jet or by AGN radiation. At ≳50 kpc from the system, we found a fainter extended-emission region that may be a part of a radio-jet-driven outflow. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The work is also based, in part, on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  9. The afterglow and elliptical host galaxy of the short gamma-ray burst GRB 050724.

    PubMed

    Berger, E; Price, P A; Cenko, S B; Gal-Yam, A; Soderberg, A M; Kasliwal, M; Leonard, D C; Cameron, P B; Frail, D A; Kulkarni, S R; Murphy, D C; Krzeminski, W; Piran, T; Lee, B L; Roth, K C; Moon, D-S; Fox, D B; Harrison, F A; Persson, S E; Schmidt, B P; Penprase, B E; Rich, J; Peterson, B A; Cowie, L L

    2005-12-15

    Despite a rich phenomenology, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are divided into two classes based on their duration and spectral hardness--the long-soft and the short-hard bursts. The discovery of afterglow emission from long GRBs was a watershed event, pinpointing their origin to star-forming galaxies, and hence the death of massive stars, and indicating an energy release of about 10(51) erg. While theoretical arguments suggest that short GRBs are produced in the coalescence of binary compact objects (neutron stars or black holes), the progenitors, energetics and environments of these events remain elusive despite recent localizations. Here we report the discovery of the first radio afterglow from the short burst GRB 050724, which unambiguously associates it with an elliptical galaxy at a redshift z = 0.257. We show that the burst is powered by the same relativistic fireball mechanism as long GRBs, with the ejecta possibly collimated in jets, but that the total energy release is 10-1,000 times smaller. More importantly, the nature of the host galaxy demonstrates that short GRBs arise from an old (> 1 Gyr) stellar population, strengthening earlier suggestions and providing support for coalescing compact object binaries as the progenitors.

  10. Investigating the host galaxies of luminous AGN in the local universe with integral field spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElroy, Rebecca; Croom, Scott; Husemann, Bernd; Close AGN Reference Survey; SAMI Galaxy Survey

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates how galaxies and their super massive black holes coevolve. We use integral field spectroscopy to search for evidence of AGN feedback and triggering. We demonstrate that outflows are ubiquitous among luminous local type 2 AGN using observations from the AAT's SPIRAL instrument. Using multiple component Gaussian emission line decomposition we are able to disentangle the kinematic and ionisation properties of these winds. This allows us to argue that the outflows from these AGN are directly impacting the surrounding ISM within the galaxies. We search for evidence of AGN triggering using data from The Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS). CARS aims to provide a detailed multi-wavelength view of 40 nearby (0.01 < z < 0.06) unobscured AGN to study the link between AGN and their host galaxies. The primary CARS observations come from the MUSE integral field unit on the VLT, and complementary multi-wavelength observations have been approved from SOFIA, Chandra, VLA, HST, and others. We compare the stellar kinematics of active galaxies from CARS to similar inactive galaxies. We then use kinemetry to estimate the degree of dynamical disturbance, to determine whether active nuclei are preferentially hosted in dynamically disturbed or merging systems. Finally, we highlight the discovery of an AGN that has changed spectral type not once, but twice. So called ‘changing look’ AGN are an uncommon phenomenon, but twice changed AGN are much rarer. This AGN first transitioned from a narrow line AGN (type 2) to a broad line AGN (type 1) in the 1980s. It was recently observed as part of CARS. Examination of the MUSE data for this particular source showed that it no longer had the spectral features typical of a type 1 AGN. The continuum emission from the accretion disk was no longer visible and the broad lines were dramatically diminished. In this talk we describe the possible reasons for this change, supported by analysis of multi-epoch optical photometry and

  11. Supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. I. Bulge luminosities from dedicated near-infrared data

    SciTech Connect

    Läsker, Ronald; Van de Ven, Glenn; Ferrarese, Laura, E-mail: laesker@mpia.de

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to secure, refine, and supplement the relation between central supermassive black hole masses, M {sub •}, and the bulge luminosities of their host galaxies, L {sub bul}, we obtained deep, high spatial resolution K-band images of 35 nearby galaxies with securely measured M {sub •}, using the wide-field WIRCam imager at the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope. A dedicated data reduction and sky subtraction strategy was adopted to estimate the brightness and structure of the sky, a critical step when tracing the light distribution of extended objects in the near-infrared. From the final image product, bulge and total magnitudes were extractedmore » via two-dimensional profile fitting. As a first order approximation, all galaxies were modeled using a simple Sérsic-bulge+exponential-disk decomposition. However, we found that such models did not adequately describe the structure that we observed in a large fraction of our sample galaxies which often include cores, bars, nuclei, inner disks, spiral arms, rings, and envelopes. In such cases, we adopted profile modifications and/or more complex models with additional components. The derived bulge magnitudes are very sensitive to the details and number of components used in the models, although total magnitudes remain almost unaffected. Usually, but not always, the luminosities and sizes of the bulges are overestimated when a simple bulge+disk decomposition is adopted in lieu of a more complex model. Furthermore, we found that some spheroids are not well fit when the ellipticity of the Sérsic model is held fixed. This paper presents the details of the image processing and analysis, while we discuss how model-induced biases and systematics in bulge magnitudes impact the M {sub •}-L {sub bul} relation in a companion paper.« less

  12. Supermassive Black Holes and Their Host Galaxies. I. Bulge Luminosities from Dedicated Near-infrared Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Läsker, Ronald; Ferrarese, Laura; van de Ven, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to secure, refine, and supplement the relation between central supermassive black hole masses, M •, and the bulge luminosities of their host galaxies, L bul, we obtained deep, high spatial resolution K-band images of 35 nearby galaxies with securely measured M •, using the wide-field WIRCam imager at the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope. A dedicated data reduction and sky subtraction strategy was adopted to estimate the brightness and structure of the sky, a critical step when tracing the light distribution of extended objects in the near-infrared. From the final image product, bulge and total magnitudes were extracted via two-dimensional profile fitting. As a first order approximation, all galaxies were modeled using a simple Sérsic-bulge+exponential-disk decomposition. However, we found that such models did not adequately describe the structure that we observed in a large fraction of our sample galaxies which often include cores, bars, nuclei, inner disks, spiral arms, rings, and envelopes. In such cases, we adopted profile modifications and/or more complex models with additional components. The derived bulge magnitudes are very sensitive to the details and number of components used in the models, although total magnitudes remain almost unaffected. Usually, but not always, the luminosities and sizes of the bulges are overestimated when a simple bulge+disk decomposition is adopted in lieu of a more complex model. Furthermore, we found that some spheroids are not well fit when the ellipticity of the Sérsic model is held fixed. This paper presents the details of the image processing and analysis, while we discuss how model-induced biases and systematics in bulge magnitudes impact the M •-L bul relation in a companion paper.

  13. The Host Galaxy and Central Engine of the Dwarf Active Galactic Nucleus POX 52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Carol E.; Barth, Aaron J.; Ho, Luis C.; Rutledge, Robert E.; Greene, Jenny E.

    2008-10-01

    We present new multiwavelength observations of the dwarf Seyfert 1 galaxy POX 52 in order to investigate the properties of the host galaxy and the active nucleus and to examine the mass of its black hole, previously estimated to be ~105 M⊙. HST ACS HRC images show that the host galaxy has a dwarf elliptical morphology (MI = - 18.4 mag, Sérsic index n = 4.3) with no detected disk component or spiral structure, confirming previous results from ground-based imaging. X-ray observations from both Chandra and XMM-Newton show strong (factor of 2) variability over timescales as short as 500 s, as well as a dramatic decrease in the absorbing column density over a 9 month period. We attribute this change to a partial covering absorber, with a 94% covering fraction and NH = 58+ 8.4-9.2 × 1021 cm -2, that moved out of the line of sight in between the XMM-Newton and Chandra observations. Combining these data with observations from the VLA, Spitzer, and archival data from 2MASS and GALEX, we examine the SED of the active nucleus. Its shape is broadly similar to typical radio-quiet quasar SEDs, despite the very low bolometric luminosity of Lbol = 1.3 × 1043 ergs s-1. Finally, we compare black hole mass estimators, including methods based on X-ray variability, and optical scaling relations using the broad Hβ line width and AGN continuum luminosity, finding a range of black hole mass from all methods to be MBH = (2.2-4.2) × 105 M⊙, with an Eddington ratio of Lbol/LEdd ≈ 0.2-0.5.

  14. Revisiting the Abundance Gradient in the Maser Host Galaxy NGC 4258

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresolin, Fabio

    2011-03-01

    New spectroscopic observations of 36 H II regions in NGC 4258 obtained with the Gemini telescope are combined with existing data from the literature to measure the radial oxygen abundance gradient in this galaxy. The [O III]λ4363 auroral line was detected in four of the outermost targets (17-22 kpc from the galaxy center), allowing a determination of the electron temperature Te of the ionized gas. From the use of different calibrations of the R 23 abundance indicator, an oxygen abundance gradient of approximately -0.012 ± 0.002 dex kpc-1 is derived. Such a shallow gradient, combined with the difference in the distance moduli measured from the Cepheid period-luminosity relation by Macri et al. between two distinct fields in NGC 4258, would yield an unrealistically strong effect of metallicity on the Cepheid distances. This strengthens the suggestion that systematic biases might affect the Cepheid distance of the outer field. Evidence for a similar effect in the differential study of M33 by Scowcroft et al. is presented. A revision of the transformation between strong-line and Te -based abundances in Cepheid-host galaxies is discussed. In the Te abundance scale, the oxygen abundance of the inner field of NGC 4258 is found to be comparable with the LMC value. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  15. SUPPRESSION OF STAR FORMATION IN THE HOSTS OF LOW-EXCITATION RADIO GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, Cameron; Salim, Samir, E-mail: cameronpace@suu.edu, E-mail: salims@indiana.edu

    The feedback from radio-loud active galactic nuclei (R-AGNs) may help maintain low star-formation (SF) rates in their early-type hosts, but the observational evidence for this mechanism has been inconclusive. We study systematic differences of aggregate spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of various subsets of ∼4000 low-redshift R-AGNs from Best and Heckman with respect to (currently) inactive control samples selected to have matching redshift, stellar mass, population age, axis ratio, and environment. Aggregate SEDs, ranging from the ultraviolet (UV) through mid-infrared (mid-IR, 22 μm), were constructed using a Bayesian method that eliminates biases from non-detections in Galaxy Evolution Explorer and Wide-field Infraredmore » Survey Explorer. We study rare high-excitation sources separately from low-excitation ones, which we split by environment and host properties. We find that both the UV and mid-IR emission of non-cluster R-AGNs (80% of sample) are suppressed by ∼0.2 dex relative to that of the control group, especially for moderately massive galaxies (log M{sub *} ≲ 11). The difference disappears for high-mass R-AGNs and for R-AGNs in clusters, where other, non-AGN quenching/maintenance mechanisms may dominate, or where the suppression of SF due to AGNs may persist between active phases of the central engine, perhaps because of the presence of a hot gaseous halo storing AGN energy. High-excitation (high accretion rate) sources, which make up 2% of the R-AGN sample, do not show any evidence of SF suppression (their UV is the same as in controls), but they exhibit a strong mid-IR excess due to AGN dust heating.« less

  16. Possible correlations between gamma-ray burst and its host galaxy offset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei-Fei; Zou, Yuan-Chuan; Liu, Yu; Liao, Bin; Moharana, Reetanjali

    2018-06-01

    We collected the information of 304 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) from the literature, and analyzed the correlations among the host galaxy offsets (the distance from the site of the GRB to the center of its host galaxy), T90,i (the duration T90 in rest-frame), TR45,i (the duration TR45 in rest-frame), Eγ,iso (the isotropic equivalent energy), Lγ,iso (=Eγ,iso /T90,i, the isotropic equivalent luminosity) and Lpk (peak luminosity). We found that T90,i, TR45,i, Eγ,iso, Lpk have negative correlation with offset, which is consistent with origin of short GRBs (SGRBs) and long GRBs (LGRBs). On separate analysis, we found similar results for log ⁡Eγ,iso - log ⁡ (offset) and log ⁡Lpk - log ⁡ (offset) relations in case of SGRBs only, while no obvious relation for LGRBs. There is no correlations between offset and Lγ,iso. We also put the special GRB 170817A and GRB 060218A on the plots. The two GRBs both have low luminosity and small offset. In the log ⁡ (offset) - log ⁡T90,i plot, we found GRB 170817A locates in between the two regions of SGRBs and LGRBs and it is the outlier in the offset -Eγ,iso, offset -Lγ,iso and offset -Lpk plots. Together with GRB 060218A being an outlier in all plots, it indicates the speciality of GRBs 170817A and 060218A, and might imply more subgroups of the GRB samples.

  17. Black Hole Growth Is Mainly Linked to Host-galaxy Stellar Mass Rather Than Star Formation Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, G.; Chen, C.-T. J.; Vito, F.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Luo, B.; Sun, M. Y.; Xue, Y. Q.; Bauer, F. E.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Lehmer, B. D.; Liu, T.; Schneider, D. P.; Shemmer, O.; Trump, J. R.; Vignali, C.; Wang, J.-X.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the dependence of black hole accretion rate (BHAR) on host-galaxy star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass (M *) in the CANDELS/GOODS-South field in the redshift range of 0.5≤slant z< 2.0. Our sample consists of ≈ {{18,000}} galaxies, allowing us to probe galaxies with 0.1{M}⊙ {{yr}}-1≲ {SFR}≲ 100 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1 and/or {10}8{M}⊙ ≲ {M}* ≲ {10}11 {M}⊙ . We use sample-mean BHAR to approximate long-term average BHAR. Our sample-mean BHARs are derived from the Chandra Deep Field-South 7 Ms observations, while the SFRs and M * have been estimated by the CANDELS team through spectral energy distribution fitting. The average BHAR is correlated positively with both SFR and M *, and the BHAR-SFR and BHAR-M * relations can both be described acceptably by linear models with a slope of unity. However, BHAR appears to be correlated more strongly with M * than SFR. This result indicates that M * is the primary host-galaxy property related to supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth, and the apparent BHAR-SFR relation is largely a secondary effect due to the star-forming main sequence. Among our sources, massive galaxies ({M}* ≳ {10}10{M}⊙ ) have significantly higher BHAR/SFR ratios than less massive galaxies, indicating that the former have higher SMBH fueling efficiency and/or higher SMBH occupation fraction than the latter. Our results can naturally explain the observed proportionality between {M}{BH} and M * for local giant ellipticals and suggest that their {M}{BH}/{M}* is higher than that of local star-forming galaxies. Among local star-forming galaxies, massive systems might have higher {M}{BH}/{M}* compared to dwarfs.

  18. Is Black Hole Growth a Universal Process? Exploring Selection Effects in Measurements of AGN Accretion Rates and Host Galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Mackenzie

    2018-01-01

    At the center of essentially every massive galaxy is a monstrous black hole producing luminous radiation driven by the accretion of gas. By observing these active galactic nuclei (AGN) we may trace the growth of black holes across cosmic time. However, our knowledge of the full underlying AGN population is hindered by complex observational biases. My research aims to untangle these biases by using a novel approach to simulate the impact of selection effects on multiwavelength observations.The most statistically powerful studies of AGN to date come from optical spectroscopic surveys, with some reporting a complex relationship between AGN accretion rates and host galaxy characteristics. However, the optical waveband can be strongly influenced by selection effects and dilution from host galaxy star formation. I have shown that accounting for selection effects, the Eddington ratio distribution for optically-selected AGN is consistent with a broad power-law, as seen in the X-rays (Jones et al. 2016). This suggests that a universal Eddington ratio distribution may be enough to describe the full multiwavelength AGN population.Building on these results, I have expanded a semi-numerical galaxy formation simulation to include this straightforward prescription for AGN accretion and explicitly model selection effects. I have found that a simple model for AGN accretion can broadly reproduce the host galaxies and halos of X-ray AGN, and that different AGN selection techniques yield samples with very different host galaxy properties (Jones et al. 2017). Finally, I will discuss the capabilities of this simulation to build synthetic multiwavelength SEDs in order to explore what AGN populations would be detected with the next generation of observatories. This research is supported by a NASA Jenkins Graduate Fellowship under grant no. NNX15AU32H.

  19. The host galaxy and Fermi-LAT counterpart of HESS J1943+213

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, D.; Domainko, W.; Sanchez, D. A.; van der Wel, A.; Gässler, W.

    2014-11-01

    Context. The very-high energy (VHE, E> 100 GeV) gamma-ray sky shows diverse Galactic and extragalactic source populations. For some sources the astrophysical object class could not be identified so far. Aims: The nature (Galactic or extragalactic) of the VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1943+213 is explored. We specifically investigate the proposed near-infrared counterpart 2MASS J19435624+2118233 of HESS J1943+213 and investigate the implications of a physical association. Methods: We present K-band imaging from the 3.5 m CAHA telescope of 2MASS J19435624+2118233. Furthermore, 5 years of Fermi-LAT data were analyzed to search for a high-energy (HE, 100 MeV galaxy, and thus point toward an extragalactic scenario for the VHE gamma-ray source, assuming that the near-infrared source is the counterpart of HESS J1943+213. A high-Sérsic index profile provides a better fit than an exponential profile, indicating that the surface brightness profile of 2MASS J19435624+2118233 follows that of a typical, massive elliptical galaxy more closely than that of a disk galaxy. With Fermi-LAT a HE counterpart is found with a power-law spectrum above 1 GeV, with a normalization of (3.0 ± 0.8stat ± 0.6sys) × 10-15 cm-2 s-1 MeV-1 at the decorrelation energy Edec = 15.1 GeV and a spectral index of Γ = 1.59 ± 0.19stat ± 0.13sys. This gamma-ray spectrum shows a rather sharp break between the HE and VHE regimes of ΔΓ = 1.47 ± 0.36. Conclusions: The infrared and HE data strongly favor an extragalactic origin of HESS J1943+213, where the infrared counterpart traces the host galaxy of an extreme blazar and where the rather sharp spectral break between the HE and VHE regime indicates attenuation on extragalactic background light. The

  20. The extraordinarily bright optical afterglow of GRB 991208 and its host galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Sokolov, V. V.; Gorosabel, J.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Greiner, J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Jensen, B. L.; Hjorth, J.; Toft, S.; Pedersen, H.; Palazzi, E.; Pian, E.; Masetti, N.; Sagar, R.; Mohan, V.; Pandey, A. K.; Pandey, S. B.; Dodonov, S. N.; Fatkhullin, T. A.; Afanasiev, V. L.; Komarova, V. N.; Moiseev, A. V.; Hudec, R.; Simon, V.; Vreeswijk, P.; Rol, E.; Klose, S.; Stecklum, B.; Zapatero-Osorio, M. R.; Caon, N.; Blake, C.; Wall, J.; Heinlein, D.; Henden, A.; Benetti, S.; Magazzù, A.; Ghinassi, F.; Tommasi, L.; Bremer, M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Guziy, S.; Shlyapnikov, A.; Hopp, U.; Feulner, G.; Dreizler, S.; Hartmann, D.; Boehnhardt, H.; Paredes, J. M.; Martí, J.; Xanthopoulos, E.; Kristen, H. E.; Smoker, J.; Hurley, K.

    2001-05-01

    Broad-band optical observations of the extraordinarily bright optical afterglow of the intense gamma-ray burst GRB 991208 started ~2.1 days after the event and continued until 4 Apr. 2000. The flux decay constant of the optical afterglow in the R-band is -2.30 +/- 0.07 up to ~5 days, which is very likely due to the jet effect, and it is followed by a much steeper decay with constant -3.2 +/- 0.2, the fastest one ever seen in a GRB optical afterglow. A negative detection in several all-sky films taken simultaneously with the event, that otherwise would have reached naked eye brightness, implies either a previous additional break prior to ~2 days after the occurrence of the GRB (as expected from the jet effect) or a maximum, as observed in GRB 970508. The existence of a second break might indicate a steepening in the electron spectrum or the superposition of two events, resembling GRB 000301C. Once the afterglow emission vanished, contribution of a bright underlying supernova was found on the basis of the late-time R-band measurements, but the light curve is not sufficiently well sampled to rule out a dust echo explanation. Our redshift determination of z = 0.706 indicates that GRB 991208 is at 3.7 Gpc (for Ho = 60 km s-1 Mpc-1, OMEGAo = 1 and LAMDAo = 0), implying an isotropic energy release of 1.15 x 1053 erg which may be relaxed by beaming by a factor >102. Precise astrometry indicates that the GRB coincides within 0.2" with the host galaxy, thus supporting a massive star origin. The absolute magnitude of the galaxy is MB = -18.2, well below the knee of the galaxy luminosity function and we derive a star-forming rate of (11.5 +/- 7.1) Msun yr-1, which is much larger than the present-day rate in our Galaxy. The quasi-simultaneous broad-band photometric spectral energy distribution of the afterglow was determined ~3.5 day after the burst (Dec. 12.0) implying a cooling frequency nuc below the optical band, i.e. supporting a jet model with p = -2.30 as the index of

  1. A Glimpse at Quasar Host Galaxy Far-UV Emission, Using Damped Lyα's as Natural Coronagraphs

    DOE PAGES

    Cai, Zheng; Fan, Xiaohui; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; ...

    2014-09-16

    In merger-driven models of massive galaxy evolution, the luminous quasar phase is expected to be accompanied by vigorous star formation in quasar host galaxies. In this paper, we use high column density damped Lyα (DLA) systems along quasar sight lines as natural coronagraphs to directly study the far-UV (FUV) radiation from the host galaxies of luminous background quasars. Here, we have stacked the spectra of ~2000 DLA systems (N HI > 10 20.6cm –2) with a median absorption redshiftmore » $$\\langle$$z$$\\rangle$$ = 2.6 selected from quasars observed in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We detect residual flux in the dark troughs of the composite DLA spectra. The level of this residual flux significantly exceeds systematic errors in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey fiber sky subtraction; furthermore, the residual flux is strongly correlated with the continuum luminosity of the background quasar, while uncorrelated with DLA column density or metallicity. We conclude that the flux could be associated with the average FUV radiation from the background quasar host galaxies (with medium redshift $$\\langle$$z$$\\rangle$$ = 3.1) that is not blocked by the intervening DLA. Finally, assuming that all of the detected flux originates from quasar hosts, for the highest quasar luminosity bin ($$\\langle$$L$$\\rangle$$ = 2.5 × 10 13 L ⊙), the host galaxy has an FUV intensity of 1.5 ± 0.2 × 10 40 erg s –1 Å –1; this corresponds to an unobscured UV star formation rate of 9 M ⊙ yr –1.« less

  2. A glimpse at quasar host galaxy far-UV emission using damped Lyα's as natural coronagraphs

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Zheng; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Ran

    2014-10-01

    In merger-driven models of massive galaxy evolution, the luminous quasar phase is expected to be accompanied by vigorous star formation in quasar host galaxies. In this paper, we use high column density damped Lyα (DLA) systems along quasar sight lines as natural coronagraphs to directly study the far-UV (FUV) radiation from the host galaxies of luminous background quasars. We have stacked the spectra of ∼2000 DLA systems (N {sub H} {sub I} > 10{sup 20.6} cm{sup –2}) with a median absorption redshift (z) = 2.6 selected from quasars observed in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We detect residual fluxmore » in the dark troughs of the composite DLA spectra. The level of this residual flux significantly exceeds systematic errors in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey fiber sky subtraction; furthermore, the residual flux is strongly correlated with the continuum luminosity of the background quasar, while uncorrelated with DLA column density or metallicity. We conclude that the flux could be associated with the average FUV radiation from the background quasar host galaxies (with medium redshift (z) = 3.1) that is not blocked by the intervening DLA. Assuming that all of the detected flux originates from quasar hosts, for the highest quasar luminosity bin ((L) = 2.5 × 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉}), the host galaxy has an FUV intensity of 1.5 ± 0.2 × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1} Å{sup –1}; this corresponds to an unobscured UV star formation rate of 9 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}.« less

  3. SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY: AN ANALYSIS OF THE LARGEST SAMPLE OF TYPE IA SUPERNOVAE AND CORRELATIONS WITH HOST-GALAXY SPECTRAL PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Rachel C.; Gupta, Ravi R.; Sako, Masao

    2016-04-20

    Using the largest single-survey sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to date, we study the relationship between properties of SNe Ia and those of their host galaxies, focusing primarily on correlations with Hubble residuals (HRs). Our sample consists of 345 photometrically classified or spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia discovered as part of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey (SDSS-SNS). This analysis utilizes host-galaxy spectroscopy obtained during the SDSS-I/II spectroscopic survey and from an ancillary program on the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey that obtained spectra for nearly all host galaxies of SDSS-II SN candidates. In addition, we use photometric host-galaxy properties frommore » the SDSS-SNS data release such as host stellar mass and star formation rate. We confirm the well-known relation between HR and host-galaxy mass and find a 3.6 σ significance of a nonzero linear slope. We also recover correlations between HR and host-galaxy gas-phase metallicity and specific star formation rate as they are reported in the literature. With our large data set, we examine correlations between HR and multiple host-galaxy properties simultaneously and find no evidence of a significant correlation. We also independently analyze our spectroscopically confirmed and photometrically classified SNe Ia and comment on the significance of similar combined data sets for future surveys.« less

  4. Co-evolution of Massive Black Holes and Their Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. M.

    2010-07-01

    A scenario of co-evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and galaxies has been clearly conducted by the important evidence from observational results of quasar host galaxies and the relation between spheroid and SMBH mass. There are a plenty of unresolved problems and questions, some being basic, to be addressed in this scenario. The main goal of the present thesis is focusing on the mysterious scenario including growth of primordial black holes, cosmological evolution of spins and duty cycle of SMBHs, and interaction between the SMBH activity and star formation in galaxies from low to high redshifts. We review the main progress of this field over the past decade since the discovery of Magorrian relation and present comments on some questions in light of our view of points. The key questions to be addressed in this thesis work are: (1) how does the fast growth of primordial black holes influence their evolution? (2) what is the equation to describe the co-evolution of SMBHs and galaxies? (3) what is the mechanism to control the co-evolution? (4) how to transport the fueling gas from kpc scale to the center? It has been suggested that fast growth of primordial black holes via super-Eddington accretion is a promising way to form SMBHs in high redshift universe. Neutrino cooling has been employed and expedites the growth. We consider the Compton heating of the surroundings of the primordial black holes. We find that the realistic accretion rate is only a few percent of the Eddington rate, and the accretion is episodic. It implies that the fast growth via super-Eddington is not feasible. These conclusions have been confirmed by the detailed numerical simulations of Milosavljevic et al. (2008). The difficulties of the fast growth via accretion of baryon particles make the formation of SMBHs elusive in high redshift universe. We developed a new formulation to calculate the duty cycle of SMBHs based on the Soltan argument. We show it can be expressed by the mass

  5. GAMMA-RAY BURST HOST GALAXY SURVEYS AT REDSHIFT z {approx}> 4: PROBES OF STAR FORMATION RATE AND COSMIC REIONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Trenti, Michele; Perna, Rosalba; Levesque, Emily M.

    2012-04-20

    Measuring the star formation rate (SFR) at high redshift is crucial for understanding cosmic reionization and galaxy formation. Two common complementary approaches are Lyman break galaxy (LBG) surveys for large samples and gamma-ray burst (GRB) observations for sensitivity to SFR in small galaxies. The z {approx}> 4 GRB-inferred SFR is higher than the LBG rate, but this difference is difficult to understand, as both methods rely on several modeling assumptions. Using a physically motivated galaxy luminosity function model, with star formation in dark matter halos with virial temperature T{sub vir} {approx}> 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} K (M{sub DM} {approx}> 2more » Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }), we show that GRB- and LBG-derived SFRs are consistent if GRBs extend to faint galaxies (M{sub AB} {approx}< -11). To test star formation below the detection limit L{sub lim} {approx} 0.05L*{sub z=3} of LBG surveys, we propose to measure the fraction f{sub det}(L > L{sub lim}, z) of GRB hosts with L > L{sub lim}. This fraction quantifies the missing star formation fraction in LBG surveys, constraining the mass-suppression scale for galaxy formation, with weak dependence on modeling assumptions. Because f{sub det}(L > L{sub lim}, z) corresponds to the ratio of SFRs derived from LBG and GRB surveys, if these estimators are unbiased, measuring f{sub det}(L > L{sub lim}, z) also constrains the redshift evolution of the GRB production rate per unit mass of star formation. Our analysis predicts significant success for GRB host detections at z {approx} 5 with f{sub det}(L > L{sub lim}, z) {approx} 0.4, but rarer detections at z > 6. By analyzing the upper limits on host galaxy luminosities of six z > 5 GRBs from literature data, we infer that galaxies with M{sub AB} > -15 were present at z > 5 at 95% confidence, demonstrating the key role played by very faint galaxies during reionization.« less

  6. Host Galaxy Properties and Black Hole Mass of Swift J164449.3+573451 from Multi-wavelength Long-term Monitoring and HST Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Yongmin; Im, Myungshin; Jeon, Yiseul; Lee, Seong-Kook; Choi, Philip; Gehrels, Neil; Pak, Soojong; Sakamoto, Takanori; Urata, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    We study the host galaxy properties of the tidal disruption object Swift J164449.3+573451 using long-term optical to near-infrared (NIR) data. First, we decompose the galaxy surface brightness distribution and analyze the morphology of the host galaxy using high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 images. We conclude that the host galaxy is bulge-dominant and well described by a single Sérsic model with Sérsic index n=3.43+/- 0.05. Adding a disk component, the bulge to total host galaxy flux ratio (B/ T) is 0.83 ± 0.03, which still indicates a bulge-dominant galaxy. Second, we estimate multi-band fluxes of the host galaxy through long-term light curves. Our long-term NIR light curves reveal the pure host galaxy fluxes ˜500 days after the burst. We fit spectral energy distribution models to the multi-band fluxes from the optical to NIR of the host galaxy and determine its properties. The stellar mass, the star formation rate, and the age of the stellar population are {log}({M}\\star /{M}⊙ )={9.14}-0.10+0.13, {0.03}-0.03+0.28 {M}⊙ yr-1, and {0.63}-0.43+0.95 Gyr. Finally, we estimate the mass of the central super massive black hole which is responsible for the tidal disruption event. The black hole mass is estimated to be {10}6.7+/- 0.4 {M}⊙ from {M}{BH}-{M}\\star ,{bul} and {M}{BH}-{L}{bul} relations for the K band, although a smaller value of ˜ {10}5 {M}⊙ cannot be excluded convincingly if the host galaxy harbors a pseudobulge.

  7. Spatially Resolved Patchy Lyα Emission within the Central Kiloparsec of a Strongly Lensed Quasar Host Galaxy at z = 2.8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Sharon, Keren; Acharyya, Ayan; Gladders, Michael D.; Rigby, Jane R.; Bian, Fuyan; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Runnoe, Jessie; Dahle, Hakon; Kewley, Lisa; Florian, Michael; Johnson, Traci; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel

    2017-08-01

    We report the detection of extended Lyα emission from the host galaxy of SDSS J2222+2745, a strongly lensed quasar at z = 2.8. Spectroscopic follow-up clearly reveals extended Lyα in emission between two images of the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). We reconstruct the lensed quasar host galaxy in the source plane by applying a strong lens model to HST imaging and resolve spatial scales as small as ˜200 pc. In the source plane, we recover the host galaxy morphology to within a few hundred parsecs of the central AGN and map the extended Lyα emission to its physical origin on one side of the host galaxy at radii ˜0.5-2 kpc from the central AGN. There are clear morphological differences between the Lyα and rest-frame ultraviolet stellar continuum emission from the quasar host galaxy. Furthermore, the relative velocity profiles of quasar Lyα, host galaxy Lyα, and metal lines in outflowing gas reveal differences in the absorbing material affecting the AGN and host galaxy. These data indicate the presence of patchy local intervening gas in front of the central quasar and its host galaxy. This interpretation is consistent with the central luminous quasar being obscured across a substantial fraction of its surrounding solid angle, resulting in strong anisotropy in the exposure of the host galaxy to ionizing radiation from the AGN. This work demonstrates the power of strong-lensing-assisted studies to probe spatial scales that are currently inaccessible by other means.

  8. Spatially Resolved Patchy Ly α Emission within the Central Kiloparsec of a Strongly Lensed Quasar Host Galaxy at z = 2.8

    SciTech Connect

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Sharon, Keren

    We report the detection of extended Ly α emission from the host galaxy of SDSS J2222+2745, a strongly lensed quasar at z = 2.8. Spectroscopic follow-up clearly reveals extended Ly α in emission between two images of the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). We reconstruct the lensed quasar host galaxy in the source plane by applying a strong lens model to HST imaging and resolve spatial scales as small as ∼200 pc. In the source plane, we recover the host galaxy morphology to within a few hundred parsecs of the central AGN and map the extended Ly α emission tomore » its physical origin on one side of the host galaxy at radii ∼0.5–2 kpc from the central AGN. There are clear morphological differences between the Ly α and rest-frame ultraviolet stellar continuum emission from the quasar host galaxy. Furthermore, the relative velocity profiles of quasar Ly α , host galaxy Ly α , and metal lines in outflowing gas reveal differences in the absorbing material affecting the AGN and host galaxy. These data indicate the presence of patchy local intervening gas in front of the central quasar and its host galaxy. This interpretation is consistent with the central luminous quasar being obscured across a substantial fraction of its surrounding solid angle, resulting in strong anisotropy in the exposure of the host galaxy to ionizing radiation from the AGN. This work demonstrates the power of strong-lensing-assisted studies to probe spatial scales that are currently inaccessible by other means.« less

  9. Galactic-scale Feedback Observed in the 3C 298 Quasar Host Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vayner, Andrey; Wright, Shelley A.; Murray, Norman; Armus, Lee; Larkin, James E.; Mieda, Etsuko

    2017-12-01

    We present high angular resolution multiwavelength data of the 3C 298 radio-loud quasar host galaxy (z = 1.439) taken using the W.M. Keck Observatory OSIRIS integral field spectrograph (IFS) with adaptive optics, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFC3, and the Very Large Array (VLA). Extended emission is detected in the rest-frame optical nebular emission lines Hβ, [O III], Hα, [N II], and [S II], as well as in the molecular lines CO (J = 3‑2) and (J = 5‑4). Along the path of the relativistic jets of 3C 298, we detect conical outflows in ionized gas emission with velocities of up to 1700 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and an outflow rate of 450–1500 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1 extended over 12 kpc. Near the spatial center of the conical outflow, CO (J = 3‑2) emission shows a molecular gas disk with a rotational velocity of ±150 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and total molecular mass ({M}{{{H}}2}) of 6.6+/- 0.36× {10}9 {M}ȯ . On the blueshifted side of the molecular disk, we observe broad extended emission that is due to a molecular outflow with a rate of 2300 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1 and depletion timescale of 3 Myr. We detect no narrow Hα emission in the outflow regions, suggesting a limit on star formation of 0.3 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1 {{kpc}}-2. Quasar-driven winds are evacuating the molecular gas reservoir, thereby directly impacting star formation in the host galaxy. The observed mass of the supermassive black hole is {10}9.37{--9.56} {M}ȯ , and we determine a dynamical bulge mass of {M}{bulge}=1{--}1.7× {10}10\\tfrac{R}{1.6 {kpc}} {M}ȯ . The bulge mass of 3C 298 lies 2–2.5 orders of magnitude below the expected value from the local galactic bulge—supermassive black hole mass ({M}{bulge}{--}{M}{BH}) relationship. A second galactic disk observed in nebular emission is offset from the quasar by 9 kpc, suggesting that the system is an intermediate-stage merger. These results show that galactic-scale negative feedback is occurring early in the merger

  10. Host Galaxy Spectra of Stripped SN from the Palomar Transient Factory: SN Progenitor Diagnostics and the SN-GRB Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modjaz, Maryam; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Arcavi, Iair

    2012-02-01

    Stripped core-collapse supernovae (Stripped SNe) are powerful cosmic engines that energize and enrich the ISM and that sometimes accompany GRBs, but the exact mass and metallicity range of their massive progenitors is not known, nor the detailed physics of the explosion. We propose to continue conducting the first uniform and statistically significant study of host galaxies of 60 stripped SNe from the same innovative, homogeneous and galaxy-unbiased survey Palomar Transient Factory in order to determine the environmental conditions that influence the various kinds of massive stellar deaths. By obtaining spectra of the immediate host environments of our sample of stripped SN, we will (1) measure local abundances in order to differentiate between the two progenitor scenarios for stripped SN and (2) derive stellar population ages, masses and star formation histories via detailed stellar population synthesis models. Moreover, we will test if natal chemical abundance has effects on basic SN characteristics, such as peak luminosity. Any observed trends will have ramifications on SN and GRB explosion models and imply important demographic SN considerations. Our dataset will provide a crucial complimentary set to host galaxy studies of long-duration GRBs and pave the way for host studies of transients and SN found via upcoming surveys such as LSST.

  11. The Faint Optical Afterglow and Host Galaxy of GRB 020124: Implications for the Nature of Dark Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, E.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Bloom, J. S.; Price, P. A.; Fox, D. W.; Frail, D. A.; Axelrod, T. S.; Chevalier, R. A.; Colbert, E.; Costa, E.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Frontera, F.; Galama, T. J.; Halpern, J. P.; Harrison, F. A.; Holtzman, J.; Hurley, K.; Kimble, R. A.; McCarthy, P. J.; Piro, L.; Reichart, D.; Ricker, G. R.; Sari, R.; Schmidt, B. P.; Wheeler, J. C.; Vanderppek, R.; Yost, S. A.

    2002-12-01

    We present ground-based optical observations of GRB 020124 starting 1.6 hr after the burst, as well as subsequent Very Large Array and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations. The optical afterglow of GRB 020124 is one of the faintest afterglows detected to date, and it exhibits a relatively rapid decay, Fν~t-1.60+/-0.04, followed by further steepening. In addition, a weak radio source was found coincident with the optical afterglow. The HST observations reveal that a positionally coincident host galaxy must be the faintest host to date, R>~29.5 mag. The afterglow observations can be explained by several models requiring little or no extinction within the host galaxy, AhostV~0-0.9 mag. These observations have significant implications for the interpretation of the so-called dark bursts (bursts for which no optical afterglow is detected), which are usually attributed to dust extinction within the host galaxy. The faintness and relatively rapid decay of the afterglow of GRB 020124, combined with the low inferred extinction, indicate that some dark bursts are intrinsically dim and not dust obscured. Thus, the diversity in the underlying properties of optical afterglows must be observationally determined before substantive inferences can be drawn from the statistics of dark bursts.

  12. THE HOST GALAXY OF THE SUPER-LUMINOUS SN 2010gx AND LIMITS ON EXPLOSIVE {sup 56}Ni PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ting-Wan; Smartt, Stephen J.; Kotak, Rubina

    2013-02-01

    Super-luminous supernovae have a tendency to occur in faint host galaxies which are likely to have low mass and low metallicity. While these extremely luminous explosions have been observed from z = 0.1 to 1.55, the closest explosions allow more detailed investigations of their host galaxies. We present a detailed analysis of the host galaxy of SN 2010gx (z = 0.23), one of the best studied super-luminous type Ic supernovae. The host is a dwarf galaxy (M{sub g} = -17.42 {+-} 0.17) with a high specific star formation rate. It has a remarkably low metallicity of 12 + log (O/H)more » = 7.5 {+-} 0.1 dex as determined from the detection of the [O III] {lambda}4363 line. This is the first reliable metallicity determination of a super-luminous stripped-envelope supernova host. We collected deep multi-epoch imaging with Gemini + GMOS between 240 and 560 days after explosion to search for any sign of radioactive {sup 56}Ni, which might provide further insights on the explosion mechanism and the progenitor's nature. We reach griz magnitudes of m{sub AB} {approx} 26, but do not detect SN 2010gx at these epochs. The limit implies that any {sup 56}Ni production was similar to or below that of SN 1998bw (a luminous type Ic SN that produced around 0.4 M{sub Sun} of {sup 56}Ni). The low volumetric rates of these supernovae ({approx}10{sup -4} of the core-collapse population) could be qualitatively matched if the explosion mechanism requires a combination of low-metallicity (below 0.2 Z{sub Sun }), high progenitor mass (>60 M{sub Sun }) and high rotation rate (fastest 10% of rotators).« less

  13. The host galaxy of the γ-ray-emitting narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy PKS 1502+036

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ammando, F.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Capetti, A.; Baldi, R. D.; Orienti, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Ramos Almeida, C.

    2018-04-01

    The detection of γ-ray emission from narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLSy1) has challenged the idea that large black hole (BH) masses (≥108 M⊙) are needed to launch relativistic jets. We present near-infrared imaging data of the γ-ray-emitting NLSy1 PKS 1502+036 obtained with the Very Large Telescope. Its surface brightness profile, extending to ˜ 20 kpc, is well described by the combination of a nuclear component and a bulge with a Sérsic index n = 3.5, which is indicative of an elliptical galaxy. A circumnuclear structure observed near PKS 1502+036 may be the result of galaxy interactions. A BH mass of ˜7 × 108 M⊙ has been estimated by the bulge luminosity. The presence of an additional faint disc component cannot be ruled out with the present data, but this would reduce the BH mass estimate by only ˜ 30%. These results, together with analogous findings obtained for FBQS J1644+2619, indicate that the relativistic jets in γ-ray-emitting NLSy1 are likely produced by massive black holes at the center of elliptical galaxies.

  14. The host galaxy of the γ-ray-emitting narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy PKS 1502+036

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ammando, F.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Capetti, A.; Baldi, R. D.; Orienti, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Ramos Almeida, C.

    2018-07-01

    The detection of γ-ray emission from narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLSy1) has challenged the idea that large black hole (BH) masses (≥108 M⊙) are needed to launch relativistic jets. We present near-infrared imaging data of the γ-ray-emitting NLSy1 PKS 1502+036 obtained with the Very Large Telescope. Its surface brightness profile, extending to ˜20 kpc, is well described by the combination of a nuclear component and a bulge with a Sérsic index n = 3.5, which is indicative of an elliptical galaxy. A circumnuclear structure observed near PKS 1502+036 may be the result of galaxy interactions. A BH mass of ˜7 × 108 M⊙ has been estimated by the bulge luminosity. The presence of an additional faint disc component cannot be ruled out with the present data, but this would reduce the BH mass estimate by only ˜30 per cent. These results, together with analogous findings obtained for FBQS J1644+2619, indicate that the relativistic jets in γ-ray-emitting NLSy1 are likely produced by massive black holes at the centre of elliptical galaxies.

  15. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): gas fuelling of spiral galaxies in the local Universe II. - direct measurement of the dependencies on redshift and host halo mass of stellar mass growth in central disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grootes, M. W.; Dvornik, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Tuffs, R. J.; Popescu, C. C.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Liske, J.; Brown, M. J. I.; Holwerda, B. W.; Wang, L.

    2018-06-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the specific star formation rate-stellar mass (sSFR-M*) of z ≤ 0.13 disc central galaxies using a morphologically selected mass-complete sample (M* ≥ 109.5 M⊙). Considering samples of grouped and ungrouped galaxies, we find the sSFR-M* relations of disc-dominated central galaxies to have no detectable dependence on host dark-matter halo (DMH) mass, even where weak-lensing measurements indicate a difference in halo mass of a factor ≳ 5. We further detect a gradual evolution of the sSFR-M* relation of non-grouped (field) central disc galaxies with redshift, even over a Δz ≈ 0.04 (≈5 × 108 yr) interval, while the scatter remains constant. This evolution is consistent with extrapolation of the `main sequence of star-forming-galaxies' from previous literature that uses larger redshift baselines and coarser sampling. Taken together, our results present new constraints on the paradigm under which the SFR of galaxies is determined by a self-regulated balance between gas inflows and outflows, and consumption of gas by star formation in discs, with the inflow being determined by the product of the cosmological accretion rate and a fuelling efficiency - \\dot{M}_{b,halo}ζ. In particular, maintaining the paradigm requires \\dot{M}_{b,halo}ζ to be independent of the mass Mhalo of the host DMH. Furthermore, it requires the fuelling efficiency ζ to have a strong redshift dependence (∝(1 + z)2.7 for M* = 1010.3 M⊙ over z = 0-0.13), even though no morphological transformation to spheroids can be invoked to explain this in our disc-dominated sample. The physical mechanisms capable of giving rise to such dependencies of ζ on Mhalo and z for discs are unclear.

  16. AGN Unification at z ~ 1: u - R Colors and Gradients in X-Ray AGN Hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammons, S. Mark; Rosario, David J. V.; Koo, David C.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Melbourne, Jason; Max, Claire E.; Mozena, Mark; Kocevski, Dale D.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Bouwens, Rychard J.; Magee, Daniel K.

    2011-10-01

    We present uncontaminated rest-frame u - R colors of 78 X-ray-selected active galactic nucleus (AGN) hosts at 0.5 < z < 1.5 in the Chandra Deep Fields measured with Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys/NICMOS and Very Large Telescope/ISAAC imaging. We also present spatially resolved NUV - R color gradients for a subsample of AGN hosts imaged by HST/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Integrated, uncorrected photometry is not reliable for comparing the mean properties of soft and hard AGN host galaxies at z ~ 1 due to color contamination from point-source AGN emission. We use a cloning simulation to develop a calibration between concentration and this color contamination and use this to correct host galaxy colors. The mean u - R color of the unobscured/soft hosts beyond ~6 kpc is statistically equivalent to that of the obscured/hard hosts (the soft sources are 0.09 ± 0.16 mag bluer). Furthermore, the rest-frame V - J colors of the obscured and unobscured hosts beyond ~6 kpc are statistically equivalent, suggesting that the two populations have similar distributions of dust extinction. For the WFC3/infrared sample, the mean NUV - R color gradients of unobscured and obscured sources differ by less than ~0.5 mag for r > 1.1 kpc. These three observations imply that AGN obscuration is uncorrelated with the star formation rate beyond ~1 kpc. These observations favor a unification scenario for intermediate-luminosity AGNs in which obscuration is determined geometrically. Scenarios in which the majority of intermediate-luminosity AGNs at z ~ 1 are undergoing rapid, galaxy-wide quenching due to AGN-driven feedback processes are disfavored.

  17. Heavily Obscured AGN: An Ideal Laboratory To Study The Early Co-Evolution of Galaxies And Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Circosta, Chiara; Vignali, C.; Gilli, R.; Feltre, A.; Vito, F.

    2016-10-01

    Obscured AGN are a crucial ingredient to understand the full growth history of super massive black holes and the coevolution with their host galaxies, since they constitute the bulk of the BH accretion. In the distant Universe, many of them are hosted by submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), characterized by a high production of stars and a very fast consumption of gas. Therefore, the analysis of this class of objects is fundamental to investigate the role of the ISM in the early coevolution of galaxies and black holesWe collected a sample of six obscured X-ray selected AGN at z>2.5 in the CDF-S, detected in the far-IR/submm bands. We performed a multiwavelength analysis in order to characterize their physical properties, as well as those of their host galaxies (e.g. column density, accretion luminosity, stellar mass, SFR, dust and gas mass). I will present the results of the X-ray spectral analysis of these sources based on the 7Ms Chandra data - the deepest X-ray observation ever carried out on any field - along with their broad-band spectral energy distributions (SEDs), built up using the public UV to far-IR photometry from the CANDELS and Herschel catalogs. By comparing the column density associated with the ISM (estimated measuring the size of the system) with that obtained from the X-ray data, it is possible to understand whether the ISM in the host galaxy may be able to produce a substantial part of the observed nuclear obscuration.

  18. Kinematics of the SN Refsdal host revealed by MUSE: a regularly rotating spiral galaxy at z ≃ 1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Teodoro, E. M.; Grillo, C.; Fraternali, F.; Gobat, R.; Karman, W.; Mercurio, A.; Rosati, P.; Balestra, I.; Caminha, G. B.; Caputi, K. I.; Lombardi, M.; Suyu, S. H.; Treu, T.; Vanzella, E.

    2018-05-01

    We use Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) observations of the galaxy cluster MACS J1149.5+2223 to explore the kinematics of the grand-design spiral galaxy (Sp1149) hosting the supernova `Refsdal'. Sp1149 lies at z ≃ 1.49, has a stellar mass M* ≃ 5 × 109 M⊙, has a star formation rate (SFR) ˜eq 1-6 M_{⊙} yr^{-1}, and represents a likely progenitor of a Milky Way-like galaxy. All the four multiple images of Sp1149 in our data show strong [O II}-line emissions pointing to a clear rotation pattern. We take advantage of the gravitational lensing magnification effect (≃4×) on the [O II} emission of the least distorted image to fit three-dimensional kinematic models to the MUSE data cube and derive the rotation curve and the velocity dispersion profile of Sp1149. We find that the rotation curve steeply rises, peaks at R ≃ 1 kpc, and then (initially) declines and flattens to an average {V_flat}= 128^{+29}_{-19} km s-1. The shape of the rotation curve is well determined, but the actual value of Vflat is quite uncertain because of the nearly face-on configuration of the galaxy. The intrinsic velocity dispersion due to gas turbulence is almost constant across the entire disc with an average of 27 ± 5 km s-1. This value is consistent with z = 0 measurements in the ionized gas component and a factor of 2-4 lower than other estimates in different galaxies at similar redshifts. The average stellar-to-total mass fraction is of the order of one-fifth. Our kinematic analysis returns the picture of a regular star-forming, mildly turbulent, rotation-dominated (V/σ ≃ 5) spiral galaxy in a 4-Gyr-old Universe.

  19. Properties of compact HII regions and their host clumps in the inner vs outer Galaxy - early results from SASSy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevic, Julie; Thompson, Mark; Urquhart, James S.

    2017-01-01

    We present a catalog of compact and ultracompact HII regions for all Galactocentric radii. Previous catalogs focus on the inner Galaxy (Rgal ≤ 8 kpc) but the recent SASSy 870 µm survey allows us to identify regions out to ~20 kpc. Early samples are also filled with false classifications leading to uncertainty when deriving star formation efficiencies in Galactic models. These objects have similar mid-IR colours to HII regions. Urquhart et al. (2013) found that they could use mid-IR, submm, and radio data to identify the genuine compact HII regions, avoiding confusion. They used this method on a small portion of the Galaxy (10 < l < 60), identifying 213 HII regions embedded in 170 clumps. We use ATLASGAL and SASSy, crossmatched with RMS, to sample the remaining galactic longitudes out to Rgal = 20 kpc. We derive the properties of the identified compact HII regions and their host clumps while addressing the implications for recent massive star formation in the outer Galaxy. Observations towards nearby galaxies are biased towards massive stars, affecting simulations and overestimating models for galactic evolution and star formation rates. The Milky Way provides the ideal template for studying factors affecting massive star formation rates and efficiencies at high resolution, thus fine-tuning those models. We find that there is no significant change in the rate of massive star formation in the outer vs inner Galaxy. Despite some peaks in known complexes and possible correlation with spiral arms, the outer Galaxy appears to produce massive stars as efficiently as the inner regions. However, many of the potential star forming SASSy clumps have no available radio counterpart to confirm the presence of an HII region or other star formation tracer. Follow-up observations will be required to verify this conclusion and are currently in progress.

  20. The host galaxy and Fermi -LAT counterpart of HESS J1943+213

    DOE PAGES

    Peter, D.; Domainko, W.; Sanchez, D. A.; ...

    2014-11-06

    The very-high energy (VHE, E> 100 GeV) gamma-ray sky shows diverse Galactic and extragalactic source populations. For some sources the astrophysical object class could not be identified so far. The nature (Galactic or extragalactic) of the VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1943+213 is explored. We specifically investigate the proposed near-infrared counterpart 2MASS J19435624+2118233 of HESS J1943+213 and investigate the implications of a physical association. We present K-band imaging from the 3.5 m CAHA telescope of 2MASS J19435624+2118233. Furthermore, 5 years of Fermi-LAT data were analyzed to search for a high-energy (HE, 100 MeV stat ± 0.6 sys) × 10 -15 cmmore » -2 s -1 MeV -1 at the decorrelation energy Edec = 15.1 GeV and a spectral index of Γ = 1.59 ± 0.19stat ± 0.13sys. This gamma-ray spectrum shows a rather sharp break between the HE and VHE regimes of ΔΓ = 1.47 ± 0.36. In conclusion, the infrared and HE data strongly favor an extragalactic origin of HESS J1943+213, where the infrared counterpart traces the host galaxy of an extreme blazar and where the rather sharp spectral break between the HE and VHE regime indicates attenuation on extragalactic background light. The source is most likely located at a redshift between 0.03 and 0.45 according to extension and EBL attenuation arguments.« less

  1. Gravitational wave sources from Pop III stars are preferentially located within the cores of their host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Loeb, Abraham; Salvadori, Stefania

    2017-10-01

    The detection of gravitational waves (GWs) generated by merging black holes has recently opened up a new observational window into the Universe. The mass of the black holes in the first and third Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) detections (36-29 M⊙ and 32-19 M⊙) suggests low-metallicity stars as their most likely progenitors. Based on high-resolution N-body simulations, coupled with state-of-the-art metal enrichment models, we find that the remnants of Pop III stars are preferentially located within the cores of galaxies. The probability of a GW signal to be generated by Pop III stars reaches ∼90 per cent at ∼0.5 kpc from the galaxy centre, compared to a benchmark value of ∼5 per cent outside the core. The predicted merger rates inside bulges is ∼60 × βIII Gpc-3 yr-1 (βIII is the Pop III binarity fraction). To match the 90 per cent credible range of LIGO merger rates, we obtain: 0.03 < βIII < 0.88. Future advances in GW observatories and the discovery of possible electromagnetic counterparts could allow the localization of such sources within their host galaxies. The preferential concentration of GW events within the bulge of galaxies would then provide an indirect proof for the existence of Pop III stars.

  2. The Type Ia Supernova Color-Magnitude Relation and Host Galaxy Dust: A Simple Hierarchical Bayesian Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Kaisey S.; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Shariff, Hikmatali; Foley, Ryan J.; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2017-06-01

    Conventional Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) cosmology analyses currently use a simplistic linear regression of magnitude versus color and light curve shape, which does not model intrinsic SN Ia variations and host galaxy dust as physically distinct effects, resulting in low color-magnitude slopes. We construct a probabilistic generative model for the dusty distribution of extinguished absolute magnitudes and apparent colors as the convolution of an intrinsic SN Ia color-magnitude distribution and a host galaxy dust reddening-extinction distribution. If the intrinsic color-magnitude (M B versus B - V) slope {β }{int} differs from the host galaxy dust law R B , this convolution results in a specific curve of mean extinguished absolute magnitude versus apparent color. The derivative of this curve smoothly transitions from {β }{int} in the blue tail to R B in the red tail of the apparent color distribution. The conventional linear fit approximates this effective curve near the average apparent color, resulting in an apparent slope {β }{app} between {β }{int} and R B . We incorporate these effects into a hierarchical Bayesian statistical model for SN Ia light curve measurements, and analyze a data set of SALT2 optical light curve fits of 248 nearby SNe Ia at z< 0.10. The conventional linear fit gives {β }{app}≈ 3. Our model finds {β }{int}=2.3+/- 0.3 and a distinct dust law of {R}B=3.8+/- 0.3, consistent with the average for Milky Way dust, while correcting a systematic distance bias of ˜0.10 mag in the tails of the apparent color distribution. Finally, we extend our model to examine the SN Ia luminosity-host mass dependence in terms of intrinsic and dust components.

  3. BLACK HOLE MASS AND EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS OF X-RAY-SELECTED BROAD-LINE AGNs AT z {approx} 1.4 IN THE SUBARU XMM-NEWTON DEEP FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Nobuta, K.; Akiyama, M.; Ueda, Y.

    2012-12-20

    In order to investigate the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs), we construct the black hole mass function (BHMF) and Eddington ratio distribution function (ERDF) of X-ray-selected broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z {approx} 1.4 in the Subaru XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS) field. A significant part of the accretion growth of SMBHs is thought to take place in this redshift range. Black hole masses of X-ray-selected broad-line AGNs are estimated using the width of the broad Mg II line and 3000 A monochromatic luminosity. We supplement the Mg II FWHM values with the H{alpha} FWHM obtained from our NIRmore » spectroscopic survey. Using the black hole masses of broad-line AGNs at redshifts between 1.18 and 1.68, the binned broad-line AGN BHMFs and ERDFs are calculated using the V{sub max} method. To properly account for selection effects that impact the binned estimates, we derive the corrected broad-line AGN BHMFs and ERDFs by applying the maximum likelihood method, assuming that the ERDF is constant regardless of the black hole mass. We do not correct for the non-negligible uncertainties in virial BH mass estimates. If we compare the corrected broad-line AGN BHMF with that in the local universe, then the corrected BHMF at z = 1.4 has a higher number density above 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} but a lower number density below that mass range. The evolution may be indicative of a downsizing trend of accretion activity among the SMBH population. The evolution of broad-line AGN ERDFs from z = 1.4 to 0 indicates that the fraction of broad-line AGNs with accretion rates close to the Eddington limit is higher at higher redshifts.« less

  4. SDSS-II Supernova survey. An analysis of the largest sample of type IA supernovae and correlations with host-galaxy spectral properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Rachel C.; D’Andrea, Chris B.; Gupta, Ravi R.

    2016-04-20

    Using the largest single-survey sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to date, we study the relationship between properties of SNe Ia and those of their host galaxies, focusing primarily on correlations with Hubble residuals (HR). Our sample consists of 345 photometrically-classified or spectroscopicallyconfirmed SNe Ia discovered as part of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey (SDSS-SNS). This analysis utilizes host-galaxy spectroscopy obtained during the SDSS-I/II spectroscopic survey and from an ancillary program on the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) that obtained spectra for nearly all host galaxies of SDSS-II SN candidates. In addition, we use photometric hostgalaxy properties from themore » SDSS-SNS data release (Sako et al. 2014) such as host stellar mass and star-formation rate. We confirm the well-known relation between HR and host-galaxy mass and find a 3.6σ significance of a non-zero linear slope. We also recover correlations between HR and hostgalaxy gas-phase metallicity and specific star-formation rate as they are reported in the literature. With our large dataset, we examine correlations between HR and multiple host-galaxy properties simultaneously and find no evidence of a significant correlation. We also independently analyze our spectroscopically-confirmed and photometrically-classified SNe Ia and comment on the significance of similar combined datasets for future surveys.« less

  5. EmpiriciSN: Re-sampling Observed Supernova/Host Galaxy Populations Using an XD Gaussian Mixture Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holoien, Thomas W.-S.; Marshall, Philip J.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2017-06-01

    We describe two new open-source tools written in Python for performing extreme deconvolution Gaussian mixture modeling (XDGMM) and using a conditioned model to re-sample observed supernova and host galaxy populations. XDGMM is new program that uses Gaussian mixtures to perform density estimation of noisy data using extreme deconvolution (XD) algorithms. Additionally, it has functionality not available in other XD tools. It allows the user to select between the AstroML and Bovy et al. fitting methods and is compatible with scikit-learn machine learning algorithms. Most crucially, it allows the user to condition a model based on the known values of a subset of parameters. This gives the user the ability to produce a tool that can predict unknown parameters based on a model that is conditioned on known values of other parameters. EmpiriciSN is an exemplary application of this functionality, which can be used to fit an XDGMM model to observed supernova/host data sets and predict likely supernova parameters using a model conditioned on observed host properties. It is primarily intended to simulate realistic supernovae for LSST data simulations based on empirical galaxy properties.

  6. Host Galaxy Spectra of Stripped SN from the Palomar Transient Factory: SN Progenitor Diagnostics and the SN-GRB Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modjaz, Maryam; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Arcavi, Iair

    2011-02-01

    Stripped core-collapse supernovae (Stripped SN) are powerful cosmic engines that energize and enrich the ISM and that sometimes accompany GRBs, but the exact mass and metallicity range of their massive progenitors is not known, nor the detailed physics of the explosion. With the harvest of 50 stripped SN from the innovative survey Palomar Transient Factory, we propose to conduct the first uniform and statistically significant study with SN from the same homogeneous and galaxy-unbiased survey in order to determine the environmental conditions that influence the various kinds of massive stellar deaths. By obtaining spectra of the immediate host environments of our sample of stripped SN, we will (1) measure local abundances in order to differentiate between the two progenitor scenarios for stripped SN and (2) derive stellar population ages, masses and star formation histories via detailed stellar population synthesis models. Moreover, we will test if natal chemical abundance has effects on basic SN characteristics, such as peak luminosity. Any observed trends will have ramifications on SN and GRB explosion models and imply important demographic SN considerations. Our dataset will provide a crucial complimentary set to host galaxy studies of long-duration GRBs and pave the way for host studies of transients and SN found via upcoming surveys such as LSST.

  7. EmpiriciSN: Re-sampling Observed Supernova/Host Galaxy Populations Using an XD Gaussian Mixture Model

    SciTech Connect

    Holoien, Thomas W. -S.; Marshall, Philip J.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    We describe two new open-source tools written in Python for performing extreme deconvolution Gaussian mixture modeling (XDGMM) and using a conditioned model to re-sample observed supernova and host galaxy populations. XDGMM is new program that uses Gaussian mixtures to perform density estimation of noisy data using extreme deconvolution (XD) algorithms. Additionally, it has functionality not available in other XD tools. It allows the user to select between the AstroML and Bovy et al. fitting methods and is compatible with scikit-learn machine learning algorithms. Most crucially, it allows the user to condition a model based on the known values of amore » subset of parameters. This gives the user the ability to produce a tool that can predict unknown parameters based on a model that is conditioned on known values of other parameters. EmpiriciSN is an exemplary application of this functionality, which can be used to fit an XDGMM model to observed supernova/host data sets and predict likely supernova parameters using a model conditioned on observed host properties. It is primarily intended to simulate realistic supernovae for LSST data simulations based on empirical galaxy properties.« less

  8. Nuclear Gas Dynamics of NGC2110: A Black Hole Offset from the Host Galaxy Mass Center?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mundell, C. G.; Ferruit, P.; Nagar, N.; Wilson, A. S.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the central regions of many galaxies are unlikely to be in a static steady state, with instabilities caused by sinking satellites, the influence of a supermassive black hole or residuals of galaxy formation, resulting in the nuclear black hole orbiting the galaxy center. The observational signature of such an orbiting black hole is an offset of the active nucleus (AGN) from the kinematic center defined by the galaxy rotation curve. This orbital motion may provide fuel for the AGN, as the hole 'grazes' on the ISM, and bent radio jets, due to the motion of their source. The early type (E/SO) Seyfert galaxy, NGC2210, with its striking twin, 'S'-shaped radio jets, is a unique and valuable test case for the offset-nucleus phenomenon since, despite its remarkably normal rotation curve, its kinematically-measured mass center is displaced both spatially (260 pc) and kinematically (170 km/s) from the active nucleus located in optical and radio studies. However, the central kinematics, where the rotation curve rises most steeply, have been inaccessible with ground-based resolutions. We present new, high resolution WFPC2 imaging and long-slit STIS spectroscopy of the central 300 pc of NGC2110. We discuss the structure and kinematics of gas moving in the galactic potential on subarcsecond scales and the reality of the offset between the black hole and the galaxy mass center.

  9. The Nature of Optical Features in the Inner Region of the 3C 48 Host Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, Alan; Canalizo, Gabriela; Fu, Hai; Keel, William

    2007-04-01

    The well-known quasar 3C 48 is the most powerful compact steep-spectrum radio-loud QSO at low redshifts. It also has two unusual optical features within the radius of the radio jet (~1"): (1) an anomalous, high-velocity narrow-line component, and (2) a bright continuum peak (3C 48A) ~1" northeast of the quasar. Both of these optical features have been conjectured to be related to the radio jet. We have obtained Gemini North GMOS integral field unit (IFU) spectroscopy of the central region around 3C 48. We use the unique features of the IFU data to remove unresolved emission at the position of the quasar. The resolved emission at the wavelength of the high-velocity component is peaked <~0.25" north of the quasar, at the same position angle as the base of the radio jet. These observations appear to confirm that this high-velocity gas is connected with the radio jet. However, most of the emission comes from a region where the jet is still well collimated, rather than from the regions where the radio maps indicate strong disruption. We also present the results of HST STIS spectroscopy of 3C 48A. We show that 3C 48A is dominated by stars with a luminosity-weighted age of ~1.4×108 yr, substantially older than any reasonable estimate for the age of the radio source. Thus, 3C 48A almost certainly cannot be attributed to jet-induced star formation. The host galaxy of 3C 48 is clearly the result of a merger, and 3C 48A seems much more likely to be the distorted nucleus of the merging partner in which star formation was induced during the previous close passage. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-09365. Also based in part on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of

  10. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Afterglow, Supernova and Host Galaxy Associated with the Extremely Bright GRB 130427A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levan, A.J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Fruchter, A. S.; Hjorth, J.; Pian, E.; Mazzali, P.; Hounsell, R. A.; Perley, D. A.; Cano, Z.; Graham, J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst, GRB 130427A. At z=0.34 this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova and host galaxy associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E(sub iso) greater than 10(exp 54) erg): more luminous than any previous GRB with a spectroscopically associated supernova. We use the combination of the image quality, UV capability and and invariant PSF of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host and supernova contributions to the observed light approximately 17 rest-frame days after the burst utilising a host subtraction spectrum obtained 1 year later. Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) grism observations show that the associated supernova, SN 2013cq, has an overall spectral shape and luminosity similar to SN 1998bw (with a photospheric velocity, vph approximately 15,000 kilometers per second). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (vph approximately 30,000 kilometers per second), but SN 2010bh (vph approximately 30,000 kilometers per second but this SN is significantly fainter, and fails to reproduce the overall spectral shape, perhaps indicative of velocity structure in the ejecta. We find that the burst originated approximately 4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 Solar Mass yr(exp-1)), possibly interacting disc galaxy. The absolute magnitude, physical size and morphology of this galaxy, as well as the location of the GRB within it are also strikingly similar to those of GRB980425SN 1998bw. The similarity of supernovae and environment from both the most luminous and least luminous GRBs suggests broadly similar progenitor stars can create GRBs across six orders of magnitude in isotropic energy.

  11. AGN UNIFICATION AT z {approx} 1: u - R COLORS AND GRADIENTS IN X-RAY AGN HOSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Ammons, S.; Rosario, David J. V.; Koo, David C., E-mail: ammons@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: rosario@ucolick.org, E-mail: koo@ucolick.org

    2011-10-10

    We present uncontaminated rest-frame u - R colors of 78 X-ray-selected active galactic nucleus (AGN) hosts at 0.5 < z < 1.5 in the Chandra Deep Fields measured with Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys/NICMOS and Very Large Telescope/ISAAC imaging. We also present spatially resolved NUV - R color gradients for a subsample of AGN hosts imaged by HST/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Integrated, uncorrected photometry is not reliable for comparing the mean properties of soft and hard AGN host galaxies at z {approx} 1 due to color contamination from point-source AGN emission. We use a cloning simulation tomore » develop a calibration between concentration and this color contamination and use this to correct host galaxy colors. The mean u - R color of the unobscured/soft hosts beyond {approx}6 kpc is statistically equivalent to that of the obscured/hard hosts (the soft sources are 0.09 {+-} 0.16 mag bluer). Furthermore, the rest-frame V - J colors of the obscured and unobscured hosts beyond {approx}6 kpc are statistically equivalent, suggesting that the two populations have similar distributions of dust extinction. For the WFC3/infrared sample, the mean NUV - R color gradients of unobscured and obscured sources differ by less than {approx}0.5 mag for r > 1.1 kpc. These three observations imply that AGN obscuration is uncorrelated with the star formation rate beyond {approx}1 kpc. These observations favor a unification scenario for intermediate-luminosity AGNs in which obscuration is determined geometrically. Scenarios in which the majority of intermediate-luminosity AGNs at z {approx} 1 are undergoing rapid, galaxy-wide quenching due to AGN-driven feedback processes are disfavored.« less

  12. The Type Ia Supernova Color-Magnitude Relation and Host Galaxy Dust: A Simple Hierarchical Bayesian Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Kaisey; Scolnic, Daniel; Shariff, Hikmatali; Foley, Ryan; Kirshner, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Inferring peak optical absolute magnitudes of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) from distance-independent measures such as their light curve shapes and colors underpins the evidence for cosmic acceleration. SN Ia with broader, slower declining optical light curves are more luminous (“broader-brighter”) and those with redder colors are dimmer. But the “redder-dimmer” color-luminosity relation widely used in cosmological SN Ia analyses confounds its two separate physical origins. An intrinsic correlation arises from the physics of exploding white dwarfs, while interstellar dust in the host galaxy also makes SN Ia appear dimmer and redder. Conventional SN Ia cosmology analyses currently use a simplistic linear regression of magnitude versus color and light curve shape, which does not model intrinsic SN Ia variations and host galaxy dust as physically distinct effects, resulting in low color-magnitude slopes. We construct a probabilistic generative model for the dusty distribution of extinguished absolute magnitudes and apparent colors as the convolution of an intrinsic SN Ia color-magnitude distribution and a host galaxy dust reddening-extinction distribution. If the intrinsic color-magnitude (MB vs. B-V) slope βint differs from the host galaxy dust law RB, this convolution results in a specific curve of mean extinguished absolute magnitude vs. apparent color. The derivative of this curve smoothly transitions from βint in the blue tail to RB in the red tail of the apparent color distribution. The conventional linear fit approximates this effective curve near the average apparent color, resulting in an apparent slope βapp between βint and RB. We incorporate these effects into a hierarchical Bayesian statistical model for SN Ia light curve measurements, and analyze a dataset of SALT2 optical light curve fits of 277 nearby SN Ia at z < 0.10. The conventional linear fit obtains βapp ≈ 3. Our model finds a βint = 2.2 ± 0.3 and a distinct dust law of RB = 3.7 ± 0

  13. The luminous, massive and solar metallicity galaxy hosting the Swift γ-ray burst GRB 160804A at z = 0.737

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintz, K. E.; Malesani, D.; Wiersema, K.; Jakobsson, P.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Savaglio, S.; Cano, Z.; Covino, S.; D'Elia, V.; Gomboc, A.; Hammer, F.; Kaper, L.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Møller, P.; Piranomonte, S.; Selsing, J.; Rhodin, N. H. P.; Tanvir, N. R.; Thöne, C. C.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Vergani, S. D.; Watson, D.

    2018-02-01

    We here present the spectroscopic follow-up observations with VLT/X-shooter of the Swift long-duration gamma-ray burst GRB 160804A at z = 0.737. Typically, GRBs are found in low-mass, metal-poor galaxies that constitute the sub-luminous population of star-forming galaxies. For the host galaxy of the GRB presented here, we derive a stellar mass of log (M*/ M⊙) = 9.80 ± 0.07, a roughly solar metallicity (12 + log (O/H) = 8.74 ± 0.12) based on emission line diagnostics, and an infrared luminosity of M3.6/(1 + z) = -21.94 mag, but find it to be dust-poor (E(B - V) < 0.05 mag). This establishes the galaxy hosting GRB 160804A as one of the most luminous, massive and metal-rich GRB hosts at z < 1.5. Furthermore, the gas-phase metallicity is found to be representative of the physical conditions of the gas close to the explosion site of the burst. The high metallicity of the host galaxy is also observed in absorption, where we detect several strong Fe II transitions as well as Mg II and Mg I. Although host galaxy absorption features are common in GRB afterglow spectra, we detect absorption from strong metal lines directly in the host continuum (at a time when the afterglow was contributing to < 15 per cent). Finally, we discuss the possibility that the geometry and state of the absorbing and emitting gas are indicative of a galactic scale outflow expelled at the final stage of two merging galaxies.

  14. An optical imaging study of 0.4 ≤ z ≤ 0.8 quasar host galaxies . II. Analysis and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Örndahl, E.; Rönnback, J.

    2005-11-01

    We performed optical imaging of 102 radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars at z=0.4{-}0.8, of which 91 fields were found suitable for host galaxy analysis after the deselection of saturated and otherwise flawed images. The data sets were obtained mainly in the R band, but also in the V and I or Gunn i band, and were presented in Rönnback et al.(1996, MNRAS, 283, 282) and Örndahl et al. (2003, A&A, 404, 883). In this paper we combine the two above-mentioned samples and also separately discuss additional hosts, extracted from data taken by Wold et al. (2000, MNRAS, 316, 267; 2001, MNRAS, 323, 231). The joint sample forms a sizeable fraction of the to-date total number of observed sources at intermediate redshifts and increases the number of resolved radio-quiet hosts at z>0.4 considerably. Equal numbers of radio-loud and radio-quiet objects were observed, resulting in a detection rate of 79% for the radio-loud hosts and 66% for the radio-quiet hosts. Profile fitting could only be carried out for a minority of the sample, but it results in predominantly elliptical morphologies. This is consistent with the mean values of the axial ratios, for which we find b/a⪆0.8 for both radio-quiet and radio-loud hosts, just as in the case of normal elliptical galaxies. The mean absolute magnitudes of the radio-loud and radio-quiet hosts is M_R=-23.5 in both cases. This similarity between the mean magnitudes of the two types of host galaxy is also seen in the other imaged bands. While the radio-loud host absolute R magnitudes are correlated with redshift, only a weak trend of the same sort is seen for the radio-quiet host magnitudes. Note, however, that the sample is not fully resolved and that the detection limit, in combination with the relationship between host and nuclear luminosity, may conspire in creating the illusion of an upturn in magnitude. The average nucleus-to-host galaxy luminosity ratios of the radio-loud and radio-quiet objects do not differ significantly in any

  15. An Archival COS Study of Multi-phase Galactic Outflows and Their Dependence on Host Galaxy Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, John

    2013-10-01

    Galactic outflows have become vital for understanding galaxy evolution. Outflows have been used to explain the mass-metallicity relation, the star formation history of the universe, and the shape of the baryonic mass function. However, few studies have focused on the basic question of how outflow velocities depend upon the physical properties of their host galaxies. Here we propose an archival project utilizing 52 COS spectra of local star-forming galaxies spanning four decades of star formation rate, and stellar mass. We will preform a self-consistent analysis of trends between galactic properties {star formation rate, stellar mass, specific star formation rate and star formation rate surface density} and outflow velocities measured from interstellar metal absorption lines {e.g., CII 1335}. We will extend this analysis to different gas phases - cold, warm, and hot - to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the physics of multi-phase outflows. The trends we observe will provide insights into the feedback process and will be crucial new benchmarks for simulations.

  16. The connection between globular cluster systems and their host galaxy and environment: a case study of the isolated elliptical NGC 821

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitler, Lee R.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Strader, Jay; Brodie, Jean P.; Gallagher, Jay S.

    2008-03-01

    In an effort to probe the globular cluster (GC) system of an isolated elliptical galaxy, a comprehensive analysis of the NGC 821 GC system was performed. New imaging from the WIYN Mini-Mosaic imager, supplemented with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 images reveals a GC system similar to those found in counterpart ellipticals located in high-density environments. To put these results into the context of galaxy formation, a robustly determined census of GC systems is presented and analysed for galaxies spanning a wide range of masses (> M*), morphologies and environments. Results from this meta-study: (1) confirm previous findings that the number of GCs normalized by host galaxy stellar mass increases with host stellar mass. Spiral galaxies in the sample show smaller relative GC numbers than those of massive ellipticals, suggesting the GC systems of massive ellipticals were not formed from major spiral-spiral mergers; (2) indicate that GC system numbers per unit galaxy baryon mass increases with host baryon mass and that GC formation efficiency may not be universal as previously thought; (3) suggest previously reported trends with environment may be incorrect due to sample bias or the use of galaxy stellar masses to normalize GC numbers. Thus claims for environmentally dependent GC formation efficiencies should be revisited; (4) in combination with weak-lensing halo mass estimates, suggest that GCs formed in direct proportion to the halo mass; (5) are consistent with theoretical predictions whereby the local epoch of reionization did not vary significantly with environment or host galaxy type. Based upon data from the WIYN Observatory, which is a joint facility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, Yale University and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories. Also includes analysis of observations made with the Hubble Space Telescope obtained from the ESO/ST-ECF Science Archive Facility. E-mail: lspitler@astro.swin.edu.au

  17. The Very Red Afterglow of GRB 000418: Further Evidence for Dust Extinction in a Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, S.; Stecklum, B.; Masetti, N.; Pian, E.; Palazzi, E.; Henden, A. A.; Hartmann, D. H.; Fischer, O.; Gorosabel, J.; Sánchez-Fernández, C.; Butler, D.; Ott, Th.; Hippler, S.; Kasper, M.; Weiss, R.; Castro-Tirado, A.; Greiner, J.; Bartolini, C.; Guarnieri, A.; Piccioni, A.; Benetti, S.; Ghinassi, F.; Magazzú, A.; Hurley, K.; Cline, T.; Trombka, J.; McClanahan, T.; Starr, R.; Goldsten, J.; Gold, R.; Mazets, E.; Golenetskii, S.; Noeske, K.; Papaderos, P.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Tanvir, N.; Oscoz, A.; Muñoz, J. A.; Castro Cerón, J. M.

    2000-12-01

    We report near-infrared and optical follow-up observations of the afterglow of the GRB 000418 starting 2.5 days after the occurrence of the burst and extending over nearly 7 weeks. GRB 000418 represents the second case for which the afterglow was initially identified by observations in the near-infrared. During the first 10 days its R-band afterglow was well characterized by a single power-law decay with a slope of 0.86. However, at later times the temporal evolution of the afterglow flattens with respect to a simple power-law decay. Attributing this to an underlying host galaxy, we find its magnitude to be R=23.9 and an intrinsic afterglow decay slope of 1.22. The afterglow was very red with R-K~4 mag. The observations can be explained by an adiabatic, spherical fireball solution and a heavy reddening due to dust extinction in the host galaxy. This supports the picture that (long) bursts are associated with events in star-forming regions. Based on observations collected at the Bologna Astronomical Observatory in Loiano, Italy; at the TNG, Canary Islands, Spain; at the German-Spanish Astronomical Centre, Calar Alto, operated by the Max-Planck-Institut for Astronomy, Heidelberg, jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy; at the US Naval Observatory; and at the UK Infrared Telescope.

  18. GRB 090417B and its Host Galaxy: A Step Towards an Understanding of Optically-Dark Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Stephen T.; Sbarufatti, Boris; Shen, Rongfeng; Schady, Patricia; Cummings, Jay R.; Fonseca, Emmanuel; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Jakobsson, Pall; Leitet, Elisabet; Linne, Staffan; hide

    2009-01-01

    GRB 090417B was an unusually long burst with a T(sub 90) duration of at least 2130 s and a multi-peaked light curve at energies of 15-150 keV. It was optically dark and has been convincingly associated with a bright star-forming galaxy at a redshift of 0.345 that is broadly similar to the Milky Way. This is one of the few cases where a host galaxy has been clearly identified for a dark gamma-ray burst and thus an ideal candidate for studying the origin of dark bursts. We find that the dark nature of GRB 090417B can not be explained by high redshift, incomplete observations, or unusual physics in the production of the afterglow. The Swift/XRT X-ray data are consistent with the afterglow being obscured by a dense, localized sheet of dust approximately 30-80 pc from the burst along the line of sight. Assuming the standard relativistic fireball model for the afterglow we find that the optical flux is at least 2.5 mag fainter than predicted by the X -ray flux. We are able to explain the lack of an optical afterglow, and the evolution of the X -ray spectrum, by assuming that there is a sheet of dust along the line of sight approximately 30-80 pc from the progenitor. Our results suggest that this dust sheet imparts an extinction of A(sub v)> or = 12 mag, which is sufficient to explain the missing optical flux. GRB 090417B is an example of a gamma-ray burst that is dark due to the localized dust structure in its host galaxy.

  19. CONNECTING GRBs AND ULIRGs: A SENSITIVE, UNBIASED SURVEY FOR RADIO EMISSION FROM GAMMA-RAY BURST HOST GALAXIES AT 0 < z < 2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Perley, D. A.; Perley, R. A.; Hjorth, J.

    2015-03-10

    Luminous infrared galaxies and submillimeter galaxies contribute significantly to stellar mass assembly and provide an important test of the connection between the gamma-ray burst (GRB) rate and that of overall cosmic star formation. We present sensitive 3 GHz radio observations using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array of 32 uniformly selected GRB host galaxies spanning a redshift range from 0 < z < 2.5, providing the first fully dust- and sample-unbiased measurement of the fraction of GRBs originating from the universe's most bolometrically luminous galaxies. Four galaxies are detected, with inferred radio star formation rates (SFRs) ranging between 50 and 300 Mmore » {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. Three of the four detections correspond to events consistent with being optically obscured 'dark' bursts. Our overall detection fraction implies that between 9% and 23% of GRBs between 0.5 < z < 2.5 occur in galaxies with S {sub 3GHz} > 10 μJy, corresponding to SFR > 50 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} at z ∼ 1 or >250 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} at z ∼ 2. Similar galaxies contribute approximately 10%-30% of all cosmic star formation, so our results are consistent with a GRB rate that is not strongly biased with respect to the total SFR of a galaxy. However, all four radio-detected hosts have stellar masses significantly lower than IR/submillimeter-selected field galaxies of similar luminosities. We suggest that the GRB rate may be suppressed in metal-rich environments but independently enhanced in intense starbursts, producing a strong efficiency dependence on mass but little net dependence on bulk galaxy SFR.« less

  20. Empirical Constraints on the Origin of Fast Radio Bursts: Volumetric Rates and Host Galaxy Demographics as a Test of Millisecond Magnetar Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholl, M.; Williams, P. K. G.; Berger, E.; Villar, V. A.; Alexander, K. D.; Eftekhari, T.; Metzger, B. D.

    2017-07-01

    The localization of the repeating fast radio burst (FRB) 121102 to a low-metallicity dwarf galaxy at z = 0.193, and its association with a luminous quiescent radio source, suggests the possibility that FRBs originate from magnetars, formed by the unusual supernovae that occur in such galaxies. We investigate this possibility via a comparison of magnetar birth rates, the FRB volumetric rate, and host galaxy demographics. We calculate average volumetric rates of possible millisecond magnetar production channels, such as superluminous supernovae (SLSNe), long and short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and general magnetar production via core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). For each channel, we also explore the expected host galaxy demographics using their known properties. We determine for the first time the number density of FRB emitters (the product of their volumetric birth rate and lifetime), {R}{FRB}τ ≈ {10}4 Gpc-3, assuming that FRBs are predominantly emitted from repetitive sources similar to FRB 121102 and adopting a beaming factor of 0.1. By comparing rates, we find that production via rare channels (SLSNe, GRBs) implies a typical FRB lifetime of ˜30-300 years, in good agreement with other lines of argument. The total energy emitted over this time is consistent with the available energy stored in the magnetic field. On the other hand, any relation to magnetars produced via normal CCSNe leads to a very short lifetime of ˜0.5 years, in conflict with both theory and observation. We demonstrate that due to the diverse host galaxy distributions of the different progenitor channels, many possible sources of FRB birth can be ruled out with ≲ 10 host galaxy identifications. Conversely, targeted searches of galaxies that have previously hosted decades-old SLSNe and GRBs may be a fruitful strategy for discovering new FRBs and related quiescent radio sources, and determining the nature of their progenitors.

  1. R-band host galaxy contamination of TeV γ-ray blazar Mrk 501: effects of aperture size and seeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Hai-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Tao; Zhao, Ying-He; Bai, Jin-Ming; Wang, Fang; Fan, Xu-Liang

    2018-02-01

    We simulated the R-band contribution of the host galaxy of TeV γ-ray BL Lac object Mrk 501 in different aperture sizes and seeing conditions. An intensive set of observations was acquired with the 1.02 m optical telescope, managed by Yunnan Observatories, from 2010 May 15 to 18. Based on the host subtraction data usually used in the literature, the subtraction of host galaxy contamination results in significant seeing-brightness correlations. These correlations would lead to illusive large amplitude variations at short timescales, which will mask the intrinsic microvariability, thus giving rise to difficulty in detecting the intrinsic microvariability. Both aperture size and seeing condition influence the flux measurements, but the aperture size impacts the result more significantly. Based on the parameters of an elliptical galaxy provided in the literature, we simulated the host contributions of Mrk 501 in different aperture sizes and seeing conditions. Our simulation data of the host galaxy obviously weaken these significant seeing-brightness correlations for the host-subtracted brightness of Mrk 501, and can help us discover the intrinsic short timescale microvariability. The pure nuclear flux is ∼8.0mJy in the R band, i.e., the AGN has a magnitude of R ∼ 13.96 mag.

  2. Large-scale clustering measurements with photometric redshifts: comparing the dark matter haloes of X-ray AGN, star-forming and passive galaxies at z ≈ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakis, A.; Mountrichas, G.; Salvato, M.; Rosario, D.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Lutz, D.; Nandra, K.; Coil, A.; Cooper, M. C.; Newman, J. A.; Berta, S.; Magnelli, B.; Popesso, P.; Pozzi, F.

    2014-10-01

    We combine multi-wavelength data in the AEGIS-XD and C-COSMOS surveys to measure the typical dark matter halo mass of X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) [LX(2-10 keV) > 1042 erg s- 1] in comparison with far-infrared selected star-forming galaxies detected in the Herschel/PEP survey (PACS Evolutionary Probe; LIR > 1011 L⊙) and quiescent systems at z ≈ 1. We develop a novel method to measure the clustering of extragalactic populations that uses photometric redshift probability distribution functions in addition to any spectroscopy. This is advantageous in that all sources in the sample are used in the clustering analysis, not just the subset with secure spectroscopy. The method works best for large samples. The loss of accuracy because of the lack of spectroscopy is balanced by increasing the number of sources used to measure the clustering. We find that X-ray AGN, far-infrared selected star-forming galaxies and passive systems in the redshift interval 0.6 < z < 1.4 are found in haloes of similar mass, log MDMH/(M⊙ h-1) ≈ 13.0. We argue that this is because the galaxies in all three samples (AGN, star-forming, passive) have similar stellar mass distributions, approximated by the J-band luminosity. Therefore, all galaxies that can potentially host X-ray AGN, because they have stellar masses in the appropriate range, live in dark matter haloes of log MDMH/(M⊙ h-1) ≈ 13.0 independent of their star formation rates. This suggests that the stellar mass of X-ray AGN hosts is driving the observed clustering properties of this population. We also speculate that trends between AGN properties (e.g. luminosity, level of obscuration) and large-scale environment may be related to differences in the stellar mass of the host galaxies.

  3. Fitting and Phenomenology in Type IA Supernova Cosmology: Generalized Likelihood Analyses for Multiple Evolving Populations and Observations of Near-Infrared Lightcurves Including Host Galaxy Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponder, Kara A.

    In the late 1990s, Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) led to the discovery that the Universe is expanding at an accelerating rate due to dark energy. Since then, many different tracers of acceleration have been used to characterize dark energy, but the source of cosmic acceleration has remained a mystery. To better understand dark energy, future surveys such as the ground-based Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and the space-based Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope will collect thousands of SNeIa to use as a primary dark energy probe. These large surveys will be systematics limited, which makes it imperative for our insight regarding systematics to dramatically increase over the next decade for SNeIa to continue to contribute to precision cosmology. I approach this problem by improving statistical methods in the likelihood analysis and collecting near infrared (NIR) SNeIa with their host galaxies to improve the nearby data set and search for additional systematics. Using more statistically robust methods to account for systematics within the likelihood function can increase accuracy in cosmological parameters with a minimal precision loss. Though a sample of at least 10,000 SNeIa is necessary to confirm multiple populations of SNeIa, the bias in cosmology is ˜ 2 sigma with only 2,500 SNeIa. This work focused on an example systematic (host galaxy correlations), but it can be generalized for any systematic that can be represented by a distribution of multiple Gaussians. The SweetSpot survey gathered 114 low-redshift, NIR SNeIa that will act as a crucial anchor sample for the future high redshift surveys. NIR observations are not as affected by dust contamination, which may lead to increased understanding of systematics seen in optical wavelengths. We obtained spatially resolved spectra for 32 SweetSpot host galaxies to test for local host galaxy correlations. For the first time, we probe global host galaxy correlations with NIR brightnesses from the current literature

  4. ALMA Observations Show Major Mergers Among the Host Galaxies of Fast-growing, High-redshift​ Supermassive​ Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Lira, Paulina; Netzer, Hagai; Cicone, Claudia; Maiolino, Roberto; Shemmer, Ohad

    2017-02-01

    We present new ALMA band-7 data for a sample of six luminous quasars at z≃ 4.8, powered by fast-growing supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with rather uniform properties: the typical accretion rates and black hole masses are L/{L}{Edd}≃ 0.7 and {M}{BH}≃ {10}9 {M}⊙ . Our sample consists of three “FIR-bright” sources, which were individually detected in previous Herschel/SPIRE observations, with star formation rates of {SFR}> 1000 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1, and three “FIR-faint” sources for which Herschel stacking analysis implies a typical SFR of ˜400 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1. The dusty interstellar medium in the hosts of all six quasars is clearly detected in the ALMA data and resolved on scales of ˜2 kpc, in both continuum ({λ }{rest}˜ 150 μ {{m}}) and [{{C}} {{II}}] λ 157.74 μ {{m}} line emission. The continuum emission is in good agreement with the expectations from the Herschel data, confirming the intense SF activity in the quasar hosts. Importantly, we detect companion sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) for three sources—one FIR-bright and two FIR-faint, separated by ˜ 14{--}45 {kpc} and < 450 {km} {{{s}}}-1 from the quasar hosts. The [{{C}} {{II}}]-based dynamical mass estimates for the interacting SMGs are within a factor of ˜3 of the quasar hosts’ masses, while the continuum emission implies {{SFR}}{quasar}˜ (2{--}11)× {{SFR}}{SMG}. Our ALMA data therefore clearly support the idea that major mergers are important drivers for rapid early SMBH growth. However, the fact that not all high-SFR quasar hosts are accompanied by interacting SMGs and the gas kinematics as observed by ALMA suggest that other processes may be fueling these systems. Our analysis thus demonstrates the diversity of host galaxy properties and gas accretion mechanisms associated with early and rapid SMBH growth.

  5. Identifying the Location in the Host Galaxy of Short GRB 1111l7A with the Chandra Sub- Arcsecond Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakamoto, Takanori; Troja, E.; Aoki, K.; Guiriec, S.; Im, M.; Leloudas, G.; Malesani, D.; Melandri, A.; deUgartePostigo, A.; Urata, Y.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present our successful program using Chandra for identifying the X-ray afterglow with sub-arcsecond accuracy for the short GRB 111117A d iscovered by Swift and Fermi. Thanks to our rapid target of opportuni ty request, Chandra clearly detected the X-ray afterglow, whereas no optical afterglow was found in deep optical observations. Instead, we clearly detect the host galaxy in optica; and also in near-infrared b ands. We found that the best photometric redshift fitofthe host is z = 1.31:(+0.46/-0.23) (90% confidence), making it one of the highest redshift short GRBs. Furthermore, we see an offset of 1.0+/-O.2 arcseco nds, which corresponds to 8.4+/-1.7 kpc aSBuming z= 1.31, between the host and the afterglow position. We discuss the importance of using Chandra for obtaining sub-arcsecond localization of the afterglow in X -rays for short GRBs to study GRB environments in great detail.

  6. Linking black hole growth with host galaxies: the accretion-stellar mass relation and its cosmic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, G.; Brandt, W. N.; Vito, F.; Chen, C.-T. J.; Trump, J. R.; Luo, B.; Sun, M. Y.; Xue, Y. Q.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Schneider, D. P.; Vignali, C.; Wang, J.-X.

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies suggest that the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) may be fundamentally related to host-galaxy stellar mass (M⋆). To investigate this SMBH growth-M⋆ relation in detail, we calculate long-term SMBH accretion rate as a function of M⋆ and redshift [\\overlineBHAR(M_{\\star }, z)] over ranges of log (M⋆/M⊙) = 9.5-12 and z = 0.4-4. Our \\overlineBHAR(M_{\\star }, z) is constrained by high-quality survey data (GOODS-South, GOODS-North and COSMOS), and by the stellar mass function and the X-ray luminosity function. At a given M⋆, \\overlineBHAR is higher at high redshift. This redshift dependence is stronger in more massive systems [for log (M⋆/M⊙) ≈ 11.5, \\overlineBHAR is three decades higher at z = 4 than at z = 0.5], possibly due to AGN feedback. Our results indicate that the ratio between \\overlineBHAR and average star formation rate (\\overlineSFR) rises towards high M⋆ at a given redshift. This \\overlineBHAR/\\overlineSFR dependence on M⋆ does not support the scenario that SMBH and galaxy growth are in lockstep. We calculate SMBH mass history [MBH(z)] based on our \\overlineBHAR(M_{\\star }, z) and the M⋆(z) from the literature, and find that the MBH-M⋆ relation has weak redshift evolution since z ≈ 2. The MBH/M⋆ ratio is higher towards massive galaxies: it rises from ≈1/5000 at log M⋆ ≲ 10.5 to ≈1/500 at log M⋆ ≳ 11.2. Our predicted MBH/M⋆ ratio at high M⋆ is similar to that observed in local giant ellipticals, suggesting that SMBH growth from mergers is unlikely to dominate over growth from accretion.

  7. THE SWIFT GRB HOST GALAXY LEGACY SURVEY. II. REST-FRAME NEAR-IR LUMINOSITY DISTRIBUTION AND EVIDENCE FOR A NEAR-SOLAR METALLICITY THRESHOLD

    SciTech Connect

    Perley, D. A.; Tanvir, N. R.; Hjorth, J.

    2016-01-20

    We present rest-frame near-IR (NIR) luminosities and stellar masses for a large and uniformly selected population of gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies using deep Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of 119 targets from the Swift GRB Host Galaxy Legacy Survey spanning 0.03 < z < 6.3, and we determine the effects of galaxy evolution and chemical enrichment on the mass distribution of the GRB host population across cosmic history. We find a rapid increase in the characteristic NIR host luminosity between z ∼ 0.5 and z ∼ 1.5, but little variation between z ∼ 1.5 and z ∼ 5. Dust-obscured GRBs dominate the massive host population but are only rarely seen associated withmore » low-mass hosts, indicating that massive star-forming galaxies are universally and (to some extent) homogeneously dusty at high redshift while low-mass star-forming galaxies retain little dust in their interstellar medium. Comparing our luminosity distributions with field surveys and measurements of the high-z mass–metallicity relation, our results have good consistency with a model in which the GRB rate per unit star formation is constant in galaxies with gas-phase metallicity below approximately the solar value but heavily suppressed in more metal-rich environments. This model also naturally explains the previously reported “excess” in the GRB rate beyond z ≳ 2; metals stifle GRB production in most galaxies at z < 1.5 but have only minor impact at higher redshifts. The metallicity threshold we infer is much higher than predicted by single-star models and favors a binary progenitor. Our observations also constrain the fraction of cosmic star formation in low-mass galaxies undetectable to Spitzer to be small at z < 4.« less

  8. The Carnegie Supernova Project I. Methods to estimate host-galaxy reddening of stripped-envelope supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stritzinger, M. D.; Taddia, F.; Burns, C. R.; Phillips, M. M.; Bersten, M.; Contreras, C.; Folatelli, G.; Holmbo, S.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Hoeflich, P.; Leloudas, G.; Morrell, N.; Sollerman, J.; Suntzeff, N. B.

    2018-02-01

    We aim to improve upon contemporary methods to estimate host-galaxy reddening of stripped-envelope (SE) supernovae (SNe). To this end the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP-I) SE SN photometry data release, consisting of nearly three dozen objects, is used to identify a minimally reddened sub-sample for each traditionally defined spectroscopic sub-type (i.e., SNe IIb, SNe Ib, SNe Ic). Inspection of the optical and near-infrared (NIR) colors and color evolution of the minimally reddened sub-samples reveals a high degree of homogeneity, particularly between 0 d to +20 d relative to B-band maximum. This motivated the construction of intrinsic color-curve templates, which when compared to the colors of reddened SE SNe, yields an entire suite of optical and NIR color excess measurements. Comparison of optical/optical vs. optical/NIR color excess measurements indicates the majority of the CSP-I SE SNe suffer relatively low amounts of reddening (i.e., E(B-V)host< 0.20 mag) and we find evidence for different RVhost values among different SE SN. Fitting the color excess measurements of the seven most reddened (i.e., E(B-V)host> 0.20 mag) objects with the Fitzpatrick (1999, PASP, 111, 63) reddening law model provides robust estimates of the host visual-extinction AVhost and RVhost. In the case of the SE SNe with relatively low amounts of reddening, a preferred value of RVhost is adopted for each sub-type, resulting in estimates of AVhost through Fitzpatrick (1999) reddening law model fits to the observed color excess measurements. Our analysis suggests SE SNe reside in galaxies characterized by a range of dust properties. We also find evidence that SNe Ic are more likely to occur in regions characterized by larger RVhost values compared to SNe IIb/Ib and they also tend to suffer more extinction. The later finding is consistent with work in the literature suggesting SNe Ic tend to occur in regions of on-going star formation. Based on observations collected at Las Campanas

  9. ALMA resolves extended star formation in high-z AGN host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, C. M.; Simpson, J. M.; Stanley, F.; Alexander, D. M.; Daddi, E.; Mullaney, J. R.; Pannella, M.; Rosario, D. J.; Smail, Ian

    2016-03-01

    We present high-resolution (0.3 arcsec) Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) 870 μm imaging of five z ≈ 1.5-4.5 X-ray detected AGN (with luminosities of L2-8keV > 1042 erg s-1). These data provide a ≳20 times improvement in spatial resolution over single-dish rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) measurements. The sub-millimetre emission is extended on scales of FWHM ≈ 0.2 arcsec-0.5 arcsec, corresponding to physical sizes of 1-3 kpc (median value of 1.8 kpc). These sizes are comparable to the majority of z=1-5 sub-millimetre galaxies (SMGs) with equivalent ALMA measurements. In combination with spectral energy distribution analyses, we attribute this rest-frame FIR emission to dust heated by star formation. The implied star-formation rate surface densities are ≈20-200 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2, which are consistent with SMGs of comparable FIR luminosities (I.e. LIR ≈ [1-5] × 1012 L⊙). Although limited by a small sample of AGN, which all have high-FIR luminosities, our study suggests that the kpc-scale spatial distribution and surface density of star formation in high-redshift star-forming galaxies is the same irrespective of the presence of X-ray detected AGN.

  10. A Catalog Sample of Low-mass Galaxies Observed in X-Rays with Central Candidate Black Holes

    SciTech Connect

    Nucita, A. A.; Manni, L.; Paolis, F. De

    We present a sample of X-ray-selected candidate black holes in 51 low-mass galaxies with z ≤ 0.055 and masses up to 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙} obtained by cross-correlating the NASA-SLOAN Atlas with the 3XMM catalog. We have also searched in the available catalogs for radio counterparts of the black hole candidates and find that 19 of the previously selected sources also have a radio counterpart. Our results show that about 37% of the galaxies of our sample host an X-ray source (associated with a radio counterpart) spatially coincident with the galaxy center, in agreement with other recent works. Formore » these nuclear sources, the X-ray/radio fundamental plane relation allows one to estimate the mass of the (central) candidate black holes, which are in the range of 10{sup 4}–2 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ⊙} (with a median value of ≃3 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙} and eight candidates having masses below 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙}). This result, while suggesting that X-ray emitting black holes in low-mass galaxies may have had a key role in the evolution of such systems, makes it even more urgent to explain how such massive objects formed in galaxies. Of course, dedicated follow-up observations both in the X-ray and radio bands, as well as in the optical, are necessary in order to confirm our results.« less

  11. DETERMINING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA HOST GALAXY EXTINCTION PROBABILITIES AND A STATISTICAL APPROACH TO ESTIMATING THE ABSORPTION-TO-REDDENING RATIO R{sub V}

    SciTech Connect

    Cikota, Aleksandar; Deustua, Susana; Marleau, Francine, E-mail: acikota@eso.org

    We investigate limits on the extinction values of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to statistically determine the most probable color excess, E(B – V), with galactocentric distance, and use these statistics to determine the absorption-to-reddening ratio, R{sub V}, for dust in the host galaxies. We determined pixel-based dust mass surface density maps for 59 galaxies from the Key Insight on Nearby Galaxies: a Far-infrared Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH). We use SN Ia spectral templates to develop a Monte Carlo simulation of color excess E(B – V) with R{sub V} = 3.1 and investigate the color excess probabilities E(B – V) with projected radial galaxymore » center distance. Additionally, we tested our model using observed spectra of SN 1989B, SN 2002bo, and SN 2006X, which occurred in three KINGFISH galaxies. Finally, we determined the most probable reddening for Sa–Sap, Sab–Sbp, Sbc–Scp, Scd–Sdm, S0, and irregular galaxy classes as a function of R/R{sub 25}. We find that the largest expected reddening probabilities are in Sab–Sb and Sbc–Sc galaxies, while S0 and irregular galaxies are very dust poor. We present a new approach for determining the absorption-to-reddening ratio R{sub V} using color excess probability functions and find values of R{sub V} = 2.71 ± 1.58 for 21 SNe Ia observed in Sab–Sbp galaxies, and R{sub V} = 1.70 ± 0.38, for 34 SNe Ia observed in Sbc–Scp galaxies.« less

  12. Gravitational lensing reveals extreme dust-obscured star formation in quasar host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, H. R.; McKean, J. P.; Robertson, N. C.; Ivison, R. J.; Isaak, K. G.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; van der Werf, P. P.; Baan, W. A.; Berciano Alba, A.; Garrett, M. A.; Loenen, A. F.

    2018-06-01

    We have observed 104 gravitationally lensed quasars at z ˜ 1-4 with Herschel/SPIRE, the largest such sample ever studied. By targeting gravitational lenses, we probe intrinsic far-infrared (FIR) luminosities and star formation rates (SFRs) more typical of the population than the extremely luminous sources that are otherwise accessible. We detect 72 objects with Herschel/SPIRE and find 66 per cent (69 sources) of the sample have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) characteristic of dust emission. For 53 objects with sufficiently constrained SEDs, we find a median effective dust temperature of 38^{+12}_{-5} K. By applying the radio-infrared correlation, we find no evidence for an FIR excess that is consistent with star-formation-heated dust. We derive a median magnification-corrected FIR luminosity of 3.6^{+4.8}_{-2.4} × 10^{11} L_{⊙} and median SFR of 120^{+160}_{-80} M_{⊙} yr^{-1}} for 94 quasars with redshifts. We find ˜10 per cent of our sample have FIR properties similar to typical dusty star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 2-3 and a range of SFRs <20-10 000 M⊙ yr-1 for our sample as a whole. These results are in line with current models of quasar evolution and suggests a coexistence of dust-obscured star formation and AGN activity is typical of most quasars. We do not find a statistically significant difference in the FIR luminosities of quasars in our sample with a radio excess relative to the radio-infrared correlation. Synchrotron emission is found to dominate at FIR wavelengths for <15 per cent of those sources classified as powerful radio galaxies.

  13. The host of the Type I SLSN 2017egm. A young, sub-solar metallicity environment in a massive spiral galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzo, L.; Thöne, C. C.; García-Benito, R.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Cano, Z.; Kann, D. A.; Bensch, K.; Della Valle, M.; Galadí-Enríquez, D.; Hedrosa, R. P.

    2018-02-01

    Context. Type I superluminous supernova (SLSN) host galaxies are predominantly low-metallicity, highly star-forming (SF) dwarfs. One of the current key questions is whether Type I SLSNe can only occur in such environments and hosts. Aims: Here we present an integral-field study of the massive, high-metallicity spiral NGC 3191, the host of SN 2017egm, the closest Type I SLSN known to date. We use data from PMAS/CAHA and the public MaNGA survey to shed light on the properties of the SLSN site and the origin of star formation in this non-starburst spiral galaxy. Methods: We map the physical properties of different H II regions throughout the galaxy and characterise their stellar populations using the STARLIGHT fitting code. Kinematical information allows us to study a possible interaction with its neighbouring galaxy as the origin of recent star formation activity which could have caused the SLSN. Results: NGC 3191 shows intense star formation in the western part with three large SF regions of low metallicity. Taking only the properties of emitting gas, the central regions of the host have a higher metallicity, a lower specific star formation rate, and lower ionisation. Modelling the stellar populations gives a different picture: the SLSN region has two dominant stellar populations with different ages, the younger one with an age of 2-10 Myr and lower metallicity, likely the population from which the SN progenitor originated. Emission line kinematics of NGC 3191 show indications of interaction with its neighbour MCG+08-19-017 at 45 kpc, which might be responsible for the recent starburst. In fact, this galaxy pair has hosted a total of four SNe, 1988B (Type Ia), SN 2003ds (Type Ic in MCG+08-19-017), PTF10bgl (Type II), and 2017egm, underlying the enhanced SF in both galaxies due to interaction. Conclusions: Our study shows that care should be taken when interpreting global host and even gas properties without looking at the stellar population history of the region

  14. The Old Host-galaxy Environment of SSS17a, the First Electromagnetic Counterpart to a Gravitational-wave Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Kilpatrick, C. D.; Simon, J. D.; Xhakaj, E.; Boutsia, K.; Coulter, D. A.; Drout, M. R.; Foley, R. J.; Kasen, D.; Morrell, N.; Murguia-Berthier, A.; Osip, D.; Piro, A. L.; Prochaska, J. X.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Rest, A.; Rojas-Bravo, C.; Shappee, B. J.; Siebert, M. R.

    2017-10-01

    We present an analysis of the host-galaxy environment of Swope Supernova Survey 2017a (SSS17a), the discovery of an electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational-wave source, GW170817. SSS17a occurred 1.9 kpc (in projection; 10.″2) from the nucleus of NGC 4993, an S0 galaxy at a distance of 40 Mpc. We present a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) pre-trigger image of NGC 4993, Magellan optical spectroscopy of the nucleus of NGC 4993 and the location of SSS17a, and broadband UV-through-IR photometry of NGC 4993. The spectrum and broadband spectral-energy distribution indicate that NGC 4993 has a stellar mass of {log}(M/{M}⊙ )={10.49}-0.20+0.08 and star formation rate of 0.003 {M}⊙ yr-1, and the progenitor system of SSS17a likely had an age of >2.8 Gyr. There is no counterpart at the position of SSS17a in the HST pre-trigger image, indicating that the progenitor system had an absolute magnitude {M}V> -5.8 mag. We detect dust lanes extending out to almost the position of SSS17a and >100 likely globular clusters associated with NGC 4993. The offset of SSS17a is similar to many short gamma-ray-burst offsets, and its progenitor system was likely bound to NGC 4993. The environment of SSS17a is consistent with an old progenitor system such as a binary neutron star system. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  15. The Old Host-galaxy Environment of SSS17a, the First Electromagnetic Counterpart to a Gravitational-wave Source

    DOE PAGES

    Pan, Y. -C.; Kilpatrick, C. D.; Simon, J. D.; ...

    2017-10-16

    We present an analysis of the host-galaxy environment of Swope Supernova Survey 2017a (SSS17a), the discovery of an electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational-wave source, GW170817. SSS17a occurred 1.9 kpc (in projection; 10 farcs 2) from the nucleus of NGC 4993, an S0 galaxy at a distance of 40 Mpc. We present a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) pre-trigger image of NGC 4993, Magellan optical spectroscopy of the nucleus of NGC 4993 and the location of SSS17a, and broadband UV-through-IR photometry of NGC 4993. The spectrum and broadband spectral-energy distribution indicate that NGC 4993 has a stellar mass ofmore » $$\\mathrm{log}(M/{M}_{\\odot })={10.49}_{-0.20}^{+0.08}$$ and star formation rate of 0.003 $${M}_{\\odot }$$ yr -1, and the progenitor system of SSS17a likely had an age of >2.8 Gyr. There is no counterpart at the position of SSS17a in the HST pre-trigger image, indicating that the progenitor system had an absolute magnitude $${M}_{V}\\gt -5.8$$ mag. We detect dust lanes extending out to almost the position of SSS17a and >100 likely globular clusters associated with NGC 4993. The offset of SSS17a is similar to many short gamma-ray-burst offsets, and its progenitor system was likely bound to NGC 4993. The environment of SSS17a is consistent with an old progenitor system such as a binary neutron star system.« less

  16. The Old Host-galaxy Environment of SSS17a, the First Electromagnetic Counterpart to a Gravitational-wave Source

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Y. -C.; Kilpatrick, C. D.; Simon, J. D.

    We present an analysis of the host-galaxy environment of Swope Supernova Survey 2017a (SSS17a), the discovery of an electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational-wave source, GW170817. SSS17a occurred 1.9 kpc (in projection; 10 farcs 2) from the nucleus of NGC 4993, an S0 galaxy at a distance of 40 Mpc. We present a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) pre-trigger image of NGC 4993, Magellan optical spectroscopy of the nucleus of NGC 4993 and the location of SSS17a, and broadband UV-through-IR photometry of NGC 4993. The spectrum and broadband spectral-energy distribution indicate that NGC 4993 has a stellar mass ofmore » $$\\mathrm{log}(M/{M}_{\\odot })={10.49}_{-0.20}^{+0.08}$$ and star formation rate of 0.003 $${M}_{\\odot }$$ yr -1, and the progenitor system of SSS17a likely had an age of >2.8 Gyr. There is no counterpart at the position of SSS17a in the HST pre-trigger image, indicating that the progenitor system had an absolute magnitude $${M}_{V}\\gt -5.8$$ mag. We detect dust lanes extending out to almost the position of SSS17a and >100 likely globular clusters associated with NGC 4993. The offset of SSS17a is similar to many short gamma-ray-burst offsets, and its progenitor system was likely bound to NGC 4993. The environment of SSS17a is consistent with an old progenitor system such as a binary neutron star system.« less

  17. ALMA observations of the host galaxy of GRB 090423 at z = 8.23: deep limits on obscured star formation 630 million years after the big bang

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.; Zauderer, B. A.; Chary, R.-R.

    2014-12-01

    We present rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) and optical observations of the host galaxy of GRB 090423 at z = 8.23 from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and the Spitzer Space Telescope, respectively. The host remains undetected to 3σ limits of F {sub ν}(222 GHz) ≲ 33 μJy and F {sub ν}(3.6 μm) ≲ 81 nJy. The FIR limit is about 20 times fainter than the luminosity of the local ULIRG Arp 220 and comparable to the local starburst M 82. Comparing this with model spectral energy distributions, we place a limit on the infrared (IR) luminosity of L {sub IR}(8-1000more » μm) ≲ 3 × 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉}, corresponding to a limit on the obscured star formation rate of SFR{sub IR}≲5 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. For comparison, the limit on the unobscured star formation rate from Hubble Space Telescope rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) observations is SFR{sub UV} ≲ 1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We also place a limit on the host galaxy stellar mass of M {sub *} ≲ 5 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} (for a stellar population age of 100 Myr and constant star formation rate). Finally, we compare our millimeter observations to those of field galaxies at z ≳ 4 (Lyman break galaxies, Lyα emitters, and submillimeter galaxies) and find that our limit on the FIR luminosity is the most constraining to date, although the field galaxies have much larger rest-frame UV/optical luminosities than the host of GRB 090423 by virtue of their selection techniques. We conclude that GRB host galaxies at z ≳ 4, especially those with measured interstellar medium metallicities from afterglow spectroscopy, are an attractive sample for future ALMA studies of high redshift obscured star formation.« less

  18. A Tidal Disruption Event in a Nearby Galaxy Hosting an Intermediate Mass Black Hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donato, D; Cenko, S. B.; Covino, S.; Troja, E.; Pursimo, T.; Cheung, C. C.; Fox, O.; Kutyrev, A.; Campana, S.; Fugazza, D.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We report the serendipitous discovery of a bright point source flare in the Abell cluster A1795 with archival EUVE and Chandra observations. Assuming the EUVE emission is associated with the Chandra source, the X-ray 0.5-7 kiloelectronvolt flux declined by a factor of approximately 2300 over a time span of 6 years, following a power-law decay with index approximately equal to 2.44 plus or minus 0.40. The Chandra data alone vary by a factor of approximately 20. The spectrum is well fit by a blackbody with a constant temperature of kiloteslas approximately equal to 0.09 kiloelectronvolts (approximately equal to 10 (sup 6) Kelvin). The flare is spatially coincident with the nuclear region of a faint, inactive galaxy with a photometric redshift consistent at the 1 sigma level with the cluster (redshift = 0.062476).We argue that these properties are indicative of a tidal disruption of a star by a black hole (BH) with log(M (sub BH) / M (sub 1 solar mass)) approximately equal to 5.5 plus or minus 0.5. If so, such a discovery indicates that tidal disruption flares may be used to probe BHs in the intermediate mass range, which are very difficult to study by other means.

  19. Host galaxy identification for binary black hole mergers with long baseline gravitational wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, E. J.; Chan, M. L.; Chu, Q.; Jones, D. H.; Heng, I. S.; Lee, H.-M.; Blair, D.; Degallaix, J.; Regimbau, T.; Miao, H.; Zhao, C.; Hendry, M.; Coward, D.; Messenger, C.; Ju, L.; Zhu, Z.-H.

    2018-03-01

    The detection of black hole binary coalescence events by Advanced LIGO allows the science benefits of future detectors to be evaluated. In this paper, we report the science benefits of one or two 8 km arm length detectors based on the doubling of key parameters in an Advanced LIGO-type detector, combined with realizable enhancements. It is shown that the total detection rate for sources similar to those already detected would increase to ˜ 103-105 per year. Within 0.4 Gpc, we find that around 10 of these events would be localizable to within ˜10-1 deg2. This is sufficient to make unique associations or to rule out a direct association with the brightest galaxies in optical surveys (at r-band magnitudes of 17 or above) or for deeper limits (down to r-band magnitudes of 20) yield statistically significant associations. The combination of angular resolution and event rate would benefit precision testing of formation models, cosmic evolution, and cosmological studies.

  20. Optical, Near-IR, and X-Ray Observations of SN 2015J and Its Host Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nucita, A. A.; De Paolis, F.; Saxton, R.; Testa, V.; Strafella, F.; Read, A.; Licchelli, D.; Ingrosso, G.; Convenga, F.; Boutsia, K.

    2017-12-01

    SN 2015J was discovered on 2015 April 27th and is classified as an SN IIn. At first, it appeared to be an orphan SN candidate, I.e., without any clear identification of its host galaxy. Here, we present an analysis of the observations carried out by the VLT 8 m class telescope with the FORS2 camera in the R band and the Magellan telescope (6.5 m) equipped with the IMACS Short-Camera (V and I filters) and the FourStar camera (Ks filter). We show that SN 2015J resides in what appears to be a very compact galaxy, establishing a relation between the SN event and its natural host. We also present and discuss archival and new X-ray data centered on SN 2015J. At the time of the supernova explosion, Swift/XRT observations were made and a weak X-ray source was detected at the location of SN 2015J. Almost one year later, the same source was unambiguously identified during serendipitous observations by Swift/XRT and XMM-Newton, clearly showing an enhancement of the 0.3-10 keV band flux by a factor ≃ 30 with respect to the initial state. Swift/XRT observations show that the source is still active in the X-rays at a level of ≃ 0.05 counts s-1. The unabsorbed X-ray luminosity derived from the XMM-Newton slew and SWIFT observations, {L}x≃ 5× {10}41 erg s-1, places SN 2015J among the brightest young supernovae in X-rays. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA, with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla-Paranal Observatory under program ID 298.D-5016(A), and with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. We also acknowledge the use of public data from the Swift data archive.

  1. A Precise Distance to the Host Galaxy of the Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817 Using Surface Brightness Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantiello, Michele; Jensen, J. B.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Berger, E.; Levan, A. J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Raimondo, G.; Brocato, E.; Alexander, K. D.; Blanchard, P. K.; Branchesi, M.; Cano, Z.; Chornock, R.; Covino, S.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; D’Avanzo, P.; Eftekhari, T.; Fong, W.; Fruchter, A. S.; Grado, A.; Hjorth, J.; Holz, D. E.; Lyman, J. D.; Mandel, I.; Margutti, R.; Nicholl, M.; Villar, V. A.; Williams, P. K. G.

    2018-02-01

    The joint detection of gravitational waves (GWs) and electromagnetic radiation from the binary neutron star (BNS) merger GW170817 has provided unprecedented insight into a wide range of physical processes: heavy element synthesis via the r-process; the production of relativistic ejecta; the equation of state of neutron stars and the nature of the merger remnant; the binary coalescence timescale; and a measurement of the Hubble constant via the “standard siren” technique. In detail, all of these results depend on the distance to the host galaxy of the merger event, NGC 4993. In this Letter we measure the surface brightness fluctuation (SBF) distance to NGC 4993 in the F110W and F160W passbands of the Wide Field Camera 3 Infrared Channel (WFC3/IR) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). For the preferred F110W passband we derive a distance modulus of (m-M) =33.05+/- 0.08+/- 0.10 mag, or a linear distance d = 40.7 ± 1.4 ± 1.9 Mpc (random and systematic errors, respectively); a virtually identical result is obtained from the F160W data. This is the most precise distance to NGC 4993 available to date. Combining our distance measurement with the corrected recession velocity of NGC 4993 implies a Hubble constant H 0 = 71.9 ± 7.1 km s‑1 Mpc‑1. A comparison of our result to the GW-inferred value of H 0 indicates a binary orbital inclination of i ≳ 137°. The SBF technique can be applied to early-type host galaxies of BNS mergers to ∼100 Mpc with HST and possibly as far as ∼300 Mpc with the James Webb Space Telescope, thereby helping to break the inherent distance-inclination degeneracy of the GW data at distances where many future BNS mergers are likely to be detected. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with Program #15329 (PI: E

  2. PROVIDING STRINGENT STAR FORMATION RATE LIMITS OF z ∼ 2 QSO HOST GALAXIES AT HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Vayner, Andrey; Wright, Shelley A.; Do, Tuan

    2016-04-10

    We present integral field spectrograph (IFS) with laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS-AO) observations of z ∼ 2 quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) designed to resolve extended nebular line emission from the host galaxy. Our data was obtained with W. M. Keck and Gemini North Observatories, using OSIRIS and NIFS coupled with the LGS-AO systems, respectively. We have conducted a pilot survey of five QSOs, three observed with NIFS+AO and two observed with OSIRIS+AO at an average redshift of z = 2.2. We demonstrate that the combination of AO and IFSs provides the necessary spatial and spectral resolutions required to separate QSO emission from its host.more » We present our technique for generating a point-spread function (PSF) from the broad-line region of the QSO and performing PSF subtraction of the QSO emission to detect the host galaxy emission at a separation of ∼0.″2 (∼1.4 kpc). We detect Hα narrow-line emission for two sources, SDSS J1029+6510 (z{sub Hα} = 2.182) and SDSS J0925+0655 (z{sub Hα} = 2.197), that have evidence for both star formation and extended narrow-line emission. Assuming that the majority of narrow-line Hα emission is from star formation, we infer a star formation rate (SFR) for SDSS J1029+6510 of 78.4 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} originating from a compact region that is kinematically offset by 290–350 km s{sup −1}. For SDSS J0925+0655 we infer a SFR of 29 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} distributed over three clumps that are spatially offset by ∼7 kpc. The null detections on three of the QSOs are used to infer surface brightness limits and we find that at 1.4 kpc from the QSO the un-reddened star formation limit is ≲0.3 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}. If we assume typical extinction values for z = 2 type-1 QSOs, the dereddened SFR for our null detections would be ≲0.6 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}. These IFS observations indicate that while the central black hole is accreting mass at 10%–40% of the Eddington

  3. Host Galaxies of Luminous Type 2 Quasars at z ~ 0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.; Krolik, Julian H.; Heckman, Timothy M.

    2009-09-01

    We present deep Gemini GMOS optical spectroscopy of nine luminous quasars at redshifts z ~ 0.5, drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey type 2 quasar sample. Our targets were selected to have high intrinsic luminosities (MV < -26 mag) as indicated by the [O III] λ5007 Å emission-line luminosity (L [O III]). Our sample has a median black hole mass of ~108.8 M sun inferred assuming the local M BH-σ* relation and a median Eddington ratio of ~0.7, using stellar velocity dispersions σ* measured from the G band. We estimate the contamination of the stellar continuum from scattered quasar light based on the strength of broad Hβ, and provide an empirical calibration of the contamination as a function of L [O III]; the scattered-light fraction is ~30% of L 5100 for objects with L [O III] = 109.5 L sun. Population synthesis indicates that young poststarburst populations (<0.1 Gyr) are prevalent in luminous type 2 quasars, in addition to a relatively old population (>1 Gyr) which dominates the stellar mass. Broad emission complexes around He II λ4686 Å with luminosities up to 108.3 L sun are unambiguously detected in three out of the nine targets, indicative of Wolf-Rayet (WR) populations. Population synthesis shows that ~5 Myr poststarburst populations contribute substantially to the luminosities (>50% of L 5100) of all three objects with WR detections. We find two objects with double cores and four with close companions. Our results may suggest that luminous type 2 quasars trace an early stage of galaxy interaction, perhaps responsible for both the quasar and the starburst activity. Based, in part, on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada

  4. New calibration and some predictions of the scaling relations between the mass of supermassive black holes and the properties of the host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, E.; Fallarino, M. T.; Feoli, A.

    2013-10-01

    We present a new determination of the slope and normalization of three popular scaling laws between the mass of supermassive black holes and stellar velocity dispersion, bulge mass and kinetic energy of the host galaxies. To this aim we have collected 72 objects taken from three different samples and we have used three fitting methods applying the statistical analysis also to the subset of early type galaxies and spirals separately. We find that the relation involving kinetic energy has a slightly better χ2 and linear correlation coefficient than the other two laws. Furthermore, its Hertzsprung-Russell-like behavior is confirmed by the location of young and old galaxies in two different parts of the diagram. A test of its predictive power with the two giant galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 shows that the mass of the black hole inferred using the kinetic energy law is the closest to the experimental value. The subset of early type galaxies satisfies the theoretical models regarding the black hole mass vs stellar velocity dispersion relation, better than the full sample. Tables 1 and 7 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. Discovery of 21 New Changing-look AGNs: Study on Evolution of AGNs and AGN Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qian; Wu, Xuebing; Fan, Xiaohui; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian; Shangguan, Jinyi; Yao, Su; Wang, Bingquan; Joshi, Ravi; Green, Richard F.; Wang, Feige; Feng, Xiaotong; Fu, Yuming; Yang, Jinyi; Liu, Yuanqi

    2018-01-01

    The rare case of changing-look (CL) AGNs, with the appearance or disappearance of broad Balmer emission lines within a few years, challenges our understanding of the AGN unified model. We present a sample of 21 new CL AGNs at 0.08 < z < 0.58. The new sample doubles the number of such objects known to date. These new CL AGNs were discovered by several ways, from repeat spectra in the SDSS, repeat spectra in the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) and SDSS, and from photometric variability and new spectroscopic observations. The estimated upper limits of transition timescale of the CL AGNs in this sample span from 0.9 to 13 years in rest-frame. The continuum flux in the optical and mid-infrared becomes brighter when the CL AGNs turn on, or vice versa. Variations of more than 0.2 mag in the mid-infrared W1 band, from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), were detected in 15 CL AGNs during the transition. The optical and mid-infrared variability is not consistent with the scenario of variable obscuration in 10 CL AGNs at higher than 3σ confidence level. We confirm a bluer-when-brighter trend in the optical. However, the mid-infrared colors W1‑W2 become redder when the objects become brighter in the W1 band, possibly due to a stronger hot dust contribution in the W2 band when the AGN activity becomes stronger. The physical mechanism of type transition is important for understanding the evolution of AGNs. The rare CL AGNs provide exceptional cases for the black hole and host stellar velocity dispersion relation studies at higher redshift. The faint state spectrum can be used to obtain the host stellar velocity dispersion without contamination from AGN component, and the bright state spectrum can be used to calculate the black hole mass with broad Balmer emission lines. The images at the non-AGN phase of CL AGNs are useful for studies of AGN host galaxies avoiding contamination from the luminous central engines.

  6. Gas inflow and outflow in an interacting high-redshift galaxy. The remarkable host environment of GRB 080810 at z = 3.35

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, P.; Perley, D. A.; Schady, P.; Prochaska, J. X.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Krühler, T.; Yates, R. M.; Greiner, J.

    2017-11-01

    We reveal multiple components of an interacting galaxy system at z ≈ 3.35 through a detailed analysis of the exquisite high-resolution Keck/HIRES spectrum of the afterglow of a gamma-ray burst (GRB). Through Voigt-profile fitting of absorption lines from the Lyman series, we constrain the neutral hydrogen column density to NH I ≤ 1018.35 cm-2 for the densest of four distinct systems at the host redshift of GRB 080810, which is among the lowest NH I ever observed in a GRB host, even though the line of sight passes within a projected 5 kpc of the galaxy centres. By detailed analysis of the corresponding metal absorption lines, we derive chemical, ionic, and kinematic properties of the individual absorbing systems, and thus build a picture of the host as a whole. Striking differences between the systems imply that the line of sight passes through several phases of gas: the star-forming regions of the GRB host; enriched material in the form of a galactic outflow; the hot and ionised halo of a second interacting galaxy falling towards the host at a line-of-sight velocity of 700 km s-1; and a cool metal-poor cloud that may represent one of the best candidates yet for the inflow of metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium. The reduced spectrum is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/607/A107

  7. The Compact, ˜1 kpc Host Galaxy of a Quasar at a Redshift of 7.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venemans, Bram P.; Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Bañados, Eduardo; Hodge, Jacqueline; Hewett, Paul; McMahon, Richard G.; Mortlock, Daniel J.; Simpson, Chris

    2017-03-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the [C II] fine-structure line and the underlying far-infrared (FIR) dust continuum emission in J1120+0641, the most distant quasar currently known (z=7.1). We also present observations targeting the CO(2-1), CO(7-6), and [C I] 369 μm lines in the same source obtained at the Very Large Array and Plateau de Bure Interferometer. We find a [C II] line flux of {F}[{{C}{{II}}]}=1.11+/- 0.10 Jy {km} {{{s}}}-1 and a continuum flux density of {S}227{GHz}=0.53+/- 0.04 mJy beam-1, consistent with previous unresolved measurements. No other source is detected in continuum or [C II] emission in the field covered by ALMA (˜ 25″). At the resolution of our ALMA observations (0.″23, or 1.2 kpc, a factor of ˜70 smaller beam area compared to previous measurements), we find that the majority of the emission is very compact: a high fraction (˜80%) of the total line and continuum flux is associated with a region 1-1.5 kpc in diameter. The remaining ˜20% of the emission is distributed over a larger area with radius ≲4 kpc. The [C II] emission does not exhibit ordered motion on kiloparsec scales: applying the virial theorem yields an upper limit on the dynamical mass of the host galaxy of (4.3+/- 0.9)× {10}10 {M}⊙ , only ˜20 × higher than the central black hole (BH). The other targeted lines (CO(2-1), CO(7-6), and [C I]) are not detected, but the limits of the line ratios with respect to the [C II] emission imply that the heating in the quasar host is dominated by star formation, and not by the accreting BH. The star formation rate (SFR) implied by the FIR continuum is 105-340 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1, with a resulting SFR surface density of ˜100-350 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1 kpc-2, well below the value for Eddington-accretion-limited star formation.

  8. SN 2010ay is a Luminous and Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova within a Low-metallicity Host Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Valenti, S.; Chomiuk, L.; Berger, E.; Smartt, S.; Hurley, K.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Chornock, R.; Foley, R. J.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and detailed follow-up of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova SN2010ay at z approx 0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3pi survey just approx 4 days after explosion. Combining our photometric observations with those available in the literature, we estimate the explosion date and the peak luminosity of the SN, M(sub R) approximately equals 20.2 mag, significantly brighter than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ibc ever discovered. We measure the photospheric expansion velocity of the explosion from our spectroscopic follow-up observations, v(sub ph) approximately equals 19.2 X 10 (exp 3) km/s at approx 40 days after explosion. In comparison with other broad-lined SNe, the characteristic velocity of SN2010ay is 2 - 5 X higher and similar to the measurements for GRB-SNe at comparable epochs. Moreover the velocity declines two times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of Ni-56, M(sub Ni) = 0.9(+0.1/-0.1) solar mass. Our modeling of the light-curve points to a total ejecta mass, M(sub ej) approx 4.7 Solar Mass, and total kinetic energy, E(sub K,51) approximately equals 11. Thus the ratio of M(sub Ni) to M(sub ej) is at least twice as large for SN2010ay than in GRB-SNe and may indicate an additional energy reservoir. We also measure the metallicity (log(O/H) + 12 = 8.19) of the explosion site within the host galaxy using a high S/N optical spectrum. Our abundance measurement places this SN in the low-metallicity regime populated by GRB-SNe, and approx 0.2(0.5) dex lower than that typically measured for the host environments of normal (broad-lined) Ic supernovae. Despite striking similarities to the recent GRB-SN100316D/2010bh, we show that gamma-ray observations rule out an associated GRB with E(sub gamma) approx < 6 X 10(exp 48) erg (25-150 keV). Similarly, our deep

  9. SN 2010ay Is a Luminous and Broad-Lined Type Ic Supernova Within a Low-Metallicity Host Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Valenti, S.; Foley, R. J.; Chornock, R.; Chomiuk, L.; Berger, E.; Smartt, S.; Hurley, K.; Barthelmy, S. D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and follow-up observations of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) 2010ay at z = 0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3pi survey just approximately 4 days after explosion. The supernova (SN) had a peak luminosity, MR approx. -20.2 mag, significantly more luminous than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ib/c ever discovered. The absorption velocity of SN 2010ay is v Si (is) approx. 19×10(exp 3) km s-1 at approximately 40 days after explosion, 2-5 times higher than other broad-lined SNe and similar to the GRB-SN 2010bh at comparable epochs. Moreover, the velocity declines approximately 2 times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of 56Ni, MNi = 0.9 solar mass. Applying scaling relations to the light curve, we estimate a total ejecta mass, Mej (is) approx. 4.7 solar mass, and total kinetic energy, EK (is) approx. 11 × 10(exp 51) erg. The ratio of MNi to Mej is approximately 2 times as large for SN 2010ay as typical GRB-SNe and may suggest an additional energy reservoir. The metallicity (log(O/H)PP04 + 12 = 8.19) of the explosion site within the host galaxy places SN 2010ay in the low-metallicity regime populated by GRB-SNe, and (is) approximately 0.5(0.2) dex lower than that typically measured for the host environments of normal (broad-lined) SNe Ic. We constrain any gamma-ray emission with E(gamma) (is) approximately less than 6 × 10(exp 48) erg (25-150 keV), and our deep radio follow-up observations with the Expanded Very Large Array rule out relativistic ejecta with energy E (is) approximately greater than 10(exp 48) erg. We therefore rule out the association of a relativistic outflow like those that accompanied SN 1998bw and traditional long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), but we place less-stringent constraints on a weak afterglow like that seen from XRF

  10. Discovery of a Giant Radio Halo in a New Planck Galaxy Cluster PLCKG171.9-40.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacintucci, Simona; Kale, Ruta; Wik, Daniel R.; Venturi, Tiziana; Markevitch, Maxim

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of a giant radio halo in a new, hot, X-ray luminous galaxy cluster recently found by Planck, PLCKG171.9-40.7. The radio halo was found using Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations at 235 MHz and 610 MHz, and in the 1.4 GHz data from a NRAO Very Large Array Sky Survey pointing that we have reanalyzed. The diffuse radio emission is coincident with the cluster X-ray emission, has an extent of approx.1 Mpc and a radio power of approx. 5×10(exp 24)W/Hz at 1.4 GHz. Its integrated radio spectrum has a slope of alpha approx. = 1.8 between 235 MHz and 1.4 GHz, steeper than that of a typical giant halo. The analysis of the archival XMMNewton X-ray data shows that the cluster is hot (approx. 10 keV) and disturbed, consistent with X-ray selected clusters hosting radio halos. This is the first giant radio halo discovered in one of the new clusters found by Planck.

  11. GOING THE DISTANCE: MAPPING HOST GALAXIES OF LIGO AND VIRGO SOURCES IN THREE DIMENSIONS USING LOCAL COSMOGRAPHY AND TARGETED FOLLOW-UP

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Leo P.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Gehrels, Neil

    2016-09-20

    The Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) discovered gravitational waves (GWs) from a binary black hole merger in 2015 September and may soon observe signals from neutron star mergers. There is considerable interest in searching for their faint and rapidly fading electromagnetic (EM) counterparts, though GW position uncertainties are as coarse as hundreds of square degrees. Because LIGO’s sensitivity to binary neutron stars is limited to the local universe, the area on the sky that must be searched could be reduced by weighting positions by mass, luminosity, or star formation in nearby galaxies. Since GW observations provide information about luminositymore » distance, combining the reconstructed volume with positions and redshifts of galaxies could reduce the area even more dramatically. A key missing ingredient has been a rapid GW parameter estimation algorithm that reconstructs the full distribution of sky location and distance. We demonstrate the first such algorithm, which takes under a minute, fast enough to enable immediate EM follow-up. By combining the three-dimensional posterior with a galaxy catalog, we can reduce the number of galaxies that could conceivably host the event by a factor of 1.4, the total exposure time for the Swift X-ray Telescope by a factor of 2, the total exposure time for a synoptic optical survey by a factor of 2, and the total exposure time for a narrow-field optical telescope by a factor of 3. This encourages us to suggest a new role for small field of view optical instruments in performing targeted searches of the most massive galaxies within the reconstructed volumes.« less

  12. Going the Distance: Mapping Host Galaxies of LIGO and VIRGO Sources in Three Dimensions using Local Cosmography and Targeted Follow-Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Leo P.; Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel E.; Farr, Will M.; Price, Larry R.; Raymond, Vivien; Cenko, S. Bradley; Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) discovered gravitational waves (GWs) from a binary black hole merger in 2015 September and may soon observe signals from neutron star mergers. There is considerable interest in searching for their faint and rapidly fading electromagnetic (EM) counterparts, though GW position uncertainties are as coarse as hundreds of square degrees. Because LIGO's sensitivity to binary neutron stars is limited to the local universe, the area on the sky that must be searched could be reduced by weighting positions by mass, luminosity, or star formation in nearby galaxies. Since GW observations provide information about luminosity distance, combining the reconstructed volume with positions and redshifts of galaxies could reduce the area even more dramatically. A key missing ingredient has been a rapid GW parameter estimation algorithm that reconstructs the full distribution of sky location and distance. We demonstrate the first such algorithm, which takes under a minute, fast enough to enable immediate EM follow-up. By combining the three-dimensional posterior with a galaxy catalog, we can reduce the number of galaxies that could conceivably host the event by a factor of 1.4, the total exposure time for the Swift X-ray Telescope by a factor of 2, the total exposure time for a synoptic optical survey by a factor of 2, and the total exposure time for a narrow-field optical telescope by a factor of 3. This encourages us to suggest a new role for small field of view optical instruments in performing targeted searches of the most massive galaxies within the reconstructed volumes.

  13. A Population of Faint Extended Line Emitters and the Host Galaxies of Optically Thick QSO Absorption Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, Michael; Haehnelt, Martin; Bunker, Andrew; Becker, George; Marleau, Francine; Graham, James; Cristiani, Stefano; Jarvis, Matt; Lacey, Cedric; Morris, Simon; Peroux, Celine; Röttgering, Huub; Theuns, Tom

    2008-07-01

    We have conducted a long-slit search for low surface brightness Lyα emitters at redshift 2.67 < z < 3.75. A 92 hr long exposure with the ESO VLT FORS2 instrument down to a 1 σ surface brightness detection limit of 8 × 10-20 erg cm-2 s-1 arcsec-2 per arcsec2 aperture yielded a sample of 27 single line emitters with fluxes of a few × 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2. We present arguments that most objects are indeed Lyα. The large comoving number density, 3 × 10-2 h370 Mpc-3, the large covering factor, dN/dz ~ 0.2-1, and the often extended Lyα emission suggest that the emitters can be identified with the elusive host population of damped Lyα systems (DLAS) and high column density Lyman limit systems (LLS). A small inferred star formation rate, perhaps supplemented by cooling radiation, appears to energetically dominate the Lyα emission, and is consistent with the low metallicity, low dust content, and theoretically inferred low masses of DLAS, and with the relative lack of success of earlier searches for their optical counterparts. Some of the line profiles show evidence for radiative transfer in galactic outflows. Stacking surface brightness profiles, we find emission out to at least 4''. The centrally concentrated emission of most objects appears to light up the outskirts of the emitters (where LLS arise) down to a column density where the conversion from UV to Lyα photon becomes inefficient. DLAS, high column density LLS, and the emitter population discovered in this survey appear to be different observational manifestations of the same low-mass, protogalactic building blocks of present-day L* galaxies. Based partly on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatories under Program ID LP173.A-0440, and partly on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science

  14. Subaru High-z Exploration of Low-Luminosity Quasars (SHELLQs). III. Star formation properties of the host galaxies at z ≳ 6 studied with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Takuma; Onoue, Masafusa; Shirakata, Hikari; Nagao, Tohru; Kohno, Kotaro; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Strauss, Michael A.; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Schulze, Andreas; Silverman, John D.; Fujimoto, Seiji; Harikane, Yuichi; Toba, Yoshiki; Umehata, Hideki; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Greene, Jenny E.; Tamura, Yoichi; Taniguchi, Akio; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Goto, Tomotsugu; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Ikarashi, Soh; Iono, Daisuke; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Makiya, Ryu; Minezaki, Takeo; Tang, Ji-Jia

    2018-04-01

    We present our ALMA Cycle 4 measurements of the [C II] emission line and the underlying far-infrared (FIR) continuum emission from four optically low-luminosity (M1450 > -25) quasars at z ≳ 6 discovered by the Subaru Hyper Suprime Cam (HSC) survey. The [C II] line and FIR continuum luminosities lie in the ranges L_[C II] = (3.8-10.2)× 108 L_{⊙} and LFIR = (1.2-2.0) × 1011 L_{⊙}, which are at least one order of magnitude smaller than those of optically-luminous quasars at z ≳ 6. We estimate the star formation rates (SFRs) of our targets as ≃ 23-40 M_{⊙} yr-1. Their line and continuum-emitting regions are marginally resolved, and found to be comparable in size to those of optically-luminous quasars, indicating that their SFR or likely gas mass surface densities (key controlling parameter of mass accretion) are accordingly different. The L_[C II]/L_FIR ratios of the hosts, ≃ (2.2-8.7) × 10-3, are fully consistent with local star-forming galaxies. Using the [C II] dynamics, we derived their dynamical masses within a radius of 1.5-2.5 kpc as ≃ (1.4-8.2) × 1010 M_{⊙}. By interpreting these masses as stellar ones, we suggest that these faint quasar hosts are on or even below the star-forming main sequence at z ˜ 6, i.e., they appear to be transforming into quiescent galaxies. This is in contrast to the optically-luminous quasars at those redshifts, which show starburst-like properties. Finally, we find that the ratios of black hole mass to host galaxy dynamical mass of most of the low-luminosity quasars, including the HSC ones, are consistent with the local value. The mass ratios of the HSC quasars can be reproduced by a semi-analytical model that assumes merger-induced black hole host galaxy evolution.

  15. Subaru High-z Exploration of Low-Luminosity Quasars (SHELLQs). III. Star formation properties of the host galaxies at z ≳ 6 studied with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Takuma; Onoue, Masafusa; Shirakata, Hikari; Nagao, Tohru; Kohno, Kotaro; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Strauss, Michael A.; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Schulze, Andreas; Silverman, John D.; Fujimoto, Seiji; Harikane, Yuichi; Toba, Yoshiki; Umehata, Hideki; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Greene, Jenny E.; Tamura, Yoichi; Taniguchi, Akio; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Goto, Tomotsugu; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Ikarashi, Soh; Iono, Daisuke; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Makiya, Ryu; Minezaki, Takeo; Tang, Ji-Jia

    2018-06-01

    We present our ALMA Cycle 4 measurements of the [C II] emission line and the underlying far-infrared (FIR) continuum emission from four optically low-luminosity (M1450 > -25) quasars at z ≳ 6 discovered by the Subaru Hyper Suprime Cam (HSC) survey. The [C II] line and FIR continuum luminosities lie in the ranges L_[C II] = (3.8-10.2)× 108 L_{⊙} and LFIR = (1.2-2.0) × 1011 L_{⊙}, which are at least one order of magnitude smaller than those of optically-luminous quasars at z ≳ 6. We estimate the star formation rates (SFRs) of our targets as ≃ 23-40 M_{⊙} yr-1. Their line and continuum-emitting regions are marginally resolved, and found to be comparable in size to those of optically-luminous quasars, indicating that their SFR or likely gas mass surface densities (key controlling parameter of mass accretion) are accordingly different. The L_[C II}]}/L_FIR ratios of the hosts, ≃ (2.2-8.7) × 10-3, are fully consistent with local star-forming galaxies. Using the [C II] dynamics, we derived their dynamical masses within a radius of 1.5-2.5 kpc as ≃ (1.4-8.2) × 1010 M_{⊙}. By interpreting these masses as stellar ones, we suggest that these faint quasar hosts are on or even below the star-forming main sequence at z ˜ 6, i.e., they appear to be transforming into quiescent galaxies. This is in contrast to the optically-luminous quasars at those redshifts, which show starburst-like properties. Finally, we find that the ratios of black hole mass to host galaxy dynamical mass of most of the low-luminosity quasars, including the HSC ones, are consistent with the local value. The mass ratios of the HSC quasars can be reproduced by a semi-analytical model that assumes merger-induced black hole host galaxy evolution.

  16. Mid-Infrared Properties of OH Megamaser Host Galaxies. I. Spitzer IRS Low- and High-Resolution Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Kyle W.; Darling, Jeremy; Spoon, Henrik W. W.; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Armus, Lee

    2011-03-01

    We present mid-infrared spectra and photometry from the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope for 51 OH megamasers (OHMs), along with 15 galaxies confirmed to have no megamaser emission above L OH = 102.3 L sun. The majority of galaxies display moderate-to-deep 9.7 μm amorphous silicate absorption, with OHM galaxies showing stronger average absorption and steeper 20-30 μm continuum emission than non-masing galaxies. Emission from multiple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially at 6.2, 7.7, and 11.3 μm, is detected in almost all systems. Fine-structure atomic emission (including [Ne II], [Ne III], [S III], and [S IV]) and multiple H2 rotational transitions are observed in more than 90% of the sample. A subset of galaxies show emission from rarer atomic lines, such as [Ne V], [O IV], and [Fe II]. Fifty percent of the OHMs show absorption from water ice and hydrogenated amorphous carbon grains, while absorption features from CO2, HCN, C2H2, and crystalline silicates are also seen in several OHMs. Column densities of OH derived from 34.6 μm OH absorption are similar to those derived from 1667 MHz OH absorption in non-masing galaxies, indicating that the abundance of masing molecules is similar for both samples. This data paper presents full mid-infrared spectra for each galaxy, along with measurements of line fluxes and equivalent widths, absorption feature depths, and spectral indices.

  17. Redshift determination of the BL Lac object 3C 66A by the detection of its host galaxy cluster at z = 0.340

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Zafra, Juanita; Cellone, Sergio A.; Buzzoni, Alberto; Andruchow, Ileana; Portilla, José G.

    2018-03-01

    The BL Lac object 3C 66A is one of the most luminous extragalactic sources at TeV γ-rays (very high energy, i.e. E > 100 GeV). Since TeV γ-ray radiation is absorbed by the extragalactic background light (EBL), it is crucial to know the redshift of the source in order to reconstruct its original spectral energy distribution, as well as to constrain EBL models. However, the optical spectrum of this BL Lac is almost featureless, so a direct measurement of z is very difficult; in fact, the published redshift value for this source (z = 0.444) has been strongly questioned. Based on EBL absorption arguments, several constraints to its redshift, in the range 0.096 < z < 0.5, were proposed. Since these active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are hosted, typically, in early-type galaxies that are members of groups or clusters, we have analysed spectro-photometrically the environment of 3C 66A, with the goal of finding the galaxy group hosting this blazar. This study was made using optical images of a 5.5 × 5.5 arcmin2 field centred on the blazar, and spectra of 24 sources obtained with Gemini/GMOS-N multi-object spectroscopy. We found spectroscopic evidence of two galaxy groups along the blazar's line of sight: one at z ≃ 0.020 and the second one at z ≃ 0.340. The first one is consistent with a known foreground structure, while the second group presented here has six spectroscopically confirmed members. Their location along a red sequence in the colour-magnitude diagram allows us to identify 34 additional candidate members of the more distant group. The blazar's spectrum shows broad absorption features that we identify as arising in the intergalactic medium, thus allowing us to tentatively set a redshift lower limit at z_3C66A ≳ 0.33. As a consequence, we propose that 3C 66A is hosted in a galaxy that belongs to a cluster at z = 0.340.

  18. Hα Intensity Map of the Repeating Fast Radio Burst FRB 121102 Host Galaxy from Subaru/Kyoto 3DII AO-assisted Optical Integral-field Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokubo, Mitsuru; Mitsuda, Kazuma; Sugai, Hajime; Ozaki, Shinobu; Minowa, Yosuke; Hattori, Takashi; Hayano, Yutaka; Matsubayashi, Kazuya; Shimono, Atsushi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Doi, Mamoru

    2017-08-01

    We present the Hα intensity map of the host galaxy of the repeating fast radio burst FRB 121102 at a redshift of z = 0.193 obtained with the AO-assisted Kyoto 3DII optical integral-field unit mounted on the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope. We detected a compact Hα-emitting (I.e., star-forming) region in the galaxy, which has a much smaller angular size (< 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 57 (1.9 kpc) at full width at half maximum (FWHM)) than the extended stellar continuum emission region determined by the Gemini/GMOS z\\prime -band image (≃ 1\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 4 (4.6 kpc) at FWHM with ellipticity b/a=0.45). The spatial offset between the centroid of the Hα emission region and the position of the radio bursts is 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 08+/- 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 02 (0.26 ± 0.07 kpc), indicating that FRB 121102 is located within the star-forming region. This close spatial association of FRB 121102 with the star-forming region is consistent with expectations from young pulsar/magnetar models for FRB 121102, and it also suggests that the observed Hα emission region can make a major dispersion measure (DM) contribution to the host galaxy DM component of FRB 121102. Nevertheless, the largest possible value of the DM contribution from the Hα emission region inferred from our observations still requires a significant amount of ionized baryons in intergalactic medium (IGM; the so-called “missing” baryons) as the DM source of FRB 121102, and we obtain a 90% confidence level lower limit on the cosmic baryon density in the IGM in the low-redshift universe as {{{Ω }}}{IGM}> 0.012. Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  19. A Massive Molecular Gas Reservoir in the Z = 2.221 Type-2 Quasar Host Galaxy SMM J0939+8315 Lensed by the Radio Galaxy 3C220.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, T. K. Daisy; Riechers, Dominik A.

    2016-02-01

    We report the detection of CO(J = 3 \\to 2) line emission in the strongly lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) SMM J0939+8315 at z = 2.221, using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. SMM J0939+8315 hosts a type-2 quasar, and is gravitationally lensed by the radio galaxy 3C220.3 and its companion galaxy at z = 0.685. The 104 GHz continuum emission underlying the CO line is detected toward 3C220.3 with an integrated flux density of Scont = 7.4 ± 1.4 mJy. Using the CO(J = 3 \\to 2) line intensity of ICO(3-2) = (12.6 ± 2.0) Jy km s-1, we derive a lensing- and excitation-corrected CO line luminosity of {L}{{CO(1-0)}}\\prime = (3.4 ± 0.7) × 1010 (10.1/μL) K km s-1 pc2 for the SMG, where μL is the lensing magnification factor inferred from our lens modeling. This translates to a molecular gas mass of Mgas = (2.7 ± 0.6) × 1010 (10.1/μL) M⊙. Fitting spectral energy distribution models to the (sub)-millimeter data of this SMG yields a dust temperature of T = 63.1{}-1.3+1.1 K, a dust mass of Mdust = (5.2 ± 2.1) × 108 (10.1/μL) M⊙, and a total infrared luminosity of LIR = (9.1 ± 1.2) ×1012 (10.1/μL) L⊙. We find that the properties of the interstellar medium of SMM J0939+8315 overlap with both SMGs and type-2 quasars. Hence, SMM J0939+8315 may be transitioning from a starbursting phase to an unobscured quasar phase as described by the “evolutionary link” model, according to which this system may represent an intermediate stage in the evolution of present-day galaxies at an earlier epoch.

  20. Cosmic dance at z 3: Detecting the host galaxies of the dual AGN system LBQS 0302-0019 and Jil with HAWK-I+GRAAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husemann, B.; Bielby, R.; Jahnke, K.; Arrigoni-Battaia, F.; Worseck, G.; Shanks, T.; Wardlow, J.; Scholtz, J.

    2018-06-01

    We recently discovered that the luminous radio-quiet quasi-stellar objects (QSO) LBQS 0302-0019 at z = 3.286 is likely accompanied by an obscured AGN at 20 kpc projected distance, which we dubbed Jil. It represents the tightest candidate system of an obscured and unobscured dual AGN at z > 3. To verify the dual AGN scenario, we obtained deep Ks band (rest-frame V band) imaging with the VLT/HAWK-I+GRAAL instrument at 0.″4 resolution during science verification in January 2018. We detect the individual host galaxies of the QSO and Jil with estimated stellar masses of log(M⋆/M⊙) = 11.4 ± 0.5 and log(M⋆/M⊙) = 0.9 ± 0.5, respectively. Near-IR spectra obtained with Very Large Telescope-K-band Multi Object Spectrograph (VLT-KMOS) reveal a clear [O III] λ5007 line detection at the location of Jil that does not contribute significantly to the Ks band flux. Both observations therefore corroborate the dual AGN scenario. A comparison to Illustris simulations suggests a parent halo mass of log(Mhalo/M⊙) = 13.2 ± 0.5 for this interacting galaxy system, corresponding to a massive dark matter halo at that epoch. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programme(s) 60.A-9471(A) and 100.A-0134(B).

  1. The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. VII. Properties of the Host Galaxy and Constraints on the Merger Timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, P. K.; Berger, E.; Fong, W.; Nicholl, M.; Leja, J.; Conroy, C.; Alexander, K. D.; Margutti, R.; Williams, P. K. G.; Doctor, Z.; Chornock, R.; Villar, V. A.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Annis, J.; Brout, D.; Brown, D. A.; Chen, H.-Y.; Eftekhari, T.; Frieman, J. A.; Holz, D. E.; Metzger, B. D.; Rest, A.; Sako, M.; Soares-Santos, M.

    2017-10-01

    We present the properties of NGC 4993, the host galaxy of GW170817, the first gravitational-wave (GW) event from the merger of a binary neutron star (BNS) system and the first with an electromagnetic (EM) counterpart. We use both archival photometry and new optical/near-IR imaging and spectroscopy, together with stellar population synthesis models to infer the global properties of the host galaxy. We infer a star formation history peaked at ≳ 10 {Gyr} ago, with subsequent exponential decline leading to a low current star formation rate of 0.01 {M}⊙ yr-1, which we convert into a binary merger timescale probability distribution. We find a median merger timescale of {11.2}-1.4+0.7 Gyr, with a 90% confidence range of 6.8{--}13.6 {Gyr}. This in turn indicates an initial binary separation of ≈ 4.5 {R}⊙ , comparable to the inferred values for Galactic BNS systems. We also use new and archival Hubble Space Telescope images to measure a projected offset of the optical counterpart of 2.1 kpc (0.64r e ) from the center of NGC 4993 and to place a limit of {M}r≳ -7.2 mag on any pre-existing emission, which rules out the brighter half of the globular cluster luminosity function. Finally, the age and offset of the system indicates it experienced a modest natal kick with an upper limit of ˜200 km s-1. Future GW-EM observations of BNS mergers will enable measurement of their population delay time distribution, which will directly inform their viability as the dominant source of r-process enrichment in the universe.

  2. The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. VII. Properties of the Host Galaxy and Constraints on the Merger Timescale

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, P. K.; Berger, E.; Fong, W.

    We present the properties of NGC 4993, the host galaxy of GW170817, the first gravitational wave (GW) event from the merger of a binary neutron star (BNS) system and the first with an electromagnetic (EM) counterpart. We use both archival photometry and new optical/near-IR imaging and spectroscopy, together with stellar population synthesis models to infer the global properties of the host galaxy. We infer a star formation history peaked atmore » $$\\gtrsim 10$$ Gyr ago, with subsequent exponential decline leading to a low current star formation rate of 0.01 M$$_{\\odot}$$ yr$$^{-1}$$, which we convert into a binary merger timescale probability distribution. We find a median merger timescale of $$11.2^{+0.7}_{-1.4}$$ Gyr, with a 90% confidence range of $6.8-13.6$ Gyr. This in turn indicates an initial binary separation of $$\\approx 4.5$$ R$$_{\\odot}$$, comparable to the inferred values for Galactic BNS systems. We also use new and archival $Hubble$ $Space$ $Telescope$ images to measure a projected offset of the optical counterpart of $2.1$ kpc (0.64$$r_{e}$$) from the center of NGC 4993 and to place a limit of $$M_{r} \\gtrsim -7.2$$ mag on any pre-existing emission, which rules out the brighter half of the globular cluster luminosity function. Finally, the age and offset of the system indicates it experienced a modest natal kick with an upper limit of $$\\sim 200$$ km s$$^{-1}$$. Future GW$-$EM observations of BNS mergers will enable measurement of their population delay time distribution, which will directly inform their viability as the dominant source of $r$-process enrichment in the Universe.« less

  3. The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. VII. Properties of the Host Galaxy and Constraints on the Merger Timescale

    DOE PAGES

    Blanchard, P. K.; Berger, E.; Fong, W.; ...

    2017-10-16

    We present the properties of NGC 4993, the host galaxy of GW170817, the first gravitational wave (GW) event from the merger of a binary neutron star (BNS) system and the first with an electromagnetic (EM) counterpart. We use both archival photometry and new optical/near-IR imaging and spectroscopy, together with stellar population synthesis models to infer the global properties of the host galaxy. We infer a star formation history peaked atmore » $$\\gtrsim 10$$ Gyr ago, with subsequent exponential decline leading to a low current star formation rate of 0.01 M$$_{\\odot}$$ yr$$^{-1}$$, which we convert into a binary merger timescale probability distribution. We find a median merger timescale of $$11.2^{+0.7}_{-1.4}$$ Gyr, with a 90% confidence range of $6.8-13.6$ Gyr. This in turn indicates an initial binary separation of $$\\approx 4.5$$ R$$_{\\odot}$$, comparable to the inferred values for Galactic BNS systems. We also use new and archival $Hubble$ $Space$ $Telescope$ images to measure a projected offset of the optical counterpart of $2.1$ kpc (0.64$$r_{e}$$) from the center of NGC 4993 and to place a limit of $$M_{r} \\gtrsim -7.2$$ mag on any pre-existing emission, which rules out the brighter half of the globular cluster luminosity function. Finally, the age and offset of the system indicates it experienced a modest natal kick with an upper limit of $$\\sim 200$$ km s$$^{-1}$$. Future GW$-$EM observations of BNS mergers will enable measurement of their population delay time distribution, which will directly inform their viability as the dominant source of $r$-process enrichment in the Universe.« less

  4. The column density distribution of hard X-ray radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panessa, F.; Bassani, L.; Landi, R.; Bazzano, A.; Dallacasa, D.; La Franca, F.; Malizia, A.; Venturi, T.; Ubertini, P.

    2016-09-01

    In order to investigate the role of absorption in active galactic nuclei (AGN) with jets, we have studied the column density distribution of a hard X-ray selected sample of radio galaxies, derived from the INTEGRAL/Imager on Board the Integral Satellite (IBIS) and Swift/The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) AGN catalogues (˜7-10 per cent of the total AGN population). The 64 radio galaxies have a typical FR II radio morphology and are characterized by high 20-100 keV luminosities (from 1042 to 1046 erg s-1) and high Eddington ratios (log LBol/LEdd typically larger than ˜0.01). The observed fraction of absorbed AGN (NH > 1022 cm-2) is around 40 per cent among the total sample, and ˜75 per cent among type 2 AGN. The majority of obscured AGN are narrow-line objects, while unobscured AGN are broad-line objects, obeying to the zeroth-order predictions of unified models. A significant anti-correlation between the radio core dominance parameter and the X-ray column density is found. The observed fraction of Compton thick AGN is ˜2-3 per cent, in comparison with the 5-7 per cent found in radio-quiet hard X-ray selected AGN. We have estimated the absorption and Compton thick fractions in a hard X-ray sample containing both radio galaxies and non-radio galaxies and therefore affected by the same selection biases. No statistical significant difference was found in the absorption properties of radio galaxies and non-radio galaxies sample. In particular, the Compton thick objects are likely missing in both samples and the fraction of obscured radio galaxies appears to decrease with luminosity as observed in hard X-ray non-radio galaxies.

  5. WINGS-SPE. III. Equivalent width measurements, spectral properties, and evolution of local cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, J.; Poggianti, B. M.; Cava, A.; Moretti, A.; Varela, J.; Bettoni, D.; Couch, W. J.; D'Onofrio D'Onofrio, M.; Dressler, A.; Fasano, G.; Kjærgaard, P.; Marziani, P.; Moles, M.; Omizzolo, A.

    2014-06-01

    Context. Cluster galaxies are the ideal sites to look at when studying the influence of the environment on the various aspects of the evolution of galaxies, such as the changes in their stellar content and morphological transformations. In the framework of wings, the WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey, we have obtained optical spectra for ~6000 galaxies selected in fields centred on 48 local (0.04 < z < 0.07) X-ray selected clusters to tackle these issues. Aims: By classifying the spectra based on given spectral lines, we investigate the frequency of the various spectral types as a function of both the clusters' properties and the galaxies' characteristics. In this way, using the same classification criteria adopted for studies at higher redshift, we can consistently compare the properties of the local cluster population to those of their more distant counterparts. Methods: We describe a method that we have developed to automatically measure the equivalent width of spectral lines in a robust way, even in spectra with a non optimal signal-to-noise ratio. This way, we can derive a spectral classification reflecting the stellar content, based on the presence and strength of the [Oii] and Hδ lines. Results: After a quality check, we are able to measure 4381 of the ~6000 originally observed spectra in the fields of 48 clusters, of which 2744 are spectroscopically confirmed cluster members. The spectral classification is then analysed as a function of galaxies' luminosity, stellar mass, morphology, local density, and host cluster's global properties and compared to higher redshift samples (MORPHS and EDisCS). The vast majority of galaxies in the local clusters population are passive objects, being also the most luminous and massive. At a magnitude limit of MV < -18, galaxies in a post-starburst phase represent only ~11% of the cluster population, and this fraction is reduced to ~5% at MV < -19.5, which compares to the 18% at the same magnitude limit for high

  6. Studies of the evolution of the x ray emission of clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, J. Patrick

    1990-01-01

    The x ray luminosity function of clusters of galaxies was determined at different cosmic epoches using data from the Einstein Observatory Extended Medium Survey. The sample consisted of 67 x ray selected clusters that were grouped into three redshift shells. Evolution was detected in the x ray properties of clusters. The present volume density of high luminosity clusters was found to be greater than it was in the past. This result is the first convincing evidence for evolution in the x ray properties of clusters. Investigations into the constraints provided by these data on various Cold Dark Matter models are underway.

  7. Theoretical Re-evaluations of Scaling Relations between SMBHs and Their Host Galaxies - 2. Importance of AGN Feedback Suggested by Stellar Age - Velocity Dispersion Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirakata, Hikari; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Okamoto, Takashi; Ishiyama, Tomoaki

    2017-09-01

    We present the galactic stellar age - velocity dispersion relation obtained from a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. We divide galaxies into two populations: galaxies which have over-massive/under-massive black holes (BHs) against the best-fitting BH mass - velocity dispersion relation. We find that galaxies with larger velocity dispersion have older stellar ages. We also find that galaxies with over-massive BHs have older stellar ages. These results are consistent with observational results obtained from Martin-Navarro et al. (2016). We tested the model with weak AGN feedback and find that galaxies with larger velocity dispersion have a younger stellar age.

  8. Polar ring galaxies in the Galaxy Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelman, Ido; Funes, José G.; Brosch, Noah

    2012-05-01

    We report observations of 16 candidate polar-ring galaxies (PRGs) identified by the Galaxy Zoo project in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data base. Deep images of five galaxies are available in the SDSS Stripe82 data base, while to reach similar depth we observed the remaining galaxies with the 1.8-m Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope. We derive integrated magnitudes and u-r colours for the host and ring components and show continuum-subtracted Hα+[N II] images for seven objects. We present a basic morphological and environmental analysis of the galaxies and discuss their properties in comparison with other types of early-type galaxies. Follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations will allow a kinematic confirmation of the nature of these systems and a more detailed analysis of their stellar populations.

  9. THE STELLAR AGES AND MASSES OF SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURST HOST GALAXIES: INVESTIGATING THE PROGENITOR DELAY TIME DISTRIBUTION AND THE ROLE OF MASS AND STAR FORMATION IN THE SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURST RATE

    SciTech Connect

    Leibler, C. N.; Berger, E.

    2010-12-10

    We present multi-band optical and near-infrared observations of 19 short {gamma}-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies, aimed at measuring their stellar masses and population ages. The goals of this study are to evaluate whether short GRBs track the stellar mass distribution of galaxies, to investigate the progenitor delay time distribution, and to explore any connection between long and short GRB progenitors. Using single stellar population models we infer masses of log(M{sub *}/M{sub sun}) {approx} 8.8-11.6, with a median of (log(M{sub *}/M{sub sun})) {approx} 10.1, and population ages of {tau}{sub *} {approx} 0.03-4.4 Gyr with a median of ({tau}{sub *}) {approx} 0.3more » Gyr. We further infer maximal masses of log(M{sub *}/M{sub sun}) {approx} 9.7-11.9 by assuming stellar population ages equal to the age of the universe at each host's redshift. Comparing the distribution of stellar masses to the general galaxy mass function, we find that short GRBs track the cosmic stellar mass distribution only if the late-type hosts generally have maximal masses. However, there is an apparent dearth of early-type hosts compared to the equal contribution of early- and late-type galaxies to the cosmic stellar mass budget. Similarly, the short GRB rate per unit old stellar mass appears to be elevated in the late-type hosts. These results suggest that stellar mass may not be the sole parameter controlling the short GRB rate, and raise the possibility of a two-component model with both mass and star formation playing a role (reminiscent of the case for Type Ia supernovae). If short GRBs in late-type galaxies indeed track the star formation activity, the resulting typical delay time is {approx}0.2 Gyr, while those in early-type hosts have a typical delay of {approx}3 Gyr. Using the same stellar population models, we fit the broadband photometry for 22 long GRB host galaxies in a similar redshift range and find that they have significantly lower masses and younger population ages, with

  10. ALMA INVESTIGATION OF VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC EMISSION LINES IN THE AGN-HOSTING ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY IRAS 20551−4250

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Izumi, Takuma, E-mail: masa.imanishi@nao.ac.jp

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of ALMA Cycle 2 observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy IRAS 20551−4250 at HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 3–2 lines at both vibrational ground ( v = 0) and vibrationally excited ( v {sub 2} = 1) levels. This galaxy contains a luminous buried active galactic nucleus (AGN), in addition to starburst activity, and our ALMA Cycle 0 data revealed a tentatively detected vibrationally excited HCN v {sub 2} = 1f J = 4–3 emission line. In our ALMA Cycle 2 data, the HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 3–2 emission lines at v = 0 are clearly detected.more » The HCN and HNC v {sub 2} = 1f J = 3–2 emission lines are also detected, but the HCO{sup +} v {sub 2} = 1f J = 3–2 emission line is not. Given the high energy level of v {sub 2} = 1 and the resulting difficulty of collisional excitation, we compared these results with those of the calculation of infrared radiative pumping, using the available infrared 5–35 μ m spectrum. We found that all of the observational results were reproduced if the HCN abundance was significantly higher than that of HCO{sup +} and HNC. The flux ratio and excitation temperature between v {sub 2} = 1f and v = 0, after correction for possible line opacity, suggests that infrared radiative pumping affects rotational ( J -level) excitation at v = 0 at least for HCN and HNC. The HCN-to-HCO{sup +} v = 0 flux ratio is higher than those of starburst-dominated regions, and will increase even more when the derived high HCN opacity is corrected. The enhanced HCN-to-HCO{sup +} flux ratio in this AGN-hosting galaxy can be explained by the high HCN-to-HCO{sup +} abundance ratio and sufficient HCN excitation at up to J = 4, rather than the significantly higher efficiency of infrared radiative pumping for HCN than HCO{sup +}.« less

  11. Impact of seeing and host galaxy into the analysis of photo-polarimetric microvariability in blazars. Case study of the nearby blazars 1ES 1959+650 and HB89 2201+044

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa, M. S.; von Essen, C.; Andruchow, I.; Cellone, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    Blazars, a type of Active Galactic Nuclei, present a particular orientation of their jets close to the line of sight. Their radiation is thus relativistically beamed, giving rise to extreme behaviors, specially strong variability on very short timescales (I.e., microvariability). Here we present simultaneous photometric and polarimetric observations of two relatively nearby blazars, 1ES 1959+650 and HB89 2201+044, that were obtained using the Calar Alto Faint Object Spectrograph mounted at the 2.2 m telescope in Calar Alto, Spain. An outstanding characteristic of these two blazars is the presence of well resolved host galaxies. This particular feature allows us to produce a study of their intrinsic polarization, a measurement of the polarization state of the galactic nucleus unaffected by the host galaxy. To carry out this work, we computed photometric fluxes from which we calculated the degree and orientation of the blazars polarization. Then, we analyzed the depolarizing effect introduced by the host galaxy with the main goal to recover the intrinsic polarization of the galactic nucleus, carefully taking into consideration the spurious polarimetric variability introduced by changes in seeing along the observing nights. We find that the two blazars do not present intra-night photo-polarimetric variability, although we do detect a significant inter-night variability. Comparing polarimetric values before and after accounting for the host galaxies, we observe a significant difference in the polarization degree of about 1% in the case of 1ES 1959+650, and 0.3% in the case of HB89 2201+044, thus evidencing the non-negligible impact introduced by the host galaxies. We note that this host galaxy effect depends on the waveband, and varies with changing seeing conditions, so it should be particularly considered when studying frequency-dependent polarization in blazars. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated

  12. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Extended [O III]λ 5007 Emission in Nearby QSO2s: New Constraints on AGN Host Galaxy Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Travis C.; Kraemer, S. B.; Schmitt, H. R.; Longo Micchi, L. F.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Revalski, M.; Vestergaard, M.; Elvis, M.; Gaskell, C. M.; Hamann, F.; Ho, L. C.; Hutchings, J.; Mushotzky, R.; Netzer, H.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Straughn, A.; Turner, T. J.; Ward, M. J.

    2018-04-01

    We present a Hubble Space Telescope survey of extended [O III] λ5007 emission for a sample of 12 nearby (z < 0.12), luminous Type 2 quasars (QSO2s), which we use to measure the extent and kinematics of their AGN-ionized gas. We find that the size of the observed [O III] regions scale with luminosity in comparison to nearby, less luminous Seyfert galaxies and radially outflowing kinematics to exist in all targets. We report an average maximum outflow radius of ∼600 pc, with gas continuing to be kinematically influenced by the central active galactic nucleus (AGN) out to an average radius of ∼1130 pc. These findings question the effectiveness of AGNs being capable of clearing material from their host bulge in the nearby universe and suggest that disruption of gas by AGN activity may prevent star formation without requiring evacuation. Additionally, we find a dichotomy in our targets when comparing [O III] radial extent and nuclear FWHM, where QSO2s with compact [O III] morphologies typically possess broader nuclear emission lines.

  13. SUPPLEMENT: “GOING THE DISTANCE: MAPPING HOST GALAXIES OF LIGO AND VIRGO SOURCES IN THREE DIMENSIONS USING LOCAL COSMOGRAPHY AND TARGETED FOLLOW-UP” (2016, ApJL, 829, L15)

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Leo P.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Gehrels, Neil

    This is a supplement to the Letter of Singer et al., in which we demonstrated a rapid algorithm for obtaining joint 3D estimates of sky location and luminosity distance from observations of binary neutron star mergers with Advanced LIGO and Virgo. We argued that combining the reconstructed volumes with positions and redshifts of possible host galaxies can provide large-aperture but small field of view instruments with a manageable list of targets to search for optical or infrared emission. In this Supplement, we document the new HEALPix-based file format for 3D localizations of gravitational-wave transients. We include Python sample code tomore » show the reader how to perform simple manipulations of the 3D sky maps and extract ranked lists of likely host galaxies. Finally, we include mathematical details of the rapid volume reconstruction algorithm.« less

  14. Matching Supernovae to Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    One of the major challenges for modern supernova surveys is identifying the galaxy that hosted each explosion. Is there an accurate and efficient way to do this that avoids investing significant human resources?Why Identify Hosts?One problem in host galaxy identification. Here, the supernova lies between two galaxies but though the centroid of the galaxy on the right is closer in angular separation, this may be a distant background galaxy that is not actually near the supernova. [Gupta et al. 2016]Supernovae are a critical tool for making cosmological predictions that help us to understand our universe. But supernova cosmology relies on accurately identifying the properties of the supernovae including their redshifts. Since spectroscopic followup of supernova detections often isnt possible, we rely on observations of the supernova host galaxies to obtain redshifts.But how do we identify which galaxy hosted a supernova? This seems like a simple problem, but there are many complicating factors a seemingly nearby galaxy could be a distant background galaxy, for instance, or a supernovas host could be too faint to spot.The authors algorithm takes into account confusion, a measure of how likely the supernova is to be mismatched. In these illustrations of low (left) and high (right) confusion, the supernova is represented by a blue star, and the green circles represent possible host galaxies. [Gupta et al. 2016]Turning to AutomationBefore the era of large supernovae surveys, searching for host galaxies was done primarily by visual inspection. But current projects like the Dark Energy Surveys Supernova Program is finding supernovae by the thousands, and the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will likely discover hundreds of thousands. Visual inspection will not be possible in the face of this volume of data so an accurate and efficient automated method is clearly needed!To this end, a team of scientists led by Ravi Gupta (Argonne National Laboratory) has recently

  15. Activity in X-ray-selected late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takalo, Leo O.; Nousek, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    A spectroscopic study has been conducted of nine X-ray bright late-type stars selected from two Einstein X-ray surveys: the Columbia Astrophysical Laboratory Survey (five stars) and the CFA Medium Sensitivity Survey (MSS; four stars). Spectral classes were determined and radial and V sin(i) velocities were measured for the stars. Four of the Columbia Survey stars were found to be new RS CVn-type binaries. The fifth Columbia survey star was found to be an active G dwarf star without evidence for binarity. None of the four MSS stars were found to be either binaries or optically active stars. Activity in these stars was assessed by measuring the excess emission in H-alpha and the Ca II IRT (8498, 8542) lines in comparison with inactive stars of similar spectral types. A correlation was found between X-ray luminosity and V sin(i) and H-alpha line excess. The measured excess line emission in H-alpha was also correlated with V sin(i) but not with the IRT line excess.

  16. Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows as Probes of Environment and Blastwave Physics. 1; Absorption by Host Galaxy Gas and Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starling, R. L. C.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wiersema, K.; Rol, E.; Curran, P. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; vanderHorst, A. J.; Heemskerk, M. H. M.

    2006-01-01

    We use a new approach to obtain limits on the absorbing columns towards an initial sample of 10 long Gamma-Ray Bursts observed with BeppoSAX and selected on the basis of their good optical and nIR coverage, from simultaneous fits to nIR, optical and X-ray afterglow data, in count space and including the effects of metallicity. In no cases is a MIV-like ext,inction preferred, when testing MW, LMC and SMC extinction laws. The 2175A bump would in principle be detectable in all these afterglows, but is not present in the data. An SMC-like gas-to-dust ratio or lower value can be ruled out for 4 of the hosts analysed here (assuming Sh4C metallicity and extinction law) whilst the remainder of the sample have too large an error to discriminate. We provide a more accurate estimate of the line-of-sight extinction and improve upon the uncertainties for the majority of the extinction measurements made in previous studies of this sample. We discuss this method to determine extinction values in comparison with the most commonly employed existing methods.

  17. Karl G. Jansky very large array observations of cold dust and molecular gas in starbursting quasar host galaxies at z ∼ 4.5

    SciTech Connect

    Wagg, J.; Carilli, C. L.; Lentati, L.

    2014-03-10

    We present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of 44 GHz continuum and CO J = 2-1 line emission in BRI 1202–0725 at z = 4.7 (a starburst galaxy and quasar pair) and BRI 1335–0417 at z = 4.4 (also hosting a quasar). With the full 8 GHz bandwidth capabilities of the upgraded VLA, we study the (rest-frame) 250 GHz thermal dust continuum emission for the first time along with the cold molecular gas traced by the low-J CO line emission. The measured CO J = 2-1 line luminosities of BRI 1202–0725 are L{sub CO}{sup ′}=(8.7±0.8)×10{sup 10} Kmore » km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2} and L{sub CO}{sup ′}=(6.0 ± 0.5)×10{sup 10} K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2} for the submillimeter galaxy (SMG) and quasar, respectively, which are equal to previous measurements of the CO J = 5-4 line luminosities implying thermalized line emission, and we estimate a combined cold molecular gas mass of ∼9×10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. In BRI 1335–0417 we measure L{sub CO}{sup ′}=(7.3±0.6)×10{sup 10} K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2}. We detect continuum emission in the SMG BRI 1202–0725 North (S {sub 44} {sub GHz} = 51 ± 6 μJy), while the quasar is detected with S {sub 44} {sub GHz} = 24 ± 6 μJy and in BRI 1335–0417 we measure S {sub 44} {sub GHz} = 40 ± 7 μJy. Combining our continuum observations with previous data at (rest-frame) far-infrared and centimeter wavelengths, we fit three-component models in order to estimate the star formation rates. This spectral energy distribution fitting suggests that the dominant contribution to the observed 44 GHz continuum is thermal dust emission, while either thermal free-free or synchrotron emission contributes less than 30%.« less

  18. Andromeda Galaxy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-10

    This image is from NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer is an observation of the large galaxy in Andromeda, Messier 31. The Andromeda galaxy is the most massive in the local group of galaxies that includes our Milky Way.

  19. Radio Galaxies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on radio galaxies. Topic areas addressed include: what produces the radio emission; radio telescopes; locating radio galaxies; how distances to radio galaxies are found; physics of radio galaxies; computer simulations of radio galaxies; and the evolution of radio galaxies with cosmic time. (JN)

  20. Beyond MACS: A Snapshot Survey of the Most Massive Clusters of Galaxies at z>0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, Harald

    2017-08-01

    Truly massive galaxy clusters play a pivotal role for a wealth of extragalactic and cosmological research topics, and SNAPshot observations of these systems are ideally suited to identify the most promising cluster targets for further, in-depth study. The power of this approach was demonstrated by ACS/WFC3 SNAPshots of X-ray selected MACS and eMACS clusters at z>0.3 obtained by us in previous Cycles (44 of them in all of F606W, F814W, F110W, and F140W). Based on these data, the CLASH MCT program selected 16 out of 25 of their targets to be MACS clusters. Similarly, all but one of the six most powerful cluster lenses selected for in-depth study by the HST Frontier Fields initiative are MACS detections, and so are 16 of the 29 z>0.3 clusters targeted by the RELICS legacy program.We propose to extend our spectacularly successful SNAPshot survey of the most X-ray luminous distant clusters to a redshift-mass regime that is poorly sampled by any other project. Targeting only extremely massive clusters at z>0.5 from the X-ray selected eMACS sample (median velocity dispersion: 1180 km/s), the proposed program will (a) identify the most powerful gravitational telescopes at yet higher redshift for the next generation of in-depth studies of the distant Universe with HST and JWST, (b) provide constraints on the mass distribution within these extreme systems, (c) help improve our understanding of the physical nature of galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-gas interactions in cluster cores, and (d) unveil Balmer Break Galaxies at z 2 and Lyman-break galaxies at z>6 as F814W dropouts.Acknowledging the broad community interest in our sample we waive our data rights for these observations.

  1. Isolated Galaxies and Isolated Satellite Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ann, H. B.; Park, C.; Choi, Y. Y.

    2010-10-01

    We search for isolated galaxies using a volume-limited sample of galaxies with 0.02 < z < 0.04742 from SDSS DR7 supplemented by bright galaxies. We devise a diagnostic tool to select isolated galaxies in different environments using the projected separation (rp) normalized by the virial radius of the nearest neighbor (rvir,nei) and the local background density. We find that the isolation condition of rp > rvir,nei and ρ < ρbar well segregates the CIG galaxies. We confirm the morphology conformity between the host and their satellites, which suggests the importance to galaxy evolution of hydrodynamic interactions among galaxies within their virial radii.

  2. The XMM Cluster Survey: the halo occupation number of BOSS galaxies in X-ray clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrtens, Nicola; Romer, A. Kathy; Nichol, Robert C.; Collins, Chris A.; Sahlén, Martin; Rooney, Philip J.; Mayers, Julian A.; Bermeo-Hernandez, A.; Bristow, Martyn; Capozzi, Diego; Christodoulou, L.; Comparat, Johan; Hilton, Matt; Hoyle, Ben; Kay, Scott T.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Mann, Robert G.; Masters, Karen; Miller, Christopher J.; Parejko, John K.; Prada, Francisco; Ross, Ashley J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Stott, John P.; Streblyanska, Alina; Viana, Pedro T. P.; White, Martin; Wilcox, Harry; Zehavi, Idit

    2016-12-01

    We present a direct measurement of the mean halo occupation distribution (HOD) of galaxies taken from the eleventh data release (DR11) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). The HOD of BOSS low-redshift (LOWZ: 0.2 < z < 0.4) and Constant-Mass (CMASS: 0.43 < z < 0.7) galaxies is inferred via their association with the dark matter haloes of 174 X-ray-selected galaxy clusters drawn from the XMM Cluster Survey (XCS). Halo masses are determined for each galaxy cluster based on X-ray temperature measurements, and range between log10(M180/M⊙) = 13 and 15. Our directly measured HODs are consistent with the HOD-model fits inferred via the galaxy-clustering analyses of Parejko et al. for the BOSS LOWZ sample and White et al. for the BOSS CMASS sample. Under the simplifying assumption that the other parameters that describe the HOD hold the values measured by these authors, we have determined a best-fitting alpha-index of 0.91 ± 0.08 and 1.27^{+0.03}_{-0.04} for the CMASS and LOWZ HOD, respectively. These alpha-index values are consistent with those measured by White et al. and Parejko et al. In summary, our study provides independent support for the HOD models assumed during the development of the BOSS mock-galaxy catalogues that have subsequently been used to derive BOSS cosmological constraints.

  3. PEARS Emission Line Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzkal, Nor; Rothberg, Barry; Ly, Chun; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Grogin, Norman A.; Dahlen, Tomas; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Walsh, Jeremy; Hathi, Nimish P.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitless grism spectroscopic data obtained vl'ith the Advanced Camera for Surveys on HST. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random surveY of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations to support the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data we are able to identify star forming galaxies within the redshift volume 0 < z < 1.5. Star forming regions in the PEARS survey are pinpointed independently of the host galaxy. This method allOW8 us to detect the presence of multiple emission line regions (ELRs) within a single galaxy. 1162 [OII], [OIII] and/or H-alpha emission lines have been identified in the PEARS sample of approx 906 galaxies down to a limiting flux of approx 10 - 18 erg/s/sq cm . The ELRs have also been compared to the properties of the host galaxy, including morphology, luminosity, and mass. From this analysis we find three key results: 1) The computed line luminosities show evidence of a flattening in the luminosity function with increasing redshift; 2) The star forming systems show evidence of disturbed morphologies, with star formation occurring predominantly within one effective (half-light) radius. However, the morphologies show no correlation with host stellar mass; and 3) The number density of star forming galaxies with M(*) >= 10(exp 9) Solar M decreases by an order of magnitude at z<=0.5 relative to the number at 0.5 < z < 0.9 in support of the argument for galaxy downsizing.

  4. VLA and ALMA Imaging of Intense Galaxy-wide Star Formation in z ˜ 2 Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rujopakarn, W.; Dunlop, J. S.; Rieke, G. H.; Ivison, R. J.; Cibinel, A.; Nyland, K.; Jagannathan, P.; Silverman, J. D.; Alexander, D. M.; Biggs, A. D.; Bhatnagar, S.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Dickinson, M.; Elbaz, D.; Geach, J. E.; Hayward, C. C.; Kirkpatrick, A.; McLure, R. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Miller, N. A.; Narayanan, D.; Owen, F. N.; Pannella, M.; Papovich, C.; Pope, A.; Rau, U.; Robertson, B. E.; Scott, D.; Swinbank, A. M.; van der Werf, P.; van Kampen, E.; Weiner, B. J.; Windhorst, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    We present ≃0.″4 resolution extinction-independent distributions of star formation and dust in 11 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z = 1.3-3.0. These galaxies are selected from sensitive blank-field surveys of the 2‧ × 2‧ Hubble Ultra-Deep Field at λ = 5 cm and 1.3 mm using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. They have star formation rates (SFRs), stellar masses, and dust properties representative of massive main-sequence SFGs at z ˜ 2. Morphological classification performed on spatially resolved stellar mass maps indicates a mixture of disk and morphologically disturbed systems; half of the sample harbor X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs), thereby representing a diversity of z ˜ 2 SFGs undergoing vigorous mass assembly. We find that their intense star formation most frequently occurs at the location of stellar-mass concentration and extends over an area comparable to their stellar-mass distribution, with a median diameter of 4.2 ± 1.8 kpc. This provides direct evidence of galaxy-wide star formation in distant blank-field-selected main-sequence SFGs. The typical galactic-average SFR surface density is 2.5 M ⊙ yr-1 kpc-2, sufficiently high to drive outflows. In X-ray-selected AGN where radio emission is enhanced over the level associated with star formation, the radio excess pinpoints the AGNs, which are found to be cospatial with star formation. The median extinction-independent size of main-sequence SFGs is two times larger than those of bright submillimeter galaxies, whose SFRs are 3-8 times larger, providing a constraint on the characteristic SFR (˜300 M ⊙ yr-1) above which a significant population of more compact SFGs appears to emerge.

  5. Science from a glimpse: Hubble SNAPshot observations of massive galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repp, A.; Ebeling, H.

    2018-06-01

    Hubble Space Telescope SNAPshot surveys of 86 X-ray selected galaxy clusters at 0.3 < z < 0.5 from the MACS sample have proven invaluable for the exploration of a wide range of astronomical research topics. We here present an overview of the four MACS SNAPshot surveys conducted from Cycle 14 to Cycle 20 as part of a long-term effort aimed at identifying exceptional cluster targets for in-depth follow up by the extragalactic community. We also release redshifts and X-ray luminosities of all clusters observed as part of this initiative. To illustrate the power of SNAPshot observations of MACS clusters, we explore several aspects of galaxy evolution illuminated by the images obtained for these programmes. We confirm the high lensing efficiency of X-ray selected clusters at z > 0.3. Examining the evolution of the slope of the cluster red sequence, we observe at best a slight decrease with redshift, indicating minimal age contribution since z ˜ 1. Congruent to previous studies' findings, we note that the two BCGs which are significantly bluer (≥5σ) than their clusters' red sequences reside in relaxed clusters and exhibit pronounced internal structure. Thanks to our targets' high X-ray luminosity, the subset of our sample observed with Chandra adds valuable leverage to the X-ray luminosity-optical richness relation, which, albeit with substantial scatter, is now clearly established from groups to extremely massive clusters of galaxies. We conclude that SNAPshot observations of MACS clusters stand to continue to play a vital pathfinder role for astrophysical investigations across the entire electromagnetic spectrum.

  6. High–frequency cluster radio galaxies: Luminosity functions and implications for SZE–selected cluster samples

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Nikhel; Saro, A.; Mohr, J. J.

    We study the overdensity of point sources in the direction of X-ray-selected galaxy clusters from the meta-catalogue of X-ray-detected clusters of galaxies (MCXC; < z > = 0.14) at South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey (SUMSS) frequencies. Flux densities at 95, 150 and 220 GHz are extracted from the 2500 deg 2 SPT-SZ survey maps at the locations of SUMSS sources, producing a multifrequency catalogue of radio galaxies. In the direction of massive galaxy clusters, the radio galaxy flux densities at 95 and 150 GHz are biased low by the cluster Sunyaev–Zel’dovich Effect (SZE) signal, whichmore » is negative at these frequencies. We employ a cluster SZE model to remove the expected flux bias and then study these corrected source catalogues. We find that the high-frequency radio galaxies are centrally concentrated within the clusters and that their luminosity functions (LFs) exhibit amplitudes that are characteristically an order of magnitude lower than the cluster LF at 843 MHz. We use the 150 GHz LF to estimate the impact of cluster radio galaxies on an SPT-SZ like survey. The radio galaxy flux typically produces a small bias on the SZE signal and has negligible impact on the observed scatter in the SZE mass–observable relation. If we assume there is no redshift evolution in the radio galaxy LF then 1.8 ± 0.7 per cent of the clusters with detection significance ξ ≥ 4.5 would be lost from the sample. As a result, allowing for redshift evolution of the form (1 + z) 2.5 increases the incompleteness to 5.6 ± 1.0 per cent. Improved constraints on the evolution of the cluster radio galaxy LF require a larger cluster sample extending to higher redshift.« less

  7. High–frequency cluster radio galaxies: Luminosity functions and implications for SZE–selected cluster samples

    DOE PAGES

    Gupta, Nikhel; Saro, A.; Mohr, J. J.; ...

    2017-01-15

    We study the overdensity of point sources in the direction of X-ray-selected galaxy clusters from the meta-catalogue of X-ray-detected clusters of galaxies (MCXC; < z > = 0.14) at South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey (SUMSS) frequencies. Flux densities at 95, 150 and 220 GHz are extracted from the 2500 deg 2 SPT-SZ survey maps at the locations of SUMSS sources, producing a multifrequency catalogue of radio galaxies. In the direction of massive galaxy clusters, the radio galaxy flux densities at 95 and 150 GHz are biased low by the cluster Sunyaev–Zel’dovich Effect (SZE) signal, whichmore » is negative at these frequencies. We employ a cluster SZE model to remove the expected flux bias and then study these corrected source catalogues. We find that the high-frequency radio galaxies are centrally concentrated within the clusters and that their luminosity functions (LFs) exhibit amplitudes that are characteristically an order of magnitude lower than the cluster LF at 843 MHz. We use the 150 GHz LF to estimate the impact of cluster radio galaxies on an SPT-SZ like survey. The radio galaxy flux typically produces a small bias on the SZE signal and has negligible impact on the observed scatter in the SZE mass–observable relation. If we assume there is no redshift evolution in the radio galaxy LF then 1.8 ± 0.7 per cent of the clusters with detection significance ξ ≥ 4.5 would be lost from the sample. As a result, allowing for redshift evolution of the form (1 + z) 2.5 increases the incompleteness to 5.6 ± 1.0 per cent. Improved constraints on the evolution of the cluster radio galaxy LF require a larger cluster sample extending to higher redshift.« less

  8. The early phase of the SMBH-galaxy coevolution in low-z "young" galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that most galaxies have a supermassive black hole (SMBH) in their nucleus, and the evolution of SMBHs is closely related with that of their host galaxies (the SMBH-galaxy coevolution). This is suggested by the correlation in the mass of SMBHs and their host galaxies, that has been observed in low redshifts. However, the physics of the coevolution is totally unclear, that prevents us from complete understandings of the galaxy evolution. One possible strategy to tackle this issue is measuring the mass ratio between SMBHs and their host galaxies (M_BH/M_host) at high redshifs, since different scenarios predict different evolution of the ratio ofMBH/Mhost. However it is extremely challenging to measure the mass of the host of high-z quasars, given the faint surface brightness of the host at close to the glaring quasar nucleus. Here we propose a brand-new approach to assess the early phase of the SMBH-galaxy coevolution, by focusing on low-z AGN-hosting "young" galaxies. Specifically, we focus on some very metal-poor galaxies with broadline Balmer lines at z ~ 0.1 - 0.3. By examining the SMBH scaling relations in some low-z metal-poor AGNs through high-resolution IRCS imaging observations, we will discriminate various scenarios for the SMBH-galaxy coevolution.

  9. Mysterious Blob Galaxies Revealed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-01-11

    This image composite shows a giant galactic blob (red) and the three merging galaxies NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope discovered within it (yellow). Blobs are intensely glowing clouds of hot hydrogen gas that envelop faraway galaxies. They are about 10 times as large as the galaxies they surround. Visible-light images reveal the vast extent of blobs, but don't provide much information about their host galaxies. Using its heat-seeking infrared eyes, Spitzer was able to see the dusty galaxies tucked inside one well-known blob located 11 billion light-years away. The findings reveal three monstrously bright galaxies, trillions of times brighter than the Sun, in the process of merging together. Spitzer also observed three other blobs located in the same cosmic neighborhood, all of which were found to be glaringly bright. One of these blobs is also known to be a galactic merger, only between two galaxies instead of three. It remains to be seen whether the final two blobs studied also contain mergers. The Spitzer data were acquired by its multiband imaging photometer. The visible-light image was taken by the Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07220

  10. Jellyfish: Evidence of Extreme Ram-pressure Stripping in Massive Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, H.; Stephenson, L. N.; Edge, A. C.

    2014-02-01

    Ram-pressure stripping by the gaseous intracluster medium has been proposed as the dominant physical mechanism driving the rapid evolution of galaxies in dense environments. Detailed studies of this process have, however, largely been limited to relatively modest examples affecting only the outermost gas layers of galaxies in nearby and/or low-mass galaxy clusters. We here present results from our search for extreme cases of gas-galaxy interactions in much more massive, X-ray selected clusters at z > 0.3. Using Hubble Space Telescope snapshots in the F606W and F814W passbands, we have discovered dramatic evidence of ram-pressure stripping in which copious amounts of gas are first shock compressed and then removed from galaxies falling into the cluster. Vigorous starbursts triggered by this process across the galaxy-gas interface and in the debris trail cause these galaxies to temporarily become some of the brightest cluster members in the F606W passband, capable of outshining even the Brightest Cluster Galaxy. Based on the spatial distribution and orientation of systems viewed nearly edge-on in our survey, we speculate that infall at large impact parameter gives rise to particularly long-lasting stripping events. Our sample of six spectacular examples identified in clusters from the Massive Cluster Survey, all featuring M F606W < -21 mag, doubles the number of such systems presently known at z > 0.2 and facilitates detailed quantitative studies of the most violent galaxy evolution in clusters. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs GO-10491, -10875, -12166, and -12884.

  11. JELLYFISH: EVIDENCE OF EXTREME RAM-PRESSURE STRIPPING IN MASSIVE GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Ebeling, H.; Stephenson, L. N.; Edge, A. C.

    Ram-pressure stripping by the gaseous intracluster medium has been proposed as the dominant physical mechanism driving the rapid evolution of galaxies in dense environments. Detailed studies of this process have, however, largely been limited to relatively modest examples affecting only the outermost gas layers of galaxies in nearby and/or low-mass galaxy clusters. We here present results from our search for extreme cases of gas-galaxy interactions in much more massive, X-ray selected clusters at z > 0.3. Using Hubble Space Telescope snapshots in the F606W and F814W passbands, we have discovered dramatic evidence of ram-pressure stripping in which copious amounts ofmore » gas are first shock compressed and then removed from galaxies falling into the cluster. Vigorous starbursts triggered by this process across the galaxy-gas interface and in the debris trail cause these galaxies to temporarily become some of the brightest cluster members in the F606W passband, capable of outshining even the Brightest Cluster Galaxy. Based on the spatial distribution and orientation of systems viewed nearly edge-on in our survey, we speculate that infall at large impact parameter gives rise to particularly long-lasting stripping events. Our sample of six spectacular examples identified in clusters from the Massive Cluster Survey, all featuring M {sub F606W} < –21 mag, doubles the number of such systems presently known at z > 0.2 and facilitates detailed quantitative studies of the most violent galaxy evolution in clusters.« less

  12. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Relation Between Galaxy Cluster Optical Richness and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehgal, Neelima; Addison, Graeme; Battaglia, Nick; Battistelli, Elia S.; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Joanna; Duenner, Rolando; Gralla, Megan; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present the measured Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) flux from 474 optically-selected MaxBCG clusters that fall within the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) Equatorial survey region. The ACT Equatorial region used in this analysis covers 510 square degrees and overlaps Stripe 82 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We also present the measured SZ flux stacked on 52 X-ray-selected MCXC clusters that fall within the ACT Equatorial region and an ACT Southern survey region covering 455 square degrees. We find that the measured SZ flux from the X-ray-selected clusters is consistent with expectations. However, we find that the measured SZ flux from the optically-selected clusters is both significantly lower than expectations and lower than the recovered SZ flux measured by the Planck satellite. Since we find a lower recovered SZ signal than Planck, we investigate the possibility that there is a significant offset between the optically-selected brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and the SZ centers, to which ACT is more sensitive due to its finer resolution. Such offsets can arise due to either an intrinsic physical separation between the BCG and the center of the gas concentration or from misidentification of the cluster BCG. We find that the entire discrepancy for both ACT and Planck can be explained by assuming that the BCGs are offset from the SZ maxima with a uniform random distribution between 0 and 1.5 Mpc. In contrast, the physical separation between BCGs and X-ray peaks for an X-ray-selected subsample of MaxBCG clusters shows a much narrower distribution that peaks within 0.2 Mpc. We conclude that while offsets between BCGs and SZ peaks may be an important component in explaining the discrepancy, it is likely that a combination of factors is responsible for the ACT and Planck measurements. Several effects that can lower the SZ signal equally for both ACT and Planck, but not explain the difference in measured signals, include a larger percentage of false detections in the

  13. FRESH ACTIVITY IN OLD SYSTEMS: RADIO AGNs IN FOSSIL GROUPS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Kelley M.; Wilcots, Eric M.; Hartwick, Victoria L., E-mail: hess@ast.uct.ac.za, E-mail: ewilcots@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: vhartwick@wisc.edu

    2012-08-15

    We present the first systematic 1.4 GHz Very Large Array radio continuum survey of fossil galaxy group candidates. These are virialized systems believed to have assembled over a gigayear in the past through the merging of galaxy group members into a single, isolated, massive elliptical galaxy and featuring an extended hot X-ray halo. We use new photometric and spectroscopic data from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 to determine that three of the candidates are clearly not fossil groups. Of the remaining 30 candidates, 67% contain a radio-loud (L{sub 1.4GHz} > 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup -1}) active galactic nucleusmore » (AGN) at the center of their dominant elliptical galaxy. We find a weak correlation between the radio luminosity of the AGN and the X-ray luminosity of the halo suggesting that the AGN contributes to energy deposition into the intragroup medium. We only find a correlation between the radio and optical luminosity of the central elliptical galaxy when we include X-ray-selected, elliptically dominated non-fossil groups, indicating a weak relationship between AGN strength and the mass assembly history of the groups. The dominant elliptical galaxy of fossil groups is on average roughly an order of magnitude more luminous than normal group elliptical galaxies in optical, X-ray, and radio luminosities and our findings are consistent with previous results that the radio-loud fraction in elliptical galaxies is linked to the stellar mass of a population. The current level of activity in fossil groups suggests that AGN fueling continues long after the last major merger. We discuss several possibilities for fueling the AGN at the present epoch.« less

  14. Constraints on the optical depth of galaxy groups and clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Flender, Samuel; Nagai, Daisuke; McDonald, Michael

    Here, future data from galaxy redshift surveys, combined with high-resolutions maps of the cosmic microwave background, will enable measurements of the pairwise kinematic Sunyaev–Zel'dovich (kSZ) signal with unprecedented statistical significance. This signal probes the matter-velocity correlation function, scaled by the average optical depth (τ) of the galaxy groups and clusters in the sample, and is thus of fundamental importance for cosmology. However, in order to translate pairwise kSZ measurements into cosmological constraints, external constraints on τ are necessary. In this work, we present a new model for the intracluster medium, which takes into account star formation, feedback, non-thermal pressure, and gas cooling. Our semi-analytic model is computationally efficient and can reproduce results of recent hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy cluster formation. We calibrate the free parameters in the model using recent X-ray measurements of gas density profiles of clusters, and gas masses of groups and clusters. Our observationally calibrated model predicts the averagemore » $${\\tau }_{500}$$ (i.e., the integrated τ within a disk of size R 500) to better than 6% modeling uncertainty (at 95% confidence level). If the remaining uncertainties associated with other astrophysical uncertainties and X-ray selection effects can be better understood, our model for the optical depth should break the degeneracy between optical depth and cluster velocity in the analysis of future pairwise kSZ measurements and improve cosmological constraints with the combination of upcoming galaxy and CMB surveys, including the nature of dark energy, modified gravity, and neutrino mass.« less

  15. Constraints on the optical depth of galaxy groups and clusters

    DOE PAGES

    Flender, Samuel; Nagai, Daisuke; McDonald, Michael

    2017-03-10

    Here, future data from galaxy redshift surveys, combined with high-resolutions maps of the cosmic microwave background, will enable measurements of the pairwise kinematic Sunyaev–Zel'dovich (kSZ) signal with unprecedented statistical significance. This signal probes the matter-velocity correlation function, scaled by the average optical depth (τ) of the galaxy groups and clusters in the sample, and is thus of fundamental importance for cosmology. However, in order to translate pairwise kSZ measurements into cosmological constraints, external constraints on τ are necessary. In this work, we present a new model for the intracluster medium, which takes into account star formation, feedback, non-thermal pressure, and gas cooling. Our semi-analytic model is computationally efficient and can reproduce results of recent hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy cluster formation. We calibrate the free parameters in the model using recent X-ray measurements of gas density profiles of clusters, and gas masses of groups and clusters. Our observationally calibrated model predicts the averagemore » $${\\tau }_{500}$$ (i.e., the integrated τ within a disk of size R 500) to better than 6% modeling uncertainty (at 95% confidence level). If the remaining uncertainties associated with other astrophysical uncertainties and X-ray selection effects can be better understood, our model for the optical depth should break the degeneracy between optical depth and cluster velocity in the analysis of future pairwise kSZ measurements and improve cosmological constraints with the combination of upcoming galaxy and CMB surveys, including the nature of dark energy, modified gravity, and neutrino mass.« less

  16. Radio Galaxy Zoo: A Search for Hybrid Morphology Radio Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapińska, A. D.; Terentev, I.; Wong, O. I.; Shabala, S. S.; Andernach, H.; Rudnick, L.; Storer, L.; Banfield, J. K.; Willett, K. W.; de Gasperin, F.; Lintott, C. J.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Schawinski, K.; Seymour, N.; Simmons, B.

    2017-12-01

    Hybrid morphology radio sources (HyMoRS) are a rare type of radio galaxy that display different Fanaroff-Riley classes on opposite sides of their nuclei. To enhance the statistical analysis of HyMoRS, we embarked on a large-scale search of these sources within the international citizen science project, Radio Galaxy Zoo (RGZ). Here, we present 25 new candidate hybrid morphology radio galaxies. Our selected candidates are moderate power radio galaxies ({L}{median}=4.7× {10}24 W Hz-1 sr-1) at redshifts 0.14< z< 1.0. Hosts of nine candidates have spectroscopic observations, of which six are classified as quasars, one as high- and two as low-excitation galaxies. Two candidate HyMoRS are giant (> 1 Mpc) radio galaxies, one resides at the center of a galaxy cluster, and one is hosted by a rare green bean galaxy. Although the origin of the hybrid morphology radio galaxies is still unclear, this type of radio source starts depicting itself as a rather diverse class. We discuss hybrid radio morphology formation in terms of the radio source environment (nurture) and intrinsically occurring phenomena (nature; activity cessation and amplification), showing that these peculiar radio galaxies can be formed by both mechanisms. While high angular resolution follow-up observations are still necessary to confirm our candidates, we demonstrate the efficacy of the RGZ in the pre-selection of these sources from all-sky radio surveys, and report the reliability of citizen scientists in identifying and classifying complex radio sources.

  17. Thirty-fold: Extreme Gravitational Lensing of a Quiescent Galaxy at z = 1.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, H.; Stockmann, M.; Richard, J.; Zabl, J.; Brammer, G.; Toft, S.; Man, A.

    2018-01-01

    We report the discovery of eMACSJ1341-QG-1, a quiescent galaxy at z = 1.594 located behind the massive galaxy cluster eMACSJ1341.9–2442 (z = 0.835). The system was identified as a gravitationally lensed triple image in Hubble Space Telescope images obtained as part of a snapshot survey of the most X-ray luminous galaxy clusters at z > 0.5 and spectroscopically confirmed in ground-based follow-up observations with the ESO/X-Shooter spectrograph. From the constraints provided by the triple image, we derive a first, crude model of the mass distribution of the cluster lens, which predicts a gravitational amplification of a factor of ∼30 for the primary image and a factor of ∼6 for the remaining two images of the source, making eMACSJ1341-QG-1 by far the most strongly amplified quiescent galaxy discovered to date. Our discovery underlines the power of SNAPshot observations of massive, X-ray selected galaxy clusters for lensing-assisted studies of faint background populations.

  18. Spiral Galaxies Stripped Bare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    image is of NGC 1300, a spiral galaxy with arms extending from the ends of a spectacularly prominent central bar. It is considered a prototypical example of barred spiral galaxies and lies at a distance of about 65 million light-years, in the constellation of Eridanus (the River). The spiral galaxy in the fourth image, NGC 4030, lies about 75 million light-years from Earth, in the constellation of Virgo. In 2007 Takao Doi, a Japanese astronaut who doubles as an amateur astronomer, spotted a supernova - a stellar explosion that is briefly almost as bright as its host galaxy - going off in this galaxy. The fifth image, NGC 2997, is a spiral galaxy roughly 30 million light-years away in the constellation of Antlia (the Air Pump). NGC 2997 is the brightest member of a group of galaxies of the same name in the Local Supercluster of galaxies. Our own Local Group, of which the Milky Way is a member, is itself also part of the Local Supercluster. Last but not least, NGC 1232 is a beautiful galaxy some 65 million light-years away in the constellation of Eridanus (the River). The galaxy is classified as an intermediate spiral galaxy - somewhere between a barred and an unbarred spiral galaxy. An image of this galaxy and its small companion galaxy NGC 1232A in visible light was one of the first produced by the VLT (eso9845). HAWK-I has now returned to NGC 1232 to show a different view of it at near-infrared wavelengths. As this galactic gallery makes clear, HAWK-I lets us see the spiral structures in these six bright galaxies in exquisite detail and with a clarity that is only made possible by observing in the infrared. Notes [1] HAWK-I stands for High-Acuity Wide-field K-band Imager. More technical details about the camera can be found in an earlier press release (eso0736). [2] More information about the VLT instruments can be found at: http://www.eso.org/public/teles-instr/vlt/vlt-instr.html. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost

  19. Growing Galaxies Gently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    of the flow of pristine gas from the surrounding space and the associated formation of new stars. They were very careful to make sure that their specimen galaxies had not been disturbed by interactions with other galaxies. The selected galaxies were very regular, smoothly rotating discs, similar to the Milky Way, and they were seen about two billion years after the Big Bang (at a redshift of around three). In galaxies in the modern Universe the heavy elements [1] are more abundant close to the centre. But when Cresci's team mapped their selected distant galaxies with the SINFONI spectrograph on the VLT [2] they were excited to see that in all three cases there was a patch of the galaxy, close to the centre, with fewer heavy elements, but hosting vigorously forming stars, suggesting that the material to fuel the star formation was coming from the surrounding pristine gas that is low in heavy elements. This was the smoking gun that provided the best evidence yet of young galaxies accreting primitive gas and using it to form new generations of stars. As Cresci concludes: "This study has only been possible because of the outstanding performance of the SINFONI instrument on the VLT. It has opened a new window for studying the chemical properties of very distant galaxies. SINFONI provides information not only in two spatial dimensions, but also in a third, spectral dimension, which allows us to see the internal motions inside galaxies and study the chemical composition of the interstellar gas." Notes [1] The gas filling the early Universe was almost all hydrogen and helium. The first generations of stars processed this primitive material to create heavier elements such as oxygen, nitrogen and carbon by nuclear fusion. When this material was subsequently spewed back into space by intense particle winds from massive young stars and supernova explosions the amounts of heavy elements in the galaxy gradually increased. Astronomers refer to elements other than hydrogen and

  20. Growing supermassive black holes in the late stages of galaxy mergers are heavily obscured

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Treister, E.; Schawinski, K.; Privon, G. C.; Blecha, L.; Arevalo, P.; Armus, L.; Harrison, F.; Ho, L. C.; Iwasawa, K.; Sanders, D. B.; Stern, D.

    2017-06-01

    Mergers of galaxies are thought to cause significant gas inflows to the inner parsecs, which can activate rapid accretion on to supermassive black holes (SMBHs), giving rise to active galactic nuclei (AGN). During a significant fraction of this process, SMBHs are predicted to be enshrouded by gas and dust. Studying 52 galactic nuclei in infrared-selected local luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies in different merger stages in the hard X-ray band, where radiation is less affected by absorption, we find that the amount of material around SMBHs increases during the last phases of the merger. We find that the fraction of Compton-thick (CT, N H ≥ 1024 cm- 2) AGN in late-merger galaxies is higher (f_ CT=65^{+12}_{-13}{per cent}) than in local hard X-ray selected AGN (f CT = 27 ± 4 per cent), and that obscuration reaches its maximum when the nuclei of the two merging galaxies are at a projected distance of D12 ≃ 0.4-10.8 kpc (f_ CT=77_{-17}^{+13}{per cent}). We also find that all AGN of our sample in late-merger galaxies have N H > 1023 cm- 2, which implies that the obscuring material covers 95^{+4}_{-8}{per cent} of the X-ray source. These observations show that the material is most effectively funnelled from the galactic scale to the inner tens of parsecs during the late stages of galaxy mergers, and that the close environment of SMBHs in advanced mergers is richer in gas and dust with respect to that of SMBHs in isolated galaxies, and cannot be explained by the classical AGN unification model in which the torus is responsible for the obscuration.

  1. The Tip of the Red Giant Branch Distances to Type Ia Supernova Host Galaxies. IV. Color Dependence and Zero-point Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, In Sung; Lee, Myung Gyoon

    2017-01-01

    We present a revised Tip of the Red Giant Branch (TRGB) calibration, accurate to 2.7% of distance. A modified TRGB magnitude corrected for its color dependence, the QT magnitude, is introduced for better measurement of the TRGB. We determine the color-magnitude relation of the TRGB from photometry of deep images of HST/ACS fields around eight nearby galaxies. The zero-point of the TRGB at the fiducial metallicity ([Fe/H] = -1.6 ({(V-I)}0,{TRGB}=1.5)) is obtained from photometry of two distance anchors, NGC 4258 (M106) and the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), to which precise geometric distances are known: MQT,TRGB = -4.023 ± 0.073 mag from NGC 4258 and MQT,TRGB = -4.004 ± 0.096 mag from the LMC. A weighted mean of the two zero-points is MQT,TRGB = -4.016 ± 0.058 mag. Quoted uncertainty is ˜2× smaller than those of previous calibrations. We compare the empirical TRGB calibration derived in this study with theoretical stellar models, finding that there are significant discrepancies, especially for red color ({({{F}}606{{W}}-{{F}}814{{W}})}0≳ 2.5). We provide the revised TRGB calibration in several magnitude systems for future studies.

  2. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the signatures of galaxy interactions as viewed from small scale galaxy clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawardhana, M. L. P.; Norberg, P.; Zehavi, I.; Farrow, D. J.; Loveday, J.; Hopkins, A. M.; Davies, L. J. M.; Wang, L.; Alpaslan, M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Holwerda, B. W.; Owers, M. S.; Wright, A. H.

    2018-06-01

    Statistical studies of galaxy-galaxy interactions often utilise net change in physical properties of progenitors as a function of the separation between their nuclei to trace both the strength and the observable timescale of their interaction. In this study, we use two-point auto, cross and mark correlation functions to investigate the extent to which small-scale clustering properties of star forming galaxies can be used to gain physical insight into galaxy-galaxy interactions between galaxies of similar optical brightness and stellar mass. The Hα star formers, drawn from the highly spatially complete Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, show an increase in clustering on small separations. Moreover, the clustering strength shows a strong dependence on optical brightness and stellar mass, where (1) the clustering amplitude of optically brighter galaxies at a given separation is larger than that of optically fainter systems, (2) the small scale clustering properties (e.g. the strength, the scale at which the signal relative to the fiducial power law plateaus) of star forming galaxies appear to differ as a function of increasing optical brightness of galaxies. According to cross and mark correlation analyses, the former result is largely driven by the increased dust content in optically bright star forming galaxies. The latter could be interpreted as evidence of a correlation between interaction-scale and optical brightness of galaxies, where physical evidence of interactions between optically bright star formers, likely hosted within relatively massive halos, persist over larger separations than those between optically faint star formers.

  3. CLASH: Weak-lensing shear-and-magnification analysis of 20 galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Umetsu, Keiichi; Czakon, Nicole; Medezinski, Elinor

    2014-11-10

    We present a joint shear-and-magnification weak-lensing analysis of a sample of 16 X-ray-regular and 4 high-magnification galaxy clusters at 0.19 ≲ z ≲ 0.69 selected from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Our analysis uses wide-field multi-color imaging, taken primarily with Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. From a stacked-shear-only analysis of the X-ray-selected subsample, we detect the ensemble-averaged lensing signal with a total signal-to-noise ratio of ≅ 25 in the radial range of 200-3500 kpc h {sup –1}, providing integrated constraints on the halo profile shape and concentration-mass relation. The stacked tangential-shear signal is well described bymore » a family of standard density profiles predicted for dark-matter-dominated halos in gravitational equilibrium, namely, the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW), truncated variants of NFW, and Einasto models. For the NFW model, we measure a mean concentration of c{sub 200c}=4.01{sub −0.32}{sup +0.35} at an effective halo mass of M{sub 200c}=1.34{sub −0.09}{sup +0.10}×10{sup 15} M{sub ⊙}. We show that this is in excellent agreement with Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) predictions when the CLASH X-ray selection function and projection effects are taken into account. The best-fit Einasto shape parameter is α{sub E}=0.191{sub −0.068}{sup +0.071}, which is consistent with the NFW-equivalent Einasto parameter of ∼0.18. We reconstruct projected mass density profiles of all CLASH clusters from a joint likelihood analysis of shear-and-magnification data and measure cluster masses at several characteristic radii assuming an NFW density profile. We also derive an ensemble-averaged total projected mass profile of the X-ray-selected subsample by stacking their individual mass profiles. The stacked total mass profile, constrained by the shear+magnification data, is shown to be consistent with our shear-based halo-model predictions, including the effects of surrounding large

  4. Starburst galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weedman, Daniel W.

    1987-01-01

    The infrared properties of star-forming galaxies, primarily as determined by the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), are compared to X-ray, optical, and radio properties. Luminosity functions are reviewed and combined with those derived from optically discovered samples using 487 Markarian galaxies with redshifts and published IRAS 60 micron fluxes, and 1074 such galaxies in the Center for Astrophysics redshift survey. It is found that the majority of infrared galaxies which could be detected are low luminosity sources already known from the optical samples, but non-infrared surveys have found only a very small fraction of the highest luminosity sources. Distributions of infrared to optical fluxes and available spectra indicate that the majority of IRAS-selected galaxies are starburst galaxies. Having a census of starburst galaxies and associated dust allow severl important global calculations. The source counts are predicted as a function of flux limits for both infrared and radio fluxes. These galaxies are found to be important radio sources at faint flux limits. Taking the integrated flux to z = 3 indicates that such galaxies are a significant component of the diffuse X-ray background, and could be the the dominant component depending on the nature of the X-ray spectra and source evolution.

  5. Andromeda Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This image is a Galaxy Evolution Explorer observation of the large galaxy in Andromeda, Messier 31. The Andromeda galaxy is the most massive in the local group of galaxies that includes our Milky Way. Andromeda is the nearest large galaxy to our own. The image is a mosaic of 10 separate Galaxy Evolution Explorer images taken in September, 2003. The color image (with near ultraviolet shown by red and far ultraviolet shown by blue) shows blue regions of young, hot, high mass stars tracing out the spiral arms where star formation is occurring, and the central orange-white 'bulge' of old, cooler stars formed long ago. The star forming arms of Messier 31 are unusual in being quite circular rather than the usual spiral shape. Several companion galaxies can also be seen. These include Messier 32, a dwarf elliptical galaxy directly below the central bulge and just outside the spiral arms, and Messier 110 (M110), which is above and to the right of the center. M110 has an unusual far ultraviolet bright core in an otherwise 'red,' old star halo. Many other regions of star formation can be seen far outside the main body of the galaxy.

  6. Demise of faint satellites around isolated early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changbom; Hwang, Ho Seong; Park, Hyunbae; Lee, Jong Chul

    2018-02-01

    The hierarchical galaxy formation scenario in the Cold Dark Matter cosmology with a non-vanishing cosmological constant Λ and geometrically flat space (ΛCDM) has been very successful in explaining the large-scale distribution of galaxies. However, there have been claims that ΛCDM over-predicts the number of satellite galaxies associated with massive galaxies compared with observations—the missing satellite galaxy problem1-3. Isolated groups of galaxies hosted by passively evolving massive early-type galaxies are ideal laboratories for identifying the missing physics in the current theory4-11. Here, we report—based on a deep spectroscopic survey—that isolated massive and passive early-type galaxies without any signs of recent wet mergers or accretion episodes have almost no satellite galaxies fainter than the r-band absolute magnitude of about Mr = -14. If only early-type satellites are used, the cutoff is at the somewhat brighter magnitude of about Mr = -15. Such a cutoff has not been found in other nearby satellite galaxy systems hosted by late-type galaxies or those with merger features. Various physical properties of satellites depend strongly on the host-centric distance. Our observations indicate that the satellite galaxy luminosity function is largely determined by the interaction of satellites with the environment provided by their host.

  7. The role of black holes in galaxy formation and evolution.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, A; Faber, S M; Binney, J; Dekel, A; Kormendy, J; Mushotzky, R; Babul, A; Best, P N; Brüggen, M; Fabian, A C; Frenk, C S; Khalatyan, A; Netzer, H; Mahdavi, A; Silk, J; Steinmetz, M; Wisotzki, L

    2009-07-09

    Virtually all massive galaxies, including our own, host central black holes ranging in mass from millions to billions of solar masses. The growth of these black holes releases vast amounts of energy that powers quasars and other weaker active galactic nuclei. A tiny fraction of this energy, if absorbed by the host galaxy, could halt star formation by heating and ejecting ambient gas. A central question in galaxy evolution is the degree to which this process has caused the decline of star formation in large elliptical galaxies, which typically have little cold gas and few young stars, unlike spiral galaxies.

  8. Why are classical bulges more common in S0 galaxies than in spiral galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Preetish K.; Wadadekar, Yogesh; Barway, Sudhanshu

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we try to understand why the classical bulge fraction observed in S0 galaxies is significantly higher than that in spiral galaxies. We carry out a comparative study of the bulge and global properties of a sample of spiral and S0 galaxies in a fixed environment. Our sample is flux limited and contains 262 spiral and 155 S0 galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have classified bulges into classical and pseudobulge categories based on their position on the Kormendy diagram. Dividing our sample into bins of galaxy stellar mass, we find that the fraction of S0 galaxies hosting a classical bulge is significantly higher than the classical bulge fraction seen in spirals even at fixed stellar mass. We have compared the bulge and the global properties of spirals and S0 galaxies in our sample and find indications that spiral galaxies which host a classical bulge, preferentially get converted into S0 population as compared to pseudobulge hosting spirals. By studying the star formation properties of our galaxies in the NUV - r color-mass diagram, we find that the pseudobulge hosting spirals are mostly star forming while the majority of classical bulge host spirals are in the green valley or in the passive sequence. We suggest that some internal process, such as AGN feedback or morphological quenching due to the massive bulge, quenches these classical bulge hosting spirals and transforms them into S0 galaxies, thus resulting in the observed predominance of the classical bulge in S0 galaxies.

  9. Why are classical bulges more common in S0 galaxies than in spiral galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Preetish K.; Wadadekar, Yogesh; Barway, Sudhanshu

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, we try to understand why the classical bulge fraction observed in S0 galaxies is significantly higher than that in spiral galaxies. We carry out a comparative study of the bulge and global properties of a sample of spiral and S0 galaxies in a fixed environment. Our sample is flux limited and contains 262 spiral and 155 S0 galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have classified bulges into classical and pseudo-bulge categories based on their position on the Kormendy diagram. Dividing our sample into bins of galaxy stellar mass, we find that the fraction of S0 galaxies hosting a classical bulge is significantly higher than the classical bulge fraction seen in spirals even at fixed stellar mass. We have compared the bulge and the global properties of spirals and S0 galaxies in our sample and find indications that spiral galaxies which host a classical bulge, preferentially get converted into S0 population as compared to pseudo-bulge hosting spirals. By studying the star formation properties of our galaxies in the NUV-r colour-mass diagram, we find that the pseudo-bulge hosting spirals are mostly star forming while the majority of classical bulge host spirals are in the green valley or in the passive sequence. We suggest that some internal process, such as AGN feedback or morphological quenching due to the massive bulge, quenches these classical bulge hosting spirals and transforms them into S0 galaxies, thus resulting in the observed predominance of the classical bulge in S0 galaxies.

  10. STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY IN CLASH BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Fogarty, Kevin; Postman, Marc; Connor, Thomas

    2015-11-10

    The CLASH X-ray selected sample of 20 galaxy clusters contains 10 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) that exhibit significant (>5σ) extinction-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). Star formation activity is inferred from photometric estimates of UV and Hα+[N ii] emission in knots and filaments detected in CLASH Hubble Space Telescope ACS and WFC3 observations. UV-derived SFRs in these BCGs span two orders of magnitude, including two with a SFR ≳ 100 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. These measurements are supplemented with [O ii], [O iii], and Hβ fluxes measured from spectra obtained with the SOAR telescope. We confirm that photoionization from ongoing starmore » formation powers the line emission nebulae in these BCGs, although in many BCGs there is also evidence of a LINER-like contribution to the line emission. Coupling these data with Chandra X-ray measurements, we infer that the star formation occurs exclusively in low-entropy cluster cores and exhibits a correlation with gas properties related to cooling. We also perform an in-depth study of the starburst history of the BCG in the cluster RXJ1532.9+3021, and create 2D maps of stellar properties on scales down to ∼350 pc. These maps reveal evidence for an ongoing burst occurring in elongated filaments, generally on ∼0.5–1.0 Gyr timescales, although some filaments are consistent with much younger (≲100 Myr) burst timescales and may be correlated with recent activity from the active galactic nucleus. The relationship between BCG SFRs and the surrounding intracluster medium gas properties provide new support for the process of feedback-regulated cooling in galaxy clusters and is consistent with recent theoretical predictions.« less

  11. DISCOVERY OF A PSEUDOBULGE GALAXY LAUNCHING POWERFUL RELATIVISTIC JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Kotilainen, Jari K.; Olguín-Iglesias, Alejandro; León-Tavares, Jonathan

    Supermassive black holes launching plasma jets at close to the speed of light, producing gamma-rays, have ubiquitously been found to be hosted by massive elliptical galaxies. Since elliptical galaxies are generally believed to be built through galaxy mergers, active galactic nuclei (AGN) launching relativistic jets are associated with the latest stages of galaxy evolution. We have discovered a pseudobulge morphology in the host galaxy of the gamma-ray AGN PKS 2004-447. This is the first gamma-ray emitter radio-loud AGN found to have been launched from a system where both the black hole and host galaxy have been actively growing via secularmore » processes. This is evidence of an alternative black hole–galaxy co-evolutionary path to develop powerful relativistic jets, which is not merger driven.« less

  12. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): the red fraction and radial distribution of satellite galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescott, Matthew; Baldry, I. K.; James, P. A.; Bamford, S. P.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cameron, E.; Conselice, C. J.; Croom, S. M.; Driver, S. P.; Frenk, C. S.; Gunawardhana, M.; Hill, D. T.; Hopkins, A. M.; Jones, D. H.; Kelvin, L. S.; Kuijken, K.; Liske, J.; Loveday, J.; Nichol, R. C.; Norberg, P.; Parkinson, H. R.; Peacock, J. A.; Phillipps, S.; Pimbblet, K. A.; Popescu, C. C.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Sharp, R. G.; Sutherland, W. J.; Taylor, E. N.; Tuffs, R. J.; van Kampen, E.; Wijesinghe, D.

    2011-10-01

    We investigate the properties of satellite galaxies that surround isolated hosts within the redshift range 0.01 < z < 0.15, using data taken as part of the Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey. Making use of isolation and satellite criteria that take into account stellar mass estimates, we find 3514 isolated galaxies of which 1426 host a total of 2998 satellites. Separating the red and blue populations of satellites and hosts, using colour-mass diagrams, we investigate the radial distribution of satellite galaxies and determine how the red fraction of satellites varies as a function of satellite mass, host mass and the projected distance from their host. Comparing the red fraction of satellites to a control sample of small neighbours at greater projected radii, we show that the increase in red fraction is primarily a function of host mass. The satellite red fraction is about 0.2 higher than the control sample for hosts with ?, while the red fractions show no difference for hosts with ?. For the satellites of more massive hosts, the red fraction also increases as a function of decreasing projected distance. Our results suggest that the likely main mechanism for the quenching of star formation in satellites hosted by isolated galaxies is strangulation.

  13. GALAXY EVOLUTION. An over-massive black hole in a typical star-forming galaxy, 2 billion years after the Big Bang.

    PubMed

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Urry, C Megan; Civano, Francesca; Rosario, David J; Elvis, Martin; Schawinski, Kevin; Suh, Hyewon; Bongiorno, Angela; Simmons, Brooke D

    2015-07-10

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies are generally thought to coevolve, so that the SMBH achieves up to about 0.2 to 0.5% of the host galaxy mass in the present day. The radiation emitted from the growing SMBH is expected to affect star formation throughout the host galaxy. The relevance of this scenario at early cosmic epochs is not yet established. We present spectroscopic observations of a galaxy at redshift z = 3.328, which hosts an actively accreting, extremely massive BH, in its final stages of growth. The SMBH mass is roughly one-tenth the mass of the entire host galaxy, suggesting that it has grown much more efficiently than the host, contrary to models of synchronized coevolution. The host galaxy is forming stars at an intense rate, despite the presence of a SMBH-driven gas outflow. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. VLA AND ALMA IMAGING OF INTENSE GALAXY-WIDE STAR FORMATION IN z ∼ 2 GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rujopakarn, W.; Silverman, J. D.; Dunlop, J. S.

    2016-12-10

    We present ≃0.″4 resolution extinction-independent distributions of star formation and dust in 11 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z  = 1.3–3.0. These galaxies are selected from sensitive blank-field surveys of the 2′ × 2′ Hubble Ultra-Deep Field at λ  = 5 cm and 1.3 mm using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. They have star formation rates (SFRs), stellar masses, and dust properties representative of massive main-sequence SFGs at z  ∼ 2. Morphological classification performed on spatially resolved stellar mass maps indicates a mixture of disk and morphologically disturbed systems; half of the sample harbor X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs),more » thereby representing a diversity of z  ∼ 2 SFGs undergoing vigorous mass assembly. We find that their intense star formation most frequently occurs at the location of stellar-mass concentration and extends over an area comparable to their stellar-mass distribution, with a median diameter of 4.2 ± 1.8 kpc. This provides direct evidence of galaxy-wide star formation in distant blank-field-selected main-sequence SFGs. The typical galactic-average SFR surface density is 2.5 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}, sufficiently high to drive outflows. In X-ray-selected AGN where radio emission is enhanced over the level associated with star formation, the radio excess pinpoints the AGNs, which are found to be cospatial with star formation. The median extinction-independent size of main-sequence SFGs is two times larger than those of bright submillimeter galaxies, whose SFRs are 3–8 times larger, providing a constraint on the characteristic SFR (∼300 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) above which a significant population of more compact SFGs appears to emerge.« less

  15. Hydrogen line ratios in Seyfert galaxies and low redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriss, G. R.

    1984-01-01

    New observations of the Lymal alpha radiation/hydrogen alpha radiation ratio in a set of X-ray selected active galactic nuclei and an archival study of International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of Lymal alpha low redshift quasars and Seyfert galaxies have been used to form a large sample for studying the influence of soft X-rays on the enhancement of Balmer emission in the broad line region. In common models of broad line clouds, the Balmer lines are formed deep in the interior, largely by collisional excitation. Heating within the clouds is provided by soft X-ray radiation, while Lymal alpha is formed mainly by recombination after photoionization. The ratio Lymal alpha/Halpha is expected to depend weakly on the ratio of ionizing ultraviolet luminosity to X-ray luminosity (L sub UV/l sub x). If the Lymal alpha luminosity is used as a measure of L sub UV' a weak dependence of Lymal/H alpha on the X-ray luminosity is found similar to previous results.

  16. Galaxy cluster lensing masses in modified lensing potentials

    DOE PAGES

    Barreira, Alexandre; Li, Baojiu; Jennings, Elise; ...

    2015-10-28

    In this study, we determine the concentration–mass relation of 19 X-ray selected galaxy clusters from the Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble survey in theories of gravity that directly modify the lensing potential. We model the clusters as Navarro–Frenk–White haloes and fit their lensing signal, in the Cubic Galileon and Nonlocal gravity models, to the lensing convergence profiles of the clusters. We discuss a number of important issues that need to be taken into account, associated with the use of non-parametric and parametric lensing methods, as well as assumptions about the background cosmology. Our results show that the concentrationmore » and mass estimates in the modified gravity models are, within the error bars, the same as in Λ cold dark matter. This result demonstrates that, for the Nonlocal model, the modifications to gravity are too weak at the cluster redshifts, and for the Galileon model, the screening mechanism is very efficient inside the cluster radius. However, at distances ~ [2–20] Mpc/h from the cluster centre, we find that the surrounding force profiles are enhanced by ~ 20–40% in the Cubic Galileon model. This has an impact on dynamical mass estimates, which means that tests of gravity based on comparisons between lensing and dynamical masses can also be applied to the Cubic Galileon model.« less

  17. Les galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, Francoise

    2016-08-01

    Considerable progress has been made on galaxy formation and evolution in recent years, and new issues. The old Hubble classification according to the tuning fork of spirals, lenticulars and ellipticals, is still useful but has given place to the red sequence, the blue cloud and the green valley, showing a real bimodality of types between star forming galaxies (blue) and quenched ones (red). Large surveys have shown that stellar mass and environment density are the two main factors of the evolution from blue to red sequences. Evolution is followed directly with redshift through a look-back time of more than 12 billion years. The most distant galaxy at z=11. has already a stellar mass of a billion suns. In an apparent anti-hierarchical scenario, the most massive galaxies form stars early on, while essentially dwarf galaxies are actively star-formers now. This downsizing feature also applies to the growth of super-massive black holes at the heart of each bulgy galaxy. The feedback from active nuclei is essential to explain the distribution of mass in galaxies, and in particular to explain why the fraction of baryonic matter is so low, lower by more than a factor 5 than the baryonic fraction of the Universe. New instruments just entering in operation, like MUSE and ALMA, provide a new and rich data flow, which is developed in this series of articles.

  18. Galaxy clusters as hydrodynamics laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roediger, Elke; Sheardown, Alexander; Fish, Thomas; ZuHone, John; Hunt, Matthew; Su, Yuanyuan; Kraft, Ralph P.; Nulsen, Paul; Forman, William R.; Churazov, Eugene; Randall, Scott W.; Jones, Christine; Machacek, Marie E.

    2017-08-01

    The intra-cluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters shows a wealth of hydrodynamical features that trace the growth of clusters via the infall of galaxies or smaller subclusters. Such hydrodynamical features include the wakes of the infalling objects as well as the interfaces between the host cluster’s ICM and the atmosphere of the infalling object. Furthermore, the cluster dynamics can be traced by merger shocks, bow shocks, and sloshing motions of the ICM.The characteristics of these dynamical features, e.g., the direction, length, brightness, and temperature of the galaxies' or subclusters' gas tails varies significantly between different objects. This could be due to either dynamical conditions or ICM transport coefficients such as viscosity and thermal conductivity. For example, the cool long gas tails of of some infalling galaxies and groups have been attributed to a substantial ICM viscosity suppressing mixing of the stripped galaxy or group gas with the hotter ambient ICM.Using hydrodynamical simulations of minor mergers we show, however, that these features can be explained naturally by the dynamical conditions of each particular galaxy or group infall. Specifically, we identify observable features to distinguish the first and second infall of a galaxy or group into its host cluster as well as characteristics during apocentre passage. Comparing our simulations with observations, we can explain several puzzling observations such as the long and cold tail of M86 in Virgo and the very long and tangentially oriented tail of the group LEDA 87445 in Hydra A.Using our simulations, we also assess the validity of the stagnation pressure method that is widely used to determine an infalling galaxy's velocity. We show that near pericentre passage the method gives reasonable results, but near apocentre it is not easily applicable.

  19. Cartwheel Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A peculiar galaxy in the constellation of Sculptor that derives its name from its wheel-like appearance. The Cartwheel has a ring-shaped `rim', 150 000 light-years in diameter, that contains billions of recently formed stars and which is dominated by massive clusters of bright blue stars and HII regions. The nucleus, or `hub' of the galaxy contains a predominantly older population of stars and is...

  20. Frankenstein Galaxy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-11

    The galaxy UGC 1382 has been revealed to be far larger and stranger than previously thought. Astronomers relied on a combination of ground-based and space telescopes to uncover the true nature of this "Frankenstein galaxy." The composite image shows the same galaxy as viewed with different instruments. The component images are also available. In the image at left, UGC 1382 appears to be a simple elliptical galaxy, based on optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). But spiral arms emerged when astronomers incorporated ultraviolet data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) and deep optical data from SDSS, as seen in the middle image. Combining that with a view of low-density hydrogen gas (shown in green), detected at radio wavelengths by the Very Large Array, scientists discovered that UGC 1382 is a giant, and one of the largest isolated galaxies known. GALEX in particular was able detect very faint features because it operated from space, which is necessary for UV observations because ultraviolet light is absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere. Astronomers also used Stripe 82 of SDSS, a small region of sky where SDSS imaged the sky 80 times longer than the original standard SDSS survey. This enabled optical detection of much fainter features as well. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20695

  1. The dark side of galaxy colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearin, Andrew P.; Watson, Douglas F.

    2013-10-01

    We present age distribution matching, a theoretical formalism for predicting how galaxies of luminosity L and colour C occupy dark matter haloes. Our model supposes that there are just two fundamental properties of a halo that determine the colour and brightness of the galaxy it hosts: the maximum circular velocity Vmax and the redshift zstarve that correlates with the epoch at which the star formation in the galaxy ceases. The halo property zstarve is intended to encompass physical characteristics of halo mass assembly that may deprive the galaxy of its cold gas supply and, ultimately, quench its star formation. The new, defining feature of the model is that, at fixed luminosity, galaxy colour is in monotonic correspondence with zstarve, with the larger values of zstarve being assigned redder colours. We populate an N-body simulation with a mock galaxy catalogue based on age distribution matching and show that the resulting mock galaxy distribution accurately describes a variety of galaxy statistics. Our model suggests that halo and galaxy assembly are indeed correlated. We make publicly available our low-redshift, Sloan Digital Sky Survey Mr < -19 mock galaxy catalogue, and main progenitor histories of all z = 0 haloes, at http://logrus.uchicago.edu/~aphearin

  2. The effects of assembly bias on the inference of matter clustering from galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, Joseph E.; Weinberg, David H.

    2018-07-01

    The combination of galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising route to measuring the amplitude of matter clustering and testing modified gravity theories of cosmic acceleration. Halo occupation distribution (HOD) modelling can extend the approach down to non-linear scales, but galaxy assembly bias could introduce systematic errors by causing the HOD to vary with the large-scale environment at fixed halo mass. We investigate this problem using the mock galaxy catalogs created by Hearin & Watson (2013, HW13), which exhibit significant assembly bias because galaxy luminosity is tied to halo peak circular velocity and galaxy colour is tied to halo formation time. The preferential placement of galaxies (especially red galaxies) in older haloes affects the cutoff of the mean occupation function ⟨Ncen(Mmin)⟩ for central galaxies, with haloes in overdense regions more likely to host galaxies. The effect of assembly bias on the satellite galaxy HOD is minimal. We introduce an extended, environment-dependent HOD (EDHOD) prescription to describe these results and fit galaxy correlation measurements. Crucially, we find that the galaxy-matter cross-correlation coefficient, rgm(r) ≡ ξgm(r) . [ξmm(r)ξgg(r)]-1/2, is insensitive to assembly bias on scales r ≳ 1 h-1 Mpc, even though ξgm(r) and ξgg(r) are both affected individually. We can therefore recover the correct ξmm(r) from the HW13 galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-matter correlations using either a standard HOD or EDHOD fitting method. For Mr ≤ -19 or Mr ≤ -20 samples the recovery of ξmm(r) is accurate to 2 per cent or better. For a sample of red Mr ≤ -20 galaxies, we achieve 2 per cent recovery at r ≳ 2 h-1 Mpc with EDHOD modelling but lower accuracy at smaller scales or with a standard HOD fit. Most of our mock galaxy samples are consistent with rgm = 1 down to r = 1 h-1 Mpc, to within the uncertainties set by our finite simulation volume.

  3. The effects of assembly bias on the inference of matter clustering from galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, Joseph E.; Weinberg, David H.

    2018-04-01

    The combination of galaxy-galaxy lensing (GGL) and galaxy clustering is a promising route to measuring the amplitude of matter clustering and testing modified gravity theories of cosmic acceleration. Halo occupation distribution (HOD) modeling can extend the approach down to nonlinear scales, but galaxy assembly bias could introduce systematic errors by causing the HOD to vary with large scale environment at fixed halo mass. We investigate this problem using the mock galaxy catalogs created by Hearin & Watson (2013, HW13), which exhibit significant assembly bias because galaxy luminosity is tied to halo peak circular velocity and galaxy colour is tied to halo formation time. The preferential placement of galaxies (especially red galaxies) in older halos affects the cutoff of the mean occupation function for central galaxies, with halos in overdense regions more likely to host galaxies. The effect of assembly bias on the satellite galaxy HOD is minimal. We introduce an extended, environment dependent HOD (EDHOD) prescription to describe these results and fit galaxy correlation measurements. Crucially, we find that the galaxy-matter cross-correlation coefficient, rgm(r) ≡ ξgm(r) . [ξmm(r)ξgg(r)]-1/2, is insensitive to assembly bias on scales r ≳ 1 h^{-1} Mpc, even though ξgm(r) and ξgg(r) are both affected individually. We can therefore recover the correct ξmm(r) from the HW13 galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-matter correlations using either a standard HOD or EDHOD fitting method. For Mr ≤ -19 or Mr ≤ -20 samples the recovery of ξmm(r) is accurate to 2% or better. For a sample of red Mr ≤ -20 galaxies we achieve 2% recovery at r ≳ 2 h^{-1} Mpc with EDHOD modeling but lower accuracy at smaller scales or with a standard HOD fit. Most of our mock galaxy samples are consistent with rgm = 1 down to r = 1h-1Mpc, to within the uncertainties set by our finite simulation volume.

  4. Narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies at hard X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panessa, F.; de Rosa, A.; Bassani, L.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A.; Landi, R.; Malizia, A.; Miniutti, G.; Molina, M.; Ubertini, P.

    2011-11-01

    Narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxies are a peculiar class of type 1 active galactic nuclei (broad-line Seyfert 1 galaxies, hereinafter BLSy1). The X-ray properties of individual objects belonging to this class are often extreme and associated with accretion at high Eddington ratios. Here, we present a study on a sample of 14 NLSy1 galaxies selected at hard X-rays (>20 keV) from the fourth INTEGRAL/IBIS catalogue. The 20-100 keV IBIS spectra show hard-X-ray photon indices flatly distributed (Γ20-100 keV ranging from ˜1.3 to ˜3.6) with an average value of <Γ20-100 keV>= 2.3 ± 0.7, compatible with a sample of hard-X-ray BLSy1 average slopes. Instead, NLSy1 galaxies show steeper spectral indices with respect to BLSy1 galaxies when broad-band spectra are considered. Indeed, we combine XMM-Newton and Swift/XRT with INTEGRAL/IBIS data sets to obtain a wide energy spectral coverage (0.3-100 keV). A constraint on the high energy cut-off and on the reflection component is achieved only in one source, SWIFT J2127.4+5654 (Ecut-off˜ 50 keV, R= 1.0+0.5- 0.4). Hard-X-ray-selected NLSy1 galaxies do not display particularly strong soft excess emission, while absorption fully or partially covering the continuum is often measured as well as Fe line emission features. Variability is a common trait in this sample, both at X-rays and at hard X-rays. The fraction of NLSy1 galaxies in the hard-X-ray sky is likely to be ˜15 per cent, in agreement with estimates derived in optically selected NLSy1 samples. We confirm the association of NLSy1 galaxies with small black hole masses with a peak at 107 M⊙ in the distribution; however, hard-X-ray NLSy1 galaxies seem to occupy the lower tail of the Eddington ratio distribution of classical NLSy1 galaxies. Based on observations obtained with the INTEGRAL/IBIS, XMM-Newton and Swift/XRT.

  5. Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Christopher J. Miller

    2012-03-01

    There are many examples of clustering in astronomy. Stars in our own galaxy are often seen as being gravitationally bound into tight globular or open clusters. The Solar System's Trojan asteroids cluster at the gravitational Langrangian in front of Jupiter’s orbit. On the largest of scales, we find gravitationally bound clusters of galaxies, the Virgo cluster (in the constellation of Virgo at a distance of ˜50 million light years) being a prime nearby example. The Virgo cluster subtends an angle of nearly 8◦ on the sky and is known to contain over a thousand member galaxies. Galaxy clusters play an important role in our understanding of theUniverse. Clusters exist at peaks in the three-dimensional large-scale matter density field. Their sky (2D) locations are easy to detect in astronomical imaging data and their mean galaxy redshifts (redshift is related to the third spatial dimension: distance) are often better (spectroscopically) and cheaper (photometrically) when compared with the entire galaxy population in large sky surveys. Photometric redshift (z) [Photometric techniques use the broad band filter magnitudes of a galaxy to estimate the redshift. Spectroscopic techniques use the galaxy spectra and emission/absorption line features to measure the redshift] determinations of galaxies within clusters are accurate to better than delta_z = 0.05 [7] and when studied as a cluster population, the central galaxies form a line in color-magnitude space (called the the E/S0 ridgeline and visible in Figure 16.3) that contains galaxies with similar stellar populations [15]. The shape of this E/S0 ridgeline enables astronomers to measure the cluster redshift to within delta_z = 0.01 [23]. The most accurate cluster redshift determinations come from spectroscopy of the member galaxies, where only a fraction of the members need to be spectroscopically observed [25,42] to get an accurate redshift to the whole system. If light traces mass in the Universe, then the locations

  6. The Redshift Completeness of Local Galaxy Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, S. R.; Perley, D. A.; Miller, A. A.

    2018-06-01

    There is considerable interest in understanding the demographics of galaxies within the local universe (defined, for our purposes, as the volume within a radius of 200 Mpc or z ≤ 0.05). In this pilot paper, using supernovae (SNe) as signposts to galaxies, we investigate the redshift completeness of catalogs of nearby galaxies. In particular, type Ia SNe are bright and are good tracers of the bulk of the galaxy population, as they arise in both old and young stellar populations. Our input sample consists of SNe with redshift ≤0.05, discovered by the flux-limited ASAS-SN survey. We define the redshift completeness fraction (RCF) as the number of SN host galaxies with known redshift prior to SN discovery, determined, in this case, via the NASA Extragalactic Database, divided by the total number of newly discovered SNe. Using SNe Ia, we find {RCF}=78{+/- }76% (90% confidence interval) for z < 0.03. We examine the distribution of host galaxies with and without cataloged redshifts as a function of absolute magnitude and redshift, and, unsurprisingly, find that higher-z and fainter hosts are less likely to have a known redshift prior to the detection of the SN. However, surprisingly, some {L}* galaxies are also missing. We conclude with thoughts on the future improvement of RCF measurements that will be made possible from large SN samples resulting from ongoing and especially upcoming time-domain surveys.

  7. Dual Active Galactic Nuclei in Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Mousumi; Rubinur, Khatun; Karb, Preeti; Varghese, Ashlin; Novakkuni, Navyasree; James, Atul

    2018-04-01

    Galaxy mergers play a crucial role in the formation of massive galaxies and the buildup of their bulges. An important aspect of the merging process is the in-spiral of the supermassive black-holes (SMBHs) to the centre of the merger remnant and the eventual formation of a SMBH binary. If both the SMBHs are accreting they will form a dual or binary active galactic nucleus (DAGN). The final merger remnant is usually very bright and shows enhanced star formation. In this paper we summarise the current sample of DAGN from previous studies and describe methods that can be used to identify strong DAGN candidates from optical and spectroscopic surveys. These methods depend on the Doppler separation of the double peaked AGN emission lines, the nuclear velocity dispersion of the galaxies and their optical/UV colours. We describe two high resolution, radio observations of DAGN candidates that have been selected based on their double peaked optical emission lines (DPAGN). We also examine whether DAGN host galaxies have higher star formation rates (SFRs) compared to merging galaxies that do not appear to have DAGN. We find that the SFR is not higher for DAGN host galaxies. This suggests that the SFRs in DAGN host galaxies is due to the merging process itself and not related to the presence of two AGN in the system.

  8. Morphology of Dwarf Galaxies in Isolated Satellite Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ann, Hong Bae

    2017-08-01

    The environmental dependence of the morphology of dwarf galaxies in isolated satellite systems is analyzed to understand the origin of the dwarf galaxy morphology using the visually classified morphological types of 5836 local galaxies with z ≲ 0.01. We consider six sub-types of dwarf galaxies, dS0, dE, dE_{bc}, dSph, dE_{blue}, and dI, of which the first four sub-types are considered as early-type and the last two as late-type. The environmental parameters we consider are the projected distance from the host galaxy (r_{p}), local and global background densities, and the host morphology. The spatial distributions of dwarf satellites of early-type galaxies are much different from those of dwarf satellites of late-type galaxies, suggesting the host morphology combined with r_{p} plays a decisive role on the morphology of the dwarf satellite galaxies. The local and global background densities play no significant role on the morphology of dwarfs in the satellite systems hosted by early-type galaxies. However, in the satellite system hosted by late-type galaxies, the global background densities of dE and dSph satellites are significantly different from those of dE_{bc}, dE_{blue}, and dI satellites. The blue-cored dwarf satellites (dE_{bc}) of early-type galaxies are likely to be located at r_{p} > 0.3 Mpc to keep their cold gas from the ram pressure stripping by the hot corona of early-type galaxies. The spatial distribution of dE_{bc} satellites of early-type galaxies and their global background densities suggest that their cold gas is intergalactic material accreted before they fall into the satellite systems.

  9. LINER galaxy properties and the local environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coldwell, Georgina V.; Alonso, Sol; Duplancic, Fernanda; Mesa, Valeria

    2018-05-01

    We analyse the properties of a sample of 5560 low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) galaxies selected from SDSS-DR12 at low red shift, for a complete range of local density environments. The host LINER galaxies were studied and compared with a well-defined control sample of 5553 non-LINER galaxies matched in red shift, luminosity, morphology and local density. By studying the distributions of galaxy colours and the stellar age population, we find that LINERs are redder and older than the control sample over a wide range of densities. In addition, LINERs are older than the control sample, at a given galaxy colour, indicating that some external process could have accelerated the evolution of the stellar population. The analysis of the host properties shows that the control sample exhibits a strong relation between colours, ages and the local density, while more than 90 per cent of the LINERs are redder and older than the mean values, independently of the neighbourhood density. Furthermore, a detailed study in three local density ranges shows that, while control sample galaxies are redder and older as a function of stellar mass and density, LINER galaxies mismatch the known morphology-density relation of galaxies without low-ionization features. The results support the contribution of hot and old stars to the low-ionization emission although the contribution of nuclear activity is not discarded.

  10. The H IX galaxy survey - II. H I kinematics of H I eXtreme galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, K. A.; Kilborn, V. A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Catinella, B.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Wong, O. I.; Stevens, A. R. H.; Obreschkow, D.; Dénes, H.

    2018-05-01

    By analysing a sample of galaxies selected from the H I Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) to contain more than 2.5 times their expected H I content based on their optical properties, we investigate what drives these H I eXtreme (H IX) galaxies to be so H I-rich. We model the H I kinematics with the Tilted Ring Fitting Code TiRiFiC and compare the observed H IX galaxies to a control sample of galaxies from HIPASS as well as simulated galaxies built with the semi-analytic model DARK SAGE. We find that (1) H I discs in H IX galaxies are more likely to be warped and more likely to host H I arms and tails than in the control galaxies, (2) the average H I and average stellar column density of H IX galaxies is comparable to the control sample, (3) H IX galaxies have higher H I and baryonic specific angular momenta than control galaxies, (4) most H IX galaxies live in higher spin haloes than most control galaxies. These results suggest that H IX galaxies are H I-rich because they can support more H I against gravitational instability due to their high specific angular momentum. The majority of the H IX galaxies inherits their high specific angular momentum from their halo. The H I content of H IX galaxies might be further increased by gas-rich minor mergers. This paper is based on data obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array through the large program C 2705.

  11. A critical analysis of high-redshift, massive, galaxy clusters. Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyle, Ben; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia

    2012-02-01

    We critically investigate current statistical tests applied to high redshift clusters of galaxies in order to test the standard cosmological model and describe their range of validity. We carefully compare a sample of high-redshift, massive, galaxy clusters with realistic Poisson sample simulations of the theoretical mass function, which include the effect of Eddington bias. We compare the observations and simulations using the following statistical tests: the distributions of ensemble and individual existence probabilities (in the > M, > z sense), the redshift distributions, and the 2d Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Using seemingly rare clusters from Hoyle et al. (2011), and Jee etmore » al. (2011) and assuming the same survey geometry as in Jee et al. (2011, which is less conservative than Hoyle et al. 2011), we find that the ( > M, > z) existence probabilities of all clusters are fully consistent with ΛCDM. However assuming the same survey geometry, we use the 2d K-S test probability to show that the observed clusters are not consistent with being the least probable clusters from simulations at > 95% confidence, and are also not consistent with being a random selection of clusters, which may be caused by the non-trivial selection function and survey geometry. Tension can be removed if we examine only a X-ray selected sub sample, with simulations performed assuming a modified survey geometry.« less

  12. The CfA-Rosat Survey of Distant Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, Brian

    1998-01-01

    We (Vikhlinin, McNamara, Forman, Jones, Hornstrup, Quintana) have completed a new survey of distant clusters of galaxies, which we use to to study cluster evolution over cosmological timescales. The clusters were identified as extended X-ray sources in 650 ROSAT PSPC images of high Galactic latitude fields. Our catalog of approximately 230 extended X-ray sources covers 160 square degrees on the sky. Ours is the largest of the several ROSAT serendipitous cluster surveys in progress (e.g. SHARC, Rosati, WARPS etc.). Using V,R,I imagery obtained at several observatories, we find that greater than 90% of the X-ray sources are associated with distant clusters of galaxies. We have obtained spectroscopic redshifts for nearly 80 clusters in our catalog, and we have measured photometric redshifts for the remaining clusters. Our sample contains more than 20 clusters at z > 0.5. I will discuss the logN-logS relationship for our clusters. Because our large survey area, we are able to confirm the evolution of the most luminous distant clusters first seen in the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey. In addition, I will discuss the relationships between optical richness, core radius, and X-ray luminosity for distant, X-ray-selected clusters.

  13. New Members in the Galaxy Group Around Giant Radio Galaxy DA 240

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ru-Rong; Peng, Bo; Strom, Richard

    2018-05-01

    With new spectroscopic observations of group candidates around the giant radio galaxy DA 240, we have identified five new group members, increasing the number to twenty-five. While all the new members are located some distance from the host galaxy, two of them lie in one of the radio lobes, and the rest are found at a distance from the radio components. The new group members reinforce our earlier conclusion that the distribution of the DA 240 group with respect to the radio lobes is unusual among giant radio galaxy host environments.

  14. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormendy, John

    2013-10-01

    bulges because the latter retain a `memory' of their disky origin. That is, they have one or more characteristics of disks: (1) flatter shapes than those of classical bulges, (2) correspondingly large ratios of ordered to random velocities, (3) small velocity dispersions with respect to the Faber-Jackson correlation between velocity dispersion and bulge luminosity, (4) spiral structure or nuclear bars in the `bulge' part of the light profile, (5) nearly exponential brightness profiles and (6) starbursts. So the cleanest examples of pseudobulges are recognisable. However, pseudo and classical bulges can coexist in the same galaxy. I review two important implications of secular evolution: (1) The existence of pseudobulges highlights a problem with our theory of galaxy formation by hierarchical clustering. We cannot explain galaxies that are completely bulgeless. Galaxy mergers are expected to happen often enough so that every giant galaxy should have a classical bulge. But we observe that bulgeless giant galaxies are common in field environments. We now realise that many dense centres of galaxies that we used to think are bulges were not made by mergers; they were grown out of disks. So the challenge gets more difficult. This is the biggest problem faced by our theory of galaxy formation. (2) Pseudobulges are observed to contain supermassive black holes (BHs), but they do not show the well-known, tight correlations between BH mass and the mass and velocity dispersion of the host bulge. This leads to the suggestion that there are two fundamentally different BH feeding processes. Rapid global inward gas transport in galaxy mergers leads to giant BHs that correlate with host ellipticals and classical bulges, whereas local and more stochastic feeding of small BHs in largely bulgeless galaxies evidently involves too little energy feedback to result in BH-host coevolution. It is an important success of the secular evolution picture that morphological differences can be used to

  15. Near-infrared imaging of CfA Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, K. K.; Rieke, G. H.

    1995-03-01

    We present near-IR images of 43 Seyfert galaxies from the CfA Seyfert sample. The near-IR luminosity is a good tracer of luminous mass in these galaxies. Most of the Seyfert nuclei are found in hosts of mass similar to that of L* galaxies and ranging in type from S0 to Sc. In addition, there is a population of low-mass host galaxies with very low luminosity Seyfert nuclei. We have examined our images for signs of perturbations that could drive fuel toward the galaxy nucleus, but there are none we can identify at a significant level. The critical element for fueling is evidently not reflected clearly in the large-scale distribution of luminous mass in the galaxy. The Seyfert hosts are compared with a sample of 50 low-redshift quasar host galaxies we have also imaged. The radio-quiet quasars and the Seyfert nuclei lie in similar kinds of galaxies spanning the same range of mass centered around L*. However, for the most luminous quasars, there is a correlation between the minimum host-galaxy mass and the luminosity of the active nucleus. Radio-loud quasars are generally found in hosts more massive than an L* galaxy. The low-luminosity quasars and the Seyfert nuclei both tend to lie in host galaxies seen preferentially face-on, which suggests that there is a substantial amount of obscuration coplanar with the galaxian disk. The obscuration must be geometrically thick (thickness-to-radius ratio approximately 1) and must cover a significant fraction of the narrow-line region (r greater than 100 pc).

  16. Radio emission in peculiar galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demellorabaca, Dulia F.; Abraham, Zulema

    1990-01-01

    During the last decades a number of surveys of peculiar galaxies have been carried out and accurate positions become available. Since peculiarities are a possible evidence of radio emission (Wright, 1974; Sulentic, 1976; Stocke et al., 1978), the authors selected a sample of 24 peculiar galaxies with optical jet-like features or extensions in different optical catalogues, mainly the Catalogue of Southern Peculiar Galaxies and Associations (Arp and Madore, 1987) and the ESO/Uppsala Survey of the ESO(B) Atlas (Lauberts, 1982) for observation at the radio continuum frequency of 22 GHz. The sample is listed in a table. Sol (1987) studied this sample and concluded that the majority of the jet-like features seem to admit an explanation in terms of interactive galaxies with bridges and/or tails due to tidal effects. Only in a few cases do the jets seem to be possibly linked to some nuclear activity of the host galaxy. The observations were made with the 13.7m-radome enclosed Itapetinga Radiotelescope (HPBW of 4.3 arcmin), in Brazil. The receiver was a 1 GHz d.s.b. super-heterodine mixer operated in total-power mode, with a system temperature of approximately 800 K. The observational technique consisted in scans in right ascention, centralized in the optical position of the galaxy. The amplitude of one scan was 43 arcmin, and its duration time was 20 seconds. The integration time was at least 2 hours (12 ten-minute observations) and the sensibility limit adopted was an antenna temperature greater than 3 times the r.m.s. error of the baseline determination. Virgo A was used as the calibrator source. Three galaxies were detected for the first time as radio sources and four other known galaxies at low frequencies had their flux densities measured at 22 GHz. The results for these sources are presented.

  17. Galaxy evolution. Isolated compact elliptical galaxies: stellar systems that ran away.

    PubMed

    Chilingarian, Igor; Zolotukhin, Ivan

    2015-04-24

    Compact elliptical galaxies form a rare class of stellar system (~30 presently known) characterized by high stellar densities and small sizes and often harboring metal-rich stars. They were thought to form through tidal stripping of massive progenitors, until two isolated objects were discovered where massive galaxies performing the stripping could not be identified. By mining astronomical survey data, we have now found 195 compact elliptical galaxies in all types of environment. They all share similar dynamical and stellar population properties. Dynamical analysis for nonisolated galaxies demonstrates the feasibility of their ejection from host clusters and groups by three-body encounters, which is in agreement with numerical simulations. Hence, isolated compact elliptical and isolated quiescent dwarf galaxies are tidally stripped systems that ran away from their hosts. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Whirlpool Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Scientists are seeing unprecedented detail of the spiral arms and dust clouds in the nearby Whirlpool galaxy, thanks to a new Hubble Space Telescope image, available at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/pictures/wfpc/wfpc.html. The image uses data collected January 15 and 24, 1995, and July 21, 1999, by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by JPL. Using the image, a research group led by Dr. Nick Scoville of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, clearly defined the structure of the galaxy's cold dust clouds and hot hydrogen, and they linked star clusters within the galaxy to their parent dust clouds.

    The Whirlpool galaxy is one of the most photogenic galaxies. This celestial beauty is easily seen and photographed with smaller telescopes and studied extensively from large ground- and space-based observatories. The new composite image shows visible starlight and light from the emission of glowing hydrogen, which is associated with the most luminous young stars in the spiral arms.

    The galaxy is having a close encounter with a nearby companion galaxy, NGC 5195, just off the upper edge of the image. The companion's gravitational pull is triggering star formation in the main galaxy, lit up by numerous clusters of young and energetic stars in brilliant detail. Luminous clusters are highlighted in red by their associated emission from glowing hydrogen gas.

    This image was composed by the Hubble Heritage Team from Hubble archive data and was superimposed onto data taken by Dr. Travis Rector of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory at the .9-meter (35-inch) telescope at the National Science Foundation's Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, Ariz. Scoville's team includes M. Polletta of the University of Geneva, Switzerland; S. Ewald and S. Stolovy of Caltech; and R. Thompson and M. Rieke of the University of Arizona, Tucson.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md., manages space operations for the Hubble Space

  19. Whirlpool Galaxy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-12-04

    The image from NASA Hubble Telescope shows spiral arms and dust clouds in the nearby Whirlpool galaxy. Visible starlight and light from the emission of glowing hydrogen is seen, which is associated with the most luminous young stars in the spiral arms.

  20. ALMA view of RX J1131-1231: Sub-kpc CO (2-1) mapping of a molecular disk in a lensed star-forming quasar host galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraficz, D.; Rybak, M.; McKean, J. P.; Vegetti, S.; Sluse, D.; Courbin, F.; Stacey, H. R.; Suyu, S. H.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    2018-05-01

    We present ALMA 2-mm continuum and CO (2-1) spectral line imaging of the gravitationally lensed z = 0.654 star-forming/quasar composite RX J1131-1231 at 240-400 mas angular resolution. The continuum emission is found to be compact and coincident with the optical emission, whereas the molecular gas forms a complete Einstein ring, which shows strong differential magnification. The de-lensed source structure is determined on 400-parsec-scales resolution using a Bayesian pixelated visibility-fitting lens modelling technique. The reconstructed molecular gas velocity-field is consistent with a large rotating disk with a major-axis FWHM 9.4 kpc at an inclination angle of i = 54° and with a maximum rotational velocity of 280 km s-1. From dynamical model fitting we find an enclosed mass within 5 kpc of M(r < 5 kpc) = (1.46 ± 0.31) × 1011 M⊙. The molecular gas distribution is highly structured, with clumps that are co-incident with higher gas velocity dispersion regions (40-50 km s-1) and with the intensity peaks in the optical emission, which are associated with sites of on-going turbulent star-formation. The peak in the CO (2-1) distribution is not co-incident with the AGN, where there is a paucity of molecular gas emission, possibly due to radiative feedback from the central engine. The intrinsic molecular gas luminosity is L'CO = 1.2 ± 0.3 × 1010 K km s-1 pc2 and the inferred gas mass is MH2 = 8.3 ± 3.0 × 1010 M⊙, which given the dynamical mass of the system is consistent with a CO-H2 conversion factor of α = 5.5 ± 2.0 M⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1. This suggests that the star-formation efficiency is dependent on the host galaxy morphology as opposed to the nature of the AGN. The far-infrared continuum spectral energy distribution shows evidence for heated dust, equivalent to an obscured star-formation rate of SFR = 69-25+41 × (7.3/μIR) M⊙ yr-1, which demonstrates the composite star-forming and AGN nature of this system.

  1. AM 2217-490: A polar ring galaxy under construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas-Lemes, P.; Rodrigues, I.; Faúndez-Abans, M.; Dors, O.

    2014-10-01

    This work is part of a series of case studies of Polar Ring Galaxies (PRGs) (see also Posters GAL-1: 163, GAL-2: 178). A PRG is formed by an early type host galaxy (e.g. lenticular or elliptical), surrounded by a ring of gas and stars orbiting approximately at the polar plane of the host galaxy. AM2217-490 is an interesting case of PRG in formation, with a still asymmetrical ring that surrounds the host galaxy. Apparently, this bluish structure (characteristic of the rings of PRGs), is not yet in equilibrium with the host galaxy. This study is based on spectra on the range 6250-7250 Å obtained with the CTIO 1.5 m telescope - Chile. From them, we measure a heliocentric radial velocity of 9152± 18 km/s. The value of the ionization parameter (log U = -3.5) is similar to that in interacting galaxies (Freitas-Lemes et al. 2013, submitted to MNRAS; and Krabbe et al. 2013, MNRAS Accepted), and lower than that of isolated ones. The electron density shows little variation along the major axis of the host galaxy, and a mean value typical of interacting galaxies. Diagnostic diagrams show that the nuclear region harbors an AGN, following a trend among polar ring galaxies. The low-resolution images of the SDSS show no tails or bridges connecting the galaxy to other objects, however, in a radius of 5 arcmin there are three other galaxies with similar speeds, featuring a group. A plausible hypothesis is that one of these galaxies may have interacted with AM2217-490, donating material to form the ring.

  2. Structural properties of faint low surface brightness galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahwa, Isha; Saha, Kanak

    2018-05-01

    We study the structural properties of Low Surface Brightness galaxies (LSB) using a sample of 263 galaxies observed by the Green Bank Telescope (Schneider et al. 1992). We perform 2D decompositions of these galaxies in the SDSS g, r and i bands using the GALFIT software. Our decomposition reveals that about 60% of these galaxies are bulgeless i.e., their light distributions are well modelled by pure exponential disks. The rest of the galaxies were fitted with two components: a Sersic bulge and an exponential disk. Most of these galaxies have bulge-to-total (B/T) ratio less than 0.1. However, of these 104 galaxies, 20% have B/T > 0.1 i.e., hosting significant bulge component and they are more prominent amongst the fainter LSBs. According to g - r colour criteria, most of the LSB galaxies in our sample are blue, with only 7 classified as red LSBs. About 15% of the LSB galaxies (including both blue and red) in our sample host stellar bars. The incidence of bars is more prominent in relatively massive blue LSB galaxies with very high gas fraction. These findings may provide important clues to the formation and evolution of LSB galaxies - in particular on the bar/bulge formation in faint LSB disks.

  3. Galaxy interactions and strength of nuclear activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simkin, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of data in the literature for differential velocities and projected separations of nearby Seyfert galaxies with possible companions shows a clear difference in projected separations between type 1's and type 2's. This kinematic difference between the two activity classes reinforces other independent evidence that their different nuclear characteristics are related to a non-nuclear physical distinction between the two classes. The differential velocities and projected separations of the galaxy pairs in this sample yield mean galaxy masses, sizes, and mass to light ratios which are consistent with those found by the statistical methods of Karachentsev. Although the galaxy sample discussed here is too small and too poorly defined to provide robust support for these conclusions, the results strongly suggest that nuclear activity in Seyfert galaxies is associated with gravitational perturbations from companion galaxies, and that there are physical distinctions between the host companions of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 nuclei which may depend both on the environment and the structure of the host galaxy itself.

  4. A Stellar Mass Threshold for Quenching of Field Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geha, M.; Blanton, M. R.; Yan, R.; Tinker, J. L.

    2012-09-01

    We demonstrate that dwarf galaxies (107 < M stellar < 109 M ⊙, -12 > Mr > -18) with no active star formation are extremely rare (<0.06%) in the field. Our sample is based on the NASA-Sloan Atlas which is a reanalysis of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8. We examine the relative number of quenched versus star-forming dwarf galaxies, defining quenched galaxies as having no Hα emission (EWHα < 2 Å) and a strong 4000 Å break. The fraction of quenched dwarf galaxies decreases rapidly with increasing distance from a massive host, leveling off for distances beyond 1.5 Mpc. We define galaxies beyond 1.5 Mpc of a massive host galaxy to be in the field. We demonstrate that there is a stellar mass threshold of M stellar < 1.0 × 109 M ⊙ below which quenched galaxies do not exist in the field. Below this threshold, we find that none of the 2951 field dwarf galaxies are quenched; all field dwarf galaxies show evidence for recent star formation. Correcting for volume effects, this corresponds to a 1σ upper limit on the quenched fraction of 0.06%. In more dense environments, quenched galaxies account for 23% of the dwarf population over the same stellar mass range. The majority of quenched dwarf galaxies (often classified as dwarf elliptical galaxies) are within 2 virial radii of a massive galaxy, and only a few percent of quenched dwarf galaxies exist beyond 4 virial radii. Thus, for galaxies with stellar mass less than 1.0 × 109 M ⊙, ending star formation requires the presence of a more massive neighbor, providing a stringent constraint on models of star formation feedback.

  5. A STELLAR MASS THRESHOLD FOR QUENCHING OF FIELD GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Geha, M.; Blanton, M. R.; Yan, R.

    2012-09-20

    We demonstrate that dwarf galaxies (10{sup 7} < M{sub stellar} < 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, -12 > M{sub r} > -18) with no active star formation are extremely rare (<0.06%) in the field. Our sample is based on the NASA-Sloan Atlas which is a reanalysis of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8. We examine the relative number of quenched versus star-forming dwarf galaxies, defining quenched galaxies as having no H{alpha} emission (EW{sub H{alpha}} < 2 A) and a strong 4000 A break. The fraction of quenched dwarf galaxies decreases rapidly with increasing distance from a massive host,more » leveling off for distances beyond 1.5 Mpc. We define galaxies beyond 1.5 Mpc of a massive host galaxy to be in the field. We demonstrate that there is a stellar mass threshold of M{sub stellar} < 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} below which quenched galaxies do not exist in the field. Below this threshold, we find that none of the 2951 field dwarf galaxies are quenched; all field dwarf galaxies show evidence for recent star formation. Correcting for volume effects, this corresponds to a 1{sigma} upper limit on the quenched fraction of 0.06%. In more dense environments, quenched galaxies account for 23% of the dwarf population over the same stellar mass range. The majority of quenched dwarf galaxies (often classified as dwarf elliptical galaxies) are within 2 virial radii of a massive galaxy, and only a few percent of quenched dwarf galaxies exist beyond 4 virial radii. Thus, for galaxies with stellar mass less than 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, ending star formation requires the presence of a more massive neighbor, providing a stringent constraint on models of star formation feedback.« less

  6. Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteucci, F.

    We review both the observational and theoretical constraints on the evolution of the abundances of heavy elements in gas and stars in galaxies of different morphological type. The main aim of this work is to document the progress made in our understanding of the physical processes regulating the chemical evolution of galaxies during the last sixteen years since the appearance, in this same journal (volume 5, page 287), of the well know review of Beatrice Tinsley, to whom I dedicate this paper. Finally, this article is addressed particularly to readers who do not actively work on galactic chemical evolution and who might use it as a cook book where the main ingredients are discussed and useful recipes can be found.

  7. Spherical galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telles, J. E.; de Souza, R. E.; Penereiro, J. C.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Presentamos fotometria fotografica de 8 objetos y espectrosco- pla para 3 galaxias, las cuales son buenos candidatos para galaxias esfericas. Los resultados fotometricos se presentan en la forma de iso- fotas y de perfiles radiales promedlo, de los cuales se derivan para- metros estructurales. Estas observaciones combinadas con parametros di- namicos obtenidos de observaciones espectrosc6picas, son consistentes con el plano fundamental derivado por Djorgovski y Davis (1987). ABSTRACT. We present photographic surface photometry for 8 objects and spectroscopy for 3 galaxies which are good candidates for spherical galaxies. Photometric results are presented in the form of isophotes and mean radial profiles from which we derived structural parameters. These observations combined with dynamical parameters obtained from spectroscopic observations are consistent with the fundamental plane derived by Djorgovski and Davis (1987). Keq wo : CALAXIES-ELLIPTICAL

  8. Galaxy formation

    PubMed Central

    Peebles, P. J. E.

    1998-01-01

    It is argued that within the standard Big Bang cosmological model the bulk of the mass of the luminous parts of the large galaxies likely had been assembled by redshift z ∼ 10. Galaxy assembly this early would be difficult to fit in the widely discussed adiabatic cold dark matter model for structure formation, but it could agree with an isocurvature version in which the cold dark matter is the remnant of a massive scalar field frozen (or squeezed) from quantum fluctuations during inflation. The squeezed field fluctuations would be Gaussian with zero mean, and the distribution of the field mass therefore would be the square of a random Gaussian process. This offers a possibly interesting new direction for the numerical exploration of models for cosmic structure formation. PMID:9419326

  9. A dichotomy in satellite quenching around L* galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, John I.; Wheeler, Coral; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S.; Cooper, Michael C.; Tollerud, Erik J.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the star formation properties of bright (˜0.1 L*) satellites around isolated ˜L* hosts in the local Universe using spectroscopically confirmed systems in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. Our selection method is carefully designed with the aid of N-body simulations to avoid groups and clusters. We find that satellites are significantly more likely to be quenched than a stellar mass-matched sample of isolated galaxies. Remarkably, this quenching occurs only for satellites of hosts that are themselves quenched: while star formation is unaffected in the satellites of star-forming hosts, satellites around quiescent hosts are more than twice as likely to be quenched than stellar-mass-matched field samples. One implication of this is that whatever shuts down star formation in isolated, passive L* galaxies also play at least an indirect role in quenching star formation in their bright satellites. The previously reported tendency for `galactic conformity' in colour/morphology may be a by-product of this host-specific quenching dichotomy. The Sérsic indices of quenched satellites are statistically identical to those of field galaxies with the same specific star formation rates, suggesting that environmental and secular quenching give rise to the same morphological structure. By studying the distribution of pairwise velocities between the hosts and satellites, we find dynamical evidence that passive host galaxies reside in dark matter haloes that are ˜45 per cent more massive than those of star-forming host galaxies of the same stellar mass. We emphasize that even around passive hosts, the mere fact that galaxies become satellites does not typically result in star formation quenching: we find that only ˜30 per cent of ˜0.1L* galaxies that fall in from the field are quenched around passive hosts, compared with ˜0 per cent around star-forming hosts.

  10. A Super Special Galaxy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-24

    There something special going on in the nearby Circinus galaxy, as revealed by this image from NASA WISE telescope. The Circinus galaxy is located in the constellation of Circinus and is obscured by the plane of our Milky Way galaxy.

  11. Smokin Hot Galaxy animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-03-16

    This infrared image from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope shows a galaxy that appears to be sizzling hot, with huge plumes of smoke swirling around it. The galaxy is known as Messier 82 or the Cigar galaxy.

  12. Galaxy NGC5962

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-25

    NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer took this ultraviolet color image of the galaxy NGC5962 on June 7, 2003. This spiral galaxy is located 90 million light-years from Earth. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04635

  13. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Keystones of galaxy evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1994-01-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are the most insignificant extragalactic stellar systems in terms of their visibility, but potentially very significant in terms of their role in the formation and evolution of much more luminous galaxies. We discuss the present observational data and their implications for theories of the formation and evolution of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The putative dark-matter content of these low-surface-brightness systems is of particular interest, as is their chemical evolution. Surveys for new dwarf spheroidals hidden behind the stars of our Galaxy and those which are not bound to giant galaxies may give new clues as to the origins of this unique class of galaxy.

  14. The formation of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Efstathiou, G.; Silk, J.

    1983-01-01

    Current models of galaxy formation are examined in a review of recent observational and theoretical studies. Observational data on elliptical galaxies, disk galaxies, luminosity functions, clustering, and angular fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background are summarized. Theoretical aspects discussed include the origin and early evolution of small fluctuations, matter and radiation fluctuations, the formation of large-scale structure, dissipationless galaxy formation, galaxy mergers, dissipational galaxy formation, and the implications of particle physics (GUTs, massive neutrinos, and gravitinos) for cosmology.

  15. Chemical enrichment in isolated barred spiral galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Hugo; Carles, Christian; Robichaud, Fidéle; Ellison, Sara L.; Williamson, David J.

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the role of bars in the chemical evolution of isolated disc galaxies, we performed a series of 39 gas dynamical simulations of isolated barred and unbarred galaxies with various masses, initial gas fractions, and AGN feedback models. The presence of a bar drives a substantial amount of gas toward the central region of the galaxy. In the most massive galaxies, this results in a violent starburst, followed by a drop in star formation resulting from gas exhaustion. The time delay between Type Ia and Type II supernovae explosions means that barred galaxies experience a rapid increase in [O/H] in the central region, and a much more gradual increase in [Fe/H]. In unbarred galaxies, star formation proceeds at a slow and steady rate, and oxygen and iron are produced at steady rates which are similar except for a time offset. Comparing the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies with the same central stellar mass M*, we find in barred galaxies an enhancement of 0.07 dex in [O/H], 0.05 dex in [Fe/H], and 0.05 dex in [O/Fe]. The [O/H] enhancement is in excellent agreement with observations from the SDSS. The initial gas fraction has very little effect on the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies, unless the galaxies experience a starburst. We considered AGN-host galaxies located near the bottom of the AGN regime, M* ≳ 3 × 1010M⊙, where AGN feedback dominates over supernovae feedback. We found that the impact of AGN feedback on the central abundances is marginal.

  16. Chemical enrichment in isolated barred spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Hugo; Carles, Christian; Robichaud, Fidèle; Ellison, Sara L.; Williamson, David J.

    2018-07-01

    To investigate the role of bars in the chemical evolution of isolated disc galaxies, we performed a series of 39 gas dynamical simulations of isolated barred and unbarred galaxies with various masses, initial gas fractions, and active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback models. The presence of a bar drives a substantial amount of gas towards the central region of the galaxy. In the most massive galaxies, this results in a violent starburst, followed by a drop in star formation resulting from gas exhaustion. The time delay between Type Ia and Type II supernovae explosions means that barred galaxies experience a rapid increase in [O/H] in the central region, and a much more gradual increase in [Fe/H]. In unbarred galaxies, star formation proceeds at a slow and steady rate, and oxygen and iron are produced at steady rates which are similar except for a time offset. Comparing the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies with the same central stellar mass M*, we find in barred galaxies an enhancement of 0.07 dex in [O/H], 0.05 dex in [Fe/H], and 0.05 dex in [O/Fe]. The [O/H] enhancement is in excellent agreement with observations from the SDSS. The initial gas fraction has very little effect on the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies, unless the galaxies experience a starburst. We considered AGN-host galaxies located near the bottom of the AGN regime, M* ≳ 3 × 1010M⊙, where AGN feedback dominates over supernovae feedback. We found that the impact of AGN feedback on the central abundances is marginal.

  17. Secular Black Hole Growth and Feedback in Merger-Free Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Brooke

    2016-10-01

    We will measure the merger-free galaxy-black hole mass relation for the first time, using a unique, newly-discovered sample of luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) hosted in galaxies that have not grown via mergers. Our preliminary study has shown that supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in bulgeless galaxies - i.e., galaxies that have never undergone a significant merger - can have substantial growth: bulges are not required for the formation and growth of SMBHs. The proposed targets are broad-line AGN with black hole masses spanning a wide mass range (1e6 to >1e9 M_Sun) and hosted in strongly disk dominated galaxies (>80% light from a disk). This sample is an ideal laboratory for understanding merger-free black hole growth and its feedback on the host galaxy. HST imaging will allow us to disentangle bright nuclear emission from host galaxy, measure bulge type and strength, and identify bulgeless galaxies that have evolved under purely secular conditions. In addition, we will determine whether merger-free galaxies lie on the same SMBH-galaxy relation as galaxies with substantial past mergers, or whether merger-free growth results in a separate relation. The answer to this question has profound consequences for the role of baryon dynamics in driving black hole-galaxy co-evolution.

  18. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY OF X-RAY-SELECTED YOUNG STARS IN THE CARINA NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidya, Kaushar; Chen, Wen-Ping; Lee, Hsu-Tai

    We present low-resolution optical spectra for 29 X-ray sources identified as either massive star candidates or low-mass pre-main-sequence (PMS) star candidates in the clusters Trumpler 16 and Trumpler 14 of the Carina Nebula. Spectra of two more objects (one with an X-ray counterpart, and one with no X-ray counterpart), not originally our targets, but found close (∼3″) to two of our targets, are presented as well. Twenty early-type stars, including an O8 star, seven B1–B2 stars, two B3 stars, a B5 star, and nine emission-line stars, are identified. Eleven T Tauri stars, including eight classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) and threemore » weak-lined T Tauri stars, are identified. The early-type stars in our sample are more reddened compared to the previously known OB stars of the region. The Chandra hardness ratios of our T Tauri stars are found to be consistent with the Chandra hardness ratios of T Tauri stars of the Orion Nebula Cluster. Most early-type stars are found to be nonvariable in X-ray emission, except the B2 star J104518.81–594217.9, the B3 star J104507.84–594134.0, and the Ae star J104424.76–594555.0, which are possible X-ray variables. J104452.20–594155.1, a CTTS, is among the brightest and the hardest X-ray sources in our sample, appears to be a variable, and shows a strong X-ray flare. The mean optical and near-infrared photometric variability in the V and K{sub s} bands, of all sources, is found to be ∼0.04 and 0.05 mag, respectively. The T Tauri stars show significantly larger mean variation, ∼0.1 mag, in the K{sub s} band. The addition of one O star and seven B1–B2 stars reported here contributes to an 11% increase of the known OB population in the observed field. The 11 T Tauri stars are the first ever confirmed low-mass PMS stars in the Carina Nebula region.« less

  19. On the surface density of X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccacaro, T.; Gioia, I. M.; Maccagni, D.; Stocke, J. T.

    1984-01-01

    Only a handful of BL Lac objects have been found as a result of systematic optical identification of serendipitous Einstein X-ray sources. By combining the data from two flux-limited complete X-ray surveys (the HEAO 1 A-2 and the Einstein Observatory Medium Sensitivity Survey) the surface density of X-ray emitting BL Lac objects is evaluated as a function of their X-ray flux. It is found that a single power law is not an acceptable representation of the BL Lac objects' X-ray log N-log S. The number-flux relationship is consistent with the Euclidean slope at 'high' flux levels but shows a drastic flattnring below fluxes of the order of 10 to the -12th ergs per sq cm/s. The implications of this result are briefly discussed with respect to the luminosity function, the cosmological evolution, and the X-ray to optical flux ratio in BL Lac objects.

  20. Galaxy Zoo: Observing secular evolution through bars

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Edmond; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.

    In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We findmore » that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).« less

  1. Galaxies Collide to Create Hot, Huge Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This image of a pair of colliding galaxies called NGC 6240 shows them in a rare, short-lived phase of their evolution just before they merge into a single, larger galaxy. The prolonged, violent collision has drastically altered the appearance of both galaxies and created huge amounts of heat turning NGC 6240 into an 'infrared luminous' active galaxy.

    A rich variety of active galaxies, with different shapes, luminosities and radiation profiles exist. These galaxies may be related astronomers have suspected that they may represent an evolutionary sequence. By catching different galaxies in different stages of merging, a story emerges as one type of active galaxy changes into another. NGC 6240 provides an important 'missing link' in this process.

    This image was created from combined data from the infrared array camera of NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope at 3.6 and 8.0 microns (red) and visible light from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (green and blue).

  2. Peering Into an Early Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    Thirteen billion years ago, early galaxies ionized the gas around them, producing some of the first light that brought our universe out of its dark ages. Now the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has provided one of the first detailed looks into the interior of one of these early, distant galaxies.Sources of LightArtists illustration of the reionization of the universe (time progresses left to right), in which ionized bubbles that form around the first sources of light eventually overlap to form the fully ionized universe we observe today. [Avi Loeb/Scientific American]For the first roughly hundred million years of its existence, our universe expanded in relative darkness there were no sources of light at that time besides the cosmic microwave background. But as mass started to condense to form the first objects, these objects eventually shone as the earliest luminous sources, contributing to the reionization of the universe.To learn about the early production of light in the universe, our best bet is to study in detail the earliest luminous sources stars, galaxies, or quasars that we can hunt down. One ideal target is the galaxy COSMOS Redshift 7, known as CR7 for short.Targeting CR7CR7 is one of the oldest, most distant galaxies known, lying at a redshift of z 6.6. Its discovery in 2015 and subsequent observations of bright, ultraviolet-emitting clumps within it have led to broad speculation about the source of its emission. Does this galaxy host an active nucleus? Or could it perhaps contain the long-theorized first generation of stars, metal-free Population III stars?To determine the nature of CR7 and the other early galaxies that contributed to reionization, we need to explore their gas and dust in detail a daunting task for such distant sources! Conveniently, this is a challenge that is now made possible by ALMAs incredible capabilities. In a new publication led by Jorryt Matthee (Leiden University, the Netherlands), a team of scientists now

  3. Galaxy NGC 55

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-10

    This image of the nearby edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 55 was taken by Galaxy Evolution Explorer on September 14, 2003, during 2 orbits. This galaxy lies 5.4 million light years from our Milky Way galaxy and is a member of the "local group" of galaxies that also includes the Andromeda galaxy (M31), the Magellanic clouds, and 40 other galaxies. The spiral disk of NGC 55 is inclined to our line of sight by approximately 80 degrees and so this galaxy looks cigar-shaped. This picture is a combination of Galaxy Evolution Explorer images taken with the far ultraviolet (colored blue) and near ultraviolet detectors, (colored red). The bright blue regions in this image are areas of active star formation detected in the ultraviolet by Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The red stars in this image are foreground stars in our own Milky Way galaxy. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04923

  4. Galaxy NGC 55

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of the nearby edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 55 was taken by Galaxy Evolution Explorer on September 14, 2003, during 2 orbits. This galaxy lies 5.4 million light years from our Milky Way galaxy and is a member of the 'local group' of galaxies that also includes the Andromeda galaxy (M31), the Magellanic clouds, and 40 other galaxies. The spiral disk of NGC 55 is inclined to our line of sight by approximately 80 degrees and so this galaxy looks cigar-shaped. This picture is a combination of Galaxy Evolution Explorer images taken with the far ultraviolet (colored blue) and near ultraviolet detectors, (colored red). The bright blue regions in this image are areas of active star formation detected in the ultraviolet by Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The red stars in this image are foreground stars in our own Milky Way galaxy.

  5. Weak lensing calibration of mass bias in the REFLEX+BCS X-ray galaxy cluster catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simet, Melanie; Battaglia, Nicholas; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Seljak, Uroš

    2017-04-01

    The use of large, X-ray-selected Galaxy cluster catalogues for cosmological analyses requires a thorough understanding of the X-ray mass estimates. Weak gravitational lensing is an ideal method to shed light on such issues, due to its insensitivity to the cluster dynamical state. We perform a weak lensing calibration of 166 galaxy clusters from the REFLEX and BCS cluster catalogue and compare our results to the X-ray masses based on scaled luminosities from that catalogue. To interpret the weak lensing signal in terms of cluster masses, we compare the lensing signal to simple theoretical Navarro-Frenk-White models and to simulated cluster lensing profiles, including complications such as cluster substructure, projected large-scale structure and Eddington bias. We find evidence of underestimation in the X-ray masses, as expected, with = 0.75 ± 0.07 stat. ±0.05 sys. for our best-fitting model. The biases in cosmological parameters in a typical cluster abundance measurement that ignores this mass bias will typically exceed the statistical errors.

  6. The Extreme Hosts of Extreme Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, James D.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results from a deeper survey of Luminous Supernova (LSN) hosts with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). We have added new, multiple kilo-second observations to our original observations of seventeen LSN hosts providing better constraints on their physical properties. We place the LSNe hosts on the galaxy NUV-r versus M(r) color magnitude diagram (CMD) with a larger comparison sample ( 26,000) to illustrate the extreme nature of these galaxies. The LSN hosts favor low-density regions of the galaxy CMD falling on the blue edge of the blue cloud toward the low luminosity end. The new observations provide tighter constraints on the star formation rates (SFRs) and stellar masses, M(*), and show that the LSNe result from regions of high specific star formation and yet low total SFR. This regime is of particular interest for exploring the upper end of the stellar IMF and its variation. If our understanding of the progenitors of the LSNe leans toward very massive (> 200 M_sun) progenitors, the potential for a conflict with IMF theory exists because the conditions found in the hosts producing the LSNe should not create such massive stars. If it also required that LSNe can only be produced in primordial or very low metallicity environments, then they will also provide evidence for strong variation in metallicity within a dwarf galaxy, since their masses are consistent with low, but not extreme metallicity.

  7. Uncovering the Spectral Energy Distribution in Active Galaxies Using High Ionization Mid-Infrared Emission Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melendez, M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Weaver, K. A.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    The shape of the spectral energy distribution of active galaxies in the EUV soft X-ray band (13.6 eV to 1 keV) is uncertain because obscuration by dust and gas can hamper our view of the continuum. To investigate the shape of the spectral energy distribution in this energy band, we have generated a set of photoionization models which reproduce the small dispersion found in correlations between high-ionization mid-infrared emission lines in a sample of hard X-ray selected AGN. Our calculations show that a broken power-law continuum model is sufficient to reproduce the [Ne V]14.32 microns/[Ne III], [Ne V]24.32 microns/[O IV]25.89 micron and [O IV] 25.89 microns/[Ne III] ratios, and does not require the addition of a "big bump" EUV model component. We constrain the EUV-soft X-ray slope, alpha(sub i), to be between 1.5 - 2.0 and derive a best fit of alpha(sub i) approx. 1.9 for Seyfert 1 galaxies, consistent with previous studies of intermediate redshift quasars. If we assume a blue bump model, most sources in our sample have derived temperatures between T(sub BB) = 10(exp 5.18) K to 10(exp 5.7) K, suggesting that the peak of this component spans a large range of energies extending from approx. (Lambda)600 A to > (Lambda)1900 A. In this case, the best fitting peak energy that matches the mid-infrared line ratios of Seyfert 1 galaxies occurs between approx. (Lambda)700-(Lambda)1000 A. Despite the fact that our results do not rule out the presence of an EUV bump, we conclude that our power-law model produces enough photons with energies > 4 Ry to generate the observed amount of mid-infrared emission in our sample of BAT AGN.

  8. Star Formation Activity in CLASH Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogarty, Kevin; Postman, Marc; Connor, Thomas; Donahue, Megan; Moustakas, John

    2015-11-01

    The CLASH X-ray selected sample of 20 galaxy clusters contains 10 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) that exhibit significant (>5σ) extinction-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). Star formation activity is inferred from photometric estimates of UV and Hα+[N ii] emission in knots and filaments detected in CLASH Hubble Space Telescope ACS and WFC3 observations. UV-derived SFRs in these BCGs span two orders of magnitude, including two with a SFR ≳ 100 M⊙ yr-1. These measurements are supplemented with [O ii], [O iii], and Hβ fluxes measured from spectra obtained with the SOAR telescope. We confirm that photoionization from ongoing star formation powers the line emission nebulae in these BCGs, although in many BCGs there is also evidence of a LINER-like contribution to the line emission. Coupling these data with Chandra X-ray measurements, we infer that the star formation occurs exclusively in low-entropy cluster cores and exhibits a correlation with gas properties related to cooling. We also perform an in-depth study of the starburst history of the BCG in the cluster RXJ1532.9+3021, and create 2D maps of stellar properties on scales down to ˜350 pc. These maps reveal evidence for an ongoing burst occurring in elongated filaments, generally on ˜0.5-1.0 Gyr timescales, although some filaments are consistent with much younger (≲100 Myr) burst timescales and may be correlated with recent activity from the active galactic nucleus. The relationship between BCG SFRs and the surrounding intracluster medium gas properties provide new support for the process of feedback-regulated cooling in galaxy clusters and is consistent with recent theoretical predictions. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel

  9. On the Supermassive Black Hole-Galaxy Coevolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, Sahil; Zhang, Shawn; Rodriguez, Aldo; Primack, Joel R.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, a major focus of astronomy has been the study of the effects of supermassive black holes (SMBH) on their host galaxies. Recent results have found strong correlations between SMBH mass and host galaxy properties, most notably in the bulge velocity dispersion and galaxy stellar mass. We utilize these relations along with a novel convolution method to construct number density models of different galaxy properties. Using these models, we compare two fundamental methods for constructing a black hole mass function (BHMF) with the M⊙-σ and M⊙-M* relations. With these methods, we estimate the redshift evolution of the BHMF and, based on that, compare mass growth histories of central black holes and their host galaxies. Additionally, we utilize a data compilation of over 500 galaxies with individual measurements of galaxy properties (BH mass, stellar velocity dispersion, stellar mass, etc.) and classify galaxies by their morphologies in order to shed light on the controversial Shankar et al. (2016) argument that observations are biased in favor of massive SMBHs. We find that such a bias has little impact on the SMBH-galaxy relations.We conclude that the galaxy sample is a fair representation of the local universe and argue that our BH number density and scaling relations can be employed in the future to constrain relevant mechanisms for galaxy formation. We emphasize that this is the most comprehensive and accurate study of SMBH-galaxy coevolution as of now. Most of this work was carried out by high school students working under the auspices of the Science Internship Program at UC Santa Cruz.

  10. Killing Star Formation in Satellite Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    When a dwarf galaxy falls into the halo of a large galaxy like the Milky Way, how is star formation in the dwarf affected? A collaboration led by Andrew Wetzel (California Institute of Technology and Carnegie Observatories) recently set out to answer this question using observations of nearby galaxies and simulations of the infall process. Observed Quenching: Isolated dwarf galaxies tend to be gas-rich and very actively star-forming. In contrast, most dwarf galaxies within 300 kpc of us (the Milky Way's virial radius) contain little or no cold gas, and they're quiescent: there's not much star formation happening. And this isn't just true of the Milky Way; we observe the same difference in the satellite galaxies surrounding Andromeda galaxy. Once a dwarf galaxy has moved into the gravitational realm of a larger galaxy, the satellite's gas vanishes rapidly and its star formation is shut off — but how, and on what timescale? The known dwarf galaxies in the Local Group (out to 1.6 Mpc) are plotted by their distance from their host vs. their stellar mass. Blue stars indicate actively star-forming dwarfs and red circles indicate quiescent ones. Credit: Wetzel et al. 2015. Timescales for Quiescence: To answer these questions, the authors explored the process of galaxy infall using Exploring the Local Volume in Simulations (ELVIS), a suite of cosmological N-body simulations intended to explore the Local Group. They combined the infall times from the simulations with observational knowledge of the fraction of nearby galaxies that are currently quiescent, in order to determine what timescales are required for different processes to deplete the gas in the dwarf galaxies and quench star formation. Based on their results, two types of quenching culprits are at work: gas consumption (where a galaxy simply uses up its immediate gas supply and doesn't have access to more) and gas stripping (where external forces like ram pressure remove gas from the galaxy). These processes

  11. Merging Galaxies Create a Binary Quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-02-01

    Astronomers have found the first clear evidence of a binary quasar within a pair of actively merging galaxies. Quasars are the extremely bright centers of galaxies surrounding super-massive black holes, and binary quasars are pairs of quasars bound together by gravity. Binary quasars, like other quasars, are thought to be the product of galaxy mergers. Until now, however, binary quasars have not been seen in galaxies that are unambiguously in the act of merging. But images of a new binary quasar from the Carnegie Institution's Magellan telescope in Chile show two distinct galaxies with "tails" produced by tidal forces from their mutual gravitational attraction. "This is really the first case in which you see two separate galaxies, both with quasars, that are clearly interacting," says Carnegie astronomer John Mulchaey who made observations crucial to understanding the galaxy merger. Most, if not all, large galaxies, such as our galaxy the Milky Way, host super-massive black holes at their centers. Because galaxies regularly interact and merge, astronomers have assumed that binary super-massive black holes have been common in the Universe, especially during its early history. Black holes can only be detected as quasars when they are actively accreting matter, a process that releases vast amounts of energy. A leading theory is that galaxy mergers trigger accretion, creating quasars in both galaxies. Because most such mergers would have happened in the distant past, binary quasars and their associated galaxies are very far away and therefore difficult for most telescopes to resolve. The binary quasar, labeled SDSS J1254+0846, was initially detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, a large scale astronomical survey of galaxies and over 120,000 quasars. Further observations by Paul Green of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and colleagues* using NASA's Chandra's X-ray Observatory and telescopes at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona and Palomar

  12. Galaxy groups

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Tully, R.

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times 10{supmore » 12}M{sub ⊙} are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of Ω{sub matter}∼0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.« less

  13. Globular Clusters for Faint Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    .The most striking feature of these galaxies, however, is that they are surrounded by a large number of compact objects that appear to be globular clusters. From the observations, Van Dokkum and collaborators estimate that Dragonfly 44 and DFX1 have approximately 74 and 62 globulars, respectively significantly more than the low numbers expected for galaxies of this luminosity.Armed with this knowledge, the authors went back and looked at archival observations of 14 other UDGs also located in the Coma cluster. They found that these smaller and fainter galaxies dont host quite as many globular clusters as Dragonfly 44 and DFX1, but more than half also show significant overdensities of globulars.Main panel: relation between the number of globular clusters and total absolute magnitude for Coma UDGs (solid symbols) compared to normal galaxies (open symbols). Top panel: relation between effective radius and absolute magnitude. The UDGs are significantly larger and have more globular clusters than normal galaxies of the same luminosity. [van Dokkum et al. 2017]Evidence of FailureIn general, UDGs appear to have more globular clusters than other galaxies of the same total luminosity, by a factor of nearly 7. These results are consistent with the scenario in which UDGs are failed galaxies: they likely have the halo mass to have formed a large number of globular clusters, but they were quenched before they formed a disk and bulge. Because star formation never got going in UDGs, they are now much dimmer than other galaxies of the same size.The authors suggest that the next step is to obtain dynamical measurements of the UDGs to determine whether these faint galaxies really do have the halo mass suggested by their large numbers of globulars. Future observations will continue to help us pin down the origin of these dim giants.CitationPieter van Dokkum et al 2017 ApJL 844 L11. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa7ca2

  14. Galactic satellite systems: radial distribution and environment dependence of galaxy morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ann, H. B.; Park, Changbom; Choi, Yun-Young

    2008-09-01

    We have studied the radial distribution of the early (E/S0) and late (S/Irr) types of satellites around bright host galaxies. We made a volume-limited sample of 4986 satellites brighter than Mr = -18.0 associated with 2254 hosts brighter than Mr = -19.0 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 sample. The morphology of satellites is determined by an automated morphology classifier, but the