Science.gov

Sample records for galaxies hosting x-ray-selected

  1. Host Galaxy Properties of the Swift BAT Ultra Hard X-Ray Selected AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Gehrels, Neil; Valencic, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    We have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected (14-195 keV) AGN with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (z<0.05), moderate luminosity AGN from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) sample. The BAT AGN host galaxies have intermediate optical colors (u -- r and g -- r) that are bluer than a comparison sample of inactive galaxies and optically selected AGN from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are chosen to have the same stellar mass. Based on morphological classifications from the RC3 and the Galaxy Zoo, the bluer colors of BAT AGN are mainly due to a higher fraction of mergers and massive spirals than in the comparison samples. BAT AGN in massive galaxies (log Stellar Mass >10.5) have a 5 to 10 times higher rate of spiral morphologies than in SDSS AGN or inactive galaxies. We also see enhanced far-IR emission in BAT AGN suggestive of higher levels of star formation compared to the comparison samples. BAT AGN are preferentially found in the most massive host galaxies with high concentration indexes indicative of large bulge-to-disk ratios and large supermassive black holes. The narrow-line (NL) BAT AGN have similar intrinsic luminosities as the SDSS NL Seyferts based on measurements of [O III] Lambda 5007. There is also a correlation between the stellar mass and X-ray emission. The BAT AGN in mergers have bluer colors and greater ultra hard X-ray emission compared to the BAT sample as whole. In agreement with the Unified Model of AGN, and the relatively unbiased nature of the BAT sources, the host galaxy colors and morphologies are independent of measures of obscuration such as X-ray column density or Seyfert type. The high fraction of massive spiral galaxies and galaxy mergers in BAT AGN suggest that host galaxy morphology is related to the activation and fueling of local AGN.

  2. HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES OF THE SWIFT BAT ULTRA HARD X-RAY SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2011-10-01

    We have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected (14-195 keV) active galactic nucleus (AGN) with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (z < 0.05), moderate luminosity AGNs from the Swift BAT sample. The BAT AGN host galaxies have intermediate optical colors (u - r and g - r) that are bluer than a comparison sample of inactive galaxies and optically selected AGNs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are chosen to have the same stellar mass. Based on morphological classifications from the RC3 and the Galaxy Zoo, the bluer colors of BATmore » AGNs are mainly due to a higher fraction of mergers and massive spirals than in the comparison samples. BAT AGNs in massive galaxies (log M{sub *} >10.5) have a 5-10 times higher rate of spiral morphologies than in SDSS AGNs or inactive galaxies. We also see enhanced far-infrared emission in BAT AGN suggestive of higher levels of star formation compared to the comparison samples. BAT AGNs are preferentially found in the most massive host galaxies with high concentration indexes indicative of large bulge-to-disk ratios and large supermassive black holes. The narrow-line (NL) BAT AGNs have similar intrinsic luminosities as the SDSS NL Seyferts based on measurements of [O III] {lambda}5007. There is also a correlation between the stellar mass and X-ray emission. The BAT AGNs in mergers have bluer colors and greater ultra hard X-ray emission compared to the BAT sample as a whole. In agreement with the unified model of AGNs, and the relatively unbiased nature of the BAT sources, the host galaxy colors and morphologies are independent of measures of obscuration such as X-ray column density or Seyfert type. The high fraction of massive spiral galaxies and galaxy mergers in BAT AGNs suggest that host galaxy morphology is related to the activation and fueling of local AGN.« less

  3. The host galaxies of ultra hard X-ray selected AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koss, Michael J.

    One of the great mysteries surrounding active galactic nuclei (AGN) is their triggering mechanism. Since the discovery that almost all massive galaxies host nuclear supermassive black holes, it has become clear that a trigger mechanism is required to 'turn on' and continue to fuel the central black hole. While it is established that accretion processes are responsible for the energy emitted, the source of the accreting material is still controversial. Furthermore, the energy input from phases of black hole growth is thought to be a key regulator in the formation of galaxies and the establishment of various scaling relations. Theorists often invoke galaxy mergers as the violent mechanism to drive gas into the central regions and ignite luminous quasars, but among more common moderate luminosity AGN, there has been great controversy whether secular processes or mergers dominate AGN fueling. A survey in the ultra hard X-ray band (14--195 keV) is an important new way to answer the fundamental question of AGN fueling. This method is independent of selection effects such as dust extinction and obscuration that plague surveys at other wavelengths because of the ability of the primary continuum to easily pass through large columns of obscuring gas and dust (<10 24 cm-2). In this PhD, we have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected AGN with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (z<0.05), moderate luminosity AGN from the Swift BAT sample. We find that these AGN show much higher rates of both mergers and massive spirals suggesting both mergers and accretion of cold gas in late type systems are important in AGN fueling. We also find that the most common AGN survey technique, optical line diagnostics, is heavily biased against finding AGN in mergers or spirals. Finally, in agreement with the merger driven AGN link, we find that dual AGN systems may be more common than current observation suggest since some of them are only detected using high

  4. AGN-host galaxy connection: morphology and colours of X-ray selected AGN at z ≤ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pović, M.; Sánchez-Portal, M.; Pérez García, A. M.; Bongiovanni, A.; Cepa, J.; Huertas-Company, M.; Lara-López, M. A.; Fernández Lorenzo, M.; Ederoclite, A.; Alfaro, E.; Castañeda, H.; Gallego, J.; González-Serrano, J. I.; González, J. J.

    2012-05-01

    early- and late-type AGN cover similar ranges of X-ray obscuration, for both unobscured and obscured sources. Conclusions: Our findings appear to confirm some previous suggestions that X-ray selected AGN residing in the green valley represent a transitional population, quenching star formation by means of different AGN feedback mechanisms and evolving to red-sequence galaxies. They might be hosted by similar sources (the majority of sources being late-type elliptical and lenticular galaxies, and early-type spirals) with similar stellar populations, which are triggered mainly by major and/or minor mergers, and in some cases by means of secular mechanism, as shown in previous numerical simulations. In the aforementioned transition we observe different phases of AGN activity, with some AGN being in the "QSO-mode" detected as compact, blue, and unobscured in X-rays, and with others passing through different phases before and after the "QSO-mode", being obscured and unobscured in X-rays, respectively. Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/541/A118

  5. The Host Galaxies of X-Ray Selected Active Galactic Nuclei to z - 2.5: Structure, Star-Formation and Their Relationships from CANDELS and Herschel/Pacs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosario, D.J.; McIntosh, D. H.; van der Wel, A.; Kartaltepe, J.; Lang, P.; Santini, P.; Wuyts, S.; Lutz, D.; Rafelski, M.; Villforth, C.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We study the relationship between the structure and star-formation rate (SFR) of X-ray selected low and moderate luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the two Chandra Deep Fields, using Hubble Space Telescope imaging from the Cosmic Assembly Near Infrared Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and deep far-infrared maps from the PEP+GOODS-Herschel survey. We derive detailed distributions of structural parameters and FIR luminosities from carefully constructed control samples of galaxies, which we then compare to those of the AGNs. At z is approximately 1, AGNs show slightly diskier light profiles than massive inactive (non-AGN) galaxies, as well as modestly higher levels of gross galaxy disturbance (as measured by visual signatures of interactions and clumpy structure). In contrast, at z 2, AGNs show similar levels of galaxy disturbance as inactive galaxies, but display a red central light enhancement, which may arise due to a more pronounced bulge in AGN hosts or due to extinguished nuclear light. We undertake a number of tests of both these alternatives, but our results do not strongly favour one interpretation over the other. The mean SFR and its distribution among AGNs and inactive galaxies are similar at z greater than 1.5. At z less than 1, however, clear and significant enhancements are seen in the SFRs of AGNs with bulge-dominated light profiles. These trends suggest an evolution in the relation between nuclear activity and host properties with redshift towards a minor role for mergers and interactions at z greater than 15

  6. ROSAT PSPC spectra of X-ray selected narrow emission line galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colmenero, E. Romero; Carrera, F. J.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Mittaz, J. P. D.; McHardy, I. M.; Jones, L. R.

    1996-01-01

    The Rosat Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) spectra of a sample of 35 X-ray selected Narrow Emission Line Galaxies (NELGs) are presented. Of these 35 objects, 16 are from the Rosat International X-ray Optical Survey (RIXOS) and the remaining 19 were discovered during the optical identification of Rosat U.K. deep survey sources. A power law model with low energy absorption set at the Galactic value is found to be a good fit for all sources. The results indicate that the spectral slope of NELGs is flatter than that of active galactic nuclei.

  7. Far-ultraviolet and optical spectrophotometry of X-ray selected Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, J. T.; Bowyer, S.; Grewing, M.

    1986-01-01

    Five X-ray selected Seyfert galaxies were examined via near-simultaneous far-ultraviolet and optical spectrophotometry in an effort to test models for excitation of emission lines by X-ray and ultraviolet continuum photoionization. The observed Ly-alpha/H-beta ratio in the present sample averages 22, with an increase found toward the high-velocity wings of the H lines in the spectrum of at least one of the Seyfert I nuclei. It is suggested that Seyfert galaxies with the most high-velocity gas exhibit the highest Ly-alpha/H-beta ratios at all velocities in the line profiles, and that sometimes this ratio may be highest for the highest velocity material in the broad-line clouds. Since broad-lined objects are least affected by Ly-alpha trapping effects, they have Ly-alpha/H-beta ratios much closer to those predicted by early photoionization calculations.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: X-ray-selected normal galaxies (Georgantopoulos+, 2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgantopoulos, I.; Georgakakis, A.; Koulouridis, E.

    2006-04-01

    In this paper we estimate the local (z<0.22) X-ray luminosity function of 'normal' galaxies derived from the XMM-Newton Needles in the Haystack Survey. This is an on-going project that aims to identify X-ray-selected normal galaxies (i.e. non-AGN dominated) in the local Universe. We are using a total of 70 XMM-Newton fields covering an area of 11deg2 which overlap with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 2. Normal galaxies are selected on the basis of their resolved optical light profile, their low X-ray-to-optical flux ratio [log(fx/fo)<-2] and soft X-ray colours. We find a total of 28 candidate normal galaxies to the 0.58keV band flux limit of 2-10-15erg/cm2/s. Optical spectra are available for most sources in our sample (82 per cent). These provide additional evidence that our sources are bona fide normal galaxies with X-ray emission coming from diffuse hot gas emission and/or X-ray binaries rather than a supermassive black hole. (3 data files).

  9. STRUCTURE AND MORPHOLOGY OF X-RAY-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS HOSTS AT 1 < z < 3 IN THE CANDELS-COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Lulu; Chen, Yang; Li, Jinrong

    2014-03-20

    We analyze morphologies of the host galaxies of 35 X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z ∼ 2 in the Cosmic Evolution Survey field using Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 imaging taken from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. We build a control sample of 350 galaxies in total by selecting 10 non-active galaxies drawn from the same field with a similar stellar mass and redshift for each AGN host. By performing two-dimensional fitting with GALFIT on the surface brightness profile, we find that the distribution of the Sérsic index (n) of AGN hosts does not show a statistical differencemore » from that of the control sample. We measure the nonparametric morphological parameters (the asymmetry index A, the Gini coefficient G, the concentration index C, and the M {sub 20} index) based on point-source-subtracted images. All the distributions of these morphological parameters of AGN hosts are consistent with those of the control sample. We finally investigate the fraction of distorted morphologies in both samples by visual classification. Only ∼15% of the AGN hosts have highly distorted morphologies, possibly due to a major merger or interaction. We find there is no significant difference in the distortion fractions between the AGN host sample and control sample. We conclude that the morphologies of X-ray-selected AGN hosts are similar to those of non-active galaxies and most AGN activity is not triggered by a major merger.« less

  10. A cooling flow in a high-redshift, X-ray-selected cluster of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesci, Roberto; Perola, Giuseppe C.; Gioia, Isabella M.; Maccacaro, Tommaso; Morris, Simon L.

    1989-01-01

    The X-ray cluster of galaxies IE 0839.9 + 2938 was serendipitously discovered with the Einstein Observatory. CCD imaging at R and V wavelengths show that the color of the dominant elliptical galaxy of this cluster is significantly bluer than the colors of the next brightest cluster galaxies. Strong emission lines, typical of cD galaxies with cooling flows, are present in the spectrum of the dominant galaxy, from which a redshift of 0.193 is derived. The emitting line region is spatially resolved with an extension of about 13 kpc. All the collected data suggest that this cluster is one of the most distant cooling flow clusters known to date.

  11. X-ray-selected galaxy groups in Boötes

    SciTech Connect

    Vajgel, Bruna; Lopes, Paulo A. A.; Jones, Christine

    2014-10-10

    We present the X-ray and optical properties of the galaxy groups selected in the Chandra X-Boötes survey. We used follow-up Chandra observations to better define the group sample and their X-ray properties. Group redshifts were measured from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey spectroscopic data. We used photometric data from the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey to estimate the group richness (N {sub gals}) and the optical luminosity (L {sub opt}). Our final sample comprises 32 systems at z < 1.75 with 14 below z = 0.35. For these 14 systems, we estimate velocity dispersions (σ {sub gr}) and performmore » a virial analysis to obtain the radii (R {sub 200} and R {sub 500}) and total masses (M {sub 200} and M {sub 500}) for groups with at least 5 galaxy members. We use the Chandra X-ray observations to derive the X-ray luminosity (L{sub X} ). We examine the performance of the group properties σ{sub gr}, L {sub opt}, and L{sub X} , as proxies for the group mass. Understanding how well these observables measure the total mass is important to estimate how precisely the cluster/group mass function is determined. Exploring the scaling relations built with the X-Boötes sample and comparing these with samples from the literature, we find a break in the L{sub X} -M {sub 500} relation at approximately M {sub 500} = 5 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉} (for M {sub 500} > 5 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉}, M{sub 500}∝L{sub X}{sup 0.61±0.02}, while for M {sub 500} ≤ 5 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉}, M{sub 500}∝L{sub X}{sup 0.44±0.05}). Thus, the mass-luminosity relation for galaxy groups cannot be described by the same power law as galaxy clusters. A possible explanation for this break is the dynamical friction, tidal interactions, and projection effects that reduce the velocity dispersion values of the galaxy groups. By extending the cluster luminosity function to the group regime, we predict the number of groups that new X-ray surveys, particularly eROSITA, will detect. Based on our

  12. Search For Gamma-Ray Emission From X-Ray-Selected Seyfert Galaxies With Fermi -LAT

    DOE PAGES

    Ackermann, M.

    2012-02-23

    We report on a systematic investigation of the γ-ray properties of 120 hard Xray– selected Seyfert galaxies classified as ‘radio-quiet’ objects, utilizing the threeyear accumulation of Fermi–LAT data. Our sample of Seyfert galaxies is selected using the Swift–BAT 58-month catalog, restricting the analysis to the bright sources with average hard X-ray fluxes F14-195 keV ≥ 2.5 × 10 -11 erg cm -2 s -1 at high Galactic latitudes (|b| > 10°). In order to remove ‘radio-loud’ objects from the sample, we use the ‘hard X-ray radio loudness parameter’, RrX , defined as the ratio of the total 1.4 GHz radiomore » to 14 - 195 keV hard X-ray energy fluxes. Among 120 X-ray bright Seyfert galaxies with RrX < 10-4, we did not find a statistically significant γ-ray excess (TS > 25) positionally coincident with any target Seyferts, with possible exceptions of ESO 323–G077 and NGC 6814. The mean value of the 95% confidence level γ-ray upper limit for the integrated photon flux above 100 MeV from the analyzed Seyferts is ≃ 4×10 -9 ph cm -2 s -1 , and the upper limits derived for several objects reach ≃ 1 × 10 -9 ph cm -2 s -1 . Our results indicate that no prominent γ-ray emission component related to active galactic nucleus activity is present in the spectra of Seyferts around GeV energies. The Fermi–LAT upper limits derived for our sample probe the ratio of γ-ray to X-ray luminosities L /LX < 0.1, and even < 0.01 in some cases. The obtained results impose novel constraints on the models for high energy radiation of ‘radio-quiet’ Seyfert galaxies.« less

  13. SPIDERS: the spectroscopic follow-up of X-ray-selected clusters of galaxies in SDSS-IV

    DOE PAGES

    Clerc, N.; Merloni, A.; Zhang, Y. -Y.; ...

    2016-09-05

    SPIDERS (The SPectroscopic IDentification of ERosita Sources) is a programme dedicated to the homogeneous and complete spectroscopic follow-up of X-ray active galactic nuclei and galaxy clusters over a large area (~7500 deg 2) of the extragalactic sky. SPIDERS is part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-IV project, together with the Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and the Time-Domain Spectroscopic Survey. This study describes the largest project within SPIDERS before the launch of eROSITA: an optical spectroscopic survey of X-ray-selected, massive (~10 14–10 15 M⊙) galaxy clusters discovered in ROSAT and XMM–Newton imaging. The immediate aim is to determine precisemore » (Δz ~ 0.001) redshifts for 4000–5000 of these systems out to z ~ 0.6. The scientific goal of the program is precision cosmology, using clusters as probes of large-scale structure in the expanding Universe. We present the cluster samples, target selection algorithms and observation strategies. We demonstrate the efficiency of selecting targets using a combination of SDSS imaging data, a robust red-sequence finder and a dedicated prioritization scheme. We describe a set of algorithms and work-flow developed to collate spectra and assign cluster membership, and to deliver catalogues of spectroscopically confirmed clusters. We discuss the relevance of line-of-sight velocity dispersion estimators for the richer systems. We illustrate our techniques by constructing a catalogue of 230 spectroscopically validated clusters (0.031 < z < 0.658), found in pilot observations. Finally, we discuss two potential science applications of the SPIDERS sample: the study of the X-ray luminosity-velocity dispersion (LX–σ) relation and the building of stacked phase-space diagrams.« less

  14. SPIDERS: the spectroscopic follow-up of X-ray selected clusters of galaxies in SDSS-IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerc, N.; Merloni, A.; Zhang, Y.-Y.; Finoguenov, A.; Dwelly, T.; Nandra, K.; Collins, C.; Dawson, K.; Kneib, J.-P.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E.; Sadibekova, T.; Brownstein, J.; Lin, Y.-T.; Ridl, J.; Salvato, M.; Schwope, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Seo, H.-J.; Tinker, J.

    2016-12-01

    SPIDERS (The SPectroscopic IDentification of eROSITA Sources) is a programme dedicated to the homogeneous and complete spectroscopic follow-up of X-ray active galactic nuclei and galaxy clusters over a large area (˜7500 deg2) of the extragalactic sky. SPIDERS is part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-IV project, together with the Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and the Time-Domain Spectroscopic Survey. This paper describes the largest project within SPIDERS before the launch of eROSITA: an optical spectroscopic survey of X-ray-selected, massive (˜1014-1015 M⊙) galaxy clusters discovered in ROSAT and XMM-Newton imaging. The immediate aim is to determine precise (Δz ˜ 0.001) redshifts for 4000-5000 of these systems out to z ˜ 0.6. The scientific goal of the program is precision cosmology, using clusters as probes of large-scale structure in the expanding Universe. We present the cluster samples, target selection algorithms and observation strategies. We demonstrate the efficiency of selecting targets using a combination of SDSS imaging data, a robust red-sequence finder and a dedicated prioritization scheme. We describe a set of algorithms and work-flow developed to collate spectra and assign cluster membership, and to deliver catalogues of spectroscopically confirmed clusters. We discuss the relevance of line-of-sight velocity dispersion estimators for the richer systems. We illustrate our techniques by constructing a catalogue of 230 spectroscopically validated clusters (0.031 < z < 0.658), found in pilot observations. We discuss two potential science applications of the SPIDERS sample: the study of the X-ray luminosity-velocity dispersion (LX-σ) relation and the building of stacked phase-space diagrams.

  15. Galaxies in X-ray Selected Clusters and Groups in Dark Energy Survey Data: Stellar Mass Growth of Bright Central Galaxies Since z~1.2

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Y.; Miller, C.; McKay, T.; ...

    2016-01-10

    Using the science verification data of the Dark Energy Survey for a new sample of 106 X-ray selected clusters and groups, we study the stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies (BCGs) since redshift z ~ 1.2. Compared with the expectation in a semi-analytical model applied to the Millennium Simulation, the observed BCGs become under-massive/under-luminous with decreasing redshift. We incorporate the uncertainties associated with cluster mass, redshift, and BCG stellar mass measurements into analysis of a redshift-dependent BCG-cluster mass relation.

  16. Search for Gamma-ray Emission from X-Ray-selected Seyfert Galaxies with Fermi-LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Enoto, T.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Fortin, P.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Godfrey, G.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Llena Garde, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nishino, S.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Orlando, E.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Roth, M.; Sanchez, D. A.; Sbarra, C.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stawarz, Ł.; Strong, A. W.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.; Zimmer, S.

    2012-03-01

    We report on a systematic investigation of the γ-ray properties of 120 hard X-ray-selected Seyfert galaxies classified as "radio-quiet" objects, utilizing the three-year accumulation of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. Our sample of Seyfert galaxies is selected using the Swift Burst Alert Telescope 58 month catalog, restricting the analysis to the bright sources with average hard X-ray fluxes F 14 - 195 keV >= 2.5 × 10-11 erg cm-2 s-1 at high Galactic latitudes (|b| > 10°). In order to remove "radio-loud" objects from the sample, we use the "hard X-ray radio loudness parameter," R rX, defined as the ratio of the total 1.4 GHz radio to 14-195 keV hard X-ray energy fluxes. Among 120 X-ray bright Seyfert galaxies with R rX <10-4, we did not find a statistically significant γ-ray excess (TS > 25) positionally coincident with any target Seyferts, with possible exceptions of ESO 323-G077 and NGC 6814. The mean value of the 95% confidence level γ-ray upper limit for the integrated photon flux above 100 MeV from the analyzed Seyferts is ~= 4 × 10-9 photons cm-2 s-1 , and the upper limits derived for several objects reach ~= 1 × 10-9 photons cm-2 s-1 . Our results indicate that no prominent γ-ray emission component related to active galactic nucleus activity is present in the spectra of Seyferts around GeV energies. The Fermi-LAT upper limits derived for our sample probe the ratio of γ-ray to X-ray luminosities L γ/L X < 0.1, and even <0.01 in some cases. The obtained results impose novel constraints on the models for high-energy radiation of "radio-quiet" Seyfert galaxies.

  17. A new sample of X-ray selected narrow emission-line galaxies. II. Looking for True Seyfert 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, E.; Watson, M. G.

    2016-10-01

    A sample of X-ray and optically selected narrow emission-line galaxies (769 sources) from the 3XMM catalogue cross-correlated with SDSS (DR9) catalogue has been studied. Narrow-emission line active galactic nuclei (AGN; type-2) have been selected on the basis of their emission line ratios and/or X-ray luminosity. We have looked for X-ray unobscured type-2 AGN. As X-ray spectra were not available for our whole sample, we have checked the reliability of using the X-ray hardness ratio (HR) as a probe of the level of obscuration and we found a very good agreement with full spectral fitting results, with only 2% of the sources with apparently unobscured HR turning out to have an obscured spectrum. Despite the fact that type-2 AGN are supposed to be absorbed based on the Unified Model, about 60% of them show no sign or very low level of X-ray obscuration. After subtraction of contaminants to the sample, that is Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 and Compton-thick AGN, the fraction of unobscured Sy2 drops to 47%. For these sources, we were able to rule out dust reddening and variability for most of them as an explanation of the absence of optical broad emission-lines. The main explanations remaining are the dilution of weak/very broad emission-lines by the host galaxy and the intrinsic absence of the broad-line region (BLR) due to low accretion rates (I.e. True Sy2). However, the number of True Sy2 strongly depends on the method used to verify the intrinsic lack of broad lines. Indeed using the optical continuum luminosity to predict the BLR properties gives a much larger fraction of True Sy2 (about 90% of the unobscured Sy2 sample) than the use of the X-ray 2 keV luminosity (about 20%). Nevertheless the number of AGN we securely detected as True Sy2 is at least three times larger that the previously confirmed number of True Sy2.

  18. The EMSS catalog of X-ray-selected clusters of galaxies. 1: An atlas of CCD images of 41 distant clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gioia, I. M.; Luppino, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    An atlas of deep, wide-field R-band charge coupled device (CCD) images of a complete sample of distant, X-ray-selected clusters of galaxies is presented. These clusters are the 41 most distant (z is greater than or equal to 0.15) and most X-ray-luminous (L(sub x) is greater than or equal to 2 x 10(exp 44) ergs/s) clusters in the Einstein Observatory Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS) catalog that are observable from Mauna Kea (delta is greater than -40 deg). The sample spans a redshift range of 0.15 is less than or equal to z is less than or equal to 0.81 and includes at least two and possibly as many as six rich clusters with z is greater than 0.5. For the most part, the data are of superior quality, with a median seeing of 0.8 sec full width half-maximum (FWHM) and coverage of at least 1 Mpc x 1 Mpc in the cluster frame (H(sub 0) = 50; q(sub 0) = 1/2). In addition, we update the available optical, X-ray, and radio data on the entire EMSS sample of 104 clusters. We outline the cluster selection criteria in detail and emphasize that X-ray-selected cluster samples may prove to be more useful for cosmological studies than optically selected samples. The EMSS cluster sample in particular can be exploited for diverse cosmological investigations, as demonstrated by the detection of evolution in the X-ray luminosity function previously reported, and more recently by the discovery of a large number of gravitationally lensed images in these clusters.

  19. NARROW-LINE X-RAY-SELECTED GALAXIES IN THE CHANDRA -COSMOS FIELD. I. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPIC CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Pons, E.; Watson, M. G.; Elvis, M.

    2016-04-20

    The COSMOS survey is a large and deep survey with multiwavelength observations of sources from X-rays to the UV, allowing an extensive study of their properties. The central 0.9 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field have been observed by Chandra with a sensitivity up to 1.9 × 10{sup −16} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} in the full (0.5–10 keV) band. Photometric and spectroscopic identification of the Chandra -COSMOS (C-COSMOS) sources is available from several catalogs and campaigns. Despite the fact that the C-COSMOS galaxies have a reliable spectroscopic redshift in addition to a spectroscopic classification, the emission-line properties of thismore » sample have not yet been measured. We present here the creation of an emission-line catalog of 453 narrow-line sources from the C-COSMOS spectroscopic sample. We have performed spectral fitting for the more common lines in galaxies ([O ii] λ 3727, [Ne iii] λ 3869, H β , [O iii] λλ 4959, 5007, H α , and [N ii] λλ 6548, 6584). These data provide an optical classification for 151 (i.e., 33%) of the C-COSMOS narrow-line galaxies based on emission-line diagnostic diagrams.« less

  20. The radio properties of cD galaxies in Abell clusters. I - An X-ray selected sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Jack O.

    1990-01-01

    The radio and X-ray properties of a sample of 27 cD galaxies in rich clusters are presented. The radio data consist of 6 cm VLA maps at a resolution of 1-2 arcsec. The X-ray data consist of images and surface-brightness profiles from the Einstein IPC and derived quantities such as cooling times, mass-accretion rates, and thermal pressures from Arnaud (1988). These data are used to explore the relationship between X-ray cooling cores, and the power and morphology of the radio emission. It is found that 71 percent of the cD's with X-ray cooling cores are radio loud, whereas a smaller but still significant 23 percent of cD's without cooling cores are detected at 6 cm above 0.2 mJy. Among the radio galaxies in noncooling core clusters are luminous and extended wide-angle tails. There is a weak correlation between the mass-accretion rate and the radio power for cD's. There is also an interesting class of cooling core cluster (e.g., A2052) with small diameter, amorphous radio emission that may be the result of diffusion along radial magnetic fields set up in cooling inflows. Finally, the relationships between optical emission-line luminosity with radio power and mass-accretion rate are examined.

  1. Galaxies in x-ray selected clusters and groups in Dark Energy Survey Data I: Stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies since Z similar to 1.2

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Miller, C.; McKay, T.

    2016-01-10

    Using the science verification data of the Dark Energy Survey for a new sample of 106 X-ray selected clusters and groups, we study the stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies (BCGs) since redshift z similar to 1.2. Compared with the expectation in a semi-analytical model applied to the Millennium Simulation, the observed BCGs become under-massive/under-luminous with decreasing redshift. We incorporate the uncertainties associated with cluster mass, redshift, and BCG stellar mass measurements into an analysis of a redshift-dependent BCG-cluster mass relation, m(*) proportional to (M-200/1.5 x 10(14)M(circle dot))(0.24 +/- 0.08)(1+z)(-0.19 +/- 0.34), and compare the observed relation to themore » model prediction. We estimate the average growth rate since z = 1.0 for BCGs hosted by clusters of M-200,M-z = 10(13.8)M(circle dot); at z = 1.0: m(*, BCG) appears to have grown by 0.13 +/- 0.11 dex, in tension at the similar to 2.5 sigma significance level with the 0.40 dex growth rate expected from the semi-analytic model. We show that the build-up of extended intracluster light after z = 1.0 may alleviate this tension in BCG growth rates.« less

  2. First simultaneous optical/near-infrared imaging of an X-ray selected, high-redshift cluster of galaxies with GROND. The galaxy population of XMMU J0338.7 + 0030 at z = 1.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierini, D.; Šuhada, R.; Fassbender, R.; Nastasi, A.; Böhringer, H.; Salvato, M.; Pratt, G. W.; Lerchster, M.; Rosati, P.; Santos, J. S.; de Hoon, A.; Kohnert, J.; Lamer, G.; Mohr, J. J.; Mühlegger, M.; Quintana, H.; Schwope, A.; Biffi, V.; Chon, G.; Giodini, S.; Koppenhoefer, J.; Verdugo, M.; Ziparo, F.; Afonso, P. M. J.; Clemens, C.; Greiner, J.; Krühler, T.; Küpcü Yoldaş, A.; Olivares E., F.; Rossi, A.; Yoldaş, A.

    2012-04-01

    Context. The XMM-Newton Distant Cluster Project is a serendipitous survey for clusters of galaxies at redshifts z ≥ 0.8 based on deep archival XMM-Newton observations. X-ray sources identified as extended are screened against existing optical all-sky surveys for galaxies, in case of candidate high-z clusters followed up with imaging at 4 m-class telescopes and, ultimately, multi-object spectroscopy at 8 m-class telescopes. Low-significance candidate high-z clusters are followed up with the seven-channel imager GROND (Gamma-Ray Burst Optical and Near-Infrared Detector) that is mounted at a 2 m-class telescope. Its unique capability of simultaneous imaging in the g',r',i',z',J,H,Ks bands enables the use of the photometric redshift technique. Aims: Observing strategy, data reduction and analysis, depth and accuracy of the simultaneous multi-wavelength photometry are discussed with the goal of establishing GROND as a useful instrument to confirm X-ray selected (high-z) clusters. Methods: The test case is XMMU J0338.7 + 0030, suggested to be at z ~ 1.45 ± 0.15 (1σ) from the analysis of the z - H vs. H colour - magnitude diagram obtained from the follow-up imaging. Later VLT-FORS2 spectroscopy enabled us to identify four members, which set this cluster at z = 1.097 ± 0.002 (1σ). To reach a better knowledge of its galaxy population, we observed XMMU J0338.7 + 0030 with GROND for about 6 h. The publicly available photo-z code le Phare was used. Results: The Ks-band number counts of the non-stellar sources out of the 832 detected down to z' ~ 26 AB mag (1σ) in the 3.9 × 4.3 arcmin2 region of XMMU J0338.7 + 0030 imaged at all GROND bands clearly exceed those computed in deep fields/survey areas at ~20.5-22.5 AB mag. The photo-z's of the three imaged spectroscopic members yield z = 1.12 ± 0.09 (1σ). The spatial distribution and the properties of the GROND sources with a photo-z in the range 1.01-1.23 confirm the correspondence of the X-ray source with a galaxy over

  3. Ionized and molecular gas studies of X-ray selected AGN at high-z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakkad, D.; Mainieri, V.; Padovani, P.; Husemann, B.; Brusa, M.; Carniani, S.; Sargent, M.; Piconcelli, E.; Feruglio, C.; Bongiorno, A.

    2017-10-01

    AGN feedback is often invoked in simulations to reproduce observed properties such as the massive end of galaxy mass functions. While efforts have been underway during the past decade to unveil the feedback effects at both low and high redshift, a direct observational evidence is still elusive in literature. I will present our current efforts on this front for X-ray selected high redshift galaxies using optical and near infrared IFU, single slit and sub-mm spectroscopic observations with WiFeS, SINFONI/VLT, XSHOOTER/VLT, and ALMA. Such a diverse set of high quality multiwavelength dataset sets the stage to understand how AGN affects the ionized as well as molecular gas content of the host galaxy. Some of the key questions addressed by this talk are: Are ionized outflows in high redshift galaxies driven by AGNs or star formation? What are the level of uncertainties in these outflow models and how to reduce them? Are such AGN outflows capable of affecting the molecular gas content in the host galaxy?

  4. The nature of X-ray selected extremely red objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, J. A.; Page, M. J.; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, Ian; Lehmann, I.; Hasinger, G.; Szokoly, G.

    2003-06-01

    We report on the X-ray, optical, near-infrared, submillimetre and radio properties of five extremely red objects (EROs) selected at X-ray wavelengths by XMM-Newton in the Lockman Hole field. They all have enough counts in the X-ray band to allow spectral fitting: four are most probably obscured, Compton-thin active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with redshift-dependent absorbing column densities of 1022-1024 cm-2, whilst the fifth is best fitted by a thermal spectrum and is likely to be a massive elliptical galaxy in a deep gravitational potential. Their optical/near-infrared colours and sizes suggest that X-ray selected EROs comprise a mixture of dusty `starburst' galaxies and non-dusty galaxies that are dominated by either starlight or light from an active nucleus. The colour diagnostics are supported by the submillimetre and radio data; the two AGNs with `starburst' colours have submillimetre or radio flux densities that imply large star formation rates, whilst those with `elliptical' colours do not. The one source detected in the submillimetre waveband has narrow emission lines at a redshift of 1.45. Although the bulk of its radio emission originates from processes other than star formation, it is most probably a radio-quiet ultraluminous infrared galaxy.

  5. Multicolor photometry of x ray selected Abell clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez-Cruz, Omar

    1993-01-01

    Strong evidence of evolution in cluster of galaxies at relatively low redshift has been indicated by recent x-ray studies. We are conducting a comprehensive optical study of a sample of Abell clusters that are strong x-ray emitters in order to test the x-ray evolution scenarios that have been proposed. The initial observations consist of three-color (B, R, I) imaging of low-redshift (0.025 less than z less than 0.25) Abell clusters using the T2KA CCD on the 0.9m telescope at KPNO the large field (23 ft. x 23 ft., approx. 1 Mpc at z = 0.025 and approx. 7 Mpc at z = 0.25) gives the unprecedented ability to sample most of the extent of the field of low-redshift clusters using a CCD. Given the advantages of CCDs over photographic plates, we expect to improve on many of the previous studies. A list of x-ray selected cluster of galaxies provides a homogeneous sample of true clusters that cannot be mistaken from apparent over-densities due to projection effects of field galaxies. Some optical indicators of cluster evolution are the population of ratios of cluster galaxies and their spatial distribution, a regular spiral-poor cluster is expected to be more evolved than an irregular spiral-rich cluster. Also regular spiral-poor clusters present high central concentrations while irregular spiral-rich are less concentrated. Variations in the Luminosity Function (LF) can indicate evolution. But in order to build reliable LFs it is necessary to determine the Hubble types of the cluster galaxies. In the past the classifications of cluster galaxies have been done by visual inspection on photographic material, this technique is very limited and can lead to errors when the galaxies are faint. The Hubble types of cluster galaxies can be determined in an objective manner by comparing colors and profiles from surface photometry. To show that this approach is feasible, I have presented preliminary results from the photometric analysis of the Abell-cluster A1213. Colors and profiles of

  6. A spectroscopic survey of X-ray-selected AGNs in the northern XMM-XXL field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, M.-L.; Merloni, A.; Georgakakis, A.; Salvato, M.; Aubourg, E.; Brandt, W. N.; Brusa, M.; Buchner, J.; Dwelly, T.; Nandra, K.; Pâris, I.; Petitjean, P.; Schwope, A.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a survey of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with optical spectroscopic follow-up in a ˜ 18 deg2 area of the equatorial XMM-XXL north field. A sample of 8445 point-like X-ray sources detected by XMM-Newton above a limiting flux of F_{0.5-10 keV} > 10^{-15} erg cm^{-2} s^{-1} was matched to optical (Sloan Digital Sky Survey, SDSS) and infrared (IR; WISE) counterparts. We followed up 3042 sources brighter than r = 22.5 mag with the SDSS Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) spectrograph. The spectra yielded a reliable redshift measurement for 2578 AGNs in the redshift range z = 0.02-5.0, with 0.5-2 keV luminosities ranging from 1039-1046 erg s- 1. This is currently the largest published spectroscopic sample of X-ray-selected AGNs in a contiguous area. The BOSS spectra of AGN candidates show a distribution of optical line widths which is clearly bimodal, allowing an efficient separation between broad- and narrow-emission line AGNs. The former dominate our sample (70 per cent) due to the relatively bright X-ray flux limit and the optical BOSS magnitude limit. We classify the narrow-emission line objects (22 per cent of the full sample) using standard optical emission line diagnostics: the majority have line ratios indicating the dominant source of ionization is the AGN. A small number (8 per cent of the full sample) exhibit the typical narrow line ratios of star-forming galaxies, or only have absorption lines in their spectra. We term the latter two classes `elusive' AGN, which would not be easy to identify correctly without their X-ray emission. We also compare X-ray (XMM-Newton), optical colour (SDSS) and and IR (WISE) AGN selections in this field. X-ray observations reveal, by far, the largest number of AGN. The overlap between the selections, which is a strong function of the imaging depth in a given band, is also remarkably small. We show using spectral stacking that a large fraction of the X-ray AGNs would not be

  7. The nature of X-ray selected star candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Paronyan, G. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Gigoyan, K. S.; Gyulzadyan, M. V.; Kostandyan, G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The joint HRC/BHRC catalogue of optical identifications of ROSAT BSC and FSC X-ray sources is based on merging the Hamburg-ROSAT Catalogue (HRC) and Byurakan-Hamburg-ROSAT Catalogue (BHRC). Both have been made by optical identifications of X-ray sources based on low-dispersion spectra of the Hamburg QuasarSurvey (HQS) using the ROSAT Catalogues. HRC/BHRC contains a sample of 8132 (5341+2791) optically identified X-ray sources with count rate (CR) of photons ≥ 0.04 ct/s in the area of the low-dispersion Hamburg Quasar Survey (HQS), |b| ≥ 20° and δ ≥ 0°. Based on low-dispersion spectral classification, there are 4253 AGN, 492 galaxies, 1800 stars and 1587 unknown objects in the sample. 1800 star candidates include 1429 objects listed in SDSS DR12 photometric catalogue and 433 given in SDSS spectroscopic catalogue. Using these spectra, we have carried out classification of these star candidates to reveal new interesting objects, as well as to define the true content of our sample. 34 cataclysmic variables (including 7 new ones), 19 white dwarfs, 19 late-type stars (K-M and C types), 16 early type stars (O-B), 40 hot coronal stars (A-F types), 2 composite spectrum objects, and 17 bright stars have been revealed, as well as 286 objects which turned out to be extragalactic ones; 75 emission-line galaxies (HII/SB and AGN, including QSOs, Seyferts, and LINERs) and 211 absorption line galaxies were revealed (wrong classifications in HRC/BHRC due to their faint images and low-quality spectra). We have retrieved multiwavelength data from recent catalogues and carried out statistical investigations of the multiwavelength properties for the whole sample of stars. All stars have been found in GSC 2.3.2, as well as most of them are in GALEX, USNO-B1.0, 2MASS and WISE catalogues. Relations between the radiation fluxes in different bands from X-ray to radio for different types of sources are studied and analysis of their characteristics is made. X-ray selected stars are an

  8. RX J1759.4+6638: An x-ray selected quasars at a redshift of 4.320

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, J. P.; Gioia, I. M.; Boehringer, H.; Bower, R. G.; Briel, U. G.; Hasinger, G. H.; Aragon-Salamanca, A.; Castander, F. J.; Ellis, R. S.; Huchra, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    We report the discovery of an x-ray selected Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSO) at a redshift of 4.320 +/- 0.005. This is the most distant x-ray selected object known, and it is the eighth most distant QSO known. The properties of this QSO are very similar to other QSOs at redshifts greater than 4. The x-ray discovery of this object, and that of high redshift clusters of galaxies, shows that present x-ray surveys are reaching depths competitive with other methods.

  9. AGN-host galaxy connection: multiwavelength study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pović, M.; Sánchez-Portal, M.; García, A. M. Pérez; Bongiovanni, A.; Cepa, J.; Cepa

    2013-02-01

    The connection between active galactic nuclei (AGN) and their hosts showed to be important for understanding the formation and evolution of active galaxies. Using X-ray and deep optical data, we study how morphology and colours are related to X-ray properties at redshifts z<=2.0 for a sample of > 300 X-ray detected AGN in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS; Furusawa et al. 2008) and Groth-Westphal Strip (GWS; Pović et al. 2009) fields. We performed our morphological classification using the galSVM code (Huertas-Company et al. 2008), which is a new method that is particularly suited when dealing with high-redshift sources. To separate objects between X-ray unobscured and obscured, we used X-ray hardness ratio HR(0.5-2 keV/2-4.5 keV). Colour-magnitude diagrams were studied in relationship to redshift, morphology, X-ray obscuration, and X-ray-to-optical flux ratio. Around 50% of X-ray detected AGN at z<=2.0 analysed in this work reside in spheroidal and bulge-dominated galaxies, while at least 18% have disk-dominated hosts. This suggests that different mechanisms may be responsible for triggering the nuclear activity. When analysing populations of X-ray detected AGN in both colour-magnitude (CMD) and colour-stellar mass diagrams (Figure 1), the highest number of sources is found to reside in the green valley at redshifts ~ 0.5-1.5. For the first time we studied CMD of these AGN in relation to morphology and X-ray obscuration, finding that they can reside in both early- and late-type hosts, where both morphological types cover similar ranges of X-ray obscuration (Figure 1). Our findings appear to confirm some previous suggestions that X-ray selected AGN residing in the green valley represent a transitional population (e.g. Nandra et al. 2007, Silverman et al. 2008, Treister et al. 2009), quenching star formation by means of different AGN feedback mechanisms and evolving to red-sequence galaxies. More details on analysis and results presented here can be found in

  10. The star-forming properties of an ultra-hard x-ray selected sample of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Thomas Taro

    This thesis provides a comprehensive examination of star formation in the host galaxies of active galactic nuclei or AGN. AGN are bright, central regions of galaxies that are powered through accretion onto a supermassive black hole (SMBH). Through accretion and the loss of gravitational potential energy, AGN emit powerful radiation over all wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. This radiation can influence the AGN's host galaxy through what is known as AGN ``feedback'' and is thought to suppress star formation as well as stop accretion onto the SMBH leading to a co-evolution between the SMBH and its host galaxy. Theoretical models have long invoked AGN feedback to be able reproduce the galaxy population we see today but observations have been unclear as to whether AGN actually have an effect on star formation. To address this question, we selected a large sample of local ( z < 0.05) AGN based on their detection at ultra-hard X-ray energies (14-195 keV) with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). Ultra-hard X-ray selection frees our sample from selection effects and biases due to obscuration and host galaxy contamination that can hinder other AGN samples. With these 313 BAT AGN we conducted a far-infrared survey using the HerschelSpace Observatory. We use the far-infrared imaging to probe the cold dust that traces recent star formation in the galaxy and construct spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from 12-500 \\micron. We decompose the SEDs to remove the AGN contribution and measure infrared luminosity which provides us with robust estimates of the star formation rate (SFR). Through a comparison with a stellar-mass matched non-AGN sample, we find that AGN host galaxies have larger dust masses, dust temperatures, and SFRs, confirming the results of previous studies that showed the optical colors of the BAT AGN are bluer than non-AGN. We find that the AGN luminosity as probed by the 14-195 keV luminosity is not related to the SFR of the host galaxy suggesting

  11. ROSAT observations of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. J., Jr.; Puchnarewicz, E. M.; Cordova, F. A.; Mason, K. O.

    1994-01-01

    We have observed sample of six optically faint, X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei with the Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC). These objects represents a sample of soft and hard spectrum sources; all were observed previously with the Einstein X-Ray Observatory. Included in this sample is EO132.8-4111, whose soft X-ray and ultraviolet flux distributions bear a striking resemblance to that of Mrk 841, but whose relative hard X-ray emission is much less than that of Mrk 841. The spectra are all fitted satisfactorily with single power-law models and their spectral indices (with one exception) agree with those estimated from the Einstein Image Propotional Counter (IPC) observations. Tests of short-term variability are carried out, with all sources showing constant count rates over the period of their ROSAT observations. Some sources do, however, show significant changes in count rate when compared to previous Einstein data taken a decade earlier.

  12. Black hole growth and starburst activity at z = 0.6-4 in the Chandra Deep Field South. Host galaxies properties of obscured AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusa, M.; Fiore, F.; Santini, P.; Grazian, A.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Hasinger, G.; Merloni, A.; Civano, F.; Fontana, A.; Mainieri, V.

    2009-12-01

    Aims: The co-evolution of host galaxies and the active black holes which reside in their centre is one of the most important topics in modern observational cosmology. Here we present a study of the properties of obscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) detected in the CDFS 1 Ms observation and their host galaxies. Methods: We limited the analysis to the MUSIC area, for which deep K-band observations obtained with ISAAC@VLT are available, ensuring accurate identifications of the counterparts of the X-ray sources as well as reliable determination of photometric redshifts and galaxy parameters, such as stellar masses and star formation rates. In particular, we: 1) refined the X-ray/infrared/optical association of 179 sources in the MUSIC area detected in the Chandra observation; 2) studied the host galaxies observed and rest frame colors and properties. Results: We found that X-ray selected (LX ⪆ 1042 erg s-1) AGN show Spitzer colors consistent with both AGN and starburst dominated infrared continuum; the latter would not have been selected as AGN from infrared diagnostics. The host galaxies of X-ray selected obscured AGN are all massive (Mast > 1010 M_⊙) and, in 50% of the cases, are also actively forming stars (1/SSFR < tHubble) in dusty environments. The median L/LEdd value of the active nucleus is between 2% and 10% depending on the assumed MBH/Mast ratio. Finally, we found that the X-ray selected AGN fraction increases with the stellar mass up to a value of 30% at z > 1 and Mast > 3 × 1011 M_⊙, a fraction significantly higher than in the local Universe for AGN of similar luminosities. Tables [see full textsee full textsee full text] and [see full textsee full textsee full text] are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  13. Discovery of low-redshift X-ray selected quasars - New clues to the QSO phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, J. E.; Forman, W. R.; Steiner, J. E.; Canizares, C. R.; Mcclintock, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The identification of six X-ray sources discovered by the Einstein Observatory with X-ray quasars is reported, and the properties of these X-ray selected quasars are discussed. The four high-latitude fields of 1 sq deg each in which the Einstein imaging proportional counter detected serendipitous X-ray sources at intermediate exposures of 10,000 sec were observed by 4-m and 1.5-m telescopes, and optical sources with uv excesses and emission line spectra typical of many low-redshift quasars and Seyfert 1 galaxies were found within the 1-arcsec error boxes of the X-ray sources. All six quasars identified were found to be radio quiet, with low redshift and relatively faint optical magnitudes, and to be similar in space density, colors and magnitude versus redshift relation to an optically selected sample at the same mean magnitude. X-ray luminosity was found to be well correlated with both continuum and broad-line emission luminosities for the known radio-quiet quasars and Seyfert 1 galaxies, and it was observed that the five objects with the lowest redshifts have very similar X-ray/optical luminosity ratios despite tenfold variations in X-ray luminosity. It is concluded that photoionization by a continuum extending to X-ray energies is the dominant excitation mechanism in radio-quiet quasars.

  14. Host galaxy identification for supernova surveys

    DOE PAGES

    Gupta, Ravi R.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kovacs, Eve; ...

    2016-11-08

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations withinmore » their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate "hostless" SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.« less

  15. HOST GALAXY IDENTIFICATION FOR SUPERNOVA SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Ravi R.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kovacs, Eve

    2016-11-08

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, and so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within theirmore » host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate "hostless" SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.« less

  16. HOST GALAXY IDENTIFICATION FOR SUPERNOVA SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Ravi R.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kovacs, Eve

    2016-12-01

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, and so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within theirmore » host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate “hostless” SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.« less

  17. Multiwavelength Studies of X-ray Selected AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paronyan, G. M.; Mickaelian, A. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.

    2016-06-01

    We present multiwavelength studies of the AGN and galaxy samples of the HRC/BHRC Joint Catalogue, optical identifications of ROSAT BSC and FSC sources. The extragalactic sample contains 4253 candidate AGN and 492 galaxies without a sign of activity. Multiwavelength data were retrieved from γ-ray to radio providing 62 photometric points in the range 100 GeV - 151 MHz. Color-color diagrams were built to investigate the nature of these objects. Activity types were taken from the SDSS DR12 spectroscopic database, as well as NED and HyperLEDA. So far, 451 objects remain as AGN candidates to be confirmed by spectroscopic observations.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Type 2 AGN host galaxies in Chandra-COSMOS (Suh+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, H.; Civano, F.; Hasinger, G.; Lusso, E.; Lanzuisi, G.; Marchesi, S.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Allevato, V.; Cappelluti, N.; Capak, P. L.; Elvis, M.; Griffiths, R. E.; Laigle, C.; Lira, P.; Riguccini, L.; Rosario, D. J.; Salvato, M.; Schawinski, K.; Vignali, C.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the star formation properties of a large sample of ~2300 X-ray-selected Type 2 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) host galaxies out to z~3 in the Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey in order to understand the connection between the star formation and nuclear activity. Making use of the existing multi-wavelength photometric data available in the COSMOS field, we perform a multi-component modeling from far-infrared to near-ultraviolet using a nuclear dust torus model, a stellar population model and a starburst model of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Through detailed analyses of SEDs, we derive the stellar masses and the star formation rates (SFRs) of Type 2 AGN host galaxies. The stellar mass of our sample is in the range of 9host galaxies have, on average, similar SFRs compared to the normal star-forming galaxies with similar Mstellar and redshift ranges, suggesting no significant evidence for enhancement or quenching of star formation. This could be interpreted in a scenario, where the relative massive galaxies have already experienced substantial growth at higher redshift (z>3), and grow slowly through secular fueling processes hosting moderate-luminosity AGNs. (1 data file).

  19. Large homogeneous sample of X-ray selected AGN and its study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, Areg M.; Paronyan, Gurgen M.; Abrahamyan, Hayk V.

    2015-08-01

    The combined catalogue of AGN (ROSAT BSC/FSC AGN) selected from optical identifications of X-ray sources based on Hamburg--ROSAT Catalogue (HRC) and Byurakan--Hamburg--ROSAT Catalogue (BHRC) is a homogeneous sample for statistical studies. Optically identified X-ray sources from ROSAT Bright Source Catalogue (BSC) and Faint Source Catalogue (FSC) are included, 4253 X-ray selected AGN in total. All these sources are confirmed or candidate AGN based on Hamburg Quasar Survey (HQS) low-dispersion spectra. 3352 of them are listed in the Catalogue of QSOs and Active Galaxies (Véron-Cetty & Véron (2010; 13th version) and 387 are in the Multifrequency Catalogue of Blazars (Roma--BZCAT) by Massaro et al. (2012). We carried out classification for 210 of these candidate sources based on available SDSS spectra and enlarged the sample of confirmed AGN to 3650. A special emphasis is made on narrow-line Sy1.0-Sy1.5 galaxies and QSOs, as many of them have soft X-ray, strong FeII lines, and relatively narrow lines coming from BLR (“narrow broad lines”) we have classified 45 new AGN as such objects. We carried out statistical investigations of the sample, including study of luminosity function, flux-ratios for different ranges, luminosity evolution, etc. Multiwavelength SEDs have also been constructed to follow their behavior for different kinds of AGN and link these SEDs to classifications. The sample is a relevant sources for identification of new blazars.

  20. X-ray selected stars in HRC and BHRC catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Paronyan, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    A joint HRC/BHRC Catalogue has been created based on merging of Hamburg ROSAT Catalogue (HRC) and Byurakan Hamburg ROSAT Catalogue (BHRC). Both have been made by optical identifications of X-ray sources based on low-dispersion spectra of the Hamburg Quasar Survey (HQS) using ROSAT Catalogues. As a result, the largest sample of 8132 (5341+2791) optically identified X-ray sources was created having count rate (CR) of photons ≤ 0.04 ct/s in the area with galactic latitudes |b|≤ 20° and declinations d≤ 0°.There are 4253 AGN, 492 galaxies, 1800 stars and 1587 unknown objects in the sample. All stars have been found in GSC 2.3.2, as well as most of them are in GALEX, USNO-B1.0, 2MASS and WISE catalogues. In addition, 1429 are in SDSS DR9 and 204 have SDSS spectra. For these stars we have carried out spectral classification and along with the bright stars, many new cataclysmic variables (CV), white dwarfs (WD) and late-type stars (K-M and C) have been revealed. For all stars, statistical studies of their multiwavelength properties have been made. An attempt to find a connection between the radiation fluxes in different bands for different types of sources, and identify their characteristics was made as well.

  1. The Luminosity Function of QSO Host Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Timothy S.; Casertano, Stefano; Turnshek, David A.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present some results from our HST archival image study of 71 QSO host galaxies. The objects are selected to have z less than or equal to 0.46 and total absolute magnitude M(sub v) less than or equal to -23 in our adopted cosmology (H(sub 0) = 50 kilometers per second Mpc(sup-1), q(sub 0) = 0.5, lambda = 0)). The aim of this initial study is to investigate the composition of the sample with respect to host morphology and radio loudness, as well as derive the QSO host galaxy luminosity function. We have analyzed available WFPC2 images in R or I band (U in one case), using a uniform set of procedures. The host galaxies span a narrow range of luminosities and are exceptionally bright, much more so than normal galaxies, usually L greater than L*(sub v). The QSOs are almost equally divided among three subclasses: radio-loud QSOs with elliptical hosts, radio-quiet QSOs with elliptical hosts, and radio-quiet QSOs with spiral hosts. Radio-loud QSOs with spiral hosts are extremely rare. Using a weighting procedure, we derive the combined luminosity function of QSO host galaxies. We find that the luminosity function of QSO hosts differs in shape from that of normal galaxies but that they coincide at the highest luminosities. The ratio of the number of quasar hosts to the number of normal galaxies at a luminosity L*(sub v) is R = (Lv/11.48L*(sub v))(sup 2.46), where L*(sub v) corresponds to M*(sub v)= -22.35, and a QSO is defined to be an object with total nuclear plus host light M(sub v) less than or equal to -23. This ratio can be interpreted as the probability that a galaxy with luminosity L(sub V) will host a QSO at redshift z approximately equal to 0.26.

  2. On the relationship between optically selected and X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franceschini, A.; Gioia, I. M.; Maccacaro, T.

    1986-01-01

    Available information on the optically selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) (luminosity function, cosmological evolution, etc.), together with the knowledge of their X-ray to optical luminosity ratio, are used to predict the overall properties of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (number counts, evolution, luminosity and redshift distributions, etc.). The predicted properties are then compared with those observed. Similarly, predictions are carried out for the optical properties of the X-ray-selected AGN parent population. In the search for a possibility explanation for discrepancies, preliminary results are reported.

  3. X-ray-selected broad absorption line quasi-stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, M. J.; Carrera, F. J.; Ceballos, M.; Corral, A.; Ebrero, J.; Esquej, P.; Krumpe, M.; Mateos, S.; Rosen, S.; Schwope, A.; Streblyanska, A.; Symeonidis, M.; Tedds, J. A.; Watson, M. G.

    2017-02-01

    We study a sample of six X-ray-selected broad absorption line (BAL) quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) from the XMM-Newton Wide Angle Survey. All six objects are classified as BALQSOs using the classic balnicity index, and together they form the largest sample of X-ray-selected BALQSOs. We find evidence for absorption in the X-ray spectra of all six objects. An ionized absorption model applied to an X-ray spectral shape that would be typical for non-BAL QSOs (a power law with energy index α = 0.98) provides acceptable fits to the X-ray spectra of all six objects. The optical to X-ray spectral indices, αOX, of the X-ray-selected BALQSOs, have a mean value of <αOX> = 1.69 ± 0.05, which is similar to that found for X-ray-selected and optically selected non-BAL QSOs of a similar ultraviolet luminosity. In contrast, optically selected BALQSOs typically have much larger αOX and so are characterized as being X-ray weak. The results imply that X-ray selection yields intrinsically X-ray bright BALQSOs, but their X-ray spectra are absorbed by a similar degree to that seen in optically selected BALQSO samples; X-ray absorption appears to be ubiquitous in BALQSOs, but X-ray weakness is not. We argue that BALQSOs sit at one end of a spectrum of X-ray absorption properties in QSOs related to the degree of ultraviolet absorption in C IV 1550 Å.

  4. Studies of an x ray selected sample of cataclysmic variables. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silber, Andrew D.

    1986-01-01

    Just prior to the thesis research, an all-sky survey in hard x rays with the HEAO-1 satellite and further observations in the optical resulted in a catalog of about 700 x-ray sources with known optical counterparts. This sample includes 43 cataclysmic variables, which are binaries consisting of a detached white-dwarf and a Roche lobe filling companion star. This thesis consists of studies of the x-ray selected sample of catalcysmic variables.

  5. Circumnuclear Structures in Megamaser Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pjanka, Patryk; Greene, Jenny E.; Seth, Anil C.; Braatz, James A.; Henkel, Christian; Lo, Fred K. Y.; Läsker, Ronald

    2017-08-01

    Using the Hubble Space Telescope, we identify circumnuclear (100-500 pc scale) structures in nine new H2O megamaser host galaxies to understand the flow of matter from kpc-scale galactic structures down to the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at galactic centers. We double the sample analyzed in a similar way by Greene et al. and consider the properties of the combined sample of 18 sources. We find that disk-like structure is virtually ubiquitous when we can resolve <200 pc scales, in support of the notion that non-axisymmetries on these scales are a necessary condition for SMBH fueling. We perform an analysis of the orientation of our identified nuclear regions and compare it with the orientation of megamaser disks and the kpc-scale disks of the hosts. We find marginal evidence that the disk-like nuclear structures show increasing misalignment from the kpc-scale host galaxy disk as the scale of the structure decreases. In turn, we find that the orientation of both the ˜100 pc scale nuclear structures and their host galaxy large-scale disks is consistent with random with respect to the orientation of their respective megamaser disks.

  6. Circumnuclear Structures in Megamaser Host Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Pjanka, Patryk; Greene, Jenny E.; Seth, Anil C.

    2017-08-01

    Using the Hubble Space Telescope , we identify circumnuclear (100–500 pc scale) structures in nine new H{sub 2}O megamaser host galaxies to understand the flow of matter from kpc-scale galactic structures down to the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at galactic centers. We double the sample analyzed in a similar way by Greene et al. and consider the properties of the combined sample of 18 sources. We find that disk-like structure is virtually ubiquitous when we can resolve <200 pc scales, in support of the notion that non-axisymmetries on these scales are a necessary condition for SMBH fueling. We perform anmore » analysis of the orientation of our identified nuclear regions and compare it with the orientation of megamaser disks and the kpc-scale disks of the hosts. We find marginal evidence that the disk-like nuclear structures show increasing misalignment from the kpc-scale host galaxy disk as the scale of the structure decreases. In turn, we find that the orientation of both the ∼100 pc scale nuclear structures and their host galaxy large-scale disks is consistent with random with respect to the orientation of their respective megamaser disks.« less

  7. Host Galaxies of z = 4 Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, K. K.; Bechtold, Jill

    2009-10-01

    We have undertaken a project to investigate the host galaxies and environments of a sample of quasars at z ~ 4. In this paper, we describe deep near-infrared imaging of 34 targets using the Magellan I and Gemini North telescopes. We discuss in detail special challenges of distortion and nonlinearity that must be addressed when performing point-spread function (PSF) subtraction with data from these telescopes and their IR cameras, especially in very good seeing. We derive black hole masses from emission-line spectroscopy, and we calculate accretion rates from our Ks -band photometry, which directly samples the rest frame B for these objects. We introduce a new isophotal diameter technique for estimating host galaxy luminosities. We report the detection of four host galaxies on our deepest, sharpest images, and present upper limits for the others. We find that if host galaxies passively evolve such that they brighten by 2 mag or more in the rest-frame B band between the present and z = 4, then high-z hosts are less massive at a given black hole mass than are their low-z counterparts. We argue that the most massive hosts plateau at lsim10 L*. We estimate the importance of selection effects on this survey and the subsequent limitations of our conclusions. These results are in broad agreement with recent semianalytical models for the formation of luminous quasars and their host spheroids by mergers of gas-rich galaxies, with significant dissipation, and self-regulation of black hole growth and star formation by the burst of merger-induced quasar activity. Based on data obtained with the 6.5 m Baade Telescope of the Magellan Telescope, located at the Las Campans Observatory, Chile. Based in part on data taken at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  8. Evolution of BL Lacertae host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidt, J.; Tröller, M.; Nilsson, K.; Jäger, K.; Takalo, L.; Rekola, R.; Sillanpää, A.

    2004-05-01

    We present and discuss deep, high-resolution I-band images of 24 BL Lac objects between z = 0.3 and 1.3 taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) and the ESO-NTT and VLT telescopes. In addition, new redshifts for the BL Lac objects PKS 0406+121, PKS 0426-380 and PKS 1519-273 are reported. In 17/24 (71%) of the BL Lac objects, we detected an underlying nebulosity, in 11/17 for the first time. We assigned the underlying nebulosity to the BL Lac host galaxy in 11 cases spanning the redshift range z = 0.3-1. The remaining 6 BL Lac objects have either intervening galaxies (S4 0218+35, PKS 0426-380), no redshift (MH 2133-449) or are probably misidentified (Q 0230+3429, B2 0937+26, MS 2347.4+1924). Restricting ourselves to the 11 BL Lac objects (< z > = 0.6), where a core and host galaxy was detected, we find that their host galaxies are luminous (MI = -25.2± 0.8) and large (re = 10.5± 7 kpc). They are on average about 0.6 mag brighter than BL Lac host galaxies at z ˜ 0.3 indicative of evolution, whereas their half-light radii are similar. By combining our data with literature data at low-redshift and applying evolutionary models to them, we show that the properties of the host galaxies of BL Lac objects up to z ˜ 1 are compatible with passively evolving elliptical galaxies formed at a redshift of z ˜ 2 (13 Gyrs ago in our adopted cosmology). Our results, however, are affected by an unavoidable luminosity bias and need to be confirmed. Future prospects are described. If they could be confirmed, host galaxies of low-luminosity radio-loud AGN (BL Lac/FR I) have very similar properties to the hosts of radio-quiet QSOs and high-luminosity radio-loud AGN (radio-loud QSO/FR II) over a wide redshift range. This supports the picture of the ``Grand Unification'' in which AGN activity is a transient phenomenon in galaxy evolution. Based on observations collected with the VLT-UT1 on Cerro Paranal (Chile), the NTT on La Silla (Chile) operated by the European Southern

  9. Observational constraints on the specific accretion-rate distribution of X-ray-selected AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakis, A.; Aird, J.; Schulze, A.; Dwelly, T.; Salvato, M.; Nandra, K.; Merloni, A.; Schneider, D. P.

    2017-10-01

    This paper estimates the specific accretion-rate distribution of AGNs using a sample of 4821 X-ray sources from both deep and shallow surveys. The specific accretion-rate distribution is used as a proxy of the Eddington ratio and is defined as the probability of a galaxy with a given stellar mass and redshift hosting an active nucleus with a certain specific accretion rate. We find that the probability of a galaxy hosting an AGN increases with decreasing specific accretion rate. There is evidence that this trend reverses at low specific accretion rates, λ ≲ 10 - 4-10 - 3 (Eddington units). There is a break close to the Eddington limit, above which the probability of an accretion event decreases steeply. The specific accretion-rate distribution evolves such that the fraction of AGNs among galaxies drops towards lower redshifts. This decrease in the AGN duty cycle is responsible for the strong evolution of the accretion density of the Universe from redshift z ≈ 1-1.5 to the present day. Our analysis also suggests that this evolution is accompanied by a decoupling of accretion events on to black holes from the formation of stars in galaxies. There is also evidence that at earlier times the relative probability of high versus low specific accretion-rate events among galaxies increases. We argue that this differential redshift evolution of the AGN duty cycle with respect to λ produces the AGN downsizing trend, whereby luminous sources peak at earlier epochs compared to less luminous ones. Finally, we also find a stellar mass dependence of the specific accretion-rate distribution, with more massive galaxies avoiding high specific accretion-rate events.

  10. Observations of High-Redshift X-Ray Selected Clusters with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muchovej, Stephen; Carlstrom, John E.; Cartwright, John; Greer, Christopher; Hawkins, David; Hennessey, Ryan; Joy, Marshall; Lamb, James; Leitch, Erik M.; Loh, Michael; hide

    2006-01-01

    We report measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in three high redshift (0.89 less than or equal to z less than or equal to 1.03), X-ray selected galaxy clusters. The observations were obtained at 30 GHz during the commissioning period of a new, eight-element interferometer - the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array (SZA) - built for dedicated SZ effect observations. The SZA observations are sensitive to angular scales larger than those subtended by the virial radii of the clusters. Assuming isothermality and hydrostatic equilibrium for the intracluster medium, and gas-mass fractions consistent with those for clusters at moderate redshift, we calculate electron temperatures, gas masses, and total cluster masses from the SZ data. The SZ-derived masses, integrated approximately to the virial radii, are 1.9 (sup +0.5)(sub -0.4) x 10(exp 14) solar mass for Cl J1415.1+3612, 3.4 (sup +0.6)(sub -0.5) x 10(exp 14) solar mass for Cl J1429.0+4241 and 7.2 (sup +1.3)(sub -0.9) x 10(exp 14) solar mass for Cl J1226.9+3332. The SZ-derived quantities are in good agreement with the cluster properties derived from X-ray measurements.

  11. Observations of High-Redshift X-Ray Selected Clusters with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muchovej, Stephen; Carlstrom, John E.; Cartwright, John; Greer, Christopher; Hawkins, David; Hennessy, Ryan; Joy, Marshall; Lamb, James W.; Leitch, Erik M.; Loh, Michael; hide

    2006-01-01

    We report measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in three highredshift (0.89 less than or equal to z less than or equal to 1.03), X-ray selected galaxy clusters. The observations were obtained at 30 GHz during the commissioning period of a new, eight-element interferometer - the Sunyaev-Zel dovich Array (SZA) - built for dedicated SZ effect observations. The SZA observations are sensitive to angular scales larger than those subtended by the virial radii of the clusters. Assuming isothermality and hydrostatic equilibrium for the intracluster medium, and gas-mass fractions consistent with those for clusters at moderate redshift, we calculate electron temperatures, gas masses, and total cluster masses from the SZ data. The SZ-derived masses, integrated approximately to the virial radii, are 1.9(sup +0.5)(sub -0.4) x 10(sup 14) solar mass for ClJ1415.1+3612, 3.4 (sup +0.6)(sup -0.5) x 10(sup 14) solar mass for ClJ1429.0+4241 and 7.2(sup +1.3)(sub -0.9) x 10(sup 14) solar mass for ClJ1226.9+3332. The SZ-derived quantities are in good agreement with the cluster properties derived from X-ray measurements.

  12. Large homogeneous sample of X-ray selected AGN and its study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Paronyan, Gurgen; Abrahamyan, Hayk

    The combined catalogue of AGN selected from optical identifications of X-ray sources based on Hamburg-ROSAT and Byurakan-Hamburg-ROSAT catalogues is a homogeneous sample for statistical studies. Optically identified X-ray sources from ROSAT BSC and FSC are included, 4253 X-ray selected AGN in total. We carried out classification for 210 of these candidate sources based on available SDSS spectra and enlarged the sample of confirmed AGN. Statistical investigations of the sample were also carried out. Multiwavelength SEDs have also been constructed to link them to classifications.

  13. Coevolution of Supermassive Black Holes and Their Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiner, Kyle Devon

    The role of black holes in galaxy evolution has come under intense scrutiny since it was discovered that every galaxy in the local universe contains a supermassive black hole (SMBH) at its nucleus. The existence of scaling relations between the SMBH and its host galaxy show that their presence is not coincidental, but rather that SMBHs and their hosts have a shared evolution. The nature of this coevolution is still debated with some proposing it to be a natural result of hierarchical merging models, while others invoke SMBH feedback mechanisms that couple BH growth with that of the host galaxy. In this dissertation, I examine different regimes of SMBH activity and host galaxy properties. I investigate a sample of post-starburst galaxies to gain insight into the morphological and spectrophotometric evolution of galaxies through galaxy interactions and mergers. I plot detailed comparisons of the galaxy kinematics as measured from different stellar populations. I also investigate post-starburst galaxies that simultaneously host an AGN. I develop a technique to study the properties of both the host galaxy and the SMBH in these objects, directly investigating the scaling relation between the two. I describe analysis performed on red quasars in another study that directly probes the scaling relations in the non-local universe. Lastly, I conduct SED fitting of quasars to illuminate the differences between two major spectral types, and investigate host galaxy properties including star formation. All of these projects focus on the relationship between the SMBH and host galaxy. I show that a range of galaxy interactions can lead to black hole growth and are part of galaxy evolution over cosmic time.

  14. A complete hard X-ray selected sample of local, luminous AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtscher, Leonard; Davies, Ric; Lin, Ming-yi; Orban de Xivry, Gilles; Rosario, David

    2016-08-01

    Choosing a very well defined sample is essential for studying the AGN phenomenon. Only the most luminous AGNs can be expected to require a coherent feeding mechanism to sustain their activity and since host galaxy properties and AGN activity are essentially uncorrelated, nuclear scales must be resolved in order to shed light on the feeding mechanisms of AGNs. For these reasons we are compiling a sample of the most powerful, local AGNs. In this talk we present our on-going programme to observe a complete volume limited sample of nearby active galaxies selected by their 14-195 keV luminosity, and outline its rationale for studying the mechanisms regulating gas inflow and outflow.

  15. Obscured Star Formation in the Host Galaxies of Superluminous Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsukade, B.; Tominaga, N.; Hayashi, M.; Konishi, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Morokuma, T.; Morokuma-Matsui, K.; Motogi, K.; Niinuma, K.; Tamura, Y.

    2018-04-01

    We present the results of 3 GHz radio continuum observations of the eight host galaxies of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) at 0.1 < z < 0.3 by using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. Four host galaxies are detected significantly, and two of them are found to have high star formation rates (SFRs > 20 M ⊙ yr‑1) derived from radio emission, making them the most intensely star-forming host galaxies among SLSN host galaxies. We compare radio SFRs and optical SFRs, and find that three host galaxies have an excess in radio SFRs by a factor of >2, suggesting the existence of dust-obscured star formation, which cannot be traced by optical studies. Two of the three host galaxies, which are located in the galaxy main sequence based on optical SFRs, are found to be above the main sequence based on their radio SFRs. This suggests a higher fraction of starburst galaxies in SLSN hosts than estimated in previous studies. We calculate extinction from the ratio between radio SFRs and dust-uncorrected optical SFRs and find that the hosts are on the trend of increasing extinction with metallicity, which is consistent with the relation in local star-forming galaxies. We also place a constraint on a pulsar-driven SN model, which predicts quasi-steady synchrotron radio emission.

  16. The bolometric output and host-galaxy properties of obscured AGN in the XMM-COSMOS survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusso, E.; Comastri, A.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.; Treister, E.; Sanders, D.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Brusa, M.; Civano, F.; Gilli, R.; Mainieri, V.; Nair, P.; Aller, M. C.; Carollo, M.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Merloni, A.; Trump, J. R.

    2011-10-01

    We present a study of the multi-wavelength properties, from the mid-infrared to the hard X-rays, of a sample of 255 spectroscopically identified X-ray selected type-2 AGN from the XMM-COSMOS survey. Most of them are obscured and the X-ray absorbing column density is determined by either X-ray spectral analyses (for 45% of the sample), or from hardness ratios. Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are computed for all sources in the sample. The average SEDs in the optical band are dominated by the host-galaxy light, especially at low X-ray luminosities and redshifts. There is also a trend between X-ray and mid-infrared luminosity: the AGN contribution in the infrared is higher at higher X-ray luminosities. We calculate bolometric luminosities, bolometric corrections, stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs) for these sources using a multi-component modeling to properly disentangle the emission associated to stellar light from that due to black hole accretion. For 90% of the sample we also have the morphological classifications obtained with an upgraded version of the Zurich estimator of structural types (ZEST+). We find that on average type-2 AGN have lower bolometric corrections than type-1 AGN. Moreover, we confirm that the morphologies of AGN host-galaxies indicate that there is a preference for these type-2 AGN to be hosted in bulge-dominated galaxies with stellar masses greater than 1010 solar masses. Full Table 1 is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/534/A110

  17. X-ray selected AGN in groups at redshifts z ~ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakis, A.; Gerke, Brian F.; Nandra, K.; Laird, E. S.; Coil, A. L.; Cooper, M. C.; Newman, J. A.

    2008-11-01

    We explore the role of the group environment in the evolution of active galactic nuclei (AGN) at the redshift interval 0.7 < z < 1.4, by combining deep Chandra observations with extensive optical spectroscopy from the All-wavelength Extended Groth strip International Survey (AEGIS). The sample consists of 3902 optical sources and 71 X-ray AGN. Compared to the overall optically selected galaxy population, X-ray AGN are more frequently found in groups at the 99 per cent confidence level. This is partly because AGN are hosted by red luminous galaxies, which are known to reside, on average, in dense environments. Relative to these sources, the excess of X-ray AGN in groups is significant at the 91 per cent level only. Restricting the sample to 0.7 < z < 0.9 and MB < -20mag in order to control systematics, we find that X-ray AGN represent (4.7 +/- 1.6) and (4.5 +/- 1.0) per cent of the optical galaxy population in groups and in the field, respectively. These numbers are consistent with the AGN fraction in low-redshift clusters, groups and the field. The above results, although affected by small number statistics, suggest that X-ray AGN are spread over a range of environments, from groups to the field, once the properties of their hosts (e.g. colour, luminosity) are accounted for. There is also tentative evidence, significant at the 98 per cent level, that the field produces more X-ray luminous AGN compared to groups, extending similar results at low redshift to z ~ 1. This trend may be because of either cold gas availability or the nature of the interactions occurring in the denser group environment (i.e. prolonged tidal encounters).

  18. Tidal Disruption Event Host Galaxies in the Context of the Local Galaxy Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law-Smith, Jamie; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Ellison, Sara L.; Foley, Ryan J.

    2017-11-01

    We study the properties of tidal disruption event (TDE) host galaxies in the context of a catalog of ˜500,000 galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We explore whether selection effects can account for the overrepresentation of TDEs in E+A/post-starburst galaxies by creating matched galaxy samples. Accounting for possible selection effects due to black hole (BH) mass, redshift completeness, strong active galactic nucleus presence, bulge colors, and surface brightness can reduce the apparent overrepresentation of TDEs in E+A host galaxies by a factor of ˜4 (from ˜×100-190 to ˜×25-48), but cannot fully explain the preference. We find that TDE host galaxies have atypical photometric properties compared to similar, “typical” galaxies. In particular, TDE host galaxies tend to live in or near the “green valley” between star-forming and passive galaxies, and have bluer bulge colors ({{Δ }}(g-r)≈ 0.3 mag), lower half-light surface brightnesses (by ˜1 mag/arcsec2), higher Sérsic indices ({{Δ }}{n}{{g}}≈ 3), and higher bulge-to-total-light ratios ({{Δ }}B/T≈ 0.5) than galaxies with matched BH masses. We find that TDE host galaxies appear more centrally concentrated and that all have high galaxy Sérsic indices and B/T fractions—on average in the top 10% of galaxies of the same BH mass—suggesting a higher nuclear stellar density. We identify a region in the Sérsic index and BH mass parameter space that contains ˜2% of our reference catalog galaxies but ≥slant 60 % of TDE host galaxies. The unique photometric properties of TDE host galaxies may be useful for selecting candidate TDEs for spectroscopic follow-up observations in large transient surveys.

  19. Galaxy Zoo: evidence for rapid, recent quenching within a population of AGN host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smethurst, R. J.; Lintott, C. J.; Simmons, B. D.; Schawinski, K.; Bamford, S. P.; Cardamone, C. N.; Kruk, S. J.; Masters, K. L.; Urry, C. M.; Willett, K. W.; Wong, O. I.

    2016-12-01

    We present a population study of the star formation history of 1244 Type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGN) host galaxies, compared to 6107 inactive galaxies. A Bayesian method is used to determine individual galaxy star formation histories, which are then collated to visualize the distribution for quenching and quenched galaxies within each population. We find evidence for some of the Type 2 AGN host galaxies having undergone a rapid drop in their star formation rate within the last 2 Gyr. AGN feedback is therefore important at least for this population of galaxies. This result is not seen for the quenching and quenched inactive galaxies whose star formation histories are dominated by the effects of downsizing at earlier epochs, a secondary effect for the AGN host galaxies. We show that histories of rapid quenching cannot account fully for the quenching of all the star formation in a galaxy's lifetime across the population of quenched AGN host galaxies, and that histories of slower quenching, attributed to secular (non-violent) evolution, are also key in their evolution. This is in agreement with recent results showing that both merger-driven and non-merger processes are contributing to the co-evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes. The availability of gas in the reservoirs of a galaxy, and its ability to be replenished, appear to be the key drivers behind this co-evolution.

  20. UV star-formation rates of GRB host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, L.; Hjorth, J.; Gorosabel, J.

    2004-10-01

    We study a magnitude-limited sample of 10 gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies with known spectroscopic redshifts (0.43 < z < 2.04). From an analysis of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs), based on published broad-band optical and near-infrared photometry, we derive photometric redshifts, galaxy types, ages of the dominant stellar populations, internal extinctions, and ultraviolet (UV) star-formation rates (SFRs) of the host galaxies. The photometric redshifts are quite accurate despite the heterogeneous nature of the sample: the rms errors are σ(z) = 0.21 and σ(Δ z/(1+zspec)) = 0.16 with no significant systematic offsets. All the host galaxies have SEDs similar to young starburst galaxies with moderate to low extinction. A comparison of specific SFRs with those of high-redshift galaxies in the Hubble Deep Fields shows that GRB hosts are most likely similar to the field galaxies with the largest specific SFRs. On the other hand, GRB hosts are not significantly younger than starburst field galaxies at similar redshifts, but are found to be younger than a sample of all types of field galaxies.

  1. Multiwavelength diagnostics of accretion in an X-ray selected sample of CTTSs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, R. L.; Argiroffi, C.; Sacco, G. G.; Orlando, S.; Peres, G.; Reale, F.; Maggio, A.

    2011-02-01

    Context. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy has revealed soft X-rays from high density plasma in classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs), probably arising from the accretion shock region. However, the mass accretion rates derived from the X-ray observations are consistently lower than those derived from UV/optical/NIR studies. Aims: We aim to test the hypothesis that the high density soft X-ray emission originates from accretion by analysing, in a homogeneous manner, optical accretion indicators for an X-ray selected sample of CTTSs. Methods: We analyse optical spectra of the X-ray selected sample of CTTSs and calculate the accretion rates based on measuring the Hα, Hβ, Hγ, He ii 4686 Å, He i 5016 Å, He i 5876 Å, O i 6300 Å, and He i 6678 Å equivalent widths. In addition, we also calculate the accretion rates based on the full width at 10% maximum of the Hα line. The different optical tracers of accretion are compared and discussed. The derived accretion rates are then compared to the accretion rates derived from the X-ray spectroscopy. Results: We find that, for each CTTS in our sample, the different optical tracers predict mass-accretion rates that agree within the errors, albeit with a spread of ≈ 1 order of magnitude. Typically, mass-accretion rates derived from Hα and He i 5876 Å are larger than those derived from Hβ, Hγ, and O i. In addition, the Hα full width at 10%, whilst a good indicator of accretion, may not accurately measure the mass-accretion rate. When the optical mass-accretion rates are compared to the X-ray derived mass-accretion rates, we find that: a) the latter are always lower (but by varying amounts); b) the latter range within a factor of ≈ 2 around 2 × 10-10 M⊙ yr-1, despite the former spanning a range of ≈ 3 orders of magnitude. We suggest that the systematic underestimate of the X-ray derived mass-accretion rates could depend on the density distribution inside the accretion streams, where the densest part of the stream is

  2. Broad-band characteristics of seven new hard X-ray selected cataclysmic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, F.; de Martino, D.; Mukai, K.; Russell, D. M.; Falanga, M.; Masetti, N.; Ferrigno, C.; Israel, G.

    2017-10-01

    We present timing and spectral analysis of a sample of seven hard X-ray selected cataclysmic variable candidates based on simultaneous X-ray and optical observations collected with XMM-Newton, complemented with Swift/BAT and INTEGRAL /IBIS hard X-ray data and ground-based optical photometry. For six sources, X-ray pulsations are detected for the first time in the range of ˜296-6098 s, identifying them as members of the magnetic class. Swift J0927.7-6945, Swift J0958.0-4208, Swift J1701.3-4304, Swift J2113.5+5422 and possibly PBC J0801.2-4625 are intermediate polars (IPs), while Swift J0706.8+0325 is a short (1.7 h) orbital period polar, the 11th hard X-ray-selected identified so far. X-ray orbital modulation is also observed in Swift J0927.7-6945 (5.2 h) and Swift J2113.5+5422 (4.1 h). Swift J1701.3-4304 is discovered as the longest orbital period (12.8 h) deep eclipsing IP. The spectra of the magnetic systems reveal optically thin multitemperature emission between 0.2 and 60 keV. Energy-dependent spin pulses and the orbital modulation in Swift J0927.7-6945 and Swift J2113.5+5422 are due to intervening local high-density absorbing material (NH ˜ 1022 - 23 cm-2). In Swift J0958.0-4208 and Swift J1701.3-4304, a soft X-ray blackbody (kT ˜ 50 and ˜80 eV) is detected, adding them to the growing group of `soft' IPs. White dwarf masses are determined in the range of ˜ 0.58-1.18 M⊙, indicating massive accreting primaries in five of them. Most sources accrete at rates lower than the expected secular value for their orbital period. Formerly proposed as a long-period (9.4 h) nova-like CV, Swift J0746.3-1608 shows peculiar spectrum and light curves suggesting either an atypical low-luminosity CV or a low-mass X-ray binary.

  3. Classifications of the Host Galaxies of Supernovae, Set II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bergh, Sidney; Li, Weidong; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    2003-11-01

    Classifications on the DDO system are given for an additional 231 host galaxies of supernovae that have been discovered during the course of the Lick Observatory Supernova Search with the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT). This brings the total number of hosts of supernovae (SNe) discovered (or independently rediscovered) by KAIT, which have so far been classified on a homogeneous system, to 408. The probability that SNe Ia and SNe II have a different distribution of host-galaxy Hubble types is found to be 99.7%. A significant difference is also found between the distributions of the host galaxies of SNe Ia and of SNe Ibc (defined here to include SNe Ib, Ib/c, and Ic). However, no significant difference is detected between the frequency distributions of the host galaxies of SNe II and SNe IIn. This suggests that SNe IIn are generally not SNe Ia embedded in circumstellar material that are masquerading as SNe II. Furthermore, no significant difference is found between the distribution of the Hubble types of the hosts of SNe Ibc and of SNe II. Additionally, SNe II-P and SNe II-L are found to occur among similar stellar populations. The ratio of the number of SNe Ia-pec to normal SNe Ia appears to be higher in early-type galaxies than it is in galaxies of later morphological types. This suggests that the ancestors of SNe Ia-pec may differ systematically in age or composition from the progenitors of normal SNe Ia. Unexpectedly, five SNe of Types Ib/c, II, and IIn (all of which are thought to have massive progenitors) are found in host galaxies that are nominally classified as types E and S0. However, in each case the galaxy classification is uncertain, or newly inspected images show evidence suggesting a later classification. Among these five objects, NGC 3720, the host galaxy of SN 2002at, was apparently misidentified in the Carnegie Atlas of Galaxies.

  4. Cosmic evolution and metal aversion in superluminous supernova host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, S.; Krühler, T.; Leloudas, G.; Gorosabel, J.; Mehner, A.; Buchner, J.; Kim, S.; Ibar, E.; Amorín, R.; Herrero-Illana, R.; Anderson, J. P.; Bauer, F. E.; Christensen, L.; de Pasquale, M.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Gallazzi, A.; Hjorth, J.; Morrell, N.; Malesani, D.; Sparre, M.; Stalder, B.; Stark, A. A.; Thöne, C. C.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2018-01-01

    The SUperluminous Supernova Host galaxIES survey aims to provide strong new constraints on the progenitors of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) by understanding the relationship to their host galaxies. We present the photometric properties of 53 H-poor and 16 H-rich SLSN host galaxies out to z ∼ 4. We model their spectral energy distributions to derive physical properties, which we compare with other galaxy populations. At low redshift, H-poor SLSNe are preferentially found in very blue, low-mass galaxies with high average specific star formation rates. As redshift increases, the host population follows the general evolution of star-forming galaxies towards more luminous galaxies. After accounting for secular evolution, we find evidence for differential evolution in galaxy mass, but not in the B band and the far-ultraviolet luminosity (3σ confidence). Most remarkable is the scarcity of hosts with stellar masses above 1010 M⊙ for both classes of SLSNe. In case of H-poor SLSNe, we attribute this to a stifled production efficiency above ∼0.4 solar metallicity. However, we argue that, in addition to low metallicity, a short-lived stellar population is also required to regulate the SLSN production. H-rich SLSNe are found in a very diverse population of star-forming galaxies. Still, the scarcity of massive hosts suggests a stifled production efficiency above ∼0.8 solar metallicity. The large dispersion of the H-rich SLSNe host properties is in stark contrast to those of gamma-ray burst, regular core-collapse SN, and H-poor SLSNe host galaxies. We propose that multiple progenitor channels give rise to this subclass.

  5. Discovery of a bright quasar without a massive host galaxy.

    PubMed

    Magain, Pierre; Letawe, Géraldine; Courbin, Frédéric; Jablonka, Pascale; Jahnke, Knud; Meylan, Georges; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2005-09-15

    A quasar is thought to be powered by the infall of matter onto a supermassive black hole at the centre of a massive galaxy. Because the optical luminosity of quasars exceeds that of their host galaxy, disentangling the two components can be difficult. This led in the 1990s to the controversial claim of the discovery of 'naked' quasars. Since then, the connection between quasars and galaxies has been well established. Here we report the discovery of a quasar lying at the edge of a gas cloud, whose size is comparable to that of a small galaxy, but whose spectrum shows no evidence for stars. The gas in the cloud is excited by the quasar itself. If a host galaxy is present, it is at least six times fainter than would normally be expected for such a bright quasar. The quasar is interacting dynamically with a neighbouring galaxy, whose gas might be feeding the black hole.

  6. Average Spectral Properties of Type Ia Supernova Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Syed A.; Mould, Jeremy; Wang, Lifan

    2017-12-01

    We construct the average spectra of host galaxies of slower, faster, bluer, and redder Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from the SDSS-II supernova survey. The average spectrum of slower declining (broader light curve width or higher stretch) SN Ia hosts shows stronger emission lines compared to the average spectrum of faster declining (narrower light curve width or lower stretch) SN Ia hosts. Using pPXF, we find that hosts of slower declining SNe Ia have metallicities that are, on average, 0.24 dex lower than average metallicities of faster declining SN Ia hosts. Similarly, redder SN Ia hosts have slightly higher metallicities than bluer SN Ia hosts. Lick index analysis of metallic lines and Balmer lines shows that faster declining SN Ia hosts have relatively higher metal content and have relatively older stellar populations compared with slower declining SN Ia hosts. We calculate average {{{H}}}α star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, and the specific SFR (sSFR) of host galaxies in these subgroups of SNe Ia. We find that slower declining SN Ia hosts have significantly higher (> 5σ ) sSFR than faster declining SN Ia hosts. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test shows that these two types of hosts originate from different parent distributions. Our results, when compared with the models of Childress et al., indicate that slower declining SNe Ia, being hosted in actively star-forming galaxies, are young (prompt) SNe Ia, originating from similar progenitor age groups.

  7. A Spatially Resolved Study of the GRB 020903 Host Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorp, Mallory D.; Levesque, Emily M.

    2018-03-01

    GRB 020903 is a long-duration gamma-ray burst with a host galaxy close enough and extended enough for spatially resolved observations, making it one of less than a dozen GRBs where such host studies are possible. GRB 020903 lies in a galaxy host complex that appears to consist of four interacting components. Here we present the results of spatially resolved spectroscopic observations of the GRB 020903 host. By taking observations at two different position angles, we were able to obtain optical spectra (3600–9000 Å) of multiple regions in the galaxy. We confirm redshifts for three regions of the host galaxy that match that of GRB 020903. We measure the metallicity of these regions, and find that the explosion site and the nearby star-forming regions both have comparable subsolar metallicities. We conclude that, in agreement with past spatially resolved studies of GRBs, the GRB explosion site is representative of the host galaxy as a whole rather than localized in a metal-poor region of the galaxy.

  8. Galaxies of all Shapes Host Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This artist's concept illustrates the two types of spiral galaxies that populate our universe: those with plump middles, or central bulges (upper left), and those lacking the bulge (foreground).

    New observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope provide strong evidence that the slender, bulgeless galaxies can, like their chubbier counterparts, harbor supermassive black holes at their cores. Previously, astronomers thought that a galaxy without a bulge could not have a supermassive black hole. In this illustration, jets shooting away from the black holes are depicted as thin streams.

    The findings are reshaping theories of galaxy formation, suggesting that a galaxy's 'waistline' does not determine whether it will be home to a big black hole.

  9. Host Galaxies of X-Shaped Extragalactic Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springmann, Alessondra; Cheung, C. C.

    2007-05-01

    The majority of radiation from galaxies containing active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is emitted not by the stars composing the galaxy, but from an active source at the galactic center, most likely a supermassive black hole. Of particular interest are radio galaxies, the active galaxies emitting much of their radiation at radio wavelengths. Classical double-lobed radio galaxies are characterized by a single pair of "active" radio lobes. A small subset show an additional pair of lower surface brightness 'wings' of emission, thus forming an overall winged or X-shaped appearance. Two competing mechanisms have been proposed to explain the "winged" morphology. One model posits that these are the remnants left over from a relatively recent merger of a binary supermassive black hole system. Others have argued that they result naturally from strong backflow in a radio jet cocoon expanding into an asymmetric medium. We used available Sloan Digital Sky Survey r-band images of 11 X-shaped sources to measure the host galaxy ellipticities. By analyzing the host galaxy shapes, we trace the surrounding gas distribution. The radio morphologies are compared to the host galaxy parameters to analogize between differing model expectations. This work was funded by the Department of Energy's Student Undergraduate Laboratory Internship Program and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  10. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo

    2017-09-01

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness is mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.

  11. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    SciTech Connect

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo, E-mail: b.cervantes@irya.unam.mx, E-mail: o.sanchez@irya.unam.mx

    2017-09-20

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness ismore » mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.« less

  12. Deficiency of ''Thin'' Stellar Bars in Seyfert Host Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlosman, Isaac; Peletier, Reynier F.; Knapen, Johan

    1999-01-01

    Using all available major samples of Seyfert galaxies and their corresponding control samples of closely matched non-active galaxies, we find that the bar ellipticities (or axial ratios) in Seyfert galaxies are systematically different from those in non-active galaxies. Overall, there is a deficiency of bars with large ellipticities (i.e., 'fat' or 'weak' bars) in Seyferts, compared to non-active galaxies. Accompanied with a large dispersion due to small number statistics, this effect is strictly speaking at the 2 sigma level. To obtain this result, the active galaxy samples of near-infrared surface photometry were matched to those of normal galaxies in type, host galaxy ellipticity, absolute magnitude, and, to some extent, in redshift. We discuss possible theoretical explanations of this phenomenon within the framework of galactic evolution, and, in particular, of radial gas redistribution in barred galaxies. Our conclusions provide further evidence that Seyfert hosts differ systematically from their non-active counterparts on scales of a few kpc.

  13. Associating Fast Radio Bursts with Their Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftekhari, T.; Berger, E.

    2017-11-01

    The first precise localization of a fast radio burst (FRB) sheds light on the nature of these mysterious bursts and the physical mechanisms that power them. Increasing the sample of FRBs with robust host galaxy associations is the key impetus behind ongoing and upcoming searches and facilities. Here, we quantify the robustness of FRB host galaxy associations as a function of localization area and galaxy apparent magnitude. We also explore the use of FRB dispersion measures to constrain the source redshift, thereby reducing the number of candidate hosts. We use these results to demonstrate that even in the absence of a unique association, a constraint can be placed on the maximum luminosity of a host galaxy as a function of localization and dispersion measure (DM). We find that localizations of ≲ 0.5\\text{'}\\text{'} are required for a chance coincidence probability of ≲ 1 % for dwarf galaxies at z≳ 0.1; if some hosts have luminosities of ˜ {L}\\ast , then localizations of up to ≈ 5\\prime\\prime may suffice at z˜ 0.1. Constraints on the redshift from the DM only marginally improve the association probability unless the DM is low, ≲ 400 pc cm-3. This approach also relies on the determination of galaxy redshifts, which is challenging at z≳ 0.5 if the hosts are dwarf galaxies. Finally, interesting limits on the maximum host luminosity require localizations of ≲ 5\\prime\\prime at z≳ 0.1. Even a few such localizations will explain the nature of FRB progenitors, their possible diversity, and their use as cosmological tools.

  14. CHANDRA X-RAY AND HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING OF OPTICALLY SELECTED KILOPARSEC-SCALE BINARY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. HOST GALAXY MORPHOLOGY AND AGN ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Shangguan, Jinyi; Ho, Luis C.; Liu, Xin

    2016-05-20

    Binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provide clues to how gas-rich mergers trigger and fuel AGNs and how supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs evolve in a gas-rich environment. While significant effort has been invested in their identification, the detailed properties of binary AGNs and their host galaxies are still poorly constrained. In a companion paper, we examined the nature of ionizing sources in the double nuclei of four kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs with redshifts between 0.1 and 0.2. Here, we present their host galaxy morphology based on F336W ( U -band) and F105W ( Y -band) images taken by the Wide Fieldmore » Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope . Our targets have double-peaked narrow emission lines and were confirmed to host binary AGNs with follow-up observations. We find that kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs occur in galaxy mergers with diverse morphological types. There are three major mergers with intermediate morphologies and a minor merger with a dominant disk component. We estimate the masses of the SMBHs from their host bulge stellar masses and obtain Eddington ratios for each AGN. Compared with a representative control sample drawn at the same redshift and stellar mass, the AGN luminosities and Eddington ratios of our binary AGNs are similar to those of single AGNs. The U − Y color maps indicate that clumpy star-forming regions could significantly affect the X-ray detection of binary AGNs, e.g., the hardness ratio. Considering the weak X-ray emission in AGNs triggered in merger systems, we suggest that samples of X-ray-selected AGNs may be biased against gas-rich mergers.« less

  15. Stellar Populations of Quasar Host Galaxies Using WIYN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, Gregory; Moravec, E.; Kotulla, R. C.

    2013-06-01

    We now know that most galaxies have supermassive black holes (SMBH) in their centers, and somewhat unexpectedly, there are relationships—such as the M-sigma relation—between the mass of the central black hole and the velocity dispersion of the host galaxy's stellar spheroid (bulge), even though they lie outside the black hole's influence. Galaxy merger models show reasonable evidence for coevolution of the bulge and black hole since the merging process initiates simultaneous growth of the black hole and galaxy by supplying gas to the nucleus for accretion onto the black hole and triggering bursts of star formation. The merging process truncates the growth of both by removing the gas reservoir via feedback from these processes. But recently, it’s been shown that this relation could arise from central limit-like arguments alone. To really judge connections between SMBH and their host, it’s crucial to study these galaxies at the peak of black hole growth—during the quasar phase. Using 3-d spectroscopy methods, namely Sparsepak, an integral field units (IFU) on WIYN, it is possible to successfully recover information about the host galaxy's integrated star formation history that can be used to check merger-induced galaxy evolution predicted by the models. However, it is critical to have a robust and careful analysis of the stellar population modeling. The research presented in this poster focuses on new results from Sparsepak and preliminary WHIRC H-band light profiles of select quasar host galaxies. The stellar populations are derived using a new statistical method called diffusion k-means, and the WHIRC data are analyzed using a Python code written by Ralf Kotulla.

  16. Discovery of rare double-lobe radio galaxies hosted in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Veeresh; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.; Sievers, Jonathan; Wadadekar, Yogesh; Hilton, Matt; Beelen, Alexandre

    2015-12-01

    Double-lobe radio galaxies in the local Universe have traditionally been found to be hosted in elliptical or lenticular galaxies. We report the discovery of four spiral-host double-lobe radio galaxies (J0836+0532, J1159+5820, J1352+3126, and J1649+2635) that are discovered by cross-matching a large sample of 187 005 spiral galaxies from SDSS DR7 (Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7) to the full catalogues of FIRST (Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm) and NVSS (NRAO VLA Sky Survey). J0836+0532 is reported for the first time. The host galaxies are forming stars at an average rate of 1.7-10 M⊙ yr-1 and possess supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with masses of a few times 108 M⊙. Their radio morphologies are similar to Fanaroff-Riley type II radio galaxies with total projected linear sizes ranging from 86 to 420 kpc, but their total 1.4-GHz radio luminosities are only in the range 1024-1025 W Hz-1. We propose that the formation of spiral-host double-lobe radio galaxies can be attributed to more than one factor, such as the occurrence of strong interactions, mergers, and the presence of unusually massive SMBHs, such that the spiral structures are not destroyed. Only one of our sources (J1649+2635) is found in a cluster environment, indicating that processes other than accretion through cooling flows e.g. galaxy-galaxy mergers or interactions could be plausible scenarios for triggering radio-loud active galactic nuclei activity in spiral galaxies.

  17. Host Galaxies of Low Luminosity Quasars at Intermediate Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabien, S.; Lehnert, M.

    We report on observations of a sample of 18 faint radio-quiet quasars with redshifts from 0.8 to 2.7. This faint sample probes the luminosity range roughly at to 2 magnitudes higher than the QSO/Seyfert 1 divide at redshifts ranges little studied to date with such a sample. These QSOs have luminosities matching samples observed at low redshift, so we can compare the host measurements without effects that arise from quasar luminosity dependence. And to further facilitate the comparison with low redshift QSOs, the observations using the ESO NTT were carried out using filter bandpasses specifically chosen to observe at approximately rest-frame B or V in the optical and to avoid strong emission lines. We measured the properties of the quasars and the underlying host galaxies with PSF-subtraction and global modeling of the galaxies. We find that most of the QSO hosts can be fit with a ``spiral-like'' light profile, and that the low luminosity QSOs ( = -22) have hosts which have average magnitudes of ≈L* galaxies, while the more luminous nuclei ( = -24.5) are typically about 2 L* galaxies, both results being independent of the redshift of the QSO. Broadly speaking, these results are consistent with more massive black holes being hosted by more massive galaxies, no evolution in the fueling rate with redshift or nuclear magnitude, and when combined with other known facts about the QSO population, favors a picture where most galaxies harbor black holes with few fueling episodes as opposed to a small subset of galaxies harboring black holes with many, longer-lived episodes of activity.

  18. The SEDs and Host Galaxies of the Dustiest GRB Afterglows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruhler, T.; Greiner, J.; Schady, P.; Savaglio, S.; Afonso, P. M. J.; Clemens, C.; Elliott, J.; Filgas, R.; Gruber, D.; Kann, D. A.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The afterglows and host galaxies of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) offer unique opportunities to study star-forming galaxies in the high-z Universe, Until recently, however. the information inferred from GRB follow-up observations was mostly limited to optically bright afterglows. biasing all demographic studies against sight-lines that contain large amounts of dust. Aims. Here we present afterglow and host observations for a sample of bursts that are exemplary of previously missed ones because of high visual extinction (A(sub v) (Sup GRB) approx > 1 mag) along the sight-line. This facilitates an investigation of the properties, geometry and location of the absorbing dust of these poorly-explored host galaxies. and a comparison to hosts from optically-selected samples. Methods. This work is based on GROND optical/NIR and Swift/XRT X-ray observations of the afterglows, and multi-color imaging for eight GRB hosts. The afterglow and galaxy spectral energy distributions yield detailed insight into physical properties such as the dust and metal content along the GRB sight-line as well as galaxy-integrated characteristics like the host's stellar mass, luminosity. color-excess and star-formation rate. Results. For the eight afterglows considered in this study we report for the first time the redshift of GRBs 081109 (z = 0.97S7 +/- 0.0005). and the visual extinction towards GRBs 0801109 (A(sub v) (Sup GRB) = 3.4(sup +0.4) (sub -0.3) mag) and l00621A (A(sub v) (Sup GRB) = 3.8 +/- 0.2 mag), which are among the largest ever derived for GRB afterglows. Combined with non-extinguished GRBs. there is a strong anti-correlation between the afterglow's metals-to-dust ratio and visual extinction. The hosts of the dustiest afterglows are diverse in their properties, but on average redder(((R - K)(sub AB)) approximates 1.6 mag), more luminous ( approximates 0.9 L (sup *)) and massive ((log M(sup *) [M(solar]) approximates 9.8) than the hosts of optically-bright events. We hence probe

  19. THE EXTREMELY RED HOST GALAXY OF GRB 080207

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Leslie; Cresci, Giovanni; Palazzi, Eliana

    2011-08-01

    We present optical, near-infrared, and Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations of the host galaxy of the dark Swift gamma-ray burst GRB 080207. The host is faint, with extremely red optical-infrared colors (R - K = 6.3, 24 {mu}m/R-band flux {approx}1000) making it an extremely red object (ERO) and a dust-obscured galaxy (DOG). The spectral energy distribution (SED) shows the clear signature of the 1.6 {mu}m photometric 'bump', typical of evolved stellar populations. We use this bump to establish the photometric redshift z{sub phot} as 2.2{sup +0.2}{sub -0.3}, using a vast library of SED templates, including M 82. The star formationmore » rate (SFR) inferred from the SED fitting is {approx}119 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, the stellar mass 3 x 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}, and A{sub V} extinction from 1 to 2 mag. The ERO and DOG nature of the host galaxy of the dark GRB 080207 may be emblematic of a distinct class of dark GRB hosts, with high SFRs, evolved and metal-rich stellar populations, and significant dust extinction within the host galaxy.« less

  20. Coevolution (Or Not) of Supermassive Black Holes and Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormendy, John; Ho, Luis C.

    2013-08-01

    Supermassive black holes (BHs) have been found in 85 galaxies by dynamical modeling of spatially resolved kinematics. The Hubble Space Telescope revolutionized BH research by advancing the subject from its proof-of-concept phase into quantitative studies of BH demographics. Most influential was the discovery of a tight correlation between BH mass [Formula: see text] and the velocity dispersion σ of the bulge component of the host galaxy. Together with similar correlations with bulge luminosity and mass, this led to the widespread belief that BHs and bulges coevolve by regulating each other's growth. Conclusions based on one set of correlations from [Formula: see text] in brightest cluster ellipticals to [Formula: see text] in the smallest galaxies dominated BH work for more than a decade. New results are now replacing this simple story with a richer and more plausible picture in which BHs correlate differently with different galaxy components. A reasonable aim is to use this progress to refine our understanding of BH-galaxy coevolution. BHs with masses of 105-106M⊙ are found in many bulgeless galaxies. Therefore, classical (elliptical-galaxy-like) bulges are not necessary for BH formation. On the other hand, although they live in galaxy disks, BHs do not correlate with galaxy disks. Also, any [Formula: see text] correlations with the properties of disk-grown pseudobulges and dark matter halos are weak enough to imply no close coevolution. The above and other correlations of host-galaxy parameters with each other and with [Formula: see text] suggest that there are four regimes of BH feedback. (1) Local, secular, episodic, and stochastic feeding of small BHs in largely bulgeless galaxies involves too little energy to result in coevolution. (2) Global feeding in major, wet galaxy mergers rapidly grows giant BHs in short-duration, quasar-like events whose energy feedback does affect galaxy evolution. The resulting hosts are classical bulges and coreless

  1. Host galaxies are the obscurers of Gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Johannes; Schulze, Steve; Bauer, Franz E.

    2017-08-01

    The luminous, high-energy emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) makes them efficient probes of the high-redshift universe. The origin of the obscuration of gamma-ray burst afterglow is still unclear. We study the afterglows metal column densities along the line-of-sight of all Swift-detected long GRBs with an improved hierarchical Bayesian analysis methodology. We characterise follow-up biases and side-step them using SHOALS, an unbiased sub-sample with highly complete follow-up. That survey also measures Spitzer host masses. Overall, the column densities shows little redshift evolution but a significant correlation with host stellar mass. A simple geometrical model explains the width and shape of the column density distribution and the trend with galaxy mass correlation. Our findings implicate the host's galaxy-scale metal gas as the dominant obscurer. From a galaxy evolution perspective, our study places new constraints on the metal gas mass inside galaxies at z=0.5-4. We compare these with modern cosmological simulations (Illustris and EAGLE) and discuss implications for the obscuration of other sources inside high redshift galaxies, such as active galactic nuclei.

  2. Host galaxies are the obscurers of Gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, J.; Schulze, S.; Bauer, F.

    2017-10-01

    The luminous, high-energy emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) makes them efficient probes of the high-redshift universe. The origin of the obscuration of gamma-ray burst afterglow is still unclear. We study the afterglows metal column densities along the line-of-sight of all Swift-detected long GRBs with an improved hierarchical Bayesian analysis methodology. We characterise follow-up biases and side-step them using SHOALS, an unbiased sub-sample with highly complete follow-up. That survey also measures Spitzer host masses. Overall, the column densities shows little redshift evolution but a significant correlation with host stellar mass. A simple geometrical model explains the width and shape of the column density distribution and the trend with galaxy mass correlation. Our findings implicate the host's galaxy-scale metal gas as the dominant obscurer. From a galaxy evolution perspective, our study places new constraints on the metal gas mass inside galaxies at z=0.5-4. We compare these with modern cosmological simulations (Illustris and EAGLE) and discuss implications for the obscuration of other sources inside high redshift galaxies, such as active galactic nuclei.

  3. The properties of X-ray selected active galactic nuclei. II - A deeper look at the cosmological evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Della Ceca, Roberto; Maccacaro, Tommaso; Gioia, Isabella M.; Wolter, Anna; Stocke, John T.

    1992-01-01

    A detailed study of the cosmological properties of X-ray selected AGN is presented. The data are analyzed within the framework of a pure luminosity evolution (PLE) model and the two most population evolutionary forms. Evidence is found for luminosity-dependent luminosity evolution if the evolution function has the exponential form. The simpler PLE model is more acceptable if the data are fitted with a power-law evolution function. Similar results are obtained in the optical domain from an analysis of a sample of optically selected QSOs with z less than 2.2 and B less than 20.

  4. Radio morphology and parent population of X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurent-Muehleisen, S. A.; Kollgaard, R. I.; Moellenbrock, G. A.; Feigelson, E. D.

    1993-01-01

    High-dynamic range (typically 1700:1) radio maps of 15 X-ray BL Lac (XBL) objects from the HEAO-1 Large Area Sky Survey are presented. Morphological characteristics of these sources are compared with Fanaroff-Riley (FR) class I radio galaxies in the context of unified schemes, with reference to one-sided kiloparsec-scale emission. Evidence that cluster membership of XBLs is significantly higher than previously thought is also presented. It is shown that the extended radio powers, X-ray emission, core-to-lobe ratios, and linear sizes of the radio selected BL Lac (RBL) and XBL populations are consistent with an FR I radio galaxy parent population. A source list and VLA observing log and map parameters are provided.

  5. Dwarf Galaxy Hosts of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldering, Greg; Nordin, Jakob; Hayden, Brian

    2014-02-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are the best cosmological probes for mapping the expansion history of the universe. The cosmological utility of SNe Ia depends on the ability to compare brightnesses of high-redshift SNe Ia to those at low redshift, but recent studies have indicated possible environmental effects which may evolve in redshift and introduce biases to cosmological parameter estimates. The Nearby Supernova Factory has spectroscopically studied over 400 SNe Ia in the nearby smooth Hubble flow using a search technique that found SNe in all environments. This provides the most complete nearby Hubble-flow SN Ia sample to date, and has proven invaluable for investigating environmental effects on SN Ia brightnesses. We propose to use Gemini with GMOS to observe the pool of ultra-faint dwarf galaxies that remain unstudied, since these will provide the lowest abundance environments in which Type Ia supernovae properties have yet been explored.

  6. Host galaxy properties of extreme (and ordinary) supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perley, Daniel; Taggart, Kirsty; Modjaz, Maryam; Huang, Shan; Schulze, Steve; Lunnan, Ragnhild; Quimby, Robert; Yan, Lin

    2018-01-01

    Massive stars produce a surprising variety of different explosions when they die. These include hydrogen-rich type II supernovae, stripped-enevelope supernovae, and several classes of exotic, luminous transients which may be driven by energy injection from a central engine (including broad-lined supernovae, long-duration gamma-ray bursts, and superluminous supernovae). Combining data from several recent untargeted transient surveys with follow-up observations of their host galaxies, we investigate the explosion sites of all of these different classes together and compare them to local galaxies in order to constrain the progenitor pathways leading to these different explosions.

  7. Revisiting The First Galaxies: The effects of Population III stars on their host galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Muratov, Alexander L.; Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2013-07-12

    We revisit the formation and evolution of the first galaxies using new hydrodynamic cosmological simulations with the adaptive refinement tree code. Our simulations feature a recently developed model for H 2 formation and dissociation, and a star formation recipe that is based on molecular rather than atomic gas. Here, we develop and implement a recipe for the formation of metal-free Population III (Pop III) stars in galaxy-scale simulations that resolve primordial clouds with sufficiently high density. We base our recipe on the results of prior zoom-in simulations that resolved the protostellar collapse in pre-galactic objects. We find the epoch duringmore » which Pop III stars dominated the energy and metal budget of the first galaxies to be short-lived. Galaxies that host Pop III stars do not retain dynamical signatures of their thermal and radiative feedback for more than 10 8 years after the lives of the stars end in pair-instability supernovae, even when we consider the maximum reasonable efficiency of the feedback. Though metals ejected by the supernovae can travel well beyond the virial radius of the host galaxy, they typically begin to fall back quickly, and do not enrich a large fraction of the intergalactic medium. Galaxies with a total mass in excess of 3 × 10 6 M ⊙ re-accrete most of their baryons and transition to metal-enriched Pop II star formation.« less

  8. REVISITING THE FIRST GALAXIES: THE EFFECTS OF POPULATION III STARS ON THEIR HOST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Muratov, Alexander L.; Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Zemp, Marcel

    2013-08-01

    We revisit the formation and evolution of the first galaxies using new hydrodynamic cosmological simulations with the adaptive refinement tree code. Our simulations feature a recently developed model for H{sub 2} formation and dissociation, and a star formation recipe that is based on molecular rather than atomic gas. Here, we develop and implement a recipe for the formation of metal-free Population III (Pop III) stars in galaxy-scale simulations that resolve primordial clouds with sufficiently high density. We base our recipe on the results of prior zoom-in simulations that resolved the protostellar collapse in pre-galactic objects. We find the epoch duringmore » which Pop III stars dominated the energy and metal budget of the first galaxies to be short-lived. Galaxies that host Pop III stars do not retain dynamical signatures of their thermal and radiative feedback for more than 10{sup 8} years after the lives of the stars end in pair-instability supernovae, even when we consider the maximum reasonable efficiency of the feedback. Though metals ejected by the supernovae can travel well beyond the virial radius of the host galaxy, they typically begin to fall back quickly, and do not enrich a large fraction of the intergalactic medium. Galaxies with a total mass in excess of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun} re-accrete most of their baryons and transition to metal-enriched Pop II star formation.« less

  9. SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AND THEIR HOST SPHEROIDS. I. DISASSEMBLING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Savorgnan, G. A. D.; Graham, A. W., E-mail: gsavorgn@astro.swin.edu.au

    2016-01-15

    Several recent studies have performed galaxy decompositions to investigate correlations between the black hole mass and various properties of the host spheroid, but they have not converged on the same conclusions. This is because their models for the same galaxy were often significantly different and not consistent with each other in terms of fitted components. Using 3.6 μm Spitzer imagery, which is a superb tracer of the stellar mass (superior to the K band), we have performed state-of-the-art multicomponent decompositions for 66 galaxies with directly measured black hole masses. Our sample is the largest to date and, unlike previous studies, containsmore » a large number (17) of spiral galaxies with low black hole masses. We paid careful attention to the image mosaicking, sky subtraction, and masking of contaminating sources. After a scrupulous inspection of the galaxy photometry (through isophotal analysis and unsharp masking) and—for the first time—2D kinematics, we were able to account for spheroids; large-scale, intermediate-scale, and nuclear disks; bars; rings; spiral arms; halos; extended or unresolved nuclear sources; and partially depleted cores. For each individual galaxy, we compared our best-fit model with previous studies, explained the discrepancies, and identified the optimal decomposition. Moreover, we have independently performed one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) decompositions and concluded that, at least when modeling large, nearby galaxies, 1D techniques have more advantages than 2D techniques. Finally, we developed a prescription to estimate the uncertainties on the 1D best-fit parameters for the 66 spheroids that takes into account systematic errors, unlike popular 2D codes that only consider statistical errors.« less

  10. What are the galaxies that host MIR-selected AGN?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosario, David

    2016-08-01

    Infra-red selection techniques, sensitive to dust strongly heated by an AGN, offer a way to identify some of the most obscured accretion events in the Universe. I will describe the results of a comprehensive multi-wavelength study of AGN to z>2 selected using Spitzer/IRAC based methods in the COSMOS field. Armed with AGN-optimised redshifts and stellar masses, we explore the dust emission from the active nucleus and the host galaxy. We demonstrate that IR-selected AGN tend to be found in low mass host galaxies, when compared to other AGN identification methods. The star-formation rates of obscured and unobscured IR-selected AGN are very similar, implying that large-scale obscuration with co-eval star-bursts are not found in a major proportion of heavily obscured AGN.

  11. Toward An Understanding of Cluster Evolution: A Deep X-Ray Selected Cluster Catalog from ROSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Christine; Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In the past year, we have focussed on studying individual clusters found in this sample with Chandra, as well as using Chandra to measure the luminosity-temperature relation for a sample of distant clusters identified through the ROSAT study, and finally we are continuing our study of fossil groups. For the luminosity-temperature study, we compared a sample of nearby clusters with a sample of distant clusters and, for the first time, measured a significant change in the relation as a function of redshift (Vikhlinin et al. in final preparation for submission to Cape). We also used our ROSAT analysis to select and propose for Chandra observations of individual clusters. We are now analyzing the Chandra observations of the distant cluster A520, which appears to have undergone a recent merger. Finally, we have completed the analysis of the fossil groups identified in ROM observations. In the past few months, we have derived X-ray fluxes and luminosities as well as X-ray extents for an initial sample of 89 objects. Based on the X-ray extents and the lack of bright galaxies, we have identified 16 fossil groups. We are comparing their X-ray and optical properties with those of optically rich groups. A paper is being readied for submission (Jones, Forman, and Vikhlinin in preparation).

  12. GRB 990712 optical decay: indication of bright host galaxy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjorth, J.; Courbin, F.; Cuadra, J.; Minniti, D.

    We have obtained a 5-min R-band exposure of the optical afterglow of GRB 990712 (Frontera, GCN #385; Bakos et al., GCN #387) with the ESO 3.5-m NTT on 16.403 July 1999 UT. We detect an unresolved (seeing FWHM = 1.8") object at RA (2000) = 22 31 53.03, Dec (2000) = -73 24 28.3 (with a positional uncertainty of +- 0.6" relative to the USNO-A2.0 system), consistent with the position of the bright decaying source discovered by Bakos et al. (IAUC 7225). We have tied our photometry to the PLANET photometric zeropoint (K. Sahu, personal communication) and find that the object has continued to fade to R = 21.48 +- 0.02 (systematic) +- 0.05 (random). The combined SAAO data (Bakos et al., IAUC 7225) and NTT data indicate that the light curve is leveling off relative to a power law decline. Assuming that the light curve can be modeled as the combined effects of a power law decline of the OT and a constant contribution from the host galaxy we find an OT decay slope of -0.81 (i.e. a rather slow decay) and a bright host galaxy with R = 22.0. Such a bright host galaxy would be consistent with its fairly low redshift (z = 0.43) and would possibly even account for the prominent emission lines seen in the VLT spectrum (Galama et al., GCN #388). We caution however that the hypothesis of a bright host galaxy is based on just a few data points. To test this hypothesis continued monitoring of the system is therefore urged. The NTT image and the R-band light curve are posted at http://www.astro.ku.dk/~jens/grb990712/ .

  13. Characterizing the Supernova Host Galaxy Population with ASAS-SN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jonathan; ASAS-SN Team

    2018-01-01

    The goal of the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) is to provide the astronomical community with a complete record of the optically accessible night sky. ASAS-SN uses a global array of telescopes to monitor the entire sky on a nightly cadence. Due to the nearby volume probed by ASAS-SN, our survey excels at discovering bright transient events. The events we discover can be studied in great detail and monitored well into the late phases of evolution with only modest observational resources. ASAS-SN has discovered a plethora of interesting transient events, and has also amassed a large sample of supernovae (SNe). Not only are the statistical properties of these SNe interesting in their own right, but the galaxies that host these events are also of great scientific interest. I will present the initial results of our SNe host galaxy census, and highlight some systems that would have been missed by traditional SN surveys. Finally I will discuss how this dataset will be used to improve our understanding of the SNe-host galaxy connection.

  14. Starburst-driven Superwinds in Quasar Host Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Barthel, Peter; Podigachoski, Pece; Wilkes, Belinda

    2017-07-01

    During the past five decades astronomers have been puzzled by the presence of strong absorption features including metal lines, observed in the optical and ultraviolet spectra of quasars, signaling inflowing and outflowing gas winds with relative velocities up to several thousands of km s{sup −1}. In particular, the location of these winds—close to the quasar, further out in its host galaxy, or in its direct environment—and the possible impact on their surroundings have been issues of intense discussion and uncertainty. Using our Herschel Space Observatory data, we report a tendency for this so-called associated metal absorption to occur along withmore » prodigious star formation in the quasar host galaxy, indicating that the two phenomena are likely to be interrelated, that the gas winds likely occur on the kiloparsec scale and would then have a strong impact on the interstellar medium of the galaxy. This correlation moreover would imply that the unusually high cold dust luminosities in these quasars are connected with ongoing star formation. Given that we find no correlation with the AGN strength, the wind feedback that we establish in these radio-loud objects is most likely associated with their host star formation rather than with their black hole accretion.« less

  15. ARE SOME MILKY WAY GLOBULAR CLUSTERS HOSTED BY UNDISCOVERED GALAXIES?

    SciTech Connect

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Crnojević, Denija; Sand, David J., E-mail: dennis.zaritsky@gmail.com

    2016-07-20

    The confirmation of a globular cluster (GC) in the recently discovered ultrafaint galaxy Eridanus II (Eri II) motivated us to examine the question posed in the title. After estimating the halo mass of Eri II using a published stellar mass—halo mass relation, the one GC in this galaxy supports extending the relationship between the number of GCs hosted by a galaxy and the galaxy’s total mass about two orders of magnitude in stellar mass below the previous limit. For this empirically determined specific frequency of between 0.06 and 0.39 GCs per 10{sup 9} M {sub ⊙} of total mass, themore » surviving Milky Way (MW) subhalos with masses smaller than 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙} could host as many as 5–31 GCs, broadly consistent with the actual population of outer halo MW GCs, although matching the radial distribution in detail remains a challenge. Using a subhalo mass function from published high-resolution numerical simulations and a Poissonian model for populating those halos with the aforementioned empirically constrained frequency, we find that about 90% of these GCs lie in lower-mass subhalos than that of Eri II. From what we know about the stellar mass–halo mass function, the subhalo mass function, and the mass-normalized GC specific frequency, we conclude that some of the MW’s outer halo GCs are likely to be hosted by undetected subhalos with extremely modest stellar populations.« less

  16. SDSS IV MaNGA - Properties of AGN Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Avila-Reese, V.; Hernandez-Toledo, H.; Cortes-Suárez, E.; Rodríguez-Puebla, A.; Ibarra-Medel, H.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Negrete, C. A.; Calette, A. R.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Ortega-Minakata, R. A.; Aquino, E.; Valenzuela, O.; Clemente, J. C.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Riffel, R.; Schimoia, J.; Riffel, R. A.; Rembold, S. B.; Brownstein, J. R.; Pan, K.; Yates, R.; Mallmann, N.; Bitsakis, T.

    2018-04-01

    We present the characterization of the main properties of a sample of 98 AGN host galaxies, both type-II and type-I, in comparison with those of ≍2700 non-active galaxies observed by the MaNGA survey. We found that AGN hosts are morphologically early-type or early-spirals. AGN hosts are, on average, more massive, more compact, more centrally peaked and more pressure-supported systems. They are located in the intermediate/transition region between starforming and non-star-forming galaxies (i.e., the so-called green valley). We consider that they are in the process of halting/quenching the star formation. The analysis of the radial distributions of different properties shows that the quenching happens from inside-out involving both a decrease of the effciency of the star formation and a deficit of molecular gas. The data-products of the current analysis are distributed as a Value Added Catalog within the SDSS-DR14.

  17. Fast outflows and star formation quenching in quasar host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniani, S.; Marconi, A.; Maiolino, R.; Balmaverde, B.; Brusa, M.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Cicone, C.; Comastri, A.; Cresci, G.; Fiore, F.; Feruglio, C.; La Franca, F.; Mainieri, V.; Mannucci, F.; Nagao, T.; Netzer, H.; Piconcelli, E.; Risaliti, G.; Schneider, R.; Shemmer, O.

    2016-06-01

    Negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is considered a key mechanism in shaping galaxy evolution. Fast, extended outflows are frequently detected in the AGN host galaxies at all redshifts and luminosities, both in ionised and molecular gas. However, these outflows are only potentially able to quench star formation, and we are still lacking decisive evidence of negative feedback in action. Here we present observations obtained with the Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared (SINFONI) H- and K-band integral-field of two quasars at z ~ 2.4 that are characterised by fast, extended outflows detected through the [Oiii]λ5007 line. The high signal-to-noise ratio of our observations allows us to identify faint narrow (FWHM< 500 km s-1) and spatially extended components in [Oiii]λ5007 and Hα emission associated with star formation in the host galaxy. This star formation powered emission is spatially anti-correlated with the fast outflows. The ionised outflows therefore appear to be able to suppress star formation in the region where the outflow is expanding. However, the detection of narrow spatially extended Hα emission indicates star formation rates of at least ~50-90 M⊙ yr-1, suggesting either that AGN feedback does not affect the whole galaxy or that many feedback episodes are required before star formation is completely quenched. On the other hand, the narrow Hα emission extending along the edges of the outflow cone may also lead also to a positive feedback interpretation. Our results highlight the possible double role of galaxy-wide outflows in host galaxy evolution. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, P.ID: 086.B-0579(A) and 091.A-0261(A).The reduced data cubes are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/591/A28

  18. The Star Formation Reference Survey - II. Activity demographics and host-galaxy properties for infrared-selected galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maragkoudakis, A.; Zezas, A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.

    2018-04-01

    We present activity demographics and host-galaxy properties of infrared-selected galaxies in the local Universe, using the representative Star Formation Reference Survey (SFRS). Our classification scheme is based on a combination of optical emission-line diagrams (BPT) and infrared (IR)-colour diagnostics. Using the weights assigned to the SFRS galaxies based on its parent sample, a far-IR-selected sample comprises 71 per cent H II galaxies, 13 per cent Seyferts, 3 per cent transition objects (TOs), and 13 per cent low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs). For the SFRS H II galaxies, we derive nuclear star formation rates and gas-phase metallicities. We measure host-galaxy metallicities for all galaxies with available long-slit spectroscopy and abundance gradients for a subset of 12 face-on galaxies. The majority of H II galaxies show a narrow range of metallicities, close to solar, and flat metallicity profiles. Based on their host-galaxy and nuclear properties, the dominant ionizing source in the far-infrared selected TOs is star-forming activity. LINERs are found mostly in massive hosts (median of 1010.5 M⊙), median L(60 μm) = 109 L⊙, median dust temperatures of F60/F100 = 0.36, and median LH α surface density of 1040.2 erg s-1kpc-2, indicating older stellar populations as their main ionizing source rather than active galactic nucleus activity.

  19. The Influence of Host Galaxies in Type Ia Supernova Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Uddin, Syed A.; Mould, Jeremy; Lidman, Chris

    2017-10-10

    We use a sample of 1338 spectroscopically confirmed and photometrically classified Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) sourced from Carnegie Supernova Project, Center for Astrophysics Supernova Survey, Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II, and SuperNova Legacy Survey SN samples to examine the relationships between SNe Ia and the galaxies that host them. Our results provide confirmation with improved statistical significance that SNe Ia, after standardization, are on average more luminous in massive hosts (significance >5 σ ), and decline more rapidly in massive hosts (significance >9 σ ) and in hosts with low specific star formation rates (significance >8 σ ). We studymore » the variation of these relationships with redshift and detect no evolution. We split SNe Ia into pairs of subsets that are based on the properties of the hosts and fit cosmological models to each subset. Including both systematic and statistical uncertainties, we do not find any significant shift in the best-fit cosmological parameters between the subsets. Among different SN Ia subsets, we find that SNe Ia in hosts with high specific star formation rates have the least intrinsic scatter ( σ {sub int} = 0.08 ± 0.01) in luminosity after standardization.« less

  20. Quasar Host Galaxies/Neptune Rotation/Galaxy Building Blocks/Hubble Deep Field/Saturn Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Computerized animations simulate a quasar erupting in the core of a normal spiral galaxy, the collision of two interacting galaxies, and the evolution of the universe. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images show six quasars' host galaxies (including spirals, ellipticals, and colliding galaxies) and six clumps of galaxies approximately 11 billion light years away. A false color time lapse movie of Neptune displays the planet's 16-hour rotation, and the evolution of a storm on Saturn is seen though a video of the planet's rotation. A zoom sequence starts with a ground-based image of the constellation Ursa major and ends with the Hubble Deep Field through progressively narrower and deeper views.

  1. Chandra X-Ray and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Optically Selected Kiloparsec-scale Binary Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Host Galaxy Morphology and AGN Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangguan, Jinyi; Liu, Xin; Ho, Luis C.; Shen, Yue; Peng, Chien Y.; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    Binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provide clues to how gas-rich mergers trigger and fuel AGNs and how supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs evolve in a gas-rich environment. While significant effort has been invested in their identification, the detailed properties of binary AGNs and their host galaxies are still poorly constrained. In a companion paper, we examined the nature of ionizing sources in the double nuclei of four kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs with redshifts between 0.1 and 0.2. Here, we present their host galaxy morphology based on F336W (U-band) and F105W (Y-band) images taken by the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Our targets have double-peaked narrow emission lines and were confirmed to host binary AGNs with follow-up observations. We find that kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs occur in galaxy mergers with diverse morphological types. There are three major mergers with intermediate morphologies and a minor merger with a dominant disk component. We estimate the masses of the SMBHs from their host bulge stellar masses and obtain Eddington ratios for each AGN. Compared with a representative control sample drawn at the same redshift and stellar mass, the AGN luminosities and Eddington ratios of our binary AGNs are similar to those of single AGNs. The U - Y color maps indicate that clumpy star-forming regions could significantly affect the X-ray detection of binary AGNs, e.g., the hardness ratio. Considering the weak X-ray emission in AGNs triggered in merger systems, we suggest that samples of X-ray-selected AGNs may be biased against gas-rich mergers. Based, in part, on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program number GO 12363.

  2. Herschel Observed Stripe 82 Quasars and Their Host Galaxies: Connections between AGN Activity and host Galaxy Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, X. Y.; Wu, Xue-Bing

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we present a study of 207 quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasar catalogs and the Herschel Stripe 82 survey. Quasars within this sample are high-luminosity quasars with a mean bolometric luminosity of 1046.4 erg s-1. The redshift range of this sample is within z < 4, with a mean value of 1.5 ± 0.78. Because we only selected quasars that have been detected in all three Herschel-SPIRE bands, the quasar sample is complete yet highly biased. Based on the multi-wavelength photometric observation data, we conducted a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting through UV to FIR. Parameters such as active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity, far-IR (FIR) luminosity, stellar mass, as well as many other AGN and galaxy properties are deduced from the SED fitting results. The mean star formation rate (SFR) of the sample is 419 M ⊙ yr-1 and the mean gas mass is ˜1011.3 M ⊙. All of these results point to an IR luminous quasar system. Compared with star formation main sequence (MS) galaxies, at least 80 out of 207 quasars are hosted by starburst galaxies. This supports the statement that luminous AGNs are more likely to be associated with major mergers. The SFR increases with the redshift up to z = 2. It is correlated with the AGN bolometric luminosity, where {L}{{FIR}}\\propto {L}{{Bol}}0.46+/- 0.03. The AGN bolometric luminosity is also correlated with the host galaxy mass and gas mass. Yet the correlation between L FIR and L Bol has higher significant level, implies that the link between AGN accretion and the SFR is more primal. The M BH/M * ratio of our sample is 0.02, higher than the value 0.005 in the local universe. It might indicate an evolutionary trend of the M BH-M * scaling relation.

  3. The host galaxy of a fast radio burst.

    PubMed

    Keane, E F; Johnston, S; Bhandari, S; Barr, E; Bhat, N D R; Burgay, M; Caleb, M; Flynn, C; Jameson, A; Kramer, M; Petroff, E; Possenti, A; van Straten, W; Bailes, M; Burke-Spolaor, S; Eatough, R P; Stappers, B W; Totani, T; Honma, M; Furusawa, H; Hattori, T; Morokuma, T; Niino, Y; Sugai, H; Terai, T; Tominaga, N; Yamasaki, S; Yasuda, N; Allen, R; Cooke, J; Jencson, J; Kasliwal, M M; Kaplan, D L; Tingay, S J; Williams, A; Wayth, R; Chandra, P; Perrodin, D; Berezina, M; Mickaliger, M; Bassa, C

    2016-02-25

    In recent years, millisecond-duration radio signals originating in distant galaxies appear to have been discovered in the so-called fast radio bursts. These signals are dispersed according to a precise physical law and this dispersion is a key observable quantity, which, in tandem with a redshift measurement, can be used for fundamental physical investigations. Every fast radio burst has a dispersion measurement, but none before now have had a redshift measurement, because of the difficulty in pinpointing their celestial coordinates. Here we report the discovery of a fast radio burst and the identification of a fading radio transient lasting ~6 days after the event, which we use to identify the host galaxy; we measure the galaxy's redshift to be z = 0.492 ± 0.008. The dispersion measure and redshift, in combination, provide a direct measurement of the cosmic density of ionized baryons in the intergalactic medium of ΩIGM = 4.9 ± 1.3 per cent, in agreement with the expectation from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, and including all of the so-called 'missing baryons'. The ~6-day radio transient is largely consistent with the radio afterglow of a short γ-ray burst, and its existence and timescale do not support progenitor models such as giant pulses from pulsars, and supernovae. This contrasts with the interpretation of another recently discovered fast radio burst, suggesting that there are at least two classes of bursts.

  4. Correlations of the IR Luminosity and Eddington Ratio with a Hard X-ray Selected Sample of AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzy, Richard F.; Winter, Lisa M.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Tueller, Jack

    2008-01-01

    We use the SWIFT Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) sample of hard x-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) with a median redshift of 0.03 and the 2MASS J and K band photometry to examine the correlation of hard x-ray emission to Eddington ratio as well as the relationship of the J and K band nuclear luminosity to the hard x-ray luminosity. The BAT sample is almost unbiased by the effects of obscuration and thus offers the first large unbiased sample for the examination of correlations between different wavelength bands. We find that the near-IR nuclear J and K band luminosity is related to the BAT (14 - 195 keV) luminosity over a factor of 10(exp 3) in luminosity (L(sub IR) approx.equals L(sub BAT)(sup 1.25) and thus is unlikely to be due to dust. We also find that the Eddington ratio is proportional to the x-ray luminosity. This new result should be a strong constraint on models of the formation of the broad band continuum.

  5. Supernovae and their host galaxies - V. The vertical distribution of supernovae in disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakobyan, A. A.; Barkhudaryan, L. V.; Karapetyan, A. G.; Mamon, G. A.; Kunth, D.; Adibekyan, V.; Aramyan, L. S.; Petrosian, A. R.; Turatto, M.

    2017-10-01

    We present an analysis of the height distributions of the different types of supernovae (SNe) from the plane of their host galaxies. We use a well-defined sample of 102 nearby SNe appearing inside high-inclined (I ≥ 85°), morphologically non-disturbed S0-Sd host galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. For the first time, we show that in all the subsamples of spirals, the vertical distribution of core-collapse (CC) SNe is about twice closer to the plane of the host disc than the distribution of SNe Ia. In Sb-Sc hosts, the exponential scale height of CC SNe is consistent with those of the younger stellar population in the Milky Way (MW) thin disc, while the scale height of SNe Ia is consistent with those of the old population in the MW thick disc. We show that the ratio of scale lengths to scale heights of the distribution of CC SNe is consistent with those of the resolved young stars with ages from ˜10 up to ˜100 Myr in nearby edge-on galaxies and the unresolved stellar population of extragalactic thin discs. The corresponding ratio for SNe Ia is consistent with the same ratios of the two populations of resolved stars with ages from a few 100 Myr up to a few Gyr and from a few Gyr up to ˜10 Gyr, as well as with the unresolved population of the thick disc. These results can be explained considering the age-scale height relation of the distribution of stellar population and the mean age difference between Type Ia and CC SNe progenitors.

  6. The middle infrared properties of OH megamaser host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. S.; Wang, J. Z.; Di, G. X.; Zhu, Q. F.; Guo, Q.; Wang, J.

    2014-10-01

    We compiled all 119 OH maser galaxies (110 out of them are megamasers, i.e., LOH> 10 L⊙) published so far and cross-identified these OH masers with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) catalog, to investigate the middle infrared (MIR) properties of OH maser galaxies. The WISE magnitude data at the 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 μm (W1 to W4) are collected for the OH maser sample and one control sample, which are non-detection sources. The color-color diagrams show that both OH megamaser (OHM) and non-OHM (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs) are far away from the single blackbody model line and many of them can follow the path described by the power-law model. The active galaxy nuclei (AGN) fraction is about ~40% for both OHM and non-OHM (U)LIRGs, according to the AGN criteria W1 - W2 ≥ 0.8. Among the Arecibo survey sample, OHM sources tend to have a lower luminosity at short MIR wavelengths (e.g., 3.4 μm and 4.6 μm) than that of non-OHM sources, which should come from the low OHM fraction among the survey sample with large 3.4 μm and 4.6 μm luminosity. The OHM fraction tends to increase with cooler MIR colors (larger F22 μm/F3.4 μm). These may be good for sample selection when searching OH megamasers, such as excluding extreme luminous sources at short MIR wavelengths, choosing sources with cooler MIR colors. In the case of the power-law model, we derived the spectral indices for our samples. For the Arecibo survey sample, OHM (U)LIRGs tend to have larger spectral index α22-12 than non-OHM sources, which agrees with previous results. One significant correlation exists between the WISE infrared luminosity at 22μm and the color [W1]-[W4] for the Arecibo OHM hosts. These clues should provide suitable constraints on the sample selection for OH megamaser surveys by future advanced telescopes (e.g., FAST). In addition, the correlation of maser luminosity and the MIR luminosity of maser hosts tends to be non-significant, which may indirectly support

  7. EVIDENCE FOR NONLINEAR GROWTH OF STRUCTURE FROM AN X-RAY-SELECTED CLUSTER SURVEY USING A NOVEL JOINT ANALYSIS OF THE CHANDRA AND XMM-NEWTON ARCHIVES

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J. R.; Bankert, J.; Jernigan, J. G.

    2009-12-20

    We present a large X-ray-selected serendipitous cluster survey based on a novel joint analysis of archival Chandra and XMM-Newton data. The survey provides enough depth to reach clusters of flux of approx10{sup -14}ergcm{sup -2}s{sup -1} near zapprox 1 and simultaneously a large-enough sample to find evidence for the strong evolution of clusters expected from structure formation theory. We detected a total of 723 clusters of which 462 are newly discovered clusters with greater than 6sigma significance. In addition, we also detect and measure 261 previously known clusters and groups that can be used to calibrate the survey. The survey exploitsmore » a technique that combines the exquisite Chandra imaging quality with the high throughput of the XMM-Newton telescopes using overlapping survey regions. A large fraction of the contamination from active galactic nucleus point sources is mitigated by using this technique. This results in a higher sensitivity for finding clusters of galaxies with relatively few photons and a large part of our survey has a flux sensitivity between 10{sup -14} and 10{sup -15}ergcm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The survey covers 41.2 deg{sup 2} of overlapping Chandra and XMM-Newton fields and 122.2 deg{sup 2} of non-overlapping Chandra data. We measure the log N-log S distribution and fit it with a redshift-dependent model characterized by a luminosity distribution proportional to e{sup -z/z}{sub 0}. We find z{sub 0} to be in the range 0.7-1.3, indicative of rapid cluster evolution, as expected for cosmic structure formation using parameters appropriate to the concordance cosmological model. Confirmation of our cluster detection efficiency through optical follow-up studies currently in progress will help to strengthen this conclusion and eventually allow to use these data to derive tight constraints on cosmological parameters.« less

  8. Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy of Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharwächter, J.; Husemann, B.; Busch, G.; Komossa, S.; Dopita, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    We present optical integral field spectroscopy for five z< 0.062 narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies, probing their host galaxies at ≳ 2{--}3 {kpc} scales. Emission lines from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) and the large-scale host galaxy are analyzed separately, based on an AGN-host decomposition technique. The host galaxy gas kinematics indicates large-scale gas rotation in all five sources. At the probed scales of ≳ 2{--}3 {kpc}, the host galaxy gas is found to be predominantly ionized by star formation without any evidence of a strong AGN contribution. None of the five objects shows specific star formation rates (SFRs) exceeding the main sequence of low-redshift star-forming galaxies. The specific SFRs for MCG-05-01-013 and WPVS 007 are roughly consistent with the main sequence, while ESO 399-IG20, MS 22549-3712, and TON S180 show lower specific SFRs, intermediate to the main sequence and the red quiescent galaxies. The host galaxy metallicities, derived for the two sources with sufficient data quality (ESO 399-IG20 and MCG-05-01-013), indicate central oxygen abundances just below the low-redshift mass-metallicity relation. Based on this initial case study, we outline a comparison of AGN and host galaxy parameters as a starting point for future extended NLS1 studies with similar methods.

  9. Host Galaxy Spectra and Consequences for SN Typing from the SDSS SN Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Olmstead, Matthew D.; Brown, Peter J.; Sako, Masao

    2014-03-06

    We present the spectroscopy from 5254 galaxies that hosted supernovae (SNe) or other transient events in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II). Obtained during SDSS-I, SDSS-II, and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), this sample represents the largest systematic, unbiased, magnitude limited spectroscopic survey of supernova (SN) host galaxies. Using the host galaxy redshifts, we test the impact of photometric SN classification based on SDSS imaging data with and without using spectroscopic redshifts of the host galaxies. Following our suggested scheme, there are a total of 1166 photometrically classified SNe Ia when using a flat redshift prior and 1126more » SNe Ia when the host spectroscopic redshift is assumed. For 1024 (87.8%) candidates classified as likely SNe Ia without redshift information, we find that the classification is unchanged when adding the host galaxy redshift. Using photometry from SDSS imaging data and the host galaxy spectra, we also report host galaxy properties for use in future nalysis of SN astrophysics. Finally, we investigate the differences in the interpretation of the light curve properties with and without knowledge of the redshift. When using the SALT2 light curve fitter, we find a 21% increase in the number of fits that converge when using the spectroscopic redshift. Without host galaxy redshifts, we find that SALT2 light curve fits are systematically biased towards lower photometric redshift estimates and redder colors in the limit of low signal-to-noise data. The general improvements in performance of the light curve fitter and the increased diversity of the host galaxy sample highlights the importance of host galaxy spectroscopy for current photometric SN surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and future surveys such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.« less

  10. Understanding the Host Galaxies of Tidal Disruption Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Nicholas; Generozov, Aleksey; Vasiliev, Eugene; Metzger, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that stellar tidal disruption events (TDE) are strongly overrepresented in rare, post-starburst galaxies. Several dynamical mechanisms have been proposed to elevate their TDE rates, ranging from central stellar overdensities to the presence of supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. These, and other, dynamical hypotheses can be disentangled by comparing observations to theoretical predictions for the TDE delay time distribution (DTD). We show that SMBH binaries are a less plausible solution for the post-starburst preference, as they can only reproduce the observed DTD with extensive fine-tuning. The overdensity hypothesis produces a reasonable match to the observed DTD (based on the limited data currently available), provided that the initial stellar density profile created during the starburst, ρ(r), is exceptional in both steepness and normalization. In particular, explaining the post-starburst preference requires ρ∝r‑γ with γ>2.5, i.e. much steeper than the classic Bahcall-Wolf equilibrium profile of γ=7/4. Radial velocity anisotropies also represent a promising explanation, provided that initial anisotropy parameters of β0≈0.5 are sustainable against the radial orbit instability. As the sample of TDEs with well-studied host galaxies grows, the DTD will become a powerful tool for constraining the exceptional dynamical properties of post-starburst galactic nuclei.

  11. ON THE HOST GALAXY OF GRB 150101B AND THE ASSOCIATED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Chen; Fang, Taotao; Wang, Junfeng

    2016-06-20

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the host galaxy of short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) 150101B. Follow-up optical and X-ray observations suggested that the host galaxy, 2MASX J12320498-1056010, likely harbors low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our modeling of the spectral energy distribution has confirmed the nature of the AGN, making it the first reported GRB host that contains an AGN. We have also found the host galaxy is a massive elliptical galaxy with stellar population of ∼5.7 Gyr, one of the oldest among the short-duration GRB hosts. Our analysis suggests that the host galaxy can be classified as an X-ray bright,more » optically normal galaxy, and the central AGN is likely dominated by a radiatively inefficient accretion flow. Our work explores an interesting connection that may exist between GRB and AGN activities of the host galaxy, which can help in understanding the host environment of the GRB events and the roles of AGN feedback.« less

  12. The Luminosity Function of the Host Galaxies of QSOs and BL Lac Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carangelo, Nicoletta; Falomo, Renato; Treves, Aldo

    A clear insight of the galaxies hosting active galactic nuclei is of fundamental importance for understanding the processes of galaxies and nuclei formation and their cosmic evolution. A good characterization of the host galaxies properties requires images of excellent quality in order to disentangle the light of the galaxy from that of the bright nucleus. To this aim HST has provided a major improvement of data on QSOs (Disney et al. 1995; Bahcall et al. 1996,1997; Boyce et al. 1998; McLure et al. 1999; Hamilton et al. 2000; Kukula et al. 2001) and BL Lacs (Scarpa et al. 2000, Urry et al. 2000).

  13. Long-Duration Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxies in Emission and Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perley, Daniel A.; Niino, Yuu; Tanvir, Nial R.; Vergani, Susanna D.; Fynbo, Johan P. U.

    2016-12-01

    The galaxy population hosting long-duration GRBs provides a means to constrain the progenitor and an opportunity to use these violent explosions to characterize the nature of the high-redshift universe. Studies of GRB host galaxies in emission reveal a population of star-forming galaxies with great diversity, spanning a wide range of masses, metallicities, and redshifts. However, as a population GRB hosts are significantly less massive and poorer in metals than the hosts of other core-collapse transients, suggesting that GRB production is only efficient at metallicities significantly below Solar. GRBs may also prefer compact galaxies, and dense and/or central regions of galaxies, more than other types of core-collapse explosion. Meanwhile, studies of hosts in absorption against the luminous GRB optical afterglow provide a unique means of unveiling properties of the ISM in even the faintest and most distant galaxies; these observations are helping to constrain the chemical evolution of galaxies and the properties of interstellar dust out to very high redshifts. New ground- and space-based instrumentation, and the accumulation of larger and more carefully-selected samples, are continually enhancing our view of the GRB host population.

  14. A Bayesian approach to multi-messenger astronomy: identification of gravitational-wave host galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, XiLong; Messenger, Christopher; Heng, Ik Siong

    2014-11-01

    We present a general framework for incorporating astrophysical information into Bayesian parameter estimation techniques used by gravitational wave data analysis to facilitate multi-messenger astronomy. Since the progenitors of transient gravitational wave events, such as compact binary coalescences, are likely to be associated with a host galaxy, improvements to the source sky location estimates through the use of host galaxy information are explored. To demonstrate how host galaxy properties can be included, we simulate a population of compact binary coalescences and show that for ∼8.5% of simulations within 200 Mpc, the top 10 most likely galaxies account for a ∼50% ofmore » the total probability of hosting a gravitational wave source. The true gravitational wave source host galaxy is in the top 10 galaxy candidates ∼10% of the time. Furthermore, we show that by including host galaxy information, a better estimate of the inclination angle of a compact binary gravitational wave source can be obtained. We also demonstrate the flexibility of our method by incorporating the use of either the B or K band into our analysis.« less

  15. Morphologies of mid-IR variability-selected AGN host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polimera, Mugdha; Sarajedini, Vicki; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Fazio, Giovanni G.

    2018-05-01

    We use multi-epoch 3.6 and 4.5 μm data from the Spitzer Extended Deep Survey (SEDS) to probe the AGN population among galaxies to redshifts ˜3 via their mid-IR variability. About 1 per cent of all galaxies in our survey contain varying nuclei, 80 per cent of which are likely to be AGN. Twenty-three per cent of mid-IR variables are also X-ray sources. The mid-IR variables have a slightly greater fraction of weakly disturbed morphologies compared to a control sample of normal galaxies. The increased fraction of weakly distorted hosts becomes more significant when we remove the X-ray emitting AGN, while the frequency of strongly disturbed hosts remains similar to the control galaxy sample. These results suggest that mid-IR variability identifies a unique population of obscured, Compton-thick AGN revealing elevated levels of weak distortion among their host galaxies.

  16. Host Galaxies and Circumgalactic Environment of ``Narrow Line'' Seyfert 1 Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krongold, Y.; Dultzin-Hacyan, D.; Marziani, P.

    2001-02-01

    This paper presents a statistical study of the host galaxies and environment for a sample of 27 ``narrow line'' Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) nuclei, based on a computer-aided search of companions in the Digitized Sky Survey. The sample includes all objects listed as NLSy1 in the Véron-Cetty & Véron catalog (8th edition) with redshift in the range 0.010<=z<=0.061 and Galactic latitude |b|>=30deg. We compared the environments of NLSy1's with those of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies using the method and the Seyfert samples employed in 1999 by Dultzin-Hacyan et al. The frequency of ``physical'' companions was measured within a search radius equal to 3 times the diameter DS of each NLSy1 and up to a projected linear distance of ~100 kpc. No statistical difference was found between the environments of NLSy1's and those of Seyfert 1 galaxies. Our results further suggest that NLSy1 hosts may show fewer companions and may be preferentially farther away from bright companion galaxies than normal galaxies with similar morphological type, diameter, and redshift distribution. The results for host galaxies and environments help to disprove the hypothesis that NLSy1 objects have characteristics similar to those of Seyfert 2 galaxies: whereas Seyfert 2 galaxies show a highly significant excess of bright companions, Seyfert 1's and NLSy1's do not. The morphological distribution of NLSy1's and Seyfert 1 objects is similar, but NLSy1 nuclei are hosted in galaxies smaller than Seyfert 1 and nonactive galaxies, to a statistical confidence level of 95%. These results support the interpretation of NLSy1 nuclei (suggested by X-ray observations) as Seyfert 1 nuclei with higher Eddington ratio, since smaller diameter galaxies may host central black holes of lower mass.

  17. A Hubble Space Telescope imaging study of four FeLoBAL quasar host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawther, D.; Vestergaard, M.; Fan, X.

    2018-04-01

    We study the host galaxies of four Iron Low-Ionization Broad Absorption-line Quasars (FeLoBALs), using Hubble Space Telescope imaging data, investigating the possibility that they represent a transition between an obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) and an ordinary optical quasar. In this scenario, the FeLoBALs represent the early stage of merger-triggered accretion, in which case their host galaxies are expected to show signs of an ongoing or recent merger. Using PSF subtraction techniques, we decompose the images into host galaxy and AGN components at rest-frame ultraviolet and optical wavelengths. The ultraviolet is sensitive to young stars, while the optical probes stellar mass. In the ultraviolet we image at the BAL absorption trough wavelengths so as to decrease the contrast between the quasar and host galaxy emission. We securely detect an extended source for two of the four FeLoBALs in the rest-frame optical; a third host galaxy is marginally detected. In the rest-frame UV we detect no host emission; this constrains the level of unobscured star formation. Thus, the host galaxies have observed properties that are consistent with those of non-BAL quasars with the same nuclear luminosity, i.e. quiescent or moderately star-forming elliptical galaxies. However, we cannot exclude starbursting hosts that have the stellar UV emission obscured by modest amounts of dust reddening. Thus, our findings also allow the merger-induced young quasar scenario. For three objects, we identify possible close companion galaxies that may be gravitationally interacting with the quasar hosts.

  18. The Host Galaxies of Type Ia Supernovae Discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Sullivan, M.; McGuire, K.; Hook, I. M.; Nugent, P. E.; Howell, D. A.; Arcavi, I.; Botyanszki, J.; Cenko, Stephen Bradley; DeRose, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the host galaxies of 82 low-redshift type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We determine star-formation rates, gas-phase stellar metallicities, and stellar masses and ages of these objects. As expected, strong correlations between the SN Ia light-curve width (stretch) and the host age mass metallicity are found: fainter, faster-declining events tend to be hosted by older massive metal-rich galaxies. There is some evidence that redder SNe Ia explode in higher metallicity galaxies, but we found no relation between the SN colour and host galaxy extinction based on the Balmer decrement, suggesting that the colour variation of these SNe does not primarily arise from this source. SNe Ia in higher-mass metallicity galaxies also appear brighter after stretch colour corrections than their counterparts in lower mass hosts, and the stronger correlation is with gas-phase metallicity suggesting this may be the more important variable. We also compared the host stellar mass distribution to that in galaxy targeted SN surveys and the high-redshift untargeted Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). SNLS has many more low mass galaxies, while the targeted searches have fewer. This can be explained by an evolution in the galaxy stellar mass function, coupled with a SN delay-time distribution proportional to t1. Finally, we found no significant difference in the mass--metallicity relation of our SN Ia hosts compared to field galaxies, suggesting any metallicity effect on the SN Ia rate is small.

  19. Are there any physical differences between GRBs with and GRBs without host galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guessoum, Nidhal; Azzam, Walid; Alothman, Mohamed

    With the new suite of astronomical satellites operating in the high-energy domain, some of which (Swift) almost totally dedicated to the search and characterization of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), and with the more active search for galaxies hosting GRBs, we now have large enough numbers of GRBs and of host galaxies, though the fraction of GRBs with detected/confirmed host galaxies remains rather low (the rate of discovery of GRBs being much greater than the rate of detection of host galaxies). This substantial increase in both populations and their physical parameters allows researchers to conduct statistical studies on these samples and perhaps infer some interesting correlations or conclusions. However, one needs to be very careful about biasing effects, particularly instrumental ones, and that is one main reason why we here consider only Swift bursts, for which a wealth of data is readily available. One expects to find that galaxies (of GRB's) at very large redshifts are difficult to observe, of course, and searching for this effect, we are able to easily confirm this trend. One, however, would like to search for other possible effects, either inherent to the bursts themselves or to the galaxies hosting them, and so we perform statistical tests on some of the main parameters of these objects, e.g. fluence, burst duration, isotropic burst luminosity (converted from fluence and distance/redshift), isotropic burst energy, metallicity, etc. We calculate means and stan-dard deviations, draw histograms, and perform Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests on the two groups of bursts (those with observed galaxy hosts and those without detected underlying galaxies). We present our tentative findings. Keywords: gamma-ray bursts -host galaxies

  20. HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES AND HUBBLE RESIDUALS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM THE NEARBY SUPERNOVA FACTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Childress, M.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.

    2013-06-20

    We examine the relationship between Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) Hubble residuals and the properties of their host galaxies using a sample of 115 SNe Ia from the Nearby Supernova Factory. We use host galaxy stellar masses and specific star formation rates fitted from photometry for all hosts, as well as gas-phase metallicities for a subset of 69 star-forming (non-active galactic nucleus) hosts, to show that the SN Ia Hubble residuals correlate with each of these host properties. With these data we find new evidence for a correlation between SN Ia intrinsic color and host metallicity. When we combine ourmore » data with those of other published SN Ia surveys, we find the difference between mean SN Ia brightnesses in low- and high-mass hosts is 0.077 {+-} 0.014 mag. When viewed in narrow (0.2 dex) bins of host stellar mass, the data reveal apparent plateaus of Hubble residuals at high and low host masses with a rapid transition over a short mass range (9.8 {<=} log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) {<=} 10.4). Although metallicity has been a favored interpretation for the origin of the Hubble residual trend with host mass, we illustrate how dust in star-forming galaxies and mean SN Ia progenitor age both evolve along the galaxy mass sequence, thereby presenting equally viable explanations for some or all of the observed SN Ia host bias.« less

  1. Ionised outflows in z ~ 2.4 quasar host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniani, S.; Marconi, A.; Maiolino, R.; Balmaverde, B.; Brusa, M.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Cicone, C.; Comastri, A.; Cresci, G.; Fiore, F.; Feruglio, C.; La Franca, F.; Mainieri, V.; Mannucci, F.; Nagao, T.; Netzer, H.; Piconcelli, E.; Risaliti, G.; Schneider, R.; Shemmer, O.

    2015-08-01

    Aims: Outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are invoked by galaxy evolutionary models to quench star formation and to explain the origin of the relations observed locally between super-massive black holes and their host galaxies. We here aim to detect extended ionised outflows in luminous quasars, where we expect the highest activity both in star formation and in black-hole accretion. Currently, there are only a few studies based on spatially resolved observations of outflows at high redshift, z > 2. Methods: We analysed a sample of six luminous (L > 1047 erg/s) quasars at z ~ 2.4, observed in H-band using the near-IR integral field spectrometer SINFONI at the VLT. We performed a kinematic analysis of the [Oiii] emission line at λ = 5007 Å. Results: We detect fast, spatially extended outflows in five out of six targets. [Oiii]λ5007 has a complex gas kinematic, with blue-shifted velocities of a few hundreds of km s-1 and line widths up to 1500 km s-1. Using the spectroastrometric method, we infer a size of the ionised outflows of up to ~2 kpc. The properties of the ionised outflows, mass outflow rate, momentum rate, and kinetic power, are correlated with the AGN luminosity. The increase in outflow rate with increasing AGN luminosity is consistent with the idea that a luminous AGN pushes away the surrounding gas through fast outflows that are driven by radiation pressure, which depends on the emitted luminosity. Conclusions: We derive mass outflow rates of about 6-700 M⊙ yr-1 for our sample, which are lower than those observed in molecular outflows. The physical properties of ionised outflows show dependences on AGN luminosity that are similar to those of molecular outflows, but indicate that the mass of ionised gas is lower than that of molecular outflows. Alternatively, this discrepancy between ionised and molecular outflows could be explained with different acceleration mechanisms. Based on Observations collected at the European Organisation for

  2. DUST-CORRECTED COLORS REVEAL BIMODALITY IN THE HOST-GALAXY COLORS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AT z {approx} 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cardamone, Carolin N.; Megan Urry, C.; Brammer, Gabriel

    2010-09-20

    Using new, highly accurate photometric redshifts from the MUSYC medium-band survey in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (ECDF-S), we fit synthetic stellar population models to compare active galactic nucleus (AGN) host galaxies to inactive galaxies at 0.8 {<=} z {<=} 1.2. We find that AGN host galaxies are predominantly massive galaxies on the red sequence and in the green valley of the color-mass diagram. Because both passive and dusty galaxies can appear red in optical colors, we use rest-frame near-infrared colors to separate passively evolving stellar populations from galaxies that are reddened by dust. As with the overall galaxy population,more » {approx}25% of the 'red' AGN host galaxies and {approx}75% of the 'green' AGN host galaxies have colors consistent with young stellar populations reddened by dust. The dust-corrected rest-frame optical colors are the blue colors of star-forming galaxies, which imply that these AGN hosts are not passively aging to the red sequence. At z {approx} 1, AGN activity is roughly evenly split between two modes of black hole growth: the first in passively evolving host galaxies, which may be heating up the galaxy's gas and preventing future episodes of star formation, and the second in dust-reddened young galaxies, which may be ionizing the galaxy's interstellar medium and shutting down star formation.« less

  3. Globular cluster systems and their host galaxies: comparison of spatial distributions and colors

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, Jonathan R.; Rhode, Katherine L., E-mail: jhargis@haverford.edu

    2014-11-20

    We present a study of the spatial and color distributions of four early-type galaxies and their globular cluster (GC) systems observed as part of our ongoing wide-field imaging survey. We use BVR KPNO 4 m+MOSAIC imaging data to characterize the galaxies' GC populations, perform surface photometry of the galaxies, and compare the projected two-dimensional shape of the host galaxy light to that of the GC population. The GC systems of the ellipticals NGC 4406 and NGC 5813 both show an elliptical distribution consistent with that of the host galaxy light. Our analysis suggests a similar result for the giant ellipticalmore » NGC 4472, but a smaller GC candidate sample precludes a definite conclusion. For the S0 galaxy NGC 4594, the GCs have a circular projected distribution, in contrast to the host galaxy light, which is flattened in the inner regions. For NGC 4406 and NGC 5813, we also examine the projected shapes of the metal-poor and metal-rich GC subpopulations and find that both subpopulations have elliptical shapes that are consistent with those of the host galaxy light. Lastly, we use integrated colors and color profiles to compare the stellar populations of the galaxies to their GC systems. For each galaxy, we explore the possibility of color gradients in the individual metal-rich and metal-poor GC subpopulations. We find statistically significant color gradients in both GC subpopulations of NGC 4594 over the inner ∼5 effective radii (∼20 kpc). We compare our results to scenarios for the formation and evolution of giant galaxies and their GC systems.« less

  4. A molecular gas-rich GRB host galaxy at the peak of cosmic star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabsalmani, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Dannerbauer, H.; Feruglio, C.; Daddi, E.; Ciesla, L.; Charmandaris, V.; Japelj, J.; Vergani, S. D.; Duc, P.-A.; Basa, S.; Bournaud, F.; Elbaz, D.

    2018-05-01

    We report the detection of the CO(3-2) emission line from the host galaxy of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 080207 at z = 2.086. This is the first detection of molecular gas in emission from a GRB host galaxy beyond redshift 1. We find this galaxy to be rich in molecular gas with a mass of 1.1 × 10^{11} M_{{\\odot }} assuming αCO = 4.36 M_{{\\odot }} (K km s^{-1} pc^2)^{-1}. The molecular gas mass fraction of the galaxy is ˜0.5, typical of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) with similar stellar masses and redshifts. With an SFR_{FIR} of 260 M_{{\\odot }} yr^{-1}, we measure a molecular gas depletion time-scale of 0.43 Gyr, near the peak of the depletion time-scale distribution of SFGs at similar redshifts. Our findings are therefore in contradiction with the proposed molecular gas deficiency in GRB host galaxies. We argue that the reported molecular gas deficiency for GRB hosts could be the artefact of improper comparisons or neglecting the effect of the typical low metallicities of GRB hosts on the CO-to-molecular-gas conversion factor. We also compare the kinematics of the CO(3-2) emission line to that of the H α emission line from the host galaxy. We find the H α emission to have contributions from two separate components, a narrow and a broad one. The narrow component matches the CO emission well in velocity space. The broad component, with a full width at half-maximum of ˜1100 km s^{-1}, is separated by +390 km s^{-1} in velocity space from the narrow component. We speculate this broad component to be associated with a powerful outflow in the host galaxy or in an interacting system.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: New X-ray-selected SNRs detection with Chandra (Leonidaki+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonidaki, I.; Zezas, A.; Boumis, P.

    2018-01-01

    The sample used for this study consists of six nearby galaxies: NGC 2403, NGC 5204, NGC 4395, NGC 4449, NGC 3077, and NGC 4214. These galaxies are selected from the Third Catalog of Bright Galaxies (RC3; de Vaucouleurs et al. 1995, Cat. VII/155) to be (1) late type (T>4; Hubble type), (2) close (=<5 Mpc) in order to minimize source confusion (at 5 Mpc, 1"~25 pc), (3) at low inclination (=<60°) in order to minimize internal extinction and projection effects, and (4) be above the Galactic plane (|b|>20°). All exposures were obtained with the back-illuminated Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer ACIS-S3 CCD chip (pixel size: 0.49"x0.49"; energy resolution ~120 eV at 1 keV; Garmire et al. 2003SPIE.4851...28G) at the focal plane of the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (van Speybroeck et al. 1997SPIE.3113...89V). (19 data files).

  6. EARLY-TYPE HOST GALAXIES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE. I. EVIDENCE FOR DOWNSIZING

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Yijung; Kim, Young-Lo; Lim, Dongwook

    2016-03-15

    Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) cosmology provides the most direct evidence for the presence of dark energy. This result is based on the assumption that the lookback time evolution of SN Ia luminosity, after light curve corrections, would be negligible. Recent studies show, however, that the Hubble residual (HR) of SN Ia is correlated with the mass and morphology of host galaxies, implying the possible dependence of SN Ia luminosity on host galaxy properties. In order to investigate this more directly, we have initiated a spectroscopic survey for early-type host galaxies, for which population age and metallicity can be more reliably determined frommore » the absorption lines. In this first paper of the series, we present here the results from high signal-to-noise ratio (≳100 per pixel) spectra for 27 nearby host galaxies in the southern hemisphere. For the first time in host galaxy studies, we find a significant (∼3.9σ) correlation between host galaxy mass (velocity dispersion) and population age, which is consistent with the “downsizing” trend among non-host early-type galaxies. This result is rather insensitive to the choice of population synthesis models. Since we find no correlation with metallicity, our result suggests that stellar population age is mainly responsible for the relation between host mass and HR. If confirmed, this would imply that the luminosity evolution plays a major role in the systematic uncertainties of SN Ia cosmology.« less

  7. Investigating a population of infrared-bright gamma-ray burst host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrimes, Ashley A.; Stanway, Elizabeth R.; Levan, Andrew J.; Davies, Luke J. M.; Angus, Charlotte R.; Greis, Stephanie M. L.

    2018-04-01

    We identify and explore the properties of an infrared-bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) host population. Candidate hosts are selected by coincidence with sources in WISE, with matching to random coordinates and a false alarm probability analysis showing that the contamination fraction is ˜ 0.5. This methodology has already identified the host galaxy of GRB 080517. We combine survey photometry from Pan-STARRS, SDSS, APASS, 2MASS, GALEX and WISE with our own WHT/ACAM and VLT/X-shooter observations to classify the candidates and identify interlopers. Galaxy SED fitting is performed using MAGPHYS, in addition to stellar template fitting, yielding 13 possible IR-bright hosts. A further 7 candidates are identified from previously published work. We report a candidate host for GRB 061002, previously unidentified as such. The remainder of the galaxies have already been noted as potential hosts. Comparing the IR-bright population properties including redshift z, stellar mass M⋆, star formation rate SFR and V-band attenuation AV to GRB host catalogues in the literature, we find that the infrared-bright population is biased toward low z, high M⋆ and high AV. This naturally arises from their initial selection - local and dusty galaxies are more likely to have the required IR flux to be detected in WISE. We conclude that while IR-bright GRB hosts are not a physically distinct class, they are useful for constraining existing GRB host populations, particularly for long GRBs.

  8. The XXL Survey. XII. Optical spectroscopy of X-ray-selected clusters and the frequency of AGN in superclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulouridis, E.; Poggianti, B.; Altieri, B.; Valtchanov, I.; Jaffé, Y.; Adami, C.; Elyiv, A.; Melnyk, O.; Fotopoulou, S.; Gastaldello, F.; Horellou, C.; Pierre, M.; Pacaud, F.; Plionis, M.; Sadibekova, T.; Surdej, J.

    2016-06-01

    Context. This article belongs to the first series of XXL publications. It presents multifibre spectroscopic observations of three 0.55 deg2 fields in the XXL Survey, which were selected on the basis of their high density of X-ray-detected clusters. The observations were obtained with the AutoFib2+WYFFOS (AF2) wide-field fibre spectrograph mounted on the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope. Aims: The paper first describes the scientific rationale, the preparation, the data reduction, and the results of the observations, and then presents a study of active galactic nuclei (AGN) within three superclusters. Methods: To determine the redshift of galaxy clusters and AGN, we assign high priority to a) the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), b) the most probable cluster galaxy candidates, and c) the optical counterparts of X-ray point-like sources. We use the outcome of the observations to study the projected (2D) and the spatial (3D) overdensity of AGN in three superclusters. Results: We obtained redshifts for 455 galaxies in total, 56 of which are counterparts of X-ray point-like sources. We were able to determine the redshift of the merging supercluster XLSSC-e, which consists of six individual clusters at z ~ 0.43, and we confirmed the redshift of supercluster XLSSC-d at z ~ 0.3. More importantly, we discovered a new supercluster, XLSSC-f, that comprises three galaxy clusters also at z ~ 0.3. We find a significant 2D overdensity of X-ray point-like sources only around the supercluster XLSSC-f. This result is also supported by the spatial (3D) analysis of XLSSC-f, where we find four AGN with compatible spectroscopic redshifts and possibly one more with compatible photometric redshift. In addition, we find two AGN (3D analysis) at the redshift of XLSSC-e, but no AGN in XLSSC-d. Comparing these findings with the optical galaxy overdensity we conclude that the total number of AGN in the area of the three superclusters significantly exceeds the field expectations. All of the

  9. Galaxies of all Shapes Host Black Holes Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-01-10

    Observations from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope provide strong evidence that the slender, bulgeless galaxies can, like their chubbier counterparts, harbor supermassive black holes at their cores in this artist concept.

  10. Do Typical Galaxies in Adolescence Already Host Growing Black Holes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trump, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    This archival grism proposal achieves a 100-fold gain in high-quality {5+sigma} information for discovering which properties of adolescent {0.7galaxies of typical mass and SFR are linked to AGN activity. We propose to analyze 147 WFC3 G141 and 111 ACS 800L pointings of 2-orbit grism data in the CANDELS fields, for a sample of 3000 galaxies reaching SFR 5 Msun/yr and stellar masses of log{M*/Msun} 9 at z 1.5. We will leverage spatially-resolved line ratios to uniquely distinguish a nuclear AGN from extended low-metallicity or shocked gas. Compared to our 30-galaxy published sample that hints at AGNs in low-mass z 2 galaxies {Trump et al. 2011}, this 3000 galaxy sample enables a 100-fold gain in divisions by galaxy morphology, SFR, and stellar mass to discover which galaxy properties correlate most with rapid SMBH growth. We will stack the deep {0.8-4 Ms} Chandra data available in these fields as an independent check of the grism AGN/SF diagnostics. The unique ancillary data in these fields also include ACS+WFC3 imaging for morphologies, deep multiwavelength data for well-sampled SEDs and stellar masses, and previous optical {and future near-IR} spectroscopy to supplement the G141 coverage. Based on discussions with the GOODS-N and 3D-HST teams, our proposed AGN science does not overlap with their proposed or funded science goals. As a value-added product for the community we will release, via the public Rainbow-CANDELS database server, an atlas of spatial maps of emission lines and line ratios {and associated errors} for the entire sample of 3000 galaxies.

  11. Do Supermassive Black Holes really reside at the centers of their host galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    It is generally assumed in studies of active galactic nuclei {AGN} and galactic dynamics that supermassive black holes {SMBH} reside at rest at the dynamical centers of their host galaxies. However, SMBH can be significantly displaced by gravitational recoil kicks generated during the coalescence of an SMBH binary which itself formed in the aftermath of a galaxy merger. Such events have profound implications for gravitational wave astronomy and galaxy evolution and therefore determining the frequency with which they occur is of great interest. Gravitational recoils are capable of producing persistent {oscillating} displacements 10 pc to 100 pc or more and are likely to operate most commonly in early type galaxies, which are partly assembled via mergers. Here we propose to build on a recently completed pilot study and undertake a systematic search for SMBH displacements in a large sample of active early type galaxies, by measuring the position of the AGN {as a proxy for the SMBH} relative to the photocenter of its host galaxy. Our pilot study demonstrates that offsets 0.05" are recoverable with high significance from HST data, allowing detection of projected displacements of 10 - 100 pc, for the redshift range {z<0.3} covered by our sample. Theoretical models for both the distribution of recoil velocities and the subsequent dynamical evolution of the kicked SMBH in the host galaxy potential are sufficiently well developed that predictions can be tested statistically by measuring displacements {or upper limits} in a large sample.

  12. Energy input from quasars regulates the growth and activity of black holes and their host galaxies.

    PubMed

    Di Matteo, Tiziana; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars

    2005-02-10

    In the early Universe, while galaxies were still forming, black holes as massive as a billion solar masses powered quasars. Supermassive black holes are found at the centres of most galaxies today, where their masses are related to the velocity dispersions of stars in their host galaxies and hence to the mass of the central bulge of the galaxy. This suggests a link between the growth of the black holes and their host galaxies, which has indeed been assumed for a number of years. But the origin of the observed relation between black hole mass and stellar velocity dispersion, and its connection with the evolution of galaxies, have remained unclear. Here we report simulations that simultaneously follow star formation and the growth of black holes during galaxy-galaxy collisions. We find that, in addition to generating a burst of star formation, a merger leads to strong inflows that feed gas to the supermassive black hole and thereby power the quasar. The energy released by the quasar expels enough gas to quench both star formation and further black hole growth. This determines the lifetime of the quasar phase (approaching 100 million years) and explains the relationship between the black hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion.

  13. A Statistical Study of H I Gas in Nearby Narrow-Line AGN-Hosting Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yi-Nan; Wu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    As a quenching mechanism, active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback could suppress on going star formation in host galaxies. On the basis of a sample of galaxies selected from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) H i survey, the dependence of the H i mass (MH i), stellar mass (M*), and H i-to-stellar mass ratio (MH i/M*) on various tracers of AGN activity are presented and analyzed in this paper. Almost all the AGN hostings in this sample are gas-rich galaxies, and there is not any evidence to indicate that the AGN activity could increase or decrease either MH i or MH i/M*. The position of the cold neutral gas cannot be fixed accurately based only on available H i data, due to the large beam size of ALFALFA survey. In addition, even though AGN hostings are more easily detected by an H i survey compared with absorption line galaxies, these two types of galaxies show similar star formation history. If an AGN hosting would ultimately evolve into an old red galaxy with low cold gas, then when and how the gas has been exhausted must be solved by future hypotheses and observations.

  14. Do Nuclear Star Clusters and Supermassive Black Holes Follow the Same Host-Galaxy Correlations?

    DOE PAGES

    Erwin, Peter; Gadotti, Dimitri Alexei

    2012-01-01

    Smore » tudies have suggested that there is a strong correlation between the masses of nuclear star clusters (NCs) and their host galaxies, a correlation which is said to be an extension of the well-known correlations between supermassive black holes (MBHs) and their host galaxies. But careful analysis of disk galaxies—including 2D bulge/disk/bar decompositions—shows that while MBHs correlate with the stellar mass of the bulge component of galaxies, the masses of NCs correlate much better with the total galaxy stellar mass. In addition, the mass ratio M NC / M ⋆ ,  tot for NCs in spirals (at least those with Hubble types c and later) is typically an order of magnitude smaller than the mass ratio M BH / M ⋆ ,  bul of MBHs. The absence of a universal “central massive object” correlation argues against common formation and growth mechanisms for both MBHs and NCs. We also discuss evidence for a break in the NC-host galaxy correlation, galaxies with Hubble types earlier than bc appear to host systematically more massive NCs than do types c and later.« less

  15. Supernovae and their host galaxies - IV. The distribution of supernovae relative to spiral arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramyan, L. S.; Hakobyan, A. A.; Petrosian, A. R.; de Lapparent, V.; Bertin, E.; Mamon, G. A.; Kunth, D.; Nazaryan, T. A.; Adibekyan, V.; Turatto, M.

    2016-07-01

    Using a sample of 215 supernovae (SNe), we analyse their positions relative to the spiral arms of their host galaxies, distinguishing grand-design (GD) spirals from non-GD (NGD) galaxies. We find that: (1) in GD galaxies, an offset exists between the positions of Ia and core-collapse (CC) SNe relative to the peaks of arms, while in NGD galaxies the positions show no such shifts; (2) in GD galaxies, the positions of CC SNe relative to the peaks of arms are correlated with the radial distance from the galaxy nucleus. Inside (outside) the corotation radius, CC SNe are found closer to the inner (outer) edge. No such correlation is observed for SNe in NGD galaxies nor for SNe Ia in either galaxy class; (3) in GD galaxies, SNe Ibc occur closer to the leading edges of the arms than do SNe II, while in NGD galaxies they are more concentrated towards the peaks of arms. In both samples of hosts, the distributions of SNe Ia relative to the arms have broader wings. These observations suggest that shocks in spiral arms of GD galaxies trigger star formation in the leading edges of arms affecting the distributions of CC SNe (known to have short-lived progenitors). The closer locations of SNe Ibc versus SNe II relative to the leading edges of the arms supports the belief that SNe Ibc have more massive progenitors. SNe Ia having less massive and older progenitors, have more time to drift away from the leading edge of the spiral arms.

  16. Supermassive black holes: Coevolution (or not) of black holes and host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormendy, John

    2013-07-01

    Supermassive black holes (BHs) have been found in 75 galaxies by observing spatially resolved dynamics. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) revolutionized BH work by advancing the subject from its `proof of concept' phase into quantitative studies of BH demographics. Most influential was the discovery of a tight correlation between BH masses M • and the velocity dispersions σ of stars in the host galaxy bulge components at radii where the stars mostly feel each other and not the BH. Together with correlations between M • and bulge luminosity, with the `missing light' that defines galaxy cores, and with numbers of globular clusters, this has led to the conclusion that BHs and bulges coevolve by regulating each other's growth. This simple picture with one set of correlations for all galaxies dominated BH work in the past decade. New results are now replacing the above, simple story with a richer and more plausible picture in which BHs correlate differently with different kinds of galaxy components. BHs with masses of 105-106 M ⊙ live in some bulgeless galaxies. So classical (merger-built) bulges are not necessary equipment for BH formation. On the other hand, while they live in galaxy disks, BHs do not correlate with galaxy disks or with disk-grown pseudobulges. They also have no special correlation with dark matter halos beyond the fact that halo gravity controls galaxy formation. This leads to the suggestion that there are two modes of BH feeding, (1) local, secular and episodic feeding of small BHs in largely bulgeless galaxies that involves too little energy feedback to drive BH-host-galaxy coevolution and (2) global feeding in major galaxy mergers that rapidly grows giant BHs in short-duration events whose energy feedback does affect galaxy formation. After these quasar-like phases, maintenance-mode BH feedback into hot, X-ray-emitting gas continues to have a primarily negative effect in preventing late-time star formation when cold gas or gas-rich galaxies

  17. Supermassive black holes and central star clusters: Connection with the host galaxy kinematics and color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasov, A. V.; Cherepashchuk, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between the masses of the central, supermassive black holes ( M bh) and of the nuclear star clusters ( M nc) of disk galaxies with various parameters galaxies are considered: the rotational velocity at R = 2 kpc V (2), the maximum rotational velocity V max, the indicative dynamical mass M 25, the integrated mass of the stellar population M *, and the integrated color index B-V. The rotational velocities andmasses of the central objects were taken from the literature. Themass M nc correlatesmore closely with the kinematic parameters and the disk mass than M bh, including with the velocity V max, which is closely related to the virial mass of the dark halo. On average, lenticular galaxies are characterized by higher masses M bh compared to other types of galaxies with similar characteristics. The dependence of the blackhole mass on the color index is bimodal: galaxies of the red group (red-sequence) with B-V >0.6-0.7 which are mostly early-type galaxies with weak star formation, differ appreciably from blue galaxies, which have higher values of M nc and M bh. At the dependences we consider between the masses of the central objects and the parameters of the host galaxies (except for the dependence of M bh on the central velocity dispersion), the red-group galaxies have systematically higher M bh values, even when the host-galaxy parameters are similar. In contrast, in the case of nuclear star clusters, the blue and red galaxies form unified sequences. The results agree with scenarios in which most red-group galaxies form as a result of the partial or complete loss of interstellar gas in a stage of high nuclear activity in galaxies whose central black-hole masses exceed 106-107 M ⊙ (depending on the mass of the galaxy itself). The bulk of disk galaxies with M bh > 107 M ⊙ are lenticular galaxies (types S0, E/S0) whose disks are practically devoid of gas.

  18. Imaging the host galaxies of high-redshift radio-quiet QSOs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowenthal, James D.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Lehnert, Matthew, D.; Elias, J. H.

    1995-01-01

    We present new deep K-band and optical images of four radio-quiet QSOs at z approximately = 1 and six radio-quiet QSOs at z approximately = 2.5, as well as optical images only of six more at z approximately = 2.5. We have examined the images carefully for evidence of extended 'fuzz' from any putative QSO host galaxy. None of the z approximately = 2.5 QSOs shows any extended emission, and only two of the z approximately = 1 QSOs show marginal evidence for extended emission. Our 3 sigma detection limits in the K images, m(sub K) approximately = 21 for an isolated source, would correspond approximately to an unevolved L(sup star) elliptical galaxy at z = 2.5 or 2-3 mag fainter than an L(sup star) elliptical at z = 1, although our limits on host galaxy light are weaker than this due to the difficulty of separating galaxy light from QSO light. We simulate simple models of disk and elliptical host galaxies, and find that the marginal emission around the two z approximately = 1 QSOs can be explained by disks or bulges that are approximately 1-2 mag brighter than an unevolved L(sup star) galaxy in one case and approximately 1.5-2.5 mag brighter than L(sub star) in the other. For two other z approximately = 1 QSOs, we have only upper limits (L approximately = L(sup star)). The hosts of the high-redshift sample must be no brighter than about 3 mag above an unevolved L(sup star) galaxy, and are at least 1 magnitude fainter than the hosts of radio-loud QSOs at the same redshift. If the easily detected K-band light surrounding a previous sample of otherwise similar but radio-loud QSOs is starlight, then it must evolve on timescales of greater than or approximately equal to 10(exp 8) yr (e.g., Chambers & Charlot 1990); therefore our non-detection of host galaxy fuzz around radio-quiet QSOs supports the view that high-redshift radio-quiet and radio-loud QSOs inhabit different host objects, rather than being single types of objects that turn their radio emission on and off over

  19. Molecular gas in the host galaxy of a quasar at redshift z = 6.42.

    PubMed

    Walter, Fabian; Bertoldi, Frank; Carilli, Chris; Cox, Pierre; Lo, K Y; Neri, Roberto; Fan, Xiaohui; Omont, Alain; Strauss, Michael A; Menten, Karl M

    2003-07-24

    Observations of molecular hydrogen in quasar host galaxies at high redshifts provide fundamental constraints on galaxy evolution, because it is out of this molecular gas that stars form. Molecular hydrogen is traced by emission from the carbon monoxide molecule, CO; cold H2 itself is generally not observable. Carbon monoxide has been detected in about ten quasar host galaxies with redshifts z > 2; the record-holder is at z = 4.69 (refs 1-3). Here we report CO emission from the quasar SDSS J114816.64 + 525150.3 (refs 5, 6) at z = 6.42. At that redshift, the Universe was only 1/16 of its present age, and the era of cosmic reionization was just ending. The presence of about 2 x 1010 M\\circ of H2 in an object at this time demonstrates that molecular gas enriched with heavy elements can be generated rapidly in the youngest galaxies.

  20. The nuclear properties and extended morphologies of powerful radio galaxies: the roles of host galaxy and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miraghaei, H.; Best, P. N.

    2017-04-01

    Powerful radio Galaxies exist as either compact or extended sources, with the extended sources traditionally classified by their radio morphologies as Fanaroff-Riley (FR) type I and II sources. FRI/FRII and compact radio galaxies have also been classified by their optical spectra into two different types: high excitation (HERG; quasar-mode) and low excitation (LERG; jet-mode). We present a catalogue of visual morphologies for a complete sample of >1000 1.4-GHz-selected extended radio sources from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We study the environment and host galaxy properties of FRI/FRII and compact sources, classified into HERG/LERG types, in order to separate and distinguish the factors that drive the radio morphological variations from those responsible for the spectral properties. Comparing FRI LERGs with FRII LERGs at fixed stellar mass and radio luminosity, we show that FRIs typically reside in richer environments and are hosted by smaller galaxies with higher mass surface density; this is consistent with extrinsic effects of jet disruption driving the Fanaroff-Riley (FR) dichotomy. Using matched samples of HERGs and LERGs, we show that HERG host galaxies are more frequently star forming, with more evidence for disc-like structure than LERGs, in accordance with currently favoured models of fundamentally different fuelling mechanisms. Comparing FRI/FRII LERGs with compact LERGs, we find the primary difference is that compact objects typically harbour less massive black holes. This suggests that lower mass black holes may be less efficient at launching stable radio jets, or do so for shorter times. Finally, we investigate rarer sub-classes: wide-angle-tailed, head-tail, FR-hybrid and double-double sources.

  1. Resolving the host galaxy of a distant blazar with LBT/LUCI 1 + ARGOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, E. P.; Georgiev, I. Y.; Decarli, R.; Terzić, T.; Busoni, L.; Gässler, W.; Mazzoni, T.; Borelli, J.; Rosensteiner, M.; Ziegleder, J.; Bonaglia, M.; Rabien, S.; Buschkamp, P.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Rahmer, G.; Kulas, M.; Peter, D.

    2018-05-01

    BL Lac objects emitting in the very high energy (VHE) regime are unique tools to peer into the properties of the extragalactic background light (EBL). However, due to the typical absence of features in their spectra, the determination of their redshifts has proven challenging. In this work, we exploit the superb spatial resolution delivered by the new Advanced Rayleigh guided Ground layer adaptive Optics System (ARGOS) at the Large Binocular Telescope to detect the host galaxy of HESS J1943+213, a VHE emitting BL Lac shining through the Galaxy. Deep H-band imaging collected during the ARGOS commissioning allowed us to separate the contribution of the nuclear emission and to unveil the properties of the host galaxy with unprecedented detail. The host galaxy is well fitted by a Sérsic profile with index of n ˜ 2 and total magnitude of HHost ˜ 16.15 mag. Under the assumption that BL Lac host galaxies are standard candles, we infer a redshift of z ˜ 0.21. In the framework of the current model for the EBL, this value is in agreement with the observed dimming of the VHE spectrum due to the annihilation of energetic photons on the EBL

  2. PSFGAN: a generative adversarial network system for separating quasar point sources and host galaxy light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Dominic; Launet, Barthelemy; Schawinski, Kevin; Zhang, Ce; Koss, Michael; Turp, M. Dennis; Sartori, Lia F.; Zhang, Hantian; Chen, Yiru; Weigel, Anna K.

    2018-03-01

    The study of unobscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) and quasars depends on the reliable decomposition of the light from the AGN point source and the extended host galaxy light. The problem is typically approached using parametric fitting routines using separate models for the host galaxy and the point spread function (PSF). We present a new approach using a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) trained on galaxy images. We test the method using Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) r-band images with artificial AGN point sources added which are then removed using the GAN and with parametric methods using GALFIT. When the AGN point source PS is more than twice as bright as the host galaxy, we find that our method, PSFGAN, can recover PS and host galaxy magnitudes with smaller systematic error and a lower average scatter (49%). PSFGAN is more tolerant to poor knowledge of the PSF than parametric methods. Our tests show that PSFGAN is robust against a broadening in the PSF width of ±50% if it is trained on multiple PSF's. We demonstrate that while a matched training set does improve performance, we can still subtract point sources using a PSFGAN trained on non-astronomical images. While initial training is computationally expensive, evaluating PSFGAN on data is more than 40 times faster than GALFIT fitting two components. Finally, PSFGAN it is more robust and easy to use than parametric methods as it requires no input parameters.

  3. The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey. I. Sample Selection and Redshift Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perley, D. A.; Kruhler, T.; Schulze, S.; Postigo, A. De Ugarte; Hjorth, J.; Berger, E.; Cenko, S. B.; Chary, R.; Cucchiara, A.; Ellis, R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey (SHOALS), a multi-observatory high redshift galaxy survey targeting the largest unbiased sample of long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) hosts yet assembled (119 in total). We describe the motivations of the survey and the development of our selection criteria, including an assessment of the impact of various observability metrics on the success rate of afterglow-based redshift measurement. We briefly outline our host galaxy observational program, consisting of deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging of every field supplemented by similarly deep, multicolor optical/near-IR photometry, plus spectroscopy of events without preexisting redshifts. Our optimized selection cuts combined with host galaxy follow-up have so far enabled redshift measurements for 110 targets (92%) and placed upper limits on all but one of the remainder. About 20% of GRBs in the sample are heavily dust obscured, and at most 2% originate from z > 5.5. Using this sample, we estimate the redshift-dependent GRB rate density, showing it to peak at z approx. 2.5 and fall by at least an order of magnitude toward low (z = 0) redshift, while declining more gradually toward high (z approx. 7) redshift. This behavior is consistent with a progenitor whose formation efficiency varies modestly over cosmic history. Our survey will permit the most detailed examination to date of the connection between the GRB host population and general star-forming galaxies, directly measure evolution in the host population over cosmic time and discern its causes, and provide new constraints on the fraction of cosmic star formation occurring in undetectable galaxies at all redshifts.

  4. Tracing the evolution of active galactic nuclei host galaxies over the last 9 Gyr of cosmic time

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, A. D.; Forman, W. R.; Jones, C.

    2014-03-01

    We present the results of a combined galaxy population analysis for the host galaxies of active galactic nuclei (AGN) identified at 0 < z < 1.4 within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Boötes, and DEEP2 surveys. We identified AGN in a uniform and unbiased manner at X-ray, infrared, and radio wavelengths. Supermassive black holes undergoing radiatively efficient accretion (detected as X-ray and/or infrared AGN) appear to be hosted in a separate and distinct galaxy population than AGN undergoing powerful mechanically dominated accretion (radio AGN). Consistent with some previous studies, radiatively efficient AGN appear to be preferentially hosted in modest star-formingmore » galaxies, with little dependence on AGN or galaxy luminosity. AGN exhibiting radio-emitting jets due to mechanically dominated accretion are almost exclusively observed in massive, passive galaxies. Crucially, we now provide strong evidence that the observed host-galaxy trends are independent of redshift. In particular, these different accretion-mode AGN have remained as separate galaxy populations throughout the last 9 Gyr. Furthermore, it appears that galaxies hosting AGN have evolved along the same path as galaxies that are not hosting AGN with little evidence for distinctly separate evolution.« less

  5. Possible Correlations between the Emission Properties of SGRBs and Their Offsets from the Host Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shuai; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Li, Xiang

    2017-07-20

    Short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) are widely believed to be from mergers of binary compact objects involving at least one neutron star and hence have a broad range of spatial offsets from their host galaxies. In this work, we search for possible correlations between the emission properties of 18 SGRBs and their offsets from the host galaxies. The SGRBs with and without extended emission do not show significant differences between their offset distributions, in agreement with some previous works. There are, however, possible correlations between the optical and X-ray afterglow emission and the offsets. The underlying physical origins are examined.

  6. Modelling the flaring activity of the high-z, hard X-ray-selected blazar IGR J22517+2217: Flaring activity of IGR J22517+2217

    DOE PAGES

    Lanzuisi, G.; De Rosa, A.; Ghisellini, G.; ...

    2012-03-21

    We present new Suzaku and Fermi data and re-analysed archival hard X-ray data from the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) and Swift–Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) surveys to investigate the physical properties of the luminous, high-redshift, hard X-ray-selected blazar IGR J22517+2217, through the modelling of its broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) in two different activity states. Through analysis of new Suzaku data and flux-selected data from archival hard X-ray observations, we build the source SED in two different states, one for the newly discovered flare that occurred in 2005 and one for the following quiescent period. Both SEDs are strongly dominatedmore » by the high-energy hump peaked at 10 20–10 22 Hz, which is at least two orders of magnitude higher than the low-energy (synchrotron) one at 10 11–10 14 Hz and varies by a factor of 10 between the two states. In both states the high-energy hump is modelled as inverse Compton emission between relativistic electrons and seed photons produced externally to the jet, while the synchrotron self-Compton component is found to be negligible. In our model the observed variability can be accounted for by a variation of the total number of emitting electrons and by a dissipation region radius changing from inside to outside the broad-line region as the luminosity increases. In its flaring activity, IGR J22517+2217 is revealed as one of the most powerful jets among the population of extreme, hard X-ray-selected, high-redshift blazars observed so far.« less

  7. Detection of Three Gamma-ray Burst Host Galaxies at z ˜ 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, J. T. W.; Tanvir, N. R.; Levan, A. J.; Trenti, M.; Stanway, E. R.; Shull, J. M.; Wiersema, K.; Perley, D. A.; Starling, R. L. C.; Bremer, M.; Stocke, J. T.; Hjorth, J.; Rhoads, J. E.; Curtis-Lake, E.; Schulze, S.; Levesque, E. M.; Robertson, B.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Ellis, R. S.; Fruchter, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) allow us to pinpoint and study star-forming galaxies in the early universe, thanks to their orders of magnitude brighter peak luminosities compared to other astrophysical sources, and their association with the deaths of massive stars. We present Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 detections of three Swift GRB host galaxies lying at redshifts z = 5.913 (GRB 130606A), z = 6.295 (GRB 050904), and z = 6.327 (GRB 140515A) in the F140W (wide-JH band, {λ }{{obs}}˜ 1.4 μ {{m}}) filter. The hosts have magnitudes (corrected for Galactic extinction) of {m}{λ {obs},{AB}}={26.34}-0.16+0.14,{27.56}-0.22+0.18, and {28.30}-0.33+0.25, respectively. In all three cases, the probability of chance coincidence of lower redshift galaxies is ≲ 2 % , indicating that the detected galaxies are most likely the GRB hosts. These are the first detections of high-redshift (z\\gt 5) GRB host galaxies in emission. The galaxies have luminosities in the range 0.1-0.6 {L}z=6* (with {M}1600* =-20.95+/- 0.12) and half-light radii in the range 0.6-0.9 {{kpc}}. Both their half-light radii and luminosities are consistent with existing samples of Lyman-break galaxies at z˜ 6. Spectroscopic analysis of the GRB afterglows indicate low metallicities ([{{M/H}}]≲ -1) and low dust extinction ({A}{{V}}≲ 0.1) along the line of sight. Using stellar population synthesis models, we explore the implications of each galaxy’s luminosity for its possible star-formation history and consider the potential for emission line metallicity determination with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope.

  8. The Spitzer/Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Extended Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perley, Daniel; Berger, Edo; Butler, Nathaniel; Cenko, S. Bradley; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cucchiara, Antonino; Ellis, Richard; Fong, Wen-fai; Fruchter, Andrew; Fynbo, Johan; Gehrels, Neil; Graham, John; Greiner, Jochen; Hjorth, Jens; Hunt, Leslie; Jakobsson, Pall; Kruehler, Thomas; Laskar, Tanmoy; Le Floc'h, Emerich; Levan, Andrew; Levesque, Emily; Littlejohns, Owen; Malesani, Daniele; Michalowski, Michal; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Salvaterra, Ruben; Schulze, Steve; Schady, Patricia; Tanvir, Nial; de Ugarte Postigo, Antonio; Vergani, Susanna

    2014-12-01

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts act as beacons to the sites of star-formation in the distant universe. GRBs reveal galaxies too faint and star-forming regions too dusty to characterize in detail using any other method, and provide a powerful independent constraint on the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate density at high-redshift. However, a full understanding of the GRB phenomenon and its relation to cosmic star-formation requires connecting the observations obtained from GRBs to the properties of the galaxies hosting them. The large majority of GRBs originate at moderate to high redshift (z>1) and Spitzer has proven crucial for understanding the host population, given its unique ability to observe the rest-frame NIR and its unrivaled sensitivity and efficiency. We propose to complete a comprehensive public legacy survey of the Swift GRB host population to build on our earlier successes and push beyond the statistical limits of previous, smaller efforts. Our survey will enable a diverse range of GRB and galaxy science including: (1) to quantitatively and robustly map the connection between GRBs and cosmic star-formation to constrain the GRB progenitor and calibrate GRB rate-based measurements of the high-z cosmic star-formation rate; (2) to constrain the luminosity function of star-forming galaxies at the faint end and at high redshift; (3) to understand how the ISM properties seen in absorption in high-redshift galaxies unveiled by GRBs - metallicity, dust column, dust properties - connect to global properties of the host galaxies such as mass and age. Building on a decade of experience at both observatories, our observations will create an enduring joint Swift-Spitzer legacy sample and provide the definitive resource with which to examine all aspects of the GRB/galaxy connection for years and possibly decades to come.

  9. Two peculiar fast transients in a strongly lensed host galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodney, S. A.; Balestra, I.; Bradac, M.; Brammer, G.; Broadhurst, T.; Caminha, G. B.; Chirivı, G.; Diego, J. M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Foley, R. J.; Graur, O.; Grillo, C.; Hemmati, S.; Hjorth, J.; Hoag, A.; Jauzac, M.; Jha, S. W.; Kawamata, R.; Kelly, P. L.; McCully, C.; Mobasher, B.; Molino, A.; Oguri, M.; Richard, J.; Riess, A. G.; Rosati, P.; Schmidt, K. B.; Selsing, J.; Sharon, K.; Strolger, L.-G.; Suyu, S. H.; Treu, T.; Weiner, B. J.; Williams, L. L. R.; Zitrin, A.

    2018-04-01

    A massive galaxy cluster can serve as a magnifying glass for distant stellar populations, as strong gravitational lensing magnifies background galaxies and exposes details that are otherwise undetectable. In time-domain astronomy, imaging programmes with a short cadence are able to detect rapidly evolving transients, previously unseen by surveys designed for slowly evolving supernovae. Here, we describe two unusual transient events discovered in a Hubble Space Telescope programme that combined these techniques with high-cadence imaging on a field with a strong-lensing galaxy cluster. These transients were faster and fainter than any supernovae, but substantially more luminous than a classical nova. We find that they can be explained as separate eruptions of a luminous blue variable star or a recurrent nova, or as an unrelated pair of stellar microlensing events. To distinguish between these hypotheses will require clarification of the cluster lens models, along with more high-cadence imaging of the field that could detect related transient episodes. This discovery suggests that the intersection of strong lensing with high-cadence transient surveys may be a fruitful path for future astrophysical transient studies.

  10. CEPHEID VARIABLES IN THE MASER-HOST GALAXY NGC 4258

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Samantha L.; Macri, Lucas M., E-mail: lmacri@tamu.edu

    2015-06-15

    We present results of a ground-based survey for Cepheid variables in NGC 4258. This galaxy plays a key role in the Extragalactic Distance Scale due to its very precise and accurate distance determination via very long baseline interferometry observations of water masers. We imaged two fields within this galaxy using the Gemini North telescope and the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph, obtaining 16 epochs of data in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey gri bands over 4 yr. We carried out point-spread function photometry and detected 94 Cepheids with periods between 7 and 127 days, as well as an additional 215 variables whichmore » may be Cepheids or Population II pulsators. We used the Cepheid sample to test the absolute calibration of theoretical gri Period–Luminosity relations and found good agreement with the maser distance to this galaxy. The expected data products from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope should enable Cepheid searches out to at least 10 Mpc.« less

  11. From Enigma to Tool: Gamma-Ray Burst Reveals Secrets of Host Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    Five years ago, astronomers knew almost nothing about Gamma Ray Bursts. Now, a team of observers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope has used a gamma-ray burst as a powerful tool to unveil the nature of the galaxy in which it occurred, more than 7 billion light-years away. VLA Images of GRB980703 Host Galaxy "We believe that gamma-ray bursts may become one of the best available tools for studying the history of star formation in the universe," said Edo Berger, a graduate student at Caltech. Berger worked with Caltech astronomy professor Shri Kulkarni and Dale Frail, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico, to study a gamma-ray burst first seen on July 3, 1998. The astronomers presented their results at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Pasadena, CA. "For the first time, we've seen the host galaxy of a gamma-ray burst with a radio telescope," Berger said. "Previously, gamma-ray-burst host galaxies have been seen with optical telescopes, but detecting this galaxy with a radio telescope has given us new clues about the nature of the galaxy itself -- clues we couldn't have gotten any other way," he added. For example, based on optical-telescope studies, astronomers estimated that new stars are forming in the host galaxy at the rate of about the mass equivalent of 20 suns per year. However, data from the radio observations show that the actual star-formation rate is 25 times greater -- the mass equivalent of 500 suns per year. "With the VLA, we are seeing the entire region of star formation in this galaxy, including the areas so dusty that visible light can't get out," said Frail. Gamma-ray bursts are the most powerful explosions since the Big Bang. First discovered in 1967 by a satellite launched to monitor compliance with the atmospheric nuclear test ban treaty, gamma-ray bursts remained one of astronomy's premier mysteries for 30 years. For three decades

  12. Heavily obscured quasar host galaxies at z ∼ 2 are discs, not major mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schawinski, Kevin; Simmons, Brooke D.; Urry, C. Megan; Treister, Ezequiel; Glikman, Eilat

    2012-09-01

    We explore the nature of heavily obscured quasar host galaxies at z˜ 2 using deep Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3/infrared imaging of 28 dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) to investigate the role of major mergers in driving black hole growth. The high levels of obscuration of the quasars selected for this study act as a natural coronagraph, blocking the quasar light and allowing a clear view of the underlying host galaxy. The sample of heavily obscured quasars represents a significant fraction of the cosmic mass accretion on supermassive black holes as the quasars have inferred bolometric luminosities around the break of the quasar luminosity function. We find that only a small fraction (4 per cent, at most 11-25 per cent) of the quasar host galaxies are major mergers. Fits to their surface brightness profiles indicate that 90 per cent of the host galaxies are either disc dominated, or have a significant disc. This disc-like host morphology, and the corresponding weakness of bulges, is evidence against major mergers and suggests that secular processes are the predominant driver of massive black hole growth. Finally, we suggest that the coincidence of mergers and active galactic nucleus activity is luminosity dependent, with only the most luminous quasars being triggered mostly by major mergers. a MUSYC catalogue ID, see Cardamone et al. (2010). Objects with X-ray detections are marked with *. b See images shown in Fig. 1. c The ratio of the host luminosity to the point source luminosity, reported only when GALFIT requires an unresolved object to yield a physical fit. This may be due to an AGN point source (in the case of the X-ray-detected DOGs) or an unresolved bulge or central concentration, i.e. a central bulge. d See Fig. 2.

  13. Host galaxy properties of mergers of stellar binary black holes and their implications for advanced LIGO gravitational wave sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Liang; Lu, Youjun; Zhao, Yuetong

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the host galaxy properties of stellar binary black hole (SBBH) mergers is important for revealing the origin of the SBBH gravitational wave sources detected by advanced LIGO and helpful for identifying their electromagnetic counterparts. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the host galaxy properties of SBBHs by implementing semi-analytical recipes for SBBH formation and merger into cosmological galaxy formation model. If the time delay between SBBH formation and merger ranges from ≲ Gyr to the Hubble time, SBBH mergers at redshift z ≲ 0.3 occur preferentially in big galaxies with stellar mass M* ≳ 2 × 1010 M⊙ and metallicities Z peaking at ˜0.6 Z⊙. However, the host galaxy stellar mass distribution of heavy SBBH mergers (M•• ≳ 50 M⊙) is bimodal with one peak at ˜109 M⊙ and the other peak at ˜2 × 1010 M⊙. The contribution fraction from host galaxies with Z ≲ 0.2 Z⊙ to heavy mergers is much larger than that to less heavy mergers. If SBBHs were formed in the early Universe (e.g. z > 6), their mergers detected at z ≲ 0.3 occur preferentially in even more massive galaxies with M* > 3 × 1010 M⊙ and in galaxies with metallicities mostly ≳ 0.2 Z⊙ and peaking at Z ˜ 0.6 Z⊙, due to later cosmic assembly and enrichment of their host galaxies. SBBH mergers at z ≲ 0.3 mainly occur in spiral galaxies, but the fraction of SBBH mergers that occur in elliptical galaxies can be significant if those SBBHs were formed in the early Universe; and about two-thirds of those mergers occur in the central galaxies of dark matter haloes. We also present results on the host galaxy properties of SBBH mergers at higher redshift.

  14. e-MERLIN, VLBA and Subaru astrometry of the proposed host galaxy of FRB 150418

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassa, C.; Beswick, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Bhandari, S.; Johnston, S.; Keane, E. F.; Stappers, B. W.; Tominaga, N.; Totani, T.

    2016-04-01

    We have obtained e-MERLIN and VLBA observations (observation code BT136) of the radio source associated with FRB 150418 by Keane et al. (2016, Nature, 530, 453), previously detected at low angular resolution (host galaxy WISE J071634.59-190039.2 at z=0.492).

  15. Accreting SMBH in the COSMOS field: the connection to their host galaxies .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merloni, A.; Bongiorno, A.

    Using the rich multi-band photometry in the COSMOS field we explore the host galaxy properties of a large, complete, sample of X-ray and spectroscopically selected AGN. Based on a two-components fit to their Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) we derive rest-frame magnitudes, colours, stellar masses and star formation rates up to z˜ 3. The probability for a galaxy to host a black hole growing at any given specific accretion rate (the ratio of X-ray luminosity to the host stellar mass) is independent of the galaxy mass and follows a power-law distribution in L_X/M. By looking at the normalisation of such a probability distribution, we show how the incidence of AGN increases with redshift as rapidly as (1+z)4.2, in close resemblance with the overall evolution of the specific star formation rate. Although AGN activity and star formation appear to have a common triggering mechanism, we do not find any 'smoking gun' signalling powerful AGN influence on the global properties of their host galaxies.

  16. NUCLEAR ACTIVITY IS MORE PREVALENT IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rosario, D. J.; Lutz, D.; Berta, S.

    2013-07-01

    We explore the question of whether low and moderate luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are preferentially found in galaxies that are undergoing a transition from active star formation (SF) to quiescence. This notion has been suggested by studies of the UV-optical colors of AGN hosts, which find them to be common among galaxies in the so-called Green Valley, a region of galaxy color space believed to be composed mostly of galaxies undergoing SF quenching. Combining the deepest current X-ray and Herschel/PACS far-infrared (FIR) observations of the two Chandra Deep Fields with redshifts, stellar masses, and rest-frame photometry derived from themore » extensive and uniform multi-wavelength data in these fields, we compare the rest-frame U - V color distributions and star formation rate distributions of AGNs and carefully constructed samples of inactive control galaxies. The UV-to-optical colors of AGNs are consistent with equally massive inactive galaxies at redshifts out to z {approx} 2, but we show that such colors are poor tracers of SF. While the FIR distributions of both star-forming AGNs and star-forming inactive galaxies are statistically similar, we show that AGNs are preferentially found in star-forming host galaxies, or, in other words, AGNs are less likely to be found in weakly star-forming or quenched galaxies. We postulate that, among X-ray-selected AGNs of low and moderate accretion luminosities, the supply of cold gas primarily determines the accretion rate distribution of the nuclear black holes.« less

  17. The Host Galaxy and the Extended Emission-Line Region of the Radio Galaxy 3C 79

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hai; Stockton, Alan

    2008-04-01

    We present extensive ground-based spectroscopy and HST imaging of 3C 79, an FR II radio galaxy associated with a luminous extended emission-line region (EELR). Surface brightness modeling of an emission-line-free HST R-band image reveals that the host galaxy is a massive elliptical with a compact companion 0.8'' away and 4 mag fainter. The host galaxy spectrum is best described by an intermediate-age (1.3 Gyr) stellar population (4% by mass), superimposed on a 10 Gyr old population and a power law (αλ = - 1.8); the stellar populations are consistent with supersolar metallicities, with the best fit given by the 2.5 Z⊙ models. We derive a dynamical mass of 4 × 1011 M⊙ within the effective radius from the velocity dispersion. The EELR spectra clearly indicate that the EELR is photoionized by the hidden central engine. Photoionization modeling shows evidence that the gas metallicity in both the EELR and the nuclear narrow-line region is mildly subsolar (0.3-0.7 Z⊙), significantly lower than the supersolar metallicities deduced from typical active galactic nuclei in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The more luminous filaments in the EELR exhibit a velocity field consistent with a common disk rotation. Fainter clouds, however, show high approaching velocities that are uncoupled from this apparent disk rotation. The striking similarities between this EELR and the EELRs around steep-spectrum radio-loud quasars provide further evidence for the orientation-dependent unification schemes. The metal-poor gas is almost certainly not native to the massive host galaxy. We suggest that the close companion galaxy could be the tidally stripped bulge of a late-type galaxy that is merging with the host galaxy. The interstellar medium of such a galaxy is probably the source for the low-metallicity gas in 3C 79. Based in part on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative

  18. The Host Galaxy and Redshift of the Repeating Fast Radio Burst FRB 121102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tendulkar, S. P.; Bassa, C. G.; Cordes, J. M.; Bower, G. C.; Law, C. J.; Chatterjee, S.; Adams, E. A. K.; Bogdanov, S.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Butler, B. J.; Demorest, P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kaspi, V. M.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Maddox, N.; Marcote, B.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Paragi, Z.; Ransom, S. M.; Scholz, P.; Seymour, A.; Spitler, L. G.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Wharton, R. S.

    2017-01-01

    The precise localization of the repeating fast radio burst (FRB 121102) has provided the first unambiguous association (chance coincidence probability p ≲ 3 × 10-4) of an FRB with an optical and persistent radio counterpart. We report on optical imaging and spectroscopy of the counterpart and find that it is an extended (0.″6-0.″8) object displaying prominent Balmer and [O III] emission lines. Based on the spectrum and emission line ratios, we classify the counterpart as a low-metallicity, star-forming, m r‧ = 25.1 AB mag dwarf galaxy at a redshift of z = 0.19273(8), corresponding to a luminosity distance of 972 Mpc. From the angular size, the redshift, and luminosity, we estimate the host galaxy to have a diameter ≲4 kpc and a stellar mass of M * ˜ (4-7) × 107 M ⊙, assuming a mass-to-light ratio between 2 to 3 M ⊙ L ⊙ -1. Based on the Hα flux, we estimate the star formation rate of the host to be 0.4 M ⊙ yr-1 and a substantial host dispersion measure (DM) depth ≲324 pc cm-3. The net DM contribution of the host galaxy to FRB 121102 is likely to be lower than this value depending on geometrical factors. We show that the persistent radio source at FRB 121102’s location reported by Marcote et al. is offset from the galaxy’s center of light by ˜200 mas and the host galaxy does not show optical signatures for AGN activity. If FRB 121102 is typical of the wider FRB population and if future interferometric localizations preferentially find them in dwarf galaxies with low metallicities and prominent emission lines, they would share such a preference with long gamma-ray bursts and superluminous supernovae.

  19. Elemental gas-phase abundances of intermediate redshift type Ia supernova star-forming host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Raya, M. E.; Galbany, L.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Mollá, M.; González-Gaitán, S.; Vílchez, J. M.; Carnero, A.

    2018-05-01

    The maximum luminosity of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) depends on the oxygen abundance of the regions of the host galaxies, where they explode. This metallicity dependence reduces the dispersion in the Hubble diagram (HD) when included with the traditional two-parameter calibration of SN Ia light-curve parameters and absolute magnitude. In this work, we use empirical calibrations to carefully estimate the oxygen abundance of galaxies hosting SNe Ia from the SDSS-II/SN (Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova) survey at intermediate redshift by measuring their emission-line intensities. We also derive electronic temperature with the direct method for a small fraction of objects for consistency. We find a trend of decreasing oxygen abundance with increasing redshift for the most massive galaxies. Moreover, we study the dependence of the HD residuals (HR) with galaxy oxygen abundance obtaining a correlation in line with those found in other works. In particular, the HR versus oxygen abundance shows a slope of -0.186 ± 0.123 mag dex-1 (1.52σ) in good agreement with theoretical expectations. This implies smaller distance modulii after corrections for SNe Ia in metal-rich galaxies. Based on our previous results on local SNe Ia, we propose this dependence to be due to the lower luminosity of the SNe Ia produced in more metal-rich environments.

  20. The Host Galaxies of Fast-Ejecta Core-Collapse Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Patrick L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Modjaz, Maryam; Kocevski, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Spectra of broad-lined Type Ic supernovae (SN Ic-BL), the only kind of SN observed at the locations of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs), exhibit wide features indicative of high ejecta velocities ((is) approximately 0.1c). We study the host galaxies of a sample of 245 low-redshift (z (is) less than 0.2) core-collapse SN, including 17 SN Ic-BL, discovered by galaxy-untargeted searches, and 15 optically luminous and dust-obscured z (is) less than 1.2 LGRBs. We show that, in comparison with SDSS galaxies having similar stellar masses, the hosts of low-redshift SN Ic- BL and z (is) is less than 1.2 LGRBs have high stellar-mass and star-formation-rate densities. Core-collapse SN having typical ejecta velocities, in contrast, show no preference for such galaxies. Moreover, we find that the hosts of SN Ic-BL, unlike those of SN Ib/Ic and SN II, exhibit high gas velocity dispersions for their stellar masses. The patterns likely reflect variations among star-forming environments, and suggest that LGRBs can be used as probes of conditions in high-redshift galaxies. They may be caused by efficient formation of massive binary progenitors systems in densely star-forming regions, or, less probably, a higher fraction of stars created with the initial masses required for a SN Ic-BL or LGRB. Finally, we show that the preference of SN Ic-BL and LGRBs for galaxies with high stellar-mass and star-formation-rate densities cannot be attributed to a preference for low metal abundances but must reflect the influence of a separate environmental factor.

  1. THE HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES OF VARIABILITY SELECTED AGN IN THE PAN-STARRS1 MEDIUM DEEP SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Heinis, S.; Gezari, S.; Kumar, S.

    2016-07-20

    We study the properties of 975 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected by variability in the Pan-STARRS1 Medium deep Survey. Using complementary multi-wavelength data from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared, we use spectral energy distribution fitting to determine the AGN and host properties at z < 1 and compare to a well-matched control sample. We confirm the trend previously observed: that the variability amplitude decreases with AGN luminosity, but we also observe that the slope of this relation steepens with wavelength, resulting in a “redder when brighter” trend at low luminosities. Our results show that AGNs are hosted by more massivemore » hosts than control sample galaxies, while the rest frame dust-corrected NUV r color distribution of AGN hosts is similar to control galaxies. We find a positive correlation between the AGN luminosity and star formation rate (SFR), independent of redshift. AGN hosts populate the entire range of SFRs within and outside of the Main Sequence of star-forming galaxies. Comparing the distribution of AGN hosts and control galaxies, we show that AGN hosts are less likely to be hosted by quiescent galaxies and more likely to be hosted by Main Sequence or starburst galaxies.« less

  2. The Host Galaxy of the Gamma-Ray Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxy 1H 0323+342

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León Tavares, J.; Kotilainen, J.; Chavushyan, V.; Añorve, C.; Puerari, I.; Cruz-González, I.; Patiño-Alvarez, V.; Antón, S.; Carramiñana, A.; Carrasco, L.; Guichard, J.; Karhunen, K.; Olguín-Iglesias, A.; Sanghvi, J.; Valdes, J.

    2014-11-01

    We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) imaging data of the radio-loud, narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0323+342, which shows intense and variable gamma-ray activity discovered by the Fermi satellite with the Large Area Telescope. Near-infrared and optical images are used to investigate the structural properties of the host galaxy of 1H 0323+342; this together with optical spectroscopy allows us to examine its black hole mass. Based on two-dimensional (2D) multiwavelength surface-brightness modeling, we find that statistically, the best model fit is a combination of a nuclear component and a Sérsic profile (n ~ 2.8). However, the presence of a disk component (with a small bulge n ~ 1.2) also remains a possibility and cannot be ruled out with the present data. Although at first glance a spiral-arm-like structure is revealed in our images, a 2D Fourier analysis of the imagery suggests that this structure corresponds to an asymmetric ring, likely associated with a recent violent dynamical interaction. We discuss our results in the context of relativistic jet production and galaxy evolution.

  3. Young massive star clusters in nearby spiral galaxies. III. Correlations between cluster populations and host galaxy properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, S. S.; Richtler, T.

    2000-02-01

    We present an analysis of correlations between integrated properties of galaxies and their populations of young massive star clusters. Data for 21 nearby galaxies presented by Larsen & Richtler (\\cite{lr99}) are used together with literature data for 10 additional galaxies, spanning a range in specific U-band cluster luminosity T_L(U) from 0 to 15. We find that T_L(U) correlates with several observable host galaxy parameters, in particular the ratio of Far-Infrared (FIR) to mBox{B-band} flux and the surface brightness. Taking the FIR luminosity as an indicator of the star formation rate (SFR), it is found that T_L(U) correlates very well with the SFR per unit area. A similar correlation is seen between T_L(U) and the atomic hydrogen surface density. The cluster formation efficiency seems to depend on the SFR in a continuous way, rather than being related to any particularly violent mode of star formation. We discuss fundamental features of possible scenarios for cluster formation. One possibility is that the correlation between T_L(U) and SFR is due to a common controlling parameter, most probably the high density of the ISM. Another scenario conceives a high T_L(U) as resulting from the energy input from many massive stars in case of a high SFR. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, and with the Danish 1.5-m telescope at ESO, La Silla, Chile.

  4. Stellar Photometric Structures of the Host Galaxies of Nearby Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Minjin; Ho, Luis C.; Peng, Chien Y.

    2017-10-01

    We present detailed image analysis of rest-frame optical images of 235 low-redshift ( z ≲ 0.35) Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed with the Hubble Space Telescope . The high-resolution images enable us to perform rigorous two-dimensional image modeling to decouple the luminous central point source from the host galaxy, which, when warranted, is further decomposed into its principal structural components (bulge, bar, and disk). In many cases, care must be taken to account for structural complexities such as spiral arms, tidal features, and overlapping or interacting companion galaxies. We employ Fourier modes to characterize the degree of asymmetrymore » of the light distribution of the stars as a quantitative measure of morphological distortion due to interactions or mergers. We examine the dependence of the physical parameters of the host galaxies on the properties of the AGNs, namely, radio-loudness and the width of the broad emission lines. In accordance with previous studies, narrow-line (H β FWHM ≤ 2000 km s{sup −1}) Type 1 AGNs, in contrast to their broad-line (H β FWHM > 2000 km s{sup −1}) counterparts, are preferentially hosted in later-type, lower-luminosity galaxies, which have a higher incidence of pseudo-bulges, are more frequently barred, and are less morphologically disturbed. This suggests that narrow-line Type 1 AGNs experienced a more quiescent evolutionary history driven primarily by internal secular evolution instead of external dynamical perturbations. The fraction of AGN hosts showing merger signatures is larger for more luminous sources. Radio-loud AGNs generally preferentially live in earlier-type (bulge-dominated), more massive hosts, although a minority of them appear to contain a significant disk component. We do not find convincing evidence for enhanced merger signatures in the radio-loud population.« less

  5. A tale of two feedbacks: Star formation in the host galaxies of radio AGNs

    SciTech Connect

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Jeon, Yiseul

    2014-04-01

    Several lines of argument support the existence of a link between activity at the nuclei of galaxies, in the form of an accreting supermassive black hole, and star formation activity in these galaxies. Radio jets have long been argued to be an ideal mechanism that allows active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to interact with their host galaxies and affect star formation. We use a sample of radio sources in the North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) field to study the nature of this putative link, by means of spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. We employ the excellent spectral coverage of the AKARI infraredmore » space telescope and the rich ancillary data available in the NEP to build SEDs extending from UV to far-IR wavelengths. We find a significant AGN component in our sample of relatively faint radio sources (« less

  6. Connections between Star Cluster Populations and Their Host Galaxy Nuclear Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chao; de Grijs, Richard; Ho, Luis C.

    2018-04-01

    Nuclear rings are excellent laboratories for probing diverse phenomena such as the formation and evolution of young massive star clusters and nuclear starbursts, as well as the secular evolution and dynamics of their host galaxies. We have compiled a sample of 17 galaxies with nuclear rings, which are well resolved by high-resolution Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope imaging. For each nuclear ring, we identified the ring star cluster population, along with their physical properties (ages, masses, and extinction values). We also determined the integrated ring properties, including the average age, total stellar mass, and current star formation rate (SFR). We find that Sb-type galaxies tend to have the highest ring stellar mass fraction with respect to the host galaxy, and this parameter is correlated with the ring’s SFR surface density. The ring SFRs are correlated with their stellar masses, which is reminiscent of the main sequence of star-forming galaxies. There are striking correlations between star-forming properties (i.e., SFR and SFR surface density) and nonaxisymmetric bar parameters, appearing to confirm previous inferences that strongly barred galaxies tend to have lower ring SFRs, although the ring star formation histories turn out to be significantly more complicated. Nuclear rings with higher stellar masses tend to be associated with lower cluster mass fractions, but there is no such relation for the ages of the rings. The two youngest nuclear rings in our sample, NGC 1512 and NGC 4314, which have the most extreme physical properties, represent the young extremity of the nuclear ring age distribution.

  7. Bulge structure and kinematics in an extreme spiral galaxy hosting megaparsec-scale radio jets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Aaron

    2015-10-01

    The radio galaxy 2MASX J23453268-0449256 is an extreme object with unprecedented properties. It is a disk-dominated and unusually massive red spiral with a rotation speed of 430 km/s at r=15 kpc, and its Mpc-scale radio jets are the largest ever found emerging from a spiral host. Ground-based imaging suggests that its central component is a pseudobulge, and its central stellar velocity dispersion is 350 km/s, surprisingly high for a disk-dominated spiral. X-ray observations show indications of radio-mode feedback on the hot gaseous halo on scales of tens of kpc, also extremely unusual for a spiral galaxy environment. This object challenges the conventional wisdom that the hosts of large-scale radio jets are exclusively early-type galaxies. We propose to obtain new WFC3 optical and IR imaging and Gemini GMOS-IFU spectroscopy of J2345. With the new HST imaging, we will carry out definitive bulge/disk decompositions and quantify the bulge structural parameters accurately, essential for understanding the environment of the central black hole powering the radio jets. GMOS IFU data will provide high-quality spatially resolved measurements of the stellar and gas kinematics of the bulge, which will be used to model the mass distribution in this unique system. Together, these observations will enable us to accurately quantify the structure and kinematics of this extreme galaxy and clarify its physical properties and formation history.

  8. Multiwavelength investigations of co-evolution of bright cluster galaxies and their host clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Henry, J. Patrick; Boehringer, Hans

    2014-05-01

    We report a systematic multiwavelength investigation of environments of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), using the X-ray data from the Chandra archive, and optical images taken with 34 × 27 arcmin2 field-of-view Subaru Suprime-Cam. Our goal is to help understand the relationship between the BCGs and their host clusters, and between the BCGs and other galaxies, to eventually address a question of the formation and co-evolution of BCGs and the clusters. Our results include the following. (1) Morphological variety of BCGs, or the second or the third brightest galaxy (BCG2, BCG3), is comparable to that of other bright red sequence galaxies, suggesting that we have a continuous variation of morphology between BCGs, BCG2, and BCG3, rather than a sharp separation between the BCG and the rest of the bright galaxies. (2) The offset of the BCG position relative to the cluster centre is correlated to the degree of concentration of cluster X-ray morphology (Spearman ρ = -0.79), consistent with an interpretation that BCGs tend to be off-centred inside dynamically unsettled clusters. (3) Morphologically disturbed clusters tend to harbour the brighter BCGs, implying that the `early collapse' may not be the only major mechanism to control the BCG formation and evolution.

  9. Energy from Active Galactic Nuclei and the Effects on Host Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Amanda

    I have investigated the energy output of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in order to understand how these objects evolve and the impact they may have on host galaxies. First, I looked at a sample of 96 AGN at redshifts z 2, 3, and 4 which have imaging and thus luminosity measurements in the griz and JHK observed wavebands. For these galaxies, I have co-epochal data across those bands which accounted for variability in AGN luminosity. I used the luminosity measurements in the five bands to construct spectral energy distributions (SED) in the emitted optical-UV bands for each AGN. I compared the SED to assumptions previously made about quasars and looked for correlations between SED and other AGN and galaxy properties. Second, I used spectra of the broad line region (BLR) of Type 1 AGN to estimate the mass of the central supermassive black hole (MBH). I found a sample of Type 1 AGN that reside in spiral galaxies in order to explore the relationship between MBH and pitch angle (φ), a measurement of how tightly wound the spiral arms are. Type 1 AGN offer a method to estimate MBH at higher redshift than previous studies of the M BH-φ relation. I was able to look at the evolution in the MBH-φ relation which has implications for galaxy formation as well as AGN feedback.

  10. Copious Amounts of Dust and Gas in a z = 7.5 Quasar Host Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venemans, Bram P.; Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Bañados, Eduardo; Carilli, Chris; Winters, Jan Martin; Schuster, Karl; da Cunha, Elisabete; Fan, Xiaohui; Farina, Emanuele Paolo; Mazzucchelli, Chiara; Rix, Hans-Walter; Weiss, Axel

    2017-12-01

    We present IRAM/NOEMA and JVLA observations of the quasar J1342+0928 at z = 7.54 and report detections of copious amounts of dust and [C II] emission in the interstellar medium (ISM) of its host galaxy. At this redshift, the age of the universe is 690 Myr, about 10% younger than the redshift of the previous quasar record holder. Yet, the ISM of this new quasar host galaxy is significantly enriched by metals, as evidenced by the detection of the [C II] 158 μm cooling line and the underlying far-infrared (FIR) dust continuum emission. To the first order, the FIR properties of this quasar host are similar to those found at a slightly lower redshift (z˜ 6), making this source by far the FIR-brightest galaxy known at z≳ 7.5. The [C II] emission is spatially unresolved, with an upper limit on the diameter of 7 kpc. Together with the measured FWHM of the [C II] line, this yields a dynamical mass of the host of < 1.5× {10}11 {M}⊙ . Using standard assumptions about the dust temperature and emissivity, the NOEMA measurements give a dust mass of (0.6{--}4.3)× {10}8 {M}⊙ . The brightness of the [C II] luminosity, together with the high dust mass, imply active ongoing star formation in the quasar host. Using [C II]-SFR scaling relations, we derive star formation rates of 85-545 {M}⊙ yr-1 in the host, consistent with the values derived from the dust continuum. Indeed, an episode of such past high star formation is needed to explain the presence of ˜108 M ⊙ of dust implied by the observations.

  11. Host galaxy subtraction of TeV candidate BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, K.; Pasanen, M.; Takalo, L. O.; Lindfors, E.; Berdyugin, A.; Ciprini, S.; Pforr, J.

    2007-11-01

    Context: Photometric monitoring of active galactic nuclei is often complicated by the presence of a strong host galaxy component, which adds unwanted flux to the measurement and introduces a seeing-dependence to the flux that can plaque e.g. microvariability studies. We are currently monitoring a sample of 24 TeV candidate BL Lacertae objects, many of which exhibit a prominent host galaxy component, using differential aperture photometry. Aims: In order to study our light curves free from the above effects, we have derived the host galaxy flux in differential aperture photometry as a function of aperture radius and FWHM for 20 resolved sources in our sample. Methods: We created accurate surface brightness models of the targets and any significant nearby sources using high-resolution R-band imaging obtained at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) and performed differential aperture photometry of the models over a grid of aperture radii and FWHM values. Results: The results are given as correction tables, that list the fluxes (in mJy) of all “contaminating” sources (host galaxy + significant nearby objects) as a function of aperture radius and FWHM. We found that the derived fluxes depend strongly on aperture radius, but the FWHM has only a minor effect (a few percent). We also discuss the implications of our findings to optical monitoring programs and potential sources of error in our derived fluxes. During this work we have also constructed new calibration star sequences for 9 objects and present the finding charts and calibrated magnitudes. Appendices A and B are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  12. DEMOGRAPHICS OF THE GALAXIES HOSTING SHORT-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, W.; Berger, E.; Chornock, R.

    2013-05-20

    We present observations of the afterglows and host galaxies of three short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs): 100625A, 101219A, and 110112A. We find that GRB 100625A occurred in a z = 0.452 early-type galaxy with a stellar mass of Almost-Equal-To 4.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} and a stellar population age of Almost-Equal-To 0.7 Gyr, and GRB 101219A originated in a star-forming galaxy at z = 0.718 with a stellar mass of Almost-Equal-To 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, a star formation rate of Almost-Equal-To 16 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, and a stellar population age of Almost-Equal-To 50 Myr. We alsomore » report the discovery of the optical afterglow of GRB 110112A, which lacks a coincident host galaxy to i {approx}> 26 mag, and we cannot conclusively identify any field galaxy as a possible host. From afterglow modeling, the bursts have inferred circumburst densities of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -4}-1 cm{sup -3} and isotropic-equivalent gamma-ray and kinetic energies of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 50}-10{sup 51} erg. These three events highlight the diversity of galactic environments that host short GRBs. To quantify this diversity, we use the sample of 36 Swift short GRBs with robust associations to an environment ({approx}1/2 of 68 short bursts detected by Swift to 2012 May) and classify bursts originating from four types of environments: late-type ( Almost-Equal-To 50%), early-type ( Almost-Equal-To 15%), inconclusive ( Almost-Equal-To 20%), and ''host-less'' (lacking a coincident host galaxy to limits of {approx}> 26 mag; Almost-Equal-To 15%). To find likely ranges for the true late- and early-type fractions, we assign each of the host-less bursts to either the late- or early-type category using probabilistic arguments and consider the scenario that all hosts in the inconclusive category are early-type galaxies to set an upper bound on the early-type fraction. We calculate most likely ranges for the late- and early-type fractions of Almost

  13. Host galaxy-active galactic nucleus alignments in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, Claudia Del P.; Padilla, Nelson D.; Strauss, Michael A.; Cora, Sofía A.; Hao, Lei

    2011-07-01

    We determine the intrinsic shapes and orientations of 27 450 types I and II active galactic nucleus (AGN) galaxies in the spectroscopic sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 by studying the distribution of projected axial ratios of AGN hosts. Our aim is to study possible alignments between the AGN and host galaxy systems (e.g. the accretion disc and the galaxy angular momentum) and the effect of dust obscuration geometry on the AGN type. We define control samples of non-AGN galaxies that mimic the morphology, colour, luminosity and concentration distributions of the AGN population, taking into account the effects of dust extinction and reddening. Assuming that AGN galaxies have the same underlying 3D shape distribution as their corresponding control samples, we find that the spiral and elliptical type I AGN populations are strongly skewed towards face-on galaxies, while elliptical and spiral type II AGN populations are skewed towards edge-on orientations. These findings rule out random orientations for AGN hosts at high confidence for type I spirals (δχ2≈ 230) and type II ellipticals (δχ2≈ 15), while the signal for type I ellipticals and type II spirals is weaker (δχ2≈ 3 and ≈6, respectively). We obtain a much stronger tendency for the type II spirals to be edge-on when just high [O III] equivalent width (EW) AGN are considered, suggesting that >20 per cent of low [O III] EW edge-on type II AGN may be missing from the optical sample. Galactic dust absorption of the broad-line region alone cannot explain the observed inclination angle and projected axial ratio distributions of types I and II Seyfert galaxies, implying that obscuration by a small-scale circumnuclear torus is necessary. These results favour a scenario in which the angular momentum of the material which feeds the black hole retains a memory of its original gas source at least to some small, non-negligible degree.

  14. Tidally Induced Bars in Dwarf Galaxies on Different Orbits around a Milky Way-like Host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajda, Grzegorz; Łokas, Ewa L.; Athanassoula, E.

    2017-06-01

    Bars in galaxies may develop through a global instability or as a result of an interaction with another system. We study bar formation in disky dwarf galaxies orbiting a Milky Way-like galaxy. We employ N-body simulations to study the impact of the initial orbital parameters: the size of the dwarf galaxy orbit, and the inclination of its disk with respect to the orbital plane. In all cases, a bar develops in the center of the dwarf during the first pericenter on its orbit around the host. Between subsequent pericenter passages, the bars are stable, but at the pericenters, they are usually weakened and shortened. The initial properties and details of the further evolution of the bars depend heavily on the orbital configuration. We find that for the exactly prograde orientation, the strongest bar is formed for the intermediate-sized orbit. On the tighter orbit, the disk is too disturbed and stripped to form a strong bar. On the wider orbit, the tidal interaction is too weak. The dependence on the disk inclination is such that weaker bars form in more inclined disks. The bars experience either a very weak buckling or none at all. We do not observe any secular evolution, possibly because the dwarfs are perturbed at each pericenter passage. The rotation speed of the bars can be classified as slow (R CR/l bar ˜ 2-3). We attribute this to the loss of a significant fraction of the disk rotation during the encounter with the host galaxy.

  15. The Connection between the Host Halo and the Satellite Galaxies of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yu; Benson, Andrew; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Tonnesen, Stephanie; Peter, Annika H. G.; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-10-01

    Many properties of the Milky Way’s (MW) dark matter halo, including its mass-assembly history, concentration, and subhalo population, remain poorly constrained. We explore the connection between these properties of the MW and its satellite galaxy population, especially the implication of the presence of the Magellanic Clouds for the properties of the MW halo. Using a suite of high-resolution N-body simulations of MW-mass halos with a fixed final {M}{vir}˜ {10}12.1 {M}⊙ , we find that the presence of Magellanic Cloud-like satellites strongly correlates with the assembly history, concentration, and subhalo population of the host halo, such that MW-mass systems with Magellanic Clouds have lower concentration, more rapid recent accretion, and more massive subhalos than typical halos of the same mass. Using a flexible semi-analytic galaxy formation model that is tuned to reproduce the stellar mass function of the classical dwarf galaxies of the MW with Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo, we show that adopting host halos with different mass-assembly histories and concentrations can lead to different best-fit models for galaxy-formation physics, especially for the strength of feedback. These biases arise because the presence of the Magellanic Clouds boosts the overall population of high-mass subhalos, thus requiring a different stellar-mass-to-halo-mass ratio to match the data. These biases also lead to significant differences in the mass-metallicity relation, the kinematics of low-mass satellites, the number counts of small satellites associated with the Magellanic Clouds, and the stellar mass of MW itself. Observations of these galaxy properties can thus provide useful constraints on the properties of the MW halo.

  16. The connection between the host halo and the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Yu; Benson, Andrew; Mao, Yao -Yuan; ...

    2016-10-11

    Many properties of the Milky Way's (MW) dark matter halo, including its mass-assembly history, concentration, and subhalo population, remain poorly constrained. We explore the connection between these properties of the MW and its satellite galaxy population, especially the implication of the presence of the Magellanic Clouds for the properties of the MW halo. Using a suite of high-resolution N-body simulations of MW-mass halos with a fixed finalmore » $${M}_{\\mathrm{vir}}\\sim {10}^{12.1}\\,{M}_{\\odot }$$, we find that the presence of Magellanic Cloud-like satellites strongly correlates with the assembly history, concentration, and subhalo population of the host halo, such that MW-mass systems with Magellanic Clouds have lower concentration, more rapid recent accretion, and more massive subhalos than typical halos of the same mass. Using a flexible semi-analytic galaxy formation model that is tuned to reproduce the stellar mass function of the classical dwarf galaxies of the MW with Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo, we show that adopting host halos with different mass-assembly histories and concentrations can lead to different best-fit models for galaxy-formation physics, especially for the strength of feedback. These biases arise because the presence of the Magellanic Clouds boosts the overall population of high-mass subhalos, thus requiring a different stellar-mass-to-halo-mass ratio to match the data. These biases also lead to significant differences in the mass–metallicity relation, the kinematics of low-mass satellites, the number counts of small satellites associated with the Magellanic Clouds, and the stellar mass of MW itself. Finally, observations of these galaxy properties can thus provide useful constraints on the properties of the MW halo.« less

  17. The Host Galaxy and Redshift of the Repeating Fast Radio Burst FRB 121102

    SciTech Connect

    Tendulkar, S. P.; Kaspi, V. M.; Bassa, C. G.

    2017-01-10

    The precise localization of the repeating fast radio burst (FRB 121102) has provided the first unambiguous association (chance coincidence probability p ≲ 3 × 10{sup −4}) of an FRB with an optical and persistent radio counterpart. We report on optical imaging and spectroscopy of the counterpart and find that it is an extended (0.″6–0.″8) object displaying prominent Balmer and [O iii] emission lines. Based on the spectrum and emission line ratios, we classify the counterpart as a low-metallicity, star-forming, m{sub r′} = 25.1 AB mag dwarf galaxy at a redshift of z = 0.19273(8), corresponding to a luminosity distance ofmore » 972 Mpc. From the angular size, the redshift, and luminosity, we estimate the host galaxy to have a diameter ≲4 kpc and a stellar mass of M {sub *} ∼ (4–7) × 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙}, assuming a mass-to-light ratio between 2 to 3 M {sub ⊙} L {sub ⊙} {sup −1}. Based on the H α flux, we estimate the star formation rate of the host to be 0.4 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} and a substantial host dispersion measure (DM) depth ≲324 pc cm{sup −3}. The net DM contribution of the host galaxy to FRB 121102 is likely to be lower than this value depending on geometrical factors. We show that the persistent radio source at FRB 121102’s location reported by Marcote et al. is offset from the galaxy’s center of light by ∼200 mas and the host galaxy does not show optical signatures for AGN activity. If FRB 121102 is typical of the wider FRB population and if future interferometric localizations preferentially find them in dwarf galaxies with low metallicities and prominent emission lines, they would share such a preference with long gamma-ray bursts and superluminous supernovae.« less

  18. GALAXY ZOO: THE FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT CO-EVOLUTION OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AND THEIR EARLY- AND LATE-TYPE HOST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Schawinski, Kevin; Urry, C. Megan; Virani, Shanil

    2010-03-01

    We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and visual classifications of morphology from the Galaxy Zoo project to study black hole growth in the nearby universe (z < 0.05) and to break down the active galactic nucleus (AGN) host galaxy population by color, stellar mass, and morphology. We find that the black hole growth at luminosities L[O{sub III}]>10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} in early- and late-type galaxies is fundamentally different. AGN host galaxies as a population have a broad range of stellar masses (10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} M{sub sun}), reside in the green valley of the color-mass diagram andmore » their central black holes have median masses around 10{sup 6.5} M{sub sun}. However, by comparing early- and late-type AGN host galaxies to their non-active counterparts, we find several key differences: in early-type galaxies, it is preferentially the galaxies with the least massive black holes that are growing, while in late-type galaxies, it is preferentially the most massive black holes that are growing. The duty cycle of AGNs in early-type galaxies is strongly peaked in the green valley below the low-mass end (10{sup 10} M{sub sun}) of the red sequence at stellar masses where there is a steady supply of blue cloud progenitors. The duty cycle of AGNs in late-type galaxies on the other hand peaks in massive (10{sup 11} M{sub sun}) green and red late-types which generally do not have a corresponding blue cloud population of similar mass. At high-Eddington ratios (L/L{sub Edd}>0.1), the only population with a substantial fraction of AGNs are the low-mass green valley early-type galaxies. Finally, the Milky Way likely resides in the 'sweet spot' on the color-mass diagram where the AGN duty cycle of late-type galaxies is highest. We discuss the implications of these results for our understanding of the role of AGNs in the evolution of galaxies.« less

  19. The Post-starburst Evolution of Tidal Disruption Event Host Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    French, K. Decker; Zabludoff, Ann; Arcavi, Iair

    2017-02-01

    We constrain the recent star formation histories of the host galaxies of eight optical/UV-detected tidal disruption events (TDEs). Six hosts had quick starbursts of <200 Myr duration that ended 10–1000 Myr ago, indicating that TDEs arise at different times in their hosts’ post-starburst evolution. If the disrupted star formed in the burst or before, the post-burst age constrains its mass, generally excluding O, most B, and highly massive A stars. If the starburst arose from a galaxy merger, the time since the starburst began limits the coalescence timescale and thus the merger mass ratio to more equal than 12:1 inmore » most hosts. This uncommon ratio, if also that of the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) binary, disfavors the scenario in which the TDE rate is boosted by the binary but is insensitive to its mass ratio. The stellar mass fraction created in the burst is 0.5%–10% for most hosts, not enough to explain the observed 30–200× boost in TDE rates, suggesting that the host’s core stellar concentration is more important. TDE hosts have stellar masses 10{sup 9.4}–10{sup 10.3} M {sub ☉}, consistent with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey volume-corrected, quiescent Balmer-strong comparison sample and implying SMBH masses of 10{sup 5.5}–10{sup 7.5} M {sub ☉}. Subtracting the host absorption line spectrum, we uncover emission lines; at least five hosts have ionization sources inconsistent with star formation that instead may be related to circumnuclear gas, merger shocks, or post-AGB stars.« less

  20. GRB host galaxies with VLT/X-Shooter: properties at 0.8 < z < 1.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piranomonte, S.; Japelj, J.; Vergani, S. D.; Savaglio, S.; Palazzi, E.; Covino, S.; Flores, H.; Goldoni, P.; Cupani, G.; Krühler, T.; Mannucci, F.; Onori, F.; Rossi, A.; D'Elia, V.; Pian, E.; D'Avanzo, P.; Gomboc, A.; Hammer, F.; Randich, S.; Fiore, F.; Stella, L.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2015-10-01

    Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) are associated with the death of massive stars. Their host galaxies therefore represent a unique class of objects tracing star formation across the observable Universe. Indeed, recently accumulated evidence shows that GRB hosts do not differ substantially from general population of galaxies at high (z > 2) redshifts. However, it has been long recognized that the properties of z < 1.5 hosts, compared to general star-forming population, are unusual. To better understand the reasons for the supposed difference in LGRB hosts properties at z < 1.5, we obtained Very Large Telescope (VLT)/X-Shooter spectra of six hosts lying in the redshift range of 0.8 < z < 1.3. Some of these hosts have been observed before, yet we still lack well-constrained information on their characteristics such as metallicity, dust extinction and star formation rate (SFR). We search for emission lines in the VLT/X-Shooter spectra of the hosts and measure their fluxes. We perform a detailed analysis, estimating host average extinction, SFRs, metallicities and electron densities where possible. Measured quantities of our hosts are compared to a larger sample of previously observed GRB hosts at z < 2. SFRs and metallicities are measured for all the hosts analysed in this paper and metallicities are well determined for four hosts. The mass-metallicity relation, the fundamental metallicity relation and SFRs derived from our hosts occupy similar parameter space as other host galaxies investigated so far at the same redshift. We therefore conclude that GRB hosts in our sample support the found discrepancy between the properties of low-redshift GRB hosts and the general population of star-forming galaxies.

  1. THE ROLE OF RADIATION PRESSURE IN THE NARROW LINE REGIONS OF SEYFERT HOST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, Rebecca L.; Dopita, Michael A.; Kewley, Lisa

    2016-06-10

    We investigate the relative significance of radiation pressure and gas pressure in the extended narrow line regions (ENLRs) of four Seyfert galaxies from the integral field Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7). We demonstrate that there exist two distinct types of starburst-active galactic nucleus (AGN) mixing curves on standard emission line diagnostic diagrams, which reflect the balance between gas pressure and radiation pressure in the ENLR. In two of the galaxies the ENLR is radiation pressure dominated throughout and the ionization parameter remains constant (log U ∼ 0). In the other two galaxies radiation pressure is initially important,more » but gas pressure becomes dominant as the ionization parameter in the ENLR decreases from log U ∼ 0 to −3.2 ≲ log U ≲ −3.4. Where radiation pressure is dominant, the AGN regulates the density of the interstellar medium on kiloparsec scales and may therefore have a direct impact on star formation activity and/or the incidence of outflows in the host galaxy to scales far beyond the zone of influence of the black hole. We find that both radiation pressure dominated and gas pressure dominated ENLRs are dynamically active with evidence for outflows, indicating that radiation pressure may be an important source of AGN feedback even when it is not dominant over the entire ENLR.« less

  2. Spatially Resolved MaNGA Observations of the Host Galaxy of Superluminous Supernova 2017egm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting-Wan; Schady, Patricia; Xiao, Lin; Eldridge, J. J.; Schweyer, Tassilo; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Yu, Po-Chieh; Smartt, Stephen J.; Inserra, Cosimo

    2017-11-01

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) are found predominantly in dwarf galaxies, indicating that their progenitors have a low metallicity. However, the most nearby SLSN to date, SN 2017egm, occurred in the spiral galaxy NGC 3191, which has a relatively high stellar mass and correspondingly high metallicity. In this Letter, we present detailed analysis of the nearby environment of SN 2017egm using MaNGA IFU data, which provides spectral data on kiloparsec scales. From the velocity map we find no evidence that SN 2017egm occurred within some intervening satellite galaxy, and at the SN position most metallicity diagnostics yield a solar and above solar metallicity (12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})˜ 8.8{--}9.1). Additionally, we measure a small Hα equivalent width (EW) at the SN position of just 34 Å, which is one of the lowest EWs measured at any SLSN or gamma-ray burst position, and indicative of the progenitor star being comparatively old. We also compare the observed properties of NGC 3191 with other SLSN host galaxies. The solar-metallicity environment at the position of SN 2017egm presents a challenge to our theoretical understanding, and our spatially resolved spectral analysis provides further constraints on the progenitors of SLSNe.

  3. ON THE DEPENDENCE OF TYPE Ia SNe LUMINOSITIES ON THE METALLICITY OF THEIR HOST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno-Raya, Manuel E.; Mollá, Mercedes; López-Sánchez, Ángel R.

    2016-02-10

    The metallicity of the progenitor system producing a type Ia supernova (SN Ia) could play a role in its maximum luminosity, as suggested by theoretical predictions. We present an observational study to investigate if such a relationship exists. Using the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) we have obtained intermediate-resolution spectroscopy data of a sample of 28 local galaxies hosting SNe Ia, for which distances have been derived using methods independent of those based on SN Ia parameters. From the emission lines observed in their optical spectra, we derived the gas-phase oxygen abundance in the region where each SN Ia exploded. Our datamore » show a trend, with an 80% of chance not being due to random fluctuation, between SNe Ia absolute magnitudes and the oxygen abundances of the host galaxies, in the sense that luminosities tend to be higher for galaxies with lower metallicities. This result seems likely to be in agreement with both the theoretically expected behavior and with other observational results. This dependence M{sub B}–Z might induce systematic errors when it is not considered when deriving SNe Ia luminosities and then using them to derive cosmological distances.« less

  4. Tomography of a Gamma-ray Burst Progenitor and its Host Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Moller, Palle; Garcia-Segura, Guillermo; Gorosabel, Javier; Perez, Enrique; deUgartePostigo, Antonio; Solano, Enrique; BarradoyNavascues, David; CastroCeron, Jose Marie; Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2005-01-01

    We have obtained near-infrared and high-resolution optical spectroscopy of the bright afterglow of the very intense gamma-ray burst recorded on 2002, October 4 (GRB 021004). Besides of line emission in the near-IR allowing an independent measurement of the systemic redshift (z = 2.3304 plus or minus 0.0005), we find several absorption line groups spanning a range of about 3,000 kilometers per second in velocity relative to the redshift of the host galaxy. The absorption profiles are very complex with both velocity-broadened components extending over several 100 kilometers per second and narrow lines with velocity widths of only approximately 20 kilometers per second. By analogy with QSO absorption line studies, the relative velocities, widths, and degrees of ionization of the lines ("line-locking", "ionization-velocity correlation") show that the progenitor had both an extremely strong radiation field and several distinct mass loss phases (winds). These results are consistent with GRB progenitors being massive stars, such as Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) or Wolf-Rayet stars, providing a detailed picture of the spatial and velocity structure of the GRB progenitor star at the time of explosion. The host galaxy is a prolific star-forming galaxy with a SFR of approximately 10 solar mass yr(sup -l).

  5. [C ii] 158-μm emission from the host galaxies of damped Lyman-alpha systems.

    PubMed

    Neeleman, Marcel; Kanekar, Nissim; Prochaska, J Xavier; Rafelski, Marc; Carilli, Chris L; Wolfe, Arthur M

    2017-03-24

    Gas surrounding high-redshift galaxies has been studied through observations of absorption line systems toward background quasars for decades. However, it has proven difficult to identify and characterize the galaxies associated with these absorbers due to the intrinsic faintness of the galaxies compared with the quasars at optical wavelengths. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array, we report on detections of [C ii] 158-μm line and dust-continuum emission from two galaxies associated with two such absorbers at a redshift of z ~ 4. Our results indicate that the hosts of these high-metallicity absorbers have physical properties similar to massive star-forming galaxies and are embedded in enriched neutral hydrogen gas reservoirs that extend well beyond the star-forming interstellar medium of these galaxies. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Host galaxy and environment of the BL Lacertae object PKS 0548-322: Observations with subarcsecond resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falomo, Renato; Pesce, Joseph E.; Treves, Aldo

    1995-01-01

    We report on direct, subarcsecond resolution imaging of the nebulosity and spectroscopy of galaxies in the field of the BL Lacertae object PKS 0548-322. Surface photometry of the nebulosity is used to derive the properties of the host galaxy (M(sub V) = -23.4), which exhibits signs of interaction with a close companion galaxy at approximately 25 kpc. The radial brightness profile of the nebulosity is well fitted by the contribution of a bulge (r(exp 1/4)) plus a point source and a small internal disk. An analysis of the galaxies in the field shows that the source is located in a rich cluster of galaxies. Spectra of five galaxies in the field indicate that they are at the same redshift as the BL Lac object, thus supporting the imaging result of a surrounding cluster associated with the BL Lac. This cluster is most likely Abell S0549.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BH masses & host galaxy dispersion vel. (van den Bosch, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bosch, R. C. E.

    2017-02-01

    According to the virial theorem, all gravitational systems in equilibrium sit on a plane in the three-dimensional parameter space defined by their mass, size, and second moment of the velocity tensor. While these quantities cannot be directly observed, there are suitable proxies: the luminosity Lk, half-light radius Re, and dispersion σe. These proxies indeed lie on a very tight fundamental plane (FP). How do the black holes (BHs) in the centers of galaxies relate to the FP? Their masses are known to exhibit no strong correlation with total galaxy mass, but they do correlate weakly with bulge mass (when present), and extremely well with the velocity dispersion through the M{bullet}∝σe5.4 relation. These facts together imply that a tight plane must also exist defined by BH mass, total galaxy mass, and size. Here, I show that this is indeed the case using a heterogeneous set of 230 BHs. The sample includes BHs from zero to 10 billion solar masses and host galaxies ranging from low surface brightness dwarfs, through bulgeless disks, to brightest cluster galaxies. The resulting BH-size-luminosity relation M{bullet}∝(Lk/Re)3.8 has the same amount of scatter as the M*-σ relation and is aligned with the galaxy FP, such that it is just a reprojection of σe. The inferred BH-size-mass relation is M{bullet}∝(M*/Re)2.9. These relationships are universal and extend to galaxies without bulges. This implies that the BH is primarily correlated with its global velocity dispersion and not with the properties of the bulge. I show that the classical bulge-mass relation is a projection of the M*-σ relation. When the velocity dispersion cannot be measured (at high z or low dispersions), the BH-size-mass relation should be used as a proxy for BH mass in favor of just galaxy or bulge mass. (4 data files).

  8. Exploring Damped Ly Alpha System Host Galaxies Using Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toy, Vicki L.; Cucchiara, Antonino; Veilleux, Sylvain; Fumagalli, Michele; Rafelski, Marc; Rahmati, Alireza; Cenko, S. Bradley; Capone, John I.; Pasham, Dheeraj R.

    2016-01-01

    We present a sample of 45 Damped Ly-Alpha system [DLA; H I-N is greater than or equal to 2 x 10(exp. 20) cm(exp. -2)] counterparts (33 detections, 12 upper limits) which host gamma-ray bursts (GRB-DLAs) in order to investigate star formation and metallicity within galaxies hosting DLAs. Our sample spans z is approx. 2 - 6 and is nearly three times larger than any previously detected DLA counterparts survey based on quasar line-of-sight searches (QSO-DLAs). We report star formation rates (SFRs) from rest-frame UV photometry and spectral energy distribution modeling. We find that DLA counterpart SFRs are not correlated with either redshift or H I column density. Thanks to the combination of Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based observations, we also investigate DLA host star formation efficiency. Our GRB-DLA counterpart sample spans both higher efficiency and low efficiency star formation regions compared to the local Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, local star formation laws, and z is approximately 3 cosmological simulations. We also compare the depletion times of our DLA hosts sample to other objects in the local universe; our sample appears to deviate from the star formation efficiencies measured in local spiral and dwarf galaxies. Furthermore, we find similar efficiencies as local inner disks, SMC, and Lyman-break galaxy outskirts. Finally, our enrichment time measurements show a spread of systems with under- and over-abundance of metals, which may suggest that these systems had episodic star formation and a metal enrichment/depletion as a result of strong stellar feedback and/or metal inflow/outflow.

  9. Revealing the Host Galaxy of a Quasar 2175 Å Dust Absorber at z =  2.12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Brammer, Gabriel; Ge, Jian; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Lundgren, Britt

    2018-04-01

    We report the first detection of the host galaxy of a strong 2175 Å dust absorber at z = 2.12 toward the background quasar SDSS J121143.42+083349.7 using Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3) IR F140W direct imaging and G141 grism spectroscopy. The spectroscopically confirmed host galaxy is located at a small impact parameter of ∼5.5 kpc (∼0.″65). The F140W image reveals a disk-like morphology with an effective radius of 2.24 ± 0.08 kpc. The extracted 1D spectrum is dominated by a continuum with weak emission lines ([O III] and [O II]). The [O III]-based unobscured star formation rate (SFR) is 9.4 ± 2.6 M ⊙ yr‑1, assuming an [O III]/Hα ratio of 1. The moderate 4000 Å break (Dn(4000) index ∼1.3) and Balmer absorption lines indicate that the host galaxy contains an evolved stellar population with an estimated stellar mass M * of (3–7) × 1010 M ⊙. The SFR and M * of the host galaxy are comparable to, though slightly lower than, those of typical emission-selected galaxies at z ∼ 2. As inferred from our absorption analysis in Ma et al., the host galaxy is confirmed to be a chemically enriched, evolved, massive, and star-forming disk-like galaxy that is likely in the transition from a blue star-forming galaxy to a red quiescent galaxy.

  10. [O iii] λ5007 and X-Ray Properties of a Complete Sample of Hard X-Ray Selected AGNs in the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Y.; Hashimoto, Y.; Ichikawa, K.; Ishino, Y.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Väisänen, P.; Ricci, C.; Berney, S.; Gandhi, P.; Koss, M.; Mushotzky, R.; Terashima, Y.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Crenshaw, M.

    2015-12-01

    We study the correlation between the [O iii] λ5007 and X-ray luminosities of local active galactic nuclei (AGNs), using a complete, hard X-ray (>10 keV) selected sample in the Swift/BAT 9-month catalog. From our optical spectroscopic observations at the South African Astronomical Observatory and the literature, a catalog of [O iii] λ5007 line flux for all 103 AGNs at Galactic latitudes of | b| \\gt 15^\\circ is compiled. Significant correlations with intrinsic X-ray luminosity ({L}{{X}}) are found for both observed ({L}[{{O} {{III}}] }) and extinction-corrected ({L}[{{O} {{III}}]}{{cor}}) luminosities, separately for X-ray unabsorbed and absorbed AGNs. We obtain the regression form of {L}[{{O} {{III}}] } \\propto \\{L}2-10\\{keV}1.18+/- 0.07 and {L}[{{O} {{III}}]}{{cor}} \\propto \\{L}2-10\\{keV}1.16+/- 0.09 from the whole sample. The absorbed AGNs with low (<0.5%) scattering fractions in soft X-rays show on average smaller {L}[{{O} {{III}}]}/{L}{{X}} and {L}[{{O} {{III}}]}{{cor}}/{L}{{X}} ratios than the other absorbed AGNs, while those in edge-on host galaxies do not. These results suggest that a significant fraction of this population is buried in tori with small opening angles. By using these {L}[{{O} {{III}}] } versus {L}{{X}} correlations, the X-ray luminosity function (LF) of local AGNs (including Compton-thick AGNs) in a standard population synthesis model gives much better agreement with the [O iii] λ5007 LF derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey than previously reported. This confirms that hard X-ray observations are a very powerful tool to find AGNs with high completeness.

  11. Stellar Photometric Structures of the Host Galaxies of Nearby Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minjin; Ho, Luis C.; Peng, Chien Y.; Barth, Aaron J.; Im, Myungshin

    2017-10-01

    We present detailed image analysis of rest-frame optical images of 235 low-redshift (z ≲ 0.35) Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed with the Hubble Space Telescope. The high-resolution images enable us to perform rigorous two-dimensional image modeling to decouple the luminous central point source from the host galaxy, which, when warranted, is further decomposed into its principal structural components (bulge, bar, and disk). In many cases, care must be taken to account for structural complexities such as spiral arms, tidal features, and overlapping or interacting companion galaxies. We employ Fourier modes to characterize the degree of asymmetry of the light distribution of the stars as a quantitative measure of morphological distortion due to interactions or mergers. We examine the dependence of the physical parameters of the host galaxies on the properties of the AGNs, namely, radio-loudness and the width of the broad emission lines. In accordance with previous studies, narrow-line (Hβ FWHM ≤ 2000 km s-1) Type 1 AGNs, in contrast to their broad-line (Hβ FWHM > 2000 km s-1) counterparts, are preferentially hosted in later-type, lower-luminosity galaxies, which have a higher incidence of pseudo-bulges, are more frequently barred, and are less morphologically disturbed. This suggests that narrow-line Type 1 AGNs experienced a more quiescent evolutionary history driven primarily by internal secular evolution instead of external dynamical perturbations. The fraction of AGN hosts showing merger signatures is larger for more luminous sources. Radio-loud AGNs generally preferentially live in earlier-type (bulge-dominated), more massive hosts, although a minority of them appear to contain a significant disk component. We do not find convincing evidence for enhanced merger signatures in the radio-loud population. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute

  12. Quasar outflows at z ≥ 6: the impact on the host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barai, Paramita; Gallerani, Simona; Pallottini, Andrea; Ferrara, Andrea; Marconi, Alessandro; Cicone, Claudia; Maiolino, Roberto; Carniani, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    We investigate quasar outflows at z ≥ 6 by performing zoom-in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. By employing the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code GADGET-3, we zoom in the 2R200 region around a 2 × 1012 M⊙ halo at z = 6, inside a (500 Mpc)3 comoving volume. We compare the results of our active galactic nuclei (AGN) runs with a control simulation in which only stellar/SN feedback is considered. Seeding 105 M⊙ black holes (BHs) at the centres of 109 M⊙ haloes, we find the following results. BHs accrete gas at the Eddington rate over z = 9-6. At z = 6, our most-massive BH has grown to MBH = 4 × 109 M⊙. Fast (vr > 1000 km s-1), powerful (\\dot{M}_out ˜ 2000 M_{⊙} yr-1) outflows of shock-heated low-density gas form at z ∼ 7, and propagate up to hundreds kpc. Star formation is quenched over z = 8-6, and the total star formation rate (SFR surface density near the galaxy centre) is reduced by a factor of 5 (1000). We analyse the relative contribution of multiple physical process: (i) disrupting cosmic filamentary cold gas inflows, (ii) reducing central gas density, (iii) ejecting gas outside the galaxy; and find that AGN feedback has the following effects at z = 6. The inflowing gas mass fraction is reduced by ∼ 12 per cent, the high-density gas fraction is lowered by ∼ 13 per cent, and ∼ 20 per cent of the gas outflows at a speed larger than the escape velocity (500 km s-1). We conclude that quasar-host galaxies at z ≥ 6 are accreting non-negligible amount of cosmic gas, nevertheless AGN feedback quenches their star formation dominantly by powerful outflows ejecting gas out of the host galaxy halo.

  13. A Compact Group of Galaxies at z = 2.48 Hosting an AGN-driven Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan

    2015-12-01

    We present observations of a remarkable compact group of galaxies at z = 2.48. Four galaxies, all within 40 kpc of each other, surround a powerful high-redshift radio source. This group comprises two compact red passive galaxies and a pair of merging galaxies. One of the red galaxies, with an apparent stellar mass of 3.6 × 1011M⊙ and an effective radius of 470 pc, is one of the most extreme examples of a massive quiescent compact galaxy found so far. One of the pair of merging galaxies hosts the active galactic nucleus (AGN) producing the large powerful radio structure. The merger is massive and enriched, consistent with the mass-metallicity relation expected at this redshift. Close to the merging nuclei, the emission lines exhibit broad and asymmetric profiles that suggest outflows powered either by a very young expanding radio jet or by AGN radiation. At ≳50 kpc from the system, we found a fainter extended-emission region that may be a part of a radio-jet-driven outflow. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The work is also based, in part, on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  14. Towards a comprehensive picture of powerful quasars, their host galaxies and quasar winds at z ˜ 0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Liu, Guilin; Obied, Georges

    2016-03-01

    Luminous type-2 quasars in which the glow from the central black hole is obscured by dust are ideal targets for studying their host galaxies and the quasars' effect on galaxy evolution. Such feedback appears ubiquitous in luminous obscured quasars where high-velocity-ionized nebulae have been found. We present rest-frame yellow-band (˜5000 Å) observations using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for a sample of 20 luminous quasar host galaxies at 0.2 < z < 0.6 selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. For the first time, we combine host galaxy observations with geometric measurements of quasar illumination using blue-band HST observations and [O III] integral field unit observations probing the quasar winds. The HST images reveal bright merger signatures in about half the galaxies; a significantly higher fraction than in comparison inactive ellipticals. We show that the host galaxies are primarily bulge-dominated, with masses close to M*, but belong to <30 per cent of elliptical galaxies that are highly star forming at z ˜ 0.5. Ionized gas signatures are uncorrelated with faint stellar discs (if present), confirming that the ionized gas is not concentrated in a disc. Scattering cones and [O III] ionized gas velocity field are aligned with the forward scattering cones being co-spatial with the blue-shifted side of the velocity field, suggesting the high-velocity gas is indeed photo-ionized by the quasar. Based on the host galaxies' high star formation rates and bright merger signatures, we suggest that this low-redshift outbreak of luminous quasar activity is triggered by recent minor mergers. Combining these novel observations, we present new quasar unification tests, which are in agreement with expectations of the orientation-based unification model for quasars.

  15. THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY: PARAMETERIZING THE TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA RATE AS A FUNCTION OF HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Mathew; Nichol, Robert C.; Dilday, Benjamin

    2012-08-10

    Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Supernova Survey-II (SDSS-II SN Survey), we measure the rate of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) as a function of galaxy properties at intermediate redshift. A sample of 342 SNe Ia with 0.05 < z < 0.25 is constructed. Using broadband photometry and redshifts, we use the PEGASE.2 spectral energy distributions to estimate host galaxy stellar masses and recent star formation rates (SFRs). We find that the rate of SNe Ia per unit stellar mass is significantly higher (by a factor of {approx}30) in highly star-forming galaxies compared to passive galaxies. When parameterizing themore » SN Ia rate (SNR{sub Ia}) based on host galaxy properties, we find that the rate of SNe Ia in passive galaxies is not linearly proportional to the stellar mass; instead an SNR{sub Ia}{proportional_to}M{sup 0.68} is favored. However, such a parameterization does not describe the observed SNR{sub Ia} in star-forming galaxies. The SNR{sub Ia} in star-forming galaxies is well fitted by SNR{sub Ia} = (0.41 {+-} 0.15) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} M{sup 0.72{+-}0.15} + (0.65 {+-} 0.25) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}SFR{sup 1.01{+-}0.22} (statistical errors only), where M is the host galaxy stellar mass (in M{sub Sun }) and SFR is the SFR (in M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}). We show that our results, for SNe Ia in passive galaxies, are consistent with those at higher redshifts (favoring SNR{sub Ia}{proportional_to}M) when accounting for the difference in the ages of our galaxies. This suggests that the rate of SNe Ia is correlated with the age of the stellar population. The MLCS extinction parameter, A{sub V} , is similar in passive and moderately star-forming galaxies, but we find indications that it is smaller, on average, in highly star-forming galaxies. This result appears to be driven by a deficit of the reddest (A{sub V} > 0.15) SNe Ia in highly star-forming galaxies. We consider that the high levels of dust in these systems may be obscuring the reddest and

  16. COSMIC EVOLUTION OF BLACK HOLES AND SPHEROIDS. V. THE RELATION BETWEEN BLACK HOLE MASS AND HOST GALAXY LUMINOSITY FOR A SAMPLE OF 79 ACTIVE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Daeseong; Woo, Jong-Hak; Bennert, Vardha N.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the cosmic evolution of the black hole (BH) mass-bulge luminosity relation using a sample of 52 active galaxies at z ∼ 0.36 and z ∼ 0.57 in the BH mass range of 10{sup 7.4}-10{sup 9.1} M {sub ☉}. By consistently applying multicomponent spectral and structural decomposition to high-quality Keck spectra and high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images, BH masses (M {sub BH}) are estimated using the Hβ broad emission line combined with the 5100 Å nuclear luminosity, and bulge luminosities (L {sub bul}) are derived from surface photometry. Comparing the resulting M {sub BH} – L {sub bul} relation tomore » local active galaxies and taking into account selection effects, we find evolution of the form M {sub BH}/L {sub bul}∝(1 + z){sup γ} with γ = 1.8 ± 0.7, consistent with BH growth preceding that of the host galaxies. Including an additional sample of 27 active galaxies with 0.5 < z < 1.9 taken from the literature and measured in a consistent way, we obtain γ = 0.9 ± 0.7 for the M {sub BH} – L {sub bul} relation and γ = 0.4 ± 0.5 for the M {sub BH}-total host galaxy luminosity (L {sub host}) relation. The results strengthen the findings from our previous studies and provide additional evidence for host galaxy bulge growth being dominated by disk-to-bulge transformation via minor mergers and/or disk instabilities.« less

  17. Spectroscopic identification of a redshift 1.55 supernova host galaxy from the Subaru Deep Field Supernova Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederiksen, Teddy F.; Graur, Or; Hjorth, Jens; Maoz, Dan; Poznanski, Dovi

    2014-03-01

    Context. The Subaru Deep Field (SDF) Supernova Survey discovered ten Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the redshift range 1.5 < z < 2.0, determined solely from photometric redshifts of the host galaxies. However, photometric redshifts might be biased, and the SN sample could be contaminated by active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Aims: We aim to obtain the first robust redshift measurement and classification of a z > 1.5 SDF SN Ia host galaxy candidate. Methods: We use the X-shooter (U-to-K-band) spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope to allow the detection of different emission lines in a wide spectral range. Results: We measure a spectroscopic redshift of 1.54563 ± 0.00027 of hSDF0705.25, consistent with its photometric redshift of 1.552 ± 0.018. From the strong emission-line spectrum we rule out AGN activity, thereby confirming the optical transient as a SN. The host galaxy follows the fundamental metallicity relation showing that the properties of this high-redshift SN Ia host galaxy is similar to other field galaxies. Conclusions: Spectroscopic confirmation of additional SDF SN hosts would be required to confirm the cosmic SN rate evolution measured in the SDF. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program ID 089.A-0739.

  18. The Spiral Host Galaxy of the Double Radio Source 0313-192

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keel, William C.; White, Raymond E., III; Owen, Frazer N.; Ledlow, Michael J.

    2006-12-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Gemini South, and Chandra observations of the radio galaxy 0313-192, which hosts a 350 kpc double source and jets, even though previous data have suggested that it is a spiral galaxy. We measure the bulge scale and the luminosity, radial, and vertical profiles of disk starlight and consider the distributions of H II regions and absorbing dust. In each case the HST data confirm its classification as an edge-on spiral galaxy, the only such system known to produce such an extended radio source of this kind. The Gemini near-IR images and Chandra spectral fit reveal a strongly obscured central active galactic nucleus (AGN), seen through the entire interstellar medium path length of the disk and showing X-ray evidence of additional absorption from warm or dense material close to the central object. We consider several possible mechanisms for producing such a rare combination of AGN and host properties, some combination of which may be at work. These include an unusually luminous bulge (suggesting a black hole of mass ~8×108 Msolar), the orientation of the jets near the pole of the gas-rich disk, and some evidence of a weak gravitational interaction that has warped the disk and could have enhanced fueling of the central engine. We detect an X-ray counterpart of the kiloparsec-scale radio jet emerging to the south; jet/counterjet limits on both radio and X-ray regimes allow them to be symmetric if seen more than 15° from the plane of the sky, still consistent with the jet axes being within ~30° of the poles of the gas-rich galaxy disk. A linear or disklike emission-line structure is seen around the nucleus, inclined by ~20° to the stellar disk but nearly perpendicular to the jets; this may represent the aftermath of a galaxy encounter, in which gas is photoionized by a direct view of the nuclear continuum. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute

  19. Is the metallicity of their host galaxies a good measure of the metallicity of Type Ia supernovae?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, E.; Badenes, C.

    2011-06-01

    The efficient use of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) for cosmological studies requires knowledge of any parameter that can affect their luminosity in either systematic or statistical ways. Observational samples of SNIa commonly use the metallicity of the host galaxy, Zhost, as an estimator of the supernova progenitor metallicity, ZIa, that is one of the primary factors affecting SNIa magnitude. Here, we present a theoretical study of the relationship between ZIa and Zhost. We follow the chemical evolution of homogeneous galaxy models together with the evolution of the supernova rates in order to evaluate the metallicity distribution function, MDF (ΔZ), i.e. the probability that the logarithm of the metallicity of an SNIa exploding now differs in less than ΔZ from that of its host. We analyse several model galaxies aimed to represent from active to passive galaxies, including dwarf galaxies prone to experience supernova-driven outflows. We analyse as well the sensitivity of the MDF to the most uncertain ingredients of our approach: initial mass function, star formation law, stellar lifetime, stellar yields and SNIa delay-time distribution (DTD). Our results show a remarkable degree of agreement between the mean ? in a galaxy and its Zhost when they both are measured as the CNO abundance, especially if the DTD peaks at small time delays, while the average Fe abundance of host and SNIa may differ up to 0.4-0.6 dex in passive galaxies. The dispersion of ZIa in active galaxy models is quite small, meaning that Zhost is quite a good estimator of the supernova metallicity. Passive galaxies present a larger dispersion, which is more pronounced in low-mass galaxies. We present a procedure to generate random SNIa metallicities, given the host metallicity. We also discuss the use of different metallicity indicators: Fe versus O and gas-phase metallicity versus stellar metallicity. Finally, the results of the application of our formalism to a galactic catalogue [VErsatile SPectral

  20. Nuclear star clusters and the stellar spheroids of their host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, Nathan; Böker, Torsten; Knigge, Christian

    2012-08-01

    We combine published photometry for the nuclear star clusters (NSCs) and stellar spheroids of 51 low-mass, early-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster with empirical mass-to-light ratios, in order to complement previous studies that explore the dependence of NSC masses on various properties of their host galaxies. We confirm a roughly linear relationship between NSC mass and luminous host spheroid mass, albeit with considerable scatter (0.57 dex). In order to translate this into an MNSC-σ relation, we estimate velocity dispersions from the virial theorem, assuming that all galaxies in our sample share a common dark matter fraction and are dynamically relaxed. We then find that MNSC ˜ σ2.73 ± 0.29, with a slightly reduced scatter of 0.54 dex. This confirms recent results that the shape of the MCMO-σ relation is different for NSCs and super-massive black holes. We discuss this result in the context of the generalized idea of 'central massive objects' (CMOs). In order to assess which physical parameters drive the observed nuclear cluster masses, we also carry out a joint multivariate power-law fit to the data. In this, we allow the nuclear cluster mass to depend on spheroid mass and radius (and hence implicitly on velocity dispersion), as well as on the size of the globular cluster reservoir. When considered together, the dependences on MSph and RSph are roughly consistent with the virial theorem, and therefore MNSC ∝ σ2. However, the only statistically significant correlation appears to be a simple linear scaling between NSC mass and luminous spheroid mass. We proceed to directly compare the derived NSC masses with predictions for two popular models for NSC formation, namely (i) globular cluster infall due to dynamical friction and (ii) in situ formation during the early phases of galaxy formation that is regulated via momentum feedback from stellar winds and/or supernovae. Neither model can directly predict the observations, and we discuss possible

  1. Black Hole Variability and The Star Formation-AGN Connection: Do All Star-forming Galaxies Host an AGN?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickox, Ryan C.

    2014-08-01

    I will present a simple picture for the observed connection between AGN activity and star formation, in the context of a model in which all star-forming galaxies host an AGN. In this picture, black hole accretion and star formation rate (SFR) are fueled by a common supply of cold gas and are closely tied when averaged over galaxy evolution timescales 100 Myr). However, instantaneous AGN luminosities vary rapidly over many orders of magnitude, as suggested by hydro simulations and AGN light echoes. I will show that this simple variability model broadly reproduces observed AGN luminosity functions, merger fractions, and the weak correlations between AGN luminosity and SFR for individual galaxies, and will present a new test of the model's predictions using Herschel observations of mid-infrared-selected quasars. Overall, these results provide evidence for a relatively straightforward co-evolution between star-forming galaxies and their central black holes.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AGN vs. host galaxy properties in COSMOS field (Lanzuisi+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzuisi, G.; Delvecchio, I.; Berta, S.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Gruppioni, C.; Marchesi, S.; Perna, M.; Pozzi, F.; Salvato, M.; Symeonidis, M.; Vignali, C.; Vito, F.; Volonteri, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2017-03-01

    Multiwavelength properties of the 692 AGN-host systems detected both in the X-ray and in the FIR (the X-FIR sample). For each galaxy are given ID from Capak et al., 2007, Cat. II/284; right ascension and declination of the optical/IR counterpart; redshift; redshift flag (s for spectroscopic or p photometric); Log(LSFIR) with 1sigma errors; Log(M*) with 1sigma errors; SFR derived from LSF; Log(NH) with 1sigma errors or upper limits; Log(LX) with 1sigma errors; Log(LBol) computed from LX using Marconi et al. (2004MNRAS.351..169M); XMM-COSMOS and Chandra-COSMOS ID. (1 data file).

  3. Revealing the AGN-Host Galaxy Connection: Preliminary Results from an Arecibo Survey of HI Absorption in AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kristen M.

    2018-01-01

    The presence of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) can have an extensive effect on a host galaxy, most notably through powerful outflows or jets that it produces. Such outflows often deposit kinetic energy into the interstellar medium of the host galaxy at sub-kpc, kpc, and 10s of kpc scales. While this can ionize the gaseous material, studies of absorption of neutral hydrogen (HI) have also detected kinematic outflows with velocities ranging from 100s to 1000s of km/s. Such outflows can be difficult to detect due to the diffuse nature of the HI gas, especially in galaxies with low radio brightnesses. The sensitivity of the Arecibo Observatory 305m, however, makes such a study feasible. We present preliminary results of a survey of AGN-dominated sources in the Arecibo sky that has revealed complex HI absorption structures in several objects, revealing complex HI absorption structures in several objects.

  4. Active Galaxy Host Properties from a New H I 21-cm Survey of the Swift BAT-detected AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Lisa M.; George, E. R.; Zauderer, B.; Darling, J.

    2013-01-01

    Many questions remain open on how central supermassive black holes and their host galaxies form and affect each other's evolution. In order to answer these questions, we need to understand the observational properties of a complete sample of active galaxies. To this end, we have been collecting and studying multi-wavelength spectroscopy of a unique sample of active galaxies selected in the very hard X-rays with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope. Here we present an analysis of the 21-cm H I spectra, which we observed with the 100-m Green Bank Telescope in 2012, for a sample of 95 Swift-detected AGN. With this complete sample, we show evidence for differences in the host cold gas mass content between obscured and unobscured AGN.

  5. SUPPRESSION OF STAR FORMATION IN THE HOSTS OF LOW-EXCITATION RADIO GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, Cameron; Salim, Samir, E-mail: cameronpace@suu.edu, E-mail: salims@indiana.edu

    2016-02-10

    The feedback from radio-loud active galactic nuclei (R-AGNs) may help maintain low star-formation (SF) rates in their early-type hosts, but the observational evidence for this mechanism has been inconclusive. We study systematic differences of aggregate spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of various subsets of ∼4000 low-redshift R-AGNs from Best and Heckman with respect to (currently) inactive control samples selected to have matching redshift, stellar mass, population age, axis ratio, and environment. Aggregate SEDs, ranging from the ultraviolet (UV) through mid-infrared (mid-IR, 22 μm), were constructed using a Bayesian method that eliminates biases from non-detections in Galaxy Evolution Explorer and Wide-field Infraredmore » Survey Explorer. We study rare high-excitation sources separately from low-excitation ones, which we split by environment and host properties. We find that both the UV and mid-IR emission of non-cluster R-AGNs (80% of sample) are suppressed by ∼0.2 dex relative to that of the control group, especially for moderately massive galaxies (log M{sub *} ≲ 11). The difference disappears for high-mass R-AGNs and for R-AGNs in clusters, where other, non-AGN quenching/maintenance mechanisms may dominate, or where the suppression of SF due to AGNs may persist between active phases of the central engine, perhaps because of the presence of a hot gaseous halo storing AGN energy. High-excitation (high accretion rate) sources, which make up 2% of the R-AGN sample, do not show any evidence of SF suppression (their UV is the same as in controls), but they exhibit a strong mid-IR excess due to AGN dust heating.« less

  6. Is Black Hole Growth a Universal Process? Exploring Selection Effects in Measurements of AGN Accretion Rates and Host Galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Mackenzie

    2018-01-01

    At the center of essentially every massive galaxy is a monstrous black hole producing luminous radiation driven by the accretion of gas. By observing these active galactic nuclei (AGN) we may trace the growth of black holes across cosmic time. However, our knowledge of the full underlying AGN population is hindered by complex observational biases. My research aims to untangle these biases by using a novel approach to simulate the impact of selection effects on multiwavelength observations.The most statistically powerful studies of AGN to date come from optical spectroscopic surveys, with some reporting a complex relationship between AGN accretion rates and host galaxy characteristics. However, the optical waveband can be strongly influenced by selection effects and dilution from host galaxy star formation. I have shown that accounting for selection effects, the Eddington ratio distribution for optically-selected AGN is consistent with a broad power-law, as seen in the X-rays (Jones et al. 2016). This suggests that a universal Eddington ratio distribution may be enough to describe the full multiwavelength AGN population.Building on these results, I have expanded a semi-numerical galaxy formation simulation to include this straightforward prescription for AGN accretion and explicitly model selection effects. I have found that a simple model for AGN accretion can broadly reproduce the host galaxies and halos of X-ray AGN, and that different AGN selection techniques yield samples with very different host galaxy properties (Jones et al. 2017). Finally, I will discuss the capabilities of this simulation to build synthetic multiwavelength SEDs in order to explore what AGN populations would be detected with the next generation of observatories. This research is supported by a NASA Jenkins Graduate Fellowship under grant no. NNX15AU32H.

  7. The host galaxy and Fermi-LAT counterpart of HESS J1943+213

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, D.; Domainko, W.; Sanchez, D. A.; van der Wel, A.; Gässler, W.

    2014-11-01

    Context. The very-high energy (VHE, E> 100 GeV) gamma-ray sky shows diverse Galactic and extragalactic source populations. For some sources the astrophysical object class could not be identified so far. Aims: The nature (Galactic or extragalactic) of the VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1943+213 is explored. We specifically investigate the proposed near-infrared counterpart 2MASS J19435624+2118233 of HESS J1943+213 and investigate the implications of a physical association. Methods: We present K-band imaging from the 3.5 m CAHA telescope of 2MASS J19435624+2118233. Furthermore, 5 years of Fermi-LAT data were analyzed to search for a high-energy (HE, 100 MeV galaxy, and thus point toward an extragalactic scenario for the VHE gamma-ray source, assuming that the near-infrared source is the counterpart of HESS J1943+213. A high-Sérsic index profile provides a better fit than an exponential profile, indicating that the surface brightness profile of 2MASS J19435624+2118233 follows that of a typical, massive elliptical galaxy more closely than that of a disk galaxy. With Fermi-LAT a HE counterpart is found with a power-law spectrum above 1 GeV, with a normalization of (3.0 ± 0.8stat ± 0.6sys) × 10-15 cm-2 s-1 MeV-1 at the decorrelation energy Edec = 15.1 GeV and a spectral index of Γ = 1.59 ± 0.19stat ± 0.13sys. This gamma-ray spectrum shows a rather sharp break between the HE and VHE regimes of ΔΓ = 1.47 ± 0.36. Conclusions: The infrared and HE data strongly favor an extragalactic origin of HESS J1943+213, where the infrared counterpart traces the host galaxy of an extreme blazar and where the rather sharp spectral break between the HE and VHE regime indicates attenuation on extragalactic background light. The

  8. Infrared and Optical Observations of GRB 030115 and its Extremely Red Host Galaxy: Implications for Dark Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levan, Andrew; Fruchter, Andrew; Rhoads, James; Mobasher, Bahram; Tanvir, Nial; Gorosabel, Javier; Rol, Evert; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; DellAntonio, Ian; Merrill, Javier

    2004-01-01

    We present near-infrared (a) and optical observations of the afterglow of GRB 030115. Discovered in an infrared search at Kitt Peak 5 hours after the burst trigger, this afterglow is the faintest ever observed in the R-band at such an early epoch, and exhibits very red colors, with R-K approximately equal to 6. The magnitude of the optical afterglow of GRB 030115 is fainter than many upper limits for other bursts, suggesting that without early nIR observations it would have been classified as a "dark" burst. Both the color and optical magnitude of the afterglow are likely due to dust extinction and indicate that at least some optical afterglows are observations were also taken of the host galaxy and the surrounding field. Photometric redshifts imply that the host, and a substantial number of faint galaxies in the field are at z approximately 2.5. The overdensity of galaxies is sufficiently great that GRB 030115 may have occurred in a rich high-redshift cluster. The host galaxy shows extremely red colors (R-K=5) and is the first GRB host to be classified as an Extreme Red Object (ERO). Some of the galaxies surrounding the host also show very red colors, while the majority of the cluster are much bluer, indicating ongoing unobscured star formation. As it is thought that much of high redshift star formation occurs in highly obscured environments it may well be that GRB 030115 represents a transition object, between the relatively unobscured afterglows seen to date and a population which are very heavily extinguished, even in the nIR.

  9. A glimpse at quasar host galaxy far-UV emission using damped Lyα's as natural coronagraphs

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Zheng; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Ran

    2014-10-01

    In merger-driven models of massive galaxy evolution, the luminous quasar phase is expected to be accompanied by vigorous star formation in quasar host galaxies. In this paper, we use high column density damped Lyα (DLA) systems along quasar sight lines as natural coronagraphs to directly study the far-UV (FUV) radiation from the host galaxies of luminous background quasars. We have stacked the spectra of ∼2000 DLA systems (N {sub H} {sub I} > 10{sup 20.6} cm{sup –2}) with a median absorption redshift (z) = 2.6 selected from quasars observed in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We detect residual fluxmore » in the dark troughs of the composite DLA spectra. The level of this residual flux significantly exceeds systematic errors in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey fiber sky subtraction; furthermore, the residual flux is strongly correlated with the continuum luminosity of the background quasar, while uncorrelated with DLA column density or metallicity. We conclude that the flux could be associated with the average FUV radiation from the background quasar host galaxies (with medium redshift (z) = 3.1) that is not blocked by the intervening DLA. Assuming that all of the detected flux originates from quasar hosts, for the highest quasar luminosity bin ((L) = 2.5 × 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉}), the host galaxy has an FUV intensity of 1.5 ± 0.2 × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1} Å{sup –1}; this corresponds to an unobscured UV star formation rate of 9 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}.« less

  10. A Glimpse at Quasar Host Galaxy Far-UV Emission, Using Damped Lyα's as Natural Coronagraphs

    DOE PAGES

    Cai, Zheng; Fan, Xiaohui; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; ...

    2014-09-16

    In merger-driven models of massive galaxy evolution, the luminous quasar phase is expected to be accompanied by vigorous star formation in quasar host galaxies. In this paper, we use high column density damped Lyα (DLA) systems along quasar sight lines as natural coronagraphs to directly study the far-UV (FUV) radiation from the host galaxies of luminous background quasars. Here, we have stacked the spectra of ~2000 DLA systems (N HI > 10 20.6cm –2) with a median absorption redshiftmore » $$\\langle$$z$$\\rangle$$ = 2.6 selected from quasars observed in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We detect residual flux in the dark troughs of the composite DLA spectra. The level of this residual flux significantly exceeds systematic errors in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey fiber sky subtraction; furthermore, the residual flux is strongly correlated with the continuum luminosity of the background quasar, while uncorrelated with DLA column density or metallicity. We conclude that the flux could be associated with the average FUV radiation from the background quasar host galaxies (with medium redshift $$\\langle$$z$$\\rangle$$ = 3.1) that is not blocked by the intervening DLA. Finally, assuming that all of the detected flux originates from quasar hosts, for the highest quasar luminosity bin ($$\\langle$$L$$\\rangle$$ = 2.5 × 10 13 L ⊙), the host galaxy has an FUV intensity of 1.5 ± 0.2 × 10 40 erg s –1 Å –1; this corresponds to an unobscured UV star formation rate of 9 M ⊙ yr –1.« less

  11. Supermassive black holes in disc-dominated galaxies outgrow their bulges and co-evolve with their host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, B. D.; Smethurst, R. J.; Lintott, C.

    2017-09-01

    The deep connection between galaxies and their supermassive black holes is central to modern astrophysics and cosmology. The observed correlation between galaxy and black hole mass is usually attributed to the contribution of major mergers to both. We make use of a sample of galaxies whose disc-dominated morphologies indicate a major-merger-free history and show that such systems are capable of growing supermassive black holes at rates similar to quasars. Comparing black hole masses to conservative upper limits on bulge masses, we show that the black holes in the sample are typically larger than expected if processes creating bulges are also the primary driver of black hole growth. The same relation between black hole and total stellar mass of the galaxy is found for the merger-free sample as well as a sample that has experienced substantial mergers, indicating that major mergers do not play a significant role in controlling the co-evolution of galaxies and black holes. We suggest that more fundamental processes that contribute to galaxy assembly are also responsible for black hole growth.

  12. SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY: AN ANALYSIS OF THE LARGEST SAMPLE OF TYPE IA SUPERNOVAE AND CORRELATIONS WITH HOST-GALAXY SPECTRAL PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Rachel C.; Gupta, Ravi R.; Sako, Masao

    2016-04-20

    Using the largest single-survey sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to date, we study the relationship between properties of SNe Ia and those of their host galaxies, focusing primarily on correlations with Hubble residuals (HRs). Our sample consists of 345 photometrically classified or spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia discovered as part of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey (SDSS-SNS). This analysis utilizes host-galaxy spectroscopy obtained during the SDSS-I/II spectroscopic survey and from an ancillary program on the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey that obtained spectra for nearly all host galaxies of SDSS-II SN candidates. In addition, we use photometric host-galaxy properties frommore » the SDSS-SNS data release such as host stellar mass and star formation rate. We confirm the well-known relation between HR and host-galaxy mass and find a 3.6 σ significance of a nonzero linear slope. We also recover correlations between HR and host-galaxy gas-phase metallicity and specific star formation rate as they are reported in the literature. With our large data set, we examine correlations between HR and multiple host-galaxy properties simultaneously and find no evidence of a significant correlation. We also independently analyze our spectroscopically confirmed and photometrically classified SNe Ia and comment on the significance of similar combined data sets for future surveys.« less

  13. Type II Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. V. Imaging Host Galaxies with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakamska, Nadia L.; Strauss, Michael A.; Krolik, Julian H.; Ridgway, Susan E.; Schmidt, Gary D.; Smith, Paul S.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Schneider, Donald P.; Hao, Lei; Brinkmann, J.

    2006-10-01

    Type II quasars are luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) whose centers are obscured by large amounts of gas and dust. In this paper we present three-band Hubble Space Telescope images of nine type II quasars with redshifts 0.2MB>-26, but optical obscuration allows their host galaxies to be studied unencumbered by bright nuclei. Each object has been imaged in three continuum filters (``UV,'' ``blue,'' and ``yellow'') placed between the strong emission lines. The spectacular, high-quality images reveal a wealth of details about the structure of the host galaxies and their environments. Six of the nine galaxies in the sample are elliptical galaxies with de Vaucouleurs light profiles, one object has a well-defined disk component, and the remaining two have marginal disks. Stellar populations of type II quasar hosts are more luminous (by a median of 0.3-0.7 mag, depending on the wavelength) and bluer (by about 0.4 mag) than are M* galaxies at the same redshift. When smooth fits to stellar light are subtracted from the images, we find both positive and negative residuals that become more prominent toward shorter wavelengths. We argue that the negative residuals are due to kiloparsec-scale dust obscuration, while most positive residuals are due to the light from the nucleus scattered off interstellar material in the host galaxy. Scattered light makes a significant contribution to the broadband continuum emission and can be the dominant component of the extended emission in the UV in extreme cases. This paper is dedicated to the memory of John Norris Bahcall, a pioneer in the study of quasar host galaxies. The observations reported here were obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and at the MMT Observatory, a facility operated jointly by the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona. Public

  14. A NEARBY GAMMA-RAY BURST HOST PROTOTYPE FOR z {approx} 7 LYMAN-BREAK GALAXIES: SPITZER-IRS AND X-SHOOTER SPECTROSCOPY OF THE HOST GALAXY OF GRB 031203

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, D.; French, J.; Hjorth, J.

    2011-11-01

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies have been studied extensively in optical photometry and spectroscopy. Here we present the first mid-infrared spectrum of a GRB host, HG 031203. It is one of the nearest GRB hosts at z = 0.1055, allowing both low- and high-resolution spectroscopy with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). Medium-resolution UV to K-band spectroscopy with the X-shooter spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope is also presented, along with Spitzer IRAC and MIPS photometry, as well as radio and submillimeter observations. These data allow us to construct a UV to radio spectral energy distribution with almost complete spectroscopic coveragemore » from 0.3 to 35 {mu}m of a GRB host galaxy for the first time, potentially valuable as a template for future model comparisons. The IRS spectra show strong, high-ionization fine structure line emission indicative of a hard radiation field in the galaxy-in particular the [S IV]/[S III] and [Ne III]/[Ne II] ratios-suggestive of strong ongoing star formation and a very young stellar population. The absence of any polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission supports these conclusions, as does the probable hot peak dust temperature, making HG 031203 similar to the prototypical blue compact dwarf galaxy (BCD), II Zw 40. The selection of HG 031203 via the presence of a GRB suggests that it might be a useful analog of very young star-forming galaxies in the early universe, and hints that local BCDs may be used as more reliable analogs of star formation in the early universe than typical local starbursts. We look at the current debate on the ages of the dominant stellar populations in z {approx} 7 and z {approx} 8 galaxies in this context. The nebular line emission is so strong in HG 031203 that at z {approx} 7, it can reproduce the spectral energy distributions of z-band dropout galaxies with elevated IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m fluxes without the need to invoke a 4000 A break. Indeed, photometry of HG 031203 shows

  15. Gamma-ray burst afterglows as probes of their host galaxies and the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchiara, Antonino

    2010-12-01

    Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) represent the sole class of catastrophic phenomena seen over almost the entire history of the Universe. Their extreme luminosities in high energy gamma-ray radiation make them readily detectable, even with relatively small satellite-based detectors, out to the earliest cosmic epochs. Moreover, the brilliance of their fading afterglow light, routinely observed in X-ray, optical, near-infrared, and radio wavelengths, allows them to be exploited -- for hours, days, or weeks -- as cosmic lighthouses, probing the conditions of gas and dust along the line of sight, through their host galaxies and the cosmos at large. Since the November 2004 launch of Swift, this GRB-focused NASA mission has discovered more than 500 GRBs, in almost all cases reporting the burst coordinates to ground-based observers within seconds of the event. The availability of prompt burst positions from Swift, combined with promptly-reported flux measurements from instruments on Swift and an array of ground-based robotic telescopes, have enabled targeted spectroscopic campaigns that have gathered detailed observations of the young, bright afterglows of hundreds of these events. This thesis reports the results of my own efforts over the past 5 years, analyzing imaging and spectroscopic observations of Swift-detected GRBs as triggered according to my own requests, or as gathered from public data archives. In Chapter 2, I discuss our follow-up campaign for GRB090429B, one of our best "extreme redshift" (z > 8) candidates. This burst followed closely on the spectroscopicallyconfirmed z = 8.2 GRB090423, and our multiwavelength observations and SED modeling demonstrate the value and limitation of such studies, in cases where a spectroscopic redshift cannot be gathered in a timely fashion. I also address the importance of such extreme-redshift events from a cosmological perspective. In Chapter 3, I use high-resolution GRB afterglow spectra to study the properties of intervening

  16. Spatially Resolved Patchy Lyα Emission within the Central Kiloparsec of a Strongly Lensed Quasar Host Galaxy at z = 2.8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Sharon, Keren; Acharyya, Ayan; Gladders, Michael D.; Rigby, Jane R.; Bian, Fuyan; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Runnoe, Jessie; Dahle, Hakon; Kewley, Lisa; Florian, Michael; Johnson, Traci; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel

    2017-08-01

    We report the detection of extended Lyα emission from the host galaxy of SDSS J2222+2745, a strongly lensed quasar at z = 2.8. Spectroscopic follow-up clearly reveals extended Lyα in emission between two images of the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). We reconstruct the lensed quasar host galaxy in the source plane by applying a strong lens model to HST imaging and resolve spatial scales as small as ˜200 pc. In the source plane, we recover the host galaxy morphology to within a few hundred parsecs of the central AGN and map the extended Lyα emission to its physical origin on one side of the host galaxy at radii ˜0.5-2 kpc from the central AGN. There are clear morphological differences between the Lyα and rest-frame ultraviolet stellar continuum emission from the quasar host galaxy. Furthermore, the relative velocity profiles of quasar Lyα, host galaxy Lyα, and metal lines in outflowing gas reveal differences in the absorbing material affecting the AGN and host galaxy. These data indicate the presence of patchy local intervening gas in front of the central quasar and its host galaxy. This interpretation is consistent with the central luminous quasar being obscured across a substantial fraction of its surrounding solid angle, resulting in strong anisotropy in the exposure of the host galaxy to ionizing radiation from the AGN. This work demonstrates the power of strong-lensing-assisted studies to probe spatial scales that are currently inaccessible by other means.

  17. Spatially Resolved Patchy Ly α Emission within the Central Kiloparsec of a Strongly Lensed Quasar Host Galaxy at z = 2.8

    SciTech Connect

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Sharon, Keren

    2017-08-20

    We report the detection of extended Ly α emission from the host galaxy of SDSS J2222+2745, a strongly lensed quasar at z = 2.8. Spectroscopic follow-up clearly reveals extended Ly α in emission between two images of the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). We reconstruct the lensed quasar host galaxy in the source plane by applying a strong lens model to HST imaging and resolve spatial scales as small as ∼200 pc. In the source plane, we recover the host galaxy morphology to within a few hundred parsecs of the central AGN and map the extended Ly α emission tomore » its physical origin on one side of the host galaxy at radii ∼0.5–2 kpc from the central AGN. There are clear morphological differences between the Ly α and rest-frame ultraviolet stellar continuum emission from the quasar host galaxy. Furthermore, the relative velocity profiles of quasar Ly α , host galaxy Ly α , and metal lines in outflowing gas reveal differences in the absorbing material affecting the AGN and host galaxy. These data indicate the presence of patchy local intervening gas in front of the central quasar and its host galaxy. This interpretation is consistent with the central luminous quasar being obscured across a substantial fraction of its surrounding solid angle, resulting in strong anisotropy in the exposure of the host galaxy to ionizing radiation from the AGN. This work demonstrates the power of strong-lensing-assisted studies to probe spatial scales that are currently inaccessible by other means.« less

  18. Galactic-scale Feedback Observed in the 3C 298 Quasar Host Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vayner, Andrey; Wright, Shelley A.; Murray, Norman; Armus, Lee; Larkin, James E.; Mieda, Etsuko

    2017-12-01

    We present high angular resolution multiwavelength data of the 3C 298 radio-loud quasar host galaxy (z = 1.439) taken using the W.M. Keck Observatory OSIRIS integral field spectrograph (IFS) with adaptive optics, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFC3, and the Very Large Array (VLA). Extended emission is detected in the rest-frame optical nebular emission lines Hβ, [O III], Hα, [N II], and [S II], as well as in the molecular lines CO (J = 3‑2) and (J = 5‑4). Along the path of the relativistic jets of 3C 298, we detect conical outflows in ionized gas emission with velocities of up to 1700 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and an outflow rate of 450–1500 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1 extended over 12 kpc. Near the spatial center of the conical outflow, CO (J = 3‑2) emission shows a molecular gas disk with a rotational velocity of ±150 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and total molecular mass ({M}{{{H}}2}) of 6.6+/- 0.36× {10}9 {M}ȯ . On the blueshifted side of the molecular disk, we observe broad extended emission that is due to a molecular outflow with a rate of 2300 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1 and depletion timescale of 3 Myr. We detect no narrow Hα emission in the outflow regions, suggesting a limit on star formation of 0.3 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1 {{kpc}}-2. Quasar-driven winds are evacuating the molecular gas reservoir, thereby directly impacting star formation in the host galaxy. The observed mass of the supermassive black hole is {10}9.37{--9.56} {M}ȯ , and we determine a dynamical bulge mass of {M}{bulge}=1{--}1.7× {10}10\\tfrac{R}{1.6 {kpc}} {M}ȯ . The bulge mass of 3C 298 lies 2–2.5 orders of magnitude below the expected value from the local galactic bulge—supermassive black hole mass ({M}{bulge}{--}{M}{BH}) relationship. A second galactic disk observed in nebular emission is offset from the quasar by 9 kpc, suggesting that the system is an intermediate-stage merger. These results show that galactic-scale negative feedback is occurring early in the merger

  19. THE HOST GALAXY OF THE SUPER-LUMINOUS SN 2010gx AND LIMITS ON EXPLOSIVE {sup 56}Ni PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ting-Wan; Smartt, Stephen J.; Kotak, Rubina

    2013-02-01

    Super-luminous supernovae have a tendency to occur in faint host galaxies which are likely to have low mass and low metallicity. While these extremely luminous explosions have been observed from z = 0.1 to 1.55, the closest explosions allow more detailed investigations of their host galaxies. We present a detailed analysis of the host galaxy of SN 2010gx (z = 0.23), one of the best studied super-luminous type Ic supernovae. The host is a dwarf galaxy (M{sub g} = -17.42 {+-} 0.17) with a high specific star formation rate. It has a remarkably low metallicity of 12 + log (O/H)more » = 7.5 {+-} 0.1 dex as determined from the detection of the [O III] {lambda}4363 line. This is the first reliable metallicity determination of a super-luminous stripped-envelope supernova host. We collected deep multi-epoch imaging with Gemini + GMOS between 240 and 560 days after explosion to search for any sign of radioactive {sup 56}Ni, which might provide further insights on the explosion mechanism and the progenitor's nature. We reach griz magnitudes of m{sub AB} {approx} 26, but do not detect SN 2010gx at these epochs. The limit implies that any {sup 56}Ni production was similar to or below that of SN 1998bw (a luminous type Ic SN that produced around 0.4 M{sub Sun} of {sup 56}Ni). The low volumetric rates of these supernovae ({approx}10{sup -4} of the core-collapse population) could be qualitatively matched if the explosion mechanism requires a combination of low-metallicity (below 0.2 Z{sub Sun }), high progenitor mass (>60 M{sub Sun }) and high rotation rate (fastest 10% of rotators).« less

  20. Some Results From a Study on the Effect of Host Galaxy Dust Extinction on the Colors of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cikota, Aleksandar; Deustua, S.; Gordon, K.

    2011-01-01

    We present some results from a study to examine the effect of host galaxy dust extinction on the observed properties of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) is a comprehensive infrared survey of 75 nearby galaxies (Kennicutt et al. 2003) that have good estimates of their dust masses (Draine et al. 2007). Twelve SNe Ia have been observed in a subset of the sample, and therefore provide a good laboratory to test, and bound, the uncertainties in observed SNe Ia colors. Using the SINGS data, Draine's standard dust model, and SNe Ia template spectra (Hsiao et al. 2007), we compared the historical SNe Ia to the computed model spectra. We will discuss our results for these SNe. Aleksandar Cikota was a participant in the the STScI Summer Student Program and supported by the STScI Director's Discretionary Research Fund.

  1. Heavily Obscured AGN: An Ideal Laboratory To Study The Early Co-Evolution of Galaxies And Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Circosta, Chiara; Vignali, C.; Gilli, R.; Feltre, A.; Vito, F.

    2016-10-01

    Obscured AGN are a crucial ingredient to understand the full growth history of super massive black holes and the coevolution with their host galaxies, since they constitute the bulk of the BH accretion. In the distant Universe, many of them are hosted by submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), characterized by a high production of stars and a very fast consumption of gas. Therefore, the analysis of this class of objects is fundamental to investigate the role of the ISM in the early coevolution of galaxies and black holesWe collected a sample of six obscured X-ray selected AGN at z>2.5 in the CDF-S, detected in the far-IR/submm bands. We performed a multiwavelength analysis in order to characterize their physical properties, as well as those of their host galaxies (e.g. column density, accretion luminosity, stellar mass, SFR, dust and gas mass). I will present the results of the X-ray spectral analysis of these sources based on the 7Ms Chandra data - the deepest X-ray observation ever carried out on any field - along with their broad-band spectral energy distributions (SEDs), built up using the public UV to far-IR photometry from the CANDELS and Herschel catalogs. By comparing the column density associated with the ISM (estimated measuring the size of the system) with that obtained from the X-ray data, it is possible to understand whether the ISM in the host galaxy may be able to produce a substantial part of the observed nuclear obscuration.

  2. The host galaxy of the γ-ray-emitting narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy PKS 1502+036

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ammando, F.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Capetti, A.; Baldi, R. D.; Orienti, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Ramos Almeida, C.

    2018-04-01

    The detection of γ-ray emission from narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLSy1) has challenged the idea that large black hole (BH) masses (≥108 M⊙) are needed to launch relativistic jets. We present near-infrared imaging data of the γ-ray-emitting NLSy1 PKS 1502+036 obtained with the Very Large Telescope. Its surface brightness profile, extending to ˜ 20 kpc, is well described by the combination of a nuclear component and a bulge with a Sérsic index n = 3.5, which is indicative of an elliptical galaxy. A circumnuclear structure observed near PKS 1502+036 may be the result of galaxy interactions. A BH mass of ˜7 × 108 M⊙ has been estimated by the bulge luminosity. The presence of an additional faint disc component cannot be ruled out with the present data, but this would reduce the BH mass estimate by only ˜ 30%. These results, together with analogous findings obtained for FBQS J1644+2619, indicate that the relativistic jets in γ-ray-emitting NLSy1 are likely produced by massive black holes at the center of elliptical galaxies.

  3. The effects of host galaxy properties on merging compact binaries detectable by LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shaughnessy, R.; Bellovary, J. M.; Brooks, A.; Shen, S.; Governato, F.; Christensen, C. R.

    2017-01-01

    Cosmological simulations of galaxy formation can produce present-day galaxies with a large range of assembly and star formation histories. A detailed study of the metallicity evolution and star formation history of such simulations can assist in predicting Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)-detectable compact object binary mergers. Recent simulations of compact binary evolution suggest that the compact object merger rate depends sensitively on the progenitor's metallicity. Rare low-metallicity star formation during galaxy assembly can produce more detected compact binaries than typical star formation. Using detailed simulations of galaxy and chemical evolution, we determine how sensitively the compact binary populations of galaxies with a similar present-day appearance depend on the details of their assembly. We also demonstrate by concrete example the extent to which dwarf galaxies overabundantly produce compact binary mergers, particularly binary black holes, relative to more massive galaxies. We discuss the implications for transient multimessenger astronomy with compact binary sources.

  4. Distance and Properties of NGC 4993 as the Host Galaxy of the Gravitational-wave Source GW170817

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Myungshin; Yoon, Yongmin; Lee, Seong-Kook J.; Lee, Hyung Mok; Kim, Joonho; Lee, Chung-Uk; Kim, Seung-Lee; Troja, Eleonora; Choi, Changsu; Lim, Gu; Ko, Jongwan; Shim, Hyunjin

    2017-11-01

    Recently, the optical counterpart of the gravitational-wave source GW170817 has been identified in the NGC 4993 galaxy. Together with evidence from observations in electromagnetic waves, the event has been suggested as a result of a merger of two neutron stars (NSs). We analyze the multi-wavelength data to characterize the host galaxy property and its distance to examine if the properties of NGC 4993 are consistent with this picture. Our analysis shows that NGC 4993 is a bulge-dominated galaxy with {r}{eff}˜ 2{--}3 {kpc} and a Sérsic index of n=3{--}4 for the bulge component. The spectral energy distribution from 0.15 to 24 μm indicates that this galaxy has no significant ongoing star formation, a mean stellar mass of (0.3{--}1.2)× {10}11 {M}⊙ , a mean stellar age greater than ˜3 Gyr, and a metallicity of about 20%-100% of solar abundance. Optical images reveal dust lanes and extended features that suggest a past merging activity. Overall, NGC 4993 has characteristics of normal, but slightly disturbed elliptical galaxies. Furthermore, we derive the distance to NGC 4993 with the fundamental plane relation using 17 parameter sets of 7 different filters and the central stellar velocity dispersion from the literature, finding an angular diameter distance of 37.7 ± 8.7 Mpc. NGC 4993 is similar to some host galaxies of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) but much different from those of long GRBs, supporting the picture of GW170817 as a result of the merger of two NSs.

  5. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Gas Fuelling of Spiral Galaxies in the Local Universe II. - Direct Measurement of the Dependencies on Redshift and Host Halo Mass of Stellar Mass Growth in Central Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grootes, M. W.; Dvornik, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Tuffs, R. J.; Popescu, C. C.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Liske, J.; Brown, M. J. I.; Holwerda, B. W.; Wang, L.

    2018-03-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the specific star formation rate - stellar mass (sSFR - M*) of z ≤ 0.13 disk central galaxies using a morphologically selected mass-complete sample (M* ≥ 109.5M⊙). Considering samples of grouped and ungrouped galaxies, we find the sSFR - M* relations of disk-dominated central galaxies to have no detectable dependence on host dark-matter halo (DMH) mass, even where weak-lensing measurements indicate a difference in halo mass of a factor ≳ 5. We further detect a gradual evolution of the sSFR - M* relation of non-grouped (field) central disk galaxies with redshift, even over a Δz ≈ 0.04 (≈5 . 108yr) interval, while the scatter remains constant. This evolution is consistent with extrapolation of the "main-sequence-of-star-forming-galaxies" from previous literature that uses larger redshift baselines and coarser sampling. Taken together, our results present new constraints on the paradigm under which the SFR of galaxies is determined by a self-regulated balance between gas inflows and outflows, and consumption of gas by star-formation in disks, with the inflow being determined by the product of the cosmological accretion rate and a fuelling-efficiency - \\dot{M}_{b,halo}ζ. In particular, maintaining the paradigm requires \\dot{M}_{b,halo}ζ to be independent of the mass Mhalo of the host DMH. Furthermore, it requires the fuelling-efficiency ζ to have a strong redshift dependence (∝(1 + z)2.7 for M* = 1010.3M⊙ over z = 0 - 0.13), even though no morphological transformation to spheroids can be invoked to explain this in our disk-dominated sample. The physical mechanisms capable of giving rise to such dependencies of ζ on Mhalo and z for disks are unclear.

  6. The evolution of superluminous supernova LSQ14mo and its interacting host galaxy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T.-W.; Nicholl, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Mazzali, P. A.; Yates, R. M.; Moriya, T. J.; Inserra, C.; Langer, N.; Krühler, T.; Pan, Y.-C.; Kotak, R.; Galbany, L.; Schady, P.; Wiseman, P.; Greiner, J.; Schulze, S.; Man, A. W. S.; Jerkstrand, A.; Smith, K. W.; Dennefeld, M.; Baltay, C.; Bolmer, J.; Kankare, E.; Knust, F.; Maguire, K.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rostami, S.; Sullivan, M.; Young, D. R.

    2017-06-01

    We present and analyse an extensive dataset of the superluminous supernova (SLSN) LSQ14mo (z = 0.256), consisting of a multi-colour light curve from -30 d to +70 d in the rest-frame (relative to maximum light) and a series of six spectra from PESSTO covering -7 d to +50 d. This is among the densest spectroscopic coverage, and best-constrained rising light curve, for a fast-declining hydrogen-poor SLSN. The bolometric light curve can be reproduced with a millisecond magnetar model with 4 M⊙ ejecta mass, and the temperature and velocity evolution is also suggestive of a magnetar as the power source. Spectral modelling indicates that the SN ejected 6 M⊙ of CO-rich material with a kinetic energy of 7 × 1051 erg, and suggests a partially thermalised additional source of luminosity between -2 d and +22 d. This may be due to interaction with a shell of material originating from pre-explosion mass loss. We further present a detailed analysis of the host galaxy system of LSQ14mo. PESSTO and GROND imaging show three spatially resolved bright regions, and we used the VLT and FORS2 to obtain a deep (five-hour exposure) spectra of the SN position and the three star-forming regions, which are at a similar redshift. The FORS2 spectrum at + 300 days shows no trace of SN emission lines and we place limits on the strength of [O I] from comparisons with other Ic supernovae. The deep spectra provides a unique chance to investigate spatial variations in the host star-formation activity and metallicity. The specific star-formation rate is similar in all three components,as is the presence of a young stellar population. However, the position of LSQ14mo exhibits a lower metallicity, with 12 + log (O/H) = 8.2 in both the R23 and N2 scales (corresponding to 0.3 Z⊙ ). We propose that the three bright regions in the host system are interacting, which could induce gas flows triggering star formation in low-metallicity regions. Based on observations at ESO, Program IDs: 191.D-0935, 094.D

  7. The Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey: Clustering of X-Ray-selected AGNs at 2.9 ≤ z ≤ 5.5 Using Photometric Redshift Probability Distribution Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allevato, V.; Civano, F.; Finoguenov, A.; Marchesi, S.; Shankar, F.; Zamorani, G.; Hasinger, G.; Salvato, M.; Miyaji, T.; Gilli, R.; Cappelluti, N.; Brusa, M.; Suh, H.; Lanzuisi, G.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Griffiths, R.; Vignali, C.; Schawinski, K.; Karim, A.

    2016-11-01

    We present the measurement of the projected and redshift-space two-point correlation function (2pcf) of the new catalog of Chandra COSMOS-Legacy active galactic nucleus (AGN) at 2.9 ≤ z ≤ 5.5 (< {L}{bol}> ˜ 1046 erg s-1) using the generalized clustering estimator based on phot-z probability distribution functions in addition to any available spec-z. We model the projected 2pcf, estimated using π max = 200 h-1 Mpc with the two-halo term and we derive a bias at z ˜ 3.4 equal to b = {6.6}-0.55+0.60, which corresponds to a typical mass of the hosting halos of log M h = {12.83}-0.11+0.12 h-1 M ⊙. A similar bias is derived using the redshift-space 2pcf, modeled including the typical phot-z error σ z = 0.052 of our sample at z ≥ 2.9. Once we integrate the projected 2pcf up to π max = 200 h-1 Mpc, the bias of XMM and Chandra COSMOS at z = 2.8 used in Allevato et al. is consistent with our results at higher redshifts. The results suggest only a slight increase of the bias factor of COSMOS AGNs at z ≳ 3 with the typical hosting halo mass of moderate-luminosity AGNs almost constant with redshift and equal to log M h = {12.92}-0.18+0.13 at z = 2.8 and log M h = {12.83}-0.11+0.12 at z ˜ 3.4, respectively. The observed redshift evolution of the bias of COSMOS AGNs implies that moderate-luminosity AGNs still inhabit group-sized halos at z ≳ 3, but slightly less massive than observed in different independent studies using X-ray AGNs at z ≤ 2.

  8. An Unusual Radio Galaxy in Abell 428: A Large, Powerful FR I Source in a Disk-dominated Host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledlow, Michael J.; Owen, Frazer N.; Keel, William C.

    1998-03-01

    We report the discovery of a powerful (~1024 h-275WHz-1 at 20 cm) FR I radio source in a highly flattened disk-dominated galaxy. Half the radio flux from this source is concentrated within the host galaxy, with the remainder in a pair of nearly symmetrical lobes of total extent ~200 kpc nearly perpendicular to the disk. Traditional wisdom maintains that powerful, extended radio sources are found only in ellipticals or recent merger events. We report B, R, J, and K imaging, optical spectroscopy, a rotation curve, an IRAS detection, and a VLA 20 cm image for this galaxy, 0313-192. The optical and near-infrared images clearly show a disk. We detect apparent spiral arms in a deep B-band exposure, and a dust lane from a higher resolution B-band image. The reddened nucleus is consistent with extinction by a similar dust lane. The optical spectrum suggests a central AGN and shows some evidence of a starburst, with both the AGN and central starlight appearing substantially reddened (perhaps by the optical dust lane). From analysis of the extended line emission in [O III] and Hα, we derive a rotation curve consistent with an early-type, dusty spiral seen edge-on. From the IRAS detection at 60 and 100 μm, we find that the ratio of far-infrared to radio flux places this object firmly as a radio galaxy (i.e., the radio emission is not powered by star formation). The radio structure suggests that the radio source in this galaxy is related to the same physical mechanisms that are present in jet-fed powerful radio sources, and that such powerful, extended sources can (albeit extremely rarely) occur in a disk-dominated host.

  9. Imaging of SDSS z > 6 Quasar Fields: Gravitational Lensing, Companion Galaxies, and the Host Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willott, Chris J.; Percival, Will J.; McLure, Ross J.; Crampton, David; Hutchings, John B.; Jarvis, Matt J.; Sawicki, Marcin; Simard, Luc

    2005-06-01

    We have undertaken deep optical imaging observations of three 6.2galaxies that are gravitationally lensing the quasars and distant galaxies physically associated with the quasars. Foreground galaxies are found closer than 5" to the lines of sight of two of the three quasars. However, the faintness of these galaxies suggests that they have fairly low masses and provide only weak magnifications (μ<~1.1). No convincing galaxies physically associated with the quasars are found, and the number of i'-band dropouts is consistent with that found in random fields. We consider the expected dark matter halo masses that host these quasars under the assumption that a correlation between black hole mass and dark matter halo mass exists. We show that the steepness of the high-mass tail of the halo mass function at this redshift, combined with realistic amounts of scatter in this correlation, leads to expected halo masses substantially lower than previously believed. This analysis can explain the lack of companion galaxies found here and the low dynamical mass recently published for one of the quasars. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF) on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the NSF (United States), the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), CNPq (Brazil), and CONICET (Argentina).

  10. Kinematics of the SN Refsdal host revealed by MUSE: a regularly rotating spiral galaxy at z ≃ 1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Teodoro, E. M.; Grillo, C.; Fraternali, F.; Gobat, R.; Karman, W.; Mercurio, A.; Rosati, P.; Balestra, I.; Caminha, G. B.; Caputi, K. I.; Lombardi, M.; Suyu, S. H.; Treu, T.; Vanzella, E.

    2018-05-01

    We use Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) observations of the galaxy cluster MACS J1149.5+2223 to explore the kinematics of the grand-design spiral galaxy (Sp1149) hosting the supernova `Refsdal'. Sp1149 lies at z ≃ 1.49, has a stellar mass M* ≃ 5 × 109 M⊙, has a star formation rate (SFR) ˜eq 1-6 M_{⊙} yr^{-1}, and represents a likely progenitor of a Milky Way-like galaxy. All the four multiple images of Sp1149 in our data show strong [O II}-line emissions pointing to a clear rotation pattern. We take advantage of the gravitational lensing magnification effect (≃4×) on the [O II} emission of the least distorted image to fit three-dimensional kinematic models to the MUSE data cube and derive the rotation curve and the velocity dispersion profile of Sp1149. We find that the rotation curve steeply rises, peaks at R ≃ 1 kpc, and then (initially) declines and flattens to an average {V_flat}= 128^{+29}_{-19} km s-1. The shape of the rotation curve is well determined, but the actual value of Vflat is quite uncertain because of the nearly face-on configuration of the galaxy. The intrinsic velocity dispersion due to gas turbulence is almost constant across the entire disc with an average of 27 ± 5 km s-1. This value is consistent with z = 0 measurements in the ionized gas component and a factor of 2-4 lower than other estimates in different galaxies at similar redshifts. The average stellar-to-total mass fraction is of the order of one-fifth. Our kinematic analysis returns the picture of a regular star-forming, mildly turbulent, rotation-dominated (V/σ ≃ 5) spiral galaxy in a 4-Gyr-old Universe.

  11. Progenitor mass constraints for core-collapse supernovae from correlations with host galaxy star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. P.; Habergham, S. M.; James, P. A.; Hamuy, M.

    2012-08-01

    Using Hα emission as a tracer of ongoing (<16 Myr old) and near-ultraviolet (UV) emission as a tracer of recent (16-100 Myr old) star formation, we present constraints on the properties of core-collapse (CC) supernova (SN) progenitors through the association of their explosion sites with star-forming regions. Amalgamating previous results with those gained from new data, we present statistics of a large sample of SNe; 163.5 Type II (58 IIP, 13 IIL, 13.5 IIb, 19 IIn and 12 'impostors', plus 48 with no sub-type classification) and 96.5 Type Ib/c (39.5 Ib and 52 Ic, plus five with no sub-type classification). Using pixel statistics we build distributions of associations of different SN types with host galaxy star formation. Our main findings and conclusions are as follows. An increasing progenitor mass sequence is observed, implied from an increasing association of SNe to host galaxy Hα emission. This commences with the Type Ia showing the weakest association, followed by the Type II, then the Ib, with the Type Ic showing the strongest correlation to star-forming regions. Thus, our progenitor mass sequence runs Ia-II-Ib-Ic. Overall, the Type Ibc SNe are found to occur nearer to bright H II regions than SNe of Type II. This implies that the former have shorter stellar lifetimes, thus arising from more massive progenitor stars. While Type IIP SNe do not closely follow the ongoing star formation, they accurately trace the recent formation. This implies that their progenitors arise from stars at the low end of the CC SN mass sequence, consistent with direct detections of progenitors in pre-explosion imaging. Similarly, the Type IIn SNe trace recent but not the ongoing star formation. This implies that, contrary to the general consensus, the majority of these SN do not arise from the most massive stars. Results and suggestive constraints are also presented for the

  12. Obscured Supermassive Black Hole Growth - Connections to Host Galaxies and Evolutionary Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPompeo, Michael A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Myers, Adam D.

    2017-08-01

    A large fraction of the supermassive black hole growth in the Universe is hidden from view behind thick columns of dust. The most heavily obscured quasars can be challenging to detect even with current high energy X-ray observatories such as NuSTAR - however with infrared observations that can detect the hot nuclear dust in even the most enshrouded systems, we are now beginning to characterize large populations of these hidden monsters.With roughly half-a-million quasars selected with WISE, we have found via clustering and CMB lensing cross-correlation measurements that obscured quasars reside in dark matter halos 0.5 dex more massive than unobscured quasars. This implies that obscuration is directly linked to host galaxy properties, and not simply the dust geometry around the quasar. Using cross-correlations we accurately characterize the redshift distribution of the obscured quasar population, confirming that it peaks at z = 1, and using long-wavelength bands find that it has a similar bolometric luminosity distribution as unobscured quasars as well. Finally, using a simple model based on empirical relationships between halo, stellar, and black hole masses, we show that an evolutionary sequence from obscured to unobscured quasar, combined with a flux limit, can predict the observed halo mass differences.Studies of the most obscured quasars provide valuable insights on the rapid growth of the most massive black holes in the Universe, and motivates future work with the next generation high energy observatories such as eROSITA, Athena, and Lynx.

  13. The host galaxy and Fermi -LAT counterpart of HESS J1943+213

    DOE PAGES

    Peter, D.; Domainko, W.; Sanchez, D. A.; ...

    2014-11-06

    The very-high energy (VHE, E> 100 GeV) gamma-ray sky shows diverse Galactic and extragalactic source populations. For some sources the astrophysical object class could not be identified so far. The nature (Galactic or extragalactic) of the VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1943+213 is explored. We specifically investigate the proposed near-infrared counterpart 2MASS J19435624+2118233 of HESS J1943+213 and investigate the implications of a physical association. We present K-band imaging from the 3.5 m CAHA telescope of 2MASS J19435624+2118233. Furthermore, 5 years of Fermi-LAT data were analyzed to search for a high-energy (HE, 100 MeV stat ± 0.6 sys) × 10 -15 cmmore » -2 s -1 MeV -1 at the decorrelation energy Edec = 15.1 GeV and a spectral index of Γ = 1.59 ± 0.19stat ± 0.13sys. This gamma-ray spectrum shows a rather sharp break between the HE and VHE regimes of ΔΓ = 1.47 ± 0.36. In conclusion, the infrared and HE data strongly favor an extragalactic origin of HESS J1943+213, where the infrared counterpart traces the host galaxy of an extreme blazar and where the rather sharp spectral break between the HE and VHE regime indicates attenuation on extragalactic background light. The source is most likely located at a redshift between 0.03 and 0.45 according to extension and EBL attenuation arguments.« less

  14. Gravitational wave sources from Pop III stars are preferentially located within the cores of their host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Loeb, Abraham; Salvadori, Stefania

    2017-10-01

    The detection of gravitational waves (GWs) generated by merging black holes has recently opened up a new observational window into the Universe. The mass of the black holes in the first and third Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) detections (36-29 M⊙ and 32-19 M⊙) suggests low-metallicity stars as their most likely progenitors. Based on high-resolution N-body simulations, coupled with state-of-the-art metal enrichment models, we find that the remnants of Pop III stars are preferentially located within the cores of galaxies. The probability of a GW signal to be generated by Pop III stars reaches ∼90 per cent at ∼0.5 kpc from the galaxy centre, compared to a benchmark value of ∼5 per cent outside the core. The predicted merger rates inside bulges is ∼60 × βIII Gpc-3 yr-1 (βIII is the Pop III binarity fraction). To match the 90 per cent credible range of LIGO merger rates, we obtain: 0.03 < βIII < 0.88. Future advances in GW observatories and the discovery of possible electromagnetic counterparts could allow the localization of such sources within their host galaxies. The preferential concentration of GW events within the bulge of galaxies would then provide an indirect proof for the existence of Pop III stars.

  15. Deep Silicate absorption features in Compton-thick active galactic nuclei arise due to dust in the host-galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulding, Andy D.

    2012-12-01

    Unified AGN models postulate that obscuring gas and dust are co-spatial in the circumnuclear torus, such that large gas columns are associated with heavy dust extinction. In light of this, the mid-infrared spectral energy distributions of Compton-thick AGN are expected to exhibit significant silicate absorption features. However, based on our recent Spitzer-IRS study that explored the origins of mid-IR dust extinction in all bona-fide Compton-thick AGN, we find that only a minority of nearby Compton-thick AGN have strong Si-absorption features (S9.7 = ln(fint/fobs) > 0.5), which would indicate significant dust attenuation at mid-IR wavelengths. We find that Compton-thick AGN hosted in low-inclination angle galaxies exhibit only a narrow-range in Si-absorption (S9.7 ˜ 0-0.3), which is consistent with that predicted by clumpy-torus models. On the basis of the IR spectra and additional lines of evidence, we conclude that the dominant contribution to the observed mid-IR dust extinction is dust located in the host galaxy (i.e., due to disturbed morphologies; dust-lanes; galaxy inclination angles) and not necessarily from a compact obscuring torus surrounding the central engine.

  16. On the origin of X-shaped radio-sources: New insights from the properties of their host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capetti, A.; Zamfir, S.; Rossi, P.; Bodo, G.; Zanni, C.; Massaglia, S.

    2002-10-01

    A significant fraction of extended radio sources presents a peculiar X-shaped radio morphology: in addition to the classical double lobed structure, radio emission is also observed along a second axis of symmetry in the form of diffuse wings or tails. We re-examine the origin of these extensions relating the radio morphology to the properties of their host galaxies. The orientation of the wings shows a striking connection with the structure of the host galaxy as they are preferentially aligned with its minor axis. Furthermore, wings are only observed in galaxies of high projected ellipticity. Hydrodynamical simulations of the radio-source evolution show that X-shaped radio-sources naturally form in this geometrical situation: as a jet propagates in a non-spherical gas distribution, the cocoon surrounding the radio-jets expands laterally at a high rate producing wings of radio emission, in a way that is reminiscent of the twin-exhaust model for radio-sources. Based on observations obtained at the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Centro Galileo Galilei of the CNAA (Consorzio Nazionale per l'Astronomia e l'Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.

  17. H0LiCOW VII: cosmic evolution of the correlation between black hole mass and host galaxy luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xuheng; Treu, Tommaso; Suyu, Sherry H.; Wong, Kenneth C.; Morishita, Takahiro; Park, Daeseong; Sluse, Dominique; Auger, Matthew W.; Agnello, Adriano; Bennert, Vardha N.; Collett, Thomas E.

    2017-11-01

    Strongly lensed active galactic nuclei (AGN) provide a unique opportunity to make progress in the study of the evolution of the correlation between the mass of supermassive black holes (M_BH) and their host galaxy luminosity (Lhost). We demonstrate the power of lensing by analysing two systems for which state-of-the-art lens modelling techniques have been applied to deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging data. We use (i) the reconstructed images to infer the total and bulge luminosity of the host and (ii) published broad-line spectroscopy to estimate M_BH using the so-called virial method. We then enlarge our sample with new calibration of previously published measurements to study the evolution of the correlation out to z ∼ 4.5. Consistent with previous work, we find that without taking into account passive luminosity evolution, the data points lie on the local relation. Once the passive luminosity evolution is taken into account, we find that black holes in the more distant Universe reside in less luminous galaxies than today. Fitting this offset as M_BH/Lhost ∝ (1 + z)γ, and taking into account selection effects, we obtain γ = 0.6 ± 0.1 and 0.8 ± 0.1 for the case of M_BH-Lbulge and M_BH-Ltotal, respectively. To test for systematic uncertainties and selection effects we also consider a reduced sample that is homogeneous in data quality. We find consistent results but with considerably larger uncertainty due to the more limited sample size and redshift coverage (γ = 0.7 ± 0.4 and 0.2 ± 0.5 for M_BH-Lbulge and M_BH-Ltotal, respectively), highlighting the need to gather more high-quality data for high-redshift lensed quasar hosts. Our result is consistent with a scenario where the growth of the black hole predates that of the host galaxy.

  18. AGN UNIFICATION AT z {approx} 1: u - R COLORS AND GRADIENTS IN X-RAY AGN HOSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Ammons, S.; Rosario, David J. V.; Koo, David C., E-mail: ammons@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: rosario@ucolick.org, E-mail: koo@ucolick.org

    2011-10-10

    We present uncontaminated rest-frame u - R colors of 78 X-ray-selected active galactic nucleus (AGN) hosts at 0.5 < z < 1.5 in the Chandra Deep Fields measured with Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys/NICMOS and Very Large Telescope/ISAAC imaging. We also present spatially resolved NUV - R color gradients for a subsample of AGN hosts imaged by HST/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Integrated, uncorrected photometry is not reliable for comparing the mean properties of soft and hard AGN host galaxies at z {approx} 1 due to color contamination from point-source AGN emission. We use a cloning simulation tomore » develop a calibration between concentration and this color contamination and use this to correct host galaxy colors. The mean u - R color of the unobscured/soft hosts beyond {approx}6 kpc is statistically equivalent to that of the obscured/hard hosts (the soft sources are 0.09 {+-} 0.16 mag bluer). Furthermore, the rest-frame V - J colors of the obscured and unobscured hosts beyond {approx}6 kpc are statistically equivalent, suggesting that the two populations have similar distributions of dust extinction. For the WFC3/infrared sample, the mean NUV - R color gradients of unobscured and obscured sources differ by less than {approx}0.5 mag for r > 1.1 kpc. These three observations imply that AGN obscuration is uncorrelated with the star formation rate beyond {approx}1 kpc. These observations favor a unification scenario for intermediate-luminosity AGNs in which obscuration is determined geometrically. Scenarios in which the majority of intermediate-luminosity AGNs at z {approx} 1 are undergoing rapid, galaxy-wide quenching due to AGN-driven feedback processes are disfavored.« less

  19. High-mass X-ray binaries and the cosmic 21-cm signal: impact of host galaxy absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Arpan; Mesinger, Andrei; Pallottini, Andrea; Ferrara, Andrea; Wise, John H.

    2017-07-01

    By heating the intergalactic medium (IGM) before reionization, X-rays are expected to play a prominent role in the early Universe. The cosmic 21-cm signal from this 'epoch of heating' (EoH) could serve as a clean probe of high-energy processes inside the first galaxies. Here, we improve on prior estimates of this signal by using high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations to calculate the X-ray absorption due to the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy, typically residing in haloes with mass 107.5-8.5 M⊙ at z ˜ 8-15. X-rays absorbed inside the host galaxy are unable to escape into the IGM and contribute to the EoH. We find that the X-ray opacity through these galaxies can be approximated by a metal-free ISM with a typical column density of log [N_{H I}/cm^{-2}] = 21.4^{+0.40}_{-0.65}. We compute the resulting 21-cm signal by combining these ISM opacities with public spectra of high-mass X-ray binaries (thought to be important X-ray sources in the early Universe). Our results support 'standard scenarios' in which the X-ray heating of the IGM is inhomogeneous, and occurs before the bulk of reionization. The large-scale (k ˜ 0.1 Mpc-1) 21-cm power reaches a peak of ≈100 mK2 at z ˜ 10-15, with the redshift depending on the cosmic star formation history. Our main results can be reproduced by approximating the X-ray emission from high-mass X-ray binaries by a power law with energy index α ≈ 1, truncated at energies below 0.5 keV.

  20. Formation of a Quasar Host Galaxy through a Wet Merger 1.4 Billion Years after the Big Bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Walter, Fabian; Carilli, Christopher L.; Bertoldi, Frank; Momjian, Emmanuel

    2008-10-01

    We present high-resolution Very Large Array imaging of the molecular gas in the host galaxy of the high-redshift quasar BRI 1335-0417 (z = 4.41). Our CO(J = 2→ 1) observations have a linear resolution of 0.15' ' (1.0 kpc) and resolve the molecular gas emission both spatially and in velocity. The molecular gas in BRI 1335-0417 is extended on scales of 5 kpc, and shows a complex structure. At least three distinct components encompassing about two-thirds of the total molecular mass of 9.2 × 1010 M⊙ are identified in velocity space, which are embedded in a structure that harbors about one-third of the total molecular mass in the system. The brightest CO(J = 2→ 1) line emission region has a peak brightness temperature of 61 ± 9 K within 1 kpc diameter, which is comparable to the kinetic gas temperature as predicted from the CO line excitation. This is also comparable to the gas temperatures found in the central regions of nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxies, which are however much more compact than 1 kpc. The spatial and velocity structure of the molecular reservoir in BRI 1335-0417 is inconsistent with a simple gravitationally bound disk, but resembles a merging system. Our observations are consistent with a major, gas-rich ("wet") merger that both feeds an accreting supermassive black hole (causing the bright quasar activity), and fuels a massive starburst that builds up the stellar bulge in this galaxy. Our study of this z > 4 quasar host galaxy may thus be the most direct observational evidence that wet mergers at high redshift are related to AGN activity.

  1. The largely unconstrained multiphase nature of outflows in AGN host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicone, Claudia; Brusa, Marcella; Ramos Almeida, Cristina; Cresci, Giovanni; Husemann, Bernd; Mainieri, Vincenzo

    2018-03-01

    Observations and simulations show that outflows in active galactic nuclei contain gas in different phases. To understand their true impact on galaxy evolution, we advocate consistent and unbiased investigation of these multiphase winds in large active galactic nuclei samples.

  2. SDSS-II Supernova survey. An analysis of the largest sample of type IA supernovae and correlations with host-galaxy spectral properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Rachel C.; D’Andrea, Chris B.; Gupta, Ravi R.

    2016-04-20

    Using the largest single-survey sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to date, we study the relationship between properties of SNe Ia and those of their host galaxies, focusing primarily on correlations with Hubble residuals (HR). Our sample consists of 345 photometrically-classified or spectroscopicallyconfirmed SNe Ia discovered as part of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey (SDSS-SNS). This analysis utilizes host-galaxy spectroscopy obtained during the SDSS-I/II spectroscopic survey and from an ancillary program on the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) that obtained spectra for nearly all host galaxies of SDSS-II SN candidates. In addition, we use photometric hostgalaxy properties from themore » SDSS-SNS data release (Sako et al. 2014) such as host stellar mass and star-formation rate. We confirm the well-known relation between HR and host-galaxy mass and find a 3.6σ significance of a non-zero linear slope. We also recover correlations between HR and hostgalaxy gas-phase metallicity and specific star-formation rate as they are reported in the literature. With our large dataset, we examine correlations between HR and multiple host-galaxy properties simultaneously and find no evidence of a significant correlation. We also independently analyze our spectroscopically-confirmed and photometrically-classified SNe Ia and comment on the significance of similar combined datasets for future surveys.« less

  3. Nuclear Gas Dynamics of NGC2110: A Black Hole Offset from the Host Galaxy Mass Center?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mundell, C. G.; Ferruit, P.; Nagar, N.; Wilson, A. S.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the central regions of many galaxies are unlikely to be in a static steady state, with instabilities caused by sinking satellites, the influence of a supermassive black hole or residuals of galaxy formation, resulting in the nuclear black hole orbiting the galaxy center. The observational signature of such an orbiting black hole is an offset of the active nucleus (AGN) from the kinematic center defined by the galaxy rotation curve. This orbital motion may provide fuel for the AGN, as the hole 'grazes' on the ISM, and bent radio jets, due to the motion of their source. The early type (E/SO) Seyfert galaxy, NGC2210, with its striking twin, 'S'-shaped radio jets, is a unique and valuable test case for the offset-nucleus phenomenon since, despite its remarkably normal rotation curve, its kinematically-measured mass center is displaced both spatially (260 pc) and kinematically (170 km/s) from the active nucleus located in optical and radio studies. However, the central kinematics, where the rotation curve rises most steeply, have been inaccessible with ground-based resolutions. We present new, high resolution WFPC2 imaging and long-slit STIS spectroscopy of the central 300 pc of NGC2110. We discuss the structure and kinematics of gas moving in the galactic potential on subarcsecond scales and the reality of the offset between the black hole and the galaxy mass center.

  4. Steep extinction towards GRB 140506A reconciled from host galaxy observations: Evidence that steep reddening laws are local

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintz, K. E.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Jakobsson, P.; Krühler, T.; Christensen, L.; Watson, D.; Ledoux, C.; Noterdaeme, P.; Perley, D. A.; Rhodin, H.; Selsing, J.; Schulze, S.; Tanvir, N. R.; Møller, P.; Goldoni, P.; Xu, D.; Milvang-Jensen, B.

    2017-05-01

    We present the spectroscopic and photometric late-time follow-up of the host galaxy of the long-duration Swift γ-ray burst GRB 140506A at z = 0.889. The optical and near-infrared afterglow of this GRB had a peculiar spectral energy distribution (SED) with a strong flux-drop at 8000 Å (4000 Å rest-frame) suggesting an unusually steep extinction curve. By analysing the contribution and physical properties of the host galaxy, we here aim at providing additional information on the properties and origin of this steep, non-standard extinction. We find that the strong flux-drop in the GRB afterglow spectrum at <8000 Å and rise at <4000 Å (observers frame) is well explained by the combination of a steep extinction curve along the GRB line of sight and contamination by the host galaxy light at short wavelengths so that the scenario with an extreme 2175 Å extinction bump can be excluded. We localise the GRB to be at a projected distance of approximately 4 kpc from the centre of the host galaxy. Based on emission-line diagnostics of the four detected nebular lines, Hα, Hβ, [O II] and [O III], we find the host to be a modestly star forming (SFR = 1.34 ± 0.04 M⊙ yr-1) and relatively metal poor (Z=0.35+0.15-0.11 Z⊙) galaxy with a large dust content, characterised by a measured visual attenuation of AV = 1.74 ± 0.41 mag. We compare the host to other GRB hosts at similar redshifts and find that it is unexceptional in all its physical properties. We model the extinction curve of the host-corrected afterglow and show that the standard dust properties causing the reddening seen in the Local Group are inadequate in describing the steep drop. We thus conclude that the steep extinction curve seen in the afterglow towards the GRB is of exotic origin and issightline-dependent only, further confirming that this type of reddening is present only at very local scales and that it is solely a consequence of the circumburst environment. Based on observations carried out under

  5. EmpiriciSN: Re-sampling Observed Supernova/Host Galaxy Populations Using an XD Gaussian Mixture Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holoien, Thomas W.-S.; Marshall, Philip J.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2017-06-01

    We describe two new open-source tools written in Python for performing extreme deconvolution Gaussian mixture modeling (XDGMM) and using a conditioned model to re-sample observed supernova and host galaxy populations. XDGMM is new program that uses Gaussian mixtures to perform density estimation of noisy data using extreme deconvolution (XD) algorithms. Additionally, it has functionality not available in other XD tools. It allows the user to select between the AstroML and Bovy et al. fitting methods and is compatible with scikit-learn machine learning algorithms. Most crucially, it allows the user to condition a model based on the known values of a subset of parameters. This gives the user the ability to produce a tool that can predict unknown parameters based on a model that is conditioned on known values of other parameters. EmpiriciSN is an exemplary application of this functionality, which can be used to fit an XDGMM model to observed supernova/host data sets and predict likely supernova parameters using a model conditioned on observed host properties. It is primarily intended to simulate realistic supernovae for LSST data simulations based on empirical galaxy properties.

  6. EmpiriciSN: Re-sampling Observed Supernova/Host Galaxy Populations Using an XD Gaussian Mixture Model

    SciTech Connect

    Holoien, Thomas W. -S.; Marshall, Philip J.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2017-05-11

    We describe two new open-source tools written in Python for performing extreme deconvolution Gaussian mixture modeling (XDGMM) and using a conditioned model to re-sample observed supernova and host galaxy populations. XDGMM is new program that uses Gaussian mixtures to perform density estimation of noisy data using extreme deconvolution (XD) algorithms. Additionally, it has functionality not available in other XD tools. It allows the user to select between the AstroML and Bovy et al. fitting methods and is compatible with scikit-learn machine learning algorithms. Most crucially, it allows the user to condition a model based on the known values of amore » subset of parameters. This gives the user the ability to produce a tool that can predict unknown parameters based on a model that is conditioned on known values of other parameters. EmpiriciSN is an exemplary application of this functionality, which can be used to fit an XDGMM model to observed supernova/host data sets and predict likely supernova parameters using a model conditioned on observed host properties. It is primarily intended to simulate realistic supernovae for LSST data simulations based on empirical galaxy properties.« less

  7. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Afterglow, Supernova and Host Galaxy Associated with the Extremely Bright GRB 130427A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levan, A.J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Fruchter, A. S.; Hjorth, J.; Pian, E.; Mazzali, P.; Hounsell, R. A.; Perley, D. A.; Cano, Z.; Graham, J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst, GRB 130427A. At z=0.34 this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova and host galaxy associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E(sub iso) greater than 10(exp 54) erg): more luminous than any previous GRB with a spectroscopically associated supernova. We use the combination of the image quality, UV capability and and invariant PSF of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host and supernova contributions to the observed light approximately 17 rest-frame days after the burst utilising a host subtraction spectrum obtained 1 year later. Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) grism observations show that the associated supernova, SN 2013cq, has an overall spectral shape and luminosity similar to SN 1998bw (with a photospheric velocity, vph approximately 15,000 kilometers per second). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (vph approximately 30,000 kilometers per second), but SN 2010bh (vph approximately 30,000 kilometers per second but this SN is significantly fainter, and fails to reproduce the overall spectral shape, perhaps indicative of velocity structure in the ejecta. We find that the burst originated approximately 4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 Solar Mass yr(exp-1)), possibly interacting disc galaxy. The absolute magnitude, physical size and morphology of this galaxy, as well as the location of the GRB within it are also strikingly similar to those of GRB980425SN 1998bw. The similarity of supernovae and environment from both the most luminous and least luminous GRBs suggests broadly similar progenitor stars can create GRBs across six orders of magnitude in isotropic energy.

  8. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Afterglow, Supernova, and Host Galaxy Associated with the Extremely Bright GRB 130427A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levan, A. J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Fruchter, A. S.; Hjorth, J.; Pian, E.; Mazzali, P.; Hounsell, R. A.; Perley, D. A.; Cano, Z.; Graham, J.; Cenko, S. B.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Kouveliotou, C.; Pe'er, A.; Misra, K.; Wiersema, K.

    2014-09-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 130427A. At z = 0.34, this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova (SN) and host galaxy associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E iso > 1054 erg): more luminous than any previous GRB with a spectroscopically associated SN. We use the combination of the image quality, UV capability, and invariant point-spread function of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host, and SN contributions to the observed light ~17 rest-frame days after the burst, utilizing a host subtraction spectrum obtained one year later. Advanced Camera for Surveys grism observations show that the associated SN, SN 2013cq, has an overall spectral shape and luminosity similar to SN 1998bw (with a photospheric velocity, v ph ~ 15, 000 km s-1). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (v ph ~ 30, 000 km s-1), but this SN is significantly fainter and fails to reproduce the overall spectral shape, perhaps indicative of velocity structure in the ejecta. We find that the burst originated ~4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 M ⊙ yr-1), possibly interacting disk galaxy. The absolute magnitude, physical size, and morphology of this galaxy, as well as the location of the GRB within it, are also strikingly similar to those of GRB 980425/SN 1998bw. The similarity of the SNe and environment from both the most luminous and least luminous GRBs suggests that broadly similar progenitor stars can create GRBs across six orders of magnitude in isotropic energy.

  9. The hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova iPTF 13ajg and its host galaxy in absorption and emission

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeswijk, Paul M.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; De Cia, Annalisa

    2014-12-10

    We present imaging and spectroscopy of a hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN) discovered by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory, iPTF 13ajg. At a redshift of z = 0.7403, derived from narrow absorption lines, iPTF 13ajg peaked at an absolute magnitude of M {sub u,} {sub AB} = –22.5, one of the most luminous supernovae to date. The observed bolometric peak luminosity of iPTF 13ajg is 3.2 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup –1}, while the estimated total radiated energy is 1.3 × 10{sup 51} erg. We detect narrow absorption lines of Mg I, Mg II, and Fe II, associated with the coldmore » interstellar medium in the host galaxy, at two different epochs with X-shooter at the Very Large Telescope. From Voigt profile fitting, we derive the column densities log N(Mg I) =11.94 ± 0.06, log N(Mg II) =14.7 ± 0.3, and log N(Fe II) =14.25 ± 0.10. These column densities, as well as the Mg I and Mg II equivalent widths of a sample of hydrogen-poor SLSNe taken from the literature, are at the low end of those derived for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) whose progenitors are also thought to be massive stars. This suggests that the environments of hydrogen-poor SLSNe and GRBs are different. From the nondetection of Fe II fine-structure absorption lines, we derive a lower limit on the distance between the supernova and the narrow-line absorbing gas of 50 pc. The neutral gas responsible for the absorption in iPTF 13ajg exhibits a single narrow component with a low velocity width, ΔV = 76 km s{sup –1}, indicating a low-mass host galaxy. No host galaxy emission lines are detected, leading to an upper limit on the unobscured star formation rate (SFR) of SFR{sub [O} {sub II]}<0.07M{sub ⊙}yr{sup −1}. Late-time imaging shows the iPTF 13ajg host galaxy to be faint, with g {sub AB} ≈ 27.0 and R {sub AB} ≥ 26.0 mag, corresponding to M {sub B,} {sub Vega} ≳ –17.7 mag.« less

  10. HST Imaging of Fading AGN Candidates. I. Host-galaxy Properties and Origin of the Extended Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keel, William C.; Maksym, W. Peter; Bennert, Vardha N.; Lintott, Chris J.; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Moiseev, Alexei; Smirnova, Aleksandrina; Schawinski, Kevin; Urry, C. Megan; Evans, Daniel A.; Pancoast, Anna; Scott, Bryan; Showley, Charles; Flatland, Kelsi

    2015-05-01

    We present narrow- and medium-band Hubble Space Telescope imaging, with additional supporting ground-based imaging, spectrophotometry, and Fabry-Perot interferometric data, for eight galaxies identified as hosting a fading active galactic nucleus (AGN). These are selected to have AGN-ionized gas projected \\gt 10 kpc from the nucleus and energy budgets with a significant shortfall of ionizing radiation between the requirement to ionize the distant gas and the AGN as observed directly, indicating fading of the AGN on ≈50,000 yr timescales. This paper focuses on the host-galaxy properties and origin of the gas. In every galaxy, we identify evidence of ongoing or past interactions, including tidal tails, shells, and warped or chaotic dust structures; a similarly selected sample of obscured AGNs with extended ionized clouds shares this high incidence of disturbed morphologies. Several systems show multiple dust lanes in different orientations, broadly fit by differentially precessing disks of accreted material viewed ˜1.5 Gyr after its initial arrival. The host systems are of early Hubble type; most show nearly pure de Vaucouleurs surface brightness profiles and Sérsic indices appropriate for classical bulges, with one S0 and one SB0 galaxy. The gas has a systematically lower metallicity than the nuclei; three systems have abundances uniformly well below solar, consistent with an origin in tidally disrupted low-luminosity galaxies, while some systems have more nearly solar abundances (accompanied by such signatures as multiple Doppler components), which may suggest redistribution of gas by outflows within the host galaxies themselves. These aspects are consistent with a tidal origin for the extended gas in most systems, although the ionized gas and stellar tidal features do not always match closely. Unlike extended emission regions around many radio-loud AGNs, these clouds are kinematically dominated by rotation, in some cases in warped disks. Outflows can play

  11. The luminous, massive and solar metallicity galaxy hosting the Swift γ-ray burst GRB 160804A at z = 0.737

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintz, K. E.; Malesani, D.; Wiersema, K.; Jakobsson, P.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Savaglio, S.; Cano, Z.; Covino, S.; D'Elia, V.; Gomboc, A.; Hammer, F.; Kaper, L.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Møller, P.; Piranomonte, S.; Selsing, J.; Rhodin, N. H. P.; Tanvir, N. R.; Thöne, C. C.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Vergani, S. D.; Watson, D.

    2018-02-01

    We here present the spectroscopic follow-up observations with VLT/X-shooter of the Swift long-duration gamma-ray burst GRB 160804A at z = 0.737. Typically, GRBs are found in low-mass, metal-poor galaxies that constitute the sub-luminous population of star-forming galaxies. For the host galaxy of the GRB presented here, we derive a stellar mass of log (M*/ M⊙) = 9.80 ± 0.07, a roughly solar metallicity (12 + log (O/H) = 8.74 ± 0.12) based on emission line diagnostics, and an infrared luminosity of M3.6/(1 + z) = -21.94 mag, but find it to be dust-poor (E(B - V) < 0.05 mag). This establishes the galaxy hosting GRB 160804A as one of the most luminous, massive and metal-rich GRB hosts at z < 1.5. Furthermore, the gas-phase metallicity is found to be representative of the physical conditions of the gas close to the explosion site of the burst. The high metallicity of the host galaxy is also observed in absorption, where we detect several strong Fe II transitions as well as Mg II and Mg I. Although host galaxy absorption features are common in GRB afterglow spectra, we detect absorption from strong metal lines directly in the host continuum (at a time when the afterglow was contributing to < 15 per cent). Finally, we discuss the possibility that the geometry and state of the absorbing and emitting gas are indicative of a galactic scale outflow expelled at the final stage of two merging galaxies.

  12. An optical imaging study of 0.4 ≤ z ≤ 0.8 quasar host galaxies . II. Analysis and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Örndahl, E.; Rönnback, J.

    2005-11-01

    We performed optical imaging of 102 radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars at z=0.4{-}0.8, of which 91 fields were found suitable for host galaxy analysis after the deselection of saturated and otherwise flawed images. The data sets were obtained mainly in the R band, but also in the V and I or Gunn i band, and were presented in Rönnback et al.(1996, MNRAS, 283, 282) and Örndahl et al. (2003, A&A, 404, 883). In this paper we combine the two above-mentioned samples and also separately discuss additional hosts, extracted from data taken by Wold et al. (2000, MNRAS, 316, 267; 2001, MNRAS, 323, 231). The joint sample forms a sizeable fraction of the to-date total number of observed sources at intermediate redshifts and increases the number of resolved radio-quiet hosts at z>0.4 considerably. Equal numbers of radio-loud and radio-quiet objects were observed, resulting in a detection rate of 79% for the radio-loud hosts and 66% for the radio-quiet hosts. Profile fitting could only be carried out for a minority of the sample, but it results in predominantly elliptical morphologies. This is consistent with the mean values of the axial ratios, for which we find b/a⪆0.8 for both radio-quiet and radio-loud hosts, just as in the case of normal elliptical galaxies. The mean absolute magnitudes of the radio-loud and radio-quiet hosts is M_R=-23.5 in both cases. This similarity between the mean magnitudes of the two types of host galaxy is also seen in the other imaged bands. While the radio-loud host absolute R magnitudes are correlated with redshift, only a weak trend of the same sort is seen for the radio-quiet host magnitudes. Note, however, that the sample is not fully resolved and that the detection limit, in combination with the relationship between host and nuclear luminosity, may conspire in creating the illusion of an upturn in magnitude. The average nucleus-to-host galaxy luminosity ratios of the radio-loud and radio-quiet objects do not differ significantly in any

  13. Origin of X-shaped radio-sources: further insights from the properties of their host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillone, M.; Capetti, A.; Rossi, P.

    2016-03-01

    We analyze the properties of a sample of X-shaped radio-sources (XRSs). These objects show, in addition to the main lobes, a pair of wings that produce their peculiar radio morphology. We obtain our sample by selecting from the initial list of Cheung (2007, AJ, 133, 2097) the 53 galaxies with the better defined wings and with available SDSS images. We identify the host galaxies and measure their optical position angle, obtaining a positive result in 22 cases. The orientation of the secondary radio structures shows a strong connection with the optical axis, with all (but one) wing forming an angle larger than 40° with the host major axis. The probability that this is compatible with a uniform distribution is P = 0.9 × 10-4. For all but three sources of the sample, spectroscopic or photometric redshifts are avaliable. The radio luminosity distribution of XRSs has a high power cut-off at L ˜ 1034 erg s-1 Hz-1 at 1.4 GHz. Spectra are available from the SDSS for 28 XRSs. We modeled them to extract information on their emission lines and stellar population properties. The sample is formed by approximately the same number of high and low excitation galaxies (HEGs and LEGs); this classification is essential for a proper comparison with non-winged radio-galaxies. XRSs follow the same relations between radio and line luminosity defined by radio-galaxies in the 3C sample. While in HEGs a young stellar population is often present, this is not detected in the 13 LEGs, which is, again, in agreement with the properties of non-XRSs. The lack of young stars in LEGs supports the idea that they have not experienced a recent gas-rich merger. The connection between the optical axis and the wing orientation, as well as the stellar population and emission-line properties, provide further support for a hydro-dynamic origin of the radio-wings (for example, associated with the expansion of the radio cocoon in an asymmetric external medium) rather than with a change of orientation of the

  14. DEEP SILICATE ABSORPTION FEATURES IN COMPTON-THICK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI PREDOMINANTLY ARISE DUE TO DUST IN THE HOST GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, A. D.; Forman, W. R.; Jones, C.

    2012-08-10

    We explore the origin of mid-infrared (mid-IR) dust extinction in all 20 nearby (z < 0.05) bona fide Compton-thick (N{sub H} > 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with hard energy (E > 10 keV) X-ray spectral measurements. We accurately measure the silicate absorption features at {lambda} {approx} 9.7 {mu}m in archival low-resolution (R {approx} 57-127) Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectroscopy, and show that only a minority ( Almost-Equal-To 45%) of nearby Compton-thick AGNs have strong Si-absorption features (S{sub 9.7} = ln (f{sub int}/f{sub obs}) {approx}> 0.5) which would indicate significant dust attenuation. The majority ( Almost-Equal-Tomore » 60%) are star formation dominated (AGN:SB < 0.5) at mid-IR wavelengths and lack the spectral signatures of AGN activity at optical wavelengths, most likely because the AGN emission lines are optically extinguished. Those Compton-thick AGNs hosted in low-inclination-angle galaxies exhibit a narrow range in Si-absorption (S{sub 9.7} {approx} 0-0.3), which is consistent with that predicted by clumpy-torus models. However, on the basis of the IR spectra and additional lines of evidence, we conclude that the dominant contribution to the observed mid-IR dust extinction is dust located in the host galaxy (i.e., due to disturbed morphologies, dust lanes, galaxy inclination angles) and not necessarily a compact obscuring torus surrounding the central engine.« less

  15. GRB 090417B and its Host Galaxy: A Step Towards an Understanding of Optically-Dark Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Stephen T.; Sbarufatti, Boris; Shen, Rongfeng; Schady, Patricia; Cummings, Jay R.; Fonseca, Emmanuel; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Jakobsson, Pall; Leitet, Elisabet; Linne, Staffan; hide

    2009-01-01

    GRB 090417B was an unusually long burst with a T(sub 90) duration of at least 2130 s and a multi-peaked light curve at energies of 15-150 keV. It was optically dark and has been convincingly associated with a bright star-forming galaxy at a redshift of 0.345 that is broadly similar to the Milky Way. This is one of the few cases where a host galaxy has been clearly identified for a dark gamma-ray burst and thus an ideal candidate for studying the origin of dark bursts. We find that the dark nature of GRB 090417B can not be explained by high redshift, incomplete observations, or unusual physics in the production of the afterglow. The Swift/XRT X-ray data are consistent with the afterglow being obscured by a dense, localized sheet of dust approximately 30-80 pc from the burst along the line of sight. Assuming the standard relativistic fireball model for the afterglow we find that the optical flux is at least 2.5 mag fainter than predicted by the X -ray flux. We are able to explain the lack of an optical afterglow, and the evolution of the X -ray spectrum, by assuming that there is a sheet of dust along the line of sight approximately 30-80 pc from the progenitor. Our results suggest that this dust sheet imparts an extinction of A(sub v)> or = 12 mag, which is sufficient to explain the missing optical flux. GRB 090417B is an example of a gamma-ray burst that is dark due to the localized dust structure in its host galaxy.

  16. ALMA Observations of the Host Galaxy of GRB 090423 at z = 8.23: Deep Limits on Obscured Star Formation 630 Million Years after the Big Bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, E.; Zauderer, B. A.; Chary, R.-R.; Laskar, T.; Chornock, R.; Tanvir, N. R.; Stanway, E. R.; Levan, A. J.; Levesque, E. M.; Davies, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    We present rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) and optical observations of the host galaxy of GRB 090423 at z = 8.23 from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and the Spitzer Space Telescope, respectively. The host remains undetected to 3σ limits of F ν(222 GHz) <~ 33 μJy and F ν(3.6 μm) <~ 81 nJy. The FIR limit is about 20 times fainter than the luminosity of the local ULIRG Arp 220 and comparable to the local starburst M 82. Comparing this with model spectral energy distributions, we place a limit on the infrared (IR) luminosity of L IR(8-1000 μm) <~ 3 × 1010 L ⊙, corresponding to a limit on the obscured star formation rate of SFRIR ≲ 5 M ⊙ yr-1. For comparison, the limit on the unobscured star formation rate from Hubble Space Telescope rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) observations is SFRUV <~ 1 M ⊙ yr-1. We also place a limit on the host galaxy stellar mass of M * <~ 5 × 107 M ⊙ (for a stellar population age of 100 Myr and constant star formation rate). Finally, we compare our millimeter observations to those of field galaxies at z >~ 4 (Lyman break galaxies, Lyα emitters, and submillimeter galaxies) and find that our limit on the FIR luminosity is the most constraining to date, although the field galaxies have much larger rest-frame UV/optical luminosities than the host of GRB 090423 by virtue of their selection techniques. We conclude that GRB host galaxies at z >~ 4, especially those with measured interstellar medium metallicities from afterglow spectroscopy, are an attractive sample for future ALMA studies of high redshift obscured star formation.

  17. Empirical Constraints on the Origin of Fast Radio Bursts: Volumetric Rates and Host Galaxy Demographics as a Test of Millisecond Magnetar Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholl, M.; Williams, P. K. G.; Berger, E.; Villar, V. A.; Alexander, K. D.; Eftekhari, T.; Metzger, B. D.

    2017-07-01

    The localization of the repeating fast radio burst (FRB) 121102 to a low-metallicity dwarf galaxy at z = 0.193, and its association with a luminous quiescent radio source, suggests the possibility that FRBs originate from magnetars, formed by the unusual supernovae that occur in such galaxies. We investigate this possibility via a comparison of magnetar birth rates, the FRB volumetric rate, and host galaxy demographics. We calculate average volumetric rates of possible millisecond magnetar production channels, such as superluminous supernovae (SLSNe), long and short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and general magnetar production via core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). For each channel, we also explore the expected host galaxy demographics using their known properties. We determine for the first time the number density of FRB emitters (the product of their volumetric birth rate and lifetime), {R}{FRB}τ ≈ {10}4 Gpc-3, assuming that FRBs are predominantly emitted from repetitive sources similar to FRB 121102 and adopting a beaming factor of 0.1. By comparing rates, we find that production via rare channels (SLSNe, GRBs) implies a typical FRB lifetime of ˜30-300 years, in good agreement with other lines of argument. The total energy emitted over this time is consistent with the available energy stored in the magnetic field. On the other hand, any relation to magnetars produced via normal CCSNe leads to a very short lifetime of ˜0.5 years, in conflict with both theory and observation. We demonstrate that due to the diverse host galaxy distributions of the different progenitor channels, many possible sources of FRB birth can be ruled out with ≲ 10 host galaxy identifications. Conversely, targeted searches of galaxies that have previously hosted decades-old SLSNe and GRBs may be a fruitful strategy for discovering new FRBs and related quiescent radio sources, and determining the nature of their progenitors.

  18. EVN measurement of the FRB 150418 host galaxy candidate and its stability on VLBI scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcote, B.; Giroletti, M.; Garrett, M.; Yang, J.; Paragi, Z.; Hada, K.; Cheung, C. C.

    2016-04-01

    From Very Large Baseline Array (VLBA) and e-MERLIN observations at 5 GHz, Bassa et al. (ATel #8938) reported a milliarcsecond-scale compact radio source coincident with the center of WISE J071634.59-190039.2, the proposed galaxy counterpart of the Fast Radio Burst FRB 150418 (Keane et al. 2016, Nature 530 453).

  19. R-band host galaxy contamination of TeV γ-ray blazar Mrk 501: effects of aperture size and seeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Hai-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Tao; Zhao, Ying-He; Bai, Jin-Ming; Wang, Fang; Fan, Xu-Liang

    2018-02-01

    We simulated the R-band contribution of the host galaxy of TeV γ-ray BL Lac object Mrk 501 in different aperture sizes and seeing conditions. An intensive set of observations was acquired with the 1.02 m optical telescope, managed by Yunnan Observatories, from 2010 May 15 to 18. Based on the host subtraction data usually used in the literature, the subtraction of host galaxy contamination results in significant seeing-brightness correlations. These correlations would lead to illusive large amplitude variations at short timescales, which will mask the intrinsic microvariability, thus giving rise to difficulty in detecting the intrinsic microvariability. Both aperture size and seeing condition influence the flux measurements, but the aperture size impacts the result more significantly. Based on the parameters of an elliptical galaxy provided in the literature, we simulated the host contributions of Mrk 501 in different aperture sizes and seeing conditions. Our simulation data of the host galaxy obviously weaken these significant seeing-brightness correlations for the host-subtracted brightness of Mrk 501, and can help us discover the intrinsic short timescale microvariability. The pure nuclear flux is ∼8.0mJy in the R band, i.e., the AGN has a magnitude of R ∼ 13.96 mag.

  20. The Distance to NGC 4993: The Host Galaxy of the Gravitational-wave Event GW170817

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjorth, Jens; Levan, Andrew J.; Tanvir, Nial R.; Lyman, Joe D.; Wojtak, Radosław; Schrøder, Sophie L.; Mandel, Ilya; Gall, Christa; Bruun, Sofie H.

    2017-10-01

    The historic detection of gravitational waves from a binary neutron star merger (GW170817) and its electromagnetic counterpart led to the first accurate (sub-arcsecond) localization of a gravitational-wave event. The transient was found to be ˜10″ from the nucleus of the S0 galaxy NGC 4993. We report here the luminosity distance to this galaxy using two independent methods. (1) Based on our MUSE/VLT measurement of the heliocentric redshift (z helio = 0.009783 ± 0.000023), we infer the systemic recession velocity of the NGC 4993 group of galaxies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) frame to be v CMB = 3231 ± 53 km s-1. Using constrained cosmological simulations we estimate the line-of-sight peculiar velocity to be v pec = 307 ± 230 km s-1, resulting in a cosmic velocity of v cosmic = 2924 ± 236 km s-1 (z cosmic = 0.00980 ± 0.00079) and a distance of D z = 40.4 ± 3.4 Mpc assuming a local Hubble constant of H 0 = 73.24 ± 1.74 km s-1 Mpc-1. (2) Using Hubble Space Telescope measurements of the effective radius (15.″5 ± 1.″5) and contained intensity and MUSE/VLT measurements of the velocity dispersion, we place NGC 4993 on the Fundamental Plane (FP) of E and S0 galaxies. Comparing to a frame of 10 clusters containing 226 galaxies, this yields a distance estimate of D FP = 44.0 ± 7.5 Mpc. The combined redshift and FP distance is D NGC 4993 = 41.0 ± 3.1 Mpc. This “electromagnetic” distance estimate is consistent with the independent measurement of the distance to GW170817 as obtained from the gravitational-wave signal ({D}{GW}={43.8}-6.9+2.9 Mpc) and confirms that GW170817 occurred in NGC 4993.

  1. Bright [C II] and Dust Emission in Three z > 6.6 Quasar Host Galaxies Observed by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venemans, Bram P.; Walter, Fabian; Zschaechner, Laura; Decarli, Roberto; De Rosa, Gisella; Findlay, Joseph R.; McMahon, Richard G.; Sutherland, Will J.

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA detections of the [C II] 158 μm emission line and the underlying far-infrared (FIR) continuum of three quasars at 6.6 < z < 6.9 selected from the VIKING survey. The [C II] line fluxes range between 1.6 and 3.4 Jy km s-1 ([C II] luminosities ˜(1.9-3.9) × 109 L⊙). We measure continuum flux densities of 0.56-3.29 mJy around 158 μm (rest frame), with implied FIR luminosities of (0.6-7.5) × 1012 L⊙ and dust masses Md = (0.7-24) × 108 M⊙. In one quasar we derive a dust temperature of {30}-9+12 K from the continuum slope, below the canonical value of 47 K. Assuming that the [C II] and continuum emission are powered by star formation, we find star formation rates from 100 to 1600 M⊙ yr-1 based on local scaling relations. The L[C II]/LFIR ratios in the quasar hosts span a wide range from (0.3-4.6) × 10-3, including one quasar with a ratio that is consistent with local star-forming galaxies. We find that the strength of the L[C II] and 158 μm continuum emission in z ≳ 6 quasar hosts correlates with the quasar’s bolometric luminosity. In one quasar, the [C II] line is significantly redshifted by ˜1700 km s-1 with respect to the Mg II broad emission line. Comparing to values in the literature, we find that, on average, the Mg II is blueshifted by 480 km s-1 (with a standard deviation of 630 km s-1) with respect to the host galaxy redshift, I.e., one of our quasars is an extreme outlier. Through modeling we can rule out a flat rotation curve for our brightest [C II] emitter. Finally, we find that the ratio of black hole mass to host galaxy (dynamical) mass is higher by a factor of 3-4 (with significant scatter) than local relations.

  2. Fitting and Phenomenology in Type IA Supernova Cosmology: Generalized Likelihood Analyses for Multiple Evolving Populations and Observations of Near-Infrared Lightcurves Including Host Galaxy Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponder, Kara A.

    In the late 1990s, Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) led to the discovery that the Universe is expanding at an accelerating rate due to dark energy. Since then, many different tracers of acceleration have been used to characterize dark energy, but the source of cosmic acceleration has remained a mystery. To better understand dark energy, future surveys such as the ground-based Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and the space-based Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope will collect thousands of SNeIa to use as a primary dark energy probe. These large surveys will be systematics limited, which makes it imperative for our insight regarding systematics to dramatically increase over the next decade for SNeIa to continue to contribute to precision cosmology. I approach this problem by improving statistical methods in the likelihood analysis and collecting near infrared (NIR) SNeIa with their host galaxies to improve the nearby data set and search for additional systematics. Using more statistically robust methods to account for systematics within the likelihood function can increase accuracy in cosmological parameters with a minimal precision loss. Though a sample of at least 10,000 SNeIa is necessary to confirm multiple populations of SNeIa, the bias in cosmology is ˜ 2 sigma with only 2,500 SNeIa. This work focused on an example systematic (host galaxy correlations), but it can be generalized for any systematic that can be represented by a distribution of multiple Gaussians. The SweetSpot survey gathered 114 low-redshift, NIR SNeIa that will act as a crucial anchor sample for the future high redshift surveys. NIR observations are not as affected by dust contamination, which may lead to increased understanding of systematics seen in optical wavelengths. We obtained spatially resolved spectra for 32 SweetSpot host galaxies to test for local host galaxy correlations. For the first time, we probe global host galaxy correlations with NIR brightnesses from the current literature

  3. A Catalog Sample of Low-mass Galaxies Observed in X-Rays with Central Candidate Black Holes

    SciTech Connect

    Nucita, A. A.; Manni, L.; Paolis, F. De

    2017-03-01

    We present a sample of X-ray-selected candidate black holes in 51 low-mass galaxies with z ≤ 0.055 and masses up to 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙} obtained by cross-correlating the NASA-SLOAN Atlas with the 3XMM catalog. We have also searched in the available catalogs for radio counterparts of the black hole candidates and find that 19 of the previously selected sources also have a radio counterpart. Our results show that about 37% of the galaxies of our sample host an X-ray source (associated with a radio counterpart) spatially coincident with the galaxy center, in agreement with other recent works. Formore » these nuclear sources, the X-ray/radio fundamental plane relation allows one to estimate the mass of the (central) candidate black holes, which are in the range of 10{sup 4}–2 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ⊙} (with a median value of ≃3 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙} and eight candidates having masses below 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙}). This result, while suggesting that X-ray emitting black holes in low-mass galaxies may have had a key role in the evolution of such systems, makes it even more urgent to explain how such massive objects formed in galaxies. Of course, dedicated follow-up observations both in the X-ray and radio bands, as well as in the optical, are necessary in order to confirm our results.« less

  4. ALMA Observations Show Major Mergers Among the Host Galaxies of Fast-growing, High-redshift​ Supermassive​ Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Lira, Paulina; Netzer, Hagai; Cicone, Claudia; Maiolino, Roberto; Shemmer, Ohad

    2017-02-01

    We present new ALMA band-7 data for a sample of six luminous quasars at z≃ 4.8, powered by fast-growing supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with rather uniform properties: the typical accretion rates and black hole masses are L/{L}{Edd}≃ 0.7 and {M}{BH}≃ {10}9 {M}⊙ . Our sample consists of three “FIR-bright” sources, which were individually detected in previous Herschel/SPIRE observations, with star formation rates of {SFR}> 1000 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1, and three “FIR-faint” sources for which Herschel stacking analysis implies a typical SFR of ˜400 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1. The dusty interstellar medium in the hosts of all six quasars is clearly detected in the ALMA data and resolved on scales of ˜2 kpc, in both continuum ({λ }{rest}˜ 150 μ {{m}}) and [{{C}} {{II}}] λ 157.74 μ {{m}} line emission. The continuum emission is in good agreement with the expectations from the Herschel data, confirming the intense SF activity in the quasar hosts. Importantly, we detect companion sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) for three sources—one FIR-bright and two FIR-faint, separated by ˜ 14{--}45 {kpc} and < 450 {km} {{{s}}}-1 from the quasar hosts. The [{{C}} {{II}}]-based dynamical mass estimates for the interacting SMGs are within a factor of ˜3 of the quasar hosts’ masses, while the continuum emission implies {{SFR}}{quasar}˜ (2{--}11)× {{SFR}}{SMG}. Our ALMA data therefore clearly support the idea that major mergers are important drivers for rapid early SMBH growth. However, the fact that not all high-SFR quasar hosts are accompanied by interacting SMGs and the gas kinematics as observed by ALMA suggest that other processes may be fueling these systems. Our analysis thus demonstrates the diversity of host galaxy properties and gas accretion mechanisms associated with early and rapid SMBH growth.

  5. Linking black hole growth with host galaxies: the accretion-stellar mass relation and its cosmic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, G.; Brandt, W. N.; Vito, F.; Chen, C.-T. J.; Trump, J. R.; Luo, B.; Sun, M. Y.; Xue, Y. Q.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Schneider, D. P.; Vignali, C.; Wang, J.-X.

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies suggest that the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) may be fundamentally related to host-galaxy stellar mass (M⋆). To investigate this SMBH growth-M⋆ relation in detail, we calculate long-term SMBH accretion rate as a function of M⋆ and redshift [\\overlineBHAR(M_{\\star }, z)] over ranges of log (M⋆/M⊙) = 9.5-12 and z = 0.4-4. Our \\overlineBHAR(M_{\\star }, z) is constrained by high-quality survey data (GOODS-South, GOODS-North and COSMOS), and by the stellar mass function and the X-ray luminosity function. At a given M⋆, \\overlineBHAR is higher at high redshift. This redshift dependence is stronger in more massive systems [for log (M⋆/M⊙) ≈ 11.5, \\overlineBHAR is three decades higher at z = 4 than at z = 0.5], possibly due to AGN feedback. Our results indicate that the ratio between \\overlineBHAR and average star formation rate (\\overlineSFR) rises towards high M⋆ at a given redshift. This \\overlineBHAR/\\overlineSFR dependence on M⋆ does not support the scenario that SMBH and galaxy growth are in lockstep. We calculate SMBH mass history [MBH(z)] based on our \\overlineBHAR(M_{\\star }, z) and the M⋆(z) from the literature, and find that the MBH-M⋆ relation has weak redshift evolution since z ≈ 2. The MBH/M⋆ ratio is higher towards massive galaxies: it rises from ≈1/5000 at log M⋆ ≲ 10.5 to ≈1/500 at log M⋆ ≳ 11.2. Our predicted MBH/M⋆ ratio at high M⋆ is similar to that observed in local giant ellipticals, suggesting that SMBH growth from mergers is unlikely to dominate over growth from accretion.

  6. Identifying the Location in the Host Galaxy of Short GRB 1111l7A with the Chandra Sub- Arcsecond Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakamoto, Takanori; Troja, E.; Aoki, K.; Guiriec, S.; Im, M.; Leloudas, G.; Malesani, D.; Melandri, A.; deUgartePostigo, A.; Urata, Y.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present our successful program using Chandra for identifying the X-ray afterglow with sub-arcsecond accuracy for the short GRB 111117A d iscovered by Swift and Fermi. Thanks to our rapid target of opportuni ty request, Chandra clearly detected the X-ray afterglow, whereas no optical afterglow was found in deep optical observations. Instead, we clearly detect the host galaxy in optica; and also in near-infrared b ands. We found that the best photometric redshift fitofthe host is z = 1.31:(+0.46/-0.23) (90% confidence), making it one of the highest redshift short GRBs. Furthermore, we see an offset of 1.0+/-O.2 arcseco nds, which corresponds to 8.4+/-1.7 kpc aSBuming z= 1.31, between the host and the afterglow position. We discuss the importance of using Chandra for obtaining sub-arcsecond localization of the afterglow in X -rays for short GRBs to study GRB environments in great detail.

  7. On the Afterglow and Host Galaxy of GRB 021004: A Comprehensive Study with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fynbo, J. P. U.; Gorosabel, J.; Smette, A.; Fruchter, A.; Hjorth, J.; Pedersen, K.; Levan, A.; Burud, I.; Sahu, K.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Bergeron, E.; Kouveliotou, C.; Tanvir, N.; Thorsett, S. E.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Castro-Tirado, A.; Garnavich, P.; Holland, S. T.; Jakobsson, P.; Møller, P.; Nugent, P.; Pian, E.; Rhoads, J.; Thomsen, B.; Watson, D.; Woosley, S.

    2005-11-01

    We report on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the late-time afterglow and host galaxy of GRB 021004 (z=2.33). Although this gamma-ray burst (GRB) is one of the best observed so far in terms of sampling in the time domain, multiwavelength coverage, and polarimetric observations, there is substantial disagreement between different interpretations of data sets on this burst in the literature. We have observed the field of GRB 021004 with the HST at multiple epochs from 3 days until almost 10 months after the burst. With the STIS PRISM and G430L spectroscopy, we cover the spectral region from about 2000 to 5700 Å, corresponding to 600-1700 Å in the rest frame. From the limit on the flux recovery blueward of the Lyman limit, we constrain the H I column density to be above 1×1018 cm-2 (5 σ). On the basis of ACS and NICMOS imaging, we find that the afterglow evolved achromatically within the errors (any variation must be less than 5%) during the period of the HST observations. The color changes observed by other authors during the first 4 days must be related to a stochastic phenomenon superimposed on an afterglow component with a constant spectral shape. This achromaticity implies that the cooling break has remained on the blue side of the optical part of the spectrum for at least 2 weeks after the explosion. The optical-to-X-ray slope βOX is consistent with being the same at 1.4 and 52.4 days after the burst. This indicates that the cooling frequency is constant and, hence, according to fireball models, that the circumburst medium has a constant density profile. The late-time slope of the light curve (α2, Fν~t-α2) is in the range α2=1.8-1.9 and is inconsistent with a single power law. This could be due to a late-time flattening caused by the transition to nonrelativistic expansion or could be due to excess emission (a ``bump'' in the light curve) about 7 days after the burst. The host galaxy is, like most previously studied GRB hosts, a (very) blue

  8. STRUCTURAL TRANSITION IN THE NGC 6251 JET: AN INTERPLAY WITH THE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE AND ITS HOST GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Chih-Yin; Asada, Keiichi; Nakamura, Masanori

    2016-12-20

    The structure of the NGC 6251 jet on the milliarcsecond scale is investigated using images taken with the European VLBI Network and the Very Long Baseline Array. We detect a structural transition of the jet from a parabolic to a conical shape at a distance of (1–2) × 10{sup 5} times the Schwarzschild radius from the central engine, which is close to the sphere of gravitational influence of the supermassive black hole (SMBH). We also examine the jet pressure profiles with the synchrotron minimum energy assumption to discuss the physical origin of the structural transition. The NGC 6251 jet, together with themore » M87 jet, suggests a fundamental process of structural transition in the jets of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Collimated AGN jets are characterized by their external galactic medium, showing that AGN jets interplay with the SMBH and its host galaxy.« less

  9. The environment and host haloes of the brightest z ˜ 6 Lyman-break galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatfield, P. W.; Bowler, R. A. A.; Jarvis, M. J.; Hale, C. L.

    2018-04-01

    By studying the large-scale structure of the bright high-redshift Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) population it is possible to gain an insight into the role of environment in galaxy formation physics in the early Universe. We measure the clustering of a sample of bright (-22.7 < MUV < -21.125) LBGs at z ˜ 6 and use a halo occupation distribution (HOD) model to measure their typical halo masses. We find that the clustering amplitude and corresponding HOD fits suggests that these sources are highly biased (b ˜ 8) objects in the densest regions of the high-redshift Universe. Coupled with the observed rapid evolution of the number density of these objects, our results suggest that the shape of high luminosity end of the luminosity function is related to feedback processes or dust obscuration in the early Universe - as opposed to a scenario where these sources are predominantly rare instances of the much more numerous MUV ˜ -19 population of galaxies caught in a particularly vigorous period of star formation. There is a slight tension between the number densities and clustering measurements, which we interpret this as a signal that a refinement of the model halo bias relation at high redshifts or the incorporation of quasi-linear effects may be needed for future attempts at modelling the clustering and number counts. Finally, the difference in number density between the fields (UltraVISTA has a surface density˜1.8 times greater than UDS) is shown to be consistent with the cosmic variance implied by the clustering measurements.

  10. THE SWIFT GRB HOST GALAXY LEGACY SURVEY. II. REST-FRAME NEAR-IR LUMINOSITY DISTRIBUTION AND EVIDENCE FOR A NEAR-SOLAR METALLICITY THRESHOLD

    SciTech Connect

    Perley, D. A.; Tanvir, N. R.; Hjorth, J.

    2016-01-20

    We present rest-frame near-IR (NIR) luminosities and stellar masses for a large and uniformly selected population of gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies using deep Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of 119 targets from the Swift GRB Host Galaxy Legacy Survey spanning 0.03 < z < 6.3, and we determine the effects of galaxy evolution and chemical enrichment on the mass distribution of the GRB host population across cosmic history. We find a rapid increase in the characteristic NIR host luminosity between z ∼ 0.5 and z ∼ 1.5, but little variation between z ∼ 1.5 and z ∼ 5. Dust-obscured GRBs dominate the massive host population but are only rarely seen associated withmore » low-mass hosts, indicating that massive star-forming galaxies are universally and (to some extent) homogeneously dusty at high redshift while low-mass star-forming galaxies retain little dust in their interstellar medium. Comparing our luminosity distributions with field surveys and measurements of the high-z mass–metallicity relation, our results have good consistency with a model in which the GRB rate per unit star formation is constant in galaxies with gas-phase metallicity below approximately the solar value but heavily suppressed in more metal-rich environments. This model also naturally explains the previously reported “excess” in the GRB rate beyond z ≳ 2; metals stifle GRB production in most galaxies at z < 1.5 but have only minor impact at higher redshifts. The metallicity threshold we infer is much higher than predicted by single-star models and favors a binary progenitor. Our observations also constrain the fraction of cosmic star formation in low-mass galaxies undetectable to Spitzer to be small at z < 4.« less

  11. The Carnegie Supernova Project I. Methods to estimate host-galaxy reddening of stripped-envelope supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stritzinger, M. D.; Taddia, F.; Burns, C. R.; Phillips, M. M.; Bersten, M.; Contreras, C.; Folatelli, G.; Holmbo, S.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Hoeflich, P.; Leloudas, G.; Morrell, N.; Sollerman, J.; Suntzeff, N. B.

    2018-02-01

    We aim to improve upon contemporary methods to estimate host-galaxy reddening of stripped-envelope (SE) supernovae (SNe). To this end the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP-I) SE SN photometry data release, consisting of nearly three dozen objects, is used to identify a minimally reddened sub-sample for each traditionally defined spectroscopic sub-type (i.e., SNe IIb, SNe Ib, SNe Ic). Inspection of the optical and near-infrared (NIR) colors and color evolution of the minimally reddened sub-samples reveals a high degree of homogeneity, particularly between 0 d to +20 d relative to B-band maximum. This motivated the construction of intrinsic color-curve templates, which when compared to the colors of reddened SE SNe, yields an entire suite of optical and NIR color excess measurements. Comparison of optical/optical vs. optical/NIR color excess measurements indicates the majority of the CSP-I SE SNe suffer relatively low amounts of reddening (i.e., E(B-V)host< 0.20 mag) and we find evidence for different RVhost values among different SE SN. Fitting the color excess measurements of the seven most reddened (i.e., E(B-V)host> 0.20 mag) objects with the Fitzpatrick (1999, PASP, 111, 63) reddening law model provides robust estimates of the host visual-extinction AVhost and RVhost. In the case of the SE SNe with relatively low amounts of reddening, a preferred value of RVhost is adopted for each sub-type, resulting in estimates of AVhost through Fitzpatrick (1999) reddening law model fits to the observed color excess measurements. Our analysis suggests SE SNe reside in galaxies characterized by a range of dust properties. We also find evidence that SNe Ic are more likely to occur in regions characterized by larger RVhost values compared to SNe IIb/Ib and they also tend to suffer more extinction. The later finding is consistent with work in the literature suggesting SNe Ic tend to occur in regions of on-going star formation. Based on observations collected at Las Campanas

  12. ALMA resolves extended star formation in high-z AGN host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, C. M.; Simpson, J. M.; Stanley, F.; Alexander, D. M.; Daddi, E.; Mullaney, J. R.; Pannella, M.; Rosario, D. J.; Smail, Ian

    2016-03-01

    We present high-resolution (0.3 arcsec) Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) 870 μm imaging of five z ≈ 1.5-4.5 X-ray detected AGN (with luminosities of L2-8keV > 1042 erg s-1). These data provide a ≳20 times improvement in spatial resolution over single-dish rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) measurements. The sub-millimetre emission is extended on scales of FWHM ≈ 0.2 arcsec-0.5 arcsec, corresponding to physical sizes of 1-3 kpc (median value of 1.8 kpc). These sizes are comparable to the majority of z=1-5 sub-millimetre galaxies (SMGs) with equivalent ALMA measurements. In combination with spectral energy distribution analyses, we attribute this rest-frame FIR emission to dust heated by star formation. The implied star-formation rate surface densities are ≈20-200 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2, which are consistent with SMGs of comparable FIR luminosities (I.e. LIR ≈ [1-5] × 1012 L⊙). Although limited by a small sample of AGN, which all have high-FIR luminosities, our study suggests that the kpc-scale spatial distribution and surface density of star formation in high-redshift star-forming galaxies is the same irrespective of the presence of X-ray detected AGN.

  13. DETERMINING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA HOST GALAXY EXTINCTION PROBABILITIES AND A STATISTICAL APPROACH TO ESTIMATING THE ABSORPTION-TO-REDDENING RATIO R{sub V}

    SciTech Connect

    Cikota, Aleksandar; Deustua, Susana; Marleau, Francine, E-mail: acikota@eso.org

    2016-03-10

    We investigate limits on the extinction values of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to statistically determine the most probable color excess, E(B – V), with galactocentric distance, and use these statistics to determine the absorption-to-reddening ratio, R{sub V}, for dust in the host galaxies. We determined pixel-based dust mass surface density maps for 59 galaxies from the Key Insight on Nearby Galaxies: a Far-infrared Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH). We use SN Ia spectral templates to develop a Monte Carlo simulation of color excess E(B – V) with R{sub V} = 3.1 and investigate the color excess probabilities E(B – V) with projected radial galaxymore » center distance. Additionally, we tested our model using observed spectra of SN 1989B, SN 2002bo, and SN 2006X, which occurred in three KINGFISH galaxies. Finally, we determined the most probable reddening for Sa–Sap, Sab–Sbp, Sbc–Scp, Scd–Sdm, S0, and irregular galaxy classes as a function of R/R{sub 25}. We find that the largest expected reddening probabilities are in Sab–Sb and Sbc–Sc galaxies, while S0 and irregular galaxies are very dust poor. We present a new approach for determining the absorption-to-reddening ratio R{sub V} using color excess probability functions and find values of R{sub V} = 2.71 ± 1.58 for 21 SNe Ia observed in Sab–Sbp galaxies, and R{sub V} = 1.70 ± 0.38, for 34 SNe Ia observed in Sbc–Scp galaxies.« less

  14. A Monster At Any Other Epoch: Are Intermediate Redshift ULIRGs the Progenitors of QSO Host Galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothberg, Barry; Fischer, Jackie; Rodrigues, Myriam; Pirzkal, Nor

    2015-08-01

    There is a clear progression from merger-induced SF to QSO activity via Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs). While not all mergers are ULIRGs, multi-wavelength imaging confirms that all local ULIRGs are mergers. At 0.4 < z < 1.0, the star-formation rates, gas fractions, and masses are believed to be significantly higher than in the local universe (i.e. due to "Downsizing"). ULIRGs begin to dominate the SF activity in the Universe at z˜0.7, and at z>1 are responsible for ˜ 70% of the co-moving IR density. At these earlier epochs ULIRGs contained more gas, formed stars faster, and their number density was much higher. At z>1 there are conflicting conclusions about ULIRGs. Many studies conclude they are massive star-forming galaxies, not major mergers nor AGN. Nearly all studies of ULIRGs at z > 0.4 have selected these systems via scaling observed 24μm or 170μm Spitzer fluxes to integrated 8-1000μm fluxes and inferring masses from scaling photometric fluxes or millimeter observations of CO gas emission. These methods often rely heavily on uncertain assumptions (e.g. gas conversions, SED fitting and templates). Instead, we have assembled a representative sample of "classically" selected ULIRGs (60 and 100μm IRAS fluxes and 12 and 25μm WISE fluxes) for 0.4 < z < 1.0 and obtained optical and near-IR imaging and spectroscopy from Hubble Space Telescope, Keck, and the Large Binocular Telescope. We use the same techniques for measuring the dynamical and BH masses of ULIRGs in the local Universe to measure these parameters in more distant systems. Unlike other methods, we directly measure the mass at an epoch when galaxy formation and evolution appears to have changed dramatically from what we see today and compare these intermediate redshift ULIRGs with their counterparts in the local Universe. Our restframe optical and UV spectroscopy also allow us to directly probe gas-metallicities, outflows, and measure the properties of their stellar populations. Our

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Host galaxies of Type Ia SN from PTF (Pan+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Sullivan, M.; Maguire, K.; Hook, I. M.; Nugent, P. E.; Howell, D. A.; Arcavi, I.; Botyanszki, J.; Cenko, S. B.; Derose, J.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Gal-Yam, A.; Hsiao, E.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Laher, R. R.; Lidman, C.; Nordin, J.; Walker, E. S.; Xu, D.

    2014-11-01

    The SNe Ia studied in this paper were discovered by the PTF, a project which operated from 2009 to 2012 and used the CFH12k wide-field survey camera mounted on the Samuel Oschin 48 inch telescope (P48) at the Palomar Observatory. The observational cadences used to discover the SNe ranged from hours up to ~5d. SN candidates were identified in image subtraction data and ranked using both simple cuts on the detection parameters and a machine learning algorithm (Bloom et al. 2012PASP..124.1175B), and then visually confirmed by members of the PTF collaboration or, from mid-2010 onwards, via the citizen science project 'Galaxy Zoo: Supernova' (Smith et al., 2011MNRAS.412.1309S). The latter identified eight of the SNe studied in this paper. (4 data files).

  16. Gravitational lensing reveals extreme dust-obscured star formation in quasar host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, H. R.; McKean, J. P.; Robertson, N. C.; Ivison, R. J.; Isaak, K. G.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; van der Werf, P. P.; Baan, W. A.; Alba, A. Berciano; Garrett, M. A.; Loenen, A. F.

    2018-02-01

    We have observed 104 gravitationally-lensed quasars at z ˜ 1-4 with Herschel/SPIRE, the largest such sample ever studied. By targeting gravitational lenses, we probe intrinsic far-infrared (FIR) luminosities and star formation rates (SFRs) more typical of the population than the extremely luminous sources that are otherwise accessible. We detect 72 objects with Herschel/SPIRE and find 66 percent (69 sources) of the sample have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) characteristic of dust emission. For 53 objects with sufficiently constrained SEDs, we find a median effective dust temperature of 38^{+12}_{-5} K. By applying the radio-infrared correlation, we find no evidence for an FIR excess which is consistent with star-formation-heated dust. We derive a median magnification-corrected FIR luminosity of 3.6^{+4.8}_{-2.4} × 10^{11} L_{⊙} and median SFR of 120^{+160}_{-80} M_{⊙} yr^{-1} for 94 quasars with redshifts. We find ˜10 percent of our sample have FIR properties similar to typical dusty star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 2-3 and a range of SFRs <20-10000 M⊙ yr-1 for our sample as a whole. These results are in line with current models of quasar evolution and suggests a coexistence of dust-obscured star formation and AGN activity is typical of most quasars. We do not find a statistically-significant difference in the FIR luminosities of quasars in our sample with a radio excess relative to the radio-infrared correlation. Synchrotron emission is found to dominate at FIR wavelengths for <15 percent of those sources classified as powerful radio galaxies.

  17. The host of the Type I SLSN 2017egm. A young, sub-solar metallicity environment in a massive spiral galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzo, L.; Thöne, C. C.; García-Benito, R.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Cano, Z.; Kann, D. A.; Bensch, K.; Della Valle, M.; Galadí-Enríquez, D.; Hedrosa, R. P.

    2018-02-01

    Context. Type I superluminous supernova (SLSN) host galaxies are predominantly low-metallicity, highly star-forming (SF) dwarfs. One of the current key questions is whether Type I SLSNe can only occur in such environments and hosts. Aims: Here we present an integral-field study of the massive, high-metallicity spiral NGC 3191, the host of SN 2017egm, the closest Type I SLSN known to date. We use data from PMAS/CAHA and the public MaNGA survey to shed light on the properties of the SLSN site and the origin of star formation in this non-starburst spiral galaxy. Methods: We map the physical properties of different H II regions throughout the galaxy and characterise their stellar populations using the STARLIGHT fitting code. Kinematical information allows us to study a possible interaction with its neighbouring galaxy as the origin of recent star formation activity which could have caused the SLSN. Results: NGC 3191 shows intense star formation in the western part with three large SF regions of low metallicity. Taking only the properties of emitting gas, the central regions of the host have a higher metallicity, a lower specific star formation rate, and lower ionisation. Modelling the stellar populations gives a different picture: the SLSN region has two dominant stellar populations with different ages, the younger one with an age of 2-10 Myr and lower metallicity, likely the population from which the SN progenitor originated. Emission line kinematics of NGC 3191 show indications of interaction with its neighbour MCG+08-19-017 at 45 kpc, which might be responsible for the recent starburst. In fact, this galaxy pair has hosted a total of four SNe, 1988B (Type Ia), SN 2003ds (Type Ic in MCG+08-19-017), PTF10bgl (Type II), and 2017egm, underlying the enhanced SF in both galaxies due to interaction. Conclusions: Our study shows that care should be taken when interpreting global host and even gas properties without looking at the stellar population history of the region

  18. Globular clusters as tracers of the host galaxy mass distribution: the Fornax dSph test case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arca-Sedda, M.; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.

    2016-10-01

    The Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy is the most massive satellites of the Milky Way, claimed to be embedded in a huge dark matter halo, and the only among the Milky Way satellites hosting five globular clusters. Interestingly, their estimated masses, ages and positions seem hardly compatible with the presence of a significant dark matter component, as expected in the ΛCDM scheme. Indeed, if Fornax would have a CDM halo with a standard density profile, all its globular clusters should have sunk to the galactic centre many Gyr ago due to dynamical friction. Due to this, some authors proposed that the most massive clusters may have formed out of Fornax and later tidally captured. In this paper, we investigate the past evolution of the Fornax GC system by using both a recently developed, semi-analytical treatment of dynamical friction and direct N-body simulations of the orbital evolution of the globular clusters within Fornax and of Fornax galaxy around the Milky Way. Our results suggest that an `in situ' origin for all the clusters is likely if their observed positions are close to their spatial ones and their orbits are almost circular. Moreover, the Milky Way seems to accelerate the GC decay reducing the decay time of 15 per cent. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the GCs survival probability exceeds 50 per cent, even in the case of cuspy density profiles. We conclude that more detailed data are required to shed light on the Fornax dark matter content, to distinguish between a cuspy or a cored profile.

  19. The Old Host-galaxy Environment of SSS17a, the First Electromagnetic Counterpart to a Gravitational-wave Source

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Y. -C.; Kilpatrick, C. D.; Simon, J. D.

    2017-10-16

    We present an analysis of the host-galaxy environment of Swope Supernova Survey 2017a (SSS17a), the discovery of an electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational-wave source, GW170817. SSS17a occurred 1.9 kpc (in projection; 10 farcs 2) from the nucleus of NGC 4993, an S0 galaxy at a distance of 40 Mpc. We present a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) pre-trigger image of NGC 4993, Magellan optical spectroscopy of the nucleus of NGC 4993 and the location of SSS17a, and broadband UV-through-IR photometry of NGC 4993. The spectrum and broadband spectral-energy distribution indicate that NGC 4993 has a stellar mass ofmore » $$\\mathrm{log}(M/{M}_{\\odot })={10.49}_{-0.20}^{+0.08}$$ and star formation rate of 0.003 $${M}_{\\odot }$$ yr -1, and the progenitor system of SSS17a likely had an age of >2.8 Gyr. There is no counterpart at the position of SSS17a in the HST pre-trigger image, indicating that the progenitor system had an absolute magnitude $${M}_{V}\\gt -5.8$$ mag. We detect dust lanes extending out to almost the position of SSS17a and >100 likely globular clusters associated with NGC 4993. The offset of SSS17a is similar to many short gamma-ray-burst offsets, and its progenitor system was likely bound to NGC 4993. The environment of SSS17a is consistent with an old progenitor system such as a binary neutron star system.« less

  20. ALMA observations of the host galaxy of GRB 090423 at z = 8.23: deep limits on obscured star formation 630 million years after the big bang

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.; Zauderer, B. A.; Chary, R.-R.

    2014-12-01

    We present rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) and optical observations of the host galaxy of GRB 090423 at z = 8.23 from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and the Spitzer Space Telescope, respectively. The host remains undetected to 3σ limits of F {sub ν}(222 GHz) ≲ 33 μJy and F {sub ν}(3.6 μm) ≲ 81 nJy. The FIR limit is about 20 times fainter than the luminosity of the local ULIRG Arp 220 and comparable to the local starburst M 82. Comparing this with model spectral energy distributions, we place a limit on the infrared (IR) luminosity of L {sub IR}(8-1000more » μm) ≲ 3 × 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉}, corresponding to a limit on the obscured star formation rate of SFR{sub IR}≲5 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. For comparison, the limit on the unobscured star formation rate from Hubble Space Telescope rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) observations is SFR{sub UV} ≲ 1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We also place a limit on the host galaxy stellar mass of M {sub *} ≲ 5 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} (for a stellar population age of 100 Myr and constant star formation rate). Finally, we compare our millimeter observations to those of field galaxies at z ≳ 4 (Lyman break galaxies, Lyα emitters, and submillimeter galaxies) and find that our limit on the FIR luminosity is the most constraining to date, although the field galaxies have much larger rest-frame UV/optical luminosities than the host of GRB 090423 by virtue of their selection techniques. We conclude that GRB host galaxies at z ≳ 4, especially those with measured interstellar medium metallicities from afterglow spectroscopy, are an attractive sample for future ALMA studies of high redshift obscured star formation.« less

  1. Host galaxy identification for binary black hole mergers with long baseline gravitational wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, E. J.; Chan, M. L.; Chu, Q.; Jones, D. H.; Heng, I. S.; Lee, H.-M.; Blair, D.; Degallaix, J.; Regimbau, T.; Miao, H.; Zhao, C.; Hendry, M.; Coward, D.; Messenger, C.; Ju, L.; Zhu, Z.-H.

    2018-03-01

    The detection of black hole binary coalescence events by Advanced LIGO allows the science benefits of future detectors to be evaluated. In this paper, we report the science benefits of one or two 8 km arm length detectors based on the doubling of key parameters in an Advanced LIGO-type detector, combined with realizable enhancements. It is shown that the total detection rate for sources similar to those already detected would increase to ˜ 103-105 per year. Within 0.4 Gpc, we find that around 10 of these events would be localizable to within ˜10-1 deg2. This is sufficient to make unique associations or to rule out a direct association with the brightest galaxies in optical surveys (at r-band magnitudes of 17 or above) or for deeper limits (down to r-band magnitudes of 20) yield statistically significant associations. The combination of angular resolution and event rate would benefit precision testing of formation models, cosmic evolution, and cosmological studies.

  2. A Tidal Disruption Event in a Nearby Galaxy Hosting an Intermediate Mass Black Hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donato, D; Cenko, S. B.; Covino, S.; Troja, E.; Pursimo, T.; Cheung, C. C.; Fox, O.; Kutyrev, A.; Campana, S.; Fugazza, D.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We report the serendipitous discovery of a bright point source flare in the Abell cluster A1795 with archival EUVE and Chandra observations. Assuming the EUVE emission is associated with the Chandra source, the X-ray 0.5-7 kiloelectronvolt flux declined by a factor of approximately 2300 over a time span of 6 years, following a power-law decay with index approximately equal to 2.44 plus or minus 0.40. The Chandra data alone vary by a factor of approximately 20. The spectrum is well fit by a blackbody with a constant temperature of kiloteslas approximately equal to 0.09 kiloelectronvolts (approximately equal to 10 (sup 6) Kelvin). The flare is spatially coincident with the nuclear region of a faint, inactive galaxy with a photometric redshift consistent at the 1 sigma level with the cluster (redshift = 0.062476).We argue that these properties are indicative of a tidal disruption of a star by a black hole (BH) with log(M (sub BH) / M (sub 1 solar mass)) approximately equal to 5.5 plus or minus 0.5. If so, such a discovery indicates that tidal disruption flares may be used to probe BHs in the intermediate mass range, which are very difficult to study by other means.

  3. Molecular Gas Kinematics and Star Formation Properties of the Strongly-lensed Quasar Host Galaxy RXS J1131-1231

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, T. K. Daisy; Riechers, Dominik A.; Pavesi, Riccardo

    2017-02-01

    We report observations of CO(J = 2 → 1) and {CO}(J=3\\to 2) line emission toward the quadruply-lensed quasar RXS J1131-1231 at z = 0.654 obtained using the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). Our lens modeling shows that the asymmetry in the double-horned CO(J = 2 → 1) line profile is mainly a result of differential lensing, where the magnification factor varies from ˜3 to ˜9 across different kinematic components. The intrinsically symmetric line profile and a smooth source-plane velocity gradient suggest that the host galaxy is an extended rotating disk, with a CO size of {R}{CO}˜ 6 kpc and a dynamical mass of {M}{dyn}˜ 8× {10}10 M ⊙. We also find a secondary CO-emitting source near RXS J1131-1231, the location of which is consistent with the optically-faint companion reported in previous studies. The lensing-corrected molecular gas masses are M gas = (1.4 ± 0.3) × 1010 M ⊙ and (2.0 ± 0.1) × 109 M ⊙ for RXS J1131-1231 and the companion, respectively. We find a lensing-corrected stellar mass of M * = (3 ± 1) × 1010 M ⊙ and a star formation rate of SFRFIR = (120 ± 63) M ⊙ yr-1, corresponding to a specific SFR and star formation efficiency comparable to z ˜ 1 disk galaxies not hosting quasars. The implied gas mass fraction of ˜18 ± 4% is consistent with the previously observed cosmic decline since z ˜ 2. We thus find no evidence for quenching of star formation in RXS J1131-1231. This agrees with our finding of an elevated {M}{BH}/{M}{bulge} ratio of >0.27{}-0.08+0.11% compared to the local value, suggesting that the bulk of its black hole mass is largely in place while its stellar bulge is still assembling.

  4. A Precise Distance to the Host Galaxy of the Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817 Using Surface Brightness Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantiello, Michele; Jensen, J. B.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Berger, E.; Levan, A. J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Raimondo, G.; Brocato, E.; Alexander, K. D.; Blanchard, P. K.; Branchesi, M.; Cano, Z.; Chornock, R.; Covino, S.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; D’Avanzo, P.; Eftekhari, T.; Fong, W.; Fruchter, A. S.; Grado, A.; Hjorth, J.; Holz, D. E.; Lyman, J. D.; Mandel, I.; Margutti, R.; Nicholl, M.; Villar, V. A.; Williams, P. K. G.

    2018-02-01

    The joint detection of gravitational waves (GWs) and electromagnetic radiation from the binary neutron star (BNS) merger GW170817 has provided unprecedented insight into a wide range of physical processes: heavy element synthesis via the r-process; the production of relativistic ejecta; the equation of state of neutron stars and the nature of the merger remnant; the binary coalescence timescale; and a measurement of the Hubble constant via the “standard siren” technique. In detail, all of these results depend on the distance to the host galaxy of the merger event, NGC 4993. In this Letter we measure the surface brightness fluctuation (SBF) distance to NGC 4993 in the F110W and F160W passbands of the Wide Field Camera 3 Infrared Channel (WFC3/IR) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). For the preferred F110W passband we derive a distance modulus of (m-M) =33.05+/- 0.08+/- 0.10 mag, or a linear distance d = 40.7 ± 1.4 ± 1.9 Mpc (random and systematic errors, respectively); a virtually identical result is obtained from the F160W data. This is the most precise distance to NGC 4993 available to date. Combining our distance measurement with the corrected recession velocity of NGC 4993 implies a Hubble constant H 0 = 71.9 ± 7.1 km s‑1 Mpc‑1. A comparison of our result to the GW-inferred value of H 0 indicates a binary orbital inclination of i ≳ 137°. The SBF technique can be applied to early-type host galaxies of BNS mergers to ∼100 Mpc with HST and possibly as far as ∼300 Mpc with the James Webb Space Telescope, thereby helping to break the inherent distance-inclination degeneracy of the GW data at distances where many future BNS mergers are likely to be detected. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with Program #15329 (PI: E

  5. Optical, Near-IR, and X-Ray Observations of SN 2015J and Its Host Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nucita, A. A.; De Paolis, F.; Saxton, R.; Testa, V.; Strafella, F.; Read, A.; Licchelli, D.; Ingrosso, G.; Convenga, F.; Boutsia, K.

    2017-12-01

    SN 2015J was discovered on 2015 April 27th and is classified as an SN IIn. At first, it appeared to be an orphan SN candidate, I.e., without any clear identification of its host galaxy. Here, we present an analysis of the observations carried out by the VLT 8 m class telescope with the FORS2 camera in the R band and the Magellan telescope (6.5 m) equipped with the IMACS Short-Camera (V and I filters) and the FourStar camera (Ks filter). We show that SN 2015J resides in what appears to be a very compact galaxy, establishing a relation between the SN event and its natural host. We also present and discuss archival and new X-ray data centered on SN 2015J. At the time of the supernova explosion, Swift/XRT observations were made and a weak X-ray source was detected at the location of SN 2015J. Almost one year later, the same source was unambiguously identified during serendipitous observations by Swift/XRT and XMM-Newton, clearly showing an enhancement of the 0.3-10 keV band flux by a factor ≃ 30 with respect to the initial state. Swift/XRT observations show that the source is still active in the X-rays at a level of ≃ 0.05 counts s-1. The unabsorbed X-ray luminosity derived from the XMM-Newton slew and SWIFT observations, {L}x≃ 5× {10}41 erg s-1, places SN 2015J among the brightest young supernovae in X-rays. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA, with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla-Paranal Observatory under program ID 298.D-5016(A), and with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. We also acknowledge the use of public data from the Swift data archive.

  6. HOST GALAXIES OF LUMINOUS TYPE 2 QUASARS AT z {approx} 0.5

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xin; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2009-09-10

    We present deep Gemini GMOS optical spectroscopy of nine luminous quasars at redshifts z {approx} 0.5, drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey type 2 quasar sample. Our targets were selected to have high intrinsic luminosities (M{sub V} < -26 mag) as indicated by the [O III] {lambda}5007 A emission-line luminosity (L[{sub OIII}]). Our sample has a median black hole mass of {approx}10{sup 8.8} M{sub sun} inferred assuming the local M {sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation and a median Eddington ratio of {approx}0.7, using stellar velocity dispersions {sigma}{sub *} measured from the G band. We estimate the contamination of the stellarmore » continuum from scattered quasar light based on the strength of broad H{beta}, and provide an empirical calibration of the contamination as a function of L {sub [OIII]}; the scattered-light fraction is {approx}30% of L{sub 5100} for objects with L {sub [OIII]} = 10{sup 9.5} L{sub sun}. Population synthesis indicates that young poststarburst populations (<0.1 Gyr) are prevalent in luminous type 2 quasars, in addition to a relatively old population (>1 Gyr) which dominates the stellar mass. Broad emission complexes around He II {lambda}4686 A with luminosities up to 10{sup 8.3} L{sub sun} are unambiguously detected in three out of the nine targets, indicative of Wolf-Rayet (WR) populations. Population synthesis shows that {approx}5 Myr poststarburst populations contribute substantially to the luminosities (>50% of L{sub 5100}) of all three objects with WR detections. We find two objects with double cores and four with close companions. Our results may suggest that luminous type 2 quasars trace an early stage of galaxy interaction, perhaps responsible for both the quasar and the starburst activity.« less

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AGN-Host Galaxy Connection (Povic+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povic, M.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Perez Garcia, A. M.; Bongiovanni, A.; Cepa, J.; Huertas-Company, M.; Lara-Lopez, M. A.; Fernandez Lorenzo, M.; Ederoclite, A.; Alfaro, E.; Castaneda, H.; Gallego, J.; Gonzalez-Serrano, J. I.; Gonzalez, J. J.

    2012-02-01

    Table presents the X-ray properties of all 1121 objects, including fluxes in six selected energy bands, and public available optical data for X-ray counterparts. X-ray flux in X/O flux ratio is the sum of fluxes in (0.5-2keV) and (2-4.5keV) bands, while the optical flux corresponds to R band. The represented hardness ratio was set using the same X-ray bands. Photometric redshifts and K-corrections were measured using the photometric information in five optical (Furusawa et al., 2008, Cat. J/ApJS/176/1), three NIR (Hewett et al., 2006MNRAS.367..454H; Hodgkin et al., 2009MNRAS.394..675H), and four MIR IRAC (SWIRE survey) bands. Morphological classification was obtained using the galSVM code (Huertas-Company et al., 2008A&A...478..971H, 2009A&A...497..743H), one of the new methods useful especially when dealing with high-redshift sources and low-resolution data. With galSVM we obtained the mean surface brightness, asymmetry, concentration index, Gini, Smoothness, M20 moment of light, and two probabilities p1 and p2 that the galaxy belongs to early- (E, S0, S0/Sa) or late-type, respectively. Stellarity and elongation parameters were obtained with SExtractor. All objects with stellarity parameter greater or equal to 0.9 were considered as compact in this work. We included in our analysis for early-type objects only those sources with p1 probabilities greater or equal to 0.75, and for late-type objects all sources with probabilities p2 greater than 0.5. (1 data file).

  8. PROVIDING STRINGENT STAR FORMATION RATE LIMITS OF z ∼ 2 QSO HOST GALAXIES AT HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Vayner, Andrey; Wright, Shelley A.; Do, Tuan

    2016-04-10

    We present integral field spectrograph (IFS) with laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS-AO) observations of z ∼ 2 quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) designed to resolve extended nebular line emission from the host galaxy. Our data was obtained with W. M. Keck and Gemini North Observatories, using OSIRIS and NIFS coupled with the LGS-AO systems, respectively. We have conducted a pilot survey of five QSOs, three observed with NIFS+AO and two observed with OSIRIS+AO at an average redshift of z = 2.2. We demonstrate that the combination of AO and IFSs provides the necessary spatial and spectral resolutions required to separate QSO emission from its host.more » We present our technique for generating a point-spread function (PSF) from the broad-line region of the QSO and performing PSF subtraction of the QSO emission to detect the host galaxy emission at a separation of ∼0.″2 (∼1.4 kpc). We detect Hα narrow-line emission for two sources, SDSS J1029+6510 (z{sub Hα} = 2.182) and SDSS J0925+0655 (z{sub Hα} = 2.197), that have evidence for both star formation and extended narrow-line emission. Assuming that the majority of narrow-line Hα emission is from star formation, we infer a star formation rate (SFR) for SDSS J1029+6510 of 78.4 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} originating from a compact region that is kinematically offset by 290–350 km s{sup −1}. For SDSS J0925+0655 we infer a SFR of 29 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} distributed over three clumps that are spatially offset by ∼7 kpc. The null detections on three of the QSOs are used to infer surface brightness limits and we find that at 1.4 kpc from the QSO the un-reddened star formation limit is ≲0.3 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}. If we assume typical extinction values for z = 2 type-1 QSOs, the dereddened SFR for our null detections would be ≲0.6 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}. These IFS observations indicate that while the central black hole is accreting mass at 10%–40% of the Eddington

  9. Discovery of 21 New Changing-look AGNs: Study on Evolution of AGNs and AGN Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qian; Wu, Xuebing; Fan, Xiaohui; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian; Shangguan, Jinyi; Yao, Su; Wang, Bingquan; Joshi, Ravi; Green, Richard F.; Wang, Feige; Feng, Xiaotong; Fu, Yuming; Yang, Jinyi; Liu, Yuanqi

    2018-01-01

    The rare case of changing-look (CL) AGNs, with the appearance or disappearance of broad Balmer emission lines within a few years, challenges our understanding of the AGN unified model. We present a sample of 21 new CL AGNs at 0.08 < z < 0.58. The new sample doubles the number of such objects known to date. These new CL AGNs were discovered by several ways, from repeat spectra in the SDSS, repeat spectra in the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) and SDSS, and from photometric variability and new spectroscopic observations. The estimated upper limits of transition timescale of the CL AGNs in this sample span from 0.9 to 13 years in rest-frame. The continuum flux in the optical and mid-infrared becomes brighter when the CL AGNs turn on, or vice versa. Variations of more than 0.2 mag in the mid-infrared W1 band, from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), were detected in 15 CL AGNs during the transition. The optical and mid-infrared variability is not consistent with the scenario of variable obscuration in 10 CL AGNs at higher than 3σ confidence level. We confirm a bluer-when-brighter trend in the optical. However, the mid-infrared colors W1‑W2 become redder when the objects become brighter in the W1 band, possibly due to a stronger hot dust contribution in the W2 band when the AGN activity becomes stronger. The physical mechanism of type transition is important for understanding the evolution of AGNs. The rare CL AGNs provide exceptional cases for the black hole and host stellar velocity dispersion relation studies at higher redshift. The faint state spectrum can be used to obtain the host stellar velocity dispersion without contamination from AGN component, and the bright state spectrum can be used to calculate the black hole mass with broad Balmer emission lines. The images at the non-AGN phase of CL AGNs are useful for studies of AGN host galaxies avoiding contamination from the luminous central engines.

  10. Discovery of a Giant Radio Halo in a New Planck Galaxy Cluster PLCKG171.9-40.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacintucci, Simona; Kale, Ruta; Wik, Daniel R.; Venturi, Tiziana; Markevitch, Maxim

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of a giant radio halo in a new, hot, X-ray luminous galaxy cluster recently found by Planck, PLCKG171.9-40.7. The radio halo was found using Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations at 235 MHz and 610 MHz, and in the 1.4 GHz data from a NRAO Very Large Array Sky Survey pointing that we have reanalyzed. The diffuse radio emission is coincident with the cluster X-ray emission, has an extent of approx.1 Mpc and a radio power of approx. 5×10(exp 24)W/Hz at 1.4 GHz. Its integrated radio spectrum has a slope of alpha approx. = 1.8 between 235 MHz and 1.4 GHz, steeper than that of a typical giant halo. The analysis of the archival XMMNewton X-ray data shows that the cluster is hot (approx. 10 keV) and disturbed, consistent with X-ray selected clusters hosting radio halos. This is the first giant radio halo discovered in one of the new clusters found by Planck.

  11. SN 2010ay is a Luminous and Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova within a Low-metallicity Host Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Valenti, S.; Chomiuk, L.; Berger, E.; Smartt, S.; Hurley, K.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Chornock, R.; Foley, R. J.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and detailed follow-up of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova SN2010ay at z approx 0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3pi survey just approx 4 days after explosion. Combining our photometric observations with those available in the literature, we estimate the explosion date and the peak luminosity of the SN, M(sub R) approximately equals 20.2 mag, significantly brighter than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ibc ever discovered. We measure the photospheric expansion velocity of the explosion from our spectroscopic follow-up observations, v(sub ph) approximately equals 19.2 X 10 (exp 3) km/s at approx 40 days after explosion. In comparison with other broad-lined SNe, the characteristic velocity of SN2010ay is 2 - 5 X higher and similar to the measurements for GRB-SNe at comparable epochs. Moreover the velocity declines two times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of Ni-56, M(sub Ni) = 0.9(+0.1/-0.1) solar mass. Our modeling of the light-curve points to a total ejecta mass, M(sub ej) approx 4.7 Solar Mass, and total kinetic energy, E(sub K,51) approximately equals 11. Thus the ratio of M(sub Ni) to M(sub ej) is at least twice as large for SN2010ay than in GRB-SNe and may indicate an additional energy reservoir. We also measure the metallicity (log(O/H) + 12 = 8.19) of the explosion site within the host galaxy using a high S/N optical spectrum. Our abundance measurement places this SN in the low-metallicity regime populated by GRB-SNe, and approx 0.2(0.5) dex lower than that typically measured for the host environments of normal (broad-lined) Ic supernovae. Despite striking similarities to the recent GRB-SN100316D/2010bh, we show that gamma-ray observations rule out an associated GRB with E(sub gamma) approx < 6 X 10(exp 48) erg (25-150 keV). Similarly, our deep

  12. SN 2010ay Is a Luminous and Broad-Lined Type Ic Supernova Within a Low-Metallicity Host Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Valenti, S.; Foley, R. J.; Chornock, R.; Chomiuk, L.; Berger, E.; Smartt, S.; Hurley, K.; Barthelmy, S. D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and follow-up observations of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) 2010ay at z = 0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3pi survey just approximately 4 days after explosion. The supernova (SN) had a peak luminosity, MR approx. -20.2 mag, significantly more luminous than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ib/c ever discovered. The absorption velocity of SN 2010ay is v Si (is) approx. 19×10(exp 3) km s-1 at approximately 40 days after explosion, 2-5 times higher than other broad-lined SNe and similar to the GRB-SN 2010bh at comparable epochs. Moreover, the velocity declines approximately 2 times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of 56Ni, MNi = 0.9 solar mass. Applying scaling relations to the light curve, we estimate a total ejecta mass, Mej (is) approx. 4.7 solar mass, and total kinetic energy, EK (is) approx. 11 × 10(exp 51) erg. The ratio of MNi to Mej is approximately 2 times as large for SN 2010ay as typical GRB-SNe and may suggest an additional energy reservoir. The metallicity (log(O/H)PP04 + 12 = 8.19) of the explosion site within the host galaxy places SN 2010ay in the low-metallicity regime populated by GRB-SNe, and (is) approximately 0.5(0.2) dex lower than that typically measured for the host environments of normal (broad-lined) SNe Ic. We constrain any gamma-ray emission with E(gamma) (is) approximately less than 6 × 10(exp 48) erg (25-150 keV), and our deep radio follow-up observations with the Expanded Very Large Array rule out relativistic ejecta with energy E (is) approximately greater than 10(exp 48) erg. We therefore rule out the association of a relativistic outflow like those that accompanied SN 1998bw and traditional long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), but we place less-stringent constraints on a weak afterglow like that seen from XRF

  13. The Compact, ˜1 kpc Host Galaxy of a Quasar at a Redshift of 7.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venemans, Bram P.; Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Bañados, Eduardo; Hodge, Jacqueline; Hewett, Paul; McMahon, Richard G.; Mortlock, Daniel J.; Simpson, Chris

    2017-03-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the [C II] fine-structure line and the underlying far-infrared (FIR) dust continuum emission in J1120+0641, the most distant quasar currently known (z=7.1). We also present observations targeting the CO(2-1), CO(7-6), and [C I] 369 μm lines in the same source obtained at the Very Large Array and Plateau de Bure Interferometer. We find a [C II] line flux of {F}[{{C}{{II}}]}=1.11+/- 0.10 Jy {km} {{{s}}}-1 and a continuum flux density of {S}227{GHz}=0.53+/- 0.04 mJy beam-1, consistent with previous unresolved measurements. No other source is detected in continuum or [C II] emission in the field covered by ALMA (˜ 25″). At the resolution of our ALMA observations (0.″23, or 1.2 kpc, a factor of ˜70 smaller beam area compared to previous measurements), we find that the majority of the emission is very compact: a high fraction (˜80%) of the total line and continuum flux is associated with a region 1-1.5 kpc in diameter. The remaining ˜20% of the emission is distributed over a larger area with radius ≲4 kpc. The [C II] emission does not exhibit ordered motion on kiloparsec scales: applying the virial theorem yields an upper limit on the dynamical mass of the host galaxy of (4.3+/- 0.9)× {10}10 {M}⊙ , only ˜20 × higher than the central black hole (BH). The other targeted lines (CO(2-1), CO(7-6), and [C I]) are not detected, but the limits of the line ratios with respect to the [C II] emission imply that the heating in the quasar host is dominated by star formation, and not by the accreting BH. The star formation rate (SFR) implied by the FIR continuum is 105-340 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1, with a resulting SFR surface density of ˜100-350 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1 kpc-2, well below the value for Eddington-accretion-limited star formation.

  14. Observations of galaxies harboring active massive black holes: The curious case of binaries and the coupled growth of black holes and their hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin

    2010-10-01

    It has been acknowledged that almost every massive galaxy harbors a central massive black hole (MBH) and the evolution of galaxies is intimately coupled to the growth of MBHs across cosmic time. This thesis presents observations of galaxies hosting active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to advance our understanding of this coupled growth in the hierarchical paradigm of galaxy formation. In the first half, I discuss a systematic survey of pairing AGNs in galaxy-galaxy mergers. First, I present the selection and characterization of a sample of 167 obscured AGNs that exhibit double-peaked [O III] lambdalambda4959,5007 lines from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The double-peaked features could signpost paring AGNs; alternatively they could arise from narrow-line region gas kinematics around a single MBH. Second, I describe follow-up observations to discriminate between these scenarios. Using near-infrared imaging and spatially-resolved optical spectroscopy, I have identified four kpc-scale binary AGNs from 43 double-peaked objects. Third, I present the selection and quantification of a sample of 256 candidate AGN pairs with projected separations of several kpc to tens of kpc from the SDSS, based on spectroscopic selection of AGN pairs and visual identification of morphological tidal signatures. The second half of the thesis presents observations and modeling of star formation and stellar content in galaxies harboring rapidly growing MBHs. Using deep optical spectroscopy, I find direct evidence that ≥30% of galaxies harboring luminous obscured quasars at redshifts of ˜0.5 are experiencing a major merger and/or a luminous infant starburst (˜5 Myr) clocked by the telltale Wolf-Rayet stellar emission signatures and further verified by population synthesis analysis. I examine the relation between black hole accretion and bulge star formation as a function of look back time tau in 20,541 SDSS obscured AGNs at z ˜ 0.1. I find lambda ∝ SSFR1.0-1.1t where lambda is the

  15. MOLECULAR GAS IN LENSED z >2 QUASAR HOST GALAXIES AND THE STAR FORMATION LAW FOR GALAXIES WITH LUMINOUS ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Riechers, Dominik A., E-mail: dr@caltech.edu

    2011-04-01

    We report the detection of luminous CO(J = 2{yields}1), CO(J = 3{yields}2), and CO(J = 4{yields}3) emission in the strongly lensed high-redshift quasars B1938+666 (z = 2.059), HE 0230-2130 (z = 2.166), HE 1104-1805 (z = 2.322), and B1359+154 (z = 3.240), using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. B1938+666 was identified in a 'blind' CO redshift search, demonstrating the feasibility of such investigations with millimeter interferometers. These galaxies are lensing-amplified by factors of {mu}{sub L} {approx_equal} 11-170, and thus allow us to probe the molecular gas in intrinsically fainter galaxies than currently possible without the aid ofmore » gravitational lensing. We report lensing-corrected intrinsic CO line luminosities of L'{sub CO} = 0.65-21x10{sup 9} K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}, translating to H{sub 2} masses of M(H{sub 2}) = 0.52-17 x 10{sup 9} ({alpha}{sub CO}/0.8) M{sub sun}. To investigate whether or not the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in luminous quasars substantially contributes to L{sub FIR}, we study the L'{sub CO}-L{sub FIR} relation for quasars relative to galaxies without a luminous AGN as a function of redshift. We find no substantial differences between submillimeter galaxies and high-z quasars, but marginal evidence for an excess in L{sub FIR} in nearby low-L{sub FIR} AGN galaxies. This may suggest that an AGN contribution to L{sub FIR} is significant in systems with relatively low gas and dust content, but only minor in the most far-infrared-luminous galaxies (in which L{sub FIR} is dominated by star formation).« less

  16. X-ray radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panessa, F.

    2017-10-01

    I will present our latest results on a sample of radio galaxies selected at hard X-rays, derived from the INTEGRAL/IBIS and Swift/BAT AGN catalogues. They represent nearly 7-10% of the total AGN population and are characterized by high 20-100 keV luminosities and high Eddington ratios. The radio morphology is typical of FRII galaxies and all of them have an optical classification. For all of them we have an accurate measure of the column density obtained from broad-band spectra (XMM, Chandra, Swift/XRT data combined with IBIS and BAT spectra). We have investigated the role of absorption in AGN with jets, studying their X-ray column density distribution. The observed fraction of absorbed AGN is around 40% among the total sample, and nearly 75% among type 2 AGN. The observed fraction of Compton thick AGN is only 2-3%. Interestingly, nearly 20% of hard X-ray selected radio galaxies are Giant (size larger than 0.7 Mpc), compared to the less than 6% usually found in radio or optically selected sample. A sensible fraction of these old systems experiences episodes of restarting activity. These results will be discussed within the frame of unified and evolutionary models.

  17. GOING THE DISTANCE: MAPPING HOST GALAXIES OF LIGO AND VIRGO SOURCES IN THREE DIMENSIONS USING LOCAL COSMOGRAPHY AND TARGETED FOLLOW-UP

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Leo P.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Gehrels, Neil

    2016-09-20

    The Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) discovered gravitational waves (GWs) from a binary black hole merger in 2015 September and may soon observe signals from neutron star mergers. There is considerable interest in searching for their faint and rapidly fading electromagnetic (EM) counterparts, though GW position uncertainties are as coarse as hundreds of square degrees. Because LIGO’s sensitivity to binary neutron stars is limited to the local universe, the area on the sky that must be searched could be reduced by weighting positions by mass, luminosity, or star formation in nearby galaxies. Since GW observations provide information about luminositymore » distance, combining the reconstructed volume with positions and redshifts of galaxies could reduce the area even more dramatically. A key missing ingredient has been a rapid GW parameter estimation algorithm that reconstructs the full distribution of sky location and distance. We demonstrate the first such algorithm, which takes under a minute, fast enough to enable immediate EM follow-up. By combining the three-dimensional posterior with a galaxy catalog, we can reduce the number of galaxies that could conceivably host the event by a factor of 1.4, the total exposure time for the Swift X-ray Telescope by a factor of 2, the total exposure time for a synoptic optical survey by a factor of 2, and the total exposure time for a narrow-field optical telescope by a factor of 3. This encourages us to suggest a new role for small field of view optical instruments in performing targeted searches of the most massive galaxies within the reconstructed volumes.« less

  18. Going the Distance: Mapping Host Galaxies of LIGO and VIRGO Sources in Three Dimensions using Local Cosmography and Targeted Follow-Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Leo P.; Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel E.; Farr, Will M.; Price, Larry R.; Raymond, Vivien; Cenko, S. Bradley; Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) discovered gravitational waves (GWs) from a binary black hole merger in 2015 September and may soon observe signals from neutron star mergers. There is considerable interest in searching for their faint and rapidly fading electromagnetic (EM) counterparts, though GW position uncertainties are as coarse as hundreds of square degrees. Because LIGO's sensitivity to binary neutron stars is limited to the local universe, the area on the sky that must be searched could be reduced by weighting positions by mass, luminosity, or star formation in nearby galaxies. Since GW observations provide information about luminosity distance, combining the reconstructed volume with positions and redshifts of galaxies could reduce the area even more dramatically. A key missing ingredient has been a rapid GW parameter estimation algorithm that reconstructs the full distribution of sky location and distance. We demonstrate the first such algorithm, which takes under a minute, fast enough to enable immediate EM follow-up. By combining the three-dimensional posterior with a galaxy catalog, we can reduce the number of galaxies that could conceivably host the event by a factor of 1.4, the total exposure time for the Swift X-ray Telescope by a factor of 2, the total exposure time for a synoptic optical survey by a factor of 2, and the total exposure time for a narrow-field optical telescope by a factor of 3. This encourages us to suggest a new role for small field of view optical instruments in performing targeted searches of the most massive galaxies within the reconstructed volumes.

  19. Going the Distance: Mapping Host Galaxies of LIGO and Virgo Sources in Three Dimensions Using Local Cosmography and Targeted Follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Leo P.; Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel E.; Farr, Will M.; Price, Larry R.; Raymond, Vivien; Cenko, S. Bradley; Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Nissanke, Samaya; Coughlin, Michael; Farr, Ben; Urban, Alex L.; Vitale, Salvatore; Veitch, John; Graff, Philip; Berry, Christopher P. L.; Mohapatra, Satya; Mandel, Ilya

    2016-09-01

    The Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) discovered gravitational waves (GWs) from a binary black hole merger in 2015 September and may soon observe signals from neutron star mergers. There is considerable interest in searching for their faint and rapidly fading electromagnetic (EM) counterparts, though GW position uncertainties are as coarse as hundreds of square degrees. Because LIGO’s sensitivity to binary neutron stars is limited to the local universe, the area on the sky that must be searched could be reduced by weighting positions by mass, luminosity, or star formation in nearby galaxies. Since GW observations provide information about luminosity distance, combining the reconstructed volume with positions and redshifts of galaxies could reduce the area even more dramatically. A key missing ingredient has been a rapid GW parameter estimation algorithm that reconstructs the full distribution of sky location and distance. We demonstrate the first such algorithm, which takes under a minute, fast enough to enable immediate EM follow-up. By combining the three-dimensional posterior with a galaxy catalog, we can reduce the number of galaxies that could conceivably host the event by a factor of 1.4, the total exposure time for the Swift X-ray Telescope by a factor of 2, the total exposure time for a synoptic optical survey by a factor of 2, and the total exposure time for a narrow-field optical telescope by a factor of 3. This encourages us to suggest a new role for small field of view optical instruments in performing targeted searches of the most massive galaxies within the reconstructed volumes.

  20. Subaru High-z Exploration of Low-Luminosity Quasars (SHELLQs). III. Star formation properties of the host galaxies at z ≳ 6 studied with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Takuma; Onoue, Masafusa; Shirakata, Hikari; Nagao, Tohru; Kohno, Kotaro; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Strauss, Michael A.; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Schulze, Andreas; Silverman, John D.; Fujimoto, Seiji; Harikane, Yuichi; Toba, Yoshiki; Umehata, Hideki; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Greene, Jenny E.; Tamura, Yoichi; Taniguchi, Akio; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Goto, Tomotsugu; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Ikarashi, Soh; Iono, Daisuke; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Makiya, Ryu; Minezaki, Takeo; Tang, Ji-Jia

    2018-04-01

    We present our ALMA Cycle 4 measurements of the [C II] emission line and the underlying far-infrared (FIR) continuum emission from four optically low-luminosity (M1450 > -25) quasars at z ≳ 6 discovered by the Subaru Hyper Suprime Cam (HSC) survey. The [C II] line and FIR continuum luminosities lie in the ranges L_[C II] = (3.8-10.2)× 108 L_{⊙} and LFIR = (1.2-2.0) × 1011 L_{⊙}, which are at least one order of magnitude smaller than those of optically-luminous quasars at z ≳ 6. We estimate the star formation rates (SFRs) of our targets as ≃ 23-40 M_{⊙} yr-1. Their line and continuum-emitting regions are marginally resolved, and found to be comparable in size to those of optically-luminous quasars, indicating that their SFR or likely gas mass surface densities (key controlling parameter of mass accretion) are accordingly different. The L_[C II]/L_FIR ratios of the hosts, ≃ (2.2-8.7) × 10-3, are fully consistent with local star-forming galaxies. Using the [C II] dynamics, we derived their dynamical masses within a radius of 1.5-2.5 kpc as ≃ (1.4-8.2) × 1010 M_{⊙}. By interpreting these masses as stellar ones, we suggest that these faint quasar hosts are on or even below the star-forming main sequence at z ˜ 6, i.e., they appear to be transforming into quiescent galaxies. This is in contrast to the optically-luminous quasars at those redshifts, which show starburst-like properties. Finally, we find that the ratios of black hole mass to host galaxy dynamical mass of most of the low-luminosity quasars, including the HSC ones, are consistent with the local value. The mass ratios of the HSC quasars can be reproduced by a semi-analytical model that assumes merger-induced black hole host galaxy evolution.

  1. Bulges and Disklike Components in the Host Galaxies of Low-Redshift 3CR Sources: A Near-Infrared View of Their Radial Brightness Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donzelli, Carlos J.; Chiaberge, Marco; Macchetto, F. Duccio; Madrid, Juan P.; Capetti, Alessandro; Marchesini, Danilo

    2007-10-01

    We analyze the near-infrared luminosity profiles and photometric parameters of the host galaxies of 3CR radio sources with z<0.3, to investigate their physical nature. Our sample includes 82 galaxies, of which 22 (27%) are FR Is and 60 (73%) are FR IIs. Using near-infrared data taken both with NICMOS on board the Hubble Space Telescope and from the ground with the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, we find that luminosity profiles are very well described by a single Sérsic law in 52% of the cases and that for the remaining objects (48%) it is necessary to include an exponential profile, which indicates the presence of a second disklike component. The average bulge-to-disklike components luminosity ratio for the galaxies is (b/e)~1.1. The analysis of the photometric parameters of the subsamples indicates that FR Is and FR IIs show rather similar bulges in terms of effective surface magnitude, effective radius, and Sérsic index. On the other hand, the disklike components in FR I and FR II hosts show, on average, different properties. Central surface magnitudes are dimmer and scale lengths are greater by a factor of 2 in FR Is when compared to FR IIs. We also estimate the black hole mass associated with each galaxy using two different methods that claim tight correlations of the black hole mass (MBH) with the infrared bulge luminosity (Lbulge) and with the Sérsic index (n). Our data indicate that masses obtained through these two methods show a high dispersion and that MBH obtained through Lbulge are systematically higher (by a factor of ~3) than those obtained using n. This result may reflect the fact that for our sample galaxies we do not find any correlation between Lbulge and n. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST), obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  2. Are long gamma-ray bursts biased tracers of star formation? Clues from the host galaxies of the Swift/BAT6 complete sample of bright LGRBs. II. Star formation rates and metallicities at z < 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Japelj, J.; Vergani, S. D.; Salvaterra, R.; D'Avanzo, P.; Mannucci, F.; Fernandez-Soto, A.; Boissier, S.; Hunt, L. K.; Atek, H.; Rodríguez-Muñoz, L.; Scodeggio, M.; Cristiani, S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Flores, H.; Gallego, J.; Ghirlanda, G.; Gomboc, A.; Hammer, F.; Perley, D. A.; Pescalli, A.; Petitjean, P.; Puech, M.; Rafelski, M.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) are associated with the deaths of massive stars and might therefore be a potentially powerful tool for tracing cosmic star formation. However, especially at low redshifts (z< 1.5) LGRBs seem to prefer particular types of environment. Our aim is to study the host galaxies of a complete sample of bright LGRBs to investigate the effect of the environment on GRB formation. Methods: We studied host galaxy spectra of the Swift/BAT6 complete sample of 14 z< 1 bright LGRBs. We used the detected nebular emission lines to measure the dust extinction, star formation rate (SFR), and nebular metallicity (Z) of the hosts and supplemented the data set with previously measured stellar masses M⋆. The distributions of the obtained properties and their interrelations (e.g. mass-metallicity and SFR-M⋆ relations) are compared to samples of field star-forming galaxies. Results: We find that LGRB hosts at z< 1 have on average lower SFRs than if they were direct star formation tracers. By directly comparing metallicity distributions of LGRB hosts and star-forming galaxies, we find a good match between the two populations up to 12 +log ≤ft( frac{OHright)} 8.4-8.5, after which the paucity of metal-rich LGRB hosts becomes apparent. The LGRB host galaxies of our complete sample are consistent with the mass-metallicity relation at similar mean redshift and stellar masses. The cutoff against high metallicities (and high masses) can explain the low SFR values of LGRB hosts. We find a hint of an increased incidence of starburst galaxies in the Swift/BAT6 z< 1 sample with respect to that of a field star-forming population. Given that the SFRs are low on average, the latter is ascribed to low stellar masses. Nevertheless, the limits on the completeness and metallicity availability of current surveys, coupled with the limited number of LGRB host galaxies, prevents us from investigating more quantitatively whether the starburst incidence is such as expected

  3. Redshift determination of the BL Lac object 3C 66A by the detection of its host galaxy cluster at z = 0.340

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Zafra, Juanita; Cellone, Sergio A.; Buzzoni, Alberto; Andruchow, Ileana; Portilla, José G.

    2018-03-01

    The BL Lac object 3C 66A is one of the most luminous extragalactic sources at TeV γ-rays (very high energy, i.e. E > 100 GeV). Since TeV γ-ray radiation is absorbed by the extragalactic background light (EBL), it is crucial to know the redshift of the source in order to reconstruct its original spectral energy distribution, as well as to constrain EBL models. However, the optical spectrum of this BL Lac is almost featureless, so a direct measurement of z is very difficult; in fact, the published redshift value for this source (z = 0.444) has been strongly questioned. Based on EBL absorption arguments, several constraints to its redshift, in the range 0.096 < z < 0.5, were proposed. Since these active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are hosted, typically, in early-type galaxies that are members of groups or clusters, we have analysed spectro-photometrically the environment of 3C 66A, with the goal of finding the galaxy group hosting this blazar. This study was made using optical images of a 5.5 × 5.5 arcmin2 field centred on the blazar, and spectra of 24 sources obtained with Gemini/GMOS-N multi-object spectroscopy. We found spectroscopic evidence of two galaxy groups along the blazar's line of sight: one at z ≃ 0.020 and the second one at z ≃ 0.340. The first one is consistent with a known foreground structure, while the second group presented here has six spectroscopically confirmed members. Their location along a red sequence in the colour-magnitude diagram allows us to identify 34 additional candidate members of the more distant group. The blazar's spectrum shows broad absorption features that we identify as arising in the intergalactic medium, thus allowing us to tentatively set a redshift lower limit at z_3C66A ≳ 0.33. As a consequence, we propose that 3C 66A is hosted in a galaxy that belongs to a cluster at z = 0.340.

  4. Hα Intensity Map of the Repeating Fast Radio Burst FRB 121102 Host Galaxy from Subaru/Kyoto 3DII AO-assisted Optical Integral-field Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokubo, Mitsuru; Mitsuda, Kazuma; Sugai, Hajime; Ozaki, Shinobu; Minowa, Yosuke; Hattori, Takashi; Hayano, Yutaka; Matsubayashi, Kazuya; Shimono, Atsushi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Doi, Mamoru

    2017-08-01

    We present the Hα intensity map of the host galaxy of the repeating fast radio burst FRB 121102 at a redshift of z = 0.193 obtained with the AO-assisted Kyoto 3DII optical integral-field unit mounted on the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope. We detected a compact Hα-emitting (I.e., star-forming) region in the galaxy, which has a much smaller angular size (< 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 57 (1.9 kpc) at full width at half maximum (FWHM)) than the extended stellar continuum emission region determined by the Gemini/GMOS z\\prime -band image (≃ 1\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 4 (4.6 kpc) at FWHM with ellipticity b/a=0.45). The spatial offset between the centroid of the Hα emission region and the position of the radio bursts is 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 08+/- 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 02 (0.26 ± 0.07 kpc), indicating that FRB 121102 is located within the star-forming region. This close spatial association of FRB 121102 with the star-forming region is consistent with expectations from young pulsar/magnetar models for FRB 121102, and it also suggests that the observed Hα emission region can make a major dispersion measure (DM) contribution to the host galaxy DM component of FRB 121102. Nevertheless, the largest possible value of the DM contribution from the Hα emission region inferred from our observations still requires a significant amount of ionized baryons in intergalactic medium (IGM; the so-called “missing” baryons) as the DM source of FRB 121102, and we obtain a 90% confidence level lower limit on the cosmic baryon density in the IGM in the low-redshift universe as {{{Ω }}}{IGM}> 0.012. Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  5. The column density distribution of hard X-ray radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panessa, F.; Bassani, L.; Landi, R.; Bazzano, A.; Dallacasa, D.; La Franca, F.; Malizia, A.; Venturi, T.; Ubertini, P.

    2016-09-01

    In order to investigate the role of absorption in active galactic nuclei (AGN) with jets, we have studied the column density distribution of a hard X-ray selected sample of radio galaxies, derived from the INTEGRAL/Imager on Board the Integral Satellite (IBIS) and Swift/The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) AGN catalogues (˜7-10 per cent of the total AGN population). The 64 radio galaxies have a typical FR II radio morphology and are characterized by high 20-100 keV luminosities (from 1042 to 1046 erg s-1) and high Eddington ratios (log LBol/LEdd typically larger than ˜0.01). The observed fraction of absorbed AGN (NH > 1022 cm-2) is around 40 per cent among the total sample, and ˜75 per cent among type 2 AGN. The majority of obscured AGN are narrow-line objects, while unobscured AGN are broad-line objects, obeying to the zeroth-order predictions of unified models. A significant anti-correlation between the radio core dominance parameter and the X-ray column density is found. The observed fraction of Compton thick AGN is ˜2-3 per cent, in comparison with the 5-7 per cent found in radio-quiet hard X-ray selected AGN. We have estimated the absorption and Compton thick fractions in a hard X-ray sample containing both radio galaxies and non-radio galaxies and therefore affected by the same selection biases. No statistical significant difference was found in the absorption properties of radio galaxies and non-radio galaxies sample. In particular, the Compton thick objects are likely missing in both samples and the fraction of obscured radio galaxies appears to decrease with luminosity as observed in hard X-ray non-radio galaxies.

  6. Studies of the evolution of the x ray emission of clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, J. Patrick

    1990-01-01

    The x ray luminosity function of clusters of galaxies was determined at different cosmic epoches using data from the Einstein Observatory Extended Medium Survey. The sample consisted of 67 x ray selected clusters that were grouped into three redshift shells. Evolution was detected in the x ray properties of clusters. The present volume density of high luminosity clusters was found to be greater than it was in the past. This result is the first convincing evidence for evolution in the x ray properties of clusters. Investigations into the constraints provided by these data on various Cold Dark Matter models are underway.

  7. High Resolution Simulations for Hierarchical Formation of Dark Matter Halos Hosting Galaxies and AGNs at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki

    2015-08-01

    We present the evolution of dark matter halos in six large cosmological N-body simulations, called the ν2GC (New Numerical Galaxy Catalog) simulations on the basis of the LCDM cosmology consistent with observational results obtained by the Planck satellite. The largest simulation consists of 81923 (550 billion) dark matter particles in a box of 1.12h-1Gpc (a mass resolution of 2.20×108 h-1M⊙). Among simulations utilizing boxes larger than 1h-1Gpc, our simulation yields the highest resolution simulation that has ever been achieved. Compared with the Millennium simulation (Springel et al. 2005), our simulation offers the advantages of a mass resolution that is four times better and a spatial volume that is 11 times larger. A ν2GC simulation with the smallest box consists of eight billions particles in a box of 70h-1Mpc (a mass resolution of 3.44×106 -1M⊙). These simulations can follow the evolution of halos over masses of eight orders of magnitude, from small dwarf galaxies to massive clusters. Using the unprecedentedly high resolution and powerful statistics of the ν2GC simulations, we provide statistical results of the halo mass function, mass accretion rate, formation redshift, and merger statistics, and present accurate fitting functions for the Planck cosmology, from redshift 10 to 0. By combining the ν2GC simulations with our new semi-analytic galaxy formation model, we are able to prepare mock catalogs of galaxies and active galactic nuclei, which will be made publicly available in the near future.

  8. A tight relation between the age distributions of stellar clusters and the properties of the interstellar medium in the host galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miholics, Meghan; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Sills, Alison

    2017-09-01

    The age distributions of stellar cluster populations have long been proposed to probe the recent formation history of the host galaxy. However, progress is hampered by the limited understanding of cluster disruption by evaporation and tidal shocks. We study the age distributions of clusters in smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of isolated disc galaxies, which include a self-consistent, physical model for the formation and dynamical evolution of the cluster population and account for the variation of cluster disruption in time and space. We show that the downward slope of the cluster age distribution due to disruption cannot be reproduced with a single functional form, because the disruption rate exhibits systematic trends with cluster age (the 'cruel cradle effect'). This problem is resolved by using the median cluster age to trace cluster disruption. Across 120 independent galaxy snapshots and simulated cluster populations, we perform two-dimensional power-law fits of the median cluster age to various macroscopic physical quantities and find that it scales as t_med∝ Σ ^{-0.51± 0.03}σ _1D^{-0.85± 0.10}M_min^γ, for the gas surface density Σ, gas velocity dispersion σ1D, and minimum cluster mass Mmin. This scaling accurately describes observed cluster populations and indicates disruption by impulsive tidal shocks from the interstellar medium. The term M_min^γ provides a model-independent way to measure the mass dependence of the cluster disruption time γ. Finally, the ensemble-average cluster lifetime depends on the gas density less strongly than the instantaneous disruption time of single clusters. These results reflect the variation of cluster disruption in time and space. We provide quantitative ways of accounting for these physics in cluster population studies.

  9. QUASARS PROBING QUASARS. VIII. THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE COOL CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM SURROUNDING z ∼ 2–3 MASSIVE GALAXIES HOSTING QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Marie Wingyee; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Hennawi, Joseph F., E-mail: lwymarie@ucolick.org

    2016-10-01

    We characterize the physical properties of the cool T  ∼ 10{sup 4} K circumgalactic medium (CGM) surrounding z  ∼ 2–3 quasar host galaxies, which are predicted to evolve into present-day massive ellipticals. Using a statistical sample of 14 quasar pairs with projected separation <300 kpc and spectra of high dispersion and high signal-to-noise ratio, we find extreme kinematics with low metal ion lines typically spanning ≈500 km s{sup −1}, exceeding any previously studied galactic population. The CGM is significantly enriched, even beyond the virial radius, with a median metallicity [M/H] ≈ −0.6. The α /Fe abundance ratio is enhanced, suggesting that halo gas ismore » primarily enriched by core-collapse supernovae. The projected cool gas mass within the virial radius is estimated to be 1.9 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ⊙} ( R {sub ⊥}/160 kpc){sup 2}, accounting for ≈1/3 of the baryonic budget of the galaxy halo. The ionization state of CGM gas increases with projected distance from the foreground quasars, contrary to expectation if the quasar dominates the ionizing radiation flux. However, we also found peculiarities not exhibited in the CGM of other galaxy populations. In one absorption system, we may be detecting unresolved fluorescent Ly α emission, and another system shows strong N v lines. Taken together, these anomalies suggest that transverse sightlines are—at least in some cases—possibly illuminated. We also discovered a peculiar case where detection of the C ii fine-structure line implies an electron density >100 cm{sup −3} and sub-parsec-scale gas clumps.« less

  10. The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. VII. Properties of the Host Galaxy and Constraints on the Merger Timescale

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, P. K.; Berger, E.; Fong, W.

    2017-10-16

    Here, we present the properties of NGC 4993, the host galaxy of GW170817, the first gravitational-wave (GW) event from the merger of a binary neutron star (BNS) system and the first with an electromagnetic (EM) counterpart. We use both archival photometry and new optical/near-IR imaging and spectroscopy, together with stellar population synthesis models to infer the global properties of the host galaxy. We infer a star formation history peaked atmore » $$\\gtrsim 10\\,\\mathrm{Gyr}$$ ago, with subsequent exponential decline leading to a low current star formation rate of 0.01 $${M}_{\\odot }$$ yr –1, which we convert into a binary merger timescale probability distribution. We find a median merger timescale of $${11.2}_{-1.4}^{+0.7}$$ Gyr, with a 90% confidence range of $$6.8\\mbox{–}13.6\\,\\mathrm{Gyr}$$. This in turn indicates an initial binary separation of $$\\approx 4.5$$ $${R}_{\\odot }$$, comparable to the inferred values for Galactic BNS systems. We also use new and archival Hubble Space Telescope images to measure a projected offset of the optical counterpart of 2.1 kpc (0.64r e ) from the center of NGC 4993 and to place a limit of $${M}_{r}\\gtrsim -7.2$$ mag on any pre-existing emission, which rules out the brighter half of the globular cluster luminosity function. Finally, the age and offset of the system indicates it experienced a modest natal kick with an upper limit of ~200 km s –1. Future GW–EM observations of BNS mergers will enable measurement of their population delay time distribution, which will directly inform their viability as the dominant source of r-process enrichment in the universe.« less

  11. The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. VII. Properties of the Host Galaxy and Constraints on the Merger Timescale

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, P. K.; Berger, E.; Fong, W.

    2017-10-16

    We present the properties of NGC 4993, the host galaxy of GW170817, the first gravitational wave (GW) event from the merger of a binary neutron star (BNS) system and the first with an electromagnetic (EM) counterpart. We use both archival photometry and new optical/near-IR imaging and spectroscopy, together with stellar population synthesis models to infer the global properties of the host galaxy. We infer a star formation history peaked atmore » $$\\gtrsim 10$$ Gyr ago, with subsequent exponential decline leading to a low current star formation rate of 0.01 M$$_{\\odot}$$ yr$$^{-1}$$, which we convert into a binary merger timescale probability distribution. We find a median merger timescale of $$11.2^{+0.7}_{-1.4}$$ Gyr, with a 90% confidence range of $6.8-13.6$ Gyr. This in turn indicates an initial binary separation of $$\\approx 4.5$$ R$$_{\\odot}$$, comparable to the inferred values for Galactic BNS systems. We also use new and archival $Hubble$ $Space$ $Telescope$ images to measure a projected offset of the optical counterpart of $2.1$ kpc (0.64$$r_{e}$$) from the center of NGC 4993 and to place a limit of $$M_{r} \\gtrsim -7.2$$ mag on any pre-existing emission, which rules out the brighter half of the globular cluster luminosity function. Finally, the age and offset of the system indicates it experienced a modest natal kick with an upper limit of $$\\sim 200$$ km s$$^{-1}$$. Future GW$-$EM observations of BNS mergers will enable measurement of their population delay time distribution, which will directly inform their viability as the dominant source of $r$-process enrichment in the Universe.« less

  12. Polar ring galaxies in the Galaxy Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelman, Ido; Funes, José G.; Brosch, Noah

    2012-05-01

    We report observations of 16 candidate polar-ring galaxies (PRGs) identified by the Galaxy Zoo project in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data base. Deep images of five galaxies are available in the SDSS Stripe82 data base, while to reach similar depth we observed the remaining galaxies with the 1.8-m Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope. We derive integrated magnitudes and u-r colours for the host and ring components and show continuum-subtracted Hα+[N II] images for seven objects. We present a basic morphological and environmental analysis of the galaxies and discuss their properties in comparison with other types of early-type galaxies. Follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations will allow a kinematic confirmation of the nature of these systems and a more detailed analysis of their stellar populations.

  13. OT1_mbradfor_1: The Impact of Quasars on their Host Galaxies: Gas Conditions and Star Formation in the Central Kiloparsec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, M.

    2010-07-01

    We propose to study the impact of powerful quasars on the star-forming gas in their host galaxies' central kiloparsec with a 44-hour program using the PACS and SPIRE spectrometers. We are targeting four intrinsically luminous and gravitationally-lensed AGN systems in the z~2-4 era which show evidence of obscured star formation in their hosts. We will measure the five bright far-IR fine-structure transitions: [SiII] 35, [OI] 63, [OIII] 52 & 88, and [CII] 158 which are the dominant interstellar gas coolants in galaxies. We will combine the Herschel line fluxes with Z-Spec measurements of the peak of the CO spectrum to provide a complete census of the atomic and molecular gas mass and cooling in the central kpc of these systems. Our datasets will allow us to perform two key experiments: 1) What heats the gas in the central kpc? When compared with one another and the dust continuum, the line measurements distinguish between UV-photon heating in photo-dissociation regions (PDRs) and bulk heating due to X-rays and/or cosmic rays. Relative to the PDRs, the bulk heating sources are very efficient at heating the gas and produce strong line-to-continuum ratios as well as an enhanced [SiII] / [CII] ratio. If X-rays or cosmic rays are really an important heating source, we will see unusually strong [SiII] and [OI] in these systems. 2) Is the stellar mass function biased toward high masses in these systems? It has been proposed that bulk heating mechanisms are likely to impact the stellar IMF, boosting the characteristic mass by as much as an order of magnitude relative to the Galaxy. Our measurements of the [OIII] transitions, when compared with the far-IR continuum or [CII] which trace total star formation provide a measure of the fraction of very massive stars in the stellar IMF. Similarly, comparison of the [OIII intensities and lower-ionization species (including upper limits) probe the stellar effective temperature through comparison with nebular models.

  14. The Tip of the red giant branch distance to the perfect spiral galaxy M74 hosting three core-collapse supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Sung Jang, In; Gyoon Lee, Myung, E-mail: isjang@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: mglee@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2014-09-01

    M74 (NGC 628) is a famous face-on spiral galaxy, hosting three core-collapse supernovae (SNe): SN Ic 2002ap, SN II-P 2003gd, and SN II-P 2013ej. However, its distance is not well known. We present a distance estimation for this galaxy based on the Tip of the Red Giant Branch (TRGB) method. We obtain photometry of the resolved stars in the arm-free region of M74 from F555W and F814W images in the Hubble Space Telescope archive. The color-magnitude diagram of the resolved stars shows a dominant red giant branch (RGB) as well as blue main sequence stars, red helium burning stars, andmore » asymptotic giant branch stars. The I-band luminosity function of the RGB stars shows the TRGB to be at I {sub TRGB} = 26.13 ± 0.03 mag, and T {sub RGB} = 25.97 ± 0.03. From this, we derive the distance modulus to M74 to be 30.04 ± 0.04 (random) ± 0.12 (systematic) (corresponding to a linear distance of 10.19 ± 0.14 ± 0.56 Mpc). With this distance estimate, we calibrate the standardized candle method for SNe II-P. From the absolute magnitudes of SN 2003gd, we derive a value of the Hubble constant, H {sub 0} = 72 ± 6 (random) ± 7 (systematic) km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1}. It is similar to recent estimates based on the luminosity calibration of Type Ia supernovae.« less

  15. ALMA INVESTIGATION OF VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC EMISSION LINES IN THE AGN-HOSTING ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY IRAS 20551−4250

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Izumi, Takuma, E-mail: masa.imanishi@nao.ac.jp

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of ALMA Cycle 2 observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy IRAS 20551−4250 at HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 3–2 lines at both vibrational ground ( v = 0) and vibrationally excited ( v {sub 2} = 1) levels. This galaxy contains a luminous buried active galactic nucleus (AGN), in addition to starburst activity, and our ALMA Cycle 0 data revealed a tentatively detected vibrationally excited HCN v {sub 2} = 1f J = 4–3 emission line. In our ALMA Cycle 2 data, the HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 3–2 emission lines at v = 0 are clearly detected.more » The HCN and HNC v {sub 2} = 1f J = 3–2 emission lines are also detected, but the HCO{sup +} v {sub 2} = 1f J = 3–2 emission line is not. Given the high energy level of v {sub 2} = 1 and the resulting difficulty of collisional excitation, we compared these results with those of the calculation of infrared radiative pumping, using the available infrared 5–35 μ m spectrum. We found that all of the observational results were reproduced if the HCN abundance was significantly higher than that of HCO{sup +} and HNC. The flux ratio and excitation temperature between v {sub 2} = 1f and v = 0, after correction for possible line opacity, suggests that infrared radiative pumping affects rotational ( J -level) excitation at v = 0 at least for HCN and HNC. The HCN-to-HCO{sup +} v = 0 flux ratio is higher than those of starburst-dominated regions, and will increase even more when the derived high HCN opacity is corrected. The enhanced HCN-to-HCO{sup +} flux ratio in this AGN-hosting galaxy can be explained by the high HCN-to-HCO{sup +} abundance ratio and sufficient HCN excitation at up to J = 4, rather than the significantly higher efficiency of infrared radiative pumping for HCN than HCO{sup +}.« less

  16. THE TIP OF THE RED GIANT BRANCH DISTANCES TO TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA HOST GALAXIES. II. M66 AND M96 IN THE LEO I GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Jang, In Sung, E-mail: mglee@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: isjang@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2013-08-10

    M66 and M96 in the Leo I Group are nearby spiral galaxies hosting Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). We estimate the distances to these galaxies from the luminosity of the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). We obtain VI photometry of resolved stars in these galaxies from F555W and F814W images in the Hubble Space Telescope archive. From the luminosity function of these red giants, we find the TRGB I-band magnitude to be I{sub TRGB} = 26.20 {+-} 0.03 for M66 and 26.21 {+-} 0.03 for M96. These values yield distance modulus (m - M){sub 0} = 30.12 {+-}more » 0.03(random) {+-} 0.12(systematic) for M66 and (m - M){sub 0} = 30.15 {+-} 0.03(random) {+-} 0.12(systematic) for M96. These results show that they are indeed the members of the same group. With these results we derive absolute maximum magnitudes of two SNe (SN 1989B in M66 and SN 1998bu in M96). V-band magnitudes of these SNe Ia are {approx}0.2 mag fainter than SN 2011fe in M101, one of the nearest recent SNe Ia. We also derive near-infrared magnitudes for SN 1998bu. Optical magnitudes of three SNe Ia (SN 1989B, SN 1998bu, and SN 2011fe) based on TRGB analysis yield a Hubble constant, H{sub 0} = 68.4 {+-} 2.6(random) {+-} 3.7(systematic) km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1}. This value is similar to the values derived from recent WMAP9 results, H{sub 0} = 69.32 {+-} 0.80 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1}, and from Planck results, H{sub 0} = 67.3 {+-} 1.2 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1}, but smaller than other recent determinations based on Cepheid calibration for SNe Ia luminosity, H{sub 0} = 74 {+-} 3 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1}.« less

  17. Impact of seeing and host galaxy into the analysis of photo-polarimetric microvariability in blazars. Case study of the nearby blazars 1ES 1959+650 and HB89 2201+044

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa, M. S.; von Essen, C.; Andruchow, I.; Cellone, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    Blazars, a type of Active Galactic Nuclei, present a particular orientation of their jets close to the line of sight. Their radiation is thus relativistically beamed, giving rise to extreme behaviors, specially strong variability on very short timescales (I.e., microvariability). Here we present simultaneous photometric and polarimetric observations of two relatively nearby blazars, 1ES 1959+650 and HB89 2201+044, that were obtained using the Calar Alto Faint Object Spectrograph mounted at the 2.2 m telescope in Calar Alto, Spain. An outstanding characteristic of these two blazars is the presence of well resolved host galaxies. This particular feature allows us to produce a study of their intrinsic polarization, a measurement of the polarization state of the galactic nucleus unaffected by the host galaxy. To carry out this work, we computed photometric fluxes from which we calculated the degree and orientation of the blazars polarization. Then, we analyzed the depolarizing effect introduced by the host galaxy with the main goal to recover the intrinsic polarization of the galactic nucleus, carefully taking into consideration the spurious polarimetric variability introduced by changes in seeing along the observing nights. We find that the two blazars do not present intra-night photo-polarimetric variability, although we do detect a significant inter-night variability. Comparing polarimetric values before and after accounting for the host galaxies, we observe a significant difference in the polarization degree of about 1% in the case of 1ES 1959+650, and 0.3% in the case of HB89 2201+044, thus evidencing the non-negligible impact introduced by the host galaxies. We note that this host galaxy effect depends on the waveband, and varies with changing seeing conditions, so it should be particularly considered when studying frequency-dependent polarization in blazars. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated

  18. Matching Supernovae to Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    One of the major challenges for modern supernova surveys is identifying the galaxy that hosted each explosion. Is there an accurate and efficient way to do this that avoids investing significant human resources?Why Identify Hosts?One problem in host galaxy identification. Here, the supernova lies between two galaxies but though the centroid of the galaxy on the right is closer in angular separation, this may be a distant background galaxy that is not actually near the supernova. [Gupta et al. 2016]Supernovae are a critical tool for making cosmological predictions that help us to understand our universe. But supernova cosmology relies on accurately identifying the properties of the supernovae including their redshifts. Since spectroscopic followup of supernova detections often isnt possible, we rely on observations of the supernova host galaxies to obtain redshifts.But how do we identify which galaxy hosted a supernova? This seems like a simple problem, but there are many complicating factors a seemingly nearby galaxy could be a distant background galaxy, for instance, or a supernovas host could be too faint to spot.The authors algorithm takes into account confusion, a measure of how likely the supernova is to be mismatched. In these illustrations of low (left) and high (right) confusion, the supernova is represented by a blue star, and the green circles represent possible host galaxies. [Gupta et al. 2016]Turning to AutomationBefore the era of large supernovae surveys, searching for host galaxies was done primarily by visual inspection. But current projects like the Dark Energy Surveys Supernova Program is finding supernovae by the thousands, and the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will likely discover hundreds of thousands. Visual inspection will not be possible in the face of this volume of data so an accurate and efficient automated method is clearly needed!To this end, a team of scientists led by Ravi Gupta (Argonne National Laboratory) has recently

  19. Multi-wavelength studies of the statistical properties of active galaxies using Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Gyulzadyan, M. V.; Mikayelyan, G. A.; Paronyan, G. M.

    2017-06-01

    Statistical studies of active galaxies (both AGN and Starburst) using large multi-wavelength data are presented, including new studies of Markarian galaxies, large sample of IR galaxies, variable radio sources, and large homogeneous sample of X-ray selected AGN. Markarian survey (the First Byurakan Survey) was digitized and the DFBS database was created, as the biggest spectroscopic database by the number of objects involved ( ~ 20 million). This database provides both 2D images and 1D spectra. We have carried out a number of projects aimed at revealing and multi-wavelength studies of active galaxies among optical, X-ray, IR and radio sources. Thousands of X-ray sources were identified from ROSAT, including many AGN (52% among all identified sources). IRAS PSC/FSC sources were studied having accurate positions from WISE and a large extragalactic sample was created for further search for AGNs. The fraction of active galaxies among IR-selected galaxies was estimated as 24%. Variable radio sources at 1.4 GHz were revealed by cross-correlation of NVSS and FIRST catalogues using the method introduced by us for optical variability. Radio-X-ray sources were revealed from NVSS and ROSAT for detection of new active galaxies. Big Data in astronomy is described that provide new possibilities for statistical research of active galaxies and other objects.

  20. Andromeda Galaxy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-10

    This image is from NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer is an observation of the large galaxy in Andromeda, Messier 31. The Andromeda galaxy is the most massive in the local group of galaxies that includes our Milky Way.

  1. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Extended [O III]λ 5007 Emission in Nearby QSO2s: New Constraints on AGN Host Galaxy Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Travis C.; Kraemer, S. B.; Schmitt, H. R.; Longo Micchi, L. F.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Revalski, M.; Vestergaard, M.; Elvis, M.; Gaskell, C. M.; Hamann, F.; Ho, L. C.; Hutchings, J.; Mushotzky, R.; Netzer, H.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Straughn, A.; Turner, T. J.; Ward, M. J.

    2018-04-01

    We present a Hubble Space Telescope survey of extended [O III] λ5007 emission for a sample of 12 nearby (z < 0.12), luminous Type 2 quasars (QSO2s), which we use to measure the extent and kinematics of their AGN-ionized gas. We find that the size of the observed [O III] regions scale with luminosity in comparison to nearby, less luminous Seyfert galaxies and radially outflowing kinematics to exist in all targets. We report an average maximum outflow radius of ∼600 pc, with gas continuing to be kinematically influenced by the central active galactic nucleus (AGN) out to an average radius of ∼1130 pc. These findings question the effectiveness of AGNs being capable of clearing material from their host bulge in the nearby universe and suggest that disruption of gas by AGN activity may prevent star formation without requiring evacuation. Additionally, we find a dichotomy in our targets when comparing [O III] radial extent and nuclear FWHM, where QSO2s with compact [O III] morphologies typically possess broader nuclear emission lines.

  2. SUPPLEMENT: “GOING THE DISTANCE: MAPPING HOST GALAXIES OF LIGO AND VIRGO SOURCES IN THREE DIMENSIONS USING LOCAL COSMOGRAPHY AND TARGETED FOLLOW-UP” (2016, ApJL, 829, L15)

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Leo P.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Gehrels, Neil

    2016-09-01

    This is a supplement to the Letter of Singer et al., in which we demonstrated a rapid algorithm for obtaining joint 3D estimates of sky location and luminosity distance from observations of binary neutron star mergers with Advanced LIGO and Virgo. We argued that combining the reconstructed volumes with positions and redshifts of possible host galaxies can provide large-aperture but small field of view instruments with a manageable list of targets to search for optical or infrared emission. In this Supplement, we document the new HEALPix-based file format for 3D localizations of gravitational-wave transients. We include Python sample code tomore » show the reader how to perform simple manipulations of the 3D sky maps and extract ranked lists of likely host galaxies. Finally, we include mathematical details of the rapid volume reconstruction algorithm.« less

  3. Radio Galaxies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on radio galaxies. Topic areas addressed include: what produces the radio emission; radio telescopes; locating radio galaxies; how distances to radio galaxies are found; physics of radio galaxies; computer simulations of radio galaxies; and the evolution of radio galaxies with cosmic time. (JN)

  4. Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows as Probes of Environment and Blastwave Physics. 1; Absorption by Host Galaxy Gas and Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starling, R. L. C.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wiersema, K.; Rol, E.; Curran, P. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; vanderHorst, A. J.; Heemskerk, M. H. M.

    2006-01-01

    We use a new approach to obtain limits on the absorbing columns towards an initial sample of 10 long Gamma-Ray Bursts observed with BeppoSAX and selected on the basis of their good optical and nIR coverage, from simultaneous fits to nIR, optical and X-ray afterglow data, in count space and including the effects of metallicity. In no cases is a MIV-like ext,inction preferred, when testing MW, LMC and SMC extinction laws. The 2175A bump would in principle be detectable in all these afterglows, but is not present in the data. An SMC-like gas-to-dust ratio or lower value can be ruled out for 4 of the hosts analysed here (assuming Sh4C metallicity and extinction law) whilst the remainder of the sample have too large an error to discriminate. We provide a more accurate estimate of the line-of-sight extinction and improve upon the uncertainties for the majority of the extinction measurements made in previous studies of this sample. We discuss this method to determine extinction values in comparison with the most commonly employed existing methods.

  5. Karl G. Jansky very large array observations of cold dust and molecular gas in starbursting quasar host galaxies at z ∼ 4.5

    SciTech Connect

    Wagg, J.; Carilli, C. L.; Lentati, L.

    2014-03-10

    We present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of 44 GHz continuum and CO J = 2-1 line emission in BRI 1202–0725 at z = 4.7 (a starburst galaxy and quasar pair) and BRI 1335–0417 at z = 4.4 (also hosting a quasar). With the full 8 GHz bandwidth capabilities of the upgraded VLA, we study the (rest-frame) 250 GHz thermal dust continuum emission for the first time along with the cold molecular gas traced by the low-J CO line emission. The measured CO J = 2-1 line luminosities of BRI 1202–0725 are L{sub CO}{sup ′}=(8.7±0.8)×10{sup 10} Kmore » km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2} and L{sub CO}{sup ′}=(6.0 ± 0.5)×10{sup 10} K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2} for the submillimeter galaxy (SMG) and quasar, respectively, which are equal to previous measurements of the CO J = 5-4 line luminosities implying thermalized line emission, and we estimate a combined cold molecular gas mass of ∼9×10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. In BRI 1335–0417 we measure L{sub CO}{sup ′}=(7.3±0.6)×10{sup 10} K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2}. We detect continuum emission in the SMG BRI 1202–0725 North (S {sub 44} {sub GHz} = 51 ± 6 μJy), while the quasar is detected with S {sub 44} {sub GHz} = 24 ± 6 μJy and in BRI 1335–0417 we measure S {sub 44} {sub GHz} = 40 ± 7 μJy. Combining our continuum observations with previous data at (rest-frame) far-infrared and centimeter wavelengths, we fit three-component models in order to estimate the star formation rates. This spectral energy distribution fitting suggests that the dominant contribution to the observed 44 GHz continuum is thermal dust emission, while either thermal free-free or synchrotron emission contributes less than 30%.« less

  6. Where are Compton-thick radio galaxies? A hard X-ray view of three candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursini, F.; Bassani, L.; Panessa, F.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Malizia, A.; Ubertini, P.

    2018-03-01

    We present a broad-band X-ray spectral analysis of the radio-loud active galactic nuclei NGC 612, 4C 73.08 and 3C 452, exploiting archival data from NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, Swift and INTEGRAL. These Compton-thick candidates are the most absorbed sources among the hard X-ray selected radio galaxies studied in Panessa et al. We find an X-ray absorbing column density in every case below 1.5 × 1024 cm-2, and no evidence for a strong reflection continuum or iron K α line. Therefore, none of these sources is properly Compton-thick. We review other Compton-thick radio galaxies reported in the literature, arguing that we currently lack strong evidences for heavily absorbed radio-loud AGNs.

  7. Baryon content and dynamic state of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.

    2016-06-01

    We are carrying out a panchromatic observing program to study the baryon content and dynamic state of galaxy clusters. In this talk, I will present results primarily from XMM-Newton observations of optically-selected clusters in the redshift range of 0.1-0.4. These clusters are selected because of their fortuitous alignment with background far-UV-bright QSOs, which thus allows for Ly-alpha and O VI absorption line spectroscopy with HST/COS, probing physical processes of the evolving intracluster medium, freshly accreted from the intergalactic medium and/or stripped out of individual galaxies, as well as the gaseous halos of individual cluster galaxies. Interestingly, such clusters tend to be dynamically young and often consist of merging subcluster pairs at similar redshifts. These subclusters themselves typically show substantial substructures, including strongly distorted radio lobes, as well as large position offsets between the diffuse X-ray centroids and the brightest galaxies. A comparison of the hot gas and stellar masses of each cluster with the expected cosmological baryonic mass fraction indicates a significant room for other gas components. I will also briefly examine the limitations of both optically and X-ray selected clusters, as well as how they may be used in a complementary fashion.

  8. Nuclear Activity of Compact Group Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jubee, Sohn; Hwang, H.; Lee, M.; Lee, G.; Lee, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present results of a study on nuclear activities of compact group galaxies in the local universe. The triggering mechanism of AGN is an intriguing proble, and one of the suggested AGN triggering mechanism is galaxy interaction. In this regard, compact groups are a great laboratory to study the connection between galaxy interaction and nuclear activities. To study the environmental effects on nuclear activity, we estimate the fraction of AGN-host galaxies for a spectroscopic sample of 238 member galaxies in 59 compact groups from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using the emission-line ratio diagnostic diagrams in comparison with field and cluster regions. We derive the 17-42% of AGN fraction of the compact groups depending on the AGN classification methods. The AGN fraction of compact groups is not the highest among the galaxy environments for both early and late type galaxies. We also examine the environmental dependence of nuclear activity using the surface galaxy number density. For early type galaxies, the AGN fraction decreases with increasing galaxy number density, while the AGN fraction of late-type galaxies barely changes. Moreover, we do not find any mid-infrared detected AGN-host compact group galaxies in our sample using WISE photometry. These results imply that the compact group galaxies is not stronngly active because of lack of gas supply, in contrast to the expectation that they may experience frequent galaxy-galaxy interactions.

  9. IRAS observations of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1985-01-01

    The IRAS survey gives an unbiased view of the infrared properties of the active galaxies. Seyfert galaxies occupy much the same area in color-color plots as to normal infrared bright galaxies, but extend the range towards flatter 60 to 25 mm slopes. Statistically the Seyfert 1 galaxies can be distinguished from the Seyfert 2 galaxies, lying predominantly closer to the area with constant slopes between 25 and 200 mm. The infrared measurements of the Seyfert galaxies cannot distinguish between the emission mechanisms in these objects although they agree with the currently popular ideas; they do provide a measure of the total luminosity of the Seyferts. The quasar's position in the color-color diagrams continue the trend of the Seyferts. The quasar 3C48 is shown to be exceptional among the radio loud quasars in that it has a high infrared luminosity which dominates the power output of the quasar and is most likely associated with the underlying host galaxy.

  10. PEARS Emission Line Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzkal, Nor; Rothberg, Barry; Ly, Chun; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Grogin, Norman A.; Dahlen, Tomas; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Walsh, Jeremy; Hathi, Nimish P.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitless grism spectroscopic data obtained vl'ith the Advanced Camera for Surveys on HST. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random surveY of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations to support the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data we are able to identify star forming galaxies within the redshift volume 0 < z < 1.5. Star forming regions in the PEARS survey are pinpointed independently of the host galaxy. This method allOW8 us to detect the presence of multiple emission line regions (ELRs) within a single galaxy. 1162 [OII], [OIII] and/or H-alpha emission lines have been identified in the PEARS sample of approx 906 galaxies down to a limiting flux of approx 10 - 18 erg/s/sq cm . The ELRs have also been compared to the properties of the host galaxy, including morphology, luminosity, and mass. From this analysis we find three key results: 1) The computed line luminosities show evidence of a flattening in the luminosity function with increasing redshift; 2) The star forming systems show evidence of disturbed morphologies, with star formation occurring predominantly within one effective (half-light) radius. However, the morphologies show no correlation with host stellar mass; and 3) The number density of star forming galaxies with M(*) >= 10(exp 9) Solar M decreases by an order of magnitude at z<=0.5 relative to the number at 0.5 < z < 0.9 in support of the argument for galaxy downsizing.

  11. High–frequency cluster radio galaxies: Luminosity functions and implications for SZE–selected cluster samples

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Nikhel; Saro, A.; Mohr, J. J.

    2017-01-15

    We study the overdensity of point sources in the direction of X-ray-selected galaxy clusters from the meta-catalogue of X-ray-detected clusters of galaxies (MCXC; < z > = 0.14) at South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey (SUMSS) frequencies. Flux densities at 95, 150 and 220 GHz are extracted from the 2500 deg 2 SPT-SZ survey maps at the locations of SUMSS sources, producing a multifrequency catalogue of radio galaxies. In the direction of massive galaxy clusters, the radio galaxy flux densities at 95 and 150 GHz are biased low by the cluster Sunyaev–Zel’dovich Effect (SZE) signal, whichmore » is negative at these frequencies. We employ a cluster SZE model to remove the expected flux bias and then study these corrected source catalogues. We find that the high-frequency radio galaxies are centrally concentrated within the clusters and that their luminosity functions (LFs) exhibit amplitudes that are characteristically an order of magnitude lower than the cluster LF at 843 MHz. We use the 150 GHz LF to estimate the impact of cluster radio galaxies on an SPT-SZ like survey. The radio galaxy flux typically produces a small bias on the SZE signal and has negligible impact on the observed scatter in the SZE mass–observable relation. If we assume there is no redshift evolution in the radio galaxy LF then 1.8 ± 0.7 per cent of the clusters with detection significance ξ ≥ 4.5 would be lost from the sample. As a result, allowing for redshift evolution of the form (1 + z) 2.5 increases the incompleteness to 5.6 ± 1.0 per cent. Improved constraints on the evolution of the cluster radio galaxy LF require a larger cluster sample extending to higher redshift.« less

  12. Disrupted Stars in Unusual Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    Tidal disruption events (TDEs) occur when a star passes a little too close to a supermassive black hole at the center of a galaxy. Tidal forces from the black hole cause the passing star to be torn apart, resulting in a brief flare of radiation as the stars material accretes onto the black hole. A recent study asks the following question: do TDEs occur most frequently in an unusual type of galaxy?A Trend in DisruptionsSo far, we have data from eight candidate TDEs that peaked in optical and ultraviolet wavelengths. The spectra from these observations have shown an intriguing trend: many of these TDEs host galaxies exhibit weak line emission (indicating little or no current star-formation activity), and yet they show strong Balmer absorption lines (indicating star formation activity occurred within the last Gyr). These quiescent, Balmer-strong galaxies likely underwent a period of intense star formation that recently ended.To determine if TDEs are overrepresented in such galaxies, a team of scientists led by Decker French (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona) has quantified the fraction of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) that exhibit similar properties to those of TDE hosts.Quantifying OverrepresentationSpectral characteristics of SDSS galaxies (gray) and TDE candidate host galaxies (colored points): line emission vs. Balmer absorption. The lower right-hand box identifies thequiescent, Balmer-strong galaxies which contain most TDE events, yet are uncommon among the galaxy sample as a whole. Click for a better look! [French et al. 2016]French and collaborators compare the optical spectra of the TDE host galaxies to those of nearly 600,000 SDSS galaxies, using two different cutoffs for the Balmer absorption the indicator of past star formation. Their strictest cut, filtering for very high Balmer absorption, selected only 0.2% of the SDSS galaxies, yet 38% of the TDEs are hosted in such galaxies. Using a more relaxed cutoff selects 2.3% of

  13. Dwarf galaxy evolution within the environments of massive galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arraki, Kenza S.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Ceverino, Daniel; Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Primack, Joel R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding galaxy evolution depends on connecting large-scale structure determined by the ΛCDM model with, at minimum, the small-scale physics of gas, star formation, and stellar feedback. Formation of galaxies within dark matter halos is sensitive to the physical phenomena occurring within and around the halo. This is especially true for dwarf galaxies, which have the smallest potential wells and are more susceptible to the effects of gas ionization and removal than larger galaxies. At dwarf galaxies scales comparisons of dark matter-only simulations with observations has unveiled various differences including the core-cusp, the missing satellites, and the too-big-to-fail problems. We have run a new suite of hydrodynamical simulations using the ART code to examine the evolution of dwarf galaxies in massive host environments. These are cosmological zoom-in simulations including deterministic star formation and stellar feedback in the form of supernovae feedback, stellar winds, radiation pressure, and photoionization pressure. We simulates galaxies with final halo masses on the order of 1012 M⊙ with high resolution, allowing us to examine the satellite dwarf galaxies and local isolated dwarf galaxies around each primary galaxy. We analyzed the abundance and structure of these dwarfs specifically the velocity function, their star formation rates, core creation and the circumgalactic medium. By reproducing observations of dwarf galaxies in simulations we show how including baryons in simulations relieves tensions seen in comparing dark matter only simulations with observations.

  14. Mysterious Blob Galaxies Revealed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-01-11

    This image composite shows a giant galactic blob (red) and the three merging galaxies NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope discovered within it (yellow). Blobs are intensely glowing clouds of hot hydrogen gas that envelop faraway galaxies. They are about 10 times as large as the galaxies they surround. Visible-light images reveal the vast extent of blobs, but don't provide much information about their host galaxies. Using its heat-seeking infrared eyes, Spitzer was able to see the dusty galaxies tucked inside one well-known blob located 11 billion light-years away. The findings reveal three monstrously bright galaxies, trillions of times brighter than the Sun, in the process of merging together. Spitzer also observed three other blobs located in the same cosmic neighborhood, all of which were found to be glaringly bright. One of these blobs is also known to be a galactic merger, only between two galaxies instead of three. It remains to be seen whether the final two blobs studied also contain mergers. The Spitzer data were acquired by its multiband imaging photometer. The visible-light image was taken by the Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07220

  15. Central Engine and Host Galaxy of RXJ 1301.9+2747: A Multiwavelength View of a Low-mass Black Hole Active Galactic Nuclei with Ultra-soft X-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, X. W.; Wang, T. G.; Jiang, N.; Wang, J. X.; Sun, L. M.; Zhou, H. Y.

    2017-03-01

    RXJ 1301.9+2747 is an optically identified very-low-mass AGN candidate with {M}{BH}˜ 1× {10}6 {M}⊙ , which shows extremely soft X-ray emission and unusual X-ray variability in the form of short-lived flares. We present an analysis of multiwavelength observations of RXJ 1301.9+2747 in order to study the properties of the active nucleus and its host galaxy. The UV-to-X-ray spectrum in the quiescent state can be well and self-consistently described by a thermal and a Comptonized emission from the accretion disk, with the black body dominating ˜70% of the X-rays in the 0.2-2 keV. The same model can describe the X-ray spectrum in the flare state, but the Comptonized component becomes dominant (˜80%). The best fit implies an Eddington ratio of ˜0.14 and a black-hole mass of (1.7-2.8)× {10}6 M ⊙, in agreement with the estimation from the optical data within errors. However, the best-fitting model under predicts the optical flux for the HST point source by a factor of ˜2. The excess of nuclear optical emission could be attributed to a nuclear stellar cluster, which is frequently seen in low-mass AGNs. The X-ray to optical spectral slope ({α }{ox}) is lower than in most other active galaxies, which may be attributed to intrinsically X-ray weakness due to very little hot and optically thin coronal emission. We performed a pilot search for weak or hidden broad emission lines using optical spectropolarimetry observations, but no polarized broad lines are detected. The host galaxy appears to be a disk galaxy with a boxy pseudobulge or nuclear bar accounting for ˜15% of the total starlight, which is consistent with the general characteristics of the host of low-mass AGNs.

  16. High redshift radio galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, Patrick J.

    1993-01-01

    High redshift galaxies that host powerful radio sources are examined. An overview is presented of the content of radio surveys: 3CR and 3CRR, 4C and 4C/USS, B2/1 Jy, MG, MRC/1Jy, Parkes/PSR, B3, and ESO Key-Project. Narrow-line radio galaxies in the visible and UV, the source of ionization and excitation of the emission lines, emission-line luminosities, morphology of the line-emitting gas, physical properties and energetics, kinematics of the line-emitting gas, and implications from the emission lines are discussed. The morphologies and environments of the host galaxies, the alignment effect, and spectral energy distributions and ages are also examined.

  17. The early phase of the SMBH-galaxy coevolution in low-z "young" galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that most galaxies have a supermassive black hole (SMBH) in their nucleus, and the evolution of SMBHs is closely related with that of their host galaxies (the SMBH-galaxy coevolution). This is suggested by the correlation in the mass of SMBHs and their host galaxies, that has been observed in low redshifts. However, the physics of the coevolution is totally unclear, that prevents us from complete understandings of the galaxy evolution. One possible strategy to tackle this issue is measuring the mass ratio between SMBHs and their host galaxies (M_BH/M_host) at high redshifs, since different scenarios predict different evolution of the ratio ofMBH/Mhost. However it is extremely challenging to measure the mass of the host of high-z quasars, given the faint surface brightness of the host at close to the glaring quasar nucleus. Here we propose a brand-new approach to assess the early phase of the SMBH-galaxy coevolution, by focusing on low-z AGN-hosting "young" galaxies. Specifically, we focus on some very metal-poor galaxies with broadline Balmer lines at z ~ 0.1 - 0.3. By examining the SMBH scaling relations in some low-z metal-poor AGNs through high-resolution IRCS imaging observations, we will discriminate various scenarios for the SMBH-galaxy coevolution.

  18. JELLYFISH: EVIDENCE OF EXTREME RAM-PRESSURE STRIPPING IN MASSIVE GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Ebeling, H.; Stephenson, L. N.; Edge, A. C.

    2014-02-01

    Ram-pressure stripping by the gaseous intracluster medium has been proposed as the dominant physical mechanism driving the rapid evolution of galaxies in dense environments. Detailed studies of this process have, however, largely been limited to relatively modest examples affecting only the outermost gas layers of galaxies in nearby and/or low-mass galaxy clusters. We here present results from our search for extreme cases of gas-galaxy interactions in much more massive, X-ray selected clusters at z > 0.3. Using Hubble Space Telescope snapshots in the F606W and F814W passbands, we have discovered dramatic evidence of ram-pressure stripping in which copious amounts ofmore » gas are first shock compressed and then removed from galaxies falling into the cluster. Vigorous starbursts triggered by this process across the galaxy-gas interface and in the debris trail cause these galaxies to temporarily become some of the brightest cluster members in the F606W passband, capable of outshining even the Brightest Cluster Galaxy. Based on the spatial distribution and orientation of systems viewed nearly edge-on in our survey, we speculate that infall at large impact parameter gives rise to particularly long-lasting stripping events. Our sample of six spectacular examples identified in clusters from the Massive Cluster Survey, all featuring M {sub F606W} < –21 mag, doubles the number of such systems presently known at z > 0.2 and facilitates detailed quantitative studies of the most violent galaxy evolution in clusters.« less

  19. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Relation Between Galaxy Cluster Optical Richness and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehgal, Neelima; Addison, Graeme; Battaglia, Nick; Battistelli, Elia S.; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Joanna; Duenner, Rolando; Gralla, Megan; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present the measured Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) flux from 474 optically-selected MaxBCG clusters that fall within the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) Equatorial survey region. The ACT Equatorial region used in this analysis covers 510 square degrees and overlaps Stripe 82 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We also present the measured SZ flux stacked on 52 X-ray-selected MCXC clusters that fall within the ACT Equatorial region and an ACT Southern survey region covering 455 square degrees. We find that the measured SZ flux from the X-ray-selected clusters is consistent with expectations. However, we find that the measured SZ flux from the optically-selected clusters is both significantly lower than expectations and lower than the recovered SZ flux measured by the Planck satellite. Since we find a lower recovered SZ signal than Planck, we investigate the possibility that there is a significant offset between the optically-selected brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and the SZ centers, to which ACT is more sensitive due to its finer resolution. Such offsets can arise due to either an intrinsic physical separation between the BCG and the center of the gas concentration or from misidentification of the cluster BCG. We find that the entire discrepancy for both ACT and Planck can be explained by assuming that the BCGs are offset from the SZ maxima with a uniform random distribution between 0 and 1.5 Mpc. In contrast, the physical separation between BCGs and X-ray peaks for an X-ray-selected subsample of MaxBCG clusters shows a much narrower distribution that peaks within 0.2 Mpc. We conclude that while offsets between BCGs and SZ peaks may be an important component in explaining the discrepancy, it is likely that a combination of factors is responsible for the ACT and Planck measurements. Several effects that can lower the SZ signal equally for both ACT and Planck, but not explain the difference in measured signals, include a larger percentage of false detections in the

  20. Galaxies: Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buta, R.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Galaxies are majestically beautiful objects, and anyone who has seen a galaxy through a telescope, or even our own Milky Way Galaxy with the unaided eye, cannot help but wonder at the nature of these remote star systems and what they have to say about our universe and ourselves. Much of what is known about galaxies began with a simple classification of their appearance as seen on direct photograp...

  1. Carnegie-Spitzer-IMACS Survey: The Rise of Galaxy Groups Since z=1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Rik J.; Kelson, D.; Dressler, A.; McCarthy, P.; Mulchaey, J.; Oemler, A., Jr.; Shectman, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first measurements of the evolution of the group stellar mass function (GSMF) since z=1 from the Carnegie-Spitzer-IMACS (CSI) Survey. CSI combines robust mass selection through Spitzer 3.6-micron photometry with low-resolution spectroscopy over a 15 deg2 area, allowing the detailed study of large group (and group/field galaxy) samples over the expected epoch of group formation. From the initial 36,000 CSI galaxy redshifts over 5 deg2, we select groups using a standard friends-of-friends algorithm in angular and redshift space, constructing the GSMF in 3 redshift bins. These mass functions agree well with GSMFs from SDSS at z=0, and with X-ray-selected cluster mass functions at higher masses and redshifts. At all masses the GSMF evolves strongly from z=0.5-1, but only weak evolution is seen in low-mass (log M* ˜ 12.0) groups since z=0.5, indicating that most of these were in place at that epoch. As the majority of low-redshift galaxies reside in groups, the group environment may therefore play an important role in the decline in star formation and evolution of galaxy structures since z=1.

  2. Constraints on the optical depth of galaxy groups and clusters

    DOE PAGES

    Flender, Samuel; Nagai, Daisuke; McDonald, Michael

    2017-03-10

    Here, future data from galaxy redshift surveys, combined with high-resolutions maps of the cosmic microwave background, will enable measurements of the pairwise kinematic Sunyaev–Zel'dovich (kSZ) signal with unprecedented statistical significance. This signal probes the matter-velocity correlation function, scaled by the average optical depth (τ) of the galaxy groups and clusters in the sample, and is thus of fundamental importance for cosmology. However, in order to translate pairwise kSZ measurements into cosmological constraints, external constraints on τ are necessary. In this work, we present a new model for the intracluster medium, which takes into account star formation, feedback, non-thermal pressure, and gas cooling. Our semi-analytic model is computationally efficient and can reproduce results of recent hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy cluster formation. We calibrate the free parameters in the model using recent X-ray measurements of gas density profiles of clusters, and gas masses of groups and clusters. Our observationally calibrated model predicts the averagemore » $${\\tau }_{500}$$ (i.e., the integrated τ within a disk of size R 500) to better than 6% modeling uncertainty (at 95% confidence level). If the remaining uncertainties associated with other astrophysical uncertainties and X-ray selection effects can be better understood, our model for the optical depth should break the degeneracy between optical depth and cluster velocity in the analysis of future pairwise kSZ measurements and improve cosmological constraints with the combination of upcoming galaxy and CMB surveys, including the nature of dark energy, modified gravity, and neutrino mass.« less

  3. The HIX galaxy survey II: HI kinematics of HI eXtreme galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, K. A.; Kilborn, V. A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Catinella, B.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Wong, O. I.; Stevens, A. R. H.; Obreschkow, D.; Dénes, H.

    2018-02-01

    By analysing a sample of galaxies selected from the HI Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) to contain more than 2.5 times their expected HI content based on their optical properties, we investigate what drives these HI eXtreme (HIX) galaxies to be so HI-rich. We model the H I kinematics with the Tilted Ring Fitting Code TiRiFiC and compare the observed HIX galaxies to a control sample of galaxies from HIPASS as well as simulated galaxies built with the semi-analytic model DARK SAGE. We find that (1) H I discs in HIX galaxies are more likely to be warped and more likely to host H I arms and tails than in the control galaxies, (2) the average H I and average stellar column density of HIX galaxies is comparable to the control sample, (3) HIX galaxies have higher H I and baryonic specific angular momenta than control galaxies, (4) most HIX galaxies live in higher-spin haloes than most control galaxies. These results suggest that HIX galaxies are H I-rich because they can support more H I against gravitational instability due to their high specific angular momentum. The majority of the HIX galaxies inherits their high specific angular momentum from their halo. The H I content of HIX galaxies might be further increased by gas-rich minor mergers. This paper is based on data obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) through the large program C 2705.

  4. Thirty-fold: Extreme Gravitational Lensing of a Quiescent Galaxy at z = 1.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, H.; Stockmann, M.; Richard, J.; Zabl, J.; Brammer, G.; Toft, S.; Man, A.

    2018-01-01

    We report the discovery of eMACSJ1341-QG-1, a quiescent galaxy at z = 1.594 located behind the massive galaxy cluster eMACSJ1341.9–2442 (z = 0.835). The system was identified as a gravitationally lensed triple image in Hubble Space Telescope images obtained as part of a snapshot survey of the most X-ray luminous galaxy clusters at z > 0.5 and spectroscopically confirmed in ground-based follow-up observations with the ESO/X-Shooter spectrograph. From the constraints provided by the triple image, we derive a first, crude model of the mass distribution of the cluster lens, which predicts a gravitational amplification of a factor of ∼30 for the primary image and a factor of ∼6 for the remaining two images of the source, making eMACSJ1341-QG-1 by far the most strongly amplified quiescent galaxy discovered to date. Our discovery underlines the power of SNAPshot observations of massive, X-ray selected galaxy clusters for lensing-assisted studies of faint background populations.

  5. Radio Galaxy Zoo: A Search for Hybrid Morphology Radio Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapińska, A. D.; Terentev, I.; Wong, O. I.; Shabala, S. S.; Andernach, H.; Rudnick, L.; Storer, L.; Banfield, J. K.; Willett, K. W.; de Gasperin, F.; Lintott, C. J.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Schawinski, K.; Seymour, N.; Simmons, B.

    2017-12-01

    Hybrid morphology radio sources (HyMoRS) are a rare type of radio galaxy that display different Fanaroff-Riley classes on opposite sides of their nuclei. To enhance the statistical analysis of HyMoRS, we embarked on a large-scale search of these sources within the international citizen science project, Radio Galaxy Zoo (RGZ). Here, we present 25 new candidate hybrid morphology radio galaxies. Our selected candidates are moderate power radio galaxies ({L}{median}=4.7× {10}24 W Hz-1 sr-1) at redshifts 0.14< z< 1.0. Hosts of nine candidates have spectroscopic observations, of which six are classified as quasars, one as high- and two as low-excitation galaxies. Two candidate HyMoRS are giant (> 1 Mpc) radio galaxies, one resides at the center of a galaxy cluster, and one is hosted by a rare green bean galaxy. Although the origin of the hybrid morphology radio galaxies is still unclear, this type of radio source starts depicting itself as a rather diverse class. We discuss hybrid radio morphology formation in terms of the radio source environment (nurture) and intrinsically occurring phenomena (nature; activity cessation and amplification), showing that these peculiar radio galaxies can be formed by both mechanisms. While high angular resolution follow-up observations are still necessary to confirm our candidates, we demonstrate the efficacy of the RGZ in the pre-selection of these sources from all-sky radio surveys, and report the reliability of citizen scientists in identifying and classifying complex radio sources.

  6. Closing in on a Short-Hard Burst Progenitor: Constraints From Early-Time Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy of a Possible Host Galaxy of GRB 050509b

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, Joshua S.; Prochaska, J.X.; Pooley, D.

    2005-06-07

    The localization of the short-duration, hard-spectrum gamma-ray burst GRB050509b by the Swift satellite was a watershed event. Never before had a member of this mysterious subclass of classic GRBs been rapidly and precisely positioned in a sky accessible to the bevy of ground-based follow-up facilities. Thanks to the nearly immediate relay of the GRB position by Swift, we began imaging the GRB field 8 minutes after the burst and have continued during the 8 days since. Though the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) discovered an X-ray afterglow of GRB050509b, the first ever of a short-hard burst, thus far no convincing optical/infraredmore » candidate afterglow or supernova has been found for the object. We present a re-analysis of the XRT afterglow and find an absolute position of R.A. = 12h36m13.59s, Decl. = +28{sup o}59'04.9'' (J2000), with a 1{sigma} uncertainty of 3.68'' in R.A., 3.52'' in Decl.; this is about 4'' to the west of the XRT position reported previously. Close to this position is a bright elliptical galaxy with redshift z = 0.2248 {+-} 0.0002, about 1' from the center of a rich cluster of galaxies. This cluster has detectable diffuse emission, with a temperature of kT = 5.25{sub -1.68}{sup +3.36} keV. We also find several ({approx}11) much fainter galaxies consistent with the XRT position from deep Keck imaging and have obtained Gemini spectra of several of these sources. Nevertheless we argue, based on positional coincidences, that the GRB and the bright elliptical are likely to be physically related. We thus have discovered reasonable evidence that at least some short-duration, hard-spectra GRBs are at cosmological distances. We also explore the connection of the properties of the burst and the afterglow, finding that GRB050509b was underluminous in both of these relative to long-duration GRBs. However, we also demonstrate that the ratio of the blast-wave energy to the {gamma}-ray energy is consistent with that of long-duration GRBs. We thus find

  7. Growing Galaxies Gently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    of the flow of pristine gas from the surrounding space and the associated formation of new stars. They were very careful to make sure that their specimen galaxies had not been disturbed by interactions with other galaxies. The selected galaxies were very regular, smoothly rotating discs, similar to the Milky Way, and they were seen about two billion years after the Big Bang (at a redshift of around three). In galaxies in the modern Universe the heavy elements [1] are more abundant close to the centre. But when Cresci's team mapped their selected distant galaxies with the SINFONI spectrograph on the VLT [2] they were excited to see that in all three cases there was a patch of the galaxy, close to the centre, with fewer heavy elements, but hosting vigorously forming stars, suggesting that the material to fuel the star formation was coming from the surrounding pristine gas that is low in heavy elements. This was the smoking gun that provided the best evidence yet of young galaxies accreting primitive gas and using it to form new generations of stars. As Cresci concludes: "This study has only been possible because of the outstanding performance of the SINFONI instrument on the VLT. It has opened a new window for studying the chemical properties of very distant galaxies. SINFONI provides information not only in two spatial dimensions, but also in a third, spectral dimension, which allows us to see the internal motions inside galaxies and study the chemical composition of the interstellar gas." Notes [1] The gas filling the early Universe was almost all hydrogen and helium. The first generations of stars processed this primitive material to create heavier elements such as oxygen, nitrogen and carbon by nuclear fusion. When this material was subsequently spewed back into space by intense particle winds from massive young stars and supernova explosions the amounts of heavy elements in the galaxy gradually increased. Astronomers refer to elements other than hydrogen and

  8. Spiral Galaxies Stripped Bare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    image is of NGC 1300, a spiral galaxy with arms extending from the ends of a spectacularly prominent central bar. It is considered a prototypical example of barred spiral galaxies and lies at a distance of about 65 million light-years, in the constellation of Eridanus (the River). The spiral galaxy in the fourth image, NGC 4030, lies about 75 million light-years from Earth, in the constellation of Virgo. In 2007 Takao Doi, a Japanese astronaut who doubles as an amateur astronomer, spotted a supernova - a stellar explosion that is briefly almost as bright as its host galaxy - going off in this galaxy. The fifth image, NGC 2997, is a spiral galaxy roughly 30 million light-years away in the constellation of Antlia (the Air Pump). NGC 2997 is the brightest member of a group of galaxies of the same name in the Local Supercluster of galaxies. Our own Local Group, of which the Milky Way is a member, is itself also part of the Local Supercluster. Last but not least, NGC 1232 is a beautiful galaxy some 65 million light-years away in the constellation of Eridanus (the River). The galaxy is classified as an intermediate spiral galaxy - somewhere between a barred and an unbarred spiral galaxy. An image of this galaxy and its small companion galaxy NGC 1232A in visible light was one of the first produced by the VLT (eso9845). HAWK-I has now returned to NGC 1232 to show a different view of it at near-infrared wavelengths. As this galactic gallery makes clear, HAWK-I lets us see the spiral structures in these six bright galaxies in exquisite detail and with a clarity that is only made possible by observing in the infrared. Notes [1] HAWK-I stands for High-Acuity Wide-field K-band Imager. More technical details about the camera can be found in an earlier press release (eso0736). [2] More information about the VLT instruments can be found at: http://www.eso.org/public/teles-instr/vlt/vlt-instr.html. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost

  9. Starburst galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weedman, Daniel W.

    1987-01-01

    The infrared properties of star-forming galaxies, primarily as determined by the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), are compared to X-ray, optical, and radio properties. Luminosity functions are reviewed and combined with those derived from optically discovered samples using 487 Markarian galaxies with redshifts and published IRAS 60 micron fluxes, and 1074 such galaxies in the Center for Astrophysics redshift survey. It is found that the majority of infrared galaxies which could be detected are low luminosity sources already known from the optical samples, but non-infrared surveys have found only a very small fraction of the highest luminosity sources. Distributions of infrared to optical fluxes and available spectra indicate that the majority of IRAS-selected galaxies are starburst galaxies. Having a census of starburst galaxies and associated dust allow severl important global calculations. The source counts are predicted as a function of flux limits for both infrared and radio fluxes. These galaxies are found to be important radio sources at faint flux limits. Taking the integrated flux to z = 3 indicates that such galaxies are a significant component of the diffuse X-ray background, and could be the the dominant component depending on the nature of the X-ray spectra and source evolution.

  10. STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY IN CLASH BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Fogarty, Kevin; Postman, Marc; Connor, Thomas

    2015-11-10

    The CLASH X-ray selected sample of 20 galaxy clusters contains 10 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) that exhibit significant (>5σ) extinction-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). Star formation activity is inferred from photometric estimates of UV and Hα+[N ii] emission in knots and filaments detected in CLASH Hubble Space Telescope ACS and WFC3 observations. UV-derived SFRs in these BCGs span two orders of magnitude, including two with a SFR ≳ 100 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. These measurements are supplemented with [O ii], [O iii], and Hβ fluxes measured from spectra obtained with the SOAR telescope. We confirm that photoionization from ongoing starmore » formation powers the line emission nebulae in these BCGs, although in many BCGs there is also evidence of a LINER-like contribution to the line emission. Coupling these data with Chandra X-ray measurements, we infer that the star formation occurs exclusively in low-entropy cluster cores and exhibits a correlation with gas properties related to cooling. We also perform an in-depth study of the starburst history of the BCG in the cluster RXJ1532.9+3021, and create 2D maps of stellar properties on scales down to ∼350 pc. These maps reveal evidence for an ongoing burst occurring in elongated filaments, generally on ∼0.5–1.0 Gyr timescales, although some filaments are consistent with much younger (≲100 Myr) burst timescales and may be correlated with recent activity from the active galactic nucleus. The relationship between BCG SFRs and the surrounding intracluster medium gas properties provide new support for the process of feedback-regulated cooling in galaxy clusters and is consistent with recent theoretical predictions.« less

  11. Lopsided Collections of Satellite Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    You might think that small satellite galaxies would be distributed evenly around their larger galactic hosts but local evidence suggests otherwise. Are satellite distributions lopsided throughout the universe?Satellites in the Local GroupThe distribution of the satellite galaxies orbiting Andromeda, our neighboring galaxy, is puzzling: 21 out of 27 ( 80%) of its satellites are on the side of Andromeda closest to us. In a similar fashion, 4 of the 11 brightest Milky Way satellites are stacked on the side closest to Andromeda.It seems to be the case, then, that satellites around our pair of galaxies preferentially occupy the space between the two galaxies. But is this behavior specific to the Local Group? Or is it commonplace throughout the universe? In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Noam Libeskind (Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam, Germany) set out to answer this question.Properties of the galaxies included in the authors sample. Left: redshifts for galaxy pairs. Right: Number of satellite galaxies around hosts. [Adapted from Libeskind et al. 2016]Asymmetry at LargeLibeskind and collaborators tested whether this behavior is common by searching through Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations for galaxy pairs that are similar to the Milky Way/Andromeda pair. The resulting sample consists of 12,210 pairs of galaxies, which have 46,043 potential satellites among them. The team then performed statistical tests on these observations to quantify the anisotropic distribution of the satellites around the host galaxies.Libeskind and collaborators find that roughly 8% more galaxies are seen within a 15 angle facing the other galaxy of a pair than would be expected in a uniform distribution. The odds that this asymmetric behavior is randomly produced, they show, are lower than 1 in 10 million indicating that the lopsidedness of satellites around galaxies in pairs is a real effect and occurs beyond just the Local Group.Caution for ModelingProbability that

  12. The Radio Properties of Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, M. T.

    2014-09-01

    Energetic feedback from the Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) of the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) is required to prevent catastrophic cooling of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) in galaxy clusters. Evidence for this is seen through the inflation of cavities in the ICM by AGN-launched, radio-emitting jets, and understanding this process is an active area of research. Radio observations play an integral role in this, as they trace the active stages of the feedback cycle. Understanding the radio properties of BCGs is therefore paramount for understanding both galaxy clusters and AGN feedback processes globally. Within this thesis, the BCGs in a large (>700) sample of X-ray selected clusters are studied. We observe these BCGs with a wide variety of facilities, building a census of their radio properties across a range of frequencies, timescales and angular resolutions. Radio spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are built for over 200 BCGs, and then decomposed into two components; a core, attributable to ongoing nuclear activity, and a non-core, attributable to historical accretion. Both components are not only more common, but also significantly more powerful in cool-core (CC) clusters than non-cool core (NCC) clusters. However, it is the presence of an active core that shows BCGs in CC clusters are constantly `on' - explaining how they regulate their environments over gigayear timescales. We observe 35 currently active BCGs at high (15-353 GHz) radio frequencies, and monitor their variability. Self-absorbed, active components are found to be common at high frequency. Little variability is seen on < year timescales, although longer term variation of ~10% annually over few-decade timescales is observed. Evidence is presented for a hitherto unseen component in BCG spectra that may be attributable to a naked Advection Dominated Accretion Flow (ADAF). The milli-arcsecond scale radio properties of 59 sources are studied, with a large range of morphologies recovered although no

  13. Demise of faint satellites around isolated early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changbom; Hwang, Ho Seong; Park, Hyunbae; Lee, Jong Chul

    2018-02-01

    The hierarchical galaxy formation scenario in the Cold Dark Matter cosmology with a non-vanishing cosmological constant Λ and geometrically flat space (ΛCDM) has been very successful in explaining the large-scale distribution of galaxies. However, there have been claims that ΛCDM over-predicts the number of satellite galaxies associated with massive galaxies compared with observations—the missing satellite galaxy problem1-3. Isolated groups of galaxies hosted by passively evolving massive early-type galaxies are ideal laboratories for identifying the missing physics in the current theory4-11. Here, we report—based on a deep spectroscopic survey—that isolated massive and passive early-type galaxies without any signs of recent wet mergers or accretion episodes have almost no satellite galaxies fainter than the r-band absolute magnitude of about Mr = -14. If only early-type satellites are used, the cutoff is at the somewhat brighter magnitude of about Mr = -15. Such a cutoff has not been found in other nearby satellite galaxy systems hosted by late-type galaxies or those with merger features. Various physical properties of satellites depend strongly on the host-centric distance. Our observations indicate that the satellite galaxy luminosity function is largely determined by the interaction of satellites with the environment provided by their host.

  14. The Dependence of Satellite Galaxy Kinematics on Galaxy Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Y.; Wang, H. Y.

    2017-05-01

    The relation between the satellite kinematics and the properties of host and satellites is investigated in this paper. Our host and satellite sample are selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data by adopting a self-adapted method developed by van den Bosch et al. Consistent with the previous studies, the average velocity dispersion increases with the mass of host galaxy, and is larger for red hosts than for blue hosts. We find that, on average, the velocity dispersion is independent of satellite mass around red hosts, however it increases with satellite mass around blue hosts, and red satellites have larger velocity dispersions than their blue counterparts. Our further investigations show that in the same halo, the velocity dispersions are independent of satellite mass, regardless of the host color. Interestingly, around the red host, red satellites tend to have smaller velocity dispersion than the blue ones. It implies some interesting processes. In addition, we also find that, if host galaxies only have red or blue (high mass or low mass) satellites, the system with red (high mass) satellites have larger velocity dispersions than blue (low mass) satellites. It suggests that satellite properties are important for dark halo mass measurement.

  15. VLA AND ALMA IMAGING OF INTENSE GALAXY-WIDE STAR FORMATION IN z ∼ 2 GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rujopakarn, W.; Silverman, J. D.; Dunlop, J. S.

    2016-12-10

    We present ≃0.″4 resolution extinction-independent distributions of star formation and dust in 11 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z  = 1.3–3.0. These galaxies are selected from sensitive blank-field surveys of the 2′ × 2′ Hubble Ultra-Deep Field at λ  = 5 cm and 1.3 mm using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. They have star formation rates (SFRs), stellar masses, and dust properties representative of massive main-sequence SFGs at z  ∼ 2. Morphological classification performed on spatially resolved stellar mass maps indicates a mixture of disk and morphologically disturbed systems; half of the sample harbor X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs),more » thereby representing a diversity of z  ∼ 2 SFGs undergoing vigorous mass assembly. We find that their intense star formation most frequently occurs at the location of stellar-mass concentration and extends over an area comparable to their stellar-mass distribution, with a median diameter of 4.2 ± 1.8 kpc. This provides direct evidence of galaxy-wide star formation in distant blank-field-selected main-sequence SFGs. The typical galactic-average SFR surface density is 2.5 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}, sufficiently high to drive outflows. In X-ray-selected AGN where radio emission is enhanced over the level associated with star formation, the radio excess pinpoints the AGNs, which are found to be cospatial with star formation. The median extinction-independent size of main-sequence SFGs is two times larger than those of bright submillimeter galaxies, whose SFRs are 3–8 times larger, providing a constraint on the characteristic SFR (∼300 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) above which a significant population of more compact SFGs appears to emerge.« less

  16. Galaxy Evolution in the Richest Clusters at z=0.8: the EDisCS Cluster Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalcanton, Julianne

    2002-07-01

    The study of distant cluster galaxies requires two key ingredients: {1} deep high-resolution imaging, to constrain galaxy structure; and {2} 8m-class spectroscopy, to measure stellar content, star-formation rates, dynamics, and cluster membership. We will reach both conditions with the addition of HST/ACS imaging to our suite of VLT {36 nights} and NTT {20 nights} observations of 10 confirmed clusters at z 0.8, drawn from the ESO Distant Cluster Survey {EDisCS}. The proposed HST/ACS data will complement our existing optical/IR imaging and spectroscopy with quantitative measures of cluster galaxy morphologies {i.e. sizes and shapes, bulge-disk decompositions, asymmetry parameters}, and with measurements of cluster masses via weak lensing. Major advantages unique to the EDisCS project include: {i} uniform selection of clusters; {ii} large enough sample sizes to characterize the substantial cluster-to-cluster variation in galaxy populations; {iii} large quantities of high quality data from 8m telescopes; {iv} uniform measurements of morphologies, spectroscopic and photometric redshifts, SEDs, star- formation/AGN activities, and internal kinematics; {v} optical selection of clusters to complement the X-ray selection of almost all high-z clusters in the ACS GTO programs; {vi} forefront numerical simulations designed specifically to allow physical interpretation of observed differences between the high-z and local clusters.

  17. Statistical properties of X-ray clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesci, R.

    1991-12-01

    Published HEAO1-A1 X-ray data are used to derive a flux-limited statistical sample of 141 galaxy cluster belonging either to the Abell (1958) or the ACO catalogs and brighter than 3 mA1 flux units. Taking contamination from misidentified sources into account, the differential log (N)-log(S) relation for the sample has a slope of -1.9 against the Euclidean value of -2.5, suggesting the existence of an appreciable X-ray luminosity evolution within the lookback time of the sample. Among the X-ray/optically selected clusters, BM I objects are definitely more common than in the general Abell/ACO sample and are the brightest in X-rays. Clusters classified as cD in the Rood-Sastry scheme are the most frequency and the brightest in X-rays, and the frequency of cooling flows is about 35 percent. These findings lead to the expectation that a nonnegligible bias exists in an X-ray selected cluster sample toward rather evolved objects.

  18. Galaxy cluster lensing masses in modified lensing potentials

    DOE PAGES

    Barreira, Alexandre; Li, Baojiu; Jennings, Elise; ...

    2015-10-28

    In this study, we determine the concentration–mass relation of 19 X-ray selected galaxy clusters from the Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble survey in theories of gravity that directly modify the lensing potential. We model the clusters as Navarro–Frenk–White haloes and fit their lensing signal, in the Cubic Galileon and Nonlocal gravity models, to the lensing convergence profiles of the clusters. We discuss a number of important issues that need to be taken into account, associated with the use of non-parametric and parametric lensing methods, as well as assumptions about the background cosmology. Our results show that the concentrationmore » and mass estimates in the modified gravity models are, within the error bars, the same as in Λ cold dark matter. This result demonstrates that, for the Nonlocal model, the modifications to gravity are too weak at the cluster redshifts, and for the Galileon model, the screening mechanism is very efficient inside the cluster radius. However, at distances ~ [2–20] Mpc/h from the cluster centre, we find that the surrounding force profiles are enhanced by ~ 20–40% in the Cubic Galileon model. This has an impact on dynamical mass estimates, which means that tests of gravity based on comparisons between lensing and dynamical masses can also be applied to the Cubic Galileon model.« less

  19. The role of black holes in galaxy formation and evolution.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, A; Faber, S M; Binney, J; Dekel, A; Kormendy, J; Mushotzky, R; Babul, A; Best, P N; Brüggen, M; Fabian, A C; Frenk, C S; Khalatyan, A; Netzer, H; Mahdavi, A; Silk, J; Steinmetz, M; Wisotzki, L

    2009-07-09

    Virtually all massive galaxies, including our own, host central black holes ranging in mass from millions to billions of solar masses. The growth of these black holes releases vast amounts of energy that powers quasars and other weaker active galactic nuclei. A tiny fraction of this energy, if absorbed by the host galaxy, could halt star formation by heating and ejecting ambient gas. A central question in galaxy evolution is the degree to which this process has caused the decline of star formation in large elliptical galaxies, which typically have little cold gas and few young stars, unlike spiral galaxies.

  20. DISCOVERY OF A PSEUDOBULGE GALAXY LAUNCHING POWERFUL RELATIVISTIC JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Kotilainen, Jari K.; Olguín-Iglesias, Alejandro; León-Tavares, Jonathan

    2016-12-01

    Supermassive black holes launching plasma jets at close to the speed of light, producing gamma-rays, have ubiquitously been found to be hosted by massive elliptical galaxies. Since elliptical galaxies are generally believed to be built through galaxy mergers, active galactic nuclei (AGN) launching relativistic jets are associated with the latest stages of galaxy evolution. We have discovered a pseudobulge morphology in the host galaxy of the gamma-ray AGN PKS 2004-447. This is the first gamma-ray emitter radio-loud AGN found to have been launched from a system where both the black hole and host galaxy have been actively growing via secularmore » processes. This is evidence of an alternative black hole–galaxy co-evolutionary path to develop powerful relativistic jets, which is not merger driven.« less

  1. Central star formation in S0 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressel, L. L.; Oconnell, R. W.; Telesco, C. M.

    1990-07-01

    As a class, S0 galaxies are characterized by a lack of resolved bright stars in the disk. However, several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that a high rate of star formation is occurring at the centers of some S0 galaxies. Many of the warmest, most powerful far infrared sources in nearby bright galaxies occur in S0 galaxies. (Dressel 1988, Ap. J., 329, L69). The ratios of radio continuum flux to far infrared flux for these S0 galaxies are comparable to the ratios found for spiral galaxy disks and for star-burst galaxies. Very Large Array (VLA) maps of some of these S0 galaxies show that the radio continuum emission originates in the central few kiloparsecs. It is diffuse or clumpy, unlike the radio sources in active S0 galaxies, which are either extremely compact or have jet-lobe structures. Imaging of some of these galaxies at 10.8 microns shows that the infrared emission is also centrally concentrated. Many of the infrared-powerful S0 galaxies are Markarian galaxies. In only one case in this sample is the powerful ultraviolet emission known to be generated by a Seyfert nucleus. Optical spectra of the central few kiloparsecs of these S0 galaxies generally show deep Balmer absorption lines characteristic of A stars, and H beta emission suggestive of gas heated by O stars. A key question to our understanding of these galaxies is whether they really are S0 galaxies, or at least would have been recognized as S0 galaxies before the episode of central star formation began. Some of Nilson's classifications (used here) have been confirmed by Sandage or de Vaucouleurs and collaborators from better plates; some of the galaxies may be misclassified Sa galaxies (the most frequent hosts of central star formation); some are apparently difficult to classify because of mixed characteristics, faint non-S0 features, or peculiarities. More optical imaging is needed to characterize the host galaxies and to study the evolution of their star-forming regions.

  2. GALAXY EVOLUTION. An over-massive black hole in a typical star-forming galaxy, 2 billion years after the Big Bang.

    PubMed

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Urry, C Megan; Civano, Francesca; Rosario, David J; Elvis, Martin; Schawinski, Kevin; Suh, Hyewon; Bongiorno, Angela; Simmons, Brooke D

    2015-07-10

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies are generally thought to coevolve, so that the SMBH achieves up to about 0.2 to 0.5% of the host galaxy mass in the present day. The radiation emitted from the growing SMBH is expected to affect star formation throughout the host galaxy. The relevance of this scenario at early cosmic epochs is not yet established. We present spectroscopic observations of a galaxy at redshift z = 3.328, which hosts an actively accreting, extremely massive BH, in its final stages of growth. The SMBH mass is roughly one-tenth the mass of the entire host galaxy, suggesting that it has grown much more efficiently than the host, contrary to models of synchronized coevolution. The host galaxy is forming stars at an intense rate, despite the presence of a SMBH-driven gas outflow. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Galaxy clusters as hydrodynamics laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roediger, Elke; Sheardown, Alexander; Fish, Thomas; ZuHone, John; Hunt, Matthew; Su, Yuanyuan; Kraft, Ralph P.; Nulsen, Paul; Forman, William R.; Churazov, Eugene; Randall, Scott W.; Jones, Christine; Machacek, Marie E.

    2017-08-01

    The intra-cluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters shows a wealth of hydrodynamical features that trace the growth of clusters via the infall of galaxies or smaller subclusters. Such hydrodynamical features include the wakes of the infalling objects as well as the interfaces between the host cluster’s ICM and the atmosphere of the infalling object. Furthermore, the cluster dynamics can be traced by merger shocks, bow shocks, and sloshing motions of the ICM.The characteristics of these dynamical features, e.g., the direction, length, brightness, and temperature of the galaxies' or subclusters' gas tails varies significantly between different objects. This could be due to either dynamical conditions or ICM transport coefficients such as viscosity and thermal conductivity. For example, the cool long gas tails of of some infalling galaxies and groups have been attributed to a substantial ICM viscosity suppressing mixing of the stripped galaxy or group gas with the hotter ambient ICM.Using hydrodynamical simulations of minor mergers we show, however, that these features can be explained naturally by the dynamical conditions of each particular galaxy or group infall. Specifically, we identify observable features to distinguish the first and second infall of a galaxy or group into its host cluster as well as characteristics during apocentre passage. Comparing our simulations with observations, we can explain several puzzling observations such as the long and cold tail of M86 in Virgo and the very long and tangentially oriented tail of the group LEDA 87445 in Hydra A.Using our simulations, we also assess the validity of the stagnation pressure method that is widely used to determine an infalling galaxy's velocity. We show that near pericentre passage the method gives reasonable results, but near apocentre it is not easily applicable.

  4. Frankenstein Galaxy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-11

    The galaxy UGC 1382 has been revealed to be far larger and stranger than previously thought. Astronomers relied on a combination of ground-based and space telescopes to uncover the true nature of this "Frankenstein galaxy." The composite image shows the same galaxy as viewed with different instruments. The component images are also available. In the image at left, UGC 1382 appears to be a simple elliptical galaxy, based on optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). But spiral arms emerged when astronomers incorporated ultraviolet data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) and deep optical data from SDSS, as seen in the middle image. Combining that with a view of low-density hydrogen gas (shown in green), detected at radio wavelengths by the Very Large Array, scientists discovered that UGC 1382 is a giant, and one of the largest isolated galaxies known. GALEX in particular was able detect very faint features because it operated from space, which is necessary for UV observations because ultraviolet light is absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere. Astronomers also used Stripe 82 of SDSS, a small region of sky where SDSS imaged the sky 80 times longer than the original standard SDSS survey. This enabled optical detection of much fainter features as well. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20695

  5. Deconstructing bulges in lenticular galaxies using CALIFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Abreu, J.; CALIFA Team

    2015-05-01

    Bulges play a key role in the evolution of disk galaxies and their influence on the fate of lenticular galaxies (S0s) is still more manifest. We present preliminary results on the photometric and kinematic properties of S0 bulges drawn from the CALIFA survey. We find that S0 galaxies usually deviate from their archetypal view of simple systems composed by a bulge and disk structure. In fact, most of S0 galaxies (˜65%) host bars or non-single exponential profiles, making compulsory the use of multi-component photometric decompositions to properly address the bulge properties. We confirm previous results present in the literature showing S0 galaxies as a complete photometric and kinematic sequence of galaxies.

  6. Dwarf Galaxies with Active Massive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, Amy E.; Greene, J. E.; Geha, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (BHs) live at the heart of essentially all massive galaxies with bulges, power AGN, and are thought to be important agents in the evolution of their hosts. However, the birth and growth of the first supermassive BH "seeds" is far from understood. While direct observations of these distant BHs in the infant Universe are unobtainable with current capabilities, massive BHs in present-day dwarf galaxies can place valuable constraints on the masses, formation path, and hosts of supermassive BH seeds. Using optical spectroscopy from the SDSS, we have systematically assembled the largest sample of dwarf galaxies hosting active massive BHs to date. These dwarf galaxies have stellar masses comparable to the Magellanic Clouds and contain some of the least-massive supermassive BHs known.

  7. The effects of assembly bias on the inference of matter clustering from galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, Joseph E.; Weinberg, David H.

    2018-04-01

    The combination of galaxy-galaxy lensing (GGL) and galaxy clustering is a promising route to measuring the amplitude of matter clustering and testing modified gravity theories of cosmic acceleration. Halo occupation distribution (HOD) modeling can extend the approach down to nonlinear scales, but galaxy assembly bias could introduce systematic errors by causing the HOD to vary with large scale environment at fixed halo mass. We investigate this problem using the mock galaxy catalogs created by Hearin & Watson (2013, HW13), which exhibit significant assembly bias because galaxy luminosity is tied to halo peak circular velocity and galaxy colour is tied to halo formation time. The preferential placement of galaxies (especially red galaxies) in older halos affects the cutoff of the mean occupation function for central galaxies, with halos in overdense regions more likely to host galaxies. The effect of assembly bias on the satellite galaxy HOD is minimal. We introduce an extended, environment dependent HOD (EDHOD) prescription to describe these results and fit galaxy correlation measurements. Crucially, we find that the galaxy-matter cross-correlation coefficient, rgm(r) ≡ ξgm(r) . [ξmm(r)ξgg(r)]-1/2, is insensitive to assembly bias on scales r ≳ 1 h^{-1} Mpc, even though ξgm(r) and ξgg(r) are both affected individually. We can therefore recover the correct ξmm(r) from the HW13 galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-matter correlations using either a standard HOD or EDHOD fitting method. For Mr ≤ -19 or Mr ≤ -20 samples the recovery of ξmm(r) is accurate to 2% or better. For a sample of red Mr ≤ -20 galaxies we achieve 2% recovery at r ≳ 2 h^{-1} Mpc with EDHOD modeling but lower accuracy at smaller scales or with a standard HOD fit. Most of our mock galaxy samples are consistent with rgm = 1 down to r = 1h-1Mpc, to within the uncertainties set by our finite simulation volume.

  8. The LX-M relation of clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykoff, E. S.; Evrard, A. E.; McKay, T. A.; Becker, M. R.; Johnston, D. E.; Koester, B. P.; Nord, B.; Rozo, E.; Sheldon, E. S.; Stanek, R.; Wechsler, R. H.

    2008-06-01

    We present a new measurement of the scaling relation between X-ray luminosity and total mass for 17000 galaxy clusters in the maxBCG cluster sample. Stacking subsamples within fixed ranges of optical richness, N200, we measure the mean 0.1-2.4 keV X-ray luminosity, , from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. The mean mass, , is measured from weak gravitational lensing of SDSS background galaxies. For 9 <= N200 < 200, the data are well fitted by a power law, /1042h-2ergs-1 = [12.6+1.4-1.3(stat) +/- 1.6(sys)](/1014h-1Msolar)1.65+/-0.13. The slope agrees to within 10 per cent with previous estimates based on X-ray selected catalogues, implying that the covariance in LX and N200 at a fixed halo mass is not large. The luminosity intercept is 30 per cent, or 2σ, lower than that determined from the X-ray flux-limited sample of Reiprich & Böhringer, assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. This slight difference could arise from a combination of Malmquist bias and/or systematic error in hydrostatic mass estimates, both of which are expected. The intercept agrees with that derived by Stanek et al. using a model for the statistical correspondence between clusters and haloes in a WMAP3 cosmology with power spectrum normalization σ8 = 0.85. Similar exercises applied to future data sets will allow constraints on the covariance among optical and hot gas properties of clusters at a fixed mass.

  9. The CfA-Rosat Survey of Distant Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, Brian

    1998-01-01

    We (Vikhlinin, McNamara, Forman, Jones, Hornstrup, Quintana) have completed a new survey of distant clusters of galaxies, which we use to to study cluster evolution over cosmological timescales. The clusters were identified as extended X-ray sources in 650 ROSAT PSPC images of high Galactic latitude fields. Our catalog of approximately 230 extended X-ray sources covers 160 square degrees on the sky. Ours is the largest of the several ROSAT serendipitous cluster surveys in progress (e.g. SHARC, Rosati, WARPS etc.). Using V,R,I imagery obtained at several observatories, we find that greater than 90% of the X-ray sources are associated with distant clusters of galaxies. We have obtained spectroscopic redshifts for nearly 80 clusters in our catalog, and we have measured photometric redshifts for the remaining clusters. Our sample contains more than 20 clusters at z > 0.5. I will discuss the logN-logS relationship for our clusters. Because our large survey area, we are able to confirm the evolution of the most luminous distant clusters first seen in the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey. In addition, I will discuss the relationships between optical richness, core radius, and X-ray luminosity for distant, X-ray-selected clusters.

  10. AGN feedback in dwarf galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dashyan, Gohar; Silk, Joseph; Mamon, Gary A.; Dubois, Yohan; Hartwig, Tilman

    2018-02-01

    Dwarf galaxy anomalies, such as their abundance and cusp-core problems, remain a prime challenge in our understanding of galaxy formation. The inclusion of baryonic physics could potentially solve these issues, but the efficiency of stellar feedback is still controversial. We analytically explore the possibility of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in dwarf galaxies and compare AGN and supernova (SN) feedback. We assume the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole within low-mass galaxies and standard scaling relations between the relevant physical quantities. We model the propagation and properties of the outflow and explore the critical condition for global gas ejection. Performing the same calculation for SNe, we compare the ability of AGNs and SNe to drive gas out of galaxies. We find that a critical halo mass exists below which AGN feedback can remove gas from the host halo and that the critical halo mass for an AGN is greater than the equivalent for SNe in a significant part of the parameter space, suggesting that an AGN could provide an alternative and more successful source of negative feedback than SNe, even in the most massive dwarf galaxies.

  11. The H IX galaxy survey - II. H I kinematics of H I eXtreme galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, K. A.; Kilborn, V. A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Catinella, B.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Wong, O. I.; Stevens, A. R. H.; Obreschkow, D.; Dénes, H.

    2018-05-01

    By analysing a sample of galaxies selected from the H I Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) to contain more than 2.5 times their expected H I content based on their optical properties, we investigate what drives these H I eXtreme (H IX) galaxies to be so H I-rich. We model the H I kinematics with the Tilted Ring Fitting Code TiRiFiC and compare the observed H IX galaxies to a control sample of galaxies from HIPASS as well as simulated galaxies built with the semi-analytic model DARK SAGE. We find that (1) H I discs in H IX galaxies are more likely to be warped and more likely to host H I arms and tails than in the control galaxies, (2) the average H I and average stellar column density of H IX galaxies is comparable to the control sample, (3) H IX galaxies have higher H I and baryonic specific angular momenta than control galaxies, (4) most H IX galaxies live in higher spin haloes than most control galaxies. These results suggest that H IX galaxies are H I-rich because they can support more H I against gravitational instability due to their high specific angular momentum. The majority of the H IX galaxies inherits their high specific angular momentum from their halo. The H I content of H IX galaxies might be further increased by gas-rich minor mergers. This paper is based on data obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array through the large program C 2705.

  12. Dual Active Galactic Nuclei in Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Mousumi; Rubinur, Khatun; Karb, Preeti; Varghese, Ashlin; Novakkuni, Navyasree; James, Atul

    2018-04-01

    Galaxy mergers play a crucial role in the formation of massive galaxies and the buildup of their bulges. An important aspect of the merging process is the in-spiral of the supermassive black-holes (SMBHs) to the centre of the merger remnant and the eventual formation of a SMBH binary. If both the SMBHs are accreting they will form a dual or binary active galactic nucleus (DAGN). The final merger remnant is usually very bright and shows enhanced star formation. In this paper we summarise the current sample of DAGN from previous studies and describe methods that can be used to identify strong DAGN candidates from optical and spectroscopic surveys. These methods depend on the Doppler separation of the double peaked AGN emission lines, the nuclear velocity dispersion of the galaxies and their optical/UV colours. We describe two high resolution, radio observations of DAGN candidates that have been selected based on their double peaked optical emission lines (DPAGN). We also examine whether DAGN host galaxies have higher star formation rates (SFRs) compared to merging galaxies that do not appear to have DAGN. We find that the SFR is not higher for DAGN host galaxies. This suggests that the SFRs in DAGN host galaxies is due to the merging process itself and not related to the presence of two AGN in the system.

  13. LINER galaxy properties and the local environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coldwell, Georgina V.; Alonso, Sol; Duplancic, Fernanda; Mesa, Valeria

    2018-05-01

    We analyse the properties of a sample of 5560 low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) galaxies selected from SDSS-DR12 at low red shift, for a complete range of local density environments. The host LINER galaxies were studied and compared with a well-defined control sample of 5553 non-LINER galaxies matched in red shift, luminosity, morphology and local density. By studying the distributions of galaxy colours and the stellar age population, we find that LINERs are redder and older than the control sample over a wide range of densities. In addition, LINERs are older than the control sample, at a given galaxy colour, indicating that some external process could have accelerated the evolution of the stellar population. The analysis of the host properties shows that the control sample exhibits a strong relation between colours, ages and the local density, while more than 90 per cent of the LINERs are redder and older than the mean values, independently of the neighbourhood density. Furthermore, a detailed study in three local density ranges shows that, while control sample galaxies are redder and older as a function of stellar mass and density, LINER galaxies mismatch the known morphology-density relation of galaxies without low-ionization features. The results support the contribution of hot and old stars to the low-ionization emission although the contribution of nuclear activity is not discarded.

  14. Whirlpool Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Scientists are seeing unprecedented detail of the spiral arms and dust clouds in the nearby Whirlpool galaxy, thanks to a new Hubble Space Telescope image, available at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/pictures/wfpc/wfpc.html. The image uses data collected January 15 and 24, 1995, and July 21, 1999, by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by JPL. Using the image, a research group led by Dr. Nick Scoville of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, clearly defined the structure of the galaxy's cold dust clouds and hot hydrogen, and they linked star clusters within the galaxy to their parent dust clouds.

    The Whirlpool galaxy is one of the most photogenic galaxies. This celestial beauty is easily seen and photographed with smaller telescopes and studied extensively from large ground- and space-based observatories. The new composite image shows visible starlight and light from the emission of glowing hydrogen, which is associated with the most luminous young stars in the spiral arms.

    The galaxy is having a close encounter with a nearby companion galaxy, NGC 5195, just off the upper edge of the image. The companion's gravitational pull is triggering star formation in the main galaxy, lit up by numerous clusters of young and energetic stars in brilliant detail. Luminous clusters are highlighted in red by their associated emission from glowing hydrogen gas.

    This image was composed by the Hubble Heritage Team from Hubble archive data and was superimposed onto data taken by Dr. Travis Rector of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory at the .9-meter (35-inch) telescope at the National Science Foundation's Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, Ariz. Scoville's team includes M. Polletta of the University of Geneva, Switzerland; S. Ewald and S. Stolovy of Caltech; and R. Thompson and M. Rieke of the University of Arizona, Tucson.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md., manages space operations for the Hubble Space

  15. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormendy, John

    2013-10-01

    bulges because the latter retain a `memory' of their disky origin. That is, they have one or more characteristics of disks: (1) flatter shapes than those of classical bulges, (2) correspondingly large ratios of ordered to random velocities, (3) small velocity dispersions with respect to the Faber-Jackson correlation between velocity dispersion and bulge luminosity, (4) spiral structure or nuclear bars in the `bulge' part of the light profile, (5) nearly exponential brightness profiles and (6) starbursts. So the cleanest examples of pseudobulges are recognisable. However, pseudo and classical bulges can coexist in the same galaxy. I review two important implications of secular evolution: (1) The existence of pseudobulges highlights a problem with our theory of galaxy formation by hierarchical clustering. We cannot explain galaxies that are completely bulgeless. Galaxy mergers are expected to happen often enough so that every giant galaxy should have a classical bulge. But we observe that bulgeless giant galaxies are common in field environments. We now realise that many dense centres of galaxies that we used to think are bulges were not made by mergers; they were grown out of disks. So the challenge gets more difficult. This is the biggest problem faced by our theory of galaxy formation. (2) Pseudobulges are observed to contain supermassive black holes (BHs), but they do not show the well-known, tight correlations between BH mass and the mass and velocity dispersion of the host bulge. This leads to the suggestion that there are two fundamentally different BH feeding processes. Rapid global inward gas transport in galaxy mergers leads to giant BHs that correlate with host ellipticals and classical bulges, whereas local and more stochastic feeding of small BHs in largely bulgeless galaxies evidently involves too little energy feedback to result in BH-host coevolution. It is an important success of the secular evolution picture that morphological differences can be used to

  16. Radio emission in peculiar galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demellorabaca, Dulia F.; Abraham, Zulema

    1990-01-01

    During the last decades a number of surveys of peculiar galaxies have been carried out and accurate positions become available. Since peculiarities are a possible evidence of radio emission (Wright, 1974; Sulentic, 1976; Stocke et al., 1978), the authors selected a sample of 24 peculiar galaxies with optical jet-like features or extensions in different optical catalogues, mainly the Catalogue of Southern Peculiar Galaxies and Associations (Arp and Madore, 1987) and the ESO/Uppsala Survey of the ESO(B) Atlas (Lauberts, 1982) for observation at the radio continuum frequency of 22 GHz. The sample is listed in a table. Sol (1987) studied this sample and concluded that the majority of the jet-like features seem to admit an explanation in terms of interactive galaxies with bridges and/or tails due to tidal effects. Only in a few cases do the jets seem to be possibly linked to some nuclear activity of the host galaxy. The observations were made with the 13.7m-radome enclosed Itapetinga Radiotelescope (HPBW of 4.3 arcmin), in Brazil. The receiver was a 1 GHz d.s.b. super-heterodine mixer operated in total-power mode, with a system temperature of approximately 800 K. The observational technique consisted in scans in right ascention, centralized in the optical position of the galaxy. The amplitude of one scan was 43 arcmin, and its duration time was 20 seconds. The integration time was at least 2 hours (12 ten-minute observations) and the sensibility limit adopted was an antenna temperature greater than 3 times the r.m.s. error of the baseline determination. Virgo A was used as the calibrator source. Three galaxies were detected for the first time as radio sources and four other known galaxies at low frequencies had their flux densities measured at 22 GHz. The results for these sources are presented.

  17. New Members in the Galaxy Group Around Giant Radio Galaxy DA 240

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ru-Rong; Peng, Bo; Strom, Richard

    2018-05-01

    With new spectroscopic observations of group candidates around the giant radio galaxy DA 240, we have identified five new group members, increasing the number to twenty-five. While all the new members are located some distance from the host galaxy, two of them lie in one of the radio lobes, and the rest are found at a distance from the radio components. The new group members reinforce our earlier conclusion that the distribution of the DA 240 group with respect to the radio lobes is unusual among giant radio galaxy host environments.

  18. Galaxy evolution. Isolated compact elliptical galaxies: stellar systems that ran away.

    PubMed

    Chilingarian, Igor; Zolotukhin, Ivan

    2015-04-24

    Compact elliptical galaxies form a rare class of stellar system (~30 presently known) characterized by high stellar densities and small sizes and often harboring metal-rich stars. They were thought to form through tidal stripping of massive progenitors, until two isolated objects were discovered where massive galaxies performing the stripping could not be identified. By mining astronomical survey data, we have now found 195 compact elliptical galaxies in all types of environment. They all share similar dynamical and stellar population properties. Dynamical analysis for nonisolated galaxies demonstrates the feasibility of their ejection from host clusters and groups by three-body encounters, which is in agreement with numerical simulations. Hence, isolated compact elliptical and isolated quiescent dwarf galaxies are tidally stripped systems that ran away from their hosts. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Whirlpool Galaxy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-12-04

    The image from NASA Hubble Telescope shows spiral arms and dust clouds in the nearby Whirlpool galaxy. Visible starlight and light from the emission of glowing hydrogen is seen, which is associated with the most luminous young stars in the spiral arms.

  20. Testing AGN feedback models in galaxy evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Min-Su

    Galaxy formation and evolution have been one of the most challenging problems in astrophysics. A single galaxy has various components (stars, atomic and molecular gas, a supermassive black hole, and dark matter) and has interacted with its cosmic environment throughout its history. A key issue in understanding galaxy evolution is to find the dominant physical processes in the interactions between the components of a galaxy and between a galaxy and its environment. AGN feedback has been proposed as a key process to suppress late star formation in massive elliptical galaxies and as a general consequence of galaxy mergers and interactions. In this thesis, I investigate feedback effects from active galactic nuclei (AGN) using a new simulation code and data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. In the first chapter, I test purely mechanical AGN feedback models via a nuclear wind around the central SMBH in elliptical galaxies by comparing simulation results to four well-defined observational constraints: the mass ratio between the SMBH and its host galaxy, the lifetime of the quasar phase, the X-ray luminosity from the hot interstellar medium, and the mass fraction of young stars. Even though purely mechanical AGN feedback is commonly assumed in cosmological simulations, I find that it is inadequate, and cannot reproduce all four observational constraints simultaneously. This result suggests that both mechanical and radiative feedback modes are important physical processes. In the second chapter, I simulate the coevolution of the SMBH and its host galaxy under different environments, represented by different amounts of gas stripping. Though the connection between environment and galaxy evolution has been well-studied, environmental effects on the growth of the SMBH have not been answered yet. I find that strong gas stripping, which satellite galaxies might experience, highly suppresses SMBH mass accretion and AGN activity. Moreover, the suppression of the SMBH growth is

  1. The HIX Galaxy Survey: The Most HI Rich Galaxies In The Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Katharina

    2016-10-01

    When comparing the gas content of galaxies with their current star formation rate, it has been found that the gas consumption time scale is much smaller than the age of galaxies. In addition, the metallicity within galaxies is much smaller than expected from closed box modelling of galaxies. These discrepancies suggest that galaxies must replenish their gas reservoirs by accretion of metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium.In order to investigate this process of gas accretion in more detail we target local galaxies that host an atomic hydrogen (HI) disc at least 2.5 times more massive than expected from their optical properties using scaling relations. For this sample of galaxies, we have been collecting a multiwavelength data set consisting of deep ATCA HI interferometry, ANU SSO 2.3m WiFeS optical integral field spectroscopy and publicly available photometry from GALEX (ultraviolet), WISE and 2MASS (both infrared).We find that these galaxies are normal star-forming spiral galaxies. However, their specific angular momentum is higher than in control galaxies, which allows these galaxies to support a massive HI disc.With the help of the HI interferometry and the optical IFU spectra, we are searching for signs of recent gas accretion. These signs may include among other things non-circular motion of HI, warped or lopsided HI discs, both of which can be identified through tilted-ring modelling of the HI disc or inhomogeneities in the IFU-based metallicity maps.In my talk I will first compare the HI rich galaxies to the control sample and the general galaxy population. I will then move on to the most HI massive galaxy in our sample and discuss its HI kinematics and its gas-phase oxygen abundance distribution in more detail. To conclude I will give an outlook on the more detailed HI kinematics of the remaining HI rich sample.

  2. Extragalatic zoo. I. [New galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Schorn, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of various types of extragalactic objects are described. Consideration is given to cD galaxies, D galaxies, N galaxies, Markarian galaxies, liners, starburst galaxies, and megamasers. Emphasis is also placed on the isolated extragalatic H I region; the isolated extragalatic H II region; primeval galaxies or photogalaxies; peculiar galaxies; Arp galaxies; interacting galaxies; ring galaxies; and polar-ring galaxies. Diagrams of these objects are provided.

  3. Unifying the Quasar, Black Hole, Interacting Galaxy, and Spheroid Populations through Galaxy Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, P. F.; Hernquist, L.; Cox, T. J.; Robertson, B.; Di Matteo, T.; Springel, V.; Martini, P.; Somerville, R.; Li, Y.

    2005-12-01

    We study the link between quasars, the merging galaxy population, and the remnant red, elliptical galaxy population using a model for the self-regulated growth of supermassive black holes in mergers involving gas-rich galaxies. Mergers drive nuclear inflows of gas, fueling starbursts and obscured quasars until feedback energy from black hole growth expels the surrounding gas, rendering the quasar briefly visible as a bright optical source. With no significant remaining gas supply, the quasar dies, and the stellar remnant relaxes as a passively evolving spheroid with properties and correlations typical of red, elliptical galaxies. Specifically, we demonstrate that the statistics of merger rates/fractions, luminosity functions, mass functions, star formation rate distributions, quasar luminosity functions, quasar host galaxy luminosity functions, and elliptical/red galaxy luminosity and mass functions are self-consistent and follow from one another as predicted by the merger hypothesis, when physically motivated models of the time evolution of mergers are applied to relate the populations. Using a suite of hundreds of hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy mergers, we de-convolve quasar, merging, and red-sequence galaxy luminosity functions to determine merger rates and the birthrate of black holes and spheroids as a function of mass and luminosity. We use this to predict a wide array of quasar, quasar host galaxy, merging galaxy, starburst/ULIRG, and red-sequence galaxy properties and distributions, and in each case our predictions agree well with existing observations. These very different distributions indeed reflect the same fundamental underlying distribution, that of gas-rich galaxy mergers, and our methodology allows us to map these different manifestations of merger phenomena to one another, relating diverse observations and developing new tests of the unification of these processes.

  4. Towards optimal estimation of the galaxy power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert E.; Marian, Laura

    2015-12-01

    The galaxy power spectrum encodes a wealth of information about cosmology and the matter fluctuations. Its unbiased and optimal estimation is therefore of great importance. In this paper, we generalize the framework of Feldman et al. (1994) to take into account the fact that galaxies are not simply a Poisson sampling of the underlying dark matter distribution. Besides finite survey-volume effects and flux limits, our optimal estimation scheme incorporates several of the key tenets of galaxy formation: galaxies form and reside exclusively in dark matter haloes; a given dark matter halo may host several galaxies of various luminosities; galaxies inherit part of their large-scale bias from their host halo. Under these broad assumptions, we prove that the optimal weights do not explicitly depend on galaxy luminosity, other than through defining the maximum survey volume and effective galaxy density at a given position. Instead, they depend on the bias associated with the host halo; the first and second factorial moments of the halo occupation distribution; a selection function, which gives the fraction of galaxies that can be observed in a halo of mass M at position {r} in the survey; and an effective number density of galaxies. If one wishes to reconstruct the matter power spectrum, then, provided the model is correct, this scheme provides the only unbiased estimator. The practical challenges with implementing this approach are also discussed.

  5. Broad Absorption Line Quasars and Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, B. J.

    2009-12-01

    Luminous QSOs are signposts to galaxy evolution. Local supermassive black holes are the faded relics of quasars in their heyday at redshifts ˜2. Relationships between the masses of these local supermassive black holes and their host galaxy bulges reveal an intimate link, fundamental to galaxy evolution: the newly evolving galaxy fuels the seed black hole through its accretion disk and by loss of angular momentum and energy in the form of outflowing winds. As the central engine approaches Eddington luminosities, winds drive away dusty gas, revealing a luminous QSO and halting star formation in the galaxy bulge. Relativistic winds are manifested in powerful radio jets in ˜10% of quasars, and sub-relativistic winds are revealed by broad blueshifted absorption troughs in the “broad absorption line” (BAL) quasars. Historically, BALs avoid powerful radio quasars. Here we examine the BALs to investigate this inverse connection.

  6. The HIX galaxy survey I: Study of the most gas rich galaxies from HIPASS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, K. A.; Kilborn, V. A.; Catinella, B.; Koribalski, B. S.; Brown, T. H.; Cortese, L.; Dénes, H.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Wong, O. I.

    2017-05-01

    We present the H I eXtreme (HIX) galaxy survey targeting some of the most H I rich galaxies in the Southern hemisphere. The 13 HIX galaxies have been selected to host the most massive H I discs at a given stellar luminosity. We compare these galaxies to a control sample of average galaxies detected in the H I Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS). As the control sample is matched in stellar luminosity, we find that the stellar properties of HIX galaxies are similar to the control sample. Furthermore, the specific star formation rate and optical morphology do not differ between HIX and control galaxies. We find, however, the HIX galaxies to be less efficient in forming stars. For the most H I massive galaxy in our sample (ESO075-G006, log M_{H I} [M⊙] = (10.8 ± 0.1)), the kinematic properties are the reason for inefficient star formation and H I excess. Examining the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) H I imaging and Wide Field Spectrograph (WiFeS) optical spectra of ESO075-G006 reveals an undisturbed galaxy without evidence for recent major, violent accretion events. A tilted ring fitted to the H I disc together with the gas-phase oxygen abundance distribution supports the scenario that gas has been constantly accreted on to ESO075-G006 but the high specific angular momentum makes ESO075-G006 very inefficient in forming stars. Thus, a massive H I disc has been built up.

  7. Global environmental effects versus galaxy interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, J.; Tissera, P.; Padilla, N.; Alonso, M. S.; Lambas, D. G.

    2009-11-01

    We explore properties of close galaxy pairs and merging systems selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4 in different environments with the aim to assess the relative importance of the role of interactions over global environmental processes. For this purpose, we perform a comparative study of galaxies with and without close companions as a function of local density and host halo mass, carefully removing sources of possible biases. We find that at low- and high-local-density environments, colours and concentration indices of close galaxy pairs are very similar to those of isolated galaxies. At intermediate densities, we detect significant differences, indicating that close pairs could have experienced a more rapid transition on to the red sequence than isolated galaxies. The presence of a correlation between concentration index and colours indicates that the physical mechanism responsible for the colour transformation also operates in the transformation of the luminous matter distribution. At fixed local densities, we find a dependence of the red galaxy fraction on dark matter halo mass for galaxies with or without a close companion. This suggests the action of host halo mass related effects. Regardless of dark matter halo mass, we show that the percentage of red galaxies in close pairs and in the control sample are comparable at low- and high-local-density environments. However, at intermediate local densities, the gap in the red fraction between close pairs and the control galaxies increases from ~10 per cent in low-mass haloes up to ~50 per cent in the most massive ones. Interestingly, we also detect that 50 per cent of merging systems populate the intermediate local environments, with a large fraction of them being extremely red and bulge dominated. Our findings suggest that in intermediate-density environments galaxies are efficiently pre-processed by close encounters and mergers before entering higher local density regions.

  8. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: first 1000 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. T.

    2015-02-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey is an ongoing project to obtain integral field spectroscopic observations of ~3400 galaxies by mid-2016. Including the pilot survey, a total of ~1000 galaxies have been observed to date, making the SAMI Galaxy Survey the largest of its kind in existence. This unique dataset allows a wide range of investigations into different aspects of galaxy evolution. The first public data from the SAMI Galaxy Survey, consisting of 107 galaxies drawn from the full sample, has now been released. By giving early access to SAMI data for the entire research community, we aim to stimulate research across a broad range of topics in galaxy evolution. As the sample continues to grow, the survey will open up a new and unique parameter space for galaxy evolution studies.

  9. Galaxy formation

    PubMed Central

    Peebles, P. J. E.

    1998-01-01

    It is argued that within the standard Big Bang cosmological model the bulk of the mass of the luminous parts of the large galaxies likely had been assembled by redshift z ∼ 10. Galaxy assembly this early would be difficult to fit in the widely discussed adiabatic cold dark matter model for structure formation, but it could agree with an isocurvature version in which the cold dark matter is the remnant of a massive scalar field frozen (or squeezed) from quantum fluctuations during inflation. The squeezed field fluctuations would be Gaussian with zero mean, and the distribution of the field mass therefore would be the square of a random Gaussian process. This offers a possibly interesting new direction for the numerical exploration of models for cosmic structure formation. PMID:9419326

  10. The Hot ISM of Normal Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabbiano, Giuseppina

    1999-01-01

    X-ray observations of galaxies have shown the presence of hot ISM and gaseous halos. The most spectacular examples am in early-type galaxies (E and S0), and in galaxies hosting intense starforming regions. This talk will review the observational evidence and highlight the outstanding issues in our understanding of this gaseous component, with emphasis on our present understanding of the chemical composition of these hot halos. It will address how Chandra, XMM, and future X-ray missions can address these studies.

  11. Galaxy interactions and strength of nuclear activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simkin, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of data in the literature for differential velocities and projected separations of nearby Seyfert galaxies with possible companions shows a clear difference in projected separations between type 1's and type 2's. This kinematic difference between the two activity classes reinforces other independent evidence that their different nuclear characteristics are related to a non-nuclear physical distinction between the two classes. The differential velocities and projected separations of the galaxy pairs in this sample yield mean galaxy masses, sizes, and mass to light ratios which are consistent with those found by the statistical methods of Karachentsev. Although the galaxy sample discussed here is too small and too poorly defined to provide robust support for these conclusions, the results strongly suggest that nuclear activity in Seyfert galaxies is associated with gravitational perturbations from companion galaxies, and that there are physical distinctions between the host companions of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 nuclei which may depend both on the environment and the structure of the host galaxy itself.

  12. How large are the globular cluster systems of early-type galaxies and do they scale with galaxy halo properties?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Duncan A.

    2017-11-01

    The globular cluster (GC) systems of galaxies are well known to extend to large galactocentric radii. Here, we quantify the size of GC systems using the half number radius of 22 GC systems around early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the literature. We compare GC system sizes to the sizes and masses of their host galaxies. We find that GC systems typically extend to 4 times that of the host galaxy size; however, this factor varies with galaxy stellar mass from about 3 times for M* galaxies to 5 times for the most massive galaxies in the universe. The size of a GC system scales approximately linearly with the virial radius (R200) and with the halo mass (M200) to the 1/3 power. The GC system of the Milky Way follows the same relations as for ETGs. For ultra diffuse galaxies (UDGs), their GC system size scales with halo mass and virial radius as for more massive, larger galaxies. UDGs indicate that the linear scaling of GC system size with stellar mass for massive galaxies flattens out for low stellar mass galaxies. Our scalings are different to those reported recently by Hudson & Robison.

  13. A Super Special Galaxy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-24

    There something special going on in the nearby Circinus galaxy, as revealed by this image from NASA WISE telescope. The Circinus galaxy is located in the constellation of Circinus and is obscured by the plane of our Milky Way galaxy.

  14. Galaxy NGC5962

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-25

    NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer took this ultraviolet color image of the galaxy NGC5962 on June 7, 2003. This spiral galaxy is located 90 million light-years from Earth. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04635

  15. Smokin Hot Galaxy animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-03-16

    This infrared image from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope shows a galaxy that appears to be sizzling hot, with huge plumes of smoke swirling around it. The galaxy is known as Messier 82 or the Cigar galaxy.

  16. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Keystones of galaxy evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1994-01-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are the most insignificant extragalactic stellar systems in terms of their visibility, but potentially very significant in terms of their role in the formation and evolution of much more luminous galaxies. We discuss the present observational data and their implications for theories of the formation and evolution of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The putative dark-matter content of these low-surface-brightness systems is of particular interest, as is their chemical evolution. Surveys for new dwarf spheroidals hidden behind the stars of our Galaxy and those which are not bound to giant galaxies may give new clues as to the origins of this unique class of galaxy.

  17. Evolution of dwarf galaxy properties in local group environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arraki, Kenza Sigrid

    Understanding galaxy evolution depends on connecting large-scale structures determined by the ACDM model with, at minimum, the small-scale physics of gas, star formation, and stellar feedback. Formation of galaxies within dark matter halos is sensitive to the physical phenomena occurring within and around the halo. This is especially true for dwarf galaxies, which have smaller potential wells and are more susceptible to the effects of tidal stripping and gas ionization and removal than larger galaxies. At dwarf galaxies scales comparisons of dark matter-only simulations with observations has unveiled various differences such as the core-cusp, the missing satellites, and the too big to fail problems. We have run suites of collisionless and hydrodynamical simulations of dwarf galaxies evolution in massive host environments to address these issues. We performed controlled, numerical simulations, which mimic the effects of baryons, in order to examine the assumptions implicitly made by dark matter-only simulations. The too big to fail problem is due to the overabundance of relatively massive, dense satellite galaxies found in simulations of Milky Way-like environments. We found that the removal of a small baryonic component from the central regions of forming dwarf spheroidal galaxies and the inclusion of a disk component in the host galaxy can substantially reduce the central dark matter density of satellites, bringing simulations and observations of satellites into agreement. Additionally, we studied hydrodynamical simulations of massive host galaxies and their surrounding dwarf galaxy populations. The VELA simulation suite of cosmological zoom-in simulations is run with the ART code, stochastic star formation, and stellar feedback (supernovae feedback, stellar winds, radiation pressure, and photoionization pressure). The suite includes host galaxies with Mvir(z=0)=1011-10 12M ⊙ and their satellite dwarf galaxies and local isolated dwarf galaxies around each

  18. Chemical enrichment in isolated barred spiral galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Hugo; Carles, Christian; Robichaud, Fidéle; Ellison, Sara L.; Williamson, David J.

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the role of bars in the chemical evolution of isolated disc galaxies, we performed a series of 39 gas dynamical simulations of isolated barred and unbarred galaxies with various masses, initial gas fractions, and AGN feedback models. The presence of a bar drives a substantial amount of gas toward the central region of the galaxy. In the most massive galaxies, this results in a violent starburst, followed by a drop in star formation resulting from gas exhaustion. The time delay between Type Ia and Type II supernovae explosions means that barred galaxies experience a rapid increase in [O/H] in the central region, and a much more gradual increase in [Fe/H]. In unbarred galaxies, star formation proceeds at a slow and steady rate, and oxygen and iron are produced at steady rates which are similar except for a time offset. Comparing the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies with the same central stellar mass M*, we find in barred galaxies an enhancement of 0.07 dex in [O/H], 0.05 dex in [Fe/H], and 0.05 dex in [O/Fe]. The [O/H] enhancement is in excellent agreement with observations from the SDSS. The initial gas fraction has very little effect on the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies, unless the galaxies experience a starburst. We considered AGN-host galaxies located near the bottom of the AGN regime, M* ≳ 3 × 1010M⊙, where AGN feedback dominates over supernovae feedback. We found that the impact of AGN feedback on the central abundances is marginal.

  19. NEW X-RAY-SELECTED PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE MEMBERS OF THE SERPENS MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Isa; Van der Laan, Margriet; Brown, Joanna M., E-mail: oliveira@astro.as.utexas.edu

    2013-11-01

    The study of young stars no longer surrounded by disks can greatly add to our understanding of how protoplanetary disks evolve and planets form. We have used VLT/FLAMES optical spectroscopy to confirm the youth and membership of 19 new young diskless stars in the Serpens Molecular Cloud, identified at X-ray wavelengths. Spectral types, effective temperatures, and stellar luminosities were determined using optical spectra and optical/near-infrared photometry. Stellar masses and ages were derived based on pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks. The results yield remarkable similarities for age and mass distribution between the diskless and disk-bearing stellar populations in Serpens. We discuss the importantmore » implications these similarities may have on the standard picture of disk evolution.« less

  20. Four new X-ray-selected supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, P.; Haberl, F.; Kavanagh, P. J.; Points, S. D.; Dickel, J.; Bozzetto, L. M.; Sasaki, M.; Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, R. A.; Filipović, M. D.; Pietsch, W.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We present a detailed multi-wavelength study of four new supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The objects were identified as SNR candidates in X-ray observations performed during the survey of the LMC with XMM-Newton. Methods: Data obained with XMM-Newton are used to investigate the morphological and spectral features of the remnants in X-rays. We measure the plasma conditions, look for supernova (SN) ejecta emission, and constrain some of the SNR properties (e.g. age and ambient density). We supplement the X-ray data with optical, infrared, and radio-continuum archival observations, which allow us to understand the conditions resulting in the current appearance of the remnants. Based on the spatially-resolved star formation history (SFH) of the LMC together with the X-ray spectra, we attempt to type the supernovae that created the remnants. Results: We confirm all four objects as SNRs, to which we assign the names MCSNR J0508-6830, MCSNR J0511-6759, MCSNR J0514-6840, and MCSNR J0517-6759. In the first two remnants, an X-ray bright plasma is surrounded by very faint [S ii] emission. The emission from the central plasma is dominated by Fe L-shell lines, and the derived iron abundance is greatly in excess of solar. This establishes their type Ia (i.e. thermonuclear) SN origin. They appear to be more evolved versions of other Magellanic Cloud iron-rich SNRs which are centrally-peaked in X-rays. From the two other remnants (MCSNR J0514-6840 and MCSNR J0517-6759), we do not see ejecta emission. At all wavelengths at which they are detected, the local environment plays a key role in their observational appearance. We present evidence that MCSNR J0517-6759 is close to and interacting with a molecular cloud, suggesting a massive progenitor. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA.

  1. Variability of Optical Counterparts to X-ray Selected Sources in the Galactic Bulge Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Christopher; Hynes, Robert I.; Jonker, Peter; Torres, Manuel; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Britt, Christopher; Steeghs, Danny; Galactic Bulge Survey Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) is a wide-field, multi-wavelength survey of new X-ray sources in the Galactic Bulge detected with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The goals of the GBS are to test binary population models by uncovering quiescent Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries (LMXB), and to identify suitable systems for follow-up mass determination using multi-wavelength observations. This follow-up is essential to better determine black hole and neutron star mass distributions. We present preliminary results from the southernmost portion of the GBS positioned 1.5-2.0 degrees below the Galactic Center which contains 424 unique X-ray sources. The optical photometry presented here were acquired using the DECam imager and the previous Mosaic-II imager on the 4m Blanco telescope at Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). We combine photometry with optical spectroscopy from several different telescopes to help characterize the detected X-ray sources. To accomplish this goal, we analyze the light curve morphology and the spectroscopic features of the optical counterparts to classify these binary systems. I will describe the technique for determining the correct optical counterpart within the error circle using image subtraction and report on the statistics of the sample. I will then summarize the candidate LMXBs we have identified so far and highlight other interesting sources. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-0908789 and by NASA through Chandra Award Number AR3-14002X issued by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of the National Aeronautics Space Administration under contract NAS8-03060. We also acknowledge support from a Graduate Student Research Award administered by the Louisiana Space Grant Consortium (LaSPACE).

  2. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY OF X-RAY-SELECTED YOUNG STARS IN THE CARINA NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidya, Kaushar; Chen, Wen-Ping; Lee, Hsu-Tai

    2015-12-15

    We present low-resolution optical spectra for 29 X-ray sources identified as either massive star candidates or low-mass pre-main-sequence (PMS) star candidates in the clusters Trumpler 16 and Trumpler 14 of the Carina Nebula. Spectra of two more objects (one with an X-ray counterpart, and one with no X-ray counterpart), not originally our targets, but found close (∼3″) to two of our targets, are presented as well. Twenty early-type stars, including an O8 star, seven B1–B2 stars, two B3 stars, a B5 star, and nine emission-line stars, are identified. Eleven T Tauri stars, including eight classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) and threemore » weak-lined T Tauri stars, are identified. The early-type stars in our sample are more reddened compared to the previously known OB stars of the region. The Chandra hardness ratios of our T Tauri stars are found to be consistent with the Chandra hardness ratios of T Tauri stars of the Orion Nebula Cluster. Most early-type stars are found to be nonvariable in X-ray emission, except the B2 star J104518.81–594217.9, the B3 star J104507.84–594134.0, and the Ae star J104424.76–594555.0, which are possible X-ray variables. J104452.20–594155.1, a CTTS, is among the brightest and the hardest X-ray sources in our sample, appears to be a variable, and shows a strong X-ray flare. The mean optical and near-infrared photometric variability in the V and K{sub s} bands, of all sources, is found to be ∼0.04 and 0.05 mag, respectively. The T Tauri stars show significantly larger mean variation, ∼0.1 mag, in the K{sub s} band. The addition of one O star and seven B1–B2 stars reported here contributes to an 11% increase of the known OB population in the observed field. The 11 T Tauri stars are the first ever confirmed low-mass PMS stars in the Carina Nebula region.« less

  3. Galaxies Collide to Create Hot, Huge Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This image of a pair of colliding galaxies called NGC 6240 shows them in a rare, short-lived phase of their evolution just before they merge into a single, larger galaxy. The prolonged, violent collision has drastically altered the appearance of both galaxies and created huge amounts of heat turning NGC 6240 into an 'infrared luminous' active galaxy.

    A rich variety of active galaxies, with different shapes, luminosities and radiation profiles exist. These galaxies may be related astronomers have suspected that they may represent an evolutionary sequence. By catching different galaxies in different stages of merging, a story emerges as one type of active galaxy changes into another. NGC 6240 provides an important 'missing link' in this process.

    This image was created from combined data from the infrared array camera of NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope at 3.6 and 8.0 microns (red) and visible light from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (green and blue).

  4. Scaling relations and X-ray properties of moderate-luminosity galaxy clusters from 0.3 < z < 0.6 with XMM-Newton

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, Thomas; Donahue, Megan; Sun, Ming

    2014-10-10

    We present new X-ray temperatures and improved X-ray luminosity estimates for 15 new and archival XMM-Newton observations of galaxy clusters at intermediate redshift with mass and luminosities near the galaxy group/cluster division (M{sub 2500}<2.4×10{sup 14} h{sub 70}{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}, L < 2 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup –1}, 0.3 < z < 0.6). These clusters have weak-lensing mass measurements based on Hubble Space Telescope observations of clusters representative of an X-ray-selected sample (the ROSAT 160SD survey). The angular resolution of XMM-Newton allows us to disentangle the emission of these galaxy clusters from nearby point sources, which significantly contaminated previousmore » X-ray luminosity estimates for 6 of the 15 clusters. We extend cluster scaling relations between X-ray luminosity, temperature, and weak-lensing mass for low-mass, X-ray-selected clusters out to redshift ∼0.45. These relations are important for cosmology and the astrophysics of feedback in galaxy groups and clusters. Our joint analysis with a sample of 50 clusters in a similar redshift range but with larger masses (M {sub 500} < 21.9 × 10{sup 14} M {sub ☉}, 0.15 ≤ z ≤ 0.55) from the Canadian Cluster Comparison Project finds that within r {sub 2500}, M∝L {sup 0.44±0.05}, T∝L {sup 0.23±0.02}, and M∝T {sup 1.9±0.2}. The estimated intrinsic scatter in the M-L relation for the combined sample is reduced to σ{sub log(M|L)} = 0.10, from σ{sub log} {sub (M|L)} = 0.26 with the original ROSAT measurements. We also find an intrinsic scatter for the T-L relation, σ{sub log} {sub (T|L)} = 0.07 ± 0.01.« less

  5. On the Galactic Spin of Barred Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-Sodi, Bernardo; Li, Cheng; Park, Changbom; Wang, Lixin

    2013-09-01

    We present a study of the connection between the galactic spin parameter (λ d ) and the bar fraction in a volume-limited sample of 10,674 disk galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. The galaxies in our sample are visually classified into one of three groups: non-barred galaxies and galaxies hosting long or short bars, respectively. We find that the spin distributions of these three classes are statistically different, with galaxies hosting long bars having the lowest λ d values, followed by non-barred galaxies, while galaxies with short bars present typically high spin parameters. The bar fraction presents its maximum at low to intermediate λ d values for the case of long bars, while the maximum for short bars is at high λ d . This bimodality is in good agreement with previous studies finding longer bars hosted by luminous, massive, red galaxies with a low content of cold gas, while short bars were found in low luminosity, low mass, blue galaxies that were typically gas rich. In addition, the rise and fall of the bar fraction as a function of λ d , within the long-bar sample shown in our results, can be explained as a result of two competing factors: the self-gravity of the disk that enhances bar instabilities and the support by random motions, instead of ordered rotational motion, that prevents the formation/growth of bars.

  6. Role of active galactic nuclei in the luminous infrared galaxy phase at z ≤ 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ming-Yi; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Foucaud, Sébastien

    2016-03-01

    To understand the interactions between active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star formation during the evolution of galaxies, we investigate 142 galaxies detected in both X-ray and 70 μm observations in the COSMOS (Cosmic Evolution Survey) field. All of our data are obtained from the archive X-ray point-source catalogues from Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, and the far-infrared 70 μm point-source catalogue from Spitzer-MIPS observations. Although the IRAC [3.6 μm]-[4.5 μm] versus [5.8 μm]-[8.0 μm] colours of our sample indicate that only ˜63 per cent of our sources would be classified as AGNs, the ratio of the rest-frame 2-10 keV luminosity to the total infrared luminosity (8-1000 μm) shows that the entire sample has comparatively higher X-ray luminosity than that expected from pure star-forming galaxies, suggesting the presence of an AGN in all of our sources. From an analysis of the X-ray hardness ratio, we find that sources with both 70 μm and X-ray detection tend to have a higher hardness ratio relative to the whole X-ray-selected source population, suggesting the presence of more X-ray absorption in the 70 μm detected sources. In addition, we find that the observed far-infrared colours of 70 μm detected sources with and without X-ray emission are similar, suggesting the far-infrared emission could be mainly powered by star formation.

  7. Uncovering the Spectral Energy Distribution in Active Galaxies Using High Ionization Mid-Infrared Emission Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melendez, M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Weaver, K. A.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    The shape of the spectral energy distribution of active galaxies in the EUV soft X-ray band (13.6 eV to 1 keV) is uncertain because obscuration by dust and gas can hamper our view of the continuum. To investigate the shape of the spectral energy distribution in this energy band, we have generated a set of photoionization models which reproduce the small dispersion found in correlations between high-ionization mid-infrared emission lines in a sample of hard X-ray selected AGN. Our calculations show that a broken power-law continuum model is sufficient to reproduce the [Ne V]14.32 microns/[Ne III], [Ne V]24.32 microns/[O IV]25.89 micron and [O IV] 25.89 microns/[Ne III] ratios, and does not require the addition of a "big bump" EUV model component. We constrain the EUV-soft X-ray slope, alpha(sub i), to be between 1.5 - 2.0 and derive a best fit of alpha(sub i) approx. 1.9 for Seyfert 1 galaxies, consistent with previous studies of intermediate redshift quasars. If we assume a blue bump model, most sources in our sample have derived temperatures between T(sub BB) = 10(exp 5.18) K to 10(exp 5.7) K, suggesting that the peak of this component spans a large range of energies extending from approx. (Lambda)600 A to > (Lambda)1900 A. In this case, the best fitting peak energy that matches the mid-infrared line ratios of Seyfert 1 galaxies occurs between approx. (Lambda)700-(Lambda)1000 A. Despite the fact that our results do not rule out the presence of an EUV bump, we conclude that our power-law model produces enough photons with energies > 4 Ry to generate the observed amount of mid-infrared emission in our sample of BAT AGN.

  8. Galaxy NGC 55

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-10

    This image of the nearby edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 55 was taken by Galaxy Evolution Explorer on September 14, 2003, during 2 orbits. This galaxy lies 5.4 million light years from our Milky Way galaxy and is a member of the "local group" of galaxies that also includes the Andromeda galaxy (M31), the Magellanic clouds, and 40 other galaxies. The spiral disk of NGC 55 is inclined to our line of sight by approximately 80 degrees and so this galaxy looks cigar-shaped. This picture is a combination of Galaxy Evolution Explorer images taken with the far ultraviolet (colored blue) and near ultraviolet detectors, (colored red). The bright blue regions in this image are areas of active star formation detected in the ultraviolet by Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The red stars in this image are foreground stars in our own Milky Way galaxy. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04923

  9. Clusters, brightest cluster galaxies and galaxy alignments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisari, Nora Elisa

    This thesis develops two main topics related to the study of the large-scale structure of the Universe. The first one is the intrinsic alignment of galaxies. These are correlations between the shapes and orientations of galaxies that arise mainly as a consequence of tidal forces across a large range of scales. I use the tidal alignment model to predict how the intrinsic alignment of Luminous Red Galaxies could in the future provide constraints on the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation scale, a standard ruler for measuring the expansion of the Universe. I also show that primordial signatures of inflation can translate into a non-Gaussian bias in the correlation of the intrinsic shapes of galaxies, which could be observed with future surveys. The second main topic discussed in this thesis is clusters of galaxies. I use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and a public catalog of galaxy clusters to estimate the alignment of galaxies around groups and clusters of galaxies. The novelty of this work is mainly in the method for estimating the alignment signal. In photometric surveys, the redshift uncertainty is large compared to the size of a cluster, making the distinction between galaxies in the cluster and in the background very challenging. In the method developed here, each galaxy is assigned a posterior probability distribution function of its redshift to separate the alignment component from the gravitational lensing of galaxies in the background. Among the galaxies that make up a cluster, Brightest Cluster Galaxies stand out by their luminosity. I study the connection between these galaxies and other ellipticals to understand the physics of their formation. Finally, I re-develop the Adaptive Matched Filter method for finding clusters in spectroscopic and photometric surveys to include a new treatment of the distances to galaxies. Again, I model the distance to each galaxy using a redshift posterior and propose other modifications to the algorithm that will be of use to

  10. The Galaxy End Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eales, Stephen; de Vis, Pieter; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Appah, Kiran; Ciesla, Laure; Duffield, Chris; Schofield, Simon

    2017-03-01

    A common assumption is that galaxies fall in two distinct regions of a plot of specific star formation rate (SSFR) versus galaxy stellar mass: a star-forming galaxy main sequence (GMS) and a separate region of 'passive' or 'red and dead galaxies'. Starting from a volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies designed to contain most of the stellar mass in this volume, and thus representing the end-point of ≃12 billion years of galaxy evolution, we investigate the distribution of galaxies in this diagram today. We show that galaxies follow a strongly curved extended GMS with a steep negative slope at high galaxy stellar masses. There is a gradual change in the morphologies of the galaxies along this distribution, but there is no clear break between early-type and late-type galaxies. Examining the other evidence that there are two distinct populations, we argue that the 'red sequence' is the result of the colours of galaxies changing very little below a critical value of the SSFR, rather than implying a distinct population of galaxies. Herschel observations, which show at least half of early-type galaxies contain a cool interstellar medium, also imply continuity between early-type and late-type galaxies. This picture of a unitary population of galaxies requires more gradual evolutionary processes than the rapid quenching process needed to explain two distinct populations. We challenge theorists to predict quantitatively the properties of this 'Galaxy End Sequence'.

  11. Star Formation Activity in CLASH Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogarty, Kevin; Postman, Marc; Connor, Thomas; Donahue, Megan; Moustakas, John

    2015-11-01

    The CLASH X-ray selected sample of 20 galaxy clusters contains 10 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) that exhibit significant (>5σ) extinction-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). Star formation activity is inferred from photometric estimates of UV and Hα+[N ii] emission in knots and filaments detected in CLASH Hubble Space Telescope ACS and WFC3 observations. UV-derived SFRs in these BCGs span two orders of magnitude, including two with a SFR ≳ 100 M⊙ yr-1. These measurements are supplemented with [O ii], [O iii], and Hβ fluxes measured from spectra obtained with the SOAR telescope. We confirm that photoionization from ongoing star formation powers the line emission nebulae in these BCGs, although in many BCGs there is also evidence of a LINER-like contribution to the line emission. Coupling these data with Chandra X-ray measurements, we infer that the star formation occurs exclusively in low-entropy cluster cores and exhibits a correlation with gas properties related to cooling. We also perform an in-depth study of the starburst history of the BCG in the cluster RXJ1532.9+3021, and create 2D maps of stellar properties on scales down to ˜350 pc. These maps reveal evidence for an ongoing burst occurring in elongated filaments, generally on ˜0.5-1.0 Gyr timescales, although some filaments are consistent with much younger (≲100 Myr) burst timescales and may be correlated with recent activity from the active galactic nucleus. The relationship between BCG SFRs and the surrounding intracluster medium gas properties provide new support for the process of feedback-regulated cooling in galaxy clusters and is consistent with recent theoretical predictions. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel

  12. Galaxy Zoo: Observing secular evolution through bars

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Edmond; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.

    2013-12-20

    In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We findmore » that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).« less

  13. Peering Into an Early Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    Thirteen billion years ago, early galaxies ionized the gas around them, producing some of the first light that brought our universe out of its dark ages. Now the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has provided one of the first detailed looks into the interior of one of these early, distant galaxies.Sources of LightArtists illustration of the reionization of the universe (time progresses left to right), in which ionized bubbles that form around the first sources of light eventually overlap to form the fully ionized universe we observe today. [Avi Loeb/Scientific American]For the first roughly hundred million years of its existence, our universe expanded in relative darkness there were no sources of light at that time besides the cosmic microwave background. But as mass started to condense to form the first objects, these objects eventually shone as the earliest luminous sources, contributing to the reionization of the universe.To learn about the early production of light in the universe, our best bet is to study in detail the earliest luminous sources stars, galaxies, or quasars that we can hunt down. One ideal target is the galaxy COSMOS Redshift 7, known as CR7 for short.Targeting CR7CR7 is one of the oldest, most distant galaxies known, lying at a redshift of z 6.6. Its discovery in 2015 and subsequent observations of bright, ultraviolet-emitting clumps within it have led to broad speculation about the source of its emission. Does this galaxy host an active nucleus? Or could it perhaps contain the long-theorized first generation of stars, metal-free Population III stars?To determine the nature of CR7 and the other early galaxies that contributed to reionization, we need to explore their gas and dust in detail a daunting task for such distant sources! Conveniently, this is a challenge that is now made possible by ALMAs incredible capabilities. In a new publication led by Jorryt Matthee (Leiden University, the Netherlands), a team of scientists now

  14. Dust-obscured star formation in the outskirts of XMMU J2235.3-2557, a massive galaxy cluster at z = 1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. S.; Altieri, B.; Popesso, P.; Strazzullo, V.; Valtchanov, I.; Berta, S.; Böhringer, H.; Conversi, L.; Demarco, R.; Edge, A. C.; Lidman, C.; Lutz, D.; Metcalfe, L.; Mullis, C. R.; Pintos-Castro, I.; Sánchez-Portal, M.; Rawle, T. D.; Rosati, P.; Swinbank, A. M.; Tanaka, M.

    2013-08-01

    Star formation (SF) in the galaxy populations of local massive clusters is reduced with respect to field galaxies, and tends to be suppressed in the core region. Indications of a reversal of the SF-density relation have been observed in a few z > 1.4 clusters. Using deep imaging from 100-500 μm from Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) and Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE) onboard Herschel, we investigate infrared properties of spectroscopic and photo-z cluster members, and of Hα emitters in XMMU J2235.3-2557, one of the most massive, distant, X-ray selected clusters known. Our analysis is based mostly on fitting of the galaxies spectral energy distribution (SED) in the rest-frame 8-1000 μm. We measure total IR luminosity, deriving star formation rates (SFRs) ranging from 89 to 463 M⊙ yr-1 for 13 galaxies individually detected by Herschel, all located beyond the core region (r >250 kpc). We perform a stacking analysis of nine star-forming members not detected by PACS, yielding a detection with SFR = 48 ± 16 M⊙ yr-1. Using a colour criterion based on a star-forming galaxy SED at the cluster redshift, we select 41 PACS sources as candidate star-forming cluster members. We characterize a population of highly obscured SF galaxies in the outskirts of XMMU J2235.3-2557. We do not find evidence for a reversal of the SF-density relation in this massive, distant cluster.

  15. A Stellar Stream Surrounds the Whale Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    The -cold dark matter cosmological model predicts that galaxies are assembled through the disruption and absorption of small satellite dwarf galaxies by their larger hosts. A recent study argues that NGC 4631, otherwise known as the Whale galaxy, shows evidence of such a recent merger in the form of an enormous stellar stream extending from it.Stream SignaturesAccording to the -CDM model, stellar tidal streams should be a ubiquitous feature among galaxies. When satellite dwarf galaxies are torn apart, they spread out into such streams before ultimately feeding the host galaxy. Unfortunately, these streams are very faint, so were only recently starting to detect these features.Stellar tidal streams have been discovered around the Milky Way and Andromeda, providing evidence of these galaxies growth via recent (within the last 8 Gyr) mergers. But discovering stellar streams around other Milky Way-like galaxies would help us to determine if the model of hierarchical galaxy assembly applies generally.To this end, the Stellar Tidal Stream Survey, led by PI David Martnez-Delgado (Center for Astronomy of Heidelberg University), is carrying out the first systematic survey of stellar tidal streams. In a recent study, Martnez-Delgado and collaborators present their detection of a giant (85 kpc long!) stellar tidal stream extending into the halo of NGC 4631, the Whale galaxy.Modeling a SatelliteThe top image is a snapshot from an N-body simulation of a single dwarf satellite, 3.5 Gyr after it started interacting with the Whale galaxy. The satellite has been torn apart and spread into a stream that reproduces observations, which are shown in the lower image (scale is not the same). [Martnez-Delgado et al. 2015]The Whale galaxy is a nearby edge-on spiral galaxy interacting with a second spiral, NGC 4656. But the authors dont believe that the Whale galaxys giant tidal stellar stream is caused by its interactions with NGC 4656. Instead, based on their observations, they believe

  16. The SWIFT AGN and Cluster Survey. I. Number Counts of AGNs and Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xinyu; Griffin, Rhiannon D.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Nugent, Jenna M.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2015-05-01

    The Swift active galactic nucleus (AGN) and Cluster Survey (SACS) uses 125 deg2 of Swift X-ray Telescope serendipitous fields with variable depths surrounding γ-ray bursts to provide a medium depth (4× {{10}-15} erg cm-2 s-1) and area survey filling the gap between deep, narrow Chandra/XMM-Newton surveys and wide, shallow ROSAT surveys. Here, we present a catalog of 22,563 point sources and 442 extended sources and examine the number counts of the AGN and galaxy cluster populations. SACS provides excellent constraints on the AGN number counts at the bright end with negligible uncertainties due to cosmic variance, and these constraints are consistent with previous measurements. We use Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-infrared (MIR) colors to classify the sources. For AGNs we can roughly separate the point sources into MIR-red and MIR-blue AGNs, finding roughly