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Sample records for galaxies molecular gas

  1. Molecular gas in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casoli, F.; Sauty, S.; Gerin, M.; Boselli, A.; Fouque, P.; Braine, J.; Gavazzi, G.; Lequeux, J.; Dickey, J.

    1998-03-01

    The molecular hydrogen content of a galaxy is a key parameter for its activity and future evolution. Its variations with basic properties such as size, mass, morphological type, and environment, the ratio of molecular to atomic gas masses, should provide us with a better view of galaxy evolution. Such studies have been done in the past by Sage (1993a) or the FCRAO group (e.g. Young & Knezek 1989), and have led to controversial results, for example about the MHH /MHI ratio. While Sage (1993a), using a distance-limited sample of 65 galaxies and the \\COA line emission as a tracer of the HH mass, finds that most galaxies have MHH /MHI lower than 1, Young & Knezek (1989) and Young et al. (1995), from a different sample of 178 objects, claim equal amounts of gas in the molecular and atomic phase. Here we again tackle this problem, by gathering a much larger sample of 582 objects, not only from the literature but also from several \\COA surveys that we have completed and which are largely unpublished. Our sample is clearly not complete and contains a large number of cluster galaxies as well as many more massive objects than a distance-limited sample. Contrary to previous analyses, we have taken into account the non-detections by using the survival analysis method. Our sample includes 105 isolated galaxies, observed by us, that we use as a reference sample in order to determine whether cluster galaxies are CO-deficient. We find that the ratio of HH and HI masses is on the average lower than 1, with = log(0.20) +/- 0.04 (median = log(0.27) +/- 0.04). For spirals with types Sa to Sc, we have slightly higher values: log(0.28) and log(0.34) respectively. The actual HH masses and MHH /MHI ratios could be lower than given above if, as suggested by recent gamma -ray and 1.3 mm continuum data, the conversion factor between \\COA emissivities and HH masses for large spiral galaxies is lower than the value adopted here (X=2.310(20) cm(-2) /(Kkms(-1) )). The

  2. Molecular gas in interacting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ming

    2001-10-01

    A systematic study of the molecular gas properties in strongly interacting galaxies (SIGs) has been undertaken, which includes two parts: (1)a statistical study of a large, optically-selected, complete sample of SIGs; (2)a case study of the nearest colliding pair NGC 4038/9 (``the Antennae'') with multi-transition data of both 12CO and 13CO. Consisting of 126 galaxies in 92 systems, our complete sample of SIGs includes all the SIGs in the northern sky with optical magnitude BT < 14.5. CO data have been collected for 95 SIGs (59 of which were observed by us) as well as for comparison samples of 59 weakly interacting and 69 isolated spiral galaxies. The statistical analysis of the samples shows that the SIGs, especially the colliding and merging systems, have a higher CO luminosity than isolated spiral galaxies. However, there is no significant difference in the atomic gas contents between the samples. This indicates that the excess CO emission is not due to the conversion of atomic gas to molecular gas, but may be more plausibly accounted for by a lower CO-to- H2 conversion factor X. For the Antennae galaxies, we have obtained high quality, fully sampled, single dish maps at 12CO J = 1-0 and 32 transitions with an angular resolution of 15' (1.5 kpc), together with 12CO J = 2-1, 13CO J = 2-1 and 3-2 data at selected regions with similar resolutions. Our Nobeyama 45m map recovers twice as much 12CO J = 1-0 flux as was reported by Wilson et al. (2000). The 12CO J = 1-0, 2-1 and 3-2 emission all peak in an off-nucleus region adjacent to where the two disks overlap. The 12CO/13 CO J = 2-1 and 3-2 integrated intensity ratios are remarkably high in the overlap region. Detailed LVG modeling indicates that the 12 CO and 13CO emission come from different spatial components. The 12CO emission originates from a nonvirialized low density gas component with a large velocity gradient. Such a large velocity gradient can produce ``over luminous'' CO emission, and the derived X

  3. Molecular Gas in Elliptical Galaxies: Erratum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, Joanna F.; Knapp, G. R.; Rupen, Michael P.; Phillips, T. G.

    1992-09-01

    In the paper "Molecular Gas in Elliptical Galaxies" by Joanna F. Lees, G. R. Knapp, Michael P. Rupen, and T. G. Phillips (ApJ, 379,177 [1991]), an error appeared on page 208. Two numbers which were quoted from Young and Knezek (1989) were inadvertently not converted from their CO-H_2_ conversion factor to ours (a difference of 40%). Page 208, column (1), lines 6-7 should read:

  4. Molecular gas in the Andromeda galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieten, Ch.; Neininger, N.; Guélin, M.; Ungerechts, H.; Lucas, R.; Berkhuijsen, E. M.; Beck, R.; Wielebinski, R.

    2006-07-01

    Aims.We study the distribution of the molecular gas in the Andromeda galaxy (M 31) and compare this with the distributions of the atomic gas and the emission from cold dust at λ 175 μm.Methods.We obtained a new 12CO(J = 1-0)-line survey of the Andromeda galaxy with the highest resolution to date (23 arcsec, or 85 pc along the major axis), observed On-the-Fly with the IRAM 30-m telescope. We fully sampled an area of 2°× 0.5 ° with a velocity resolution of 2.6{ km s-1}. In several selected regions we also observed the 12CO(2-1)-line.Results.Emission from the 12CO(1-0) line was detected from galactocentric radius R=3 kpc to R=16 kpc with a maximum in intensity at R˜ 10 kpc. The molecular gas traced by the (velocity-integrated) (1-0)-line intensity is concentrated in narrow arm-like filaments, which often coincide with the dark dust lanes visible at optical wavelengths. Between R=4 kpc and R=12 kpc the brightest CO filaments define a two-armed spiral pattern that is described well by two logarithmic spirals with a pitch angle of 7°-8°. The arm-interarm brightness ratio averaged over a length of 15 kpc along the western arms reaches about 20 compared to 4 for H I at an angular resolution of 45 arcsec. For a constant conversion factor X_CO, the molecular fraction of the neutral gas is enhanced in the spiral arms and decreases radially from 0.6 on the inner arms to 0.3 on the arms at R≃ 10 kpc. The apparent gas-to-dust ratios N(H I)/I175 and (N(H I)+2N(H_2))/I175 increase by a factor of 20 between the centre and R≃ 14{ kpc}, whereas the ratio 2N(H_2)/I175 only increases by a factor of 4.Conclusions.Either the atomic and total gas-to-dust ratios increase by a factor of 20 or the dust becomes colder towards larger radii. A strong variation of X_CO with radius seems unlikely. The observed gradients affect the cross-correlations between gas and dust. In the radial range R=8-14 kpc total gas and cold dust are well correlated; molecular gas correlates better with

  5. TANGO I: Interstellar medium in nearby radio galaxies. Molecular gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña Flaquer, B.; Leon, S.; Combes, F.; Lim, J.

    2010-07-01

    Context. Powerful radio-AGN are hosted by massive elliptical galaxies that are usually very poor in molecular gas. Nevertheless, gas is needed at their very center to feed the nuclear activity. Aims: We study the molecular gas properties (i.e., mass, kinematics, distribution, origin) of these objects, and compare them with results for other known samples. Methods: At the IRAM-30m telescope, we performed a survey of the CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) emission from the most powerful radio galaxies of the Local Universe, selected only on the basis of their radio continuum fluxes. Results: The main result of our survey is that the molecular gas content of these galaxies is very low compared to spiral or FIR-selected galaxies. The median value of the molecular gas mass, including detections and upper limits, is 2.2 × 108 M⊙. When separated into FR-I and FR-II types, a difference in their H2 masses is found. The median value of FR-I galaxies is about 1.9 × 108 M⊙ and higher for FR-II galaxies, at about 4.5 × 108 M⊙. Which is probably entirely because of a Malmquist bias. Our results contrast with those of previous surveys, whose targets were mainly selected by means of their FIR emission, implying that we measure higher observed masses of molecular gas. Moreover, the shape of CO spectra suggest that a central molecular gas disk exists in 30% of these radio galaxies, a lower rate than in other active galaxy samples. Conclusions: We find a low level of molecular gas in our sample of radio-selected AGNs, indicating that galaxies do not need much molecular gas to host an AGN. The presence of a molecular gas disk in some galaxies and the wide range of molecular gas masses may be indicative of different origins for the gas, which we can not exclude at present (e.g., minor/major mergers, stellar mass loss, or accretion). Appendices and Figure 15 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. WARM MOLECULAR GAS IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, N.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, C. K.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Howell, J.; Appleton, P.; Lord, S.; Schulz, B.; Gao, Y.; Armus, L.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Surace, J.; Isaak, K. G.; Petric, A. O.; Charmandaris, V.; Evans, A. S.; Inami, H.; Iwasawa, K.; Leech, J.; Sanders, D. B.; and others

    2014-06-01

    We present our initial results on the CO rotational spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the J to J–1 transitions from J = 4 up to 13 from Herschel SPIRE spectroscopic observations of 65 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey. The observed SLEDs change on average from one peaking at J ≤ 4 to a broad distribution peaking around J ∼ 6 to 7 as the IRAS 60-to-100 μm color, C(60/100), increases. However, the ratios of a CO line luminosity to the total infrared luminosity, L {sub IR}, show the smallest variation for J around 6 or 7. This suggests that, for most LIRGs, ongoing star formation (SF) is also responsible for a warm gas component that emits CO lines primarily in the mid-J regime (5 ≲ J ≲ 10). As a result, the logarithmic ratios of the CO line luminosity summed over CO (5–4), (6–5), (7–6), (8–7) and (10–9) transitions to L {sub IR}, log R {sub midCO}, remain largely independent of C(60/100), and show a mean value of –4.13 (≡log R{sub midCO}{sup SF}) and a sample standard deviation of only 0.10 for the SF-dominated galaxies. Including additional galaxies from the literature, we show, albeit with a small number of cases, the possibility that galaxies, which bear powerful interstellar shocks unrelated to the current SF, and galaxies, in which an energetic active galactic nucleus contributes significantly to the bolometric luminosity, have their R {sub midCO} higher and lower than R{sub midCO}{sup SF}, respectively.

  7. Formation of molecular gas in the tidal debris of violent galaxy-galaxy interactions.

    PubMed

    Braine, J; Lisenfeld, U; Duc, P A; Leon, S; Due, P A

    2000-02-24

    In many gravitational interactions between galaxies, gas and stars that have been torn from the precursor galaxies can collect in tidal 'tails'. Star formation begins anew in some of these regions, producing tidal dwarf galaxies. Observations of these new galaxies provides insight into processes relevant to galaxy formation more generally, because the timescale of the interaction is well defined. But tracking the star formation process has hitherto been difficult because the tidal dwarf galaxies with young stars showed no evidence of the molecular gas out of which those young stars formed. Here we report the discovery of molecular hydrogen (traced by carbon monoxide emission) in two tidal dwarf galaxies. In both cases, the concentration of molecular gas peaks at the same location as the maximum in atomic-hydrogen density, unlike the situation in most gas-rich galaxies. We infer from this that the molecular gas formed from the atomic hydrogen, rather than being torn in molecular form from the interacting galaxies. Star formation in the tidal dwarf galaxies therefore appears to mimic the process in normal spiral galaxies like our own.

  8. Dense molecular gas in starburst galaxies: Warmer than expected?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhle, S.; Henkel, C.; de Maio, T.; Seaquist, E. R.

    2011-05-01

    Star formation processes and their feedback play a crucial role in the evolution of almost every galaxy, locally as well as at high redshifts. The question whether or not the initial mass function (IMF) is universal, i.e. the same in all kinds of environments, is still subject to intense debate. A number of recent observations have been interpreted as evidence for a top-heavy IMF, spanning a variety of objects, from the center of our Galaxy to circumnuclear starburst regions and ultra-compact dwarf galaxies. Hydrodynamical simulations can reproduce such a top-heavy IMF if the raw material of star formation, the dense molecular gas, is assumed to have a kinetic temperature of ˜ 100 K. Such a molecular gas phase is not observed in the dense cores in the Galactic plane, but may be present in active environments like the cores of starburst galaxies or near AGN. Unfortunately, the kinetic temperature of the molecular gas in many external galaxies is not well constrained, because many of the most common extragalactic tracer molecules suffer from a degeneracy between the kinetic temperature and the gas density in a non-LTE line ratio analysis. We demonstrate the diagnostic power of a selected set of para-formaldehyde lines as tracers of the kinetic temperature as well as the gas density in external galaxies using our non-LTE radiative transfer model. With this new observational tool, we have engaged in characterizing the properties of the dense molecular gas phase in a number of nearby starburst galaxies and near AGN. Our first results suggest the existence of a dense molecular gas phase that is significantly warmer than the dust and much warmer than dense molecular gas found in the Milky Way disk.

  9. Circumnuclear molecular gas in starburst and Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Kameya, Osamo; Nakai, Naomasa

    1990-01-01

    In order to investigate circumnuclear molecular gaseous contents and their relation to the nuclear activity, researchers made a search for circumnuclear (12)CO (J=1-0) emission from 28 starburst-nucleus galaxies (SBNs) and 12 Seyfert galaxies with the recession velocities less than 5000 km/s, using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45-m telescope. The full half-power beam width of 17 arcsec covers a region of less than about 5 kpc in diameter for the sample galaxies. The circumnuclear CO emission was detected from twelve SBNs (one is marginal) and four Seyfert galaxies. The main results and conclusions are summarized. Researchers derived the circumnuclear surface density of molecular gas which is corrected for inclination of the galaxies. This analysis shows that the surface density spans a wide range over two orders of magnitude. Further, there is no significant difference in the surface densities between types 1 and 2 Seyfert galaxies. Thus, we may conclude that the circumnuclear molecular content is not a key parameter producing the dichotomy of the Seyfert galaxies. It is also shown that there is no significant difference in the circumnuclear surface densities of molecular gas among the Seyfert, starburst, and normal galaxies. This implies that the circumnuclear gaseous content is not a key parameter determining which activity occurs in nuclei. We may conclude that more centrally condensed (i.e., less than 10 - 100 pc in diameter) gas components play an essential role on the occurrence of nuclear activities. Comparing results with the previous ones, researchers deduced radial distribution of surface density of molecular gases. They cannot obtain evidence for strong central concentration of molecular gas in the sample Seyfert galaxies except for NGC 3227. This is consistent with the previous result by Blitz, Mathieu, and Bally (1986). Comparing the CO emission line profiles with the previous ones taken with the larger beams, researchers discovered circumnuclear

  10. Searching for Molecular Gas in Southern Radio Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prandoni, I.; Laing, R. A.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Parma, P.

    2012-07-01

    It has recently been proposed that the jets of low-luminosity radio galaxies are powered by direct accretion of the hot phase of the IGM onto the central black hole. Cold gas remains a plausible alternative fuel supply, however. The most compelling evidence that cold gas plays a role in fueling radio galaxies is that dust is detected more commonly and/or in larger quantities in (elliptical) radio galaxies compared with radio-quiet elliptical galaxies. On the other hand, only small numbers of radio galaxies have yet been detected in CO (and even fewer imaged), and whether or not all radio galaxies have enough cold gas to fuel their jets remains an open question. If so, then the dynamics of the cold gas in the nuclei of radio galaxies may provide important clues to the fuelling mechanism. The only instrument capable of imaging the molecular component on scales relevant to the accretion process is ALMA, but very little is yet known about CO in southern radio galaxies. Our aim is to measure the CO content in a complete volume-limited sample of southern radio galaxies, in order to create a well-defined list of nearby targets to be imaged in the near future with ALMA. APEX has been equipped with a receiver (APEX-1) able to observe the 230 GHz waveband. This allows us to search for CO(2-1) line emission in our target galaxies. Here we present the results of CO(2-1) APEX-1 spectroscopy taken in 2008 and 2010 for our southern sample. The experiment was successful with nearly all targets detected, and several indications for double-horned CO line profiles, consistent with ordered rotation.

  11. Dust and Molecular Gas in the Winds of Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Alexander N.

    Galactic winds provide a fundamental mechanism for galaxy evolution. The outflow of material in winds remains the most likely culprit responsible for a host of galaxy observations, plus mounting evidence for galactic winds at times in the past points to their importance in understanding the history of the universe. Therefore, detailed observations of galactic winds are critical to fleshing out the narrative of galaxy evolution. In particular, the dust and molecular gas of a galaxy's interstellar medium (ISM) play crucial roles in the absorption, scattering, and reemission of starlight, the heating of the ISM, and provide critical materials for star formation. We present results from archival Spitzer Space Telescope ata and exceptionally deep Herschel Space Observatory data of the dust and molecular gas found in and around 20 nearby galaxies known to host galactic-scale winds. Selecting nearby galaxies has allowed us the resolution and sensitivity to differentiate dust and molecular gas outside the galaxies and observe their typically faint emission. These are the most detailed surveys currently available of the faint dust and molecular gas components in galactic winds, and we have utilized them to address the following questions: i) What are the location and morphology of dust and molecular gas, and how do these components compare with better known neutral and ionized gas features? ii) How much do dust and molecular gas contribute to the mass and energy of galactic winds? iii) Do the properties of the dust and molecular gas correlate with the properties of the wind-hosting galaxy? Spitzer archival data has revealed kiloparsec-scale polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) structures in the extraplanar regions of nearly all the wind-hosting galaxies we investigated. We found a nearly linear correlation between the extraplanar PAH emission and the total infrared flux, a proxy for star formation. Our results also suggest a correlation between the height of extraplanar

  12. Cold molecular gas in cooling flow clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomé, P.; Combes, F.

    2003-12-01

    The results of a CO line survey in central cluster galaxies with cooling flows are presented. Cold molecular gas is detected with the IRAM 30 m telescope, through CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) emission lines in 6-10 among 32 galaxies. The corresponding gas masses are between 3*E8 and 4*E10 Msun. These results are in agreement with recent CO detections by \\cite{Edg01}. A strong correlation between the CO emission and the Hα luminosity is also confirmed. Cold gas exists in the center of cooling flow clusters and these detections may be interpreted as evidence of the long searched for very cold residual of the hot cooling gas. Tables 1-4 are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/412/657

  13. A high-dispersion molecular gas component in nearby galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Caldú-Primo, Anahi; Walter, Fabian; Sandstrom, Karin; Schruba, Andreas; Leroy, Adam; De Blok, W. J. G.; Ianjamasimanana, R.; Mogotsi, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the velocity dispersion of the atomic (H I) and molecular (H{sub 2}) gas components in the disks (R ≲ R {sub 25}) of a sample of 12 nearby spiral galaxies with moderate inclinations. Our analysis is based on sensitive high-resolution data from the THINGS (atomic gas) and HERACLES (molecular gas) surveys. To obtain reliable measurements of the velocity dispersion, we stack regions several kiloparsecs in size, after accounting for intrinsic velocity shifts due to galactic rotation and large-scale motions. We stack using various parameters: the galactocentric distance, star formation rate surface density, H I surface density, H{sub 2} surface density, and total gas surface density. We fit single Gaussian components to the stacked spectra and measure median velocity dispersions for H I of 11.9 ± 3.1 km s{sup –1} and for CO of 12.0 ± 3.9 km s{sup –1}. The CO velocity dispersions are thus, surprisingly, very similar to the corresponding ones of H I, with an average ratio of σ{sub HI}/σ{sub CO}= 1.0 ± 0.2 irrespective of the stacking parameter. The measured CO velocity dispersions are significantly higher (factor of ∼2) than the traditional picture of a cold molecular gas disk associated with star formation. The high dispersion implies an additional thick molecular gas disk (possibly as thick as the H I disk). Our finding is in agreement with recent sensitive measurements in individual edge-on and face-on galaxies and points toward the general existence of a thick disk of molecular gas, in addition to the well-known thin disk in nearby spiral galaxies.

  14. Molecular gas temperature and density in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, W. F.; Jaffe, D. T.; Bash, F. N.; Israel, F. P.; Maloney, P. R.; Baas, F.

    1993-01-01

    We combine beam-matched CO-13, CO-12 J = 3 yields 2 and J = 2 yields 1 line data to infer the molecular gas excitation conditions in the central 500 to 1600 pc diameters of a small sample of infrared-bright external galaxies: NGC253, IC342, M 83, Maffei 2, and NGC6946. Additional observations of the J = 1 yields 0 lines of C-18O and CO-13 set limits on the opacity of the CO-13 J = 1 yields 0 line averaged over the central kiloparsec of these spiral galaxies.

  15. The AMIGA sample of isolated galaxies. IX. Molecular gas properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenfeld, U.; Espada, D.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Kuno, N.; Leon, S.; Sabater, J.; Sato, N.; Sulentic, J.; Verley, S.; Yun, M. S.

    2011-10-01

    Aims: We characterize the molecular gas content (ISM cold phase) using CO emission of a redshift-limited subsample of isolated galaxies from the AMIGA (Analysis of the interstellar Medium of Isolated GAlaxies) project in order to provide a comparison sample for studies of galaxies in different environments. Methods: We present the 12CO(1-0) data for 273 AMIGA galaxies, most of them (n = 186) from our own observations with the IRAM 30 m and the FCRAO 14 m telescopes and the rest from the literature. We constructed a redshift-limited sample containing galaxies with 1500 km s-1 < v < 5000 km s-1 and excluded objects with morphological evidence of possible interaction. This sample (n = 173) is the basis for our statistical analysis. It contains galaxies with molecular gas masses, MH2, in the range of ~108 - 1010 M⊙. It is dominated, both in absolute number and in detection rate, by spiral galaxies of type T = 3-5 (Sb-Sc). Most galaxies were observed with a single pointing towards their centers. Therefore, we performed an extrapolation to the total molecular gas mass expected in the entire disk based on the assumption of an exponential distribution. We then studied the relationships between MH2 and other galactic properties (LB, D_25^2, LK, LFIR, and MHI). Results: We find correlations between MH2 and LB, D_25^2, LK, and LFIR. The tightest correlation of MH2 holds with LFIR and, for T = 3-5, with LK, and the poorest with D_25^2. The correlations with LFIR and LK are very close to linearity. The correlation with LB is nonlinear so that MH2/LB increases with LB. The molecular and the atomic gas masses of our sample show no strong correlation. We find a low mean value, log(MH2/MHI) = -0.7 (for T = 3-5), and a strong decrease in this ratio with morphological type. The molecular gas column density and the surface density of the star formation rate (the Kennicutt-Schmidt law) show a tight correlation with a rough unity slope. We compare the relations of MH2 with LB and LK

  16. Characterising the Dense Molecular Gas in Exceptional Local Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunnard, Richard C. A.

    2016-08-01

    The interferometric facilities now coming online (the Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA) and the NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA)) and those planned for the coming decade (the Next Generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) and the Square Kilometre Array (SKA)) in the radio to sub-millimetre regimes are opening a window to the molecular gas in high-redshift galaxies. However, our understanding of similar galaxies in the local universe is still far from complete and the data analysis techniques and tools needed to interpret the observations in consistent and comparable ways are yet to be developed. I first describe the Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) script developed to empower a public radiative transfer code. I characterise both the public code and MCMC script, including an exploration of the effect of observing molecular lines at high redshift where the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) can provide a significant background, as well as the effect this can have on well-known local correlations. I present two studies of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) in the local universe making use of literature and collaborator data. In the first of these, NGC6240, I use the wealth of available data and the geometry of the source to develop a multi-phase, multi-species model, finding evidence for a complex medium of hot diffuse and cold dense gas in pressure equilibrium. Next, I study the prototypical ULIRG Arp 220; an extraordinary galaxy rendered especially interesting by the controversy over the power source of the western of the two merger nuclei and its immense luminosity and dust obscuration. Using traditional grid based methods I explore the molecular gas conditions within the nuclei and find evidence for chemical differentiation between the two nuclei, potentially related to the obscured power source. Finally, I investigate the potential evolution of proto-clusters over cosmic time with sub-millimetre observations of 14 radio galaxies, unexpectedly finding

  17. Kiloparsec-scale molecular gas excitation in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, W. F.; Jaffe, D. T.; Bash, F. N.; Israel, F. P.; Maloney, P. R.; Baas, F.

    1993-09-01

    We combine beam-matched (C-13)O, (C-12)O J = 3 - 2 and J = 2 - 1 line data to infer the molecular gas excitation conditions in the central 500 to 1600 pc diameters of a small sample of IR-bright external galaxies: NGC 253, IC 342, M83, Maffei 2, and NGC 6946. We find that the central 170 to 530 pc diameter regions have typical molecular gas densities ranging from approximately less than 10,000/cu cm (in M83) to approximately greater than 100,000/cu cm (in NGC 253) and that, outside of these regions, the densities are likely to be approximately less than 10,000/cu cm. The molecular clouds outside the inner 170-530 pc are at least as warm as the molecular clouds in our Galaxy. Column densities derived from integrated (C-13)O line strengths and H-alpha surface brightnesses suggest that the star formation rate is enhanced in the central 170-530 pc diameters by an order of magnitude over that inferred for the outer star-forming disks in spiral galaxies.

  18. Kiloparsec-scale molecular gas excitation in spiral galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, W. F.; Jaffe, D. T.; Bash, F. N.; Israel, F. P.; Maloney, P. R.; Baas, F.

    1993-01-01

    We combine beam-matched (C-13)O, (C-12)O J = 3 - 2 and J = 2 - 1 line data to infer the molecular gas excitation conditions in the central 500 to 1600 pc diameters of a small sample of IR-bright external galaxies: NGC 253, IC 342, M83, Maffei 2, and NGC 6946. We find that the central 170 to 530 pc diameter regions have typical molecular gas densities ranging from approximately less than 10,000/cu cm (in M83) to approximately greater than 100,000/cu cm (in NGC 253) and that, outside of these regions, the densities are likely to be approximately less than 10,000/cu cm. The molecular clouds outside the inner 170-530 pc are at least as warm as the molecular clouds in our Galaxy. Column densities derived from integrated (C-13)O line strengths and H-alpha surface brightnesses suggest that the star formation rate is enhanced in the central 170-530 pc diameters by an order of magnitude over that inferred for the outer star-forming disks in spiral galaxies.

  19. Properties of molecular gas in galaxies in the early and mid stages of interaction. II. Molecular gas fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Kuno, Nario; Iono, Daisuke; Tamura, Yoichi; Tosaki, Tomoka; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Sawada, Tsuyoshi

    2017-08-01

    We have investigated properties of the interstellar medium in interacting galaxies in early and mid stages using mapping data of 12CO(J = 1-0) and H i. Assuming the standard CO-H2 conversion factor, we found no difference in molecular gas mass, atomic gas mass, and total gas mass (the sum of atomic and molecular gas mass) between interacting galaxies and isolated galaxies. However, interacting galaxies have a higher global molecular gas fraction f_{mol}^{global} (the ratio of molecular gas mass to total gas mass averaged over a whole galaxy) at 0.71 ± 0.15 than isolated galaxies (0.52 ± 0.18). The distribution of the local molecular gas fraction fmol, the ratio of the surface density of molecular gas to that of the total gas, is different from the distribution in typical isolated galaxies. By a pixel-to-pixel comparison, isolated spiral galaxies show a gradual increase in fmol along the surface density of total gas until it is saturated at 1.0, while interacting galaxies show no clear relation. We performed pixel-to-pixel theoretical model fits by varying metallicity and external pressure. According to the model fitting, external pressure can explain the trend of fmol in the interacting galaxies. Assuming half of the standard CO-H2 conversion factor for interacting galaxies, the results of pixel-to-pixel theoretical model fitting get worse than adopting the standard conversion factor, although f_{mol}^{global} of interacting galaxies (0.62 ± 0.17) becomes the same as in isolated galaxies. We conclude that external pressure occurs due to the shock prevailing over a whole galaxy or due to collisions between giant molecular clouds even in the early stage of the interaction. The external pressure accelerates an efficient transition from atomic gas to molecular gas. Regarding the chemical timescale, high fmol can be achieved at the very early stage of interaction even if the shock induced by the collision of galaxies ionizes interstellar gas.

  20. The Role of Galaxy Mergers and Molecular Gas in the Early Phase of Galaxy Cluster Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Chao-Ling

    2017-08-01

    High-redshift protoclusters are ideal places to study the formation of the largest structures in the Universe and the early environmental influences on galaxy evolution. Recent discoveries of z>2 protoclusters with extremely rich populations of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs; SFR>100 Msun/yr) represent the most active assembly phases of massive galaxy clusters. Understanding the triggering mechanisms of these unusual concentrations of extreme star-forming galaxies can provide critical insights into the formation of most massive galaxies in these clusters and the assembly of massive clusters themselves. For example, an increased probability of galaxy interactions and/or enhanced gas supply may trigger an excess of DSFGs. Using the extensive ancillary data in the COSMOS field, we study the role of galaxy mergers through measuring the frequency of galaxy pairs in two such DSFG-rich protoclusters at z=2.10 and 2.47, respectively. We also investigate the mean molecular gas content of protocluster galaxies by stacking SCUBA-2 850 micron images. These independent investigations provide complementary views into the physical nature of these DSFG-rich protoclusters.

  1. Molecular gas in the halo fuels the growth of a massive cluster galaxy at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emonts, B. H. C.; Lehnert, M. D.; Villar-Martín, M.; Norris, R. P.; Ekers, R. D.; van Moorsel, G. A.; Dannerbauer, H.; Pentericci, L.; Miley, G. K.; Allison, J. R.; Sadler, E. M.; Guillard, P.; Carilli, C. L.; Mao, M. Y.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; De Breuck, C.; Seymour, N.; Gullberg, B.; Ceverino, D.; Jagannathan, P.; Vernet, J.; Indermuehle, B. T.

    2016-12-01

    The largest galaxies in the universe reside in galaxy clusters. Using sensitive observations of carbon monoxide, we show that the Spiderweb galaxy—a massive galaxy in a distant protocluster—is forming from a large reservoir of molecular gas. Most of this molecular gas lies between the protocluster galaxies and has low velocity dispersion, indicating that it is part of an enriched intergalactic medium. This may constitute the reservoir of gas that fuels the widespread star formation seen in earlier ultraviolet observations of the Spiderweb galaxy. Our results support the notion that giant galaxies in clusters formed from extended regions of recycled gas at high redshift.

  2. Galaxy chemical evolution models: the role of molecular gas formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollá, Mercedes; Díaz, Ángeles I.; Ascasibar, Yago; Gibson, Brad K.

    2017-06-01

    In our classical grid of multiphase chemical evolution models, star formation in the disc occurs in two steps: first, molecular gas forms, and then stars are created by cloud-cloud collisions or interactions of massive stars with the surrounding molecular clouds. The formation of both molecular clouds and stars are treated through the use of free parameters we refer to as efficiencies. In this work, we modify the formation of molecular clouds based on several new prescriptions existing in the literature, and we compare the results obtained for a chemical evolution model of the Milky Way Galaxy regarding the evolution of the Solar region, the radial structure of the Galactic disc and the ratio between the diffuse and molecular components, H i/H2. Our results show that the six prescriptions we have tested reproduce fairly consistent most of the observed trends, differing mostly in their predictions for the (poorly constrained) outskirts of the Milky Way and the evolution in time of its radial structure. Among them, the model proposed by Ascasibar et al. (in preparation), where the conversion of diffuse gas into molecular clouds depends on the local stellar and gas densities as well as on the gas metallicity, seems to provide the best overall match to the observed data.

  3. Molecular gas content of H I monsters and implications to cold gas content evolution in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheoljong; Chung, Aeree; Yun, Min S.; Cybulski, Ryan; Narayanan, G.; Erickson, N.

    2014-06-01

    We present 12CO (J = 1 → 0) observations of a sample of local galaxies (0.04 < z < 0.08) with a large neutral hydrogen reservoir, or `H I monsters'. The data were obtained using the redshift search receiver on the five college radio astronomy observatory (FCRAO) 14 m telescope. The sample consists of 20 H I-massive galaxies with MH I > 3 × 1010 M⊙ from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey and 8 low surface brightness galaxies (LSBs) with a comparable MH I(>1.5 × 1010 M⊙). Our sample selection is purely based on the amount of neutral hydrogen, thereby providing a chance to study how atomic and molecular gas relate to each other in these H I-massive systems. We have detected CO in 15 out of 20 ALFALFA selected galaxies and 4 out of 8 LSBs with molecular gas mass MH2 of (1-11)× 109 M⊙. Their total cold gas masses of (2-7) × 1010 M⊙ make them some of the most gas-massive galaxies identified to date in the Local Universe. Observed trends associated with H I, H2, and stellar properties of the H I massive galaxies and the field comparison sample are analysed in the context of theoretical models of galaxy cold gas content and evolution, and the importance of total gas content and improved recipes for handling spatially differentiated behaviours of disc and halo gas are identified as potential areas of improvement for the modelling.

  4. MOLECULAR GAS AND STAR FORMATION IN NEARBY DISK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Leroy, Adam K.; Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Walter, Fabian; Sandstrom, Karin; Meidt, Sharon; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schinnerer, Eva; Schruba, Andreas; Bigiel, Frank; Bolatto, Alberto; Brinks, Elias; De Blok, W. J. G.; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; Usero, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    We compare molecular gas traced by {sup 12}CO (2-1) maps from the HERACLES survey, with tracers of the recent star formation rate (SFR) across 30 nearby disk galaxies. We demonstrate a first-order linear correspondence between {Sigma}{sub mol} and {Sigma}{sub SFR} but also find important second-order systematic variations in the apparent molecular gas depletion time, {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol}={Sigma}{sub mol}/{Sigma}{sub SFR}. At the 1 kpc common resolution of HERACLES, CO emission correlates closely with many tracers of the recent SFR. Weighting each line of sight equally, using a fixed {alpha}{sub CO} equivalent to the Milky Way value, our data yield a molecular gas depletion time, {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol}={Sigma}{sub mol}/{Sigma}{sub SFR}{approx}2.2 Gyr with 0.3 dex 1{sigma} scatter, in very good agreement with recent literature data. We apply a forward-modeling approach to constrain the power-law index, N, that relates the SFR surface density and the molecular gas surface density, {Sigma}{sub SFR}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub mol}{sup N}. We find N = 1 {+-} 0.15 for our full data set with some scatter from galaxy to galaxy. This also agrees with recent work, but we caution that a power-law treatment oversimplifies the topic given that we observe correlations between {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} and other local and global quantities. The strongest of these are a decreased {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} in low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies and a correlation of the kpc-scale {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} with dust-to-gas ratio, D/G. These correlations can be explained by a CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor ({alpha}{sub CO}) that depends on dust shielding, and thus D/G, in the theoretically expected way. This is not a unique interpretation, but external evidence of conversion factor variations makes this the most conservative explanation of the strongest observed {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} trends. After applying a D/G-dependent {alpha}{sub CO}, some weak correlations between {tau}{sub dep

  5. Molecular Gas in Three z ˜ 7 Quasar Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venemans, Bram P.; Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Ferkinhoff, Carl; Weiß, Axel; Findlay, Joseph R.; McMahon, Richard G.; Sutherland, Will J.; Meijerink, Rowin

    2017-08-01

    We present ALMA band 3 observations of the CO(6-5), CO(7-6), and [C i] 369 μm emission lines in three of the highest-redshift quasar host galaxies at 6.6< z< 6.9. These measurements constitute the highest-redshift CO detections to date. The target quasars have previously been detected in [C ii] 158 μm emission and the underlying FIR dust continuum. We detect (spatially unresolved, at a resolution of >2″, or ≳14 kpc) CO emission in all three quasar hosts. In two sources, we detect the continuum emission around 400 μm (rest-frame), and in one source we detect [C i] at low significance. We derive molecular gas reservoirs of (1-3) × 1010 {M}⊙ in the quasar hosts, i.e., approximately only 10 times the mass of their central supermassive black holes. The extrapolated [C ii]-to-CO(1-0) luminosity ratio is 2500-4200, consistent with measurements in galaxies at lower redshift. The detection of the [C i] line in one quasar host galaxy and the limit on the [C i] emission in the other two hosts enables a first characterization of the physical properties of the interstellar medium in z ˜ 7 quasar hosts. In the sources, the derived global CO/[C ii]/[C i] line ratios are consistent with expectations from photodissociation regions, but not X-ray-dominated regions. This suggest that quantities derived from the molecular gas and dust emission are related to ongoing star-formation activity in the quasar hosts, providing further evidence that the quasar hosts studied here harbor intense starbursts in addition to their active nucleus.

  6. THE EGNoG SURVEY: MOLECULAR GAS IN INTERMEDIATE-REDSHIFT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bauermeister, A.; Blitz, L.; Wright, M.; Bolatto, A.; Teuben, P.; Bureau, M.; Leroy, A.; Ostriker, E.; Wong, T.

    2013-05-10

    We present the Evolution of molecular Gas in Normal Galaxies (EGNoG) survey, an observational study of molecular gas in 31 star-forming galaxies from z = 0.05 to z = 0.5, with stellar masses of (4-30) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} and star formation rates of 4-100 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. This survey probes a relatively un-observed redshift range in which the molecular gas content of galaxies is expected to have evolved significantly. To trace the molecular gas in the EGNoG galaxies, we observe the CO(J = 1 {yields} 0) and CO(J = 3 {yields} 2) rotational lines using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). We detect 24 of 31 galaxies and present resolved maps of 10 galaxies in the lower redshift portion of the survey. We use a bimodal prescription for the CO to molecular gas conversion factor, based on specific star formation rate, and compare the EGNoG galaxies to a large sample of galaxies assembled from the literature. We find an average molecular gas depletion time of 0.76 {+-} 0.54 Gyr for normal galaxies and 0.06 {+-} 0.04 Gyr for starburst galaxies. We calculate an average molecular gas fraction of 7%-20% at the intermediate redshifts probed by the EGNoG survey. By expressing the molecular gas fraction in terms of the specific star formation rate and molecular gas depletion time (using typical values), we also calculate the expected evolution of the molecular gas fraction with redshift. The predicted behavior agrees well with the significant evolution observed from z {approx} 2.5 to today.

  7. MOLECULAR GAS VELOCITY DISPERSIONS IN THE ANDROMEDA GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Caldú-Primo, Anahi; Schruba, Andreas E-mail: schruba@mpe.mpg.de

    2016-02-15

    In order to characterize the distribution of molecular gas in spiral galaxies, we study the line profiles of CO (1 – 0) emission in Andromeda, our nearest massive spiral galaxy. We compare observations performed with the IRAM 30 m single-dish telescope and with the CARMA interferometer at a common resolution of 23 arcsec ≈ 85 pc × 350 pc and 2.5 km s{sup −1}. When fitting a single Gaussian component to individual spectra, the line profile of the single dish data is a factor of 1.5 ± 0.4 larger than the interferometric data one. This ratio in line widths is surprisingly similar to the ratios previously observed in two other nearby spirals, NGC 4736 and NGC 5055, but measured at ∼0.5–1 kpc spatial scale. In order to study the origin of the different line widths, we stack the individual spectra in five bins of increasing peak intensity and fit two Gaussian components to the stacked spectra. We find a unique narrow component of FWHM = 7.5 ± 0.4 km s{sup −1} visible in both the single dish and the interferometric data. In addition, a broad component with FWHM = 14.4 ± 1.5 km s{sup −1} is present in the single-dish data, but cannot be identified in the interferometric data. We interpret this additional broad line width component detected by the single dish as a low brightness molecular gas component that is extended on spatial scales >0.5 kpc, and thus filtered out by the interferometer. We search for evidence of line broadening by stellar feedback across a range of star formation rates but find no such evidence on ∼100 pc spatial scale when characterizing the line profile by a single Gaussian component.

  8. Molecular gas in the halo fuels the growth of a massive cluster galaxy at high redshift.

    PubMed

    Emonts, B H C; Lehnert, M D; Villar-Martín, M; Norris, R P; Ekers, R D; van Moorsel, G A; Dannerbauer, H; Pentericci, L; Miley, G K; Allison, J R; Sadler, E M; Guillard, P; Carilli, C L; Mao, M Y; Röttgering, H J A; De Breuck, C; Seymour, N; Gullberg, B; Ceverino, D; Jagannathan, P; Vernet, J; Indermuehle, B T

    2016-12-02

    The largest galaxies in the universe reside in galaxy clusters. Using sensitive observations of carbon monoxide, we show that the Spiderweb galaxy-a massive galaxy in a distant protocluster-is forming from a large reservoir of molecular gas. Most of this molecular gas lies between the protocluster galaxies and has low velocity dispersion, indicating that it is part of an enriched intergalactic medium. This may constitute the reservoir of gas that fuels the widespread star formation seen in earlier ultraviolet observations of the Spiderweb galaxy. Our results support the notion that giant galaxies in clusters formed from extended regions of recycled gas at high redshift. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Molecular gas in the outer disks of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braine, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    Molecular gas has still only been detected beyond the R25 radius in a few galaxies. Is this due to the low H2 content or to the difficulty of using Carbon Monoxide (CO) to trace H2? Similarly, star formation (SF) decreases sharply in the outer disks of spirals although HI is often plentiful; is the decrease in SF because there is little H2 or because the SF is very inefficient in the outer disk environment? Existing observations suggest that while outer disk clouds tend to be smaller (steeper mass function), their CO brightness temperature is only slightly lower than in the inner disk, at least when observed with sufficiently high angular resolution. In near-solar metallicity galaxies (Z >= 0.5Zsol ), the CO does not become intrinsically difficult to detect when H2 is present, even in the outer disk. While more observations of CO or other means of tracing H2 in the outer disks are necessary, current data tend to show that the SF rate per unit H2 remains approximately constant with galactocentric distance, indicating that the star formation proceeds normally but the transformation of HI into H2 is very slow in the outer disk.

  10. High molecular gas fractions in normal massive star-forming galaxies in the young Universe.

    PubMed

    Tacconi, L J; Genzel, R; Neri, R; Cox, P; Cooper, M C; Shapiro, K; Bolatto, A; Bouché, N; Bournaud, F; Burkert, A; Combes, F; Comerford, J; Davis, M; Schreiber, N M Förster; Garcia-Burillo, S; Gracia-Carpio, J; Lutz, D; Naab, T; Omont, A; Shapley, A; Sternberg, A; Weiner, B

    2010-02-11

    Stars form from cold molecular interstellar gas. As this is relatively rare in the local Universe, galaxies like the Milky Way form only a few new stars per year. Typical massive galaxies in the distant Universe formed stars an order of magnitude more rapidly. Unless star formation was significantly more efficient, this difference suggests that young galaxies were much more molecular-gas rich. Molecular gas observations in the distant Universe have so far largely been restricted to very luminous, rare objects, including mergers and quasars, and accordingly we do not yet have a clear idea about the gas content of more normal (albeit massive) galaxies. Here we report the results of a survey of molecular gas in samples of typical massive-star-forming galaxies at mean redshifts of about 1.2 and 2.3, when the Universe was respectively 40% and 24% of its current age. Our measurements reveal that distant star forming galaxies were indeed gas rich, and that the star formation efficiency is not strongly dependent on cosmic epoch. The average fraction of cold gas relative to total galaxy baryonic mass at z = 2.3 and z = 1.2 is respectively about 44% and 34%, three to ten times higher than in today's massive spiral galaxies. The slow decrease between z approximately 2 and z approximately 1 probably requires a mechanism of semi-continuous replenishment of fresh gas to the young galaxies.

  11. The ratio of molecular to atomic gas in infrared luminous galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirabel, I. F.; Sanders, D. B.

    1989-01-01

    In infrared luminous galaxies the ratio of the CO(1 - 0) to H I integrated fluxes increases with the far-infrared excess, f(fir)/f(b). All infrared active galaxies with f(fir)/f(b) greater than 2 have molecular to atomic gas mass fractions greater than 0.5. Among the galaxies with the higher infrared excesses there are systems with strikingly small atomic mass fractions, where less than 15 percent of the total mass of interstellar gas is in atomic form. The optical morphology of luminous infrared galaxies indicates that the majority, if not all, of these objects are interacting systems. These observations suggest that the overall mass fraction of molecular to atomic gas, and the infrared luminosities per nucleon of interstellar gas are enhanced during galaxy-galaxy interactions.

  12. How Does Dense Molecular Gas Contribute to Star Formation in the Starburst Galaxy NGC 2146?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wofford, Alia

    2017-01-01

    The starburst galaxy NGC 2146 is believed to have been formed approximately 800 Myr ago, when two galaxies collided with each other possibly leading to a burst of star formation. NGC 2146 is known as a starburst galaxy for the high frequency of star formation going on in its molecular clouds. These clouds serve as nurseries for star formation to occur. Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) and Carbon monoxide (CO) are molecules found in molecular gas clouds. HCN molecules are tracers for high density star forming gas. Whereas, CO molecules are tracers for low density star forming gas. In this project, we are observing these two molecules and their proximity to where the stars are forming in the galaxy to determine if the star formation is occurring in the same area as the high and low density molecular gas areas in starburst galaxy NGC 2146.

  13. Molecular gas in the central parsec of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciurlo, Anna

    2015-08-01

    In the central parsec of the Galaxy the environment of the black hole presents two different gas structures: the neutral Circumnuclear Disc (CND) and the ionized Minispiral. In order to study the transition between the two structures we have investigated the presence of neutral gas in the inner part of the CND, where the ionized Minispiral lies. Such study is carried out through spectro-imaging data of the central cavity observed with VLT/SPIFFI. Such data cover several H2 lines and the Brγ line. In order to preserve the spatial resolution and avoid edge effects we applied a new line fitting method, which consists on a regularized three- dimensional fit. Thank to the new method we present the highest resolution maps of the H2 emission in the Central parsec, together with velocity and width maps. The analysis of the H2 1-0 S(1) line leads to the detection of three components of the emission: one in the background of the Minispiral, one in the CND, and one in the Minispiral northern arm. This finding is confirmed by others ortho lines 1-0 S(3) and Q(3). Some para lines are detectable, but no complete map can be achieved. However some portion of the field have been studied for all detectable lines and in particular a strong emission at the entrance of the Minicavity is detected. Lines fluxes allow to trace excitation diagrams which lead to excitation temperature of 1200 K in the CND and T>1500 K in the central cavity. The clear higher temperature of the gas in the central cavity is related to the higher density of UV photons and cosmic rays and this means that H2 molecules have thus a shorter mean life during which thermalization cannot fully occur, it is possible for molecular hydrogen to be formed in a state where peculiar state are favoured. The hypothesis is that we are observing not all the H2 but just the one which is situated at the border of the clouds, a mince shell of gas, heated by the UV central field, which gives a new and interesting picture not only of

  14. The JCMT nearby galaxies legacy survey - X. Environmental effects on the molecular gas and star formation properties of spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, Angus; Wilson, C. D.; Golding, J.; Warren, B. E.; Israel, F. P.; Serjeant, S.; Knapen, J. H.; Sánchez-Gallego, J. R.; Barmby, P.; Bendo, G. J.; Rosolowsky, E.; van der Werf, P.

    2016-03-01

    We present a study of the molecular gas properties in a sample of 98 H I - flux selected spiral galaxies within ˜25 Mpc, using the CO J = 3 - 2 line observed with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. We use the technique of survival analysis to incorporate galaxies with CO upper limits into our results. Comparing the group and Virgo samples, we find a larger mean H2 mass in the Virgo galaxies, despite their lower mean H I mass. This leads to a significantly higher H2 to H I ratio for Virgo galaxies. Combining our data with complementary Hα star formation rate measurements, Virgo galaxies have longer molecular gas depletion times compared to group galaxies, due to their higher H2 masses and lower star formation rates. We suggest that the longer depletion times may be a result of heating processes in the cluster environment or differences in the turbulent pressure. From the full sample, we find that the molecular gas depletion time has a positive correlation with the stellar mass, indicative of differences in the star formation process between low- and high-mass galaxies, and a negative correlation between the molecular gas depletion time and the specific star formation rate.

  15. DETECTION OF MOLECULAR GAS IN VOID GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR STAR FORMATION IN ISOLATED ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Das, M.; Honey, M.; Saito, T.; Iono, D.; Ramya, S.

    2015-12-10

    We present the detection of molecular gas from galaxies located in nearby voids using the CO(1–0) line emission as a tracer. The observations were performed using the 45 m single dish radio telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory. Void galaxies lie in the most underdense parts of our universe and a significant fraction of them are gas rich, late-type spiral galaxies. Although isolated, they have ongoing star formation but appear to be slowly evolving compared to galaxies in denser environments. Not much is known about their star formation properties or cold gas content. In this study, we searched for molecular gas in five void galaxies. The galaxies were selected based on their relatively high IRAS fluxes or Hα line luminosities, both of which signify ongoing star formation. All five galaxies appear to be isolated and two lie within the Bootes void. We detected CO(1–0) emission from four of the five galaxies in our sample and their molecular gas masses lie between 10{sup 8} and 10{sup 9} M{sub ⊙}. We conducted follow-up Hα imaging observations of three detected galaxies using the Himalayan Chandra Telescope and determined their star formation rates (SFRs) from their Hα fluxes. The SFR varies from 0.2 to 1 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}; which is similar to that observed in local galaxies. Our study indicates that although void galaxies reside in underdense regions, their disks contain molecular gas and have SFRs similar to galaxies in denser environments. We discuss the implications of our results.

  16. The interplay between galaxy transition and molecular gas in the next generation of radio facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatalo, Katherine A.; SPOGS Team

    2016-01-01

    The well-known galaxy color bimodality suggests that the paths which galaxies transition from blue, gas-rich spirals to red, gas-poor early-type (elliptical and lenticular) galaxies must be traveled rapidly to explain the dearth of intermediate stage objects. Studying the relationship between the interstellar fuel out of which stars form, and the global changes that galaxies undergo provides a window not only into the paths of transitions that galaxies take, but also how the transition mechanisms can feed back upon the relationship between molecular gas and star formation. I will discuss our results from z=0 transitioning galaxy surveys from CARMA and IRAM, and the ways in which next generation radio telescopes will not only provide detailed insights into the relationship between gas and transition at z=0, but also how this relationship evolves with redshift.

  17. THE IMPACT OF MOLECULAR GAS ON MASS MODELS OF NEARBY GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, B. S.; Blok, W. J. G. de; Walter, F.; Leroy, A.; Carignan, C.

    2016-04-15

    We present CO velocity fields and rotation curves for a sample of nearby galaxies, based on data from HERACLES. We combine our data with THINGS, SINGS, and KINGFISH results to provide a comprehensive sample of mass models of disk galaxies inclusive of molecular gas. We compare the kinematics of the molecular (CO from HERACLES) and atomic (H i from THINGS) gas distributions to determine the extent to which CO may be used to probe the dynamics in the inner part of galaxies. In general, we find good agreement between the CO and H i kinematics, with small differences in the inner part of some galaxies. We add the contribution of the molecular gas to the mass models in our galaxies by using two different conversion factors α{sub CO} to convert CO luminosity to molecular gas mass surface density—the constant Milky Way value and the radially varying profiles determined in recent work based on THINGS, HERACLES, and KINGFISH data. We study the relative effect that the addition of the molecular gas has on the halo rotation curves for Navarro–Frenk–White and the observationally motivated pseudo-isothermal halos. The contribution of the molecular gas varies for galaxies in our sample—for those galaxies where there is a substantial molecular gas content, using different values of α{sub CO} can result in significant differences to the relative contribution of the molecular gas and hence the shape of the dark matter halo rotation curves in the central regions of galaxies.

  18. Large molecular gas reservoirs in ancestors of Milky Way-mass galaxies nine billion years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papovich, C.; Labbé, I.; Glazebrook, K.; Quadri, R.; Bekiaris, G.; Dickinson, M.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Fisher, D.; Inami, H.; Livermore, R. C.; Spitler, L.; Straatman, C.; Tran, K.-V.

    2016-12-01

    The gas accretion and star formation histories of galaxies like the Milky Way remain an outstanding problem in astrophysics 1,2 . Observations show that 8 billion years ago, the progenitors to Milky Way-mass galaxies were forming stars 30 times faster than today and were predicted to be rich in molecular gas 3 , in contrast to the low present-day gas fractions (<10%) 4-6 . Here we show the detection of molecular gas from the CO (J = 3-2) emission (rest-frame 345.8 GHz) in galaxies at redshifts z = 1.2-1.3, selected to have the stellar mass and star formation rate of the progenitors of today's Milky Way-mass galaxies. The CO emission reveals large molecular gas masses, comparable to or exceeding the galaxy stellar masses, and implying that most of the baryons are in cold gas, not stars. The total luminosities of the galaxies from star formation and CO luminosities yield long gas consumption timescales. Compared to local spiral galaxies, the star formation efficiency, estimated from the ratio of total infrared luminosity (L IR) to CO emission, has remained nearly constant since redshift z = 1.2, despite the order of magnitude decrease in gas fraction, consistent with the results for other galaxies at this epoch 7-10 . Therefore, the physical processes that determine the rate at which gas cools to form stars in distant galaxies appear to be similar to that in local galaxies.

  19. The Green Bank Telescope Maps the Dense Molecular Gas in the Starburst Galaxy M82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Leroy, A. K.; Frayer, D. T.; Usero, A.; Marvil, J.; Walter, F.

    2014-01-01

    In both the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, the presence of dense molecular gas is correlated with recent star formation, suggesting that the formation of this gas may represent a key regulating step in the star formation process. Testing this idea requires wide-area, high-resolution maps of dense molecular gas in galaxies to explore how local physical conditions drive dense gas formation. Until now, these observations have been limited by the faintness of dense gas tracers like HCN and HCO+, but new instruments like the 4mm receiver on Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) -- the largest single-dish millimeter telescope -- are poised to change this picture. We present GBT maps of the dense gas tracers HCN and HCO+ in the prototypical nearby starburst galaxy M82. The HCN and HCO+ in the disk of M82 correlates both with recent star formation and the diffuse molecular gas and shows kinematics consistent with a rotating torus. HCO+ emission is also associated with the outflow of molecular gas previously identified in CO. These observations mark the first time that dense molecular gas like HCO+ has been associated with an outflow in a nearby galaxy and suggests that the outflow of dense molecular gas from the center of galaxies like M82 may regulate the star formation globally. Finally, the CO-to-HCN and CO-to-HCO+ line ratios reveal that there is more dense gas at the center of M82, pointing to the starburst as a key driver of this relationship. These results establish that the GBT can efficiently map the dense molecular gas at 90 GHz in nearby galaxies; this capability will increase further with the 16-element feed array currently being built for the GBT.

  20. Molecular and atomic gas along and across the main sequence of star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saintonge, Amelie; Catinella, Barbara; Cortese, Luca; Genzel, Reinhard; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Janowiecki, Steven; Kramer, Carsten; Lutz, Katharina A.; Schiminovich, David; Tacconi, Linda J.; Wuyts, Stijn; Accurso, Gioacchino

    2016-10-01

    We use spectra from the ALFALFA, GASS and COLD GASS surveys to quantify variations in the mean atomic and molecular gas mass fractions throughout the SFR-M* plane and along the main sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies. Although galaxies well below the MS tend to be undetected in the Arecibo and IRAM observations, reliable mean atomic and molecular gas fractions can be obtained through a spectral stacking technique. We find that the position of galaxies in the SFR-M* plane can be explained mostly by their global cold gas reservoirs as observed in the H I line, with in addition systematic variations in the molecular-to-atomic ratio and star formation efficiency. When looking at galaxies within ±0.4 dex of the MS, we find that as stellar mass increases, both atomic and molecular gas mass fractions decrease, stellar bulges become more prominent, and the mean stellar ages increase. Both star formation efficiency and molecular-to-atomic ratios vary little for massive MS galaxies, indicating that the flattening of the MS is due to the global decrease of the cold gas reservoirs of galaxies rather than to bottlenecks in the process of converting cold atomic gas to stars.

  1. The Cool Interstellar Medium in S0 Galaxies. I. A Survey of Molecular Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Gary A.; Sage, Leslie J.

    2003-02-01

    Lenticular galaxies remain remarkably mysterious as a class. Observations to date have not led to any broad consensus about their origins, properties, and evolution, although they are often thought to have formed in one big burst of star formation early in the history of the universe and to have evolved relatively passively since then. In that picture, current theory predicts that stellar evolution returns substantial quantities of gas to the interstellar medium; most is ejected from the galaxy, but significant amounts of cool gas might be retained. Past searches for that material, though, have provided unclear results. We present results from a survey of molecular gas in a volume-limited sample of field S0 galaxies selected from the Nearby Galaxies Catalog. CO emission is detected from 78% of the sample galaxies. We find that the molecular gas is almost always located inside the central few kiloparsecs of a lenticular galaxy, meaning that in general it is more centrally concentrated than in spirals. We combine our data with H I observations from the literature to determine the total masses of cool and cold gas. Curiously, we find that, across a wide range of luminosity, the most gas-rich galaxies have ~10% of the total amount of gas ever returned by their stars. That result is difficult to understand within the context of either monolithic or hierarchical models of evolution of the interstellar medium.

  2. Molecular gas in SAURON early-type galaxies: detection of 13CO and HCN emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krips, M.; Crocker, A. F.; Bureau, M.; Combes, F.; Young, L. M.

    2010-10-01

    In a pilot project to study the relationship between star formation and molecular gas properties in nearby normal early-type galaxies, we have obtained observations of dense molecular gas tracers in the four galaxies of the SAURON sample with the strongest 12CO emission. We used the Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimetrique (IRAM) 30-m telescope 3- and 1-mm heterodyne receivers to observe 13CO(J = 1-0), 13CO(J = 2-1), HCN(J = 1-0) and HCO+(J = 1-0). We report the detection of 13CO emission in all four SAURON sources and HCN emission in three sources, while no HCO+ emission was found to our detection limits in any of the four galaxies. We find that the 13CO/12CO ratios of three SAURON galaxies are somewhat higher than those in galaxies of different Hubble types. The HCN/12CO and HCN/13CO ratios of all four SAURON galaxies resemble those of nearby Seyfert and dwarf galaxies with normal star formation rates, rather than those of starburst galaxies. The HCN/HCO+ ratio is found to be relatively high (i.e. >1) in the three SAURON galaxies with detected HCN emission, mimicking the behaviour in other star-forming galaxies but being higher than in starburst galaxies. When compared to most galaxies, it thus appears that 13CO is enhanced (relative to 12CO) in three out of four SAURON galaxies and HCO+ is weak (relative to HCN) in three out of three galaxies. All three galaxies detected in HCN follow the standard HCN-infrared (HCN-IR) luminosity and dense gas fraction-star formation efficiency correlations. As already suggested by 12CO observations, when traced by IR radiation, star formation in the three SAURON galaxies thus appears to follow the same physical laws as in galaxies of different Hubble types. The star formation rate and fraction of dense molecular gas however do not reach the high values found in nearby starburst galaxies, but rather resemble those of nearby normal star-forming galaxies. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30-m telescope. IRAM is

  3. Kinematics of the ionized and molecular gas in nearby luminous infrared interacting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaragoza-Cardiel, Javier; Beckman, John; Font, Joan; Rosado, Margarita; Camps-Fariña, Artemi; Borlaff, Alejandro

    2017-03-01

    We have observed three luminous infrared galaxy systems which are pairs of interacting galaxies, with the Galaxy Hα Fabry-Perot system mounted on the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, and combined the observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations of these systems in CO emission to compare the physical properties of the star formation regions and the molecular gas clouds, and specifically the internal kinematics of the star-forming regions. We identified 88 star-forming regions in the Hα emission data cubes, and 27 molecular cloud complexes in the CO emission data cubes. The surface densities of the star formation rate and the molecular gas are significantly higher in these systems than in non-interacting galaxies and the Galaxy, and are closer to the surface densities of the star formation rate and the molecular gas of extreme star-forming galaxies at higher redshifts. The large values of the velocity dispersion also show the enhanced gas surface density. The H II regions are situated on the SFR - σv envelope, and so are also in virial equilibrium. Since the virial parameter decreases with the surface densities of both the star formation rate and the molecular gas, we claim that the clouds presented here are gravitationally dominated rather than being in equilibrium with the external pressure.

  4. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, IONIZED GAS, AND MOLECULAR HYDROGEN IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES OF COOL-CORE CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, Megan; Mark Voit, G.; Hoffer, Aaron; De Messieres, Genevieve E.; O'Connell, Robert W.; McNamara, Brian R.; Nulsen, Paul E. J. E-mail: voit@pa.msu.edu

    2011-05-01

    We present measurements of 5-25 {mu}m emission features of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) with strong optical emission lines in a sample of nine cool-core clusters of galaxies observed with the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. These systems provide a view of dusty molecular gas and star formation, surrounded by dense, X-ray-emitting intracluster gas. Past work has shown that BCGs in cool-core clusters may host powerful radio sources, luminous optical emission-line systems, and excess UV, while BCGs in other clusters never show this activity. In this sample, we detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), extremely luminous, rotationally excited molecular hydrogen line emission, forbidden line emission from ionized gas ([Ne II] and [Ne III]), and infrared continuum emission from warm dust and cool stars. We show here that these BCGs exhibit more luminous forbidden neon and H{sub 2} rotational line emission than star-forming galaxies with similar total infrared luminosities, as well as somewhat higher ratios of 70 {mu}m/24 {mu}m luminosities. Our analysis suggests that while star formation processes dominate the heating of the dust and PAHs, a heating process consistent with suprathermal electron heating from the hot gas, distinct from star formation, is heating the molecular gas and contributing to the heating of the ionized gas in the galaxies. The survival of PAHs and dust suggests that dusty gas is somehow shielded from significant interaction with the X-ray gas.

  5. Molecular gas in the host galaxy of a quasar at redshift z = 6.42.

    PubMed

    Walter, Fabian; Bertoldi, Frank; Carilli, Chris; Cox, Pierre; Lo, K Y; Neri, Roberto; Fan, Xiaohui; Omont, Alain; Strauss, Michael A; Menten, Karl M

    2003-07-24

    Observations of molecular hydrogen in quasar host galaxies at high redshifts provide fundamental constraints on galaxy evolution, because it is out of this molecular gas that stars form. Molecular hydrogen is traced by emission from the carbon monoxide molecule, CO; cold H2 itself is generally not observable. Carbon monoxide has been detected in about ten quasar host galaxies with redshifts z > 2; the record-holder is at z = 4.69 (refs 1-3). Here we report CO emission from the quasar SDSS J114816.64 + 525150.3 (refs 5, 6) at z = 6.42. At that redshift, the Universe was only 1/16 of its present age, and the era of cosmic reionization was just ending. The presence of about 2 x 1010 M\\circ of H2 in an object at this time demonstrates that molecular gas enriched with heavy elements can be generated rapidly in the youngest galaxies.

  6. Low-mass spiral galaxies with little molecular gas and prodigious star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, Jeffrey D.; Young, Judith S.

    1988-01-01

    A comparison of CO and H I properties is used here to demonstrate that many CO-poor low-mass Virgo spiral galaxies are rich in atomic gas, which implies that the lack of CO emission from them is due, at least partly, to a lack of molecular gas. Despite the paucity of molecular gas, these H I-rich, CO-poor, low-mass spiral galaxies are undergoing extensive massive star formation. A column density of 10 to the 21st nuclei/sq cm is a necessary but insufficient condition for the creation of an H2-dominated interstellar medium.

  7. Galaxy metallicities depend primarily on stellar mass and molecular gas mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bothwell, M. S.; Maiolino, R.; Cicone, C.; Peng, Y.; Wagg, J.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: We present an analysis of the behaviour of galaxies in a four-dimensional parameter space defined by stellar mass, metallicity, star formation rate, and molecular gas mass. We analyse a combined sample of 227 galaxies that draws from a number of surveys across the redshift range 0 < z < 2 (>90% of the sample at z 0) and covers >3 decades in stellar mass. Methods: Using principal component analysis, we demonstrate that galaxies in our sample lie on a 2D plane within this 4D parameter space, which is indicative of galaxies that exist in an equilibrium between gas inflow and outflow. Furthermore, we find that the metallicity of galaxies depends only on stellar mass and molecular gas mass. In other words, gas-phase metallicity has a negligible dependence on star formation rate once the correlated effect of molecular gas content is accounted for. Results: The well-known fundamental metallicity relation which describes a close and tight relationship between metallicity and SFR (at fixed stellar mass) is therefore entirely a by-product of the underlying physical relationship with molecular gas mass (through the Schmidt-Kennicutt relation).

  8. The EDGE--CALIFA Survey: Molecular Gas Depletion Time in Galaxy Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utomo, Dyas; Blitz, Leo; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Wong, Tony H.; Ostriker, Eve C.; EDGE--CALIFA Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present the first results of the EDGE--CALIFA survey, combining the power of optical Integral Field Unit and millimeter-interferometric observations to study the variations of molecular gas depletion time in the centers of 86 galaxies. Our key findings are the following. (1) About 25% of our sample shows deviations from the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, namely a shorter depletion time in the centers relative to the disks. If the galaxy centers undergo star formation cycles, then they spend 25% of their duty cycles in a burst-mode period. (2) Barred galaxies tend to have shorter depletion time in the centers, presumably due to the dynamical effects induced by bars. (3) Galaxies with shorter depletion time in the centers tend to have higher ratio of stellar to molecular gas gravity, because that ratio sets the gravitational pressure per unit molecular gas mass that must be balanced by the energy and momentum feedback from star formation to maintain thermal and dynamical equilibrium states. (4) Both depletion time and bar dynamics affect the gradient of gas-phase metallicities, where unbarred galaxies with shorter depletion time in the centers show the steepest gradient, presumably due to high star formation activities that inject more metals and lack of gas mixing because bars are not present. We discuss possible scenarios that may cause the variations of depletion time in the centers and their implications within the context of galaxy evolution.

  9. Discovery of Large Molecular Gas Reservoirs in Post-starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, K. Decker; Yang, Yujin; Zabludoff, Ann; Narayanan, Desika; Shirley, Yancy; Walter, Fabian; Smith, John-David; Tremonti, Christy A.

    2015-03-01

    Post-starburst (or "E+A") galaxies are characterized by low Hα emission and strong Balmer absorption, suggesting a recent starburst, but little current star formation. Although many of these galaxies show evidence of recent mergers, the mechanism for ending the starburst is not yet understood. To study the fate of the molecular gas, we search for CO(1-0) and (2-1) emission with the IRAM 30 m and SMT 10 m telescopes in 32 nearby (0.01 < z < 0.12) post-starburst galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We detect CO in 17 (53%). Using CO as a tracer for molecular hydrogen, and a Galactic conversion factor, we obtain molecular gas masses of M(H2) = 108.6-109.8 M ⊙ and molecular gas mass to stellar mass fractions of ~10-2-10-0.5, comparable to those of star-forming galaxies. The large amounts of molecular gas rule out complete gas consumption, expulsion, or starvation as the primary mechanism that ends the starburst in these galaxies. The upper limits on M(H2) for the 15 undetected galaxies range from 107.7 M ⊙ to 109.7 M ⊙, with the median more consistent with early-type galaxies than with star-forming galaxies. Upper limits on the post-starburst star formation rates (SFRs) are lower by ~10 × than for star-forming galaxies with the same M(H2). We also compare the molecular gas surface densities (Σ _H_2) to upper limits on the SFR surface densities (ΣSFR), finding a significant offset, with lower ΣSFR for a given Σ _H_2 than is typical for star-forming galaxies. This offset from the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation suggests that post-starburst galaxies have lower star formation efficiency, a low CO-to-H2 conversion factor characteristic of ultraluminous infrared galaxies, and/or a bottom-heavy initial mass function, although uncertainties in the rate and distribution of current star formation remain.

  10. Molecular Gas and Star Formation in Local Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, M.; Davis, T. A.; Alatalo, K.; Crocker, A. F.; Blitz, L.; Young, L. M.; Combes, F.; Bois, M.; Bournaud, F.; Cappellari, M.; Davies, R. L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, P.-A.; Emsellem, E.; Khochfar, S.; Krajnović, D.; Kuntschner, H.; Lablanche, P.-Y.; McDermid, R. M.; Morganti, R.; Naab, T.; Oosterloo, T.; Sarzi, M.; Scott, N.; Serra, P.; Weijmans, A.

    2011-12-01

    The molecular gas content of local early-type galaxies is constrained and discussed in relation to their evolution. First, as part of the ATLAS3D survey, we present the first complete, large (260 objects), volume-limited single-dish survey of CO in normal local early-type galaxies. We find a surprisingly high detection rate of 22%, independent of luminosity and at best weakly dependent on environment. Second, the extent of the molecular gas is constrained with CO synthesis imaging, and a variety of morphologies is revealed. The kinematics of the molecular gas and stars are often misaligned, implying an external gas origin in over a third of the systems, although this behaviour is drastically diffferent between field and cluster environments. Third, many objects appear to be in the process of forming regular kpc-size decoupled disks, and a star formation sequence can be sketched by piecing together multi-wavelength information on the molecular gas, current star formation, and young stars. Last, early-type galaxies do not seem to systematically obey all our usual prejudices regarding star formation, following the standard Schmidt-Kennicutt law but not the far infrared-radio correlation. This may suggest a greater diversity in star formation processes than observed in disk galaxies. Using multiple molecular tracers, we are thus starting to probe the physical conditions of the cold gas in early-types.

  11. The most diffuse molecular gas in the galaxy.

    PubMed

    Liszt, Harvey S

    2013-10-03

    Interstellar molecules preferentially reside in denser, cooler, optically shielded portions of the interstellar medium, but a weak residue of H2 will form via purely gas-phase processes involving H(-) even in rather bare atomic gas, the so-called warm interstellar medium where the temperature (>1000 K) and electron fraction (0.01 to 0.1) are relatively high. Along with H2, a few trace molecules will also form in this gas, partially because strongly endothermic reactions such as C(+) + H2 → CH(+) + H are energetically allowed. The observed abundance patterns of SH(+), CH(+) and OH(+) are reproduced by the warm gas chemistry, but not their overall abundances with respect to hydrogen. Even the very smallest molecular hydrogen fractions observed in the Milky Way along sightlines of low mean density are well above those that can readily be produced in the warm interstellar medium by gas-phase or grain-surface H2 formation processes. This suggests that density inhomogeneities may obscure the molecular contribution of warmer gas.

  12. Optical depth of molecular gas in starburst galaxies - Is M82 the prototype?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verter, F.; Rickard, L. J.

    1989-01-01

    An attempt is made to survey the CO(2-1) emission toward the centers of 17 IR-luminous galaxies which have previously been detected in CO(1-0). These galaxies span a wide range of size and L(FIR)/L(B) ratio, many have multiple-wavelength studies establishing them as starbursts, and some bear a morphological resemblance to M 82. Nine galaxies are detected and useful upper limits are placed on the remaining eight. Using the CO(2-1)/CO(1-0) ratio of antenna temperature as a diagnostic of optical depth, it is found that all of the galaxies contain predominantly optically thick molecular gas. This implies that the phase of starburst during which the molecular gas is optically thin, currently witnessed in M 82, is either uncommon or short-lived.

  13. THE MOLECULAR GAS DENSITY IN GALAXY CENTERS AND HOW IT CONNECTS TO BULGES

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, David B.; Bolatto, Alberto; Drory, Niv; Combes, Francoise; Blitz, Leo; Wong, Tony

    2013-02-20

    In this paper we present gas density, star formation rate (SFR), stellar masses, and bulge-disk decompositions for a sample of 60 galaxies. Our sample is the combined sample of the BIMA SONG, CARMA STING, and PdBI NUGA surveys. We study the effect of using CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factors that depend on the CO surface brightness, and also that of correcting SFRs for diffuse emission from old stellar populations. We estimate that SFRs in bulges are typically lower by 20% when correcting for diffuse emission. Using the surface brightness dependent conversion factor, we find that over half of the galaxies in our sample have {Sigma}{sub mol} > 100 M {sub Sun} pc{sup -2}. Though our sample is not complete in any sense, our results are enough to rule out the assumption that bulges are uniformly gas-poor systems. We find a trend between gas density of bulges and bulge Sersic index; bulges with lower Sersic index have higher gas density. Those bulges with low Sersic index (pseudobulges) have gas fractions that are similar to that of disks. Conversely, the typical molecular gas fraction in classical bulges is more similar to that of an elliptical galaxy. We also find that there is a strong correlation between bulges with the highest gas surface density and the galaxy being barred. However, we also find that classical bulges with low gas surface density can be barred as well. Our results suggest that understanding the connection between the central surface density of gas in disk galaxies and the presence of bars should also take into account the total gas content of the galaxy. Finally, we show that when using the corrected SFRs and gas densities, the correlation between SFR surface density and gas surface density of bulges is similar to that of disks. This implies that at the scale of the bulges the timescale for converting gas into stars is comparable to those results found in disks.

  14. The Molecular Gas Density in Galaxy Centers and how it Connects to Bulges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, David B.; Bolatto, Alberto; Drory, Niv; Combes, Francoise; Blitz, Leo; Wong, Tony

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we present gas density, star formation rate (SFR), stellar masses, and bulge-disk decompositions for a sample of 60 galaxies. Our sample is the combined sample of the BIMA SONG, CARMA STING, and PdBI NUGA surveys. We study the effect of using CO-to-H2 conversion factors that depend on the CO surface brightness, and also that of correcting SFRs for diffuse emission from old stellar populations. We estimate that SFRs in bulges are typically lower by 20% when correcting for diffuse emission. Using the surface brightness dependent conversion factor, we find that over half of the galaxies in our sample have Σmol > 100 M ⊙ pc-2. Though our sample is not complete in any sense, our results are enough to rule out the assumption that bulges are uniformly gas-poor systems. We find a trend between gas density of bulges and bulge Sérsic index; bulges with lower Sérsic index have higher gas density. Those bulges with low Sérsic index (pseudobulges) have gas fractions that are similar to that of disks. Conversely, the typical molecular gas fraction in classical bulges is more similar to that of an elliptical galaxy. We also find that there is a strong correlation between bulges with the highest gas surface density and the galaxy being barred. However, we also find that classical bulges with low gas surface density can be barred as well. Our results suggest that understanding the connection between the central surface density of gas in disk galaxies and the presence of bars should also take into account the total gas content of the galaxy. Finally, we show that when using the corrected SFRs and gas densities, the correlation between SFR surface density and gas surface density of bulges is similar to that of disks. This implies that at the scale of the bulges the timescale for converting gas into stars is comparable to those results found in disks.

  15. ALMA Reveals a Galaxy-Scale Fountain of Cold Molecular Gas Pumped by a Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Grant

    2016-01-01

    A new ALMA observation of the cool core brightest cluster galaxy in Abell 2597 reveals that a supermassive black hole can act much like a mechanical pump in a water fountain, driving a convective flow of molecular gas that drains into the black hole accretion reservoir, only to be pushed outward again in a jet-driven outflow that then rains back toward the galaxy center from which it came. The ALMA data reveal "shadows" cast by giant molecular clouds falling on ballistic trajectories towards the black hole in the innermost 500 parsecs of the galaxy, manifesting as deep redshifted continuum absorption features. The black hole accretion reservoir, fueled by these infalling cold clouds, powers an AGN that drives a jet-driven molecular outflow in the form of a 10 kpc-scale, billion solar mass expanding molecular bubble or plume. The molecular shell is permeated with young stars, perhaps triggered in situ by the jet. Buoyant X-ray cavities excavated by the propagating radio source may further uplift the molecular filaments, which are observed to fall inward toward the center of the galaxy from which they came, presumably keeping the fountain long-lived. The results show that cold molecular gas can couple to black hole growth via both feedback and feeding, in alignment with "cold chaotic accretion" models for the regulation of star formation in galaxies.

  16. Environmental Variations in the Atomic and Molecular Gas Radial Profiles of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, Angus; Wilson, Christine; JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey

    2017-01-01

    We present an analysis of the radial profiles of a sample of 43 HI-flux selected spiral galaxies from the Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey (NGLS) with resolved James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) CO J= 3-2 and/or Very Large Array (VLA) HI maps. Comparing the Virgo and non-Virgo populations, we confirm that the HI disks are truncated in the Virgo sample, even for these relatively HI-rich galaxies. On the other hand, the H2 distribution is enhanced for Virgo galaxies near their centres, resulting in higher H2 to HI ratios and steeper H2 and total gas radial profiles. This is likely due to the effects of moderate ram pressure stripping in the cluster environment, which would preferentially remove low density gas in the outskirts while enhancing higher density gas near the centre. Combined with Hα star formation rate data, we find that the star formation efficiency (SFR/H2) is relatively constant with radius for both samples, but Virgo galaxies have a ˜40% lower star formation efficiency than non-Virgo galaxies. These results suggest that the environment of spiral galaxies can play an important role in the formation of molecular gas and the star formation process.

  17. Molecular gas, dust, and star formation in galaxies. I. Dust properties and scalings in 1600 nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, G.; Nagar, N. M.; Elbaz, D.; Calderón-Castillo, P.; Leiton, R.; Ibar, E.; Magnelli, B.; Daddi, E.; Messias, H.; Cerulo, P.; Slater, R.

    2017-06-01

    Context. Dust and its emission is increasingly being used to constrain the evolutionary stage of a galaxy. A comprehensive characterization of dust, best achieved in nearby bright galaxies, is thus a highly useful resource. Aims: We aim to characterize the relationship between dust properties (mass, luminosity, and temperature) and their relationships with galaxy-wide properties (stellar, atomic, and molecular gas mass, and star formation mode). We also aim to provide equations to accurately estimate dust properties from limited observational datasets. Methods: We assemble a sample of 1630 nearby (z < 0.1) galaxies - over a large range of stellar masses (M∗), star formation rates (SFR) and specific star formation rates (sSFR = SFR/M∗) - for which comprehensive and uniform multi-wavelength observations are available from WISE, IRAS, Planck, and/or SCUBA. The characterization of dust emission comes from spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting using Draine & Li (2007, ApJ, 657, 810) dust models, which we parametrize using two components (warm at 45-70 K and cold at 18-31 K). The subsample of these galaxies with global measurements of CO and/or HI are used to explore the molecular and/or atomic gas content of the galaxies. Results: The total infrared luminosity (LIR), dust mass (Mdust), and dust temperature of the cold component (Tcold) form a plane that we refer to as the dust plane. A galaxy's sSFR drives its position on the dust plane: starburst (high sSFR) galaxies show higher LIR , Mdust , and Tcold compared to main sequence (typical sSFR) and passive galaxies (low sSFR). Starburst galaxies also show higher specific dust masses (Mdust/M∗) and specific gas masses (Mgas/M∗). We confirm earlier findings of an anti-correlation between the dust to stellar mass ratio and M∗ . We also find different anti-correlations depending on sSFR; the anti-correlation becomes stronger as the sSFR increases, with the spread due to different cold dust temperatures. The

  18. OBSERVATIONAL CONSTRAINTS ON THE MOLECULAR GAS CONTENT IN NEARBY STARBURST DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Cannon, John M.; Holtzman, Jon

    2012-06-01

    Using star formation histories derived from optically resolved stellar populations in 19 nearby starburst dwarf galaxies observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, we measure the stellar mass surface densities of stars newly formed in the bursts. By assuming a star formation efficiency (SFE), we then calculate the inferred gas surface densities present at the onset of the starbursts. Assuming an SFE of 1%, as is often assumed in normal star-forming galaxies, and assuming that the gas was purely atomic, translates to very high H I surface densities ({approx}10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2}), which are much higher than have been observed in dwarf galaxies. This implies either higher values of SFE in these dwarf starburst galaxies or the presence of significant amounts of H{sub 2} in dwarfs (or both). Raising the assumed SFEs to 10% or greater (in line with observations of more massive starbursts associated with merging galaxies), still results in H I surface densities higher than observed in 10 galaxies. Thus, these observations appear to require that a significant fraction of the gas in these dwarf starbursts galaxies was in the molecular form at the onset of the bursts. Our results imply molecular gas column densities in the range 10{sup 19}-10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} for the sample. In the galaxies where CO observations have been made, these densities correspond to values of the CO-H{sub 2} conversion factor (X{sub CO}) in the range >(3-80) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2} (K km s{sup -1}){sup -1}, or up to 40 Multiplication-Sign greater than Galactic X{sub CO} values.

  19. Large turbulent reservoirs of cold molecular gas around high-redshift starburst galaxies.

    PubMed

    Falgarone, E; Zwaan, M A; Godard, B; Bergin, E; Ivison, R J; Andreani, P M; Bournaud, F; Bussmann, R S; Elbaz, D; Omont, A; Oteo, I; Walter, F

    2017-08-24

    Starburst galaxies at the peak of cosmic star formation are among the most extreme star-forming engines in the Universe, producing stars over about 100 million years (ref. 2). The star-formation rates of these galaxies, which exceed 100 solar masses per year, require large reservoirs of cold molecular gas to be delivered to their cores, despite strong feedback from stars or active galactic nuclei. Consequently, starburst galaxies are ideal for studying the interplay between this feedback and the growth of a galaxy. The methylidyne cation, CH(+), is a most useful molecule for such studies because it cannot form in cold gas without suprathermal energy input, so its presence indicates dissipation of mechanical energy or strong ultraviolet irradiation. Here we report the detection of CH(+) (J = 1-0) emission and absorption lines in the spectra of six lensed starburst galaxies at redshifts near 2.5. This line has such a high critical density for excitation that it is emitted only in very dense gas, and is absorbed in low-density gas. We find that the CH(+) emission lines, which are broader than 1,000 kilometres per second, originate in dense shock waves powered by hot galactic winds. The CH(+) absorption lines reveal highly turbulent reservoirs of cool (about 100 kelvin), low-density gas, extending far (more than 10 kiloparsecs) outside the starburst galaxies (which have radii of less than 1 kiloparsec). We show that the galactic winds sustain turbulence in the 10-kiloparsec-scale environments of the galaxies, processing these environments into multiphase, gravitationally bound reservoirs. However, the mass outflow rates are found to be insufficient to balance the star-formation rates. Another mass input is therefore required for these reservoirs, which could be provided by ongoing mergers or cold-stream accretion. Our results suggest that galactic feedback, coupled jointly to turbulence and gravity, extends the starburst phase of a galaxy instead of quenching it.

  20. Large turbulent reservoirs of cold molecular gas around high-redshift starburst galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falgarone, E.; Zwaan, M. A.; Godard, B.; Bergin, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Andreani, P. M.; Bournaud, F.; Bussmann, R. S.; Elbaz, D.; Omont, A.; Oteo, I.; Walter, F.

    2017-08-01

    Starburst galaxies at the peak of cosmic star formation are among the most extreme star-forming engines in the Universe, producing stars over about 100 million years (ref. 2). The star-formation rates of these galaxies, which exceed 100 solar masses per year, require large reservoirs of cold molecular gas to be delivered to their cores, despite strong feedback from stars or active galactic nuclei. Consequently, starburst galaxies are ideal for studying the interplay between this feedback and the growth of a galaxy. The methylidyne cation, CH+, is a most useful molecule for such studies because it cannot form in cold gas without suprathermal energy input, so its presence indicates dissipation of mechanical energy or strong ultraviolet irradiation. Here we report the detection of CH+ (J = 1–0) emission and absorption lines in the spectra of six lensed starburst galaxies at redshifts near 2.5. This line has such a high critical density for excitation that it is emitted only in very dense gas, and is absorbed in low-density gas. We find that the CH+ emission lines, which are broader than 1,000 kilometres per second, originate in dense shock waves powered by hot galactic winds. The CH+ absorption lines reveal highly turbulent reservoirs of cool (about 100 kelvin), low-density gas, extending far (more than 10 kiloparsecs) outside the starburst galaxies (which have radii of less than 1 kiloparsec). We show that the galactic winds sustain turbulence in the 10-kiloparsec-scale environments of the galaxies, processing these environments into multiphase, gravitationally bound reservoirs. However, the mass outflow rates are found to be insufficient to balance the star-formation rates. Another mass input is therefore required for these reservoirs, which could be provided by ongoing mergers or cold-stream accretion. Our results suggest that galactic feedback, coupled jointly to turbulence and gravity, extends the starburst phase of a galaxy instead of quenching it.

  1. Circumnuclear molecular gas in megamaser disk galaxies NGC 4388 and NGC 1194

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Jenny E.; Seth, Anil; Lyubenova, Mariya; Van de Ven, Glenn; Läsker, Ronald; Walsh, Jonelle

    2014-06-20

    We explore the warm molecular and ionized gas in the centers of two megamaser disk galaxies using K-band spectroscopy. Our ultimate goal is to determine how gas is funneled onto the accretion disk, here traced by megamaser spots on sub-parsec scales. We present NIR IFU data with a resolution of ∼50 pc for two galaxies: NGC 4388 with VLT/SINFONI and NGC 1194 with Keck/OSIRIS+AO. The high spatial resolution and rich spectral diagnostics allow us to study both the stellar and gas kinematics as well as gas excitation on scales only an order of magnitude larger than the maser disk. We find a drop in the stellar velocity dispersion in the inner ∼100 pc of NGC 4388, a common signature of a dynamically cold central component seen in many active nuclei. We also see evidence for noncircular gas motions in the molecular hydrogen on similar scales, with the gas kinematics on 100 parsec scales aligned with the megamaser disk. In contrast, the high ionization lines and Brγ trace outflow along the 100 parsec-scale jet. In NGC 1194, the continuum from the accreting black hole is very strong, making it difficult to measure robust two-dimensional kinematics, but the spatial distribution and line ratios of the molecular hydrogen and Brγ have consistent properties between the two galaxies.

  2. THE JAMES CLERK MAXWELL TELESCOPE NEARBY GALAXIES LEGACY SURVEY. II. WARM MOLECULAR GAS AND STAR FORMATION IN THREE FIELD SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, B. E.; Wilson, C. D.; Sinukoff, E.; Israel, F. P.; Van der Werf, P. P.; Serjeant, S.; Bendo, G. J.; Clements, D. L.; Brinks, E.; Irwin, J. A.; Knapen, J. H.; Leech, J.; Tan, B. K.; Matthews, H. E.; Muehle, S.; Mortimer, A. M. J.; Petitpas, G.; Spekkens, K.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; Usero, A. E-mail: wilson@physics.mcmaster.c E-mail: israel@strw.leidenuniv.n

    2010-05-01

    We present the results of large-area {sup 12}CO J = 3-2 emission mapping of three nearby field galaxies, NGC 628, NGC 3521, and NGC 3627, completed at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope as part of the Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey. These galaxies all have moderate to strong {sup 12}CO J = 3-2 detections over large areas of the fields observed by the survey, showing resolved structure and dynamics in their warm/dense molecular gas disks. All three galaxies were part of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey sample, and as such have excellent published multiwavelength ancillary data. These data sets allow us to examine the star formation properties, gas content, and dynamics of these galaxies on sub-kiloparsec scales. We find that the global gas depletion time for dense/warm molecular gas in these galaxies is consistent with other results for nearby spiral galaxies, indicating this may be independent of galaxy properties such as structures, gas compositions, and environments. Similar to the results from The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey, we do not see a correlation of the star formation efficiency with the gas surface density consistent with the Schmidt-Kennicutt law. Finally, we find that the star formation efficiency of the dense molecular gas traced by {sup 12}CO J = 3-2 is potentially flat or slightly declining as a function of molecular gas density, the {sup 12}CO J = 3-2/J = 1-0 ratio (in contrast to the correlation found in a previous study into the starburst galaxy M83), and the fraction of total gas in molecular form.

  3. Molecular gas during the post-starburst phase: low gas fractions in green-valley Seyfert post-starburst galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesuf, Hassen M.; French, K. Decker; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.

    2017-08-01

    Post-starbursts (PSBs) are candidate for rapidly transitioning from starbursting to quiescent galaxies. We study the molecular gas evolution of PSBs at z ∼ 0.03-0.2. We undertook new CO (2-1) observations of 22 Seyfert PSB candidates using the Arizona Radio Observatory Submillimeter Telescope. This sample complements previous samples of PSBs by including green-valley PSBs with Seyfert-like emission, allowing us to analyse for the first time the molecular gas properties of 116 PSBs with a variety of AGN properties. The distribution of molecular gas to stellar mass fractions in PSBs is significantly different from normal star-forming galaxies in the CO Legacy Database (COLD) GASS survey. The combined samples of PSBs with Seyfert-like emission line ratios have a gas fraction distribution that is even more significantly different and is broader (∼0.03-0.3). Most of them have lower gas fractions than normal star-forming galaxies. We find a highly significant correlation between the WISE 12 and 4.6 μm flux ratios and molecular gas fractions in both PSBs and normal galaxies. We detect molecular gas in 27 per cent of our Seyfert PSBs. Taking into account the upper limits, the mean and the dispersion of the distribution of the gas fraction in our Seyfert PSB sample are much smaller (μ = 0.025, σ = 0.018) than previous samples of Seyfert PSBs or PSBs in general (μ ∼ 0.1-0.2, σ ∼ 0.1-0.2).

  4. Connecting CO Intensity Mapping to Molecular Gas and Star Formation in the Epoch of Galaxy Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tony Y.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Devaraj, Kiruthika; Church, Sarah E.

    2016-02-01

    Intensity mapping, which images a single spectral line from unresolved galaxies across cosmological volumes, is a promising technique for probing the early universe. Here we present predictions for the intensity map and power spectrum of the CO(1-0) line from galaxies at z˜ 2.4-2.8, based on a parameterized model for the galaxy-halo connection, and demonstrate the extent to which properties of high-redshift galaxies can be directly inferred from such observations. We find that our fiducial prediction should be detectable by a realistic experiment. Motivated by significant modeling uncertainties, we demonstrate the effect on the power spectrum of varying each parameter in our model. Using simulated observations, we infer constraints on our model parameter space with an MCMC procedure, and show corresponding constraints on the {L}{IR}-{L}{CO} relation and the CO luminosity function. These constraints would be complementary to current high-redshift galaxy observations, which can detect the brightest galaxies but not complete samples from the faint end of the luminosity function. By probing these populations in aggregate, CO intensity mapping could be a valuable tool for probing molecular gas and its relation to star formation in high-redshift galaxies.

  5. Spatial variation of the physical conditions of molecular gas in galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, James M.; Eckart, Andreas; Wild, Wolfgang; Genzel, Reinhard; Harris, Andrew I.; Downes, Dennis; Jaffe, D. T.; Ho, Paul T. P.

    1990-01-01

    Multi-line studies of CO-12, CO-13, C-18O, HCN, and HCO(+) at 3 mm, 1.3 mm, and 0.8 mm using the Institute for Radio Astronomy in the Millimeter range (IRAM) 30 m telescope, with the IRAM superconductor insulator superconductor (SIS) receivers and the Max Planck Institute for External Physics (MPE) 350 GHz SIS receiver, show that the densities and temperatures of molecular gas in external galaxies change significantly with position. CO-12 measures the densities and temperature of diffuse interclump molecular gas, but not the bulk of the molecular gas. Simple one-component models, with or without external heating, cannot account for the weakness of the CO-12 J = 3 to 2 line relative to J = 2 to 1 and J = 1 to 0. CO-12 does not trace the bulk of the molecular gas, and optical depth effects obviate a straightforward interpretation of CO-12 data. Instead, researchers turned to the optically thin CO isotopes and other molecular species. Isotopic CO lines measure the bulk of the molecular gas, and HCN and HCO(+) pick out denser regions. Researchers find a warm ridge of gas in IC 342 (Eckart et al. 1989), denser gas in the starburst nucleus of IC 342, and a possible hot-spot in NGC 2903. In IC 342, NGC 2146, and NGC 6764, the CO-13 J = 2 to 1 line is subthermally populated, implying gas densities less than or equal to 10(exp 4) cm(-3).

  6. Molecular Line Emission as a Tool for Galaxy Observations (LEGO). I. HCN as a tracer of moderate gas densities in molecular clouds and galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffmann, Jens; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Melnick, Gary; Tolls, Volker; Guzman, Andres; Menten, Karl M.

    2017-09-01

    Trends observed in galaxies, such as the Gao & Solomon relation, suggest a linear relationship between the star formation rate and the mass of dense gas available for star formation. Validation of such trends requires the establishment of reliable methods to trace the dense gas in galaxies. One frequent assumption is that the HCN (J = 1-0) transition is unambiguously associated with gas at H2 densities ≫ 104 cm-3. If so, the mass of gas at densities ≫ 104 cm-3 could be inferred from the luminosity of this emission line, LHCN (1-0). Here we use observations of the Orion A molecular cloud to show that the HCN (J = 1-0) line traces much lower densities 103 cm-3 in cold sections of this molecular cloud, corresponding to visual extinctions AV ≈ 6 mag. We also find that cold and dense gas in a cloud like Orion produces too little HCN emission to explain LHCN (1-0) in star forming galaxies, suggesting that galaxies might contain a hitherto unknown source of HCN emission. In our sample of molecules observed at frequencies near 100 GHz (also including 12CO, 13CO, C18O, CN, and CCH), N2H+ is the only species clearly associated with relatively dense gas.

  7. Molecular Gas Dominated 50 kpc Ram Pressure Stripped Tail of the Coma Galaxy D100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jáchym, Pavel; Sun, Ming; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Cortese, Luca; Combes, Françoise; Yagi, Masafumi; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Palouš, Jan; Roediger, Elke

    2017-04-01

    We have discovered large amounts of molecular gas, as traced by CO emission, in the ram pressure stripped gas tail of the Coma cluster galaxy D100 (GMP 2910), out to large distances of about 50 kpc. D100 has a 60 kpc long, strikingly narrow tail, which is bright in X-rays and Hα. Our observations with the IRAM 30 m telescope reveal in total ˜ {10}9 {M}⊙ H2 (assuming the standard CO-to-H2 conversion) in several regions along the tail, thus indicating that molecular gas may dominate its mass. Along the tail, we measure a smooth gradient in the radial velocity of the CO emission that is offset to lower values from the more diffuse Hα gas velocities. Such a dynamic separation of phases may be due to their differential acceleration by ram pressure. D100 is likely being stripped at a high orbital velocity ≳ 2200 km s-1 by (nearly) peak ram pressure. Combined effects of intra-cluster medium (ICM) viscosity and magnetic fields may be important for the evolution of the stripped interstellar matter. We propose that D100 has reached a continuous mode of stripping of dense gas remaining in its nuclear region. D100 is the second known case of an abundant molecular stripped gas tail, suggesting that conditions in the ICM at the centers of galaxy clusters may be favorable for molecularization. From comparison with other galaxies, we find that there is a good correlation between the CO flux and the Hα surface brightness in ram pressure stripped gas tails, over ˜2 dex. Based on observations made with the IRAM 30 m Telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).

  8. The Molecular Gas Excitation and Mass in Edge-On Spiral Galaxies: Constraining the Physical Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, Gordon; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Higdon, Sarah; Nikola, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    We propose to accurately trace molecular gas excitation and mass along the plane of the two nearby nearby edge-on spiral galaxies, NGC 4905 and 5907 through deep IRS spectroscopy of four pure rotational lines (S(3), S(2), S(1), and S(0)) of H2. Our primary goal is to investigate the physical state, mass, and heating processes in the molecular ISM in these galaxies, and compare them with our on-going study of the edge-on galaxy NGC 891. Prior modeling of the S(1) and S(0) emission from NCG 891 suggests an enormous amount of cool (T< 90K) H2 (5 to 15 times the atomic mass) for this galaxy if the ortho to para H2 ratio is 3. However, these models are hampered by the degeneracy between gas excitation and the (assumed) o/p ratio. Including the S(3) and S(2) lines in the analysis breaks the degeneracy, enabling independent determination of gas excitation for the ortho and para species, and a measure of the o/p ratio. Using three lines (S(2), S(1), and S(0)) for NGC 891, we find gas excitation near 220 K, with an o/p ratio near unity, resulting in greatly reduced molecular gas mass. We were awarded time in Cycle 4 to verify this model through deeper integrations of the S(0), S(1), and S(2) lines, and observations of the S(3) line in NGC 891. {These observations have not yet been scheduled}. Here we propose to extend our study by mapping all four lines in the disks of galaxies with different gas contents than NGC 891: the early type Sb NGC 4565 and the late type Sc NGC 5907. We are particularly intrigued with the regions outside of the CO emitting disk where the gas is likely not heated in a PDR scenario but rather by modest velocity cloud-cloud collisions in the outer galaxy. The proposed observations address the heating source as the ortho and para ratio depends on the formation temperature: a larger ratio indicates a larger formation temperature. Did H2 form in a relatively warm far-UV bathed environment near stars, or in a cold environment devoid of young stars?

  9. ATCA detections of massive molecular gas reservoirs in dusty, high-z radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heywood, I.; Contreras, Y.; Smith, D. J. B.; Cooray, A.; Dunne, L.; Gómez, L.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Riechers, D. A.; Werf, P. van der

    2017-02-01

    Observations using the 7-mm receiver system on the Australia Telescope Compact Array have revealed large reservoirs of molecular gas in two high-redshift radio galaxies: HATLAS J090426.9+015448 (z = 2.37) and HATLAS J140930.4+003803 (z = 2.04). Optically, the targets are very faint, and spectroscopy classifies them as narrow-line radio galaxies. In addition to harbouring an active galactic nucleus the targets share many characteristics of sub-mm galaxies. Far-infrared data from Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey suggest high levels of dust (>109 M⊙) and a correspondingly large amount of obscured star formation (˜1000 M⊙ yr-1). The molecular gas is traced via the J = 1 → 0 transition of 12CO, its luminosity implying total H2 masses of (1.7 ± 0.3) × 1011 and (9.5 ± 2.4) × 1010 (αCO/0.8) M⊙ in HATLAS J090426.9+015448 and HATLAS J140930.4+003803, respectively. Both galaxies exhibit molecular line emission over a broad (˜1000 km s-1) velocity range and feature double-peaked profiles. We interpret this as evidence of either a large rotating disc or an on-going merger. Gas depletion time-scales are ˜100 Myr. The 1.4-GHz radio luminosities of our targets place them close to the break in the luminosity function. As such they represent 'typical' z > 2 radio sources, responsible for the bulk of the energy emitted at radio wavelengths from accretion-powered sources at high redshift, and yet they rank amongst the most massive systems in terms of molecular gas and dust content. We also detect 115-GHz rest-frame continuum emission, indicating a very steep high-radio-frequency spectrum, possibly classifying the targets as compact steep spectrum objects.

  10. HIGH-DENSITY MOLECULAR GAS PROPERTIES OF THE STARBURST GALAXY NGC 1614 REVEALED WITH ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro

    2013-09-15

    We present the results of HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 4-3 transition line observations of the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 1614, obtained with ALMA Cycle 0. We find that high density molecular gas traced with these lines shows a velocity structure such that the northern (southern) side of the nucleus is redshifted (blueshifted) with respect to the nuclear velocity of this galaxy. The redshifted and blueshifted emission peaks are offset by {approx}0.''6 at the northern and southern sides of the nucleus, respectively. At these offset positions, observations at infrared >3 {mu}m indicate the presence of active dusty starbursts, supporting the picture that high-density molecular gas is the site of active starbursts. The enclosed dynamical mass within the central {approx}2'' in radius, derived from the dynamics of the high-density molecular gas, is {approx}10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, which is similar to previous estimates. Finally, the HCN emission is weaker than HCO{sup +} but stronger than HNC for J = 4-3 for all starburst regions of NGC 1614, as seen for J = 1-0 transition lines in starburst-dominated galaxies.

  11. Connecting CO intensity mapping to molecular gas and star formation in the epoch of galaxy assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tony Y.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Devaraj, Kiruthika; Church, Sarah E.

    2016-01-29

    Intensity mapping, which images a single spectral line from unresolved galaxies across cosmological volumes, is a promising technique for probing the early universe. Here we present predictions for the intensity map and power spectrum of the CO(1–0) line from galaxies at $z\\sim 2.4$–2.8, based on a parameterized model for the galaxy–halo connection, and demonstrate the extent to which properties of high-redshift galaxies can be directly inferred from such observations. We find that our fiducial prediction should be detectable by a realistic experiment. Motivated by significant modeling uncertainties, we demonstrate the effect on the power spectrum of varying each parameter in our model. Using simulated observations, we infer constraints on our model parameter space with an MCMC procedure, and show corresponding constraints on the ${L}_{\\mathrm{IR}}$–${L}_{\\mathrm{CO}}$ relation and the CO luminosity function. These constraints would be complementary to current high-redshift galaxy observations, which can detect the brightest galaxies but not complete samples from the faint end of the luminosity function. Furthermore, by probing these populations in aggregate, CO intensity mapping could be a valuable tool for probing molecular gas and its relation to star formation in high-redshift galaxies.

  12. Connecting CO intensity mapping to molecular gas and star formation in the epoch of galaxy assembly

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Tony Y.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Devaraj, Kiruthika; ...

    2016-01-29

    Intensity mapping, which images a single spectral line from unresolved galaxies across cosmological volumes, is a promising technique for probing the early universe. Here we present predictions for the intensity map and power spectrum of the CO(1–0) line from galaxies atmore » $$z\\sim 2.4$$–2.8, based on a parameterized model for the galaxy–halo connection, and demonstrate the extent to which properties of high-redshift galaxies can be directly inferred from such observations. We find that our fiducial prediction should be detectable by a realistic experiment. Motivated by significant modeling uncertainties, we demonstrate the effect on the power spectrum of varying each parameter in our model. Using simulated observations, we infer constraints on our model parameter space with an MCMC procedure, and show corresponding constraints on the $${L}_{\\mathrm{IR}}$$–$${L}_{\\mathrm{CO}}$$ relation and the CO luminosity function. These constraints would be complementary to current high-redshift galaxy observations, which can detect the brightest galaxies but not complete samples from the faint end of the luminosity function. Furthermore, by probing these populations in aggregate, CO intensity mapping could be a valuable tool for probing molecular gas and its relation to star formation in high-redshift galaxies.« less

  13. Formaldehyde in Absorption: Tracing Molecular Gas in Early-Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollhopf, Niklaus M.; Donovan Meyer, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs) have been long-classified as the red, ellipsoidal branch of the classic Hubble tuning fork diagram of galactic structure. In part with this classification, ETGs are thought to be molecular and atomic gas-poor with little to no recent star formation. However, recent efforts have questioned this ingrained classification. Most notably, the ATLAS3D survey of 260 ETGs within ~40 Mpc found 22% contain CO, a common tracer for molecular gas. The presence of cold molecular gas also implies the possibility for current star formation within these galaxies. Simulations do not accurately predict the recent observations and further studies are necessary to understand the mechanisms of ETGs.CO traces molecular gas starting at densities of ~102 cm-3, which makes it a good tracer of bulk molecular gas, but does little to constrain the possible locations of star formation within the cores of dense molecular gas clouds. Formaldehyde (H2CO) traces molecular gas on the order of ~104 cm-3, providing a further constraint on the location of star-forming gas, while being simple enough to possibly be abundant in gas-poor ETGs. In cold molecular clouds at or above ~104 cm-3 densities, the structure of formaldehyde enables a phenomenon in which rotational transitions have excitation temperatures driven below the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), ~2.7 K. Because the CMB radiates isotropically, formaldehyde can be observed in absorption, independent of distance, as a tracer of moderately-dense molecular clouds and star formation.This novel observation technique of formaldehyde was incorporated for observations of twelve CO-detected ETGs from the ATLAS3D sample, including NGC 4710 and PGC 8815, to investigate the presence of cold molecular gas, and possible star formation, in ETGs. We present images from the Very Large Array, used in its C-array configuration, of the J = 11,0 - 11,1 transition of formaldehyde towards these sources. We report our

  14. Cold Molecular Gas Along the Merger Sequence in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Takuji; Komugi, Shinya; Matsuhara, Hideo; Armus, Lee; Inami, Hanae; Ueda, Junko; Iono, Daisuke; Kohno, Kotaro; Evans, Aaron S.; Arimatsu, Ko

    2017-08-01

    We present an initial result from the 12CO (J = 1-0) survey of 79 galaxies in 62 local luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxy (LIRG and ULIRG) systems obtained using the 45 m telescope at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory. This is a systematic 12CO (J = 1-0) survey of the Great Observatories All-sky LIRGs Survey (GOALS) sample. The molecular gas mass of the sample is in the range 2.2× {10}8{--}7.0× {10}9 {M}⊙ within the central several kiloparsecs subtended by the 15\\prime\\prime beam. A method to estimate the size of a CO gas distribution is introduced, which is combined with the total CO flux in the literature. This method is applied to part of our sample, and we find that the median CO radius is 1-4 kpc. From the early stage to the late stage of mergers, we find that the CO size decreases while the median value of the molecular gas mass in the central several-kiloparsec region is constant. Our results statistically support a scenario where molecular gas inflows toward the central region from the outer disk to replenish gas consumed by starburst, and that such a process is common in merging LIRGs.

  15. Dense Molecular Gas Tracers in the Outflow of the Starburst Galaxy NGC 253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Fabian; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Leroy, Adam K.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Warren, Steven R.; Hodge, Jacqueline; Levy, Rebecca C.; Meier, David S.; Ostriker, Eve C.; Ott, Jürgen; Rosolowsky, Erik; Scoville, Nick; Weiss, Axel; Zschaechner, Laura; Zwaan, Martin

    2017-02-01

    We present a detailed study of a molecular outflow feature in the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 253 using ALMA. We find that this feature is clearly associated with the edge of NGC 253's prominent ionized outflow, has a projected length of ∼300 pc, with a width of ∼50 pc, and a velocity dispersion of ∼40 km s‑1, which is consistent with an ejection from the disk about 1 Myr ago. The kinematics of the molecular gas in this feature can be interpreted (albeit not uniquely) as accelerating at a rate of 1 km s‑1 pc‑1. In this scenario, the gas is approaching an escape velocity at the last measured point. Strikingly, bright tracers of dense molecular gas (HCN, CN, HCO+, CS) are also detected in the molecular outflow: we measure an HCN(1–0)/CO(1–0) line ratio of ∼ 1/10 in the outflow, similar to that in the central starburst region of NGC 253 and other starburst galaxies. By contrast, the HCN/CO line ratio in the NGC 253 disk is significantly lower (∼ 1/30), similar to other nearby galaxy disks. This strongly suggests that the streamer gas originates from the starburst, and that its physical state does not change significantly over timescales of ∼1 Myr during its entrainment in the outflow. Simple calculations indicate that radiation pressure is not the main mechanism for driving the outflow. The presence of such dense material in molecular outflows needs to be accounted for in simulations of galactic outflows.

  16. The detection of molecular gas in the ring galaxy Arp 143

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higdon, James L.; Smith, Beverly J.; Lord, Steven D.; Rand, Richard J.

    1995-01-01

    We have used the NRAO 12 m telescope to map the inner 10 kpc of NGC 2445, the ring galaxy in Arp 143, in CO-12(J = 1-0). Emission is peaked near the ring galaxy nucleus, but we find evidence for an additional asymmetric and extended CO component. This extended CO distribution is consistent with an approximately 8 kpc diameter crescent-shaped ring of molecular gas, similar to the one seen in H I, accounting for approximately half of the total CO flux. Assuming this distribution, we derive a total H2 mass for NGC 2445 of 0.4-2.4 x 10(exp 10) solar mass, depending on whether a Galactic or low-metallicity Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) conversion factor is used, and an H2/H I mass ratio between 0.9 and 5. The ring is experiencing low rates of massive star formation despite very high gas column densities. We find that the gas surface density exceeds the critical threshold for star formation throughout the ring, even without a possible contribution from a significant molecular component. The absence of vigorous star formation is most simply understood in terms of its youth (approximately 30 Myr): massive stars have not had time to form in large numbers. Our results support the interpretation that NGC 2445 is a nascent ring galaxy, seen prior to its ring starburst phase.

  17. A DETECTION OF MOLECULAR GAS EMISSION IN THE HOST GALAXY OF GRB 080517

    SciTech Connect

    Stanway, E. R.; Levan, A. J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Wiersema, K.; Van der Laan, T. P. R.

    2015-01-01

    We have observed the host galaxy of the low-redshift, low-luminosity Swift GRB 080517 at 105.8 GHz using the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer. We detect an emission line with integrated flux SΔν = 0.39 ± 0.05 Jy km s{sup –1}—consistent both spatially and in velocity with identification as the J = 1-0 rotational transition of carbon monoxide (CO) at the host galaxy redshift. This represents only the third long gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxy with molecular gas detected in emission. The inferred molecular gas mass, M{sub H{sub 2}}∼6.3×10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}, implies a gas consumption timescale of ∼40 Myr if star formation continues at its current rate. Similar short timescales appear characteristic of the long GRB population with CO observations to date, suggesting that the GRB in these sources occurs toward the end of their star formation episode.

  18. A New Probe of the Molecular Gas Content in Galaxies: Application to M101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. A.; Allen, R. J.; Bohlin, R. C.; Nicholson, N.; Stecher, T. P.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of nearby spiral galaxies suggest that photodissociation regions (PDRs) are capable of producing the observed large--scale distribution of HI (Allen et al.- 1997, and references therein). The column density of HI in a PDR is fundamentally linked to the amount of far--ultraviolet (FUV) emission produced by nearby young stars and the local molecular gas volume density. Measurements of the HI column density and the FUV emission associated with PDRs thus provide a new probe of the molecular gas distribution in nearby galaxies. Advantages of this method include its insensitivity to assumptions about the CO/{\\rm H2} conversion factor or the gas temperature. We discuss the application of this method to M101. The HI column density and FUV emission have been measured for 35 PDRs from VLA data (Braun 1997) and Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope data (Waller et al.-1997). We derive volume densities ranging from n-100 {\\rm cm(exp -3)} in the central HI--poor regions of M101 to n -3000 {\\rm cm(exp -3)} in the HI--rich periphery of the galaxy.

  19. THE MOLECULAR GAS CONTENT OF z = 3 LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES: EVIDENCE OF A NON-EVOLVING GAS FRACTION IN MAIN-SEQUENCE GALAXIES AT z > 2

    SciTech Connect

    Magdis, Georgios E.; Rigopoulou, D.; Daddi, E.; Sargent, M.; Elbaz, D.; Gobat, R.; Tan, Q.; Aussel, H.; Feruglio, C.; Charmandaris, V.; Dickinson, M.; Reddy, N.

    2012-10-10

    We present observations of the CO[J = 3 {yields} 2] emission toward two massive and infrared luminous Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z = 3.21 and z = 2.92, using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer, placing first constraints on the molecular gas masses (M{sub gas}) of non-lensed LBGs. Their overall properties are consistent with those of typical (main-sequence) galaxies at their redshifts, with specific star formation rates {approx}1.6 and {approx}2.2 Gyr{sup -1}, despite their large infrared luminosities (L{sub IR} Almost-Equal-To (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }) derived from Herschel. With one plausible CO detection (spurious detection probability of 10{sup -3}) and one upper limit, we investigate the evolution of the molecular gas-to-stellar mass ratio (M{sub gas}/M{sub *}) with redshift. Our data suggest that the steep evolution of M{sub gas}/M{sub *} of normal galaxies up to z {approx} 2 is followed by a flattening at higher redshifts, providing supporting evidence for the existence of a plateau in the evolution of the specific star formation rate at z > 2.5.

  20. The molecular gas in Luminous Infrared Galaxies: a new emergent picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Weiss, Axel; van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Gao, Yu; Xilouris, Manolis; Greve, Thomas R.

    2013-03-01

    Results from a large, multi-J CO, 13CO, and HCN line survey of Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs: LIR≥ 1010 L⊙) in the local Universe (z≤0.1), complemented by CO J=4-3 up to J=13-12 observations from the Herschel Space Observatory (HSO), paints a new picture for the average conditions of the molecular gas of the most luminous of these galaxies with turbulence and/or large cosmic ray (CR) energy densities UCR rather than far-UV/optical photons from star-forming sites as the dominant heating sources. Especially in ULIRGs (LIR>1012 L⊙) the Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs) can encompass at most a few % of their molecular gas mass while the large UCR˜ 103 UCR, Galaxy, and the strong turbulence in these merger/starbursts, can volumetrically heat much of their molecular gas to Tkin˜ (100-200) K, unhindered by the high dust extinctions. Moreover the strong supersonic turbulence in ULIRGs relocates much of their molecular gas at much higher average densities (≥104 cm-3) than in isolated spirals (˜ 102-103 cm-3). This renders low-J CO lines incapable of constraining the properties of the bulk of the molecular gas in ULIRGs, with substantial and systematic underestimates of its mass possible when only such lines are used. Finally a comparative study of multi-J HCN lines and CO SLEDs from J=1-0 up to J=13-12 of NGC 6240 and Arp 193 offers a clear example of two merger/starbursts whose similar low-J CO SLEDs, and LIR/LCO,1-0 and LHCN, 1-0/LCO,1-0 ratios (proxies of the so-called SF efficiency and dense gas mass fraction), yield no indications about their strongly diverging CO SLEDs beyond J=4-3, and ultimately the different physical conditions in their molecular ISM. The much larger sensitivity of ALMA and its excellent site in the Atacama desert now allows the observations necessary to assess the dominant energy sources of the molecular gas and its mass in LIRGs without depending on the low-J CO lines.

  1. Massive Quenched Galaxies at z ∼ 0.7 Retain Large Molecular Gas Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suess, Katherine A.; Bezanson, Rachel; Spilker, Justin S.; Kriek, Mariska; Greene, Jenny E.; Feldmann, Robert; Hunt, Qiana; Narayanan, Desika

    2017-09-01

    The physical mechanisms that quench star formation, turning blue star-forming galaxies into red quiescent galaxies, remain unclear. In this Letter, we investigate the role of gas supply in suppressing star formation by studying the molecular gas content of post-starburst galaxies. Leveraging the wide area of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we identify a sample of massive intermediate-redshift galaxies that have just ended their primary epoch of star formation. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array CO(2-1) observations of two of these post-starburst galaxies at z ∼ 0.7 with {M}* ∼ 2× {10}11 {M}ȯ . Their molecular gas reservoirs of (6.4+/- 0.8) × {10}9 {M}ȯ and (34.0+/- 1.6)× {10}9 {M}ȯ are an order of magnitude larger than comparable-mass galaxies in the local universe. Our observations suggest that quenching does not require the total removal or depletion of molecular gas, as many quenching models suggest. However, further observations are required both to determine if these apparently quiescent objects host highly obscured star formation and to investigate the intrinsic variation in the molecular gas properties of post-starburst galaxies.

  2. Molecular Gas and Star-formation in Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Tian-Wen; Wu, Hong; Du, Wei; Lei, Feng-Jie; Zhu, Ming; Wouterloot, Jan; Parsons, Harriet; Zhu, Yi-Nan; Wu, Chao-Jian; Yang, Fan; Cao, Chen; Zhou, Zhi-Min; He, Min; Jin, Jun-Jie; Wicker, James E.

    2017-09-01

    We have obtained CO(J = 2‑1) spectra of nine face-on low surface brightness galaxies using the JCMT 15 m telescope and observed Hα images using the 2.16 m telescope of NAOC. As no CO has been detected, only upper limits on the H2 masses are given. The upper limits of total molecular hydrogen masses are about (1.2{--}82.4)× {10}7 {M}ȯ . Their star-formation rates are mainly lower than 0.4 {M}ȯ yr‑1 and star-formation efficiencies are lower than 1.364× {10}-10 yr‑1. Our results show that the absence of molecular gas content is the direct reason for the low star-formation rate. The low star-formation efficiency probably resulted from the low efficiency of H i gas transforming to H2 gas.

  3. The star-forming molecular gas in high-redshift Submillimetre Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Desika; Cox, Thomas J.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Younger, Joshua D.; Hernquist, Lars

    2009-12-01

    We present a model for the CO molecular line emission from high-redshift Submillimetre Galaxies (SMGs). By combining hydrodynamic simulations of gas-rich galaxy mergers with the polychromatic radiative transfer code, SUNRISE, and the 3D non-LTE molecular line radiative transfer code, TURTLEBEACH, we show that if SMGs are typically a transient phase of major mergers, then their observed compact CO spatial extents, broad linewidths and high excitation conditions (CO spectral energy distribution) are naturally explained. In this sense, SMGs can be understood as scaled-up analogues to local ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULRIGs). We utilize these models to investigate the usage of CO as an indicator of physical conditions. We find that care must be taken when applying standard techniques. The usage of CO linewidths as a dynamical mass estimator from SMGs can possibly overestimate the true enclosed mass by a factor of ~1.5-2. At the same time, assumptions of line ratios of unity from CO J = 3-2 (and higher lying lines) to CO (J = 1-0) will oftentimes lead to underestimates of the inferred gas mass. We provide tests for these models by outlining predictions for experiments which are imminently feasible with the current generation of bolometer arrays and radio-wave spectrometers.

  4. The NGC 1614 interacting galaxy. Molecular gas feeding a "ring of fire"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, S.; Aalto, S.; Muller, S.; Beswick, R. J.; Gallagher, J. S.

    2013-05-01

    Minor mergers frequently occur between giant and gas-rich low-mass galaxies and can provide significant amounts of interstellar matter to refuel star formation and power active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the giant systems. Major starbursts and/or AGN result when fresh gas is transported and compressed in the central regions of the giant galaxy. This is the situation in the starburst minor merger NGC 1614, whose molecular medium we explore at half-arcsecond angular resolution through our observations of 12CO (2-1) emission using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). We compare our 12CO (2-1) maps with optical and Paα, Hubble Space Telescope and high angular resolution radio continuum images to study the relationships between dense molecular gas and the NGC 1614 starburst region. The most intense 12CO emission occurs in a partial ring with ~230 pc radius around the center of NGC 1614, with an extension to the northwest into the dust lane that contains diffuse molecular gas. We resolve ten giant molecular associations (GMAs) in the ring, which has an integrated molecular mass of ~8 × 108 M⊙. Our interferometric observations filter out a large part of the 12CO (1-0) emission mapped at shorter spacings, indicating that most of the molecular gas is diffuse and that GMAs only exist near and within the circumnuclear ring. The molecular ring is uneven with most of the mass on the western side, which also contains GMAs extending into a pronounced tidal dust lane. The spatial and kinematic patterns in our data suggest that the northwest extension of the ring is a cosmic umbilical cord that is feeding molecular gas associated with the dust lane and tidal debris into the nuclear ring, which contains the bulk of the starburst activity. The astrophysical process for producing a ring structure for the final resting place of accreted gas in NGC 1614 is not fully understood, but the presence of numerous GMAs suggests an orbit-crowding or resonance phenomenon. There is some evidence that

  5. C I Emission in Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies as a Molecular Gas Mass Tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; Greve, Thomas R.

    2004-11-01

    We present new sensitive wide-band measurements of the fine-structure line 3P1-->3P0 (J=1-0, 492 GHz) of neutral atomic carbon (C I) in the two typical ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) NGC 6240 and Arp 220. We then use them along with several other C I measurements in similar objects found in the literature to estimate their global molecular gas content under the assumption of a full C I-H2 concomitance. We find excellent agreement between the H2 gas mass estimated with this method and the standard methods using 12CO. This may provide a new way to measure H2 gas mass in galaxies and one that may be very valuable in ULIRGs since in such systems the bright 12CO emission is known to systematically overestimate the gas mass while their 13CO emission (an often-used alternative) is usually very weak. At redshifts z>=1 the C I J=1-0 line shifts to much more favorable atmospheric windows and can become a viable alternative tracer of the H2 gas, fueling starburst events in the distant universe.

  6. The ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Molecular Gas Reservoirs in High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Aravena, Manuel; Carilli, Chris; Bouwens, Rychard; da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Bacon, Roland; Bauer, Franz; Bell, Eric F.; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Colina, Luis; Cortes, Paulo C.; Cox, Pierre; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Inami, Hanae; Ivison, Rob; Hodge, Jacqueline; Karim, Alex; Magnelli, Benjamin; Ota, Kazuaki; Popping, Gergö; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sargent, Mark; van der Wel, Arjen; van der Werf, Paul

    2016-12-01

    We study the molecular gas properties of high-z galaxies observed in the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey (ASPECS) that targets an ˜1 arcmin2 region in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF), a blind survey of CO emission (tracing molecular gas) in the 3 and 1 mm bands. Of a total of 1302 galaxies in the field, 56 have spectroscopic redshifts and correspondingly well-defined physical properties. Among these, 11 have infrared luminosities {L}{IR}\\gt {10}11 {L}⊙ , i.e., a detection in CO emission was expected. Out of these, 7 are detected at various significance in CO, and 4 are undetected in CO emission. In the CO-detected sources, we find CO excitation conditions that are lower than those typically found in starburst/sub-mm galaxy/QSO environments. We use the CO luminosities (including limits for non-detections) to derive molecular gas masses. We discuss our findings in the context of previous molecular gas observations at high redshift (star formation law, gas depletion times, gas fractions): the CO-detected galaxies in the UDF tend to reside on the low-{L}{IR} envelope of the scatter in the {L}{IR}{--}{L}{CO}\\prime relation, but exceptions exist. For the CO-detected sources, we find an average depletion time of ˜1 Gyr, with significant scatter. The average molecular-to-stellar mass ratio ({M}{{H}2}/M *) is consistent with earlier measurements of main-sequence galaxies at these redshifts, and again shows large variations among sources. In some cases, we also measure dust continuum emission. On average, the dust-based estimates of the molecular gas are a factor ˜2-5× smaller than those based on CO. When we account for detections as well as non-detections, we find large diversity in the molecular gas properties of the high-redshift galaxies covered by ASPECS.

  7. Discovery of Molecular Gas Shells around the Unusual Galaxy Centaurus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    photometric and spectrographic studies of their light, it has been known since the early 1980's that such shells are made up of stars. It appears that they are quite common - about half of the nearby large elliptical galaxies have been found to be surrounded by stellar shells. More recently, in 1994, atomic hydrogen gas was discovered to be associated with some of the stellar shells. This discovery was a bit of a surprise, because the current theory predicts that when two galaxies merge, their gas and stars will behave very differently. While the individual stars hardly ever hit each other, the interstellar gas clouds collide violently. They will lose all their energy and the gas will fall towards the common centre where it is soon consumed in vigorous bursts of star formation. Why would there then be hydrogen gas in the outer shells of some elliptical galaxies? A possible origin of gaseous shells The astronomer team, headed by Vassilis Charmandaris [1] decided to look into this serious discrepancy between theory and observations. They believed that a possible explanation might be that this diffuse atomic gas is located, not in vast, very dilute clouds, but rather in smaller, much denser molecular clouds , such as these are known in our own galaxy, the Milky Way. Due to their relative compactness (more than 1000 molecules/cm 3 , i.e,. at least 100 times more than that of larger diffuse clouds), molecular clouds would behave more like the stars during the galaxy collision event. Indeed, realistic calculations showed that the dynamical behavior of such dense clouds would be intermediate between the stars and the diffuse hydrogen gas. Thus, while most of the gas would still end up in the centre of the remaining galaxy after a merger, a larger fraction of it would be able to survive at large distances from the nucleus. This would then be the origin of the observed hydrogen shells. During the merger, gas that originates from regions in the outskirts of the "cannibalized" galaxy

  8. The molecular gas in luminous infrared galaxies - I. CO lines, extreme physical conditions and their drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; van der Werf, Paul P.; Xilouris, E. M.; Isaak, K. G.; Gao, Yu; Mühle, S.

    2012-11-01

    We report results from a large molecular line survey of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L IR ≳1011 L) in the local Universe (z ≤ 0.1), conducted during the last decade with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and the IRAM 30-m telescope. This work presents the CO and 13CO line data for 36 galaxies, further augmented by multi-J total CO line luminosities available for other infrared (IR) bright galaxies from the literature. This yields a combined sample of N = 70 galaxies with the star formation (SF) powered fraction of their IR luminosities spanning L IR (*)˜(1010-2×1012) L and a wide range of morphologies. Simple comparisons of their available CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) with local ones, as well as radiative transfer models, discern a surprisingly wide range of average interstellar medium (ISM) conditions, with most of the surprises found in the high-excitation regime. These take the form of global CO SLEDs dominated by a very warm (Tkin ≳100 K) and dense (n ≥ 104 cm-3) gas phase, involving galaxy-sized (˜(few) × 109 M⊙) gas mass reservoirs under conditions that are typically found only for ˜(1-3) per cent of mass per typical SF molecular cloud in the Galaxy. Furthermore, some of the highest excitation CO SLEDs are found in ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; LIR ≥ 1012 L⊙) and surpass even those found solely in compact SF-powered hot spots in Galactic molecular clouds. Strong supersonic turbulence and high cosmic ray energy densities rather than far-ultraviolet/optical photons or supernova remnant induced shocks from individual SF sites can globally warm the large amounts of dense gas found in these merger-driven starbursts and easily power their extraordinary CO line excitation. This exciting possibility can now be systematically investigated with Herschel and the Atacama Large Milimeter Array (ALMA). As expected for an IR-selected (and thus SF rate selected) galaxy sample, only few 'cold' CO SLEDs are found, and for

  9. VALIDATION OF THE EQUILIBRIUM MODEL FOR GALAXY EVOLUTION TO z ∼ 3 THROUGH MOLECULAR GAS AND DUST OBSERVATIONS OF LENSED STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Saintonge, Amélie; Lutz, Dieter; Genzel, Reinhard; Tacconi, Linda J.; Berta, Stefano; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Sturm, Eckhard; Wuyts, Eva; Wuyts, Stijn; Magnelli, Benjamin; Nordon, Raanan; Baker, Andrew J.; Bandara, Kaushala

    2013-11-20

    We combine IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer and Herschel PACS and SPIRE measurements to study the dust and gas contents of high-redshift star-forming galaxies. We present new observations for a sample of 17 lensed galaxies at z = 1.4-3.1, which allow us to directly probe the cold interstellar medium of normal star-forming galaxies with stellar masses of ∼10{sup 10} M{sub ☉}, a regime otherwise not (yet) accessible by individual detections in Herschel and molecular gas studies. The lensed galaxies are combined with reference samples of submillimeter and normal z ∼ 1-2 star-forming galaxies with similar far-infrared photometry to study the gas and dust properties of galaxies in the SFR-M{sub *}-redshift parameter space. The mean gas depletion timescale of main-sequence (MS) galaxies at z > 2 is measured to be only ∼450 Myr, a factor of ∼1.5 (∼5) shorter than at z = 1 (z = 0), in agreement with a (1 + z){sup –1} scaling. The mean gas mass fraction at z = 2.8 is 40% ± 15% (44% after incompleteness correction), suggesting a flattening or even a reversal of the trend of increasing gas fractions with redshift recently observed up to z ∼ 2. The depletion timescale and gas fractions of the z > 2 normal star-forming galaxies can be explained under the 'equilibrium model' for galaxy evolution, in which the gas reservoir of galaxies is the primary driver of the redshift evolution of specific star formation rates. Due to their high star formation efficiencies and low metallicities, the z > 2 lensed galaxies have warm dust despite being located on the star formation MS. At fixed metallicity, they also have a gas-to-dust ratio 1.7 times larger than observed locally when using the same standard techniques, suggesting that applying the local calibration of the δ{sub GDR}-metallicity relation to infer the molecular gas mass of high-redshift galaxies may lead to systematic differences with CO-based estimates.

  10. Molecular gas and star formation in HI-deficient Virgo cluster galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, Jeffrey D.; Young, Judith S.

    1987-01-01

    Mapping of the CO emission line in 42 Virgo cluster galaxies reveals that the molecular gas contents and distributions are roughly normal in severaly HI-deficient Virgo spirals. The survival of the molecular component mitigates the impact of the HI-stripping on star formation and subsequent galactic evolution. For spirals which are deficient in HI by a factor of 10, far-infrared, H alpha line, and nonthermal radio continuum luminosities are lower by no more than a factor of 2. The fact that the inner galactic disks are stripped of HI, while CO is normal, suggests that the lifetime of the molecular phase is approximately one billion years in the inner regions of luminous spirals.

  11. A New Probe of the Molecular Gas Content in Galaxies: Application to M101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Denise A.; Allen, Ronald J.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Nicholson, Natalya; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies of nearby spiral galaxies suggest that photodissoiation regions (PDRS) are capable of producing much of the observed HI in galaxy disks. In that case, measurements of the observed HI column density and the far-ultraviolet (FUV) photon flux responsible for the photodissociation process provide a new probe of the volume density of the local underlying molecular hydrogen. We develop the method and apply it to the giant Scd spiral M101. The HI column density and amount of FUV emission have been measured for a sample of 35 candidate PDRs located throughout the disk of M101 using the Very Large Array and the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope. We find that, after correction for the known gradient of metallicity in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) of M101 and for the extinction of the ultraviolet emission, molecular gas with a narrow range of density from 30-1000/ cubic cm is found near star-forming regions at all radii in the disk of M101 out to a distance of 12 seconds approximately equals 26 kpc, close to the photometric limit of R(sub 25) approximately equals 13.5 seconds. In this picture, the ISM is virtually all molecular in the inner parts of M101. The strong decrease of the HI column density in the inner disk of the galaxy at R(sub G) < 10 kpc is a consequence of a strong increase in the dust-to-gas ratio there, resulting in an increase of the H(sub 2) formation rate on grains and a corresponding disappearance of hydrogen in its atomic form.

  12. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: a new method to estimate molecular gas surface densities from star formation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federrath, Christoph; Salim, Diane M.; Medling, Anne M.; Davies, Rebecca L.; Yuan, Tiantian; Bian, Fuyan; Groves, Brent A.; Ho, I.-Ting; Sharp, Robert; Kewley, Lisa J.; Sweet, Sarah M.; Richards, Samuel N.; Bryant, Julia J.; Brough, Sarah; Croom, Scott; Scott, Nicholas; Lawrence, Jon; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis; Goodwin, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Stars form in cold molecular clouds. However, molecular gas is difficult to observe because the most abundant molecule (H2) lacks a permanent dipole moment. Rotational transitions of CO are often used as a tracer of H2, but CO is much less abundant and the conversion from CO intensity to H2 mass is often highly uncertain. Here we present a new method for estimating the column density of cold molecular gasgas) using optical spectroscopy. We utilize the spatially resolved Hα maps of flux and velocity dispersion from the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey. We derive maps of Σgas by inverting the multi-freefall star formation relation, which connects the star formation rate surface density (ΣSFR) with Σgas and the turbulent Mach number (M). Based on the measured range of ΣSFR = 0.005-1.5 {M_{⊙} yr^{-1} kpc^{-2}} and M=18-130, we predict Σgas = 7-200 {M_{⊙} pc^{-2}} in the star-forming regions of our sample of 260 SAMI galaxies. These values are close to previously measured Σgas obtained directly with unresolved CO observations of similar galaxies at low redshift. We classify each galaxy in our sample as 'star-forming' (219) or 'composite/AGN/shock' (41), and find that in 'composite/AGN/shock' galaxies the average ΣSFR, M and Σgas are enhanced by factors of 2.0, 1.6 and 1.3, respectively, compared to star-forming galaxies. We compare our predictions of Σgas with those obtained by inverting the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation and find that our new method is a factor of 2 more accurate in predicting Σgas, with an average deviation of 32 per cent from the actual Σgas.

  13. Coevolution of supermassive black holes and circumnuclear dense molecular gas disk in Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, T.

    2015-09-01

    The energy emitted by an active galactic nucleus (AGN) is commonly ascribed to mass accretion onto a supermassive black hole (SMBH). However, the physics of angular momentum transfer at r < 100 pc from the SMBH is still unclear. Interestingly, recent high resolution IR observations suggest a possible connection between a circumnuclear (i.e., < 100 pc scale) star formation rate and a mass accretion rate onto a SMBH (e.g., Esquej et al. 2014). But to study such a tentative AGN-starburst connection in detail, it is also necessary to investigate properties of circumnuclear molecular gas, because such gas is the site of massive star formation, and also be the fuel for AGNs. Therefore, we compiled interferometric data of the 100 pc scale circumnuclear molecular gas disk (CND) in nearby Seyfert galaxies, and found a (tentative) correlation between (1) a ratio of the mass of the CND and the mass of the SMBH and (2) a mass accretion rate onto the SMBH. The mass of the CND is estimated by using HCN(1-0) emission line, which is a typical tracer of dense molecular gas (unlike J=1-0 CO). This correlation can be expected in a turbulent disk

  14. The effect of ram pressure on the molecular gas of galaxies: three case studies in the Virgo cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bumhyun; Chung, Aeree; Tonnesen, Stephanie; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Wong, O. Ivy; Vollmer, B.; Petitpas, Glen R.; Crowl, Hugh H.; van Gorkom, Jacqueline

    2017-04-01

    We present 12CO (2-1) data of three Virgo spirals - NGC 4330, NGC 4402 and NGC 4522 obtained using the Submillimeter Array. These three galaxies show clear evidence of ram pressure stripping due to the cluster medium as found in previous H I imaging studies. Using the high-resolution CO data, we investigate how the properties of the inner molecular gas disc change while a galaxy is undergoing H I stripping in the cluster. At given sensitivity limits, we do not find any clear signs of molecular gas stripping. However, both its morphology and kinematics appear to be quite disturbed as those of H I. Morphological peculiarities present in the molecular and atomic gas are closely related with each other, suggesting that the molecular gas can be also affected by strong intracluster medium (ICM) pressure even if it is not stripped. CO is found to be modestly enhanced along the upstream sides in these galaxies, which may change the local star formation activity in the disc. Indeed, the distribution of Hα emission, a tracer of recent star formation, well coincides with that of the molecular gas, revealing enhancements near the local CO peak or along the CO compression. FUV and Hα share some properties in common, but FUV is always more extended than CO/Hα in the three galaxies, implying that the star-forming disc is rapidly shrinking as the molecular gas properties have changed. We discuss how ICM pressure affects dense molecular gas and hence star formation properties while diffuse atomic gas is being removed from a galaxy.

  15. Aperture Synthesis Observations of Molecular Gas in the Wolf-Rayet Galaxy He 2-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobulnicky, Chip; Sargent, Anneila; Conti, Peter; Hogg, David; Dickey, John

    1994-05-01

    We present aperture synthesis observations of the prototype Wolf-Rayet galaxy He 2-10 in the line of (12) CO(1-0). These observations represent one of the first aperture synthesis maps of molecular gas in a blue compact dwarf galaxy. He 2-10 contains two starburst regions, A and B, separated by 8 arcsec which corresponds to 350 pc at at distance of 9 Mpc. Optical spectroscopy of region A indicates the presence of some 300 Wolf-Rayet and 4000 O-type stars, consistent with a very young starburst (Vacca & Conti, 1992, ApJ 401, 543). From a line integral of of 165+/-8 K km s(-1) we derive a total molecular gas mass of 1.8 times 10(8) M_sun based on (12) CO(1-0) spectra from the 12m NRAO telescope. The ratio of molecular to atomic gas mass, M(H_2)/M(HI)=0.54, is among the highest of any late type or blue compact dwarf galaxy. (12) CO(1-0) maps made with the Owens valley interferometer show two dynamical systems, suggesting an interaction-triggered starburst. While the CO peak is not conincident with either optical maximum, the CO is more nearly centered on the brighter and younger of the two starburst regions, A. There is no visible concentration of molecular gas near starburst region B which contains only a few hundred O-type stars. A significant fraction of the CO lies well outside the bright optical core, and is thus unaffiliated with the site of active star formation. We find a lower limit to the dynamical mass in the central 70 pc of 3.0times 10(6) M_sun inferred from the CO rotation curve. Conti & Vacca (1994, ref) estimate the combined mass of nine blue starburst knots revealed by HST UV imaging to be 4.5times 10(6) M_sun. Even if the inclination of He 2-10 is as low as 30(deg) , the young clusters, termed proto-globular clusters by Conti & Vacca, comprise at least 75% of the dynamical mass in the inner 70 pc!

  16. Star-forming dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster: the link between molecular gas, atomic gas, and dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossi, M.; Corbelli, E.; Bizzocchi, L.; Giovanardi, C.; Bomans, D.; Coelho, B.; De Looze, I.; Gonçalves, T. S.; Hunt, L. K.; Leonardo, E.; Madden, S.; Menéndez-Delmestre, K.; Pappalardo, C.; Riguccini, L.

    2016-05-01

    We present 12CO(1-0) and 12CO(2-1) observations of a sample of 20 star-forming dwarfs selected from the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey, with oxygen abundances ranging from 12 + log (O / H) ~ 8.1 to 8.8. CO emission is observed in ten galaxies and marginally detected in another one. CO fluxes correlate with the FIR 250 μm emission, and the dwarfs follow the same linear relation that holds for more massive spiral galaxies extended to a wider dynamical range. We compare different methods to estimate H2 molecular masses, namely a metallicity-dependent CO-to-H2 conversion factor and one dependent on H-band luminosity. The molecular-to-stellar mass ratio remains nearly constant at stellar masses ≲ 109 M⊙, contrary to the atomic hydrogen fraction, MHI/M∗, which increases inversely with M∗. The flattening of the MH2/M∗ ratio at low stellar masses does not seem to be related to the effects of the cluster environment because it occurs for both Hi-deficient and Hi-normal dwarfs. The molecular-to-atomic ratio is more tightly correlated with stellar surface density than metallicity, confirming that the interstellar gas pressure plays a key role in determining the balance between the two gaseous components of the interstellar medium. Virgo dwarfs follow the same linear trend between molecular gas mass and star formation rate as more massive spirals, but gas depletion timescales, τdep, are not constant and range between 100 Myr and 6 Gyr. The interaction with the Virgo cluster environment is removing the atomic gas and dust components of the dwarfs, but the molecular gas appears to be less affected at the current stage of evolution within the cluster. However, the correlation between Hi deficiency and the molecular gas depletion time suggests that the lack of gas replenishment from the outer regions of the disc is lowering the star formation activity. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30-m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany

  17. Cosmic Structure and Galaxy Evolution through Intensity Mapping of Molecular Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Geoffrey C.; Keating, Garrett K.; Marrone, Daniel P.; YT Lee Array Team, SZA Team

    2016-01-01

    The origin and evolution of structure in the Universe is one of the major challenges of observational astronomy. How does baryonic structure trace the underlying dark matter? How have galaxies evolved to produce the present day Universe? A multi-wavelength, multi-tool approach is necessary to provide the complete story of the evolution of structure in the Universe. Intensity mapping, which relies on the ability to detect many objects at once through their integrated emission rather than direct detection of individual objects, is a critical part of this mosaic. In particular, our understanding of the molecular gas component of massive galaxies is being revolutionized by ALMA and EVLA but the population of smaller, star-forming galaxies, which provide the bulk of star formation cannot be individually probed by these instruments.In this talk, I will summarize two intensity mapping experiments to detect molecular gas through the carbon monoxide (CO) rotational transition. We have completed sensitive observations with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovic Array (SZA) telescope at a wavelength of 1 cm that are sensitive to emission at redshifts 2.3 to 3.3. The SZA experiments sets strong limits on models for the CO emission and demonstrates the ability to reject foregrounds and telescope systematics in very deep integrations. I also describe the development of an intensity mapping capability for the Y.T. Lee Array, a 13-element interferometer located on Mauna Loa. In its first phase, this project focuses on detection of CO at redshifts 2.4 - 3.0 with detection via power spectrum and cross-correlation with other surveys. The project includes a major technical upgrade, a new digital correlator and IF electronics component to be deployed in 2015/2016. The Y.T. Lee Array observations will be more sensitive and extend to larger angular scales than the SZA observations.

  18. Constraints on molecular gas in cooling flows and powerful radio galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Maloney, Philip R.; Tacconi, Linda J.; Sparks, William B.

    1994-01-01

    We searched for molecular gas in a heterogeneous sample of five radio-loud galaxies (three of which are inferred to be in cooling flow clusters) using the Swedish-European Southern Observatory (Swedish-ESO) Submillimeter Telescope. We do not detect CO in emission in any of the cluster sources at a 3 sigma level of typically 15 mK. White et al. (1991) have suggested column densities of N(sub H) approximately 10(exp 21)/sq cm in these clusters with a spatial covering factor of order unity and a total mass of M approximately 10(exp 12) solar mass. Our limits are inconsistent with these column densities and spatial covering factor unless the molecular gas is very cold (kinetic temperature close to 2.7 K) or there only a few clouds along each line of sight. We estimate minimum temperatures in the range approximately 20-30 K. We find that clouds of atomic and molecular hydrogen require strict fine-tuning of parameter space in order to satisfy the requirements for the large column densities N(sub H) approximately 10(exp 21)/sq cm, unit covering factor, and a small number of clouds along the line of sight. Currently the only way molecular gas can be responsible for the X-ray absorption and still be consistent with our observations is if (1) there is of order one cloud along the line of sight and (2) the optical depth in C-12 1 to 0 is less than 10. In addition, we present a Very Large Array (VLA) image of NGC 4696 which suggests this object is a member of the class of 'amorphous cooling flow radio sources.' The C-12 1 to 0 line is detected in emission in PKS 0634-206, a classical double radio galaxy which is rich in extended optical emission line gas. The estimated molecular gas mass is M(sub mol) approximately 3 x 10(exp 9) solar mass and is much larger than that of the ionized component detected in hydrogen alpha suggesting that the emission-line nebula is radiation bounded.

  19. Constraints on molecular gas in cooling flows and powerful radio galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Maloney, Philip R.; Tacconi, Linda J.; Sparks, William B.

    1994-01-01

    We searched for molecular gas in a heterogeneous sample of five radio-loud galaxies (three of which are inferred to be in cooling flow clusters) using the Swedish-European Southern Observatory (Swedish-ESO) Submillimeter Telescope. We do not detect CO in emission in any of the cluster sources at a 3 sigma level of typically 15 mK. White et al. (1991) have suggested column densities of N(sub H) approximately 10(exp 21)/sq cm in these clusters with a spatial covering factor of order unity and a total mass of M approximately 10(exp 12) solar mass. Our limits are inconsistent with these column densities and spatial covering factor unless the molecular gas is very cold (kinetic temperature close to 2.7 K) or there only a few clouds along each line of sight. We estimate minimum temperatures in the range approximately 20-30 K. We find that clouds of atomic and molecular hydrogen require strict fine-tuning of parameter space in order to satisfy the requirements for the large column densities N(sub H) approximately 10(exp 21)/sq cm, unit covering factor, and a small number of clouds along the line of sight. Currently the only way molecular gas can be responsible for the X-ray absorption and still be consistent with our observations is if (1) there is of order one cloud along the line of sight and (2) the optical depth in C-12 1 to 0 is less than 10. In addition, we present a Very Large Array (VLA) image of NGC 4696 which suggests this object is a member of the class of 'amorphous cooling flow radio sources.' The C-12 1 to 0 line is detected in emission in PKS 0634-206, a classical double radio galaxy which is rich in extended optical emission line gas. The estimated molecular gas mass is M(sub mol) approximately 3 x 10(exp 9) solar mass and is much larger than that of the ionized component detected in hydrogen alpha suggesting that the emission-line nebula is radiation bounded.

  20. Molecular and atomic gas in the Local Group galaxy M 33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratier, P.; Braine, J.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, N. J.; Schuster, K. F.; Kramer, C.; Xilouris, E. M.; Tabatabaei, F. S.; Henkel, C.; Corbelli, E.; Israel, F.; van der Werf, P. P.; Calzetti, D.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Sievers, A.; Combes, F.; Wiklind, T.; Brouillet, N.; Herpin, F.; Bontemps, S.; Aalto, S.; Koribalski, B.; van der Tak, F.; Wiedner, M. C.; Röllig, M.; Mookerjea, B.

    2010-11-01

    We present high-resolution large-scale observations of the molecular and atomic gas in the Local Group galaxy M 33. The observations were carried out using the HEterodyne Receiver Array (HERA) at the 30 m IRAM telescope in the CO(2-1) line, achieving a resolution of 12” × 2.6 km s-1, enabling individual giant molecular clouds (GMCs) to be resolved. The observed region is 650 square arcminutes mainly along the major axis and out to a radius of 8.5 kpc, and covers entirely the 2' × 40' radial strip observed with the HIFI and PACS Spectrometers as part of the HERM33ES Herschel key program. The achieved sensitivity in main-beam temperature is 20-50 mK at 2.6 km s-1 velocity resolution. The CO(2-1) luminosity of the observed region is 1.7±0.1 × 107 K km s-1 pc2 and is estimated to be 2.8±0.3 × 107 K km s-1 pc2 for the entire galaxy, corresponding to H2 masses of 1.9 × 108 Msun and 3.3 × 108 Msun respectively (including He), calculated with N(H2)/ICO(1-0) twice the Galactic value due to the half-solar metallicity of M 33. The H i 21 cm VLA archive observations were reduced, and the mosaic was imaged and cleaned using the multi-scale task in the CASA software package, yielding a series of datacubes with resolutions ranging from 5” to 25”. The H i mass within a radius of 8.5 kpc is estimated to be 1.4 × 109 Msun. The azimuthally averaged CO surface brightness decreases exponentially with a scale length of 1.9±0.1 kpc whereas the atomic gas surface density is constant at ΣH I = 6±2 Msun pc-2 deprojected to face-on. For an N(H2)/ICO(1-0) conversion factor twice that of the Milky Way, the central kiloparsec H2 surface density is ΣH2 = 8.5±0.2 Msun pc-2. The star formation rate per unit molecular gas (SF efficiency, the rate of transformation of molecular gas into stars), as traced by the ratio of CO to Hα and FIR brightness, is constant with radius. The SFE, with a N(H2)/ICO(1-0) factor twice galactic, appears 2-4 times greater than for large spiral

  1. Spatially Resolved Molecular Gas Star Formation Law in CARMA Survey Towards Infrared-bright Nearby Galaxies (STING)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nurur; Bolatto, A.; STING Collaboration

    2011-05-01

    The STING is a CARMA 3mm survey of nearby galaxies. We will present a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between the star formation rate surface density and molecular gas surface at the sub-kpc level in the STING sample. To construct the tracers of molecular gas and star formation rate surface densities, respectively, we will use high resolution (3-5") CO (J=1-0) data from CARMA and the mid-infrared 24 micron data of comparable resolution (6") from Spitzer Space Telescope. We measure the relation in the bright region of these galaxies. In our preliminary analysis we find an approximately linear relation and no strong trends for either the logarithmic slope or the molecular depletion time across the range of galaxy masses sampled (10^9-10^11.5 Msun).

  2. The linewidth-size scaling law of molecular gas in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falgarone, Edith G.; McKee, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    The origin of the linewidth-size (LWS) scaling law, first noticed by Larson three decades ago and ascribed to turbulence, is still a highly debated issue. Not unexpectedly, its properties depend on the environment and on the line tracer used.When the optically thick 12CO (J=1-0) line is used, a specific medium is sampled: the translucent molecular gas of moderate density that builds up the bulk of the molecular interstellar medium in galaxies like ours. The sensitivity of the 12CO line to this gas is such that the LWS is found to hold over almost five orders of magnitude in lengthscale, although with a considerable scatter (1 dex). It reveals an invariant of the cascade, the specific kinetic energy tranfer rate. It also appears to split into two regimes, depending on the gas mass surface density: below a given threshold that is proposed to be linked to the galactic dynamics, it bears the signature of a turbulent cascade, while above that threshold, the scaling law is ascribed to virial balance between turbulent energy and gravity. Large deviations from the scaling law are observed at small scales where signatures of turbulent intermittency may be present.

  3. MILKY WAY STAR-FORMING COMPLEXES AND THE TURBULENT MOTION OF THE GALAXY'S MOLECULAR GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eve J.; Rahman, Mubdi; Murray, Norman E-mail: rahman@astro.utoronto.ca E-mail: murray@cita.utoronto.ca

    2012-06-20

    We analyze Spitzer GLIMPSE, Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX), and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) images of the Milky Way to identify 8 {mu}m and free-free sources in the Galaxy. Seventy-two of the 88 WMAP sources have coverage in the GLIMPSE and MSX surveys suitable for identifying massive star-forming complexes (SFCs). We measure the ionizing luminosity functions of the SFCs and study their role in the turbulent motion of the Galaxy's molecular gas. We find a total Galactic free-free flux f{sub {nu}} = 46,177.6 Jy; the 72 WMAP sources with full 8 {mu}m coverage account for 34,263.5 Jy ({approx}75%), with both measurements made at {nu} = 94 GHz (W band). We find a total of 280 SFCs, of which 168 have unique kinematic distances and free-free luminosities. We use a simple model for the radial distribution of star formation to estimate the free-free and ionizing luminosity for the sources lacking distance determinations. The total dust-corrected ionizing luminosity is Q = (2.9 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 53} photons s{sup -1}, which implies a Galactic star formation rate of M-dot{sub *}= 1.2{+-}0.2 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. We present the (ionizing) luminosity function of the SFCs and show that 24 sources emit half the ionizing luminosity of the Galaxy. The SFCs appear as bubbles in GLIMPSE or MSX images; the radial velocities associated with the bubble walls allow us to infer the expansion velocity of the bubbles. We calculate the kinetic luminosity of the bubble expansion and compare it to the turbulent luminosity of the inner molecular disk. SFCs emitting 80% of the total Galactic free-free luminosity produce a kinetic luminosity equal to 65% of the turbulent luminosity in the inner molecular disk. This suggests that the expansion of the bubbles is a major driver of the turbulent motion of the inner Milky Way molecular gas.

  4. CO-dark gas and molecular filaments in Milky Way-type galaxies - II. The temperature distribution of the gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Simon C. O.; Smith, Rowan J.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the temperature distribution of CO-dark molecular hydrogen (H2) in a series of disc galaxies simulated using the AREPO moving-mesh code. In conditions similar to those in the Milky Way, we find that H2 has a flat temperature distribution ranging from 10 to 100 K. At T < 30 K, the gas is almost fully molecular and has a high CO content, whereas at T > 30 K, the H2 fraction spans a broader range and the CO content is small, allowing us to classify gas in these two regimes as CO-bright and CO-dark, respectively. The mean sound speed in the CO-dark H2 is cs, dark = 0.64 km s-1, significantly lower than the value in the cold atomic gas (cs, CNM = 1.15 km s-1), implying that the CO-dark molecular phase is more susceptible to turbulent compression and gravitational collapse than its atomic counterpart. We further show that the temperature of the CO-dark H2 is highly sensitive to the strength of the interstellar radiation field, but that conditions in the CO-bright H2 remain largely unchanged. Finally, we examine the usefulness of the [C II] and [O I] fine-structure lines as tracers of the CO-dark gas. We show that in Milky Way-like conditions, diffuse [C II] emission from this gas should be detectable. However, it is a problematic tracer of this gas, as there is only a weak correlation between the brightness of the emission and the H2 surface density. The situation is even worse for the [O I] line, which shows no correlation with the H2 surface density.

  5. Massive molecular gas flows in the a1664 brightest cluster galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, H. R.; McNamara, B. R.; Main, R. A.; Vantyghem, A. N.; Edge, A. C.; Wilman, R. J.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Combes, F.; Salomé, P.; Fabian, A. C.; Murray, N.; Baum, S. A.; O'Dea, C. P.; Donahue, M.; Voit, G. M.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Tremblay, G. R.

    2014-03-20

    We report ALMA Early Science CO(1-0) and CO(3-2) observations of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in A1664. The BCG contains 1.1 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} of molecular gas divided roughly equally between two distinct velocity systems: one from –250 to +250 km s{sup –1} centered on the BCG's systemic velocity and a high-velocity system blueshifted by 570 km s{sup –1} with respect to the systemic velocity. The BCG's systemic component shows a smooth velocity gradient across the BCG center, suggestive of rotation about the nucleus. However, the mass and velocity structure are highly asymmetric and there is little star formation coincident with a putative disk. It may be an inflow of gas that will settle into a disk over several 10{sup 8} yr. The high-velocity system consists of two gas clumps, each ∼2 kpc across, located to the north and southeast of the nucleus. Each has a line of sight velocity spread of 250-300 km s{sup –1}. The velocity of the gas in the high-velocity system increases toward the BCG center and may be a massive flow into the nucleus. However, the velocity gradient is not smooth. These structures are also coincident with low optical-ultraviolet surface brightness regions, which could indicate dust extinction associated with each clump. The structure is complex, making a clear interpretation difficult, but if the dusty, molecular gas lies predominantly in front of the BCG, the blueshifted velocities would indicate an outflow. Based on the energy requirements, such a massive outflow would most likely be driven by the active galactic nucleus. A merger origin is unlikely but cannot be ruled out.

  6. Morphology and Molecular Gas Fractions of Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies as a Function of Infrared Luminosity and Merger Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, K. L.; Sanders, D. B.; Barnes, J. E.; Ishida, C. M.; Evans, A. S.; U, V.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Kim, D.-C.; Privon, G. C.; Mirabel, I. F.; Flewelling, H. A.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new, detailed analysis of the morphologies and molecular gas fractions (MGFs) for a complete sample of 65 local luminous infrared galaxies from Great Observatories All-Sky Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRG) Survey using high resolution I-band images from The Hubble Space Telescope, the University of Hawaii 2.2 m Telescope and the Pan-STARRS1 Survey. Our classification scheme includes single undisturbed galaxies, minor mergers, and major mergers, with the latter divided into five distinct stages from pre-first pericenter passage to final nuclear coalescence. We find that major mergers of molecular gas-rich spirals clearly play a major role for all sources with {L}{IR}\\gt {10}11.5{L}⊙ ; however, below this luminosity threshold, minor mergers and secular processes dominate. Additionally, galaxies do not reach {L}{IR}\\gt {10}12.0{L}⊙ until late in the merger process when both disks are near final coalescence. The mean MGF ({MGF} = {M}{{{H}}2}/({M}* +{M}{{{H}}2})) for non-interacting and early-stage major merger LIRGs is 18 ± 2%, which increases to 33 ± 3%, for intermediate stage major merger LIRGs, consistent with the hypothesis that, during the early-mid stages of major mergers, most of the initial large reservoir of atomic gas (HI) at large galactocentric radii is swept inward where it is converted into molecular gas (H2).

  7. Spatially resolved variations of the IMF mass normalization in early-type galaxies as probed by molecular gas kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Timothy A.; McDermid, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    We here present the first spatially resolved study of the initial mass function (IMF) in external galaxies derived using a dynamical tracer of the mass-to-light ratio (M/L). We use the kinematics of relaxed molecular gas discs in seven early-type galaxies (ETGs) selected from the ATLAS3D survey to dynamically determine M/L gradients. These M/L gradients are not very strong in the inner parts of these objects, and galaxies that do show variations are those with the highest specific star formation rates. Stellar population parameters derived from star formation histories are then used in order to estimate the stellar IMF mismatch parameter, and shed light on its variation within ETGs. Some of our target objects require a light IMF, otherwise their stellar population masses would be greater than their dynamical masses. In contrast, other systems seem to require heavier IMFs to explain their gas kinematics. Our analysis again confirms that IMF variation seems to be occurring within massive ETGs. We find good agreement between our IMF normalizations derived using molecular gas kinematics and those derived using other techniques. Despite this, we do not see find any correlation between the IMF normalization and galaxy dynamical properties or stellar population parameters, either locally or globally. In the future, larger studies which use molecules as tracers of galaxy dynamics can be used to help us disentangle the root cause of IMF variation.

  8. A MASSIVE MOLECULAR GAS RESERVOIR IN THE z = 5.3 SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY AzTEC-3

    SciTech Connect

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Scoville, Nicholas Z.; Capak, Peter L.; Yan, Lin; Carilli, Christopher L.; Cox, Pierre; Neri, Roberto; Schinnerer, Eva; Bertoldi, Frank

    2010-09-10

    We report the detection of CO J = 2{yields}1, 5{yields}4, and 6{yields}5 emission in the highest-redshift submillimeter galaxy (SMG) AzTEC-3 at z = 5.298, using the Expanded Very Large Array and the Plateau de Bure Interferometer. These observations ultimately confirm the redshift, making AzTEC-3 the most submillimeter-luminous galaxy in a massive z {approx_equal} 5.3 protocluster structure in the COSMOS field. The strength of the CO line emission reveals a large molecular gas reservoir with a mass of 5.3 x 10{sup 10}({alpha}{sub CO}/0.8) M {sub sun}, which can maintain the intense 1800 M {sub sun} yr{sup -1} starburst in this system for at least 30 Myr, increasing the stellar mass by up to a factor of six in the process. This gas mass is comparable to 'typical' z {approx} 2 SMGs and constitutes {approx_gt}80% of the baryonic mass (gas+stars) and 30%-80% of the total (dynamical) mass in this galaxy. The molecular gas reservoir has a radius of <4 kpc and likely consists of a 'diffuse', low-excitation component, containing (at least) 1/3 of the gas mass (depending on the relative conversion factor {alpha}{sub CO}), and a 'dense', high-excitation component, containing {approx}2/3 of the mass. The likely presence of a substantial diffuse component besides highly excited gas suggests different properties between the star-forming environments in z > 4 SMGs and z > 4 quasar host galaxies, which perhaps trace different evolutionary stages. The discovery of a massive, metal-enriched gas reservoir in an SMG at the heart of a large z = 5.3 protocluster considerably enhances our understanding of early massive galaxy formation, pushing back to a cosmic epoch where the universe was less than 1/12 of its present age.

  9. Neutral carbon and CO in 76 (U)LIRGs and starburst galaxy centers. A method to determine molecular gas properties in luminous galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, F. P.; Rosenberg, M. J. F.; van der Werf, P.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we present fluxes in the [ CI ] lines of neutral carbon at the centers of some 76 galaxies with far-infrared luminosities ranging from 109 to 1012L⊙, as obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory and ground-based facilities, along with the line fluxes of the J = 7-6, J = 4-3, J = 2-112CO, and J = 2-113CO transitions. With this dataset, we determine the behavior of the observed lines with respect to each other and then investigate whether they can be used to characterize the molecular interstellar medium (ISM) of the parent galaxies in simple ways and how the molecular gas properties define the model results. In most starburst galaxies, the [ CI ] to 13CO line flux ratio is much higher than in Galactic star-forming regions, and it is correlated to the total far-infrared luminosity. The [ CI ] (1-0)/12CO (4-3), the [ CI ] (2-1)/12CO (7-6), and the [ CI ] (2-1)/(1-0) flux ratios are correlated, and they trace the excitation of the molecular gas. In the most luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), the ISM is fully dominated by dense (n( H2) = 104-105 cm-3) and moderately warm (Tkin ≈ 30 K) gas clouds that appear to have low [C°]/[CO] and [13CO]/[12CO] abundances. In less luminous galaxies, emission from gas clouds at lower densities becomes progressively more important, and a multiple-phase analysis is required to determine consistent physical characteristics. Neither the 12CO nor the [ CI ] velocity-integrated line fluxes are good predictors of molecular hydrogen column densities in individual galaxies. In particular, so-called X( [ CI ]) conversion factors are not superior to X( 12CO) factors. The methods and diagnostic diagrams outlined in this paper also provide a new and relatively straightforward means of deriving the physical characteristics of molecular gas in high-redshift galaxies up to z = 5, which are otherwise hard to determine.

  10. Variations in the Star Formation Efficiency of the Dense Molecular Gas across the Disks of Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usero, Antonio; Leroy, Adam K.; Walter, Fabian; Schruba, Andreas; García-Burillo, Santiago; Sandstrom, Karin; Bigiel, Frank; Brinks, Elias; Kramer, Carsten; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; de Blok, W. J. G.

    2015-10-01

    We present a new survey of HCN(1-0) emission, a tracer of dense molecular gas, focused on the little-explored regime of normal star-forming galaxy disks. Combining HCN, CO, and infrared (IR) emission, we investigate the role of dense gas in star formation, finding systematic variations in both the apparent dense gas fraction (traced by the HCN-to-CO ratio) and the apparent star formation efficiency of dense gas (traced by the IR-to-HCN ratio). The latter may be unexpected, given the recent popularity of gas density threshold models to explain star formation scaling relations. Our survey used the IRAM 30 m telescope to observe HCN(1-0), CO(1-0), and several other emission lines across 29 nearby disk galaxies whose CO(2-1) emission has previously been mapped by the HERACLES survey. We detected HCN in 48 out of 62 observed positions. Because our observations achieve a typical resolution of ˜1.5 kpc and span a range of galaxies and galactocentric radii (56% lie at {r}{gal}\\gt 1 kpc), we are able to investigate the properties of the dense gas as a function of local conditions in a galaxy disk. We focus on how the ratios IR-to-CO, HCN-to-CO, and IR-to-HCN (observational cognates of the star formation efficiency, dense gas fraction, and dense gas star formation efficiency) depend on the stellar surface density, {{{Σ }}}{star}, and the molecular-to-atomic gas ratio, {{{Σ }}}{mol}/{{{Σ }}}{atom}. The HCN-to-CO ratio is low, often ˜1/30, and correlates tightly with both the molecular-to-atomic ratio and the stellar mass surface density across a range of 2.1 dex (factor of ≈125) in both parameters. Thus for the assumption of fixed CO-to-H2 and HCN-to-dense gas conversion factors, the dense gas fraction depends strongly on location in the disk, being higher in the high surface density, highly molecular parts of galaxies. At the same time, the IR-to-HCN ratio (closely related to the star formation efficiency of dense molecular gas) decreases systematically with these

  11. ALMA Reveals Large Molecular Gas Reservoirs in Ancestors of Milky Way-Mass Galaxies at z=1.2-1.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papovich, Casey J.; Labbe, Ivo; Glazebrook, Karl; Quadri, Ryan; Bekiaris, Georgios; Dickinson, Mark; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fisher, David B.; Inami, Hanae; Livermore, Rachael C.; Spitler, Lee; Straatman, Caroline; Tran, Kim-Vy

    2017-01-01

    The gas accretion and star-formation histories of galaxies like the Milky Way remain an outstanding problem in astrophysics. Observations show that 8 billion years ago, at redshifts z > 1, the progenitors to Milky Way-mass galaxies were forming stars 30 times faster than today and predicted to be rich in molecular gas, in contrast with low present-day gas fractions (<10%). Using ALMA Band 4 observations, we detected the molecular gas using the CO(J=3-2) emission (rest-frame 345.8 GHz) in a sample of galaxies at redshifts z=1.2-1.3, selected to have the stellar mass (Log M*/M⊙ =10.2) and star-formation rate (SFR = 20 M⊙ yr-1) of the main progenitors of today's Milky Way-mass galaxies at this epoch. We show that with relatively short ALMA integrations, we now probe efficiently the CO luminosities of z > 1 star-forming galaxies a factor two lower than was possible previously. The CO emission from these galaxies reveals large molecular gas reservoirs, with a ratio of molecular-gas mass-to-stellar mass of ~100%, indicating most of the baryons are in cold gas, not stars. The ratio of the galaxies' total luminosity from star formation to CO luminosity corresponds to long gas-consumption timescales. Compared to local spiral galaxies, the star-formation efficiency, estimated from the ratio of total IR luminosity to CO emission, has remained nearly constant since redshift z=1.2, despite the order of magnitude decrease in gas fraction, consistent with results for more massive and more luminous galaxies at this epoch. This implies that the the physical processes that determine the rate at which gas cools to form stars in distant galaxies appear to be similar to that in local galaxies.

  12. The search for molecular gas in the most distant submillimetre galaxy at z=4.76

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppin, Kristen; Weiss, Axel; De Breuck, Carlos; Walter, Fabian; Edge, Alastair; Kovacs, Attila; Ivison, Rob; Huynh, Minh; Smail, Ian; Schinnerer, Eva; Greve, Thomas; Wardlow, Julie

    2009-07-01

    We propose to use ATCA to measure the CO(2-1) and CO(5-4) emission in the highest redshift submm-selected galaxy (SMG) known: LESS J033229 at z=4.76. These observations will measure the gas mass and dynamics of this far-infrared luminous galaxy at a time when the Universe was only 1 Gyr old. In conjunction with similar observations of three z~4-4.5 SMG, these observations will constrain the potential evolution of the star formation and dynamical mass of these high redshift, but relatively typical, young galaxies and their potential role as the precursor population to the red-and-dead galaxies seen at z~3, as well as allowing us to contrast the physical state of the gas reservoirs in these early galaxies with the well-studied and more numerous SMG population at z~2. These observations will provide a sneak-preview of the science which ALMA will provide on the formation of the earliest massive galaxies in the Universe.

  13. Atomic-to-Molecular Gas Transition in Nearby Galaxies: What can we learn from the CARMA Survey Toward IR-bright Nearby Galaxies (STING)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Rui; Wong, Tony

    2011-10-01

    We present a detailed comparison of molecular and atomic gas distributions in 18 nearby galaxies at sub-kpc or kpc scales, based on the CO J = 1 - 0 data from the CARMA Survey Toward IR-Bright Nearby Galaxies (STING) and the HI 21cm data in the NRAO Very Large Array (VLA) archive. The observation spatial coverage extends to a quarter of the optical radius for each galaxy. The average molecular and atomic gas column density sensitivities are ~8M⊙/pc2 and ~3M⊙/pc2 at the comparison resolution. A metallicity dependence of the HI saturation limit was possibly detected in the galaxy sample ( 8.1<12+Log(O/H)<9.0 ). We used the CO and HI pixel-by-pixel comparison results to test models of the atomic-to-molecular transition and CO formation at different metallicities. An acceptable agreement was found at the limited spatial resolutions and sensitivities of the observational datasets.

  14. Fueling the central engine of radio galaxies. III. Molecular gas and star formation efficiency of 3C 293

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labiano, A.; García-Burillo, S.; Combes, F.; Usero, A.; Soria-Ruiz, R.; Piqueras López, J.; Fuente, A.; Hunt, L.; Neri, R.

    2014-04-01

    Context. Powerful radio galaxies show evidence of ongoing active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback, mainly in the form of fast, massive outflows. But it is not clear how these outflows affect the star formation of their hosts. Aims: We investigate the different manifestations of AGN feedback in the evolved, powerful radio source 3C 293 and their impact on the molecular gas of its host galaxy, which harbors young star-forming regions and fast outflows of H i and ionized gas. Methods: We study the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas of 3C 293 using high spatial resolution observations of the 12CO(1-0) and 12CO(2-1) lines, and the 3 mm and 1 continuum taken with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer. We mapped the molecular gas of 3C 293 and compared it with the dust and star-formation images of the host. We searched for signatures of outflow motions in the CO kinematics, and re-examined the evidence of outflowing gas in the H i spectra. We also derived the star formation rate (SFR) and star formation efficiency (SFE) of the host with all available SFR tracers from the literature, and compared them with the SFE of young and evolved radio galaxies and normal star-forming galaxies. Results: The 12CO(1-0) emission line shows that the molecular gas in 3C 293 is distributed along a massive (M(H2) ~ 2.2 × 1010M⊙) ~24″(21 kpc-) diameter warped disk, that rotates around the AGN. Our data show that the dust and the star formation are clearly associated with the CO disk. The 12CO(2-1) emission is located in the inner 7 kpc (diameter) region around the AGN, coincident with the inner part of the 12CO(1-0) disk. Both the 12CO(1-0) and 12CO(2-1) spectra reveal the presence of an absorber against the central regions of 3C 293 that is associated with the disk. We do not detect any fast (≳500 km s-1) outflow motions in the cold molecular gas. The host of 3C 293 shows an SFE consistent with the Kennicutt-Schmidt law of normal galaxies and young radio galaxies, and it

  15. STRONG MOLECULAR HYDROGEN EMISSION AND KINEMATICS OF THE MULTIPHASE GAS IN RADIO GALAXIES WITH FAST JET-DRIVEN OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Guillard, P.; Ogle, P. M.; Emonts, B. H. C.; Appleton, P. N.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T.; Tadhunter, C.; Evans, D. A.; Evans, A. S.

    2012-03-10

    Observations of ionized and neutral gas outflows in radio galaxies (RGs) suggest that active galactic nucleus (AGN) radio jet feedback has a galaxy-scale impact on the host interstellar medium, but it is still unclear how the molecular gas is affected. Thus, it is crucial to determine the physical conditions of the molecular gas in powerful RGs to understand how radio sources may regulate the star formation in their host galaxies. We present deep Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) high-resolution spectroscopy of eight nearby RGs that show fast H I outflows. Strikingly, all of these H I-outflow RGs have bright H{sub 2} mid-IR lines that cannot be accounted for by UV or X-ray heating. This strongly suggests that the radio jet, which drives the H I outflow, is also responsible for the shock excitation of the warm H{sub 2} gas. In addition, the warm H{sub 2} gas does not share the kinematics of the ionized/neutral gas. The mid-IR-ionized gas lines (with FWHM up to 1250 km s{sup -1} for [Ne II] 12.8 {mu}m) are systematically broader than the H{sub 2} lines, which are resolved by the IRS in Almost-Equal-To 60% of the detected lines (with FWHM up to 900 km s{sup -1}). In five sources, 3C 236, 3C 293, 3C 459, 4C 12.50, and PKS 1549-79, the [Ne II] 12.8 {mu}m line, and to a lesser extent the [Ne III] 15.5 {mu}m and [Ne V] 14.3 {mu}m lines, clearly exhibits blueshifted wings (up to -900 km s{sup -1} with respect to the systemic velocity) that match well the kinematics of the outflowing H I or ionized gas. The H{sub 2} lines do not show these broad wings, except tentative detections in 4C 12.50, 3C 459, and PKS 1549-79. This shows that, contrary to the H I gas, the H{sub 2} gas is inefficiently coupled to the AGN jet-driven outflow of ionized gas. While the dissipation of a small fraction (<10%) of the jet kinetic power can explain the turbulent heating of the molecular gas, our data show that the bulk of the warm molecular gas is not expelled from these galaxies.

  16. The roles of atomic and molecular gas on the redshift evolution of star formation and metallicity in galaxy formation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jian; Kauffmann, Guinevere

    2013-03-01

    We study the redshift evolution of neutral and molecular gas in the interstellar medium with the results from semi-analytic models of galaxy formation and evolution, which track the cold gas related physical processes in radially resolved galaxy disks. Two kinds of prescriptions are adopted to describe the conversion between molecular and neutral gas in the ISM: one is related to the gas surface density and gas metallicity based on the model results by Krumholz, Mckee & Tumlinson; the other is related the pressure of ISM. We try four types of star formation laws in the models to study the effect of the molecular gas component and the star formation time scale on the model results, and find that the H2 dependent star formation rate with constant star formation efficiency is the preferred star formation law. We run the models based on both Millennium and Millennium II Simulation haloes, and the model parameters are adjusted to fit the observations at z = 0 from THINGS/HERACLES and ALFALFA/COLD GASS. We give predictions for the redshift evolution of cosmic star formation density, H2 to HI cosmic ratios, gas to star mass ratios and gas metallicity vs stellar mass relation. Based on the model results, we find that: (i) the difference in the H2 to HI ratio at z > 3 between the two H2 fraction prescriptions can help future observations to test which prescription is better; (ii) a constant redshift independent star formation time scale will postpone the star formation processes at high redshift and cause obvious redshift evolution for the relation between gas metallicity and stellar mass in galaxies at z < 3.

  17. Detection of a Substantial Molecular Gas Reservoir in a Brightest Cluster Galaxy at z = 1.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Tracy M. A.; Lowenthal, James; Yun, Min; Noble, Allison G.; Muzzin, Adam; Wilson, Gillian; Yee, H. K. C.; Cybulski, Ryan; Aretxaga, I.; Hughes, D. H.

    2017-08-01

    We report the detection of CO(2-1) emission coincident with the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) of the high-redshift galaxy cluster SpARCS1049+56, with the Redshift Search Receiver (RSR) on the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT). We confirm a spectroscopic redshift for the gas of z = 1.7091 ± 0.0004, which is consistent with the systemic redshift of the cluster galaxies of z = 1.709. The line is well fit by a single-component Gaussian with an RSR-resolution-corrected FWHM of 569 ± 63 km s-1. We see no evidence for multiple velocity components in the gas, as might be expected from the multiple image components seen in near-infrared imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope. We measure the integrated flux of the line to be 3.6 ± 0.3 Jy km s-1, and using {α }{CO} = 0.8 M ⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1, we estimate a total molecular gas mass of 1.1 ± 0.1 × 1011 M ⊙ and a M H2/M ⋆ ˜ 0.4. This is the largest gas reservoir detected in a BCG above z > 1 to date. Given the infrared-estimated star formation rate of 860 ± 130 M ⊙ yr-1, this corresponds to a gas depletion timescale of ˜0.1 Gyr. We discuss several possible mechanisms for depositing such a large gas reservoir to the cluster center—e.g., a cooling flow, a major galaxy-galaxy merger, or the stripping of gas from several galaxies—but conclude that these LMT data are not sufficient to differentiate between them.

  18. A More Extreme View of Molecular Gas in the Center of the Milky Way galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Elisabeth Anne Crossfield

    This thesis examines the molecular gas properties in the central 600 parsecs of the Galaxy (the CMZ). I first present a study of a group of HII regions in the central 10 parsecs embedded within the M-0.02-0.07 cloud, adjacent to the Sgr A East supernova remnant. To better depict the physical relationship between these sources, I use archival VLA observations and Paschen-alpha images from the Hubble Space telescope to determine the extinction toward the HII regions. From the measured extinctions and source morphologies, I determine that three of the HII regions lie on the front side of the cloud and formed in the eastern part of the cloud which is unaffected by the supernova remnant's expansion. The higher extinction of the fourth HII region indicates it is embedded in the supernova-compressed ridge, and though younger than the other HII regions, is still older than the supernova. This work is an important determination of the their line-of-sight placement of these sources which helps to define their interaction and strengthens the case that the supernova did not trigger the formation of the HII regions. I next present results from a project I led to survey a sample of CMZ clouds for hot gas using the Green Bank Telescope. I observe multiple highly-excited lines of ammonia, and detect emission from the (9,9) line of ammonia, (excitation energy = 840 K) in 13 of 17 clouds, many of which have no associated star formation. For the three strongest sources, I derive rotation temperatures of 400-500 K, substantially higher than previous temperatures of 200-300 K measured for these clouds. The widespread detections of gas hotter than 400 K indicates for the first time that his hot gas must be heated by global processes in the CMZ. These extremely high temperatures also suggest that cosmic rays are not responsible for the heating of this gas. I also present a determination of the density of the Circumnuclear disk (CND) in the central two parsecs using multiple transitions

  19. CO Multi-line Imaging of Nearby Galaxies (COMING). II. Transitions between atomic and molecular gas, diffuse and dense gas, gas and stars in the dwarf galaxy NGC 2976

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatakeyama, Takuya; Kuno, Nario; Sorai, Kazuo; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Takeda, Miho; Yanagitani, Kazuki; Kishida, Nozomi; Umei, Michiko; Tanaka, Takahiro; Tomiyasu, Yuto; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Saita, Chey; Ueno, Saeko; Salak, Dragan; Matsumoto, Naoko; Morokuma-Matsui, Kana; Pan, Hsi-An; Nakai, Naomasa

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we present the results of 12CO(J = 1-0), 13CO(J = 1-0), and C18O(J = 1-0) simultaneous observations of the dwarf galaxy NGC 2976 conducted as a part of the CO Multi-line Imaging of Nearby Galaxies (COMING) project using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. We investigated the properties of the molecular gas and star formation in NGC 2976. We found that the molecular gas fraction depends on the surface densities of the total gas and the star formation rate, according to the main stellar disks of spiral galaxies. The ratio of 12CO(J = 3-2) to 12CO(J = 1-0) implies that the temperature of the molecular gas increases with decreases in the surface density of molecular gas. We detected 13CO(J = 1-0) by using the stacking method. The ratio between the integrated intensities of 12CO(J = 1-0) and 13CO(J = 1-0) was 27 ± 11. These ratios imply that the diffuse gas phase is dominant in low surface density regimes. We obtained a lower limit of the ratio between the integrated intensities of 12CO(J = 1-0) and C18O(J = 1-0) of 21. The relation between the surface densities of the total gas and the star formation rate followed a power-law index of 2.08 ± 0.11, which was larger than that between the surface densities of the molecular gas and the star formation rate (1.62 ± 0.17). The steep slope in the relation between the surface densities of the total gas and the star formation rate can be attributed to the rapid increase in the fraction of molecular gas at the surface density of ∼ 10 M⊙. The kinematics of the molecular gas suggest that the bar-like feature rotates with a rigid-body rotation curve rather than a certain pattern speed.

  20. OT2_vkulkarn_3: Star Formation and Molecular Gas in Distant Galaxies: SPIRE Spectroscopy of Quasar Absorption Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, V.

    2011-09-01

    Absorption line systems in quasar spectra, especially the damped Lyman alpha (DLA) and sub-DLA absorbers, provide excellent venues for directly studying the interstellar medium (ISM) in distant galaxies, selected independently of the galaxy luminosities. DLAs/sub-DLAs provide most of the neutral gas reservoir for star formation at high redshifts. A few especially cold, dusty absorbers have been discovered using radio surveys and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These absorbers, far richer in dust/molecules than the general absorber population, give us rare opportunities to probe molecular gas and star formation at high redshift. Unfortunately, very few sub-mm observations exist for these unique quasar absorbers. Here we propose SPIRE spectroscopy of 5 quasars with strong absorbers that appear to have cold/dusty gas. The proposed data will efficiently cover a wide spectral range that is expected to be rich in transitions of many atomic and molecular species (e.g., C I, N II, CH+, CO, 13CO, C18O, H2O) at the absorber redshifts. These transitions will allow us to estimate molecular abundances, and physical conditions of the absorber gas such as temperature and density. Comparisons of these distant absorbers with Milky Way ISM will provide a step toward understanding how ISM evolves with time. The molecular lines will also give constraints on isotopic ratios such as 12CO/13CO, and the cosmic microwave background temperature at the absorber redshifts. Our data will also cover the redshifted [C II] 158 micron emission line, which can help to constrain the star formation rate in the absorber galaxies. The proposed data will thus provide several fresh insights into the stellar and interstellar content of distant galaxies, and pave the way for future ALMA observations. Additionally, the data will provide important constraints on the continuum SEDs of the background quasars. Herschel SPIRE is the only current instrument that can offer the wavelength coverage needed to

  1. A 10{sup 10} solar mass flow of molecular gas in the A1835 brightest cluster galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, B. R.; Russell, H. R.; Main, R. A.; Vantyghem, A. N.; Kirkpatrick, C. C.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Edge, A. C.; Murray, N. W.; Hamer, S.; Combes, F.; Salome, P.; Fabian, A. C.; Baum, S. A.; O'Dea, C. P.; Bregman, J. N.; Donahue, M.; Voit, G. M.; Egami, E.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Tremblay, G.

    2014-04-10

    We report ALMA Early Science observations of the A1835 brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in the CO (3-2) and CO (1-0) emission lines. We detect 5 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} of molecular gas within 10 kpc of the BCG. Its ensemble velocity profile width of ∼130 km s{sup –1} FWHM is too narrow for the molecular clouds to be supported in the galaxy by dynamic pressure. The gas may instead be supported in a rotating, turbulent disk oriented nearly face-on. Roughly 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} of molecular gas is projected 3-10 kpc to the northwest and to the east of the nucleus with line-of-sight velocities lying between –250 km s{sup –1} and +480 km s{sup –1} with respect to the systemic velocity. The high-velocity gas may be either inflowing or outflowing. However, the absence of high-velocity gas toward the nucleus that would be expected in a steady inflow, and its bipolar distribution on either side of the nucleus, are more naturally explained as outflow. Star formation and radiation from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) are both incapable of driving an outflow of this magnitude. The location of the high-velocity gas projected behind buoyantly rising X-ray cavities and favorable energetics suggest an outflow driven by the radio AGN. If so, the molecular outflow may be associated with a hot outflow on larger scales reported by Kirkpatrick and colleagues. The molecular gas flow rate of approximately 200 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} is comparable to the star formation rate of 100-180 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} in the central disk. How radio bubbles would lift dense molecular gas in their updrafts, how much gas will be lost to the BCG, and how much will return to fuel future star formation and AGN activity are poorly understood. Our results imply that radio-mechanical (radio-mode) feedback not only heats hot atmospheres surrounding elliptical galaxies and BCGs, but it is able to sweep higher density molecular gas away from their centers.

  2. The Molecular Gas Content of z < 0.1 Radio Galaxies: Linking the Active Galactic Nucleus Accretion Mode to Host Galaxy Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolčić, V.; Riechers, D. A.

    2011-04-01

    One of the main achievements in modern cosmology is the so-called unified model, which successfully describes most classes of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) within a single physical scheme. However, there is a particular class of radio-luminous AGNs that presently cannot be explained within this framework—the "low-excitation" radio AGN (LERAGN). Recently, a scenario has been put forward which predicts that LERAGNs and their regular "high-excitation" radio AGN (HERAGN) counterparts represent different (red sequence versus green valley) phases of galaxy evolution. These different evolutionary states are also expected to be reflected in their host galaxy properties, in particular their cold gas content. To test this, here we present CO(1→0) observations toward a sample of 11 of these systems conducted with CARMA. Combining our observations with literature data, we derive molecular gas masses (or upper limits) for a complete, representative, sample of 21 z < 0.1 radio AGNs. Our results yield that HERAGNs on average have a factor of ~7 higher gas masses than LERAGNs. We also infer younger stellar ages, lower stellar, halo, and central supermassive black masses, as well as higher black hole accretion efficiencies in HERAGNs relative to LERAGNs. These findings support the idea that HERAGNs and LERAGNs form two physically distinct populations of galaxies that reflect different stages of massive galaxy buildup.

  3. MOLECULAR AND ATOMIC LINE SURVEYS OF GALAXIES. I. THE DENSE, STAR-FORMING GAS PHASE AS A BEACON

    SciTech Connect

    Geach, James E.; Papadopoulos, Padelis P. E-mail: padelis@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de

    2012-10-01

    We predict the space density of molecular gas reservoirs in the universe and place a lower limit on the number counts of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecular, and [C II] atomic emission lines in blind redshift surveys in the submillimeter-centimeter spectral regime. Our model uses (1) recently available HCN spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) of local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs, L{sub IR} > 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }), (2) a value for {epsilon}{sub *} = SFR/M{sub dense}(H{sub 2}) provided by new developments in the study of star formation feedback on the interstellar medium, and (3) a model for the evolution of the infrared luminosity density. Minimal 'emergent' CO SLEDs from the dense gas reservoirs expected in all star-forming systems in the universe are then computed from the HCN SLEDs since warm, HCN-bright gas will necessarily be CO-bright, with the dense star-forming gas phase setting an obvious minimum to the total molecular gas mass of any star-forming galaxy. We include [C II] as the most important of the far-infrared cooling lines. Optimal blind surveys with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) could potentially detect very distant (z {approx} 10-12) [C II] emitters in the {>=}ULIRG galaxy class at a rate of {approx}0.1-1 hr{sup -1} (although this prediction is strongly dependent on the star formation and enrichment history at this early epoch), whereas the (high-frequency) Square Kilometer Array will be capable of blindly detecting z > 3 low-J CO emitters at a rate of {approx}40-70 hr{sup -1}. The [C II] line holds special promise for detecting metal-poor systems with extensive reservoirs of CO-dark molecular gas where detection rates with ALMA can reach up to 2-7 hr{sup -1} in Bands 4-6.

  4. Azimuthal and Kinematic Segregation of Neutral and Molecular Gas in Arp 118: The Yin-Yang Galaxy NGC 1144

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleton, P. N.; Charmandaris, V.; Gao, Yu; Jarrett, Tom; Bransford, M. A.

    2003-03-01

    We present new high-resolution H I observations of the disk of the collisional infrared luminous (LIR=2.2×1011Lsolar) galaxy NGC 1144, which reveal an apparent large-scale azimuthal and kinematic segregation of neutral hydrogen relative to the molecular gas distribution. Even among violently collisional galaxies, the CO/H I asymmetry in NGC 1144 is unusual, both in the inner regions and in the outer disk. We suggest that we are observing Arp 118 at a special moment, shortly after a high-speed collision between NGC 1144 and its elliptical companion NGC 1143. H I emission with an average molecular fraction fmol<0.5 is observed on one side (northwest) of the rotating disk of NGC 1144, while the other side (southeast) is dominated by dense molecular complexes in which fmol is almost unity. The interface region between the warm- and cool-cloud dominated regions lies on a deep spiral-like dust lane that we identify as a shock wave responsible for the relative shift in the dominance of H I and H2 gas. A strong shock being fed by diffuse H I clouds with unusually large (>400 km s-1) rotational velocities can explain (1) the CO/H I asymmetries, (2) a large velocity jump (185 km s-1) across the arm as measured by H I absorption against a radio bright continuum source that straddles the arm, and (3) the asymmetric distribution of star formation and off-nuclear molecular gas resulting from likely streaming motions associated with the strong shock. The new results provide for the first time a coherent picture of Arp 118's many peculiarities and underline the potentially complex changes in the gas phase that can accompany large gravitational perturbations of gas-rich galaxies.

  5. Physical Condition of Molecular Gas at the Centre of the active galaxy NGC 1097

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñol Ferrer, N.; Fathi, K.; Lundgren, A.; van de Ven, G.

    2011-05-01

    We have used the Xco conversion factor, Local Thermal Equilibrium and Large Velocity Gradient approximation to parametrize the cold and warm phase of the interstellar medium from five different low transitions of the CO molecule in the central 21 arcsec (kpc) region of NGC 1097. We have applied a one-component model and derived a typical kinetic temperature of about 33 K, a molecular Hydrogen density of 4.9×103 M⊙ pc-3 and a CO column density of 1.2× 10-2 M⊙ pc-2. A two-component model results in 85% cold-to-total gas fraction in the presence of a 90 K warm counterpart. Furthermore, we ``resolve" the spatially unresolved single dish observations by selecting velocity channels that in an interferometric velocity map correspond to specific regions. We have selected five such regions and found that the physical properties in these regions are comparable to those derived from the full line profile. This implies that the central kpc of NGC 1097 is rather homogeneous in nature, and, although the regions are not uniquely located within the ring, the star formation along the ring is homogeneously distributed (in agreement with recent Herschel observations). We have further revised the mass inflow rate onto the Supermassive Black Hole in this prototype LINER/Sy1 galaxy and found that, accounting for the total interstellar medium and applying a careful contribution of the disc thickness and corresponding stability criterion, increases the previous estimations by a factor 10. Finally we have calculated the Xco conversion factor for the centre of NGC 1097 using an independent estimation of the surface density to the CO emission, and obtained Xco=(2.8%B m0.5)× 1020 cm-2 (K km s-1)-1 at radius 10.5 arcsec and Xco=(5.0%B m0.5)×1020 cm-2 (K km s-1)-1 at radius 7.5 arcsec. With the approach and analysis described in here we have demonstrated that important physical properties can be derived to a resolution beyond the single dish resolution element, however, caution is

  6. Molecular gas properties of a lensed star-forming galaxy at z 3.6: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Zamojski, M.; Rujopakarn, W.; Richard, J.; Sklias, P.; Schaerer, D.; Combes, F.; Ebeling, H.; Rawle, T. D.; Egami, E.; Boone, F.; Clément, B.; Kneib, J.-P.; Nyland, K.; Walth, G.

    2017-09-01

    We report on the galaxy MACSJ0032-arc at zCO = 3.6314 discovered during the Herschel Lensing snapshot Survey of massive galaxy clusters, and strongly lensed by the cluster MACS J0032.1+1808. The successful detections of its rest-frame ultraviolet (UV), optical, far-infrared (FIR), millimeter, and radio continua, and of its CO emission enable us to characterize, for the first time at such a high redshift, the stellar, dust, and molecular gas properties of a compact star-forming galaxy with a size smaller than 2.5 kpc, a fairly low stellar mass of 4.8+ 0.5-1.0 × 109M⊙, and a moderate IR luminosity of 4.8+ 1.2-0.6 × 1011L⊙. By combining the stretching effect of the lens with the high angular resolution imaging of the CO(1-0) line emission and the radio continuum at 5 GHz, we find that the bulk of the molecular gas mass and star formation seems to be spatially decoupled from the rest-frame UV emission. About 90% of the total star formation rate is undetected at rest-frame UV wavelengths because of severe obscuration by dust, but is seen through the thermal FIR dust emission and the radio synchrotron radiation. The observed CO(4-3) and CO(6-5) lines demonstrate that high-J transitions, at least up to J = 6, remain excited in this galaxy, whose CO spectral line energy distribution resembles that of high-redshift submm galaxies, even though the IR luminosity of MACSJ0032-arc is ten times lower. This high CO excitation is possibly due to the compactness of the galaxy. We find evidence that this high CO excitation has to be considered in the balance when estimating the CO-to-H2 conversion factor. Indeed, the respective CO-to-H2 conversion factors as derived from the correlation with metallicity and the FIR dust continuum can only be reconciled if excitation is accounted for. The inferred depletion time of the molecular gas in MACSJ0032-arc supports the decrease in the gas depletion timescale of galaxies with redshift, although to a lesser degree than predicted by

  7. Shocked POststarburst Galaxy Survey. II. The Molecular Gas Content and Properties of a Subset of SPOGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Lisenfeld, Ute; Lanz, Lauranne; Appleton, Philip N.; Ardila, Felipe; Cales, Sabrina L.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Lacy, Mark; Medling, Anne M.; Nyland, Kristina; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Urry, C. Meg

    2016-08-01

    We present CO(1-0) observations of objects within the Shocked POststarburst Galaxy Survey taken with the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique 30 m single dish and the Combined Array for Research for Millimeter Astronomy interferometer. Shocked poststarburst galaxies (SPOGs) represent a transitioning population of galaxies, with deep Balmer absorption ({{EW}}{{H}δ }\\gt 5 {\\mathring{{A}}} ), consistent with an intermediate-age (A-star) stellar population, and ionized gas line ratios inconsistent with pure star formation. The CO(1-0) subsample was selected from SPOGs detected by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with 22 μm flux detected at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) > 3. Of the 52 objects observed in CO(1-0), 47 are detected with S/N > 3. A large fraction (37%-46% ± 7%) of our CO-SPOG sample were visually classified as morphologically disrupted. The H2 masses detected were between {10}8.7-10.8 {M}⊙ , consistent with the gas masses found in normal galaxies, though approximately an order of magnitude larger than the range seen in poststarburst galaxies. When comparing the 22 μm and CO(1-0) fluxes, SPOGs diverge from the normal star-forming relation, having 22 μm fluxes in excess of the relation by a factor of < {ɛ }{{MIR}}> ={4.91}-0.39+0.42, suggestive of the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The Na i D characteristics of CO-SPOGs show that it is likely that many of these objects host interstellar winds. Objects with large Na i D enhancements also tend to emit in the radio, suggesting possible AGN driving of neutral winds.

  8. Neutral Carbon Emission in Luminous Infrared Galaxies: The [C i] Lines as Total Molecular Gas Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Qian; Zhao, Yinghe; Zhu, Ming; Lu, Nanyao; Gao, Yu; Zhang, Zhi-Yu

    2017-05-01

    We present a statistical study of the [C i] (3P1 \\to 3P0), [C i] (3P2 \\to 3P1) lines (hereafter [C i] (1-0) and [C i] (2-1), respectively) and the CO(1-0) line for a sample of (ultra-)luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs). We explore the correlations between the luminosities of CO(1-0) and [C i] lines, and find that {L}{CO(1-0)}\\prime correlates almost linearly with both {L}[{{C} {{I}}](1-0)}\\prime and {L}[{{C} {{I}}](2-1)}\\prime , suggesting that [C i] lines can trace total molecular gas mass, at least for (U)LIRGs. We also investigate the dependence of {L}[{{C} {{I}}](1-0)}\\prime /{L}{CO(1-0)}\\prime , {L}[{{C} {{I}}](2-1)}\\prime /{L}{CO(1-0)}\\prime , and {L}[{{C} {{I}}](2-1)}\\prime /{L}[{{C} {{I}}](1-0)}\\prime on the far-infrared color of 60-to-100 μm, and find non-correlation, a weak correlation, and a modest correlation, respectively. Under the assumption that these two carbon transitions are optically thin, we further calculate the [C i] line excitation temperatures, atomic carbon masses, and mean [C i] line flux-to-H2 mass conversion factors for our sample. The resulting {{{H}}}2 masses using these [C i]-based conversion factors roughly agree with those derived from {L}{CO(1-0)}\\prime and CO-to-H2 conversion factor. Based on Herschel observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  9. SUB-KILOPARSEC IMAGING OF COOL MOLECULAR GAS IN TWO STRONGLY LENSED DUSTY, STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Spilker, J. S.; Marrone, D. P.; Aravena, M.; Béthermin, M.; Breuck, C. de; Bothwell, M. S.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chapman, S. C.; Rotermund, K. M.; Collier, J. D.; Galvin, T.; Grieve, K.; O’Brien, A.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Ma, J.; González-López, J.; Hezaveh, Y.; Malkan, M.; and others

    2015-10-01

    We present spatially resolved imaging obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) of three CO lines in two high-redshift gravitationally lensed dusty star-forming galaxies, discovered by the South Pole Telescope. Strong lensing allows us to probe the structure and dynamics of the molecular gas in these two objects, at z = 2.78 and z = 5.66, with effective source-plane resolution of less than 1 kpc. We model the lensed emission from multiple CO transitions and the dust continuum in a consistent manner, finding that the cold molecular gas as traced by low-J CO always has a larger half-light radius than the 870 μm dust continuum emission. This size difference leads to up to 50% differences in the magnification factor for the cold gas compared to dust. In the z = 2.78 galaxy, these CO observations confirm that the background source is undergoing a major merger, while the velocity field of the other source is more complex. We use the ATCA CO observations and comparable resolution Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array dust continuum imaging of the same objects to constrain the CO–H{sub 2} conversion factor with three different procedures, finding good agreement between the methods and values consistent with those found for rapidly star-forming systems. We discuss these galaxies in the context of the star formation—gas mass surface density relation, noting that the change in emitting area with observed CO transition must be accounted for when comparing high-redshift galaxies to their lower redshift counterparts.

  10. FORMATION OF DENSE MOLECULAR GAS AND STARS AT THE CIRCUMNUCLEAR STARBURST RING IN THE BARRED GALAXY NGC 7552

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Hsi-An; Lim, Jeremy; Matsushita, Satoki; Wong, Tony; Ryder, Stuart

    2013-05-01

    We present millimeter molecular line complemented by optical observations, along with a reanalysis of archival centimeter H I and continuum data, to infer the global dynamics and determine where dense molecular gas and massive stars preferentially form in the circumnuclear starburst ring of the barred-spiral galaxy NGC 7552. We find diffuse molecular gas in a pair of dust lanes each running along the large-scale galactic bar, as well as in the circumnuclear starburst ring. We do not detect dense molecular gas in the dust lanes, but find such gas concentrated in two knots where the dust lanes make contact with the circumnuclear starburst ring. When convolved to the same angular resolution as the images in dense gas, the radio continuum emission of the circumnuclear starburst ring also exhibits two knots, each lying downstream of an adjacent knot in dense gas. The results agree qualitatively with the idea that massive stars form from dense gas at the contact points, where diffuse gas is channeled into the ring along the dust lanes, and later explode as supernovae downstream of the contact points. Based on the inferred rotation curve, however, the propagation time between the respective pairs of dense gas and centimeter continuum knots is about an order of magnitude shorter than the lifetimes of OB stars. We discuss possible reasons for this discrepancy, and conclude that either the initial mass function is top-heavy or massive stars in the ring do not form exclusively at the contact points where dense molecular gas is concentrated.

  11. Highly perturbed molecular gas in infalling cluster galaxies: the case of CGCG97-079

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, T. C.; Usero, A.; Brinks, E.; Bravo-Alfaro, H.; Cortese, L.; Boselli, A.; Argudo-Fernández, M.

    2015-10-01

    We report on CO (J = 2 → 1) mapping with the IRAM 30-m HEtrodyne Receiver Array (HERA) of CGCG 97-079, an irregular galaxy in the merging galaxy cluster Abell 1367 (z = 0.022). We find that ˜80 per cent of the detected CO (J = 2 → 1) is projected within a 16 arcsec2 (6.5 kpc2) region to the north and west of the optical/NIR centre, with the intensity maximum offset ˜10 arcsec (4 kpc) NW of the optical/NIR centre and ˜7 arcsec (3 kpc) south-east of the H I intensity maximum. Evolutionary synthesis models indicate CGCG 97-079 experienced a burst of star formation ˜108 yr ago, most likely triggered by a tidal interaction with CGCG 97-073. For CGCG 97-079 we deduce an infall velocity to the cluster of ˜1000 km s-1 and moderate ram pressure (Pram ≈ 10-11 dyne cm-2). The observed offset in CGCG 97-079 of the highest density H I and CO (J = 2 → 1) from the stellar components has not previously been observed in galaxies currently undergoing ram pressure stripping, although previous detailed studies of gas morphology and kinematics during ram pressure stripping were restricted to significantly more massive galaxies with deeper gravitational potential wells. We conclude the observed cold gas density maxima offsets are most likely the result of ram pressure and/or the high-speed tidal interaction with CGCG 97-073. However ram pressure stripping is likely to be playing a major role in the perturbation of lower density gas.

  12. PHIBSS: MOLECULAR GAS, EXTINCTION, STAR FORMATION, AND KINEMATICS IN THE z = 1.5 STAR-FORMING GALAXY EGS13011166

    SciTech Connect

    Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Kurk, J.; Wuyts, S.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Combes, F.; Freundlich, J.; Bolatto, A.; Cooper, M. C.; Neri, R.; Nordon, R.; Bournaud, F.; Comerford, J.; Cox, P.; Davis, M.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Naab, T.; Lutz, D. E-mail: linda@mpe.mpg.de; and others

    2013-08-10

    We report matched resolution imaging spectroscopy of the CO 3-2 line (with the IRAM Plateau de Bure millimeter interferometer) and of the H{alpha} line (with LUCI at the Large Binocular Telescope) in the massive z = 1.53 main-sequence galaxy EGS 13011166, as part of the ''Plateau de Bure high-z, blue-sequence survey'' (PHIBSS: Tacconi et al.). We combine these data with Hubble Space Telescope V-I-J-H-band maps to derive spatially resolved distributions of stellar surface density, star formation rate, molecular gas surface density, optical extinction, and gas kinematics. The spatial distribution and kinematics of the ionized and molecular gas are remarkably similar and are well modeled by a turbulent, globally Toomre unstable, rotating disk. The stellar surface density distribution is smoother than the clumpy rest-frame UV/optical light distribution and peaks in an obscured, star-forming massive bulge near the dynamical center. The molecular gas surface density and the effective optical screen extinction track each other and are well modeled by a ''mixed'' extinction model. The inferred slope of the spatially resolved molecular gas to star formation rate relation, N = dlog{Sigma}{sub starform}/dlog{Sigma}{sub molgas}, depends strongly on the adopted extinction model, and can vary from 0.8 to 1.7. For the preferred mixed dust-gas model, we find N = 1.14 {+-} 0.1.

  13. Molecular gas in NUclei of GAlaxies (NUGA). XII. The head-on collision in NGC 1961

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, F.; Baker, A. J.; Schinnerer, E.; García-Burillo, S.; Hunt, L. K.; Boone, F.; Eckart, A.; Neri, R.; Tacconi, L. J.

    2009-08-01

    We present high-resolution maps of the CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) emission from the LINER 2 galaxy NGC 1961. This galaxy is unusual among late-type (Sc) disk galaxies in having a very large radial extent and inferred dynamical mass. We propose a head-on collision scenario to explain the perturbed morphology of this galaxy - both the off-centered rings and the inflated radius. This scenario is supported by the detection of a steep velocity gradient in the CO(1-0) map at the position of a southwest peak in radio continuum and near-infrared emission. This peak would represent the remnant of the disrupting companion. We use numerical models to demonstrate the plausibility of the scenario. While ram pressure stripping could in principle be important for shocking the atomic gas and produce the striking head-tail morphology, the non detection of this small galaxy group in X-ray emission suggests that any hot intragroup medium has too low a density. A prediction of the collision model is the propagation of ring waves from the center to the outer parts, superposed on a probable pre-existing m=2 barred spiral feature, accounting for the observed complex structure of rings and spokes. This lopsided wave accounts for the sharp boundary observed in the atomic gas on the southern side. Through dynamical friction, the collision finishes quickly in a minor merger, the best fit being for a companion with a mass ratio 1:4. We argue that NGC 1961 has a strongly warped disk, which gives the false impression of a nearly face-on system; the main disk is actually more edge-on, and this error in the true inclination has led to the surprisingly high dynamical mass for a morphologically late-type galaxy. In addition, the outwardly propagating ring artificially enlarges the disk. The collision de-stabilizes the inner disk and can provide gas inflow to the active nucleus. Based on observations conducted at the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by the INSU/CNRS (France), the MPG

  14. Molecular gas in low-metallicity starburst galaxies:. Scaling relations and the CO-to-H2 conversion factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorín, R.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Planesas, P.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Tracing the molecular gas-phase in low-mass star-forming galaxies becomes extremely challenging due to significant UV photo-dissociation of CO molecules in their low-dust, low-metallicity ISM environments. Aims: We aim to study the molecular content and the star-formation efficiency of a representative sample of 21 blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs), previously characterized on the basis of their spectrophotometric properties. Methods: We present CO (1-0) and (2-1) observations conducted at the IRAM-30m telescope. These data are further supplemented with additional CO measurements and multiwavelength ancillary data from the literature. We explore correlations between the derived CO luminosities and several galaxy-averaged properties. Results: We detect CO emission in seven out of ten BCDs observed. For two galaxies these are the first CO detections reported so far. We find the molecular content traced by CO to be correlated with the stellar and Hi masses, star formation rate (SFR) tracers, the projected size of the starburst, and its gas-phase metallicity. BCDs appear to be systematically offset from the Schmidt-Kennicutt (SK) law, showing lower average gas surface densities for a given ΣSFR, and therefore showing extremely low (≲0.1 Gyr) H2 and H2 +Hi depletion timescales. The departure from the SK law is smaller when considering H2 +Hi rather than H2 only, and is larger for BCDs with lower metallicity and higher specific SFR. Thus, the molecular fraction (ΣH2/ ΣHI) and CO depletion timescale (ΣH2/ ΣSFR) of BCDs is found to be strongly correlated with metallicity. Using this, and assuming that the empirical correlation found between the specific SFR and galaxy-averaged H2 depletion timescale of more metal-rich galaxies extends to lower masses, we derive a metallicity-dependent CO-to-H2 conversion factor αCO,Z ∝ (Z/Z⊙)- y, with y = 1.5(±0.3)in qualitative agreement with previous determinations, dust-based measurements, and recent model

  15. Dynamical cooling of galactic discs by molecular cloud collisions - origin of giant clumps in gas-rich galaxy discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guang-Xing

    2017-10-01

    Different from Milky Way-like galaxies, discs of gas-rich galaxies are clumpy. It is believed that the clumps form because of gravitational instability. However, a necessary condition for gravitational instability to develop is that the disc must dissipate its kinetic energy effectively, this energy dissipation (also called cooling) is not well understood. We propose that collisions (coagulation) between molecular clouds dissipate the kinetic energy of the discs, which leads to a dynamical cooling. The effectiveness of this dynamical cooling is quantified by the dissipation parameter D, which is the ratio between the free-fall time t_ff≈ 1/ √{G ρ _{disc}} and the cooling time determined by the cloud collision process tcool. This ratio is related to the ratio between the mean surface density of the disc Σdisc and the mean surface density of molecular clouds in the disc Σcloud. When D < 1/3 (which roughly corresponds to Σ _{disc} < 1/3 Σ _cloud), cloud collision cooling is inefficient, and fragmentation is suppressed. When D > 1/3 (which roughly corresponds to Σdisc > 1/3Σcloud), cloud-cloud collisions lead to a rapid cooling through which clumps form. On smaller scales, cloud-cloud collisions can drive molecular cloud turbulence. This dynamical cooling process can be taken into account in numerical simulations as a sub-grid model to simulate the global evolution of disc galaxies.

  16. Constraining the excitation conditions of the molecular gas in the most distant submillimetre galaxy at z=4.76

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppin, Kristen; Weiss, Axel; van der Werf, Paul; Menten, Karl; De Breuck, Carlos; Walter, Fabian; Loenen, Edo; Edge, Alastair; Emonts, Bjorn; Huynh, Minh; Swinbank, Mark; Smail, Ian; Schinnerer, Eva; Greve, Thomas; Chapman, Scott; Danielson, Alice; Knudsen, Kirsten; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Brandt, Niel; Berciano Alba, Alicia; Strom, Allison

    2010-10-01

    We propose to use ATCA to measure CO(5-4) emission in the currently highest redshift submm-selected galaxy (SMG) known: LESS J033229 at z=4.755. Combined with our previous successful ATCA observations of the CO(2-1) transition in this SMG, we will be able to start building up the CO SED excitation ladder and so gain new insight on the excitation conditions of the molecular gas which is fuelling a massive burst of star formation at a time when the Universe was only 1 Gyr old. ATCA is currently the only available facility that can provide these data, giving us a sneak-preview of the capabilities of ALMA for studying the youngest galaxies in the very distant Universe.

  17. Seeing the Forest Through the Trees: The Distribution and Properties of Dense Molecular Gas in the Milky Way Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.

    The Milky Way Galaxy serves as a vast laboratory for studying the dynamics and evolution of the dense interstellar medium and the processes of and surrounding massive star formation. From our vantage point within the Galactic plane, however, it has been extremely difficult to construct a coherent picture of Galactic structure; we cannot see the forest for the trees. The principal difficulties in studying the structure of the Galactic disk have been obscuration by the ubiquitous dust and molecular gas and confusion between objects along a line of sight. Recent technological advances have led to large-scale blind surveys of the Galactic plane at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths, where Galactic dust is generally optically thin, and have opened a new avenue for studying the forest. The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) observed over 190 deg 2 of the Galactic plane in dust continuum emission near lambda = 1.1 mm, producing a catalog of over 8,000 dense molecular cloud structures across a wide swath of the Galactic disk. Deriving the spatial distribution and physical properties of these objects requires knowledge of distance, a component lacking in the data themselves. This thesis presents a generalized Bayesian probabilistic distance estimation method for dense molecular cloud structures, and demonstrates it with the BGPS data set. Distance probability density functions (DPDFs) are computed from kinematic distance likelihoods (which may be double- peaked for objects in the inner Galaxy) and an expandable suite of prior information to produce a comprehensive tally of our knowledge (and ignorance) of the distances to dense molecular cloud structures. As part of the DPDF formalism, this thesis derives several prior DPDFs for resolving the kinematic distance ambiguity in the inner Galaxy. From the collection of posterior DPDFs, a set of objects with well-constrained distance estimates is produced for deriving Galactic structure and the physical properties of dense molecular

  18. Tracing cool molecular gas and star formation on ˜100 pc scales within a z ˜ 2.3 galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, A. P.; Ivison, R. J.; Owen, Frazer N.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Swinbank, A. M.; Smail, Ian

    2015-04-01

    We present new, high-angular resolution interferometric observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array of 12CO J = 1-0 line emission and 4-8 GHz continuum emission in the strongly lensed, z = 2.3 submillimetre galaxy, SMM J21352-0102. Using these data, we identify and probe the conditions in ˜100 pc clumps within this galaxy, which we consider to be potential giant molecular cloud complexes, containing up to half of the total molecular gas in this system. In combination with far-infrared and submillimetre data, we investigate the far-infrared/radio correlation, measuring qIR = 2.39 ± 0.17 across SMM J21352. We search for variations in the properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) throughout the galaxy by measuring the spatially resolved qIR and radio spectral index, αradio, finding ranges qIR =[2.1, 2.6] and αradio = [-1.5, -0.7]. We argue that these ranges in αradio and qIR may reflect variations in the age of the ISM material. Using multi-J 12CO data, we quantitatively test a recent theoretical model relating the star formation rate surface density to the excitation of 12CO, finding good agreement between the model and the data. Lastly, we study the Schmidt-Kennicutt relation, both integrated across the system and within the individual clumps. We find small offsets between SMM J21352 and its clumps relative to other star-forming galaxy populations on the Schmidt-Kennicutt plot - such offsets have previously been interpreted as evidence for a bi-modal star formation law, but we argue that they can be equally well explained as arising due to a combination of observational uncertainties and systematic biases in the choice of model used to interpret the data.

  19. Gas content of infrared luminous markarian galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandalian, R.; Martin, J.-M.; Bottinelli, L.; Gouguenheim, L.

    1995-10-01

    The atomic and molecular hydrogen gas properties of a complete sample of Markarian galaxies with flux density at 60 µm higher than 1.95 Jy are presented. We present the improved far-infrared luminosity function of Markarian galaxies; and its comparison with other samples. We find that 40% of the bright IRAS galaxies of far-infrared luminosity higher than 1010.5 L ⊙ are Markarian galaxies. There is an absence of correlation between HI content of Markarian galaxies and current star formation activity, implying that star formation in these systems has complex structure and it is not a simple function of the HI content. On the contrary, the H2 content of Markarian galaxies is well correlated with star formation activity. It is argued that tight correlation between HI and H2 contents is a consequence of transformation of atomic hydrogen into molecular.

  20. CARMA Survey Toward Infrared-bright Nearby Galaxies (STING). II. Molecular Gas Star Formation Law and Depletion Time across the Blue Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nurur; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Xue, Rui; Wong, Tony; Leroy, Adam K.; Walter, Fabian; Bigiel, Frank; Rosolowsky, Erik; Fisher, David B.; Vogel, Stuart N.; Blitz, Leo; West, Andrew A.; Ott, Jürgen

    2012-02-01

    We present an analysis of the relationship between molecular gas and current star formation rate surface density at sub-kiloparsec and kiloparsec scales in a sample of 14 nearby star-forming galaxies. Measuring the relationship in the bright, high molecular gas surface density ({\\Sigma _H_2}\\gtrsim 20 M ⊙ pc-2) regions of the disks to minimize the contribution from diffuse extended emission, we find an approximately linear relation between molecular gas and star formation rate surface density, N mol ~ 0.96 ± 0.16, with a molecular gas depletion time, τmol dep ~ 2.30 ± 1.32 Gyr. We show that in the molecular regions of our galaxies there are no clear correlations between τmol dep and the free-fall and effective Jeans dynamical times throughout the sample. We do not find strong trends in the power-law index of the spatially resolved molecular gas star formation law or the molecular gas depletion time across the range of galactic stellar masses sampled (M * ~ 109.7-1011.5 M ⊙). There is a trend, however, in global measurements that is particularly marked for low-mass galaxies. We suggest that this trend is probably due to the low surface brightness CO J = 1-0, and it is likely associated with changes in CO-to-H2 conversion factor.

  1. Unusually gas-rich central galaxies in small groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janowiecki, Steven; xGASS Team

    2017-01-01

    Observations of gas in galaxies have shown dramatic differences between rich clusters and isolated field environments. However, pre-processing in intermediate group environments is expected to be responsible for much of the transformation between gas-rich blue and gas-poor red galaxies. We investigate this by taking advantage of the deepest observations to date of atomic and molecular gas in local galaxies from the GASS and COLD GASS surveys and their extensions to low stellar masses. This sample is uniquely suited to quantify gas and star formation properties of galaxies across environments, reaching the gas-poor regime of groups and clusters. We find that central galaxies in small groups are unusually gas rich and star-forming, compared to isolated galaxies. Below log Mst/Msun = 10, gas-poor group central galaxies are rare. We suggest that these central galaxies are being fed by the filaments of the cosmic web.

  2. Molecular gas and a new young stellar cluster in the far outer Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, J. L.; Elia, D.; Palmeirim, P. M.; Gomes, J. I.; Martins, A. M.

    2009-06-01

    Aims: We investigate the star-formation ocurring in the region towards IRAS 07527-3446 in the molecular cloud [MAB97]250.63-3.63, in the far outer Galaxy. We report the discovery of a new young stellar cluster, and describe its properties and those of its parent molecular cloud. Methods: Near-infrared JHKS images were obtained with VLT/ISAAC, and millimetre line CO spectra were obtained with the SEST telescope. VLA archive date were also used. Results: The cloud and cluster are located at a distance of 10.3 kpc and a Galactocentric distance of 15.4 kpc, in the far outer Galaxy. Morphologically, IRAS 07527-3446 appears as a young embedded cluster of a few hundred stars seen towards the position of the IRAS source, extending for about 2-4 pc and exhibiting sub-clustering. The cluster contains low and intermediate-mass young reddened stars, a large fraction having cleared the inner regions of their circumstellar discs responsible for (H-K_S) colour excess. The observations are compatible with a ≤5 Myr cluster with variable spatial extinction of between A_V=5 and A_V=11. Decomposition of CO emission in clumps, reveals a clump clearly associated with the cluster position, of mass 3.3 × 103 M_⊙. Estimates of the slopes of the K_S-band luminosity function and of the star-formation efficiency yield values similar to those seen in nearby star-formation sites. These findings reinforce previous results that the distant outer Galaxy continues to be active in the production of new and rich stellar clusters, with the physical conditions required for the formation of rich clusters continuing to be met in the very distant environment of the outer Galactic disc. Based on observations collected at the ESO 8.2-m VLT-UT1 Antu telescope (program 66.C-0015A). Table 2 is only available in electonic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. The molecular gas reservoir of 6 low-metallicity galaxies from the Herschel Dwarf Galaxy Survey. A ground-based follow-up survey of CO(1-0), CO(2-1), and CO(3-2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, D.; Madden, S. C.; Lebouteiller, V.; Hony, S.; Aalto, S.; Costagliola, F.; Hughes, A.; Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Abel, N.; Bayet, E.; Bigiel, F.; Cannon, J. M.; Cumming, R. J.; Galametz, M.; Galliano, F.; Viti, S.; Wu, R.

    2014-04-01

    Context. Observations of nearby starburst and spiral galaxies have revealed that molecular gas is the driver of star formation. However, some nearby low-metallicity dwarf galaxies are actively forming stars, but CO, the most common tracer of this reservoir, is faint, leaving us with a puzzle about how star formation proceeds in these environments. Aims: We aim to quantify the molecular gas reservoir in a subset of 6 galaxies from the Herschel Dwarf Galaxy Survey with newly acquired CO data and to link this reservoir to the observed star formation activity. Methods: We present CO(1-0), CO(2-1), and CO(3-2) observations obtained at the ATNF Mopra 22-m, APEX, and IRAM 30-m telescopes, as well as [C ii] 157μm and [O i] 63μm observations obtained with the Herschel/PACS spectrometer in the 6 low-metallicity dwarf galaxies: Haro 11, Mrk 1089, Mrk 930, NGC 4861, NGC 625, and UM 311. We derived their molecular gas masses from several methods, including using the CO-to-H2 conversion factor XCO (both Galactic and metallicity-scaled values) and dust measurements. The molecular and atomic gas reservoirs were compared to the star formation activity. We also constrained the physical conditions of the molecular clouds using the non-LTE code RADEX and the spectral synthesis code Cloudy. Results: We detect CO in 5 of the 6 galaxies, including first detections in Haro 11 (Z ~ 0.4 Z⊙), Mrk 930 (0.2 Z⊙), and UM 311 (0.5 Z⊙), but CO remains undetected in NGC 4861 (0.2 Z⊙). The CO luminosities are low, while [C ii] is bright in these galaxies, resulting in [C ii]/CO(1-0) ≥ 10 000. Our dwarf galaxies are in relatively good agreement with the Schmidt-Kennicutt relation for total gas. They show short molecular depletion timescales, even when considering metallicity-scaled XCO factors. Those galaxies are dominated by their H i gas, except Haro 11, which has high star formation efficiency and is dominated by ionized and molecular gas. We determine the mass of each ISM phase in

  4. Molecular Gas Content of an Extremely Star-forming Herschel Observed Lensed Dusty Galaxy at z=2.685

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayyeri, Hooshang; Cooray, Asantha R.; H-ATLAS

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of combined deep near-infrared, far infrared and millimeter observations of an extremely star forming lensed dusty star-forming galaxy (DSFG) identified from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). The high redshift DSFG is gravitationally lensed by a massive WISE identified cluster at z~1 (spectroscopically confirmed with Keck/DEIMOS and Gemini/GMOS) producing multiply lensed images and arcs observed in the optical. The DSFG is spectroscopically confirmed at z=2.685 from CO(1-0) observations by GBT and separately from CO(3-2) observations by CARMA. We use the combined spectroscopic and imaging observations to construct a detailed lens model of the background DSFG which allowed us to study the sources plane properties of the target. Multi-band data from Keck/NIRC2, HST/WFC3 and Herschel yields star formation rate and stellar mass well above the main sequence. Observations of the dust continuum by the Sub-millimeter Array yields an observed total ISM mass of 6.5E+11 M* which is responsible for the intense observed star formation rates. Comparing the measured SFR with molecular gas measurements from CO(1-0) observations reveals that this system has relatively short gas depletion time scale which is consistent with the starburst phase observed in high redshift sub-millimeter galaxies.

  5. Extended Carbon Line Emission in the Galaxy: Searching for Dark Molecular Gas along the G328 Sightline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Michael G.; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Braiding, Catherine; Freeman, Matthew; Kulesa, Craig; Wolfire, Mark G.; Hollenbach, David J.; Rowell, Gavin; Lau, James

    2015-09-01

    We present spectral data cubes of the [CI] 809 GHz, {}12{CO} 115 GHz, {}13{CO} 110 GHz, and HI 1.4 GHz line emission from a ∼1 square degree region along the l=328^\\circ (G328) sightline in the Galactic Plane. Emission arises principally from gas in three spiral arm crossings along the sightline. The distribution of emission in the CO and [CI] lines is found to be similar, with the [CI] slightly more extended, and both are enveloped in extensive HI. Spectral line ratios per voxel in the data cubes are found to be similar across the entire extent of the Galaxy. However, toward the edges of the molecular clouds the [CI]/{}13{CO} and {}12{CO}/{}13{CO} line ratios rise by ∼50%, and the [CI]/HI ratio falls by ∼10%. We attribute this to these sightlines passing predominantly through the surfaces of photodissociation regions (PDRs), where the carbon is found mainly as C or C+, while the H2 is mostly molecular, and the proportion of atomic gas also increases. We undertake modeling of the PDR emission from low density molecular clouds excited by average interstellar radiation fields and cosmic-ray ionization to quantify this comparison, finding that depletion of sulfur and reduced PAH abundance is needed to match line fluxes and ratios. Roughly one-third of the molecular gas along the sightline is found to be associated with this surface region, where the carbon is largely not to be found in CO. Approximately 10% of the atomic hydrogen along the sightline is cold gas within PDRs.

  6. Molecular gas content of galaxies in the Hydra-Centaurus supercluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huchtmeier, W. K.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of bright spiral galaxies in the Hydra-Centaurus supercluster for the CO(1-0) transition at 115 GHz was performed with the 15m Swedish-ESO submillimeter telescope (SEST). A total of 30 galaxies have been detected in the CO(1-0) transition out of 47 observed, which is a detection rate over 60%. Global physical parameters of these galaxies derived from optical, CO, HI, and IR measurements compare very well with properties of galaxies in the Virgo cluster.

  7. CARMA Survey toward Infrared-bright Nearby Galaxies (STING). III. The Dependence of Atomic and Molecular Gas Surface Densities on Galaxy Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Tony; Xue, Rui; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Leroy, Adam K.; Blitz, Leo; Rosolowsky, Erik; Bigiel, Frank; Fisher, David B.; Ott, Jürgen; Rahman, Nurur; Vogel, Stuart N.; Walter, Fabian

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the correlation between CO and H I emission in 18 nearby galaxies from the CARMA Survey Toward IR-Bright Nearby Galaxies (STING) at sub-kpc and kpc scales. Our sample, spanning a wide range in stellar mass and metallicity, reveals evidence for a metallicity dependence of the H I column density measured in regions exhibiting CO emission. Such a dependence is predicted by the equilibrium model of McKee and Krumholz, which balances H2 formation and dissociation. The observed H I column density is often smaller than predicted by the model, an effect we attribute to unresolved clumping, although values close to the model prediction are also seen. We do not observe H I column densities much larger than predicted, as might be expected were there a diffuse H I component that did not contribute to H2 shielding. We also find that the H2 column density inferred from CO correlates strongly with the stellar surface density, suggesting that the local supply of molecular gas is tightly regulated by the stellar disk.

  8. CARMA SURVEY TOWARD INFRARED-BRIGHT NEARBY GALAXIES (STING). III. THE DEPENDENCE OF ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR GAS SURFACE DENSITIES ON GALAXY PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Tony; Xue, Rui; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Fisher, David B.; Vogel, Stuart N.; Leroy, Adam K.; Blitz, Leo; Rosolowsky, Erik; Bigiel, Frank; Ott, Jürgen; Rahman, Nurur; Walter, Fabian

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the correlation between CO and H I emission in 18 nearby galaxies from the CARMA Survey Toward IR-Bright Nearby Galaxies (STING) at sub-kpc and kpc scales. Our sample, spanning a wide range in stellar mass and metallicity, reveals evidence for a metallicity dependence of the H I column density measured in regions exhibiting CO emission. Such a dependence is predicted by the equilibrium model of McKee and Krumholz, which balances H{sub 2} formation and dissociation. The observed H I column density is often smaller than predicted by the model, an effect we attribute to unresolved clumping, although values close to the model prediction are also seen. We do not observe H I column densities much larger than predicted, as might be expected were there a diffuse H I component that did not contribute to H{sub 2} shielding. We also find that the H{sub 2} column density inferred from CO correlates strongly with the stellar surface density, suggesting that the local supply of molecular gas is tightly regulated by the stellar disk.

  9. Hot Gas Halos in Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Mulchaey, John S.; Jeltema, Tesla E.

    2010-06-08

    We use Chandra and XMM-Newton to study how the hot gas content in early-type galaxies varies with environment. We find that the L{sub X}-L{sub K} relationship is steeper for field galaxies than for comparable galaxies in groups and clusters. This suggests that internal processes such as supernovae driven winds or AGN feedback may expel hot gas from low mass field galaxies. Such mechanisms are less effective in groups and clusters where the presence of an intragroup or intracluster medium may confine outflowing material.

  10. Physical conditions of molecular gas in the Circinus galaxy Multi-J CO and Ci 3PP0 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Henkel, Christian; Gao, Yu; Güsten, Rolf; Menten, Karl M.; Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; Zhao, Yinghe; Ao, Yiping; Kaminski, Tomasz

    2014-08-01

    We report mapping observations of the 12CO J = 3 → 2, 4 → 3, 6 → 5, and 7 → 6 transitions and the Ci 3PP0 (Ci) 492GHz transition toward the central 40'' × 40'' region of the Circinus galaxy, using the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope. We also detected 13COJ = 3 → 2 at the central position of Circinus. These observations are to date the highest CO transitions reported in Circinus. With large velocity gradient (LVG) modeling and likelihood analysis we try to obtain density, temperature, and column density of the molecular gas in three regions: the nuclear region (D < 18''~ 360 pc), the entire central 45'' (D < 45''~ 900 pc) region, and the star-forming (S-F) ring (18'' < D < 45''). In the nuclear region, we can fit the CO excitation with a single excitation component, yielding an average condition of nH2~103.2 cm-3, Tkin~ 200 K, and dν/dr~3 km s-1 pc-1. In the entire 45'' region, which covers both the nucleus and the S-F ring, two excitation components are needed with nH2~ 104.2 cm-3 and 103.0 cm-3, Tkin~ 60 K and 30 K, and MH2~2.3 × 107 M⊙ and 6.6 × 107 M⊙, respectively. The gas excitation in the S-F ring can also be fitted with two LVG components, after subtracting the CO fluxes in the 18'' nuclear region. The S-F ring region contributes 80% of the molecular mass in the 45'' region. For the entire 45'' region, we find a standard conversion factor of N(H2) /ICO 1 → 0 = 0.37 × 1020cm-2(K km s-1)-1, about 1/5 of the Galactic disk value. The luminosity ratios of Ci and 12COJ = 3 → 2 (RCI/CO 3 → 2) in Circinus basically follow a linear trend, similar to that obtained in high-redshift galaxies. The average RCI/CO J = 3 → 2 in Circinus is found to be ~0.2, lying at an intermediate value between non-AGN nuclear regions and high-redshift galaxies. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. The JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey - XI. Environmental variations in the atomic and molecular gas radial profiles of nearby spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, Angus; Wilson, C. D.; Knapen, J. H.; Sánchez-Gallego, J. R.; Brinks, E.; Rosolowsky, E.

    2017-06-01

    We present an analysis of the radial profiles of a sample of 43 H i-flux selected spiral galaxies from the Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey (NGLS) with resolved James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) CO J = 3 - 2 and/or Very Large Array (VLA) H I maps. Comparing the Virgo and non-Virgo populations, we confirm that the H I discs are truncated in the Virgo sample, even for these relatively H i-rich galaxies. On the other hand, the H2 distribution is enhanced for the Virgo galaxies near their centres, resulting in higher H2 to H I ratios and steeper H2 and total gas radial profiles. This is likely due to the effects of moderate ram pressure stripping in the cluster environment, which would preferentially remove low-density gas in the outskirts while enhancing higher density gas near the centre. Combined with Hα star formation rate data, we find that the star formation efficiency (SFR/H2) is relatively constant with radius for both samples, but the Virgo galaxies have an ˜40 per cent lower star formation efficiency than the non-Virgo galaxies.

  12. Molecular gas in the centre of nearby galaxies from VLT/SINFONI integral field spectroscopy - II. Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzalay, X.; Maciejewski, W.; Erwin, P.; Saglia, R. P.; Bender, R.; Fabricius, M. H.; Nowak, N.; Rusli, S. P.; Thomas, J.

    2014-03-01

    We present an analysis of the H2 emission-line gas kinematics in the inner ≲4 arcsec radius of six nearby spiral galaxies, based on adaptive optics-assisted integral-field observations obtained in the K band with SINFONI/VLT. Four of the six galaxies in our sample display ordered H2 velocity fields, consistent with gas moving in the plane of the galaxy and rotating in the same direction as the stars. However, the gas kinematics is typically far from simple circular motion. We can classify the observed velocity fields into four different types of flows, ordered by increasing complexity: (1) circular motion in a disc (NGC 3351); (2) oval motion in the galaxy plane (NGC 3627 and NGC 4536); (3) streaming motion superimposed on circular rotation (NGC 4501); and (4) disordered streaming motions (NGC 4569 and NGC 4579). The H2 velocity dispersion in the galaxies is usually higher than 50 km s-1 in the inner 1-2 arcsec radii. The four galaxies with ordered kinematics have v/σ < 1 at radii less than 40-80 pc. The radius at which v/σ = 1 is independent of the type of nuclear activity. While the low values of v/σ could be taken as an indication of a thick disc in the innermost regions of the galaxies, other lines of evidence (e.g. H2 morphologies and velocity fields) argue for a thin disc interpretation in the case of NGC 3351 and NGC 4536. We discuss the implications of the high values of velocity dispersion for the dynamics of the gaseous disc and suggest caution when interpreting the velocity dispersion of ionized and warm tracers as being entirely dynamical. Understanding the nature and role of the velocity dispersion in the gas dynamics, together with the full 2D information of the gas, is essential for obtaining accurate black hole masses from gas kinematics.

  13. Molecular Gas in the Outskirts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Linda C.; Koda, Jin

    The outskirts of galaxies offer extreme environments where we can test our understanding of the formation, evolution and destruction of molecules and their relationship with star formation and galaxy evolution. We review the basic equations that are used in normal environments to estimate physical parameters like the molecular gas mass from CO line emission and dust continuum emission. Then we discuss how those estimates may be affected when applied to the outskirts, where the average gas density, metallicity, stellar radiation field and temperature may be lower. We focus on observations of molecular gas in the outskirts of the Milky Way, extragalactic disk galaxies, early-type galaxies, groups and clusters. The scientific results show the versatility of molecular gas, as it has been used to trace Milky Way spiral arms out to a galactocentric radius of 15 kpc, to study star formation in extended ultraviolet disk galaxies, to probe galaxy interactions in polar-ring S0 galaxies and to investigate ram pressure stripping in clusters. Throughout the chapter, we highlight the physical stimuli that accelerate the formation of molecular gas, including internal processes such as spiral arm compression and external processes such as interactions.

  14. Luminous Infrared Galaxies with the Submillimeter Array. V. Molecular Gas in Intermediate to Late-stage Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliwa, Kazimierz; Wilson, Christine D.; Matsushita, Satoki; Peck, Alison B.; Petitpas, Glen R.; Saito, Toshiki; Yun, Min

    2017-05-01

    We present new high-resolution ALMA (13CO J = 1-0 and J = 2-1) and CARMA (12CO and 13CO J = 1-0) observations of two luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), Arp 55 and NGC 2623. The new data are complementary to published and archival submillimeter array observations of 12CO J = 2-1 and J = 3-2. We perform a Bayesian likelihood non-local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis to constrain the molecular gas physical conditions such as temperature, column, and volume densities and the [12CO]/[13CO] abundance ratio. For Arp 55, an early/intermediate-staged merger, the line measurements are consistent with cold (˜10-20 K), dense (>{10}3.5 cm-3) molecular gas. For NGC 2623, the molecular gas is warmer (˜110 K) and less dense (˜ {10}2.7 cm-3). Because Arp 55 is an early/intermediate stage merger, while NGC 2623 is a merger remnant, the difference in physical conditions may be an indicator of merger stage. Comparing the temperature and volume density of several LIRGs shows that the molecular gas, averaged over ˜kiloparsec scales, of advanced mergers is in general warmer and less dense than early/intermediate stage mergers. We also find that the [12CO]/[13CO] abundance ratio of NGC 2623 is unusually high (>250) when compared with the Milky Way; however, it follows a trend seen with other LIRGs in the literature. This high [12CO]/[13CO] value is very likely due to stellar nucleosynthesis enrichment of the interstellar medium. On the other hand, Arp 55 has a more Galactic [12CO]/[13CO] value with the most probable [12CO]/[13CO] value being 20-30. We measure the CO-to-H2 conversion factor, {α }{CO}, to be ˜0.1 and ˜0.7 (3 × 10-4/{x}{CO}) M ⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1 for Arp 55 and NGC 2623, respectively. Because Arp 55 is an early/intermediate-stage merger, this suggests that the transition from a Galactic conversion factor to a LIRG value happens at an even earlier merger stage.

  15. The gas content in starburst galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirabel, I. F.; Sanders, D. B.

    1987-01-01

    The results from two large and homogeneous surveys, one in H I, the other in CO, are used for a statistical review of the gaseous properties of bright infrared galaxies. A constant ratio between the thermal FIR radiation and nonthermal radio emission is a universal property of star formation in spiral galaxies. The current rate of star formation in starburst galaxies is found to be 3-20 times larger than in the Milky Way. Galaxies with the higher FIR luminosities and warmer dust, have the larger mass fractions of molecular to atomic interstellar gas, and in some instances, striking deficiencies of neutral hydrogen are found. A statistical blueshift of the optical systemic velocities relative to the radio systemic velocities, may be due to an outward motion of the optical line-emitting gas. From the high rates of star formation, and from the short times required for the depletion of the interstellar gas, it is concluded that the most luminous infrared galaxies represent a brief but important phase in the evolution of some galaxies, when two galaxies merge changing substantially their overall properties.

  16. The gas content in starburst galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirabel, I. F.; Sanders, D. B.

    1987-01-01

    The results from two large and homogeneous surveys, one in H I, the other in CO, are used for a statistical review of the gaseous properties of bright infrared galaxies. A constant ratio between the thermal FIR radiation and nonthermal radio emission is a universal property of star formation in spiral galaxies. The current rate of star formation in starburst galaxies is found to be 3-20 times larger than in the Milky Way. Galaxies with the higher FIR luminosities and warmer dust, have the larger mass fractions of molecular to atomic interstellar gas, and in some instances, striking deficiencies of neutral hydrogen are found. A statistical blueshift of the optical systemic velocities relative to the radio systemic velocities, may be due to an outward motion of the optical line-emitting gas. From the high rates of star formation, and from the short times required for the depletion of the interstellar gas, it is concluded that the most luminous infrared galaxies represent a brief but important phase in the evolution of some galaxies, when two galaxies merge changing substantially their overall properties.

  17. CARMA SURVEY TOWARD INFRARED-BRIGHT NEARBY GALAXIES (STING). II. MOLECULAR GAS STAR FORMATION LAW AND DEPLETION TIME ACROSS THE BLUE SEQUENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Nurur; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Fisher, David B.; Vogel, Stuart N.; Xue Rui; Wong, Tony; Leroy, Adam K.; Walter, Fabian; Bigiel, Frank; Rosolowsky, Erik; Blitz, Leo; West, Andrew A.; Ott, Juergen

    2012-02-01

    We present an analysis of the relationship between molecular gas and current star formation rate surface density at sub-kiloparsec and kiloparsec scales in a sample of 14 nearby star-forming galaxies. Measuring the relationship in the bright, high molecular gas surface density ({Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}}{approx}>20 M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2}) regions of the disks to minimize the contribution from diffuse extended emission, we find an approximately linear relation between molecular gas and star formation rate surface density, N{sub mol} {approx} 0.96 {+-} 0.16, with a molecular gas depletion time, {tau}{sup mol}{sub dep} {approx} 2.30 {+-} 1.32 Gyr. We show that in the molecular regions of our galaxies there are no clear correlations between {tau}{sup mol}{sub dep} and the free-fall and effective Jeans dynamical times throughout the sample. We do not find strong trends in the power-law index of the spatially resolved molecular gas star formation law or the molecular gas depletion time across the range of galactic stellar masses sampled (M{sub *} {approx} 10{sup 9.7}-10{sup 11.5} M{sub Sun }). There is a trend, however, in global measurements that is particularly marked for low-mass galaxies. We suggest that this trend is probably due to the low surface brightness CO J = 1-0, and it is likely associated with changes in CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor.

  18. Molecular Gas in the Host Galaxies of Long-Duration Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsukade, B.; Ohta, K.; Kohno, K.; Nakanishi, K.; Tamura, Y.; Endo, A.; Hashimoto, T.

    2016-10-01

    We conducted CO observations in 10 GRB hosts with ALMA and detected in 6 hosts (z = 1-2). We found the hosts have a star-formation efficiency similar to normal star-forming galaxies at z 1-2, suggesting that GRBs occur in normal environments at z 1-2.

  19. Constraint on the Inflow/outflow Rates in Star-forming Galaxies at z ~ 1.4 from Molecular Gas Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seko, Akifumi; Ohta, Kouji; Yabe, Kiyoto; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Akiyama, Masayuki; Tamura, Naoyuki; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Dalton, Gavin

    2016-12-01

    We constrain the rate of gas inflow into and outflow from a main-sequence star-forming galaxy at z∼ 1.4 by fitting a simple analytic model for the chemical evolution in a galaxy to the observational data of the stellar mass, metallicity, and molecular gas mass fraction. The molecular gas mass is derived from CO observations with a metallicity-dependent CO-to-H2 conversion factor, and the gas metallicity is derived from the Hα and [N ii]λ 6584 emission line ratio. Using a stacking analysis of CO integrated intensity maps and the emission lines of Hα and [N ii], the relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and gas mass fraction is derived. We constrain the inflow and outflow rates with least-chi-square fitting of a simple analytic chemical evolution model to the observational data. The best-fit inflow and outflow rates are ∼1.7 and ∼0.4 in units of star formation rate (SFR), respectively. The inflow rate is roughly comparable to the sum of the SFR and outflow rate, which supports the equilibrium model for galaxy evolution; i.e., all inflow gas is consumed by star formation and outflow.

  20. Gemini Near Infrared Field Spectrograph Observations of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy MRK 573: In Situ Acceleration of Ionized and Molecular Gas Off Fueling Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Travis C.; Machuca, C.; Diniz, M. R.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Riffel, R. A.; Schmitt, H. R.; Baron, F.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Straughn, A. N.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present near-infrared and optical emission-line and stellar kinematics of the Seyfert 2 galaxy Mrk 573 using the Near-Infrared Field Spectrograph (NIFS) at Gemini North and Dual Imaging Spectrograph at Apache Point Observatory, respectively. By obtaining full kinematic maps of the infrared ionized and molecular gas and stellar kinematics in approximately 700 x 2100 pc(exp 2) circumnuclear region of Mrk 573, we find that kinematics within the Narrow-Line Region are largely due to a combination of both rotation and in situ acceleration of material originating in the host disk. Combining these observations with large-scale, optical long-slit spectroscopy that traces ionized gas emission out to several kpcs, we find that rotation kinematics dominate the majority of the gas. We find that outflowing gas extends to distances less than 1 kpc, suggesting that outflows in Seyfert galaxies may not be powerful enough to evacuate their entire bulges.

  1. Gemini Near Infrared Field Spectrograph Observations of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy Mrk 573: In Situ Acceleration of Ionized and Molecular Gas off Fueling Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Travis C.; Machuca, C.; Diniz, M. R.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Riffel, R. A.; Schmitt, H. R.; Baron, F.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Straughn, A. N.; Revalski, M.; Pope, C. L.

    2017-01-01

    We present near-infrared and optical emission-line and stellar kinematics of the Seyfert 2 galaxy Mrk 573 using the Near-Infrared Field Spectrograph (NIFS) at Gemini North and Dual Imaging Spectrograph at Apache Point Observatory, respectively. By obtaining full kinematic maps of the infrared ionized and molecular gas and stellar kinematics in a ˜700 × 2100 pc2 circumnuclear region of Mrk 573, we find that kinematics within the Narrow-Line Region are largely due to a combination of both rotation and in situ acceleration of material originating in the host disk. Combining these observations with large-scale, optical long-slit spectroscopy that traces ionized gas emission out to several kpcs, we find that rotation kinematics dominate the majority of the gas. We find that outflowing gas extends to distances less than 1 kpc, suggesting that outflows in Seyfert galaxies may not be powerful enough to evacuate their entire bulges.

  2. The selective effect of environment on the atomic and molecular gas-to-dust ratio of nearby galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortese, L.; Bekki, K.; Boselli, A.; Catinella, B.; Ciesla, L.; Hughes, T. M.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Boquien, M.; de Looze, I.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.; Viaene, S.

    2016-07-01

    We combine dust, atomic (H I) and molecular (H2) hydrogen mass measurements for 176 galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey to investigate the effect of environment on the gas-to-dust mass (Mgas/Mdust) ratio of nearby galaxies. We find that, at fixed stellar mass, the average Mgas/Mdust ratio varies by no more than a factor of ˜2 when moving from field to cluster galaxies, with Virgo galaxies being slightly more dust rich (per unit of gas) than isolated systems. Remarkably, once the molecular and atomic hydrogen phases are investigated separately, we find that H I-deficient galaxies have at the same time lower M_{H I}/M_dust ratio but higher M_H2/M_dust ratio than H I-normal systems. In other words, they are poorer in atomic but richer in molecular hydrogen if normalized to their dust content. By comparing our findings with the predictions of theoretical models, we show that the opposite behaviour observed in the M_{H I}/M_dust and M_H2/M_dust ratios is fully consistent with outside-in stripping of the interstellar medium (ISM), and is simply a consequence of the different distribution of dust, H I and H2 across the disc. Our results demonstrate that the small environmental variations in the total Mgas/Mdust ratio, as well as in the gas-phase metallicity, do not automatically imply that environmental mechanisms are not able to affect the dust and metal content of the ISM in galaxies.

  3. Molecular Gas Kinematics and Star Formation Properties of the Strongly-lensed Quasar Host Galaxy RXS J1131–1231

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, T. K. Daisy; Riechers, Dominik A.; Pavesi, Riccardo

    2017-02-01

    We report observations of CO(J = 2 → 1) and {CO}(J=3\\to 2) line emission toward the quadruply-lensed quasar RXS J1131‑1231 at z = 0.654 obtained using the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). Our lens modeling shows that the asymmetry in the double-horned CO(J = 2 → 1) line profile is mainly a result of differential lensing, where the magnification factor varies from ∼3 to ∼9 across different kinematic components. The intrinsically symmetric line profile and a smooth source-plane velocity gradient suggest that the host galaxy is an extended rotating disk, with a CO size of {R}{CO}∼ 6 kpc and a dynamical mass of {M}{dyn}∼ 8× {10}10 M ⊙. We also find a secondary CO-emitting source near RXS J1131‑1231, the location of which is consistent with the optically-faint companion reported in previous studies. The lensing-corrected molecular gas masses are M gas = (1.4 ± 0.3) × 1010 M ⊙ and (2.0 ± 0.1) × 109 M ⊙ for RXS J1131‑1231 and the companion, respectively. We find a lensing-corrected stellar mass of M * = (3 ± 1) × 1010 M ⊙ and a star formation rate of SFRFIR = (120 ± 63) M ⊙ yr‑1, corresponding to a specific SFR and star formation efficiency comparable to z ∼ 1 disk galaxies not hosting quasars. The implied gas mass fraction of ∼18 ± 4% is consistent with the previously observed cosmic decline since z ∼ 2. We thus find no evidence for quenching of star formation in RXS J1131‑1231. This agrees with our finding of an elevated {M}{BH}/{M}{bulge} ratio of >0.27{}-0.08+0.11% compared to the local value, suggesting that the bulk of its black hole mass is largely in place while its stellar bulge is still assembling.

  4. Abundant Molecular Gas and Inefficient Star Formation in Intracluster Regions: Ram Pressure Stripped Tail of the Norma Galaxy ESO137-001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jáchym, Pavel; Combes, Françoise; Cortese, Luca; Sun, Ming; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.

    2014-09-01

    For the first time, we reveal large amounts of cold molecular gas in a ram-pressure-stripped tail, out to a large "intracluster" distance from the galaxy. With the Actama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope, we have detected 12CO(2-1) emission corresponding to more than 109 M ⊙ of H2 in three Hα bright regions along the tail of the Norma cluster galaxy ESO 137-001, out to a projected distance of 40 kpc from the disk. ESO 137-001 has an 80 kpc long and bright X-ray tail associated with a shorter (40 kpc) and broader tail of numerous star forming H II regions. The amount of ~1.5 × 108 M ⊙ of H2 found in the most distant region is similar to molecular masses of tidal dwarf galaxies, though the standard Galactic CO-to-H2 factor could overestimate the H2 content. Along the tail, we find the amount of molecular gas to drop, while masses of the X-ray-emitting and diffuse ionized components stay roughly constant. Moreover, the amounts of hot and cold gas are large and similar, and together nearly account for the missing gas from the disk. We find a very low SFE (τdep > 1010 yr) in the stripped gas in ESO 137-001 and suggest that this is due to a low average gas density in the tail, or turbulent heating of the interstellar medium that is induced by a ram pressure shock. The unprecedented bulk of observed H2 in the ESO 137-001 tail suggests that some stripped gas may survive ram pressure stripping in the molecular phase. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at La Silla Paranal Observatory under program ID 088.B-0934.

  5. Abundant molecular gas and inefficient star formation in intracluster regions: ram pressure stripped tail of the Norma galaxy ESO137-001

    SciTech Connect

    Jáchym, Pavel; Combes, Françoise; Cortese, Luca; Sun, Ming; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.

    2014-09-01

    For the first time, we reveal large amounts of cold molecular gas in a ram-pressure-stripped tail, out to a large 'intracluster' distance from the galaxy. With the Actama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope, we have detected {sup 12}CO(2-1) emission corresponding to more than 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} of H{sub 2} in three Hα bright regions along the tail of the Norma cluster galaxy ESO 137-001, out to a projected distance of 40 kpc from the disk. ESO 137-001 has an 80 kpc long and bright X-ray tail associated with a shorter (40 kpc) and broader tail of numerous star forming H II regions. The amount of ∼1.5 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} of H{sub 2} found in the most distant region is similar to molecular masses of tidal dwarf galaxies, though the standard Galactic CO-to-H{sub 2} factor could overestimate the H{sub 2} content. Along the tail, we find the amount of molecular gas to drop, while masses of the X-ray-emitting and diffuse ionized components stay roughly constant. Moreover, the amounts of hot and cold gas are large and similar, and together nearly account for the missing gas from the disk. We find a very low SFE (τ{sub dep} > 10{sup 10} yr) in the stripped gas in ESO 137-001 and suggest that this is due to a low average gas density in the tail, or turbulent heating of the interstellar medium that is induced by a ram pressure shock. The unprecedented bulk of observed H{sub 2} in the ESO 137-001 tail suggests that some stripped gas may survive ram pressure stripping in the molecular phase.

  6. CO Multi-line Imaging of Nearby Galaxies (COMING). I. Physical properties of molecular gas in the barred spiral galaxy NGC 2903

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Sorai, Kazuo; Kuno, Nario; Nakai, Naomasa; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Miho; Yanagitani, Kazuki; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Kishida, Nozomi; Hatakeyama, Takuya; Umei, Michiko; Tanaka, Takahiro; Tomiyasu, Yuto; Saita, Chey; Ueno, Saeko; Matsumoto, Naoko; Salak, Dragan; Morokuma-Matsui, Kana

    2016-10-01

    We present simultaneous mappings of J = 1-0 emission of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O molecules toward the whole disk (8' × 5' or 20.8 kpc × 13.0 kpc) of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 2903 with the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope at an effective angular resolution of 20″ (or 870 pc). We detected 12CO(J = 1-0) emission over the disk of NGC 2903. In addition, significant 13CO(J = 1-0) emission was found at the center and bar-ends, whereas we could not detect any significant C18O(J = 1-0) emission. In order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of CO emission and to obtain accurate line ratios of 12CO(J = 2-1)/12CO(J = 1-0) (R2-1/1-0) and 13CO(J = 1-0)/12CO(J = 1-0) (R13/12), we performed the stacking analysis for our 12CO(J = 1-0), 13CO(J = 1-0), and archival 12CO(J = 2-1) spectra with velocity axis alignment in nine representative regions of NGC 2903. We successfully obtained the stacked spectra of the three CO lines, and could measure averaged R2-1/1-0 and R13/12 with high significance for all the regions. We found that both R2-1/1-0 and R13/12 differ according to the regions, which reflects the difference in the physical properties of molecular gas, i.e., density (n_H_2) and kinetic temperature (TK). We determined n_H_2 and TK using R2-1/1-0 and R13/12 based on the large velocity gradient approximation. The derived n_H_2 ranges from ˜1000 cm-3 (in the bar, bar-ends, and spiral arms) to 3700 cm-3 (at the center) and the derived TK ranges from 10 K (in the bar and spiral arms) to 30 K (at the center). We examined the dependence of star formation efficiencies (SFEs) on n_H_2 and TK, and found a positive correlation between SFE and n_H_2 with correlation coefficient for the least-squares power-law fit R2 of 0.50. This suggests that molecular gas density governs the spatial variations in SFEs.

  7. Study of the molecular gas in the central parsec of the Galaxy through regularized 3D spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciurlo, A.; Paumard, T.; Rouan, D.; Clénet, Y.

    2014-05-01

    The cool gas in the central parsec of the Galaxy is organized in the surrounding circumnuclear disk, made of neutral gas, and the internal minispiral, composed of dust and ionized gas. In order to study the transition between them we have investigated the presence of H2 neutral gas in this area, through NIR spectro-imaging data observed with SPIFFI. To preserve the spatial resolution we implemented a new method consisting of a regularized 3D fit. We concentrated on the supposedly fully ionized central cavity and the very inner edge of the CND. H2 is detected everywhere: at the boundary of the CND and in the central cavity, where it seems to split in two components, one in the background of the minispiral and one inside the Northern arm.

  8. ALMA Resolves the Molecular Gas in a Young Low-metallicity Starburst Galaxy at z = 1.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-López, Jorge; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Gladders, M. D.; Wuyts, Eva; Rigby, Jane; Sharon, Keren; Aravena, Manuel; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Ibar, Eduardo

    2017-09-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of CO lines and dust continuum emission of the source RCSGA 032727–132609, a young z = 1.7 low-metallicity starburst galaxy. The CO(3–2) and CO(6–5) lines and continuum at rest-frame 450 μm are detected and show a resolved structure in the image plane. We use the corresponding lensing model to obtain a source plane reconstruction of the detected emissions revealing an intrinsic flux density of {S}450μ {{m}}={23.5}-8.1+26.8 μJy and intrinsic CO luminosities {L}{CO(3-2)}{\\prime }={2.90}-0.23+0.21 × {10}8 {{K}} {km} {{{s}}}-1 {{pc}}2 and {L}{CO(6-5)}{\\prime }={8.0}-1.3+1.4× {10}7 {{K}} {km} {{{s}}}-1 {{pc}}2. We used the resolved properties in the source plane to obtain molecular gas and star formation rate surface densities of {{{Σ }}}{{H}2}={16.2}-3.5+5.8 {M}ȯ {{pc}}-2 and {{{Σ }}}{SFR}={0.54}-0.27+0.89 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1 {{kpc}}-2, respectively. The intrinsic properties of RCSGA 032727–132609 show an enhanced star formation activity compared to local spiral galaxies with similar molecular gas densities, supporting the ongoing merger–starburst phase scenario. RCSGA 032727–132609 also appears to be a low-density starburst galaxy similar to local blue compact dwarf galaxies, which have been suggested as local analogs to high-redshift low-metallicity starburst systems. Finally, the CO excitation level in the galaxy is consistent with having the peak at J∼ 5, with a higher excitation concentrated in the star-forming clumps.

  9. VALES I: the molecular gas content in star-forming dusty H-ATLAS galaxies up to z = 0.35

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, V.; Ibar, E.; Hughes, T. M.; Lara-López, M. A.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; Ivison, R. J.; Aravena, M.; Baes, M.; Bourne, N.; Cassata, P.; Cooray, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; Davies, L. J. M.; Driver, S. P.; Dye, S.; Furlanetto, C.; Herrera-Camus, R.; Maddox, S. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Molina, J.; Riechers, D.; Sansom, A. E.; Smith, M. W. L.; Rodighiero, G.; Valiante, E.; van der Werf, P.

    2017-10-01

    We present an extragalactic survey using observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to characterize galaxy populations up to z = 0.35: the Valparaíso ALMA Line Emission Survey (VALES). We use ALMA Band-3 CO(1-0) observations to study the molecular gas content in a sample of 67 dusty normal star-forming galaxies selected from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). We have spectrally detected 49 galaxies at >5σ significance and 12 others are seen at low significance in stacked spectra. CO luminosities are in the range of (0.03-1.31) × 1010 K km s-1 pc2, equivalent to log ({M}_{gas}/M_{⊙}) =8.9 - 10.9 assuming an αCO = 4.6 (K km s-1 pc2)-1, which perfectly complements the parameter space previously explored with local and high-z normal galaxies. We compute the optical to CO size ratio for 21 galaxies resolved by ALMA at ˜3.5 arcsec resolution (6.5 kpc), finding that the molecular gas is on average ˜ 0.6 times more compact than the stellar component. We obtain a global Schmidt-Kennicutt relation, given by log [Σ _SFR/(M_{⊙} yr^{-1} kpc^{-2})] =(1.26 ± 0.02) × log [Σ _{{M}_{H2}}/(M_{⊙} pc^{-2})] - (3.6 ± 0.2). We find a significant fraction of galaxies lying at `intermediate efficiencies' between a long-standing mode of star formation activity and a starburst, specially at LIR = 1011-12 L⊙. Combining our observations with data taken from the literature, we propose that star formation efficiencies can be parametrized by log [{SFR/{M}_{H_2}}] = 0.19 × {(log {L_{IR}} - 11.45)}-8.26- 0.41 × arctan [-4.84 (log {{L}_{IR}}-11.45) ]. Within the redshift range we explore (z < 0.35), we identify a rapid increase of the gas content as a function of redshift.

  10. A low-luminosity type-1 QSO sample . IV. Molecular gas contents and conditions of star formation in three nearby Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Lydia; Krips, Melanie; Busch, Gerold; Scharwächter, Julia; König, Sabine; Eckart, Andreas; Smajić, Semir; García-Marin, Macarena; Valencia-S., Mónica; Fischer, Sebastian; Dierkes, Jens

    2016-03-01

    We present a pilot study of ~3'' resolution observations of low CO transitions with the Submillimeter Array in three nearby Seyfert galaxies, which are part of the low-luminosity quasi-stellar object (LLQSOs) sample consisting of 99 nearby (z = 0.06) type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGN) taken from the Hamburg/ESO quasi-stellar object (QSO) survey. Two sources were observed in 12CO(2-1) and 13CO(2-1) and the third in 12CO(3-2) and HCO+(4-3). None of the sources is detected in continuum emission. More than 80% of the 12CO detected molecular gas is concentrated within a diameter (FWHM) < 1.8 kpc. 13CO is tentatively detected, while HCO+ emission could not be detected. All three objects show indications of a kinematically decoupled central unresolved molecular gas component. The molecular gas masses of the three galaxies are in the range Mmol = (0.7-8.7) × 109M⊙. We give lower limits for the dynamical masses of Mdyn> 1.5 × 109M⊙ and for the dust masses of Mdust> 1.6 × 106M⊙. The R21 = 12CO/13CO(2-1) line luminosity ratios show Galactic values of R21 ~ 5-7 in the outskirts and R21 ≳ 20 in the central region, similar to starbursts and (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs; i.e. LIRGs and ULIRGs), implying higher temperatures and stronger turbulence. All three sources show indications of 12CO(2-1)/12CO(1-0) ratios of ~0.5, suggesting a cold or diffuse gas phase. Strikingly, the 12CO(3-2)/(1-0) ratio of ~1 also indicates a higher excited phase. Since these galaxies have high infrared luminosities of LIR ≥ 1011L⊙ and seem to contain a circumnuclear starburst with minimum surface densities of gas and star formation rate (SFR) around Σmol = 50-550 M⊙pc-2 and ΣSFR = 1.1-3.1 M⊙ kpc-2 yr-1, we conclude that the interstellar medium in the centers of these LIRG Seyferts is strongly affected by violent star formation and better described by the ULIRG mass conversion factor.

  11. MALATANG: MApping the dense moLecular gAs in the sTrongest stAr-formiNg Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yu; Zhang, Zhiyu; Greve, Thomas; MALATANG Team

    2017-01-01

    The MALATANG Large Program is a 390 hr campaign, using the heterodyne array HARP on the JCMT to map theHCN and HCO+ J = 4 - 3 line emission in 23 of the nearest IR-brightest galaxies beyond the Local Group. Theobservations will reach a sensitivity of 0.3 K km/s (~ 4.5 x 10^6 Msun) at linear resolutions of 0.2-2.8kpc. It is thefirst survey to systematically map the distribution of dense molecular gas out to large galactocentric distances in a statisticallysignificant sample of nearby galaxies. MALATANG will bridge the gap, in terms of physical scale and luminosity,between extragalactic (i.e., galaxy-integrated) and Galactic (i.e., single molecular clouds) observations. A primarygoal of the survey is to delineate for the first time the distributed dense gas star-formation relations, as traced by theHCN and HCO+ J = 4-3, on scales of ~1kpc across our targets. Exploring the behaviour of these star-formationrelations in low surface density regions found in the disks as well as in the nuclear regions where surface densitiesare high, will shed new light on whether such environments are host to fundamentally different star-formation modes.The MALATANG data products of resolved HCN and HCO+ J = 4-3 maps of 23 IR-bright local galaxies, will beof great value to the extragalactic community and, in and of themselves, carry significant legacy value. At the moment,about 50% (~195hrs) of the 390hrs of time allocated to MALATANG has been observed. We here show somevery preliminary results as well after introducing our project.

  12. THE MOLECULAR GAS IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. II. EXTREME PHYSICAL CONDITIONS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE X{sub co} FACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; Van der Werf, Paul; Xilouris, E.; Isaak, Kate G.; Gao, Yu E-mail: pvdwerf@strw.leidenuniv.nl E-mail: kisaak@rssd.esa.int

    2012-05-20

    In this work, we conclude the analysis of our CO line survey of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs: L{sub IR} {approx}> 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }) in the local universe (Paper I) by focusing on the influence of their average interstellar medium (ISM) properties on the total molecular gas mass estimates via the so-called X{sub co} = M(H{sub 2})/L{sub co,1-0} factor. One-phase radiative transfer models of the global CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) yield an X{sub co} distribution with (X{sub co}) {approx} (0.6 {+-} 0.2) M{sub Sun} (K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}){sup -1} over a significant range of average gas densities, temperatures, and dynamic states. The latter emerges as the most important parameter in determining X{sub co}, with unbound states yielding low values and self-gravitating states yielding the highest ones. Nevertheless, in many (U)LIRGs where available higher-J CO lines (J = 3-2, 4-3, and/or J = 6-5) or HCN line data from the literature allow a separate assessment of the gas mass at high densities ({>=}10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}) rather than a simple one-phase analysis, we find that near-Galactic X{sub co} {approx} (3-6) M{sub Sun} (K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}){sup -1} values become possible. We further show that in the highly turbulent molecular gas in ULIRGs, a high-density component will be common and can be massive enough for its high X{sub co} to dominate the average value for the entire galaxy. Using solely low-J CO lines to constrain X{sub co} in such environments (as has been the practice up until now) may have thus resulted in systematic underestimates of molecular gas mass in ULIRGs, as such lines are dominated by a warm, diffuse, and unbound gas phase with low X{sub co} but very little mass. Only well-sampled high-J CO SLEDs (J = 3-2 and higher) and/or multi-J observations of heavy rotor molecules (e.g., HCN) can circumvent such a bias, and the latter type of observations may have actually provided early evidence of it in local ULIRGs. The only

  13. Gas Stripping in the Simulated Pegasus Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado, Francisco Javier; Samaniego, Alejandro; Wheeler, Coral; Bullock, James

    2017-01-01

    We utilize the hydrodynamic simulation code GIZMO to construct a non-cosmological idealized dwarf galaxy built to match the parameters of the observed Pegasus dwarf galaxy. This simulated galaxy will be used in a series of tests in which we will implement different methods of removing the dwarf’s gas in order to emulate the ram pressure stripping mechanism encountered by dwarf galaxies as they fall into more massive companion galaxies. These scenarios will be analyzed in order to determine the role that the removal of gas plays in rotational vs. dispersion support (Vrot/σ) of our galaxy.

  14. Probing the cold and warm molecular gas in the Whirlpool Galaxy: Herschel SPIRE-FTS observations of the central region of M51 (NGC 5194)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirm, M. R. P.; Wilson, C. D.; Kamenetzky, J.; Parkin, T. J.; Glenn, J.; Maloney, P.; Rangwala, N.; Spinoglio, L.; Baes, M.; Boselli, A.; Cooray, A.; De Looze, I.; Fernández-Ontiveros, J. A.; Karczewski, O. Ł.; Wu, R.

    2017-10-01

    We present Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE)-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) intermediate-sampled mapping observations of the central ˜8 kpc (˜150 arcsec) of M51, with a spatial resolution of 40 arcsec. We detect four 12CO transitions (J = 4-3 to J = 7-6) and the [C i] 3P2-3P1 and 3P1-3P0 transitions. We supplement these observations with ground-based observations of 12CO J = 1-0 to J = 3-2 and perform a two-component non-local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis. We find that the molecular gas in the nucleus and centre regions has a cool component (Tkin ˜ 10-20 K) with a moderate but poorly constrained density (n(H2) ˜ 103-106 cm-3), as well as significant molecular gas in a warmer (Tkin ˜ 300-3000 K), lower density (n(H2) ˜ 101.6-102.5 cm-3) component. We compare our CO line ratios and calculated densities along with ratios of CO to total infrared luminosity to a grid of photon-dominated region (PDR) models and find that the cold molecular gas likely resides in PDRs with a field strength of G0 ˜ 102. The warm component likely requires an additional source of mechanical heating, from supernovae and stellar winds or possibly shocks produced in the strong spiral density wave. When compared to similar two-component models of other star-forming galaxies published as part of the Very Nearby Galaxies Survey (Arp 220, M82 and NGC 4038/39), M51 has the lowest density for the warm component, while having a warm gas mass fraction that is comparable to those of Arp 220 and M82, and significantly higher than that of NGC 4038/39.

  15. Rearrangement of gas in disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñol Ferrer, Núria

    Active galactic nuclei and bursts of star formation are two distinct phenomena that amply change their host environments. They are present in a significant number of galaxies at all redshifts. In this thesis, we aim toward a better understanding of the physical processes that allow for the formation and maintenance of these two phenomena. We focus on the study of the physical conditions of the interstellar gas in the central kiloparsec region of the barred active galaxy NGC 1097 (Paper I). In Paper I we present different CO transitions and the consequent analysis realized in order to derive the molecular gas content together with the molecular mass inflow toward the centre of the galactic gravitational potential well. To completely understand the physical processes that drive such gas rearrangement, a coherent picture for a dynamical system has to be considered. We have developed a code, Paper II, in order to model the dynamics of a predominantly rotating system with an arbitrary mass distribution. The formalism we have used is based on analytical solutions of the first order approximation of the equations of motion of a smooth medium that may be subject to dissipation. The most important free parameter to constrain the boundary conditions of the model is the angular frequency of the perturbing pattern, which may be assumed virtually invariant over significant ranges of galactocentric radii. We constrain the pattern velocity using the Tremaine-Weinberg method (Paper III). Hence, we have prepared all procedures needed to comprehend the physical processes that sustain the nuclear activity and bursts of star formation: the amount of gas in the region and the dynamics of the system. In Paper IV, we model the neutral and ionized gas kinematics in NGC 1097 and apply a combination of the methods described in Paper II and Paper III to comprehend the rearrangement of gas in the galaxy. In order to observationally discern the gas inflow in the nuclear region at a higher

  16. Warm Molecular Gas Traced with CO J = 7-->6 in the Galaxy's Central 2 Parsecs: Dynamical Heating of the Circumnuclear Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, C. M.; Stacey, G. J.; Nikola, T.; Bolatto, A. D.; Jackson, J. M.; Savage, M. L.; Davidson, J. A.

    2005-04-01

    We present an 11" resolution map of the central 2 pc of the Galaxy in the CO J=7-->6 rotational transition. The CO emission shows rotation about Sgr A* but also evidence for noncircular turbulent motion and a clumpy morphology. We combine our data set with available CO measurements to model the physical conditions in the disk. We find that the molecular gas in the region is both warm and dense, with T~200-300 K and nH2~(5-7)×104 cm-3. The mass of warm molecular gas we measure in the central 2 pc is at least 2000 Msolar, about 20 times the UV-excited atomic gas mass, ruling out a UV heating scenario for the molecular material. We compare the available spectral tracers with theoretical models and conclude that molecular gas is heated with magnetohydrodynamic shocks with v~10-20 km s-1 and B~0.3-0.5 mG. Using the conditions derived with the CO analysis, we include the other important coolants, neutral oxygen and molecular hydrogen, to estimate the total cooling budget of the molecular material. We derive a mass-to-luminosity ratio of ~2-3 Msolar L-1solar, which is consistent with the total power dissipated via turbulent decay in 0.1 pc cells with vrms~15 km s-1. These size and velocity scales are comparable to the observed clumping scale and the velocity dispersion. At this rate, the material near Sgr A* is dissipating its orbital energy on an orbital timescale and cannot last for more than a few orbits. Our conclusions support a scenario in which the features near Sgr A* such as the circumnuclear disk and northern arm are generated by infalling clouds with low specific angular momentum.

  17. Warm Molecular Gas Traced with CO J = 7 --> 6 in the Galaxy's Central 2 Parsecs: Dynamical Heating of the Circumnuclear Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, C. M.; Stacey, G. J.; Nikola, T.; Bolatto, A. D.; Jackson, J. M.; Savage, M. L.; Davidson, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    We present an 11" resolution map of the central 2 pc of the Galaxy in the CO J = 7 --> 6 rotational transition. The CO emission shows rotation about Sgr A* but also evidence for noncircular turbulent motion and a clumpy morphology. We combine our data set with available CO measurements to model the physical conditions in the disk. We find that the molecular gas in the region is both warm and dense, with T approx. 200-300 K and n(sub H2) approx. (5-7) x 10(exp 4) cm(exp -3). The mass of warm molecular gas we measure in the central 2 pc is at least 2000 M(solar), about 20 times the UV-excited atomic gas mass, ruling out a UV heating scenario for the molecular material. We compare the available spectral tracers with theoretical models and conclude that molecular gas is heated with magnetohydrodynamic shocks with v approx. 10-20 km s(exp -1) and B approx. 0.3- 0.5 mG. Using the conditions derived with the CO analysis, we include the other important coolants, neutral oxygen and molecular hydrogen, to estimate the total cooling budget of the molecular material. We derive a mass-to-luminosity ratio of approx. 2-3 M(solar)(L(solar)exp -1), which is consistent with the total power dissipated via turbulent decay in 0.1 pc cells with v(sub rms) approx. 15 kilometers per second. These size and velocity scales are comparable to the observed clumping scale and the velocity dispersion. At this rate, the material near Sgr A* is dissipating its orbital energy on an orbital timescale and cannot last for more than a few orbits. Our conclusions support a scenario in which the features near Sgr A* such as the circumnuclear disk and northern arm are generated by infalling clouds with low specific angular momentum.

  18. Warm Molecular Gas Traced with CO J = 7 --> 6 in the Galaxy's Central 2 Parsecs: Dynamical Heating of the Circumnuclear Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, C. M.; Stacey, G. J.; Nikola, T.; Bolatto, A. D.; Jackson, J. M.; Savage, M. L.; Davidson, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    We present an 11" resolution map of the central 2 pc of the Galaxy in the CO J = 7 --> 6 rotational transition. The CO emission shows rotation about Sgr A* but also evidence for noncircular turbulent motion and a clumpy morphology. We combine our data set with available CO measurements to model the physical conditions in the disk. We find that the molecular gas in the region is both warm and dense, with T approx. 200-300 K and n(sub H2) approx. (5-7) x 10(exp 4) cm(exp -3). The mass of warm molecular gas we measure in the central 2 pc is at least 2000 M(solar), about 20 times the UV-excited atomic gas mass, ruling out a UV heating scenario for the molecular material. We compare the available spectral tracers with theoretical models and conclude that molecular gas is heated with magnetohydrodynamic shocks with v approx. 10-20 km s(exp -1) and B approx. 0.3- 0.5 mG. Using the conditions derived with the CO analysis, we include the other important coolants, neutral oxygen and molecular hydrogen, to estimate the total cooling budget of the molecular material. We derive a mass-to-luminosity ratio of approx. 2-3 M(solar)(L(solar)exp -1), which is consistent with the total power dissipated via turbulent decay in 0.1 pc cells with v(sub rms) approx. 15 kilometers per second. These size and velocity scales are comparable to the observed clumping scale and the velocity dispersion. At this rate, the material near Sgr A* is dissipating its orbital energy on an orbital timescale and cannot last for more than a few orbits. Our conclusions support a scenario in which the features near Sgr A* such as the circumnuclear disk and northern arm are generated by infalling clouds with low specific angular momentum.

  19. CARMA Survey Toward Infrared-bright Nearby Galaxies (STING): Molecular Gas Star Formation Law in NGC 4254

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nurur; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Wong, Tony; Leroy, Adam K.; Walter, Fabian; Rosolowsky, Erik; West, Andrew A.; Bigiel, Frank; Ott, Jürgen; Xue, Rui; Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Jameson, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Vogel, Stuart N.

    2011-04-01

    This study explores the effects of different assumptions and systematics on the determination of the local, spatially resolved star formation law. Using four star formation rate (SFR) tracers (Hα with azimuthally averaged extinction correction, mid-infrared 24 μm, combined Hα and mid-infrared 24 μm, and combined far-ultraviolet and mid-infrared 24 μm), several fitting procedures, and different sampling strategies, we probe the relation between SFR and molecular gas at various spatial resolutions (500 pc and larger) and surface densities ({Σ_{H_2}}≈ 10-245 M sun pc-2) within the central ~6.5 kpc in the disk of NGC 4254. We explore the effect of diffuse emission using an unsharp masking technique with varying kernel size. The fraction of diffuse emission, f DE, thus determined is a strong inverse function of the size of the filtering kernel. We find that in the high surface brightness regions of NGC 4254 the form of the molecular gas star formation law is robustly determined and approximately linear (~0.8-1.1) and independent of the assumed fraction of diffuse emission and the SFR tracer employed. When the low surface brightness regions are included, the slope of the star formation law depends primarily on the assumed fraction of diffuse emission. In such a case, results range from linear when the fraction of diffuse emission in the SFR tracer is f DE <~ 30% (or when diffuse emission is removed in both the star formation and the molecular gas tracer) to super-linear (~1.4) when f DE >~ 50%. We find that the tightness of the correlation between gas and star formation varies with the choice of star formation tracer. The 24 μm SFR tracer by itself shows the tightest correlation with the molecular gas surface density, whereas the Hα corrected for extinction using an azimuthally averaged correction shows the highest dispersion. We find that for R < 0.5R 25 the local star formation efficiency is constant and similar to that observed in other large spirals, with a

  20. CARMA SURVEY TOWARD INFRARED-BRIGHT NEARBY GALAXIES (STING): MOLECULAR GAS STAR FORMATION LAW IN NGC 4254

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Nurur; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Jameson, Katherine; Vogel, Stuart N.; Wong, Tony; Xue Rui; Leroy, Adam K.; Walter, Fabian; Rosolowsky, Erik; West, Andrew A.; Bigiel, Frank; Blitz, Leo; Ott, Juergen

    2011-04-01

    This study explores the effects of different assumptions and systematics on the determination of the local, spatially resolved star formation law. Using four star formation rate (SFR) tracers (H{alpha} with azimuthally averaged extinction correction, mid-infrared 24 {mu}m, combined H{alpha} and mid-infrared 24 {mu}m, and combined far-ultraviolet and mid-infrared 24 {mu}m), several fitting procedures, and different sampling strategies, we probe the relation between SFR and molecular gas at various spatial resolutions (500 pc and larger) and surface densities ({Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}})approx. 10-245 M{sub sun} pc{sup -2}) within the central {approx}6.5 kpc in the disk of NGC 4254. We explore the effect of diffuse emission using an unsharp masking technique with varying kernel size. The fraction of diffuse emission, f{sub DE}, thus determined is a strong inverse function of the size of the filtering kernel. We find that in the high surface brightness regions of NGC 4254 the form of the molecular gas star formation law is robustly determined and approximately linear ({approx}0.8-1.1) and independent of the assumed fraction of diffuse emission and the SFR tracer employed. When the low surface brightness regions are included, the slope of the star formation law depends primarily on the assumed fraction of diffuse emission. In such a case, results range from linear when the fraction of diffuse emission in the SFR tracer is f{sub DE} {approx}< 30% (or when diffuse emission is removed in both the star formation and the molecular gas tracer) to super-linear ({approx}1.4) when f{sub DE} {approx}> 50%. We find that the tightness of the correlation between gas and star formation varies with the choice of star formation tracer. The 24 {mu}m SFR tracer by itself shows the tightest correlation with the molecular gas surface density, whereas the H{alpha} corrected for extinction using an azimuthally averaged correction shows the highest dispersion. We find that for R < 0.5R{sub 25

  1. Spectral molecular line surveys of active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villicana Pedraza, Ilhuiyolitzin

    The enormous mass of molecular gas and dust found in the nuclei of active galaxies has a major role in feeding the activity (either starburst or AGN) and therefore in the galactic evolution. Thus, observations of the molecular can provide clues to identify and analyze the type of activity in very deeply obscured galactic nuclei. Indeed, studies of the chemical composition in starburst galaxies via wide band spectral has shown the potential of molecular spectroscopy to trace the physical and chemical propierties of their central ISM material. In this work we present the analysis of the emission of molecules such as HCN, CCH, CN,CS,HCO+, HNC, CH3OH, among others obtained from the survey of spectra of the 3 near seyfert galaxies observed with the APEX Telescope. We have also found that one of the molecules is not at LTE conditions- H3O+ molecule. Whether radiatively pumped or maser enhanced, the emission of H3O+ is emerging from a different region from most other molecules (distributed in two molecular lobes seen as the two velocity components). H3O+ emission peaks close to the systemic velocity of the system, particularly clear in NGC 253, which suggest the emission to be centrally peaked towards the nuclear engine, It is common in the same kind of galaxies? In adition, preliminar conclusions show isotopic ratio 12C/13C in starburst galaxies is higher than nuclei of the Milky Way indicating that interestelar matter in starburst nuclei is less processed than in the nucleus of the Milky Way .There are two possible explanations for this effect in starburst, nucleosynthesis differences due stellar population history and acretion of matter from halo.

  2. The Physical Origin of Long Gas Depletion Times in Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Vadim A.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2017-08-01

    We present a model that explains why galaxies form stars on a timescale significantly longer than the timescales of processes governing the evolution of interstellar gas. We show that gas evolves from a non-star-forming to a star-forming state on a relatively short timescale, and thus the rate of this evolution does not limit the star formation rate (SFR). Instead, the SFR is limited because only a small fraction of star-forming gas is converted into stars before star-forming regions are dispersed by feedback and dynamical processes. Thus, gas cycles into and out of a star-forming state multiple times, which results in a long timescale on which galaxies convert gas into stars. Our model does not rely on the assumption of equilibrium and can be used to interpret trends of depletion times with the properties of observed galaxies and the parameters of star formation and feedback recipes in simulations. In particular, the model explains how feedback self-regulates the SFR in simulations and makes it insensitive to the local star formation efficiency. We illustrate our model using the results of an isolated L *-sized galaxy simulation that reproduces the observed Kennicutt-Schmidt relation for both molecular and atomic gas. Interestingly, the relation for molecular gas is almost linear on kiloparsec scales, although a nonlinear relation is adopted in simulation cells. We discuss how a linear relation emerges from non-self-similar scaling of the gas density PDF with the average gas surface density.

  3. Constraining cloud parameters using high density gas tracers in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazandjian, M. V.; Pelupessy, I.; Meijerink, R.; Israel, F. P.; Coppola, C. M.; Rosenberg, M. J. F.; Spaans, M.

    2016-11-01

    Far-infrared molecular emission is an important tool used to understand the excitation mechanisms of the gas in the interstellar medium (ISM) of star-forming galaxies. In the present work, we model the emission from rotational transitions with critical densities n ≳ 104 cm-3. We include 4-3 < J ≤ 15-14 transitions of CO and 13CO , in addition to J ≤ 7-6 transitions of HCN, HNC, and HCO+ on galactic scales. We do this by re-sampling high density gas in a hydrodynamic model of a gas-rich disk galaxy, assuming that the density field of the ISM of the model galaxy follows the probability density function (PDF) inferred from the resolved low density scales. We find that in a narrow gas density PDF, with a mean density of 10 cm-3 and a dispersion σ = 2.1 in the log of the density, most of the emission of molecular lines, even of gas with critical densities >104 cm-3, emanates from the 10-1000 cm-3 part of the PDF. We construct synthetic emission maps for the central 2 kpc of the galaxy and fit the line ratios of CO and 13CO up to J = 15-14, as well as HCN, HNC, and HCO+ up to J = 7-6, using one photo-dissociation region (PDR) model. We attribute the goodness of the one component fits for our model galaxy to the fact that the distribution of the luminosity, as a function of density, is peaked at gas densities between 10 and 1000 cm-3, with negligible contribution from denser gas. Specifically, the Mach number, ℳ, of the model galaxy is 10. We explore the impact of different log-normal density PDFs on the distribution of the line-luminosity as a function of density, and we show that it is necessary to have a broad dispersion, corresponding to Mach numbers ≳30 in order to obtain significant (>10%) emission from n> 104 cm-3 gas. Such Mach numbers are expected in star-forming galaxies, luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGS), and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGS). This method provides a way to constrain the global PDF of the ISM of galaxies from observations of

  4. The Central Molecular Zone of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Michael; Jones, Paul; Ott, Juergen; Cunningham, Maria; Menten, Karl; Schilke, Peter; Belloche, Arnaud; Walsh, Andrew; Requena-Torres, Miguel Angel; Martin-Pintado, Jesus; Leurini, Silvia

    2009-04-01

    We aim to complete the molecular mapping survey of Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) between 85-93 GHz that we have been undertaking since 2007. This is a unique region, where complex organic molecules are spread over 100pc-scales around the Galaxy's core, quite unlike the compact distribution of organics found within hot cores inside giant molecular clouds. The advent of the wide-band correlator at Mopra, together with OTF mapping, now makes such a project possible. Through this program we will determine the distribution of 18 molecular lines, emitted from the 3x0.6 degree region of the CMZ. This will allow us to determine the physical environment across the CMZ - temperature, density, abundances and dynamics of the molecular gas. We will address the questions of what makes this region different from molecular clouds in the Galactic Ring, why are organics so widespread in the CMZ, and what is their connection to the ongoing massive star formation and death prevalent across the central regions of the Galaxy?

  5. Gas flows in Galaxies: Mergers Versus Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, S. L.; Patton, D. R.; Nair, P.; Mendel, J. T.; Scudder, J. M.; Simard, L.

    2013-10-01

    In this contribution, I will review the latest results of our ongoing work to study the central gas flows in merging galaxies, focusing on triggered star formation, presence of an AGN and changes in the gas-phase metallicity. Results from a sample of close galaxy pairs are compared with bar driven gas inflows in order to quantify the relative importance of hierarchical versus secular processes.

  6. Dense gas in low-metallicity galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braine, J.; Shimajiri, Y.; André, P.; Bontemps, S.; Gao, Yu; Chen, Hao; Kramer, C.

    2017-01-01

    Stars form out of the densest parts of molecular clouds. Far-IR emission can be used to estimate the star formation rate (SFR) and high dipole moment molecules, typically HCN, trace the dense gas. A strong correlation exists between HCN and far-IR emission, with the ratio being nearly constant, over a large range of physical scales. A few recent observations have found HCN to be weak with respect to the far-IR and CO in subsolar metallicity (low-Z) objects. We present observations of the Local Group galaxies M 33, IC 10, and NGC 6822 with the IRAM 30 m and NRO 45 m telescopes, greatly improving the sample of low-Z galaxies observed. HCN, HCO+, CS, C2H, and HNC have been detected. Compared to solar metallicity galaxies, the nitrogen-bearing species are weak (HCN, HNC) or not detected (CN, HNCO, N2H+) relative to far-IR or CO emission. HCO+ and C2H emission is normal with respect to CO and far-IR. While 13CO is the usual factor 10 weaker than 12CO, C18O emission was not detected down to very low levels. Including earlier data, we find that the HCN/HCO+ ratio varies with metallicity (O/H) and attribute this to the sharply decreasing nitrogen abundance. The dense gas fraction, traced by the HCN/CO and HCO+/CO ratios, follows the SFR but in the low-Z objects the HCO+ is much easier to measure. Combined with larger and smaller scale measurements, the HCO+ line appears to be an excellent tracer of dense gas and varies linearly with the SFR for both low and high metallicities.

  7. Gas density histograms of galaxies: the observational density probability function of the interstellar gas density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toshihiro, Handa; Takahiro, Yoda; Nario, Kuno

    2015-03-01

    In the steady state, the probability density function (PDF) of the gaseous interstellar matter (ISM) can be observed as a gas density histogram (GDH) of all cells in the system. We made GDHs of the Milky Way Galaxy (MWG) using Galactic plane surveys in CO lines. We found that the GDH in the MWG is log-normal which suggests that the density structure of the molecular gas is a result of many stochastic processes. Using the Nobeyama CO atlas, we made GDHs of nearby galaxies but in column density. Although some galaxies show log-normal, the others show completely different shapes, suggesting that the density structure of galaxies may be different from galaxy to galaxy.

  8. The Structure of Dark Molecular Gas in the Galaxy - I First Results from a GBT Pilot Survey for 18-cm OH emission towards L~105, B~1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Ronald J.; Hogg, David E.; Engelke, Philip D.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first results from a ``blind'' survey for 1665, 1667, and 1720 MHz OH emission over a small region of the Outer Galaxy centered at L = 105.0, B = +1.0. This sparse, high-sensitivity survey (Delta Ta= 3 mK rms in 0.55 km/s channels), was carried out as a pilot project with the Green Bank Telescope (FWHM 7.6') on a 3 X 9 grid at 0.5 deg spacing. The pointings were chosen to correspond with those of the CO(1-0) CfA survey of the Galaxy carried out earlier with substantially the same angular resolution (8.4'). Using 2-hr integrations, 1667 MHz OH emission was detected with the GBT at more than 21 of the 27 survey positions, confirming the ubiquity of molecular gas in the ISM as traced by this spectral line. With very few exceptions the 1665/1667 line ratios are in the LTE ratio of 5:9, and the few exceptions are familiar examples of anomalous OH emission. No OH absorption features are recorded in the area of the present survey, in agreement with the low levels of continuum background emission in this direction. With very few exceptions, peaks in the OH profiles coincide with peaks in the HI spectra (obtained concurrently with the GBT, FWHM 8.9'), although not every HI peak has associated OH emission. At each pointing the OH appears in several components extending over a wide range of radial velocity and coinciding with well-known features of Galactic structure such as the Local Arm and the Perseus Arm. In contrast, little CO emission is seen in the survey area; less than half of the 53 identified OH spectral features show detectable CO counterparts at the CfA sensitivity levels, and these are generally relatively faint. While higher-sensitivity CO data would undoubtedly turn many of the CO upper limits into measurements, such data is not likely to recover the missing CO profile line strengths. The 18-cm main lines of OH therefore appear to be a new tracer for the ``CO-Dark'' molecular gas in the Galactic ISM. Quantitative estimates for this dark molecular

  9. Galaxy Feeds Off Gas Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-13

    In this artist conception based on data from ESA Herschel observatory, a galaxy accretes mass from rapid, narrow streams of cold gas. These filaments provide the galaxy with continuous flows of raw material to feed its star-forming at a leisurely pace

  10. Dynamics of gas disks in triaxial galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Steiman-Cameron, T.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Increasing evidence has accumulated since the mid 1970's arguing that many, if not all, undisturbed galaxies may have triaxial mass distributions. The steady state configurations (preferred planes) of gas disks in triaxial galaxies with static and rotating surface figures is determined. In addition, the evolution of a gas disk as it settles into the steady state is followed for both axisymmetric and triaxial galaxies. Observational tests are provided for triaxial galactic geometry and give more accurate measures of settling times than those previously published. The preferred planes for gas disks in static and tumbling triaxial galaxies are determined using an analytic method derived from celestial mechanics. The evolution of gas disks which are not in the steady state is followed using numerical methods.

  11. Gas in Galaxies in Different Environments across Cosmic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez Betancourt, Maria Ximena

    Cold gas is fundamental in understanding galaxy formation and evolution since it provides the fuel for star formation. In addition, the atomic gas can be used to probe the internal properties of galaxies, their halos, and their environment. Several of the remaining questions in galaxy evolution can be addressed by studying the gas properties in galaxies, in particular, the following three: (1) How do galaxies get their gas? (2) How do galaxies change over time? (3) How are galaxies affected by the environment? The work presented in this thesis addresses these questions. The thesis is divided into three parts that cover a range of topics related to gas in galaxies, including the fate of gas in a merger remnant, the evolution and distribution of halo gas, and how the gas properties of galaxies change as a function of redshift and environment. Part I consists of two chapters that present the atomic and molecular gas properties of a wet merger remnant (NGC 34). Chapter 2 is an analysis of the HI distribution and kinematics in NGC 34. We find that the progenitors of NGC 34 were gas-rich. The kinematics of the tidal tails suggest that some of the gas is returning to the central regions and forming an outer disk. In addition, we find puzzling absorption near the systemic velocity against the radio continuum. Chapter 3 is a follow-up study consisting of CO observations done with CARMA and new VLA data with a large velocity coverage to search for outflows. We detect CO concentrated in the inner regions that matches the velocity range of the HI in absorption, indicating that there is a circumnuclear disk in the central regions of molecular and atomic gas. We do not detect the outflow seen in the optical spectrum in CO or HI, but are able to place upper limits on both. Part II is an analysis of halo gas in a Milky Way mass galaxy. We use a cosmological high resolution hydrodynamic simulation to study the distribution, origin, and evolution of halo gas. At z = 0, we find that

  12. Not that long time ago in the nearest galaxy: 3D slice of molecular gas revealed by a 110 yr old flare of Sgr A*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churazov, E.; Khabibullin, I.; Sunyaev, R.; Ponti, G.

    2017-02-01

    A powerful outburst of X-ray radiation from the supermassive black hole Sgr A* at the centre of the Milky Way is believed to be responsible for the illumination of molecular clouds in the central ˜100 pc of the Galaxy (Sunyaev, Markevitch & Pavlinsky; Koyama et al.). The reflected/reprocessed radiation comes to us with a delay corresponding to the light propagation time that depends on the 3D position of molecular clouds with respect to Sgr A*. We suggest a novel way of determining the age of the outburst and positions of the clouds by studying characteristic imprints left by the outburst in the spatial and time variations of the reflected emission. We estimated the age of the outburst that illuminates the Sgr A molecular complex to be ˜110 yr. This estimate implies that we see the gas located ˜10 pc further away from us than Sgr A*. If the Sgr B2 complex is also illuminated by the same outburst, then it is located ˜130 pc closer than our Galactic Center. The outburst was short (less than a few years) and the total amount of emitted energy in X-rays is ˜10^{48}ρ _3^{-1} erg, where ρ3 is the mean hydrogen density of the cloud complex in units of 103 cm-3. Energetically, such fluence can be provided by a partial tidal disruption event or even by a capture of a planet. Further progress in more accurate positioning and timing of the outburst should be possible with future X-ray polarimetric observations and long-term systematic observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton. A few hundred years long X-ray observations would provide a detailed 3D map of the gas density distribution in the central ˜100 pc region.

  13. Spatially resolved chemistry in nearby galaxies. III. Dense molecular gas in the inner disk of the LIRG IRAS 04296+2923

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, David S.; Turner, Jean L.; Beck, Sara C. E-mail: turner@astro.ucla.edu

    2014-11-10

    We present a survey of 3 mm molecular lines in IRAS 04296+2923, one of the brightest known molecular-line emitting galaxies, and one of the closest luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs). Data are from the Owens Valley and CARMA millimeter interferometers. Species detected at ≲ 4'' resolution include C{sup 18}O, HCN, HCO{sup +}, HNC, CN, CH{sub 3}OH, and, tentatively, HNCO. Along with existing CO, {sup 13}CO, and radio continuum data, these lines constrain the chemical properties of the inner disk. Dense molecular gas in the nucleus fuels a star formation rate ≳10 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and is traced by lines of HCN, HCO{sup +}, HNC, and CN. A correlation between HCN and star formation rate is observed on sub-kiloparsec scales, consistent with global relations. Toward the nucleus, CN abundances are similar to those of HCN, indicating emission comes from a collection (∼40-50) of moderate visual extinction, photon-dominated-region clouds. The CO isotopic line ratios are unusual: CO(1-0)/{sup 13}CO(1-0) and CO(1-0)/C{sup 18}O(1-0) line ratios are large toward the starburst, as is commonly observed in LIRGs, but farther out in the disk these ratios are remarkably low (≲ 3). {sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O abundance ratios are lower than in Galactic clouds, possibly because the C{sup 18}O is enriched by massive star ejecta from the starburst. {sup 13}CO is underabundant relative to CO. Extended emission from CH{sub 3}OH indicates that dynamical shocks pervade both the nucleus and the inner disk. The unusual CO isotopologue ratios, the CO/HCN intensity ratio versus L {sub IR}, the HCN/CN abundance ratio, and the gas consumption time versus inflow rate all indicate that the starburst in IRAS 04296+2923 is in an early stage of development.

  14. Galaxies in Clusters : Gas Stripping and Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dea, Chris; Balsara, Dinshaw; Livio, Mario

    1994-05-01

    We study the process of a galaxy moving through the intercluster gas in a cluster of galaxies, using a high quality hydrocode run at high resolutions. We find that ram pressure stripping occurs in the form of individual events that are separated by about ten million years. In addition we find that the galaxy accretes gas from the downstream side into the core. This accretion process exhibits a radial "pumping" mode, similar to the one found previously in simulations of wind accretion onto compact objects. Some implications of our results for the understanding of a few recent observations are discussed.

  15. A scaling law of radial gas distribution in disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhong

    1990-01-01

    Based on the idea that local conditions within a galactic disk largely determine the region's evolution time scale, researchers built a theoretical model to take into account molecular cloud and star formations in the disk evolution process. Despite some variations that may be caused by spiral arms and central bulge masses, they found that many late-type galaxies show consistency with the model in their radial atomic and molecular gas profiles. In particular, researchers propose that a scaling law be used to generalize the gas distribution characteristics. This scaling law may be useful in helping to understand the observed gas contents in many galaxies. Their model assumes an exponential mass distribution with disk radius. Most of the mass are in atomic gas state at the beginning of the evolution. Molecular clouds form through a modified Schmidt Law which takes into account gravitational instabilities in a possible three-phase structure of diffuse interstellar medium (McKee and Ostriker, 1977; Balbus and Cowie, 1985); whereas star formation proceeds presumably unaffected by the environmental conditions outside of molecular clouds (Young, 1987). In such a model both atomic and molecular gas profiles in a typical galactic disk (as a result of the evolution) can be fitted simultaneously by adjusting the efficiency constants. Galaxies of different sizes and masses, on the other hand, can be compared with the model by simply scaling their characteristic length scales and shifting their radial ranges to match the assumed disk total mass profile sigma tot(r).

  16. TOTAL MOLECULAR GAS MASSES OF z {approx} 3 LYMAN- BREAK GALAXIES: CO(J = 1 {yields} 0) EMISSION IN MS 1512-cB58 AND THE COSMIC EYE

    SciTech Connect

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Carilli, Christopher L.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Walter, Fabian

    2010-12-01

    We report the detection of CO(J = 1 {yields} 0) emission toward the lensed L {sup *} {sub UV} Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) MS 1512-cB58 (z = 2.73) and the Cosmic Eye (z = 3.07), using the Expanded Very Large Array. The strength of the CO line emission reveals molecular gas reservoirs with masses of (4.6 {+-} 1.1) x 10{sup 8} ({mu}{sub L}/32){sup -1} ({alpha}{sub CO}/0.8) M {sub sun} and (9.3 {+-} 1.6) x 10{sup 8} ({mu}{sub L}/28){sup -1} ({alpha}{sub CO}/0.8) M {sub sun}, respectively. These observations suggest {approx}30%-40% larger gas reservoirs than previously estimated based on CO(J = 3 {yields} 2) observations due to subthermal excitation of the J = 3 line. These observations also suggest gas mass fractions of 0.46 {+-} 0.17 and 0.16 {+-} 0.06. The CO(J = 1 {yields} 0) emission in the Cosmic Eye is slightly resolved on scales of 4.''5 {+-} 1.''5, consistent with previous studies of nebular emission lines. This suggests that the molecular gas is associated with the most intensely star-forming regions seen in the ultraviolet (UV). We do not resolve the CO(J = 1 {yields} 0) emission in cB58 at {approx}2'' resolution, but find that the CO(J = 1 {yields} 0) emission is also consistent with the position of the UV-brightest emission peak. The gas masses, gas fractions, moderate CO line excitation, and star formation efficiencies in these galaxies are consistent with what is found in nearby luminous infrared galaxies. These observations thus currently represent the best constraints on the molecular gas content of 'ordinary' (i.e., {approx}L* {sub UV}) z {approx} 3 star-forming galaxies. Despite comparable star formation rates, the gas properties of these young LBGs seem to be different from the recently identified optical/infrared-selected high-z massive, gas-rich star-forming galaxies, which are more gas-rich and massive, but have lower star formation efficiencies, and presumably trace a different galaxy population.

  17. Karl G. Jansky very large array observations of cold dust and molecular gas in starbursting quasar host galaxies at z ∼ 4.5

    SciTech Connect

    Wagg, J.; Carilli, C. L.; Lentati, L.; Maiolino, R.; Hills, R.; Aravena, M.; Cox, P.; McMahon, R. G.; Riechers, D.; Walter, F.; Andreani, P.; Wolfe, A.

    2014-03-10

    We present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of 44 GHz continuum and CO J = 2-1 line emission in BRI 1202–0725 at z = 4.7 (a starburst galaxy and quasar pair) and BRI 1335–0417 at z = 4.4 (also hosting a quasar). With the full 8 GHz bandwidth capabilities of the upgraded VLA, we study the (rest-frame) 250 GHz thermal dust continuum emission for the first time along with the cold molecular gas traced by the low-J CO line emission. The measured CO J = 2-1 line luminosities of BRI 1202–0725 are L{sub CO}{sup ′}=(8.7±0.8)×10{sup 10} K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2} and L{sub CO}{sup ′}=(6.0 ± 0.5)×10{sup 10} K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2} for the submillimeter galaxy (SMG) and quasar, respectively, which are equal to previous measurements of the CO J = 5-4 line luminosities implying thermalized line emission, and we estimate a combined cold molecular gas mass of ∼9×10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. In BRI 1335–0417 we measure L{sub CO}{sup ′}=(7.3±0.6)×10{sup 10} K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2}. We detect continuum emission in the SMG BRI 1202–0725 North (S {sub 44} {sub GHz} = 51 ± 6 μJy), while the quasar is detected with S {sub 44} {sub GHz} = 24 ± 6 μJy and in BRI 1335–0417 we measure S {sub 44} {sub GHz} = 40 ± 7 μJy. Combining our continuum observations with previous data at (rest-frame) far-infrared and centimeter wavelengths, we fit three-component models in order to estimate the star formation rates. This spectral energy distribution fitting suggests that the dominant contribution to the observed 44 GHz continuum is thermal dust emission, while either thermal free-free or synchrotron emission contributes less than 30%.

  18. A Massive Molecular Gas Reservoir in the Z = 2.221 Type-2 Quasar Host Galaxy SMM J0939+8315 Lensed by the Radio Galaxy 3C220.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, T. K. Daisy; Riechers, Dominik A.

    2016-02-01

    We report the detection of CO(J = 3 \\to 2) line emission in the strongly lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) SMM J0939+8315 at z = 2.221, using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. SMM J0939+8315 hosts a type-2 quasar, and is gravitationally lensed by the radio galaxy 3C220.3 and its companion galaxy at z = 0.685. The 104 GHz continuum emission underlying the CO line is detected toward 3C220.3 with an integrated flux density of Scont = 7.4 ± 1.4 mJy. Using the CO(J = 3 \\to 2) line intensity of ICO(3-2) = (12.6 ± 2.0) Jy km s-1, we derive a lensing- and excitation-corrected CO line luminosity of {L}{{CO(1-0)}}\\prime = (3.4 ± 0.7) × 1010 (10.1/μL) K km s-1 pc2 for the SMG, where μL is the lensing magnification factor inferred from our lens modeling. This translates to a molecular gas mass of Mgas = (2.7 ± 0.6) × 1010 (10.1/μL) M⊙. Fitting spectral energy distribution models to the (sub)-millimeter data of this SMG yields a dust temperature of T = 63.1{}-1.3+1.1 K, a dust mass of Mdust = (5.2 ± 2.1) × 108 (10.1/μL) M⊙, and a total infrared luminosity of LIR = (9.1 ± 1.2) ×1012 (10.1/μL) L⊙. We find that the properties of the interstellar medium of SMM J0939+8315 overlap with both SMGs and type-2 quasars. Hence, SMM J0939+8315 may be transitioning from a starbursting phase to an unobscured quasar phase as described by the “evolutionary link” model, according to which this system may represent an intermediate stage in the evolution of present-day galaxies at an earlier epoch.

  19. HI Gas in Disk and Dwarf Galaxies in the Semi-analytic Models of Galaxy Formation†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jian; Wang, Jing; Luo, Yu

    We construct the radially-resolved semi-analytic models of galaxy formation based on the L-Galaxies model framework, which include both atomic and molecular gas phase in ISM. The models run on the halo outputs of ΛCDM cosmology N-body simulation. Our models can reproduce varies observations of HI gas in nearby galaxies, e.g. the HI mass function, the HI-to-star ratio vs stellar mass and stellar surface density, universal HI radial surface density profile in outer disks etc. We also give the physical origin of HI size-mass relation. Based on our model results for local dwarf galaxies, we show that the ``missing satellite problem'' also exists in the HI component, i.e., the models over-predict dwarf galaxies with low HI mass around the Milky Way. That is a shortcoming of current ΛCDM cosmology framework. Future survey for HI gas in local dwarf galaxies (e.g. MeerKAT, SKA & FAST) can help to verify the nature of dark matter (cold or warm).

  20. Dust and Ionized Gas in Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudfrooij, Paul

    1995-05-01

    The thesis presents results of a study of the optical and far-infrared properties of dust and ionized gas in a complete, blue magnitude-limited (B_T^0 < 12) sample of 56 luminous elliptical (E) galaxies. The main aim is to investigate the origin and fate of this interstellar material and possible implications for scenarios of galaxy formation and evolution. To ensure consistency in the assignment of morphological types, the galaxy sample was drawn exclusively from the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog of Bright Galaxies. A deep, systematic optical survey has been performed, including CCD imaging through both broad-band filters and narrow-band filters. For each galaxy we have constructed colour index (B-V, B-I) images and images of the H-alpha+ [N II]-emitting gas to derive the distributions of dust features and ionized gas. Long-slit spectra have also been obtained in two resolutions. Low-resolution spectra (covering the whole optical region) are used to study the properties of the underlying stellar populations (e.g., metallicity gradients), and to study the excitation mechanism of the ionized gas. Additional medium-resolution (~2A) spectra in the wavelength region around H-alpha have been obtained for all sample elliptical galaxies containing ionized gas to study the kinematics of the gas, and derive pure H-alpha luminosities. In this thesis, analysis of the extensive imaging data and of the medium-resolution spectra is reported. In Chapter 1 we report an early result of our survey: The galaxy IC 1459 is found to exhibit a large (15 Kpc diameter) H-alpha+[N II] emission-line region, showing spiral structure. Patchy dust absorption is also found in the inner part of the emission-line region. This galaxy was already shown to contain a massive stellar core which counter-rotates rapidly with respect to the stellar body of the galaxy. Interestingly, the sense of rotation of the spiral "arms" of the ionized gas distribution is the same as that of the rapidly rotating

  1. Resolving Gas-Phase Metallicity In Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, David

    2017-06-01

    Chapter 2: As part of the Bluedisk survey we analyse the radial gas-phase metallicity profiles of 50 late-type galaxies. We compare the metallicity profiles of a sample of HI-rich galaxies against a control sample of HI-'normal' galaxies. We find the metallicity gradient of a galaxy to be strongly correlated with its HI mass fraction {M}{HI}) / {M}_{\\ast}). We note that some galaxies exhibit a steeper metallicity profile in the outer disc than in the inner disc. These galaxies are found in both the HI-rich and control samples. This contradicts a previous indication that these outer drops are exclusive to HI-rich galaxies. These effects are not driven by bars, although we do find some indication that barred galaxies have flatter metallicity profiles. By applying a simple analytical model we are able to account for the variety of metallicity profiles that the two samples present. The success of this model implies that the metallicity in these isolated galaxies may be in a local equilibrium, regulated by star formation. This insight could provide an explanation of the observed local mass-metallicity relation. Chapter 3 We present a method to recover the gas-phase metallicity gradients from integral field spectroscopic (IFS) observations of barely resolved galaxies. We take a forward modelling approach and compare our models to the observed spatial distribution of emission line fluxes, accounting for the degrading effects of seeing and spatial binning. The method is flexible and is not limited to particular emission lines or instruments. We test the model through comparison to synthetic observations and use downgraded observations of nearby galaxies to validate this work. As a proof of concept we also apply the model to real IFS observations of high-redshift galaxies. From our testing we show that the inferred metallicity gradients and central metallicities are fairly insensitive to the assumptions made in the model and that they are reliably recovered for galaxies

  2. Gas Ejection from Spiral Galaxy Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durelle, Jeremy

    We present the results of three proposed mechanisms for ejection of gas from a spiral arm into the halo. The mechanisms were modelled using magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) as a theoretical template. Each mechanism was run through simulations using a Fortran code: ZEUS-3D, an MHD equation solver. The first mechanism modelled the gas dynamics with a modified Hartmann flow which describes the fluid flow between two parallel plates. We initialized the problem based on observation of lagging halos; that is, that the rotational velocity falls to a zero at some height above the plane of the disk. When adopting a density profile which takes into account the various warm and cold H I and HII molecular clouds, the system evolves very strangely and does not reproduce the steady velocity gradient observed in edge-on galaxies. This density profile, adopted from Martos and Cox (1998), was used in the remaining models. However, when treating a system with a uniform density profile, a stable simulation can result. Next we considered supernova (SN) blasts as a possible mechanism for gas ejection. While a single SN was shown to be insufficient to promote vertical gas structures from the disk, multiple SN explosions proved to be enough to promote gas ejection from the disk. In these simulations, gas ejected to a height of 0.5 kpc at a velocity of 130 km s--1 from 500 supernovae, extending to an approximate maximum height of 1 kpc at a velocity of 6.7 x 103 km s--1 from 1500 supernovae after 0.15 Myr, the approximate time of propagation of a supernova shock wave. Finally, we simulated gas flowing into the spiral arm at such a speed to promote a jump in the disk gas, termed a hydraulic jump. The height of the jump was found to be slightly less than a kiloparsec with a flow velocity of 41 km s--1 into the halo after 167 Myr. The latter models proved to be effective mechanisms through which gas is ejected from the disk whereas the Hartmann flow (or toy model) mechanism remains unclear as the

  3. Spiral galaxies in clusters. III. Gas-rich galaxies in the Pegasus I cluster of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Bothun, G.D.; Schommer, R.A.; Sullivan, W.T. III

    1982-05-01

    We report the results of a 21-cm and optical survey of disk galaxies in the vicinity of the Pegasus I cluster of galaxies. The color--gas content relation (log(M/sub H//L/sub B/) vs (B-V)/sup T//sub 0/ ) for this particular cluster reveals the presence of a substantial number of blue, gas-rich galaxies. With few exceptions, the disk systems in Pegasus I retain large amounts of neutral hydrogen despite their presence in a cluster. This directly shows that environmental processes have not yet removed substantial amounts of gas from these disk galaxies. We conclude that the environment has had little or no observable effect upon the evolution of disk galaxies in Pegasus I. The overall properties of the Pegasus I spirals are consistent with the suggestion that this cluster is now at an early stage in its evolution.

  4. Gas distribution and starbursts in shell galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weil, Melinda L.; Hernquist, Lars

    1993-01-01

    Detailed maps of most elliptical galaxies reveal that, whereas the greatest part of their luminous mass originates from a smooth distribution with a surface brightness approximated by a de Vaucouleurs law, a small percentage of their light is contributed by low surface brightness distortions termed 'fine structures'. The sharp-edged features called 'shells' are successfully reproduced by merger and infall models involving accretion from less massive companions. In this context, dwarf spheroidal and compact disk galaxies are likely progenitors of these stellar phenomena. However, it is probable that the sources of shell-forming material also contain significant amounts of gas. This component may play an important role in constraining the formation and evolution of shell galaxies. To investigate the effects of the gaseous component, numerical simulations were performed to study the tidal disruption of dwarf galaxies containing both gas and stars by more massive primaries, and the evolution of the ensuing debris. The calculations were performed with a hybrid N-body/hydrodynamics code. Collisionless matter is evolved using a conventional N-body technique and gas is treated using smoothed particle hydrodynamics in which self-gravitating fluid elements are represented as particles evolving according to Lagrangian hydrodynamic equations. An isothermal equation of state is employed so the gas remains at a temperature 104 K. Owing to the large mass ratio between the primary and companion, the primary is modeled as a rigid potential and the self-gravity of both galaxies is neglected.

  5. Evolution of Hot Gas in Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, William G.

    2004-01-01

    This theory grant was awarded to study the curious nature, origin and evolution of hot gas in elliptical galaxies and their surrounding groups. Understanding the properties of this X-ray emitting gas has profound implications over the broad landscape of modern astrophysics: cosmology, galaxy formation, star formation, cosmic metal enrichment, galactic structure and dynamics, and the physics of hot gases containing dust and magnetic fields. One of our principal specific objectives was to interpret the marvelous new observations from the XMM and Chandru satellite X-ray telescopes.

  6. The Evolution Of Gas In And Around Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geach, James

    2017-06-01

    Talk presented at the conference "Galaxy Evolution Across Time", 12-16 June, Paris, France. I discuss the cosmological evolution of cold gas in galaxies and the impact of stellar and quasar feedback on the cold gas reservoir.

  7. Gas-rich galaxy pair unveiled in the lensed quasar 0957+561

    PubMed

    Planesas; Martin-Pintado; Neri; Colina

    1999-12-24

    Molecular gas in the host galaxy of the lensed quasar 0957+561 (QSO 0957+561) at the redshift of 1.41 has been detected in the carbon monoxide (CO) line. This detection shows the extended nature of the molecular gas distribution in the host galaxy and the pronounced lensing effects due to the differentially magnified CO luminosity at different velocities. The estimated mass of molecular gas is about 4 x 10(9) solar masses, a molecular gas mass typical of a spiral galaxy like the Milky Way. A second, weaker component of CO is interpreted as arising from a close companion galaxy that is rich in molecular gas and has remained undetected so far. Its estimated molecular gas mass is 1.4 x 10(9) solar masses, and its velocity relative to the main galaxy is 660 kilometers per second. The ability to probe the molecular gas distribution and kinematics of galaxies associated with high-redshift lensed quasars can be used to improve the determination of the Hubble constant H(0).

  8. Evolution of Gas Across Spiral Arms in the Whirlpool Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, Melissa Nicole

    To investigate the dynamic evolution of gas across spiral arms, we conducted a detailed study of the gas and star formation along the spiral arms in the Whirlpool Galaxy, M51. This nearby, face-on spiral galaxy provides a unique laboratory to study the relationship between gas dynamics and star formation. The textbook picture of interstellar medium (ISM) evolution is rapidly changing. Molecular gas was once believed to form along spiral arms from the diffuse atomic gas in the inter-arm regions. Star formation occurs within giant molecular clouds during spiral arm passage. Lastly, the molecular gas is photo-dissociated back into atomic gas by massive stars on the downstream side of the spiral arm. Recent evidence, however, is revealing a new picture of the interstellar medium and the process of star formation. We seek development of a new picture by studying the development and evolution of molecular gas and the role of large scale galactic dynamics in organizing the interstellar medium. This thesis begins by presenting work measuring the geometrical offsets between interstellar gas and recent star formation. Interstellar gas is traced by atomic hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO). Star formation is traced by ionized hydrogen recombination lines and infrared emission from dust warmed by young bright stars. Measuring these offsets can help determine the underlying large scale galactic dynamics. Along the spiral arms in M51, offsets between CO and the star formation tracers suggest that gas is flowing through the spiral arms, but the offsets do not show the expected signature of a single pattern speed and imply a more complicated pattern. This thesis also examines the intermediate stages of gas evolution, by studying a denser component of the ISM closer to which stars will form. Only a small percent of the bulk molecular gas will become dense enough to form stars. HCN and HCO+ probe densities ˜104 cm-3, where as the bulk gas is 500 cm-3. This thesis looks at HCN and

  9. The Structure of Dark Molecular Gas in the Galaxy. I. A Pilot Survey for 18 cm OH Emission Toward l≈ 105°, b≈ +1°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Ronald J.; Hogg, David E.; Engelke, Philip D.

    2015-04-01

    We report the first results from a survey for 1665, 1667, and 1720 MHz OH emission over a small region of the Outer Galaxy centered at l≈ 105\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 0,b≈ +1\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 0. This sparse, high-sensitivity survey ({Δ }{{T}A}≈ {Δ }{{T}mb}≈ 3.0-3.5 mK rms in 0.55 km s-1 channels), was carried out as a pilot project with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) (FWHM ≈ 7\\buildrel{ \\prime}\\over{.} 6 ) on a 3 × 9 grid at 0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 5 spacing. The pointings were chosen to correspond with those of the existing 12CO(1-0) CfA survey of the Galaxy done at a similar resolution (8.‧4). With 2 hr integrations, 1667 MHz OH emission was detected with the GBT at ≳ 21 of the 27 survey positions (≥slant 78% ), confirming the ubiquity of molecular gas in the ISM as traced by this spectral line. With few exceptions, the main OH lines at 1665 and 1667 MHz appear in the ratio of 5:9 characteristic of LTE at our sensitivity levels. No OH absorption features are recorded in the area of the present survey, in agreement with the low levels of continuum background emission in this direction. At each pointing the OH emission appears in several components extending over a wide range of radial velocity and coinciding with well-known features of Galactic structure such as the Local Arm and the Perseus Arm. In contrast, little CO emission is seen in the survey area; less than half of the ≳ 50 identified OH spectral features show detectable CO counterparts at the CfA sensitivity levels, and these are generally relatively faint. There are no CO features without corresponding OH emission in our survey. With very few exceptions, peaks in the OH profiles coincide with peaks in the GBT H i spectra (obtained concurrently, FWHM 8.‧9), although the converse is not true. We conclude that main-line OH emission is a promising tracer for the “dark molecular gas” in the Galaxy discovered earlier in far-IR and gamma-ray emission

  10. Galaxies in clusters: Gas stripping and accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsara, Dinshaw; Livio, Mario; O'Dea, Christopher P.

    1994-12-01

    We study the process of a galaxy moving through the intracluster gas in a cluster of galaxies, using two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations at high resolution. We find that ram pressure stripping occurs in the form of individual events which are separated by a few times 107 yr. In addition, we find that the galaxy accretes gas from the downstream side into the core. This accretion process exhibits a radial 'pumping' mode, similar to the one found previously in simulations of wind accretion onto compact objects. The flow is found to exhibit a complex shock structure around the core. Some implications of our results for the understanding of a few recent observations are discussed.

  11. Simulations of gas clouds in interacting galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomasson, Magnus

    1990-01-01

    A companion can induce a variety of morphological changes in a galaxy. The author uses N-body simulations to study the effects of different kinds of perturbations on the dynamics of a disk galaxy. The model is two-dimensional, with a disk consisting of about 60,000 particles. Most of the particles (80%) represent the old stellar population with a high velocity dispersion, while the rest (20%) represent gas clouds with a low velocity dispersion. Initially, the velocity dispersion corresponds to Q = 1 for the star particles, and Q = O for the gas particles, where Q is Toomre's (1964) stability parameter. The gas clouds can collide inelastically. The disk is stabilized by a rigid halo potential, and by the random motions of the old star particles. To simulate the effect of an encounter on the disk, a companion galaxy, modelled as a point mass, can move in a co-planar orbit around the disk. A complete description of the N-body code is found in Thomasson (1989). The spiral structures caused by a companion in first a direct and then a retrograde (with respect to the rotation of the disk) parabolic orbit are presented. The associated velocity fields suggest a way to observationally distinguish between leading and trailing spiral arms. The stability of the gas component in a disk in which tidally triggered infall of gas to the center occurs is studied. Finally, the author shows how a ring of gas can form in a disk as a result of a co-planar encounter with another galaxy.

  12. OB associations and giant molecular clouds in the galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jonathan; Mckee, Chris

    1993-01-01

    Giant molecular clouds (GMC's) are the sites of all OB star formation in the Galaxy. These OB stars typically form in large associations and photoionize the surrounding gas, eventually destroying the clouds from which they were born. CO surveys have revealed the distribution of GMC's in the Galaxy, and radio observations provide data on the distribution of associations. These results are extrapolated to determine Galactic mean distribution functions of each and then combined to determine how GMC's and OB associations are correlated. The resulting probability distribution of luminosity given cloud mass implies that although most of the molecular mass of the Galaxy is in massive star forming complexes, a large number of clouds above which massive star formation is extremely likely and abundant and below which it is almost certainly absent.

  13. Compactness of cold gas in high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obreschkow, D.; Rawlings, S.

    2009-12-01

    Galaxies in the early Universe were more compact and contained more molecular gas than today. In this paper, we revisit the relation between these empirical findings, and we quantitatively predict the cosmic evolution of the surface densities of atomic (HI) and molecular (H2) hydrogen in regular galaxies. Our method uses a pressure-based model for the H2/HI ratio of the interstellar medium, applied to ~3 × 107 virtual galaxies in the Millennium Simulation. We predict that, on average, the HI-surface density of these galaxies saturates at ΣHI < 10Msolarpc-2 at all redshifts (z), while H2-surface densities evolve dramatically as . This scaling is dominated by a ~ (1 + z)2 surface brightness scaling originating from the ~ (1 + z)-1 size scaling of galaxies at high z. Current measurements of at high z, derived from CO observations, tend to have even higher values, which can be quantitatively explained by a selection bias towards merging systems. However, despite the consistency between our high-z predictions and the sparse empirical data, we emphasize that the empirical data potentially suffer from serious selection biases and that the semi-analytic models remain in many regards uncertain. As a case study, we investigate the cosmic evolution of simulated galaxies, which resemble the Milky Way at z = 0. We explicitly predict their HI and H2 distribution at z = 1.5, corresponding to the CO-detected galaxy BzK-21000, and at z = 3, corresponding to the primary science goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array.

  14. Molecular disks in radio galaxies. The pathway to ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prandoni, I.; Laing, R. A.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Parma, P.

    2010-11-01

    Context. It has recently been proposed that the jets of low-luminosity radio galaxies are powered by direct accretion of the hot phase of the IGM onto the central black hole. Cold gas remains a plausible alternative fuel supply, however. The most compelling evidence that cold gas plays a role in fueling radio galaxies is that dust is detected more commonly and/or in larger quantities in (elliptical) radio galaxies compared with radio-quiet elliptical galaxies. On the other hand, only small numbers of radio galaxies have yet been detected in CO (and even fewer imaged), and whether or not all radio galaxies have enough cold gas to fuel their jets remains an open question. If so, then the dynamics of the cold gas in the nuclei of radio galaxies may provide important clues to the fuelling mechanism. Aims: The only instrument capable of imaging the molecular component on scales relevant to the accretion process is ALMA, but very little is yet known about CO in southern radio galaxies. Our aim is to measure the CO content in a complete volume-limited sample of southern radio galaxies, in order to create a well-defined list of nearby targets to be imaged in the near future with ALMA. Methods: APEX [This publication is based on data acquired with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX). APEX is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie, the European Southern Observatory, and the Onsala Space Observatory.] has recently been equipped with a receiver (APEX-1) able to observe the 230 GHz waveband. This allows us to search for CO(2-1) line emission in our target galaxies. Results: Here we present the results for our first three southern targets, proposed for APEX-1 spectroscopy during science verification: NGC 3557, IC 4296 and NGC 1399. The experiment was successful with two targets detected, and possible indications for a double-horned CO line profile, consistent with ordered rotation. These early results are encouraging, demonstrating that APEX can

  15. Galaxies Probing Galaxies: Cool Halo Gas from a z = 0.47 Post-Starburst Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Kate H. R.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Weiner, Benjamin J.

    2010-03-01

    We study the cool gas around a galaxy at z = 0.4729 using Keck/LRIS spectroscopy of a bright (B = 21.7) background galaxy at z = 0.6942 at a transverse distance of 16.5h -1 70 kpc. The background galaxy spectrum reveals strong Fe II, Mg II, Mg I, and Ca II absorption at the redshift of the foreground galaxy, with an Mg II λ2796 rest equivalent width of 3.93 ± 0.08 Å, indicative of a velocity width exceeding 400 km s-1. Because the background galaxy is large (>4h -1 70 kpc), the high covering fraction of the absorbing gas suggests that it arises in a spatially extended complex of cool clouds with large velocity dispersion. Spectroscopy of the massive (log M */M sun = 11.15 ± 0.08) host galaxy reveals that it experienced a burst of star formation about 1 Gyr ago and that it harbors a weak active galactic nucleus. We discuss the possible origins of the cool gas in its halo, including multiphase cooling of hot halo gas, cold inflow, tidal interactions, and galactic winds. We conclude that the absorbing gas was most likely ejected or tidally stripped from the interstellar medium of the host galaxy or its progenitors during the past starburst event. Adopting the latter interpretation, these results place one of only a few constraints on the radial extent of cool gas driven or stripped from a galaxy in the distant universe. Future studies with integral field unit spectroscopy of spatially extended background galaxies will provide multiple sight lines through foreground absorbers and permit analysis of the morphology and kinematics of the gas surrounding galaxies with a diverse set of properties and environments. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  16. THE DARK MOLECULAR GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfire, Mark G.; Hollenbach, David; McKee, Christopher F. E-mail: dhollenbach@seti.or

    2010-06-20

    The mass of molecular gas in an interstellar cloud is often measured using line emission from low rotational levels of CO, which are sensitive to the CO mass, and then scaling to the assumed molecular hydrogen H{sub 2} mass. However, a significant H{sub 2} mass may lie outside the CO region, in the outer regions of the molecular cloud where the gas-phase carbon resides in C or C{sup +}. Here, H{sub 2} self-shields or is shielded by dust from UV photodissociation, whereas CO is photodissociated. This H{sub 2} gas is 'dark' in molecular transitions because of the absence of CO and other trace molecules, and because H{sub 2} emits so weakly at temperatures 10 K molecular component. This component has been indirectly observed through other tracers of mass such as gamma rays produced in cosmic-ray collisions with the gas and far-infrared/submillimeter wavelength dust continuum radiation. In this paper, we theoretically model this dark mass and find that the fraction of the molecular mass in this dark component is remarkably constant ({approx}0.3 for average visual extinction through the cloud A-bar{sub V{approx_equal}}8) and insensitive to the incident ultraviolet radiation field strength, the internal density distribution, and the mass of the molecular cloud as long as A-bar{sub V}, or equivalently, the product of the average hydrogen nucleus column and the metallicity through the cloud, is constant. We also find that the dark mass fraction increases with decreasing A-bar{sub V}, since relatively more molecular H{sub 2} material lies outside the CO region in this case.

  17. Circumnuclear molecular gas in M87 detected with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahakis, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    We present the detection of circumnuclear molecular gas residing within 100 pc of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the galaxy M87 (3C 274), using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to image the gas on spatial scales from 100 to 10 pc. The proximity of M87, the archetypical giant elliptical radio galaxy at the centre of the Virgo galaxy cluster, presents a unique opportunity to investigate in detail the circumnuclear molecular gas revealed first by single-dish observations and recently imaged for the first time with ALMA (Vlahakis et al., in prep). ALMA's unique long baseline capability now allows us to make the first detailed investigation of the properties of the interstellar medium around the galaxy's SMBH on scales down to 10 pc (0.1 arcsec). Here, we present results of ALMA Band 3 CO J=1-0 observations obtained at different angular resolutions. With this data we are able to trace the bulk of the molecular gas as well as the continuum emission, providing the deepest and highest spatial resolution images yet of the molecular gas content of this giant elliptical galaxy. The highest resolution data allow us to unambiguously resolve the molecular gas structures for the first time and investigate, in unprecedented detail, the nature and origin of molecular gas that resides within the sphere of influence of the SMBH.

  18. The opacity of spiral galaxy disks: IX. Dust and gas surface densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holwerda, B. W.; Allen, R. J.; de Blok, W. J. G.; Bouchard, A.; González-Lópezlira, R. A.; van der Kruit, P. C.; Leroy, A.

    2013-03-01

    Our aim is to explore the relation between gas, atomic and molecular, and dust in spiral galaxies. Gas surface densities are from atomic hydrogen and CO line emission maps. To estimate the dust content, we use the disk opacity as inferred from the number of distant galaxies identified in twelve HST/WFPC2 fields of ten nearby spiral galaxies. The observed number of distant galaxies is calibrated for source confusion and crowding with artificial galaxy counts and here we verify our results with sub-mm surface brightnesses from archival Herschel-SPIRE data. We find that the opacity of the spiral disk does not correlate well with the surface density of atomic (H I) or molecular hydrogen (H_2) alone implying that dust is not only associated with the molecular clouds but also the diffuse atomic disk in these galaxies. Our result is a typical dust-to-gas ratio of 0.04, with some evidence that this ratio declines with galactocentric radius, consistent with recent Herschel results. We discuss the possible causes of this high dust-to-gas ratio; an over-estimate of the dust surface-density, an under-estimate of the molecular hydrogen density from CO maps or a combination of both. We note that while our value of the mean dust-to-gas ratio is high, it is consistent with the metallicity at the measured radii if one assumes the Pilyugin & Thuan (2005) calibration of gas metallicity.

  19. DYNAMIC S0 GALAXIES. II. THE ROLE OF DIFFUSE HOT GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jiangtao; Chen Yang; Daniel Wang, Q.; Li Zhiyuan

    2011-08-10

    Cold gas loss is thought to be important in star formation quenching and morphological transition during the evolution of S0 galaxies. In high-density environments, this gas loss can be achieved via many external mechanisms. However, in relatively isolated environments, where these external mechanisms cannot be efficient, the gas loss must then be dominated by some internal processes. We have performed Chandra analysis of hot gas in five nearby isolated S0 galaxies, based on the quantitative subtraction of various stellar contributions. We find that all the galaxies studied in the present work are X-ray faint, with the luminosity of the hot gas (L{sub X} ) typically accounting for {approx}< 5% of the expected Type Ia supernova (SN) energy injection rate. We have further compared our results with those from relevant recent papers, in order to investigate the energy budget, cold-hot gas relation, and gas removal from S0 galaxies in isolated environments. We find that elliptical and S0 galaxies are not significantly different in L{sub X} at the low-mass end (typically with K-band luminosity L{sub K} {approx}< 10{sup 11} L{sub sun,K}). However, at the high-mass end, S0 galaxies tend to have significantly lower L{sub X} than elliptical galaxies of the same stellar masses, as already shown in previous observational and theoretical works. We further discuss the potential relationship of the diffuse X-ray emission with the cold (atomic and molecular) gas content in the S0 and elliptical galaxies included in our study. We find that L{sub X} /L{sup 2}{sub K} tends to correlate positively with the total cold gas mass (M{sub H{sub 2}+H{sub i}}) for cold-gas-poor galaxies with M{sub H{sub 2}+H{sub i}}{approx}<10{sup 8} M{sub sun}, while they anti-correlate with each other for cold-gas-rich galaxies. This cold-hot gas relationship can be explained in a scenario of early-type galaxy evolution, with the leftover cold gas from the precursor star-forming galaxy mainly removed by the

  20. Dust and gas in star-forming galaxies at z 3. Extending galaxy uniformity to 11.5 billion years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdis, G. E.; Rigopoulou, D.; Daddi, E.; Bethermin, M.; Feruglio, C.; Sargent, M.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dickinson, M.; Elbaz, D.; Gomez Guijarro, C.; Huang, J.-S.; Toft, S.; Valentino, F.

    2017-07-01

    We present millimetre dust emission measurements of two Lyman-break galaxies at z 3 and construct for the first time fully sampled infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs), from mid-IR to the Rayleigh-Jeans tail, of individually detected, unlensed, UV-selected, main sequence (MS) galaxies at z = 3. The SED modelling of the two sources confirms previous findings, based on stacked ensembles, of an increasing mean radiation field ⟨ U ⟩ with redshift, consistent with a rapidly decreasing gas metallicity in z> 2 galaxies. Complementing our study with CO[J = 3 → 2] emission line observations, we have measured the molecular gas mass reservoir (MH2) of the systems using three independent approaches: 1) CO line observations; 2) the dust to gas mass ratio vs. metallicity relation; and 3) a single band, dust emission flux on the Rayleigh-Jeans side of the SED. All techniques return consistent MH2 estimates within a factor of two or less, yielding gas depletion time-scales (τdep ≈ 0.35 Gyr) and gas-to-stellar mass ratios (MH2/M∗ ≈ 0.5-1) for our z 3 massive MS galaxies. The overall properties of our galaxies are consistent with trends and relations established at lower redshifts, extending the apparent uniformity of star-forming galaxies over the last 11.5 billion years. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  1. The AT-LESS CO(1-0) survey of submillimetre galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: First results on cold molecular gas in galaxies at z ˜ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Minh T.; Emonts, B. H. C.; Kimball, A. E.; Seymour, N.; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Brandt, W. N.; Casey, C. M.; Chapman, S. C.; Dannerbauer, H.; Hodge, J. A.; Ivison, R. J.; Schinnerer, E.; Thomson, A. P.; van derWerf, P.; Wardlow, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first results from our on-going Australia Telescope Compact Array survey of 12CO(1-0) in ALMA-identified submillimetre galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South. Strong detections of 12CO(1-0) emission from two submillimetre galaxies, ALESS 122.1 (z = 2.0232) and ALESS 67.1 (z = 2.1230), were obtained. We estimate gas masses of Mgas ˜ 1.3 × 1011 M⊙ and Mgas ˜ 1.0 × 1011M⊙ for ALESS 122.1 and ALESS 67.1, respectively, adopting αCO = 1.0. Dynamical mass estimates from the kinematics of the 12CO(1-0) line yields Mdynsin 2i = (2.1 ± 1.1) × 1011 M⊙ and (3.2 ± 0.9) × 1011 M⊙ for ALESS 122.1 and ALESS 67.1, respectively. This is consistent with the total baryonic mass estimates of these two systems. We examine star formation efficiency using the LFIR versus L^' }_CO(1-0) relation for samples of local ULIRGs and LIRGs, and more distant star-forming galaxies, with 12CO(1-0) detections. We find some evidence of a shallower slope for ULIRGs and SMGs compared to less luminous systems, but a larger sample is required for definite conclusions. We determine gas-to-dust ratios of 170 ± 30 and 140 ± 30 for ALESS 122.1 and ALESS 67.1, respectively, showing ALESS 122.1 has an unusually large gas reservoir. By combining the 38.1 GHz continuum detection of ALESS 122.1 with 1.4 and 5.5 GHz data, we estimate that the free-free contribution to radio emission at 38.1 GHz is 34 ± 17 μJy, yielding a star formation rate (1400 ± 700 M⊙ yr-1) consistent with that from the infrared luminosity.

  2. Warm gas accretion onto the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2009-03-01

    We present evidence that the accretion of warm gas onto the Galaxy today is at least as important as cold gas accretion. For more than a decade, the source of the bright Hα emission (up to 750 mR†) along the Magellanic Stream has remained a mystery. We present a hydrodynamical model that explains the known properties of the Hα emission and provides new insights on the lifetime of the Stream clouds. The upstream clouds are gradually disrupted due to their interaction with the hot halo gas. The clouds that follow plough into gas ablated from the upstream clouds, leading to shock ionisation at the leading edges of the downstream clouds. Since the following clouds also experience ablation, and weaker Hα (100-200 mR) is quite extensive, a disruptive cascade must be operating along much of the Stream. In order to light up much of the Stream as observed, it must have a small angle of attack (≈ 20°) to the halo, and this may already find support in new Hi observations. Another prediction is that the Balmer ratio (Hα/Hβ) will be substantially enhanced due to the slow shock; this will soon be tested by upcoming WHAM observations in Chile. We find that the clouds are evolving on timescales of 100-200 Myr, such that the Stream must be replenished by the Magellanic Clouds at a fairly constant rate (≳ 0.1 M⊙ yr-1). The ablated material falls onto the Galaxy as a warm drizzle; diffuse ionized gas at 104 K is an important constituent of galactic accretion. The observed Hα emission provides a new constraint on the rate of disruption of the Stream and, consequently, the infall rate of metal-poor gas onto the Galaxy. We consider the stability of Hi clouds falling towards the Galactic disk and show that most of these must break down into smaller fragments that become partially ionized. The Galactic halo is expected to have huge numbers of smaller neutral and ionized fragments. When the ionized component of the infalling gas is accounted for, the rate of gas accretion is

  3. Radial Gas Flows in Colliding Galaxies: Connecting Simulations and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iono, Daisuke; Yun, Min S.; Mihos, J. Christopher

    2004-11-01

    We investigate the detailed response of gas to the formation of transient and long-lived dynamical structures induced in the early stages of a disk-disk collision and identify observational signatures of radial gas inflow through a detailed examination of the collision simulation of an equal-mass bulge-dominated galaxy. Our analysis and discussion mainly focuses on the evolution of the diffuse and dense gas in the early stages of the collision, when the two disks are interacting but have not yet merged. Stars respond to the tidal interaction by forming both transient arms and long-lived m=2 bars, but the gas response is more transient, flowing directly toward the central regions within about 108 yr after the initial collision. The rate of inflow declines when more than half of the total gas supply reaches the inner few kiloparsecs, where the gas forms a dense nuclear ring inside the stellar bar. The average gas inflow rate to the central 1.8 kpc is ~7 Msolar yr-1 with a peak rate of 17 Msolar yr-1. Gas with high volume density is found in the inner parts of the postcollision disks at size scales close to the spatial resolution of the simulations, and this may be a direct result of shocks traced by the discontinuity in the gas velocity field. The evolution of gas in a bulgeless progenitor galaxy is also discussed, and a possible link to the ``chain galaxy'' population observed at high redshifts is inferred. The evolution of the structural parameters such as asymmetry and concentration of both stars and gas are studied in detail. Further, a new structure parameter (the compactness parameter K) that traces the evolution of the size scale of the gas relative to the stellar disk is introduced, and this may be a useful tracer to determine the merger chronology of colliding systems. Noncircular gas kinematics driven by the perturbation of the nonaxisymmetric structure can produce distinct emission features in the ``forbidden velocity quadrants'' of the position

  4. ALMA Observations of Gas-rich Galaxies in z ˜ 1.6 Galaxy Clusters: Evidence for Higher Gas Fractions in High-density Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, A. G.; McDonald, M.; Muzzin, A.; Nantais, J.; Rudnick, G.; van Kampen, E.; Webb, T. M. A.; Wilson, G.; Yee, H. K. C.; Boone, K.; Cooper, M. C.; DeGroot, A.; Delahaye, A.; Demarco, R.; Foltz, R.; Hayden, B.; Lidman, C.; Manilla-Robles, A.; Perlmutter, S.

    2017-06-01

    We present ALMA CO (2-1) detections in 11 gas-rich cluster galaxies at z ˜ 1.6, constituting the largest sample of molecular gas measurements in z > 1.5 clusters to date. The observations span three galaxy clusters, derived from the Spitzer Adaptation of the Red-sequence Cluster Survey. We augment the >5σ detections of the CO (2-1) fluxes with multi-band photometry, yielding stellar masses and infrared-derived star formation rates, to place some of the first constraints on molecular gas properties in z ˜ 1.6 cluster environments. We measure sizable gas reservoirs of 0.5-2 × 1011 M ⊙ in these objects, with high gas fractions (f gas) and long depletion timescales (τ), averaging 62% and 1.4 Gyr, respectively. We compare our cluster galaxies to the scaling relations of the coeval field, in the context of how gas fractions and depletion timescales vary with respect to the star-forming main sequence. We find that our cluster galaxies lie systematically off the field scaling relations at z = 1.6 toward enhanced gas fractions, at a level of ˜4σ, but have consistent depletion timescales. Exploiting CO detections in lower-redshift clusters from the literature, we investigate the evolution of the gas fraction in cluster galaxies, finding it to mimic the strong rise with redshift in the field. We emphasize the utility of detecting abundant gas-rich galaxies in high-redshift clusters, deeming them as crucial laboratories for future statistical studies.

  5. Toward Gas Chemistry in Low Metallicity Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, David S.; Anderson, Crystal N.; Turner, Jean; Ott, Juergen; Beck, Sara C.

    2017-01-01

    Dense gas, which is intimately connected with star formation, is key to understanding star formation. Though challenging to study, dense gas in low metallicity starbursts is important given these system's often extreme star formation and their potential implications for high redshift analogs. High spatial resolution (~50 pc) ALMA observations of several key probes of gas chemistry, including HCN(1-0), HCO+(1-0), CS(2-1), CCH(1-0;3/2-1/2) and SiO(2-1), towards the nearby super star-cluster (SSC) forming, sub-solar metallicity galaxy NGC 5253 are discussed. Dense gas is observed to be extended well beyond the current compact starburst, reaching into the apparently infalling molecular streamer. The faintness of HCN, the standard dense gas tracer, is extreme both in an absolute sense relative to high metallicity starbursts of a similar intensity and in a relative sense, with the HCO+/HCN ratio being one of the most elevated observed. UV-irradiated molecular gas, traced by CCH, is also extended over the mapped region, not being strongly correlated with the SSC. Despite the accretion of molecular gas from the halo and the intense burst of star formation, chemical signatures of shocked gas, traced by SiO (and HNCO), are not obvious. By placing NGC 5253 in context with other local starbursts, like 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Clouds and the high metallicity proto-typical starburst NGC 253, it is suggested that a combination of gas excitation and abundance changes associated with the sub solar metallicity may explain these anomalous dense gas properties.

  6. Lighting the dark molecular gas and a Bok globule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togi, Aditya G.

    Stars are the building blocks of galaxies. The gas present in galaxies is the primary fuel for star formation. Galaxy evolution depends on the amount of gas present in the interstellar medium (ISM). Stars are born mainly from molecular gas in the GMCs. Robust knowledge of the molecular hydrogen H2 gas distribution is necessary to understand star formation in galaxies. Since H2 is not readily observable in the cold interstellar medium (ISM), the molecular gas content has traditionally been inferred using indirect tracers like carbon-monoxide (CO), dust emission, gamma ray interactions, and star formation efficiency. Physical processes resulting in enhancement and reduction of these indirect tracers can result in misleading estimates of molecular gas masses. My dissertation work is based on devising a new temperature power law distribution model for H2, a direct tracer, to calculate the total molecular gas mass in galaxies. The model parameters are estimated using mid infrared (MIR) H2 rotational line fluxes obtained from IRS-Spitzer (Infrared Spectrograph-Spitzer) instrument and the model is extrapolated to a suitable lower temperature to recover the total molecular gas mass. The power law model is able to recover the dark molecular gas, undetected by CO, in galaxies at metallicity as low as one-tenth of our Milky Way value. I have applied the power law model in U/LIRGs and shocks of Stephan's Quintet to understand molecular gas properties, where shocks play an important role in exciting H2. Comparing the molecular gas content derived through our power law model can be useful in studying the application of our model in mergers. The parameters derived by our model is useful in understanding variation in molecular gas properties in shock regions of Stephan's Quintet. Low mass stars are formed in small isolated dense cores known as Bok globules. Multiple star formation events are seen in a Bok globule. In my thesis I also studied a Bok globule, B207, and determined the

  7. Gas loss in simulated galaxies as they fall into clusters

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Renyue; Pop, Ana Roxana; Bahcall, Neta A.

    2014-01-01

    We use high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulations to gain insights into how galaxies lose their cold gas at low redshift as they migrate from the field to the high-density regions of clusters of galaxies. We find that beyond three cluster virial radii, the fraction of gas-rich galaxies is constant, representing the field. Within three cluster-centric radii, the fraction of gas-rich galaxies declines steadily with decreasing radius, reaching <10% near the cluster center. Our results suggest galaxies start to feel the effect of the cluster environment on their gas content well beyond the cluster virial radius. We show that almost all gas-rich galaxies at the cluster virial radius are falling in for the first time at nearly radial orbits. Furthermore, we find that almost no galaxy moving outward at the cluster virial radius is gas-rich (with a gas-to-baryon ratio greater than 1%). These results suggest that galaxies that fall into clusters lose their cold gas within a single radial round-trip. PMID:24843167

  8. Gas loss in simulated galaxies as they fall into clusters.

    PubMed

    Cen, Renyue; Pop, Ana Roxana; Bahcall, Neta A

    2014-06-03

    We use high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulations to gain insights into how galaxies lose their cold gas at low redshift as they migrate from the field to the high-density regions of clusters of galaxies. We find that beyond three cluster virial radii, the fraction of gas-rich galaxies is constant, representing the field. Within three cluster-centric radii, the fraction of gas-rich galaxies declines steadily with decreasing radius, reaching <10% near the cluster center. Our results suggest galaxies start to feel the effect of the cluster environment on their gas content well beyond the cluster virial radius. We show that almost all gas-rich galaxies at the cluster virial radius are falling in for the first time at nearly radial orbits. Furthermore, we find that almost no galaxy moving outward at the cluster virial radius is gas-rich (with a gas-to-baryon ratio greater than 1%). These results suggest that galaxies that fall into clusters lose their cold gas within a single radial round-trip.

  9. The Properties of the Dense Gas in the Nuclei of Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paglione, Timothy A. D.

    1997-01-01

    The properties of the star-forming clouds in galactic nuclei are largely unknown, and no clear explanation exists for the origin and evolution of starburst galaxies-galaxies with unusually high star formation rates. My goal is to determine the relation between the interstellar cloud properties in galaxies and their star formation activity by estimating the gas densities in starburst galaxies and comparing them to those of normal galaxies and the Milky Way. I perform three programs: observing the emission from dense gas in galaxies, wide-field mapping of the Milky Way, and millimeter-wave interferometry of starburst galaxies. In starburst galaxies, I map the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave emission from molecules that require high densities for excitation, such as hydrogen cyanide and carbon monosulfide. This emission is closely tied to star forming regions. I find that the densest clouds lie within several hundred parsecs of starburst nuclei, and the star formation efficiency of a galaxy is correlated with its average gas density. Unfortunately, the spatial resolution of most observations of galaxies is poor, but comparing different sources properly requires examining them on similar spatial scales. Therefore, to compare the gas properties of starburst galaxies and the Milky Way, I utilize innovations at millimeter-wave telescopes to map the large-scale emission from dense gas in the Milky Way. I find that dense gas comprises a higher fraction of the molecular mass in starburst galaxies than in the Milky Way. Further, the density derived from the averaged spectra of the Milky Way equals the mean density found from modeling each map position. Therefore, analyses of this type probe the average gas properties in galaxies. Finally, I use millimeter-wave interferometry to examine dense gas in starburst galaxies on the spatial scales of individual cloud complexes. I find that dense clouds in starburst galaxies are associated with star-forming regions, and some clouds

  10. The Central Molecular Zone of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Michael; Jones, Paul; Ott, Juergen; Cunningham, Maria; Menten, Karl; Schilke, Peter; Belloche, Arnaud; Walsh, Andrew; Requena-Torres, Miguel Angel; Martin-Pintado, Jesus; Leurini, Silvia

    2008-04-01

    We are undertaking a molecular mapping survey of Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) of the Galaxy. This is a unique region, where complex organic molecules are spread over 100pc-scales around the Galaxy's core, quite unlike the compact distribution of organics found within hot cores inside giant molecular clouds. The advent of the wide-band correlator at Mopra, together with OTF mapping, now makes such a project possible. In 2007 we began this survey with the inner degree of the CMZ, and propose to continue it here. The survey will take a further three semesters to complete. Through it, we will determine the distribution of 18 molecular lines, emitted between 85-93GHz, from the 3x0.5 degree region of the CMZ. This will allow us to determine the physical environment across the CMZ. We will address the questions of what makes this region different from molecular clouds in the Galactic Ring, why are organics so widespread in the CMZ, and what is their connection to the ongoing massive star formation and death prevalent across the central regions of the Galaxy?

  11. INVESTIGATING THE POTENTIAL DILUTION OF THE METAL CONTENT OF HOT GAS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES BY ACCRETED COLD GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yuanyuan; Irwin, Jimmy A.

    2013-03-20

    The measured emission-weighted metal abundance of the hot gas in early-type galaxies has been known to be lower than theoretical expectations for 20 years. In addition, both X-ray luminosity and metal abundance vary significantly among galaxies of similar optical luminosities. This suggests some missing factors in the galaxy evolution process, especially the metal enrichment process. With Chandra and XMM-Newton, we studied 32 early-type galaxies (kT {approx}< 1 keV) covering a span of two orders of L{sub X,gas}/L{sub K} to investigate these missing factors. Contrary to previous studies that X-ray faint galaxies show extremely low Fe abundance ({approx}0.1 Z{sub Sun }), nearly all galaxies in our sample show an Fe abundance at least 0.3 Z{sub Sun }, although the measured Fe abundance difference between X-ray faint and X-ray bright galaxies remains remarkable. We investigated whether this dichotomy of hot gas Fe abundances can be related to the dilution of hot gas by mixing with cold gas. With a subset of 24 galaxies in this sample, we find that there is virtually no correlation between hot gas Fe abundances and their atomic gas content, which disproves the scenario that the low metal abundance of X-ray faint galaxies might be a result of the dilution of the remaining hot gas by pristine atomic gas. In contrast, we demonstrate a negative correlation between the measured hot gas Fe abundance and the ratio of molecular gas mass to hot gas mass, although it is unclear what is responsible for this apparent anti-correlation. We discuss several possibilities including that externally originated molecular gas might be able to dilute the hot gas metal content. Alternatively, the measured hot gas Fe abundance may be underestimated due to more complex temperature and abundance structures and even a two-temperature model might be insufficient to reflect the true value of the emission weighted mean Fe abundance.

  12. The atomic gas in outer disks in semi-analytic models of galaxy formation†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jian; Luo, Yu

    2017-03-01

    We use semi-analytic models of galaxy formation L-Galaxies based on ΛCDM cosmology to study the HI gas component in galaxy outskirts. We adopt the radially-resolved version of the models by Fu et al. (2013), which includes both atomic and molecular gas component in interstellar medium. This model has been recently updated by Luo et al. (2016) to include cold gas stripping in the outer disk regions of the satellite galaxies by ram pressure. In our models, we can perfectly reproduce the HI size-mass relation, which is discovered by Broeils & Rhee (1997) and confirmed by many subsequent observations. In our model, the reason for such tight correlation between HI size and mass is atomic-molecular phase conversion in high gas surface density regions while HI ionization in low gas surface density region, which leads to very narrow distribution of HI mean surface density. The models also reproduce the universal exponential HI radial profiles in galaxy outskirts found by Bluedisk (Wang et al. 2013), which arises from cold gas accretion onto the galaxy disks in exponentially profiles.

  13. Stellar feedback as the origin of an extended molecular outflow in a starburst galaxy.

    PubMed

    Geach, J E; Hickox, R C; Diamond-Stanic, A M; Krips, M; Rudnick, G H; Tremonti, C A; Sell, P H; Coil, A L; Moustakas, J

    2014-12-04

    Recent observations have revealed that starburst galaxies can drive molecular gas outflows through stellar radiation pressure. Molecular gas is the phase of the interstellar medium from which stars form, so these outflows curtail stellar mass growth in galaxies. Previously known outflows, however, involve small fractions of the total molecular gas content and have typical scales of less than a kiloparsec. In at least some cases, input from active galactic nuclei is dynamically important, so pure stellar feedback (the momentum return into the interstellar medium) has been considered incapable of rapidly terminating star formation on galactic scales. Molecular gas has been detected outside the galactic plane of the archetypal starburst galaxy M82 (refs 4 and 5), but so far there has been no evidence that starbursts can propel substantial quantities of cold molecular gas to the same galactocentric radius (about 10 kiloparsecs) as the warmer gas that has been traced by metal ion absorbers in the circumgalactic medium. Here we report observations of molecular gas in a compact (effective radius 100 parsecs) massive starburst galaxy at redshift 0.7, which is known to drive a fast outflow of ionized gas. We find that 35 per cent of the total molecular gas extends approximately 10 kiloparsecs, and one-third of this extended gas has a velocity of up to 1,000 kilometres per second. The kinetic energy associated with this high-velocity component is consistent with the momentum flux available from stellar radiation pressure. This demonstrates that nuclear bursts of star formation are capable of ejecting large amounts of cold gas from the central regions of galaxies, thereby strongly affecting their evolution by truncating star formation and redistributing matter.

  14. Investigating the Processes Driving Low-Mass Galaxy Evolution with Gas Metallicities of Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ly, Chun; Malkan, Matthew; Nagao, Tohru; Hayashi, Masao; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Motohara, Kentaro

    2013-02-01

    There appears to be a ``fundamental" relationship that links the stellar masses, star-formation rates (SFRs), and gas metallicities of local galaxies. It has been used to constrain the major processes in galaxy evolution. However, it is unclear whether (1) this observed relation holds at earlier cosmic time, and (2) if it applies to low-mass galaxies and/or those with relatively higher specific SFRs (sSFRs). We request follow-up Hectospec spectroscopy %and DEIMOS spectroscopy to obtain gas metallicity measurements in key unexplored domains of galaxy parameter space. We will target Ntarget low-mass high equivalent width (EW) emission-line galaxies at zrange in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF). This sample is a factor of almost 4 larger than the existing data for galaxies with similar redshifts, SFRs and stellar masses. The SDF is ideal for such a survey because of its unique multi-wavelength imaging data that allow us to (1) identify a much higher surface density of high-EW star-forming galaxies over a wide redshift range than in any other survey, and (2) determine stellar masses and SFRs for individual galaxies. With the largest spectroscopic sample of low mass and/or high sSFR galaxies, we will determine the relationships between metallicity, stellar mass, and SFRs for dwarf galaxies. We will examine if the same galaxy evolution processes in massive galaxies also hold for lower mass galaxies over the past six billion years.

  15. The Green Bank Telescope Maps the Dense, Star-forming Gas in the Nearby Starburst Galaxy M82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Leroy, Adam K.; Frayer, David; Usero, Antonio; Marvil, Josh; Walter, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Observations of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies show that dense molecular gas correlates with recent star formation, suggesting that the formation of this gas phase may help regulate star formation. A key test of this idea requires wide-area, high-resolution maps of dense molecular gas in galaxies to explore how local physical conditions drive dense gas formation, but these observations have been limited because of the faintness of dense gas tracers like HCN and HCO+. Here we demonstrate the power of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT)—the largest single-dish millimeter radio telescope—for mapping dense gas in galaxies by presenting the most sensitive maps yet of HCN and HCO+ in the starburst galaxy M82. The HCN and HCO+ in the disk of this galaxy correlates with both recent star formation and more diffuse molecular gas and shows kinematics consistent with a rotating torus. The HCO+ emission extending to the north and south of the disk is coincident with the outflow previously identified in CO and traces the eastern edge of the hot outflowing gas. The central starburst region has a higher ratio of star formation to dense gas than the outer regions, pointing to the starburst as a key driver of this relationship. These results establish that the GBT can efficiently map the dense molecular gas at 90 GHz in nearby galaxies, a capability that will increase further with the 16 element feed array under construction.

  16. Galaxy Zoo and ALFALFA: atomic gas and the regulation of star formation in barred disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Haynes, Martha P.; Keel, William C.; Lintott, Chris; Simmons, Brooke; Skibba, Ramin; Bamford, Steven; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Schawinski, Kevin

    2012-08-01

    We study the observed correlation between atomic gas content and the likelihood of hosting a large-scale bar in a sample of 2090 disc galaxies. Such a test has never been done before on this scale. We use data on morphologies from the Galaxy Zoo project and information on the galaxies' H I content from the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFALFA) blind H I survey. Our main result is that the bar fraction is significantly lower among gas-rich disc galaxies than gas-poor ones. This is not explained by known trends for more massive (stellar) and redder disc galaxies to host more bars and have lower gas fractions: we still see at fixed stellar mass a residual correlation between gas content and bar fraction. We discuss three possible causal explanations: (1) bars in disc galaxies cause atomic gas to be used up more quickly, (2) increasing the atomic gas content in a disc galaxy inhibits bar formation and (3) bar fraction and gas content are both driven by correlation with environmental effects (e.g. tidal triggering of bars, combined with strangulation removing gas). All three explanations are consistent with the observed correlations. In addition our observations suggest bars may reduce or halt star formation in the outer parts of discs by holding back the infall of external gas beyond bar co-rotation, reddening the global colours of barred disc galaxies. This suggests that secular evolution driven by the exchange of angular momentum between stars in the bar, and gas in the disc, acts as a feedback mechanism to regulate star formation in intermediate-mass disc galaxies. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 200 000 volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their contributions are individually acknowledged at South East Physics Network, E-mail: karen.masters@port.ac.ukEinstein fellow.

  17. GASP. I. Gas Stripping Phenomena in Galaxies with MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggianti, Bianca M.; Moretti, Alessia; Gullieuszik, Marco; Fritz, Jacopo; Jaffé, Yara; Bettoni, Daniela; Fasano, Giovanni; Bellhouse, Callum; Hau, George; Vulcani, Benedetta; Biviano, Andrea; Omizzolo, Alessandro; Paccagnella, Angela; D'Onofrio, Mauro; Cava, Antonio; Sheen, Y.-K.; Couch, Warrick; Owers, Matt

    2017-07-01

    GAs Stripping Phenomena in galaxies with MUSE (GASP) is a new integral-field spectroscopic survey with MUSE at the VLT aimed at studying gas removal processes in galaxies. We present an overview of the survey and show a first example of a galaxy undergoing strong gas stripping. GASP is obtaining deep MUSE data for 114 galaxies at z = 0.04-0.07 with stellar masses in the range {10}9.2{--}{10}11.5 {M}⊙ in different environments (galaxy clusters and groups over more than four orders of magnitude in halo mass). GASP targets galaxies with optical signatures of unilateral debris or tails reminiscent of gas-stripping processes (“jellyfish galaxies”), as well as a control sample of disk galaxies with no morphological anomalies. GASP is the only existing integral field unit (IFU) survey covering both the main galaxy body and the outskirts and surroundings, where the IFU data can reveal the presence and origin of the outer gas. To demonstrate GASP’s ability to probe the physics of gas and stars, we show the complete analysis of a textbook case of a jellyfish galaxy, JO206. This is a massive galaxy (9× {10}10 {M}⊙ ) in a low-mass cluster (σ ˜ 500 {km} {{{s}}}-1) at a small projected clustercentric radius and a high relative velocity, with ≥90 kpc long tentacles of ionized gas stripped away by ram pressure. We present the spatially resolved kinematics and physical properties of the gas and stars and depict the evolutionary history of this galaxy.

  18. Rapid Cooling of Dusty Gas in Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, William G.; Brighenti, Fabrizio

    2003-06-01

    We propose a stellar origin for the central dust clouds observed in most giant elliptical galaxies. Dusty gas ejected from evolving red giant stars in elliptical or cD galaxies can cool rapidly even after entering the hot X-ray-emitting gas. Cooling by thermal collisions with dust grains can be faster than either the dynamical time in the galactic potential or the grain sputtering time. Some grains survive in the cooled gas. Dusty stellar outflows cool more efficiently in the central regions, where the stellar metallicity is higher. Mergers with gas and dust-rich dwarf galaxies may occasionally occur but are not required to explain the observed dust clouds.

  19. TWO POPULATIONS OF MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN THE ANTENNAE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Lisa H.; Keto, Eric; Ho, Luis C.

    2012-05-10

    Super star clusters-extremely massive clusters found predominately in starburst environments-are essential building blocks in the formation of galaxies and thought to dominate star formation in the high-redshift universe. However, the transformation from molecular gas into these ultracompact star clusters is not well understood. To study this process, we used the Submillimeter Array and the Plateau de Bure Interferometer to obtain high angular resolution ({approx}1.''5 or 160 pc) images of the Antennae overlap region in CO(2-1) to search for the molecular progenitors of the super star clusters. We resolve the molecular gas distribution into a large number of clouds, extending the differential cloud mass function down to a 5{sigma} completeness limit of 3.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }. We identify a distinct break in the mass function around log M{sub mol}/M{sub Sun} Almost-Equal-To 6.5, which separates the molecular clouds into two distinct populations. The smaller, less massive clouds reside in more quiescent areas in the region, while the larger, more massive clouds cluster around regions of intense star formation. A broken power-law fit to the mass function yields slopes of {alpha} = -1.39 {+-} 0.10 and {alpha} = -1.44 {+-} 0.14 for the low- and high-mass cloud population, well matched to the mass function found for super star clusters in the Antennae galaxies. We find large velocity gradients and velocity dispersions at the locations of intense star formation, suggestive of compressive shocks. It is likely that these environmental factors contribute to the formation of the observed massive molecular clouds and super star clusters in the Antennae galaxies.

  20. An ALMA detection of circumnuclear molecular gas in M87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahakis, Catherine E.; Leon, Stephane; Martin, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    We present the detection of circumnuclear molecular gas in M87 using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA).M87 (3C 274) is an archetypal giant elliptical galaxy at the centre of the Virgo cluster and is a unique object in which to study the origin and properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) in a radio galaxy located in a dense environment. While a very well-known object across most of the electromagnetic spectrum, M87 has long lacked a detailed study in the (sub)millimeter range, requiring the advance in both sensitivity and angular resolution only now made possible by ALMA.Molecular gas in the inner part of M87 has previously been detected in single-dish observations, suggesting that the molecular gas likely resides in a circumnuclear disk-like structure. However, the unique ALMA capabilities now allow us to make the first detailed, interferometric, investigation of the properties of the ISM around the galaxy's supermassive black hole.Here, we present results of ALMA band 3 and 7 data which we have used to map the CO J=1-0 and CO J=3-2 lines, respectively. With this data we are able to trace the bulk of the molecular gas, the warmer denser gas, and the continuum emission, at an angular resolution of 1 arcsecond (~80 pc), providing the deepest and highest spatial resolution image yet of the molecular gas content of this giant elliptical galaxy.

  1. How does metallicity affect the gas and dust properties of galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Suzanne C.; Cormier, Diane; Rémy-Ruyer, Aurélie

    Comparison of the ISM properties of a wide range of metal poor galaxies with normal metal-rich galaxies reveals striking differences. We find that the combination of the low dust abundance and the active star formation results in a very porous ISM filled with hard photons, heating the dust in dwarf galaxies to overall higher temperatures than their metal-rich counterparts. This results in photodissociation of molecular clouds to greater depths, leaving relatively large PDR envelopes and difficult-to-detect CO cores. From detailed modeling of the low-metallicity ISM, we find significant fractions of CO-dark H2 - a reservoir of molecular gas not traced by CO, but present in the [CII] and [CI]-emitting envelopes. Self-consistent analyses of the neutral and ionized gas diagnostics along with the dust SED is the necessary way forward in uncovering the multiphase structure of galaxies.

  2. Hot halo gas in numerical simulations of galaxy mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Manodeep

    Galaxy merger simulations have explored the behavior of gas within a galactic disk, yet the dynamics of hot gas within the galaxy halo has been neglected. We report on the results of high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of colliding galaxies with hot halo gas. We explore a range of mass ratios, gas fractions and orbital configurations to constrain the shocks and the dynamics of the gas within the progenitor halos. We find that: (i) A strong shock is produced in the galaxy halos before the first passage, increasing the temperature of the gas by almost an order of magnitude to ˜ 10 6.3 K. (ii) The X-ray luminosity of the shock is strongly dependent on the gas fraction. It is ≳ 1039 erg/s for gas fractions larger than 10%. (iii) We find an analytic fit to the maximum X-ray luminosity of the shock as a function of merger parameters. This fit can be used in semi-analytic recipes for galaxy formation to estimate the total X-ray emission from shocks in merging galaxies. (iv) The hot diffuse gas in the simulation also produces X-ray luminosities as large as 1042 erg/s. This contributes to the total X-ray background in the Universe. (v) ˜ 10--20% of the initial gas mass is unbound from the galaxies for equal-mass mergers, while 3--5% of the gas mass is released for the 3:1 and 10:1 mergers. This unbound gas ends up far from the galaxy and can be a feasible mechanism for metal enrichment of the IGM. We use an analytical halo merger tree to estimate the fraction of gas mass lost over the history of the Universe.

  3. Gas dynamic simulations of galaxy formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evrard, August E.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from a simulation modeling the formation of a group of galaxies in a 'standard' cold, dark matter universe with delta = 1, h sub 0 = 50 km/(s(Mpc)), baryon fraction omega sub b = 0.1 and spectrum normalization sigma sub 8 = 0.6 (bias parameter b = 1.7). Initial conditions are generated within a periodic box with comoving length 16 Mpc in a manner constrained to produce a small cluster of total mass approximately 10 exp 14 solar mass. Two sets of 643 particles are used to model the dark matter and baryon fluids. Each gas particle represents 1.08 x 10 exp -8 solar mass, implying an L* galaxy is resolved by approximately 1000 particles. The system is evolved self-consistently in three dimensions using the combined N-body/hydrodynamic scheme P3MSPH up to a final redshift z = 1. Evolving to the present is prohibited by the fact that the mean density in the simulated volume is above critical and the entire volume would be going nonlinear beyond this point, We are currently analyzing another run with somewhat poorer mass resolution which was evolved to the present.

  4. Star formation in semi-analytic galaxy formation models with multiphase gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville, Rachel S.; Popping, Gergö; Trager, Scott C.

    2015-11-01

    We implement physically motivated recipes for partitioning cold gas into different phases (atomic, molecular, and ionized) in galaxies within semi-analytic models of galaxy formation based on cosmological merger trees. We then model the conversion of molecular gas into stars using empirical recipes motivated by recent observations. We explore the impact of these new recipes on the evolution of fundamental galaxy properties such as stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), and gas and stellar phase metallicity. We present predictions for stellar mass functions, stellar mass versus SFR relations, and cold gas phase and stellar mass-metallicity relations for our fiducial models, from redshift z ˜ 6 to the present day. In addition we present predictions for the global SFR, mass assembly history, and cosmic enrichment history. We find that the predicted stellar properties of galaxies (stellar mass, SFR, metallicity) are remarkably insensitive to the details of the recipes used for partitioning gas into H I and H2. We see significant sensitivity to the recipes for H2 formation only in very low mass haloes (M_h ≲ 10^{10.5} M_{⊙}), which host galaxies with stellar masses m_* ≲ 10^8 M_{⊙}. The properties of low-mass galaxies are also quite insensitive to the details of the recipe used for converting H2 into stars, while the formation epoch of massive galaxies does depend on this significantly. We argue that this behaviour can be interpreted within the framework of a simple equilibrium model for galaxy evolution, in which the conversion of cold gas into stars is balanced on average by inflows and outflows.

  5. The distribution of ionized gas in early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buson, L. M.; Sadler, E. M.; Zeilinger, W. W.; Bertin, G.; Bertola, F.; Danzinger, J.; Dejonghe, H.; Saglia, R. P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.

    1993-12-01

    We present and discuss H-alpha+(N II) imaging observations of fifteen nearby elliptical and SO galaxies with extended optical emission lines. The morphology of the emitting regions suggests that the ionized gas usually lies in a disk which is often geometrically decoupled from the stellar body, as expected in a triaxial galaxy. The presence of a gaseous disk makes these galaxies suitable for testing their gravitational field in a straightforward way. The presence of dust in many of the disks, together with the observed morphological properties, suggests that the ionized gas in most of these galaxies is more closely associated with the cold Interstellar Medium (ISM) than with the hot X-ray component. The mass of ionized gas in the galaxies studied here is typically 10-100 times that in a 'normal' early-type galaxy of similar optical luminosity. These appear to be galaxies where an unusually high fraction of the cold gas has been ionized, rather than unusually gas-rich systems in an overall sense. The extra ionizing source may be related to an active nucleus, since the continuum radio emission from these galaxies is typically 10-15 times more powerful than in 'normal' ellipticals of the smae optical luminosity.

  6. Gas accretion from the cosmic web feeding disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Olmo-García, A.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Filho, M. E.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Amorín, R.

    2017-03-01

    Disk galaxies in cosmological numerical simulations grow by accreting gas from the cosmic web. This gas reaches the external disk, and then spirals in dragged along by tidal forces and/or disk instabilities. The importance of gas infall is as clear from numerical simulations as it is obscure to observations. Extremely metal poor (XMP) galaxies seem to be the best example we have of the gas accretion process at work. They have large off-center starbursts which show significant metallicity drop compared with the host galaxy. This observation is naturally explained as a gas accretion event caught in the act. We present preliminary results of the kinematical properties of the metal poor starbursts in XMPs, which suggest that the starbursts are kinematically decoupled entities within the host galaxy.

  7. xGASS: Gas-rich central galaxies in small groups and their connections to cosmic web gas feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janowiecki, Steven; Catinella, Barbara; Cortese, Luca; Saintonge, Amélie; Brown, Toby; Wang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    We use deep HI observations obtained as part of the extended GALEX Arecibo SDSS survey (xGASS) to study the cold gas properties of central galaxies across environments. We find that, below stellar masses of 1010.2 M⊙, central galaxies in groups have an average atomic hydrogen gas fraction ˜0.3dex higher than those in isolation at the same stellar mass. At these stellar masses, group central galaxies are usually found in small groups of N=2 members. The higher HI content in these low mass group central galaxies is mirrored by their higher average star formation activity and molecular hydrogen content. At larger stellar masses, this difference disappears and central galaxies in groups have similar (or even smaller) gas reservoirs and star formation activity compared to those in isolation. We discuss possible scenarios able to explain our findings and suggest that the higher gas content in low mass group central galaxies is likely due to contributions from the cosmic web or HI-rich minor mergers, which also fuel their enhanced star formation activity.

  8. xGASS: gas-rich central galaxies in small groups and their connections to cosmic web gas feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janowiecki, Steven; Catinella, Barbara; Cortese, Luca; Saintonge, Amélie; Brown, Toby; Wang, Jing

    2017-04-01

    We use deep H i observations obtained as part of the extended GALEX Arecibo SDSS survey (xGASS) to study the cold gas properties of central galaxies across environments. We find that below stellar masses of 1010.2 M⊙, central galaxies in groups have an average atomic hydrogen gas fraction ˜0.3 dex higher than those in isolation at the same stellar mass. At these stellar masses, group central galaxies are usually found in small groups of N = 2 members. The higher H i content in these low-mass group central galaxies is mirrored by their higher average star formation activity and molecular hydrogen content. At larger stellar masses, this difference disappears and central galaxies in groups have similar (or even smaller) gas reservoirs and star formation activity compared to those in isolation. We discuss possible scenarios able to explain our findings and suggest that the higher gas content in low-mass group central galaxies is likely due to the contributions from the cosmic web or H i-rich minor mergers, which also fuel their enhanced star formation activity.

  9. First Connection between Cold Gas in Emission and Absorption: CO Emission from a Galaxy-Quasar Pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeleman, Marcel; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Zwaan, Martin A.; Kanekar, Nissim; Christensen, Lise; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; van Kampen, Eelco; Møller, Palle; Zafar, Tayyaba

    2016-04-01

    We present the first detection of molecular emission from a galaxy selected to be near a projected background quasar using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The ALMA detection of CO(1-0) emission from the z = 0.101 galaxy toward quasar PKS 0439-433 is coincident with its stellar disk and yields a molecular gas mass of Mmol ≈ 4.2 × 109 M⊙ (for a Galactic CO-to-H2 conversion factor), larger than the upper limit on its atomic gas mass. We resolve the CO velocity field, obtaining a rotational velocity of 134 ± 11 km s-1 and a resultant dynamical mass of ≥4 × 1010 M⊙. Despite its high metallicity and large molecular mass, the z = 0.101 galaxy has a low star formation rate, implying a large gas consumption timescale, larger than that typical of late-type galaxies. Most of the molecular gas is hence likely to be in a diffuse extended phase, rather than in dense molecular clouds. By combining the results of emission and absorption studies, we find that the strongest molecular absorption component toward the quasar cannot arise from the molecular disk, but is likely to arise from diffuse gas in the galaxy’s circumgalactic medium. Our results emphasize the potential of combining molecular and stellar emission line studies with optical absorption line studies to achieve a more complete picture of the gas within and surrounding high-redshift galaxies.

  10. VIVA: VLA imaging of Virgo galaxies in atomic gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Aeree

    In this thesis I present high resolution HI maps and kinematics of 53 carefully selected galaxies in the Virgo cluster. The goal is to study details of the cluster environmental effect on galaxy evolution, i.e. in which density regions and by which processes do galaxies feel the impact of the cluster. Studying HI content is essential to achieve this goal as it is often a useful probe of both gas-gas and tidal interactions and also a reservoir of star formation. Virgo as a dynamically young and nearby cluster, it contains many candidates for various mechanisms at work (e.g. ram-pressure or turbulent/viscous stripping, thermal evaporation, and tidal interactions) and allows us to see the details. We have sampled 48 spirals and 5 irregular/dwarf systems which show a wide range of star formation properties from anemic to starburst. The galaxies in the sample are spread throughout the cluster from near the dense cluster core to the outskirts (0.3--3.3 Mpc in projection). The result has revealed a whole spectrum of gas stripping stages from severely HI stripped galaxies to the HI as it is leaving the disk. Most HI stripped but optically undisturbed galaxies are found within 0.5 Mpc radius in projection from the cluster center. These galaxies show signatures of ongoing interactions with the hot cluster gas. Galaxies with truncated HI disks are also found at lower density regions. Some of those might have gone through the cluster core a while ago and currently be in their way out. Some however show gas stripping epochs that is inconsistent with their locations within the cluster which requires more than a simple interaction with static cluster gas; such as tidal interactions with other galaxies or locally enhanced ram-pressure due to subclusters' falling in. Beyond this region, most galaxies show normal (.08 < or = [Special characters omitted.] < 1.2) to extended ([Special characters omitted.] > or = 1.2) HI disks. Especially, 7 galaxies were found with one-sided long Hi

  11. Star Formation and Dense Gas in Galaxy Mergers from the VIXENS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiderman, Amanda L.; VIXENS Team

    2016-01-01

    We present our λ= 3 mm IRAM and NRO single dish line survey for a sample of 15 interacting galaxies in the VIRUS-P Investigation of the eXtreme ENvironments of Starbursts (VIXENS) survey. Our sample of merging galaxies range from early to late interaction stages (close pairs to merger remnants, respectively). A variety of molecular lines are detected including dense gas tracers HCN, HCO+, HNC, CS, CN (and others) as well as 12CO and 13CO. We compare the dense gas fractions with 12CO and 13CO as well as star formation efficiencies defined by infrared-to-dense gas tracer luminosity ratio and discuss trends with interaction stage. We also investigate relations between star formation and dense gas content in our merger sample and compare them to non-interacting star forming galaxies and Galactic star forming regions in the Milky Way.

  12. NEARBY CLUMPY, GAS RICH, STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: LOCAL ANALOGS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT CLUMPY GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, C. A.; Pisano, D. J.; Rabidoux, K.; Low, M.-M. Mac; Kreckel, K.; Guzmán, R. E-mail: djpisano@mail.wvu.edu E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org E-mail: guzman@astro.ufl.edu

    2015-07-10

    Luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs) have enhanced star formation rates (SFRs) and compact morphologies. We combine Sloan Digital Sky Survey data with H i data of 29 LCBGs at redshift z ∼ 0 to understand their nature. We find that local LCBGs have high atomic gas fractions (∼50%) and SFRs per stellar mass consistent with some high-redshift star-forming galaxies (SFGs). Many local LCBGs also have clumpy morphologies, with clumps distributed across their disks. Although rare, these galaxies appear to be similar to the clumpy SFGs commonly observed at z ∼ 1–3. Local LCBGs separate into three groups: (1) interacting galaxies (∼20%); (2) clumpy spirals (∼40%); and (3) non-clumpy, non-spirals with regular shapes and smaller effective radii and stellar masses (∼40%). It seems that the method of building up a high gas fraction, which then triggers star formation, is not the same for all local LCBGs. This may lead to a dichotomy in galaxy characteristics. We consider possible gas delivery scenarios and suggest that clumpy spirals, preferentially located in clusters and with companions, are smoothly accreting gas from tidally disrupted companions and/or intracluster gas enriched by stripped satellites. Conversely, as non-clumpy galaxies are preferentially located in the field and tend to be isolated, we suggest clumpy, cold streams, which destroy galaxy disks and prevent clump formation, as a likely gas delivery mechanism for these systems. Other possibilities include smooth cold streams, a series of minor mergers, or major interactions.

  13. Cosmic-Ray Heated Molecular Gas in NGC 253.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, C. M.; Nikola, T.; Stacey, G. J.; Bolatto, A. D.; Jackson, J. M.; Savage, M. L.; Davidson, J. A.; Higdon, S. J.

    2002-12-01

    We report observations of the CO J=7-6 transition toward the nucleus of the starburst galaxy NGC 253. This is the highest-excitation CO measurement in this source to date, and allows an estimate of the molecular gas excitation conditions. Application of a large velocity gradient, escape probability model shows that the 12CO and 13CO line intensities are consistent with the full 4 x 107 Mo of molecular gas being at high excitation, T > 100 K, nH2>104 cm-3. This is in contrast with previous studies which invoke multiple molecular gas components. The mass of warm, dense molecular gas is about 30 times the atomic gas mass as traced through its [CII] and [OI] line emission. This large mass ratio is inconsistent with photodissociation region models where the gas is heated by far-UV starlight. It is also not likely that a substantial fraction of the gas is heated by shocks in outflows or cloud-cloud collisions, based on energetic considerations and fluorescent near-IR H2 line ratios. On the other hand, the best mechanism for heating the gas is cosmic rays, which provides a natural means of uniformly heating the full volume of molecular clouds. With the tremendous supernova rate in the nucleus of NGC 253, the CR heating rate is at least 800 times greater than in the Galaxy, more than sufficient to heat the bulk of the molecular gas to 100 K or higher.

  14. COLD MOLECULAR GAS IN MERGER REMNANTS. I. FORMATION OF MOLECULAR GAS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Junko; Iono, Daisuke; Komugi, Shinya; Espada, Daniel; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Matsuda, Yuichi; Kawabe, Ryohei; Yun, Min S.; Crocker, Alison F.; Narayanan, Desika; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Yoichi; Wilner, David J.; Pan, Hsi-An

    2014-09-01

    We present the ≲1 kpc resolution {sup 12}CO imaging study of 37 optically selected local merger remnants using new and archival interferometric maps obtained with ALMA, CARMA, the Submillimeter Array, and the Plateau de Bure Interferometer. We supplement a sub-sample with single-dish measurements obtained at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope for estimating the molecular gas mass (10{sup 7} {sup –} {sup 11} M {sub ☉}) and evaluating the missing flux of the interferometric measurements. Among the sources with robust CO detections, we find that 80% (24/30) of the sample show kinematical signatures of rotating molecular gas disks (including nuclear rings) in their velocity fields, and the sizes of these disks vary significantly from 1.1 kpc to 9.3 kpc. The size of the molecular gas disks in 54% of the sources is more compact than the K-band effective radius. These small gas disks may have formed from a past gas inflow that was triggered by a dynamical instability during a potential merging event. On the other hand, the rest (46%) of the sources have gas disks that are extended relative to the stellar component, possibly forming a late-type galaxy with a central stellar bulge. Our new compilation of observational data suggests that nuclear and extended molecular gas disks are common in the final stages of mergers. This finding is consistent with recent major-merger simulations of gas-rich progenitor disks. Finally, we suggest that some of the rotation-supported turbulent disks observed at high redshifts may result from galaxies that have experienced a recent major merger.

  15. The HIX galaxy survey I: Study of the most gas rich galaxies from HIPASS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, K. A.; Kilborn, V. A.; Catinella, B.; Koribalski, B. S.; Brown, T. H.; Cortese, L.; Dénes, H.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Wong, O. I.

    2017-05-01

    We present the H i eXtreme (HIX) galaxy survey targeting some of the most H i rich galaxies in the Southern hemisphere. The 13 HIX galaxies have been selected to host the most massive H i discs at a given stellar luminosity. We compare these galaxies to a control sample of average galaxies detected in the H i Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS). As the control sample is matched in stellar luminosity, we find that the stellar properties of HIX galaxies are similar to the control sample. Furthermore, the specific star formation rate and optical morphology do not differ between HIX and control galaxies. We find, however, the HIX galaxies to be less efficient in forming stars. For the most H i massive galaxy in our sample (ESO075-G006, log M_{H I} [M⊙] = (10.8 ± 0.1)), the kinematic properties are the reason for inefficient star formation and H i excess. Examining the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) H i imaging and Wide Field Spectrograph (WiFeS) optical spectra of ESO075-G006 reveals an undisturbed galaxy without evidence for recent major, violent accretion events. A tilted ring fitted to the H i disc together with the gas-phase oxygen abundance distribution supports the scenario that gas has been constantly accreted on to ESO075-G006 but the high specific angular momentum makes ESO075-G006 very inefficient in forming stars. Thus, a massive H i disc has been built up.

  16. The HIX galaxy survey I: Study of the most gas rich galaxies from HIPASS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, K. A.; Kilborn, V. A.; Catinella, B.; Koribalski, B. S.; Brown, T. H.; Cortese, L.; Dénes, H.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Wong, O. I.

    2017-01-01

    We present the H I eXtreme (HIX) galaxy survey targeting some of the most H I rich galaxies in the southern hemisphere. The 13 HIX galaxies have been selected to host the most massive H I discs at a given stellar luminosity. We compare these galaxies to a control sample of average galaxies detected in the H I Parkes All Sky Survey (Hipass, Barnes et al. 2001). As the control sample is matched in stellar luminosity, we find that the stellar properties of HIX galaxies are similar to the control sample. Furthermore, the specific star formation rate and optical morphology do not differ between HIX and control galaxies. We find, however, the HIX galaxies to be less efficient in forming stars. For the most H I massive galaxy in our sample (ESO075-G006, log M_{HI} [M⊙] = (10.8 ± 0.1)) the kinematic properties are the reason for inefficient star formation and H I excess. Examining the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) H I imaging and Wide Field Spectrograph (WIFES) optical spectra of ESO075-G006 reveals an undisturbed galaxy without evidence for recent major, violent accretion events. A tilted-ring fit to the H I disc together with the gas-phase oxygen abundance distribution supports the scenario that gas has been constantly accreted onto ESO075-G006 but the high specific angular momentum makes ESO075-G006 very inefficient in forming stars. Thus a massive H I disc has been built up.

  17. Constraining the Multi-Phase Gas Content of Galaxies in the Local Cosmic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, David; Kannappan, S. J.; Wei, L. H.; Baker, A. J.; Haynes, M. P.; Giovanelli, R.; Heitsch, F.; RESOLVE Team; ALFALFA Team

    2010-01-01

    The RESOLVE (REsolved Spectroscopy Of a Local VolumE) Survey is a census of gas, stars, and dark matter in 1500 galaxies down to dwarf-scale baryonic masses of 109 Msun, occupying a range of cluster, group, and filament environments in the local cosmic web. We discuss strategies to estimate the gas mass in HI, H2, and warmer phases. RESOLVE falls largely within the footprint of the ongoing ALFALFA survey, allowing us to acquire accurate HI data for much of the sample. Any missing HI masses will be estimated from color and environment data, based on trends calibrated using the ALFALFA data set. Initially, our constraints on the molecular gas component will be largely indirect, based on either AKARI FIR data or a new technique presented here that links CO-derived H2/HI ratios to stellar-mass normalized color gradients. We discuss additional strategies under development to better measure molecular gas and constrain the mass in warmer phases. In particular, we describe observational constraints on the nature of additional gas that is detected dynamically in a sample of very blue, gas-dominated galaxies, possibly representing a warm-hot phase or a low-metallicity molecular component. Obtaining a full gas census for the RESOLVE survey will allow us to model gas phase transitions and star formation, specifically examining how baryonic mass component ratios and conversion timescales depend on galaxy mass and environment.

  18. Stellar, Gas, and Dark Matter Content of Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo

    2017-01-01

    We select a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7) where galaxies are classified, through visual inspection, as hosting strong bars, weak bars, or as unbarred galaxies, and make use of H i mass and kinematic information from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey catalog, to study the stellar, atomic gas, and dark matter content of barred disk galaxies. We find, in agreement with previous studies, that the bar fraction increases with increasing stellar mass. A similar trend is found with total baryonic mass, although the dependence is not as strong as with stellar mass, due to the contribution of gas. The bar fraction shows a decrease with increasing gas mass fraction. This anticorrelation between the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar with the gas richness of the galaxy results from the inhibiting effect the gas has in the formation of bars. We also find that for massive galaxies with stellar masses larger than 1010 M⊙, at fixed stellar mass, the bar fraction decreases with increasing global halo mass (i.e., halo mass measured up to a radius of the order of the H i disk extent).

  19. Dust In Hell: Discovery Of Dust In Hot Gas Around Group-Centered Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temi, Pasquale; Brighenti, F.; Mathews, W. G.

    2007-05-01

    Observations with the Spitzer infrared telescope reveal extended internally produced dust in the hot gas (KT 1 KeV) atmospheres surrounding two optically normal galaxies, NGC 5044 and NGC 4636. We interpret this as a dusty buoyant outflow resulting from energy released by gas accretion onto supermassive black holes in the galaxy cores. Both galaxies have highly disturbed, transient activities in the hot gas and contain strong dust emission at 70 and 160 microns in excess of what expected from normal stellar mass loss. The 70 micron image is clearly extended. The lifetime of dust in hot (KT=1KeV) interstellar gas to destruction by sputtering (ion impacts), 10 million years, establishes the time when the dust first entered the hot gas. Remarkably, in NGC 5044 we observe interstellar PAH dust-molecular emission at 8 microns out to about 5 Kpc that is spatially coincident with extended Halpha+[NII] emission from warm gas. We propose that this dust comes from the destruction and heating of dusty disks in the nuclei of these galaxies, followed by buoyant transport. A simple calculation shows that dust-assisted cooling in outflowing buoyant gas in NGC 5044 can cool the gas within a few Kpc in about 10 million years, explaining the optical line emission observed.

  20. The Interplay Between Gas and Stars in Irregular Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosado, M.; Valdez-Gutiérrez, M.; Bullejos, A.; Arias, L.; Georgiev, L.; Ambrocio-Cruz, P.; Borissova, J.; Kurtev, R.

    2002-01-01

    Irregular galaxies are unique objects where the interrelationship between massive stars and gas can be studied without the contamination of other phenomena such as the density waves present in spiral galaxies. 3D spectrometers, in particular, scanning Fabry-Perot interferometers, are the best suited instruments to detect and study the kinematical behavior of bubbles and superbubbles in irregular galaxies. When we complement these results with the information on the stellar content of the bubbles and the distribution of massive stars in the irregular galaxies, we get a deeper insight on how the star formation process occur in irregular galaxies and how the massive stars shape the interestellar medium. We will present examples of the interplay between massive stars and superbubbles in irregular galaxies from the observations of these objects by means of the PUMA scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer.

  1. DUST CONTINUUM EMISSION AS A TRACER OF GAS MASS IN GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Groves, Brent A.; Schinnerer, Eva; Walter, Fabian; Leroy, Adam; Galametz, Maud; Bolatto, Alberto; Hunt, Leslie; Dale, Daniel; Calzetti, Daniela; Croxall, Kevin; Kennicutt, Robert Jr.

    2015-01-20

    We use a sample of 36 galaxies from the KINGFISH (Herschel IR), HERACLES (IRAM CO), and THINGS (Very Large Array H I) surveys to study empirical relations between Herschel infrared (IR) luminosities and the total mass of the interstellar gas (H{sub 2} + H I). Such a comparison provides a simple empirical relationship without introducing the uncertainty of dust model fitting. We find tight correlations, and provide fits to these relations, between Herschel luminosities and the total gas mass integrated over entire galaxies, with the tightest, almost linear, correlation found for the longest wavelength data (SPIRE 500). However, we find that accounting for the gas-phase metallicity (affecting the dust to gas ratio) is crucial when applying these relations to low-mass, and presumably high-redshift, galaxies. The molecular (H{sub 2}) gas mass is found to be better correlated with the peak of the IR emission (e.g., PACS160), driven mostly by the correlation of stellar mass and mean dust temperature. When examining these relations as a function of galactocentric radius, we find the same correlations, albeit with a larger scatter, up to a radius of r ∼ 0.7 r {sub 25} (containing most of a galaxy's baryonic mass). However, beyond that radius, the same correlations no longer hold, with increasing gas (predominantly H I) mass relative to the infrared emission. The tight relations found for the bulk of the galaxy's baryonic content suggest that total gas masses of disk-like (non-merging/ULIRG) galaxies can be inferred from far-infrared continuum measurements in situations where only the latter are available, e.g., in ALMA continuum observations of high-redshift galaxies.

  2. Gas and radio galaxies: a story of love and hate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morganti, Rafaella

    2011-07-01

    Gas in radio galaxies is an important component that plays different roles. Gas can feed the AGN and make it active but dense gas can also be an obstacle for radio jets and (temporarily) destroy their flow. The characteristics of the different phases of gas in the circumnuclear regions of active nuclei hold clear signatures of the influences that the black hole activity has on its surroundings. I will review these effects based on some recent results obtained in the study of neutral hydrogen and CO. In particular, I will concentrate on the effects of radio jets in generating the strong negative feedback of the kind invoked in current scenarios for galaxy evolution.

  3. The Void Galaxy Survey: Galaxy Evolution and Gas Accretion in Voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreckel, Kathryn; van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.; Beygu, Burcu; van de Weygaert, Rien; van der Hulst, J. M.; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.; Peletier, Reynier F.

    2016-10-01

    Voids represent a unique environment for the study of galaxy evolution, as the lower density environment is expected to result in shorter merger histories and slower evolution of galaxies. This provides an ideal opportunity to test theories of galaxy formation and evolution. Imaging of the neutral hydrogen, central in both driving and regulating star formation, directly traces the gas reservoir and can reveal interactions and signs of cold gas accretion. For a new Void Galaxy Survey (VGS), we have carefully selected a sample of 59 galaxies that reside in the deepest underdensities of geometrically identified voids within the SDSS at distances of ~100 Mpc, and pursued deep UV, optical, Hα, IR, and HI imaging to study in detail the morphology and kinematics of both the stellar and gaseous components. This sample allows us to not only examine the global statistical properties of void galaxies, but also to explore the details of the dynamical properties. We present an overview of the VGS, and highlight key results on the HI content and individually interesting systems. In general, we find that the void galaxies are gas rich, low luminosity, blue disk galaxies, with optical and HI properties that are not unusual for their luminosity and morphology. We see evidence of both ongoing assembly, through the gas dynamics between interacting systems, and significant gas accretion, seen in extended gas disks and kinematic misalignments. The VGS establishes a local reference sample to be used in future HI surveys (CHILES, DINGO, LADUMA) that will directly observe the HI evolution of void galaxies over cosmic time.

  4. A Multi-wavelength Study of Nearby Galaxies Based on Molecular Line Surveys: MIPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, Giovanni; Wang, Zhong; Bush, Stephanie; Cox, Thomas J.; Keto, Eric; Pahre, Michael; Rosolowsky, Erik; Smith, Howard

    2008-03-01

    Dense molecular gas, warm dust, and hot ionized gas are different components of the multi-step transformation of cold gas into stars and star clusters. While empirical laws on star formation in galaxies have been established based on global measurements of these components, substantial galaxy-to-galaxy variations still exist and remain unexplained. To understand the mechanisms that induce and regulate star formation and thus galaxy evolution, we need to study processes on the local scales of typical star forming regions and giant molecular clouds. In a set of pilot studies, we analyzed the Spitzer and Galex data of nearby giant spirals M31, M33 and M99, and compared with the new interferometric CO maps of matching angular resolution. We found evidence that variations in local condition, environmental effects, and viewing geometry may explain much of the large scatter in the empirical relationships. Based on the success of this initial investigation, we have collected high- resolution CO images of 63 late-type galaxies from several large surveys, and we are working on obtaining a complete set of Spitzer and Galex data for these galaxies. A companion Spitzer archival research program will re-examine the existing observations along with CO, HI, UV and optical data, focusing on correlations in spatially resolved, individual star-forming regions. Here we propose MIPS imaging of the 11 galaxies in our CO sample that have not already been observed by Spitzer. A GO proposal will request IRAC time for these galaxies, which are a significant addition to our study because they substantially increase the fraction of gas-rich late types in the full sample. Insight from this program will be applicable to not only nearby system, but also high red-shift galaxies for which only integrated quantities are measurable.

  5. Galaxy Formation in a CDM + Lambda Universe. II. Spatial Distribution of Gas and Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    1996-01-01

    The spatial distributions of dark matter, intergalactic gas, and galaxies are studied in the framework of the CDM + Λ cosmological model. The new code, based on the softened Lagrangian hydrodynamics approach to cosmological fluid dynamics, incorporates the dark matter and gas evolution, radiative processes in the gas and the evolution of the radiation field, and the process of galaxy formation in the quasi-Lagrangian description. The simulation utilized in this paper has 64 h-1 Mpc box size and the softening length of 100 h-1 kpc, thus achieving a formal dynamical range of 640. The overdensity δ of galaxies in the simulation is found to be systematically higher than that of the mass in the high-density regions and systematically lower than that of the mass in the low-density regions; this property correlates with galaxy age: the overdensity in old galaxies is higher, and the overdensity in young galaxies is lower, with respect to the mass. The spatial bias (i.e., the square root of the ratio of the galaxy power spectrum to that of the mass) is increasing toward small scales and flattens out at large scales; the variation of the bias factor with galaxy age is significant, with young galaxies tracing the mass and old galaxies biased (in a sense of the power spectrum) with a bias factor up to 10 at the cluster scale. The precise comparison of simulations with observations is therefore strongly affected by selection effects because even a small variation in M/L can produce significant variations in the spatial bias factor. The correlation function for all galaxies deviates from the Davis & Peebles (1983) law on scales smaller than 3 h-1 Mpc, but the correlation function for the youngest mass quartile fits the observed IRAS correlation function extremely well up to the scales of 400 h-1 kpc.

  6. A Spatially Resolved Study of Cold Dust, Molecular Gas, H ii Regions, and Stars in the z = 2.12 Submillimeter Galaxy ALESS67.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chian-Chou; Hodge, J. A.; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Walter, Fabian; Simpson, J. M.; Calistro Rivera, Gabriela; Bertoldi, F.; Brandt, W. N.; Chapman, S. C.; da Cunha, Elisabete; Dannerbauer, H.; De Breuck, C.; Harrison, C. M.; Ivison, R. J.; Karim, A.; Knudsen, K. K.; Wardlow, J. L.; Weiß, A.; van der Werf, P. P.

    2017-09-01

    We present detailed studies of a z = 2.12 submillimeter galaxy, ALESS67.1, using sub-arcsecond resolution ALMA, adaptive optics-aided VLT/SINFONI, and Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/CANDELS data to investigate the kinematics and spatial distributions of dust emission (870 μm continuum), 12CO(J = 3–2), strong optical emission lines, and visible stars. Dynamical modeling of the optical emission lines suggests that ALESS67.1 is not a pure rotating disk but a merger, consistent with the apparent tidal features revealed in the HST imaging. Our sub-arcsecond resolution data set allows us to measure half-light radii for all the tracers, and we find a factor of 4–6 smaller sizes in dust continuum compared to all the other tracers, including 12CO; also, ultraviolet (UV) and Hα emission are significantly offset from the dust continuum. The spatial mismatch between the UV continuum and the cold dust and gas reservoir supports the explanation that geometrical effects are responsible for the offset of the dusty galaxy on the IRX–β diagram. Using a dynamical method we derive an {α }{CO}=1.8+/- 1.0, consistent with other submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) that also have resolved CO and dust measurements. Assuming a single {α }{CO} value we also derive resolved gas and star formation rate surface densities, and find that the core region of the galaxy (≲ 5 kpc) follows the trend of mergers on the Schmidt–Kennicutt relationship, whereas the outskirts (≳ 5 kpc) lie on the locus of normal star-forming galaxies, suggesting different star formation efficiencies within one galaxy. Our results caution against using single size or morphology for different tracers of the star formation activity and gas content of galaxies, and therefore argue the need to use spatially resolved, multi-wavelength observations to interpret the properties of SMGs, and perhaps even for z> 1 galaxies in general.

  7. Distributions of Gas and Galaxies from Galaxy Clusters to Larger Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patej, Anna

    2017-01-01

    We address the distributions of gas and galaxies on three scales: the outskirts of galaxy clusters, the clustering of galaxies on large scales, and the extremes of the galaxy distribution. In the outskirts of galaxy clusters, long-standing analytical models of structure formation and recent simulations predict the existence of density jumps in the gas and dark matter profiles. We use these features to derive models for the gas density profile, obtaining a simple fiducial model that is in agreement with both observations of cluster interiors and simulations of the outskirts. We next consider the galaxy density profiles of clusters; under the assumption that the galaxies in cluster outskirts follow similar collisionless dynamics as the dark matter, their distribution should show a steep jump as well. We examine the profiles of a low-redshift sample of clusters and groups, finding evidence for the jump in some of these clusters. Moving to larger scales where massive galaxies of different types are expected to trace the same large-scale structure, we present a test of this prediction by measuring the clustering of red and blue galaxies at z 0.6, finding low stochasticity between the two populations. These results address a key source of systematic uncertainty - understanding how target populations of galaxies trace large-scale structure - in galaxy redshift surveys. Such surveys use baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) as a cosmological probe, but are limited by the expense of obtaining sufficiently dense spectroscopy. With the intention of leveraging upcoming deep imaging data, we develop a new method of detecting the BAO in sparse spectroscopic samples via cross-correlation with a dense photometric catalog. This method will permit the extension of BAO measurements to higher redshifts than possible with the existing spectroscopy alone. Lastly, we connect galaxies near and far: the Local Group dwarfs and the high redshift galaxies observed by Hubble and Spitzer. We

  8. How Galaxies Acquire their Gas: A Map of Multiphase Accretion and Feedback in Gaseous Galaxy Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumlinson, Jason

    2009-07-01

    We propose to address two of the biggest open questions in galaxy formation - how galaxies acquire their gas and how they return it to the IGM - with a concentrated COS survey of diffuse multiphase gas in the halos of SDSS galaxies at z = 0.15 - 0.35. Our chief science goal is to establish a basic set of observational facts about the physical state, metallicity, and kinematics of halo gas, including the sky covering fraction of hot and cold material, the metallicity of infall and outflow, and correlations with galaxy stellar mass, type, and color - all as a function of impact parameter from 10 - 150 kpc. Theory suggests that the bimodality of galaxy colors, the shape of the luminosity function, and the mass-metallicity relation are all influenced at a fundamental level by accretion and feedback, yet these gas processes are poorly understood and cannot be predicted robustly from first principles. We lack even a basic observational assessment of the multiphase gaseous content of galaxy halos on 100 kpc scales, and we do not know how these processes vary with galaxy properties. This ignorance is presently one of the key impediments to understanding galaxy formation in general. We propose to use the high-resolution gratings G130M and G160M on the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph to obtain sensitive column density measurements of a comprehensive suite of multiphase ions in the spectra of 43 z < 1 QSOs lying behind 43 galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. In aggregate, these sightlines will constitute a statistically sound map of the physical state and metallicity of gaseous halos, and subsets of the data with cuts on galaxy mass, color, and SFR will seek out predicted variations of gas properties with galaxy properties. Our interpretation of these data will be aided by state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations of accretion and feedback, in turn providing information to refine and test such models. We will also use Keck, MMT, and Magellan {as needed} to obtain

  9. Lighting the Dark Molecular Gas Using the Mid Infrared H2 Rotational Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togi, Aditya; Smith, JD

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge of molecular gas distribution is necessary to understand star formation in galaxies. The molecular gas content of galaxies must be inferred using indirect tracers since H2 which forms a major component of molecular gas in galaxies is not observable under typical conditions of interstellar medium. Physical processes causing enhancement and reduction of these tracers can cause misleading estimates of the molecular gas content in galaxies. We have devised a new method to measure molecular gas mass using quadrupole rotational lines of H2 found in the mid infrared spectra of various types of galaxies. We apply our model to derive the amount of molecular gas even in low metallicity galaxies where indirect tracers are unable to estimate the dark molecular gas mass. Bigiel, F., Leroy, A., Walter, F., et al. 2008, The Astronomical Journal, 136, 2846 (2008) Solomon, P. M., Rivolo, A. R., Barett, J., and Yahil, A. The Astrophysical Journal, 319, 730 (1987) Wolfire, M. G., Hollenbach, D., and McKee, C. F. The Astrophysical Journal, 716, 1191 (2010)

  10. Semi-analytic models for HI gas in disk and local dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jian

    2015-08-01

    We construct the radially-resolved semi-analytic models of galaxy formation based on the L-Galaxies model framework, which include both atomic and molecular gas phase in ISM. The models adopt the ΛCDM cosmology simulation Millennium, Millennium II and Aquarius. Our models can reproduce varies properties of HI gas in nearby galaxies, e.g. the HI mass function, the HI-to-star ratio vs stellar mass and stellar surface density, universal HI radial surface density profile in outer disks etc. We can also give some physical origins of HI size mass relation in many observations.Based on our model results for local dwarf galaxies, we show that the "missing satellite problem" also exists in the HI component, i.e., the models over predict dwarf galaxies with low HI mass. That is a shortcoming of current ΛCDM cosmology framework. Future survey for HI gas in dwarf galaxies (e.g. SKA or FAST) in local group can help to verify the correctness of cold dark matter.

  11. STAR FORMATION IN PARTIALLY GAS-DEPLETED SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, James A.; Miner, Jesse; Levy, Lorenza; Robertson, Paul E-mail: paul@astr.as.utexas.edu E-mail: lorenza.levy@yahoo.com

    2010-02-15

    Broadband B and R and H{alpha} images have been obtained with the 4.1 m SOAR telescope atop Cerro Pachon, Chile, for 29 spiral galaxies in the Pegasus I galaxy cluster and for 18 spirals in non-cluster environments. Pegasus I is a spiral-rich cluster with a low-density intracluster medium and a low galaxy velocity dispersion. When combined with neutral hydrogen (H I) data obtained with the Arecibo 305 m radio telescope, acquired by Levy et al. (2007) and by Springob et al. (2005b), we study the star formation rates in disk galaxies as a function of their H I deficiency. To quantify H I deficiency, we use the usual logarithmic deficiency parameter, DEF. The specific star formation rate (SSFR) is quantified by the logarithmic flux ratio of H{alpha} flux to R-band flux, and thus roughly characterizes the logarithmic SFR per unit stellar mass. We find a clear correlation between the global SFR per unit stellar mass and DEF, such that the SFR is lower in more H I-deficient galaxies. This correlation appears to extend from the most gas-rich to the most gas-poor galaxies. We also find a correlation between the central SFR per unit mass relative to the global values, in the sense that the more H I-deficient galaxies have a higher central SFR per unit mass relative to their global SFR values than do gas-rich galaxies. In fact, approximately half of the H I-depleted galaxies have highly elevated SSFRs in their central regions, indicative of a transient evolutionary state. In addition, we find a correlation between gas depletion and the size of the H{alpha} disk (relative to the R-band disk); H I-poor galaxies have truncated disks. Moreover, aside from the elevated central SSFR in many gas-poor spirals, the SSFR is otherwise lower in the H{alpha} disks of gas-poor galaxies than in gas-rich spirals. Thus, both disk truncation and lowered SSFR levels within the star-forming part of the disks (aside from the enhanced nuclear SSFR) correlate with H I deficiency, and both

  12. Cold gas stripping in satellite galaxies: from pairs to clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Toby; Catinella, Barbara; Cortese, Luca; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Davé, Romeel; Kilborn, Virginia; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Rafieferantsoa, Mika

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate environment-driven gas depletion in satellite galaxies, taking full advantage of the atomic hydrogen (H I) spectral stacking technique to quantify the gas content for the entire gas-poor to -rich regimes. We do so using a multiwavelength sample of 10 600 satellite galaxies, selected according to stellar mass (log M⋆/M⊙ ≥ 9) and redshift (0.02 ≤ z ≤ 0.05) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, with H I data from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey. Using key H I-to-stellar mass scaling relations, we present evidence that the gas content of satellite galaxies is, to a significant extent, dependent on the environment in which a galaxy resides. For the first time, we demonstrate that systematic environmental suppression of gas content at both fixed stellar mass and fixed specific star formation rate in satellite galaxies begins in halo masses typical of the group regime (log Mh/M⊙ < 13.5), well before galaxies reach the cluster environment. We also show that environment-driven gas depletion is more closely associated with halo mass than local density. Our results are then compared with state-of-the-art semi-analytic models and hydrodynamical simulations and discussed within this framework, showing that more work is needed if models are to reproduce the observations. We conclude that the observed decrease of gas content in the group and cluster environments cannot be reproduced by starvation of the gas supply alone and invoke fast acting processes such as ram-pressure stripping of cold gas to explain this.

  13. Diffuse hot gas in nearby face-on spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doane, Nathaniel

    2007-08-01

    We present a study of the diffuse thermal emission in three nearby, face-on spiral galaxies, NGC 3631, NGC 628 and NGC 3184, using X-ray data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and optical data from the WIYN observatory. We are able to separate out the X-ray emission from unresolved point sources from the total unresolved emission in order to study the truly diffuse X-ray emission. We find that in all cases, the spectrum of the hot gas is well fit using a two thermal-component model. In the three galaxies, we find a strong correlation between the X-ray surface brightness and regions of star formation. We also estimate the electron density, pressure and cooling time of the hot gas, finding that the pressure of the hot gas in these three galaxies is higher than the ambient Milky Way pressure. In addition to the standard two temperature spectral model of the hot-gas emission from spiral galaxies, we show a model with the hot gas at a continuum of temperatures provides an equally good fit and a more physical description of the gas. Finally, we discuss the Chandra ACIS background and our method of spectrally modeling it. We also present plots of all our spectral fits to each galaxy and its sub-regions using our background model.

  14. Probing the Circumgalactic Gas around High Redshift Galaxies with VUDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Hernández, Hugo; Cassata, Paolo; Ibar, Eduardo

    2017-07-01

    We probe the CGM of high redshift galaxies belonging to VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey. We used deep spectroscopy of different lines-of-sight around foreground galaxies to get useful information on the overall kinematics, chemical abundances, and (in some cases) estimates of the mass flux of cool material entrained in an in-outflow.We have selected a sample of 1244 close (0 150 kpc) galaxy pairs from the Vimos Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS) to probe the circumgalactic medium (CGM) around galaxies at 2< z <4 . We selected close galaxy pairs, and identified in the spectra of background bright galaxies the faint imprints left by the circumgalactic gas surrounding the foreground galaxies by using stacking analysis which provide a powerful way to extract faint signal from absorptions lines data sets, and enabling measurements of these weak absorptions. We are able to trace the average absorptions line strengths (i.e. Lyα, OISiII, CIV, OISiII, CIV, AlII) out to galactocentric radii of ˜150 kpc on stacked spectra, and found that the CGM of galaxies at 2< z <5 are rich in metals even at ˜150 kpc away from the galaxies.

  15. Gas inflow patterns and nuclear rings in barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Juntai; Li, Zhi

    2017-06-01

    Nuclear rings, dust lanes, and nuclear spirals are common structures in the inner region of barred galaxies, with their shapes and properties linked to the physical parameters of the galaxies. We use high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations to study gas inflow patterns in barred galaxies, with special attention on the nuclear rings. The location and thickness of nuclear ringsare tightly correlated with galactic properties, such as the bar pattern speed and bulge central density, within certain ranges. We identify the backbone of nuclear rings with a major orbital family of bars. The rings form exactly at the radius where the residual angular momentum of inflowing gas balances the centrifugal force. We propose a new simple method to predict the bar pattern speed for barred galaxies possessing a nuclear ring, without actually doing simulations. We apply this method to some real galaxies and find that our predicted bar pattern speed compare reasonably well with other estimates. Our study may have important implications for using nuclear ringsto measure the parameters of real barred galaxies with detailed gas kinematics. We have also extended current hydrodynamical simulations to model gas features in the Milky Way.

  16. The ATLAS3D project - XX. Mass-size and mass-σ distributions of early-type galaxies: bulge fraction drives kinematics, mass-to-light ratio, molecular gas fraction and stellar initial mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellari, Michele; McDermid, Richard M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, M.; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2013-07-01

    ) and dwarf irregulars (Im), respectively. We use dynamical models to analyse our kinematic maps. We show that σe traces the bulge fraction, which appears to be the main driver for the observed trends in the dynamical (M/L)JAM and in indicators of the (M/L)pop of the stellar population like Hβ and colour, as well as in the molecular gas fraction. A similar variation along contours of σe is also observed for the mass normalization of the stellar initial mass function (IMF), which was recently shown to vary systematically within the ETGs' population. Our preferred relation has the form log _{10} [(M/L)_stars/(M/L)_Salp]=a+b× log _{10}({σ _e}/130 {km s^{-1}}) with a = -0.12 ± 0.01 and b = 0.35 ± 0.06. Unless there are major flaws in all stellar population models, this trend implies a transition of the mean IMF from Kroupa to Salpeter in the interval log _{10}({σ _e}/{km s}^{-1})≈ 1.9-2.5 (or {σ _e}≈ 90-290 km s-1), with a smooth variation in between, consistently with what was shown in Cappellari et al. The observed distribution of galaxy properties on the MP provides a clean and novel view for a number of previously reported trends, which constitute special two-dimensional projections of the more general four-dimensional parameters trends on the MP. We interpret it as due to a combination of two main effects: (i) an increase of the bulge fraction, which increases σe, decreases Re, and greatly enhance the likelihood for a galaxy to have its star formation quenched, and (ii) dry merging, increasing galaxy mass and Re by moving galaxies along lines of roughly constant σe (or steeper), while leaving the population nearly unchanged.

  17. Neutral Gas Properties of Extremely Isolated Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, Trisha; Marcum, Pamela M.; Fanelli, Michael N.

    2017-04-01

    We present the results of single-dish atomic hydrogen (H i) observations of six highly isolated early-type galaxies. These objects are a representative subset of galaxies previously studied at optical wavelengths and selected to be separated by at least 2.5 Mpc from companions brighter than M V = -16.5 mag. Each galaxy was observed with a single pointing using the NRAO Green Bank Telescope L-band receiver. Five of these systems were strongly detected in H i. These five galaxies exhibit H i profiles with a range of properties: single Gaussian-like peaks, separate double peaks, and double horn-like profiles. The four bluest galaxies (B-V < 0.54) all contain significant gas with H i masses ranging from 1.1 × 108 to 1.4 × 109.

  18. Extragalactic chemistry of molecular gas: lessons from the local universe.

    PubMed

    García-Burillo, S; Fuente, A; Martín-Pintado, J; Usero, A; Graciá-Carpio, J; Planesas, P

    2006-01-01

    Observational constraints provided by high resolution and high sensitivity observations of external galaxies made in the millimetre and sub-millimetre range have started to put on a firm footing the study of the extragalactic chemistry of molecular gas. In particular, the availability of multi-species and multi-line surveys of nearby galaxies is central to the interpretation of existent and forthcoming millimetre observations of the high redshift universe. Probing the physical and chemical status of molecular gas in starbursts and active galaxies (AGN) requires the use of specific tracers of the relevant energetic phenomena that are known to be at play in these galaxies: large-scale shocks, strong UV fields, cosmic rays and X-rays. We present below the first results of an ongoing survey, allying the IRAM 30 m telescope with the Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI), devoted to the study of the chemistry of molecular gas in a sample of starbursts and AGN of the local universe. These observations highlight the existence of a strong chemical differentiation in the molecular disks of starbursts and AGN.

  19. The interstellar medium in Andromeda's dwarf spheroidal galaxies - II. Multiphase gas content and ISM conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Looze, Ilse; Baes, Maarten; Cormier, Diane; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Kuno, Nario; Young, Lisa; Bendo, George J.; Boquien, Médéric; Fritz, Jacopo; Gentile, Gianfranco; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Madden, Suzanne C.; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Wilson, Christine D.

    2017-03-01

    We make an inventory of the interstellar medium material in three low-metallicity dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group (NGC 147, NGC 185 and NGC 205). Ancillary H I, CO, Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra, Hα and X-ray observations are combined to trace the atomic, cold and warm molecular, ionized and hot gas phases. We present new Nobeyama CO(1-0) observations and Herschel SPIRE FTS [C I] observations of NGC 205 to revise its molecular gas content. We derive total gas masses of Mg = 1.9-5.5 × 105 M⊙ for NGC 185 and Mg = 8.6-25.0 × 105 M⊙ for NGC 205. Non-detections combine to an upper limit on the gas mass of Mg ≤ 0.3-2.2 × 105 M⊙ for NGC 147. The observed gas reservoirs are significantly lower compared to the expected gas masses based on a simple closed-box model that accounts for the gas mass returned by planetary nebulae and supernovae. The gas-to-dust mass ratios GDR ∼ 37-107 and 48-139 are also considerably lower compared to the expected GDR ∼ 370 and 520 for the low metal abundances in NGC 185 (0.36 Z⊙) and NGC 205 (0.25 Z⊙), respectively. To simultaneously account for the gas deficiency and low gas-to-dust ratios, we require an efficient removal of a large gas fraction and a longer dust survival time (∼1.6 Gyr). We believe that efficient galactic winds (combined with heating of gas to sufficiently high temperatures in order for it to escape from the galaxy) and/or environmental interactions with neighbouring galaxies are responsible for the gas removal from NGC 147, NGC 185 and NGC 205.

  20. Molecular Gas and Star Formation in Atomic Gas Dominated Regions - Results from the HERACLES Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schruba, Andreas; Leroy, A. K.; Walter, F.; HERACLES Team

    2012-01-01

    We perform a sensitive search for faint CO emission and study how it is related to star formation in HI-dominated regions of 45 nearby spiral and dwarf galaxies using observations of CO (HERACLES), HI (THINGS), IR & Halpha (SINGS/LVL), and UV (GALEX NGS). Constraining the molecular gas content in HI-dominated regions is a crucial measurement to distinguish the role of atomic and molecular gas in the star formation process. We apply a novel technique, leveraging HI velocity fields from THINGS and wide area coverage of HERACLES to stack CO spectra and significantly increase the sensitivity. For spiral galaxies, CO (and thus H2) is linearly related to tracers of star formation (IR, Halpha, FUV) and does not depend on gas density. Meanwhile, the H2-to-HI ratio varies by several orders of magnitude with radius and total gas surface density and thus sensitively regulates the supply of star-forming molecular gas. For dwarf galaxies, we determine sensitive upper limits on the CO luminosity both near star-forming peaks and the entire galaxy and find CO emission to be faint both in an absolute sense and normalized by B-band luminosity and star formation rate (SFR). The ratio SFR/CO increases by more than an order of magnitude toward low metallicities which likely indicates a dramatic increase in the CO-to-H2 conversion factor.

  1. Jet acceleration of the fast molecular outflows in the Seyfert galaxy IC 5063.

    PubMed

    Tadhunter, C; Morganti, R; Rose, M; Oonk, J B R; Oosterloo, T

    2014-07-24

    Massive outflows driven by active galactic nuclei are widely recognized to have a key role in the evolution of galaxies, by heating the ambient gas, expelling it from the nuclear regions, and thereby affecting the star-formation histories of the galaxy bulges. It has been proposed that the powerful jets of relativistic particles (such as electrons) launched by some active nuclei can both accelerate and heat the molecular gas, which often dominates the mass budgets of the outflows. Clear evidence for this mechanism, in the form of detailed associations between the molecular gas kinematics and features in the radio-emitting jets, has however been lacking. Here we report that the warm molecular hydrogen gas in the western radio lobe of the Seyfert galaxy IC 5063 is moving at high velocities-up to about 600 kilometres per second-relative to the galaxy disk. This suggests that the molecules have been accelerated by fast shocks driven into the interstellar medium by the expanding radio jets. These results demonstrate the general feasibility of accelerating molecular outflows in fast shocks driven by active nuclei.

  2. Giant Molecular Clouds and Star Formation in the Non-Grand Design Spiral Galaxy NGC 6946

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebolledo, David; Wong, T.; Leroy, A.

    2012-01-01

    Although the internal physical properties of molecular clouds have been extensively studied (Solomon et al. 1987), a more detailed understanding of their origin and evolution in different types of galaxies is needed. In order to disentangle the details of this process, we performed CO(1-0) CARMA observations of the eastern part of the multi-armed galaxy NGC 6946. Although we found no evidence of an angular offset between molecular gas, atomic gas and star formation regions in our observations (Tamburro et al. 2008), we observe a clear radial progression from regions where molecular gas dominates over atomic gas (for r ≤ 2.8 kpc) to regions where the gas becomes mainly atomic (5.6 kpc ≤ r ≤ 7.6 kpc) when azimuthally averaged. In addition, we found that the densest concentrations of molecular gas are located on arms, particularly where they appear to intersect, which is in concordance with the predictions by simulations of the spiral galaxies with an active potential (Clarke & Gittins 2006; Dobbs & Bonnell 2008). At CO(1-0) resolution (140 pc), we were able to find CO emitting complexes with masses greater than those of typical Giant Molecular Clouds (105-106 M⊙). To identify GMCs individually and make a more detailed study of their physical properties, we made D array observations of CO(2-1) toward the densest concentrations of gas, achieving a resolution similar to GMCs sizes found in other galaxies (Bolatto et al. 2008). We present first results about differences in properties of the on-arm clouds and inter-arm clouds. We found that, in general, on-arm clouds present broader line widths, are more massive and more active in star formation than inter-arm clouds. We investigated if the velocity dispersion observed in CO(1-0) emitting complexes reflects velocity differences between unresolved smaller clouds, or if it corresponds to actual internal turbulence of the gas observed.

  3. C+/H2 gas in star-forming clouds and galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordon, Raanan; Sternberg, Amiel

    2016-11-01

    We present analytic theory for the total column density of singly ionized carbon (C+) in the optically thick photon dominated regions (PDRs) of far-UV irradiated (star-forming) molecular clouds. We derive a simple formula for the C+ column as a function of the cloud (hydrogen) density, the far-UV field intensity, and metallicity, encompassing the wide range of galaxy conditions. When assuming the typical relation between UV and density in the cold neutral medium, the C+ column becomes a function of the metallicity alone. We verify our analysis with detailed numerical PDR models. For optically thick gas, most of the C+ column is mixed with hydrogen that is primarily molecular (H2), and this `C+/H2' gas layer accounts for almost all of the `CO-dark' molecular gas in PDRs. The C+/H2 column density is limited by dust shielding and is inversely proportional to the metallicity down to ˜0.1 solar. At lower metallicities, H2 line blocking dominates and the C+/H2 column saturates. Applying our theory to CO surveys in low-redshift spirals, we estimate the fraction of C+/H2 gas out of the total molecular gas to be typically ˜0.4. At redshifts 1 < z < 3 in massive disc galaxies the C+/H2 gas represents a very small fraction of the total molecular gas (≲ 0.16). This small fraction at high redshifts is due to the high gas surface densities when compared to local galaxies.

  4. Galaxies and gas in a cold dark matter universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Neal; Hernquist, Lars; Weinberg, David H.

    1992-01-01

    We use a combined gravity/hydrodynamics code to simulate the formation of structure in a random 22 Mpc cube of a cold dark matter universe. Adiabatic compression and shocks heat much of the gas to temperatures of 10 exp 6 - 10 exp 7 K, but a fraction of the gas cools radiatively to about 10 exp 4 K and condenses into discrete, highly overdense lumps. We identify these lumps with galaxies. The high-mass end of their baryonic mass function fits the form of the observed galaxy luminosity function. They retain independent identities after their dark halos merge, so gravitational clustering produces groups of galaxies embedded in relatively smooth envelopes of hot gas and dark matter. The galaxy correlation function is approximately an r exp -2.1 power law from separations of 35 kpc to 7 Mpc. Galaxy fluctuations are biased relative to dark matter fluctuations by a factor b about 1.5. We find no significant 'velocity bias' between galaxies and dark matter particles. However, virial analysis of the simulation's richest group leads to an estimated Omega of about 0.3, even though the simulation adopts Omega = 1.

  5. Galaxies and gas in a cold dark matter universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Neal; Hernquist, Lars; Weinberg, David H.

    1992-01-01

    We use a combined gravity/hydrodynamics code to simulate the formation of structure in a random 22 Mpc cube of a cold dark matter universe. Adiabatic compression and shocks heat much of the gas to temperatures of 10 exp 6 - 10 exp 7 K, but a fraction of the gas cools radiatively to about 10 exp 4 K and condenses into discrete, highly overdense lumps. We identify these lumps with galaxies. The high-mass end of their baryonic mass function fits the form of the observed galaxy luminosity function. They retain independent identities after their dark halos merge, so gravitational clustering produces groups of galaxies embedded in relatively smooth envelopes of hot gas and dark matter. The galaxy correlation function is approximately an r exp -2.1 power law from separations of 35 kpc to 7 Mpc. Galaxy fluctuations are biased relative to dark matter fluctuations by a factor b about 1.5. We find no significant 'velocity bias' between galaxies and dark matter particles. However, virial analysis of the simulation's richest group leads to an estimated Omega of about 0.3, even though the simulation adopts Omega = 1.

  6. Gas and Galaxy Evolution: from Voids to Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.

    2014-06-01

    Our understanding of the growth of large scale structure has advanced enormously over the last decade, thanks to an impressive synergy between theoretical and observational efforts. The formation and evolution of galaxies within these structures is less well understood and especially the details of the gas physics during accretion and outflow are still controversial. Hydrogen images can help distinguish between growth by mergers and accretion of gas, and between inflow and outflow. I will show results of HI imaging surveys of galaxies in the local universe in a wide range of environments, from the deepest underdensities of voidsto the cores of galaxy clusters confirming some of the general trends seen in simulations. Small galaxies in voids still seem to accrete gas, and galaxies in clusters are losing it fast. Until recently these HI imaging surveys could not go beyond 0.1. This has changeddramatically with the upgrade of the Very Large Array. I will present the very first results of CHILES, the COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey, a 1000 hour JVLA survey for which the first observations started this fall. The survey will cover one pointing in the COSMOS field, and image in HI hundreds of galaxies from z=0 to z=0.45.

  7. Extended optical-emission-line gas in powerful radio galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Results of a search for extended optical-emission-line gas in 43 powerful radio galaxies are presented. Spatially extended optical-emission-line gas is common in these galaxies. The extent and luminosity of the emission-line gas in powerful radio galaxies is an order of magnitude greater than in normal elliptical galaxies of similar optical magnitudes. The total emission-line luminosity is roughly half of the radio luminosity, and the radio luminosity correlates with the narrow-line luminosity over four decades. The near-nuclear emission-line gas is often distributed in a smooth, roughly elliptical feature, centered on and symmetric about the nucleus. The distribution of axial ratios found in these small emission-line nebulae (ELN) is inconsistent with them being disks seen from different orientations. The minor axes of the small regions of emission-line gas show only a weak tendency to align with the position angle of the extended radio source and the major axis of the stellar isophotes. The very extended emission line gas (d{sub neb} > 10 kpc) is filamentary and is found preferentially within the regions occupied by the radio source. The small (d{sub radio} < 100 kpc) radio sources with very extended ELN show evidence of interacting with their gas-rich environments; the large (d{sub radio} > 100 kpc) radio sources with very extended ELN show no signs that they have been disturbed by their surrounding media. Lower limits to the density of the emission line gas at distances of 10 kpc from the galaxy nucleus are {approximately}0.1 cm{sup {minus}3} and upper limits to the total mass in emission line gas are {approximately}10{sup 9} M {circle dot}. The optical nuclear continuum is strongly correlated with the narrow emission line luminosity and is sufficient to photoionize the ELN.

  8. CO interferometry of gas-rich spiral galaxies in the outskirts of an intermediate redshift cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geach, James E.; Smail, Ian; Coppin, Kristen; Moran, Sean M.; Edge, Alastair C.; Ellis, Richard S.

    2009-05-01

    We present IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer 3-mm observations of CO J(1 -> 0) emission in two 24-μm selected starburst galaxies in the outskirts (~2-3Rvirial) of the rich cluster Cl0024+16 (z = 0.395). The galaxies' inferred far-infrared luminosities place them in the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) class (LFIR > 1011Lsolar), with star formation rates of ~60Msolaryr-1. Strong CO J(1 -> 0) emission is detected in both galaxies, and we use the CO line luminosity to estimate the mass of cold molecular gas, M(H2). Assuming M(H2)/L'CO = 0.8Msolar (Kkm-1pc2)-1, we estimate M(H2) = (5.4-9.1) × 109Msolar for the two galaxies. We estimate the galaxies' dynamical masses from their CO line widths, Mdyn ~ 1-3 × 1010Msolar, implying large cold gas fractions in the galaxies' central regions. At their current rates, they will complete the assembly of M* ~ 1010Msolar and double their stellar mass within as little as ~150Myr. If these galaxies are destined to evolve into S0s, then the short time-scale for stellar mass assembly implies that their major episode of bulge growth occurs while they are still in the cluster outskirts, long before they reach the core regions. Subsequent fading of the disc component relative to the stellar bulge after the gas reservoirs have been exhausted could complete the transformation of spiral-to-S0.

  9. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE MAPS THE DENSE, STAR-FORMING GAS IN THE NEARBY STARBURST GALAXY M82

    SciTech Connect

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Frayer, David; Leroy, Adam K.; Usero, Antonio; Walter, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Observations of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies show that dense molecular gas correlates with recent star formation, suggesting that the formation of this gas phase may help regulate star formation. A key test of this idea requires wide-area, high-resolution maps of dense molecular gas in galaxies to explore how local physical conditions drive dense gas formation, but these observations have been limited because of the faintness of dense gas tracers like HCN and HCO{sup +}. Here we demonstrate the power of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT)—the largest single-dish millimeter radio telescope—for mapping dense gas in galaxies by presenting the most sensitive maps yet of HCN and HCO{sup +} in the starburst galaxy M82. The HCN and HCO{sup +} in the disk of this galaxy correlates with both recent star formation and more diffuse molecular gas and shows kinematics consistent with a rotating torus. The HCO{sup +} emission extending to the north and south of the disk is coincident with the outflow previously identified in CO and traces the eastern edge of the hot outflowing gas. The central starburst region has a higher ratio of star formation to dense gas than the outer regions, pointing to the starburst as a key driver of this relationship. These results establish that the GBT can efficiently map the dense molecular gas at 90 GHz in nearby galaxies, a capability that will increase further with the 16 element feed array under construction.

  10. Fueling galaxy growth through gas accretion in cosmological simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Dylan Rubaloff

    Despite significant advances in the numerical modeling of galaxy formation and evolution, it is clear that a satisfactory theoretical picture of how galaxies acquire their baryons across cosmic time remains elusive. In this thesis we present a computational study which seeks to address the question of how galaxies get their gas. We make use of new, more robust simulation techniques and describe the first investigations of cosmological gas accretion using a moving-mesh approach for solving the equations of continuum hydrodynamics. We focus first on a re-examination of past theoretical conclusions as to the relative importance of different accretion modes for galaxy growth. We study the rates and nature of gas accretion at z=2, comparing our new simulations run with the Arepo code to otherwise identical realizations run with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code Gadget. We find significant physical differences in the thermodynamic history of accreted gas, explained in terms of numerical inaccuracies in SPH. In contrast to previous results, we conclude that hot mode accretion generally dominates galaxy growth, while cold gas filaments experience increased heating and disruption. Next, we consider the impact of feedback on our results, including models for galactic-scale outflows driven by stars as well as the energy released from supermassive black holes. We find that feedback strongly suppresses the inflow of "smooth" mode gas at all redshifts, regardless of its temperature history. Although the geometry of accretion at the virial radius is largely unmodified, strong galactic-fountain recycling motions dominate the inner halo. We measure a shift in the characteristic timescale of accretion, and discuss implications for semi-analytical models of hot halo gas cooling. To overcome the resolution limitations of cosmological volumes, we simulate a suite of eight individual 1012 solar mass halos down to z=2. We quantify the thermal and dynamical structure of the gas in

  11. Gravitational star formation thresholds and gas density in three galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oey, M. S.; Kennicutt, R. C., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    It has long been held that the star formation rate (SFR) may be described as a power law of the gas density, p(exp n), as given by Schmidt (1959). However, this relation has as yet remained poorly defined and is likewise poorly understood. In particular, most studies have been investigations of global gas and star formation properties of galaxies, due to lack of adequate high-resolution data for detailed studies of individual galaxies. The three spiral galaxies in this study have published maps of both H2 (as traced by CO), and HI, thereby enabling the authors to investigate the relationship between total gas surface density and SFR. The purpose of the present investigation is the comparison of spatially-resolved total surface gas density in three galaxies (NGC 6946, M51, and M83) to sigma sub c as given by the above model. CO, HI and H alpha data for NGC 6946 were taken from Tacconi-Garman (1988), and for M51 and M83 from Lord (1987). The authors used a CO-H2 conversion of N(H2)/I sub CO(exp cos i = 2.8 x 10(exp 20) atoms cm(-2)/(K kms(-1), and summed the H2 and HI data for each galaxy to obtain the total hydrogen gas density. This total was then multiplied by a factor of 1.36 to include the contribution of helium to the total surface gas density. The authors assumed distances to NGC 6946, M51, and M83 to be 6.0, 9.6, and 8.9 Mpc respectively, with inclination angles of 30, 20, and 26 degrees. H alpha flux was used as the measure of SFR for NGC 6946, and SFR for the remaining two galaxies was taken directly from Lord as computed from H alpha measurements. The results of these full-disk studies thus show a remarkable correlation between the total gas density and the threshold densities given by the gravitational stability criterion. In particular, the threshold density appears to mark a lower boundary to the range of gas densities in these galaxies, which may have consequence in determining appropriate models for star formation and gas dynamics. More evidence is

  12. Featured Image: H I Gas in the Triangulum Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    These spectacular images are of M33, otherwise known as the Triangulum Galaxy a spiral galaxy roughly 3 million light-years away. The views on the left and in the center are different Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) filters, and the view on the right is a full-resolution look at the H I gas distribution in M33s inner disk, made with data from the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) Synthesis Telescope and Arecibo. In a new study, a team of authors led by Zacharie Sie Kam (University of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; University of Montreal, Canada) uses the H I gas observations to explore how the mass is distributed throughout M33 and how the gas moves as the galaxys disk rotates. To read more about what they learned, check out the paper below.CitationS. Z. Kam et al 2017 AJ 154 41. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa79f3

  13. Dust-to-gas ratio and metallicity variations in nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, M. R.; MacLaren, I.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    1990-09-01

    The dependence of the dust-to-gas ratio on Galacto-centric radius and its relation to the known metallicity gradient in the Galaxy and nearby galaxies is investigated. Despite the large degree of uncertainty associated with both quantities, there is evidence for a correlation, with dust-to-gas ratio and metallicity decreasing at roughly the same rate with increasing radius. Such a result has important implications. For example, attempts using FIR surveys to estimate the conversion between observed CO emission and molecular hydrogen column density should allow for the varying dust-to-gas ratio. Broadbent et al. (1989) used a dust-to-gas ratio that varied in proportion to metallicity, following the approach used by Cox et al. (1986), and confirmed the previously estimated low value for the conversion factor; there is thus support for this result.

  14. First Results From The Empire Nearby Galaxy Dense Gas Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigiel, Frank

    2016-09-01

    I will present first results from our EMPIRE survey, a large program ( 500 hr) at the IRAM 30m telescope to map high critical density gas and shock tracers (e.g., HCN, HCO+, HNC, N2H+, etc.) as well as the optically thin 1-0 lines of 13CO and C18O for the first time systematically across 9 prominent, nearby Disk Galaxies."How is star formation regulated across disk galaxies" is the central question framing our science. Specifically, and building on a large suite of available ancillary data from the radio to the UV, we study, among other things, dense gas fractions and star formation efficiencies and how they vary with environment within and among nearby disk galaxies. Of particular interest is how our measurements compare to studies in the Milky Way, predicting a fairly constant star formation efficiency of the dense gas. Already in our first case study focusing on the prominent nearby spiral galaxy M51, we find signifycant variations of this quantity across the disk.In my talk, I will present results from a first series of studies about to me submitted addressing these questions with our EMPIRE and complementary, high-resolution ALMA data. In addition, I will present details of the survey and report on ongoing projects and future directions. I will place our work in context with other work, including studies of dense gas tracers in other galaxies and in particular the Milky Way.

  15. Stars and gas in high redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettini, Max

    Recent advances in instrumentation and observing techniques have made it possible to begin to study in detail the stellar populations and the interstellar media of galaxies at redshift z=3, when the universe was still in its "teen years". In keeping with the theme of this conference, I show how our knowledge of local star-forming regions can be applied directly to these distant galaxies to deduce their ages, metallicities, initial mass function, and masses. I also discuss areas where current limitations in stellar astrophysics have a direct bearing on the interpretation of the data being gathered, at an ever increasing rate, on the high redshift universe.

  16. The neutral gas content of post-merger galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Sara L.; Fertig, Derek; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Nair, Preethi; Simard, Luc; Torrey, Paul; Patton, David R.

    2015-03-01

    Measurements of the neutral hydrogen gas content of a sample of 93 post-merger galaxies are presented, from a combination of matches to the ALFALFA.40 data release and new Arecibo observations. By imposing completeness thresholds identical to that of the ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) survey, and by compiling a mass-, redshift- and environment-matched control sample from the public ALFALFA.40 data release, we calculate gas fraction offsets (Δfgas) for the post-mergers, relative to the control sample. We find that the post-mergers have H I gas fractions that are consistent with undisturbed galaxies. However, due to the relative gas richness of the ALFALFA.40 sample, from which we draw our control sample, our measurements of gas fraction enhancements are likely to be conservative lower limits. Combined with comparable gas fraction measurements by Fertig et al. in a sample of galaxy pairs, who also determine gas fraction offsets consistent with zero, we conclude that there is no evidence for significant neutral gas consumption throughout the merger sequence. From a suite of 75 binary merger simulations we confirm that star formation is expected to decrease the post-merger gas fraction by only 0.06 dex, even several Gyr after the merger. Moreover, in addition to the lack of evidence for gas consumption from gas fraction offsets, the observed H I detection fraction in the complete sample of post-mergers is twice as high as the controls, which suggests that the post-merger gas fractions may actually be enhanced. We demonstrate that a gas fraction enhancement in post-mergers, relative to a stellar mass-matched control sample, would indeed be the natural result of merging randomly drawn pairs from a parent population which exhibits a declining gas fraction with increasing stellar mass.

  17. Galaxy pairs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - X. Does gas content alter star formation rate enhancement in galaxy interactions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, Jillian M.; Ellison, Sara L.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Torrey, Paul; Patton, David R.; Fertig, Derek; Mendel, J. Trevor

    2015-06-01

    New spectral line observations, obtained with the Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), of a sample of 34 galaxies in 17 close pairs are presented in this paper. The sample of galaxy pairs is selected to contain galaxies in close, major interactions (i.e. projected separations <30 h_{70}^{-1} kpc, and mass ratios less extreme than 4:1), while still having a sufficiently large angular separation that the VLA can spatially resolve both galaxies in the pair. Of the 34 galaxies, 17 are detected at >3σ. We compare the H I gas fraction of the galaxies with the triggered star formation present in that galaxy. When compared to the star formation rates (SFRs) of non-pair galaxies matched in mass, redshift, and local environment, we find that the star formation enhancement is weakly positively correlated (˜2.5σ) with H I gas fraction. In order to help understand the physical mechanisms driving this weak correlation, we also present results from a small suite of binary galaxy merger simulations with varying gas fractions. The simulated galaxies indicate that larger initial gas fractions are associated with lower levels of interaction-triggered star formation (relative to an identical galaxy in isolation), but also show that high gas fraction galaxies have higher absolute SFRs prior to an interaction. We show that when interaction-driven SFR enhancements are calculated relative to a galaxy with an average gas fraction for its stellar mass, the relationship between SFR and initial gas fraction dominates over the SFR enhancements driven by the interaction. Simulated galaxy interactions that are matched in stellar mass but not in gas fraction, like our VLA sample, yield the same general positive correlation between SFR enhancement and gas fraction that we observe.

  18. Star forming regions in gas-rich SO galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogge, Richard W.; Eskridge, Paul B.

    1987-01-01

    The first results of an H alpha imaging survey of HI rich SO galaxies, which were searched for HII regions and other sources of emission, are presented. The charge coupled device H alpha interference filter images were made of 16 galaxies. Eight of these galaxies show evidence for on-going star formation, one has nuclear emission but no HII regions, and the remaining seven have no emissions detected within well defined upper limits. With the exception of one notably peculiar galaxy in which the emission from HII regions appears pervasive, the HII regions are either organized into inner-disk rings or randomly distributed throughout the disk. A few of these galaxies are found to be clearly not SO's; or peculiar objects atypical of the SO class. Using simple models star formation rates (SFRs) and gas depletion times from the observed H alpha fluxes were estimated. In general, the derived SFRs are much lower than those found in isolated field spiral galaxies and the corresponding gas depletion time scales are also longer.

  19. GAS PHASE MOLECULAR DYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    SEARS,T.J.; HALL,G.E.; PRESES,J.M.; WESTON,R.E.,JR.

    1999-06-09

    The goal of this research is the understanding of elementary chemical and physical processes important in the combustion of fossil fuels. Interest centers on reactions involving short-lived chemical intermediates and their properties. High-resolution, high-sensitivity, laser absorption methods are augmented by high temperature flow-tube reaction kinetics studies with mass-spectrometric sampling. These experiments provide information on the energy levels, structures and reactivity of molecular free radical species and, in turn, provide new tools for the study of energy flow and chemical bond cleavage in the radicals in chemical systems. The experimental work is supported by theoretical and computational work using time-dependent quantum wavepacket calculations that provide insights into energy flow between the vibrational modes of the molecule. The work of group members Fockenberg and Muckerman is described in separate abstracts of this volume.

  20. How does inhomogeneous reionization impact the gas content of galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobacchi, E.; Mesinger, A.

    The reionization of the intergalactic medium (IGM) was likely inhomogeneous and extended. By heating the IGM and photo-evaporating gas from the outskirts of galaxies, this process can have a dramatic impact on the growth of structures and suppress the observed number of dwarf galaxies. We tackle this problem using a tiered approach: combining parameterized results from suites of single-halo collapse simulations with large-scale models of reionization. We present an expression for the halo baryon fraction which is an explicit function of: (i) halo mass; (ii) an ionizing UV background (UVB) intensity; (iii) redshift; (iv) redshift at which the halo was exposed to a UVB. The latter has been shown to significantly impact the observed abundance of local dwarf galaxies. We then fold-in our parametrized results into large-scale simulations of reionization, such that the ionizing emissivity of galaxies depends on the local values of the reionization redshift and the UVB intensity, evolving in a self-consistent manner. We present a physically-motivated analytic expression for the resulting average minimum mass of star-forming galaxies, M_min, which can be readily used in modeling galaxy formation, as well as interpreting observations of dwarf galaxies at all redshifts.

  1. The growth of the central region by acquisition of counterrotating gas in star-forming galaxies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Mei; Shi, Yong; Tremonti, Christy A; Bershady, Matt; Merrifield, Michael; Emsellem, Eric; Jin, Yi-Fei; Huang, Song; Fu, Hai; Wake, David A; Bundy, Kevin; Stark, David; Lin, Lihwai; Argudo-Fernandez, Maria; Bergmann, Thaisa Storchi; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brownstein, Joel; Bureau, Martin; Chisholm, John; Drory, Niv; Guo, Qi; Hao, Lei; Hu, Jian; Li, Cheng; Li, Ran; Lopes, Alexandre Roman; Pan, Kai-Ke; Riffel, Rogemar A; Thomas, Daniel; Wang, Lan; Westfall, Kyle; Yan, Ren-Bin

    2016-10-19

    Galaxies grow through both internal and external processes. In about 10% of nearby red galaxies with little star formation, gas and stars are counter-rotating, demonstrating the importance of external gas acquisition in these galaxies. However, systematic studies of such phenomena in blue, star-forming galaxies are rare, leaving uncertain the role of external gas acquisition in driving evolution of blue galaxies. Here, based on new measurements with integral field spectroscopy of a large representative galaxy sample, we find an appreciable fraction of counter-rotators among blue galaxies (9 out of 489 galaxies). The central regions of blue counter-rotators show younger stellar populations and more intense, ongoing star formation than their outer parts, indicating ongoing growth of the central regions. The result offers observational evidence that the acquisition of external gas in blue galaxies is possible; the interaction with pre-existing gas funnels the gas into nuclear regions (<1 kpc) to form new stars.

  2. The molecular gas mass of M 33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratier, P.; Braine, J.; Schuster, K.; Rosolowsky, E.; Boquien, M.; Calzetti, D.; Combes, F.; Kramer, C.; Henkel, C.; Herpin, F.; Israel, F.; Koribalski, B. S.; Mookerjea, B.; Tabatabaei, F. S.; Röllig, M.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; van der Werf, P.; Wiedner, M.

    2017-03-01

    Do some environments favor efficient conversion of molecular gas into stars? To answer this, we need to be able to estimate the H2 mass. Traditionally, this is done using CO observations and a few assumptions but the Herschel observations which cover the far-IR dust spectrum make it possible to estimate the molecular gas mass independently of CO and thus to investigate whether and how the CO traces H2. Previous attempts to derive gas masses from dust emission suffered from biases. Generally, dust surface densities, H i column densities, and CO intensities are used to derive a gas-to-dust ratio (GDR) and the local CO intensity to H2 column density ratio (XCO), sometimes allowing for an additional CO-dark gas component (Kdark). We tested earlier methods, revealing degeneracies among the parameters, and then used a sophisticated Bayesian formalism to derive the most likely values for each of the parameters mentioned above as a function of position in the nearby prototypical low metallicity (12 + log (O/H) 8.4) spiral galaxy M 33. The data are from the IRAM Large Program mapping in the CO(2-1) line along with high-resolution H i and Herschel dust continuum observations. Solving for GDR, XCO, and Kdark in macropixels 500 pc in size, each containing many individual measurements of the CO, H i, and dust emission, we find that (i) allowing for CO dark gas (Kdark) significantly improves fits; (ii) Kdark decreases with galactocentric distance; (iii) GDR is slightly higher than initially expected and increases with galactocentric distance; (iv) the total amount of dark gas closely follows the radially decreasing CO emission, as might be expected if the dark gas is H2 where CO is photodissociated. The total amount of H2, including dark gas, yields an average XCO of twice the galactic value of 2 × 1020 cm-2/ K km s-1, with about 55% of this traced directly through CO. The rather constant fraction of dark gas suggests that there is no large population of diffuse H2 clouds

  3. Glitters of warm H2 in cold diffuse molecular gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falgarone, Edith; Boulanger, Francois; Combes, Francoise; Pineau Des Forets, Guillaume; Verstraete, Laurent

    2007-05-01

    Cold molecular hydrogen, a dominant gas fraction in galaxies, does not radiate due to the symmetry of the molecule. The only tracers of cold H2, the rotational lines of CO and dust thermal emission operate only in metal-rich environments. By detecting the lowest rotational lines of H2 at unexpected levels in the cold diffuse medium of the Galaxy, ISO-SWS has challenged the traditional view of the interstellar medium (ISM) by possibly revealing the existence of tiny gas fractions within the cold ISM, warm enough to excite H2 lines. The heating source of H2 there is the intermittent dissipation of supersonic turbulence, pervading the entire ISM. These glitters of H2 line emission may become the unique tracers of cold H2 in low metallicity environments. Given the fundamental importance of probing large hidden masses of gas in galaxies, for their implication on galaxy dynamics, star formation thresholds in metal-poor environments, and the hypothesis of H2 as baryonic dark matter in galaxies, the present SST/IRS proposal is dedicated to further search of this still elusive emission. The proposed observations consist in several IRS LL pointings along the major axis of two external galaxies with massive HI disks extending far beyond their optical radius, and for which the HI rotation curve cannot be accounted for by the stellar and visible gas components. These spectra also observed in the direction of the galaxy nuclei, are meant to allow the separation between the H2 emission with stellar-type excitation from that originating in gas heated by turbulence dissipation. The goal of the proposal is to strenghten the existence of pockets of warm H2 disseminated in the cold diffuse medium of galaxies. These glitters of warm H2 would be a new tracer of hitherto undetected amounts of cold H2 in low metallicity environments, and, as a more exploratory facet, might probe the presence of large amounts of baryonic dark matter in galaxies in the form of cold molecular hydrogen.

  4. THE RELATION BETWEEN MID-PLANE PRESSURE AND MOLECULAR HYDROGEN IN GALAXIES: ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Feldmann, Robert; Hernandez, Jose; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2012-12-20

    Molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is the primary component of the reservoirs of cold, dense gas that fuel star formation in our Galaxy. While the H{sub 2} abundance is ultimately regulated by physical processes operating on small scales in the interstellar medium (ISM), observations have revealed a tight correlation between the ratio of molecular to atomic hydrogen in nearby spiral galaxies and the pressure in the mid-plane of their disks. This empirical relation has been used to predict H{sub 2} abundances in galaxies with potentially very different ISM conditions, such as metal-deficient galaxies at high redshifts. Here, we test the validity of this approach by studying the dependence of the pressure-H{sub 2} relation on environmental parameters of the ISM. To this end, we follow the formation and destruction of H{sub 2} explicitly in a suite of hydrodynamical simulations of galaxies with different ISM parameters. We find that a pressure-H{sub 2} relation arises naturally in our simulations for a variety of dust-to-gas ratios or strengths of the interstellar radiation field in the ISM. Fixing the dust-to-gas ratio and the UV radiation field to values measured in the solar neighborhood results in fair agreement with the relation observed in nearby galaxies with roughly solar metallicity. However, the parameters (slope and normalization) of the pressure-H{sub 2} relation vary in a systematical way with ISM properties. A particularly strong trend is the decrease of the normalization of the relation with a lowering of the dust-to-gas ratio of the ISM. We show how this trend and other properties of the pressure-H{sub 2} relation arise from the atomic-to-molecular phase transition in the ISM caused by a combination of H{sub 2} formation, destruction, and shielding mechanisms.

  5. The molecular morphology of the SAB galaxy NGC 4736

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garman, L. E.; Young, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    The first mapping observations of molecular clouds in NGC 4736 are presented. A central hole in the molecular distribution is found, with the observed peak in CO emission at a radius of 22 arcsec from the center. If this distribution is azimuthally symmetric, the ring contains an H2 mass of 100 million solar masses, while the H I mass in the same region is 10 million solar masses. The CO peaks are coincident with the inner portion of a ring of H I. The extent of the central CO hole coincides with the region in the galaxy where the light distribution is dominated by the contribution from the nuclear bulge, as was found previously in several Sb galaxies. The fraction of mass in the ISM in this galaxy, about one percent, is lower than that found in any other galaxy in which CO has been detected. This is due to a very small amount of mass in the atomic and molecular clouds.

  6. Modeling Circumgalactic Gas During the Peak Epoch of Galaxy Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, Romeel

    During the peak of cosmic star formation at z=1-4, galaxy growth is increasingly believed to be modulated by large-scale inflows and outflows of baryons that intimately connect galaxies to their surrounding circumgalactic medium (CGM). Unfortunately, direct observational signatures of these baryon cycling processes are elusive and fragmented, owing to the diffuse and multi- phase nature of the CGM. This proposal aims to use advanced multi-scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to investigate how inflows and outflows within circumgalactic gas are manifested in present and future observables, and how those observables in turn constrain the physical processes driving galaxy evolution. The simulation methodology includes ``random" cosmological runs, ``zoom" runs of individual halos, and radiative transfer to better model the ionization conditions. We will focus on absorption and emission signatures in HI and metal lines using common rest-UV and rest-optical tracers. Key questions include: How do metal absorbers trace the enrichment and ionization conditions within circumgalactic gas? How much absorption arises from inflow versus outflow, and what are the characteristic absorption, emission, and/or kinematic signatures of each? What emission lines from CGM gas are predicted to be observable, and how does the combination of emission and absorption constrain CGM properties? What are the roles of metallicity, ionization, and large-scale structure in establishing the correlations of metal absorbers and galaxies on CGM scales? How do all these CGM properties relate to host galaxy properties such as mass, and how do they vary with outflow model? The overall goal is to develop a comprehensive hierarchical-based framework for assembling various observations of circumgalactic gas into a unified scenario for how inflows and outflows govern the growth of galaxies.

  7. New Images Show Unprecedented Detail of Neighbor Galaxy's Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    Using radio telescopes in the United States and Europe, astronomers have made the most detailed images ever of Hydrogen gas in a spiral galaxy other than the Milky Way. The scientists used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) in the Netherlands to produce an image of the galaxy M33, known to amateur astronomers as the Pinwheel Galaxy. Doppler-Shift Image of M33's Gas "An image with the level of detail we have achieved opens the door to learning fundamental new facts about the relationship between massive stars and the galaxy's complicated gaseous environment. This, in turn, will help us better understand how galaxies age," said David Thilker, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Thilker worked with Robert Braun of the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy and Rene Walterbos of New Mexico State University in Las Cruces. The scientists reported their findings today at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in San Diego, CA. The VLA and WSRT received radio waves at a wavelength of 21 centimeters that are naturally emitted by Hydrogen atoms. Using this data, the astronomers produced images showing the distribution of neutral atomic Hydrogen in M33. In addition, because the atoms emit at a very specific wavelength, the scientists could detect the galaxy's rotation by tuning the telescopes' radio receivers to receive radio waves whose length has been changed by Doppler shifting. The new images show details of the galaxy smaller than 130 light-years. "With more computer processing, we will be able to see features as small as 65 light-years," Thilker said. "This, we believe, will allow us to see 'bubbles' in the galaxy's gas that have been inflated as the result of one or more supernova explosions," Thilker added. At a distance from Earth of about 2.7 million light-years, M33 is a member of the Local Group of galaxies, which

  8. Gas Accretion Traced in Absorption in Galaxy Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Kate H. R.

    The positive velocity shift of absorption transitions tracing diffuse material observed in a galaxy spectrum is an unambiguous signature of gas flow toward the host system. Spectroscopy probing, e.g., Na I resonance lines in the rest-frame optical or Mg II and Fe II in the near-ultraviolet is in principle sensitive to the infall of cool material at temperatures T ˜ 100-10,000 K anywhere along the line of sight to a galaxy's stellar component. However, secure detections of this redshifted absorption signature have proved challenging to obtain due to the ubiquity of cool gas outflows giving rise to blueshifted absorption along the same sightlines. In this chapter, we review the bona fide detections of this phenomenon. Analysis of Na I line profiles has revealed numerous instances of redshifted absorption observed toward early-type and/or AGN-host galaxies, while spectroscopy of Mg II and Fe II has provided evidence for ongoing gas accretion onto > 5% of luminous, star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 0. 5-1. We then discuss the potentially ground-breaking benefits of future efforts to improve the spectral resolution of such studies, and to leverage spatially resolved spectroscopy for new constraints on inflowing gas morphology.

  9. An extremely low gas-to-dust ratio in the dust-lane lenticular galaxy NGC 5485

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baes, Maarten; Allaert, Flor; Sarzi, Marc; De Looze, Ilse; Fritz, Jacopo; Gentile, Gianfranco; Hughes, Thomas M.; Puerari, Ivânio; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Viaene, Sébastien

    2014-10-01

    Evidence is mounting that a significant fraction of the early-type galaxy population contains substantial reservoirs of cold interstellar gas and dust. We investigate the gas and dust in NGC 5485, an early-type galaxy with a prominent minor-axis dust lane. Using new Herschel PACS and SPIRE imaging data, we detect 3.8 × 106 M⊙ of cool interstellar dust in NGC 5485, which is in stark contrast with the non-detection of the galaxy in sensitive H I and CO observations from the ATLAS3D consortium. The resulting gas-to-dust ratio upper limit is Mgas/Md < 14.5, almost an order of magnitude lower than the canonical value for the Milky Way. We scrutinize the reliability of the dust, atomic gas and molecular gas mass estimates, but these do not show systematic uncertainties that can explain the extreme gas-to-dust ratio. Also a warm or hot ionized gas medium does not offer an explanation. A possible scenario could be that NGC 5485 merged with an SMC-type metal-poor galaxy with a substantial CO-dark molecular gas component and that the bulk of atomic gas was lost during the interaction, but it remains to be investigated whether such a scenario is possible.

  10. Redshift evolution of stellar mass versus gas fraction relation in 0 < z < 2 regime: observational constraint for galaxy formation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morokuma-Matsui, Kana; Baba, Junichi

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the redshift evolution of molecular gas mass fraction (f_mol = M_mol/M_star +M_mol, where Mmol is molecular gas mass and M⋆ is stellar mass) of galaxies in the redshift range of 0 < z < 2 as a function of the stellar mass by combining carbon monoxide (CO) literature data. We observe a stellar-mass dependence of the fmol evolution where massive galaxies have largely depleted their molecular gas at z = 1, whereas the fmol value of less massive galaxies drastically decreases from z = 1. We compare the observed M⋆ - fmol relation with theoretical predictions from cosmological hydrodynamic simulations and semi-analytical models for galaxy formation. Although the theoretical studies approximately reproduce the observed mass dependence of the fmol evolution, they tend to underestimate the fmol values, particularly of less massive (<1010 M⊙) and massive galaxies (>1011 M⊙) when compared with the observational values. Our result suggests the importance of the feedback models which suppress the star formation while simultaneously preserving the molecular gas in order to reproduce the observed M⋆ - fmol relation.

  11. The dynamical role of the central molecular ring within the framework of a seven-component Galaxy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simin, A. A.; Fridman, A. M.; Haud, U. A.

    1991-09-01

    A Galaxy model in which the surface density of the gas component has a sharp (two orders of magnitude) jump in the region of the outer radius of the molecular ring is constructed on the basis of observational data. This model is used to calculate the contributions of each population to the model curve of Galactic rotation. The value of the dimensionless increment of hydrodynamical instability for the gas component, being much less than 1, coincides with a similar magnitude for the same gas in the gravity field of the entire Galaxy. It is concluded that the unstable gas component of the Galaxy lies near the limit of the hydrodynamical instability, which is in accordance with the Le Chatelier principle. The stellar populations of the Galaxy probably do not affect the generation of the spiral structure in the gaseous component.

  12. When galaxy clusters collide: the impact of merger shocks on cluster gas and galaxy evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroe, A.

    2015-09-01

    Galaxy clusters mainly grow through mergers with other clusters and groups. Major mergers give rise to cluster-wide traveling shocks, which can be detected at radio wavelengths as relics: elongated, diffuse synchrotron emitting areas located at the periphery of merging clusters. The 'Sausage' cluster hosts an extraordinary Mpc-wide relic, which enables us to study to study particle acceleration and the effects of shocks on cluster galaxies. We derive shock properties and the magnetic field structure for the relic. Our results indicate that particles are shock-accelerated, but turbulent re-acceleration or unusually efficient transport of particles in the downstream area are important effects. We demonstrate the feasibility of high-frequency observations of radio relics, by presenting a 16 GHz detection of the 'Sausage' relic. Halpha mapping of the cluster provides the first direct test as to whether the shock drives or prohibits star formation. We find numerous galaxies in! close proximity to the radio relic which are extremely massive, metal-rich, star-forming with evidence for gas mass loss though outflows. We speculate that the complex interaction between the merger, the shock wave and gas is a fundamental driver in the evolution of cluster galaxies from gas rich spirals to gas-poor ellipticals.

  13. Shocked Outflows and Gas Disks in Local Merging Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Kurt; Martin, C. L.; Prescott, M. K. M.; Armus, L.

    2012-01-01

    We have mapped the kinematic and physical properties of gas emitting optical emission lines across 39 gas-rich mergers, which were previously shown to host tidally-induced gas inflows, with deep ESI spectroscopy. In our unique analysis of these longslit spectra, we fitted multiple kinematic components to forbidden lines and recombination lines simultaneously, enabling an examination of the excitation mechanism in different kinematic components. We identify many rotating gas disks in systems whose stellar component is no longer a disk due to the merger. Many of these disks present gas excited by hot stars, but some of the disks present shock-like ratios of diagnostic emission lines, an observation we attribute to the collision of the two galaxies. In another subset of galaxies, we find very broad (sigma > 150 km/s) emission components that also present shock-like emission-line ratios. The large spatial extent of this emission favors shocks over the narrow-line region of a hidden AGN as the excitation mechanism. The high star formation rate, high dust content, and blueshift of the broad emission further suggest an origin in a galactic outflow. If this interpretation is correct, then our study of these nearby galaxies provides important insight for interpreting the broad emission lines associated with giant star-forming clumps in z 2 galaxies. It also shows that galactic outflows can be recognized via resolved emission lines, in addition to absorption lines, even in integrated spectra; and this technique could prove very powerful for studying galactic outflows in infrared spectra of high-redshift galaxies in the future. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under contract 0808161.

  14. The Dragonfly Galaxy. II. ALMA unveils a triple merger and gas exchange in a hyper-luminous radio galaxy at z = 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emonts, B. H. C.; De Breuck, C.; Lehnert, M. D.; Vernet, J.; Gullberg, B.; Villar-Martín, M.; Nesvadba, N.; Drouart, G.; Ivison, R.; Seymour, N.; Wylezalek, D.; Barthel, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Dragonfly Galaxy (MRC 0152-209), at redshift z ~ 2, is one of the most vigorously star-forming radio galaxies in the Universe. What triggered its activity? We present ALMA Cycle 2 observations of cold molecular CO(6-5) gas and dust, which reveal that this is likely a gas-rich triple merger. It consists of a close double nucleus (separation ~4 kpc) and a weak CO-emitter at ~10 kpc distance, all of which have counterparts in HST/NICMOS imagery. The hyper-luminous starburst and powerful radio-AGN were triggered at this precoalescent stage of the merger. The CO(6-5) traces dense molecular gas in the central region, and complements existing CO(1-0) data, which reveal more widespread tidal debris of cold gas. We also find ~1010 M⊙ of molecular gas with enhanced excitation at the highest velocities. At least 20-50% of this high-excitation, high-velocity gas shows kinematics that suggests it is being displaced and redistributed within the merger, although with line-of-sight velocities of |v| < 500 km s-1, this gas will probably not escape the system. The processes that drive the redistribution of cold gas are likely related to either the gravitational interaction between two kpc-scale discs, or starburst/AGN-driven outflows. We estimate that the rate at which the molecular gas is redistributed is at least [Ṁentity!#x2009!]~ 1200 ± 500 M⊙ yr-1, and could perhaps even approach the star formation rate of ~3000 ± 800 M⊙ yr-1. The fact that the gas depletion and gas redistribution timescales are similar implies that dynamical processes can be important in the evolution of massive high-z galaxies.

  15. The Molecular Gas Outflow of NGC 1068 Imaged by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Burillo, S.

    2015-12-01

    We have used the ALMA array to map the emission of a set of dense molecular gas tracers (CO(3-2), CO(6-5), HCN(4-3), HCO+(4-3), and CS(7-6)) in the central r˜2 kpc of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 with spatial resolutions ˜0.3″-0.5″ (˜20-35 pc). The sensitivity and spatial resolution of ALMA give a detailed view of the distribution and kinematics of the dense molecular gas. The gas kinematics from r˜50 pc out to r˜400 pc reveal a massive outflow in all molecular tracers. The tight correlation between the ionized gas outflow, the radio jet, and the occurrence of outward motions in the disk suggests that the outflow is AGN driven. The outflow rate estimated in the CND, M/dt˜63+21-37 M⊙ yr-1, is an order of magnitude higher than the star formation rate at these radii. The molecular outflow could quench star formation in the inner r˜400 pc of the galaxy on short timescales of ≤1 Myr and regulate gas accretion in the CND.

  16. GAS, STARS, AND STAR FORMATION IN ALFALFA DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G. E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: jarle@strw.leidenuniv.nl E-mail: susan.g.neff@nasa.gov

    2012-06-15

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and H I components of 229 low H I mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H I masses <10{sup 7.7} M{sub Sun} and H I line widths <80 km s{sup -1}. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M{sub *}) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M{sub *} obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M{sub *} {approx}< 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper H I mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M{sub *} than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H I depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that H I disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  17. Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in Alfalfa Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and Hi components of 229 low H i mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H i masses <10(sup 7.7) solar mass and Hi line widths <80 kilometers per second. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M*) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M* obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M* approximately less than10(exp 8)M(sub 0) is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper Hi mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M* than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H i depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that Hi disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  18. Molecular Hydrogen Emission from Galaxies: The Cirrus Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingalls, James; Bania, Thomas; Boulanger, Francois; Draine, Bruce; Falgarone, Edith; Hily-Blant, Pierre

    2008-08-01

    Are cirrus clouds a major source of molecular hydrogen emission in normal Galaxies? This question caused a considerable debate during the 2007 Spitzer Conference. After the end of the cryogenic Spitzer mission, no existing or planned observatory will be capable of answering it for the known future. To remedy this, we propose a set of Spitzer IRS (LL) pointings to observe the two lowest-lying S(0) (28.2 micron) and S(1) (17.0 micron) pure-rotational transitions of H2 towards 4 translucent 'cirrus' positions in DCld 300.2-16.9, a known source of excited H2. Two of us unexpectedly discovered H2 S(2) emission at 12.3 microns in this cloud as part of our Spitzer GO program to study the 5-15 micron PAH spectrum. Relative to the integrated PAH flux at 7.9 microns, the S(2) flux in our cloud is higher by a factor of about 6 than the S(2) flux in non-active SINGS galaxies. One hypothesis currently in favor argues that H2 emission from the disks of galaxies results from fluorescent excitation by UV photons in dense photodissociation regions with high radiation fluxes. Clearly this cannot be the case for DCld 300.2-16.9, since the UV flux incident on the cloud cannot be greater than the average interstellar value. Yet this cirrus cloud is more efficient at exciting the S(2) transition into emission than the central disks of entire galaxies! A competing scenario is that the H2 rotational lines are excited by collisions in warm pockets of gas where turbulence dissipates. A full understanding of the excitation mechanism responsible for our H2 lines is impossible without measuring the lowest transitions on the rotational ladder. Such observations would also allow us to tally the total energy expended via the rotational transitions, which we can compare with available CII and FIR measurements, both of which are the result of UV heating; as well as planned CO measurements, which trace the turbulent velocity field. We are requesting 5.3 hours to observe 4 positions using Long Low

  19. Gas-rich dwarf galaxies in dense and sparse environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, G. Lyle

    1993-01-01

    Dwarf irregular galaxies (generically labelled Im for the present purposes) pose an enigma to students of galaxy evolution. In nearby groups and the Virgo cluster, Im galaxies are at least as abundant as spiral galaxies, and their low surface brightnesses and high gas-to-stars ratios suggest that (at least in the stochastic self-propagating star formation scenario) there should be significant numbers of HI clouds with masses approaching 10(exp 8) solar mass which have undergone very little or no star formation. To date, however, no clouds with so little star formation that they would not be recognized as Im galaxies on high-quality photographic plates have been identified. There have been suggestions that such dwarfs may be tidally disrupted in regions of high galactic density, but may be prevalent in low density regions. We offer data from three parallel programs relevant to this issue. (1) A large number of Im galaxies throughout the Local Supercluster have been mapped in the HI spectral line using the Arecibo Radiotelescope, and we can establish the frequency with which HI disks much more extended than their optically visible portions are found. (2) Our extensive mapping of spiral and dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster allows us to set stringent limits on the density of star-free Hi clouds in that cluster. (3) We have conducted a sampling of the void in the distribution of galaxies toward the super galactic pole, optimized for finding low-mass HI clouds at redshifts out to approximately 2000 km/s.

  20. Alma observations of nearby luminous infrared galaxies with various agn energetic contributions using dense gas tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of our ALMA Cycle 0 observations, using HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 4-3 lines, of six nearby luminous infrared galaxies with various energetic contributions from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) estimated from previous infrared spectroscopy. These lines are very effective for probing the physical properties of high-density molecular gas around the hidden energy sources in the nuclear regions of these galaxies. We find that HCN to HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratios tend to be higher in AGN-important galaxies than in starburst-dominated regions, as was seen at the J = 1-0 transition, while there is no clear difference in the HCN-to-HNC J = 4-3 flux ratios among observed sources. A galaxy with a starburst-type infrared spectral shape and very large molecular line widths shows a high HCN-to-HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratio, which could be due to turbulence-induced heating. We propose that enhanced HCN J = 4-3 emission relative to HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 could be used to detect more energetic activity than normal starbursts, including deeply buried AGNs, in dusty galaxy populations.

  1. Atomic processes in the hot gas in our galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Robin L.

    2017-03-01

    Our galaxy contains vast regions of very hot, very low density plasma that provide scientists with unique opportunities to observe atomic processes in extreme conditions. With temperatures of ˜ 105 to ˜ 106 K, the atoms in these regions are ionized to high charge states. Collisional ionization and excitation dominate the atomic physics in the interiors of these regions, and charge exchange becomes important where the highly ionized gas borders cool gas. Examples of very hot regions include the bubbles blown by supernova explosions and the interstellar gas above and below the disk of our galaxy. Examples of charge exchange sites include the heliosphere, supernova shock fronts, and high velocity clouds. Highly ionized plasmas are primarily studied via ultraviolet and X-ray observations using telescopes mounted on satellites, rockets, or space shuttles. Observations have been made of both the emitted spectrum and the number of ions along a path. The sensitivity and spectral resolution of the observing instruments have already reached the stage where some individual transitions can be detected, even in weak plasmas. Where the spectrum is crowded with emission lines from multiple elements, ionization levels, and transitions, spectral modeling is performed in order to estimate the contribution from each. The goal of this paper is to provide examples of interesting atomic physics occurring in our galaxy especially that in the hot component of our galaxy, highlight some areas where new atomic calculations and measurements are needed, and explain how astrophysical atomic transitions are observed.

  2. X-ray Photoexcited Extranuclear Gas in Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Herman

    2015-10-01

    I will present a summary of results from 16 years of high resolution X-ray spectroscopy of gas in the neighborhood of Active Galactic Nuclei. Led by the prototypical Sy 2 galaxy NGC 1068, we now have many examples of circumnuclear gas that is excited by the central source. In galaxies with obscured nuclei, the gas is rich with emission lines from highly ionized species and radiative recombination continua. Outflows are apparent and several cases are resolved at the 1-5 level. The ionization models give velocity, density, and composition diagnostics. These outflows carry significant energy and momentum, affecting the energy budget of the local intergalactic medium. The X-ray Surveyor can examine the prevalence and impact of these ionization cones in the z1 universe.

  3. Gas dynamics of the central 1 KPC in galaxy mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekki, Kenji

    1995-09-01

    We study numerically the dynamical evolution of gas accumulated within 1kpc of nuclei in galaxy mergers. In particular, the effects of self-gravity of gas on gas transfer from 1kpc to 50 pc in the late phase of mergers are investigated. We find that, if the ratio of the gas mass to the mass of the two galactic cores is smaller than 0.2, the self-gravity of the gas is not a key determinant of gas dynamics in the central region of the merger. This is because the dynamical heating by two sinking cores is so strong. We also find that a large mass of gas (several 10^7 M_solar) can be efficiently transferred to the central 50 pc, where a supermassive black hole (the mass of which exceeds 10^8 M_solar) begins to dominate the gravitational potential, only if the cores of precursors are very compact (scalelength less than 10 pc) and the precursors initially have a large amount of gas (~10^9 M_solar) within the central 1kpc. Our numerical results predict that mergers between two late-type disc galaxies, both with compact cores, are promising candidates for quasars.

  4. Hydrostatic equilibrium profiles for gas in elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelo, Pedro R.; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Coppi, Paolo S.

    2010-09-01

    We present an analytic formulation for the equilibrium gas density profile of early-type galaxies that explicitly includes the contribution of stars in the gravitational potential. We build a realistic model for an isolated elliptical galaxy and explore the equilibrium gas configurations as a function of multiple parameters. For an assumed central gas temperature kBT0 = 0.6 keV, we find that neglecting the gravitational effects of stars, which can contribute substantially in the innermost regions, leads to an underestimate of the enclosed baryonic gas mass by up to ~65 per cent at the effective radius and by up to ~15 per cent at the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) scale radius, depending on the stellar baryon fraction. This formula is therefore important for estimating the baryon fraction in an unbiased fashion. These new hydrostatic equilibrium solutions, derived for the isothermal and polytropic cases, can also be used to generate more realistic initial conditions for simulations of elliptical galaxies. Moreover, the new formulation is relevant when interpreting X-ray data. We compare our composite isothermal model to the standard β-model used to fit X-ray observations of early-type galaxies, to determine the value of the NFW scale radius rs. Assuming a 10 per cent stellar baryon fraction, we find that the exclusion of stars from the gravitational potential leads to (i) an underestimate of rs by ~80 per cent and (ii) an overestimate of the enclosed dark matter at rs by a factor of ~2, compared to the equivalent β-model fit results when stars are not taken into account. For higher stellar mass fractions, a β-model is unable to accurately reproduce our solution, indicating that when the observed surface brightness profile of an isolated elliptical galaxy is found to be well fitted by a β-model, the stellar mass fraction cannot be much greater than ~10 per cent.

  5. Radially-Inflowing Molecular Gas Deposited by a X-ray Cooling Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jeremy; Ao, Y.; Dinh, V.

    2006-12-01

    Galaxy clusters are immersed in hot X-ray-emitting gas that constitutes a large fraction of their baryonic mass. Radiative cooling of this gas, if not adequately balanced by heat input, should result in an inflow of cooler gas to the central dominant giant elliptical (cD) galaxy. Although a straightforward prediction made nearly twenty years ago, the occurrence of such X-ray cooling flows is widely questioned as gas at lower temperatures is often not found at the predicted quantities. The exceptions are cD galaxies harbouring large quantities of cool molecular gas, but the origin of this gas is uncertain as ram-pressure stripping or cannibalism of gas-rich cluster galaxies provide viable alternatives to cooling flows. Here, we present the most direct evidence yet for the deposition of molecular gas in a cD galaxy, Perseus A, from a X-ray cooling flow. The molecular gas detected in this galaxy is concentrated in three radial filaments with projected lengths of at least 2 kpc, one extending inwards close to the active nucleus and the other two extending outwards to at least 8 kpc on the east and west. All three filaments coincide with bright Hα features, and lie along a central X-ray ridge where any cooling flow is strongest. The two outer filaments exhibit increasingly blueshifted velocities at smaller radii that we show trace radial inflow along the gravitational potential of the galaxy. The innermost filament appears to be settling into the potential well, and may fuel the central supermassive black hole whose radio jets heat gas over a large solid angle in the north-south direction. Our results demonstrate that X-ray cooling flows can indeed deposit large quantities of cool gas, but only intermittently along directions where the X-ray gas is not being reheated.

  6. Evolution of molecular clouds in the starburst galaxy NGC 1808 revealed with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salak, D.; Nakai, N.; Miyamoto, Y.

    2015-05-01

    We present large-field CO(1-0) observations of the starburst galaxy NGC 1808 conducted with ALMA. High-resolution (˜100 pc) images reveal a high concentration of molecular gas in the nucleus, 500-pc ring, gas-rich bar, and spiral arms. We derived the bar pattern speed and found an offset between CO and Hα emission peaks in the offset ridges along the bar. The results indicate that the evolution of molecular clouds on the galactic scale is driven by bar dynamics.

  7. GASP: Gas stripping and the outskirts of galaxies as a function of environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggianti, Bianca; GASP Team

    2017-03-01

    We present GASP, an ongoing ESO Large Program with MUSE aiming to study gas removal processes from galaxies at low redshift. GASP targets 100 galaxies with tails, tentacles and one-sided debris. MUSE data allows a detailed investigation of the ionized stripped gas, as well as of the gas and stars within the galaxy out to large distances from the galaxy center. We show the first results for two of the GASP galaxies that are striking cluster jellyfish galaxies of stellar masses ~ 1011 M ⊙.

  8. The atomic-to-molecular transition and its relation to the scaling properties of galaxy discs in the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jian; Guo, Qi; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Krumholz, Mark R.

    2010-12-01

    We extend the existing semi-analytic models of galaxy formation to track atomic and molecular gas in disc galaxies. Simple recipes for processes such as cooling, star formation, supernova feedback and chemical enrichment of the stars and gas are grafted on to dark matter halo merger trees derived from the Millennium Simulation. Each galactic disc is represented by a series of concentric rings. We assume that the surface density profile of an infalling gas in a dark matter halo is exponential, with scale radius rd that is proportional to the virial radius of the halo times its spin parameter λ. As the dark matter haloes grow through mergers and accretion, disc galaxies assemble from the inside out. We include two simple prescriptions for molecular gas formation processes in our models: one is based on the analytic calculations by Krumholz, McKee & Tumlinson, and the other is a prescription where the H2 fraction is determined by the pressure of the interstellar medium (ISM). Motivated by the observational results of Leroy et al., we adopt a star formation law in which in the regime where the molecular gas dominates the total gas surface density, and where atomic hydrogen dominates. We then fit these models to the radial surface density profiles of stars, HI and H2 drawn from recent high-resolution surveys of stars and gas in nearby galaxies. We explore how the ratios of atomic gas, molecular gas and stellar mass vary as a function of global galaxy scale parameters, including stellar mass, stellar surface density and gas surface density. We elucidate how the trends can be understood in terms of three variables that determine the partition of baryons in discs: the mass of the dark matter halo, the spin parameter of the halo and the amount of gas recently accreted from the external environment.

  9. THE COOL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES. II. GAS CONTENT IN THE VOLUME-LIMITED SAMPLE AND RESULTS FROM THE COMBINED ELLIPTICAL AND LENTICULAR SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Gary A.; Sage, Leslie J.; Young, Lisa M. E-mail: lsage@astro.umd.ed

    2010-12-10

    We report new observations of atomic and molecular gas in a volume-limited sample of elliptical galaxies. Combining the elliptical sample with an earlier and similar lenticular one, we show that cool gas detection rates are very similar among low-luminosity E and S0 galaxies but are much higher among luminous S0s. Using the combined sample we revisit the correlation between cool gas mass and blue luminosity which emerged from our lenticular survey, finding strong support for previous claims that the molecular gas in ellipticals and lenticulars has different origins. Unexpectedly, however, and contrary to earlier claims, the same is not true for atomic gas. We speculate that both the active galactic nucleus feedback and merger paradigms might offer explanations for differences in detection rates, and might also point toward an understanding of why the two gas phases could follow different evolutionary paths in Es and S0s. Finally, we present a new and puzzling discovery concerning the global mix of atomic and molecular gas in early-type galaxies. Atomic gas comprises a greater fraction of the cool interstellar medium in more gas-rich galaxies, a trend which can be plausibly explained. The puzzle is that galaxies tend to cluster around molecular-to-atomic gas mass ratios near either 0.05 or 0.5.

  10. A Mechanism for Stimulating AGN Feedback by Lifting Gas in Massive Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, B. R.; Russell, H. R.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Hogan, M. T.; Fabian, A. C.; Pulido, F.; Edge, A. C.

    2016-10-01

    Observation shows that nebular emission, molecular gas, and young stars in giant galaxies are associated with rising X-ray bubbles inflated by radio jets launched from nuclear black holes. We propose a model where molecular clouds condense from low-entropy gas caught in the updraft of rising X-ray bubbles. The low-entropy gas becomes thermally unstable when it is lifted to an altitude where its cooling time is shorter than the time required to fall to its equilibrium location in the galaxy, i.e., {t}{{c}}/{t}{{I}}≲ 1. The infall speed of a cloud is bounded by the lesser of its free-fall and terminal speeds, so that the infall time here can exceed the free-fall time by a significant factor. This mechanism is motivated by Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations revealing molecular clouds lying in the wakes of rising X-ray bubbles with velocities well below their free-fall speeds. Our mechanism would provide cold gas needed to fuel a feedback loop while stabilizing the atmosphere on larger scales. The observed cooling time threshold of ∼ 5× {10}8 {yr}—the clear-cut signature of thermal instability and the onset of nebular emission and star formation—may result from the limited ability of radio bubbles to lift low-entropy gas to altitudes where thermal instabilities can ensue. Outflowing molecular clouds are unlikely to escape, but instead return to the central galaxy in a circulating flow. We contrast our mechanism to precipitation models where the minimum value of {t}{{c}}/{t}{{ff}}≲ 10 triggers thermal instability, which we find to be inconsistent with observation.

  11. A WARM MODE OF GAS ACCRETION ON FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Murante, Giuseppe; Calabrese, Matteo; De Lucia, Gabriella; Monaco, Pierluigi; Borgani, Stefano; Dolag, Klaus E-mail: monaco@oats.inaf.it E-mail: calabrese@oato.inaf.it E-mail: kdolag@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2012-04-20

    We present results from high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of a Milky-Way-sized halo, aimed at studying the effect of feedback on the nature of gas accretion. Simulations include a model of interstellar medium and star formation, in which supernova (SN) explosions provide effective thermal feedback. We distinguish between gas accretion onto the halo, which occurs when gas particles cross the halo virial radius, and gas accretion onto the central galaxy, which takes place when gas particles cross the inner one-tenth of the virial radius. Gas particles can be accreted through three different channels, depending on the maximum temperature value, T{sub max}, reached during the particles' past evolution: a cold channel for T{sub max} < 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K, a hot one for T > 10{sup 6} K, and a warm one for intermediate values of T{sub max}. We find that the warm channel is at least as important as the cold one for gas accretion onto the central galaxy. This result is at variance with previous findings that the cold mode dominates gas accretion at high redshift. We ascribe this difference to the different SN feedback scheme implemented in our simulations. While results presented so far in the literature are based on uneffective SN thermal feedback schemes and/or the presence of a kinetic feedback, our simulations include only effective thermal feedback. We argue that observational detections of a warm accretion mode in the high-redshift circumgalactic medium would provide useful constraints on the nature of the feedback that regulates star formation in galaxies.

  12. An extended cold gas absorber in a central cluster galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Russell J.; Edge, Alastair C.

    2017-10-01

    We present the serendipitous discovery of an extended cold gas structure projected close to the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) of the z=0.045 cluster Abell 3716, from archival integral field spectroscopy. The gas is revealed through narrow Na D line absorption, seen against the stellar light of the BCG, which can be traced for $\\sim$25 kpc, with a width of 2-4 kpc. The gas is offset to higher velocity than the BCG (by $\\sim$100 km/s), showing that it is infalling rather than outflowing; the intrinsic linewidth is $\\sim$80 km/s (FWHM). Very weak H$\\alpha$ line emission is detected from the structure, and a weak dust absorption feature is suggested from optical imaging, but no stellar counterpart has been identified. We discuss some possible interpretations for the absorber: as a projected low-surface-brightness galaxy, as a stream of gas that was stripped from an infalling cluster galaxy, or as a "retired" cool-core nebula filament.

  13. Hot Gas Halos in Early-Type Galaxies and Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eunbin; Choi, Yun-Young; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2013-02-01

    We investigate the dependence of the extended X-ray emission from the halos of optically luminous early-type galaxies on the small-scale (the nearest neighbor distance) and large-scale (the average density inside the 20 nearest galaxies) environments. We cross-match the 3rd Data Release of the Second XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalog (2XMMi-DR3) to a volume-limited sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 with M_r < -19.5 and 0.020galaxies that have extended X-ray detections. The X-ray luminosity of the galaxies is found to have a tighter correlation with the optical and near infrared luminosities when the galaxy is situated in the low large-scale density region than in the high large-scale density region. Furthermore, the X-ray to optical (r-band) luminosity ratio, L_X/L_r, shows a clear correlation with the distance to the nearest neighbor and with large-scale density environment only where the galaxies in pair interact hydrodynamically with seperations of r_p < r_vir. These findings indicate that the galaxies in the high local density region have other mechanisms that are responsible for their halo X-ray luminosities than the current presence of a close encounter, or alternatively, in the high local density region the cooling time of the heated gas halo is longer than the typical time between the subsequent encounters.

  14. The molecular content of interacting and isolated galaxies The effect of environment on the efficiency of star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Judith S.; Kenney, Jeffrey D.; Tacconi, Linda; Claussen, M. J.; Huang, Y.-L.

    1986-01-01

    Molecular gas observations of merging/interacting and isolated galaxies are presented in order to study the relationship between environment and the efficiency of star formation. The two galaxy samples differ primarily in their IR properties and are quite similar in their molecular gas contents. The ratios of IR luminosity to H2 mass have a mean value of 78 and 12 solar luminosity/solar mass for interacting and isolated galaxies, respectively. The highest star formation efficiencies (SFEs) appear to occur in the merging and interacting pairs. The SFE in merging/interacting galaxies is greater than that found in the spiral arms of M51 and may be roughly proportional to the rate of cloud-cloud collisions in the interacting systems.

  15. Gas around galaxy haloes - III: hydrogen absorption signatures around galaxies and QSOs in the Sherwood simulation suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiksin, Avery; Bolton, James S.; Puchwein, Ewald

    2017-06-01

    Modern theories of galaxy formation predict that galaxies impact on their gaseous surroundings, playing the fundamental role of regulating the amount of gas converted into stars. While star-forming galaxies are believed to provide feedback through galactic winds, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) are believed instead to provide feedback through the heat generated by accretion on to a central supermassive black hole. A quantitative difference in the impact of feedback on the gaseous environments of star-forming galaxies and QSOs has not been established through direct observations. Using the Sherwood cosmological simulations, we demonstrate that measurements of neutral hydrogen in the vicinity of star-forming galaxies and QSOs during the era of peak galaxy formation show excess Ly α absorption extending up to comoving radii of ˜150 kpc for star-forming galaxies and 300-700 kpc for QSOs. Simulations including supernovae-driven winds account for the absorption around star-forming galaxies but not QSOs.

  16. Gas around galaxy haloes - III: hydrogen absorption signatures around galaxies and QSOs in the Sherwood simulation suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiksin, Avery; Bolton, James S.; Puchwein, Ewald

    2017-01-01

    Modern theories of galaxy formation predict that galaxies impact on their gaseous surroundings, playing the fundamental role of regulating the amount of gas converted into stars. While star-forming galaxies are believed to provide feedback through galactic winds, Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSOs) are believed instead to provide feedback through the heat generated by accretion onto a central supermassive black hole. A quantitative difference in the impact of feedback on the gaseous environments of star-forming galaxies and QSOs has not been established through direct observations. Using the Sherwood cosmological simulations, we demonstrate that measurements of neutral hydrogen in the vicinity of star-forming galaxies and QSOs during the era of peak galaxy formation show excess Lyman-α absorption extending up to comoving radii of ˜150 kpc for star-forming galaxies and 300 - 700 kpc for QSOs. Simulations including supernovae-driven winds account for the absorption around star-forming galaxies but not QSOs.

  17. Relevance of cosmic gamma rays to the mass of gas in the galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, C. L.; Mayer, C. J.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    The bulk of the diffuse gamma-ray flux comes from cosmic ray interactions in the interstellar medium. A knowledge of the large scale spatial distribution of the Galactic gamma-rays and the cosmic rays enables the distribution of the target gas to be examined. An approach of this type is used here to estimate the total mass of the molecular gas in the galaxy. It is shown to be much less than that previously derived, viz., approximately 6 x 10 to the 8th power solar masses within the solar radius as against approximately 3 x 10 to the 9th power based on 2.6 mm CO measurements.

  18. A black-hole mass measurement from molecular gas kinematics in NGC4526.

    PubMed

    Davis, Timothy A; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Sarzi, Marc; Blitz, Leo

    2013-02-21

    The masses of the supermassive black holes found in galaxy bulges are correlated with a multitude of galaxy properties, leading to suggestions that galaxies and black holes may evolve together. The number of reliably measured black-hole masses is small, and the number of methods for measuring them is limited, holding back attempts to understand this co-evolution. Directly measuring black-hole masses is currently possible with stellar kinematics (in early-type galaxies), ionized-gas kinematics (in some spiral and early-type galaxies) and in rare objects that have central maser emission. Here we report that by modelling the effect of a black hole on the kinematics of molecular gas it is possible to fit interferometric observations of CO emission and thereby accurately estimate black-hole masses. We study the dynamics of the gas in the early-type galaxy NGC 4526, and obtain a best fit that requires the presence of a central dark object of 4.5(+4.2)(-3.1) × 10(8) solar masses (3σ confidence limit). With the next-generation millimetre-wavelength interferometers these observations could be reproduced in galaxies out to 75 megaparsecs in less than 5 hours of observing time. The use of molecular gas as a kinematic tracer should thus allow one to estimate black-hole masses in hundreds of galaxies in the local Universe, many more than are accessible with current techniques.

  19. Gas stripping in galaxy clusters: a new SPH simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jáchym, P.; Palouš, J.; Köppen, J.; Combes, F.

    2007-09-01

    Aims:The influence of a time-varying ram pressure on spiral galaxies in clusters is explored with a new simulation method based on the N-body SPH/tree code GADGET. Methods: We have adapted the code to describe the interaction of two different gas phases, the diffuse hot intracluster medium (ICM) and the denser and colder interstellar medium (ISM). Both the ICM and ISM components are introduced as SPH particles. As a galaxy arrives on a highly radial orbit from outskirts to cluster center, it crosses the ICM density peak and experiences a time-varying wind. Results: Depending on the duration and intensity of the ISM-ICM interaction, early and late type galaxies in galaxy clusters with either a large or small ICM distribution are found to show different stripping efficiencies, amounts of reaccretion of the extra-planar ISM, and final masses. We compare the numerical results with analytical approximations of different complexity and indicate the limits of the Gunn & Gott simple stripping formula. Conclusions: Our investigations emphasize the role of the galactic orbital history to the stripping amount. We discuss the contribution of ram pressure stripping to the origin of the ICM and its metallicity. We propose gas accumulations like tails, filaments, or ripples to be responsible for stripping in regions with low overall ICM occurrence. Appendix A is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. Characterizing Gas Rich Companion Galaxies of z~6 QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzucchelli, Chiara; Banados, Eduardo; Bertoldi, Frank; Decarli, Roberto; Fan, Xiaohui; Farina, Emanuele Paolo; Riechers, Dominik; Strauss, Michael; Venemans, Bram; Walter, Fabian; Wang, Ran

    2016-08-01

    Luminous QSOs at z>6 are formidable probes of the early Universe, and are believed to reside in overdense regions. However, previous UV-based observational searches did not provide concurring evidence for such galaxy overdensities. Our on-going ALMA Cycle 3 survey to detect [CII] and FIR dust emission in a large sample of high-z QSOs has revealed the presence of bright, close companion galaxies at the same redshift of six QSOs. These newly discovered gas-rich companion galaxies promise to shed new light on early structure formation at the very dawn of time. Now we want to unveil the properties of these companion sources. The ALMA measurement only inform us on the cool gas/dust content; observations of their rest-frame optical emission are needed to characterize the bulk of the stellar population. Spitzer/IRAC is the only instrument available to date which can provide these sensitive information at z>6. Here, we propose to collect deep photometry with Spitzer/IRAC of six companion sources to z>6 QSOs. Together with ALMA data in hand, they will allow us to assess, or place strong limits on, the shape of their spectral energy distributions and to obtain their stellar masses. The observations requested here will provide a unique observational benchmark for theoretical studies of early galaxy formation.

  1. Signatures of cool gas fueling a star-forming galaxy at redshift 2.3.

    PubMed

    Bouché, N; Murphy, M T; Kacprzak, G G; Péroux, C; Contini, T; Martin, C L; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M

    2013-07-05

    Galaxies are thought to be fed by the continuous accretion of intergalactic gas, but direct observational evidence has been elusive. The accreted gas is expected to orbit about the galaxy's halo, delivering not just fuel for star formation but also angular momentum to the galaxy, leading to distinct kinematic signatures. We report observations showing these distinct signatures near a typical distant star-forming galaxy, where the gas is detected using a background quasar passing 26 kiloparsecs from the host. Our observations indicate that gas accretion plays a major role in galaxy growth because the estimated accretion rate is comparable to the star-formation rate.

  2. Hot gas in Milky Way size galaxies at z=0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca-Fàbrega, Santi; Colin, Pedro; Valenzuela, Octavio; Figueras, Francesca; Krongold, Yair

    2017-03-01

    We present a new set of cosmological Milky Way size galaxy simulations using ART. In our simulations the main system has been evolved inside a 28 Mpc cosmological box with a spatial resolution of 109 pc. At z=0 our systems have an M vir = 6 - 8 × 1011 M⊙. In several of out models we have observed how a well defined disk is formed inside the dark matter halo and the overall amount of gas and stars is comparable with MW observations. Several non-axisymmetric structures arise out of the disk: spirals, bars and also a warp. We have also observed that a huge reservoir of hot gas is present at large distances from the disk, embedded in the dark matter halo region, accounting for only a fraction of the ''missing baryons''. Gas column density, emission (EM) and dispersion (DM) measure have been computed from inside the simulated disk at a position of 8 kpc from the center and in several directions. Our preliminary results reveal that the distribution of hot gas is non-isotropic according with observations (Gupta et al. 2012, Gupta et al. 2014). Also its metallic content presents a clear bimodality what is a consequence of a recent accretion of a satellite galaxy among others. After a careful analysis we confirm that due to the anisotropy in the gas distribution a new observational parameter needs to be defined to recover the real distribution of hot gas in the galactic halo (Roca-Fàbrega et al. 2016).

  3. A Universal Correlation between Star Formation Activity and Molecular Gas Properties Across Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Shuhei; Koyama, Yusei; Yamashita, Takuji; Morokuma-Matsui, Kana; Matsuhara, Hideo; Nakagawa, Takao; Hayashi, Masao; Kodama, Tadayuki; Shimakawa, Rhythm; Suzuki, Tomoko L.; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Ichi; Yamamoto, Moegi

    2017-10-01

    We present the molecular gas mass fraction ({f}{{{H}}2}) and star formation efficiency (SFE) of local galaxies on the basis of our new CO(J=1-0) observations with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope, combined with the COLDGASS galaxy catalog, as a function of galaxy environment defined as the local number density of galaxies measured with SDSS DR7 spectroscopic data. Our sample covers a wide range in the stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR), and also covers a wide environmental range over two orders of magnitude. This allows us to conduct the first systematic study of environmental dependence of molecular gas properties in galaxies from the lowest- to the highest-density environments in the local universe. We confirm that both {f}{{{H}}2} and SFE have strong positive correlations with the SFR offset from the star-forming main sequence (ΔMS) and, most importantly, we find that these correlations are universal across all environments. Our result demonstrates that star formation activity within individual galaxies is primarily controlled by their molecular gas content, regardless of their global environment. Therefore, we claim that one always needs to be careful about the ΔMS distribution of the sample when investigating the environmental effects on the H2 gas content in galaxies.

  4. The Relative Kinematics of Galaxy Emission and Multiple Gas Phases in z~0.5 Extended Galaxy Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, Chris

    2014-02-01

    We request two nights to use the ESI echellette to obtain spatially resolved emission-line spectra for 20 intermediate redshift galaxies in support of our Cycle-21 NASA/HST COS program (110 orbits). We aim to understand the all-important gas cycles of galaxies by undertaking the first comprehensive campaign directly comparing the multi-phase gas kinematics, chemical enrichment, and spatial geometry of the circumgalactic medium (gaseous halos) to the kinematics, morphologies, star formation rates, and metallicities of the host galaxies. The unique, unprecedented, detailed scope of our program will provide highly sought observational constraints on cutting-edge galaxy evolution theory and hydrodynamic cosmological simulations.

  5. NOT DEAD YET: COOL CIRCUMGALACTIC GAS IN THE HALOS OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Christopher; Tumlinson, Jason; Sembach, Kenneth R.; Werk, Jessica K.; Xavier Prochaska, J.; Peeples, Molly S.; Tripp, Todd M.; Katz, Neal S.; O'Meara, John M.; Ford, Amanda Brady; Dave, Romeel; Weinberg, David H.

    2012-10-20

    We report new observations of circumgalactic gas in the halos of early-type galaxies (ETGs) obtained by the COS-Halos Survey with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We find that detections of H I surrounding ETGs are typically as common and strong as around star-forming galaxies, implying that the total mass of circumgalactic material is comparable in the two populations. For ETGs, the covering fraction for H I absorption above 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} is {approx}40%-50% within {approx}150 kpc. Line widths and kinematics of the detected material show it to be cold (T {approx}< 10{sup 5} K) in comparison to the virial temperature of the host halos. The implied masses of cool, photoionized circumgalactic medium baryons may be up to 10{sup 9}-10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }. Contrary to some theoretical expectations, strong halo H I absorbers do not disappear as part of the quenching of star formation. Even passive galaxies retain significant reservoirs of halo baryons that could replenish the interstellar gas reservoir and eventually form stars. This halo gas may feed the diffuse and molecular gas that is frequently observed inside ETGs.

  6. Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in ALFALFA Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-06-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and H I components of 229 low H I mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H I masses <107.7 M ⊙ and H I line widths <80 km s-1. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M *) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M * obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M * <~ 108 M ⊙ is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper H I mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M * than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H I depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that H I disks are more extended than stellar ones. Based on observations made with the Arecibo Observatory and the NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). The Arecibo Observatory is operated by SRI International under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (AST-1100968), and in alliance with Ana G. Méndez-Universidad Metropolitana and

  7. Dense Gas Fraction and Star-formation Efficiency Variations in the Antennae Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigiel, F.; Leroy, A. K.; Blitz, L.; Bolatto, A. D.; da Cunha, E.; Rosolowsky, E.; Sandstrom, K.; Usero, A.

    2015-12-01

    We use the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) millimeter interferometer to map the Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/39), tracing the bulk of the molecular gas via the 12CO(1-0) line and denser molecular gas via the high density transitions HCN(1-0), HCO+(1-0), CS(2-1), and HNC(1-0). We detect bright emission from all tracers in both the two nuclei and three locales in the overlap region between the two nuclei. These three overlap region peaks correspond to previously identified “supergiant molecular clouds.” We combine the CARMA data with Herschel infrared (IR) data to compare observational indicators of the star formation efficiency (star formation rate/H2 ∝ IR/CO), dense gas fraction (HCN/CO), and dense gas star formation efficiency (IR/HCN). Regions within the Antennae show ratios consistent with those seen for entire galaxies, but these ratios vary by up to a factor of six within the galaxy. The five detected regions vary strongly in both their integrated intensities and these ratios. The northern nucleus is the brightest region in millimeter-wave line emission, while the overlap region is the brightest part of the system in the IR. We combine the CARMA and Herschel data with ALMA CO data to report line ratio patterns for each bright point. CO shows a declining spectral line energy distribution, consistent with previous studies. HCO+ (1-0) emission is stronger than HCN (1-0) emission, perhaps indicating either more gas at moderate densities or higher optical depth than is commonly seen in more advanced mergers.

  8. DENSE GAS FRACTION AND STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY VARIATIONS IN THE ANTENNAE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bigiel, F.; Leroy, A. K.; Blitz, L.; Bolatto, A. D.; Da Cunha, E.; Rosolowsky, E.; Sandstrom, K.; Usero, A.

    2015-12-20

    We use the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) millimeter interferometer to map the Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/39), tracing the bulk of the molecular gas via the {sup 12}CO(1–0) line and denser molecular gas via the high density transitions HCN(1–0), HCO{sup +}(1–0), CS(2–1), and HNC(1–0). We detect bright emission from all tracers in both the two nuclei and three locales in the overlap region between the two nuclei. These three overlap region peaks correspond to previously identified “supergiant molecular clouds.” We combine the CARMA data with Herschel infrared (IR) data to compare observational indicators of the star formation efficiency (star formation rate/H{sub 2} ∝ IR/CO), dense gas fraction (HCN/CO), and dense gas star formation efficiency (IR/HCN). Regions within the Antennae show ratios consistent with those seen for entire galaxies, but these ratios vary by up to a factor of six within the galaxy. The five detected regions vary strongly in both their integrated intensities and these ratios. The northern nucleus is the brightest region in millimeter-wave line emission, while the overlap region is the brightest part of the system in the IR. We combine the CARMA and Herschel data with ALMA CO data to report line ratio patterns for each bright point. CO shows a declining spectral line energy distribution, consistent with previous studies. HCO{sup +} (1–0) emission is stronger than HCN (1–0) emission, perhaps indicating either more gas at moderate densities or higher optical depth than is commonly seen in more advanced mergers.

  9. Imaging Cold Gas to 1 kpc scales in high-redshift galaxies with the ngVLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Caitlin; Narayanan, Desika; Dave, Romeel; Hung, Chao-Ling; Champagne, Jaclyn; Carilli, Chris Luke; Decarli, Roberto; Murphy, Eric J.; Popping, Gergo; Riechers, Dominik; Somerville, Rachel S.; Walter, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    The next generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) will revolutionize our understanding of the distant Universe via the detection of cold molecular gas in the first galaxies. Its impact on studies of galaxy characterization via detailed gas dynamics will provide crucial insight on dominant physical drivers for star-formation in high redshift galaxies, including the exchange of gas from scales of the circumgalactic medium down to resolved clouds on mass scales of ~10^5 M_sun. In this study, we employ a series of high-resolution, cosmological, hydrodynamic zoom simulations from the MUFASA simulation suite and a CASA simulator to generate mock ngVLA observations. Based on a direct comparison between the inferred results from our mock observations and the cosmological simulations, we investigate the capabilities of ngVLA to constrain the mode of star formation, dynamical mass, and molecular gas kinematics in individual high-redshift galaxies using cold gas tracers like CO(1-0) and CO(2-1). Using the Despotic radiative transfer code that encompasses simultaneous thermal and statistical equilibrium in calculating the molecular and atomic level populations, we generate parallel mock observations of high-J transitions of CO and C+ from ALMA for comparison. The factor of 100 times improvement in mapping speed for the ngVLA beyond the Jansky VLA and the proposed ALMA Band 1 will make these detailed, high-resolution imaging and kinematic studies routine at z=2 and beyond.

  10. The infrared continuum spectrum of x ray illuminated molecular gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voit, G. Mark

    1990-01-01

    In starburst galaxies, active galaxies, and the mysterious ultraluminous infrared galaxies, x rays are likely to interact with molecular gas and dust, thereby inducing infrared emission. X ray heated thermal dust will emit the IR continuum, and x ray photoelectrons will excite an IR emission-line spectrum. Here, researchers model the IR continuum emission characteristic of some selected x ray spectral fluxes, in particular the x ray bremsstrahlung characteristic of supernova and stellar wind bubble shocks in dense media and the power law spectra characteristic of active galactic nuclei. These models are part of a larger project to determine the complete IR spectra, lines plus continuum, of x ray sources embedded in molecular gas. They modeled the thermal emission from grains by calculating a grain temperature/size/composition distribution function, f(T,a,Comp.), which accounts for temperature fluctuations by averaging over all grain thermal histories. In determining the grain thermal distribution, researchers account for both direct grain heating (by x ray absorption and subsequent electron energy deposition) and indirect grain heating (by absorption of the UV emission stimulated by non-thermal photo- and Auger electrons in the gas phase). We let the grain size distribution be proportional to a(exp -3.5), and they consider two types of grain composition: graphites, which we assume to be pure carbon, and silicates, which contain all other depleted heavy elements. They derive the grain composition distribution function from solar abundances and interstellar depletion data.

  11. Multi-wavelength Study of Diffuse Atomic and Molecular Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federman, Steven Robert; Rice, Johnathan; Flagey, Nicolas; Ritchey, Adam M.; Welty, Daniel E.; Goldsmith, Paul; Langer, William; Pineda, Jorge L.; Lambert, David L.; Lemaire, Jean-Louis

    2017-06-01

    Diffuse atomic and molecular gas is revealed through a combination of absorption lines against background targets and emission. We describe a project that combines results on ultraviolet (UV) and visible absorption with those obtained from the Herschel key program GOTC+ (Galactic Observations of Terahertz C+) to develop a comprehensive picture of neutral diffuse gas in the Galaxy. [C II], H I, and CO emission acquired for the GOTC+ survey reveal the presence of warm neutral atomic gas, cold neutral atomic gas, CO-dark H2 gas (molecular gas not seen in CO emission), and denser molecular gas in different kinematic components. We derive the component structure (number of clouds and their column densities) seen in absorption at visible wavelengths from Ca II, Ca I, K I, CH, CH+, and CN and compare that to the emission from [C II], H I, and CO and its isotopologues. Absorption lines from additional atoms (including C I, O I, and Ni II) and molecules (CO) from UV spectra obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope are used to expand the kinematic correspondences. Preliminary results on physical conditions (gas temperature and density) inferred from analyses of CN chemistry and excitation of neutral and singly-ionized carbon, neutral oxygen, and CO are also presented.

  12. The Gas Distribution in the Outer Regions of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.; Nagai, D.; Lau, E. T.; Roncarelli, M.; Rossetti, M.; Snowden, L.; Gastaldello, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We present our analysis of a local (z = 0.04 - 0.2) sample of 31 galaxy clusters with the aim of measuring the density of the X-ray emitting gas in cluster outskirts. We compare our results with numerical simulations to set constraints on the azimuthal symmetry and gas clumping in the outer regions of galaxy clusters. Methods. We have exploited the large field-of-view and low instrumental background of ROSAT/PSPC to trace the density of the intracluster gas out to the virial radius, We stacked the density profiles to detect a signal beyond T200 and measured the typical density and scatter in cluster outskirts. We also computed the azimuthal scatter of the profiles with respect to the mean value to look for deviations from spherical symmetry. Finally, we compared our average density and scatter profiles with the results of numerical simulations. Results. As opposed to some recent Suzaku results, and confirming previous evidence from ROSAT and Chandra, we observe a steepening of the density profiles beyond approximately r(sub 500). Comparing our density profiles with simulations, we find that non-radiative runs predict density profiles that are too steep, whereas runs including additional physics and/ or treating gas clumping agree better with the observed gas distribution. We report high-confidence detection of a systematic difference between cool-core and non cool-core clusters beyond approximately 0.3r(sub 200), which we explain by a different distribution of the gas in the two classes. Beyond approximately r(sub 500), galaxy clusters deviate significantly from spherical symmetry, with only small differences between relaxed and disturbed systems. We find good agreement between the observed and predicted scatter profiles, but only when the 1% densest clumps are filtered out in the ENZO simulations. Conclusions. Comparing our results with numerical simulations, we find that non-radiative simulations fail to reproduce the gas distribution, even well outside

  13. The Gas Distribution in Galaxy Cluster Outer Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.; Nagai, D.; Laue, E. T.; Roncarelli, M.; Rossetti, M.; Snowden, S. L.; Gastaldello, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We present the analysis of a local (z = 0.04 - 0.2) sample of 31 galaxy clusters with the aim of measuring the density of the X-ray emitting gas in cluster outskirts. We compare our results with numerical simulations to set constraints on the azimuthal symmetry and gas clumping in the outer regions of galaxy clusters. Methods. We exploit the large field-of-view and low instrumental background of ROSAT/PSPC to trace the density of the intracluster gas out to the virial radius. We perform a stacking of the density profiles to detect a signal beyond r200 and measure the typical density and scatter in cluster outskirts. We also compute the azimuthal scatter of the profiles with respect to the mean value to look for deviations from spherical symmetry. Finally, we compare our average density and scatter profiles with the results of numerical simulations. Results. As opposed to some recent Suzaku results, and confirming previous evidence from ROSAT and Chandra, we observe a steepening of the density profiles beyond approximately r(sub 500). Comparing our density profiles with simulations, we find that non-radiative runs predict too steep density profiles, whereas runs including additional physics and/or treating gas clumping are in better agreement with the observed gas distribution. We report for the first time the high-confidence detection of a systematic difference between cool-core and non-cool core clusters beyond 0.3r(sub 200), which we explain by a different distribution of the gas in the two classes. Beyond r(sub 500), galaxy clusters deviate significantly from spherical symmetry, with only little differences between relaxed and disturbed systems. We find good agreement between the observed and predicted scatter profiles, but only when the 1% densest clumps are filtered out in the simulations. Conclusions. Comparing our results with numerical simulations, we find that non-radiative simulations fail to reproduce the gas distribution, even well outside cluster

  14. Molecular clouds and the large-scale structure of the galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaddeus, Patrick; Stacy, J. Gregory

    1990-01-01

    The application of molecular radio astronomy to the study of the large-scale structure of the Galaxy is reviewed and the distribution and characteristic properties of the Galactic population of Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs), derived primarily from analysis of the Columbia CO survey, and their relation to tracers of Population 1 and major spiral features are described. The properties of the local molecular interstellar gas are summarized. The CO observing programs currently underway with the Center for Astrophysics 1.2 m radio telescope are described, with an emphasis on projects relevant to future comparison with high-energy gamma-ray observations. Several areas are discussed in which high-energy gamma-ray observations by the EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope) experiment aboard the Gamma Ray Observatory will directly complement radio studies of the Milky Way, with the prospect of significant progress on fundamental issues related to the structure and content of the Galaxy.

  15. Tidal dwarf galaxies in gas-rich groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, Sarah M.

    2014-09-01

    I develop new methods for identifying and measuring tidal dwarf galaxies, using a sample of galaxies within Hi-rich groups that have no evidence of advanced major mergers. These groups are taken from the Survey of Ionization in Neutral Gas Galaxies (SINGG, Meurer et al., 2006), an optical follow-up survey to the HI Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS, Barnes et al., 2001). Fifteen of the fields contain four or more emission line galaxies and are named Choir groups. I detect new dwarf galaxies that are too small to be individually detectable in HIPASS; they are detectable in the SINGG narrow-band imaging because of their star formation and membership of these HI-rich groups. The Choir groups are compact, with a mean projected separation between the two brightest members of 190 kpc. They have comparable star formation efficiency (the ratio of star formation rate to HI mass) to the remaining SINGG fields. The Choir member galaxies also match the wider SINGG sample in their radii, Hα equivalent width and surface brightness. I define a new, more robust calibration for the metallicity diagnostic for identifying tidal dwarf galaxy candidates in the absence of tidal tails, based on the luminosity-metallicity relation with a consistent metallicity definition. Using that calibration, SDSS dwarfs fainter than MR = -16 have a mean metallicity of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.28 (±) 0.10, regardless of their luminosity. Tidal dwarf galaxy candidates in the literature are elevated above this at 12 + log(O/H) = 8.70 (±) 0.05 on average. Our hydrodynamical simulations also predict that tidal dwarf galaxies should have metallicities elevated above the normal luminosity-metallicity relation. I compare 53 star-forming galaxies in 9 of the Hi gas-rich Choir groups and find those brighter than MR ~ -16 to be consistent with the normal relation defined by the SDSS sample. At fainter magnitudes my sample has a wide range in metallicity, suggestive of varying Hi content and environment. Three (16%) of

  16. Wind from the black-hole accretion disk driving a molecular outflow in an active galaxy.

    PubMed

    Tombesi, F; Meléndez, M; Veilleux, S; Reeves, J N; González-Alfonso, E; Reynolds, C S

    2015-03-26

    Powerful winds driven by active galactic nuclei are often thought to affect the evolution of both supermassive black holes and their host galaxies, quenching star formation and explaining the close relationship between black holes and galaxies. Recent observations of large-scale molecular outflows in ultraluminous infrared galaxies support this quasar-feedback idea, because they directly trace the gas from which stars form. Theoretical models suggest that these outflows originate as energy-conserving flows driven by fast accretion-disk winds. Proposed connections between large-scale molecular outflows and accretion-disk activity in ultraluminous galaxies were incomplete because no accretion-disk wind had been detected. Conversely, studies of powerful accretion-disk winds have until now focused only on X-ray observations of local Seyfert galaxies and a few higher-redshift quasars. Here we report observations of a powerful accretion-disk wind with a mildly relativistic velocity (a quarter that of light) in the X-ray spectrum of IRAS F11119+3257, a nearby (redshift 0.189) optically classified type 1 ultraluminous infrared galaxy hosting a powerful molecular outflow. The active galactic nucleus is responsible for about 80 per cent of the emission, with a quasar-like luminosity of 1.5 × 10(46) ergs per second. The energetics of these two types of wide-angle outflows is consistent with the energy-conserving mechanism that is the basis of the quasar feedback in active galactic nuclei that lack powerful radio jets (such jets are an alternative way to drive molecular outflows).

  17. Hot X-ray gas in galaxies, groups and clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ming

    I investigate several aspects of X-ray gas in galaxies, groups and clusters, all related to the fundamental problems of radiative cooling and AGN feedback. A sample of 14 relaxed clusters and groups are studied, with an emphasis on their temperature and entropy profiles. Three clusters with isothermal temperature distributions are discovered which also have isentropic gas cores and weaker central radio activity than other cooling core clusters. This suggests a connection between gas cooling and feedback from supermassive black holes. A comparison of entropy profiles shows that within 0.1 virial radii, group entropy profiles are flatter than those of hot clusters and those predicted from simulations involving only gravity. From 0.1 to 0.35 virial radius, the slope of the cluster entropy profiles is consistent with simulations. Interesting systems (e.g., a hot but X-ray faint group and an isothermal group with a very high gas density core) in the sample are also discussed. I also present work on the X-ray coronae of galaxies in rich clusters, including detailed studies of coronae in A1367 and a small corona in NGC 1265. Cool X-ray coronae of early-type galaxies (0.5-1 keV), pressure confined in hot (>3 keV) clusters, are found to be common, although their properties have been significantly modified by the ICM environment. Despite the effects of gas stripping, ICM evaporation and AGN outbursts of the central SMBH, the survival of these small and vulnerable coronae puts interesting constraints on the physics of the interactions of the coronae. For example, transport processes (e.g., heat conduction) must be strongly suppressed, presumably by magnetic fields and the coronae must avoid disruption by energy output from the central AGN.

  18. The Formation of Molecular Clouds in the Galaxy and the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min-Young

    In this thesis, I provide observational constraints on the formation of molecular clouds, precursors of star formation, by conducting high-resolution, multi-wavelength investigations of dense gas in the Galaxy and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). By applying the unsharp-masking technqiue to the mid-infrared image obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope , I identify 55 high-contrast regions (HCRs) in the SMC. The follow-up molecular line observations toward one of the HCRs suggest that the HCRs are likely moderately dense and trace regions where the transition from atomic to molecular hydrogen occurs in this low-metallicity galaxy. Motivated by this result, I investigate the transition from atomic to molecular hydrogen at high resolution across the Perseus molecular cloud in the Galaxy. By deriving the atomic and molecular hydrogen column density images on sub-parsec scales, I find that the atomic gas distribution is relatively uniform across Perseus and as a result, the ratio of molecular to atomic hydrogen linearly increases with the total gas column density. These results are consistent with the theoretical perspective that formation and photodissociation of molecular hydrogen are in balance and the abundance of molecular hydrogen is controlled by the minimum gas column density required for shielding of molecular hydrogen. Finally, I perform a detailed study of the relation between the molecular hydrogen column density and the carbon monoxide integrated intensity in Perseus and show that the ratio of the two, so called X-factor, varies spatially by up to a factor of 100. I compare the atomic/molecular hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and X-factor data with two contrasting theoretical models. I find that the steady state and equilibrium chemistry model reproduces the observations very well but requires an extended, diffuse halo around a dense core. While agreeing with the observations reasonably well, the macroturbulent and non-equilibrium chemistry model shows

  19. THE UNIVERSAL GAS MASS FRACTION IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    David, Laurence P.; Jones, Christine; Forman, William

    2012-04-01

    We obtained a deep 150 ks Chandra observation of the optically selected cluster of galaxies, RCS 2318+0034, to investigate the gas mass fraction in this system. Combining our deep Chandra observation with an archival 50 ks observation, we derive gas mass fractions of f{sub gas} = 0.06 {+-} .02 and 0.10 {+-} .02 within r{sub 2500} and r{sub 500}, respectively. The gas mass fraction in RCS 2318+0034 within r{sub 500} is typical of X-ray-selected clusters. Further study shows that the large-scale properties of RCS 2318+0034, including the relations between gas mass, X-ray luminosity, and gas temperature, are also consistent with the observed correlations of X-ray-selected clusters. However, the gas mass fraction within r{sub 2500} is less than most X-ray-selected clusters, as previously reported. The deep Chandra image of RCS 2318+0034 shows that this system is currently undergoing a major merger which may have an impact on the inferred gas mass fraction within r{sub 2500}.

  20. Gas distribution and clumpiness in the galaxy group NGC 2563

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morandi, Andrea; Sun, Ming; Mulchaey, John; Nagai, Daisuke; Bonamente, Massimiliano

    2017-08-01

    We present a Chandra study of the hot intragroup medium of the galaxy group NCG 2563. The Chandra mosaic observations, with a total exposure time of ∼430 ks, allow the gas density to be detected beyond R200 and the gas temperature out to 0.75 R200. This represents the first observational measurement of the physical properties of a poor groups beyond R500. By capitalizing on the exquisite spatial resolution of Chandra that is capable to remove unrelated emission from point sources and substructures, we are able to radially constrain the inhomogeneities of gas ('clumpiness'), gas fraction, temperature and entropy distribution. Although there is some uncertainty in the measurements, we find evidences of gas clumping in the virialization region, with clumping factor of about 2-3 at R200. The gas clumping-corrected gas fraction is significantly lower than the cosmological baryon budget. These results may indicate a larger impact of the gas inhomogeneities with respect to the prediction from hydrodynamic numerical simulations, and we discuss possible explanations for our findings.

  1. Formation and evolution of molecular hydrogen in disc galaxies with different masses and Hubble types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekki, Kenji

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the physical properties of molecular hydrogen (H2) in isolated and interacting disc galaxies with different masses and Hubble types by using chemodynamical simulations with H2 formation on dust grains and dust growth and destruction in interstellar medium. We particularly focus on the dependences of H2 gas mass fractions (f_H_2), spatial distributions of H I and H2, and local H2-scaling relations on initial halo masses (Mh), baryonic fractions (fbary), gas mass fractions (fg), and Hubble types. The principal results are as follows. The final f_H_2 can be larger in disc galaxies with higher Mh, fbary, and fg. Some low-mass disc models with Mh smaller than 1010 M⊙ show extremely low f_H_2 and thus no/little star formation, even if initial fg is quite large (>0.9). Big galactic bulges can severely suppress the formation of H2 from H I on dust grains whereas strong stellar bars cannot only enhance f_H_2 but also be responsible for the formation of H2-dominated central rings. The projected radial distributions of H2 are significantly more compact than those of H I and the simulated radial profiles of H2-to-H I-ratios (Rmol) follow roughly R-1.5 in Milky Way-type disc models. Galaxy interaction can significantly increase f_H_2 and total H2 mass in disc galaxies. The local surface mass densities of H2 can be correlated with those of dust in a galaxy. The observed correlation between Rmol and gas pressure (R_mol ∝ P_g^{0.92}) can be well reproduced in the simulated disc galaxies.

  2. The Incidence, Geometry, and Kinematics of Extraplanar Gas in MaNGA Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of star formation in galaxies is regulated by the cycle of accretion and feedback processes in the circumgalactic medium. The geometry, kinematics, and multi-phase structure of circumgalactic gas are not well predicted by numerical simulations, so there is motivation to characterize these properties empirically by observing ionized gas around galaxies in both emission and absorption. Absorption-line studies are quite sensitive to diffuse gas at low column densities, but they are limited in scope because they require bright background sources, which are rare and offer pencil-beam probes of gas properties for individual galaxies. A complementary approach is to use optical emission lines to study extraplanar diffuse ionized gas, which can trace the spatial extent and kinematics of outflowing and inflowing gas. Using the unique dataset of spatially resolved spectroscopy from MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory), we are developing techniques to identify galaxies with extraplanar gas on the basis of optical emission lines that extend above and below the plane of disk galaxies. Our initial results suggest that extraplanar gas is quite common among galaxies in the MaNGA sample, particularly among star-forming galaxies with inclination angles greater than 45 degrees, for which it is more straightforward to separate extraplanar gas from emission associated with the disk. These results on the incidence, geometry, and kinematics of extraplanar gas as a function of global galaxy properties provide important constraints on models of accretion and feedback in the circumgalactic medium.

  3. Two γ-ray bursts from dusty regions with little molecular gas.

    PubMed

    Hatsukade, B; Ohta, K; Endo, A; Nakanishi, K; Tamura, Y; Hashimoto, T; Kohno, K

    2014-06-12

    Long-duration γ-ray bursts are associated with the explosions of massive stars and are accordingly expected to reside in star-forming regions with molecular gas (the fuel for star formation). Previous searches for carbon monoxide (CO), a tracer of molecular gas, in burst host galaxies did not detect any emission. Molecules have been detected as absorption in the spectra of γ-ray burst afterglows, and the molecular gas is similar to the translucent or diffuse molecular clouds of the Milky Way. Absorption lines probe the interstellar medium only along the line of sight, so it is not clear whether the molecular gas represents the general properties of the regions where the bursts occur. Here we report spatially resolved observations of CO line emission and millimetre-wavelength continuum emission in two galaxies hosting γ-ray bursts. The bursts happened in regions rich in dust, but not particularly rich in molecular gas. The ratio of molecular gas to dust (<9-14) is significantly lower than in star-forming regions of the Milky Way and nearby star-forming galaxies, suggesting that much of the dense gas where stars form has been dissipated by other massive stars.

  4. Lighting the Dark Molecular Gas: H2 as a Direct Tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togi, Aditya; Smith, J. D. T.

    2016-10-01

    Robust knowledge of molecular gas mass is critical for understanding star formation in galaxies. The {{{H}}}2 molecule does not emit efficiently in the cold interstellar medium, hence the molecular gas content of galaxies is typically inferred using indirect tracers. At low metallicity and in other extreme environments, these tracers can be subject to substantial biases. We present a new method of estimating total molecular gas mass in galaxies directly from pure mid-infrared rotational {{{H}}}2 emission. By assuming a power-law distribution of {{{H}}}2 rotational temperatures, we can accurately model {{{H}}}2 excitation and reliably obtain warm (T ≳ 100 K) {{{H}}}2 gas masses by varying only the power law’s slope. With sensitivities typical of Spitzer/IRS, we are able to directly probe the {{{H}}}2 content via rotational emission down to ∼80 K, accounting for ∼15% of the total molecular gas mass in a galaxy. By extrapolating the fitted power-law temperature distributions to a calibrated single lower cutoff temperature, the model also recovers the total molecular content within a factor of ∼2.2 in a diverse sample of galaxies, and a subset of broken power-law models performs similarly well. In ULIRGs, the fraction of warm {{{H}}}2 gas rises with dust temperature, with some dependency on α CO. In a sample of five low-metallicity galaxies ranging down to 12+{log}[{{O}}/{{H}}]=7.8, the model yields molecular masses up to ∼100× larger than implied by CO, in good agreement with other methods based on dust mass and star formation depletion timescale. This technique offers real promise for assessing molecular content in the early universe where CO and dust-based methods may fail.

  5. High Dense Gas Fraction in a Gas-rich Star-forming Galaxy at z = 1.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowardhan, Avani; Riechers, Dominik A.; Daddi, Emanuele; Pavesi, Riccardo; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Carilli, Chris

    2017-04-01

    We report observations of dense molecular gas in the star-forming galaxy EGS 13004291 (z = 1.197) using the Plateau de Bure Interferometer. We tentatively detect HCN and HNC J=2\\to 1 emission when stacked together at 4σ significance, yielding line luminosities of {L}{HCN(J=2\\to 1)}\\prime =(9+/- 3)× {10}9 K km s-1 pc2 and {L}{HNC(J=2\\to 1)}\\prime =(5+/- 2)× {10}9 K km s-1 pc2, respectively. We also set 3σ upper limits of <7-8 ×109 K km s-1 pc2 on the {{HCO}}+(J=2\\to 1), {{{H}}}2{{O}}({3}13\\to {2}20), and HC3N(J = 20 → 19) line luminosities. We serendipitously detect CO emission from two sources at z˜ 1.8 and z˜ 3.2 in the same field of view. We also detect CO(J=2\\to 1) emission in EGS 13004291, showing that the excitation in the previously detected CO(J=3\\to 2) line is subthermal ({r}32=0.65+/- 0.15). We find a line luminosity ratio of {L}{HCN}\\prime /{L}{CO}\\prime = 0.17 ± 0.07, as an indicator of the dense gas fraction. This is consistent with the median ratio observed in z> 1 galaxies ({L}{HCN}\\prime /{L}{CO}\\prime = 0.16 ± 0.07) and nearby ULIRGs ({L}{HCN}\\prime /{L}{CO}\\prime = 0.13 ± 0.03), but higher than that in local spirals ({L}{HCN}\\prime /{L}{CO}\\prime = 0.04 ± 0.02). Although EGS 13004291 lies significantly above the galaxy main sequence at z˜ 1, we do not find an elevated star formation efficiency (traced by {L}{FIR}/{L}{CO}\\prime ) as in local starbursts, but a value consistent with main-sequence galaxies. The enhanced dense gas fraction, the subthermal gas excitation, and the lower than expected star formation efficiency of the dense molecular gas in EGS 13004291 suggest that different star formation properties may prevail in high-z starbursts. Thus, using {L}{FIR}/{L}{CO}\\prime as a simple recipe to measure the star formation efficiency may be insufficient to describe the underlying mechanisms in dense star-forming environments inside the large gas reservoirs. Based on observations carried out under project ID U030

  6. The Cosmological Evolution of Dust and Gas in Radio Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibald, E. N.

    The main epoch of activity for active galactic nuclei appears to have been z~2. Until very recently, the suspected symbiotic link between star formation, galaxy mergers and nuclear activity led people to believe that star formation activity in the Universe also peaked at z~2, despite the failure of searches to find a primeval galaxy at z>1. When a large population of star-forming galaxies was finally discovered at z>2, the astronomical community believed it had entered a new era of understanding how and when most of the stars of the Universe were formed. However, the star-formation rates observed in these systems are relatively modest, a few tens of solar masses per year, and are unable to build a massive elliptical galaxy in anything less than a Hubble time. Furthermore, the stellar populations in local massive ellipticals appear to have been formed in a short-lived, violent, dusty starburst at high-redshift, although it is not clear whether the formation trigger is a galaxy merger or the collapse of a huge halo of gas. The large quantities of dust that are expected during formation will absorb the optical/ultraviolet emission of the young stellar population and re-emit it in the far-infrared waveband. Locally, all powerful radio sources reside in massive elliptical hosts. It is therefore natural to assume that high-redshift radio galaxies are the progenitors or earlier examples of these local systems. This thesis presents a study of the evolution of dust and gas (and hence star formation) in massive ellipticals. A sample of 47 luminous, steep-spectrum, lobe-dominated radio galaxies spanning a wide range of redshifts, 0.77

  7. GAS CLOUDS RAINING STAR STUFF ONTO MILKY WAY GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This composite radio light image and rendition of our galaxy as seen in visible light shows enigmatic 'high-velocity clouds' of gas high above the plane of the Milky Way which rain gas into the galaxy, seeding it with the stuff of stars. The cloud outlined, and possibly others too, is now known to have low heavy element content and to be raining down onto the Milky Way disk, seeding it with material for star birth. Identifying this infalling gas helps in solving a long-standing mystery of galactic evolution by revealing a source of the low-metallicity gas required to explain the observed chemical composition of stars near the Sun. In this all-sky projection, the edge-on plane of our galaxy appears as a white horizontal strip. The false-color orange-yellow 'clouds' are regions containing neutral hydrogen, which glows in 21-centimeter radiation. Hubble Space Telescope's spectrograph was aimed at one of the clouds (encircled) to measure its detailed composition and velocity. This discovery is based on a combination of data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, three radio telescopes (at Effelsberg in Germany, and Dwingeloo and Westerbork in the Netherlands), the William Herschel Telescope on the island of La Palma and the Wisconsin H-alpha Mapper at NOAO's Kitt Peak Observatory. Photo Credits: Image composite by Ingrid Kallick of Possible Designs, Madison Wisconsin. The background Milky Way image is a drawing made at Lund Observatory. High-velocity clouds are from the survey done at Dwingeloo Observatory (Hulsbosch and Wakker, 1988).

  8. GAS CLOUDS RAINING STAR STUFF ONTO MILKY WAY GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This composite radio light image and rendition of our galaxy as seen in visible light shows enigmatic 'high-velocity clouds' of gas high above the plane of the Milky Way which rain gas into the galaxy, seeding it with the stuff of stars. The cloud outlined, and possibly others too, is now known to have low heavy element content and to be raining down onto the Milky Way disk, seeding it with material for star birth. Identifying this infalling gas helps in solving a long-standing mystery of galactic evolution by revealing a source of the low-metallicity gas required to explain the observed chemical composition of stars near the Sun. In this all-sky projection, the edge-on plane of our galaxy appears as a white horizontal strip. The false-color orange-yellow 'clouds' are regions containing neutral hydrogen, which glows in 21-centimeter radiation. Hubble Space Telescope's spectrograph was aimed at one of the clouds (encircled) to measure its detailed composition and velocity. This discovery is based on a combination of data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, three radio telescopes (at Effelsberg in Germany, and Dwingeloo and Westerbork in the Netherlands), the William Herschel Telescope on the island of La Palma and the Wisconsin H-alpha Mapper at NOAO's Kitt Peak Observatory. Photo Credits: Image composite by Ingrid Kallick of Possible Designs, Madison Wisconsin. The background Milky Way image is a drawing made at Lund Observatory. High-velocity clouds are from the survey done at Dwingeloo Observatory (Hulsbosch and Wakker, 1988).

  9. Gas Kinematics In and Around Edge-on Galaxies from MaNGA Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizyaev, D.

    2016-06-01

    Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) is a massive Integral Field Unit survey of a large number of relatively nearby galaxies that started in 2014 as a part of SDSS-IV at the Apache Point Observatory. After the first year of observations MaNGA has obtained IFU spectra of about a thousand of objects, with several dozens of edge-on galaxies among them. The two-dimensional spectra help us constrain parameters of galactic components with superior rotation curves. There is a significant fraction of galaxies in which the extra-planar gas emission is confidently detected. The extra-planar gas velocity fields in several galaxies show signs of lagging rotation with respect to the gas motion close to the galactic plane. We show progress of MaNGA survey in observations of edge-on galaxies and discuss their impact on our understanding of gas kinematics in and around spiral galaxies after finishing the survey.

  10. Gas around galaxies and clusters: The case for the virgo cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Joo Heon

    The presence of warm (T<105 K) and cold (T<10 4 K) gas and the dependence of its properties on environment are investigated in this thesis. Gas is a fundamental source of fuel for stars and galaxies and therefore it is an important tool for understanding galaxy evolution. We completed the first systematic survey of QSO absorption line observations in a galaxy cluster. In addition to these absorption line data, atomic hydrogen data of spiral galaxies in the Virgo Cluster are used to study (1) the distribution and flows of Lyalpha absorbers, i.e., warm gas, in and around a galaxy cluster, (2) the effect of environment on the circumgalactic medium, and (3) the cause of neutral hydrogen gas extended beyond optical disks. Little warm gas is detected in the cluster center while there is abundant warm gas in the cluster outskirts and in the places where the Virgo substructures exist. The cluster is fully surrounded by low column density (NHI ˜ 10 13 cm-2) warm gas. We conclude that it is infalling onto the cluster with the galaxies along the substructures. The galaxies in the substructures also have abundant cold gas. We are seeing the flows of gas and galaxies along filaments connected to the Virgo Cluster. The gas surrounding a galaxy, the circumgalactic medium, is mostly found for the galaxies in the circumcluster environment. The circumgalactic medium of galaxies close to the center of the cluster is truncated. Therefore, the cluster environment removes gas around a galaxy, which is a future source for continuing star formation. The atomic hydrogen observations of galaxies with extended HI disks are investigated to understand the its formation and connection of extended cold gas to environment. Galaxy-galaxy tidal interactions and gas accretion are the possible mechanisms to build up such gaseous disks. Throughout this thesis, we find gaseous filaments feeding galaxies and a cluster. The gas properties of galaxies, including the circumgalactic medium and extended

  11. Distribution of Luminosity, Gas, and Stellar Populations in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies as a Function of Merger Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Kirsten L.

    Luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) are galaxies where intense infrared emission is driven by star formation and active galactic nuclei. In the local universe it is clear that many LIRGs are major mergers of gas rich spiral galaxies. I have performed a careful visual classification of local (z < 0.08) LIRGs as either single non-interacting systems, minor mergers, or one of 5 major merger stages. I then used these classifications to compare galaxy merger stage with molecular gas mass, automated morphology parameters, annular optical B -- I colors, and infrared surface brightness profiles. I have found that all sources above an infrared luminosity of LIR > 1011:5Lsun are merging galaxies, while below this luminosity threshold, minor mergers and secular processes dominate. The mean molecular gas fraction ( MGF = MH2=(M* + MH2)) has an average value of 18+/-2% for non-interacting and early stage major merger LIRGs, which increases to 33±3% for intermediate stage major merger LIRGs. This is consistent with the hypotheses that during the early-mid stages of major mergers, atomic gas (H I) at large galactocentric radii is swept inward where it is converted into molecular gas (H2). The interactions also drive star formation throughout the galaxy as is evident by the blue B -- I color for LIRGs at every merger stage. Late stage mergers show a reddening in their nuclear 2 kpc region, presumably also from increase in nuclear gas and dust as the galaxy nuclei coalesce. Using deep Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 mum imaging, I find that these interactions form tidal tails and debris that extend out to 80 kpc from the galaxy nuclei. This large scale tidal debris builds up over the course of a major merger and forms up-bending infrared surface brightness profiles. I further investigate the utility of automated morphology parameters and present a refined surface brightness method for gini, M20, and concentration indices. With this new method the M20 parameter correlates with merger stage and

  12. Neutral Gas Outside the Disks of Local Group Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockman, Felix J.

    2017-03-01

    Of the three kinds of neutral gas found outside the stellar disks of Local Group galaxies, only the products of interaction, like the Magellanic Stream, have a clearly understandable origin. Both the high-velocity clouds and the faint H I between M31 and M33 remain a mystery. New observations of the region between M31 and M33 with the Green Bank Telescope show that the H I there resides in clouds with a size and mass similar to that of dwarf galaxies, but without stars. These clouds might be products of an interaction, or condensations in the hot circumgalactic medium of M31, but both these models have difficulties. The prevalence of clouds like this in the Local Group remains to be determined.

  13. Novel test of modified Newtonian dynamics with gas rich galaxies.

    PubMed

    McGaugh, Stacy S

    2011-03-25

    The current cosmological paradigm, the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, requires that the mass-energy of the Universe be dominated by invisible components: dark matter and dark energy. An alternative to these dark components is that the law of gravity be modified on the relevant scales. A test of these ideas is provided by the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR), an empirical relation between the observed mass of a galaxy and its rotation velocity. Here, I report a test using gas rich galaxies for which both axes of the BTFR can be measured independently of the theories being tested and without the systematic uncertainty in stellar mass that affects the same test with star dominated spirals. The data fall precisely where predicted a priori by the modified Newtonian dynamics. The scatter in the BTFR is attributable entirely to observational uncertainty, consistent with a single effective force law.

  14. The TANGO Project: Thorough ANalysis of radio-Galaxies Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña Flaquer, Breezy; Leon Tanne, Stephane; Combes, Francoise; Lim, Jeremy

    2010-05-01

    We present a sample of radio galaxies selected only on the basis of radio continuum emission and we confirm that these galaxies have lower molecular gas mass than other elliptical galaxies with different selection criteria.

  15. COLDz: KARL G. JANSKY VERY LARGE ARRAY DISCOVERY OF A GAS-RICH GALAXY IN COSMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Lentati, L.; Wagg, J.; Carilli, C. L.; Riechers, D.; Sharon, C.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N.; Walter, F.; Da Cunha, E.; Decarli, R.; Aravena, M.; Hodge, J. A.; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, I.; Daddi, E.; Dickinson, M.; Sargent, M.; Smolčć, V.

    2015-02-10

    The broad spectral bandwidth at millimeter and centimeter wavelengths provided by the recent upgrades to the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) has made it possible to conduct unbiased searches for molecular CO line emission at redshifts, z > 1.31. We present the discovery of a gas-rich, star-forming galaxy at z = 2.48 through the detection of CO J = 1-0 line emission in the COLDz survey and through a sensitive, Ka-band (31-39 GHz) VLA survey of a 6.5 arcmin{sup 2} region of the COSMOS field. We argue that the broad line (FWHM ∼ 570 ± 80 km s{sup –1}) is most likely to be CO J = 1-0 at z = 2.48, as the integrated emission is spatially coincident with an infrared-detected galaxy with a photometric redshift estimate of z {sub phot} = 3.2 ± 0.4. The CO J = 1-0 line luminosity is L{sub CO}{sup ′}=(2.2±0.3)×10{sup 10} K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2}, suggesting a cold molecular gas mass of M {sub gas} ∼ (2-8) × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} depending on the assumed value of the molecular gas mass to CO luminosity ratio α{sub CO}. The estimated infrared luminosity from the (rest-frame) far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) is L {sub IR} = 2.5 × 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉} and the star formation rate is ∼250 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, with the SED shape indicating substantial dust obscuration of the stellar light. The infrared to CO line luminosity ratio is ∼114 ± 19 L {sub ☉}/(K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2}), similar to galaxies with similar SFRs selected at UV/optical to radio wavelengths. This discovery confirms the potential for molecular emission line surveys as a route to study populations of gas-rich galaxies in the future.

  16. High-resolution ultraviolet spectroscopy of gas in galaxy halos and large-scale structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Limin

    205 combined with H I 21 cm, CO emission, and infrared observations is utilized to study a unique transforming galaxy NGC4319. We find: (1) the object has lost most of its diffuse interstellar H I. (2) molecular hydrogen remains in the disk of the galaxy. The H 2 column density is low, but the molecular gas fraction is extraordinarily high. CO emission is also clearly detected, but only from the barred central region. (3) There is very little evidence of recent star formation in the galaxy. The results appears to match many of the predictions of Quilis et al. (2000), suggesting NGC4319 is undergoing a transformation from a spiral into an S0 due to ram-pressure stripping, possibly in tandem with tidal stripping. To understand the characteristics of gas (especially warm-hot intergalactic medium) in large scale structures, similar high resolution spectra of 31 quasars were selected based on the galaxy density showing in the 2MASS map. They provide an unbiased sample for the study of the correlation between O VI/H I absorbers and galaxies and 2MASS galaxy groups at low redshift ( z < 0.04). We totally discover 52 Lyα absorbers and 7 O VI absorbers, and O VI is clearly detected using the stacking and "pixel optical depth" techniques for nearby galaxies along the sightlines. It seems that the locations of the O VI absorbers do not correlated with the spacial distribution of large-scale structures manifested by galaxy groups, but more closely associated with individual galaxies. It indicates that the galactic winds and "feedback" plays important role in polluting the IGM with O VI. Finally, we perform an extra investigation on the variable O VI and N V emission from the black hole binary LMC X-3 in our original absorption line study of the hot Galactic halo and the ISM of the LMC using LMC X-3 as a background source. We observe significant velocity and intensity variation in both O VI and N V emission. Their trends suggest that illumination of the B-star atmosphere by the

  17. Surprising Existence of Massive and Large Molecular Gas Reservoirs in A Distant Protocluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannerbauer, Helmut

    2017-07-01

    We know that environment has a critical impact on galaxy growth and evolution. What we do not know is when it starts to have an impact and how it does it. I present results of our on-going survey of low surface brightness emission of cold molecular gas in protoclusters galaxies and their halos with the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). These findings alter our view of the important topics of the development and gas phase distribution of the "proto-intracluster medium": how ram pressure stripping may operate in protoclusters, how the galaxies may contribute to the proto-intracluster medium and how their star formation may be limited by dynamics. Finally, I present our new ATCA Large Program, COALAS (CO ATCA Legacy Archive of Star-Forming Galaxies), which will extend significantly our study of environmental effects on cluster and field galaxies.

  18. EVIDENCE FOR A CLUMPY, ROTATING GAS DISK IN A SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY AT z = 4

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, J. A.; Walter, F.; Carilli, C. L.; De Blok, W. J. G.; Riechers, D.; Daddi, E.

    2012-11-20

    We present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array observations of the CO(2-1) emission in the z = 4.05 submillimeter galaxy (SMG) GN20. These high-resolution data allow us to image the molecular gas at 1.3 kpc resolution just 1.6 Gyr after the big bang. The data reveal a clumpy, extended gas reservoir, 14 {+-} 4 kpc in diameter, in unprecedented detail. A dynamical analysis shows that the data are consistent with a rotating disk of total dynamical mass 5.4 {+-} 2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M {sub Sun }. We use this dynamical mass estimate to constrain the CO-to-H{sub 2} mass conversion factor ({alpha}{sub CO}), finding {alpha}{sub CO} = 1.1 {+-} 0.6 M {sub Sun }(K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}){sup -1}. We identify five distinct molecular gas clumps in the disk of GN20 with masses a few percent of the total gas mass, brightness temperatures of 16-31K, and surface densities of >3200-4500 Multiplication-Sign ({alpha}{sub CO}/0.8) M {sub Sun} pc{sup -2}. Virial mass estimates indicate they could be self-gravitating, and we constrain their CO-to-H{sub 2} mass conversion factor to be <0.2-0.7 M {sub Sun }(K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}){sup -1}. A multiwavelength comparison demonstrates that the molecular gas is concentrated in a region of the galaxy that is heavily obscured in the rest-frame UV/optical. We investigate the spatially resolved gas excitation and find that the CO(6-5)/CO(2-1) ratio is constant with radius, consistent with star formation occurring over a large portion of the disk. We discuss the implications of our results in the context of different fueling scenarios for SMGs.

  19. Physical Properties of Diffuse H° Gas in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troland, T. H.

    The diffuse (non self-gravitating) interstellar medium of the Galaxy is almost impossibly complex and diverse. Temperatures and densities range over many orders of magnitude. The magnetic field links all regimes of the gas, including cosmic rays. Shocks from supernovae and other sources buffet the medium. Into this maelstrom, theorists have ventured. Some models emphasize time-independent thermal equilibrium between hot and cold phases of the gas. Other models stress frequent dynamical events that throw much of the medium out of thermal equilibrium. Some models include magnetic field effects, others do not. Here we report on the nature of diffuse atomic gas, emphasizing observational results from a recent, extensive survey of HI emission and absorption along random lines of sight in the local diffuse medium. We find much of the warmer diffuse atomic gas is out of thermal equilibrium, yet the medium retains a clear dichotomy between warmer and cooler phases. The warmer phase comprises about half of the total diffuse atomic hydrogen gas. Magnetic fields have a median value of about 6 μG in the cold gas, insuring that their dynamical effects cannot be ignored. The conundrum of similar magnetic field strengths in diffuse gas at widely disparate densities remains as an observational fact and a challenge to explain theoretically.

  20. Shells, holes, worms, high-velocity gas and the z-distribution of gas in galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, R. J.

    The author gives an overview of the current observational understanding of vertically extended gas components in spiral galaxies and the various phenomena which come under such names as shells, holes, worms, and high-velocity gas. For the most part, the focus is on recent high-resolution interferometric studies. The author concentrates on cold gas, and briefly on warm ionized gas, in the Milky Way and a few nearby spirals. Along the way, it is seen how phenomena such as worms and shells may be related to the formation and maintenance of the vertically extended components.

  1. The Molecular Wind in the Nearest Seyfert Galaxy Circinus Revealed by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zschaechner, Laura K.; Walter, Fabian; Bolatto, Alberto; Farina, Emanuele P.; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Leroy, Adam; Meier, David S.; Ott, Jürgen; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2016-12-01

    We present ALMA observations of the inner 1‧ (1.2 kpc) of the Circinus galaxy, the nearest Seyfert. We target CO (1-0) in the region associated with a well-known multiphase outflow driven by the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). While the geometry of Circinus and its outflow make disentangling the latter difficult, we see indications of outflowing molecular gas at velocities consistent with the ionized outflow. We constrain the mass of the outflowing molecular gas to be 1.5 × 105-5.1 × 106 M ⊙, yielding a molecular outflow rate of 0.35-12.3 M ⊙ yr-1. The values within this range are comparable to the star formation (SF) rate in Circinus, indicating that the outflow indeed regulates SF to some degree. The molecular outflow in Circinus is considerably lower in mass and energetics than previously studied AGN-driven outflows, especially given its high ratio of AGN luminosity to bolometric luminosity. The molecular outflow in Circinus is, however, consistent with some trends put forth by Cicone et al., including a linear relation between kinetic power and AGN luminosity, as well as its momentum rate versus bolometric luminosity (although the latter places Circinus among the starburst galaxies in that sample). We detect additional molecular species including CN and C17O.

  2. Survey of Outer Galaxy Molecular Lines Associated with Water Masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, N.; Hachisuka, K.; Umemoto, T.

    2009-08-01

    H_2O masers in Young stellar objects (YSOs) in our Galaxy are one of the targets of the VSOP-2 science. The advantage of VSOP-2 observation is the highest angular resolution which can detect a proper motion of H_2O masers for distant objects over short time intervals. To find candidate sources, we observed H2O maser sources in the outer Galaxy using the VLA, and we surveyed the molecular lines toward these sources to understand the environment of YSOs. Higher H2 column densities of YSOs were found for objects with active H2O masers.

  3. Numerical models of starburst galaxies: Galactic winds and entrained gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Ryan

    My three-dimensional hydro-dynamical simulations of starbursts examine the formation of starburst-driven superbubbles over a range of driving luminosities and mass loadings that determine superbubble growth and wind velocity; floors of both 10 and 10. 4 K are considered. From this I determine the relationshipbetween the velocity of a galactic wind and the characteristics of the starburst. I find a threshold for the formation of a wind, above which the wind speed is not affected by grid resolution or the temperature floor of the radiative cooling employed. Optically bright filaments form at the edge of merging superbubbles, or where a cold dense cloud has been disrupted by the wind. Filaments formed by merging superbubbles will persist and grow to >400 pc in length if anchored to and fed from a star forming complex. For galaxies viewed edge on I use total emission from the superbubble to infer the wind velocity and starburst properties such as thermalization efficiency and mass loading factor. Using synthetic absorption profiles I probe different temperature regimes and measure the velocity of the cold, warm and hot gas phases. I find that the cold and warm gas entrained in the wind move at a much lower velocity than the hot gas, with some of the cold gas in the filaments hardly moving with respect to the galaxy. The absorption profiles show that the velocity of the hot galactic outflow does not depend on the star formation rate (SFR), but the velocity of the warm gas does. The velocity of the warm gas scales as SFR. delta untilthe wind velocity reaches 80 % of the analytic terminal wind speed. The value of delta depends on the atomic ionization with a lower value for low ionization, and a higher value for higher ionization.

  4. A survey of the molecular ISM properties of nearby galaxies using the Herschel FTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kamenetzky, J.; Rangwala, N.; Glenn, J.; Maloney, P. R.; Conley, A.

    2014-11-10

    The {sup 12}CO J = 4 → 3 to J = 13 → 12 lines of the interstellar medium from nearby galaxies, newly observable with the Herschel SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer, offer an opportunity to study warmer, more luminous molecular gas than that traced by {sup 12}CO J = 1 → 0. Here we present a survey of 17 nearby infrared-luminous galaxy systems (21 pointings). In addition to photometric modeling of dust, we modeled full {sup 12}CO spectral line energy distributions from J = 1 → 0 to J = 13 → 12 with two components of warm and cool CO gas, and included LTE analysis of [C I], [C II], [N II], and H{sub 2} lines. CO is emitted from a low-pressure/high-mass component traced by the low-J lines and a high-pressure/low-mass component that dominates the luminosity. We found that, on average, the ratios of the warm/cool pressure, mass, and {sup 12}CO luminosity are 60 ± 30, 0.11 ± 0.02, and 15.6 ± 2.7. The gas-to-dust-mass ratios are <120 throughout the sample. The {sup 12}CO luminosity is dominated by the high-J lines and is 4 × 10{sup –4} L {sub FIR} on average. We discuss systematic effects of single-component and multi-component CO modeling (e.g., single-component J ≤ 3 models overestimate gas pressure by ∼0.5 dex), as well as compare to Galactic star-forming regions. With this comparison, we show the molecular interstellar medium of starburst galaxies is not simply an ensemble of Galactic-type giant molecular clouds. The warm gas emission is likely dominated by regions resembling the warm extended cloud of Sgr B2.

  5. ALMA observations of cold molecular gas filaments trailing rising radio bubbles in PKS 0745-191

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, H. R.; McNamara, B. R.; Fabian, A. C.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Edge, A. C.; Combes, F.; Murray, N. W.; Parrish, I. J.; Salomé, P.; Sanders, J. S.; Baum, S. A.; Donahue, M.; Main, R. A.; O'Connell, R. W.; O'Dea, C. P.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Tremblay, G.; Vantyghem, A. N.; Voit, G. M.

    2016-05-01

    We present ALMA observations of the CO(1-0) and CO(3-2) line emission tracing filaments of cold molecular gas in the central galaxy of the cluster PKS 0745-191. The total molecular gas mass of 4.6± 0.3× 109 M_{⊙}, assuming a Galactic XCO factor, is divided roughly equally between three filaments each extending radially 3-5 kpc from the galaxy centre. The emission peak is located in the SE filament ˜ 1 arcsec (2 kpc) from the nucleus. The velocities of the molecular clouds in the filaments are low, lying within ± 100 { km s^{-1}} of the galaxy's systemic velocity. Their full width at half-maximum (FWHM) are less than 150 { km s^{-1},} which is significantly below the stellar velocity dispersion. Although the molecular mass of each filament is comparable to a rich spiral galaxy, such low velocities show that the filaments are transient and the clouds would disperse on < 107 yr time-scales unless supported, likely by the indirect effect of magnetic fields. The velocity structure is inconsistent with a merger origin or gravitational free-fall of cooling gas in this massive central galaxy. If the molecular clouds originated in gas cooling even a few kpc from their current locations their velocities would exceed those observed. Instead, the projection of the N and SE filaments underneath X-ray cavities suggests they formed in the updraft behind bubbles buoyantly rising through the cluster atmosphere. Direct uplift of the dense gas by the radio bubbles appears to require an implausibly high coupling efficiency. The filaments are coincident with low temperature X-ray gas, bright optical line emission and dust lanes indicating that the molecular gas could have formed from lifted warmer gas that cooled in situ.

  6. Gas dynamics and star formation in the galaxy pair NGC1512/1510

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koribalski, Bärbel S.; López-Sánchez, Ángel R.

    2009-12-01

    Here we present HI line and 20-cm radio continuum data of the nearby galaxy pair NGC1512/1510 as obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). These are complemented by GALEX (Galaxy Evolution Explorer) ultraviolet (UV)-, SINGG Hα- and Spitzer mid-infrared images, allowing us to compare the distribution and kinematics of the neutral atomic gas with the locations and ages of the stellar clusters within the system. For the barred, double-ring galaxy NGC1512 we find a very large HI disc, ~four times its optical diameter, with two pronounced spiral/tidal arms. Both its gas distribution and the distribution of the star-forming regions are affected by gravitational interaction with the neighbouring blue compact dwarf galaxy NGC1510. While the inner disc of NGC1512 shows quite regular rotation, deviations are visible along the outer arms and at the position of NGC1510. From the HI rotation curve of NGC1512 we estimate a dynamical mass of Mdyn >~ 3 × 1011Msolar, compared to an HI mass of MHI = 5.7 × 109Msolar (~2 per cent Mdyn). The two most distant HI clumps, at radii of ~80kpc, show signs of star formation (SF) and are likely tidal dwarf galaxies (TDGs). Both lie along an extrapolation of the eastern-most HI arm, with the most compact HI cloud located at the tip of the arm. The 20-cm radio continuum map indicates extended SF activity not only in the central regions of both galaxies but also in between them. SF in the outer disc of NGC1512 is revealed by deep optical- and two-colour UV images. Using the latter we determine the properties of >~200 stellar clusters and explore their correlation with dense HI clumps in the even larger 2X-HI disc. Outside the inner star-forming ring of NGC1512, which must contain a large reservoir of molecular gas, HI turns out to be an excellent tracer of SF activity. The multiwavelength analysis of the NGC1512/1510 system, which is probably in the first stages of a minor merger having started ~400Myr ago, links stellar and

  7. Molecular Gas Along a Bright Hα Filament in 2A 0335+096 Revealed by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vantyghem, A. N.; McNamara, B. R.; Russell, H. R.; Hogan, M. T.; Edge, A. C.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Fabian, A. C.; Combes, F.; Salomé, P.; Baum, S. A.; Donahue, M.; Main, R. A.; Murray, N. W.; O'Connell, R. W.; O'Dea, C. P.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Parrish, I. J.; Sanders, J. S.; Tremblay, G.; Voit, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    We present ALMA CO(1-0) and CO(3-2) observations of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in the 2A 0335+096 galaxy cluster (z = 0.0346). The total molecular gas mass of 1.13 ± 0.15 × 109 M ⊙ is divided into two components: a nuclear region and a 7 kpc long dusty filament. The central molecular gas component accounts for 3.2 ± 0.4 × 108 M ⊙ of the total supply of cold gas. Instead of forming a rotationally supported ring or disk, it is composed of two distinct, blueshifted clumps south of the nucleus and a series of low-significance redshifted clumps extending toward a nearby companion galaxy. The velocity of the redshifted clouds increases with radius to a value consistent with the companion galaxy, suggesting that an interaction between these galaxies <20 Myr ago disrupted a pre-existing molecular gas reservoir within the BCG. Most of the molecular gas, 7.8 ± 0.9 × 108 M ⊙, is located in the filament. The CO emission is co-spatial with a 104 K emission-line nebula and soft X-rays from 0.5 keV gas, indicating that the molecular gas has cooled out of the intracluster medium over a period of 25-100 Myr. The filament trails an X-ray cavity, suggesting that the gas has cooled from low-entropy gas that has been lifted out of the cluster core and become thermally unstable. We are unable to distinguish between inflow and outflow along the filament with the present data. Cloud velocities along the filament are consistent with gravitational free-fall near the plane of the sky, although their increasing blueshifts with radius are consistent with outflow.

  8. A New View of Molecular Gas in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Elisabeth A.; Morris, M.; Güsten, R.; Requena Torres, M.; Lang, C. C.; Butterfield, N.; Ott, J.

    2013-01-01

    On average, the molecular gas in the center of our Galaxy is significantly hotter (T = 50-300 K), denser (n > 10^4 cm^-3), and more turbulent than gas in the rest of the disk. I will present results from a recent series of observations that indicate that our understanding of the Galactic center (GC) molecular gas is incomplete, and that conditions in some clouds are even more extreme than previously thought. Using the Green Bank telescope, we have measured a very hot molecular gas component (T = 400-500 K ) in three largely quiescent GC giant molecular clouds using metastable inversion lines of ammonia from (8,8) to (15,15) . We further detect the (9,9) line in seven other GC clouds, indicating that this hot gas component may be a common feature of GC clouds, potentially yielding insight into the heating source of the molecular gas in this region. In addition, I will present new density constraints for the circumnuclear disk (CND), a reservoir of gas and dust 1.5 parsecs in radius from the central supermassive black hole, Sgr A*. Recent estimates of the CND density vary by four orders of magnitude, which makes its future evolution uncertain: gas in the CND could either accrete onto the black hole, dissipate, or, if the density is higher than 10^7 cm^-3, exist in gravitationally-stable clumps capable of forming stars. However, our APEX measurements of highly excited lines of HCN and HCO+ indicate that although the CND gas is denser than most other GC clouds, it is not likely to be tidally stable and thus is unlikely to host star formation. Finally, I will present early results from a new Very Large Array study of gas on sub-parsec scales in a sample of GC clouds, all of which exhibit unexpectedly abundant Class I methanol maser emission. The widespread distribution of these masers suggests shocks play an important role in driving cloud evolution throughout this unique region of our Galaxy.

  9. Dense Molecular Gas in the Central 630 Parsecs of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paglione, T.; Jackson, J.; Heyer, M.; Bolatto, A.

    1996-05-01

    We took advantage of innovations at mm-wave telescopes to map the large-scale emission from dense gas in the central 630 pc of the Milky Way. I use the HCN/CO ratio and the HCN 3-2/1-0 ratio to determine the densities of the molecular gas in the Galactic center. Since stars form solely in the dense cores of molecular clouds, observing the emission from molecules that require high densities for excitation is important for estimating the physical properties (density, mass, temperature) of star-forming clouds in galaxies. Most extragalactic molecular line studies focus on ``starbursts,'' galaxies with unusually high star formation rates, but knowledge of the gas conditions in normal galaxies is essential for placing the starburst results into proper context. Unfortunately, the spatial resolution of typical extragalactic observations is poor (>0.3 kpc), and to compare properly the emission from different sources, we must examine them on the same spatial scales. Therefore a sensitive map of a normal galaxy, such as the Milky Way, at high resolution is critical, but to achieve the necessary map scales requires surveying a large angular area. The Milky Way spectra, when convolved to the spatial resolution of extragalactic data, are very similar to those of other galaxies. However, with our sensitivity, we discern two distributions to the dense gas emission: a bright narrow feature from dense gas in the Sagittarius clouds, and a broad faint component from diffuse gas perhaps in the Galactic disk. Starburst galaxies have higher average densities, a higher fraction of their mass is dense, and the starburst area is larger than the extent of the Sagittarius region. The density derived from the convolved Milky Way spectra equals the mean density found from modeling each map position. Therefore, this analysis yields the average gas properties in galaxies, despite poor spatial resolution.

  10. Dust, Atomic, and Molecular Gas in the Nearest Primitive Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, A.; Bolatto, A. D.; Stanimirovic, S.; Sandstrom, K.; Simon, J. D.; Bot, C.; Shah, R.; Jackson, J. M.

    2008-03-01

    We present ongoing work studying the dust and gas in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). This work is part of the Spitzer Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud, S^3MC. We combine new IRAC and MIPS observations of the SMC with existing far infrared (FIR) observations from DIRBE, IRAS, and ISO to construct a complete picture of the infrared spectral energy distribution (SED). We compare the FIR SED of the SMC to the SEDs of other nearby galaxies as measured by DIRBE. Although reasonably bright (in a normalized sense) at long wavelengths, the SMC is dimmer than other galaxies at intermediate (˜ 5 -- 50 μm) wavelengths, presumably a result of the relative deficiency of small grains in the SMC. We also compare the FIR emission to the distribution of atomic and molecular gas as traced by HI and CO millimeter wave emission. The emissivity of atomic hydrogen in the SMC is extremely low, implying a very low dust to gas ratio. Despite this, there is evidence for a substantial "hidden" reservoir of molecular gas near the CO emission --- enough to imply a CO-to-H_2 conversion factor ˜ 15 -- 35 times the Galactic value. This observation is at odds with CO studies of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the SMC and other nearby low metallicity systems, which find that GMC properties (including the virial parameter) are not strong functions of environment. As such, this may be evidence that the excess H_2 exists in an envelope of CO-free H_2 that lies outside the molecular gas.

  11. Suppression of star formation in the galaxy NGC 253 by a starburst-driven molecular wind.

    PubMed

    Bolatto, Alberto D; Warren, Steven R; Leroy, Adam K; Walter, Fabian; Veilleux, Sylvain; Ostriker, Eve C; Ott, Jürgen; Zwaan, Martin; Fisher, David B; Weiss, Axel; Rosolowsky, Erik; Hodge, Jacqueline

    2013-07-25

    The under-abundance of very massive galaxies in the Universe is frequently attributed to the effect of galactic winds. Although ionized galactic winds are readily observable, most of the expelled mass (that is, the total mass flowing out from the nuclear region) is likely to be in atomic and molecular phases that are cooler than the ionized phases. Expanding molecular shells observed in starburst systems such as NGC 253 (ref. 12) and M 82 (refs 13, 14) may facilitate the entrainment of molecular gas in the wind. Although shell properties are well constrained, determining the amount of outflowing gas emerging from such shells and the connection between this gas and the ionized wind requires spatial resolution better than 100 parsecs coupled with sensitivity to a wide range of spatial scales, a combination hitherto not available. Here we report observations of NGC 253, a nearby starburst galaxy (distance ∼ 3.4 megaparsecs) known to possess a wind, that trace the cool molecular wind at 50-parsec resolution. At this resolution, the extraplanar molecular gas closely tracks the Hα filaments, and it appears to be connected to expanding molecular shells located in the starburst region. These observations allow us to determine that the molecular outflow rate is greater than 3 solar masses per year and probably about 9 solar masses per year. This implies a ratio of mass-outflow rate to star-formation rate of at least 1, and probably ∼3, indicating that the starburst-driven wind limits the star-formation activity and the final stellar content.

  12. Abundance ratios in stars vs. hot gas in elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipino, Antonio

    2010-11-01

    I present predictions from a chemical evolution model for a self-consistent study of optical (i.e., stellar) and X-ray (i.e., gas) properties of present-day elliptical galaxies. Detailed cooling and heating processes in the interstellar medium are taken into account and allow a reliable modelling of the SN-driven galactic wind. The model simultaneously reproduces the mass-metallicity, colour-magnitude, LX - LB and LX - T relations, and the observed trend of [Mg/Fe] with σ. The "iron discrepancy" can be solved by taking into account the dust presence.

  13. The Herschel Inner Galaxy Gas Survey (HIGGS): Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher; Walker, C.; Kulesa, C.; Stark, A.; Smith, H.; Tolls, V.; White, G.; Israel, F.; Guesten, R.; Requenna-Torres, M.; Shaw, T.; Chen, S.; Schlawin, E.

    The Herschel Inner Galaxy Gas Survey (HIGGS) is a Herschel Open Time Key Programme to use the HIFI and PACS instruments to observe [CII], [NII], [OI], [OIII], and high-J CO emission lines in focused regions near the Galactic Center. By separating and evaluating the distinctly different roles of the central nuclear engine, the Galactic Bar, and dynamical stellar and interstellar feedback mechanisms, HIGGS will provide a high-resolution template for the physical processes in galactic nuclei throughout the local universe, in particular those engaged in starburst activity. We intend to present our early results along with a description of the data reduction and analysis tools that we have developed.

  14. Molecular gas content and SFR in Hickson compact groups: enhanced or deficient?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Badenes, V.; Lisenfeld, U.; Espada, D.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; García-Burillo, S.; Leon, S.; Sulentic, J.; Yun, M. S.

    2012-04-01

    Aims: We study the effect of the extreme environment in Hickson compact groups (HCGs) on the molecular gas mass, MH2, and the star formation rate (SFR) of galaxies as a function of atomic hydrogen (HI) content and evolutionary phase of the group. Methods: We selected a redshift-limited (D < 100 Mpc) sample of 88 galaxies in 20 HCGs with available atomic hydrogen (HI) VLA maps, covering a wide range of HI deficiencies and evolutionary phases of the groups and containing at least one spiral galaxy. We observed the CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) lines with the IRAM 30 m telescope for 47 galaxies. Together with literature data, our sample contains CO(1-0) spectra for 86 galaxies. We derived the far-infrared (FIR) luminosity (LFIR) from IRAS data and used it as a tracer of the SFR. We calculated the HI mass (MHI), LFIR, and MH2 deficiencies, based on the values expected from LB and LK in isolated galaxies from the AMIGA sample. We limited our statistical analysis to spiral galaxies, since the large number of upper limits did not allow drawing strong conclusions about MH2and LFIR in early-type galaxies. Results: The mean deficiencies of LFIR and MH2 of spiral galaxies in HCGs are close to 0, indicating that their average SFR and molecular gas content are similar to those of isolated galaxies. However, there are indications of an excess of MH2 (~50%) in spiral galaxies in HCGs, which can be interpreted, assuming that there is no systematic difference in the CO-to-H2 conversion factor, as either an enhanced molecular gas content or as a higher concentration of the molecular component towards the center in comparison to galaxies in lower density environments. In contrast, the mean MHI of spiral galaxies in HCGs is only 12% of the expected value. The specific SFR (sSFR = SFR/stellar mass) tends to be lower for galaxies with higher MH2 or MHI deficiency. This trend is not seen for the star formation efficiency (SFE = SFR/MH2), which is very similar to isolated galaxies. We found

  15. Gas disks and supermassive black holes in nearby radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel-Storr, Jacob

    2004-12-01

    We present a detailed analysis of a set of medium- resolution spectra, obtained by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope, of the emission-line gas present in the nuclei of a complete sample of 21 nearby, early-type galaxies with radio jets. For each galaxy nucleus we present spectroscopic data in the region of hydrogen-alpha and the kinematics derived therefrom. We find in 67% of the nuclei the gas appears to be rotating and, with one exception, the cases where rotation is not seen are either face on or have complex morphologies. We find that in 62% of the nuclei the fit to the central spectrum is improved by inclusion of a broad emission-line component. These broad components have a mean velocity dispersion of 1349 kilometers per second (with a standard deviation of 345 kilometers per second) and are redshifted from the narrow-line components (assuming an origin in hydrogen-alpha) by 486 kilometers per second (with a standard deviation of 443 kilometers per second). We generated model velocity profiles including no black hole, a one hundred million solar mass black hole and a nine hundred million solar mass black hole. We compared the predicted profiles to the observed velocity profiles from the above spectra, finding kinematic signatures compatible with black holes greater than one hundred million solar masses in 53% of the sample. We suspect that hydrodynamic flow of the gas is a significant factor in the nucleus of NGC 2329. We found hints of jet-disk interaction in 24% of the sample nuclei and signs of twists or warps in 19%. Twenty-four percent of the velocity profiles show signs of multiple kinematic components. We suggest that the gas disks in these galaxies are generally not well-settled systems. We characterize the kinematic state of the nuclear gas through three weighted mean parameters, and find that again the disks appear not to be well-settled. We show evidence of a connection between the stellar and gas velocity

  16. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. XI. Environmental effects on molecular gas and dust in spiral disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, C.; Bianchi, S.; Corbelli, E.; Giovanardi, C.; Hunt, L.; Bendo, G. J.; Boselli, A.; Cortese, L.; Magrini, L.; Zibetti, S.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Davies, J.; Baes, M.; Ciesla, L.; Clemens, M.; De Looze, I.; Fritz, J.; Grossi, M.; Pohlen, M.; Smith, M. W. L.; Verstappen, J.; Vlahakis, C.

    2012-09-01

    Aims: We investigate the dust-to-gas mass ratio and the environmental effects on the various components of the interstellar medium for a spatially resolved sample of Virgo spirals. Methods: We have used the IRAM-30 m telescope to map over their full extent NGC 4189, NGC 4298, NGC 4388, and NGC 4299 in the 12CO(1-0) and the 12CO(2-1) lines. We observed the same lines in selected regions of NGC 4351, NGC 4294, and NGC 4424. The CO observations are combined with Herschel maps in 5 bands between 100-500 μm from the HeViCS survey, and with HI data from the VIVA survey, to obtain spatially resolved dust and gas distributions. We studied the environmental dependencies by adding to our sample eight galaxies with 12CO(1-0) maps from the literature. Results: We estimate the integrated mass of molecular hydrogen for the galaxies observed in the CO lines. We find molecular-to-total gas mass fractions between 0.04 ≤ fmol ≤ 0.65, with the lowest values for the dimmest galaxy in the B-band. The integrated dust-to-gas ratio ranges between 0.011 and 0.004. For the 12 mapped galaxies we derive the radial distributions of the atomic gas, molecular gas, and dust. We also study the effect of different CO-to-H2 conversion factors. Both the molecular gas and the dust distributions show steeper radial profiles for HI-deficient galaxies and the average dust-to-gas ratio for these galaxies increases or stays radially constant. On scales of ~3 kpc, we find a strong correlation between the molecular gas and the 250 μm surface brightness that is tighter than average for non-deficient galaxies. The correlation becomes linear if we consider the total gas surface mass density. However, the inclusion of atomic hydrogen does not improve the statistical significance of the correlation. Conclusions: The environment can modify the distributions of molecules and dust within a galaxy, although these components are more tightly bound than the atomic gas. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with

  17. Exploring the central molecular zone of the Galaxy using spectroscopy of H3+ and CO.

    PubMed

    Geballe, T R

    2012-11-13

    The central 400 parsecs of the Milky Way, a region known as the central molecular zone (CMZ), contains interstellar gas in a wide range of physical environments, from ultra-hot, rarified and highly ionized to warm, dense and molecular. The combination of infrared spectroscopy of H(3)(+) and CO is a powerful way to determine the basic properties of molecular interstellar gas, because the abundance ratio of H(3)(+) to CO in 'dense' clouds is quite different from that in 'diffuse' clouds. Moreover, the energy-level structure and the radiative properties of H(3)(+) combined with the unusually warm temperatures of molecular gas in the CMZ make H(3)(+) a unique probe of the physical conditions there. This paper describes how, using infrared absorption spectroscopy of H(3)(+) and CO, it has been discovered that a large fraction of the volume of the CMZ is filled with warm, diffuse and partially molecular gas moving at speeds of up to approximately 200 km s(-1) and that the mean cosmic ray ionization rate in the CMZ exceeds by roughly an order of magnitude values found in diffuse molecular clouds elsewhere in the Galaxy.

  18. INTEGRAL-FIELD STELLAR AND IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS OF PECULIAR VIRGO CLUSTER SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Cortés, Juan R.; Hardy, Eduardo; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P. E-mail: ehardy@nrao.cl

    2015-01-01

    We present the stellar and ionized gas kinematics of 13 bright peculiar Virgo cluster galaxies observed with the DensePak Integral Field Unit at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope in order to look for kinematic evidence that these galaxies have experienced gravitational interactions or gas stripping. Two-dimensional maps of the stellar velocity V, stellar velocity dispersion σ, and the ionized gas velocity (Hβ and/or [O III]) are presented for the galaxies in the sample. The stellar rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles are determined for 13 galaxies, and the ionized gas rotation curves are determined for 6 galaxies. Misalignments between the optical and kinematical major axes are found in several galaxies. While in some cases this is due to a bar, in other cases it seems to be associated with gravitational interaction or ongoing ram pressure stripping. Non-circular gas motions are found in nine galaxies, with various causes including bars, nuclear outflows, or gravitational disturbances. Several galaxies have signatures of kinematically distinct stellar components, which are likely signatures of accretion or mergers. For all of our galaxies, we compute the angular momentum parameter λ {sub R}. An evaluation of the galaxies in the λ {sub R} ellipticity plane shows that all but two of the galaxies have significant support from random stellar motions, and have likely experienced gravitational interactions. This includes some galaxies with very small bulges and truncated/compact Hα morphologies, indicating that such galaxies cannot be fully explained by simple ram pressure stripping, but must have had significant gravitational encounters. Most of the sample galaxies show evidence for ICM-ISM stripping as well as gravitational interactions, indicating that the evolution of a significant fraction of cluster galaxies is likely strongly impacted by both effects.

  19. Molecular line observations of infrared dark clouds in the galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Susanna C.

    Although massive stars play many important roles in the universe, their formation is poorly understood. Recently, a class of interstellar clouds known as Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) has been identified as likely progenitors of massive stars and clusters. These clouds are dense (nH 2 > 105 cm--3), cold (T < 20 K), have very high column densities (N ˜ 1023--10 25 cm--2), and contain dense clumps and cores. In this dissertation, I present radio observations of a large sample of IRDCs in order to examine their properties and explore the hypothesis that high-mass stars and clusters form in these dense, cold molecular clouds. I determine kinematic distances to a large sample of IRDCs in the inner Galaxy based on CS (2--1) radial velocities. IRDCs are concentrated at specific Galactocentric radii and their distribution appears to trace Milky Way spiral structure. To identify IRDC clumps and determine properties such as mass, size, and chemical evolution, I map a sample of IRDCs in various high density-tracing molecular transitions. The size and mass estimates show that IRDC clumps are comparable in size to more evolved regions of massive star formation. I compare the integrated intensities and linewidths of the molecular emission with a proposed evolutionary sequence of the clumps. The ratio of N2H + with HNC, HCN, and HCO+ is a function of evolutionary stage. The linewidths and virial parameters of the clumps show no clear trend with the evolutionary sequence. Finally, I explore the filamentary shape of IRDCs. The "sausage instability," which describes clumps forming in a gas cylinder, is explored as a mechanism for star-forming clumps to collapse in filaments. First, I compare observations of the "Nessie Nebula," an extreme case of a filamentary IRDC, with predictions from the theory of the fluid instability and then expand the sample to other filamentary IRDCs. The observations are consistent with theoretical predictions of clump spacing, clump masses, and linear

  20. Shapes of star-gas waves in spiral galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubow, Stephen H.

    1988-01-01

    Density-wave profile shapes are influenced by several effects. By solving viscous fluid equations, the nonlinear effects of the gas and its gravitational interaction with the stars can be analyzed. The stars are treated through a linear theory developed by Lin and coworkers. Short wavelength gravitational forces are important in determining the gas density profile shape. With the inclusion of disk finite thickness effects, the gas gravitational field remains important, but is significantly reduced at short wavelengths. Softening of the gas equation of state results in an enhanced response and a smoothing of the gas density profile. A Newtonian stress relation is marginally acceptable for HI gas clouds, but not acceptable for giant molecular clouds.

  1. Alma Observations of Massive Molecular Gas Filaments Encasing Radio Bubbles in the Phoenix Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, H. R.; McDonald, M.; McNamara, B. R.; Fabian, A. C.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Bayliss, M. B.; Benson, B. A.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Edge, A. C.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Marrone, D. P.; Reichardt, C. L.; Vieira, J. D.

    2017-02-01

    We report new ALMA observations of the CO(3-2) line emission from the 2.1+/- 0.3× {10}10 {M}ȯ molecular gas reservoir in the central galaxy of the Phoenix cluster. The cold molecular gas is fueling a vigorous starburst at a rate of 500{--}800 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1 and powerful black hole activity in the forms of both intense quasar radiation and radio jets. The radio jets have inflated huge bubbles filled with relativistic plasma into the hot, X-ray atmospheres surrounding the host galaxy. The ALMA observations show that extended filaments of molecular gas, each 10{--}20 {kpc} long with a mass of several billion solar masses, are located along the peripheries of the radio bubbles. The smooth velocity gradients and narrow line widths along each filament reveal massive, ordered