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Sample records for galaxies molecular gas

  1. The Molecular Gas in the Whirlpool Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinnerer, Eva; Leroy, A.; Pety, J.; Dumas, G.; Meidt, S.; Colombo, D.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Hughes, A.; Kramer, C.; Rix, H.; Schuster, K.; Thompson, T.; Weiss, A.; Aalto, S.; Scoville, N.

    2011-01-01

    The nearby spiral galaxy M51 is a prime target for studying the properties of molecular gas in the environment of spiral arms. Our recent analysis of multi-transition data from the OVRO millimeter interferometer of two selected regions of its prominent gas spiral arms shows that Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) residing in the spiral arms are very similar to their cousins found in the Milky Way. In addition, the conversion factor from CO line velocity to molecular gas mass is very similar to values derived for Galactic GMCs. The recently finished PdBI Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS) imaged the GMCs population of Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) in the central 8 kpc disk of M51 at an unprecedented resolution of 45pc using the PdBI and 30m instruments. First results from this IRAM Large Program regarding the properties of GMCs, their evolution and relation to star forming sites within M51's impressive spiral arms will be presented.

  2. Molecular Gas and Star Formation in Void Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, M.; Saito, T.; Iono, D.; Honey, M.; Ramya, S.

    2016-10-01

    We present the detection of molecular gas using CO(1-0) line emission and followup Hα imaging observations of galaxies located in nearby voids. The CO(1-0) observations were done using the 45m telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO) and the optical observations were done using the Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT). Although void galaxies lie in the most underdense parts of our universe, a significant fraction of them are gas rich, spiral galaxies that show signatures of ongoing star formation. Not much is known about their cold gas content or star formation properties. In this study we searched for molecular gas in five void galaxies using the NRO. The galaxies were selected based on their relatively higher IRAS fluxes or Hα line luminosities. CO(1-0) emission was detected in four galaxies and the derived molecular gas masses lie between (1 - 8)×109 M⊙. The Hα imaging observations of three galaxies detected in CO emission indicates ongoing star formation and the derived star formation rates vary between from 0.2 - 1.0 M7odot; yr -1, which is similar to that observed in local galaxies. Our study shows that although void galaxies reside in underdense regions, their disks may contain molecular gas and have star formation rates similar to galaxies in denser environments.

  3. Searching for Molecular Gas in Southern Radio Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prandoni, I.; Laing, R. A.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Parma, P.

    2012-07-01

    It has recently been proposed that the jets of low-luminosity radio galaxies are powered by direct accretion of the hot phase of the IGM onto the central black hole. Cold gas remains a plausible alternative fuel supply, however. The most compelling evidence that cold gas plays a role in fueling radio galaxies is that dust is detected more commonly and/or in larger quantities in (elliptical) radio galaxies compared with radio-quiet elliptical galaxies. On the other hand, only small numbers of radio galaxies have yet been detected in CO (and even fewer imaged), and whether or not all radio galaxies have enough cold gas to fuel their jets remains an open question. If so, then the dynamics of the cold gas in the nuclei of radio galaxies may provide important clues to the fuelling mechanism. The only instrument capable of imaging the molecular component on scales relevant to the accretion process is ALMA, but very little is yet known about CO in southern radio galaxies. Our aim is to measure the CO content in a complete volume-limited sample of southern radio galaxies, in order to create a well-defined list of nearby targets to be imaged in the near future with ALMA. APEX has been equipped with a receiver (APEX-1) able to observe the 230 GHz waveband. This allows us to search for CO(2-1) line emission in our target galaxies. Here we present the results of CO(2-1) APEX-1 spectroscopy taken in 2008 and 2010 for our southern sample. The experiment was successful with nearly all targets detected, and several indications for double-horned CO line profiles, consistent with ordered rotation.

  4. Molecular gas in elliptical galaxies with dust lanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhong; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Ishizuki, Sumio

    1992-01-01

    We have searched for CO(1-0) line emission in eight dust lane elliptical and lenticular galaxies using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. Five of the eight galaxies, including the well-studied elliptical NGC 1052, have CO emission at above the 5-sigma level, with inferred molecular gas masses ranging from 10 exp 8 to a few times 10 exp 9 solar masses. Our selection criterion differs from previous surveys in that it does not depend on the FIR fluxes, and thus is less sensitive to the sizes and distances of the host galaxies or to the degree to which dust is heated. The relatively high detection rate of CO in these ellipticals suggests a close correlation between molecular mass and cold dust. Compared with previously studied samples of FIR selected early-type galaxies, our sample has on average four times more CO emission per unit FIR (40-120 microns) luminosity. If the intrinsic gas-to-dust ratio of these galaxies as similar to that of the Milky Way, then only about 5 percent of the dust mass in dust lane ellipticals radiates substantially at 60 and 100 microns, and the remaining dust must be colder than about 30 K.

  5. A high-dispersion molecular gas component in nearby galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Caldú-Primo, Anahi; Walter, Fabian; Sandstrom, Karin; Schruba, Andreas; Leroy, Adam; De Blok, W. J. G.; Ianjamasimanana, R.; Mogotsi, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the velocity dispersion of the atomic (H I) and molecular (H{sub 2}) gas components in the disks (R ≲ R {sub 25}) of a sample of 12 nearby spiral galaxies with moderate inclinations. Our analysis is based on sensitive high-resolution data from the THINGS (atomic gas) and HERACLES (molecular gas) surveys. To obtain reliable measurements of the velocity dispersion, we stack regions several kiloparsecs in size, after accounting for intrinsic velocity shifts due to galactic rotation and large-scale motions. We stack using various parameters: the galactocentric distance, star formation rate surface density, H I surface density, H{sub 2} surface density, and total gas surface density. We fit single Gaussian components to the stacked spectra and measure median velocity dispersions for H I of 11.9 ± 3.1 km s{sup –1} and for CO of 12.0 ± 3.9 km s{sup –1}. The CO velocity dispersions are thus, surprisingly, very similar to the corresponding ones of H I, with an average ratio of σ{sub HI}/σ{sub CO}= 1.0 ± 0.2 irrespective of the stacking parameter. The measured CO velocity dispersions are significantly higher (factor of ∼2) than the traditional picture of a cold molecular gas disk associated with star formation. The high dispersion implies an additional thick molecular gas disk (possibly as thick as the H I disk). Our finding is in agreement with recent sensitive measurements in individual edge-on and face-on galaxies and points toward the general existence of a thick disk of molecular gas, in addition to the well-known thin disk in nearby spiral galaxies.

  6. Molecular gas temperature and density in spiral galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, W. F.; Jaffe, D. T.; Bash, F. N.; Israel, F. P.; Maloney, P. R.; Baas, F.

    1993-01-01

    We combine beam-matched CO-13, CO-12 J = 3 yields 2 and J = 2 yields 1 line data to infer the molecular gas excitation conditions in the central 500 to 1600 pc diameters of a small sample of infrared-bright external galaxies: NGC253, IC342, M 83, Maffei 2, and NGC6946. Additional observations of the J = 1 yields 0 lines of C-18O and CO-13 set limits on the opacity of the CO-13 J = 1 yields 0 line averaged over the central kiloparsec of these spiral galaxies.

  7. Characterising molecular gas in nearby star forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, George; Viti, Serena; Garcia-Burillo, Santiago

    2015-08-01

    Regions of very dense, star-forming gas in the interstellar medium are necessary to maintain star formation activity in hostile conditions. Star-forming regions in these environments are able to resist winds and radiative forces from newly formed stars longer than gas in the surrounding ISM. Subject to a proper interpretation, observations of molecules can be used for many purposes: tracing the reservoir or leftover of the star formation process; tracing the process of star formation itself; and determining the galaxy energetics through influence of newly-formed stars or an AGN on their environments. We map the distribution of several tracer molecules over three nearby galaxies. We begin by mapping two starburst galaxies with single dish observations of the dense gas tracer CS. The formation of CS is modelled under different conditions with results fed into a molecular line radiative transfer model. From this we can obtain the physical conditions of the regions of the ISM where there is a high rate of star-formation, as well as compare how the conditions vary away from the galactic centre. Moving on from here, we use ALMA to map NGC 1068. Observations of several molecules across the AGN and starburst regions are used to determine conditions and processes with a spatial resolution of less than 35 parsecs.

  8. Molecular Gas, Giant Molecular Clouds, and Star Formation in Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, Martin

    2015-08-01

    I will first briefly review the molecular gas content of early-type galaxies, revealing that they unexpectedly harbour much cold gas, with a variety of morphologies. Second, I will show that the star formation efficiency (Kennicutt-Schmidt relation) of early-type galaxies is lower than that of spirals, and will discuss possible dynamical causes. Third, I will discuss the molecular line ratios of early-type galaxies (multiple transitions, isotopologues, and molecular tracers) and their implications (via modeling) for the physical conditions in the gas, revealing unexpected correlations with galaxy properties and both small-scale (e.g. star formation density) and large-scale (e.g. galaxy environment) dependencies. Last, I will present the first study of individually-resolved molecular clouds in an early-type galaxy (e.g. Larson's relations), again revealing differences with respect to standard star-forming late-type galaxies, in particular more luminous, denser, and higher velocity dispersion clouds associated with a gas higher surface density.

  9. Molecular gas content of H I monsters and implications to cold gas content evolution in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheoljong; Chung, Aeree; Yun, Min S.; Cybulski, Ryan; Narayanan, G.; Erickson, N.

    2014-06-01

    We present 12CO (J = 1 → 0) observations of a sample of local galaxies (0.04 < z < 0.08) with a large neutral hydrogen reservoir, or `H I monsters'. The data were obtained using the redshift search receiver on the five college radio astronomy observatory (FCRAO) 14 m telescope. The sample consists of 20 H I-massive galaxies with MH I > 3 × 1010 M⊙ from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey and 8 low surface brightness galaxies (LSBs) with a comparable MH I(>1.5 × 1010 M⊙). Our sample selection is purely based on the amount of neutral hydrogen, thereby providing a chance to study how atomic and molecular gas relate to each other in these H I-massive systems. We have detected CO in 15 out of 20 ALFALFA selected galaxies and 4 out of 8 LSBs with molecular gas mass MH2 of (1-11)× 109 M⊙. Their total cold gas masses of (2-7) × 1010 M⊙ make them some of the most gas-massive galaxies identified to date in the Local Universe. Observed trends associated with H I, H2, and stellar properties of the H I massive galaxies and the field comparison sample are analysed in the context of theoretical models of galaxy cold gas content and evolution, and the importance of total gas content and improved recipes for handling spatially differentiated behaviours of disc and halo gas are identified as potential areas of improvement for the modelling.

  10. MOLECULAR GAS AND STAR FORMATION IN NEARBY DISK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Leroy, Adam K.; Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Walter, Fabian; Sandstrom, Karin; Meidt, Sharon; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schinnerer, Eva; Schruba, Andreas; Bigiel, Frank; Bolatto, Alberto; Brinks, Elias; De Blok, W. J. G.; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; Usero, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    We compare molecular gas traced by {sup 12}CO (2-1) maps from the HERACLES survey, with tracers of the recent star formation rate (SFR) across 30 nearby disk galaxies. We demonstrate a first-order linear correspondence between {Sigma}{sub mol} and {Sigma}{sub SFR} but also find important second-order systematic variations in the apparent molecular gas depletion time, {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol}={Sigma}{sub mol}/{Sigma}{sub SFR}. At the 1 kpc common resolution of HERACLES, CO emission correlates closely with many tracers of the recent SFR. Weighting each line of sight equally, using a fixed {alpha}{sub CO} equivalent to the Milky Way value, our data yield a molecular gas depletion time, {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol}={Sigma}{sub mol}/{Sigma}{sub SFR}{approx}2.2 Gyr with 0.3 dex 1{sigma} scatter, in very good agreement with recent literature data. We apply a forward-modeling approach to constrain the power-law index, N, that relates the SFR surface density and the molecular gas surface density, {Sigma}{sub SFR}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub mol}{sup N}. We find N = 1 {+-} 0.15 for our full data set with some scatter from galaxy to galaxy. This also agrees with recent work, but we caution that a power-law treatment oversimplifies the topic given that we observe correlations between {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} and other local and global quantities. The strongest of these are a decreased {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} in low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies and a correlation of the kpc-scale {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} with dust-to-gas ratio, D/G. These correlations can be explained by a CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor ({alpha}{sub CO}) that depends on dust shielding, and thus D/G, in the theoretically expected way. This is not a unique interpretation, but external evidence of conversion factor variations makes this the most conservative explanation of the strongest observed {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} trends. After applying a D/G-dependent {alpha}{sub CO}, some weak correlations between {tau}{sub dep

  11. Molecular gas in nearby Early-Type Powerful Classical Radio Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, S.; Lim, J.; Combes, F.; Dinh-v-Trung

    We report the detection of CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) emission from the central region of nearby 3CR radio galaxies(z<0.03). Out of 21 galaxies, 8 have been detected in, at least, one of the two CO transitions. The total molecular gas content is below 109 Msun. Their individual CO emission exhibit, for 5 cases, a double-horned line profile that is characteristic of a disk with a central depression at the rising part of its rotation cu or ring distributions of the molecular gas is consistent with the ob dust disks or rings detected optically in the cores of the galaxies. their gas originates from the mergers of two gas-rich disk galaxies, explain the molecular gas in other radio galaxies, then these galaxie long time ago (few Gyr or more) but their remnant elliptical galaxies (last 107 years or less) become active radio galaxies. Instead, we cannibalism of gas-rich galaxies provide a simpler explanation for th molecular gas in the elliptical hosts of radio galaxies (Lim et al. 2 Given the transient nature of their observed disturbances, these gala active in radio soon after the accretion event when sufficient molecu in their nuclei.

  12. High molecular gas fractions in normal massive star-forming galaxies in the young Universe.

    PubMed

    Tacconi, L J; Genzel, R; Neri, R; Cox, P; Cooper, M C; Shapiro, K; Bolatto, A; Bouché, N; Bournaud, F; Burkert, A; Combes, F; Comerford, J; Davis, M; Schreiber, N M Förster; Garcia-Burillo, S; Gracia-Carpio, J; Lutz, D; Naab, T; Omont, A; Shapley, A; Sternberg, A; Weiner, B

    2010-02-11

    Stars form from cold molecular interstellar gas. As this is relatively rare in the local Universe, galaxies like the Milky Way form only a few new stars per year. Typical massive galaxies in the distant Universe formed stars an order of magnitude more rapidly. Unless star formation was significantly more efficient, this difference suggests that young galaxies were much more molecular-gas rich. Molecular gas observations in the distant Universe have so far largely been restricted to very luminous, rare objects, including mergers and quasars, and accordingly we do not yet have a clear idea about the gas content of more normal (albeit massive) galaxies. Here we report the results of a survey of molecular gas in samples of typical massive-star-forming galaxies at mean redshifts of about 1.2 and 2.3, when the Universe was respectively 40% and 24% of its current age. Our measurements reveal that distant star forming galaxies were indeed gas rich, and that the star formation efficiency is not strongly dependent on cosmic epoch. The average fraction of cold gas relative to total galaxy baryonic mass at z = 2.3 and z = 1.2 is respectively about 44% and 34%, three to ten times higher than in today's massive spiral galaxies. The slow decrease between z approximately 2 and z approximately 1 probably requires a mechanism of semi-continuous replenishment of fresh gas to the young galaxies.

  13. The JCMT nearby galaxies legacy survey - X. Environmental effects on the molecular gas and star formation properties of spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, Angus; Wilson, C. D.; Golding, J.; Warren, B. E.; Israel, F. P.; Serjeant, S.; Knapen, J. H.; Sánchez-Gallego, J. R.; Barmby, P.; Bendo, G. J.; Rosolowsky, E.; van der Werf, P.

    2016-03-01

    We present a study of the molecular gas properties in a sample of 98 H I - flux selected spiral galaxies within ˜25 Mpc, using the CO J = 3 - 2 line observed with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. We use the technique of survival analysis to incorporate galaxies with CO upper limits into our results. Comparing the group and Virgo samples, we find a larger mean H2 mass in the Virgo galaxies, despite their lower mean H I mass. This leads to a significantly higher H2 to H I ratio for Virgo galaxies. Combining our data with complementary Hα star formation rate measurements, Virgo galaxies have longer molecular gas depletion times compared to group galaxies, due to their higher H2 masses and lower star formation rates. We suggest that the longer depletion times may be a result of heating processes in the cluster environment or differences in the turbulent pressure. From the full sample, we find that the molecular gas depletion time has a positive correlation with the stellar mass, indicative of differences in the star formation process between low- and high-mass galaxies, and a negative correlation between the molecular gas depletion time and the specific star formation rate.

  14. DETECTION OF MOLECULAR GAS IN VOID GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR STAR FORMATION IN ISOLATED ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Das, M.; Honey, M.; Saito, T.; Iono, D.; Ramya, S.

    2015-12-10

    We present the detection of molecular gas from galaxies located in nearby voids using the CO(1–0) line emission as a tracer. The observations were performed using the 45 m single dish radio telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory. Void galaxies lie in the most underdense parts of our universe and a significant fraction of them are gas rich, late-type spiral galaxies. Although isolated, they have ongoing star formation but appear to be slowly evolving compared to galaxies in denser environments. Not much is known about their star formation properties or cold gas content. In this study, we searched for molecular gas in five void galaxies. The galaxies were selected based on their relatively high IRAS fluxes or Hα line luminosities, both of which signify ongoing star formation. All five galaxies appear to be isolated and two lie within the Bootes void. We detected CO(1–0) emission from four of the five galaxies in our sample and their molecular gas masses lie between 10{sup 8} and 10{sup 9} M{sub ⊙}. We conducted follow-up Hα imaging observations of three detected galaxies using the Himalayan Chandra Telescope and determined their star formation rates (SFRs) from their Hα fluxes. The SFR varies from 0.2 to 1 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}; which is similar to that observed in local galaxies. Our study indicates that although void galaxies reside in underdense regions, their disks contain molecular gas and have SFRs similar to galaxies in denser environments. We discuss the implications of our results.

  15. The BLUEDISK Survey: molecular gas distribution and scaling relations in the context of galaxy evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, D.; Bigiel, F.; Wang, J.; Pety, J.; Usero, A.; Roychowdhury, S.; Carton, D.; Hulst, J. M. van der; Józsa, G. I. G.; García, M. Gonzalez; Saintonge, A.

    2016-08-01

    One of the key goals of the BLUEDISK survey is to characterize the impact of gas accretion in disc galaxies in the context of galaxy evolution. It contains 50 disc galaxies in the stellar mass range 1010 - 1011 M⊙, of which half are bluer and more H I-rich galaxies than their H I-normal (control) counterparts. In this paper, we investigate how ongoing disc growth affects the molecular gas distribution and the star-formation efficiency in these galaxies. We present 12CO observations from the IRAM 30-m telescope in 26 galaxies of the BLUEDISK survey. We compare the amount and spatial distribution of the molecular gas to key quantities such as atomic gas, stellar mass and surface density, star-formation rate and metallicity. We analyse the star-formation rate per unit gas (SFR/H I and SFR/H2) and relate all those parameters to general galaxy properties (H I-rich/control disc, morphology, etc.). We find that the H I-rich galaxies have similar H2 masses as the control galaxies. In their centres, H I-rich galaxies have lower H2/H I ratios and marginally shorter molecular gas depletion times. However, the main differences between the two samples occur in the outer parts of the discs, with the H I-rich galaxies having slightly smaller CO discs (relative to the optical radius R25) and steeper CO and metallicity gradients than the control galaxies. The ongoing accretion of H I at large radii has thus not led to an appreciable growth of the CO discs in our sample. Based on depletion times, we estimate that this gas will contribute to star formation on time-scales of at least 5 Gyr.

  16. The interplay between galaxy transition and molecular gas in the next generation of radio facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatalo, Katherine A.; SPOGS Team

    2016-01-01

    The well-known galaxy color bimodality suggests that the paths which galaxies transition from blue, gas-rich spirals to red, gas-poor early-type (elliptical and lenticular) galaxies must be traveled rapidly to explain the dearth of intermediate stage objects. Studying the relationship between the interstellar fuel out of which stars form, and the global changes that galaxies undergo provides a window not only into the paths of transitions that galaxies take, but also how the transition mechanisms can feed back upon the relationship between molecular gas and star formation. I will discuss our results from z=0 transitioning galaxy surveys from CARMA and IRAM, and the ways in which next generation radio telescopes will not only provide detailed insights into the relationship between gas and transition at z=0, but also how this relationship evolves with redshift.

  17. The ratio of molecular to atomic gas in spiral galaxies as a function of morphological type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knezek, Patricia M.; Young, Judith S.

    1990-01-01

    In order to gain an understanding of the global processes which influence cloud and star formation in disk galaxies, it is necessary to determine the relative amounts of atomic, molecular, and ionized gas both as a function of position in galaxies and from galaxy to galaxy. With observations of the CO distributions in over 200 galaxies now completed as part of the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (FCRAO) Extragalactic CO Survey (Young et al. 1989), researchers are finally in a position to determine the type dependence of the molecular content of spiral galaxies, along with the ratio of molecular to atomic gas as a function of type. Do late type spirals really have more gas than early types when the molecular gas content is included. Researchers conclude that there is more than an order of magnitude decrease in the ratio of molecular to atomic gas mass as a function of morphological type from Sa-Sd; an average Sa galaxy has more molecular than atomic gas, and an average Sc has less. Therefore, the total interstellar gas mass to blue luminosity ratio, M sub gas/L sub B, increases by less than a factor of two as a function of type from Sa-Sd. The dominant effect found is that the phase of the gas in the cool interstellar medium (ISM) varies along the Hubble sequence. Researchers suggest that the more massive and centrally concentrated galaxies are able to achieve a molecular-dominated ISM through the collection of more gas in the potential. That gas may then form molecular clouds when a critical density is exceeded. The picture which these observations support is one in which the conversion of atomic gas to molecular gas is a global process which depends on large scale dynamics (cf Wyse 1986). Among interacting and merging systems, researchers find considerable scatter in the M(H2)/M(HI) ratio, with the mean ratio similar to that in the early type galaxies. The high global ratio of molecular to atomic gas could result from the removal of HI gas, the enhanced

  18. Molecular and atomic gas along and across the main sequence of star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saintonge, Amelie; Catinella, Barbara; Cortese, Luca; Genzel, Reinhard; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Janowiecki, Steven; Kramer, Carsten; Lutz, Katharina A.; Schiminovich, David; Tacconi, Linda J.; Wuyts, Stijn; Accurso, Gioacchino

    2016-10-01

    We use spectra from the ALFALFA, GASS and COLD GASS surveys to quantify variations in the mean atomic and molecular gas mass fractions throughout the SFR-M* plane and along the main sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies. Although galaxies well below the MS tend to be undetected in the Arecibo and IRAM observations, reliable mean atomic and molecular gas fractions can be obtained through a spectral stacking technique. We find that the position of galaxies in the SFR-M* plane can be explained mostly by their global cold gas reservoirs as observed in the H I line, with in addition systematic variations in the molecular-to-atomic ratio and star formation efficiency. When looking at galaxies within ±0.4 dex of the MS, we find that as stellar mass increases, both atomic and molecular gas mass fractions decrease, stellar bulges become more prominent, and the mean stellar ages increase. Both star formation efficiency and molecular-to-atomic ratios vary little for massive MS galaxies, indicating that the flattening of the MS is due to the global decrease of the cold gas reservoirs of galaxies rather than to bottlenecks in the process of converting cold atomic gas to stars.

  19. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, IONIZED GAS, AND MOLECULAR HYDROGEN IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES OF COOL-CORE CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, Megan; Mark Voit, G.; Hoffer, Aaron; De Messieres, Genevieve E.; O'Connell, Robert W.; McNamara, Brian R.; Nulsen, Paul E. J. E-mail: voit@pa.msu.edu

    2011-05-01

    We present measurements of 5-25 {mu}m emission features of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) with strong optical emission lines in a sample of nine cool-core clusters of galaxies observed with the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. These systems provide a view of dusty molecular gas and star formation, surrounded by dense, X-ray-emitting intracluster gas. Past work has shown that BCGs in cool-core clusters may host powerful radio sources, luminous optical emission-line systems, and excess UV, while BCGs in other clusters never show this activity. In this sample, we detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), extremely luminous, rotationally excited molecular hydrogen line emission, forbidden line emission from ionized gas ([Ne II] and [Ne III]), and infrared continuum emission from warm dust and cool stars. We show here that these BCGs exhibit more luminous forbidden neon and H{sub 2} rotational line emission than star-forming galaxies with similar total infrared luminosities, as well as somewhat higher ratios of 70 {mu}m/24 {mu}m luminosities. Our analysis suggests that while star formation processes dominate the heating of the dust and PAHs, a heating process consistent with suprathermal electron heating from the hot gas, distinct from star formation, is heating the molecular gas and contributing to the heating of the ionized gas in the galaxies. The survival of PAHs and dust suggests that dusty gas is somehow shielded from significant interaction with the X-ray gas.

  20. Molecular gas in the host galaxy of a quasar at redshift z = 6.42.

    PubMed

    Walter, Fabian; Bertoldi, Frank; Carilli, Chris; Cox, Pierre; Lo, K Y; Neri, Roberto; Fan, Xiaohui; Omont, Alain; Strauss, Michael A; Menten, Karl M

    2003-07-24

    Observations of molecular hydrogen in quasar host galaxies at high redshifts provide fundamental constraints on galaxy evolution, because it is out of this molecular gas that stars form. Molecular hydrogen is traced by emission from the carbon monoxide molecule, CO; cold H2 itself is generally not observable. Carbon monoxide has been detected in about ten quasar host galaxies with redshifts z > 2; the record-holder is at z = 4.69 (refs 1-3). Here we report CO emission from the quasar SDSS J114816.64 + 525150.3 (refs 5, 6) at z = 6.42. At that redshift, the Universe was only 1/16 of its present age, and the era of cosmic reionization was just ending. The presence of about 2 x 1010 M\\circ of H2 in an object at this time demonstrates that molecular gas enriched with heavy elements can be generated rapidly in the youngest galaxies.

  1. Molecular Gas and Star Formation in Local Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, M.; Davis, T. A.; Alatalo, K.; Crocker, A. F.; Blitz, L.; Young, L. M.; Combes, F.; Bois, M.; Bournaud, F.; Cappellari, M.; Davies, R. L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, P.-A.; Emsellem, E.; Khochfar, S.; Krajnović, D.; Kuntschner, H.; Lablanche, P.-Y.; McDermid, R. M.; Morganti, R.; Naab, T.; Oosterloo, T.; Sarzi, M.; Scott, N.; Serra, P.; Weijmans, A.

    2011-12-01

    The molecular gas content of local early-type galaxies is constrained and discussed in relation to their evolution. First, as part of the ATLAS3D survey, we present the first complete, large (260 objects), volume-limited single-dish survey of CO in normal local early-type galaxies. We find a surprisingly high detection rate of 22%, independent of luminosity and at best weakly dependent on environment. Second, the extent of the molecular gas is constrained with CO synthesis imaging, and a variety of morphologies is revealed. The kinematics of the molecular gas and stars are often misaligned, implying an external gas origin in over a third of the systems, although this behaviour is drastically diffferent between field and cluster environments. Third, many objects appear to be in the process of forming regular kpc-size decoupled disks, and a star formation sequence can be sketched by piecing together multi-wavelength information on the molecular gas, current star formation, and young stars. Last, early-type galaxies do not seem to systematically obey all our usual prejudices regarding star formation, following the standard Schmidt-Kennicutt law but not the far infrared-radio correlation. This may suggest a greater diversity in star formation processes than observed in disk galaxies. Using multiple molecular tracers, we are thus starting to probe the physical conditions of the cold gas in early-types.

  2. The variation in molecular gas depletion time among nearby galaxies: what are the main parameter dependences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mei-Ling; Kauffmann, Guinevere

    2014-09-01

    We re-analyse correlations between global molecular gas depletion time (tdep) and galaxy parameters for nearby galaxies from the COLD GASS survey. We improve on previous work of Saintonge et al. by estimating star formation rates using the combination of Galaxy Evolution Explorer far-ultraviolet and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer 22 μm data and by deriving tdep within a fixed aperture set by the beam size of gas observation. In our new study, we find correlations with much smaller scatter. Dependences of the depletion time on galaxy structural parameters such as stellar surface density and concentration index are now weak or absent. We demonstrate that the primary global parameter correlation is between tdep and specific star formation rate (sSFR); all other remaining correlations can be shown to be induced by this primary dependence. This implies that galaxies with high current-to-past-averaged star formation activity, will drain their molecular gas reservoir sooner. We then analyse tdep on 1 kpc scales in galactic discs using data from the HERA CO-Line Extragalactic Survey survey. There is remarkably good agreement between the global tdep-sSFR relation for the COLD GASS galaxies and that derived for 1 kpc scale grids in discs. This leads to the conclusion that the local molecular gas depletion time in galactic discs is dependent on the local fraction of young-to-old stars.

  3. The most diffuse molecular gas in the galaxy.

    PubMed

    Liszt, Harvey S

    2013-10-01

    Interstellar molecules preferentially reside in denser, cooler, optically shielded portions of the interstellar medium, but a weak residue of H2 will form via purely gas-phase processes involving H(-) even in rather bare atomic gas, the so-called warm interstellar medium where the temperature (>1000 K) and electron fraction (0.01 to 0.1) are relatively high. Along with H2, a few trace molecules will also form in this gas, partially because strongly endothermic reactions such as C(+) + H2 → CH(+) + H are energetically allowed. The observed abundance patterns of SH(+), CH(+) and OH(+) are reproduced by the warm gas chemistry, but not their overall abundances with respect to hydrogen. Even the very smallest molecular hydrogen fractions observed in the Milky Way along sightlines of low mean density are well above those that can readily be produced in the warm interstellar medium by gas-phase or grain-surface H2 formation processes. This suggests that density inhomogeneities may obscure the molecular contribution of warmer gas.

  4. The most diffuse molecular gas in the galaxy.

    PubMed

    Liszt, Harvey S

    2013-10-01

    Interstellar molecules preferentially reside in denser, cooler, optically shielded portions of the interstellar medium, but a weak residue of H2 will form via purely gas-phase processes involving H(-) even in rather bare atomic gas, the so-called warm interstellar medium where the temperature (>1000 K) and electron fraction (0.01 to 0.1) are relatively high. Along with H2, a few trace molecules will also form in this gas, partially because strongly endothermic reactions such as C(+) + H2 → CH(+) + H are energetically allowed. The observed abundance patterns of SH(+), CH(+) and OH(+) are reproduced by the warm gas chemistry, but not their overall abundances with respect to hydrogen. Even the very smallest molecular hydrogen fractions observed in the Milky Way along sightlines of low mean density are well above those that can readily be produced in the warm interstellar medium by gas-phase or grain-surface H2 formation processes. This suggests that density inhomogeneities may obscure the molecular contribution of warmer gas. PMID:23390998

  5. ALMA Reveals a Galaxy-Scale Fountain of Cold Molecular Gas Pumped by a Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Grant

    2016-01-01

    A new ALMA observation of the cool core brightest cluster galaxy in Abell 2597 reveals that a supermassive black hole can act much like a mechanical pump in a water fountain, driving a convective flow of molecular gas that drains into the black hole accretion reservoir, only to be pushed outward again in a jet-driven outflow that then rains back toward the galaxy center from which it came. The ALMA data reveal "shadows" cast by giant molecular clouds falling on ballistic trajectories towards the black hole in the innermost 500 parsecs of the galaxy, manifesting as deep redshifted continuum absorption features. The black hole accretion reservoir, fueled by these infalling cold clouds, powers an AGN that drives a jet-driven molecular outflow in the form of a 10 kpc-scale, billion solar mass expanding molecular bubble or plume. The molecular shell is permeated with young stars, perhaps triggered in situ by the jet. Buoyant X-ray cavities excavated by the propagating radio source may further uplift the molecular filaments, which are observed to fall inward toward the center of the galaxy from which they came, presumably keeping the fountain long-lived. The results show that cold molecular gas can couple to black hole growth via both feedback and feeding, in alignment with "cold chaotic accretion" models for the regulation of star formation in galaxies.

  6. THE MOLECULAR GAS DENSITY IN GALAXY CENTERS AND HOW IT CONNECTS TO BULGES

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, David B.; Bolatto, Alberto; Drory, Niv; Combes, Francoise; Blitz, Leo; Wong, Tony

    2013-02-20

    In this paper we present gas density, star formation rate (SFR), stellar masses, and bulge-disk decompositions for a sample of 60 galaxies. Our sample is the combined sample of the BIMA SONG, CARMA STING, and PdBI NUGA surveys. We study the effect of using CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factors that depend on the CO surface brightness, and also that of correcting SFRs for diffuse emission from old stellar populations. We estimate that SFRs in bulges are typically lower by 20% when correcting for diffuse emission. Using the surface brightness dependent conversion factor, we find that over half of the galaxies in our sample have {Sigma}{sub mol} > 100 M {sub Sun} pc{sup -2}. Though our sample is not complete in any sense, our results are enough to rule out the assumption that bulges are uniformly gas-poor systems. We find a trend between gas density of bulges and bulge Sersic index; bulges with lower Sersic index have higher gas density. Those bulges with low Sersic index (pseudobulges) have gas fractions that are similar to that of disks. Conversely, the typical molecular gas fraction in classical bulges is more similar to that of an elliptical galaxy. We also find that there is a strong correlation between bulges with the highest gas surface density and the galaxy being barred. However, we also find that classical bulges with low gas surface density can be barred as well. Our results suggest that understanding the connection between the central surface density of gas in disk galaxies and the presence of bars should also take into account the total gas content of the galaxy. Finally, we show that when using the corrected SFRs and gas densities, the correlation between SFR surface density and gas surface density of bulges is similar to that of disks. This implies that at the scale of the bulges the timescale for converting gas into stars is comparable to those results found in disks.

  7. The Molecular Gas Density in Galaxy Centers and how it Connects to Bulges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, David B.; Bolatto, Alberto; Drory, Niv; Combes, Francoise; Blitz, Leo; Wong, Tony

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we present gas density, star formation rate (SFR), stellar masses, and bulge-disk decompositions for a sample of 60 galaxies. Our sample is the combined sample of the BIMA SONG, CARMA STING, and PdBI NUGA surveys. We study the effect of using CO-to-H2 conversion factors that depend on the CO surface brightness, and also that of correcting SFRs for diffuse emission from old stellar populations. We estimate that SFRs in bulges are typically lower by 20% when correcting for diffuse emission. Using the surface brightness dependent conversion factor, we find that over half of the galaxies in our sample have Σmol > 100 M ⊙ pc-2. Though our sample is not complete in any sense, our results are enough to rule out the assumption that bulges are uniformly gas-poor systems. We find a trend between gas density of bulges and bulge Sérsic index; bulges with lower Sérsic index have higher gas density. Those bulges with low Sérsic index (pseudobulges) have gas fractions that are similar to that of disks. Conversely, the typical molecular gas fraction in classical bulges is more similar to that of an elliptical galaxy. We also find that there is a strong correlation between bulges with the highest gas surface density and the galaxy being barred. However, we also find that classical bulges with low gas surface density can be barred as well. Our results suggest that understanding the connection between the central surface density of gas in disk galaxies and the presence of bars should also take into account the total gas content of the galaxy. Finally, we show that when using the corrected SFRs and gas densities, the correlation between SFR surface density and gas surface density of bulges is similar to that of disks. This implies that at the scale of the bulges the timescale for converting gas into stars is comparable to those results found in disks.

  8. The molecular gas content of spiral galaxies in the Coma/A1367 supercluster.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boselli, A.; Gavazzi, G.; Lequeux, J.; Buat, V.; Casoli, F.; Dickey, J.; Donas, J.

    1997-11-01

    We present ^12^CO(J=1-0) line observations of 73 spiral galaxies mostly in the Coma/A1367 supercluster. From these data, combined with data available in the literature, we extract the first complete, optically selected sample (m_pg_<15.2) of 37 isolated and of 27 cluster galaxies. Adopting a standard conversion factor X=N(H_2_)/I(CO), we estimate that the molecular hydrogen content of isolated spiral galaxies is, on average, 20% of the atomic hydrogen reservoir, significantly lower than previous estimates based on samples selected by FIR criteria, thus biased towards CO rich objects. We show that the frequency distributions of the CO deficiency parameter, defined as the difference between the expected and the observed molecular gas content of a galaxy of given luminosity (or linear diameter), computed separately for cluster and isolated galaxies, are not significantly different, indicating that the environment does not affect the molecular gas content of spiral discs. A well defined relationship exists between M_i_(H_2_) and the star formation activity in bright galaxies, while it is weaker at lower luminosities. We interpret this finding as indicating that CO emission traces relatively well the H_2_ mass only in high-mass galaxies, such as the Milky Way. On the other hand, in low-mass spirals the higher far-UV radiation field produced by young O-B stars and the lower metallicity cause the photodissociation of the diffuse molecular gas, weakening the expected relationship between star formation and the CO emission. The conversion factor between the CO line intensity and the amount of molecular hydrogen being ill-determined and variable with the UV flux and abundances, it is difficult to assess the relationship between the star formation and the amount of molecular hydrogen.

  9. Star Formation Suppression Due to Jet Feedback in Radio Galaxies with Shocked Warm Molecular Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanz, Lauranne; Ogle, Patrick M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Appleton, Philip N.

    2016-07-01

    We present Herschel observations of 22 radio galaxies, selected for the presence of shocked, warm molecular hydrogen emission. We measured and modeled spectral energy distributions in 33 bands from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared to investigate the impact of jet feedback on star formation activity. These galaxies are massive, early-type galaxies with normal gas-to-dust ratios, covering a range of optical and infrared colors. We find that the star formation rate (SFR) is suppressed by a factor of ˜3–6, depending on how molecular gas mass is estimated. We suggest that this suppression is due to the shocks driven by the radio jets injecting turbulence into the interstellar medium (ISM), which also powers the luminous warm H2 line emission. Approximately 25% of the sample shows suppression by more than a factor of 10. However, the degree of SFR suppression does not correlate with indicators of jet feedback including jet power, diffuse X-ray emission, or intensity of warm molecular H2 emission, suggesting that while injected turbulence likely impacts star formation, the process is not purely parameterized by the amount of mechanical energy dissipated into the ISM. Radio galaxies with shocked warm molecular gas cover a wide range in SFR–stellar mass space, indicating that these galaxies are in a variety of evolutionary states, from actively star-forming and gas-rich to quiescent and gas-poor. SFR suppression appears to have the largest impact on the evolution of galaxies that are moderately gas-rich.

  10. Molecular Gas Kinematics and Line Diagnostics in Early-type Galaxies: NGC 4710 & NGC 5866

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topal, Selçuk; Bureau, Martin; Davis, Timothy A.; Krips, Melanie; Young, Lisa M.; Crocker, Alison F.

    2016-09-01

    We present interferometric observations of CO lines (12CO(1-0, 2-1) and 13CO(1-0, 2-1)) and dense gas tracers (HCN(1-0), HCO+(1-0), HNC(1-0) and HNCO(4-3)) in two nearby edge-on barred lenticular galaxies, NGC 4710 and NGC 5866, with most of the gas concentrated in a nuclear disc and an inner ring in each galaxy. We probe the physical conditions of a two-component molecular interstellar medium in each galaxy and each kinematic component by using molecular line ratio diagnostics in three complementary ways. First, we measure the ratios of the position-velocity diagrams of different lines, second we measure the ratios of each kinematic component's integrated line intensities as a function of projected position, and third we model these line ratios using a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative transfer code. Overall, the nuclear discs appear to have a tenuous molecular gas component that is hotter, optically thinner and with a larger dense gas fraction than that in the inner rings, suggesting more dense clumps immersed in a hotter more diffuse molecular medium. This is consistent with evidence that the physical conditions in the nuclear discs are similar to those in photo-dissociation regions. A similar picture emerges when comparing the observed molecular line ratios with those of other galaxy types. The physical conditions of the molecular gas in the nuclear discs of NGC 4710 and NGC 5866 thus appear intermediate between those of spiral galaxies and starbursts, while the star formation in their inner rings is even milder.

  11. OBSERVATIONAL CONSTRAINTS ON THE MOLECULAR GAS CONTENT IN NEARBY STARBURST DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Cannon, John M.; Holtzman, Jon

    2012-06-01

    Using star formation histories derived from optically resolved stellar populations in 19 nearby starburst dwarf galaxies observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, we measure the stellar mass surface densities of stars newly formed in the bursts. By assuming a star formation efficiency (SFE), we then calculate the inferred gas surface densities present at the onset of the starbursts. Assuming an SFE of 1%, as is often assumed in normal star-forming galaxies, and assuming that the gas was purely atomic, translates to very high H I surface densities ({approx}10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2}), which are much higher than have been observed in dwarf galaxies. This implies either higher values of SFE in these dwarf starburst galaxies or the presence of significant amounts of H{sub 2} in dwarfs (or both). Raising the assumed SFEs to 10% or greater (in line with observations of more massive starbursts associated with merging galaxies), still results in H I surface densities higher than observed in 10 galaxies. Thus, these observations appear to require that a significant fraction of the gas in these dwarf starbursts galaxies was in the molecular form at the onset of the bursts. Our results imply molecular gas column densities in the range 10{sup 19}-10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} for the sample. In the galaxies where CO observations have been made, these densities correspond to values of the CO-H{sub 2} conversion factor (X{sub CO}) in the range >(3-80) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2} (K km s{sup -1}){sup -1}, or up to 40 Multiplication-Sign greater than Galactic X{sub CO} values.

  12. Resolving the Chemistry of Molecular Gas that Fuels Luminous Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, David; Turner, Jean; Anderson, Crystal

    2012-10-01

    Energy input from massive stars profoundly impact on how starburst galaxies evolve. Both the triggers of and feedback from star formation manifest themselves in the gas chemistry. We use millimeter interferometry to obtain high spatial resolution maps of CO, HCO^+, CCH, NNH^+, HNCO, CH3OH and SiO, toward the starbursts, Maffei 2, M 82, IRAS 04296+2923 and Arp 220. Dramatic variations in gas chemistry are observed both within the individual galaxies and from galaxy to galaxy. These variations correlate with star formation and gas dynamics. CO isotopologues are used to constrain the evolutionary history of star formation. Species preferentially formed (CCH) and destroyed (NNH^+) in the presence of strong UV radiation map out where energy input from the massive stars dominate. CCH abundances are correlated with star formation rate, except in the most extreme starburst, Arp 220, whereas NNH^+ abundances drop, except for Arp 220. The abundance anomalies in Arp 220 hint that the molecular medium in the most extreme starbursts is different. HNCO, CH3OH and SiO locate shocks due to bars and galaxy-galaxy mergers in these systems. Comparisons between these species suggest shock strength does not change across bars, but does for merger remnants.

  13. Circumnuclear molecular gas in megamaser disk galaxies NGC 4388 and NGC 1194

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Jenny E.; Seth, Anil; Lyubenova, Mariya; Van de Ven, Glenn; Läsker, Ronald; Walsh, Jonelle

    2014-06-20

    We explore the warm molecular and ionized gas in the centers of two megamaser disk galaxies using K-band spectroscopy. Our ultimate goal is to determine how gas is funneled onto the accretion disk, here traced by megamaser spots on sub-parsec scales. We present NIR IFU data with a resolution of ∼50 pc for two galaxies: NGC 4388 with VLT/SINFONI and NGC 1194 with Keck/OSIRIS+AO. The high spatial resolution and rich spectral diagnostics allow us to study both the stellar and gas kinematics as well as gas excitation on scales only an order of magnitude larger than the maser disk. We find a drop in the stellar velocity dispersion in the inner ∼100 pc of NGC 4388, a common signature of a dynamically cold central component seen in many active nuclei. We also see evidence for noncircular gas motions in the molecular hydrogen on similar scales, with the gas kinematics on 100 parsec scales aligned with the megamaser disk. In contrast, the high ionization lines and Brγ trace outflow along the 100 parsec-scale jet. In NGC 1194, the continuum from the accreting black hole is very strong, making it difficult to measure robust two-dimensional kinematics, but the spatial distribution and line ratios of the molecular hydrogen and Brγ have consistent properties between the two galaxies.

  14. THE JAMES CLERK MAXWELL TELESCOPE NEARBY GALAXIES LEGACY SURVEY. II. WARM MOLECULAR GAS AND STAR FORMATION IN THREE FIELD SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, B. E.; Wilson, C. D.; Sinukoff, E.; Israel, F. P.; Van der Werf, P. P.; Serjeant, S.; Bendo, G. J.; Clements, D. L.; Brinks, E.; Irwin, J. A.; Knapen, J. H.; Leech, J.; Tan, B. K.; Matthews, H. E.; Muehle, S.; Mortimer, A. M. J.; Petitpas, G.; Spekkens, K.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; Usero, A. E-mail: wilson@physics.mcmaster.c E-mail: israel@strw.leidenuniv.n

    2010-05-01

    We present the results of large-area {sup 12}CO J = 3-2 emission mapping of three nearby field galaxies, NGC 628, NGC 3521, and NGC 3627, completed at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope as part of the Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey. These galaxies all have moderate to strong {sup 12}CO J = 3-2 detections over large areas of the fields observed by the survey, showing resolved structure and dynamics in their warm/dense molecular gas disks. All three galaxies were part of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey sample, and as such have excellent published multiwavelength ancillary data. These data sets allow us to examine the star formation properties, gas content, and dynamics of these galaxies on sub-kiloparsec scales. We find that the global gas depletion time for dense/warm molecular gas in these galaxies is consistent with other results for nearby spiral galaxies, indicating this may be independent of galaxy properties such as structures, gas compositions, and environments. Similar to the results from The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey, we do not see a correlation of the star formation efficiency with the gas surface density consistent with the Schmidt-Kennicutt law. Finally, we find that the star formation efficiency of the dense molecular gas traced by {sup 12}CO J = 3-2 is potentially flat or slightly declining as a function of molecular gas density, the {sup 12}CO J = 3-2/J = 1-0 ratio (in contrast to the correlation found in a previous study into the starburst galaxy M83), and the fraction of total gas in molecular form.

  15. 12CO(3-2) Emission in Spiral Galaxies: Warm Molecular Gas in Action?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaz, Gaspar; Cortés, Paulo; Bronfman, Leonardo; Rubio, Monica

    2008-04-01

    Using the APEX submillimeter telescope we have investigated the 12CO(3-2) emission in five face-on nearby barred spiral galaxies, where three of them are high surface brightness galaxies (HSBs) lying at the Freeman limit, and two are low surface brightness galaxies (LSBs). We have positive detections for two of three HSB spirals and nondetections for the LSBs. For the galaxies with positive detection (NGC 0521 and PGC 070519), the emission is confined to their bulges, with velocity dispersions of ~90 and ~73 km s-1 and integrated intensities of 1.20 and 0.76 K km s-1, respectively. For the nondetections, the estimated upper limit for the integrated intensity is ~0.54 K km s-1. With these figures we estimate the H2 masses as well as the atomic-to-molecular mass ratios. Although all the galaxies are barred, we observe 12CO(3-2) emission only for galaxies with prominent bars. We speculate that bars could dynamically favor the 12CO(3-2) emission, as a second parameter after surface brightness. Therefore, secular evolution could play a major role in boosting collisional transitions of molecular gas, such as 12CO(3-2), especially in LSBs.

  16. Spatial variation of the physical conditions of molecular gas in galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, James M.; Eckart, Andreas; Wild, Wolfgang; Genzel, Reinhard; Harris, Andrew I.; Downes, Dennis; Jaffe, D. T.; Ho, Paul T. P.

    1990-01-01

    Multi-line studies of CO-12, CO-13, C-18O, HCN, and HCO(+) at 3 mm, 1.3 mm, and 0.8 mm using the Institute for Radio Astronomy in the Millimeter range (IRAM) 30 m telescope, with the IRAM superconductor insulator superconductor (SIS) receivers and the Max Planck Institute for External Physics (MPE) 350 GHz SIS receiver, show that the densities and temperatures of molecular gas in external galaxies change significantly with position. CO-12 measures the densities and temperature of diffuse interclump molecular gas, but not the bulk of the molecular gas. Simple one-component models, with or without external heating, cannot account for the weakness of the CO-12 J = 3 to 2 line relative to J = 2 to 1 and J = 1 to 0. CO-12 does not trace the bulk of the molecular gas, and optical depth effects obviate a straightforward interpretation of CO-12 data. Instead, researchers turned to the optically thin CO isotopes and other molecular species. Isotopic CO lines measure the bulk of the molecular gas, and HCN and HCO(+) pick out denser regions. Researchers find a warm ridge of gas in IC 342 (Eckart et al. 1989), denser gas in the starburst nucleus of IC 342, and a possible hot-spot in NGC 2903. In IC 342, NGC 2146, and NGC 6764, the CO-13 J = 2 to 1 line is subthermally populated, implying gas densities less than or equal to 10(exp 4) cm(-3).

  17. A 1010 Solar Mass Flow of Molecular Gas in the A1835 Brightest Cluster Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, B. R.; Russell, H. R.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Edge, A. C.; Murray, N. W.; Main, R. A.; Vantyghem, A. N.; Combes, F.; Fabian, A. C.; Salome, P.; Kirkpatrick, C. C.; Baum, S. A.; Bregman, J. N.; Donahue, M.; Egami, E.; Hamer, S.; O'Dea, C. P.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Tremblay, G.; Voit, G. M.

    2014-04-01

    We report ALMA Early Science observations of the A1835 brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in the CO (3-2) and CO (1-0) emission lines. We detect 5 × 1010 M ⊙ of molecular gas within 10 kpc of the BCG. Its ensemble velocity profile width of ~130 km s-1 FWHM is too narrow for the molecular clouds to be supported in the galaxy by dynamic pressure. The gas may instead be supported in a rotating, turbulent disk oriented nearly face-on. Roughly 1010 M ⊙ of molecular gas is projected 3-10 kpc to the northwest and to the east of the nucleus with line-of-sight velocities lying between -250 km s-1 and +480 km s-1 with respect to the systemic velocity. The high-velocity gas may be either inflowing or outflowing. However, the absence of high-velocity gas toward the nucleus that would be expected in a steady inflow, and its bipolar distribution on either side of the nucleus, are more naturally explained as outflow. Star formation and radiation from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) are both incapable of driving an outflow of this magnitude. The location of the high-velocity gas projected behind buoyantly rising X-ray cavities and favorable energetics suggest an outflow driven by the radio AGN. If so, the molecular outflow may be associated with a hot outflow on larger scales reported by Kirkpatrick and colleagues. The molecular gas flow rate of approximately 200 M ⊙ yr-1 is comparable to the star formation rate of 100-180 M ⊙ yr-1 in the central disk. How radio bubbles would lift dense molecular gas in their updrafts, how much gas will be lost to the BCG, and how much will return to fuel future star formation and AGN activity are poorly understood. Our results imply that radio-mechanical (radio-mode) feedback not only heats hot atmospheres surrounding elliptical galaxies and BCGs, but it is able to sweep higher density molecular gas away from their centers.

  18. Connecting CO intensity mapping to molecular gas and star formation in the epoch of galaxy assembly

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Tony Y.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Devaraj, Kiruthika; Church, Sarah E.

    2016-01-29

    Intensity mapping, which images a single spectral line from unresolved galaxies across cosmological volumes, is a promising technique for probing the early universe. Here we present predictions for the intensity map and power spectrum of the CO(1–0) line from galaxies atmore » $$z\\sim 2.4$$–2.8, based on a parameterized model for the galaxy–halo connection, and demonstrate the extent to which properties of high-redshift galaxies can be directly inferred from such observations. We find that our fiducial prediction should be detectable by a realistic experiment. Motivated by significant modeling uncertainties, we demonstrate the effect on the power spectrum of varying each parameter in our model. Using simulated observations, we infer constraints on our model parameter space with an MCMC procedure, and show corresponding constraints on the $${L}_{\\mathrm{IR}}$$–$${L}_{\\mathrm{CO}}$$ relation and the CO luminosity function. These constraints would be complementary to current high-redshift galaxy observations, which can detect the brightest galaxies but not complete samples from the faint end of the luminosity function. Furthermore, by probing these populations in aggregate, CO intensity mapping could be a valuable tool for probing molecular gas and its relation to star formation in high-redshift galaxies.« less

  19. HIGH-DENSITY MOLECULAR GAS PROPERTIES OF THE STARBURST GALAXY NGC 1614 REVEALED WITH ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro

    2013-09-15

    We present the results of HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 4-3 transition line observations of the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 1614, obtained with ALMA Cycle 0. We find that high density molecular gas traced with these lines shows a velocity structure such that the northern (southern) side of the nucleus is redshifted (blueshifted) with respect to the nuclear velocity of this galaxy. The redshifted and blueshifted emission peaks are offset by {approx}0.''6 at the northern and southern sides of the nucleus, respectively. At these offset positions, observations at infrared >3 {mu}m indicate the presence of active dusty starbursts, supporting the picture that high-density molecular gas is the site of active starbursts. The enclosed dynamical mass within the central {approx}2'' in radius, derived from the dynamics of the high-density molecular gas, is {approx}10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, which is similar to previous estimates. Finally, the HCN emission is weaker than HCO{sup +} but stronger than HNC for J = 4-3 for all starburst regions of NGC 1614, as seen for J = 1-0 transition lines in starburst-dominated galaxies.

  20. OT1_nlu_1: Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of Warm Molecular Gas in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, N.

    2010-07-01

    We propose to survey CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED), from J=4-3 up to J=13-12, on 93 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L_{IR} > 1.0E11 L_{sun}) with Herschel SPIRE FTS spectrometer. These galaxies, plus 32 additional LIRGs that will have similar data from existing Herschel programs (mainly the HerCULES project), form a flux-limited subset of the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRGs Survey (GOALS) sample. Our proposal is built on the legacy of GOALS and extends beyond the existing Herschel HerCULES program, which emphasizes more on ULIRGs, to a much needed sample coverage of the more numerous and diverse population of less luminous LIRGs. The data from the proposed observations will not only provide much needed local LIRG templates for future ALMA studies of high-redshift counterparts, but also lend us a powerful diagnostic tool to probe the warm and dense molecular gas that are more closely related to the starburst or AGN activity in the nuclei of LIRGs. The data from this proposal will provide important statistical clues to the interplay between the cold and warm molecular gas, IR luminosity, star formation rate and efficiency, and the diverse properties of LIRGs. Specifically, using the homogeneous CO SLED data from this proposal, together with ground-base, low-order CO line data (mainly J=1-0) and other data that have been compiled for the GOALS sample, we will address the following questions: (1) What is the dominant nuclear power source in individual sample galaxy: starburst or AGN? (2) What are the typical physical properties of warm molecular gas in the nuclei of LIRGs? (3) How do the nuclear warm gas components correlate to the cold gas component, star formation rate and efficiency, dust temperature, etc? and (4) How does molecular gas excitation change along a merger sequence?

  1. Formaldehyde in Absorption: Tracing Molecular Gas in Early-Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollhopf, Niklaus M.; Donovan Meyer, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs) have been long-classified as the red, ellipsoidal branch of the classic Hubble tuning fork diagram of galactic structure. In part with this classification, ETGs are thought to be molecular and atomic gas-poor with little to no recent star formation. However, recent efforts have questioned this ingrained classification. Most notably, the ATLAS3D survey of 260 ETGs within ~40 Mpc found 22% contain CO, a common tracer for molecular gas. The presence of cold molecular gas also implies the possibility for current star formation within these galaxies. Simulations do not accurately predict the recent observations and further studies are necessary to understand the mechanisms of ETGs.CO traces molecular gas starting at densities of ~102 cm-3, which makes it a good tracer of bulk molecular gas, but does little to constrain the possible locations of star formation within the cores of dense molecular gas clouds. Formaldehyde (H2CO) traces molecular gas on the order of ~104 cm-3, providing a further constraint on the location of star-forming gas, while being simple enough to possibly be abundant in gas-poor ETGs. In cold molecular clouds at or above ~104 cm-3 densities, the structure of formaldehyde enables a phenomenon in which rotational transitions have excitation temperatures driven below the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), ~2.7 K. Because the CMB radiates isotropically, formaldehyde can be observed in absorption, independent of distance, as a tracer of moderately-dense molecular clouds and star formation.This novel observation technique of formaldehyde was incorporated for observations of twelve CO-detected ETGs from the ATLAS3D sample, including NGC 4710 and PGC 8815, to investigate the presence of cold molecular gas, and possible star formation, in ETGs. We present images from the Very Large Array, used in its C-array configuration, of the J = 11,0 - 11,1 transition of formaldehyde towards these sources. We report our

  2. An Observational Study on Physical Properties of the Molecular Gas in External Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Y. P.

    2011-01-01

    To study the physical properties of the molecular gas in luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), this thesis presents the preliminary results of a small local sample, a case study on a distant LIRG IRAS F10214+4724 at z=2.286 and another case study on a local LIRG ARP 302. The molecular gas in Perseus A, the cD galaxy in the center of the Perseus Cluster, is presented in high angular resolution observation to study the gas distribution and its kinematics. A small sample of 5 LIRGs was observed and the CO (J=3→2) mapping results reveal the gas distribution concentrated in the galactic centers or the centers of mergers and their overlapping regions. For NGC 3256, the maps in the CO (J=3→2), CO (J=4→3) and CO (J=7→6) transitions are obtained. Together with the measurements in the lower transitions from literatures, the peak of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of CO line was found between CO (J=5→4) and CO (J=6→5). With the radiation transfer model and the CO ladder, the gas density is constrained to n(H2)=103.7~104.1 cm-3 for a kinematic temperature T kin=40~45 K adopted from the literature. Local LIRG NGC 3256 shows the similar excitation conditions as the submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the early universe, further supporting the view that the SMGs are the same type of the local LIRGs, but only at the early epoch. The CI (3P2→3P1), CO (J=3→2), CO (J=4→3), CO (J=6→5) and CO (J=7→6) transitions as well as the dust continuum at 3 mm and 1 mm were detected towards the distant LIRG IRAS F10214+4724 at z=2.286. IRAS F10214+4724 now belongs to a sample of only 3 extragalactic sources at any redshift where both of the carbon fine structure lines have been detected. The source is spatially resolved by our CI (3P2→3P1) observation and we detect a velocity gradient along the east-west direction. The CI line ratio allows us to derive a carbon excitation temperature of 42+12-9 K. The carbon excitation in conjunction with the CO ladder and the dust

  3. Aperture synthesis mapping of molecular gas in high-luminosity IRAS galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, D. B.; Soifer, B. T.; Scoville, N. Z.; Sargent, A. I.

    1988-01-01

    The Owens Valley millimeter-wave interferometer has been used for high-resolution mapping of the 2.6 mm CO emission from the high-luminosity infrared galaxies NGC 520 (Arp 157), NGC 7469 (Arp 298), and Arp 55. Assuming the same empirical relationship between CO brightness and molecular hydrogen surface mass density as has been found for giant molecular clouds in the Milky Way, it is found that the masses of H2 gas in these concentrations are 10 to the 9th - 10 to the 10th solar masses, typically one-third of the total molecular gas content of these galaxies. The interferometric sizes correspond to radii of 0.8 kpc (NGC 520), 1.4 kpc (NGC 7469), and less than 2.8 kpc (Arp 55). For the same regions the dynamical masses estimated from the CO line width and size of the emission region are only a factor of 3-5 higher. The mean molecular gas surface densities averaged over these regions are in the range 610-825 solar masses/sq pc, a factor of 10 brighter than those obtained for corresponding regions in the nucleus of the Milky Way. The high mass fractions obtained for the interstellar medium in the central regions of these three galaxies strongly suggest that large-scale gravitational instability in the gas may play an important role in the further concentration of the gas in the nucleus and in possibly precipitating a large-scale burst of star formation.

  4. A DETECTION OF MOLECULAR GAS EMISSION IN THE HOST GALAXY OF GRB 080517

    SciTech Connect

    Stanway, E. R.; Levan, A. J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Wiersema, K.; Van der Laan, T. P. R.

    2015-01-01

    We have observed the host galaxy of the low-redshift, low-luminosity Swift GRB 080517 at 105.8 GHz using the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer. We detect an emission line with integrated flux SΔν = 0.39 ± 0.05 Jy km s{sup –1}—consistent both spatially and in velocity with identification as the J = 1-0 rotational transition of carbon monoxide (CO) at the host galaxy redshift. This represents only the third long gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxy with molecular gas detected in emission. The inferred molecular gas mass, M{sub H{sub 2}}∼6.3×10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}, implies a gas consumption timescale of ∼40 Myr if star formation continues at its current rate. Similar short timescales appear characteristic of the long GRB population with CO observations to date, suggesting that the GRB in these sources occurs toward the end of their star formation episode.

  5. The molecular gas in Luminous Infrared Galaxies: a new emergent picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Weiss, Axel; van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Gao, Yu; Xilouris, Manolis; Greve, Thomas R.

    2013-03-01

    Results from a large, multi-J CO, 13CO, and HCN line survey of Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs: LIR≥ 1010 L⊙) in the local Universe (z≤0.1), complemented by CO J=4-3 up to J=13-12 observations from the Herschel Space Observatory (HSO), paints a new picture for the average conditions of the molecular gas of the most luminous of these galaxies with turbulence and/or large cosmic ray (CR) energy densities UCR rather than far-UV/optical photons from star-forming sites as the dominant heating sources. Especially in ULIRGs (LIR>1012 L⊙) the Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs) can encompass at most a few % of their molecular gas mass while the large UCR˜ 103 UCR, Galaxy, and the strong turbulence in these merger/starbursts, can volumetrically heat much of their molecular gas to Tkin˜ (100-200) K, unhindered by the high dust extinctions. Moreover the strong supersonic turbulence in ULIRGs relocates much of their molecular gas at much higher average densities (≥104 cm-3) than in isolated spirals (˜ 102-103 cm-3). This renders low-J CO lines incapable of constraining the properties of the bulk of the molecular gas in ULIRGs, with substantial and systematic underestimates of its mass possible when only such lines are used. Finally a comparative study of multi-J HCN lines and CO SLEDs from J=1-0 up to J=13-12 of NGC 6240 and Arp 193 offers a clear example of two merger/starbursts whose similar low-J CO SLEDs, and LIR/LCO,1-0 and LHCN, 1-0/LCO,1-0 ratios (proxies of the so-called SF efficiency and dense gas mass fraction), yield no indications about their strongly diverging CO SLEDs beyond J=4-3, and ultimately the different physical conditions in their molecular ISM. The much larger sensitivity of ALMA and its excellent site in the Atacama desert now allows the observations necessary to assess the dominant energy sources of the molecular gas and its mass in LIRGs without depending on the low-J CO lines.

  6. THE MOLECULAR GAS CONTENT OF z = 3 LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES: EVIDENCE OF A NON-EVOLVING GAS FRACTION IN MAIN-SEQUENCE GALAXIES AT z > 2

    SciTech Connect

    Magdis, Georgios E.; Rigopoulou, D.; Daddi, E.; Sargent, M.; Elbaz, D.; Gobat, R.; Tan, Q.; Aussel, H.; Feruglio, C.; Charmandaris, V.; Dickinson, M.; Reddy, N.

    2012-10-10

    We present observations of the CO[J = 3 {yields} 2] emission toward two massive and infrared luminous Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z = 3.21 and z = 2.92, using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer, placing first constraints on the molecular gas masses (M{sub gas}) of non-lensed LBGs. Their overall properties are consistent with those of typical (main-sequence) galaxies at their redshifts, with specific star formation rates {approx}1.6 and {approx}2.2 Gyr{sup -1}, despite their large infrared luminosities (L{sub IR} Almost-Equal-To (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }) derived from Herschel. With one plausible CO detection (spurious detection probability of 10{sup -3}) and one upper limit, we investigate the evolution of the molecular gas-to-stellar mass ratio (M{sub gas}/M{sub *}) with redshift. Our data suggest that the steep evolution of M{sub gas}/M{sub *} of normal galaxies up to z {approx} 2 is followed by a flattening at higher redshifts, providing supporting evidence for the existence of a plateau in the evolution of the specific star formation rate at z > 2.5.

  7. Gas distribution, star formation and giant molecular cloud evolution in nearby spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebolledo Lara, David Andres

    2013-12-01

    In this thesis, I present a detailed study of the resolved properties of the cold gas in nearby galaxies at different size scales, starting from the whole galactic disk to the size of the Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs). Differences in the shape and width of global CO and HI spectra of resolved disks of spiral galaxies are systematically investigated using a nearby sample for which high-resolution CO and HI maps are available. I find that CO line widths can be wider than HI widths in galaxies where the rotation curve declines in the outer parts, while they can be narrower in galaxies where the CO does not adequately sample the flat part of the rotation curve. Limited coverage of the CO emission by the telescope beam can mimic the latter effect. A physically based prescription linking the CO and HI radial profiles with the stellar disk is consistent with these findings. Then, I present an analysis performed on high spatial resolution observations of Giant Molecular Clouds in the three nearby spiral galaxies NGC 6946, NGC 628 and M101 obtained with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). Using the automated CPROPS algorithm I identified 112 CO cloud complexes in the CO(1 → 0) map and 145 GMCs in the CO(2 → 1) maps. The properties of the GMCs are similar to values found in other extragalactic studies. Clouds located on-arm present in general higher star formation rates than clouds located in inter-arm regions. Also, I find differences in the distribution of star formation efficiencies in the disk of these galaxies. These differences may be related to the underlying dynamical process that drives the observed spiral arm structure in the disks. In this scenario, in galaxies with nearly symmetric arm shape (e. g., NGC 628), the spiral shocks are triggering star formation along the arms. On other hand, galaxies with flocculent or multi-arm spiral structure (e. g., NGC 6946 and M101) show regions of high star formation efficiency at specific

  8. Molecular gas and star formation in the tidal dwarf galaxy VCC 2062

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenfeld, U.; Braine, J.; Duc, P. A.; Boquien, M.; Brinks, E.; Bournaud, F.; Lelli, F.; Charmandaris, V.

    2016-05-01

    The physical mechanisms driving star formation (SF) in galaxies are still not fully understood. Tidal dwarf galaxies (TDGs), made of gas ejected during galaxy interactions, seem to be devoid of dark matter and have a near-solar metallicity. The latter makes it possible to study molecular gas and its link to SF using standard tracers (CO, dust) in a peculiar environment. We present a detailed study of a nearby TDG in the Virgo Cluster, VCC 2062, using new high-resolution CO(1-0) data from the Plateau de Bure, deep optical imaging from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS), and complementary multiwavelength data. Until now, there was some doubt whether VCC 2062 was a true TDG, but the new deep optical images from the NGVS reveal a stellar bridge between VCC 2062 and its parent galaxy, NGC 4694, which is clear proof of its tidal origin. Several high-resolution tracers (Hα, UV, 8 μm, and 24 μm) of the star formation rate (SFR) are compared to the molecular gas distribution as traced by the CO(1-0). Coupled with the SFR tracers, the NGVS data are used with the CIGALE code to model the stellar populations throughout VCC 2062, yielding a declining SFR in the recent past, consistent with the low Hα/UV ratio, and a high burst strength. HI emission covers VCC 2062, whereas the CO is concentrated near the HI maxima. The CO peaks correspond to two very distinct regions: one with moderate SF to the NE and one with only slightly weaker CO emission but with nearly no SF. Even where SF is clearly present, the SFR is below the value expected from the surface density of the molecular and the total gas as compared to spiral galaxies and other TDGs. After discussing different possible explanations, we conclude that the low surface brightness is a crucial parameter to understand the low SFR. The reduced data cubes are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/590/A92

  9. The warm molecular gas and dust of Seyfert galaxies: two different phases of accretion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezcua, M.; Prieto, M. A.; Fernández-Ontiveros, J. A.; Tristram, K.; Neumayer, N.; Kotilainen, J. K.

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of warm molecular gas (1000-3000 K), traced by the near-IR H2 2.12 μm line, has been imaged with a resolution <0.5 arcsec in the central 1 kpc of seven nearby Seyfert galaxies. We find that this gas is highly concentrated towards the central 100 pc and that its morphology is often symmetrical. Lanes of warm H2 gas are observed only in three cases (NGC 1068, NGC 1386 and Circinus) for which the morphology is much wider and extended than the dust filaments. We conclude that there is no one-to-one correlation between dust and warm gas. This indicates that, if the dust filaments and lanes of warm gas are radial streaming motions of fuelling material, they must represent two different phases of accretion: the dust filaments represent a colder phase than the gas close to the nucleus (within ˜100 pc). We predict that the morphology of the nuclear dust at these scales should resemble that of the cold molecular gas (e.g. CO at 10-40 K), as we show for CenA and NGC 1566 by Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations, whereas the inner H2 gas traces a much warmer phase of material identified with warmer (40-500 K) molecular gas such as CO(6-5) or HCN (as shown by ALMA for NGC 1068 and NGC 1097). We also find that X-ray heating is the most likely dominant excitation mechanism of the H2 gas for most sources.

  10. Discovery of Molecular Gas Shells around the Unusual Galaxy Centaurus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    photometric and spectrographic studies of their light, it has been known since the early 1980's that such shells are made up of stars. It appears that they are quite common - about half of the nearby large elliptical galaxies have been found to be surrounded by stellar shells. More recently, in 1994, atomic hydrogen gas was discovered to be associated with some of the stellar shells. This discovery was a bit of a surprise, because the current theory predicts that when two galaxies merge, their gas and stars will behave very differently. While the individual stars hardly ever hit each other, the interstellar gas clouds collide violently. They will lose all their energy and the gas will fall towards the common centre where it is soon consumed in vigorous bursts of star formation. Why would there then be hydrogen gas in the outer shells of some elliptical galaxies? A possible origin of gaseous shells The astronomer team, headed by Vassilis Charmandaris [1] decided to look into this serious discrepancy between theory and observations. They believed that a possible explanation might be that this diffuse atomic gas is located, not in vast, very dilute clouds, but rather in smaller, much denser molecular clouds , such as these are known in our own galaxy, the Milky Way. Due to their relative compactness (more than 1000 molecules/cm 3 , i.e,. at least 100 times more than that of larger diffuse clouds), molecular clouds would behave more like the stars during the galaxy collision event. Indeed, realistic calculations showed that the dynamical behavior of such dense clouds would be intermediate between the stars and the diffuse hydrogen gas. Thus, while most of the gas would still end up in the centre of the remaining galaxy after a merger, a larger fraction of it would be able to survive at large distances from the nucleus. This would then be the origin of the observed hydrogen shells. During the merger, gas that originates from regions in the outskirts of the "cannibalized" galaxy

  11. CO (J = 1-0) Observation of the cD Galaxy of AWM 7: Constraints on the Evaporation of Molecular Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Yutaka; Tosaki, Tomoka; Nakamichi, Akika; Kuno, Nario

    2000-04-01

    We have searched for molecular gas in the cD galaxy of a poor cluster of galaxies, AWM 7, using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. We did not detect CO emission in the galaxy. Our limit of molecular gas in the inner 7.5 kpc is M_H_2< 4times 108 MO . We estimate the total mass of molecular gas left in the cD galaxy when the gas deposited by a cooling flow once becomes molecular gas and the molecular gas is continuously evaporated by the ambient hot gas. The observational limit of molecular gas requires f>~ 10-3, where f is the ratio of the heat conduction rate to that of Spitzer. However, this contradicts recent X-ray observations showing f<10-5. Thus, the non-detection of CO cannot be explained by evaporation, and most of the cooled gas predicted by a cooling flow model may not change into molecular gas in the cD galaxy. Moreover, we estimate the evaporation time of molecular clouds brought to a cD galaxy through the capture of gas-rich galaxies and find that these clouds should not be evaporated if f<~ 10-3-10-4. Therefore, the non-detection of CO in a cD galaxy could constrain the total mass of the molecular clouds brought into it.

  12. Molecular gas and star formation in HI-deficient Virgo cluster galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, Jeffrey D.; Young, Judith S.

    1987-01-01

    Mapping of the CO emission line in 42 Virgo cluster galaxies reveals that the molecular gas contents and distributions are roughly normal in severaly HI-deficient Virgo spirals. The survival of the molecular component mitigates the impact of the HI-stripping on star formation and subsequent galactic evolution. For spirals which are deficient in HI by a factor of 10, far-infrared, H alpha line, and nonthermal radio continuum luminosities are lower by no more than a factor of 2. The fact that the inner galactic disks are stripped of HI, while CO is normal, suggests that the lifetime of the molecular phase is approximately one billion years in the inner regions of luminous spirals.

  13. The molecular gas in luminous infrared galaxies - I. CO lines, extreme physical conditions and their drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; van der Werf, Paul P.; Xilouris, E. M.; Isaak, K. G.; Gao, Yu; Mühle, S.

    2012-11-01

    We report results from a large molecular line survey of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L IR ≳1011 L) in the local Universe (z ≤ 0.1), conducted during the last decade with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and the IRAM 30-m telescope. This work presents the CO and 13CO line data for 36 galaxies, further augmented by multi-J total CO line luminosities available for other infrared (IR) bright galaxies from the literature. This yields a combined sample of N = 70 galaxies with the star formation (SF) powered fraction of their IR luminosities spanning L IR (*)˜(1010-2×1012) L and a wide range of morphologies. Simple comparisons of their available CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) with local ones, as well as radiative transfer models, discern a surprisingly wide range of average interstellar medium (ISM) conditions, with most of the surprises found in the high-excitation regime. These take the form of global CO SLEDs dominated by a very warm (Tkin ≳100 K) and dense (n ≥ 104 cm-3) gas phase, involving galaxy-sized (˜(few) × 109 M⊙) gas mass reservoirs under conditions that are typically found only for ˜(1-3) per cent of mass per typical SF molecular cloud in the Galaxy. Furthermore, some of the highest excitation CO SLEDs are found in ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; LIR ≥ 1012 L⊙) and surpass even those found solely in compact SF-powered hot spots in Galactic molecular clouds. Strong supersonic turbulence and high cosmic ray energy densities rather than far-ultraviolet/optical photons or supernova remnant induced shocks from individual SF sites can globally warm the large amounts of dense gas found in these merger-driven starbursts and easily power their extraordinary CO line excitation. This exciting possibility can now be systematically investigated with Herschel and the Atacama Large Milimeter Array (ALMA). As expected for an IR-selected (and thus SF rate selected) galaxy sample, only few 'cold' CO SLEDs are found, and for

  14. A New Probe of the Molecular Gas Content in Galaxies: Application to M101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Denise A.; Allen, Ronald J.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Nicholson, Natalya; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies of nearby spiral galaxies suggest that photodissoiation regions (PDRS) are capable of producing much of the observed HI in galaxy disks. In that case, measurements of the observed HI column density and the far-ultraviolet (FUV) photon flux responsible for the photodissociation process provide a new probe of the volume density of the local underlying molecular hydrogen. We develop the method and apply it to the giant Scd spiral M101. The HI column density and amount of FUV emission have been measured for a sample of 35 candidate PDRs located throughout the disk of M101 using the Very Large Array and the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope. We find that, after correction for the known gradient of metallicity in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) of M101 and for the extinction of the ultraviolet emission, molecular gas with a narrow range of density from 30-1000/ cubic cm is found near star-forming regions at all radii in the disk of M101 out to a distance of 12 seconds approximately equals 26 kpc, close to the photometric limit of R(sub 25) approximately equals 13.5 seconds. In this picture, the ISM is virtually all molecular in the inner parts of M101. The strong decrease of the HI column density in the inner disk of the galaxy at R(sub G) < 10 kpc is a consequence of a strong increase in the dust-to-gas ratio there, resulting in an increase of the H(sub 2) formation rate on grains and a corresponding disappearance of hydrogen in its atomic form.

  15. Constraints on molecular gas in cooling flows and powerful radio galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Maloney, Philip R.; Tacconi, Linda J.; Sparks, William B.

    1994-01-01

    We searched for molecular gas in a heterogeneous sample of five radio-loud galaxies (three of which are inferred to be in cooling flow clusters) using the Swedish-European Southern Observatory (Swedish-ESO) Submillimeter Telescope. We do not detect CO in emission in any of the cluster sources at a 3 sigma level of typically 15 mK. White et al. (1991) have suggested column densities of N(sub H) approximately 10(exp 21)/sq cm in these clusters with a spatial covering factor of order unity and a total mass of M approximately 10(exp 12) solar mass. Our limits are inconsistent with these column densities and spatial covering factor unless the molecular gas is very cold (kinetic temperature close to 2.7 K) or there only a few clouds along each line of sight. We estimate minimum temperatures in the range approximately 20-30 K. We find that clouds of atomic and molecular hydrogen require strict fine-tuning of parameter space in order to satisfy the requirements for the large column densities N(sub H) approximately 10(exp 21)/sq cm, unit covering factor, and a small number of clouds along the line of sight. Currently the only way molecular gas can be responsible for the X-ray absorption and still be consistent with our observations is if (1) there is of order one cloud along the line of sight and (2) the optical depth in C-12 1 to 0 is less than 10. In addition, we present a Very Large Array (VLA) image of NGC 4696 which suggests this object is a member of the class of 'amorphous cooling flow radio sources.' The C-12 1 to 0 line is detected in emission in PKS 0634-206, a classical double radio galaxy which is rich in extended optical emission line gas. The estimated molecular gas mass is M(sub mol) approximately 3 x 10(exp 9) solar mass and is much larger than that of the ionized component detected in hydrogen alpha suggesting that the emission-line nebula is radiation bounded.

  16. Star-forming dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster: the link between molecular gas, atomic gas, and dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossi, M.; Corbelli, E.; Bizzocchi, L.; Giovanardi, C.; Bomans, D.; Coelho, B.; De Looze, I.; Gonçalves, T. S.; Hunt, L. K.; Leonardo, E.; Madden, S.; Menéndez-Delmestre, K.; Pappalardo, C.; Riguccini, L.

    2016-05-01

    We present 12CO(1-0) and 12CO(2-1) observations of a sample of 20 star-forming dwarfs selected from the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey, with oxygen abundances ranging from 12 + log (O / H) ~ 8.1 to 8.8. CO emission is observed in ten galaxies and marginally detected in another one. CO fluxes correlate with the FIR 250 μm emission, and the dwarfs follow the same linear relation that holds for more massive spiral galaxies extended to a wider dynamical range. We compare different methods to estimate H2 molecular masses, namely a metallicity-dependent CO-to-H2 conversion factor and one dependent on H-band luminosity. The molecular-to-stellar mass ratio remains nearly constant at stellar masses ≲ 109 M⊙, contrary to the atomic hydrogen fraction, MHI/M∗, which increases inversely with M∗. The flattening of the MH2/M∗ ratio at low stellar masses does not seem to be related to the effects of the cluster environment because it occurs for both Hi-deficient and Hi-normal dwarfs. The molecular-to-atomic ratio is more tightly correlated with stellar surface density than metallicity, confirming that the interstellar gas pressure plays a key role in determining the balance between the two gaseous components of the interstellar medium. Virgo dwarfs follow the same linear trend between molecular gas mass and star formation rate as more massive spirals, but gas depletion timescales, τdep, are not constant and range between 100 Myr and 6 Gyr. The interaction with the Virgo cluster environment is removing the atomic gas and dust components of the dwarfs, but the molecular gas appears to be less affected at the current stage of evolution within the cluster. However, the correlation between Hi deficiency and the molecular gas depletion time suggests that the lack of gas replenishment from the outer regions of the disc is lowering the star formation activity. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30-m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany

  17. Spatially Resolved Molecular Gas Star Formation Law in CARMA Survey Towards Infrared-bright Nearby Galaxies (STING)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nurur; Bolatto, A.; STING Collaboration

    2011-05-01

    The STING is a CARMA 3mm survey of nearby galaxies. We will present a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between the star formation rate surface density and molecular gas surface at the sub-kpc level in the STING sample. To construct the tracers of molecular gas and star formation rate surface densities, respectively, we will use high resolution (3-5") CO (J=1-0) data from CARMA and the mid-infrared 24 micron data of comparable resolution (6") from Spitzer Space Telescope. We measure the relation in the bright region of these galaxies. In our preliminary analysis we find an approximately linear relation and no strong trends for either the logarithmic slope or the molecular depletion time across the range of galaxy masses sampled (10^9-10^11.5 Msun).

  18. The Arizona Radio Observatory Survey of Molecular Gas in Nearby Normal Spiral Galaxies I: The Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila-Vilaro, B.; Cepa, J.; Zabludoff, A.

    2015-06-01

    Using the ARO KP 12 m telescope, we have carried out a CO(1-0) and 13CO(1-0) survey of the central regions of 113 “normal” spiral galaxies (i.e., unperturbed and with little or no nuclear activity). Our sample spans the whole range of morphological types (T = 1-7), with distances up to 75 Mpc. The detection rates for the observed objects are 99.1% for CO(1-0) and 75.2% for 13CO(1-0), respectively. For three of the targets in our sample (i.e., NGC 0891, NGC 2903, and NGC 3521), we also carry out 13CO(1-0) mapping along their major axes, which, combined with data from the literature, reveal differences in their molecular gas properties. Analysis of the beam-matched line intensity ratios of CO(1-0)/13CO(1-0) (hereafter {R}1312) indicates that for “normal” spiral galaxies the scatter in {R}1312 is of ≈x3, and has an average value (including upper limits) of 10.4 ± 0.4 (in contrast with the values of 3-5 in typical giant molecular clouds and 13 ± 6 in Starburst Galaxies). No significant correlations (at the ≥2σ level) are found between {R}1312 and the total far-infrared (FIR) luminosity, the FIR colors, and the fraction of area sampled in the disk of each galaxy. There is a tentative (1.4σ significance) correlation between {R}1312 and morphological type along the Hubble sequence. The observed scatter in {R}1312 can be explained by intrinsic variations among the CO conversion factors. The observations presented in this work, which include the most extensive 13CO(1-0) extragalactic survey published so far on “normal” spiral galaxies are ideally suited for use in recovering the “missing” flux of interferometers with elements of similar dish sizes.

  19. The linewidth-size scaling law of molecular gas in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falgarone, Edith G.; McKee, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    The origin of the linewidth-size (LWS) scaling law, first noticed by Larson three decades ago and ascribed to turbulence, is still a highly debated issue. Not unexpectedly, its properties depend on the environment and on the line tracer used.When the optically thick 12CO (J=1-0) line is used, a specific medium is sampled: the translucent molecular gas of moderate density that builds up the bulk of the molecular interstellar medium in galaxies like ours. The sensitivity of the 12CO line to this gas is such that the LWS is found to hold over almost five orders of magnitude in lengthscale, although with a considerable scatter (1 dex). It reveals an invariant of the cascade, the specific kinetic energy tranfer rate. It also appears to split into two regimes, depending on the gas mass surface density: below a given threshold that is proposed to be linked to the galactic dynamics, it bears the signature of a turbulent cascade, while above that threshold, the scaling law is ascribed to virial balance between turbulent energy and gravity. Large deviations from the scaling law are observed at small scales where signatures of turbulent intermittency may be present.

  20. Massive molecular gas flows in the a1664 brightest cluster galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, H. R.; McNamara, B. R.; Main, R. A.; Vantyghem, A. N.; Edge, A. C.; Wilman, R. J.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Combes, F.; Salomé, P.; Fabian, A. C.; Murray, N.; Baum, S. A.; O'Dea, C. P.; Donahue, M.; Voit, G. M.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Tremblay, G. R.

    2014-03-20

    We report ALMA Early Science CO(1-0) and CO(3-2) observations of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in A1664. The BCG contains 1.1 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} of molecular gas divided roughly equally between two distinct velocity systems: one from –250 to +250 km s{sup –1} centered on the BCG's systemic velocity and a high-velocity system blueshifted by 570 km s{sup –1} with respect to the systemic velocity. The BCG's systemic component shows a smooth velocity gradient across the BCG center, suggestive of rotation about the nucleus. However, the mass and velocity structure are highly asymmetric and there is little star formation coincident with a putative disk. It may be an inflow of gas that will settle into a disk over several 10{sup 8} yr. The high-velocity system consists of two gas clumps, each ∼2 kpc across, located to the north and southeast of the nucleus. Each has a line of sight velocity spread of 250-300 km s{sup –1}. The velocity of the gas in the high-velocity system increases toward the BCG center and may be a massive flow into the nucleus. However, the velocity gradient is not smooth. These structures are also coincident with low optical-ultraviolet surface brightness regions, which could indicate dust extinction associated with each clump. The structure is complex, making a clear interpretation difficult, but if the dusty, molecular gas lies predominantly in front of the BCG, the blueshifted velocities would indicate an outflow. Based on the energy requirements, such a massive outflow would most likely be driven by the active galactic nucleus. A merger origin is unlikely but cannot be ruled out.

  1. MOLECULAR CO(1-0) GAS IN THE z {approx} 2 RADIO GALAXY MRC 0152-209

    SciTech Connect

    Emonts, B. H. C.; Feain, I.; Mao, M. Y.; Norris, R. P.; Ekers, R. D.; Rees, G.; Stevens, J. B.; Miley, G.; Roettgering, H. J. A.; Villar-Martin, M.; Sadler, E. M.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Saikia, D. J.; Tadhunter, C. N.

    2011-06-10

    We report the detection of molecular CO(1-0) gas in the high-z radio galaxy MRC 0152-209 (z = 1.92) with the Australia Telescope Compact Array Broadband Backend (ATCA/CABB). This is the third known detection of CO(1-0) in a high-z radio galaxy to date. CO(1-0) is the most robust tracer of the overall molecular gas content (including the widespread, low-density, and sub-thermally excited component), hence observations of CO(1-0) are crucial for studying galaxy evolution in the early universe. We derive L'{sub CO} = 6.6 {+-} 2.0 x 10{sup 10} K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2} for MRC 0152-209, which is comparable to that derived from CO(1-0) observations of several high-z submillimeter and star-forming BzK galaxies. The CO(1-0) traces a total molecular hydrogen mass of M{sub H{sub 2}} = 5 x 10{sup 10} ({alpha}{sub x}/0.8) M{sub sun}. MRC 0152-209 is an infrared bright radio galaxy, in which a large reservoir of cold molecular gas has not (yet) been depleted by star formation or radio source feedback. Its compact radio source is reliably detected at 40 GHz and has a steep spectral index of {alpha} = -1.3 between 1.4 and 40 GHz (4-115 GHz in the galaxy's rest frame). MRC 0152-209 is part of an ongoing systematic ATCA/CABB survey of CO(1-0) in high-z radio galaxies between 1.7 < z < 3.

  2. CO-dark gas and molecular filaments in Milky Way-type galaxies - II. The temperature distribution of the gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Simon C. O.; Smith, Rowan J.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the temperature distribution of CO-dark molecular hydrogen (H2) in a series of disc galaxies simulated using the AREPO moving-mesh code. In conditions similar to those in the Milky Way, we find that H2 has a flat temperature distribution ranging from 10 to 100 K. At T < 30 K, the gas is almost fully molecular and has a high CO content, whereas at T > 30 K, the H2 fraction spans a broader range and the CO content is small, allowing us to classify gas in these two regimes as CO-bright and CO-dark, respectively. The mean sound speed in the CO-dark H2 is cs, dark = 0.64 km s-1, significantly lower than the value in the cold atomic gas (cs, CNM = 1.15 km s-1), implying that the CO-dark molecular phase is more susceptible to turbulent compression and gravitational collapse than its atomic counterpart. We further show that the temperature of the CO-dark H2 is highly sensitive to the strength of the interstellar radiation field, but that conditions in the CO-bright H2 remain largely unchanged. Finally, we examine the usefulness of the [C II] and [O I] fine-structure lines as tracers of the CO-dark gas. We show that in Milky Way-like conditions, diffuse [C II] emission from this gas should be detectable. However, it is a problematic tracer of this gas, as there is only a weak correlation between the brightness of the emission and the H2 surface density. The situation is even worse for the [O I] line, which shows no correlation with the H2 surface density.

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOLECULAR GAS AND STAR FORMATION IN LOW-MASS E/S0 GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Lisa H.; Vogel, Stuart N.; Kannappan, Sheila J.; Stark, David V.; Baker, Andrew J.; Laine, Seppo

    2010-12-10

    We consider the relationship between molecular gas and star formation surface densities in 19 morphologically defined E/S0s with stellar mass {approx}<4 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}, paying particular attention to those found on the blue sequence in color versus stellar mass parameter space, where spiral galaxies typically reside. While some blue-sequence E/S0s must be young major-merger remnants, many low-mass blue-sequence E/S0s appear much less disturbed and may be experiencing the milder starbursts associated with inner-disk building as spirals (re)grow. For a sample of eight E/S0s (four blue, two mid, and two red sequence) whose CARMA CO(1-0), Spitzer MIPS 24 {mu}m, and GALEX FUV emission distributions are spatially resolved on a 750 pc scale, we find roughly linear relationships between molecular gas and star formation surface densities within all galaxies, with power-law indices N = 0.6-1.9 (median 1.2). Adding 11 more blue-sequence E/S0s whose CO(1-0) emission is not as well resolved, we find that most of our E/S0s have global 1-8 kpc aperture-averaged molecular gas surface densities overlapping the range spanned by the disks and centers of spiral galaxies. While many of our E/S0s fall on the same Schmidt-Kennicutt relation as local spirals, {approx}80% (predominantly on the blue sequence) are offset toward apparently higher molecular gas star formation efficiency (i.e., shorter molecular gas depletion time). Possible interpretations of the elevated efficiencies include bursty star formation similar to that in local dwarf galaxies, H{sub 2} depletion in advanced starbursts, or simply a failure of the CO(1-0) emission to trace all of the molecular gas.

  4. Morphology and Molecular Gas Fractions of Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies as a Function of Infrared Luminosity and Merger Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, K. L.; Sanders, D. B.; Barnes, J. E.; Ishida, C. M.; Evans, A. S.; U, V.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Kim, D.-C.; Privon, G. C.; Mirabel, I. F.; Flewelling, H. A.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new, detailed analysis of the morphologies and molecular gas fractions (MGFs) for a complete sample of 65 local luminous infrared galaxies from Great Observatories All-Sky Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRG) Survey using high resolution I-band images from The Hubble Space Telescope, the University of Hawaii 2.2 m Telescope and the Pan-STARRS1 Survey. Our classification scheme includes single undisturbed galaxies, minor mergers, and major mergers, with the latter divided into five distinct stages from pre-first pericenter passage to final nuclear coalescence. We find that major mergers of molecular gas-rich spirals clearly play a major role for all sources with {L}{IR}\\gt {10}11.5{L}ȯ ; however, below this luminosity threshold, minor mergers and secular processes dominate. Additionally, galaxies do not reach {L}{IR}\\gt {10}12.0{L}ȯ until late in the merger process when both disks are near final coalescence. The mean MGF ({MGF} = {M}{{{H}}2}/({M}* +{M}{{{H}}2})) for non-interacting and early-stage major merger LIRGs is 18 ± 2%, which increases to 33 ± 3%, for intermediate stage major merger LIRGs, consistent with the hypothesis that, during the early-mid stages of major mergers, most of the initial large reservoir of atomic gas (HI) at large galactocentric radii is swept inward where it is converted into molecular gas (H2).

  5. Molecular Gas in NUclei of GAlaxies (NUGA). IX. The decoupled bars and gas inflow in NGC 2782

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, L. K.; Combes, F.; García-Burillo, S.; Schinnerer, E.; Krips, M.; Baker, A. J.; Boone, F.; Eckart, A.; Léon, S.; Neri, R.; Tacconi, L. J.

    2008-04-01

    We present CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) maps of the starburst/Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 2782 obtained with the IRAM interferometer, at 2.1 arcsec×1.5 arcsec and 0.7 arcsec×0.6 arcsec resolution respectively. The CO emission is aligned along the stellar nuclear bar of radius ~1 kpc, configured in an elongated structure with two spiral arms at high pitch angle ~90°. At the extremity of the nuclear bar, the CO changes direction to trace two more extended spiral features at a lower pitch angle. These are the beginning of two straight dust lanes, which are aligned parallel to an oval distortion, reminiscent of a primary bar, almost perpendicular to the nuclear one. The two embedded bars appear in Spitzer IRAC near-infrared images, and HST color images, although highly obscured by dust in the latter. We compute the torques exerted by the stellar bars on the gas, and find systematically negative average torques down to the resolution limit of the images, providing evidence of gas inflow tantalizingly close to the nucleus of NGC 2782. We propose a dynamical scenario based on numerical simulations to interpret coherently the radio, optical, and molecular gas features in the center of the galaxy. Star formation is occurring in a partial ring at ~1.3 kpc radius corresponding to the Inner Lindblad Resonance (ILR) of the primary bar; this ring-like structure encircles the nuclear bar, and is studded with Hα emission. The gas traced by CO emission is driven inward by the gravity torques of the decoupled nuclear bar, since most of it is inside its corotation. N-body simulations, including gas dissipation, predict the secondary bar decoupling, the formation of the elongated ring at the ~1 kpc-radius ILR of the primary bar, and the gas inflow to the ILR of the nuclear bar at a radius of ~200-300 pc. The presence of molecular gas inside the ILR of the primary bar, transported by a second nuclear bar, is a potential “smoking gun”; the gas there is certainly fueling the central starburst

  6. Spatially resolved variations of the IMF mass normalisation in early-type galaxies as probed by molecular gas kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Timothy A.; McDermid, Richard M.

    2016-09-01

    We here present the first spatially-resolved study of the IMF in external galaxies derived using a dynamical tracer of the mass-to-light ratio. We use the kinematics of relaxed molecular gas discs in seven early-type galaxies (ETGs) selected from the ATLAS3D survey to dynamically determine mass-to-light ratio (M/L) gradients. These M/L gradients are not very strong in the inner parts of these objects, and galaxies that do show variations are those with the highest specific star formation rates. Stellar population parameters derived from star formation histories are then used in order to estimate the stellar initial mass function function (IMF) mismatch parameter, and shed light on its variation within ETGs. Some of our target objects require a light IMF, otherwise their stellar population masses would be greater than their dynamical masses. In contrast, other systems seem to require heavier IMFs to explain their gas kinematics. Our analysis again confirms that IMF variation seems to be occurring within massive ETGs. We find good agreement between our IMF normalisations derived using molecular gas kinematics and those derived using other techniques. Despite this, we do not see find any correlation between the IMF normalisation and galaxy dynamical properties or stellar population parameters, either locally or globally. In the future larger studies which use molecules as tracers of galaxy dynamics can be used to help us disentangle the root cause of IMF variation.

  7. Neutral carbon and CO in 76 (U)LIRGs and starburst galaxy centers. A method to determine molecular gas properties in luminous galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, F. P.; Rosenberg, M. J. F.; van der Werf, P.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we present fluxes in the [ CI ] lines of neutral carbon at the centers of some 76 galaxies with far-infrared luminosities ranging from 109 to 1012L⊙, as obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory and ground-based facilities, along with the line fluxes of the J = 7-6, J = 4-3, J = 2-112CO, and J = 2-113CO transitions. With this dataset, we determine the behavior of the observed lines with respect to each other and then investigate whether they can be used to characterize the molecular interstellar medium (ISM) of the parent galaxies in simple ways and how the molecular gas properties define the model results. In most starburst galaxies, the [ CI ] to 13CO line flux ratio is much higher than in Galactic star-forming regions, and it is correlated to the total far-infrared luminosity. The [ CI ] (1-0)/12CO (4-3), the [ CI ] (2-1)/12CO (7-6), and the [ CI ] (2-1)/(1-0) flux ratios are correlated, and they trace the excitation of the molecular gas. In the most luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), the ISM is fully dominated by dense (n( H2) = 104-105 cm-3) and moderately warm (Tkin ≈ 30 K) gas clouds that appear to have low [C°]/[CO] and [13CO]/[12CO] abundances. In less luminous galaxies, emission from gas clouds at lower densities becomes progressively more important, and a multiple-phase analysis is required to determine consistent physical characteristics. Neither the 12CO nor the [ CI ] velocity-integrated line fluxes are good predictors of molecular hydrogen column densities in individual galaxies. In particular, so-called X( [ CI ]) conversion factors are not superior to X( 12CO) factors. The methods and diagnostic diagrams outlined in this paper also provide a new and relatively straightforward means of deriving the physical characteristics of molecular gas in high-redshift galaxies up to z = 5, which are otherwise hard to determine.

  8. Cold Gas in Distant Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carilli, Christopher; Walter, Fabian

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decade, observations of the cool interstellar medium (ISM) in distant galaxies via molecular and atomic fine structure line (FSL) emission have gone from a curious look into a few extreme, rare objects to a mainstream tool for studying galaxy formation out to the highest redshifts. Molecular gas has been observed in about 200 galaxies at z > 1 to z ~ 7, including AGN host-galaxies, highly star-forming submillimeter galaxies, and increasing samples of main-sequence color-selected star-forming galaxies. Studies have moved well beyond simple detections to dynamical imaging at kpc resolution and multiline, multispecies studies that determine the physical conditions in the ISM in early galaxies. Observations of the cool gas are the required complement to studies of the stellar density and star-formation history of the Universe as they reveal the phase of the ISM that immediately precedes star formation in galaxies.Current observations suggest that the order of magnitude increase in the cosmic star-formation rate density from z ~ 0 to 2 is commensurate with a similar increase in the gas-to-stellar mass ratio in star-forming disk galaxies. Progress has been made in determining the CO luminosity to H2 mass conversion factor at high z. The dichotomy between high versus low values for the conversion factor for main-sequence versus starburst galaxies, respectively, appears to persist with increasing redshift, with a likely dependence on metalicity and other local physical conditions. There may also be two sequences in the relationship between star-formation rate and gas mass: one for starbursts, in which the gas consumption timescale is short (~ few e7 years), and one for main sequence galaxies, with an order of magnitude longer gas consumption timescale.With the advent of ALMA, studies of atomic FSL emission are rapidly progressing, with ~ 50 galaxies detected in the exceptionally bright [CII] 158 um line to date, 50% in the last year or so. The [CII] line is

  9. Variations in the Star Formation Efficiency of the Dense Molecular Gas across the Disks of Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usero, Antonio; Leroy, Adam K.; Walter, Fabian; Schruba, Andreas; García-Burillo, Santiago; Sandstrom, Karin; Bigiel, Frank; Brinks, Elias; Kramer, Carsten; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; de Blok, W. J. G.

    2015-10-01

    We present a new survey of HCN(1–0) emission, a tracer of dense molecular gas, focused on the little-explored regime of normal star-forming galaxy disks. Combining HCN, CO, and infrared (IR) emission, we investigate the role of dense gas in star formation, finding systematic variations in both the apparent dense gas fraction (traced by the HCN-to-CO ratio) and the apparent star formation efficiency of dense gas (traced by the IR-to-HCN ratio). The latter may be unexpected, given the recent popularity of gas density threshold models to explain star formation scaling relations. Our survey used the IRAM 30 m telescope to observe HCN(1–0), CO(1–0), and several other emission lines across 29 nearby disk galaxies whose CO(2–1) emission has previously been mapped by the HERACLES survey. We detected HCN in 48 out of 62 observed positions. Because our observations achieve a typical resolution of ∼1.5 kpc and span a range of galaxies and galactocentric radii (56% lie at {r}{gal}\\gt 1 kpc), we are able to investigate the properties of the dense gas as a function of local conditions in a galaxy disk. We focus on how the ratios IR-to-CO, HCN-to-CO, and IR-to-HCN (observational cognates of the star formation efficiency, dense gas fraction, and dense gas star formation efficiency) depend on the stellar surface density, {{{Σ }}}{star}, and the molecular-to-atomic gas ratio, {{{Σ }}}{mol}/{{{Σ }}}{atom}. The HCN-to-CO ratio is low, often ∼1/30, and correlates tightly with both the molecular-to-atomic ratio and the stellar mass surface density across a range of 2.1 dex (factor of ≈125) in both parameters. Thus for the assumption of fixed CO-to-H2 and HCN-to-dense gas conversion factors, the dense gas fraction depends strongly on location in the disk, being higher in the high surface density, highly molecular parts of galaxies. At the same time, the IR-to-HCN ratio (closely related to the star formation efficiency of dense molecular gas) decreases systematically

  10. Atomic-to-Molecular Gas Transition in Nearby Galaxies: What can we learn from the CARMA Survey Toward IR-bright Nearby Galaxies (STING)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Rui; Wong, Tony

    2011-10-01

    We present a detailed comparison of molecular and atomic gas distributions in 18 nearby galaxies at sub-kpc or kpc scales, based on the CO J = 1 - 0 data from the CARMA Survey Toward IR-Bright Nearby Galaxies (STING) and the HI 21cm data in the NRAO Very Large Array (VLA) archive. The observation spatial coverage extends to a quarter of the optical radius for each galaxy. The average molecular and atomic gas column density sensitivities are ~8M⊙/pc2 and ~3M⊙/pc2 at the comparison resolution. A metallicity dependence of the HI saturation limit was possibly detected in the galaxy sample ( 8.1<12+Log(O/H)<9.0 ). We used the CO and HI pixel-by-pixel comparison results to test models of the atomic-to-molecular transition and CO formation at different metallicities. An acceptable agreement was found at the limited spatial resolutions and sensitivities of the observational datasets.

  11. Fueling the central engine of radio galaxies. III. Molecular gas and star formation efficiency of 3C 293

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labiano, A.; García-Burillo, S.; Combes, F.; Usero, A.; Soria-Ruiz, R.; Piqueras López, J.; Fuente, A.; Hunt, L.; Neri, R.

    2014-04-01

    Context. Powerful radio galaxies show evidence of ongoing active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback, mainly in the form of fast, massive outflows. But it is not clear how these outflows affect the star formation of their hosts. Aims: We investigate the different manifestations of AGN feedback in the evolved, powerful radio source 3C 293 and their impact on the molecular gas of its host galaxy, which harbors young star-forming regions and fast outflows of H i and ionized gas. Methods: We study the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas of 3C 293 using high spatial resolution observations of the 12CO(1-0) and 12CO(2-1) lines, and the 3 mm and 1 continuum taken with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer. We mapped the molecular gas of 3C 293 and compared it with the dust and star-formation images of the host. We searched for signatures of outflow motions in the CO kinematics, and re-examined the evidence of outflowing gas in the H i spectra. We also derived the star formation rate (SFR) and star formation efficiency (SFE) of the host with all available SFR tracers from the literature, and compared them with the SFE of young and evolved radio galaxies and normal star-forming galaxies. Results: The 12CO(1-0) emission line shows that the molecular gas in 3C 293 is distributed along a massive (M(H2) ~ 2.2 × 1010M⊙) ~24″(21 kpc-) diameter warped disk, that rotates around the AGN. Our data show that the dust and the star formation are clearly associated with the CO disk. The 12CO(2-1) emission is located in the inner 7 kpc (diameter) region around the AGN, coincident with the inner part of the 12CO(1-0) disk. Both the 12CO(1-0) and 12CO(2-1) spectra reveal the presence of an absorber against the central regions of 3C 293 that is associated with the disk. We do not detect any fast (≳500 km s-1) outflow motions in the cold molecular gas. The host of 3C 293 shows an SFE consistent with the Kennicutt-Schmidt law of normal galaxies and young radio galaxies, and it

  12. STRONG MOLECULAR HYDROGEN EMISSION AND KINEMATICS OF THE MULTIPHASE GAS IN RADIO GALAXIES WITH FAST JET-DRIVEN OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Guillard, P.; Ogle, P. M.; Emonts, B. H. C.; Appleton, P. N.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T.; Tadhunter, C.; Evans, D. A.; Evans, A. S.

    2012-03-10

    Observations of ionized and neutral gas outflows in radio galaxies (RGs) suggest that active galactic nucleus (AGN) radio jet feedback has a galaxy-scale impact on the host interstellar medium, but it is still unclear how the molecular gas is affected. Thus, it is crucial to determine the physical conditions of the molecular gas in powerful RGs to understand how radio sources may regulate the star formation in their host galaxies. We present deep Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) high-resolution spectroscopy of eight nearby RGs that show fast H I outflows. Strikingly, all of these H I-outflow RGs have bright H{sub 2} mid-IR lines that cannot be accounted for by UV or X-ray heating. This strongly suggests that the radio jet, which drives the H I outflow, is also responsible for the shock excitation of the warm H{sub 2} gas. In addition, the warm H{sub 2} gas does not share the kinematics of the ionized/neutral gas. The mid-IR-ionized gas lines (with FWHM up to 1250 km s{sup -1} for [Ne II] 12.8 {mu}m) are systematically broader than the H{sub 2} lines, which are resolved by the IRS in Almost-Equal-To 60% of the detected lines (with FWHM up to 900 km s{sup -1}). In five sources, 3C 236, 3C 293, 3C 459, 4C 12.50, and PKS 1549-79, the [Ne II] 12.8 {mu}m line, and to a lesser extent the [Ne III] 15.5 {mu}m and [Ne V] 14.3 {mu}m lines, clearly exhibits blueshifted wings (up to -900 km s{sup -1} with respect to the systemic velocity) that match well the kinematics of the outflowing H I or ionized gas. The H{sub 2} lines do not show these broad wings, except tentative detections in 4C 12.50, 3C 459, and PKS 1549-79. This shows that, contrary to the H I gas, the H{sub 2} gas is inefficiently coupled to the AGN jet-driven outflow of ionized gas. While the dissipation of a small fraction (<10%) of the jet kinetic power can explain the turbulent heating of the molecular gas, our data show that the bulk of the warm molecular gas is not expelled from these galaxies.

  13. A 10{sup 10} solar mass flow of molecular gas in the A1835 brightest cluster galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, B. R.; Russell, H. R.; Main, R. A.; Vantyghem, A. N.; Kirkpatrick, C. C.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Edge, A. C.; Murray, N. W.; Hamer, S.; Combes, F.; Salome, P.; Fabian, A. C.; Baum, S. A.; O'Dea, C. P.; Bregman, J. N.; Donahue, M.; Voit, G. M.; Egami, E.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Tremblay, G.

    2014-04-10

    We report ALMA Early Science observations of the A1835 brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in the CO (3-2) and CO (1-0) emission lines. We detect 5 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} of molecular gas within 10 kpc of the BCG. Its ensemble velocity profile width of ∼130 km s{sup –1} FWHM is too narrow for the molecular clouds to be supported in the galaxy by dynamic pressure. The gas may instead be supported in a rotating, turbulent disk oriented nearly face-on. Roughly 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} of molecular gas is projected 3-10 kpc to the northwest and to the east of the nucleus with line-of-sight velocities lying between –250 km s{sup –1} and +480 km s{sup –1} with respect to the systemic velocity. The high-velocity gas may be either inflowing or outflowing. However, the absence of high-velocity gas toward the nucleus that would be expected in a steady inflow, and its bipolar distribution on either side of the nucleus, are more naturally explained as outflow. Star formation and radiation from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) are both incapable of driving an outflow of this magnitude. The location of the high-velocity gas projected behind buoyantly rising X-ray cavities and favorable energetics suggest an outflow driven by the radio AGN. If so, the molecular outflow may be associated with a hot outflow on larger scales reported by Kirkpatrick and colleagues. The molecular gas flow rate of approximately 200 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} is comparable to the star formation rate of 100-180 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} in the central disk. How radio bubbles would lift dense molecular gas in their updrafts, how much gas will be lost to the BCG, and how much will return to fuel future star formation and AGN activity are poorly understood. Our results imply that radio-mechanical (radio-mode) feedback not only heats hot atmospheres surrounding elliptical galaxies and BCGs, but it is able to sweep higher density molecular gas away from their centers.

  14. MOLECULAR AND ATOMIC LINE SURVEYS OF GALAXIES. I. THE DENSE, STAR-FORMING GAS PHASE AS A BEACON

    SciTech Connect

    Geach, James E.; Papadopoulos, Padelis P. E-mail: padelis@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de

    2012-10-01

    We predict the space density of molecular gas reservoirs in the universe and place a lower limit on the number counts of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecular, and [C II] atomic emission lines in blind redshift surveys in the submillimeter-centimeter spectral regime. Our model uses (1) recently available HCN spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) of local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs, L{sub IR} > 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }), (2) a value for {epsilon}{sub *} = SFR/M{sub dense}(H{sub 2}) provided by new developments in the study of star formation feedback on the interstellar medium, and (3) a model for the evolution of the infrared luminosity density. Minimal 'emergent' CO SLEDs from the dense gas reservoirs expected in all star-forming systems in the universe are then computed from the HCN SLEDs since warm, HCN-bright gas will necessarily be CO-bright, with the dense star-forming gas phase setting an obvious minimum to the total molecular gas mass of any star-forming galaxy. We include [C II] as the most important of the far-infrared cooling lines. Optimal blind surveys with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) could potentially detect very distant (z {approx} 10-12) [C II] emitters in the {>=}ULIRG galaxy class at a rate of {approx}0.1-1 hr{sup -1} (although this prediction is strongly dependent on the star formation and enrichment history at this early epoch), whereas the (high-frequency) Square Kilometer Array will be capable of blindly detecting z > 3 low-J CO emitters at a rate of {approx}40-70 hr{sup -1}. The [C II] line holds special promise for detecting metal-poor systems with extensive reservoirs of CO-dark molecular gas where detection rates with ALMA can reach up to 2-7 hr{sup -1} in Bands 4-6.

  15. MOLECULAR GAS IN LENSED z >2 QUASAR HOST GALAXIES AND THE STAR FORMATION LAW FOR GALAXIES WITH LUMINOUS ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Riechers, Dominik A.

    2011-04-01

    We report the detection of luminous CO(J = 2{yields}1), CO(J = 3{yields}2), and CO(J = 4{yields}3) emission in the strongly lensed high-redshift quasars B1938+666 (z = 2.059), HE 0230-2130 (z = 2.166), HE 1104-1805 (z = 2.322), and B1359+154 (z = 3.240), using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. B1938+666 was identified in a 'blind' CO redshift search, demonstrating the feasibility of such investigations with millimeter interferometers. These galaxies are lensing-amplified by factors of {mu}{sub L} {approx_equal} 11-170, and thus allow us to probe the molecular gas in intrinsically fainter galaxies than currently possible without the aid of gravitational lensing. We report lensing-corrected intrinsic CO line luminosities of L'{sub CO} = 0.65-21x10{sup 9} K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}, translating to H{sub 2} masses of M(H{sub 2}) = 0.52-17 x 10{sup 9} ({alpha}{sub CO}/0.8) M{sub sun}. To investigate whether or not the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in luminous quasars substantially contributes to L{sub FIR}, we study the L'{sub CO}-L{sub FIR} relation for quasars relative to galaxies without a luminous AGN as a function of redshift. We find no substantial differences between submillimeter galaxies and high-z quasars, but marginal evidence for an excess in L{sub FIR} in nearby low-L{sub FIR} AGN galaxies. This may suggest that an AGN contribution to L{sub FIR} is significant in systems with relatively low gas and dust content, but only minor in the most far-infrared-luminous galaxies (in which L{sub FIR} is dominated by star formation).

  16. Gas in void galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreckel, Kathryn Joyce

    Void galaxies, residing within the deepest underdensities of the Cosmic Web, present an ideal population for the study of galaxy formation and evolution in an environment undisturbed by the complex processes modifying galaxies in clusters and groups, and provide an observational test for theories of cosmological structure formation. We investigate the neutral hydrogen properties (i.e. content, morphology, kinematics) of void galaxies, both individually and systematically, using a combination of observations and simulations, to form a more complete understanding of the nature of these systems. We investigate in detail the H I morphology and kinematics of two void galaxies. One is an isolated polar disk galaxy in a diffuse cosmological wall situated between two voids. The considerable gas mass and apparent lack of stars in the polar disk, coupled with the general underdensity of the environment, supports recent theories of cold flow accretion as an alternate formation mechanism for polar disk galaxies. We also examine KK 246, the only confirmed galaxy located within the nearby Tully Void. It is a dwarf galaxy with an extremely extended H I disk and signs of an H I cloud with anomalous velocity. It also exhibits clear misalignment between the kinematical major and minor axes, and a general misalignment between the H I and optical major axes. The relative isolation and extreme underdense environment make these both very interesting cases for examining the role of gas accretion in galaxy evolution. To study void galaxies as a population, we have carefully selected a sample of 60 galaxies that reside in the deepest underdensities of geometrically identified voids within the SDSS. We have imaged this new Void Galaxy Survey in H I at the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope with a typical resolution of 8 kpc, probing a volume of 1.2 Mpc and 12,000 km s^-1 surrounding each galaxy. We reach H I mass limits of 2 x 10^8 M_sun and column density sensitivities of 5 x 10^19 cm^-2

  17. Molecular gas content in strongly lensed z ~ 1.5-3 star-forming galaxies with low infrared luminosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Zamojski, M.; Schaerer, D.; Combes, F.; Egami, E.; Swinbank, A. M.; Richard, J.; Sklias, P.; Rawle, T. D.; Rex, M.; Kneib, J.-P.; Boone, F.; Blain, A.

    2015-05-01

    To extend the molecular gas measurements to more typical star-forming galaxies (SFGs) with star formation rates SFR< 40 M⊙ yr-1 and stellar masses M∗< 2.5 × 1010M⊙ at z ~ 1.5-3, we have observed CO emission with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer and the IRAM 30 m telescope for five strongly lensed galaxies, selected from the Herschel Lensing Survey. These observations are combined with a compilation of CO measurements from the literature. From this, we infer the CO luminosity correction factors r2,1 = 0.81 ± 0.20 and r3,1 = 0.57 ± 0.15 for the J = 2 and J = 3 CO transitions, respectively, valid for SFGs at z> 1. The combined sample of CO-detected SFGs at z> 1 shows a large spread in star formation efficiency (SFE) with a dispersion of 0.33 dex, such that the SFE extends well beyond the low values of local spirals and overlaps the distribution of z> 1 submm galaxies. We find that the spread in SFE (or equivalently in molecular gas depletion timescale) is due to the variations of several physical parameters, primarily the specific star formation rate, and also stellar mass and redshift. The dependence of SFE on the offset from the main sequence and the compactness of the starburst is less clear. The possible increase of the molecular gas depletion timescale with stellar mass, now revealed by low M∗ SFGs at z> 1 and also observed at z = 0, contrasts with the generally acknowledged constant molecular gas depletion timescale and refutes the linearity of the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. A net rise of the molecular gas fraction (fgas) is observed from z ~ 0.2 to z ~ 1.2, followed by a very mild increase toward higher redshifts, as found in earlier studies. At each redshift the molecular gas fraction shows a large dispersion, mainly due to the dependence of fgas on stellar mass, producing a gradient of increasing fgas with decreasing M∗. We provide the first measurement of the molecular gas fraction of z> 1 SFGs at the low-M∗ end between 109.4

  18. Shocked POststarburst Galaxy Survey. II. The Molecular Gas Content and Properties of a Subset of SPOGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Lisenfeld, Ute; Lanz, Lauranne; Appleton, Philip N.; Ardila, Felipe; Cales, Sabrina L.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Lacy, Mark; Medling, Anne M.; Nyland, Kristina; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Urry, C. Meg

    2016-08-01

    We present CO(1-0) observations of objects within the Shocked POststarburst Galaxy Survey taken with the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique 30 m single dish and the Combined Array for Research for Millimeter Astronomy interferometer. Shocked poststarburst galaxies (SPOGs) represent a transitioning population of galaxies, with deep Balmer absorption ({{EW}}{{H}δ }\\gt 5 {\\mathring{{A}}} ), consistent with an intermediate-age (A-star) stellar population, and ionized gas line ratios inconsistent with pure star formation. The CO(1-0) subsample was selected from SPOGs detected by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with 22 μm flux detected at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) > 3. Of the 52 objects observed in CO(1-0), 47 are detected with S/N > 3. A large fraction (37%-46% ± 7%) of our CO-SPOG sample were visually classified as morphologically disrupted. The H2 masses detected were between {10}8.7-10.8 {M}⊙ , consistent with the gas masses found in normal galaxies, though approximately an order of magnitude larger than the range seen in poststarburst galaxies. When comparing the 22 μm and CO(1-0) fluxes, SPOGs diverge from the normal star-forming relation, having 22 μm fluxes in excess of the relation by a factor of < {ɛ }{{MIR}}> ={4.91}-0.39+0.42, suggestive of the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The Na i D characteristics of CO-SPOGs show that it is likely that many of these objects host interstellar winds. Objects with large Na i D enhancements also tend to emit in the radio, suggesting possible AGN driving of neutral winds.

  19. FORMATION OF DENSE MOLECULAR GAS AND STARS AT THE CIRCUMNUCLEAR STARBURST RING IN THE BARRED GALAXY NGC 7552

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Hsi-An; Lim, Jeremy; Matsushita, Satoki; Wong, Tony; Ryder, Stuart

    2013-05-01

    We present millimeter molecular line complemented by optical observations, along with a reanalysis of archival centimeter H I and continuum data, to infer the global dynamics and determine where dense molecular gas and massive stars preferentially form in the circumnuclear starburst ring of the barred-spiral galaxy NGC 7552. We find diffuse molecular gas in a pair of dust lanes each running along the large-scale galactic bar, as well as in the circumnuclear starburst ring. We do not detect dense molecular gas in the dust lanes, but find such gas concentrated in two knots where the dust lanes make contact with the circumnuclear starburst ring. When convolved to the same angular resolution as the images in dense gas, the radio continuum emission of the circumnuclear starburst ring also exhibits two knots, each lying downstream of an adjacent knot in dense gas. The results agree qualitatively with the idea that massive stars form from dense gas at the contact points, where diffuse gas is channeled into the ring along the dust lanes, and later explode as supernovae downstream of the contact points. Based on the inferred rotation curve, however, the propagation time between the respective pairs of dense gas and centimeter continuum knots is about an order of magnitude shorter than the lifetimes of OB stars. We discuss possible reasons for this discrepancy, and conclude that either the initial mass function is top-heavy or massive stars in the ring do not form exclusively at the contact points where dense molecular gas is concentrated.

  20. PHIBSS: MOLECULAR GAS, EXTINCTION, STAR FORMATION, AND KINEMATICS IN THE z = 1.5 STAR-FORMING GALAXY EGS13011166

    SciTech Connect

    Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Kurk, J.; Wuyts, S.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Combes, F.; Freundlich, J.; Bolatto, A.; Cooper, M. C.; Neri, R.; Nordon, R.; Bournaud, F.; Comerford, J.; Cox, P.; Davis, M.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Naab, T.; Lutz, D. E-mail: linda@mpe.mpg.de; and others

    2013-08-10

    We report matched resolution imaging spectroscopy of the CO 3-2 line (with the IRAM Plateau de Bure millimeter interferometer) and of the H{alpha} line (with LUCI at the Large Binocular Telescope) in the massive z = 1.53 main-sequence galaxy EGS 13011166, as part of the ''Plateau de Bure high-z, blue-sequence survey'' (PHIBSS: Tacconi et al.). We combine these data with Hubble Space Telescope V-I-J-H-band maps to derive spatially resolved distributions of stellar surface density, star formation rate, molecular gas surface density, optical extinction, and gas kinematics. The spatial distribution and kinematics of the ionized and molecular gas are remarkably similar and are well modeled by a turbulent, globally Toomre unstable, rotating disk. The stellar surface density distribution is smoother than the clumpy rest-frame UV/optical light distribution and peaks in an obscured, star-forming massive bulge near the dynamical center. The molecular gas surface density and the effective optical screen extinction track each other and are well modeled by a ''mixed'' extinction model. The inferred slope of the spatially resolved molecular gas to star formation rate relation, N = dlog{Sigma}{sub starform}/dlog{Sigma}{sub molgas}, depends strongly on the adopted extinction model, and can vary from 0.8 to 1.7. For the preferred mixed dust-gas model, we find N = 1.14 {+-} 0.1.

  1. Highly perturbed molecular gas in infalling cluster galaxies: the case of CGCG97-079

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, T. C.; Usero, A.; Brinks, E.; Bravo-Alfaro, H.; Cortese, L.; Boselli, A.; Argudo-Fernández, M.

    2015-10-01

    We report on CO (J = 2 → 1) mapping with the IRAM 30-m HEtrodyne Receiver Array (HERA) of CGCG 97-079, an irregular galaxy in the merging galaxy cluster Abell 1367 (z = 0.022). We find that ˜80 per cent of the detected CO (J = 2 → 1) is projected within a 16 arcsec2 (6.5 kpc2) region to the north and west of the optical/NIR centre, with the intensity maximum offset ˜10 arcsec (4 kpc) NW of the optical/NIR centre and ˜7 arcsec (3 kpc) south-east of the H I intensity maximum. Evolutionary synthesis models indicate CGCG 97-079 experienced a burst of star formation ˜108 yr ago, most likely triggered by a tidal interaction with CGCG 97-073. For CGCG 97-079 we deduce an infall velocity to the cluster of ˜1000 km s-1 and moderate ram pressure (Pram ≈ 10-11 dyne cm-2). The observed offset in CGCG 97-079 of the highest density H I and CO (J = 2 → 1) from the stellar components has not previously been observed in galaxies currently undergoing ram pressure stripping, although previous detailed studies of gas morphology and kinematics during ram pressure stripping were restricted to significantly more massive galaxies with deeper gravitational potential wells. We conclude the observed cold gas density maxima offsets are most likely the result of ram pressure and/or the high-speed tidal interaction with CGCG 97-073. However ram pressure stripping is likely to be playing a major role in the perturbation of lower density gas.

  2. Molecular gas in low-metallicity starburst galaxies:. Scaling relations and the CO-to-H2 conversion factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorín, R.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Planesas, P.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Tracing the molecular gas-phase in low-mass star-forming galaxies becomes extremely challenging due to significant UV photo-dissociation of CO molecules in their low-dust, low-metallicity ISM environments. Aims: We aim to study the molecular content and the star-formation efficiency of a representative sample of 21 blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs), previously characterized on the basis of their spectrophotometric properties. Methods: We present CO (1-0) and (2-1) observations conducted at the IRAM-30m telescope. These data are further supplemented with additional CO measurements and multiwavelength ancillary data from the literature. We explore correlations between the derived CO luminosities and several galaxy-averaged properties. Results: We detect CO emission in seven out of ten BCDs observed. For two galaxies these are the first CO detections reported so far. We find the molecular content traced by CO to be correlated with the stellar and Hi masses, star formation rate (SFR) tracers, the projected size of the starburst, and its gas-phase metallicity. BCDs appear to be systematically offset from the Schmidt-Kennicutt (SK) law, showing lower average gas surface densities for a given ΣSFR, and therefore showing extremely low (≲0.1 Gyr) H2 and H2 +Hi depletion timescales. The departure from the SK law is smaller when considering H2 +Hi rather than H2 only, and is larger for BCDs with lower metallicity and higher specific SFR. Thus, the molecular fraction (ΣH2/ ΣHI) and CO depletion timescale (ΣH2/ ΣSFR) of BCDs is found to be strongly correlated with metallicity. Using this, and assuming that the empirical correlation found between the specific SFR and galaxy-averaged H2 depletion timescale of more metal-rich galaxies extends to lower masses, we derive a metallicity-dependent CO-to-H2 conversion factor αCO,Z ∝ (Z/Z⊙)- y, with y = 1.5(±0.3)in qualitative agreement with previous determinations, dust-based measurements, and recent model

  3. SKA studies of nearby galaxies: star-formation, accretion processes and molecular gas across all environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beswick, R.; Brinks, E.; Perez-Torres, M.; Richards, A. M. S.; Aalto, S.; Alberdi, A.; Argo, M. K.; van Bemmel, I.; Conway, J. E.; Dickinson, C.; Fenech, D.; Gray, M. D.; Kloeckner, H. R.; Murphy, E.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Peel, M. W.; Rushton, A.; Schinnerer, E.

    2015-04-01

    The SKA will be a transformational instrument in the study of our local Universe. In particular, by virtue of its high sensitivity (both to point sources and diffuse low surface brightness emission), angular resolution and the frequency ranges covered, the SKA will undertake a very wide range of astrophysical research in the field of nearby galaxies. By surveying vast numbers of nearby galaxies of all types with $\\mu$Jy sensitivity and sub-arcsecond angular resolutions at radio wavelengths, the SKA will provide the cornerstone of our understanding of star-formation and accretion activity in the local Universe. In this chapter we outline the key continuum and molecular line science areas where the SKA, both during phase-1 and when it becomes the full SKA, will have a significant scientific impact.

  4. Seeing the Forest Through the Trees: The Distribution and Properties of Dense Molecular Gas in the Milky Way Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.

    The Milky Way Galaxy serves as a vast laboratory for studying the dynamics and evolution of the dense interstellar medium and the processes of and surrounding massive star formation. From our vantage point within the Galactic plane, however, it has been extremely difficult to construct a coherent picture of Galactic structure; we cannot see the forest for the trees. The principal difficulties in studying the structure of the Galactic disk have been obscuration by the ubiquitous dust and molecular gas and confusion between objects along a line of sight. Recent technological advances have led to large-scale blind surveys of the Galactic plane at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths, where Galactic dust is generally optically thin, and have opened a new avenue for studying the forest. The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) observed over 190 deg 2 of the Galactic plane in dust continuum emission near lambda = 1.1 mm, producing a catalog of over 8,000 dense molecular cloud structures across a wide swath of the Galactic disk. Deriving the spatial distribution and physical properties of these objects requires knowledge of distance, a component lacking in the data themselves. This thesis presents a generalized Bayesian probabilistic distance estimation method for dense molecular cloud structures, and demonstrates it with the BGPS data set. Distance probability density functions (DPDFs) are computed from kinematic distance likelihoods (which may be double- peaked for objects in the inner Galaxy) and an expandable suite of prior information to produce a comprehensive tally of our knowledge (and ignorance) of the distances to dense molecular cloud structures. As part of the DPDF formalism, this thesis derives several prior DPDFs for resolving the kinematic distance ambiguity in the inner Galaxy. From the collection of posterior DPDFs, a set of objects with well-constrained distance estimates is produced for deriving Galactic structure and the physical properties of dense molecular

  5. Molecular gas, stars, and dust in sub-L* star-forming galaxies at z~2: evidence for universal star formation and nonuniversal dust-to-gas ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Schaerer, Daniel; Combes, Francoise; Egami, Eiichi; Swinbank, A. Mark; Richard, Johan; Sklias, Panos; Rawle, Tim D.

    2015-08-01

    Only recently have CO measurements become possible in main sequence star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z=1-3, but are still biased toward high star formation rates (SFR) and stellar masses (Ms), because of instrumental sensitivity limitations. It is essential to extend these studies toward the more numerous and typical SFGs, characterized by IR luminosities LIRmolecular gas, star, and dust properties in 8 such sub-L*, lensed SFGs at z=1.5-3.6, achieved thanks to the gravitational lensing and IRAM/PdBI, Herschel, Spitzer, and HST multi-wavelength data. Combined with our compilation of CO-detected galaxies from the literature, we revisit and propose new correlations between IR and CO luminosities, molecular gas, stellar and dust masses, specific SFR, molecular gas depletion timescales (tdepl), molecular gas fractions (fgas), dust-to-gas ratios, and redshift. These correlations betray the interplay between gas, dust, and star formation in galaxies.All the LIR, L'CO(1-0) data are best-fitted with a single relation, which spans 5 orders of magnitude in LIR, covers redshifts from z=0 to z=5.3, and samples spirals, main sequence SFGs, and starbursts. This favors a universal star formation. We find an increase of tdepl with Ms, as now revealed by low-Ms SFGs at z>1 and also observed at z=0, which contrasts with the acknowledged constant tdepl and refutes the linearity of the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation between molecular gas and SFR at galactic scales. A steady increase of fgas with redshift is predicted and is observed from z~0 to z~1.5, but is followed by a mild increase toward higher redshifts, which we further confirm with our highest redshift CO measurement in an L* galaxy at z=3.6. We provide the first fgas measure in z>1 SFGs at the low-Ms end 109.4

  6. Dense Molecular Gas and the Role of Star Formation in the Host Galaxies of Quasi-stellar Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, A. S.; Solomon, P. M.; Tacconi, L. J.; Vavilkin, T.; Downes, D.

    2006-12-01

    New millimeter-wave CO and HCN observations of the host galaxies of infrared-excess Palomar-Green (PG) quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) previously detected in CO are presented. These observations are designed to assess the validity of using the infrared luminosity to estimate star formation rates of luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by determining the relative significance of dust heating by young, massive stars and AGNs in QSO hosts and IRAS galaxies with warm, AGN-like infrared colors. The analysis of these data is based, in part, on evidence that HCN traces high-density (>104 cm-3) molecular gas, and that the starburst-to-HCN luminosity ratio, LSB/L'HCN, of IRAS-detected galaxies is constant. The new CO data provide a confirmation of prior claims that PG QSO hosts have high infrared-to-CO luminosity ratios, LIR/L'CO, relative to IRAS galaxies of comparable LIR. Such high LIR/L'CO ratios may be due to significant heating of dust by the QSO or to an increased star formation efficiency in QSO hosts relative to the bulk of the luminous IRAS galaxy population. The HCN data show a similar trend, with the PG QSO host I Zw 1 and most of the warm IRAS galaxies having high LIR/L'HCN (>1600) relative to the cool IRAS galaxy population, for which the median cool~890+440-470. If the assumption is made that the infrared emission from cool IRAS galaxies is reprocessed light from embedded star-forming regions, then high values of LIR/L'HCN are likely the result of dust heating by the AGNs. Further, if the median ratio of L'HCN/L'CO~0.06 observed for Seyfert galaxies and I Zw 1 is applied to the PG QSOs not detected in HCN, then the derived LIR/L'HCN values correspond to a stellar contribution to the production of LIR of ~7%-39%, and star formation rates of ~2-37 Msolar yr-1 are derived for the QSO hosts. The corresponding values for the warm galaxies are ~10%-100% and ~3-220 Msolar yr-1. Alternatively, if the far-infrared is adopted as the star formation component

  7. CO(J = 1→0) in z > 2 Quasar Host Galaxies: No Evidence for Extended Molecular Gas Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Carilli, Christopher L.; Maddalena, Ronald J.; Hodge, Jacqueline; Harris, Andrew I.; Baker, Andrew J.; Walter, Fabian; Wagg, Jeff; Vanden Bout, Paul A.; Weiß, Axel; Sharon, Chelsea E.

    2011-09-01

    We report the detection of CO(J = 1→0) emission in the strongly lensed high-redshift quasars IRAS F10214+4724 (z = 2.286), the Cloverleaf (z = 2.558), RX J0911+0551 (z = 2.796), SMM J04135+10277 (z = 2.846), and MG 0751+2716 (z = 3.200), using the Expanded Very Large Array and the Green Bank Telescope. We report lensing-corrected CO(J = 1→0) line luminosities of L'CO = (0.34-18.4) × 1010 K km s-1 pc2 and total molecular gas masses of M(H2) = (0.27-14.7) × 1010 M sun for the sources in our sample. Based on CO line ratios relative to previously reported observations in J >= 3 rotational transitions and line excitation modeling, we find that the CO(J = 1→0) line strengths in our targets are consistent with single, highly excited gas components with constant brightness temperature up to mid-J levels. We thus do not find any evidence for luminous-extended, low-excitation, low surface brightness molecular gas components. These properties are comparable to those found in z > 4 quasars with existing CO(J = 1→0) observations. These findings stand in contrast to recent CO(J = 1→0) observations of z ~= 2-4 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), which have lower CO excitation and show evidence for multiple excitation components, including some low-excitation gas. These findings are consistent with the picture that gas-rich quasars and SMGs represent different stages in the early evolution of massive galaxies.

  8. CO(J = 1{yields}0) IN z > 2 QUASAR HOST GALAXIES: NO EVIDENCE FOR EXTENDED MOLECULAR GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Carilli, Christopher L.; Maddalena, Ronald J.; Hodge, Jacqueline; Walter, Fabian; Harris, Andrew I.; Baker, Andrew J.; Sharon, Chelsea E.; Wagg, Jeff; Vanden Bout, Paul A.; Weiss, Axel

    2011-09-20

    We report the detection of CO(J = 1{yields}0) emission in the strongly lensed high-redshift quasars IRAS F10214+4724 (z = 2.286), the Cloverleaf (z = 2.558), RX J0911+0551 (z = 2.796), SMM J04135+10277 (z = 2.846), and MG 0751+2716 (z = 3.200), using the Expanded Very Large Array and the Green Bank Telescope. We report lensing-corrected CO(J = 1{yields}0) line luminosities of L'{sub CO} = (0.34-18.4) x 10{sup 10} K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2} and total molecular gas masses of M(H{sub 2}) = (0.27-14.7) x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun} for the sources in our sample. Based on CO line ratios relative to previously reported observations in J {>=} 3 rotational transitions and line excitation modeling, we find that the CO(J = 1{yields}0) line strengths in our targets are consistent with single, highly excited gas components with constant brightness temperature up to mid-J levels. We thus do not find any evidence for luminous-extended, low-excitation, low surface brightness molecular gas components. These properties are comparable to those found in z > 4 quasars with existing CO(J = 1{yields}0) observations. These findings stand in contrast to recent CO(J = 1{yields}0) observations of z {approx_equal} 2-4 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), which have lower CO excitation and show evidence for multiple excitation components, including some low-excitation gas. These findings are consistent with the picture that gas-rich quasars and SMGs represent different stages in the early evolution of massive galaxies.

  9. CARMA Survey Toward Infrared-bright Nearby Galaxies (STING). II. Molecular Gas Star Formation Law and Depletion Time across the Blue Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nurur; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Xue, Rui; Wong, Tony; Leroy, Adam K.; Walter, Fabian; Bigiel, Frank; Rosolowsky, Erik; Fisher, David B.; Vogel, Stuart N.; Blitz, Leo; West, Andrew A.; Ott, Jürgen

    2012-02-01

    We present an analysis of the relationship between molecular gas and current star formation rate surface density at sub-kiloparsec and kiloparsec scales in a sample of 14 nearby star-forming galaxies. Measuring the relationship in the bright, high molecular gas surface density ({\\Sigma _H_2}\\gtrsim 20 M ⊙ pc-2) regions of the disks to minimize the contribution from diffuse extended emission, we find an approximately linear relation between molecular gas and star formation rate surface density, N mol ~ 0.96 ± 0.16, with a molecular gas depletion time, τmol dep ~ 2.30 ± 1.32 Gyr. We show that in the molecular regions of our galaxies there are no clear correlations between τmol dep and the free-fall and effective Jeans dynamical times throughout the sample. We do not find strong trends in the power-law index of the spatially resolved molecular gas star formation law or the molecular gas depletion time across the range of galactic stellar masses sampled (M * ~ 109.7-1011.5 M ⊙). There is a trend, however, in global measurements that is particularly marked for low-mass galaxies. We suggest that this trend is probably due to the low surface brightness CO J = 1-0, and it is likely associated with changes in CO-to-H2 conversion factor.

  10. Molecular gas and a new young stellar cluster in the far outer Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, J. L.; Elia, D.; Palmeirim, P. M.; Gomes, J. I.; Martins, A. M.

    2009-06-01

    Aims: We investigate the star-formation ocurring in the region towards IRAS 07527-3446 in the molecular cloud [MAB97]250.63-3.63, in the far outer Galaxy. We report the discovery of a new young stellar cluster, and describe its properties and those of its parent molecular cloud. Methods: Near-infrared JHKS images were obtained with VLT/ISAAC, and millimetre line CO spectra were obtained with the SEST telescope. VLA archive date were also used. Results: The cloud and cluster are located at a distance of 10.3 kpc and a Galactocentric distance of 15.4 kpc, in the far outer Galaxy. Morphologically, IRAS 07527-3446 appears as a young embedded cluster of a few hundred stars seen towards the position of the IRAS source, extending for about 2-4 pc and exhibiting sub-clustering. The cluster contains low and intermediate-mass young reddened stars, a large fraction having cleared the inner regions of their circumstellar discs responsible for (H-K_S) colour excess. The observations are compatible with a ≤5 Myr cluster with variable spatial extinction of between A_V=5 and A_V=11. Decomposition of CO emission in clumps, reveals a clump clearly associated with the cluster position, of mass 3.3 × 103 M_⊙. Estimates of the slopes of the K_S-band luminosity function and of the star-formation efficiency yield values similar to those seen in nearby star-formation sites. These findings reinforce previous results that the distant outer Galaxy continues to be active in the production of new and rich stellar clusters, with the physical conditions required for the formation of rich clusters continuing to be met in the very distant environment of the outer Galactic disc. Based on observations collected at the ESO 8.2-m VLT-UT1 Antu telescope (program 66.C-0015A). Table 2 is only available in electonic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. The molecular gas reservoir of 6 low-metallicity galaxies from the Herschel Dwarf Galaxy Survey. A ground-based follow-up survey of CO(1-0), CO(2-1), and CO(3-2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, D.; Madden, S. C.; Lebouteiller, V.; Hony, S.; Aalto, S.; Costagliola, F.; Hughes, A.; Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Abel, N.; Bayet, E.; Bigiel, F.; Cannon, J. M.; Cumming, R. J.; Galametz, M.; Galliano, F.; Viti, S.; Wu, R.

    2014-04-01

    Context. Observations of nearby starburst and spiral galaxies have revealed that molecular gas is the driver of star formation. However, some nearby low-metallicity dwarf galaxies are actively forming stars, but CO, the most common tracer of this reservoir, is faint, leaving us with a puzzle about how star formation proceeds in these environments. Aims: We aim to quantify the molecular gas reservoir in a subset of 6 galaxies from the Herschel Dwarf Galaxy Survey with newly acquired CO data and to link this reservoir to the observed star formation activity. Methods: We present CO(1-0), CO(2-1), and CO(3-2) observations obtained at the ATNF Mopra 22-m, APEX, and IRAM 30-m telescopes, as well as [C ii] 157μm and [O i] 63μm observations obtained with the Herschel/PACS spectrometer in the 6 low-metallicity dwarf galaxies: Haro 11, Mrk 1089, Mrk 930, NGC 4861, NGC 625, and UM 311. We derived their molecular gas masses from several methods, including using the CO-to-H2 conversion factor XCO (both Galactic and metallicity-scaled values) and dust measurements. The molecular and atomic gas reservoirs were compared to the star formation activity. We also constrained the physical conditions of the molecular clouds using the non-LTE code RADEX and the spectral synthesis code Cloudy. Results: We detect CO in 5 of the 6 galaxies, including first detections in Haro 11 (Z ~ 0.4 Z⊙), Mrk 930 (0.2 Z⊙), and UM 311 (0.5 Z⊙), but CO remains undetected in NGC 4861 (0.2 Z⊙). The CO luminosities are low, while [C ii] is bright in these galaxies, resulting in [C ii]/CO(1-0) ≥ 10 000. Our dwarf galaxies are in relatively good agreement with the Schmidt-Kennicutt relation for total gas. They show short molecular depletion timescales, even when considering metallicity-scaled XCO factors. Those galaxies are dominated by their H i gas, except Haro 11, which has high star formation efficiency and is dominated by ionized and molecular gas. We determine the mass of each ISM phase in

  12. CARMA SURVEY TOWARD INFRARED-BRIGHT NEARBY GALAXIES (STING). III. THE DEPENDENCE OF ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR GAS SURFACE DENSITIES ON GALAXY PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Tony; Xue, Rui; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Fisher, David B.; Vogel, Stuart N.; Leroy, Adam K.; Blitz, Leo; Rosolowsky, Erik; Bigiel, Frank; Ott, Jürgen; Rahman, Nurur; Walter, Fabian

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the correlation between CO and H I emission in 18 nearby galaxies from the CARMA Survey Toward IR-Bright Nearby Galaxies (STING) at sub-kpc and kpc scales. Our sample, spanning a wide range in stellar mass and metallicity, reveals evidence for a metallicity dependence of the H I column density measured in regions exhibiting CO emission. Such a dependence is predicted by the equilibrium model of McKee and Krumholz, which balances H{sub 2} formation and dissociation. The observed H I column density is often smaller than predicted by the model, an effect we attribute to unresolved clumping, although values close to the model prediction are also seen. We do not observe H I column densities much larger than predicted, as might be expected were there a diffuse H I component that did not contribute to H{sub 2} shielding. We also find that the H{sub 2} column density inferred from CO correlates strongly with the stellar surface density, suggesting that the local supply of molecular gas is tightly regulated by the stellar disk.

  13. CARMA Survey toward Infrared-bright Nearby Galaxies (STING). III. The Dependence of Atomic and Molecular Gas Surface Densities on Galaxy Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Tony; Xue, Rui; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Leroy, Adam K.; Blitz, Leo; Rosolowsky, Erik; Bigiel, Frank; Fisher, David B.; Ott, Jürgen; Rahman, Nurur; Vogel, Stuart N.; Walter, Fabian

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the correlation between CO and H I emission in 18 nearby galaxies from the CARMA Survey Toward IR-Bright Nearby Galaxies (STING) at sub-kpc and kpc scales. Our sample, spanning a wide range in stellar mass and metallicity, reveals evidence for a metallicity dependence of the H I column density measured in regions exhibiting CO emission. Such a dependence is predicted by the equilibrium model of McKee and Krumholz, which balances H2 formation and dissociation. The observed H I column density is often smaller than predicted by the model, an effect we attribute to unresolved clumping, although values close to the model prediction are also seen. We do not observe H I column densities much larger than predicted, as might be expected were there a diffuse H I component that did not contribute to H2 shielding. We also find that the H2 column density inferred from CO correlates strongly with the stellar surface density, suggesting that the local supply of molecular gas is tightly regulated by the stellar disk.

  14. Molecular gas content of galaxies in the Hydra-Centaurus supercluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huchtmeier, W. K.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of bright spiral galaxies in the Hydra-Centaurus supercluster for the CO(1-0) transition at 115 GHz was performed with the 15m Swedish-ESO submillimeter telescope (SEST). A total of 30 galaxies have been detected in the CO(1-0) transition out of 47 observed, which is a detection rate over 60%. Global physical parameters of these galaxies derived from optical, CO, HI, and IR measurements compare very well with properties of galaxies in the Virgo cluster.

  15. A survey of the cold molecular gas in gravitationally lensed star-forming galaxies at z > 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravena, M.; Spilker, J. S.; Bethermin, M.; Bothwell, M.; Chapman, S. C.; de Breuck, C.; Furstenau, R. M.; Gónzalez-López, J.; Greve, T. R.; Litke, K.; Ma, J.; Malkan, M.; Marrone, D. P.; Murphy, E. J.; Stark, A.; Strandet, M.; Vieira, J. D.; Weiss, A.; Welikala, N.; Wong, G. F.; Collier, J. D.

    2016-04-01

    Using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we conducted a survey of CO J = 1 - 0 and J = 2 - 1 line emission towards strongly lensed high-redshift dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) previously discovered with the South Pole Telescope (SPT). Our sample comprises 17 sources that had CO-based spectroscopic redshifts obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment. We detect all sources with known redshifts in either CO J = 1 - 0 or J = 2 - 1. 12 sources are detected in the 7-mm continuum. The derived CO luminosities imply gas masses in the range (0.5-11) × 1010 M⊙ and gas depletion time-scales tdep < 200 Myr, using a CO to gas mass conversion factor αCO = 0.8 M⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1. Combining the CO luminosities and dust masses, along with a fixed gas-to-dust ratio, we derive αCO factors in the range 0.4-1.8 M⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1, similar to what is found in other starbursting systems. We find small scatter in αCO values within the sample, even though inherent variations in the spatial distribution of dust and gas in individual cases could bias the dust-based αCO estimates. We find that lensing magnification factors based on the CO linewidth to luminosity relation (μCO) are highly unreliable, but particularly when μ < 5. Finally, comparison of the gas and dynamical masses suggest that the average molecular gas fraction stays relatively constant at z = 2-5 in the SPT DSFG sample.

  16. Regularity underlying complexity: a redshift-independent description of the continuous variation of galaxy-scale molecular gas properties in the mass-star formation rate plane

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, M. T.; Daddi, E.; Béthermin, M.; Aussel, H.; Juneau, S.; Elbaz, D.; Hwang, H. S.; Da Cunha, E.

    2014-09-20

    Star-forming galaxies (SFGs) display a continuous specific star formation rate (sSFR) distribution, which can be approximated by two log-normal functions: one encompassing the galaxy main sequence (MS), and the other a rarer, starbursting population. Starburst (SB) sSFRs can be regarded as the outcome of a physical process (plausibly merging) taking the mathematical form of a log-normal boosting kernel that enhances star formation activity. We explore the utility of splitting the star-forming population into MS and SB galaxies—an approach we term the '2-Star Formation Mode' framework—for understanding their molecular gas properties. Star formation efficiency (SFE) and gas fraction variations among SFGs take a simple redshift-independent form, once these quantities are normalized to the corresponding values for average MS galaxies. SFE enhancements during SB episodes scale supra-linearly with the SFR increase, as expected for mergers. Consequently, galaxies separate more clearly into loci for SBs and normal galaxies in the Schmidt-Kennicutt plane than in (s)SFR versus M {sub *} space. SBs with large deviations (>10 fold) from the MS, e.g., local ULIRGs, are not average SBs, but are much rarer events whose progenitors had larger gas fractions than typical MS galaxies. Statistically, gas fractions in SBs are reduced two- to threefold compared to their direct MS progenitors, as expected for short-lived SFR boosts where internal gas reservoirs are depleted more quickly than gas is re-accreted from the cosmic web. We predict variations of the conversion factor α{sub CO} in the SFR-M {sub *} plane and we show that the higher sSFR of distant galaxies is directly related to their larger gas fractions.

  17. Physical conditions of molecular gas in the Circinus galaxy Multi-J CO and Ci 3PP0 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Henkel, Christian; Gao, Yu; Güsten, Rolf; Menten, Karl M.; Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; Zhao, Yinghe; Ao, Yiping; Kaminski, Tomasz

    2014-08-01

    We report mapping observations of the 12CO J = 3 → 2, 4 → 3, 6 → 5, and 7 → 6 transitions and the Ci 3PP0 (Ci) 492GHz transition toward the central 40'' × 40'' region of the Circinus galaxy, using the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope. We also detected 13COJ = 3 → 2 at the central position of Circinus. These observations are to date the highest CO transitions reported in Circinus. With large velocity gradient (LVG) modeling and likelihood analysis we try to obtain density, temperature, and column density of the molecular gas in three regions: the nuclear region (D < 18''~ 360 pc), the entire central 45'' (D < 45''~ 900 pc) region, and the star-forming (S-F) ring (18'' < D < 45''). In the nuclear region, we can fit the CO excitation with a single excitation component, yielding an average condition of nH2~103.2 cm-3, Tkin~ 200 K, and dν/dr~3 km s-1 pc-1. In the entire 45'' region, which covers both the nucleus and the S-F ring, two excitation components are needed with nH2~ 104.2 cm-3 and 103.0 cm-3, Tkin~ 60 K and 30 K, and MH2~2.3 × 107 M⊙ and 6.6 × 107 M⊙, respectively. The gas excitation in the S-F ring can also be fitted with two LVG components, after subtracting the CO fluxes in the 18'' nuclear region. The S-F ring region contributes 80% of the molecular mass in the 45'' region. For the entire 45'' region, we find a standard conversion factor of N(H2) /ICO 1 → 0 = 0.37 × 1020cm-2(K km s-1)-1, about 1/5 of the Galactic disk value. The luminosity ratios of Ci and 12COJ = 3 → 2 (RCI/CO 3 → 2) in Circinus basically follow a linear trend, similar to that obtained in high-redshift galaxies. The average RCI/CO J = 3 → 2 in Circinus is found to be ~0.2, lying at an intermediate value between non-AGN nuclear regions and high-redshift galaxies. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. Molecular gas in the centre of nearby galaxies from VLT/SINFONI integral field spectroscopy - II. Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzalay, X.; Maciejewski, W.; Erwin, P.; Saglia, R. P.; Bender, R.; Fabricius, M. H.; Nowak, N.; Rusli, S. P.; Thomas, J.

    2014-03-01

    We present an analysis of the H2 emission-line gas kinematics in the inner ≲4 arcsec radius of six nearby spiral galaxies, based on adaptive optics-assisted integral-field observations obtained in the K band with SINFONI/VLT. Four of the six galaxies in our sample display ordered H2 velocity fields, consistent with gas moving in the plane of the galaxy and rotating in the same direction as the stars. However, the gas kinematics is typically far from simple circular motion. We can classify the observed velocity fields into four different types of flows, ordered by increasing complexity: (1) circular motion in a disc (NGC 3351); (2) oval motion in the galaxy plane (NGC 3627 and NGC 4536); (3) streaming motion superimposed on circular rotation (NGC 4501); and (4) disordered streaming motions (NGC 4569 and NGC 4579). The H2 velocity dispersion in the galaxies is usually higher than 50 km s-1 in the inner 1-2 arcsec radii. The four galaxies with ordered kinematics have v/σ < 1 at radii less than 40-80 pc. The radius at which v/σ = 1 is independent of the type of nuclear activity. While the low values of v/σ could be taken as an indication of a thick disc in the innermost regions of the galaxies, other lines of evidence (e.g. H2 morphologies and velocity fields) argue for a thin disc interpretation in the case of NGC 3351 and NGC 4536. We discuss the implications of the high values of velocity dispersion for the dynamics of the gaseous disc and suggest caution when interpreting the velocity dispersion of ionized and warm tracers as being entirely dynamical. Understanding the nature and role of the velocity dispersion in the gas dynamics, together with the full 2D information of the gas, is essential for obtaining accurate black hole masses from gas kinematics.

  19. New emerging results on molecular gas, stars, and dust at z ~ 2, as revealed by low star formation rate and low stellar mass star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Zamojski, Michel; Schaerer, Daniel; Combes, Françoise; Egami, Eiichi; Sklias, Panos; Swinbank, Mark A.; Richard, Johan; Rawle, Tim

    Recent CO surveys of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z ~ 2 have revolutionized our picture of massive galaxies. It is time to expand these studies toward the more common z ~ 2 SFGs with SFR < 40 M ⊙ yr-1 and M * < 2.5 × 1010 M⊙. We have derived molecular gas, stars, and dust in 8 such lensed SFGs. They extend the L IR-L'CO(1-0) distribution of massive z>1 SFGs and increase the spread of the SFG star formation efficiency (SFE). A single star formation relation is found when combining all existing CO-detected galaxies. Our low-M * SFGs also reveal a SFE decrease with M * as found locally. A rise of the molecular gas fraction (f gas) with redshift is observed up to z ~ 1.6, but it severely flattens toward higher redshifts. We provide the first insight into the f gas upturn at the low-M * end 109.4 < M */M⊙ < 1010 reaching f gas ~ 0.7, it is followed by a f gas decrease toward higher M *. Finally, we find a non-universal dust-to-gas ratio among local and high-redshift SFGs and starbursts with near-solar metallicities.

  20. CARMA SURVEY TOWARD INFRARED-BRIGHT NEARBY GALAXIES (STING). II. MOLECULAR GAS STAR FORMATION LAW AND DEPLETION TIME ACROSS THE BLUE SEQUENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Nurur; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Fisher, David B.; Vogel, Stuart N.; Xue Rui; Wong, Tony; Leroy, Adam K.; Walter, Fabian; Bigiel, Frank; Rosolowsky, Erik; Blitz, Leo; West, Andrew A.; Ott, Juergen

    2012-02-01

    We present an analysis of the relationship between molecular gas and current star formation rate surface density at sub-kiloparsec and kiloparsec scales in a sample of 14 nearby star-forming galaxies. Measuring the relationship in the bright, high molecular gas surface density ({Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}}{approx}>20 M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2}) regions of the disks to minimize the contribution from diffuse extended emission, we find an approximately linear relation between molecular gas and star formation rate surface density, N{sub mol} {approx} 0.96 {+-} 0.16, with a molecular gas depletion time, {tau}{sup mol}{sub dep} {approx} 2.30 {+-} 1.32 Gyr. We show that in the molecular regions of our galaxies there are no clear correlations between {tau}{sup mol}{sub dep} and the free-fall and effective Jeans dynamical times throughout the sample. We do not find strong trends in the power-law index of the spatially resolved molecular gas star formation law or the molecular gas depletion time across the range of galactic stellar masses sampled (M{sub *} {approx} 10{sup 9.7}-10{sup 11.5} M{sub Sun }). There is a trend, however, in global measurements that is particularly marked for low-mass galaxies. We suggest that this trend is probably due to the low surface brightness CO J = 1-0, and it is likely associated with changes in CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor.

  1. A Total Molecular Gas Mass Census in Z ˜ 2-3 Star-forming Galaxies: Low-J CO Excitation Probes of Galaxies’ Evolutionary States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharon, Chelsea E.; Riechers, Dominik A.; Hodge, Jacqueline; Carilli, Chris L.; Walter, Fabian; Weiß, Axel; Knudsen, Kirsten K.; Wagg, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    We present CO(1-0) observations obtained at the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array for 14 z˜ 2 galaxies with existing CO(3-2) measurements, including 11 galaxies that contain active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and three submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). We combine this sample with an additional 15 z˜ 2 galaxies from the literature that have both CO(1-0) and CO(3-2) measurements in order to evaluate differences in CO excitation between SMGs and AGN host galaxies, to measure the effects of CO excitation on the derived molecular gas properties of these populations, and to look for correlations between the molecular gas excitation and other physical parameters. With our expanded sample of CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) line ratio measurements, we do not find a statistically significant difference in the mean line ratio between SMGs and AGN host galaxies as can be found in the literature; we instead find {r}{3,1}=1.03+/- 0.50 for AGN host galaxies and {r}{3,1}=0.78+/- 0.27 for SMGs (or {r}{3,1}=0.90+/- 0.40 for both populations combined). We also do not measure a statistically significant difference between the distributions of the line ratios for these populations at the p = 0.05 level, although this result is less robust. We find no excitation dependence on the index or offset of the integrated Schmidt-Kennicutt relation for the two CO lines, and we obtain indices consistent with N = 1 for the various subpopulations. However, including low-z “normal” galaxies increases our best-fit Schmidt-Kennicutt index to N˜ 1.2. While we do not reproduce correlations between the CO line width and luminosity, we do reproduce correlations between CO excitation and star-formation efficiency.

  2. Hot Gas Halos in Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Mulchaey, John S.; Jeltema, Tesla E.

    2010-06-08

    We use Chandra and XMM-Newton to study how the hot gas content in early-type galaxies varies with environment. We find that the L{sub X}-L{sub K} relationship is steeper for field galaxies than for comparable galaxies in groups and clusters. This suggests that internal processes such as supernovae driven winds or AGN feedback may expel hot gas from low mass field galaxies. Such mechanisms are less effective in groups and clusters where the presence of an intragroup or intracluster medium may confine outflowing material.

  3. The selective effect of environment on the atomic and molecular gas-to-dust ratio of nearby galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortese, L.; Bekki, K.; Boselli, A.; Catinella, B.; Ciesla, L.; Hughes, T. M.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Boquien, M.; de Looze, I.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.; Viaene, S.

    2016-07-01

    We combine dust, atomic (H I) and molecular (H2) hydrogen mass measurements for 176 galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey to investigate the effect of environment on the gas-to-dust mass (Mgas/Mdust) ratio of nearby galaxies. We find that, at fixed stellar mass, the average Mgas/Mdust ratio varies by no more than a factor of ˜2 when moving from field to cluster galaxies, with Virgo galaxies being slightly more dust rich (per unit of gas) than isolated systems. Remarkably, once the molecular and atomic hydrogen phases are investigated separately, we find that H I-deficient galaxies have at the same time lower M_{H I}/M_dust ratio but higher M_H2/M_dust ratio than H I-normal systems. In other words, they are poorer in atomic but richer in molecular hydrogen if normalized to their dust content. By comparing our findings with the predictions of theoretical models, we show that the opposite behaviour observed in the M_{H I}/M_dust and M_H2/M_dust ratios is fully consistent with outside-in stripping of the interstellar medium (ISM), and is simply a consequence of the different distribution of dust, H I and H2 across the disc. Our results demonstrate that the small environmental variations in the total Mgas/Mdust ratio, as well as in the gas-phase metallicity, do not automatically imply that environmental mechanisms are not able to affect the dust and metal content of the ISM in galaxies.

  4. The gas content in starburst galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirabel, I. F.; Sanders, D. B.

    1987-01-01

    The results from two large and homogeneous surveys, one in H I, the other in CO, are used for a statistical review of the gaseous properties of bright infrared galaxies. A constant ratio between the thermal FIR radiation and nonthermal radio emission is a universal property of star formation in spiral galaxies. The current rate of star formation in starburst galaxies is found to be 3-20 times larger than in the Milky Way. Galaxies with the higher FIR luminosities and warmer dust, have the larger mass fractions of molecular to atomic interstellar gas, and in some instances, striking deficiencies of neutral hydrogen are found. A statistical blueshift of the optical systemic velocities relative to the radio systemic velocities, may be due to an outward motion of the optical line-emitting gas. From the high rates of star formation, and from the short times required for the depletion of the interstellar gas, it is concluded that the most luminous infrared galaxies represent a brief but important phase in the evolution of some galaxies, when two galaxies merge changing substantially their overall properties.

  5. Abundant molecular gas and inefficient star formation in intracluster regions: ram pressure stripped tail of the Norma galaxy ESO137-001

    SciTech Connect

    Jáchym, Pavel; Combes, Françoise; Cortese, Luca; Sun, Ming; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.

    2014-09-01

    For the first time, we reveal large amounts of cold molecular gas in a ram-pressure-stripped tail, out to a large 'intracluster' distance from the galaxy. With the Actama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope, we have detected {sup 12}CO(2-1) emission corresponding to more than 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} of H{sub 2} in three Hα bright regions along the tail of the Norma cluster galaxy ESO 137-001, out to a projected distance of 40 kpc from the disk. ESO 137-001 has an 80 kpc long and bright X-ray tail associated with a shorter (40 kpc) and broader tail of numerous star forming H II regions. The amount of ∼1.5 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} of H{sub 2} found in the most distant region is similar to molecular masses of tidal dwarf galaxies, though the standard Galactic CO-to-H{sub 2} factor could overestimate the H{sub 2} content. Along the tail, we find the amount of molecular gas to drop, while masses of the X-ray-emitting and diffuse ionized components stay roughly constant. Moreover, the amounts of hot and cold gas are large and similar, and together nearly account for the missing gas from the disk. We find a very low SFE (τ{sub dep} > 10{sup 10} yr) in the stripped gas in ESO 137-001 and suggest that this is due to a low average gas density in the tail, or turbulent heating of the interstellar medium that is induced by a ram pressure shock. The unprecedented bulk of observed H{sub 2} in the ESO 137-001 tail suggests that some stripped gas may survive ram pressure stripping in the molecular phase.

  6. A DEEP SEARCH FOR MOLECULAR GAS IN TWO MASSIVE LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES AT z = 3 AND 4: VANISHING CO-EMISSION DUE TO LOW METALLICITY?

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Q.; Gao, Y.; Daddi, E.; Sargent, M.; Béthermin, M.; Bournaud, F.; Elbaz, D.; Pannella, M.; Hodge, J.; Walter, F.; Carilli, C.; Owen, F.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dickinson, M.; Morrison, G.; Riechers, D.

    2013-10-20

    We present deep IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer observations, searching for CO-emission toward two massive, non-lensed Lyman break galaxies at z = 3.216 and 4.058. With one low significance CO detection (3.5σ) and one sensitive upper limit, we find that the CO lines are ∼>3-4 times weaker than expected based on the relation between IR and CO luminosities followed by similarly massive galaxies at z = 0-2.5. This is consistent with a scenario in which these galaxies have low metallicity, causing an increased CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor, i.e., weaker CO-emission for a given molecular (H{sub 2}) mass. The required metallicities at z > 3 are lower than predicted by the fundamental metallicity relation at these redshifts, consistent with independent evidence. Unless our galaxies are atypical in this respect, detecting molecular gas in normal galaxies at z > 3 may thus remain challenging even with ALMA.

  7. CO Multi-line Imaging of Nearby Galaxies (COMING). I. Physical properties of molecular gas in the barred spiral galaxy NGC 2903

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Sorai, Kazuo; Kuno, Nario; Nakai, Naomasa; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Miho; Yanagitani, Kazuki; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Kishida, Nozomi; Hatakeyama, Takuya; Umei, Michiko; Tanaka, Takahiro; Tomiyasu, Yuto; Saita, Chey; Ueno, Saeko; Matsumoto, Naoko; Salak, Dragan; Morokuma-Matsui, Kana

    2016-10-01

    We present simultaneous mappings of J = 1-0 emission of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O molecules toward the whole disk (8' × 5' or 20.8 kpc × 13.0 kpc) of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 2903 with the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope at an effective angular resolution of 20″ (or 870 pc). We detected 12CO(J = 1-0) emission over the disk of NGC 2903. In addition, significant 13CO(J = 1-0) emission was found at the center and bar-ends, whereas we could not detect any significant C18O(J = 1-0) emission. In order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of CO emission and to obtain accurate line ratios of 12CO(J = 2-1)/12CO(J = 1-0) (R2-1/1-0) and 13CO(J = 1-0)/12CO(J = 1-0) (R13/12), we performed the stacking analysis for our 12CO(J = 1-0), 13CO(J = 1-0), and archival 12CO(J = 2-1) spectra with velocity axis alignment in nine representative regions of NGC 2903. We successfully obtained the stacked spectra of the three CO lines, and could measure averaged R2-1/1-0 and R13/12 with high significance for all the regions. We found that both R2-1/1-0 and R13/12 differ according to the regions, which reflects the difference in the physical properties of molecular gas, i.e., density (n_H_2) and kinetic temperature (TK). We determined n_H_2 and TK using R2-1/1-0 and R13/12 based on the large velocity gradient approximation. The derived n_H_2 ranges from ˜1000 cm-3 (in the bar, bar-ends, and spiral arms) to 3700 cm-3 (at the center) and the derived TK ranges from 10 K (in the bar and spiral arms) to 30 K (at the center). We examined the dependence of star formation efficiencies (SFEs) on n_H_2 and TK, and found a positive correlation between SFE and n_H_2 with correlation coefficient for the least-squares power-law fit R2 of 0.50. This suggests that molecular gas density governs the spatial variations in SFEs.

  8. New emerging results on molecular gas, stars, and dust at z~2, as revealed by low star formation rate and low stellar mass star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Schaerer, Daniel; Combes, Francoise; Egami, Eiichi; Swinbank, Mark; Richard, Johan; Sklias, Panos; Rawle, Tim D.

    2015-08-01

    The large surveys of main sequence star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z~2, made at near-IR and mm wavelengths, have revolutionized our picture of galaxies at this critical epoch, where the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) density is at its peak and the stellar mass (Ms) assembly is rapid. They reveal that ~70% of SFGs are young, rotation dominated disk-like systems, yet dynamically hotter and geometrically thicker than local spirals, with larger molecular gas fractions (fgas).It is time to refine this modern picture of z~2 galaxies by extending the current studies toward the more numerous and typical SFGs, characterized by SFRmolecular gas, star, and dust properties in 8 such sub-SFR*, lensed SFGs at z=1.5-3.6, achieved thanks to gravitational lensing and IRAM/PdBI, Herschel, Spitzer, and HST multi-wavelength data. They extend the dynamical range in SFR and Ms of our compilation of CO-detected SFGs at z>1 from the literature, and allow us to revisit and propose new correlations between IR and CO luminosities, molecular gas, stellar and dust masses, specific SFR, molecular gas depletion timescales (tdepl), fgas, dust-to-gas ratios, and redshift, to be directly compared with galaxy evolution models.We find an increase of tdepl with Ms, as now revealed by low-Ms SFGs at z>1 and also observed at z=0, which contrasts with the acknowledged constant tdepl in "bathtub" models and refutes the linearity of the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. A steady increase of fgas with redshift is predicted by cosmological models and is observed from z~0 to z~1.5, but is followed by a mild increase toward higher redshifts, which we further confirm with our highest redshift CO measurement in an SFR* galaxy at z=3.6. We provide the first fgas measure in z>1 SFGs at the low-Ms end 109.4

  9. A low-luminosity type-1 QSO sample . IV. Molecular gas contents and conditions of star formation in three nearby Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Lydia; Krips, Melanie; Busch, Gerold; Scharwächter, Julia; König, Sabine; Eckart, Andreas; Smajić, Semir; García-Marin, Macarena; Valencia-S., Mónica; Fischer, Sebastian; Dierkes, Jens

    2016-03-01

    We present a pilot study of ~3'' resolution observations of low CO transitions with the Submillimeter Array in three nearby Seyfert galaxies, which are part of the low-luminosity quasi-stellar object (LLQSOs) sample consisting of 99 nearby (z = 0.06) type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGN) taken from the Hamburg/ESO quasi-stellar object (QSO) survey. Two sources were observed in 12CO(2-1) and 13CO(2-1) and the third in 12CO(3-2) and HCO+(4-3). None of the sources is detected in continuum emission. More than 80% of the 12CO detected molecular gas is concentrated within a diameter (FWHM) < 1.8 kpc. 13CO is tentatively detected, while HCO+ emission could not be detected. All three objects show indications of a kinematically decoupled central unresolved molecular gas component. The molecular gas masses of the three galaxies are in the range Mmol = (0.7-8.7) × 109M⊙. We give lower limits for the dynamical masses of Mdyn> 1.5 × 109M⊙ and for the dust masses of Mdust> 1.6 × 106M⊙. The R21 = 12CO/13CO(2-1) line luminosity ratios show Galactic values of R21 ~ 5-7 in the outskirts and R21 ≳ 20 in the central region, similar to starbursts and (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs; i.e. LIRGs and ULIRGs), implying higher temperatures and stronger turbulence. All three sources show indications of 12CO(2-1)/12CO(1-0) ratios of ~0.5, suggesting a cold or diffuse gas phase. Strikingly, the 12CO(3-2)/(1-0) ratio of ~1 also indicates a higher excited phase. Since these galaxies have high infrared luminosities of LIR ≥ 1011L⊙ and seem to contain a circumnuclear starburst with minimum surface densities of gas and star formation rate (SFR) around Σmol = 50-550 M⊙pc-2 and ΣSFR = 1.1-3.1 M⊙ kpc-2 yr-1, we conclude that the interstellar medium in the centers of these LIRG Seyferts is strongly affected by violent star formation and better described by the ULIRG mass conversion factor.

  10. THE MOLECULAR GAS IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. II. EXTREME PHYSICAL CONDITIONS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE X{sub co} FACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; Van der Werf, Paul; Xilouris, E.; Isaak, Kate G.; Gao, Yu E-mail: pvdwerf@strw.leidenuniv.nl E-mail: kisaak@rssd.esa.int

    2012-05-20

    In this work, we conclude the analysis of our CO line survey of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs: L{sub IR} {approx}> 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }) in the local universe (Paper I) by focusing on the influence of their average interstellar medium (ISM) properties on the total molecular gas mass estimates via the so-called X{sub co} = M(H{sub 2})/L{sub co,1-0} factor. One-phase radiative transfer models of the global CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) yield an X{sub co} distribution with (X{sub co}) {approx} (0.6 {+-} 0.2) M{sub Sun} (K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}){sup -1} over a significant range of average gas densities, temperatures, and dynamic states. The latter emerges as the most important parameter in determining X{sub co}, with unbound states yielding low values and self-gravitating states yielding the highest ones. Nevertheless, in many (U)LIRGs where available higher-J CO lines (J = 3-2, 4-3, and/or J = 6-5) or HCN line data from the literature allow a separate assessment of the gas mass at high densities ({>=}10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}) rather than a simple one-phase analysis, we find that near-Galactic X{sub co} {approx} (3-6) M{sub Sun} (K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}){sup -1} values become possible. We further show that in the highly turbulent molecular gas in ULIRGs, a high-density component will be common and can be massive enough for its high X{sub co} to dominate the average value for the entire galaxy. Using solely low-J CO lines to constrain X{sub co} in such environments (as has been the practice up until now) may have thus resulted in systematic underestimates of molecular gas mass in ULIRGs, as such lines are dominated by a warm, diffuse, and unbound gas phase with low X{sub co} but very little mass. Only well-sampled high-J CO SLEDs (J = 3-2 and higher) and/or multi-J observations of heavy rotor molecules (e.g., HCN) can circumvent such a bias, and the latter type of observations may have actually provided early evidence of it in local ULIRGs. The only

  11. UNVEILING THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND KINEMATICS OF MOLECULAR GAS IN THE ANTENNAE GALAXIES (NGC 4038/9) THROUGH HIGH-RESOLUTION CO (J = 3-2) OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Junko; Iono, Daisuke; Kawabe, Ryohei; Tamura, Yoichi; Petitpas, Glen; Ho, Paul T. P.; Peck, Alison B.; Wang Zhong; Zhang Qizhou; Yun, Min S.; Mao Ruiqing; Martin, Sergio; Matsushita, Satoki; Wang Junzhi; Wilson, Christine D.

    2012-01-20

    We present a {approx}1'' (100 pc) resolution {sup 12}CO (3-2) map of the nearby intermediate-stage interacting galaxy pair NGC 4038/9 (the Antennae galaxies) obtained with the Submillimeter Array. We find that half the CO (3-2) emission originates in the overlap region where most of the tidally induced star formation had been previously found in shorter wavelength images, with the rest being centered on each of the nuclei. The gross distribution is consistent with lower resolution single-dish images, but we show for the first time the detailed distribution of the warm and dense molecular gas across this galaxy pair at resolutions comparable to the size of a typical giant molecular complex. While we find that 58% (33/57) of the spatially resolved Giant Molecular Associations (a few Multiplication-Sign 100 pc) are located in the overlap region, only {<=}30% spatially coincides with the optically detected star clusters, suggesting that the bulk of the CO (3-2) emission traces the regions with very recent or near future star formation activity. The spatial distribution of the CO (3-2)/CO (1-0) integrated brightness temperature ratios mainly ranges between 0.3 and 0.6, which suggests that on average the CO (3-2) line in the Antennae is not completely thermalized and similar to the average values of nearby spirals. A higher ratio is seen in both nuclei and the southern complexes in the overlap region. A higher radiation field associated with intense star formation can account for the nucleus of NGC 4038 and the overlap region, but the nuclear region of NGC 4039 shows relatively little star formation or active galactic nucleus activity and cannot be easily explained. We show kinematical evidence that the high line ratio in NGC 4039 is possibly caused by gas inflow into the counter-rotating central disk.

  12. High velocity gas in external galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamphuis, J.; Vanderhulst, J. M.; Sancisi, R.

    1990-01-01

    Two nearby, nearly face-on spiral galaxies, M 101 and NGC 6946, observed in the HI with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) as part of a program to search for high velocity gas in other galaxies, are used to illustrate the range of properties of high velocity gas in other galaxies found thusfar.

  13. Warm Molecular Gas Traced with CO J = 7 --> 6 in the Galaxy's Central 2 Parsecs: Dynamical Heating of the Circumnuclear Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, C. M.; Stacey, G. J.; Nikola, T.; Bolatto, A. D.; Jackson, J. M.; Savage, M. L.; Davidson, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    We present an 11" resolution map of the central 2 pc of the Galaxy in the CO J = 7 --> 6 rotational transition. The CO emission shows rotation about Sgr A* but also evidence for noncircular turbulent motion and a clumpy morphology. We combine our data set with available CO measurements to model the physical conditions in the disk. We find that the molecular gas in the region is both warm and dense, with T approx. 200-300 K and n(sub H2) approx. (5-7) x 10(exp 4) cm(exp -3). The mass of warm molecular gas we measure in the central 2 pc is at least 2000 M(solar), about 20 times the UV-excited atomic gas mass, ruling out a UV heating scenario for the molecular material. We compare the available spectral tracers with theoretical models and conclude that molecular gas is heated with magnetohydrodynamic shocks with v approx. 10-20 km s(exp -1) and B approx. 0.3- 0.5 mG. Using the conditions derived with the CO analysis, we include the other important coolants, neutral oxygen and molecular hydrogen, to estimate the total cooling budget of the molecular material. We derive a mass-to-luminosity ratio of approx. 2-3 M(solar)(L(solar)exp -1), which is consistent with the total power dissipated via turbulent decay in 0.1 pc cells with v(sub rms) approx. 15 kilometers per second. These size and velocity scales are comparable to the observed clumping scale and the velocity dispersion. At this rate, the material near Sgr A* is dissipating its orbital energy on an orbital timescale and cannot last for more than a few orbits. Our conclusions support a scenario in which the features near Sgr A* such as the circumnuclear disk and northern arm are generated by infalling clouds with low specific angular momentum.

  14. Star Formation and Gas Accretion in Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Kijeong; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2016-08-01

    In order to quantify the relationship between gas accretion and star formation, we analyse a sample of 29 nearby galaxies from the WHISP survey which contains galaxies with and without evidence for recent gas accretion. We compare combined radial profiles of FUV (GALEX) and IR 24 μm (Spitzer) characterizing distributions of recent star formation with radial profiles of CO (IRAM, BIMA, or CARMA) and H I (WSRT) tracing molecular and atomic gas contents to examine star formation efficiencies in symmetric (quiescent), asymmetric (accreting), and interacting (tidally disturbed) galaxies. In addition, we investigate the relationship between star formation rate and H I in the outer discs for the three groups of galaxies. We confirm the general relationship between gas surface density and star formation surface density, but do not find a significant difference between the three groups of galaxies.

  15. PHIBSS: MOLECULAR GAS CONTENT AND SCALING RELATIONS IN z {approx} 1-3 MASSIVE, MAIN-SEQUENCE STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Tacconi, L. J.; Genzel, R.; Wuyts, S.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Lutz, D.; Saintonge, A.; Neri, R.; Cox, P.; Combes, F.; Bolatto, A.; Cooper, M. C.; Bournaud, F.; Comerford, J.; Davis, M.; Newman, S.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Naab, T.; Omont, A. E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de; and others

    2013-05-01

    We present PHIBSS, the IRAM Plateau de Bure high-z blue sequence CO 3-2 survey of the molecular gas properties in massive, main-sequence star-forming galaxies (SFGs) near the cosmic star formation peak. PHIBSS provides 52 CO detections in two redshift slices at z {approx} 1.2 and 2.2, with log(M{sub *}(M{sub Sun })) {>=} 10.4 and log(SFR(M{sub Sun }/yr)) {>=} 1.5. Including a correction for the incomplete coverage of the M{sub *} -SFR plane, and adopting a ''Galactic'' value for the CO-H{sub 2} conversion factor, we infer average gas fractions of {approx}0.33 at z {approx} 1.2 and {approx}0.47 at z {approx} 2.2. Gas fractions drop with stellar mass, in agreement with cosmological simulations including strong star formation feedback. Most of the z {approx} 1-3 SFGs are rotationally supported turbulent disks. The sizes of CO and UV/optical emission are comparable. The molecular-gas-star-formation relation for the z = 1-3 SFGs is near-linear, with a {approx}0.7 Gyr gas depletion timescale; changes in depletion time are only a secondary effect. Since this timescale is much less than the Hubble time in all SFGs between z {approx} 0 and 2, fresh gas must be supplied with a fairly high duty cycle over several billion years. At given z and M{sub *}, gas fractions correlate strongly with the specific star formation rate (sSFR). The variation of sSFR between z {approx} 0 and 3 is mainly controlled by the fraction of baryonic mass that resides in cold gas.

  16. CARMA SURVEY TOWARD INFRARED-BRIGHT NEARBY GALAXIES (STING): MOLECULAR GAS STAR FORMATION LAW IN NGC 4254

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Nurur; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Jameson, Katherine; Vogel, Stuart N.; Wong, Tony; Xue Rui; Leroy, Adam K.; Walter, Fabian; Rosolowsky, Erik; West, Andrew A.; Bigiel, Frank; Blitz, Leo; Ott, Juergen

    2011-04-01

    This study explores the effects of different assumptions and systematics on the determination of the local, spatially resolved star formation law. Using four star formation rate (SFR) tracers (H{alpha} with azimuthally averaged extinction correction, mid-infrared 24 {mu}m, combined H{alpha} and mid-infrared 24 {mu}m, and combined far-ultraviolet and mid-infrared 24 {mu}m), several fitting procedures, and different sampling strategies, we probe the relation between SFR and molecular gas at various spatial resolutions (500 pc and larger) and surface densities ({Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}})approx. 10-245 M{sub sun} pc{sup -2}) within the central {approx}6.5 kpc in the disk of NGC 4254. We explore the effect of diffuse emission using an unsharp masking technique with varying kernel size. The fraction of diffuse emission, f{sub DE}, thus determined is a strong inverse function of the size of the filtering kernel. We find that in the high surface brightness regions of NGC 4254 the form of the molecular gas star formation law is robustly determined and approximately linear ({approx}0.8-1.1) and independent of the assumed fraction of diffuse emission and the SFR tracer employed. When the low surface brightness regions are included, the slope of the star formation law depends primarily on the assumed fraction of diffuse emission. In such a case, results range from linear when the fraction of diffuse emission in the SFR tracer is f{sub DE} {approx}< 30% (or when diffuse emission is removed in both the star formation and the molecular gas tracer) to super-linear ({approx}1.4) when f{sub DE} {approx}> 50%. We find that the tightness of the correlation between gas and star formation varies with the choice of star formation tracer. The 24 {mu}m SFR tracer by itself shows the tightest correlation with the molecular gas surface density, whereas the H{alpha} corrected for extinction using an azimuthally averaged correction shows the highest dispersion. We find that for R < 0.5R{sub 25

  17. CARMA Survey Toward Infrared-bright Nearby Galaxies (STING): Molecular Gas Star Formation Law in NGC 4254

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nurur; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Wong, Tony; Leroy, Adam K.; Walter, Fabian; Rosolowsky, Erik; West, Andrew A.; Bigiel, Frank; Ott, Jürgen; Xue, Rui; Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Jameson, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Vogel, Stuart N.

    2011-04-01

    This study explores the effects of different assumptions and systematics on the determination of the local, spatially resolved star formation law. Using four star formation rate (SFR) tracers (Hα with azimuthally averaged extinction correction, mid-infrared 24 μm, combined Hα and mid-infrared 24 μm, and combined far-ultraviolet and mid-infrared 24 μm), several fitting procedures, and different sampling strategies, we probe the relation between SFR and molecular gas at various spatial resolutions (500 pc and larger) and surface densities ({Σ_{H_2}}≈ 10-245 M sun pc-2) within the central ~6.5 kpc in the disk of NGC 4254. We explore the effect of diffuse emission using an unsharp masking technique with varying kernel size. The fraction of diffuse emission, f DE, thus determined is a strong inverse function of the size of the filtering kernel. We find that in the high surface brightness regions of NGC 4254 the form of the molecular gas star formation law is robustly determined and approximately linear (~0.8-1.1) and independent of the assumed fraction of diffuse emission and the SFR tracer employed. When the low surface brightness regions are included, the slope of the star formation law depends primarily on the assumed fraction of diffuse emission. In such a case, results range from linear when the fraction of diffuse emission in the SFR tracer is f DE <~ 30% (or when diffuse emission is removed in both the star formation and the molecular gas tracer) to super-linear (~1.4) when f DE >~ 50%. We find that the tightness of the correlation between gas and star formation varies with the choice of star formation tracer. The 24 μm SFR tracer by itself shows the tightest correlation with the molecular gas surface density, whereas the Hα corrected for extinction using an azimuthally averaged correction shows the highest dispersion. We find that for R < 0.5R 25 the local star formation efficiency is constant and similar to that observed in other large spirals, with a

  18. MOLECULAR GAS, CO, AND STAR FORMATION IN GALAXIES: EMERGENT EMPIRICAL RELATIONS, FEEDBACK, AND THE EVOLUTION OF VERY GAS-RICH SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Pelupessy, Federico I.; Papadopoulos, Padelis P.

    2009-12-20

    We use time-varying models of the coupled evolution of the H I, H{sub 2} gas phases and stars in galaxy-sized numerical simulations to (1) test for the emergence of the Kennicutt-Schmidt (K-S) and the H{sub 2}-pressure relation, (2) explore a realistic H{sub 2}-regulated star formation recipe which brings forth a neglected and potentially significant SF-regulating factor, and (3) go beyond typical galactic environments (for which these galactic empirical relations are deduced) to explore the early evolution of very gas-rich galaxies. In this work, we model low-mass galaxies (M{sub baryon} <= 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}), while incorporating an independent treatment of CO formation and destruction, the most important tracer molecule of H{sub 2} in galaxies, along with that for the H{sub 2} gas itself. We find that both the K-S and the H{sub 2}-pressure empirical relations can robustly emerge in galaxies after a dynamic equilibrium sets in between the various interstellar medium (ISM) states, the stellar component and its feedback (T approx> 1 Gyr). The only significant dependence of these relations seems to be for the CO-derived (and thus directly observable) ones, which show a strong dependence on the ISM metallicity. The H{sub 2}-regulated star formation recipe successfully reproduces the morphological and quantitative aspects of previous numerical models while doing away with the star formation efficiency parameter. Most of the H I -> H{sub 2} mass exchange is found taking place under highly non-equilibrium conditions necessitating a time-dependent treatment even in typical ISM environments. Our dynamic models indicate that the CO molecule can be a poor, nonlinear, H{sub 2} gas tracer. Finally, for early evolutionary stages (T approx< 0.4 Gyr), we find significant and systematic deviations of the true star formation from that expected from the K-S relation, which are especially pronounced and prolonged for metal-poor systems. The largest such deviations occur for the

  19. Spatially Resolved Chemistry in Nearby Galaxies. III. Dense Molecular Gas in the Inner Disk of the LIRG IRAS 04296+2923

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, David S.; Turner, Jean L.; Beck, Sara C.

    2014-11-01

    We present a survey of 3 mm molecular lines in IRAS 04296+2923, one of the brightest known molecular-line emitting galaxies, and one of the closest luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs). Data are from the Owens Valley and CARMA millimeter interferometers. Species detected at <~ 4'' resolution include C18O, HCN, HCO+, HNC, CN, CH3OH, and, tentatively, HNCO. Along with existing CO, 13CO, and radio continuum data, these lines constrain the chemical properties of the inner disk. Dense molecular gas in the nucleus fuels a star formation rate gsim10 M ⊙ yr-1 and is traced by lines of HCN, HCO+, HNC, and CN. A correlation between HCN and star formation rate is observed on sub-kiloparsec scales, consistent with global relations. Toward the nucleus, CN abundances are similar to those of HCN, indicating emission comes from a collection (~40-50) of moderate visual extinction, photon-dominated-region clouds. The CO isotopic line ratios are unusual: CO(1-0)/13CO(1-0) and CO(1-0)/C18O(1-0) line ratios are large toward the starburst, as is commonly observed in LIRGs, but farther out in the disk these ratios are remarkably low (lsim 3). 13CO/C18O abundance ratios are lower than in Galactic clouds, possibly because the C18O is enriched by massive star ejecta from the starburst. 13CO is underabundant relative to CO. Extended emission from CH3OH indicates that dynamical shocks pervade both the nucleus and the inner disk. The unusual CO isotopologue ratios, the CO/HCN intensity ratio versus L IR, the HCN/CN abundance ratio, and the gas consumption time versus inflow rate all indicate that the starburst in IRAS 04296+2923 is in an early stage of development.

  20. Gas and iron content of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiosi, C.

    2000-12-01

    Up to now, many theoretical studies aimed at reproducing the total amount of iron and gas in the intra-cluster medium meet the embarrassing situation, in which if the iron content is reproduced, the gas is not. More precisely, at given iron mass, too little gas and too high Fe abundance in turn are obtained as compared to the observational data. Large dilution by primordial gas is then invoked to get rid of the difficulty. In this paper we present a new approach to this problem. Basic ingredients of the present analysis are: (i) The adoption of multi-zone models of elliptical galaxies in the framework of the super-nova driven galactic wind scheme. They yield a more realistic description of the galactic ejecta in which the effects of gradients in star formation and chemical enrichment are taken into account. (ii) The stellar initial mass function is let vary with the physical conditions of the star forming medium. More precisely, the typical mass scale of the initial mass function increases with the gas temperature. Since no cooling process exists decreasing the temperature of a galaxy's gas below the limit set by the current value of the cosmic background radiation, it immediately follows that the stellar initial mass function of proto-galaxies whose stellar activity began at high red-shift (when the CBR temperature was higher than the present-day mean temperature of molecular clouds) is different from the one in galaxies which did the same but at lower red-shift. Because of this, at given galaxy mass the ejecta are expected to depend on the red-shift. (iii) Finally, the basic assumption is made that at any time (red-shift) the mass distribution of proto-galaxies follows the Press-Schechter law holding for Dark Matter, however with masses comprised between suitable minimum and maximum values, M_Lmin and M_L*, respectively, that are also varying with time and/or red-shift. This is equivalent to assume a sort of continuously varying mass function for galaxies as well

  1. The Plateau de Bure + 30 m Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey Reveals a Thick Disk of Diffuse Molecular Gas in the M51 Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pety, Jérôme; Schinnerer, Eva; Leroy, Adam K.; Hughes, Annie; Meidt, Sharon E.; Colombo, Dario; Dumas, Gaelle; García-Burillo, Santiago; Schuster, Karl F.; Kramer, Carsten; Dobbs, Clare L.; Thompson, Todd A.

    2013-12-01

    We present the data of the Plateau de Bure Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey, a high spatial and spectral resolution 12CO (1-0) line survey of the inner ~10 × 6 kpc of the M51 system, and the first wide-field imaging of molecular gas in a star-forming spiral galaxy with resolution matched to the typical size of giant molecular clouds (40 pc). We describe the observation, reduction, and combination of the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) and IRAM-30 m "short spacing" data. The final data cube attains 1.''1 resolution over the ~270'' × 170'' field of view, with sensitivity to all spatial scales from the combination of PdBI and IRAM-30 m data, and a brightness sensitivity of 0.4 K (1σ) in each 5 km s-1-wide channel map. We find a CO luminosity of 9 × 108 K km s-1 pc2, corresponding to a molecular gas mass of 4 × 109 M ⊙ for a standard CO-to-H2 conversion factor. Unexpectedly, we find that a large fraction of this emission, (50 ± 10)%, arises mostly from spatial scales larger than 36'' ~= 1.3 kpc. Through a series of tests, we demonstrate that this extended emission does not result from a processing artifact. We discuss its origin in light of the stellar component, the 12CO/13CO ratio, and the difference between the kinematics and structure of the PdBI-only and hybrid synthesis (PdBI + IRAM-30 m) images. The extended emission is consistent with a thick, diffuse disk of molecular gas with a typical scale height of ~200 pc, substructured in unresolved filaments that fill ~0.1% of the volume.

  2. Galaxy ecosystems: gas contents, inflows and outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhankui; Mo, H. J.; Lu, Yu

    2015-06-01

    We use a set of observational data for galaxy cold gas mass fraction and gas phase metallicity to constrain the content, inflow and outflow of gas in central galaxies hosted by haloes with masses between 1011 and 1012 M⊙. The gas contents in high-redshift galaxies are obtained by combining the empirical star formation histories and star formation models that relate star formation rate with the cold gas mass in galaxies. We find that the total baryon mass in low-mass galaxies is always much less than the universal baryon mass fraction since z = 2, regardless of star formation model adopted. The data for the evolution of the gas phase metallicity require net metal outflow at z ≲ 2, and the metal loading factor is constrained to be about 0.01, or about 60 per cent of the metal yield. Based on the assumption that galactic outflow is more enriched in metal than both the interstellar medium and the material ejected at earlier epochs, we are able to put stringent constraints on the upper limits for both the net accretion rate and the net mass outflow rate. The upper limits strongly suggest that the evolution of the gas phase metallicity and gas mass fraction for low-mass galaxies at z < 2 is not compatible with strong outflow. We speculate that the low star formation efficiency of low-mass galaxies is owing to some preventative processes that prevent gas from accreting into galaxies in the first place.

  3. Gas dynamics in interacting and merging galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    A three dimensional model of the dynamics of gas clouds in interacting galaxies is developed. The gas clouds move under the combined gravitational influence of two galaxies passing close to each other. By performing a multipole expansion of the gravitational field the effects of self-gravity within a galaxy are included. This allows the case to be modeled in which the two galaxies merge. The gas clouds are allowed to interact with one another by colliding. They either coalesce to form a larger cloud or are disrupted, depending on their relative kinetic energy as compared to the total gravitational binding energy of the two-cloud system. Various cases are considered by varying such parameters as impact parameter, inclination of the gaseous disk of a galaxy to the orbital plane of the two, interacting galaxies, relative velocity of the galaxies, the mass ratio of the galaxies, and the presence of gas in the second galaxy. As the strength of the interaction increases the more disturbed the interstellar medium becomes. The clouds collide at an increased rate and with larger velocities so that the fraction of collisions which disrupt the clouds rises as the strength of the interaction increases. Since interacting galaxies are observed to have elevated star formation rates, it is concluded that the star formation induced by the interaction of two galaxies is related to the high velocity, disruptive cloud-cloud collisions.

  4. The Structure of Dark Molecular Gas in the Galaxy - I First Results from a GBT Pilot Survey for 18-cm OH emission towards L~105, B~1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Ronald J.; Hogg, David E.; Engelke, Philip D.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first results from a ``blind'' survey for 1665, 1667, and 1720 MHz OH emission over a small region of the Outer Galaxy centered at L = 105.0, B = +1.0. This sparse, high-sensitivity survey (Delta Ta= 3 mK rms in 0.55 km/s channels), was carried out as a pilot project with the Green Bank Telescope (FWHM 7.6') on a 3 X 9 grid at 0.5 deg spacing. The pointings were chosen to correspond with those of the CO(1-0) CfA survey of the Galaxy carried out earlier with substantially the same angular resolution (8.4'). Using 2-hr integrations, 1667 MHz OH emission was detected with the GBT at more than 21 of the 27 survey positions, confirming the ubiquity of molecular gas in the ISM as traced by this spectral line. With very few exceptions the 1665/1667 line ratios are in the LTE ratio of 5:9, and the few exceptions are familiar examples of anomalous OH emission. No OH absorption features are recorded in the area of the present survey, in agreement with the low levels of continuum background emission in this direction. With very few exceptions, peaks in the OH profiles coincide with peaks in the HI spectra (obtained concurrently with the GBT, FWHM 8.9'), although not every HI peak has associated OH emission. At each pointing the OH appears in several components extending over a wide range of radial velocity and coinciding with well-known features of Galactic structure such as the Local Arm and the Perseus Arm. In contrast, little CO emission is seen in the survey area; less than half of the 53 identified OH spectral features show detectable CO counterparts at the CfA sensitivity levels, and these are generally relatively faint. While higher-sensitivity CO data would undoubtedly turn many of the CO upper limits into measurements, such data is not likely to recover the missing CO profile line strengths. The 18-cm main lines of OH therefore appear to be a new tracer for the ``CO-Dark'' molecular gas in the Galactic ISM. Quantitative estimates for this dark molecular

  5. Powerful Molecular Outflows in Nearby Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, Sylvain; Meléndez, Marcio

    2014-07-01

    We report the results from a systematic search for molecular (OH 119 μm) outflows with Herschel-PACS† in a sample of 43 nearby (z < 0.3) galaxy mergers, mostly ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and QSOs. We find that the character of the OH feature (strength of the absorption relative to the emission) correlates with that of the 9.7-μm silicate feature, a measure of obscuration in ULIRGs. Unambiguous evidence for molecular outflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more blueshifted than -50 km s-1, is seen in 26 (70%) of the 37 OH-detected targets, suggesting a wide-angle (~ 145°) outflow geometry. Conversely, unambiguous evidence for molecular inflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more redshifted than +50 km s-1, is seen in only 4 objects, suggesting a planar or filamentary geometry for the inflowing gas. Terminal outflow velocities of ~ -1000 km s-1 are measured in several objects, but median outflow velocities are typically ~ -200 km s-1. While the outflow velocities show no statistically significant dependence on the star formation rate, they are distinctly more blueshifted among systems with large AGN fractions and luminosities [log (L AGN/L ⊙) >= 11.8 +/- 0.3]. The quasars in these systems play a dominant role in driving the molecular outflows. In contrast, the most AGN dominated systems, where OH is seen purely in emission, show relatively modest OH line widths, despite their large AGN luminosities, perhaps indicating that molecular outflows subside once the quasar has cleared a path through the obscuring material.

  6. Spatially resolved chemistry in nearby galaxies. III. Dense molecular gas in the inner disk of the LIRG IRAS 04296+2923

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, David S.; Turner, Jean L.; Beck, Sara C. E-mail: turner@astro.ucla.edu

    2014-11-10

    We present a survey of 3 mm molecular lines in IRAS 04296+2923, one of the brightest known molecular-line emitting galaxies, and one of the closest luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs). Data are from the Owens Valley and CARMA millimeter interferometers. Species detected at ≲ 4'' resolution include C{sup 18}O, HCN, HCO{sup +}, HNC, CN, CH{sub 3}OH, and, tentatively, HNCO. Along with existing CO, {sup 13}CO, and radio continuum data, these lines constrain the chemical properties of the inner disk. Dense molecular gas in the nucleus fuels a star formation rate ≳10 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and is traced by lines of HCN, HCO{sup +}, HNC, and CN. A correlation between HCN and star formation rate is observed on sub-kiloparsec scales, consistent with global relations. Toward the nucleus, CN abundances are similar to those of HCN, indicating emission comes from a collection (∼40-50) of moderate visual extinction, photon-dominated-region clouds. The CO isotopic line ratios are unusual: CO(1-0)/{sup 13}CO(1-0) and CO(1-0)/C{sup 18}O(1-0) line ratios are large toward the starburst, as is commonly observed in LIRGs, but farther out in the disk these ratios are remarkably low (≲ 3). {sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O abundance ratios are lower than in Galactic clouds, possibly because the C{sup 18}O is enriched by massive star ejecta from the starburst. {sup 13}CO is underabundant relative to CO. Extended emission from CH{sub 3}OH indicates that dynamical shocks pervade both the nucleus and the inner disk. The unusual CO isotopologue ratios, the CO/HCN intensity ratio versus L {sub IR}, the HCN/CN abundance ratio, and the gas consumption time versus inflow rate all indicate that the starburst in IRAS 04296+2923 is in an early stage of development.

  7. On dynamic gas ablation from spherical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepveu, M.

    1981-05-01

    Two-dimensional, time dependent gas dynamic calculations are presented on the transonic motion of galaxies through a cluster medium. Lea and De Young's (1976) calculations are extended to include violent behavior in the center. On time scales of 10 to the 8th yr, galaxies in clusters can already lose a significant fraction of their gaseous content (up to 50% has been found in the calculations). This dynamic ablation occurs through rarefaction rather than shock heating. Explosions in spherical galaxies become effective as mechanisms for gas removal only if the galaxy moves with respect to its surroundings. Speculations are made on stripping of spiral galaxies (moving head-on in a cluster); the Gunn and Gott (1972) stripping formula is put to doubt. A method is suggested to obtain information on the state of motion of field galaxies.

  8. TOTAL MOLECULAR GAS MASSES OF z {approx} 3 LYMAN- BREAK GALAXIES: CO(J = 1 {yields} 0) EMISSION IN MS 1512-cB58 AND THE COSMIC EYE

    SciTech Connect

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Carilli, Christopher L.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Walter, Fabian

    2010-12-01

    We report the detection of CO(J = 1 {yields} 0) emission toward the lensed L {sup *} {sub UV} Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) MS 1512-cB58 (z = 2.73) and the Cosmic Eye (z = 3.07), using the Expanded Very Large Array. The strength of the CO line emission reveals molecular gas reservoirs with masses of (4.6 {+-} 1.1) x 10{sup 8} ({mu}{sub L}/32){sup -1} ({alpha}{sub CO}/0.8) M {sub sun} and (9.3 {+-} 1.6) x 10{sup 8} ({mu}{sub L}/28){sup -1} ({alpha}{sub CO}/0.8) M {sub sun}, respectively. These observations suggest {approx}30%-40% larger gas reservoirs than previously estimated based on CO(J = 3 {yields} 2) observations due to subthermal excitation of the J = 3 line. These observations also suggest gas mass fractions of 0.46 {+-} 0.17 and 0.16 {+-} 0.06. The CO(J = 1 {yields} 0) emission in the Cosmic Eye is slightly resolved on scales of 4.''5 {+-} 1.''5, consistent with previous studies of nebular emission lines. This suggests that the molecular gas is associated with the most intensely star-forming regions seen in the ultraviolet (UV). We do not resolve the CO(J = 1 {yields} 0) emission in cB58 at {approx}2'' resolution, but find that the CO(J = 1 {yields} 0) emission is also consistent with the position of the UV-brightest emission peak. The gas masses, gas fractions, moderate CO line excitation, and star formation efficiencies in these galaxies are consistent with what is found in nearby luminous infrared galaxies. These observations thus currently represent the best constraints on the molecular gas content of 'ordinary' (i.e., {approx}L* {sub UV}) z {approx} 3 star-forming galaxies. Despite comparable star formation rates, the gas properties of these young LBGs seem to be different from the recently identified optical/infrared-selected high-z massive, gas-rich star-forming galaxies, which are more gas-rich and massive, but have lower star formation efficiencies, and presumably trace a different galaxy population.

  9. Karl G. Jansky very large array observations of cold dust and molecular gas in starbursting quasar host galaxies at z ∼ 4.5

    SciTech Connect

    Wagg, J.; Carilli, C. L.; Lentati, L.; Maiolino, R.; Hills, R.; Aravena, M.; Cox, P.; McMahon, R. G.; Riechers, D.; Walter, F.; Andreani, P.; Wolfe, A.

    2014-03-10

    We present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of 44 GHz continuum and CO J = 2-1 line emission in BRI 1202–0725 at z = 4.7 (a starburst galaxy and quasar pair) and BRI 1335–0417 at z = 4.4 (also hosting a quasar). With the full 8 GHz bandwidth capabilities of the upgraded VLA, we study the (rest-frame) 250 GHz thermal dust continuum emission for the first time along with the cold molecular gas traced by the low-J CO line emission. The measured CO J = 2-1 line luminosities of BRI 1202–0725 are L{sub CO}{sup ′}=(8.7±0.8)×10{sup 10} K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2} and L{sub CO}{sup ′}=(6.0 ± 0.5)×10{sup 10} K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2} for the submillimeter galaxy (SMG) and quasar, respectively, which are equal to previous measurements of the CO J = 5-4 line luminosities implying thermalized line emission, and we estimate a combined cold molecular gas mass of ∼9×10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. In BRI 1335–0417 we measure L{sub CO}{sup ′}=(7.3±0.6)×10{sup 10} K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2}. We detect continuum emission in the SMG BRI 1202–0725 North (S {sub 44} {sub GHz} = 51 ± 6 μJy), while the quasar is detected with S {sub 44} {sub GHz} = 24 ± 6 μJy and in BRI 1335–0417 we measure S {sub 44} {sub GHz} = 40 ± 7 μJy. Combining our continuum observations with previous data at (rest-frame) far-infrared and centimeter wavelengths, we fit three-component models in order to estimate the star formation rates. This spectral energy distribution fitting suggests that the dominant contribution to the observed 44 GHz continuum is thermal dust emission, while either thermal free-free or synchrotron emission contributes less than 30%.

  10. A Massive Molecular Gas Reservoir in the Z = 2.221 Type-2 Quasar Host Galaxy SMM J0939+8315 Lensed by the Radio Galaxy 3C220.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, T. K. Daisy; Riechers, Dominik A.

    2016-02-01

    We report the detection of CO(J = 3 \\to 2) line emission in the strongly lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) SMM J0939+8315 at z = 2.221, using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. SMM J0939+8315 hosts a type-2 quasar, and is gravitationally lensed by the radio galaxy 3C220.3 and its companion galaxy at z = 0.685. The 104 GHz continuum emission underlying the CO line is detected toward 3C220.3 with an integrated flux density of Scont = 7.4 ± 1.4 mJy. Using the CO(J = 3 \\to 2) line intensity of ICO(3-2) = (12.6 ± 2.0) Jy km s-1, we derive a lensing- and excitation-corrected CO line luminosity of {L}{{CO(1-0)}}\\prime = (3.4 ± 0.7) × 1010 (10.1/μL) K km s-1 pc2 for the SMG, where μL is the lensing magnification factor inferred from our lens modeling. This translates to a molecular gas mass of Mgas = (2.7 ± 0.6) × 1010 (10.1/μL) M⊙. Fitting spectral energy distribution models to the (sub)-millimeter data of this SMG yields a dust temperature of T = 63.1{}-1.3+1.1 K, a dust mass of Mdust = (5.2 ± 2.1) × 108 (10.1/μL) M⊙, and a total infrared luminosity of LIR = (9.1 ± 1.2) ×1012 (10.1/μL) L⊙. We find that the properties of the interstellar medium of SMM J0939+8315 overlap with both SMGs and type-2 quasars. Hence, SMM J0939+8315 may be transitioning from a starbursting phase to an unobscured quasar phase as described by the “evolutionary link” model, according to which this system may represent an intermediate stage in the evolution of present-day galaxies at an earlier epoch.

  11. A scaling law of radial gas distribution in disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhong

    1990-01-01

    Based on the idea that local conditions within a galactic disk largely determine the region's evolution time scale, researchers built a theoretical model to take into account molecular cloud and star formations in the disk evolution process. Despite some variations that may be caused by spiral arms and central bulge masses, they found that many late-type galaxies show consistency with the model in their radial atomic and molecular gas profiles. In particular, researchers propose that a scaling law be used to generalize the gas distribution characteristics. This scaling law may be useful in helping to understand the observed gas contents in many galaxies. Their model assumes an exponential mass distribution with disk radius. Most of the mass are in atomic gas state at the beginning of the evolution. Molecular clouds form through a modified Schmidt Law which takes into account gravitational instabilities in a possible three-phase structure of diffuse interstellar medium (McKee and Ostriker, 1977; Balbus and Cowie, 1985); whereas star formation proceeds presumably unaffected by the environmental conditions outside of molecular clouds (Young, 1987). In such a model both atomic and molecular gas profiles in a typical galactic disk (as a result of the evolution) can be fitted simultaneously by adjusting the efficiency constants. Galaxies of different sizes and masses, on the other hand, can be compared with the model by simply scaling their characteristic length scales and shifting their radial ranges to match the assumed disk total mass profile sigma tot(r).

  12. Dynamics of gas disks in triaxial galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Steiman-Cameron, T.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Increasing evidence has accumulated since the mid 1970's arguing that many, if not all, undisturbed galaxies may have triaxial mass distributions. The steady state configurations (preferred planes) of gas disks in triaxial galaxies with static and rotating surface figures is determined. In addition, the evolution of a gas disk as it settles into the steady state is followed for both axisymmetric and triaxial galaxies. Observational tests are provided for triaxial galactic geometry and give more accurate measures of settling times than those previously published. The preferred planes for gas disks in static and tumbling triaxial galaxies are determined using an analytic method derived from celestial mechanics. The evolution of gas disks which are not in the steady state is followed using numerical methods.

  13. Molecular disks in radio galaxies. The pathway to ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prandoni, I.; Laing, R. A.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Parma, P.

    2010-11-01

    Context. It has recently been proposed that the jets of low-luminosity radio galaxies are powered by direct accretion of the hot phase of the IGM onto the central black hole. Cold gas remains a plausible alternative fuel supply, however. The most compelling evidence that cold gas plays a role in fueling radio galaxies is that dust is detected more commonly and/or in larger quantities in (elliptical) radio galaxies compared with radio-quiet elliptical galaxies. On the other hand, only small numbers of radio galaxies have yet been detected in CO (and even fewer imaged), and whether or not all radio galaxies have enough cold gas to fuel their jets remains an open question. If so, then the dynamics of the cold gas in the nuclei of radio galaxies may provide important clues to the fuelling mechanism. Aims: The only instrument capable of imaging the molecular component on scales relevant to the accretion process is ALMA, but very little is yet known about CO in southern radio galaxies. Our aim is to measure the CO content in a complete volume-limited sample of southern radio galaxies, in order to create a well-defined list of nearby targets to be imaged in the near future with ALMA. Methods: APEX [This publication is based on data acquired with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX). APEX is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie, the European Southern Observatory, and the Onsala Space Observatory.] has recently been equipped with a receiver (APEX-1) able to observe the 230 GHz waveband. This allows us to search for CO(2-1) line emission in our target galaxies. Results: Here we present the results for our first three southern targets, proposed for APEX-1 spectroscopy during science verification: NGC 3557, IC 4296 and NGC 1399. The experiment was successful with two targets detected, and possible indications for a double-horned CO line profile, consistent with ordered rotation. These early results are encouraging, demonstrating that APEX can

  14. The Structure of Dark Molecular Gas in the Galaxy. I. A Pilot Survey for 18 cm OH Emission Toward l≈ 105°, b≈ +1°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Ronald J.; Hogg, David E.; Engelke, Philip D.

    2015-04-01

    We report the first results from a survey for 1665, 1667, and 1720 MHz OH emission over a small region of the Outer Galaxy centered at l≈ 105\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 0,b≈ +1\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 0. This sparse, high-sensitivity survey ({Δ }{{T}A}≈ {Δ }{{T}mb}≈ 3.0-3.5 mK rms in 0.55 km s-1 channels), was carried out as a pilot project with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) (FWHM ≈ 7\\buildrel{ \\prime}\\over{.} 6 ) on a 3 × 9 grid at 0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 5 spacing. The pointings were chosen to correspond with those of the existing 12CO(1-0) CfA survey of the Galaxy done at a similar resolution (8.‧4). With 2 hr integrations, 1667 MHz OH emission was detected with the GBT at ≳ 21 of the 27 survey positions (≥slant 78% ), confirming the ubiquity of molecular gas in the ISM as traced by this spectral line. With few exceptions, the main OH lines at 1665 and 1667 MHz appear in the ratio of 5:9 characteristic of LTE at our sensitivity levels. No OH absorption features are recorded in the area of the present survey, in agreement with the low levels of continuum background emission in this direction. At each pointing the OH emission appears in several components extending over a wide range of radial velocity and coinciding with well-known features of Galactic structure such as the Local Arm and the Perseus Arm. In contrast, little CO emission is seen in the survey area; less than half of the ≳ 50 identified OH spectral features show detectable CO counterparts at the CfA sensitivity levels, and these are generally relatively faint. There are no CO features without corresponding OH emission in our survey. With very few exceptions, peaks in the OH profiles coincide with peaks in the GBT H i spectra (obtained concurrently, FWHM 8.‧9), although the converse is not true. We conclude that main-line OH emission is a promising tracer for the “dark molecular gas” in the Galaxy discovered earlier in far-IR and gamma-ray emission

  15. The Evolution of Galaxies (via SF activity and gas content) versus Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cybulski, Ryan; Yun, Min Su

    2016-01-01

    My dissertation work concerns the accurate mapping of the large-scale structure (LSS), traced by galaxies, and the assessment of the dependence of fundamental galaxy properties (e.g. star-formation activity, color, and gas content) on their environment. Mapping of the LSS is done with two complementary techniques, and together they provide both a local measure of the density field and a more global characterization of the environment of a galaxy, thereby allowing for a more complete measure of a galaxy's environment. I have applied this LSS mapping technique to the entire Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic galaxy sample at z<0.05, divided into multiple redshift bins, to explore the environmental dependence on galaxy evolution over a significant volume and a large dynamic range of environments. I will also present a more focused study looking at the molecular gas content of galaxies in two clusters at z~0.2, based on a program I am leading with the Large Millimeter Telescope that has obtained CO spectroscopy for ~70 galaxies with a range of stellar masses, atomic gas masses, and different parts of projected phase space around the two clusters. This molecular gas study provides a detailed statistical look at how the molecular and atomic gas contents of galaxies are affected by the environmental processes in their host clusters. I will summarize all of my results in these various aspects of my dissertation, with the overall theme of how galaxies are affected by their environment.

  16. ENHANCED DENSE GAS FRACTION IN ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Juneau, S.; Shirley, Y. L.; Bussmann, R. S.; Narayanan, D. T.; Moustakas, J.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Vanden Bout, P. A. E-mail: yshirley@as.arizona.ed E-mail: dnarayanan@cfa.harvard.ed E-mail: robk@ast.cam.ac.u

    2009-12-20

    We present a detailed analysis of the relation between infrared luminosity and molecular line luminosity, for a variety of molecular transitions, using a sample of 34 nearby galaxies spanning a broad range of infrared luminosities (10{sup 10} L{sub sun} < L{sub IR} < 10{sup 12.5} L{sub sun}). We show that the power-law index of the relation is sensitive to the critical density of the molecular gas tracer used, and that the dominant driver in observed molecular line ratios in galaxies is the gas density. As most nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) exhibit strong signatures of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in their center, we revisit previous claims questioning the reliability of HCN as a probe of the dense gas responsible for star formation in the presence of AGNs. We find that the enhanced HCN(1-0)/CO(1-0) luminosity ratio observed in ULIRGs can be successfully reproduced using numerical models with fixed chemical abundances and without AGN-induced chemistry effects. We extend this analysis to a total of 10 molecular line ratios by combining the following transitions: CO(1-0), HCO{sup +}(1-0), HCO{sup +}(3-2), HCN(1-0), and HCN(3-2). Our results suggest that AGNs reside in systems with higher dense gas fraction, and that chemistry or other effects associated with their hard radiation field may not dominate (NGC 1068 is one exception). Galaxy merger could be the underlying cause of increased dense gas fraction, and the evolutionary stage of such mergers may be another determinant of the HCN/CO luminosity ratio.

  17. Gas Ejection from Spiral Galaxy Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durelle, Jeremy

    We present the results of three proposed mechanisms for ejection of gas from a spiral arm into the halo. The mechanisms were modelled using magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) as a theoretical template. Each mechanism was run through simulations using a Fortran code: ZEUS-3D, an MHD equation solver. The first mechanism modelled the gas dynamics with a modified Hartmann flow which describes the fluid flow between two parallel plates. We initialized the problem based on observation of lagging halos; that is, that the rotational velocity falls to a zero at some height above the plane of the disk. When adopting a density profile which takes into account the various warm and cold H I and HII molecular clouds, the system evolves very strangely and does not reproduce the steady velocity gradient observed in edge-on galaxies. This density profile, adopted from Martos and Cox (1998), was used in the remaining models. However, when treating a system with a uniform density profile, a stable simulation can result. Next we considered supernova (SN) blasts as a possible mechanism for gas ejection. While a single SN was shown to be insufficient to promote vertical gas structures from the disk, multiple SN explosions proved to be enough to promote gas ejection from the disk. In these simulations, gas ejected to a height of 0.5 kpc at a velocity of 130 km s--1 from 500 supernovae, extending to an approximate maximum height of 1 kpc at a velocity of 6.7 x 103 km s--1 from 1500 supernovae after 0.15 Myr, the approximate time of propagation of a supernova shock wave. Finally, we simulated gas flowing into the spiral arm at such a speed to promote a jump in the disk gas, termed a hydraulic jump. The height of the jump was found to be slightly less than a kiloparsec with a flow velocity of 41 km s--1 into the halo after 167 Myr. The latter models proved to be effective mechanisms through which gas is ejected from the disk whereas the Hartmann flow (or toy model) mechanism remains unclear as the

  18. Gas-rich galaxy pair unveiled in the lensed quasar 0957+561

    PubMed

    Planesas; Martin-Pintado; Neri; Colina

    1999-12-24

    Molecular gas in the host galaxy of the lensed quasar 0957+561 (QSO 0957+561) at the redshift of 1.41 has been detected in the carbon monoxide (CO) line. This detection shows the extended nature of the molecular gas distribution in the host galaxy and the pronounced lensing effects due to the differentially magnified CO luminosity at different velocities. The estimated mass of molecular gas is about 4 x 10(9) solar masses, a molecular gas mass typical of a spiral galaxy like the Milky Way. A second, weaker component of CO is interpreted as arising from a close companion galaxy that is rich in molecular gas and has remained undetected so far. Its estimated molecular gas mass is 1.4 x 10(9) solar masses, and its velocity relative to the main galaxy is 660 kilometers per second. The ability to probe the molecular gas distribution and kinematics of galaxies associated with high-redshift lensed quasars can be used to improve the determination of the Hubble constant H(0).

  19. Gas distribution and starbursts in shell galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weil, Melinda L.; Hernquist, Lars

    1993-01-01

    Detailed maps of most elliptical galaxies reveal that, whereas the greatest part of their luminous mass originates from a smooth distribution with a surface brightness approximated by a de Vaucouleurs law, a small percentage of their light is contributed by low surface brightness distortions termed 'fine structures'. The sharp-edged features called 'shells' are successfully reproduced by merger and infall models involving accretion from less massive companions. In this context, dwarf spheroidal and compact disk galaxies are likely progenitors of these stellar phenomena. However, it is probable that the sources of shell-forming material also contain significant amounts of gas. This component may play an important role in constraining the formation and evolution of shell galaxies. To investigate the effects of the gaseous component, numerical simulations were performed to study the tidal disruption of dwarf galaxies containing both gas and stars by more massive primaries, and the evolution of the ensuing debris. The calculations were performed with a hybrid N-body/hydrodynamics code. Collisionless matter is evolved using a conventional N-body technique and gas is treated using smoothed particle hydrodynamics in which self-gravitating fluid elements are represented as particles evolving according to Lagrangian hydrodynamic equations. An isothermal equation of state is employed so the gas remains at a temperature 104 K. Owing to the large mass ratio between the primary and companion, the primary is modeled as a rigid potential and the self-gravity of both galaxies is neglected.

  20. Evolution of Hot Gas in Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, William G.

    2004-01-01

    This theory grant was awarded to study the curious nature, origin and evolution of hot gas in elliptical galaxies and their surrounding groups. Understanding the properties of this X-ray emitting gas has profound implications over the broad landscape of modern astrophysics: cosmology, galaxy formation, star formation, cosmic metal enrichment, galactic structure and dynamics, and the physics of hot gases containing dust and magnetic fields. One of our principal specific objectives was to interpret the marvelous new observations from the XMM and Chandru satellite X-ray telescopes.

  1. Evolution of Gas Across Spiral Arms in the Whirlpool Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, Melissa Nicole

    To investigate the dynamic evolution of gas across spiral arms, we conducted a detailed study of the gas and star formation along the spiral arms in the Whirlpool Galaxy, M51. This nearby, face-on spiral galaxy provides a unique laboratory to study the relationship between gas dynamics and star formation. The textbook picture of interstellar medium (ISM) evolution is rapidly changing. Molecular gas was once believed to form along spiral arms from the diffuse atomic gas in the inter-arm regions. Star formation occurs within giant molecular clouds during spiral arm passage. Lastly, the molecular gas is photo-dissociated back into atomic gas by massive stars on the downstream side of the spiral arm. Recent evidence, however, is revealing a new picture of the interstellar medium and the process of star formation. We seek development of a new picture by studying the development and evolution of molecular gas and the role of large scale galactic dynamics in organizing the interstellar medium. This thesis begins by presenting work measuring the geometrical offsets between interstellar gas and recent star formation. Interstellar gas is traced by atomic hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO). Star formation is traced by ionized hydrogen recombination lines and infrared emission from dust warmed by young bright stars. Measuring these offsets can help determine the underlying large scale galactic dynamics. Along the spiral arms in M51, offsets between CO and the star formation tracers suggest that gas is flowing through the spiral arms, but the offsets do not show the expected signature of a single pattern speed and imply a more complicated pattern. This thesis also examines the intermediate stages of gas evolution, by studying a denser component of the ISM closer to which stars will form. Only a small percent of the bulk molecular gas will become dense enough to form stars. HCN and HCO+ probe densities ˜104 cm-3, where as the bulk gas is 500 cm-3. This thesis looks at HCN and

  2. JET-POWERED MOLECULAR HYDROGEN EMISSION FROM RADIO GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ogle, Patrick; Guillard, Pierre; Boulanger, Francois; Nesvadba, Nicole; Evans, Daniel A.; Antonucci, Robert; Appleton, P. N.; Leipski, Christian

    2010-12-01

    H{sub 2} pure-rotational emission lines are detected from warm (100-1500 K) molecular gas in 17/55 (31% of) radio galaxies at redshift z < 0.22 observed with the Spitzer IR Spectrograph. The summed H{sub 2} 0-0 S(0)-S(3) line luminosities are L(H{sub 2}) = 7 x 10{sup 38}-2 x 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}, yielding warm H{sub 2} masses up to 2 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}. These radio galaxies, of both FR radio morphological types, help to firmly establish the new class of radio-selected molecular hydrogen emission galaxies (radio MOHEGs). MOHEGs have extremely large H{sub 2} to 7.7 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission ratios: L(H{sub 2})/L(PAH7.7) = 0.04-4, up to a factor 300 greater than the median value for normal star-forming galaxies. In spite of large H{sub 2} masses, MOHEGs appear to be inefficient at forming stars, perhaps because the molecular gas is kinematically unsettled and turbulent. Low-luminosity mid-IR continuum emission together with low-ionization emission line spectra indicates low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in all but three radio MOHEGs. The AGN X-ray emission measured with Chandra is not luminous enough to power the H{sub 2} emission from MOHEGs. Nearly all radio MOHEGs belong to clusters or close pairs, including four cool-core clusters (Perseus, Hydra, A2052, and A2199). We suggest that the H{sub 2} in radio MOHEGs is delivered in galaxy collisions or cooling flows, then heated by radio-jet feedback in the form of kinetic energy dissipation by shocks or cosmic rays.

  3. Ionized Gas Observation Toward a Nearby Starburst Galaxy NGC 253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, K.; Sorai, K.; Nakai, N.; Kuno, N.; Matsubayashi, K.; Sugai, H.; Takano, S.; Kohno, K.; Nakajima, T.

    2015-12-01

    ALMA observation of a hydrogen recombination emission line toward NGC 253 was performed. NGC 253 is a prototypical starburst galaxy in the nearby universe. The recombination line was clearly detected in the central region of NGC 253 with a spatial resolution of few dozens of parsecs at the galaxy. The line and thermal free-free continuum emission show quite similar spatial distribution, and this fact shows the recombination line certainly traces ionized gas formed by young massive stars. Estimated electron temperature (6500-9000K) from the data are similar to those of Galactic HII regions. The recombination line has large velocity width at the center of the galaxy, and the velocity structure is quite different from that of molecular emission line.

  4. Mapping CS in starburst galaxies: Disentangling and characterising dense gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, G.; Viti, S.; Bayet, E.; Aladro, R.; Yates, J.

    2015-06-01

    Aims: We observe the dense gas tracer CS in two nearby starburst galaxies to determine how the conditions of the dense gas varies across the circumnuclear regions in starburst galaxies. Methods: Using the IRAM-30m telescope, we mapped the distribution of the CS(2-1) and CS(3-2) lines in the circumnuclear regions of the nearby starburst galaxies NGC 3079 and NGC 6946. We also detected formaldehyde (H2CO) and methanol (CH3OH) in both galaxies. We marginally detect the isotopologue C34S. Results: We calculate column densities under LTE conditions for CS and CH3OH. Using the detections accumulated here to guide our inputs, we link a time and depth dependent chemical model with a molecular line radiative transfer model; we reproduce the observations, showing how conditions where CS is present are likely to vary away from the galactic centres. Conclusions: Using the rotational diagram method for CH3OH, we obtain a lower limit temperature of 14 K. In addition to this, by comparing the chemical and radiative transfer models to observations, we determine the properties of the dense gas as traced by CS (and CH3OH). We also estimate the quantity of the dense gas. We find that, provided there are between 105 and 106 dense cores in our beam, for both target galaxies, emission of CS from warm (T = 100-400 K), dense (n(H2) = 105-6 cm-3) cores, possibly with a high cosmic ray ionisation rate (ζ = 100ζ0) best describes conditions for our central pointing. In NGC 6946, conditions are generally cooler and/or less dense further from the centre, whereas in NGC 3079, conditions are more uniform. The inclusion of shocks allows for more efficient CS formation, which means that gas that is less dense by an order of magnitude is required to replicate observations in some cases.

  5. Ultra hot gas in the Galaxy: possible origins and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozernoy, L.; Titarchuk, L.; Ramaty, R.

    A remarkable enhancement of the 6.7 keV line emission and associated thermal continuum emission from the Galactic ridge toward the Galactic center discovered recently by Ginga satellite opens new opportunity of exploring high-energy phenomena in the Galaxy. This emission is thought to originate in a hot optically thin gas, and the central enhancement seems to be associated with an ultra hot (T~=108 K), rarefied [n~(3-6).10-2 cm-3] interior of the 200-pc expanding molecular ring in the Galactic center. Assuming that this interior is a superbubble resulting from an adiabatic explosion, we analyze the dynamics of the explosive phenomenon. Some implications of the presence of a cold (molecular) and a warm (radio emitting) gas between us and the ultra hot superbubble, such as fluorescence of iron lines in the cold gas and scattering of iron lines in warm (hot) gas are discussed.

  6. Ultra hot gas in the Galaxy: possible origins and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozernoy, L.; Titarchuk, L.; Ramaty, R.

    1992-06-01

    A remarkable enhancement of the 6.7 keV line emission and associated thermal continuum emission from the Galactic ridge toward the Galactic center discovered recently by Ginga satellite opens new opportunity of exploring high-energy phenomena in the Galaxy. This emission is thought to originate in a hot optically thin gas, and the central enhancement seems to be associated with an ultra hot (T≊108 K), rarefied [n˜(3-6)ṡ10-2 cm-3] interior of the 200-pc expanding molecular ring in the Galactic center. Assuming that this interior is a superbubble resulting from an adiabatic explosion, we analyze the dynamics of the explosive phenomenon. Some implications of the presence of a cold (molecular) and a warm (radio emitting) gas between us and the ultra hot superbubble, such as fluorescence of iron lines in the cold gas and scattering of iron lines in warm (hot) gas are discussed.

  7. THE DARK MOLECULAR GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfire, Mark G.; Hollenbach, David; McKee, Christopher F. E-mail: dhollenbach@seti.or

    2010-06-20

    The mass of molecular gas in an interstellar cloud is often measured using line emission from low rotational levels of CO, which are sensitive to the CO mass, and then scaling to the assumed molecular hydrogen H{sub 2} mass. However, a significant H{sub 2} mass may lie outside the CO region, in the outer regions of the molecular cloud where the gas-phase carbon resides in C or C{sup +}. Here, H{sub 2} self-shields or is shielded by dust from UV photodissociation, whereas CO is photodissociated. This H{sub 2} gas is 'dark' in molecular transitions because of the absence of CO and other trace molecules, and because H{sub 2} emits so weakly at temperatures 10 K molecular component. This component has been indirectly observed through other tracers of mass such as gamma rays produced in cosmic-ray collisions with the gas and far-infrared/submillimeter wavelength dust continuum radiation. In this paper, we theoretically model this dark mass and find that the fraction of the molecular mass in this dark component is remarkably constant ({approx}0.3 for average visual extinction through the cloud A-bar{sub V{approx_equal}}8) and insensitive to the incident ultraviolet radiation field strength, the internal density distribution, and the mass of the molecular cloud as long as A-bar{sub V}, or equivalently, the product of the average hydrogen nucleus column and the metallicity through the cloud, is constant. We also find that the dark mass fraction increases with decreasing A-bar{sub V}, since relatively more molecular H{sub 2} material lies outside the CO region in this case.

  8. Chandra Galaxy Atals - Global Hot Gas Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Anderson, Craig; Burke, Douglas J.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Fruscione, Antonella; Lauer, Jennifer L.; McCollough, Michael L.; Morgan, Douglas; Mossman, Amy; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Paggi, Alessandro; Trinchieri, Ginevra

    2016-04-01

    The hot gas in early type galaxies (ETGs) plays a crucial role in understanding their formation and evolution. As the hot gas is often extended to the outskirts beyond the optical size, the large scale structural features identified by Chandra (including jets, cavities, cold fronts, filaments and tails) point to key evolutionary mechanisms, e.g., AGN feedback, merging history, accretion/stripping and star formation and its quenching. In our new project, the Chandra Galaxy Atlas, we systematically analyze the archival Chandra data of ~100 ETGs to study the hot ISM. Using uniformly derived data products with spatially resolved spectral information, we will present gas morphology, scaling relations and X-ray based mass profiles and address their implications.

  9. Simulations of gas clouds in interacting galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomasson, Magnus

    1990-01-01

    A companion can induce a variety of morphological changes in a galaxy. The author uses N-body simulations to study the effects of different kinds of perturbations on the dynamics of a disk galaxy. The model is two-dimensional, with a disk consisting of about 60,000 particles. Most of the particles (80%) represent the old stellar population with a high velocity dispersion, while the rest (20%) represent gas clouds with a low velocity dispersion. Initially, the velocity dispersion corresponds to Q = 1 for the star particles, and Q = O for the gas particles, where Q is Toomre's (1964) stability parameter. The gas clouds can collide inelastically. The disk is stabilized by a rigid halo potential, and by the random motions of the old star particles. To simulate the effect of an encounter on the disk, a companion galaxy, modelled as a point mass, can move in a co-planar orbit around the disk. A complete description of the N-body code is found in Thomasson (1989). The spiral structures caused by a companion in first a direct and then a retrograde (with respect to the rotation of the disk) parabolic orbit are presented. The associated velocity fields suggest a way to observationally distinguish between leading and trailing spiral arms. The stability of the gas component in a disk in which tidally triggered infall of gas to the center occurs is studied. Finally, the author shows how a ring of gas can form in a disk as a result of a co-planar encounter with another galaxy.

  10. Circumnuclear molecular gas in M87 detected with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahakis, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    We present the detection of circumnuclear molecular gas residing within 100 pc of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the galaxy M87 (3C 274), using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to image the gas on spatial scales from 100 to 10 pc. The proximity of M87, the archetypical giant elliptical radio galaxy at the centre of the Virgo galaxy cluster, presents a unique opportunity to investigate in detail the circumnuclear molecular gas revealed first by single-dish observations and recently imaged for the first time with ALMA (Vlahakis et al., in prep). ALMA's unique long baseline capability now allows us to make the first detailed investigation of the properties of the interstellar medium around the galaxy's SMBH on scales down to 10 pc (0.1 arcsec). Here, we present results of ALMA Band 3 CO J=1-0 observations obtained at different angular resolutions. With this data we are able to trace the bulk of the molecular gas as well as the continuum emission, providing the deepest and highest spatial resolution images yet of the molecular gas content of this giant elliptical galaxy. The highest resolution data allow us to unambiguously resolve the molecular gas structures for the first time and investigate, in unprecedented detail, the nature and origin of molecular gas that resides within the sphere of influence of the SMBH.

  11. Galaxy formation - Gas dynamics versus stellar dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Contopoulos, G.; Voglis, N.; Hiotelis, N. )

    1990-12-01

    Stellar-dynamic and gasdynamic models of the formation and evolution of galaxies are examined in a comparative review, and typical numerical results are presented graphically. The growth and distribution of angular momentum of a stellar galaxy inside an environment of clusters are followed through expansion and collapse; the evolution of the velocity field is traced; and particular attention is given to gas simulations using a soft-particle hydrodynamical code similar to that of Monaghan and Lattanzio (1985). It is shown that the model correctly describes the organization of motion in the collapsing galaxy, but that details smaller than the particle size employed are not trustworthy. The need for simulations with larger numbers of smaller particles is indicated. 10 refs.

  12. Molecular hydrogen abundances of galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, Claudia del P.; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop; Furlong, Michelle; Frenk, Carlos S.; Bower, Richard G.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; Trayford, James W.; Bahé, Yannick M.; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the abundance of galactic molecular hydrogen (H2) in the `Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments' (EAGLE) cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We assign H2 masses to gas particles in the simulations in post-processing using two different prescriptions that depend on the local dust-to-gas ratio and the interstellar radiation field. Both result in H2 galaxy mass functions that agree well with observations in the local and high-redshift Universe. The simulations reproduce the observed scaling relations between the mass of H2 and the stellar mass, star formation rate and stellar surface density. Towards high redshifts, galaxies in the simulations display larger H2 mass fractions and lower H2 depletion time-scales, also in good agreement with observations. The comoving mass density of H2 in units of the critical density, Ω _H_2, peaks at z ≈ 1.2-1.5, later than the predicted peak of the cosmic star formation rate activity, at z ≈ 2. This difference stems from the decrease in gas metallicity and increase in interstellar radiation field with redshift, both of which hamper H2 formation. We find that the cosmic H2 budget is dominated by galaxies with M_H_2>10^9 M_{⊙}, star formation rates > 10 M_{⊙} yr^{-1} and stellar masses Mstellar > 1010 M⊙, which are readily observable in the optical and near-IR. The match between the H2 properties of galaxies that emerge in the simulations and observations is remarkable, particularly since H2 observations were not used to adjust parameters in EAGLE.

  13. AGN-stimulated cooling of hot gas in elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentini, Milena; Brighenti, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    We study the impact of relatively weak active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback on the interstellar medium (ISM) of intermediate and massive elliptical galaxies. We find that the AGN activity, while globally heating the ISM, naturally stimulates some degree of hot gas cooling on scales of several kpc. This process generates the persistent presence of a cold ISM phase, with mass ranging between 104 and ≳ 5 × 107 M⊙, where the latter value is appropriate for group centred, massive galaxies. Widespread cooling occurs where the ratio of cooling to free-fall time before the activation of the AGN feedback satisfies tcool/tff ≲ 70, that is we find a less restrictive threshold than commonly quoted in the literature. This process helps explaining the body of observations of cold gas (both ionized and neutral/molecular) in Ellipticals and, perhaps, the residual star formation detected in many early-type galaxies. The amount and distribution of the off-centre cold gas vary irregularly with time. The cold ISM velocity field is irregular, initially sharing the (outflowing) turbulent hot gas motion. Typical velocity dispersions of the cold gas lie in the range 100-200 km s-1. Freshly generated cold gas often forms a cold outflow and can appear kinematically misaligned with respect to the stars. We also follow the dust evolution in the hot and cold gas. We find that the internally generated cold ISM has a very low dust content, with representative values of the dust-to-gas ratio of 10-4-10-5. Therefore, this cold gas can escape detection in the traditional dust-absorption maps.

  14. On the formation of polar ring galaxies and tidal dwarf galaxies in gas-rich galaxy groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilborn, Virginia; Sweet, Sarah; Meurer, Gerhardt; Drinkwater, Michael

    2015-08-01

    We are conducting a study of the properties of galaxies and dwarfs in 16 gas-rich galaxy groups identified in the Survey for Ionization in Neutral Gas Galaxies (SINGG; Meurer et al. 2006). We have found a young gas-rich coalescing galaxy group, J1051-17. Key features of this system are gas-rich tidal tails, studded with dwarf galaxies extending 200 kpc which merge in to a low surface brightness polar disk orbiting a very red edge-on host hosting a central AGN. Accretion from the polar disk may be feeding the AGN and powering a galactic wind. The example of this system suggests that tidal interactions with gas rich satellites may be a key process that aligns satellites in to polar planes while fuelling accretion down to the very centres of the host. We discuss the formation scenario of this polar ring galaxy, and investigate the formation of tidal dwarf galaxies in the wider group sample.

  15. Stellar feedback as the origin of an extended molecular outflow in a starburst galaxy.

    PubMed

    Geach, J E; Hickox, R C; Diamond-Stanic, A M; Krips, M; Rudnick, G H; Tremonti, C A; Sell, P H; Coil, A L; Moustakas, J

    2014-12-01

    Recent observations have revealed that starburst galaxies can drive molecular gas outflows through stellar radiation pressure. Molecular gas is the phase of the interstellar medium from which stars form, so these outflows curtail stellar mass growth in galaxies. Previously known outflows, however, involve small fractions of the total molecular gas content and have typical scales of less than a kiloparsec. In at least some cases, input from active galactic nuclei is dynamically important, so pure stellar feedback (the momentum return into the interstellar medium) has been considered incapable of rapidly terminating star formation on galactic scales. Molecular gas has been detected outside the galactic plane of the archetypal starburst galaxy M82 (refs 4 and 5), but so far there has been no evidence that starbursts can propel substantial quantities of cold molecular gas to the same galactocentric radius (about 10 kiloparsecs) as the warmer gas that has been traced by metal ion absorbers in the circumgalactic medium. Here we report observations of molecular gas in a compact (effective radius 100 parsecs) massive starburst galaxy at redshift 0.7, which is known to drive a fast outflow of ionized gas. We find that 35 per cent of the total molecular gas extends approximately 10 kiloparsecs, and one-third of this extended gas has a velocity of up to 1,000 kilometres per second. The kinetic energy associated with this high-velocity component is consistent with the momentum flux available from stellar radiation pressure. This demonstrates that nuclear bursts of star formation are capable of ejecting large amounts of cold gas from the central regions of galaxies, thereby strongly affecting their evolution by truncating star formation and redistributing matter. PMID:25471881

  16. Stellar feedback as the origin of an extended molecular outflow in a starburst galaxy.

    PubMed

    Geach, J E; Hickox, R C; Diamond-Stanic, A M; Krips, M; Rudnick, G H; Tremonti, C A; Sell, P H; Coil, A L; Moustakas, J

    2014-12-01

    Recent observations have revealed that starburst galaxies can drive molecular gas outflows through stellar radiation pressure. Molecular gas is the phase of the interstellar medium from which stars form, so these outflows curtail stellar mass growth in galaxies. Previously known outflows, however, involve small fractions of the total molecular gas content and have typical scales of less than a kiloparsec. In at least some cases, input from active galactic nuclei is dynamically important, so pure stellar feedback (the momentum return into the interstellar medium) has been considered incapable of rapidly terminating star formation on galactic scales. Molecular gas has been detected outside the galactic plane of the archetypal starburst galaxy M82 (refs 4 and 5), but so far there has been no evidence that starbursts can propel substantial quantities of cold molecular gas to the same galactocentric radius (about 10 kiloparsecs) as the warmer gas that has been traced by metal ion absorbers in the circumgalactic medium. Here we report observations of molecular gas in a compact (effective radius 100 parsecs) massive starburst galaxy at redshift 0.7, which is known to drive a fast outflow of ionized gas. We find that 35 per cent of the total molecular gas extends approximately 10 kiloparsecs, and one-third of this extended gas has a velocity of up to 1,000 kilometres per second. The kinetic energy associated with this high-velocity component is consistent with the momentum flux available from stellar radiation pressure. This demonstrates that nuclear bursts of star formation are capable of ejecting large amounts of cold gas from the central regions of galaxies, thereby strongly affecting their evolution by truncating star formation and redistributing matter.

  17. TWO POPULATIONS OF MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN THE ANTENNAE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Lisa H.; Keto, Eric; Ho, Luis C.

    2012-05-10

    Super star clusters-extremely massive clusters found predominately in starburst environments-are essential building blocks in the formation of galaxies and thought to dominate star formation in the high-redshift universe. However, the transformation from molecular gas into these ultracompact star clusters is not well understood. To study this process, we used the Submillimeter Array and the Plateau de Bure Interferometer to obtain high angular resolution ({approx}1.''5 or 160 pc) images of the Antennae overlap region in CO(2-1) to search for the molecular progenitors of the super star clusters. We resolve the molecular gas distribution into a large number of clouds, extending the differential cloud mass function down to a 5{sigma} completeness limit of 3.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }. We identify a distinct break in the mass function around log M{sub mol}/M{sub Sun} Almost-Equal-To 6.5, which separates the molecular clouds into two distinct populations. The smaller, less massive clouds reside in more quiescent areas in the region, while the larger, more massive clouds cluster around regions of intense star formation. A broken power-law fit to the mass function yields slopes of {alpha} = -1.39 {+-} 0.10 and {alpha} = -1.44 {+-} 0.14 for the low- and high-mass cloud population, well matched to the mass function found for super star clusters in the Antennae galaxies. We find large velocity gradients and velocity dispersions at the locations of intense star formation, suggestive of compressive shocks. It is likely that these environmental factors contribute to the formation of the observed massive molecular clouds and super star clusters in the Antennae galaxies.

  18. Cold gas and star formation in a merging galaxy sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakis, Antonis; Forbes, Duncan A.; Norris, Ray P.

    2000-10-01

    We explore the evolution of the cold gas (molecular and neutral hydrogen) and star formation activity during galaxy interactions, using a merging galaxy sequence comprising both pre- and post-merger candidates. Data for this study come from the literature, but are supplemented by some new radio observations presented here. First, we confirm that the ratio of far-infrared luminosity to molecular hydrogen mass (LFIRM(H2); star formation efficiency) increases close to nuclear coalescence. After the merging of the two nuclei there is evidence that the star formation efficiency declines again to values typical of ellipticals. This trend can be attributed to M(H2) depletion arising from interaction induced star formation. However, there is significant scatter, likely to arise from differences in the interaction details (e.g., disc-to-bulge ratio, geometry) of individual systems. Secondly, we find that the central molecular hydrogen surface density, ΣH2, increases close to the final stages of the merging of the two nuclei. Such a trend, indicating gas inflows caused by gravitational instabilities during the interaction, is also predicted by numerical simulations. Furthermore, there is evidence for a decreasing fraction of cold gas mass from early interacting systems to merger remnants, attributed to neutral hydrogen conversion into other forms (e.g., stars, hot gas) and molecular hydrogen depletion resulting from ongoing star formation. The evolution of the total-radio to blue-band luminosity ratio, reflecting the total (disc and nucleus) star formation activity, is also investigated. Although this ratio is on average higher than that for isolated spirals, we find a marginal increase along the merging sequence, attributed to the relative insensitivity of disc star formation to interactions. However, a similar result is also obtained for the nuclear radio emission, although galaxy interactions are believed to significantly affect the activity (star formation, AGN) in the

  19. DYNAMIC S0 GALAXIES. II. THE ROLE OF DIFFUSE HOT GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jiangtao; Chen Yang; Daniel Wang, Q.; Li Zhiyuan

    2011-08-10

    Cold gas loss is thought to be important in star formation quenching and morphological transition during the evolution of S0 galaxies. In high-density environments, this gas loss can be achieved via many external mechanisms. However, in relatively isolated environments, where these external mechanisms cannot be efficient, the gas loss must then be dominated by some internal processes. We have performed Chandra analysis of hot gas in five nearby isolated S0 galaxies, based on the quantitative subtraction of various stellar contributions. We find that all the galaxies studied in the present work are X-ray faint, with the luminosity of the hot gas (L{sub X} ) typically accounting for {approx}< 5% of the expected Type Ia supernova (SN) energy injection rate. We have further compared our results with those from relevant recent papers, in order to investigate the energy budget, cold-hot gas relation, and gas removal from S0 galaxies in isolated environments. We find that elliptical and S0 galaxies are not significantly different in L{sub X} at the low-mass end (typically with K-band luminosity L{sub K} {approx}< 10{sup 11} L{sub sun,K}). However, at the high-mass end, S0 galaxies tend to have significantly lower L{sub X} than elliptical galaxies of the same stellar masses, as already shown in previous observational and theoretical works. We further discuss the potential relationship of the diffuse X-ray emission with the cold (atomic and molecular) gas content in the S0 and elliptical galaxies included in our study. We find that L{sub X} /L{sup 2}{sub K} tends to correlate positively with the total cold gas mass (M{sub H{sub 2}+H{sub i}}) for cold-gas-poor galaxies with M{sub H{sub 2}+H{sub i}}{approx}<10{sup 8} M{sub sun}, while they anti-correlate with each other for cold-gas-rich galaxies. This cold-hot gas relationship can be explained in a scenario of early-type galaxy evolution, with the leftover cold gas from the precursor star-forming galaxy mainly removed by the

  20. HOT GAS HALOS IN EARLY-TYPE FIELD GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Mulchaey, John S.; Jeltema, Tesla E. E-mail: tesla@ucolick.or

    2010-05-20

    We use Chandra and XMM-Newton to study the hot gas content in a sample of field early-type galaxies. We find that the L {sub X}-L {sub K} relationship is steeper for field galaxies than for comparable galaxies in groups and clusters. The low hot gas content of field galaxies with L {sub K} {approx_lt} L {sub *} suggests that internal processes such as supernovae-driven winds or active galactic nucleus feedback expel hot gas from low-mass galaxies. Such mechanisms may be less effective in groups and clusters where the presence of an intragroup or intracluster medium can confine outflowing material. In addition, galaxies in groups and clusters may be able to accrete gas from the ambient medium. While there is a population of L {sub K} {approx_lt} L {sub *} galaxies in groups and clusters that retain hot gas halos, some galaxies in these rich environments, including brighter galaxies, are largely devoid of hot gas. In these cases, the hot gas halos have likely been removed via ram pressure stripping. This suggests a very complex interplay between the intragroup/intracluster medium and hot gas halos of galaxies in rich environments, with the ambient medium helping to confine or even enhance the halos in some cases and acting to remove gas in others. In contrast, the hot gas content of more isolated galaxies is largely a function of the mass of the galaxy, with more massive galaxies able to maintain their halos, while in lower mass systems the hot gas escapes in outflowing winds.

  1. High resolution ALMA observations of dense molecular medium in the central regions of active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, Kotaro

    2015-08-01

    I will present recent ALMA results on the dense molecular gas in the central regions of local active galaxies, including NGC 1068, NGC 1097, and NGC 7469, hosting both AGN and circumnuclear starburst regions. Impact of X-ray radiation, outflows, and shocks from active nuclei on the physical and chemical properties of the surrouding dense molecular medium will be discussed.

  2. Gas loss in simulated galaxies as they fall into clusters.

    PubMed

    Cen, Renyue; Pop, Ana Roxana; Bahcall, Neta A

    2014-06-01

    We use high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulations to gain insights into how galaxies lose their cold gas at low redshift as they migrate from the field to the high-density regions of clusters of galaxies. We find that beyond three cluster virial radii, the fraction of gas-rich galaxies is constant, representing the field. Within three cluster-centric radii, the fraction of gas-rich galaxies declines steadily with decreasing radius, reaching <10% near the cluster center. Our results suggest galaxies start to feel the effect of the cluster environment on their gas content well beyond the cluster virial radius. We show that almost all gas-rich galaxies at the cluster virial radius are falling in for the first time at nearly radial orbits. Furthermore, we find that almost no galaxy moving outward at the cluster virial radius is gas-rich (with a gas-to-baryon ratio greater than 1%). These results suggest that galaxies that fall into clusters lose their cold gas within a single radial round-trip.

  3. Gas loss in simulated galaxies as they fall into clusters.

    PubMed

    Cen, Renyue; Pop, Ana Roxana; Bahcall, Neta A

    2014-06-01

    We use high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulations to gain insights into how galaxies lose their cold gas at low redshift as they migrate from the field to the high-density regions of clusters of galaxies. We find that beyond three cluster virial radii, the fraction of gas-rich galaxies is constant, representing the field. Within three cluster-centric radii, the fraction of gas-rich galaxies declines steadily with decreasing radius, reaching <10% near the cluster center. Our results suggest galaxies start to feel the effect of the cluster environment on their gas content well beyond the cluster virial radius. We show that almost all gas-rich galaxies at the cluster virial radius are falling in for the first time at nearly radial orbits. Furthermore, we find that almost no galaxy moving outward at the cluster virial radius is gas-rich (with a gas-to-baryon ratio greater than 1%). These results suggest that galaxies that fall into clusters lose their cold gas within a single radial round-trip. PMID:24843167

  4. Gas loss in simulated galaxies as they fall into clusters

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Renyue; Pop, Ana Roxana; Bahcall, Neta A.

    2014-01-01

    We use high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulations to gain insights into how galaxies lose their cold gas at low redshift as they migrate from the field to the high-density regions of clusters of galaxies. We find that beyond three cluster virial radii, the fraction of gas-rich galaxies is constant, representing the field. Within three cluster-centric radii, the fraction of gas-rich galaxies declines steadily with decreasing radius, reaching <10% near the cluster center. Our results suggest galaxies start to feel the effect of the cluster environment on their gas content well beyond the cluster virial radius. We show that almost all gas-rich galaxies at the cluster virial radius are falling in for the first time at nearly radial orbits. Furthermore, we find that almost no galaxy moving outward at the cluster virial radius is gas-rich (with a gas-to-baryon ratio greater than 1%). These results suggest that galaxies that fall into clusters lose their cold gas within a single radial round-trip. PMID:24843167

  5. Hot X-ray emitting gas in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbiano, G.

    2003-04-01

    Hot X-ray emitting gas was discovered in galaxies with the Einstein Observatory, 25 year ago. This hot Interstellar Medium (ISM) may be in thermal equilibrium with the stars in large galaxy bulges (e.g. elliptical and lenticular galaxies) or may be heated by supernovae (SNIa). In star-forming galaxies (spirals, irregulars, merging galaxies) the ISM may be heated by star formation activity, via stellar winds and most efficiently supernova explosions. In this talk I will address recent Chandra observations of hot ISM in star-forming galaxies. X-ray observations of nearby galaxies, in combination with data from other regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, have revealed a complex multi-phase ISM in active star forming regions. Hot super-winds are seen escaping star-burst nuclei, undoubtly carrying with them elements into the intergalactic space. The study of these galaxies may give us a direct (albeit down-scaled) view of galaxy formation in act.

  6. Dense Molecular Gas in Centaurus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Wolfgang; Eckart, Andreas

    1999-10-01

    Centaurus A (NGC 5128) is the closest radio galaxy, and its molecular interstellar medium has been studied extensively in recent years. However, these studies used mostly molecular lines tracing low to medium density gas (see e.g. Eckart et al. 1990. Wild et al. 1997). The amount and distribution of the dense component remained largely unknown. We present spectra of the HCN(1-0) emission - which traces dense (n(H2) > 104 cm-3) molecular gas - at the center and along the prominent dust lane at offset positions +/- 60" and +/- 100", as well as single CS(2-1) and CS(3-2) spectra, observed with the SEST on La Silla, Chile. At the central position, the integrated intensity ratio I(HCN)/I(CO) peaks at 0.064, and decreases to somewhat equal to 0.02 to 0.04 in the dust lane. Based on the line luminosity ratio L(HCN)/L(CO) we estimate that there is a significant amount of dense gas in Centaurus A. The fraction of dense molecular gas as well as the star formation efficiency LFIR/LCO towards the center of Cen A is comparable to ultra-luminous infrared galaxies, and falls in between the values for ULIRGs and normal galaxies for positions in the dust lane. Details will be published in Wild & Eckart (A&A, in prep.). Eckart et al. 1990, ApJ 363, 451 Rydbeck et al. 1993, Astr.Ap. (Letters) 270, L13. Wild, W., Eckart, A. & Wiklind, T. 1997, Astr.Ap. 322, 419.

  7. INVESTIGATING THE POTENTIAL DILUTION OF THE METAL CONTENT OF HOT GAS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES BY ACCRETED COLD GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yuanyuan; Irwin, Jimmy A.

    2013-03-20

    The measured emission-weighted metal abundance of the hot gas in early-type galaxies has been known to be lower than theoretical expectations for 20 years. In addition, both X-ray luminosity and metal abundance vary significantly among galaxies of similar optical luminosities. This suggests some missing factors in the galaxy evolution process, especially the metal enrichment process. With Chandra and XMM-Newton, we studied 32 early-type galaxies (kT {approx}< 1 keV) covering a span of two orders of L{sub X,gas}/L{sub K} to investigate these missing factors. Contrary to previous studies that X-ray faint galaxies show extremely low Fe abundance ({approx}0.1 Z{sub Sun }), nearly all galaxies in our sample show an Fe abundance at least 0.3 Z{sub Sun }, although the measured Fe abundance difference between X-ray faint and X-ray bright galaxies remains remarkable. We investigated whether this dichotomy of hot gas Fe abundances can be related to the dilution of hot gas by mixing with cold gas. With a subset of 24 galaxies in this sample, we find that there is virtually no correlation between hot gas Fe abundances and their atomic gas content, which disproves the scenario that the low metal abundance of X-ray faint galaxies might be a result of the dilution of the remaining hot gas by pristine atomic gas. In contrast, we demonstrate a negative correlation between the measured hot gas Fe abundance and the ratio of molecular gas mass to hot gas mass, although it is unclear what is responsible for this apparent anti-correlation. We discuss several possibilities including that externally originated molecular gas might be able to dilute the hot gas metal content. Alternatively, the measured hot gas Fe abundance may be underestimated due to more complex temperature and abundance structures and even a two-temperature model might be insufficient to reflect the true value of the emission weighted mean Fe abundance.

  8. Dense molecular clouds in the SN 2008fp host galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, N. L. J.; Patat, F.

    2014-05-01

    Context. Supernovae (SNe) offer a unique opportunity to study physical properties, small-scale structure, and complex organic chemistry of the interstellar medium (ISM) in different galaxies. Aims: Interstellar absorption features, such as atomic and molecular lines as well as diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs), can be used to study the physical properties of extra-galactic diffuse interstellar clouds. Methods: We used optical high-resolution spectroscopy to study the properties of the ISM in the SN 2008fp host galaxy, ESO 428-G14. The properties of intervening dust were investigated via spectropolarimetry. Results: The spectra of SN 2008fp reveal a complex of diffuse atomic clouds at radial velocities in line with the systematic velocities of the host galaxy. In addition, a translucent (AV ~ 1.5 mag) cloud is detected at a heliocentric velocity of 1770 km s-1 (redshifted by 70 km s-1 with respect to the system velocity). This cold dense cloud is rich in dense atomic gas tracers, molecules, as well as DIBs. We have detected both C2 and C3 for the first time in a galaxy beyond the Local Group. The CN (0, 0) band-line ratios are consistent with an excitation temperature of T = 2.9 ± 0.4 K. The interstellar polarisation law deviates significantly from what is observed in the Galaxy, indicating substantial differences in the host dust/size composition. No variations over a period of about one month are observed in any of the ISM tracers. Conclusions: The lack of variability in the extra-galactic absorption line profiles implies that the absorbing material is not circumstellar and thus not directly affected by the SN event. It also shows that there are no significant density variation in the small-scale structure of the molecular cloud down to 100 AU. C2 is used to probe the cold diffuse ISM density and temperature. Here we also use observations of CN in a distant galaxies, though for now still in a limited way, for in situ measurements of the cosmic background

  9. Galaxy Zoo and ALFALFA: atomic gas and the regulation of star formation in barred disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Haynes, Martha P.; Keel, William C.; Lintott, Chris; Simmons, Brooke; Skibba, Ramin; Bamford, Steven; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Schawinski, Kevin

    2012-08-01

    We study the observed correlation between atomic gas content and the likelihood of hosting a large-scale bar in a sample of 2090 disc galaxies. Such a test has never been done before on this scale. We use data on morphologies from the Galaxy Zoo project and information on the galaxies' H I content from the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFALFA) blind H I survey. Our main result is that the bar fraction is significantly lower among gas-rich disc galaxies than gas-poor ones. This is not explained by known trends for more massive (stellar) and redder disc galaxies to host more bars and have lower gas fractions: we still see at fixed stellar mass a residual correlation between gas content and bar fraction. We discuss three possible causal explanations: (1) bars in disc galaxies cause atomic gas to be used up more quickly, (2) increasing the atomic gas content in a disc galaxy inhibits bar formation and (3) bar fraction and gas content are both driven by correlation with environmental effects (e.g. tidal triggering of bars, combined with strangulation removing gas). All three explanations are consistent with the observed correlations. In addition our observations suggest bars may reduce or halt star formation in the outer parts of discs by holding back the infall of external gas beyond bar co-rotation, reddening the global colours of barred disc galaxies. This suggests that secular evolution driven by the exchange of angular momentum between stars in the bar, and gas in the disc, acts as a feedback mechanism to regulate star formation in intermediate-mass disc galaxies. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 200 000 volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their contributions are individually acknowledged at South East Physics Network, E-mail: karen.masters@port.ac.ukEinstein fellow.

  10. First Connection between Cold Gas in Emission and Absorption: CO Emission from a Galaxy-Quasar Pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeleman, Marcel; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Zwaan, Martin A.; Kanekar, Nissim; Christensen, Lise; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; van Kampen, Eelco; Møller, Palle; Zafar, Tayyaba

    2016-04-01

    We present the first detection of molecular emission from a galaxy selected to be near a projected background quasar using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The ALMA detection of CO(1-0) emission from the z = 0.101 galaxy toward quasar PKS 0439-433 is coincident with its stellar disk and yields a molecular gas mass of Mmol ≈ 4.2 × 109 M⊙ (for a Galactic CO-to-H2 conversion factor), larger than the upper limit on its atomic gas mass. We resolve the CO velocity field, obtaining a rotational velocity of 134 ± 11 km s-1 and a resultant dynamical mass of ≥4 × 1010 M⊙. Despite its high metallicity and large molecular mass, the z = 0.101 galaxy has a low star formation rate, implying a large gas consumption timescale, larger than that typical of late-type galaxies. Most of the molecular gas is hence likely to be in a diffuse extended phase, rather than in dense molecular clouds. By combining the results of emission and absorption studies, we find that the strongest molecular absorption component toward the quasar cannot arise from the molecular disk, but is likely to arise from diffuse gas in the galaxy’s circumgalactic medium. Our results emphasize the potential of combining molecular and stellar emission line studies with optical absorption line studies to achieve a more complete picture of the gas within and surrounding high-redshift galaxies.

  11. Hot Gas and AGN Feedback in Galaxies and Nearby Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Christine; Forman, William; Bogdan, Akos; Randall, Scott; Kraft, Ralph; Churazov, Eugene

    2013-07-01

    Massive galaxies harbor a supermassive black hole at their centers. At high redshifts, these galaxies experienced a very active quasar phase, when, as their black holes grew by accretion, they produced enormous amounts of energy. At the present epoch, these black holes still undergo occasional outbursts, although the mode of their energy release is primarily mechanical rather than radiative. The energy from these outbursts can reheat the cooling gas in the galaxy cores and maintain the red and dead nature of the early-type galaxies. These outbursts also can have dramatic effects on the galaxy-scale hot coronae found in the more massive galaxies. We describe research in three areas related to the hot gas around galaxies and their supermassive black holes. First we present examples of galaxies with AGN outbursts that have been studied in detail. Second, we show that X-ray emitting low-luminosity AGN are present in 80% of the galaxies studied. Third, we discuss the first examples of extensive hot gas and dark matter halos in optically faint galaxies.

  12. Cold atomic gas in the inner Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garwood, Robert W.; Dickey, John M.

    1989-01-01

    A new set of 21 cm H I absorption spectra were obtained toward 21 compact continuum sources in the Galactic plane is presented. The 21 cm line velocity-averaged absorption coefficient as a function of Galactocentric distance is calculated. The result for distances within 2 kpc of the sun agrees with the local value found from absorption toward pulsars of 5-7 km/s/kpc. Overall, the absorption coefficient decreases to about half of its local value inside a Galactocentric radius of about 4 kpc. This decrease is shown to be primarily due to an increase in the mean line-of-sight distance between absorbing atomic clouds. Thus, the cool phase of the atomic gas is less abundant in the inner Galaxy than at the solar circle. The absorption spectra are similar in appearance to existing (C-12)O spectra. The spectral regions which show H I absorption also show CO emission.

  13. Giant Molecular Clouds and Star Formation in the Non-Grand Design Spiral Galaxy NGC 6946

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebolledo, David; Wong, Tony; Leroy, Adam

    2011-10-01

    Although the internal physical properties of molecular clouds have been extensively studied (Solomon et al. 1987), a more detailed understanding of their origin and evolution in different types of galaxies is needed. In order to disentangle the details of this process, we performed CO(1→0) CARMA observations of the eastern part of the multi-armed galaxy NGC 6946. Our goal was to determine if azimuthal segregation of various gas and star formation tracers occurs in this kind of spiral galaxy (Tamburro et al. 2008). Although we found no evidence of an angular offset between molecular gas, atomic gas and star formation regions in our observations, we observe a clear radial progression from regions where molecular gas dominates over atomic gas (for r ≤ 2.8 kpc) to regions where the gas becomes mainly atomic (5.6 kpc ≤ r ≤ 7.6 kpc) when azimuthally averaged. In addition, we found that the densest concentrations of molecular gas are located on arms, particularly where they appear to intersect. This result is in concordance with the behavior predicted by simulations of the spiral galaxies with an active potential (Clarke & Gittins 2006; Dobbs & Bonnell 2008). Since NGC 6946 is located at a distance of 5.5 Mpc, the linear resolution of the map corresponds to 140 pc. At such resolution, we were able to find CO emitting complexes with masses greater than those of typical Giant Molecular Clouds (105-106 M⊙). To identify GMCs individually and make a more detailed study of their physical properties, we made D array observations of CO(2→1) toward the densest concentrations of gas located in the prominent spiral arms. We achieved a linear resolution of 50 pc at 1 mm in D array, similar to GMCs sizes found in other galaxies (Bolatto et al. 2008). We present first results about possible differences in the properties of the on-arm clouds and the inter-arm clouds. While inter-arm GMAs in grand-design galaxies are thought to be formed by fragmentation of more massive on

  14. COLD MOLECULAR GAS IN MERGER REMNANTS. I. FORMATION OF MOLECULAR GAS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Junko; Iono, Daisuke; Komugi, Shinya; Espada, Daniel; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Matsuda, Yuichi; Kawabe, Ryohei; Yun, Min S.; Crocker, Alison F.; Narayanan, Desika; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Yoichi; Wilner, David J.; Pan, Hsi-An

    2014-09-01

    We present the ≲1 kpc resolution {sup 12}CO imaging study of 37 optically selected local merger remnants using new and archival interferometric maps obtained with ALMA, CARMA, the Submillimeter Array, and the Plateau de Bure Interferometer. We supplement a sub-sample with single-dish measurements obtained at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope for estimating the molecular gas mass (10{sup 7} {sup –} {sup 11} M {sub ☉}) and evaluating the missing flux of the interferometric measurements. Among the sources with robust CO detections, we find that 80% (24/30) of the sample show kinematical signatures of rotating molecular gas disks (including nuclear rings) in their velocity fields, and the sizes of these disks vary significantly from 1.1 kpc to 9.3 kpc. The size of the molecular gas disks in 54% of the sources is more compact than the K-band effective radius. These small gas disks may have formed from a past gas inflow that was triggered by a dynamical instability during a potential merging event. On the other hand, the rest (46%) of the sources have gas disks that are extended relative to the stellar component, possibly forming a late-type galaxy with a central stellar bulge. Our new compilation of observational data suggests that nuclear and extended molecular gas disks are common in the final stages of mergers. This finding is consistent with recent major-merger simulations of gas-rich progenitor disks. Finally, we suggest that some of the rotation-supported turbulent disks observed at high redshifts may result from galaxies that have experienced a recent major merger.

  15. Giant Molecular Clouds and Star Formation in the Non-Grand Design Spiral Galaxy NGC 6946

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebolledo, David; Wong, T.; Leroy, A.

    2012-01-01

    Although the internal physical properties of molecular clouds have been extensively studied (Solomon et al. 1987), a more detailed understanding of their origin and evolution in different types of galaxies is needed. In order to disentangle the details of this process, we performed CO(1-0) CARMA observations of the eastern part of the multi-armed galaxy NGC 6946. Although we found no evidence of an angular offset between molecular gas, atomic gas and star formation regions in our observations (Tamburro et al. 2008), we observe a clear radial progression from regions where molecular gas dominates over atomic gas (for r ≤ 2.8 kpc) to regions where the gas becomes mainly atomic (5.6 kpc ≤ r ≤ 7.6 kpc) when azimuthally averaged. In addition, we found that the densest concentrations of molecular gas are located on arms, particularly where they appear to intersect, which is in concordance with the predictions by simulations of the spiral galaxies with an active potential (Clarke & Gittins 2006; Dobbs & Bonnell 2008). At CO(1-0) resolution (140 pc), we were able to find CO emitting complexes with masses greater than those of typical Giant Molecular Clouds (105-106 M⊙). To identify GMCs individually and make a more detailed study of their physical properties, we made D array observations of CO(2-1) toward the densest concentrations of gas, achieving a resolution similar to GMCs sizes found in other galaxies (Bolatto et al. 2008). We present first results about differences in properties of the on-arm clouds and inter-arm clouds. We found that, in general, on-arm clouds present broader line widths, are more massive and more active in star formation than inter-arm clouds. We investigated if the velocity dispersion observed in CO(1-0) emitting complexes reflects velocity differences between unresolved smaller clouds, or if it corresponds to actual internal turbulence of the gas observed.

  16. Star Formation and Dense Gas in Galaxy Mergers from the VIXENS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiderman, Amanda L.; VIXENS Team

    2016-01-01

    We present our λ= 3 mm IRAM and NRO single dish line survey for a sample of 15 interacting galaxies in the VIRUS-P Investigation of the eXtreme ENvironments of Starbursts (VIXENS) survey. Our sample of merging galaxies range from early to late interaction stages (close pairs to merger remnants, respectively). A variety of molecular lines are detected including dense gas tracers HCN, HCO+, HNC, CS, CN (and others) as well as 12CO and 13CO. We compare the dense gas fractions with 12CO and 13CO as well as star formation efficiencies defined by infrared-to-dense gas tracer luminosity ratio and discuss trends with interaction stage. We also investigate relations between star formation and dense gas content in our merger sample and compare them to non-interacting star forming galaxies and Galactic star forming regions in the Milky Way.

  17. Nearby Clumpy, Gas Rich, Star-forming Galaxies: Local Analogs of High-redshift Clumpy Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, C. A.; Pisano, D. J.; Mac Low, M.-M.; Kreckel, K.; Rabidoux, K.; Guzmán, R.

    2015-07-01

    Luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs) have enhanced star formation rates (SFRs) and compact morphologies. We combine Sloan Digital Sky Survey data with H i data of 29 LCBGs at redshift z ∼ 0 to understand their nature. We find that local LCBGs have high atomic gas fractions (∼50%) and SFRs per stellar mass consistent with some high-redshift star-forming galaxies (SFGs). Many local LCBGs also have clumpy morphologies, with clumps distributed across their disks. Although rare, these galaxies appear to be similar to the clumpy SFGs commonly observed at z ∼ 1–3. Local LCBGs separate into three groups: (1) interacting galaxies (∼20%) (2) clumpy spirals (∼40%) and (3) non-clumpy, non-spirals with regular shapes and smaller effective radii and stellar masses (∼40%). It seems that the method of building up a high gas fraction, which then triggers star formation, is not the same for all local LCBGs. This may lead to a dichotomy in galaxy characteristics. We consider possible gas delivery scenarios and suggest that clumpy spirals, preferentially located in clusters and with companions, are smoothly accreting gas from tidally disrupted companions and/or intracluster gas enriched by stripped satellites. Conversely, as non-clumpy galaxies are preferentially located in the field and tend to be isolated, we suggest clumpy, cold streams, which destroy galaxy disks and prevent clump formation, as a likely gas delivery mechanism for these systems. Other possibilities include smooth cold streams, a series of minor mergers, or major interactions.

  18. NEARBY CLUMPY, GAS RICH, STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: LOCAL ANALOGS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT CLUMPY GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, C. A.; Pisano, D. J.; Rabidoux, K.; Low, M.-M. Mac; Kreckel, K.; Guzmán, R. E-mail: djpisano@mail.wvu.edu E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org E-mail: guzman@astro.ufl.edu

    2015-07-10

    Luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs) have enhanced star formation rates (SFRs) and compact morphologies. We combine Sloan Digital Sky Survey data with H i data of 29 LCBGs at redshift z ∼ 0 to understand their nature. We find that local LCBGs have high atomic gas fractions (∼50%) and SFRs per stellar mass consistent with some high-redshift star-forming galaxies (SFGs). Many local LCBGs also have clumpy morphologies, with clumps distributed across their disks. Although rare, these galaxies appear to be similar to the clumpy SFGs commonly observed at z ∼ 1–3. Local LCBGs separate into three groups: (1) interacting galaxies (∼20%); (2) clumpy spirals (∼40%); and (3) non-clumpy, non-spirals with regular shapes and smaller effective radii and stellar masses (∼40%). It seems that the method of building up a high gas fraction, which then triggers star formation, is not the same for all local LCBGs. This may lead to a dichotomy in galaxy characteristics. We consider possible gas delivery scenarios and suggest that clumpy spirals, preferentially located in clusters and with companions, are smoothly accreting gas from tidally disrupted companions and/or intracluster gas enriched by stripped satellites. Conversely, as non-clumpy galaxies are preferentially located in the field and tend to be isolated, we suggest clumpy, cold streams, which destroy galaxy disks and prevent clump formation, as a likely gas delivery mechanism for these systems. Other possibilities include smooth cold streams, a series of minor mergers, or major interactions.

  19. MOLECULAR GAS IN INFRARED ULTRALUMINOUS QSO HOSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, X. Y.; Hao, C.-N.; Gao, Y.; Tan, Q. H.; Mao, S.; Omont, A.; Flaquer, B. O.; Leon, S.; Cox, P.

    2012-05-10

    We report CO detections in 17 out of 19 infrared ultraluminous QSO (IR QSO) hosts observed with the IRAM 30 m telescope. The cold molecular gas reservoir in these objects is in a range of (0.2-2.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} (adopting a CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor {alpha}{sub CO} = 0.8 M{sub Sun} (K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}){sup -1}). We find that the molecular gas properties of IR QSOs, such as the molecular gas mass, star formation efficiency (L{sub FIR}/L'{sub CO}), and CO (1-0) line widths, are indistinguishable from those of local ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). A comparison of low- and high-redshift CO-detected QSOs reveals a tight correlation between L{sub FIR} and L'{sub CO(1-0)} for all QSOs. This suggests that, similar to ULIRGs, the far-infrared emissions of all QSOs are mainly from dust heated by star formation rather than by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), confirming similar findings from mid-infrared spectroscopic observations by Spitzer. A correlation between the AGN-associated bolometric luminosities and the CO line luminosities suggests that star formation and AGNs draw from the same reservoir of gas and there is a link between star formation on {approx}kpc scale and the central black hole accretion process on much smaller scales.

  20. The Void Galaxy Survey: Galaxy Evolution and Gas Accretion in Voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreckel, Kathryn; van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.; Beygu, Burcu; van de Weygaert, Rien; van der Hulst, J. M.; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.; Peletier, Reynier F.

    2016-10-01

    Voids represent a unique environment for the study of galaxy evolution, as the lower density environment is expected to result in shorter merger histories and slower evolution of galaxies. This provides an ideal opportunity to test theories of galaxy formation and evolution. Imaging of the neutral hydrogen, central in both driving and regulating star formation, directly traces the gas reservoir and can reveal interactions and signs of cold gas accretion. For a new Void Galaxy Survey (VGS), we have carefully selected a sample of 59 galaxies that reside in the deepest underdensities of geometrically identified voids within the SDSS at distances of ~100 Mpc, and pursued deep UV, optical, Hα, IR, and HI imaging to study in detail the morphology and kinematics of both the stellar and gaseous components. This sample allows us to not only examine the global statistical properties of void galaxies, but also to explore the details of the dynamical properties. We present an overview of the VGS, and highlight key results on the HI content and individually interesting systems. In general, we find that the void galaxies are gas rich, low luminosity, blue disk galaxies, with optical and HI properties that are not unusual for their luminosity and morphology. We see evidence of both ongoing assembly, through the gas dynamics between interacting systems, and significant gas accretion, seen in extended gas disks and kinematic misalignments. The VGS establishes a local reference sample to be used in future HI surveys (CHILES, DINGO, LADUMA) that will directly observe the HI evolution of void galaxies over cosmic time.

  1. DUST CONTINUUM EMISSION AS A TRACER OF GAS MASS IN GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Groves, Brent A.; Schinnerer, Eva; Walter, Fabian; Leroy, Adam; Galametz, Maud; Bolatto, Alberto; Hunt, Leslie; Dale, Daniel; Calzetti, Daniela; Croxall, Kevin; Kennicutt, Robert Jr.

    2015-01-20

    We use a sample of 36 galaxies from the KINGFISH (Herschel IR), HERACLES (IRAM CO), and THINGS (Very Large Array H I) surveys to study empirical relations between Herschel infrared (IR) luminosities and the total mass of the interstellar gas (H{sub 2} + H I). Such a comparison provides a simple empirical relationship without introducing the uncertainty of dust model fitting. We find tight correlations, and provide fits to these relations, between Herschel luminosities and the total gas mass integrated over entire galaxies, with the tightest, almost linear, correlation found for the longest wavelength data (SPIRE 500). However, we find that accounting for the gas-phase metallicity (affecting the dust to gas ratio) is crucial when applying these relations to low-mass, and presumably high-redshift, galaxies. The molecular (H{sub 2}) gas mass is found to be better correlated with the peak of the IR emission (e.g., PACS160), driven mostly by the correlation of stellar mass and mean dust temperature. When examining these relations as a function of galactocentric radius, we find the same correlations, albeit with a larger scatter, up to a radius of r ∼ 0.7 r {sub 25} (containing most of a galaxy's baryonic mass). However, beyond that radius, the same correlations no longer hold, with increasing gas (predominantly H I) mass relative to the infrared emission. The tight relations found for the bulk of the galaxy's baryonic content suggest that total gas masses of disk-like (non-merging/ULIRG) galaxies can be inferred from far-infrared continuum measurements in situations where only the latter are available, e.g., in ALMA continuum observations of high-redshift galaxies.

  2. Lighting the Dark Molecular Gas Using the Mid Infrared H2 Rotational Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togi, Aditya; Smith, JD

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge of molecular gas distribution is necessary to understand star formation in galaxies. The molecular gas content of galaxies must be inferred using indirect tracers since H2 which forms a major component of molecular gas in galaxies is not observable under typical conditions of interstellar medium. Physical processes causing enhancement and reduction of these tracers can cause misleading estimates of the molecular gas content in galaxies. We have devised a new method to measure molecular gas mass using quadrupole rotational lines of H2 found in the mid infrared spectra of various types of galaxies. We apply our model to derive the amount of molecular gas even in low metallicity galaxies where indirect tracers are unable to estimate the dark molecular gas mass. Bigiel, F., Leroy, A., Walter, F., et al. 2008, The Astronomical Journal, 136, 2846 (2008) Solomon, P. M., Rivolo, A. R., Barett, J., and Yahil, A. The Astrophysical Journal, 319, 730 (1987) Wolfire, M. G., Hollenbach, D., and McKee, C. F. The Astrophysical Journal, 716, 1191 (2010)

  3. Dust In Hell: Discovery Of Dust In Hot Gas Around Group-Centered Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temi, Pasquale; Brighenti, F.; Mathews, W. G.

    2007-05-01

    Observations with the Spitzer infrared telescope reveal extended internally produced dust in the hot gas (KT 1 KeV) atmospheres surrounding two optically normal galaxies, NGC 5044 and NGC 4636. We interpret this as a dusty buoyant outflow resulting from energy released by gas accretion onto supermassive black holes in the galaxy cores. Both galaxies have highly disturbed, transient activities in the hot gas and contain strong dust emission at 70 and 160 microns in excess of what expected from normal stellar mass loss. The 70 micron image is clearly extended. The lifetime of dust in hot (KT=1KeV) interstellar gas to destruction by sputtering (ion impacts), 10 million years, establishes the time when the dust first entered the hot gas. Remarkably, in NGC 5044 we observe interstellar PAH dust-molecular emission at 8 microns out to about 5 Kpc that is spatially coincident with extended Halpha+[NII] emission from warm gas. We propose that this dust comes from the destruction and heating of dusty disks in the nuclei of these galaxies, followed by buoyant transport. A simple calculation shows that dust-assisted cooling in outflowing buoyant gas in NGC 5044 can cool the gas within a few Kpc in about 10 million years, explaining the optical line emission observed.

  4. The ATLAS3D project - XX. Mass-size and mass-σ distributions of early-type galaxies: bulge fraction drives kinematics, mass-to-light ratio, molecular gas fraction and stellar initial mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellari, Michele; McDermid, Richard M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, M.; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2013-07-01

    ) and dwarf irregulars (Im), respectively. We use dynamical models to analyse our kinematic maps. We show that σe traces the bulge fraction, which appears to be the main driver for the observed trends in the dynamical (M/L)JAM and in indicators of the (M/L)pop of the stellar population like Hβ and colour, as well as in the molecular gas fraction. A similar variation along contours of σe is also observed for the mass normalization of the stellar initial mass function (IMF), which was recently shown to vary systematically within the ETGs' population. Our preferred relation has the form log _{10} [(M/L)_stars/(M/L)_Salp]=a+b× log _{10}({σ _e}/130 {km s^{-1}}) with a = -0.12 ± 0.01 and b = 0.35 ± 0.06. Unless there are major flaws in all stellar population models, this trend implies a transition of the mean IMF from Kroupa to Salpeter in the interval log _{10}({σ _e}/{km s}^{-1})≈ 1.9-2.5 (or {σ _e}≈ 90-290 km s-1), with a smooth variation in between, consistently with what was shown in Cappellari et al. The observed distribution of galaxy properties on the MP provides a clean and novel view for a number of previously reported trends, which constitute special two-dimensional projections of the more general four-dimensional parameters trends on the MP. We interpret it as due to a combination of two main effects: (i) an increase of the bulge fraction, which increases σe, decreases Re, and greatly enhance the likelihood for a galaxy to have its star formation quenched, and (ii) dry merging, increasing galaxy mass and Re by moving galaxies along lines of roughly constant σe (or steeper), while leaving the population nearly unchanged.

  5. Gas Poor Galaxies in MKW/AWM Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, B. A.

    1995-03-01

    Follow-up observations were made of the neutral hydrogen content of 129 galaxies near the cores of MKW 4, MKW 8, MKW 11, AWM 4, and AWM 5. The neutral hydrogen content of these galaxies appears to be lower than that of galaxies of similar type in the field or in loose groups and are more consistent with those of galaxies in the richer Abell clusters. Of the 14 galaxies that appear to be spirals in MKW 4, only one was detected above a sensitivity limit of ~ 10(5) Msun /Mpc(2) . The low detection rate of galaxies in MKW 4 suggest that its core is truly deficient in neutral hydrogen gas.

  6. THE RELATION BETWEEN MID-PLANE PRESSURE AND MOLECULAR HYDROGEN IN GALAXIES: ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Feldmann, Robert; Hernandez, Jose; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2012-12-20

    Molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is the primary component of the reservoirs of cold, dense gas that fuel star formation in our Galaxy. While the H{sub 2} abundance is ultimately regulated by physical processes operating on small scales in the interstellar medium (ISM), observations have revealed a tight correlation between the ratio of molecular to atomic hydrogen in nearby spiral galaxies and the pressure in the mid-plane of their disks. This empirical relation has been used to predict H{sub 2} abundances in galaxies with potentially very different ISM conditions, such as metal-deficient galaxies at high redshifts. Here, we test the validity of this approach by studying the dependence of the pressure-H{sub 2} relation on environmental parameters of the ISM. To this end, we follow the formation and destruction of H{sub 2} explicitly in a suite of hydrodynamical simulations of galaxies with different ISM parameters. We find that a pressure-H{sub 2} relation arises naturally in our simulations for a variety of dust-to-gas ratios or strengths of the interstellar radiation field in the ISM. Fixing the dust-to-gas ratio and the UV radiation field to values measured in the solar neighborhood results in fair agreement with the relation observed in nearby galaxies with roughly solar metallicity. However, the parameters (slope and normalization) of the pressure-H{sub 2} relation vary in a systematical way with ISM properties. A particularly strong trend is the decrease of the normalization of the relation with a lowering of the dust-to-gas ratio of the ISM. We show how this trend and other properties of the pressure-H{sub 2} relation arise from the atomic-to-molecular phase transition in the ISM caused by a combination of H{sub 2} formation, destruction, and shielding mechanisms.

  7. The Intricate Role of Cold Gas and Dust in Galaxy Evolution at Early Cosmic Epochs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechers, Dominik Alexander; Capak, Peter; Carilli, Christopher; Walter, Fabian

    2015-08-01

    Cold molecular and atomic gas plays a central role in our understanding of early galaxy formation and evolution. It represents the material that stars form out of, and its mass, distribution, excitation, and dynamics provide crucial insight into the physical processes that support the ongoing star formation and stellar mass buildup. We will discuss the most recent progress in studies of gas-rich galaxies out to the highest redshifts through detailed investigations with the most powerful facilities across the electromagnetic spectrum, with a particular focus on new observations obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and the Atacama Large (sub-) Millimeter Array (ALMA). These studies cover a broad range in galaxy properties, and provide a detailed comparison of the physical conditions in massive, dust-obscured starburst galaxies and star-forming active galactic nuclei hosts within the first billion years of cosmic time. Facilitating the impressive sensitivity of ALMA, this investigation also includes the first direct, systematic study of the star-forming interstellar medium, gas dynamics, and dust obscuration in (much less luminous and massive) "typical" galaxies at such early epochs. These new results show that "typical" z>5 galaxies are significantly metal-enriched, but not heavily dust-obscured, consistent with a decreasing contribution of dust-obscured star formation to the star formation history of the universe towards the earliest cosmic epochs.

  8. Star-gas density waves in spiral galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubow, Stephen H.; Cowie, Lennox L.; Balbus, Steven A.

    1986-01-01

    The steady state dynamics of spiral galaxies is analyzed as a two-component system consisting of stars and gas within the framework of the WKB density wave theory. The gravitational influence of the gas is included for the first time in a steady state calculation. The full set of equations for a star-gas galaxy is presented, and the equations are analyzed for small-amplitude forcing. Wave properties near the solar circle are examined, and it is found that the large-scale gas shock disappears for gas content above 8 percent. Instead, gas density profiles change to highly symmetric shapes as a result of the action of the gas self-gravity. The stellar wave is damped by the torque exerted by the gas.

  9. The relation of dust and atomic gas properties of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzak, John G.; Schneider, Stephen E.

    1992-01-01

    The way in which the neutral atomic hydrogen and far-IR emission from galaxies relate to their environments is shown. It is found that isolated and interacting galaxies display a fairly narrow range of a temperature-adjusted 'H I/100-micron index', suggesting that atomic gas-to-dust ratios are relatively constant among most galaxies. Isolated normal galaxies are used to develop a fiducial standard for the H I/100-micron index, against which galaxies in other environments are compared. Galaxies undergoing tidal interactions prove to have the same value for the index once the proper temperature adjustment is applied according to their FIR color. Applied to clusters, the H I/100-micron index shows a clear discrimination between galaxies whose H I is 'stripped' or 'unstripped', implying that there is about 6 times less H I in stripped galaxies relative to the 100-micron-emitting dust. The stripped galaxies also appear to have a slightly lower mean dust temperature, which is surprising since the stripping process might be expected to remove preferentially cooler than average dust from the outer disk.

  10. Star Formation in Partially Gas-Depleted Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, James A.; Robertson, Paul; Miner, Jesse; Levy, Lorenza

    2010-02-01

    Broadband B and R and Hα images have been obtained with the 4.1 m SOAR telescope atop Cerro Pachon, Chile, for 29 spiral galaxies in the Pegasus I galaxy cluster and for 18 spirals in non-cluster environments. Pegasus I is a spiral-rich cluster with a low-density intracluster medium and a low galaxy velocity dispersion. When combined with neutral hydrogen (H I) data obtained with the Arecibo 305 m radio telescope, acquired by Levy et al. (2007) and by Springob et al. (2005b), we study the star formation rates in disk galaxies as a function of their H I deficiency. To quantify H I deficiency, we use the usual logarithmic deficiency parameter, DEF. The specific star formation rate (SSFR) is quantified by the logarithmic flux ratio of Hα flux to R-band flux, and thus roughly characterizes the logarithmic SFR per unit stellar mass. We find a clear correlation between the global SFR per unit stellar mass and DEF, such that the SFR is lower in more H I-deficient galaxies. This correlation appears to extend from the most gas-rich to the most gas-poor galaxies. We also find a correlation between the central SFR per unit mass relative to the global values, in the sense that the more H I-deficient galaxies have a higher central SFR per unit mass relative to their global SFR values than do gas-rich galaxies. In fact, approximately half of the H I-depleted galaxies have highly elevated SSFRs in their central regions, indicative of a transient evolutionary state. In addition, we find a correlation between gas depletion and the size of the Hα disk (relative to the R-band disk); H I-poor galaxies have truncated disks. Moreover, aside from the elevated central SSFR in many gas-poor spirals, the SSFR is otherwise lower in the Hα disks of gas-poor galaxies than in gas-rich spirals. Thus, both disk truncation and lowered SSFR levels within the star-forming part of the disks (aside from the enhanced nuclear SSFR) correlate with H I deficiency, and both phenomena are found to

  11. The dynamical role of the central molecular ring within the framework of a seven-component Galaxy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simin, A. A.; Fridman, A. M.; Haud, U. A.

    1991-09-01

    A Galaxy model in which the surface density of the gas component has a sharp (two orders of magnitude) jump in the region of the outer radius of the molecular ring is constructed on the basis of observational data. This model is used to calculate the contributions of each population to the model curve of Galactic rotation. The value of the dimensionless increment of hydrodynamical instability for the gas component, being much less than 1, coincides with a similar magnitude for the same gas in the gravity field of the entire Galaxy. It is concluded that the unstable gas component of the Galaxy lies near the limit of the hydrodynamical instability, which is in accordance with the Le Chatelier principle. The stellar populations of the Galaxy probably do not affect the generation of the spiral structure in the gaseous component.

  12. C+/H2 gas in star-forming clouds and galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordon, Raanan; Sternberg, Amiel

    2016-11-01

    We present analytic theory for the total column density of singly ionized carbon (C+) in the optically thick photon dominated regions (PDRs) of far-UV irradiated (star-forming) molecular clouds. We derive a simple formula for the C+ column as a function of the cloud (hydrogen) density, the far-UV field intensity, and metallicity, encompassing the wide range of galaxy conditions. When assuming the typical relation between UV and density in the cold neutral medium, the C+ column becomes a function of the metallicity alone. We verify our analysis with detailed numerical PDR models. For optically thick gas, most of the C+ column is mixed with hydrogen that is primarily molecular (H2), and this `C+/H2' gas layer accounts for almost all of the `CO-dark' molecular gas in PDRs. The C+/H2 column density is limited by dust shielding and is inversely proportional to the metallicity down to ˜0.1 solar. At lower metallicities, H2 line blocking dominates and the C+/H2 column saturates. Applying our theory to CO surveys in low-redshift spirals, we estimate the fraction of C+/H2 gas out of the total molecular gas to be typically ˜0.4. At redshifts 1 < z < 3 in massive disc galaxies the C+/H2 gas represents a very small fraction of the total molecular gas (≲ 0.16). This small fraction at high redshifts is due to the high gas surface densities when compared to local galaxies.

  13. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE MAPS THE DENSE, STAR-FORMING GAS IN THE NEARBY STARBURST GALAXY M82

    SciTech Connect

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Frayer, David; Leroy, Adam K.; Usero, Antonio; Walter, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Observations of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies show that dense molecular gas correlates with recent star formation, suggesting that the formation of this gas phase may help regulate star formation. A key test of this idea requires wide-area, high-resolution maps of dense molecular gas in galaxies to explore how local physical conditions drive dense gas formation, but these observations have been limited because of the faintness of dense gas tracers like HCN and HCO{sup +}. Here we demonstrate the power of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT)—the largest single-dish millimeter radio telescope—for mapping dense gas in galaxies by presenting the most sensitive maps yet of HCN and HCO{sup +} in the starburst galaxy M82. The HCN and HCO{sup +} in the disk of this galaxy correlates with both recent star formation and more diffuse molecular gas and shows kinematics consistent with a rotating torus. The HCO{sup +} emission extending to the north and south of the disk is coincident with the outflow previously identified in CO and traces the eastern edge of the hot outflowing gas. The central starburst region has a higher ratio of star formation to dense gas than the outer regions, pointing to the starburst as a key driver of this relationship. These results establish that the GBT can efficiently map the dense molecular gas at 90 GHz in nearby galaxies, a capability that will increase further with the 16 element feed array under construction.

  14. Galaxies and gas in a cold dark matter universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Neal; Hernquist, Lars; Weinberg, David H.

    1992-01-01

    We use a combined gravity/hydrodynamics code to simulate the formation of structure in a random 22 Mpc cube of a cold dark matter universe. Adiabatic compression and shocks heat much of the gas to temperatures of 10 exp 6 - 10 exp 7 K, but a fraction of the gas cools radiatively to about 10 exp 4 K and condenses into discrete, highly overdense lumps. We identify these lumps with galaxies. The high-mass end of their baryonic mass function fits the form of the observed galaxy luminosity function. They retain independent identities after their dark halos merge, so gravitational clustering produces groups of galaxies embedded in relatively smooth envelopes of hot gas and dark matter. The galaxy correlation function is approximately an r exp -2.1 power law from separations of 35 kpc to 7 Mpc. Galaxy fluctuations are biased relative to dark matter fluctuations by a factor b about 1.5. We find no significant 'velocity bias' between galaxies and dark matter particles. However, virial analysis of the simulation's richest group leads to an estimated Omega of about 0.3, even though the simulation adopts Omega = 1.

  15. Gravitational star formation thresholds and gas density in three galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oey, M. S.; Kennicutt, R. C., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    It has long been held that the star formation rate (SFR) may be described as a power law of the gas density, p(exp n), as given by Schmidt (1959). However, this relation has as yet remained poorly defined and is likewise poorly understood. In particular, most studies have been investigations of global gas and star formation properties of galaxies, due to lack of adequate high-resolution data for detailed studies of individual galaxies. The three spiral galaxies in this study have published maps of both H2 (as traced by CO), and HI, thereby enabling the authors to investigate the relationship between total gas surface density and SFR. The purpose of the present investigation is the comparison of spatially-resolved total surface gas density in three galaxies (NGC 6946, M51, and M83) to sigma sub c as given by the above model. CO, HI and H alpha data for NGC 6946 were taken from Tacconi-Garman (1988), and for M51 and M83 from Lord (1987). The authors used a CO-H2 conversion of N(H2)/I sub CO(exp cos i = 2.8 x 10(exp 20) atoms cm(-2)/(K kms(-1), and summed the H2 and HI data for each galaxy to obtain the total hydrogen gas density. This total was then multiplied by a factor of 1.36 to include the contribution of helium to the total surface gas density. The authors assumed distances to NGC 6946, M51, and M83 to be 6.0, 9.6, and 8.9 Mpc respectively, with inclination angles of 30, 20, and 26 degrees. H alpha flux was used as the measure of SFR for NGC 6946, and SFR for the remaining two galaxies was taken directly from Lord as computed from H alpha measurements. The results of these full-disk studies thus show a remarkable correlation between the total gas density and the threshold densities given by the gravitational stability criterion. In particular, the threshold density appears to mark a lower boundary to the range of gas densities in these galaxies, which may have consequence in determining appropriate models for star formation and gas dynamics. More evidence is

  16. Fueling galaxy growth through gas accretion in cosmological simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Dylan Rubaloff

    Despite significant advances in the numerical modeling of galaxy formation and evolution, it is clear that a satisfactory theoretical picture of how galaxies acquire their baryons across cosmic time remains elusive. In this thesis we present a computational study which seeks to address the question of how galaxies get their gas. We make use of new, more robust simulation techniques and describe the first investigations of cosmological gas accretion using a moving-mesh approach for solving the equations of continuum hydrodynamics. We focus first on a re-examination of past theoretical conclusions as to the relative importance of different accretion modes for galaxy growth. We study the rates and nature of gas accretion at z=2, comparing our new simulations run with the Arepo code to otherwise identical realizations run with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code Gadget. We find significant physical differences in the thermodynamic history of accreted gas, explained in terms of numerical inaccuracies in SPH. In contrast to previous results, we conclude that hot mode accretion generally dominates galaxy growth, while cold gas filaments experience increased heating and disruption. Next, we consider the impact of feedback on our results, including models for galactic-scale outflows driven by stars as well as the energy released from supermassive black holes. We find that feedback strongly suppresses the inflow of "smooth" mode gas at all redshifts, regardless of its temperature history. Although the geometry of accretion at the virial radius is largely unmodified, strong galactic-fountain recycling motions dominate the inner halo. We measure a shift in the characteristic timescale of accretion, and discuss implications for semi-analytical models of hot halo gas cooling. To overcome the resolution limitations of cosmological volumes, we simulate a suite of eight individual 1012 solar mass halos down to z=2. We quantify the thermal and dynamical structure of the gas in

  17. Molecular gas near the galactic center

    SciTech Connect

    Heiligman, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    The interstellar matter within 400 pc of the center of our Galaxy was studied using millimeter-wave spectroscopy. The region -2/sup 0/.0less than or equal to + 2/sup 0/.0, -0/sup 0/.467 less than or equal to b less than or equal to + 0/sup 0/.467 was surveyed in the lambda = 2.72 mm transition of /sup 13/CO at spacings of 0/sup 0/.067 and 0/sup 0/.133 in l and b respectively. Fourteen distinct kinematic features were identified in the maps of these data; four of the features had not been described before in molecular surveys. Most of the high-velocity features and the nuclear disk are tilted to the galactic plane by 7/sup 0/ and inclined to the line of sight by 72/sup 0/, but the sheet of high-density gas which surrounds Sgr A and B is not measurably tilted. Spectra of the /sup 12/CO and C/sup 18/O emission lines near lambda = 2.60 and 2.73 mm were taken along eight lines of sight within the survey region to estimate the excitation temperatures and column densities: two 16' x 16' densely sampled maps were made in /sup 13/CO to estimate cloud sizes. Isocyanic acid (HNCO) was fortuitously found at four of these positions in emission with large velocity widths. Two forms of molecular gas were seen in the central region: (1) clouds with radii of 20 pc, excitation temperatures approximately 8 K, and mass of approximately 10/sup 5/ mass of sun and (2) diffuse regions with T/sub x/ of 25K, densities of > 5 x 10/sup 4/ cm/sup -3/, and linewidths > 30 km s/sup -1/. A total mass of roughly 1.2 x 10/sup 8/ Mass of sun was derived for the interstellar matter in the inner 400 pc of the Galaxy. A model of closed orbits in a barlike bulge potential was developed to simulate the kinematic motions of the gas in the inner 400 pc of the Galaxy. The modelaccounts for most but not all of the high-velocity features, the + 135 km s/sup -1/ expanding arm being the most difficult to explain.

  18. Stars and gas in high redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettini, Max

    Recent advances in instrumentation and observing techniques have made it possible to begin to study in detail the stellar populations and the interstellar media of galaxies at redshift z=3, when the universe was still in its "teen years". In keeping with the theme of this conference, I show how our knowledge of local star-forming regions can be applied directly to these distant galaxies to deduce their ages, metallicities, initial mass function, and masses. I also discuss areas where current limitations in stellar astrophysics have a direct bearing on the interpretation of the data being gathered, at an ever increasing rate, on the high redshift universe.

  19. Searching for molecular outflows in hyperluminous infrared galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón, D.; Bauer, F. E.; Veilleux, S.; Graciá-Carpio, J.; Sturm, E.; Lira, P.; Schulze, S.; Kim, S.

    2016-08-01

    We present constraints on the molecular outflows in a sample of five hyperluminous infrared galaxies using Herschel observations of the OH doublet at 119 μm. We have detected the OH doublet in three cases: one purely in emission and two purely in absorption. The observed emission profile has a significant blueshifted wing suggesting the possibility of tracing an outflow. Out of the two absorption profiles, one seems to be consistent with the systemic velocity while the other clearly indicates the presence of a molecular outflow whose maximum velocity is about ˜1500 km s-1. Our analysis shows that this system is in general agreement with previous results on ultraluminous infrared galaxies and QSOs, whose outflow velocities do not seem to correlate with stellar masses or starburst luminosities (star formation rates). Instead, the galaxy outflow likely arises from an embedded active galactic nuclei.

  20. Molecular clouds and the large-scale structure of the galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaddeus, Patrick; Stacy, J. Gregory

    1990-01-01

    The application of molecular radio astronomy to the study of the large-scale structure of the Galaxy is reviewed and the distribution and characteristic properties of the Galactic population of Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs), derived primarily from analysis of the Columbia CO survey, and their relation to tracers of Population 1 and major spiral features are described. The properties of the local molecular interstellar gas are summarized. The CO observing programs currently underway with the Center for Astrophysics 1.2 m radio telescope are described, with an emphasis on projects relevant to future comparison with high-energy gamma-ray observations. Several areas are discussed in which high-energy gamma-ray observations by the EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope) experiment aboard the Gamma Ray Observatory will directly complement radio studies of the Milky Way, with the prospect of significant progress on fundamental issues related to the structure and content of the Galaxy.

  1. Wind from the black-hole accretion disk driving a molecular outflow in an active galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombesi, F.; Meléndez, M.; Veilleux, S.; Reeves, J. N.; González-Alfonso, E.; Reynolds, C. S.

    2015-03-01

    Powerful winds driven by active galactic nuclei are often thought to affect the evolution of both supermassive black holes and their host galaxies, quenching star formation and explaining the close relationship between black holes and galaxies. Recent observations of large-scale molecular outflows in ultraluminous infrared galaxies support this quasar-feedback idea, because they directly trace the gas from which stars form. Theoretical models suggest that these outflows originate as energy-conserving flows driven by fast accretion-disk winds. Proposed connections between large-scale molecular outflows and accretion-disk activity in ultraluminous galaxies were incomplete because no accretion-disk wind had been detected. Conversely, studies of powerful accretion-disk winds have until now focused only on X-ray observations of local Seyfert galaxies and a few higher-redshift quasars. Here we report observations of a powerful accretion-disk wind with a mildly relativistic velocity (a quarter that of light) in the X-ray spectrum of IRAS F11119+3257, a nearby (redshift 0.189) optically classified type 1 ultraluminous infrared galaxy hosting a powerful molecular outflow. The active galactic nucleus is responsible for about 80 per cent of the emission, with a quasar-like luminosity of 1.5 × 1046 ergs per second. The energetics of these two types of wide-angle outflows is consistent with the energy-conserving mechanism that is the basis of the quasar feedback in active galactic nuclei that lack powerful radio jets (such jets are an alternative way to drive molecular outflows).

  2. Wind from the black-hole accretion disk driving a molecular outflow in an active galaxy.

    PubMed

    Tombesi, F; Meléndez, M; Veilleux, S; Reeves, J N; González-Alfonso, E; Reynolds, C S

    2015-03-26

    Powerful winds driven by active galactic nuclei are often thought to affect the evolution of both supermassive black holes and their host galaxies, quenching star formation and explaining the close relationship between black holes and galaxies. Recent observations of large-scale molecular outflows in ultraluminous infrared galaxies support this quasar-feedback idea, because they directly trace the gas from which stars form. Theoretical models suggest that these outflows originate as energy-conserving flows driven by fast accretion-disk winds. Proposed connections between large-scale molecular outflows and accretion-disk activity in ultraluminous galaxies were incomplete because no accretion-disk wind had been detected. Conversely, studies of powerful accretion-disk winds have until now focused only on X-ray observations of local Seyfert galaxies and a few higher-redshift quasars. Here we report observations of a powerful accretion-disk wind with a mildly relativistic velocity (a quarter that of light) in the X-ray spectrum of IRAS F11119+3257, a nearby (redshift 0.189) optically classified type 1 ultraluminous infrared galaxy hosting a powerful molecular outflow. The active galactic nucleus is responsible for about 80 per cent of the emission, with a quasar-like luminosity of 1.5 × 10(46) ergs per second. The energetics of these two types of wide-angle outflows is consistent with the energy-conserving mechanism that is the basis of the quasar feedback in active galactic nuclei that lack powerful radio jets (such jets are an alternative way to drive molecular outflows). PMID:25810204

  3. Wind from the black-hole accretion disk driving a molecular outflow in an active galaxy.

    PubMed

    Tombesi, F; Meléndez, M; Veilleux, S; Reeves, J N; González-Alfonso, E; Reynolds, C S

    2015-03-26

    Powerful winds driven by active galactic nuclei are often thought to affect the evolution of both supermassive black holes and their host galaxies, quenching star formation and explaining the close relationship between black holes and galaxies. Recent observations of large-scale molecular outflows in ultraluminous infrared galaxies support this quasar-feedback idea, because they directly trace the gas from which stars form. Theoretical models suggest that these outflows originate as energy-conserving flows driven by fast accretion-disk winds. Proposed connections between large-scale molecular outflows and accretion-disk activity in ultraluminous galaxies were incomplete because no accretion-disk wind had been detected. Conversely, studies of powerful accretion-disk winds have until now focused only on X-ray observations of local Seyfert galaxies and a few higher-redshift quasars. Here we report observations of a powerful accretion-disk wind with a mildly relativistic velocity (a quarter that of light) in the X-ray spectrum of IRAS F11119+3257, a nearby (redshift 0.189) optically classified type 1 ultraluminous infrared galaxy hosting a powerful molecular outflow. The active galactic nucleus is responsible for about 80 per cent of the emission, with a quasar-like luminosity of 1.5 × 10(46) ergs per second. The energetics of these two types of wide-angle outflows is consistent with the energy-conserving mechanism that is the basis of the quasar feedback in active galactic nuclei that lack powerful radio jets (such jets are an alternative way to drive molecular outflows).

  4. Baryonic distributions in galaxy dark matter haloes - I. New observations of neutral and ionized gas kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Emily E.; van Zee, L.; Barnes, K. L.; Staudaher, S.; Dale, D. A.; Braun, T. T.; Wavle, D. C.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Bullock, J. S.; Chandar, R.

    2016-07-01

    We present a combination of new and archival neutral hydrogen (H I) observations and new ionized gas spectroscopic observations for 16 galaxies in the statistically representative Extended Disk Galaxy Explore Science kinematic sample. H I rotation curves are derived from new and archival radio synthesis observations from the Very Large Array (VLA) as well as processed data products from the Westerbork Radio Synthesis Telescope (WSRT). The H I rotation curves are supplemented with optical spectroscopic integral field unit (IFU) observations using SparsePak on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope to constrain the central ionized gas kinematics in 12 galaxies. The full rotation curves of each galaxy are decomposed into baryonic and dark matter halo components using 3.6μm images from the Spitzer Space Telescope for the stellar content, the neutral hydrogen data for the atomic gas component, and, when available, CO data from the literature for the molecular gas component. Differences in the inferred distribution of mass are illustrated under fixed stellar mass-to-light ratio (M/L) and maximum disc/bulge assumptions in the rotation curve decomposition.

  5. The Molecular Gas Outflow of NGC 1068 Imaged by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Burillo, S.

    2015-12-01

    We have used the ALMA array to map the emission of a set of dense molecular gas tracers (CO(3-2), CO(6-5), HCN(4-3), HCO+(4-3), and CS(7-6)) in the central r˜2 kpc of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 with spatial resolutions ˜0.3″-0.5″ (˜20-35 pc). The sensitivity and spatial resolution of ALMA give a detailed view of the distribution and kinematics of the dense molecular gas. The gas kinematics from r˜50 pc out to r˜400 pc reveal a massive outflow in all molecular tracers. The tight correlation between the ionized gas outflow, the radio jet, and the occurrence of outward motions in the disk suggests that the outflow is AGN driven. The outflow rate estimated in the CND, M/dt˜63+21-37 M⊙ yr-1, is an order of magnitude higher than the star formation rate at these radii. The molecular outflow could quench star formation in the inner r˜400 pc of the galaxy on short timescales of ≤1 Myr and regulate gas accretion in the CND.

  6. An extremely low gas-to-dust ratio in the dust-lane lenticular galaxy NGC 5485

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baes, Maarten; Allaert, Flor; Sarzi, Marc; De Looze, Ilse; Fritz, Jacopo; Gentile, Gianfranco; Hughes, Thomas M.; Puerari, Ivânio; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Viaene, Sébastien

    2014-10-01

    Evidence is mounting that a significant fraction of the early-type galaxy population contains substantial reservoirs of cold interstellar gas and dust. We investigate the gas and dust in NGC 5485, an early-type galaxy with a prominent minor-axis dust lane. Using new Herschel PACS and SPIRE imaging data, we detect 3.8 × 106 M⊙ of cool interstellar dust in NGC 5485, which is in stark contrast with the non-detection of the galaxy in sensitive H I and CO observations from the ATLAS3D consortium. The resulting gas-to-dust ratio upper limit is Mgas/Md < 14.5, almost an order of magnitude lower than the canonical value for the Milky Way. We scrutinize the reliability of the dust, atomic gas and molecular gas mass estimates, but these do not show systematic uncertainties that can explain the extreme gas-to-dust ratio. Also a warm or hot ionized gas medium does not offer an explanation. A possible scenario could be that NGC 5485 merged with an SMC-type metal-poor galaxy with a substantial CO-dark molecular gas component and that the bulk of atomic gas was lost during the interaction, but it remains to be investigated whether such a scenario is possible.

  7. The Violent Interstellar Medium in Dwarf Galaxies: Atomic Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinks, E.; Walter, F.

    1998-12-01

    We review the morphology of the warm, neutral ISM as observed in the 21 cm line of neutral hydrogen (H I) of several nearby, gas-rich (dIrr) galaxies. The H I emission is dominated by shell-like structures, most likely superbubbles produced by the combined effects of strong stellar winds followed by supernova explosions of stars more massive than M > 8 M-sun within a region of massive star formation, an OB association. Somewhat counter-intuitively, H I superbubbles grow to larger dimensions in dwarf galaxies than in large spiral galaxies like our own or M 31. This can be explained as follows. In dwarf galaxies, the gravitational potential is lower than in spirals. Hence, for similar H I velocity dispersions, the scaleheight of the H I layer will be larger. Then, for comparable H I surface densities, the volume density will be lower. Both effects facilitate the growth to large dimensions of shells in dwarf galaxies and explains why such shells are much less likely to break through the H I layer into the halo. Moreover, dwarf galaxies lack density waves and tend to be dominated by solid-body rotation. As a result, shells will persist much longer than in spirals. A comparison with other galaxies shows that the energies needed to create H I supershells are the same for all types of galaxies, the energy output of a typical star-forming region therefore not being related to its galactic environment, at least to first order. The overall statistical properties of the H I holes and shells in galaxies show clear trends with Hubble type (or rather mass), such as in their diameter distribution, expansion velocities and ages.

  8. When galaxy clusters collide: the impact of merger shocks on cluster gas and galaxy evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroe, A.

    2015-09-01

    Galaxy clusters mainly grow through mergers with other clusters and groups. Major mergers give rise to cluster-wide traveling shocks, which can be detected at radio wavelengths as relics: elongated, diffuse synchrotron emitting areas located at the periphery of merging clusters. The 'Sausage' cluster hosts an extraordinary Mpc-wide relic, which enables us to study to study particle acceleration and the effects of shocks on cluster galaxies. We derive shock properties and the magnetic field structure for the relic. Our results indicate that particles are shock-accelerated, but turbulent re-acceleration or unusually efficient transport of particles in the downstream area are important effects. We demonstrate the feasibility of high-frequency observations of radio relics, by presenting a 16 GHz detection of the 'Sausage' relic. Halpha mapping of the cluster provides the first direct test as to whether the shock drives or prohibits star formation. We find numerous galaxies in! close proximity to the radio relic which are extremely massive, metal-rich, star-forming with evidence for gas mass loss though outflows. We speculate that the complex interaction between the merger, the shock wave and gas is a fundamental driver in the evolution of cluster galaxies from gas rich spirals to gas-poor ellipticals.

  9. Disc galaxies: Molecular hydrogen, star formation and radial migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halle, A.; Combes, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Haywood, M.

    2014-12-01

    We show the importance of molecular hydrogen to simulate the evolution of disc galaxies with improved realistic interstellar medium and stellar formation. The inclusion of H_2 cooling is especially important in the low-metallicity regions such as the outer parts of discs, in which it allows for some slow star formation. We study the evolution of the obtained stellar components of these galaxies and focus on the radial migration that occurs due to the resonances of the bar and transient spiral arms in the disc.

  10. Observing simulations: molecular clouds and their journey in the galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte-Cabral, A.; Dobbs, C. L.

    2016-05-01

    In order to have a global picture of the cycle of matter in galaxies, we need to understand the interplay of large-scale galactic phenomena with the formation of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) and, ultimately, their subsequent star formation (SF). In this work, we study the population of GMCs within a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulation of a spiral galaxy, and investigate the link between the GMC properties and position with respect to spiral arms, both directly from the simulation (with the 3D densities of H2 and CO) and from an observer's perspective (with CO emission in PPV space).

  11. Distribution of gas in the halo of the galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blades, J. C.; Cowie, L. L.; Morton, D. C.; York, D. G.; Wu, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented from a high-resolution, ultraviolet study of interstellar gas situated away from the plane of the Milky Way Galaxy, using the nuclei of Seyfert galaxies Mkn 509 and F9 as background probes. In these directions, low-velocity, galactic gas were detected as well as two extragalactic clouds, one probably associated with the Magellanic Stream and the other with Mkn 509. These data were combined with results from other lines of sight to show that the ultraviolet species extend about 10 kpc from the plane, assuming the high-latitude gas corotates with the galactic disk. Complimentary observations of the optical Ca II and Na I species suggests that these do not extend as far - perhaps 2 to 3 kpc from the plane. Further, the exceedingly complex velocity structure found only in Magellanic Cloud directions suggests that these sight-lines are not typical of high-latitude gas in general.

  12. Alma observations of nearby luminous infrared galaxies with various agn energetic contributions using dense gas tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of our ALMA Cycle 0 observations, using HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 4-3 lines, of six nearby luminous infrared galaxies with various energetic contributions from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) estimated from previous infrared spectroscopy. These lines are very effective for probing the physical properties of high-density molecular gas around the hidden energy sources in the nuclear regions of these galaxies. We find that HCN to HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratios tend to be higher in AGN-important galaxies than in starburst-dominated regions, as was seen at the J = 1-0 transition, while there is no clear difference in the HCN-to-HNC J = 4-3 flux ratios among observed sources. A galaxy with a starburst-type infrared spectral shape and very large molecular line widths shows a high HCN-to-HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratio, which could be due to turbulence-induced heating. We propose that enhanced HCN J = 4-3 emission relative to HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 could be used to detect more energetic activity than normal starbursts, including deeply buried AGNs, in dusty galaxy populations.

  13. Who Said Red And Dead? A Gas Menagerie In Local Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatalo, Katherine A.; Davis, T. A.; Young, L. M.; Heiles, C.; Blitz, L.; Bureau, M.; Nyland, K.; Cappellari, M.; Emsellem, E.; Krajnović, D.; McDermid, R. M.; ATLAS3D Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Molecular gas in early-type galaxies (ETGs) has been shown to be far more common than previously expected. In fact, at least 22% (60/259) contain a significant reservoir of molecular gas. To gain insight into the presence and prevalence of this unexpected gas, it is important to understand its timeline, where it originated, how it is evolving, and how long it will remain. Imaging of the molecular gas is essential addressing these issues. We present the CO maps of 31 ETGs in the ATLAS3D survey, imaged with the Combined Array for Research for Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA), the largest systematic survey of the cold ISM in ETGs to date. ETGs feature a rich variety of gas configurations, including disks, extended molecular rings, spiral arms, and disrupted merger remnants. The menagerie observed by CARMA illustrates that the various paths molecular gas takes in ETGs is complex and nuanced, ranging from objects undergoing an interaction to those with purely quiescent origins. We also detail the rich molecular story of NGC1266, and how it plays host to an AGN-driven molecular outflow, quenching its star-forming material within the next 100 Myr. The ATLAS3D survey is a complete volume-limited survey of 259 massive (Mgal > 6e9 Msuns) ellipticals and lenticulars within 42 Mpc. It provides the best constraints on the formation and evolution of local early-type galaxies through multi-wavelength studies. Support for CARMA construction was derived from the states of California, Illinois, and Maryland, the James S. McDonnell Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Kenneth T. and Eileen L. Norris Foundation, the University of Chicago, the Associates of the California Institute of Technology, and the National Science Foundation. Ongoing CARMA development and operations are supported by the National Science Foundation under a cooperative agreement, and by the CARMA partner universities.

  14. Radially-Inflowing Molecular Gas Deposited by a X-ray Cooling Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jeremy; Ao, Y.; Dinh, V.

    2006-12-01

    Galaxy clusters are immersed in hot X-ray-emitting gas that constitutes a large fraction of their baryonic mass. Radiative cooling of this gas, if not adequately balanced by heat input, should result in an inflow of cooler gas to the central dominant giant elliptical (cD) galaxy. Although a straightforward prediction made nearly twenty years ago, the occurrence of such X-ray cooling flows is widely questioned as gas at lower temperatures is often not found at the predicted quantities. The exceptions are cD galaxies harbouring large quantities of cool molecular gas, but the origin of this gas is uncertain as ram-pressure stripping or cannibalism of gas-rich cluster galaxies provide viable alternatives to cooling flows. Here, we present the most direct evidence yet for the deposition of molecular gas in a cD galaxy, Perseus A, from a X-ray cooling flow. The molecular gas detected in this galaxy is concentrated in three radial filaments with projected lengths of at least 2 kpc, one extending inwards close to the active nucleus and the other two extending outwards to at least 8 kpc on the east and west. All three filaments coincide with bright Hα features, and lie along a central X-ray ridge where any cooling flow is strongest. The two outer filaments exhibit increasingly blueshifted velocities at smaller radii that we show trace radial inflow along the gravitational potential of the galaxy. The innermost filament appears to be settling into the potential well, and may fuel the central supermassive black hole whose radio jets heat gas over a large solid angle in the north-south direction. Our results demonstrate that X-ray cooling flows can indeed deposit large quantities of cool gas, but only intermittently along directions where the X-ray gas is not being reheated.

  15. Gas inflow and metallicity drops in star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceverino, Daniel; Sánchez Almeida, Jorge; Muñoz Tuñón, Casiana; Dekel, Avishai; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Primack, Joel

    2016-04-01

    Gas inflow feeds galaxies with low-metallicity gas from the cosmic web, sustaining star formation across the Hubble time. We make a connection between these inflows and metallicity inhomogeneities in star-forming galaxies, by using synthetic narrow-band images of the Hα emission line from zoom-in AMR cosmological simulations of galaxies with stellar masses of M* ≃ 109 M⊙ at redshifts z = 2-7. In ˜50 per cent of the cases at redshifts lower than 4, the gas inflow gives rise to star-forming, Hα-bright, off-centre clumps. Most of these clumps have gas metallicities, weighted by Hα luminosity, lower than the metallicity in the surrounding interstellar medium by ˜0.3 dex, consistent with observations of chemical inhomogeneities at high and low redshifts. Due to metal mixing by shear and turbulence, these metallicity drops are dissolved in a few disc dynamical times. Therefore, they can be considered as evidence for rapid gas accretion coming from cosmological inflow of pristine gas.

  16. Gas fueling to the central 10pc in merging galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekki, K.; Noguchi, M.

    1994-10-01

    Merging galaxies sometimes show quasar-like activity, which suggests that the interstellar gas is efficiently transferred to the vicinity of their nucleus (where a massive black hole is considered to exist.). In order to elucidate gas fueling mechanism in galaxy mergers, we have numerically investigated the dynamical evolution of gas in the late phase of mergers. It is found that in some cases (e.g., a retrograde merger involving two compact galaxy cores), the dynamical heating by two sinking cores and subsequent dissipative cloud-cloud collisions drive a large fraction of disk gas (~10^8^Msun_) into the central 10pc. It is also found that most of models have shown a qualitatively similar behavior that gas infall to the central 10pc becomes prominent only after the coalescence of two cores. This tendency of nuclear activity remains unchanged even if we include gas consumption by star formation in our models. Our numerical study predicts that the radiation emitted from the nuclear region of completed mergers showing a single nucleus originates from accretion power induced activity around a massive black hole whereas star formation is prime energy source of the radiation from less advanced mergers showing two distinct nuclei.

  17. A black-hole mass measurement from molecular gas kinematics in NGC4526.

    PubMed

    Davis, Timothy A; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Sarzi, Marc; Blitz, Leo

    2013-02-21

    The masses of the supermassive black holes found in galaxy bulges are correlated with a multitude of galaxy properties, leading to suggestions that galaxies and black holes may evolve together. The number of reliably measured black-hole masses is small, and the number of methods for measuring them is limited, holding back attempts to understand this co-evolution. Directly measuring black-hole masses is currently possible with stellar kinematics (in early-type galaxies), ionized-gas kinematics (in some spiral and early-type galaxies) and in rare objects that have central maser emission. Here we report that by modelling the effect of a black hole on the kinematics of molecular gas it is possible to fit interferometric observations of CO emission and thereby accurately estimate black-hole masses. We study the dynamics of the gas in the early-type galaxy NGC 4526, and obtain a best fit that requires the presence of a central dark object of 4.5(+4.2)(-3.1) × 10(8) solar masses (3σ confidence limit). With the next-generation millimetre-wavelength interferometers these observations could be reproduced in galaxies out to 75 megaparsecs in less than 5 hours of observing time. The use of molecular gas as a kinematic tracer should thus allow one to estimate black-hole masses in hundreds of galaxies in the local Universe, many more than are accessible with current techniques. PMID:23364690

  18. A black-hole mass measurement from molecular gas kinematics in NGC4526.

    PubMed

    Davis, Timothy A; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Sarzi, Marc; Blitz, Leo

    2013-02-21

    The masses of the supermassive black holes found in galaxy bulges are correlated with a multitude of galaxy properties, leading to suggestions that galaxies and black holes may evolve together. The number of reliably measured black-hole masses is small, and the number of methods for measuring them is limited, holding back attempts to understand this co-evolution. Directly measuring black-hole masses is currently possible with stellar kinematics (in early-type galaxies), ionized-gas kinematics (in some spiral and early-type galaxies) and in rare objects that have central maser emission. Here we report that by modelling the effect of a black hole on the kinematics of molecular gas it is possible to fit interferometric observations of CO emission and thereby accurately estimate black-hole masses. We study the dynamics of the gas in the early-type galaxy NGC 4526, and obtain a best fit that requires the presence of a central dark object of 4.5(+4.2)(-3.1) × 10(8) solar masses (3σ confidence limit). With the next-generation millimetre-wavelength interferometers these observations could be reproduced in galaxies out to 75 megaparsecs in less than 5 hours of observing time. The use of molecular gas as a kinematic tracer should thus allow one to estimate black-hole masses in hundreds of galaxies in the local Universe, many more than are accessible with current techniques.

  19. THE COOL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES. II. GAS CONTENT IN THE VOLUME-LIMITED SAMPLE AND RESULTS FROM THE COMBINED ELLIPTICAL AND LENTICULAR SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Gary A.; Sage, Leslie J.; Young, Lisa M. E-mail: lsage@astro.umd.ed

    2010-12-10

    We report new observations of atomic and molecular gas in a volume-limited sample of elliptical galaxies. Combining the elliptical sample with an earlier and similar lenticular one, we show that cool gas detection rates are very similar among low-luminosity E and S0 galaxies but are much higher among luminous S0s. Using the combined sample we revisit the correlation between cool gas mass and blue luminosity which emerged from our lenticular survey, finding strong support for previous claims that the molecular gas in ellipticals and lenticulars has different origins. Unexpectedly, however, and contrary to earlier claims, the same is not true for atomic gas. We speculate that both the active galactic nucleus feedback and merger paradigms might offer explanations for differences in detection rates, and might also point toward an understanding of why the two gas phases could follow different evolutionary paths in Es and S0s. Finally, we present a new and puzzling discovery concerning the global mix of atomic and molecular gas in early-type galaxies. Atomic gas comprises a greater fraction of the cool interstellar medium in more gas-rich galaxies, a trend which can be plausibly explained. The puzzle is that galaxies tend to cluster around molecular-to-atomic gas mass ratios near either 0.05 or 0.5.

  20. Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in Alfalfa Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and Hi components of 229 low H i mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H i masses <10(sup 7.7) solar mass and Hi line widths <80 kilometers per second. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M*) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M* obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M* approximately less than10(exp 8)M(sub 0) is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper Hi mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M* than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H i depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that Hi disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  1. S Galaxies: Their Gas Content, Structure and Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Jo Ann

    1990-09-01

    The nature of SO galaxies was studied by comparing the neutral hydrogen content and structural parameters of early type disk galaxies in three density regimes: low, intermediate and high densities as represented by the Karachentseva isolated sample, the Hydra cluster, and the Coma cluster. Two observing projects were undertaken: the first, a sensitive 21 cm. survey of massive early type disk galaxies done with the 300 m. Arecibo radio telescope; and the second, a CCD photometric study of B and R images of galaxies from the H I survey and from the three density regimes. The resulting surface brightness profiles were deconvolved into bulge and disk components where possible. The parameters derived from these projects were analyzed in the context of the parallel sequence system which classifies disk galaxies according to their bulge-to-total light ratio (B/T) (horizontally) and their disk structure (vertically). Although the Arecibo H I survey detected 48% of the SO's, 73% of the SOa's and 96% of the Sa's, few, if any, gas-rich galaxies would have gone undetected due to the inability of a 10 MHz bandwidth to detect a wide velocity spectral profile. A comparison of a hybrid, distance-independent H I surface density (M_{rm HI }/D_{rm opt} ^2) showed that the values for SO galaxies ranged continuously from amounts equivalent to those found in Sa's and Sb's, (10^9-10 10 solar masses) to low upper limits (<10^7 solar masses). The vertical axis of the classification system can thus be identified with a gradation in the neutral gas content, as well as with decreasing evidence of star formation activity. The variation of gas and structural properties along this axis is consistent with the evolution of Sa galaxies into SO's due only to astration. Although we find no strong evidence to support an environmental enhancement of this evolution, the distributions of B/T, total colors, disk colors, and (bulge-disk) colors are not inconsistent with a picture in which star formation in

  2. The Monte Carlo Milky Way: reverse engineering the dense gas structure of the Galaxy with ATLASGAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figura, Charles C.; Urquhart, James S.

    2016-01-01

    The APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy (ATLASGAL) is the most senstive sub-millimetre survey of the inner Galaxy, covering 420 square degrees of the Galactic plane at a wavelength of 870 um. As with nearly any survey, however, ATLASGAL presents an incomplete view of the Milky Way, as it is biased by observational limitations which can distort our view of both the structure and distribution of the dense molecular gas.In order to better understand the structure of matter in the Galaxy, we have used Monte Carlo methods to simulate the distribution of dense gas from a grid of input models. By taking account of the observational limitations of the survey, we are able to compare the output from these models with the results obtained from the observations and determine the most likely distribution of dense gas. We investigate a number of spiral arm models, and discuss the results in the context of their role in massive star formation in the Galaxy.

  3. A Mechanism for Stimulating AGN Feedback by Lifting Gas in Massive Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, B. R.; Russell, H. R.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Hogan, M. T.; Fabian, A. C.; Pulido, F.; Edge, A. C.

    2016-10-01

    Observation shows that nebular emission, molecular gas, and young stars in giant galaxies are associated with rising X-ray bubbles inflated by radio jets launched from nuclear black holes. We propose a model where molecular clouds condense from low-entropy gas caught in the updraft of rising X-ray bubbles. The low-entropy gas becomes thermally unstable when it is lifted to an altitude where its cooling time is shorter than the time required to fall to its equilibrium location in the galaxy, i.e., {t}{{c}}/{t}{{I}}≲ 1. The infall speed of a cloud is bounded by the lesser of its free-fall and terminal speeds, so that the infall time here can exceed the free-fall time by a significant factor. This mechanism is motivated by Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations revealing molecular clouds lying in the wakes of rising X-ray bubbles with velocities well below their free-fall speeds. Our mechanism would provide cold gas needed to fuel a feedback loop while stabilizing the atmosphere on larger scales. The observed cooling time threshold of ∼ 5× {10}8 {yr}—the clear-cut signature of thermal instability and the onset of nebular emission and star formation—may result from the limited ability of radio bubbles to lift low-entropy gas to altitudes where thermal instabilities can ensue. Outflowing molecular clouds are unlikely to escape, but instead return to the central galaxy in a circulating flow. We contrast our mechanism to precipitation models where the minimum value of {t}{{c}}/{t}{{ff}}≲ 10 triggers thermal instability, which we find to be inconsistent with observation.

  4. X-ray Photoexcited Extranuclear Gas in Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Herman

    2015-10-01

    I will present a summary of results from 16 years of high resolution X-ray spectroscopy of gas in the neighborhood of Active Galactic Nuclei. Led by the prototypical Sy 2 galaxy NGC 1068, we now have many examples of circumnuclear gas that is excited by the central source. In galaxies with obscured nuclei, the gas is rich with emission lines from highly ionized species and radiative recombination continua. Outflows are apparent and several cases are resolved at the 1-5 level. The ionization models give velocity, density, and composition diagnostics. These outflows carry significant energy and momentum, affecting the energy budget of the local intergalactic medium. The X-ray Surveyor can examine the prevalence and impact of these ionization cones in the z1 universe.

  5. A survey of the molecular ISM properties of nearby galaxies using the Herschel FTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kamenetzky, J.; Rangwala, N.; Glenn, J.; Maloney, P. R.; Conley, A.

    2014-11-10

    The {sup 12}CO J = 4 → 3 to J = 13 → 12 lines of the interstellar medium from nearby galaxies, newly observable with the Herschel SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer, offer an opportunity to study warmer, more luminous molecular gas than that traced by {sup 12}CO J = 1 → 0. Here we present a survey of 17 nearby infrared-luminous galaxy systems (21 pointings). In addition to photometric modeling of dust, we modeled full {sup 12}CO spectral line energy distributions from J = 1 → 0 to J = 13 → 12 with two components of warm and cool CO gas, and included LTE analysis of [C I], [C II], [N II], and H{sub 2} lines. CO is emitted from a low-pressure/high-mass component traced by the low-J lines and a high-pressure/low-mass component that dominates the luminosity. We found that, on average, the ratios of the warm/cool pressure, mass, and {sup 12}CO luminosity are 60 ± 30, 0.11 ± 0.02, and 15.6 ± 2.7. The gas-to-dust-mass ratios are <120 throughout the sample. The {sup 12}CO luminosity is dominated by the high-J lines and is 4 × 10{sup –4} L {sub FIR} on average. We discuss systematic effects of single-component and multi-component CO modeling (e.g., single-component J ≤ 3 models overestimate gas pressure by ∼0.5 dex), as well as compare to Galactic star-forming regions. With this comparison, we show the molecular interstellar medium of starburst galaxies is not simply an ensemble of Galactic-type giant molecular clouds. The warm gas emission is likely dominated by regions resembling the warm extended cloud of Sgr B2.

  6. Connecting The Interstellar Gas And Dust Properties Of Distant Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Varsha

    The properties of interstellar gas and dust in distant galaxies are fundamental parameters in constraining galaxy evolution models. Quasar absorption systems (QASs), which trace intervening galaxies along the sightlines to luminous background quasars, provide invaluable tools to directly study gas and dust in distant normal galaxies. Recent studies of QASs have found interesting trends in both gas and dust properties, such as correlations in metallicity with redshift and dust depletions. Our Spitzer spectroscopic studies also indicate that silicate dust grains are present in QASs, and in fact, at a level higher than expected for diffuse gas in the Milky Way. Moreover, the silicate dust grains in these distant galaxies may be substantially more crystalline than those in the Milky Way interstellar medium. We now propose a comprehensive study of the gas and dust properties of all QASs with strong Ly-alpha and/or metal absorption lines that have adequate archival IR data to probe the study of dust. Our analysis will include data primarily from the NASA-supported Spitzer, Herschel, HST, and Keck Observatory archives, along with a small amount of VLT/SDSS archival data. Our specific goals are as follows: (1) We will measure a large range of metal absorption lines in high-resolution quasar spectra from Keck, HST, and VLT archives to uniformly determine the metallicity, dust depletions, ionization, and star formation rates in the foreground QASs. In particular, we will study the variations in these quantities with gas velocity, using Voigt profile fitting techniques to determine the velocity structure. This analysis will also allow us to quantify the kinematics of the absorbing gas. (2) We will use archival Spitzer IRS quasar spectra to search for and measure the strengths of the 10 and 18 micron silicate dust absorption features for a much larger sample of QASs than previously studied. (3) We will fit the observed silicate absorption features in the Spitzer archival

  7. Relevance of cosmic gamma rays to the mass of gas in the galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, C. L.; Mayer, C. J.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    The bulk of the diffuse gamma-ray flux comes from cosmic ray interactions in the interstellar medium. A knowledge of the large scale spatial distribution of the Galactic gamma-rays and the cosmic rays enables the distribution of the target gas to be examined. An approach of this type is used here to estimate the total mass of the molecular gas in the galaxy. It is shown to be much less than that previously derived, viz., approximately 6 x 10 to the 8th power solar masses within the solar radius as against approximately 3 x 10 to the 9th power based on 2.6 mm CO measurements.

  8. Molecular Hydrogen Absorption from the Halo of a z ˜ 0.4 Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzahid, Sowgat; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Charlton, Jane C.; Churchill, Christopher W.

    2016-05-01

    Lyman- and Werner-band absorption of molecular hydrogen ({{{H}}}2) is detected in ˜50% of low-redshift (z\\lt 1) DLAs/sub-DLAs with N({{{H}}}2) \\gt {10}14.4 cm-2. However, the true origin(s) of the {{{H}}}2-bearing gas remain elusive. Here we report a new detection of an {{{H}}}2 absorber at {z}{{abs}} = 0.4298 in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph spectra of quasar PKS 2128-123. The total N({{H}} {{i}}) of {10}19.50+/- 0.15 cm-2 classifies the absorber as a sub-DLA. {{{H}}}2 absorption is detected up to the J = 3 rotational level with a total {log}N({{{H}}}2) = 16.36 ± 0.08, corresponding to a molecular fraction of {log}{f}{{{H}}2} = -2.84 ± 0.17. The excitation temperature of {T}{{ex}} = 206 ± 6 K indicates the presence of cold gas. Using detailed ionization modeling, we obtain a near-solar metallicity (i.e., [O/H] = -0.26 ± 0.19) and a dust-to-gas ratio of {log}κ ˜ -0.45 for the {{{H}}}2-absorbing gas. The host galaxy of the sub-DLA is detected at an impact parameter of ρ ˜ 48 kpc with an inclination angle of i ˜ 48° and an azimuthal angle of Φ ˜ 15° with respect to the QSO sightline. We show that corotating gas in an extended disk cannot explain the observed kinematics of Mg ii absorption. Moreover, the inferred high metallicity is not consistent with the scenario of gas accretion. An outflow from the central region of the host galaxy, on the other hand, would require a large opening angle (i.e., 2θ \\gt 150^\\circ ), much larger than the observed outflow opening angles in Seyfert galaxies, in order to intercept the QSO sightline. We thus favor a scenario in which the {{{H}}}2-bearing gas is stemming from a dwarf-satellite galaxy, presumably via tidal and/or ram pressure stripping. Detection of a dwarf galaxy candidate in the HST/WFPC2 image at an impact parameter of ˜12 kpc reinforces such an idea.

  9. Exploring the central molecular zone of the Galaxy using spectroscopy of H3+ and CO.

    PubMed

    Geballe, T R

    2012-11-13

    The central 400 parsecs of the Milky Way, a region known as the central molecular zone (CMZ), contains interstellar gas in a wide range of physical environments, from ultra-hot, rarified and highly ionized to warm, dense and molecular. The combination of infrared spectroscopy of H(3)(+) and CO is a powerful way to determine the basic properties of molecular interstellar gas, because the abundance ratio of H(3)(+) to CO in 'dense' clouds is quite different from that in 'diffuse' clouds. Moreover, the energy-level structure and the radiative properties of H(3)(+) combined with the unusually warm temperatures of molecular gas in the CMZ make H(3)(+) a unique probe of the physical conditions there. This paper describes how, using infrared absorption spectroscopy of H(3)(+) and CO, it has been discovered that a large fraction of the volume of the CMZ is filled with warm, diffuse and partially molecular gas moving at speeds of up to approximately 200 km s(-1) and that the mean cosmic ray ionization rate in the CMZ exceeds by roughly an order of magnitude values found in diffuse molecular clouds elsewhere in the Galaxy.

  10. Exploring the central molecular zone of the Galaxy using spectroscopy of H3+ and CO.

    PubMed

    Geballe, T R

    2012-11-13

    The central 400 parsecs of the Milky Way, a region known as the central molecular zone (CMZ), contains interstellar gas in a wide range of physical environments, from ultra-hot, rarified and highly ionized to warm, dense and molecular. The combination of infrared spectroscopy of H(3)(+) and CO is a powerful way to determine the basic properties of molecular interstellar gas, because the abundance ratio of H(3)(+) to CO in 'dense' clouds is quite different from that in 'diffuse' clouds. Moreover, the energy-level structure and the radiative properties of H(3)(+) combined with the unusually warm temperatures of molecular gas in the CMZ make H(3)(+) a unique probe of the physical conditions there. This paper describes how, using infrared absorption spectroscopy of H(3)(+) and CO, it has been discovered that a large fraction of the volume of the CMZ is filled with warm, diffuse and partially molecular gas moving at speeds of up to approximately 200 km s(-1) and that the mean cosmic ray ionization rate in the CMZ exceeds by roughly an order of magnitude values found in diffuse molecular clouds elsewhere in the Galaxy. PMID:23028162

  11. The infrared continuum spectrum of x ray illuminated molecular gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voit, G. Mark

    1990-01-01

    In starburst galaxies, active galaxies, and the mysterious ultraluminous infrared galaxies, x rays are likely to interact with molecular gas and dust, thereby inducing infrared emission. X ray heated thermal dust will emit the IR continuum, and x ray photoelectrons will excite an IR emission-line spectrum. Here, researchers model the IR continuum emission characteristic of some selected x ray spectral fluxes, in particular the x ray bremsstrahlung characteristic of supernova and stellar wind bubble shocks in dense media and the power law spectra characteristic of active galactic nuclei. These models are part of a larger project to determine the complete IR spectra, lines plus continuum, of x ray sources embedded in molecular gas. They modeled the thermal emission from grains by calculating a grain temperature/size/composition distribution function, f(T,a,Comp.), which accounts for temperature fluctuations by averaging over all grain thermal histories. In determining the grain thermal distribution, researchers account for both direct grain heating (by x ray absorption and subsequent electron energy deposition) and indirect grain heating (by absorption of the UV emission stimulated by non-thermal photo- and Auger electrons in the gas phase). We let the grain size distribution be proportional to a(exp -3.5), and they consider two types of grain composition: graphites, which we assume to be pure carbon, and silicates, which contain all other depleted heavy elements. They derive the grain composition distribution function from solar abundances and interstellar depletion data.

  12. A WARM MODE OF GAS ACCRETION ON FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Murante, Giuseppe; Calabrese, Matteo; De Lucia, Gabriella; Monaco, Pierluigi; Borgani, Stefano; Dolag, Klaus E-mail: monaco@oats.inaf.it E-mail: calabrese@oato.inaf.it E-mail: kdolag@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2012-04-20

    We present results from high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of a Milky-Way-sized halo, aimed at studying the effect of feedback on the nature of gas accretion. Simulations include a model of interstellar medium and star formation, in which supernova (SN) explosions provide effective thermal feedback. We distinguish between gas accretion onto the halo, which occurs when gas particles cross the halo virial radius, and gas accretion onto the central galaxy, which takes place when gas particles cross the inner one-tenth of the virial radius. Gas particles can be accreted through three different channels, depending on the maximum temperature value, T{sub max}, reached during the particles' past evolution: a cold channel for T{sub max} < 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K, a hot one for T > 10{sup 6} K, and a warm one for intermediate values of T{sub max}. We find that the warm channel is at least as important as the cold one for gas accretion onto the central galaxy. This result is at variance with previous findings that the cold mode dominates gas accretion at high redshift. We ascribe this difference to the different SN feedback scheme implemented in our simulations. While results presented so far in the literature are based on uneffective SN thermal feedback schemes and/or the presence of a kinetic feedback, our simulations include only effective thermal feedback. We argue that observational detections of a warm accretion mode in the high-redshift circumgalactic medium would provide useful constraints on the nature of the feedback that regulates star formation in galaxies.

  13. Extended ionized gas in elliptical galaxies. II. Velocity and monochromatic maps of 11 elliptical and lenticular galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plana, H.; Boulesteix, J.; Amram, Ph.; Carignan, C.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.

    1998-02-01

    For the last ten years faint ionized gas detection has been carried out for elliptical galaxies with success. The kinematics is essential to understand galaxy gas origin and fate. Here we present a sample of 11 elliptical and lenticular galaxies observed with the ``Cigale" scanning Perot-Fabry instrument. For each galaxy monochromatic and velocity map of ionized gas is presented. Geometrical properties such as viewing angles and axis ratios are also derived from observations. Double gaseous components are found in 3 galaxies of our sample, implying an external origin for at least part of the observed gas. % Based on observations collected with the S.A.O. 6 m telescope located in Nizhnij Arkhyz (Russia), the 3.6 m CFH telescope and the 3.6 m telescope at ESO.

  14. Characterizing Gas Rich Companion Galaxies of z~6 QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzucchelli, Chiara; Banados, Eduardo; Bertoldi, Frank; Decarli, Roberto; Fan, Xiaohui; Farina, Emanuele Paolo; Riechers, Dominik; Strauss, Michael; Venemans, Bram; Walter, Fabian; Wang, Ran

    2016-08-01

    Luminous QSOs at z>6 are formidable probes of the early Universe, and are believed to reside in overdense regions. However, previous UV-based observational searches did not provide concurring evidence for such galaxy overdensities. Our on-going ALMA Cycle 3 survey to detect [CII] and FIR dust emission in a large sample of high-z QSOs has revealed the presence of bright, close companion galaxies at the same redshift of six QSOs. These newly discovered gas-rich companion galaxies promise to shed new light on early structure formation at the very dawn of time. Now we want to unveil the properties of these companion sources. The ALMA measurement only inform us on the cool gas/dust content; observations of their rest-frame optical emission are needed to characterize the bulk of the stellar population. Spitzer/IRAC is the only instrument available to date which can provide these sensitive information at z>6. Here, we propose to collect deep photometry with Spitzer/IRAC of six companion sources to z>6 QSOs. Together with ALMA data in hand, they will allow us to assess, or place strong limits on, the shape of their spectral energy distributions and to obtain their stellar masses. The observations requested here will provide a unique observational benchmark for theoretical studies of early galaxy formation.

  15. Gas stripping in galaxy clusters: a new SPH simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jáchym, P.; Palouš, J.; Köppen, J.; Combes, F.

    2007-09-01

    Aims:The influence of a time-varying ram pressure on spiral galaxies in clusters is explored with a new simulation method based on the N-body SPH/tree code GADGET. Methods: We have adapted the code to describe the interaction of two different gas phases, the diffuse hot intracluster medium (ICM) and the denser and colder interstellar medium (ISM). Both the ICM and ISM components are introduced as SPH particles. As a galaxy arrives on a highly radial orbit from outskirts to cluster center, it crosses the ICM density peak and experiences a time-varying wind. Results: Depending on the duration and intensity of the ISM-ICM interaction, early and late type galaxies in galaxy clusters with either a large or small ICM distribution are found to show different stripping efficiencies, amounts of reaccretion of the extra-planar ISM, and final masses. We compare the numerical results with analytical approximations of different complexity and indicate the limits of the Gunn & Gott simple stripping formula. Conclusions: Our investigations emphasize the role of the galactic orbital history to the stripping amount. We discuss the contribution of ram pressure stripping to the origin of the ICM and its metallicity. We propose gas accumulations like tails, filaments, or ripples to be responsible for stripping in regions with low overall ICM occurrence. Appendix A is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. DENSE GAS FRACTION AND STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY VARIATIONS IN THE ANTENNAE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bigiel, F.; Leroy, A. K.; Blitz, L.; Bolatto, A. D.; Da Cunha, E.; Rosolowsky, E.; Sandstrom, K.; Usero, A.

    2015-12-20

    We use the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) millimeter interferometer to map the Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/39), tracing the bulk of the molecular gas via the {sup 12}CO(1–0) line and denser molecular gas via the high density transitions HCN(1–0), HCO{sup +}(1–0), CS(2–1), and HNC(1–0). We detect bright emission from all tracers in both the two nuclei and three locales in the overlap region between the two nuclei. These three overlap region peaks correspond to previously identified “supergiant molecular clouds.” We combine the CARMA data with Herschel infrared (IR) data to compare observational indicators of the star formation efficiency (star formation rate/H{sub 2} ∝ IR/CO), dense gas fraction (HCN/CO), and dense gas star formation efficiency (IR/HCN). Regions within the Antennae show ratios consistent with those seen for entire galaxies, but these ratios vary by up to a factor of six within the galaxy. The five detected regions vary strongly in both their integrated intensities and these ratios. The northern nucleus is the brightest region in millimeter-wave line emission, while the overlap region is the brightest part of the system in the IR. We combine the CARMA and Herschel data with ALMA CO data to report line ratio patterns for each bright point. CO shows a declining spectral line energy distribution, consistent with previous studies. HCO{sup +} (1–0) emission is stronger than HCN (1–0) emission, perhaps indicating either more gas at moderate densities or higher optical depth than is commonly seen in more advanced mergers.

  17. Molecular dissociation in dilute gas

    SciTech Connect

    Renfrow, S.N.; Duggan, J.L.; McDaniel, F.D. |

    1999-06-01

    The charge state distributions (CSD) produced during molecular dissociation are important to both Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (TEAMS) and the ion implantation industry. The CSD of 1.3{endash}1.7 MeV SiN{sup +}, SiMg{sup +}, SiMn{sup +}, and SiZn{sup +} molecules have been measured for elements that do not form atomic negative ions (N, Mg, Mn, and Zn) using a NEC Tandem Pelletron accelerator. The molecules were produced in a Cs sputter negative ion source, accelerated, magnetically analyzed, and then passed through an N{sub 2} gas cell. The neutral and charged breakups where analyzed using an electrostatic deflector and measured with particle detectors. Equilibrium CSD were determined and comparisons made between molecular and atomic ion data. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. NOT DEAD YET: COOL CIRCUMGALACTIC GAS IN THE HALOS OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Christopher; Tumlinson, Jason; Sembach, Kenneth R.; Werk, Jessica K.; Xavier Prochaska, J.; Peeples, Molly S.; Tripp, Todd M.; Katz, Neal S.; O'Meara, John M.; Ford, Amanda Brady; Dave, Romeel; Weinberg, David H.

    2012-10-20

    We report new observations of circumgalactic gas in the halos of early-type galaxies (ETGs) obtained by the COS-Halos Survey with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We find that detections of H I surrounding ETGs are typically as common and strong as around star-forming galaxies, implying that the total mass of circumgalactic material is comparable in the two populations. For ETGs, the covering fraction for H I absorption above 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} is {approx}40%-50% within {approx}150 kpc. Line widths and kinematics of the detected material show it to be cold (T {approx}< 10{sup 5} K) in comparison to the virial temperature of the host halos. The implied masses of cool, photoionized circumgalactic medium baryons may be up to 10{sup 9}-10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }. Contrary to some theoretical expectations, strong halo H I absorbers do not disappear as part of the quenching of star formation. Even passive galaxies retain significant reservoirs of halo baryons that could replenish the interstellar gas reservoir and eventually form stars. This halo gas may feed the diffuse and molecular gas that is frequently observed inside ETGs.

  19. Lighting the Dark Molecular Gas: H2 as a Direct Tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togi, Aditya; Smith, J. D. T.

    2016-10-01

    Robust knowledge of molecular gas mass is critical for understanding star formation in galaxies. The {{{H}}}2 molecule does not emit efficiently in the cold interstellar medium, hence the molecular gas content of galaxies is typically inferred using indirect tracers. At low metallicity and in other extreme environments, these tracers can be subject to substantial biases. We present a new method of estimating total molecular gas mass in galaxies directly from pure mid-infrared rotational {{{H}}}2 emission. By assuming a power-law distribution of {{{H}}}2 rotational temperatures, we can accurately model {{{H}}}2 excitation and reliably obtain warm (T ≳ 100 K) {{{H}}}2 gas masses by varying only the power law’s slope. With sensitivities typical of Spitzer/IRS, we are able to directly probe the {{{H}}}2 content via rotational emission down to ∼80 K, accounting for ∼15% of the total molecular gas mass in a galaxy. By extrapolating the fitted power-law temperature distributions to a calibrated single lower cutoff temperature, the model also recovers the total molecular content within a factor of ∼2.2 in a diverse sample of galaxies, and a subset of broken power-law models performs similarly well. In ULIRGs, the fraction of warm {{{H}}}2 gas rises with dust temperature, with some dependency on α CO. In a sample of five low-metallicity galaxies ranging down to 12+{log}[{{O}}/{{H}}]=7.8, the model yields molecular masses up to ∼100× larger than implied by CO, in good agreement with other methods based on dust mass and star formation depletion timescale. This technique offers real promise for assessing molecular content in the early universe where CO and dust-based methods may fail.

  20. Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in ALFALFA Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-06-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and H I components of 229 low H I mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H I masses <107.7 M ⊙ and H I line widths <80 km s-1. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M *) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M * obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M * <~ 108 M ⊙ is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper H I mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M * than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H I depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that H I disks are more extended than stellar ones. Based on observations made with the Arecibo Observatory and the NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). The Arecibo Observatory is operated by SRI International under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (AST-1100968), and in alliance with Ana G. Méndez-Universidad Metropolitana and

  1. Self-gravitating gas flow in barred spiral galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntley, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    A series of two-dimensional numerical experiments is performed in order to test the response of an isothermal, self-gravitating gas disk to a uniformly rotating, barlike gravitational potential. The barlike potential is an equilibrium stellar model from the n-body calculations of Miller and Smith (1979). In the bar-dominated, central regions of the disk, a gas bar whose phase depends primarily on the location of principal resonances in the disk is formed. This response can be understood in terms of orbit-crowding effects. In the gas-dominated outer regions of the disk, two-armed trailing spiral waves are formed. The local pitch angle of these waves increases with increasing fractional gas mass. These self-gravitating gas waves are not self-sustaining. They are driven from the ends of equilibrium stellar bars, and their phase does not depend on the location of resonances in the disk. The relevance of these self-gravitating waves to observations and models of barred spiral galaxies is discussed. It is concluded that these waves and their associated ringlike structures may be consistent with the morphological distribution of gas features in barred spiral galaxies.

  2. Two γ-ray bursts from dusty regions with little molecular gas.

    PubMed

    Hatsukade, B; Ohta, K; Endo, A; Nakanishi, K; Tamura, Y; Hashimoto, T; Kohno, K

    2014-06-12

    Long-duration γ-ray bursts are associated with the explosions of massive stars and are accordingly expected to reside in star-forming regions with molecular gas (the fuel for star formation). Previous searches for carbon monoxide (CO), a tracer of molecular gas, in burst host galaxies did not detect any emission. Molecules have been detected as absorption in the spectra of γ-ray burst afterglows, and the molecular gas is similar to the translucent or diffuse molecular clouds of the Milky Way. Absorption lines probe the interstellar medium only along the line of sight, so it is not clear whether the molecular gas represents the general properties of the regions where the bursts occur. Here we report spatially resolved observations of CO line emission and millimetre-wavelength continuum emission in two galaxies hosting γ-ray bursts. The bursts happened in regions rich in dust, but not particularly rich in molecular gas. The ratio of molecular gas to dust (<9-14) is significantly lower than in star-forming regions of the Milky Way and nearby star-forming galaxies, suggesting that much of the dense gas where stars form has been dissipated by other massive stars.

  3. Two γ-ray bursts from dusty regions with little molecular gas.

    PubMed

    Hatsukade, B; Ohta, K; Endo, A; Nakanishi, K; Tamura, Y; Hashimoto, T; Kohno, K

    2014-06-12

    Long-duration γ-ray bursts are associated with the explosions of massive stars and are accordingly expected to reside in star-forming regions with molecular gas (the fuel for star formation). Previous searches for carbon monoxide (CO), a tracer of molecular gas, in burst host galaxies did not detect any emission. Molecules have been detected as absorption in the spectra of γ-ray burst afterglows, and the molecular gas is similar to the translucent or diffuse molecular clouds of the Milky Way. Absorption lines probe the interstellar medium only along the line of sight, so it is not clear whether the molecular gas represents the general properties of the regions where the bursts occur. Here we report spatially resolved observations of CO line emission and millimetre-wavelength continuum emission in two galaxies hosting γ-ray bursts. The bursts happened in regions rich in dust, but not particularly rich in molecular gas. The ratio of molecular gas to dust (<9-14) is significantly lower than in star-forming regions of the Milky Way and nearby star-forming galaxies, suggesting that much of the dense gas where stars form has been dissipated by other massive stars. PMID:24919918

  4. Stellar and Gas Phase Metallicity of Low Surface Brighness Galaxies: Implication on Star Formation Process within Young Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji Hoon

    2015-08-01

    Low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies, whose central surface brightness, μB, is fainter than 23 mag/arcsec2 in the B-band, have been one of the most intriguing galaxy populations. Their unique characteristics, such as blue colors in optical and near-infrared light, low metallicity, low stellar and gas surface densities, low dust content, and high gas mass fraction (up to 90%), resemble physical conditions of young galaxies of the early Universe whose interstellar medium (ISM) has not been enriched before major star formation activities initiated and should provide a testbed for star formation process at the exremly low surface density regime. Given that their star formation histories are still poorly constrained, LSB galaxies are known to have large specific star formation rates (sSFRs) with large gas fractions. There is also a correlation between their sSFRs and gas fractions. One of plausible scenarios is that the star formation efficiency may be an increasing funtion of time, perhaps due in part to the slow build up of metals and dust. Moreover, it is suspected that, being located in low number density area in terms of galaxy environment, LSB galaxies may receive additional gas to fuel their star formation activity via sporadic cold gas accretion, especially toward their outskirt regions analogous to extended ultraviolet disks. Due to their relatively isolated nature without having endured much interactions, LSB galaxies can mimic star formation processes of disk galaxies of the early Universe within their interstellar media (ISM). We present preliminary results based on stellar and gas phase metallicity of LSB galaxies along with their environment parameters to show how star-forming ISM of young disk galaxies before metal enrichment.

  5. Global Studies of Molecular Clouds in the Galaxy, The Magellanic Clouds, and M31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaddeus, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    Over the course of this grant we used various spacecraft surveys of the Galaxy and M31 in conjunction with our extensive CO spectral line surveys to address central problems in galactic structure and the astrophysics of molecular clouds. These problems included the nature of the molecular ring and its relation to the spiral arms and central bar, the cosmic ray distribution, the origin of the diffuse X-ray background, the distribution and properties of x-ray sources and supernova remnants, and the Galactic stellar mass distribution. For many of these problems, the nearby spiral M31 provided an important complementary perspective. Our CO surveys of GMCs (Galactic Molecular Clouds) were crucial for interpreting Galactic continuum surveys from satellites such as GRO (Gamma Ray Observatory), ROSAT (Roentgen Satellite), IRAS (Infrared Astronomy Satellite), and COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite) because they provided the missing dimension of velocity or kinematic distance. GMCs are a well-defined and widespread population of objects whose velocities we could readily measure throughout the Galaxy. Through various emission and absorption mechanisms involving their gas, dust, or associated Population I objects, GMCs modulate the galactic emission in virtually every major wavelength band. Furthermore, the visibility. of GMCs at so many wavelengths provided various methods of resolving the kinematic distance ambiguity for these objects in the inner Galaxy. Summaries of our accomplishments in each of the major wavelength bands discussed in our original proposal are given

  6. Dynamical effect of gas on spiral pattern speed in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Soumavo; Jog, Chanda J.

    2016-07-01

    In the density wave theory of spiral structure, the grand-design two-armed spiral pattern is taken to rotate rigidly in a galactic disc with a constant, definite pattern speed. The observational measurement of the pattern speed of the spiral arms, though difficult, has been achieved in a few galaxies such as NGC 6946, NGC 2997, and M 51 which we consider here. We examine whether the theoretical dispersion relation permits a real solution for wavenumber corresponding to a stable wave, for the observed rotation curve and the pattern speed values. We find that the disc when modelled as a stars-alone case, as is usually done in literature, does not generally give a stable density wave solution for the observed pattern speed. Instead the inclusion of the low velocity dispersion component, namely, gas, is essential to obtain a stable density wave. Further, we obtain a theoretical range of allowed pattern speeds that correspond to a stable density wave at a certain radius, and check that for the three galaxies considered, the observed pattern speeds fall in the respective prescribed range. The inclusion of even a small amount (˜15 per cent) of gas by mass fraction in the galactic disc is shown to have a significant dynamical effect on the dispersion relation and hence on the pattern speed that is likely to be seen in a real, gas-rich spiral galaxy.

  7. The Gas Distribution in Galaxy Cluster Outer Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.; Nagai, D.; Laue, E. T.; Roncarelli, M.; Rossetti, M.; Snowden, S. L.; Gastaldello, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We present the analysis of a local (z = 0.04 - 0.2) sample of 31 galaxy clusters with the aim of measuring the density of the X-ray emitting gas in cluster outskirts. We compare our results with numerical simulations to set constraints on the azimuthal symmetry and gas clumping in the outer regions of galaxy clusters. Methods. We exploit the large field-of-view and low instrumental background of ROSAT/PSPC to trace the density of the intracluster gas out to the virial radius. We perform a stacking of the density profiles to detect a signal beyond r200 and measure the typical density and scatter in cluster outskirts. We also compute the azimuthal scatter of the profiles with respect to the mean value to look for deviations from spherical symmetry. Finally, we compare our average density and scatter profiles with the results of numerical simulations. Results. As opposed to some recent Suzaku results, and confirming previous evidence from ROSAT and Chandra, we observe a steepening of the density profiles beyond approximately r(sub 500). Comparing our density profiles with simulations, we find that non-radiative runs predict too steep density profiles, whereas runs including additional physics and/or treating gas clumping are in better agreement with the observed gas distribution. We report for the first time the high-confidence detection of a systematic difference between cool-core and non-cool core clusters beyond 0.3r(sub 200), which we explain by a different distribution of the gas in the two classes. Beyond r(sub 500), galaxy clusters deviate significantly from spherical symmetry, with only little differences between relaxed and disturbed systems. We find good agreement between the observed and predicted scatter profiles, but only when the 1% densest clumps are filtered out in the simulations. Conclusions. Comparing our results with numerical simulations, we find that non-radiative simulations fail to reproduce the gas distribution, even well outside cluster

  8. The Gas Distribution in the Outer Regions of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.; Nagai, D.; Lau, E. T.; Roncarelli, M.; Rossetti, M.; Snowden, L.; Gastaldello, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We present our analysis of a local (z = 0.04 - 0.2) sample of 31 galaxy clusters with the aim of measuring the density of the X-ray emitting gas in cluster outskirts. We compare our results with numerical simulations to set constraints on the azimuthal symmetry and gas clumping in the outer regions of galaxy clusters. Methods. We have exploited the large field-of-view and low instrumental background of ROSAT/PSPC to trace the density of the intracluster gas out to the virial radius, We stacked the density profiles to detect a signal beyond T200 and measured the typical density and scatter in cluster outskirts. We also computed the azimuthal scatter of the profiles with respect to the mean value to look for deviations from spherical symmetry. Finally, we compared our average density and scatter profiles with the results of numerical simulations. Results. As opposed to some recent Suzaku results, and confirming previous evidence from ROSAT and Chandra, we observe a steepening of the density profiles beyond approximately r(sub 500). Comparing our density profiles with simulations, we find that non-radiative runs predict density profiles that are too steep, whereas runs including additional physics and/ or treating gas clumping agree better with the observed gas distribution. We report high-confidence detection of a systematic difference between cool-core and non cool-core clusters beyond approximately 0.3r(sub 200), which we explain by a different distribution of the gas in the two classes. Beyond approximately r(sub 500), galaxy clusters deviate significantly from spherical symmetry, with only small differences between relaxed and disturbed systems. We find good agreement between the observed and predicted scatter profiles, but only when the 1% densest clumps are filtered out in the ENZO simulations. Conclusions. Comparing our results with numerical simulations, we find that non-radiative simulations fail to reproduce the gas distribution, even well outside

  9. ALMA observations of cold molecular gas filaments trailing rising radio bubbles in PKS 0745-191

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, H. R.; McNamara, B. R.; Fabian, A. C.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Edge, A. C.; Combes, F.; Murray, N. W.; Parrish, I. J.; Salomé, P.; Sanders, J. S.; Baum, S. A.; Donahue, M.; Main, R. A.; O'Connell, R. W.; O'Dea, C. P.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Tremblay, G.; Vantyghem, A. N.; Voit, G. M.

    2016-05-01

    We present ALMA observations of the CO(1-0) and CO(3-2) line emission tracing filaments of cold molecular gas in the central galaxy of the cluster PKS 0745-191. The total molecular gas mass of 4.6± 0.3× 109 M_{⊙}, assuming a Galactic XCO factor, is divided roughly equally between three filaments each extending radially 3-5 kpc from the galaxy centre. The emission peak is located in the SE filament ˜ 1 arcsec (2 kpc) from the nucleus. The velocities of the molecular clouds in the filaments are low, lying within ± 100 { km s^{-1}} of the galaxy's systemic velocity. Their full width at half-maximum (FWHM) are less than 150 { km s^{-1},} which is significantly below the stellar velocity dispersion. Although the molecular mass of each filament is comparable to a rich spiral galaxy, such low velocities show that the filaments are transient and the clouds would disperse on < 107 yr time-scales unless supported, likely by the indirect effect of magnetic fields. The velocity structure is inconsistent with a merger origin or gravitational free-fall of cooling gas in this massive central galaxy. If the molecular clouds originated in gas cooling even a few kpc from their current locations their velocities would exceed those observed. Instead, the projection of the N and SE filaments underneath X-ray cavities suggests they formed in the updraft behind bubbles buoyantly rising through the cluster atmosphere. Direct uplift of the dense gas by the radio bubbles appears to require an implausibly high coupling efficiency. The filaments are coincident with low temperature X-ray gas, bright optical line emission and dust lanes indicating that the molecular gas could have formed from lifted warmer gas that cooled in situ.

  10. COLDz: KARL G. JANSKY VERY LARGE ARRAY DISCOVERY OF A GAS-RICH GALAXY IN COSMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Lentati, L.; Wagg, J.; Carilli, C. L.; Riechers, D.; Sharon, C.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N.; Walter, F.; Da Cunha, E.; Decarli, R.; Aravena, M.; Hodge, J. A.; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, I.; Daddi, E.; Dickinson, M.; Sargent, M.; Smolčć, V.

    2015-02-10

    The broad spectral bandwidth at millimeter and centimeter wavelengths provided by the recent upgrades to the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) has made it possible to conduct unbiased searches for molecular CO line emission at redshifts, z > 1.31. We present the discovery of a gas-rich, star-forming galaxy at z = 2.48 through the detection of CO J = 1-0 line emission in the COLDz survey and through a sensitive, Ka-band (31-39 GHz) VLA survey of a 6.5 arcmin{sup 2} region of the COSMOS field. We argue that the broad line (FWHM ∼ 570 ± 80 km s{sup –1}) is most likely to be CO J = 1-0 at z = 2.48, as the integrated emission is spatially coincident with an infrared-detected galaxy with a photometric redshift estimate of z {sub phot} = 3.2 ± 0.4. The CO J = 1-0 line luminosity is L{sub CO}{sup ′}=(2.2±0.3)×10{sup 10} K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2}, suggesting a cold molecular gas mass of M {sub gas} ∼ (2-8) × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} depending on the assumed value of the molecular gas mass to CO luminosity ratio α{sub CO}. The estimated infrared luminosity from the (rest-frame) far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) is L {sub IR} = 2.5 × 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉} and the star formation rate is ∼250 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, with the SED shape indicating substantial dust obscuration of the stellar light. The infrared to CO line luminosity ratio is ∼114 ± 19 L {sub ☉}/(K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2}), similar to galaxies with similar SFRs selected at UV/optical to radio wavelengths. This discovery confirms the potential for molecular emission line surveys as a route to study populations of gas-rich galaxies in the future.

  11. Star formation and molecular hydrogen in dwarf galaxies: a non-equilibrium view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chia-Yu; Naab, Thorsten; Walch, Stefanie; Glover, Simon C. O.; Clark, Paul C.

    2016-06-01

    We study the connection of star formation to atomic (H I) and molecular hydrogen (H2) in isolated, low-metallicity dwarf galaxies with high-resolution (mgas = 4 M⊙, Nngb = 100) smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. The model includes self-gravity, non-equilibrium cooling, shielding from a uniform and constant interstellar radiation field, the chemistry of H2 formation, H2-independent star formation, supernova feedback and metal enrichment. We find that the H2 mass fraction is sensitive to the adopted dust-to-gas ratio and the strength of the interstellar radiation field, while the star formation rate is not. Star formation is regulated by stellar feedback, keeping the gas out of thermal equilibrium for densities n < 1 cm-3. Because of the long chemical time-scales, the H2 mass remains out of chemical equilibrium throughout the simulation. Star formation is well correlated with cold (T ≤ 100 K) gas, but this dense and cold gas - the reservoir for star formation - is dominated by H I, not H2. In addition, a significant fraction of H2 resides in a diffuse, warm phase, which is not star-forming. The interstellar medium is dominated by warm gas (100 K < T ≤ 3 × 104 K) both in mass and in volume. The scaleheight of the gaseous disc increases with radius while the cold gas is always confined to a thin layer in the mid-plane. The cold gas fraction is regulated by feedback at small radii and by the assumed radiation field at large radii. The decreasing cold gas fractions result in a rapid increase in depletion time (up to 100 Gyr) for total gas surface densities Σ _{H I+H_2} ≲ 10 M⊙ pc-2, in agreement with observations of dwarf galaxies in the Kennicutt-Schmidt plane.

  12. The Incidence, Geometry, and Kinematics of Extraplanar Gas in MaNGA Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of star formation in galaxies is regulated by the cycle of accretion and feedback processes in the circumgalactic medium. The geometry, kinematics, and multi-phase structure of circumgalactic gas are not well predicted by numerical simulations, so there is motivation to characterize these properties empirically by observing ionized gas around galaxies in both emission and absorption. Absorption-line studies are quite sensitive to diffuse gas at low column densities, but they are limited in scope because they require bright background sources, which are rare and offer pencil-beam probes of gas properties for individual galaxies. A complementary approach is to use optical emission lines to study extraplanar diffuse ionized gas, which can trace the spatial extent and kinematics of outflowing and inflowing gas. Using the unique dataset of spatially resolved spectroscopy from MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory), we are developing techniques to identify galaxies with extraplanar gas on the basis of optical emission lines that extend above and below the plane of disk galaxies. Our initial results suggest that extraplanar gas is quite common among galaxies in the MaNGA sample, particularly among star-forming galaxies with inclination angles greater than 45 degrees, for which it is more straightforward to separate extraplanar gas from emission associated with the disk. These results on the incidence, geometry, and kinematics of extraplanar gas as a function of global galaxy properties provide important constraints on models of accretion and feedback in the circumgalactic medium.

  13. Gas Kinematics In and Around Edge-on Galaxies from MaNGA Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizyaev, D.

    2016-06-01

    Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) is a massive Integral Field Unit survey of a large number of relatively nearby galaxies that started in 2014 as a part of SDSS-IV at the Apache Point Observatory. After the first year of observations MaNGA has obtained IFU spectra of about a thousand of objects, with several dozens of edge-on galaxies among them. The two-dimensional spectra help us constrain parameters of galactic components with superior rotation curves. There is a significant fraction of galaxies in which the extra-planar gas emission is confidently detected. The extra-planar gas velocity fields in several galaxies show signs of lagging rotation with respect to the gas motion close to the galactic plane. We show progress of MaNGA survey in observations of edge-on galaxies and discuss their impact on our understanding of gas kinematics in and around spiral galaxies after finishing the survey.

  14. EVIDENCE FOR A CLUMPY, ROTATING GAS DISK IN A SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY AT z = 4

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, J. A.; Walter, F.; Carilli, C. L.; De Blok, W. J. G.; Riechers, D.; Daddi, E.

    2012-11-20

    We present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array observations of the CO(2-1) emission in the z = 4.05 submillimeter galaxy (SMG) GN20. These high-resolution data allow us to image the molecular gas at 1.3 kpc resolution just 1.6 Gyr after the big bang. The data reveal a clumpy, extended gas reservoir, 14 {+-} 4 kpc in diameter, in unprecedented detail. A dynamical analysis shows that the data are consistent with a rotating disk of total dynamical mass 5.4 {+-} 2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M {sub Sun }. We use this dynamical mass estimate to constrain the CO-to-H{sub 2} mass conversion factor ({alpha}{sub CO}), finding {alpha}{sub CO} = 1.1 {+-} 0.6 M {sub Sun }(K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}){sup -1}. We identify five distinct molecular gas clumps in the disk of GN20 with masses a few percent of the total gas mass, brightness temperatures of 16-31K, and surface densities of >3200-4500 Multiplication-Sign ({alpha}{sub CO}/0.8) M {sub Sun} pc{sup -2}. Virial mass estimates indicate they could be self-gravitating, and we constrain their CO-to-H{sub 2} mass conversion factor to be <0.2-0.7 M {sub Sun }(K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}){sup -1}. A multiwavelength comparison demonstrates that the molecular gas is concentrated in a region of the galaxy that is heavily obscured in the rest-frame UV/optical. We investigate the spatially resolved gas excitation and find that the CO(6-5)/CO(2-1) ratio is constant with radius, consistent with star formation occurring over a large portion of the disk. We discuss the implications of our results in the context of different fueling scenarios for SMGs.

  15. GAS SURFACE DENSITY, STAR FORMATION RATE SURFACE DENSITY, AND THE MAXIMUM MASS OF YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS IN A DISK GALAXY. I. THE FLOCCULENT GALAXY M 33

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A.; Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel

    2012-12-20

    We analyze the relationship between maximum cluster mass M{sub max} and surface densities of total gas ({Sigma}{sub gas}), molecular gas ({Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}}), and star formation rate ({Sigma}{sub SFR}) in the flocculent galaxy M 33, using published gas data and a catalog of more than 600 young star clusters in its disk. By comparing the radial distributions of gas and most massive cluster masses, we find that M{sub max}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sup 4.7{+-}0.4}{sub gas}, M{sub max}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sup 1.3{+-}0.1}{sub H{sub 2}}, and M{sub max}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sup 1.0{+-}0.1}{sub SFR}. We rule out that these correlations result from the size of the sample; hence, the change of the maximum cluster mass must be due to physical causes.

  16. The fast molecular outflow in the Seyfert galaxy IC 5063 as seen by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom; Oonk, J. B. Raymond; Frieswijk, Wilfred; Tadhunter, Clive

    2015-08-01

    We use high-resolution (0.5 arcsec) CO(2-1) observations performed with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array to trace the kinematics of the molecular gas in the Seyfert 2 galaxy IC 5063. The data reveal that the kinematics of the gas is very complex. A fast outflow of molecular gas extends along the entire radio jet (~1 kpc), with the highest outflow velocities about 0.5 kpc from the nucleus, at the location of the brighter hot spot in the western lobe. The ALMA data show that a massive, fast outflow with velocities up to 650kms-1 of cold molecular gas is present, in addition to the outflow detected earlier in warm H2, H i and ionized gas. All phases of the gas outflow show similar kinematics. IC 5063 appears to be one of the best examples of the multi-phase nature of AGN-driven outflows. Both the central AGN and the radio jet could energetically drive the outflow, however, the characteristics of the outflowing gas point to the radio jet being the main driver. This is an important result because IC 5063, although one of the most powerful Seyfert galaxies, is a relatively weak radio source (P1.4 GHz = 3 × 1023 W Hz-1). All the observed characteristics can be described by a scenario of a radio plasma jet expanding into a clumpy medium, interacting directly with the clouds and inflating a cocoon that drives a lateral outflow into the interstellar medium. This model is consistent with results obtained by recent simulations. A stronger, direct interaction between the jet and a gas cloud is present at the location of the brighter western lobe. This interaction may also be responsible for the asymmetry in the radio brightness of the two lobes. Even assuming the most conservative values for the conversion factor CO-to-H2, we find that the mass of the outflowing gas is between 1.9 and 4.8 × 107 M⊙, of which between 0.5 and 1.3 × 107 M⊙ is associated with the fast outflow at the location of the western lobe. These amounts are much larger than those of the

  17. Kinematics of the Ionized Gas in Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez-Gutiérrez, Margarita; Rosado, Margarita

    2007-05-01

    Introduction: Some preliminary results focused on the kinematics and dynamics of the ionized gas in the local group dwarf irregular galaxy IC10 are presented. Method: Scanning Fabry-Perot interferometry was performed in the Hα, [SII], [NII] and [OIII] lines. The dedicated ADHOC package was used in the reduction process. Results: On galactic scales the radial velocity field in this galaxy is relatively well behaved, however, the rotation curve has been difficult to obtain. On local scales the kinematics reflects the superposition of shells, filaments, SNRs and diffuse gas. At many of these locations the velocity widths are supersonic and many times larger than those found in the adjacent HII regions. Discussion: This is the first time that the kinematics of the ionized gas in the dwarf irregular IC10 is studied in great detail, literally pixel to pixel with moderate spectral and spatial resolutions. From these preliminary results a very complex behavior of the ionized gas is unveiled, as has been the case for the dwarf irregulars IC1613 and NGC4449, previously studied by our group of collaborators. Further analysis is being carried out.

  18. Novel test of modified Newtonian dynamics with gas rich galaxies.

    PubMed

    McGaugh, Stacy S

    2011-03-25

    The current cosmological paradigm, the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, requires that the mass-energy of the Universe be dominated by invisible components: dark matter and dark energy. An alternative to these dark components is that the law of gravity be modified on the relevant scales. A test of these ideas is provided by the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR), an empirical relation between the observed mass of a galaxy and its rotation velocity. Here, I report a test using gas rich galaxies for which both axes of the BTFR can be measured independently of the theories being tested and without the systematic uncertainty in stellar mass that affects the same test with star dominated spirals. The data fall precisely where predicted a priori by the modified Newtonian dynamics. The scatter in the BTFR is attributable entirely to observational uncertainty, consistent with a single effective force law.

  19. GAS CLOUDS RAINING STAR STUFF ONTO MILKY WAY GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This composite radio light image and rendition of our galaxy as seen in visible light shows enigmatic 'high-velocity clouds' of gas high above the plane of the Milky Way which rain gas into the galaxy, seeding it with the stuff of stars. The cloud outlined, and possibly others too, is now known to have low heavy element content and to be raining down onto the Milky Way disk, seeding it with material for star birth. Identifying this infalling gas helps in solving a long-standing mystery of galactic evolution by revealing a source of the low-metallicity gas required to explain the observed chemical composition of stars near the Sun. In this all-sky projection, the edge-on plane of our galaxy appears as a white horizontal strip. The false-color orange-yellow 'clouds' are regions containing neutral hydrogen, which glows in 21-centimeter radiation. Hubble Space Telescope's spectrograph was aimed at one of the clouds (encircled) to measure its detailed composition and velocity. This discovery is based on a combination of data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, three radio telescopes (at Effelsberg in Germany, and Dwingeloo and Westerbork in the Netherlands), the William Herschel Telescope on the island of La Palma and the Wisconsin H-alpha Mapper at NOAO's Kitt Peak Observatory. Photo Credits: Image composite by Ingrid Kallick of Possible Designs, Madison Wisconsin. The background Milky Way image is a drawing made at Lund Observatory. High-velocity clouds are from the survey done at Dwingeloo Observatory (Hulsbosch and Wakker, 1988).

  20. Linking Dense Gas from the Milky Way to External Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Ian W.; Jackson, James M.; Whitaker, J. Scott; Contreras, Yanett; Guzmán, Andrés E.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Foster, Jonathan B.; Rathborne, Jill M.

    2016-06-01

    In a survey of 65 galaxies, Gao & Solomon found a tight linear relation between the infrared luminosity (L IR, a proxy for the star formation rate) and the HCN(1-0) luminosity ({L}{{HCN}}). Wu et al. found that this relation extends from these galaxies to the much less luminous Galactic molecular high-mass star-forming clumps (˜1 pc scales), and posited that there exists a characteristic ratio L IR/{L}{{HCN}} for high-mass star-forming clumps. The Gao-Solomon relation for galaxies could then be explained as a summation of large numbers of high-mass star-forming clumps, resulting in the same L IR/{L}{{HCN}} ratio for galaxies. We test this explanation and other possible origins of the Gao-Solomon relation using high-density tracers (including HCN(1-0), N2H+(1-0), HCO+(1-0), HNC(1-0), HC3N(10-9), and C2H(1-0)) for ˜300 Galactic clumps from the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey. The MALT90 data show that the Gao-Solomon relation in galaxies cannot be satisfactorily explained by the blending of large numbers of high-mass clumps in the telescope beam. Not only do the clumps have a large scatter in the L IR/{L}{{HCN}} ratio, but also far too many high-mass clumps are required to account for the Galactic IR and HCN luminosities. We suggest that the scatter in the L IR/{L}{{HCN}} ratio converges to the scatter of the Gao-Solomon relation at some size-scale ≳1 kpc. We suggest that the Gao-Solomon relation could instead result from of a universal large-scale star formation efficiency, initial mass function, core mass function, and clump mass function.

  1. A survey of HI gas toward the Andromeda galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerp, J.; Kalberla, P. M. W.; Ben Bekhti, N.; Flöer, L.; Lenz, D.; Winkel, B.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The subsequent coalescence of low-mass halos over cosmic time is thought to be the major formation channel of massive spiral galaxies like the Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxy (M 31). The gaseous halo of a massive galaxy is considered to be the reservoir of baryonic matter persistently fueling the star formation in the disk. Because of its proximity, M 31 is the ideal object for studying the structure of the halo gas in great detail. Aims: Using the latest neutral atomic hydrogen (HI) data of the Effelsberg-Bonn HI Survey (EBHIS) allows comprising a comprehensive inventory of gas associated with M 31. The primary aim is to differentiate between physical structures belonging to the Milky Way Galaxy and M 31 and accordingly to test the presence of a M 31 neutral gaseous halo. Methods: Analyzing the spatially fully sampled EBHIS data makes it feasible to trace coherent HI structures in space and radial velocity. To disentangle Milky Way and M 31 HI emission we use a new approach, along with the traditional path of setting an upper radial velocity limit, by calculating a difference second moment map. Results: We argue that M 31's disk is physically connected to an asymmetric HI halo of tens of kpc size, the M 31 cloud. We confirm the presence of a coherent low-velocity HI filament located in between M 31 and M 33 aligned at the sky with the clouds at systemic velocity. The physical parameters of the HI filament are comparable to those of the HI clouds at systemic velocity. We also detected an irregularly shaped HI cloud that is is positionally located close to but offset from the stellar body of And XIX.

  2. The Intricate Role of Cold Gas and Dust in Galaxy Evolution at Early Cosmic Epochs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Capak, Peter L.; Carilli, Christopher L.

    Cold molecular and atomic gas plays a central role in our understanding of early galaxy formation and evolution. It represents the component of the interstellar medium (ISM) that stars form out of, and its mass, distribution, excitation, and dynamics provide crucial insight into the physical processes that support the ongoing star formation and stellar mass buildup. We here present results that demonstrate the capability of the Atacama Large (sub-)Millimeter Array (ALMA) to detect the cold ISM and dust in ``normal'' galaxies at redshifts z=5-6. We also show detailed studies of the ISM in massive, dust-obscured starburst galaxies out to z>6 with ALMA, the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA), the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI), and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). These observations place some of the most direct constraints on the dust-obscured fraction of the star formation history of the universe at z>5 to date, showing that ``typical'' galaxies at these epochs have low dust content, but also that highly-enriched, dusty starbursts already exist within the first billion years after the Big Bang.

  3. Jet-ISM Interaction in the Radio Galaxy 3C 293: Jet-driven Shocks Heat ISM to Power X-Ray and Molecular H2 Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanz, L.; Ogle, P. M.; Evans, D.; Appleton, P. N.; Guillard, P.; Emonts, B.

    2015-03-01

    We present a 70 ks Chandra observation of the radio galaxy 3C 293. This galaxy belongs to the class of molecular hydrogen emission galaxies (MOHEGs) that have very luminous emission from warm molecular hydrogen. In radio galaxies, the molecular gas appears to be heated by jet-driven shocks, but exactly how this mechanism works is still poorly understood. With Chandra, we observe X-ray emission from the jets within the host galaxy and along the 100 kpc radio jets. We model the X-ray spectra of the nucleus, the inner jets, and the X-ray features along the extended radio jets. Both the nucleus and the inner jets show evidence of 107 K shock-heated gas. The kinetic power of the jets is more than sufficient to heat the X-ray emitting gas within the host galaxy. The thermal X-ray and warm H2 luminosities of 3C 293 are similar, indicating similar masses of X-ray hot gas and warm molecular gas. This is consistent with a picture where both derive from a multiphase, shocked interstellar medium (ISM). We find that radio-loud MOHEGs that are not brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), like 3C 293, typically have LH2/LX˜ 1 and MH2/MX˜ 1, whereas MOHEGs that are BCGs have LH2/LX˜ 0.01 and MH2/MX˜ 0.01. The more massive, virialized, hot atmosphere in BCGs overwhelms any direct X-ray emission from current jet-ISM interaction. On the other hand, LH2/LX˜ 1 in the Spiderweb BCG at z = 2, which resides in an unvirialized protocluster and hosts a powerful radio source. Over time, jet-ISM interaction may contribute to the establishment of a hot atmosphere in BCGs and other massive elliptical galaxies.

  4. Probing the Physical Conditions of Dense Molecular Gas in ULIRGs with LVG modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonidaki, Ioanna; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Greve, Thomas; Xilouris, Manolis

    2015-08-01

    The gas-rich content of Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) constitutes a great laboratory in characterising the physical processes occuring in molecular gas and hence probing star formation properties. In particular, molecules with large dipole moments such as CS, HCN, HCO+, which are the fuel of star formation, can reveal the physical/excitation conditions of molecular gas phases in galaxies. For that reason, we compiled the aforementioned dense gas tracers in a sample of local (U)LIRGs in order to investigate the physical properties of the gas while at the same time put constrains on their excitation conditions. The sample in use consists of 26 galaxies all observed within the framework of the Herschel Comprehensive (U)LIRG Emission Survey (HerCULES). For all galaxies, we compiled our ground-based spectral line observations as well as all available data from the literature. Using Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) radiative transfer models in these spectral lines and in a wide parameter space [n(H2), Tkin, Nmol], and combining multiple molecules and multiple excitation components, it is possible to break the degeneracy between different parameters and to probe molecular gas physical conditions ranging from the cold and low-density average states in giant molecular clouds all the way up to the state of the gas found only near their star-forming regions. We then analyse the best LVG solution ranges to match the observed SLEDs (using more than one excitation components where necessary) in order to disentangle different molecular gas phases and possibly different molecular gas heating mechanisms.

  5. The Scatter in the Hot Gas Content of Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yuanyuan; Irwin, Jimmy A.; White, Raymond E., III; Cooper, Michael C.

    2015-06-01

    Optically similar early-type galaxies are observed to have a large and poorly understood range in the amount of hot, X-ray-emitting gas they contain. To investigate the origin of this diversity, we studied the hot gas properties of all 42 early-type galaxies in the multiwavelength ATLAS3D survey that have sufficiently deep Chandra X-ray observations. We related their hot gas properties to a number of internal and external physical quantities. To characterize the amount of hot gas relative to the stellar light, we use the ratio of the gaseous X-ray luminosity to the stellar K-band luminosity, {L}{{X}{gas}}/{L}K; we also use the deviations of {L}{{X}{gas}} from the best-fit {L}{{X}{gas}}–L K relation (denoted {Δ }{L}{{X}{gas}}). We quantitatively confirm previous suggestions that various effects conspire to produce the large scatter in the observed {L}{X}/{L}K relation. In particular, we find that the deviations {Δ }{L}{{X}{gas}} are most strongly positively correlated with the (low rates of) star formation and the hot gas temperatures in the sample galaxies. This suggests that mild stellar feedback may energize the gas without pushing it out of the host galaxies. We also find that galaxies in high galaxy density environments tend to be massive slow rotators, while galaxies in low galaxy density environments tend to be low mass, fast rotators. Moreover, cold gas in clusters and fields may have different origins. The star formation rate increases with cold gas mass for field galaxies but it appears to be uncorrelated with cold gas for cluster galaxies.

  6. INTEGRAL-FIELD STELLAR AND IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS OF PECULIAR VIRGO CLUSTER SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Cortés, Juan R.; Hardy, Eduardo; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P. E-mail: ehardy@nrao.cl

    2015-01-01

    We present the stellar and ionized gas kinematics of 13 bright peculiar Virgo cluster galaxies observed with the DensePak Integral Field Unit at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope in order to look for kinematic evidence that these galaxies have experienced gravitational interactions or gas stripping. Two-dimensional maps of the stellar velocity V, stellar velocity dispersion σ, and the ionized gas velocity (Hβ and/or [O III]) are presented for the galaxies in the sample. The stellar rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles are determined for 13 galaxies, and the ionized gas rotation curves are determined for 6 galaxies. Misalignments between the optical and kinematical major axes are found in several galaxies. While in some cases this is due to a bar, in other cases it seems to be associated with gravitational interaction or ongoing ram pressure stripping. Non-circular gas motions are found in nine galaxies, with various causes including bars, nuclear outflows, or gravitational disturbances. Several galaxies have signatures of kinematically distinct stellar components, which are likely signatures of accretion or mergers. For all of our galaxies, we compute the angular momentum parameter λ {sub R}. An evaluation of the galaxies in the λ {sub R} ellipticity plane shows that all but two of the galaxies have significant support from random stellar motions, and have likely experienced gravitational interactions. This includes some galaxies with very small bulges and truncated/compact Hα morphologies, indicating that such galaxies cannot be fully explained by simple ram pressure stripping, but must have had significant gravitational encounters. Most of the sample galaxies show evidence for ICM-ISM stripping as well as gravitational interactions, indicating that the evolution of a significant fraction of cluster galaxies is likely strongly impacted by both effects.

  7. Shells, holes, worms, high-velocity gas and the z-distribution of gas in galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, R. J.

    The author gives an overview of the current observational understanding of vertically extended gas components in spiral galaxies and the various phenomena which come under such names as shells, holes, worms, and high-velocity gas. For the most part, the focus is on recent high-resolution interferometric studies. The author concentrates on cold gas, and briefly on warm ionized gas, in the Milky Way and a few nearby spirals. Along the way, it is seen how phenomena such as worms and shells may be related to the formation and maintenance of the vertically extended components.

  8. The Morphologies and Alignments of Gas, Mass, and the Central Galaxies of CLASH Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Megan; Ettori, Stefano; Rasia, Elena; Sayers, Jack; Zitrin, Adi; Meneghetti, Massimo; Voit, G. Mark; Golwala, Sunil; Czakon, Nicole; Yepes, Gustavo; Baldi, Alessandro; Koekemoer, Anton; Postman, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Morphology is often used to infer the state of relaxation of galaxy clusters. The regularity, symmetry, and degree to which a cluster is centrally concentrated inform quantitative measures of cluster morphology. The Cluster Lensing and Supernova survey with Hubble Space Telescope (CLASH) used weak and strong lensing to measure the distribution of matter within a sample of 25 clusters, 20 of which were deemed to be “relaxed” based on their X-ray morphology and alignment of the X-ray emission with the Brightest Cluster Galaxy. Toward a quantitative characterization of this important sample of clusters, we present uniformly estimated X-ray morphological statistics for all 25 CLASH clusters. We compare X-ray morphologies of CLASH clusters with those identically measured for a large sample of simulated clusters from the MUSIC-2 simulations, selected by mass. We confirm a threshold in X-ray surface brightness concentration of C ≳ 0.4 for cool-core clusters, where C is the ratio of X-ray emission inside 100 h70-1 kpc compared to inside 500 {h}70-1 kpc. We report and compare morphologies of these clusters inferred from Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect (SZE) maps of the hot gas and in from projected mass maps based on strong and weak lensing. We find a strong agreement in alignments of the orientation of major axes for the lensing, X-ray, and SZE maps of nearly all of the CLASH clusters at radii of 500 kpc (approximately 1/2 R500 for these clusters). We also find a striking alignment of clusters shapes at the 500 kpc scale, as measured with X-ray, SZE, and lensing, with that of the near-infrared stellar light at 10 kpc scales for the 20 “relaxed” clusters. This strong alignment indicates a powerful coupling between the cluster- and galaxy-scale galaxy formation processes.

  9. Luminous Infrared Galaxies with the Submillimeter Array. III. The Dense Kiloparsec Molecular Concentrations of Arp 299

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliwa, Kazimierz; Wilson, Christine D.; Petitpas, Glen R.; Armus, Lee; Juvela, Mika; Matsushita, Satoki; Peck, Alison B.; Yun, Min S.

    2012-07-01

    We have used high-resolution (~2farcs3) observations of the local (D L = 46 Mpc) luminous infrared galaxy Arp 299 to map out the physical properties of the molecular gas that provides the fuel for its extreme star formation activity. The 12CO J = 3-2, 12CO J = 2-1, and 13CO J = 2-1 lines were observed with the Submillimeter Array, and the short spacings of the 12CO J = 2-1 and J = 3-2 observations have been recovered using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope single dish observations. We use the radiative transfer code RADEX to estimate the physical properties (density, column density, and temperature) of the different regions in this system. The RADEX solutions of the two galaxy nuclei, IC 694 and NGC 3690, are consistent with a wide range of gas components, from warm moderately dense gas with T kin > 30 K and n(H2) ~ 0.3-3 × 103 cm-3 to cold dense gas with T kin ~ 10-30 K and n(H2) > 3 × 103 cm-3. The overlap region is shown to have a better constrained solution with T kin ~ 10-50 K and n(H2) ~ 1-30 × 103 cm-3. We estimate the gas masses and star formation rates of each region in order to derive molecular gas depletion times. The depletion times of all regions (20-50 Myr) are found to be about two orders of magnitude lower than those of normal spiral galaxies. This rapid depletion time can probably be explained by a high fraction of dense gas on kiloparsec scales in Arp 299. We estimate the CO-to-H2 factor, αco to be 0.4 ± 0.3(3 × 10-4/x CO) M⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1 for the overlap region. This value agrees well with values determined previously for more advanced merger systems.

  10. LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES WITH THE SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY. III. THE DENSE KILOPARSEC MOLECULAR CONCENTRATIONS OF Arp 299

    SciTech Connect

    Sliwa, Kazimierz; Wilson, Christine D.; Petitpas, Glen R.; Armus, Lee; Juvela, Mika; Matsushita, Satoki; Peck, Alison B.; Yun, Min S. E-mail: wilson@physics.mcmaster.ca E-mail: lee@ipac.caltech.edu E-mail: satoki@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw E-mail: myun@astro.umass.edu

    2012-07-01

    We have used high-resolution ({approx}2.''3) observations of the local (D{sub L} = 46 Mpc) luminous infrared galaxy Arp 299 to map out the physical properties of the molecular gas that provides the fuel for its extreme star formation activity. The {sup 12}CO J = 3-2, {sup 12}CO J = 2-1, and {sup 13}CO J = 2-1 lines were observed with the Submillimeter Array, and the short spacings of the {sup 12}CO J = 2-1 and J = 3-2 observations have been recovered using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope single dish observations. We use the radiative transfer code RADEX to estimate the physical properties (density, column density, and temperature) of the different regions in this system. The RADEX solutions of the two galaxy nuclei, IC 694 and NGC 3690, are consistent with a wide range of gas components, from warm moderately dense gas with T{sub kin} > 30 K and n(H{sub 2}) {approx} 0.3-3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} to cold dense gas with T{sub kin} {approx} 10-30 K and n(H{sub 2}) > 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3}. The overlap region is shown to have a better constrained solution with T{sub kin} {approx} 10-50 K and n(H{sub 2}) {approx} 1-30 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3}. We estimate the gas masses and star formation rates of each region in order to derive molecular gas depletion times. The depletion times of all regions (20-50 Myr) are found to be about two orders of magnitude lower than those of normal spiral galaxies. This rapid depletion time can probably be explained by a high fraction of dense gas on kiloparsec scales in Arp 299. We estimate the CO-to-H{sub 2} factor, {alpha}{sub co} to be 0.4 {+-} 0.3(3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}/x{sub CO}) M{sub Sun} (K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}){sup -1} for the overlap region. This value agrees well with values determined previously for more advanced merger systems.

  11. Neutral hydrogen gas, past and future star formation in galaxies in and around the `Sausage' merging galaxy cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroe, Andra; Oosterloo, Tom; Röttgering, Huub J. A.; Sobral, David; van Weeren, Reinout; Dawson, William

    2015-09-01

    CIZA J2242.8+5301 (z = 0.188, nicknamed `Sausage') is an extremely massive (M200 ˜ 2.0 × 1015 M⊙), merging cluster with shock waves towards its outskirts, which was found to host numerous emission line galaxies. We performed extremely deep Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope H I observations of the `Sausage' cluster to investigate the effect of the merger and the shocks on the gas reservoirs fuelling present and future star formation (SF) in cluster members. By using spectral stacking, we find that the emission line galaxies in the `Sausage' cluster have, on average, as much H I gas as field galaxies (when accounting for the fact cluster galaxies are more massive than the field galaxies), contrary to previous studies. Since the cluster galaxies are more massive than the field spirals, they may have been able to retain their gas during the cluster merger. The large H I reservoirs are expected to be consumed within ˜0.75-1.0 Gyr by the vigorous SF and active galactic nuclei activity and/or driven out by the outflows we observe. We find that the star formation rate (SFR) in a large fraction of H α emission line cluster galaxies correlates well with the radio broad-band emission, tracing supernova remnant emission. This suggests that the cluster galaxies, all located in post-shock regions, may have been undergoing sustained SFR for at least 100 Myr. This fully supports the interpretation proposed by Stroe et al. and Sobral et al. that gas-rich cluster galaxies have been triggered to form stars by the passage of the shock.

  12. The role of cold and hot gas flows in feeding early-type galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Peter H.

    2016-10-01

    We study the evolution of the gaseous components in massive simulated galaxies and show that their early formation is fuelled by cold, low entropy gas streams. At lower redshifts of z <~ 3 the simulated galaxies are massive enough to support stable virial shocks resulting in a transition from cold to hot gas accretion. The gas accretion history of early-type galaxies is directly linked to the formation of their stellar component in the two phased formation scenario, in which the central parts of the galaxy assemble rapidly through in situ star formation and the later assembly is dominated primarily by minor stellar mergers.

  13. IRAS 14348-1447, an Ultraluminous Pair of Colliding, Gas-Rich Galaxies: The Birth of a Quasar?

    PubMed

    Sanders, D B; Scoville, N Z; Soifer, B T

    1988-02-01

    Ground-based observations of the object IRAS 14348-1447, which was discovered with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite, show that it is an extremely luminous colliding galaxy system that emits more than 95 percent of its energy at far-infrared wavelengths. IRAS 14348-1447, which is receeding from the sun at 8 percent of the speed of light, has a bolometric luminosity more than 100 times larger than that of our galaxy, and is therefore as luminous as optical quasars. New optical, infrared, and spectroscopic measurements suggest that the dominant luminosity source is a dustenshrouded quasar. The fuel for the intense activity is an enormous supply of molecular gas. Carbon monoxide emission has been detected at a wavelength of 2.6 millimeters by means of a new, more sensitive receiver recently installed on the 12-meter telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. IRAS 14348-1447 is the most distant and luminous source of carbon monoxide line emission yet detected. The derived mass of interstellar molecular hydrogen is 6 x 10(10) solar masses. This value is approximately 20 times that of the molecular gas content of the Milky Way and is similar to the largest masses of atomic hydrogen found in galaxies. A large mass of molecular gas may be a prerequisite for the formation of quasars during strong galactic collisions.

  14. Dust and ionized gas in active radio elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, D. A.; Sparks, W. B.; Macchetto, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present broad and narrow bandwidth imaging of three southern elliptical galaxies which have flat-spectrum active radio cores (NGC 1052, IC 1459 and NGC 6958). All three contain dust and extended low excitation optical line emission, particularly extensive in the case of NGC 1052 which has a large H alpha + (NII) luminosity. Both NGC 1052 and IC 1459 have a spiral morphology in emission-line images. All three display independent strong evidence that a merger or infall event has recently occurred, i.e., extensive and infalling HI gas in NGC 1052, a counter-rotating core in IC 1459 and Malin-Carter shells in NGC 6958. This infall event is the most likely origin for the emission-line gas and dust, and the authors are currently investigating possible excitation mechanisms (Sparks et al. 1990).

  15. JET-SHOCKED H{sub 2} AND CO IN THE ANOMALOUS ARMS OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN EMISSION GALAXY NGC 4258

    SciTech Connect

    Ogle, P. M.; Lanz, L.; Appleton, P. N.

    2014-06-20

    We present a Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph map of H{sub 2} emission from the nearby galaxy NGC 4258 (Messier 106). The H{sub 2} emission comes from 9.4 ± 0.4 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} of warm molecular hydrogen heated to 240-1040 K in the inner anomalous arms, a signature of jet interaction with the galaxy disk. The spectrum is that of a molecular hydrogen emission galaxy (MOHEG), with a large ratio of H{sub 2} over 7.7 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission (0.37), characteristic of shocked molecular gas. We find close spatial correspondence between the H{sub 2} and CO emission from the anomalous arms. Our estimate of cold molecular gas mass based on CO emission is 10 times greater than our estimate of 1.0 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} based on dust emission. We suggest that the X {sub CO} value is 10 times lower than the Milky Way value because of high kinetic temperature and enhanced turbulence. The H{sub 2} disk has been overrun and is being shocked by the jet cocoon, and much of the gas originally in the disk has been ejected into the galaxy halo in an X-ray hot outflow. We measure a modest star formation rate of 0.08 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} in the central 3.4 kpc{sup 2} that is consistent with the remaining gas surface density.

  16. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies as degenerate gas of free fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Domcke, Valerie; Urbano, Alfredo E-mail: alfredo.urbano@sissa.it

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a simple scenario in which Dark Matter (DM) consists of free fermions with mass m{sub f}. We assume that on galactic scales these fermions are capable of forming a degenerate Fermi gas, in which stability against gravitational collapse is ensured by the Pauli exclusion principle. The mass density of the resulting con figuration is governed by a non-relativistic Lane-Emden equation, thus leading to a universal cored profile that depends only on one free parameter in addition to m{sub f}. After reviewing the basic formalism, we test this scenario against experimental data describing the velocity dispersion of the eight classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Milky Way. We find that, despite its extreme simplicity, the model exhibits a good fit to the data and realistic predictions for the size of DM halos providing that m{sub f}≅ 200 eV. Furthermore, we show that in this setup larger galaxies correspond to the non-degenerate limit of the gas. We propose a concrete realization of this model in which DM is produced non-thermally via inflaton decay. We show that imposing the correct relic abundance and the bound on the free-streaming length constrains the inflation model in terms of inflaton mass, its branching ratio into DM and the reheating temperature.

  17. Gas and stellar spiral structures in tidally perturbed disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettitt, Alex R.; Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Wadsley, James W.

    2016-06-01

    Tidal interactions between disc galaxies and low-mass companions are an established method for generating galactic spiral features. In this work, we present a study of the structure and dynamics of spiral arms driven in interactions between disc galaxies and perturbing companions in 3D N-body/smoothed hydrodynamical numerical simulations. Our specific aims are to characterize any differences between structures formed in the gas and stars from a purely hydrodynamical and gravitational perspective, and to find a limiting case for spiral structure generation. Through analysis of a number of different interacting cases, we find that there is very little difference between arm morphology, pitch angles and pattern speeds between the two media. The main differences are a minor offset between gas and stellar arms, clear spurring features in gaseous arms, and different radial migration of material in the stronger interacting cases. We investigate the minimum mass of a companion required to drive spiral structure in a galactic disc, finding the limiting spiral generation cases with companion masses of the order of 1 × 109 M⊙, equivalent to only 4 per cent of the stellar disc mass, or 0.5 per cent of the total galactic mass of a Milky Way analogue.

  18. Cosmic Collision Reveals "Missing Link" Gas Cloud in Distant Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-09-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) of radio telescopes have discovered a cloud of gas apparently being struck by a jet of ultrafast particles powered by the energy of a supermassive black hole at the core of a galaxy 450 million light-years away. A collision between the jet of subatomic particles and the gas cloud caused flickering of radio waves at a particular location in the jet during a 16-month series of VLBA observations. "This cloud, about 25 light-years away from the black hole, represents a 'missing link' that will help us understand the complex regions around the central black holes in active galaxies," said Jose-Luis Gomez, the team leader. Gomez worked with Alan Marscher, Antonio Alberdi, Svetlana G. Jorstad and Cristina Garcia-Miro. Gomez, Alberdi and Garcia-Miro are from the Astrophysical Institute of Andalucia in Granada, Spain; Marscher is from Boston University and Jorstad represents both Boston University and St. Petersburg State University in Russia. They reported their results in the Sept. 29 issue of the journal Science. The researchers produced a "movie" of changes in the galaxy's jet over the 16-month observing period. "This movie is the result of perhaps the most complete monitoring of such a jet ever done," said Gomez. Active galaxies come in a variety of types, including Seyfert galaxies, radio galaxies, and quasars. All are believed to harbor a giant black hole at the center. Black holes are concentrations of matter so dense that, within a certain distance, not even light can escape the gravitational pull. In active galaxies, material drawn toward the black hole is thought to form a disk of material that tightly orbits the black hole. Such an "accretion disk" is believed responsible for generating jets of material that, drawing on the black hole's gravitational energy, are boosted to speeds nearly equal to that of light. In the past, astronomers have found evidence for dense clouds of gas

  19. Gas dynamics of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 3359

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed study was conducted of the dynamics of the neutral hydrogen gas in the bright northern barred spiral galaxy NGC 3359. Observations of the 21 cm line at the Very Large Array were reduced to give single-channel maps with spatial resolution of 18'', and a velocity resolution of 25 km/s. The acquisition, calibration, and reduction of the data are discussed in some detail. Maps of the integrated column density and mean velocity of the atomic hydrogen, derived from the channel maps, provide the principal data for an investigation of the dynamics associated with the spiral structure of the galaxy. On scales comparable to the resolution of this survey, approximately 1 kpc at the distance of NGC 3359, the gas is broken up into a somewhat chaotic distribution of local maxima and minima. However, on larger scales the column density shows a smooth, grand design spiral pattern with two principal spiral arms. The extent and density of these two arms are roughly equal in the 21 cm map, unlike the optical image. These neutral hydrogen arms are very well correlated with the position of H II regions.

  20. Chemical evolution during gas-rich galaxy interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Josefa; Michel-Dansac, Leo; Tissera, Patricia B.

    2011-10-01

    We perform and analyse a set of galaxy interactions performed by using a self-consistent chemo-hydrodynamical model which includes star formation, supernova (SN) feedback and chemical evolution. In agreement with previous works, we find that tidally induced low-metallicity gas inflows dilute the central oxygen abundance and contribute to the flattening of the metallicity gradients. The tidally induced inflows trigger starbursts which increase the impact of Type II supernova (SN II) feedback injecting new chemical elements and driving galactic winds which modulate the metallicity distribution. Although α-enhancement in the central regions is detected as a result of the induced starbursts in agreement with previous works, our simulations suggest that this parameter can only provide a timing of the first pericentre mainly for non-retrograde encounters. In order to reproduce wet major mergers at low and high redshifts, we have run simulations with respectively 20 and 50 per cent of the disc in the form of gas. We find that the more gas-rich encounters behave similarly to the less rich ones, between the first and second pericentre, where low-metallicity gas inflows are triggered. However, the higher strength of the inflows triggered in the more gas-rich interactions produces larger metal dilution factors, which are modulated afterwards by the new chemical production by SN. We find that the more gas-rich interaction develops violent and clumpy star formation triggered by local instabilities all over the disc before the first pericentre, so that if these galaxies were observed at these early stages where no important tidally induced inflows have been able to be developed yet, they would tend to show an excess of oxygen. We find a global mean correlation of both the central abundances and the gradients with the strength of the star formation activity. However, the correlations are affected by orbital parameters, gas inflows and outflows, suggesting that it might be

  1. The growth of the central region by acquisition of counterrotating gas in star-forming galaxies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan-Mei; Shi, Yong; Tremonti, Christy A.; Bershady, Matt; Merrifield, Michael; Emsellem, Eric; Jin, Yi-Fei; Huang, Song; Fu, Hai; Wake, David A.; Bundy, Kevin; Stark, David; Lin, Lihwai; Argudo-Fernandez, Maria; Bergmann, Thaisa Storchi; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brownstein, Joel; Bureau, Martin; Chisholm, John; Drory, Niv; Guo, Qi; Hao, Lei; Hu, Jian; Li, Cheng; Li, Ran; Lopes, Alexandre Roman; Pan, Kai-Ke; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Thomas, Daniel; Wang, Lan; Westfall, Kyle; Yan, Ren-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Galaxies grow through both internal and external processes. In about 10% of nearby red galaxies with little star formation, gas and stars are counter-rotating, demonstrating the importance of external gas acquisition in these galaxies. However, systematic studies of such phenomena in blue, star-forming galaxies are rare, leaving uncertain the role of external gas acquisition in driving evolution of blue galaxies. Here, based on new measurements with integral field spectroscopy of a large representative galaxy sample, we find an appreciable fraction of counter-rotators among blue galaxies (9 out of 489 galaxies). The central regions of blue counter-rotators show younger stellar populations and more intense, ongoing star formation than their outer parts, indicating ongoing growth of the central regions. The result offers observational evidence that the acquisition of external gas in blue galaxies is possible; the interaction with pre-existing gas funnels the gas into nuclear regions (<1 kpc) to form new stars. PMID:27759033

  2. ALFALFA DISCOVERY OF THE NEARBY GAS-RICH DWARF GALAXY LEO P. III. AN EXTREMELY METAL DEFICIENT GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle A.; Olive, Keith A.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W. E-mail: berg@astro.umn.edu E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu; and others

    2013-07-01

    We present KPNO 4 m and LBT/MODS spectroscopic observations of an H II region in the nearby dwarf irregular galaxy Leo P discovered recently in the Arecibo ALFALFA survey. In both observations, we are able to accurately measure the temperature sensitive [O III] {lambda}4363 line and determine a ''direct'' oxygen abundance of 12 + log(O/H) = 7.17 {+-} 0.04. Thus, Leo P is an extremely metal deficient (XMD) galaxy, and, indeed, one of the most metal deficient star-forming galaxies ever observed. For its estimated luminosity, Leo P is consistent with the relationship between luminosity and oxygen abundance seen in nearby dwarf galaxies. Leo P shows normal {alpha} element abundance ratios (Ne/O, S/O, and Ar/O) when compared to other XMD galaxies, but elevated N/O, consistent with the ''delayed release'' hypothesis for N/O abundances. We derive a helium mass fraction of 0.2509{sup +0.0184}{sub -0.0123}, which compares well with the WMAP + BBN prediction of 0.2483 {+-} 0.0002 for the primordial helium abundance. We suggest that surveys of very low mass galaxies compete well with emission line galaxy surveys for finding XMD galaxies. It is possible that XMD galaxies may be divided into two classes: the relatively rare XMD emission line galaxies which are associated with starbursts triggered by infall of low-metallicity gas and the more common, relatively quiescent XMD galaxies like Leo P, with very low chemical abundances due to their intrinsically small masses.

  3. Gas-to-dust ratios in massive star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seko, Akifumi; Ohta, Kouji; Yabe, Kiyoto; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Aono, Yuya; Iono, Daisuke

    2016-08-01

    We present results of 12CO(J = 2-1) observations toward four massive star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 1.4 with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope. The galaxies are detected with Spitzer/MIPS in 24 μm and Herschel/SPIRE in 250 μm and 350 μm, and they mostly reside in the main sequence. Their gas-phase metallicities derived by the N2 method using the Hα and [N II]λ 6584 emission lines are near the solar value. CO lines are detected toward three galaxies. The molecular-gas masses obtained are (9.6-35) × 1010 M⊙ by adopting the Galactic CO-to-H2 conversion factor and a CO(2-1)/CO(1-0) flux ratio of 3. The dust masses derived from the modified blackbody model (assuming a dust temperature of 35 K and an emissivity index of 1.5) are (2.4-5.4) × 108 M⊙. Resulting gas-to-dust ratios (not accounting for H I mass) at z ˜ 1.4 are 220-1450, which are several times larger than those in local star-forming galaxies. A dependence of the gas-to-dust ratio on the far-infrared luminosity density is not clearly seen.

  4. STRUCTURED MOLECULAR GAS REVEALS GALACTIC SPIRAL ARMS

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Koda, Jin

    2012-11-01

    We explore the development of structures in molecular gas in the Milky Way by applying the analysis of the brightness distribution function and the brightness distribution index (BDI) in the archival data from the Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory {sup 13}CO J = 1-0 Galactic Ring Survey. The BDI measures the fractional contribution of spatially confined bright molecular emission over faint emission extended over large areas. This relative quantity is largely independent of the amount of molecular gas and of any conventional, pre-conceived structures, such as cores, clumps, or giant molecular clouds. The structured molecular gas traced by higher BDI is located continuously along the spiral arms in the Milky Way in the longitude-velocity diagram. This clearly indicates that molecular gas changes its structure as it flows through the spiral arms. Although the high-BDI gas generally coincides with H II regions, there is also some high-BDI gas with no/little signature of ongoing star formation. These results support a possible evolutionary sequence in which unstructured, diffuse gas transforms itself into a structured state on encountering the spiral arms, followed by star formation and an eventual return to the unstructured state after the spiral arm passage.

  5. Brightest Cluster Galaxies and Core Gas Density in REXCESS Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haarsma, Deborah B.; Leisman, Luke; Donahue, Megan; Bruch, Seth; Böhringer, Hans; Croston, Judith H.; Pratt, Gabriel W.; Voit, G. Mark; Arnaud, Monique; Pierini, Daniele

    2010-04-01

    We investigate the relationship between brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and their host clusters using a sample of nearby galaxy clusters from the Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey. The sample was imaged with the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research in R band to investigate the mass of the old stellar population. Using a metric radius of 12 h -1 kpc, we found that the BCG luminosity depends weakly on overall cluster mass as L BCG vprop M 0.18±0.07 cl, consistent with previous work. We found that 90% of the BCGs are located within 0.035 r 500 of the peak of the X-ray emission, including all of the cool core (CC) clusters. We also found an unexpected correlation between the BCG metric luminosity and the core gas density for non-cool-core (non-CC) clusters, following a power law of ne vprop L 2.7±0.4 BCG (where ne is measured at 0.008 r 500). The correlation is not easily explained by star formation (which is weak in non-CC clusters) or overall cluster mass (which is not correlated with core gas density). The trend persists even when the BCG is not located near the peak of the X-ray emission, so proximity is not necessary. We suggest that, for non-CC clusters, this correlation implies that the same process that sets the central entropy of the cluster gas also determines the central stellar density of the BCG, and that this underlying physical process is likely to be mergers.

  6. Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Normal galaxies, radio galaxies, and Seyfert galaxies are considered. The large magellanic cloud and the great galaxy in Andromedia are highlighted. Quasars and BL lacertae objects are also discussed and a review of the spectral observations of all of these galaxies and celestial objects is presented.

  7. Gas Chemistry in the Inner Disk of the Nearby Luminous Infrared Galaxy IRAS 04296+2923

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, David S.; Turner, J.

    2013-01-01

    Luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) represent the most active members of the starburst population in the nearby universe. In the closest LIRGs, for example IRAS 04296+2923 (D = 29 Mpc) located behind the Taurus Molecular Cloud, it is possible to image the intimate connection between dense gas and star formation directly. We present high resolution 3'') imaging of selected dense gas tracers, including 13CO, C18O, HCN, HCO+, HNC, CN, HNCO, and CH3OH, towards the nuclear starburst and inner disk of IRAS 04296+2923 compiled with the OVRO and CARMA millimeter interferometers. HCN, HCO+ and HNC are used to constrain the properties of the dense gas component. On nuclear scales we observe the same correlation between dense gas column and the star formation rate seen in earlier global surveys of LIRGs. HCN/CO, HCN/HCO+ and HCN/HNC line ratios suggest that both the dense gas fraction and density are high toward the starburst and fall non-monotonically with radius. CO isotopic line ratios in the inner disk are anomalous, having extremely low 13CO/C18O values. To explain these ratios very high gas opacities, anomalously low 13CO abundances or pronounced non-LTE effects must be invoked. The HCN/CN ratio is used to characterize the extent of photon-dominated regions (PDRs) across the inner disk. This ratio is large compared to starbursts like M 82 and NGC 253 suggesting the burst is still in a young, embedded phase. HNCO and CH3OH are use to trace large scale shocks in this barred galaxy. The chemical morphology of the large-scale bar is compared with nuclear bars in Maffei 2, NGC 6946 and IC 342. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation grant AST-1009620.

  8. Exploring star formation in high-z galaxies using atomic and molecular emission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullberg, Bitten

    2016-03-01

    The conditions under which stars are formed and the reasons for triggering and quenching of starburst events in high-z galaxies, are still not well understood. Studying the interstellar medium (ISM) and the morphology of high-z galaxies are therefore key points in order to understand galaxy evolution. The cosmic star formation rate density peaks between 1galaxy populations which show signs of major merger events and active galactic nuclei (AGN). This thesis presents three studies of the ISM in high-z galaxies and their morphologies by: Exploring the physical conditions of the ISM in a sample of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) using the relative observed line strength of ionised carbon ([CII]) and carbon monoxide (CO). We find that the line ratios can best be described by a medium of [CII] and CO emitting gas with a higher [CII] than CO excitation temperature, high CO optical depth tau(CO)>>1, and low to moderate [CII] optical depth tau(CII)<1. Combining millimetre/sub-millimetre and optical data cubes for the high-z radio galaxy (HzRG) MRC0943-242, has revealed a much more complicated morphology than seen in the individual data sets. The millimetre/sub-millimetre observations data have allowed us to spatially separate of the AGN and starburst dominated components, which ~65 kpc apart. The optical data reveal structures of emitting and absorbing gas at multiple wavelengths. A deep high resolution millimetre/sub-millimetre study of the HzRG MRC1138-262, shows emission from water (H2O) and an unusually large amount of neutral atomic carbon ([CI]) relative to highly excited CO compared to lensed DSFGs. The

  9. Fast Molecular Outflows in Luminous Galaxy Mergers: Evidence for Quasar Feedback from Herschel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veilleux, S.; Melendez, M.; Sturm, E.; Garcia-Carpio, J.; Fischer, J.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, E.; Contursi, A.; Lutz, D.; Poglitsch, A.; Davies, R.; Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L.; deJong, J. A.; Sternberg, A.; Netzer, H.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Verma, A.; Rupke, D. S. N.; Maiolino, R.; Teng, S. H.; Polisensky, E.

    2013-01-01

    We report the results from a systematic search for molecular (OH 119 micron) outflows with Herschel/PACS in a sample of 43 nearby (z < 0.3) galaxy mergers, mostly ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and QSOs. We find that the character of the OH feature (strength of the absorption relative to the emission) correlates with that of the 9.7 micron silicate feature, a measure of obscuration in ULIRGs. Unambiguous evidence for molecular outflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more blueshifted than-50 km/s, is seen in 26 (70%) of the 37 OH-detected targets, suggesting a wide-angle (approx. 145 deg.) outflow geometry. Conversely, unambiguous evidence for molecular inflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more redshifted than +50 km/s is seen in only four objects, suggesting a planar or filamentary geometry for the inflowing gas. Terminal outflow velocities of approx. -1000 km/s are measured in several objects, but median outflow velocities are typically approx.-200 km/s-1. While the outflow velocities show no statistically significant dependence on the star formation rate, they are distinctly more blueshifted among systems with large active galactic nucleus (AGN) fractions and luminosities [log (L(sub AGN)/L(sub solar)) => 11.8 +/- 0.3]. The quasars in these systems play a dominant role in driving the molecular outflows. However, the most AGN dominated systems, where OH is seen purely in emission, show relatively modest OH line widths, despite their large AGN luminosities, perhaps indicating that molecular outflows subside once the quasar has cleared a path through the obscuring material.

  10. FAST MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN LUMINOUS GALAXY MERGERS: EVIDENCE FOR QUASAR FEEDBACK FROM HERSCHEL

    SciTech Connect

    Veilleux, S.; Meléndez, M.; Sturm, E.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Contursi, A.; Lutz, D.; Poglitsch, A.; Davies, R.; Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L.; De Jong, J. A.; Fischer, J.; González-Alfonso, E.; Sternberg, A.; Netzer, H.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Verma, A.; Rupke, D. S. N.; Maiolino, R.; Teng, S. H. E-mail: marcio@astro.umd.edu; and others

    2013-10-10

    We report the results from a systematic search for molecular (OH 119 μm) outflows with Herschel/PACS in a sample of 43 nearby (z < 0.3) galaxy mergers, mostly ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and QSOs. We find that the character of the OH feature (strength of the absorption relative to the emission) correlates with that of the 9.7 μm silicate feature, a measure of obscuration in ULIRGs. Unambiguous evidence for molecular outflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more blueshifted than –50 km s{sup –1}, is seen in 26 (70%) of the 37 OH-detected targets, suggesting a wide-angle (∼145°) outflow geometry. Conversely, unambiguous evidence for molecular inflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more redshifted than +50 km s{sup –1}, is seen in only four objects, suggesting a planar or filamentary geometry for the inflowing gas. Terminal outflow velocities of ∼–1000 km s{sup –1} are measured in several objects, but median outflow velocities are typically ∼–200 km s{sup –1}. While the outflow velocities show no statistically significant dependence on the star formation rate, they are distinctly more blueshifted among systems with large active galactic nucleus (AGN) fractions and luminosities [log (L{sub AGN}/L{sub ☉}) ≥ 11.8 ± 0.3]. The quasars in these systems play a dominant role in driving the molecular outflows. However, the most AGN dominated systems, where OH is seen purely in emission, show relatively modest OH line widths, despite their large AGN luminosities, perhaps indicating that molecular outflows subside once the quasar has cleared a path through the obscuring material.

  11. The relation between atomic gas and star formation rate densities in faint dwarf irregular galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roychowdhury, Sambit; Chengalur, Jayaram N.; Kaisin, Serafim S.; Karachentsev, Igor D.

    2014-12-01

    We use data for faint (MB > -14.5) dwarf irregular galaxies drawn from the Faint Irregular Galaxy GMRT Survey to study the correlation between the surface densities of atomic gasgas,atomic) and star formation rate (ΣSFR) in the galaxies. The estimated gas-phase metallicity of our sample galaxies is Z ˜ 0.1 Z⊙. Understanding star formation in such molecule-poor gas is of particular importance since it is likely to be of direct relevance to simulations of early galaxy formation. For about 20 per cent (9/43) of our sample galaxies, we find that the H I distribution is significantly disturbed, with little correspondence between the optical and H I distributions. We exclude these galaxies from the comparison. We also exclude galaxies with very low star formation rates, for which stochastic effects make it difficult to estimate the true star formation rates. For the remaining galaxies, we compute the Σgas,atomic and ΣSFR averaged over the entire star-forming disc of the galaxy. For these galaxies, we find a nearly linear relation between the star formation rate and the atomic gas density, namely {log Σ _{SFR} = 0.91^{+0.23}_{-0.25} log Σ _{gas,atomic} - 3.84^{+0.15}_{-0.19}}. The corresponding gas consumption time-scale is ˜10 Gyr, i.e. significantly smaller than the ˜100 Gyr estimated for the outer regions of spiral galaxies. We also estimate the gas consumption time-scale computed using the global gas content and the global star formation rate for all galaxies with a reliable measurement of the star formation rate, regardless of whether the H I distribution is disturbed or not. The mean gas consumption time-scale computed using this entire gas reservoir is ˜18 Gyr, i.e. still significantly smaller than that estimated for the outer parts of spirals. The gas consumption time-scale for dwarfs is intermediate between the values of ˜100 and ˜2 Gyr estimated for the outer molecule-poor and inner molecule-rich regions of spiral discs.

  12. Small-scale properties of atomic gas in extended disks of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Heckman, Timothy M.; Momjian, Emmanuel; York, Donald G.; Bowen, David V.; Yun, Min S.; Tripp, Todd M.

    2014-11-01

    We present high-resolution H I 21 cm observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array for three H I rich galaxies in absorption against radio quasars. Our sample contains six sightlines with impact parameters from 2.6 to 32.4 kpc. We detected a narrow H I absorber of FWHM 1.1 km s{sup –1} at 444.5 km s{sup –1} toward SDSS J122106.854+454852.16 probing the dwarf galaxy UCG 7408 at an impact parameter of 2.8 kpc. The absorption feature was barely resolved and its width corresponds to a maximum kinetic temperature, T{sub k} ≈ 26 K. We estimate a limiting peak optical depth of 1.37 and a column density of 6 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup –2}. The physical extent of the absorber is 0.04 kpc{sup 2} and covers ∼25%-30% of the background source. A comparison between the emission and absorption strengths suggests the cold-to-total H I column density in the absorber is ∼30%. Folding in the covering fraction, the cold-to-total H I mass is ∼10%. This suggest that condensation of warm H I (T{sub s} ∼ 1000 K) to cold phase (T{sub s} < 100 K) is suppressed in UGC 7408. The unusually low temperature of the H I absorber also indicates inefficiency in condensation of atomic gas into molecular gas. The suppression in condensation is likely to be the result of low metal content in this galaxy. The same process might explain the low efficiency of star formation in dwarf galaxies despite their huge gas reservoirs. We report the non-detection of H I in absorption in five other sightlines. This indicates that either the cold gas distribution is highly patchy or the gas is much warmer (T{sub s} > 1000 K) toward these sightlines.

  13. Warm, Dense Molecular Gas in the ISM of Starbursts, LIRGs, and ULIRGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Desika; Groppi, Christopher E.; Kulesa, Craig A.; Walker, Christopher K.

    2005-09-01

    The role of star formation in luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs, LIR>=1011 Lsolar ULIRGs, LIR>=1012 Lsolar) is a hotly debated issue: while it is clear that starbursts play a large role in powering the IR luminosity in these galaxies, the relative importance of possible enshrouded AGNs is unknown. It is therefore important to better understand the role of star-forming gas in contributing to the infrared luminosity in IR-bright galaxies. The J=3 level of 12CO lies 33 K above ground and has a critical density of ~1.5×104 cm-3. The 12CO J=3-2 line serves as an effective tracer for warm, dense molecular gas heated by active star formation. Here we report on 12CO J=3-2 observations of 17 starburst spiral galaxies, LIRGs, and ULIRGs, which we obtained with the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope on Mount Graham, Arizona. Our main results are as follows. (1) We find a nearly linear relation between the infrared luminosity and warm, dense molecular gas such that the infrared luminosity increases as the warm, dense molecular gas to the power 0.92; we interpret this to be roughly consistent with the recent results of Gao & Solomon. (2) We find LIR/MH2warm,dense ratios ranging from ~38 to ~482 Lsolar/Msolar using a modified CO-H2 conversion factor of 8.3×1019 cm-2 (K km s-1)-1 derived in this paper.

  14. Ejection of Supernova-Enriched Gas From Dwarf Disk Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Fragile, P C; Murray, S D; Lin, D C

    2004-06-15

    We examine the efficiency with which supernova-enriched gas may be ejected from dwarf disk galaxies, using a methodology previously employed to study the self-enrichment efficiency of dwarf spheroidal systems. Unlike previous studies that focused on highly concentrated starbursts, in the current work we consider discrete supernova events spread throughout various fractions of the disk. We model disk systems having gas masses of 10{sup 8} and 10{sup 9} M{sub {circle_dot}} with supernova rates of 30, 300, and 3000 Myr{sup -1}. The supernova events are confined to the midplane of the disk, but distributed over radii of 0, 30, and 80% of the disk radius, consistent with expectations for Type II supernovae. In agreement with earlier studies, we find that the enriched material from supernovae is largely lost when the supernovae are concentrated near the nucleus, as expected for a starburst event. In contrast, we find the loss of enriched material to be much less efficient (as low as 21%) when the supernovae occur over even a relatively small fraction of the disk. The difference is due to the ability of the system to relax following supernova events that occur over more extended regions. Larger physical separations also reduce the likelihood of supernovae going off within low-density ''chimneys'' swept out by previous supernovae. We also find that, for the most distributed systems, significant metal loss is more likely to be accompanied by significant mass loss. A comparison with theoretical predications indicates that, when undergoing self-regulated star formation, galaxies in the mass range considered shall efficiently retain the products of Type II supernovae.

  15. Molecular wake shield gas analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques for measuring and characterizing the ultrahigh vacuum in the wake of an orbiting spacecraft are studied. A high sensitivity mass spectrometer that contains a double mass analyzer consisting of an open source miniature magnetic sector field neutral gas analyzer and an identical ion analyzer is proposed. These are configured to detect and identify gas and ion species of hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, nitric oxide, and carbon dioxide and any other gas or ion species in the 1 to 46 amu mass range. This range covers the normal atmospheric constituents. The sensitivity of the instrument is sufficient to measure ambient gases and ion with a particle density of the order of one per cc. A chemical pump, or getter, is mounted near the entrance aperture of the neutral gas analyzer which integrates the absorption of ambient gases for a selectable period of time for subsequent release and analysis. The sensitivity is realizable for all but rare gases using this technique.

  16. The RESOLVE Survey Atomic Gas Census and Environmental Influences on Galaxy Gas Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, David; Kannappan, Sheila; Eckert, Kathleen D.; Jonathan, Florez; Hall, Kirsten; Watson, Linda C.; Hoversten, Erik A.; Burchett, Joseph; Guynn, David; Baker, Ashley; Moffett, Amanda J.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Norris, Mark A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Leroy, Adam K.; Pisano, Daniel J.; Wei, Lisa H.; Gonzalez, Roberto; RESOLVE Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the >93% complete 21cm inventory for the RESOLVE survey, a volume-limited census of ~1500 galaxies spanning diverse environments and probing baryonic masses down to ~109 M⊙. A key strength of the 21cm observational program is its fractional mass limited design, which yields an unbiased inventory of atomic gas mass, with either clean detections or strong upper limits <5-10% of stellar mass. We combine this gas census with metrics that parameterize environment from group scales (group dark matter halo mass) up to large-scale structure (mass density of the cosmic web and classification into filaments, walls, and voids) to investigate the influence of small and large-scale environment on galaxy gas content. We show that satellites in groups down to 1012 M⊙ have lower gas fractions compared to centrals at similar stellar mass, suggesting that group processes that deplete gas content are active well below the large group/cluster scale. In addition, at fixed halo mass both centrals and satellites in large-scale walls have systematically lower gas fractions than galaxies in filaments or voids, and this trend cannot be fully explained by differing stellar mass distributions within these large-scale environments. Lastly, we show that the abundance of gas-poor (gas-to-stellar mass ratio < 0.1) low halo-mass (<1011.4 M⊙) centrals increases with large-scale structure density, and that these centrals tend to reside closer to the outskirts of >1012 M⊙ groups than do more gas-rich but otherwise analogous low halo-mass centrals, suggesting that the gas-poor centrals have lost their gas in flyby interactions with the nearby groups. We discuss how the observed trends may be shaped by a number of physical processes such as gas stripping, starvation, and halo assembly bias. This project has been supported by NSF funding for the RESOLVE survey (AST-0955368), the GBT Student Observing Support program, and a UNC Royster Society of Fellows Dissertation Completion

  17. Gravity Binding and Pressure Bounding of HII Regions and Molecular Clouds in Interacting Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckman, John Etienne; Zaragoz-Cardiel, Javier; Font, Joan; Amram, Philippe; Camps-Fariña, Artemi

    2015-08-01

    We have observed a sample of 12 interacting galaxies using the Fabry-Perot interferometer GHαFaS (Galaxy Hα Fabry-Perot system) on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, deriving maps in Hα surface brightness, velocity and velocity dispersion. We extracted the physical parameters (Hα luminosities, velocity dispersions, and effective radii) of 1300 HII regions for the full sample with techniques for which velocity tagging is an essential step. We found two populations of HII regions, with a break at a gas mass of 106.5 solar masses. The mean density of the regions falls with radius for smaller masses, but rises with radius for larger masses. This is because in the lower mass range the HII regions are pressure bounded while in the upper range they are gravitationally bound. This analysis is underscored by using the turbulent velocity dispersion to show that the virial parameter for the regions shows values consistent with gravitational equilibrium in the upper range only. We were able to use ALMA observations of the molecular clouds in one of our objects, the Antennae galaxies, showing that for clouds with masses above 106.5 solar masses their densities increase with mass. The mass functions of the molecular clouds and HII regions in the Antennae show bimodal distributions, with the break at 106.5 solar masses clearly in evidence. We draw two conclusions of interest. Firstly the classical Larson scaling relation between surface density and mass does not operate in the upper mass range, implying higher star formation efficiency there. Secondly the similarity in the mass functions and density radius relations for the GMC’s and HII regions suggests that, at least in the upper mass range, the former remain gravitationally bound even after massive star formation has occurred.

  18. Weighing galaxy clusters with gas. II. On the origin of hydrostatic mass bias in ΛCDM galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Kaylea; Nagai, Daisuke; Yu, Liang; Lau, Erwin T.; Rudd, Douglas H.

    2014-02-20

    The use of galaxy clusters as cosmological probes hinges on our ability to measure their masses accurately and with high precision. Hydrostatic mass is one of the most common methods for estimating the masses of individual galaxy clusters, which suffer from biases due to departures from hydrostatic equilibrium. Using a large, mass-limited sample of massive galaxy clusters from a high-resolution hydrodynamical cosmological simulation, in this work we show that in addition to turbulent and bulk gas velocities, acceleration of gas introduces biases in the hydrostatic mass estimate of galaxy clusters. In unrelaxed clusters, the acceleration bias is comparable to the bias due to non-thermal pressure associated with merger-induced turbulent and bulk gas motions. In relaxed clusters, the mean mass bias due to acceleration is small (≲ 3%), but the scatter in the mass bias can be reduced by accounting for gas acceleration. Additionally, this acceleration bias is greater in the outskirts of higher redshift clusters where mergers are more frequent and clusters are accreting more rapidly. Since gas acceleration cannot be observed directly, it introduces an irreducible bias for hydrostatic mass estimates. This acceleration bias places limits on how well we can recover cluster masses from future X-ray and microwave observations. We discuss implications for cluster mass estimates based on X-ray, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, and gravitational lensing observations and their impact on cluster cosmology.

  19. PHOTOCHEMICAL HEATING OF DENSE MOLECULAR GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Glassgold, A. E.; Najita, J. R.

    2015-09-10

    Photochemical heating is analyzed with an emphasis on the heating generated by chemical reactions initiated by the products of photodissociation and photoionization. The immediate products are slowed down by collisions with the ambient gas and then heat the gas. In addition to this direct process, heating is also produced by the subsequent chemical reactions initiated by these products. Some of this chemical heating comes from the kinetic energy of the reaction products and the rest from collisional de-excitation of the product atoms and molecules. In considering dense gas dominated by molecular hydrogen, we find that the chemical heating is sometimes as large, if not much larger than, the direct heating. In very dense gas, the total photochemical heating approaches 10 eV per photodissociation (or photoionization), competitive with other ways of heating molecular gas.

  20. Insights into the gas dynamics in galaxies via a particle model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, F. H.; Roberts, W. W., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques of rarefied gas dynamics are applied to the astrophysical problem of gas flow in disk galaxies. Historically, studies of the interstellar gas dynamics in spiral galaxies have assumed the medium could be regarded as both isothermal and continuous. However, it now appears that the gaseous interstellar medium may be better idealized as a rarefied gas or discrete system of interacting particles. Principal evidence for this is that the galaxies themselves exhibit a degree of disorder and raggedness that is characteristic of a rarefied gaseous system with a Knudsen number of approximately 0.02-0.2. In this paper a particle model for gas flow in a spiral galaxy is developed and some implications of the results are discussed. The results are compared to an analytical inviscid calculation to gain further physical insight.

  1. Rapid Formation of Supermassive Black Hole Binaries in Galaxy Mergers with Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, L.; Kazantzidis, S.; Madau, P.; Colpi, M.; Quinn, T.; Wadsley, J.; /McMaster U.

    2008-03-24

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are a ubiquitous component of the nuclei of galaxies. It is normally assumed that, following the merger of two massive galaxies, a SMBH binary will form, shrink due to stellar or gas dynamical processes and ultimately coalesce by emitting a burst of gravitational waves. However, so far it has not been possible to show how two SMBHs bind during a galaxy merger with gas due to the difficulty of modeling a wide range of spatial scales. Here we report hydrodynamical simulations that track the formation of a SMBH binary down to scales of a few light years following the collision between two spiral galaxies. A massive, turbulent nuclear gaseous disk arises as a result of the galaxy merger. The black holes form an eccentric binary in the disk in less than a million years as a result of the gravitational drag from the gas rather than from the stars.

  2. Star-formation rates, molecular clouds, and the origin of the far-infrared luminosity of isolated and interacting galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, P. M.; Sage, L. J.

    1988-01-01

    The CO luminosities of 93 galaxies have been determined and are compared with their IRAS FIR luminosities. Strongly interacting/merging galaxies have L(FIR)/L(CO) substantially higher than that of isolated galaxies or galactic giant molecular clouds (GMCs). Galaxies with tidal tails/bridges are the most extreme type with L(FIR)/L(CO) nine times as high as isolated galaxies. Interactions between close pairs of galaxies do not have much effect on the molecular content and global star-formation rate. If the high ratio L(FIR)/L(CO) in strongly interacting galaxies is due to star formation then the efficiency of this process is higher than that of any galactic GMC. Isolated galaxies, distant pairs, and close pairs have an FIR/CO luminosity ratio which is within a factor of two of galactic GMCs with H II regions. The CO luminosities of FIR-luminous galaxies are among the highest observed for any spiral galaxies.

  3. Emission line gas in early-type galaxies: Kinematics and physical conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deustua, S. E.; Koratkar, A. P.; Macalpine, G.

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies have found line emission gas in nearby early-type galaxies, but the properties of the emission-line gas in these 'normal' galaxies remain enigmatic. In terms of activity in the nucleus, these LINER-like galaxies form an important link between giant H 2 region galaxies and low-luminosity Seyferts. Despite their large numbers and evolutionary significance, we do not know whether these galaxies form a homogeneous class of objects; nor do we know how the distribution and kinematics of the line emission gas are affected by the host galaxy's environment or by the properties of the central engine, if present. To address these issues we are conducting a magnitude and volume limited survey of nearby early-type galaxies at Lick Observatory and the Michigan-Dartmouth-MIT Observatory. We have selected approximately 100 galaxies from radio catalogs. A large sample is necessary because while studies of individual 'LINERS' have led to a certain understanding of the phenomenon, these studies have not provided a global framework. Here we present results from our first run of medium resolution (approximately 5 A FWHM) spectroscopy. Kinematic data and line ratios determined along the major and minor axes of 6 galaxies are discussed. The information gleaned from spectroscopic data, when combined with data at other wavelengths, will enable a thorough investigation into the nature of low luminosity nuclear activity.

  4. Aspects of hierarchical galaxy formation involving gas dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, N. )

    1992-09-01

    The viability of hierarchical structure formation theories (cold dark matter) through numerical simulations that include gasdynamics, are investigated. Gasdynamics is essential to obtaining realistic results to many problems in galaxy formation. Applications over the range from individual galaxy features (polar rings) to elliptical and spiral galaxies to quasars to clusters are considered. 42 refs.

  5. Early Gas Stripping as the Origin of the Darkest Galaxies in the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, Lucio; Kazantzidis, Stelios; Mastropietro, Chiara; Wadsley, James; /McMaster U.

    2007-02-28

    The known galaxies most dominated by dark matter (Draco, Ursa Minor and Andromeda IX) are satellites of the Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxies. They are members of a class of faint galaxies, devoid of gas, known as dwarf spheroidals, and have by far the highest ratio of dark to luminous matter. None of the models proposed to unravel their origin can simultaneously explain their exceptional dark matter content and their proximity to a much larger galaxy. Here we report simulations showing that the progenitors of these galaxies were probably gas-dominated dwarf galaxies that became satellites of a larger galaxy earlier than the other dwarf spheroidals. We find that a combination of tidal shocks and ram pressure swept away the entire gas content of such progenitors about ten billion years ago because heating by the cosmic ultraviolet background kept the gas loosely bound: a tiny stellar component embedded in a relatively massive dark halo survived until today. All luminous galaxies should be surrounded by a few extremely dark-matter-dominated dwarf spheroidal satellites, and these should have the shortest orbital periods among dwarf spheroidals because they were accreted early.

  6. Early gas stripping as the origin of the darkest galaxies in the Universe.

    PubMed

    Mayer, L; Kazantzidis, S; Mastropietro, C; Wadsley, J

    2007-02-15

    The known galaxies most dominated by dark matter (Draco, Ursa Minor and Andromeda IX) are satellites of the Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxies. They are members of a class of faint galaxies, devoid of gas, known as dwarf spheroidals, and have by far the highest ratio of dark to luminous matter. None of the models proposed to unravel their origin can simultaneously explain their exceptional dark matter content and their proximity to a much larger galaxy. Here we report simulations showing that the progenitors of these galaxies were probably gas-dominated dwarf galaxies that became satellites of a larger galaxy earlier than the other dwarf spheroidals. We find that a combination of tidal shocks and ram pressure swept away the entire gas content of such progenitors about ten billion years ago because heating by the cosmic ultraviolet background kept the gas loosely bound: a tiny stellar component embedded in a relatively massive dark halo survived until today. All luminous galaxies should be surrounded by a few extremely dark-matter-dominated dwarf spheroidal satellites, and these should have the shortest orbital periods among dwarf spheroidals because they were accreted early.

  7. ACCRETION-INHIBITED STAR FORMATION IN THE WARM MOLECULAR DISK OF THE GREEN-VALLEY ELLIPTICAL GALAXY NGC 3226?

    SciTech Connect

    Appleton, P. N.; Bitsakis, T.; Alatalo, K.; Mundell, C.; Lacy, M.; Armus, L.; Charmandaris, V.; Duc, P.-A.; Lisenfeld, U.; Ogle, P.

    2014-12-20

    We present archival Spitzer photometry and spectroscopy and Herschel photometry of the peculiar ''Green Valley'' elliptical galaxy NGC 3226. The galaxy, which contains a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN), forms a pair with NGC 3227 and is shown to lie in a complex web of stellar and H I filaments. Imaging at 8 and 16 μm reveals a curved plume structure 3 kpc in extent, embedded within the core of the galaxy and coincident with the termination of a 30 kpc long H I tail. In situ star formation associated with the infrared (IR) plume is identified from narrowband Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging. The end of the IR plume coincides with a warm molecular hydrogen disk and dusty ring containing 0.7-1.1 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} detected within the central kiloparsec. Sensitive upper limits to the detection of cold molecular gas may indicate that a large fraction of the H{sub 2} is in a warm state. Photometry derived from the ultraviolet (UV) to the far-IR shows evidence for a low star-formation rate of ∼0.04 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} averaged over the last 100 Myr. A mid-IR component to the spectral energy distribution (SED) contributes ∼20% of the IR luminosity of the galaxy, and is consistent with emission associated with the AGN. The current measured star formation rate is insufficient to explain NGC 3226's global UV-optical ''green'' colors via the resurgence of star formation in a ''red and dead'' galaxy. This form of ''cold accretion'' from a tidal stream would appear to be an inefficient way to rejuvenate early-type galaxies and may actually inhibit star formation.

  8. Why do the HIghMass Galaxies Have so Much Gas?: Studying Massive, Gas-Rich Galaxies at z~0 with Resolved HI and H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; HIghMass Team

    2016-01-01

    In the standard ΛCDM cosmology, galaxies form via mergers of many smaller dark matter halos. Because mergers drive star formation, the most massive galaxies should also be the ones which have been the most efficient at converting their gas reservoirs into stars. This trend is seen observationally: in general, as stellar mass increases, gas fraction (GF = MHI/M*) decreases. Galaxies which have large reservoirs of atomic hydrogen (HI) are thus expected to be extremely rare, which was seemingly supported by earlier blind HI surveys.In seeming contradiction, ALFALFA, the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey has observed a sample of 34 galaxies which are both massive (MHI>1010 M⊙) and have unusually high gas fractions (all ≥ 0.3; half are > 1). We call this sample HighMass. Unlike other extremely HI-massive samples, such galaxies are neither low surface brightness galaxies nor are they simply "scaled up" spirals. Could this gas be recently acquired, either from accreting small companions or directly from the cosmic web? Or is it primordial, and has been kept from forming stars, possibly because of an unusually high dark matter halo spin parameter?We present resolved HI, H2, and star formation properties of three of these HIghMass galaxies, and compare them with two HIghMass galaxies previously discussed in Hallenbeck et al. (2014). One of these galaxies, UGC 6168, appears in the process of transitioning from a quiescent to star-forming phase, as indicated by its bar and potential non-circular flows. A second, UGC 7899, has a clear warp, which could be evidence of recently accreted gas—but the presence of a warp is far from conclusive evidence. Both have moderately high dark matter halo spin parameters (λ' = 0.09), similar to the previously studied UGC 9037. The third, NGC 5230, looks undisturbed both optically and in its radio emission, but is in a group full of extragalactic gas. A neighboring galaxy has been significantly disrupted, and NGC 5230 may be in the

  9. HUBBLE OBSERVES SPIRAL GAS DISK IN ACTIVE GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of a spiral-shaped disk of hot gas in the core of active galaxy M87. HST measurements show the disk is rotating so rapidly it contains a massive black hole at its hub. A black hole is an object that is so massive yet compact nothing can escape its gravitational pull, not even light. The object at the center of M87 fits that description. It weights as much as three billion suns, but is concentrated into a space no larger than our solar system. Now that astronomers have seen the signature of the tremendous gravitational field at the center of M87, it is clear that the region contains only a fraction of the number of stars that would be necessary to create such a powerful attraction. The giant elliptical galaxy M87 is located 50 million light-years away in the constellation Virgo. Earlier observations suggested the black hole was present, but were not decisive. A brilliant jet of high- speed electrons that emits from the nucleus (diagonal line across image) is believed to be produced by the black hole 'engine.' The image was taken with HST's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 Credit: Holland Ford, Space Telescope Science Institute/Johns Hopkins University; Richard Harms, Applied Research Corp.; Zlatan Tsvetanov, Arthur Davidsen, and Gerard Kriss at Johns Hopkins; Ralph Bohlin and George Hartig at Space Telescope Science Institute; Linda Dressel and Ajay K. Kochhar at Applied Research Corp. in Landover, Md.; and Bruce Margon from the University of Washington in Seattle. NASA PHOTO CAPTION STScI-PR94-23a

  10. Gravitational torques imply molecular gas inflow towards the nucleus of M 51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querejeta, M.; Meidt, S. E.; Schinnerer, E.; García-Burillo, S.; Dobbs, C. L.; Colombo, D.; Dumas, G.; Hughes, A.; Kramer, C.; Leroy, A. K.; Pety, J.; Schuster, K. F.; Thompson, T. A.

    2016-04-01

    The transport of gas towards the centre of galaxies is critical for black hole feeding and, indirectly, it can control active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback. We have quantified the molecular gas inflow in the central R< 1 kpc of M 51 to be 1 M⊙/yr, using a new gravitational torque map and the molecular gas traced by the Plateau de Bure Interferometer Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS). The nuclear stellar bar is responsible for this gas inflow. We also used torque profiles to estimate the location of dynamical resonances, and the results suggest a corotation for the bar CRbar ~ 20'', and a corotation for the spiral CRsp ~ 100''. We demonstrate how important it is to correct 3.6 μm images for dust emission when gravitational torques are to be computed, and we examine further sources of uncertainty. Our observational measurement of gas inflow can be compared with nuclear molecular outflow rates and provide useful constraints for numerical simulations.

  11. CO at Low-metallicity: Molecular Clouds in the dwarf galaxy WLM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Deidre Ann; Rubio, Monica; Cigan, Phil; Cortes, Juan R.; Elmegreen, Bruce; Brinks, Elias; Simpson, Caroline E.; Young, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Metallicity is not a passive result of galaxy evolution, but a crucial driver. Dwarf galaxies are low in heavy elements, which has important consequences for the ability to form cold, dense clouds that form stars. Molecular cores shrink and atomic envelopes grow in star-forming clouds as the metallicity drops. We are testing this picture of changing structure with metallicity with Herschel [CII]158 micron images of the photo-dissociation regions and ALMA maps of CO in star-forming regions in 4 dwarf irregular galaxies. These galaxies cover a range in metallicity from 13% solar to 5% solar. Here we report on the structure of the molecular clouds in WLM, a dwarf galaxy at 13% solar abundance where we for the first time detected CO emission at such a low heavy element abundance.The Herschel part of this work was supported by grant RSA #1433776 from JPL.

  12. A Portrait of Cold Gas in Galaxies at 60 pc Resolution and a Simple Method to Test Hypotheses That Link Small-scale ISM Structure to Galaxy-scale Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Hughes, Annie; Schruba, Andreas; Rosolowsky, Erik; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Colombo, Dario; Escala, Andres; Kramer, Carsten; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Meidt, Sharon; Pety, Jerome; Querejeta, Miguel; Sandstrom, Karin; Schinnerer, Eva; Sliwa, Kazimierz; Usero, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    The cloud-scale density, velocity dispersion, and gravitational boundedness of the interstellar medium (ISM) vary within and among galaxies. In turbulent models, these properties play key roles in the ability of gas to form stars. New high-fidelity, high-resolution surveys offer the prospect to measure these quantities across galaxies. We present a simple approach to make such measurements and to test hypotheses that link small-scale gas structure to star formation and galactic environment. Our calculations capture the key physics of the Larson scaling relations, and we show good correspondence between our approach and a traditional “cloud properties” treatment. However, we argue that our method is preferable in many cases because of its simple, reproducible characterization of all emission. Using, low-J 12CO data from recent surveys, we characterize the molecular ISM at 60 pc resolution in the Antennae, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), M31, M33, M51, and M74. We report the distributions of surface density, velocity dispersion, and gravitational boundedness at 60 pc scales and show galaxy-to-galaxy and intragalaxy variations in each. The distribution of flux as a function of surface density appears roughly lognormal with a 1σ width of ∼0.3 dex, though the center of this distribution varies from galaxy to galaxy. The 60 pc resolution line width and molecular gas surface density correlate well, which is a fundamental behavior expected for virialized or free-falling gas. Varying the measurement scale for the LMC and M31, we show that the molecular ISM has higher surface densities, lower line widths, and more self-gravity at smaller scales.

  13. ARE THE KINEMATICS OF DLAs IN AGREEMENT WITH THEIR ARISING IN THE GAS DISKS OF GALAXIES?

    SciTech Connect

    Zwaan, Martin; Walter, Fabian; Ryan-Weber, Emma; Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr; Brinks, Elias; De Blok, W. J. G.

    2008-12-15

    We demonstrate in this paper that the velocity widths of the neutral gas in damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) systems are inconsistent with these systems originating in gas disks of galaxies, similar to those seen in the local universe. We examine the gas kinematics of local galaxies using the high-quality H I 21 cm data from the H I Nearby Galaxies Survey and make a comparison with the velocity profiles measured in the low-ionization metal lines observed in DLAs at high redshifts. The median velocity width of z = 0 H I gas above the DLA column density limit of N{sub HI} = 2 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2} is approximately 30 km s{sup -1}, whereas the typical value in DLAs is a factor of 2 higher. We argue that the gas kinematics at higher redshifts are increasingly influenced by gas that is not participating in ordered rotation in cold disks, but is more likely associated with tidal gas related to galaxy interactions or processes such as superwinds and outflows. An analysis of the H I in the local interacting starburst galaxy M 82 shows that the velocity widths in this galaxy are indeed similar to what is seen in DLAs.

  14. Chemical evolution of giant molecular clouds in simulations of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richings, Alexander J.; Schaye, Joop

    2016-08-01

    We present an analysis of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) within hydrodynamic simulations of isolated, low-mass (M* ˜ 109 M⊙) disc galaxies. We study the evolution of molecular abundances and the implications for CO emission and the XCO conversion factor in individual clouds. We define clouds either as regions above a density threshold n_{H, min} = 10 {cm}^{-3}, or using an observationally motivated CO intensity threshold of 0.25 {K} {km} {s}^{-1}. Our simulations include a non-equilibrium chemical model with 157 species, including 20 molecules. We also investigate the effects of resolution and pressure floors (i.e. Jeans limiters). We find cloud lifetimes up to ≈ 40 Myr, with a median of 13 Myr, in agreement with observations. At one-tenth solar metallicity, young clouds ( ≲ 10-15 Myr) are underabundant in H2 and CO compared to chemical equilibrium, by factors of ≈3 and one to two orders of magnitude, respectively. At solar metallicity, GMCs reach chemical equilibrium faster (within ≈ 1 Myr). We also compute CO emission from individual clouds. The mean CO intensity, ICO, is strongly suppressed at low dust extinction, Av, and possibly saturates towards high Av, in agreement with observations. The ICO-Av relation shifts towards higher Av for higher metallicities and, to a lesser extent, for stronger UV radiation. At one-tenth solar metallicity, CO emission is weaker in young clouds ( ≲ 10-15 Myr), consistent with the underabundance of CO. Consequently, XCO decreases by an order of magnitude from 0 to 15 Myr, albeit with a large scatter.

  15. MOLECULAR GAS AND STAR-FORMATION PROPERTIES IN THE CENTRAL AND BAR REGIONS OF NGC 6946

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Hsi-An; Sorai, Kazuo; Kuno, Nario; Koda, Jin; Hirota, Akihiko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-10

    In this work, we investigate the molecular gas and star-formation properties in the barred spiral galaxy NGC 6946 using multiple molecular lines and star-formation tracers. A high-resolution image (100 pc) of {sup 13}CO (1–0) is created for the inner 2 kpc disk by the single-dish Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope and interferometer Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, including the central region (nuclear ring and bar) and the offset ridges of the primary bar. Single-dish HCN (1–0) observations were also made to constrain the amount of dense gas. The physical properties of molecular gas are inferred from (1) the large velocity gradient calculations using our observations and archival {sup 12}CO (1–0), {sup 12}CO(2–1) data, (2) the dense gas fraction suggested by the luminosity ratio of HCN to {sup 12}CO (1–0), and (3) the infrared color. The results show that the molecular gas in the central region is warmer and denser than that of the offset ridges. The dense gas fraction of the central region is similar to that of luminous infrared galaxies/ultraluminous infrared galaxies, whereas the offset ridges are close to the global average of normal galaxies. The coolest and least-dense region is found in a spiral-like structure, which was misunderstood to be part of the southern primary bar in previous low-resolution observations. The star-formation efficiency (SFE) changes by about five times in the inner disk. The variation of SFE agrees with the prediction in terms of star formation regulated by the galactic bar. We find a consistency between the star-forming region and the temperature inferred by the infrared color, suggesting that the distribution of subkiloparsec-scale temperature is driven by star formation.

  16. Molecular Gas and Star-formation Properties in the Central and Bar Regions of NGC 6946

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Hsi-An; Kuno, Nario; Koda, Jin; Hirota, Akihiko; Sorai, Kazuo; Kaneko, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the molecular gas and star-formation properties in the barred spiral galaxy NGC 6946 using multiple molecular lines and star-formation tracers. A high-resolution image (100 pc) of 13CO (1-0) is created for the inner 2 kpc disk by the single-dish Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope and interferometer Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, including the central region (nuclear ring and bar) and the offset ridges of the primary bar. Single-dish HCN (1-0) observations were also made to constrain the amount of dense gas. The physical properties of molecular gas are inferred from (1) the large velocity gradient calculations using our observations and archival 12CO (1-0), 12CO(2-1) data, (2) the dense gas fraction suggested by the luminosity ratio of HCN to 12CO (1-0), and (3) the infrared color. The results show that the molecular gas in the central region is warmer and denser than that of the offset ridges. The dense gas fraction of the central region is similar to that of luminous infrared galaxies/ultraluminous infrared galaxies, whereas the offset ridges are close to the global average of normal galaxies. The coolest and least-dense region is found in a spiral-like structure, which was misunderstood to be part of the southern primary bar in previous low-resolution observations. The star-formation efficiency (SFE) changes by about five times in the inner disk. The variation of SFE agrees with the prediction in terms of star formation regulated by the galactic bar. We find a consistency between the star-forming region and the temperature inferred by the infrared color, suggesting that the distribution of subkiloparsec-scale temperature is driven by star formation.

  17. Measuring the Dust Stripping of Galaxies by the Hot Intracluster Gas in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hye-Ran; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Lee, Joon Hyeop; French, K. Decker; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2016-06-01

    Ram pressure stripping, the removal of gas from galaxies interacting with the hot intracluster medium, has been proposed as a mechanism for quenching star formation in cluster galaxies. While much effort has been made to identify gas stripped from the interstellar medium (ISM) of cluster galaxies, the ISM also includes dust, another potential tracer of stripping. Previous studies using radio and infra-red wavelengths have suggested gas and dust stripping in several cluster galaxies. In our study, we try a different approach: searching for optical extinction and reddening of background galaxies by dust stripped from foreground cluster members. As the first step, using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12 (SDSS DR12) and the VLA Imaging of Virgo in Atomic gas (VIVA) HI survey, we map the magnitudes and colors of galaxies behind Virgo cluster galaxies whose HI morphologies are disrupted. We discuss how efficiently dust stripping can be measured with this method and the connection to gas stripping.

  18. The relation between the gas, dust and total mass in edge-on spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaert, Flor

    2015-02-01

    Each component of a galaxy plays its own unique role in regulating the galaxy's evolution. In order to understand how galaxies form and evolve, it is therefore crucial to study the distribution and properties of each of the various components, and the links between them, both radially and vertically. The latter is only possible in edge-on systems. We present the HEROES project, which aims to investigate the 3D structure of the interstellar gas, dust, stars and dark matter in a sample of 7 massive early-type spiral galaxies based on a multi-wavelength data set including optical, NIR, FIR and radio data.

  19. Kinematics of dwarf galaxies in gas-rich groups, and the survival and detectability of tidal dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, Sarah M.; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Meurer, Gerhardt; Kilborn, Virginia; Audcent-Ross, Fiona; Baumgardt, Holger; Bekki, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    We present DEIMOS multi-object spectroscopy (MOS) of 22 star-forming dwarf galaxies located in four gas-rich groups, including six newly discovered dwarfs. Two of the galaxies are strong tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG) candidates based on our luminosity-metallicity relation definition. We model the rotation curves of these galaxies. Our sample shows low mass-to-light ratios (M/L = 0.73 ± 0.39 M⊙/L⊙) as expected for young, star-forming dwarfs. One of the galaxies in our sample has an apparently strongly falling rotation curve, reaching zero rotational velocity outside the turnover radius of rturn = 1.2re. This may be (1) a polar ring galaxy, with a tilted bar within a face-on disc; (2) a kinematic warp. These scenarios are indistinguishable with our current data due to limitations of slit alignment inherent to MOS-mode observations. We consider whether TDGs can be detected based on their tidal radius, beyond which tidal stripping removes kinematic tracers such as Hα emission. When the tidal radius is less than about twice the turnover radius, the expected falling rotation curve cannot be reliably measured. This is problematic for as much as half of our sample, and indeed more generally, galaxies in groups like these. Further to this, the Hα light that remains must be sufficiently bright to be detected; this is only the case for three (14 per cent) galaxies in our sample. We conclude that the falling rotation curves expected of TDGs are intrinsically difficult to detect.

  20. DISCOVERY OF AN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS DRIVEN MOLECULAR OUTFLOW IN THE LOCAL EARLY-TYPE GALAXY NGC 1266

    SciTech Connect

    Alatalo, K.; Blitz, L.; Young, L. M.; Davis, T. A.; Bureau, M.; Cappellari, M.; Scott, N.; Davies, R. L.; Lopez, L. A.; Shapiro, K. L.; Crocker, A. F.; MartIn, S.; Bois, M.; Emsellem, E.; Bournaud, F.; Duc, P.-A.; Falcon-Barroso, J.

    2011-07-10

    We report the discovery of a powerful molecular wind from the nucleus of the non-interacting nearby S0 field galaxy NGC 1266. The single-dish CO profile exhibits emission to {+-}400 km s{sup -1} and requires a nested Gaussian fit to be properly described. Interferometric observations reveal a massive, centrally concentrated molecular component with a mass of 1.1 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun} and a molecular outflow with a molecular mass of {approx}2.4 x 10{sup 7} M{sub sun}. The molecular gas close to the systemic velocity consists of a rotating, compact nucleus with a mass of about 4.1 x 10{sup 8} M{sub sun} within a radius of {approx}60 pc. This compact molecular nucleus has a surface density of {approx}2.7 x 10{sup 4} M{sub sun} pc{sup -2}, more than two orders of magnitude larger than that of giant molecular clouds in the disk of the Milky Way, and it appears to sit on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation despite its extreme kinematics and energetic activity. We interpret this nucleus as a disk that confines the outflowing wind. A mass outflow rate of {approx}13 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} leads to a depletion timescale of {approx}<85 Myr. The star formation in NGC 1266 is insufficient to drive the outflow, and thus it is likely driven by the active galactic nucleus. The concentration of the majority of the molecular gas in the central 100 pc requires an extraordinary loss of angular momentum, but no obvious companion or interacting galaxy is present to enable the transfer. NGC 1266 is the first known outflowing molecular system that does not show any evidence of a recent interaction.

  1. Spatially resolved velocity maps of halo gas around two intermediate-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Gauthier, Jean-René; Sharon, Keren; Johnson, Sean D.; Nair, Preethi; Liang, Cameron J.

    2014-02-01

    Absorption-line spectroscopy of multiply-lensed QSOs near a known foreground galaxy provides a unique opportunity to go beyond the traditional one-dimensional application of QSO probes and establish a crude three-dimensional map of halo gas around the galaxy that records the line-of-sight velocity field at different locations in the gaseous halo. Two intermediate-redshift galaxies are targeted in the field around the quadruply-lensed QSO HE 0435-1223 at redshift z = 1.689, and absorption spectroscopy along each of the lensed QSOs is carried out in the vicinities of these galaxies. One galaxy is a typical, star-forming L* galaxy at z = 0.4188 and projected distance of ρ = 50 kpc from the lensing galaxy. The other is a super-L* barred spiral at z = 0.7818 and ρ = 33 kpc. Combining known orientations of the quadruply-lensed QSO to the two foreground galaxies with the observed Mg II λλ2796, 2803 absorption profiles along individual QSO sightlines has for the first time led to spatially resolved kinematics of tenuous halo gas on scales of 5-10 kpc at z > 0.2. A Mg II absorber is detected in every sightline observed through the haloes of the two galaxies, and the recorded absorber strength is typical of what is seen in previous close QSO-galaxy pair studies. While the multisightline study confirms the unity covering fraction of Mg II absorbing gas at ρ < 50 kpc from star-forming discs, the galaxies also present two contrasting examples of complex halo gas kinematics. Different models, including a rotating disc, collimated outflows and gaseous streams from either accretion or tidal/ram-pressure stripping, are considered for comparisons with the absorption-line observations, and infalling streams/stripped gas of width ≳10 kpc are found to best describe the observed gas kinematics across multiple sightlines. In addition, the observed velocity dispersion between different sightlines offers a crude estimate of turbulence in the Mg II absorbing halo gas. The

  2. A MOLECULAR EINSTEIN RING TOWARD THE z = 3.93 SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY MM18423+5938

    SciTech Connect

    Lestrade, Jean-Francois; Carilli, Chris L.; Thanjavur, Karun; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Riechers, Dominik A.; Bertoldi, Frank; Walter, Fabian; Omont, Alain

    2011-09-20

    We present high-resolution imaging of the low-order (J = 1 and 2) CO line emission from the z = 3.93 submillimeter galaxy (SMG) MM18423+5938 using the Expanded Very Large Array, and optical and near-IR imaging using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. This SMG with a spectroscopic redshift was thought to be gravitationally lensed given its enormous apparent brightness. We find that the CO emission is consistent with a complete Einstein ring with a major axis diameter of {approx}1.''4, indicative of lensing. We have also identified the lensing galaxy as a very red elliptical coincident with the geometric center of the ring and estimated its photometric redshift z {approx} 1.1. A first estimate of the lens magnification factor is m {approx} 12. The luminosity L'{sub CO(1-0)} of the CO(1-0) emission is 2.71 {+-} 0.38 x 10{sup 11} m {sup -1} K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}, and, adopting the commonly used conversion factor for ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), the molecular gas mass is M(H{sub 2}) = 2.2 x 10{sup 11} m {sup -1} M{sub sun}, comparable to unlensed SMGs if corrected by m {approx} 12. Our revised estimate of the far-IR luminosity of MM18423+5938 is 2 x 10{sup 13} m {sup -1} < L{sub FIR} < 3 x 10{sup 14} m {sup -1} L{sub sun}, comparable to that of ULIRGs. Further observations are required to quantify the star formation rate in MM18423+5938 and to constrain the mass model of the lens in more detail.

  3. Galaxy Mergers with Adaptive Mesh Refinement: Star Formation and Hot Gas Outflow

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Wise, John H.; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-06-22

    In hierarchical structure formation, merging of galaxies is frequent and known to dramatically affect their properties. To comprehend these interactions high-resolution simulations are indispensable because of the nonlinear coupling between pc and Mpc scales. To this end, we present the first adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulation of two merging, low mass, initially gas-rich galaxies (1.8 x 10{sup 10} M{sub {circle_dot}} each), including star formation and feedback. With galaxies resolved by {approx} 2 x 10{sup 7} total computational elements, we achieve unprecedented resolution of the multiphase interstellar medium, finding a widespread starburst in the merging galaxies via shock-induced star formation. The high dynamic range of AMR also allows us to follow the interplay between the galaxies and their embedding medium depicting how galactic outflows and a hot metal-rich halo form. These results demonstrate that AMR provides a powerful tool in understanding interacting galaxies.

  4. ALFALFA Discovery of the nearby Gas-rich Dwarf Galaxy Leo P. III. An Extremely Metal Deficient Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skillman, Evan D.; Salzer, John J.; Berg, Danielle A.; Pogge, Richard W.; Haurberg, Nathalie C.; Cannon, John M.; Aver, Erik; Olive, Keith A.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Rhode, Katherine L.

    2013-07-01

    We present KPNO 4 m and LBT/MODS spectroscopic observations of an H II region in the nearby dwarf irregular galaxy Leo P discovered recently in the Arecibo ALFALFA survey. In both observations, we are able to accurately measure the temperature sensitive [O III] λ4363 line and determine a "direct" oxygen abundance of 12 + log(O/H) = 7.17 ± 0.04. Thus, Leo P is an extremely metal deficient (XMD) galaxy, and, indeed, one of the most metal deficient star-forming galaxies ever observed. For its estimated luminosity, Leo P is consistent with the relationship between luminosity and oxygen abundance seen in nearby dwarf galaxies. Leo P shows normal α element abundance ratios (Ne/O, S/O, and Ar/O) when compared to other XMD galaxies, but elevated N/O, consistent with the "delayed release" hypothesis for N/O abundances. We derive a helium mass fraction of 0.2509^{+0.0184}_{-0.0123}, which compares well with the WMAP + BBN prediction of 0.2483 ± 0.0002 for the primordial helium abundance. We suggest that surveys of very low mass galaxies compete well with emission line galaxy surveys for finding XMD galaxies. It is possible that XMD galaxies may be divided into two classes: the relatively rare XMD emission line galaxies which are associated with starbursts triggered by infall of low-metallicity gas and the more common, relatively quiescent XMD galaxies like Leo P, with very low chemical abundances due to their intrinsically small masses. Some of the observations reported here were obtained at the LBT Observatory. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University, and The Research Corporation, on behalf of The

  5. GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITIES IN TWO-COMPONENT GALAXY DISKS WITH GAS DISSIPATION

    SciTech Connect

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2011-08-10

    Growth rates for gravitational instabilities in a thick disk of gas and stars are determined for a turbulent gas that dissipates on the local crossing time. The scale heights are derived from vertical equilibrium. The accuracy of the usual thickness correction, (1 + kH){sup -1}, is better than 6% in the growth rate when compared to exact integrations for the gravitational acceleration in the disk. Gas dissipation extends the instability to small scales, removing the minimum Jeans length. This makes infinitesimally thin disks unstable for all Toomre-Q values and reasonably thick disks stable at high Q primarily because of thickness effects. The conventional gas+star threshold, Q{sub tot}, increases from {approx}1 without dissipation to 2 or 3 when dissipation has a rate equal to the crossing rate over a perturbation scale. Observations of Q{sub tot} {approx} 2-3 and the presence of supersonic turbulence suggest that disks are unstable over a wide range of scales. Such instabilities drive spiral structure if there is shear and clumpy structure if shear is weak; they may dominate the generation of turbulence. Feedback regulation of Q{sub tot} is complex because the stellar component does not cool; the range of spiral strengths from multiple arm to flocculent galaxies suggests that feedback is weak. Gravitational instabilities may have a connection to star formation even when the star formation rate scales directly with the molecular mass because the instabilities return dispersed gas to molecular clouds and complete the cycle of cloud formation and destruction. The mass flow to dense clouds by instabilities can be 10 times larger than the star formation rate.

  6. Gravitational Instabilities in Two-component Galaxy Disks with Gas Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2011-08-01

    Growth rates for gravitational instabilities in a thick disk of gas and stars are determined for a turbulent gas that dissipates on the local crossing time. The scale heights are derived from vertical equilibrium. The accuracy of the usual thickness correction, (1 + kH)-1, is better than 6% in the growth rate when compared to exact integrations for the gravitational acceleration in the disk. Gas dissipation extends the instability to small scales, removing the minimum Jeans length. This makes infinitesimally thin disks unstable for all Toomre-Q values and reasonably thick disks stable at high Q primarily because of thickness effects. The conventional gas+star threshold, Q tot, increases from ~1 without dissipation to 2 or 3 when dissipation has a rate equal to the crossing rate over a perturbation scale. Observations of Q tot ~ 2-3 and the presence of supersonic turbulence suggest that disks are unstable over a wide range of scales. Such instabilities drive spiral structure if there is shear and clumpy structure if shear is weak; they may dominate the generation of turbulence. Feedback regulation of Q tot is complex because the stellar component does not cool; the range of spiral strengths from multiple arm to flocculent galaxies suggests that feedback is weak. Gravitational instabilities may have a connection to star formation even when the star formation rate scales directly with the molecular mass because the instabilities return dispersed gas to molecular clouds and complete the cycle of cloud formation and destruction. The mass flow to dense clouds by instabilities can be 10 times larger than the star formation rate.

  7. Preparation of a pure molecular quantum gas.

    PubMed

    Herbig, Jens; Kraemer, Tobias; Mark, Michael; Weber, Tino; Chin, Cheng; Nägerl, Hanns-Christoph; Grimm, Rudolf

    2003-09-12

    An ultracold molecular quantum gas is created by application of a magnetic field sweep across a Feshbach resonance to a Bose-Einstein condensate of cesium atoms. The ability to separate the molecules from the atoms permits direct imaging of the pure molecular sample. Magnetic levitation enables study of the dynamics of the ensemble on extended time scales. We measured ultralow expansion energies in the range of a few nanokelvin for a sample of 3000 molecules. Our observations are consistent with the presence of a macroscopic molecular matter wave. PMID:12934014

  8. LOCALIZED STARBURSTS IN DWARF GALAXIES PRODUCED BY THE IMPACT OF LOW-METALLICITY COSMIC GAS CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Filho, M. E.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Vílchez, J. M.; Amorín, R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Papaderos, P.

    2015-09-10

    Models of galaxy formation predict that gas accretion from the cosmic web is a primary driver of star formation over cosmic history. Except in very dense environments where galaxy mergers are also important, model galaxies feed from cold streams of gas from the web that penetrate their dark matter halos. Although these predictions are unambiguous, the observational support has been indirect so far. Here, we report spectroscopic evidence for this process in extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) of the local universe, taking the form of localized starbursts associated with gas having low metallicity. Detailed abundance analyses based on Gran Telescopio Canarias optical spectra of 10 XMPs show that the galaxy hosts have metallicities around 60% solar, on average, while the large star-forming regions that dominate their integrated light have low metallicities of some 6% solar. Because gas mixes azimuthally in a rotation timescale (a few hundred Myr), the observed metallicity inhomogeneities are only possible if the metal-poor gas fell onto the disk recently. We analyze several possibilities for the origin of the metal-poor gas, favoring the metal-poor gas infall predicted by numerical models. If this interpretation is correct, XMPs trace the cosmic web gas in their surroundings, making them probes to examine its properties.

  9. Observational model of the ionized gas in Seyfert and radio-galaxy nuclei*

    PubMed Central

    Osterbrock, Donald E.

    1978-01-01

    Equivalent widths of the total emission-line Hβ in Seyfert 1, Seyfert 2, and intermediate-type Seyfert galaxies, expressed in terms of the featureless continuum, all have approximately the same frequency distribution. This suggests that the energy-input mechanism to both the narrow-line, low-density gas and the broad-line, high-density gas is photoionization by the featureless continuum. The reason for the weakness of the narrow emission lines in extreme Seyfert 1 galaxies is then the absorption of most of the ionizing photons in the dense gas near the central source. The statistics of line widths can be fitted by a model in which the dense gas has typical rotational velocity 5000 km/sec and typical turbulent velocity 2000 km/sec. A model is proposed in which the dense gas forms a rotating, turbulent disk with dimension ≈0.1 pc and height/diameter ≈2/5. Seyfert 2 galaxies are objects with little dense gas, and intermediate-type Seyfert galaxies are objects in which the dense gas is optically thin to ionizing radiation at least along the poles. Most radio galaxies have strong narrow emission lines, suggesting that escape of radio plasma can only occur where some ionizing photons can also escape from the dense gas. Other predictions, implications, and tests of this model are discussed. Images PMID:16592488

  10. Localized Starbursts in Dwarf Galaxies Produced by the Impact of Low-metallicity Cosmic Gas Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Amorín, R.; Filho, M. E.; Ascasibar, Y.; Papaderos, P.; Vílchez, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    Models of galaxy formation predict that gas accretion from the cosmic web is a primary driver of star formation over cosmic history. Except in very dense environments where galaxy mergers are also important, model galaxies feed from cold streams of gas from the web that penetrate their dark matter halos. Although these predictions are unambiguous, the observational support has been indirect so far. Here, we report spectroscopic evidence for this process in extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) of the local universe, taking the form of localized starbursts associated with gas having low metallicity. Detailed abundance analyses based on Gran Telescopio Canarias optical spectra of 10 XMPs show that the galaxy hosts have metallicities around 60% solar, on average, while the large star-forming regions that dominate their integrated light have low metallicities of some 6% solar. Because gas mixes azimuthally in a rotation timescale (a few hundred Myr), the observed metallicity inhomogeneities are only possible if the metal-poor gas fell onto the disk recently. We analyze several possibilities for the origin of the metal-poor gas, favoring the metal-poor gas infall predicted by numerical models. If this interpretation is correct, XMPs trace the cosmic web gas in their surroundings, making them probes to examine its properties.

  11. INTERGALACTIC GAS IN GROUPS OF GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR DWARF SPHEROIDAL FORMATION AND THE MISSING BARYONS PROBLEM

    SciTech Connect

    Freeland, E.; Wilcots, E. E-mail: ewilcots@astro.wisc.edu

    2011-09-10

    Radio galaxies with bent jets are predominantly located in groups and clusters of galaxies. We use bent-double radio sources, under the assumption that their jets are bent by ram pressure, to probe intragroup medium (IGM) gas densities in galaxy groups. This method provides a direct measurement of the intergalactic gas density and allows us to probe intergalactic gas at large radii and in systems whose IGM is too cool to be detected by the current generation of X-ray telescopes. We find gas with densities of 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -4} cm{sup -3} at group radii from 15 to 700 kpc. A rough estimate of the total baryonic mass in intergalactic gas is consistent with the missing baryons being located in the IGM of galaxy groups. The neutral gas will be easily stripped from dwarf galaxies with total masses of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} M{sub sun} in the groups studied here. Indications are that intragroup gas densities in less-massive systems like the Local Group should be high enough to strip gas from dwarfs like Leo T and, in combination with tides, produce dwarf spheroidals.

  12. Dense gas in nearby galaxies. XIII. CO submillimeter line emission from the starburst galaxy M 82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, R. Q.; Henkel, C.; Schulz, A.; Zielinsky, M.; Mauersberger, R.; Störzer, H.; Wilson, T. L.; Gensheimer, P.

    2000-06-01

    12CO J = 1-0, 2-1, 4-3, 7-6, and 13CO 1-0, 2-1, and 3-2 line emission was mapped with angular resolutions of 13'' - 22'' toward the nuclear region of the archetypical starburst galaxy M 82. There are two hotspots on either side of the dynamical center, with the south-western lobe being slightly more prominent. Lobe spacings are not identical for all transitions: For the submillimeter CO lines, the spacing is ~ 15''; for the millimeter lines (CO J = 2-1 and 1-0) the spacing is ~ 26'', indicating the presence of a `low' and a `high' CO excitation component. A Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) excitation analysis of the submillimeter lines leads to inconsistencies, since area and volume filling factors are almost the same, resulting in cloud sizes along the lines-of-sight that match the entire size of the M 82 starburst region. Nevertheless, LVG column densities agree with estimates derived from the dust emission in the far infrared and at submillimeter wavelengths. 22'' beam averaged total column densities are N(CO) ~ 5 1018 and N(H_2) ~ 1023 \\cmsq; the total molecular mass is a few 108 \\solmass. Accounting for high UV fluxes and variations in kinetic temperature and assuming that the observed emission arises from photon dominated regions (PDRs) resolves the problems related to an LVG treatment of the radiative transfer. Spatial densities are as in the LVG case (\

  13. Gas Dynamics in AGN Galaxies: First Results of the HI-NUGA Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haan, S.; Schinnerer, E.; Mundell, C. G.; García-Burillo, S.; Combes, F.

    2007-05-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) galaxies are generally known as very luminous galaxies where a small emitting region is associated with gas accretion onto a central supermassive black hole. Up to now the process of fueling the AGN with material (gas or stars) generally far away from the gravitational influence of the central black hole is controversial and not understood. Since the required material has to remove its high angular momentum in order to fall into the center, various mechanisms may play a role, including m = 2 perturbations (bars and spirals), m = 1 perturbations (spirals, warps, lopsidedness), tidal interactions between galaxies, and galaxy mergers. In order to study the gas transport from the outskirts to the centers of AGN galaxies, we are carrying out a key project, named NUGA (Nuclei of Galaxies), which is a high spectral and angular resolution CO and HI survey of low luminosity AGN in nearby galaxies (Seyferts, LINERs and transition objects). The complete dataset provides us with the unique opportunity to understand and ultimately model the whole disk kinematics on spatial scales ranging over several orders of magnitude. Here, we will present observations of 15 galaxies recently obtained in the 21 cm emission of neutral hydrogen using the Very Large Array. First results on the HI gas and velocity distribution of these galaxies are summarized and discussed. The derived properties, including the ratio of dynamical mass versus gas mass (+ stellar mass), will be presented and compared with the AGN activity types in order to search for possible dependences. Additionally, effects of satellites and tidal disturbances onto the HI disk as well as their correlation with AGN type and dynamical modes probed by CO (inner kpc) will be examined.

  14. The Relative Kinematics of Galaxy Emission and Multiple Gas Phases in z~0.5 Extended Galaxy Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, Christopher

    2010-09-01

    Evidence abounds from quasar absorption line data that the extended gaseous halos of galaxies comprise multiple phases {densities, temperatures, ionization conditions}. Developing a comprehensive and deeper understanding of the origin and persistence of extended galaxy halos, and their role in galaxy evolution, requires that these multiple phases be observed and analyzed. However, such studies that incorporate the host galaxies are virtually non-existent. The new COS instrument opens a new window in which the forest of FUV lines arising in neutral, low, AND high ionization halo gas can be probed with high resolution and sensitivity for multiple chemical species. For intermediate redshift galaxies, these lines are free of Ly-alpha forest contamination. We propose to obtain G160M COS/FUV high resolution spectra of the two quasars Q0454-220 {J0456-2159} and Q1038+064 {4c 06.41} in order to measure the neutral hydrogen Ly-beta, gamma, and delta transitions and the OVI 1031,1038 doublet and CII 1036 and CIII 977 transitions {as well as a few others that fall on the spectral format} in three intervening z 0.45 intervening gaseous halos. We augment the proposed observations with a similar pending COS spectrum {scheduled May 2010, PID 11667, PI Churchill} of the quasar TON 153, which will provide the multiphase absorption kinematics for two additional gaseous halos at z 0.67. The proposed observations will bring our final sample size to five.For these five systems, we have quantified the host galaxy morphologies {WFCP-2/HST images}, measured the galaxy emission lines and rotation curves {ESI/Keck spectra}, and analyzed the MgII 2796,2803 and FeII multiplet absorption {HIRES/Keck spectra}. Our goal is to undertake a comprehensive analysis of the multiphase physical conditions in these five galaxy-absorber pairs. We aim to perform the first ever quantitative comparison of the relative relationships between neutral, low, and high ionization absorbing halo gas kinematics with

  15. Molecular dynamics studies on nanoscale gas transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barisik, Murat

    Three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of nanoscale gas flows are studied to reveal surface effects. A smart wall model that drastically reduces the memory requirements of MD simulations for gas flows is introduced. The smart wall molecular dynamics (SWMD) represents three-dimensional FCC walls using only 74 wall Molecules. This structure is kept in the memory and utilized for each gas molecule surface collision. Using SWMD, fluid behavior within nano-scale confinements is studied for argon in dilute gas, dense gas, and liquid states. Equilibrium MD method is employed to resolve the density and stress variations within the static fluid. Normal stress calculations are based on the Irving-Kirkwood method, which divides the stress tensor into its kinetic and virial parts. The kinetic component recovers pressure based on the ideal gas law. The particle-particle virial increases with increased density, while the surface-particle virial develops due to the surface force field effects. Normal stresses within nano-scale confinements show anisotropy induced primarily by the surface force-field and local variations in the fluid density near the surfaces. For dilute and dense gas cases, surface-force field that extends typically 1nm from each wall induces anisotropic normal stress. For liquid case, this effect is further amplified by the density fluctuations that extend beyond the three field penetration region. Outside the wall force-field penetration and density fluctuation regions the normal stress becomes isotropic and recovers the thermodynamic pressure, provided that sufficiently large force cut-off distances are utilized in the computations. Next, non-equilibrium SWMD is utilized to investigate the surface-gas interaction effects on nanoscale shear-driven gas flows in the transition and free molecular flow regimes. For the specified surface properties and gas-surface pair interactions, density and stress profiles exhibit a universal behavior inside the

  16. Detection of molecular gas in the quasar BR1202 - 0725 at redshift z = 4.69.

    PubMed

    Ohta, K; Yamada, T; Nakanishi, K; Kohno, K; Akiyama, M; Kawabe, R

    1996-08-01

    Although great efforts have been made to locate molecular gas--the material out of which stars form--in the early Universe, there have been only two firm detections at high redshift. Both are gravitationally lensed objects at redshift z approximately = 2.5 (refs 9-14). Here we report the detection of CO emission from the radio-quiet quasar BR1202 - 0725, which is at redshift z = 4.69. From the observed CO luminosity, we estimate that almost 10(11) solar masses of molecular hydrogen are associated with the quasar; this is comparable to the stellar mass of a present-day luminous galaxy. Our results suggest that BR1202 - 0725 is a massive galaxy, in which the gas is largely concentrated in the central region, and that is currently undergoing a large burst of star formation.

  17. PREDICTING MERGER-INDUCED GAS MOTIONS IN ΛCDM GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, Daisuke; Lau, Erwin T.; Avestruz, Camille; Rudd, Douglas H.; Nelson, Kaylea

    2013-11-10

    In the hierarchical structure formation model, clusters of galaxies form through a sequence of mergers and continuous mass accretion, which generate significant random gas motions especially in their outskirts where material is actively accreting. Non-thermal pressure provided by the internal gas motions affects the thermodynamic structure of the X-ray emitting intracluster plasma and introduces biases in the physical interpretation of X-ray and Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect observations. However, we know very little about the nature of gas motions in galaxy clusters. The ASTRO-H X-ray mission, scheduled to launch in 2015, will have a calorimeter capable of measuring gas motions in galaxy clusters at the level of ∼< 100 km s{sup –1}. In this work, we predict the level of merger-induced gas motions expected in the ΛCDM model using hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy cluster formation. We show that the gas velocity dispersion is larger in more massive clusters, but exhibits a large scatter. We show that systems with large gas motions are morphologically disturbed, while early forming, relaxed groups show a smaller level of gas motions. By analyzing mock ASTRO-H observations of simulated clusters, we show that such observations can accurately measure the gas velocity dispersion out to the outskirts of nearby relaxed galaxy clusters. ASTRO-H analysis of merging clusters, on the other hand, requires multi-component spectral fitting and enables unique studies of substructures in galaxy clusters by measuring both the peculiar velocities and the velocity dispersion of gas within individual sub-clusters.

  18. GAS OUTFLOWS IN SEYFERT GALAXIES: EFFECTS OF STAR FORMATION VERSUS AGN FEEDBACK

    SciTech Connect

    Melioli, C.; Pino, E. M. de Gouveia Dal E-mail: dalpino@iag.usp.br

    2015-10-20

    Large-scale, weakly collimated outflows are very common in galaxies with large infrared luminosities. In complex systems in particular, where intense star formation (SF) coexists with an active galactic nucleus (AGN), it is not clear yet from observations whether the SF, the AGN, or both are driving these outflows. Accreting supermassive black holes are expected to influence their host galaxies through kinetic and radiative feedback processes, but in a Seyfert galaxy, where the energy emitted in the nuclear region is comparable to that of the body of the galaxy, it is possible that stellar activity is also playing a key role in these processes. In order to achieve a better understanding of the mechanisms driving the gas evolution especially at the nuclear regions of these galaxies, we have performed high-resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations with radiative cooling considering the feedback from both SF regions, including supernova (Type I and II) explosions and an AGN jet emerging from the central region of the active spiral galaxy. We computed the gas mass lost by the system, separating the role of each of these injection energy sources on the galaxy evolution, and found that at scales within 1 kpc an outflow can be generally established considering intense nuclear SF only. The jet alone is unable to drive a massive gas outflow, although it can sporadically drag and accelerate clumps of the underlying outflow to very high velocities.

  19. Identifying Extraplanar Diffuse Ionized Gas in a Sample of MaNGA Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Ryan J.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency with which galaxies convert gas into stars is driven by the continuous cycle of accretion and feedback processes within the circumgalactic medium. Extraplanar diffuse ionized gas (eDIG) can provide insights into the tumultuous processes that govern the evolution of galactic disks because eDIG emission traces both inflowing and outflowing gas. With the help of state-of-the-art, spatially-resolved spectroscopy from MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory), we developed a computational method to identify eDIG based on the strength of and spatial extent of optical emission lines for a diverse sample of 550 nearby galaxies. This sample includes roughly half of the MaNGA galaxies that will become publicly available in summer 2016 as part of the Thirteenth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We identified signatures of eDIG in 8% of the galaxies in this sample, and we found that these signatures are particularly common among galaxies with active star formation and inclination angles >45 degrees. Our analysis of the morphology, incidence, and kinematics of eDIG has important implications for current models of accretion and feedback processes that regulate star formation in galaxies. We acknowledge support from the Astrophysics REU program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the National Astronomy Consortium, and The Grainger Foundation.

  20. The Turbulent ISM of Galaxies 10 Gyrs ago: Star Formation, Gas Accretion, and IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Tiran, Loïc; Lehnert, Matthew D.

    2011-12-01

    The utilization of integral-field spectroscopy has led us to a new understanding of the physical conditions in galaxies within the first few billion years after the Big Bang. In this proceedings, we analyze observations of ~50 massive galaxies as seen as they were 10 Gyrs ago using SINFONI from the ESO-VLT. We show that the large line width they exhibit can be explained by the intense mechanical energy output from the young stars. We also study the influence of cold gas accretion upon these galaxies: We show that an unrealistic amount of shocked gas would be needed in order to explain the Hα emission from these galaxies through shocks from gas accretion with velocity about the Hα line widths of these galaxies. We also use DEEP2 photometric measurements for a sub-sample of 10 of these galaxies to evaluate their ratio of Hα to FUV flux as a function of their Hα and R-band luminosity surface brightnesses. Our data suggests that perhaps their initial mass function (IMF) is flatter than Salpeter at the high mass end, as has been suggested recently for some local galaxies. It may be that high turbulence is responsible for skewing the IMF towards more massive stars as suggested by some theories of star-formation. Much work is however needed to accredit this hypothesis.

  1. Disk, merger, or outflow? Molecular gas kinematics in two powerful obscured QSOs at z ≥ 3.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polletta, M.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Neri, R.; Omont, A.; Berta, S.; Bergeron, J.

    2011-09-01

    We report on the detection of bright CO(4-3) line emission in two powerful, obscured quasars discovered in the SWIRE survey, SW022513 and SW022550 at z ≥ 3.4. We analyze the line strength and profile to determine the gas mass, dynamical mass, and the gas dynamics for both galaxies. In SW022513 we may have found the first evidence for a molecular, AGN-driven wind in the early Universe. The line profile in SW022513 is broad (FWHM=1000 km s-1) and blueshifted by -200 km s-1 relative to systemic (where the systemic velocity is estimated from the narrow components of ionized gas lines, as is commonly done for AGN at low and high redshifts). SW022550 has a more regular, double-peaked profile, which is marginally spatially resolved in our data, consistent with either a merger or an extended disk. The molecular gas masses, 4 × 1010 M⊙, are large and account for <30% of the stellar mass, making these obscured QSOs as gas rich as other powerful CO emitting galaxies at high redshift, i.e., submillimeter galaxies. Our sources exhibit relatively lower star-formation efficiencies compared to other dusty, powerful starburst galaxies at high redshift. We speculate that this could be a consequence of the AGN perturbing the molecular gas. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).

  2. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: extraplanar gas, galactic winds and their association with star formation history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, I.-Ting; Medling, Anne M.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Groves, Brent; Kewley, Lisa J.; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Dopita, Michael A.; Leslie, Sarah K.; Sharp, Rob; Allen, James T.; Bourne, Nathan; Bryant, Julia J.; Cortese, Luca; Croom, Scott M.; Dunne, Loretta; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Goodwin, Michael; Green, Andy W.; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S.; Lawrence, Jon S.; Lorente, Nuria P. F.; Owers, Matt S.; Richards, Samuel; Sweet, Sarah M.; Tescari, Edoardo; Valiante, Elisabetta

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a sample of 40 local, main-sequence, edge-on disc galaxies using integral field spectroscopy with the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey to understand the link between properties of the extraplanar gas and their host galaxies. The kinematics properties of the extraplanar gas, including velocity asymmetries and increased dispersion, are used to differentiate galaxies hosting large-scale galactic winds from those dominated by the extended diffuse ionized gas. We find rather that a spectrum of diffuse gas-dominated to wind-dominated galaxies exist. The wind-dominated galaxies span a wide range of star formation rates (SFRs; -1 ≲ log (SFR/M⊙ yr-1) ≲ 0.5) across the whole stellar mass range of the sample (8.5 ≲ log (M*/M⊙) ≲ 11). The wind galaxies also span a wide range in SFR surface densities (10- 3-10- 1.5 M⊙ yr- 1 kpc- 2) that is much lower than the canonical threshold of 0.1 M⊙ yr- 1 kpc- 2. The wind galaxies on average have higher SFR surface densities and higher HδA values than those without strong wind signatures. The enhanced HδA indicates that bursts of star formation in the recent past are necessary for driving large-scale galactic winds. We demonstrate with Sloan Digital Sky Survey data that galaxies with high SFR surface density have experienced bursts of star formation in the recent past. Our results imply that the galactic winds revealed in our study are indeed driven by bursts of star formation, and thus probing star formation in the time domain is crucial for finding and understanding galactic winds.

  3. Gone with the heat: a fundamental constraint on the imaging of dust and molecular gas in the early Universe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Papadopoulos, Padelis P; Ivison, R J; Galametz, Maud; Smith, M W L; Xilouris, Emmanuel M

    2016-06-01

    Images of dust continuum and carbon monoxide (CO) line emission are powerful tools for deducing structural characteristics of galaxies, such as disc sizes, H2 gas velocity fields and enclosed H2 and dynamical masses. We report on a fundamental constraint set by the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the observed structural and dynamical characteristics of galaxies, as deduced from dust continuum and CO-line imaging at high redshifts. As the CMB temperature rises in the distant Universe, the ensuing thermal equilibrium between the CMB and the cold dust and H2 gas progressively erases all spatial and spectral contrasts between their brightness distributions and the CMB. For high-redshift galaxies, this strongly biases the recoverable H2 gas and dust mass distributions, scale lengths, gas velocity fields and dynamical mass estimates. This limitation is unique to millimetre/submillimetre wavelengths and unlike its known effect on the global dust continuum and molecular line emission of galaxies, it cannot be addressed simply. We nevertheless identify a unique signature of CMB-affected continuum brightness distributions, namely an increasing rather than diminishing contrast between such brightness distributions and the CMB when the cold dust in distant galaxies is imaged at frequencies beyond the Raleigh-Jeans limit. For the molecular gas tracers, the same effect makes the atomic carbon lines maintain a larger contrast than the CO lines against the CMB.

  4. Gone with the heat: a fundamental constraint on the imaging of dust and molecular gas in the early Universe

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Smith, M. W. L.; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.

    2016-01-01

    Images of dust continuum and carbon monoxide (CO) line emission are powerful tools for deducing structural characteristics of galaxies, such as disc sizes, H2 gas velocity fields and enclosed H2 and dynamical masses. We report on a fundamental constraint set by the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the observed structural and dynamical characteristics of galaxies, as deduced from dust continuum and CO-line imaging at high redshifts. As the CMB temperature rises in the distant Universe, the ensuing thermal equilibrium between the CMB and the cold dust and H2 gas progressively erases all spatial and spectral contrasts between their brightness distributions and the CMB. For high-redshift galaxies, this strongly biases the recoverable H2 gas and dust mass distributions, scale lengths, gas velocity fields and dynamical mass estimates. This limitation is unique to millimetre/submillimetre wavelengths and unlike its known effect on the global dust continuum and molecular line emission of galaxies, it cannot be addressed simply. We nevertheless identify a unique signature of CMB-affected continuum brightness distributions, namely an increasing rather than diminishing contrast between such brightness distributions and the CMB when the cold dust in distant galaxies is imaged at frequencies beyond the Raleigh–Jeans limit. For the molecular gas tracers, the same effect makes the atomic carbon lines maintain a larger contrast than the CO lines against the CMB. PMID:27429763

  5. Gone with the heat: a fundamental constraint on the imaging of dust and molecular gas in the early Universe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Papadopoulos, Padelis P; Ivison, R J; Galametz, Maud; Smith, M W L; Xilouris, Emmanuel M

    2016-06-01

    Images of dust continuum and carbon monoxide (CO) line emission are powerful tools for deducing structural characteristics of galaxies, such as disc sizes, H2 gas velocity fields and enclosed H2 and dynamical masses. We report on a fundamental constraint set by the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the observed structural and dynamical characteristics of galaxies, as deduced from dust continuum and CO-line imaging at high redshifts. As the CMB temperature rises in the distant Universe, the ensuing thermal equilibrium between the CMB and the cold dust and H2 gas progressively erases all spatial and spectral contrasts between their brightness distributions and the CMB. For high-redshift galaxies, this strongly biases the recoverable H2 gas and dust mass distributions, scale lengths, gas velocity fields and dynamical mass estimates. This limitation is unique to millimetre/submillimetre wavelengths and unlike its known effect on the global dust continuum and molecular line emission of galaxies, it cannot be addressed simply. We nevertheless identify a unique signature of CMB-affected continuum brightness distributions, namely an increasing rather than diminishing contrast between such brightness distributions and the CMB when the cold dust in distant galaxies is imaged at frequencies beyond the Raleigh-Jeans limit. For the molecular gas tracers, the same effect makes the atomic carbon lines maintain a larger contrast than the CO lines against the CMB. PMID:27429763

  6. Gone with the heat: a fundamental constraint on the imaging of dust and molecular gas in the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; Ivison, R. J.; Galametz, Maud; Smith, M. W. L.; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.

    2016-06-01

    Images of dust continuum and carbon monoxide (CO) line emission are powerful tools for deducing structural characteristics of galaxies, such as disc sizes, H2 gas velocity fields and enclosed H2 and dynamical masses. We report on a fundamental constraint set by the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the observed structural and dynamical characteristics of galaxies, as deduced from dust continuum and CO-line imaging at high redshifts. As the CMB temperature rises in the distant Universe, the ensuing thermal equilibrium between the CMB and the cold dust and H2 gas progressively erases all spatial and spectral contrasts between their brightness distributions and the CMB. For high-redshift galaxies, this strongly biases the recoverable H2 gas and dust mass distributions, scale lengths, gas velocity fields and dynamical mass estimates. This limitation is unique to millimetre/submillimetre wavelengths and unlike its known effect on the global dust continuum and molecular line emission of galaxies, it cannot be addressed simply. We nevertheless identify a unique signature of CMB-affected continuum brightness distributions, namely an increasing rather than diminishing contrast between such brightness distributions and the CMB when the cold dust in distant galaxies is imaged at frequencies beyond the Raleigh-Jeans limit. For the molecular gas tracers, the same effect makes the atomic carbon lines maintain a larger contrast than the CO lines against the CMB.

  7. Measures of galaxy dust and gas mass with Herschel photometry and prospects for ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Genzel, R.; Förster-Schreiber, N. M.; Tacconi, L. J.

    2016-03-01

    Combining the deepest Herschel extragalactic surveys (PEP, GOODS-H, HerMES), and Monte Carlo mock catalogs, we explore the robustness of dust mass estimates based on modeling of broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with two popular approaches: Draine & Li (2007, ApJ, 657, 810; DL07) and a modified blackbody (MBB). We analyze the cause, drivers, and trends of uncertainties and systematics in thorough detail. As long as the observed SED extends to at least 160-200 μm in the rest frame, Mdust can be recovered with a >3σ significance and without the occurrence of systematics. An average offset of a factor ~1.5 exists between DL07- and MBB-based dust masses, based on consistent dust properties. The performance of DL07 modeling turns out to be more robust than that of MBB since relative errors on Mdust are more mildly dependent on the maximum covered rest-frame wavelength and are less scattered. At the depth of the deepest Herschel surveys (in the GOODS-S field), it is possible to retrieve dust masses with a signal-to-noise ratio, S/N ≥ 3 for galaxies on the main sequence of star formation (MS) down to M∗ ~ 1010 [M⊙] up to z ~ 1. At higher redshift (z ≤ 2), the same result is only achieved for objects at the tip of the MS or for those objects lying above the tip owing to sensitivity and wavelength coverage limitations. Molecular gas masses, obtained by converting Mdust through the metallicity-dependent gas-to-dust ratio δGDR, are consistent with those based on the scaling of depletion time, τdep, and on CO sub-mm spectroscopy. Focusing on CO-detected galaxies at z> 1, the δGDR dependence on metallicity is consistent with the local relation, provided that a sufficient SED coverage is available. Once we established that Herschel-only and sub-mm-only estimates of dust masses can be affected by large uncertainties and possibly systematics in some cases, we combined far-IR Herschel data and sub-mm ALMA expected fluxes to study the advantages of a full

  8. Molecular clouds in galaxies with different Z - Fragmentation of diffuse clouds driven by opacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, Jose; Cox, Donald P.

    1986-01-01

    Molecular clouds are formed from diffuse interstellar clouds when the external ultraviolet radiation field is prevented from penetrating into the cloud. The opacity is provided mainly by dust grains and the required column density to the cloud center is larger than about 5 x 10 to the 20th (solar Z/Z)/sq cm. This high-opacity criterion could have a significant impact on the radial trends observed in spiral galaxies, and on the distinctions between spiral and dwarf irregular galaxies.

  9. Discrete clouds of neutral gas between the galaxies M31 and M33.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Spencer A; Pisano, D J; Lockman, Felix J; McGaugh, Stacy S; Shaya, Edward J

    2013-05-01

    Spiral galaxies must acquire gas to maintain their observed level of star formation beyond the next few billion years. A source of this material may be the gas that resides between galaxies, but our understanding of the state and distribution of this gas is incomplete. Radio observations of the Local Group of galaxies have revealed hydrogen gas extending from the disk of the galaxy M31 at least halfway to M33. This feature has been interpreted to be the neutral component of a condensing intergalactic filament, which would be able to fuel star formation in M31 and M33, but simulations suggest that such a feature could also result from an interaction between both galaxies within the past few billion years (ref. 5). Here we report radio observations showing that about 50 per cent of this gas is composed of clouds, with the rest distributed in an extended, diffuse component. The clouds have velocities comparable to those of M31 and M33, and have properties suggesting that they are unrelated to other Local Group objects. We conclude that the clouds are likely to be transient condensations of gas embedded in an intergalactic filament and are therefore a potential source of fuel for future star formation in M31 and M33.

  10. COLD DUST BUT WARM GAS IN THE UNUSUAL ELLIPTICAL GALAXY NGC 4125

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C. D.; Cridland, A.; Foyle, K.; Parkin, T. J.; Cooper, E. Mentuch; Roussel, H.; Sauvage, M.; Lebouteiller, V.; Madden, S.; Baes, M.; De Looze, I.; Bendo, G.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Galametz, M.; and others

    2013-10-20

    Data from the Herschel Space Observatory have revealed an unusual elliptical galaxy, NGC 4125, which has strong and extended submillimeter emission from cold dust but only very strict upper limits to its CO and H I emission. Depending on the dust emissivity, the total dust mass is 2-5 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}. While the neutral gas-to-dust mass ratio is extremely low (<12-30), including the ionized gas traced by [C II] emission raises this limit to <39-100. The dust emission follows a similar r {sup 1/4} profile to the stellar light and the dust to stellar mass ratio is toward the high end of what is found in nearby elliptical galaxies. We suggest that NGC 4125 is currently in an unusual phase where evolved stars produced in a merger-triggered burst of star formation are pumping large amounts of gas and dust into the interstellar medium. In this scenario, the low neutral gas-to-dust mass ratio is explained by the gas being heated to temperatures ≥10{sup 4} K faster than the dust is evaporated. If galaxies like NGC 4125, where the far-infrared emission does not trace neutral gas in the usual manner, are common at higher redshift, this could have significant implications for our understanding of high redshift galaxies and galaxy evolution.

  11. Spatially extended and high-velocity dispersion molecular component in spiral galaxies: Single-dish versus interferometric observations

    SciTech Connect

    Caldú-Primo, Anahi; Walter, Fabian; Schruba, Andreas; Leroy, Adam; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Vogel, Stuart

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies of the molecular medium in nearby galaxies have provided mounting evidence that the molecular gas can exist in two phases: one that is clumpy and organized as molecular clouds and another one that is more diffuse. This last component has a higher velocity dispersion than the clumpy one. In order to investigate these two molecular components further, we compare the fluxes and line widths of CO in NGC 4736 and NGC 5055, two nearby spiral galaxies for which high-quality interferometric as well as single-dish data sets are available. Our analysis leads to two main results: (1) employing three different methods, we determine the flux recovery of the interferometer as compared to the single-dish to be within a range of 35%–74% for NGC 4736 and 81%–92% for NGC 5055, and (2) when focusing on high (S/N ≥ 5) lines of sight (LOSs), the single-dish line widths are larger by ∼(40 ± 20)% than the ones derived from interferometric data, which is in agreement with stacking all LOSs. These results point to a molecular gas component that is distributed over spatial scales larger than 30″(∼1 kpc), and is therefore filtered out by the interferometer. The available observations do not allow us to distinguish between a truly diffuse gas morphology and a uniform distribution of small clouds that are separated by less than the synthesized beam size (∼3″ or ∼100 pc), as they would both be invisible for the interferometer. This high velocity dispersion component has a dispersion similar to what is found in the atomic medium, as traced through observations of the H i line.

  12. EXTREME GAS FRACTIONS IN CLUMPY, TURBULENT DISK GALAXIES AT z ∼ 0.1

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, David B.; Glazebrook, Karl; Bassett, Robert; Bolatto, Alberto; Obreschkow, Danail; Cooper, Erin Mentuch; Wisnioski, Emily; Abraham, Roberto G.; Damjanov, Ivana; Green, Andy; McGregor, Peter

    2014-08-01

    In this Letter, we report the discovery of CO fluxes, suggesting very high gas fractions in three disk galaxies seen in the nearby universe (z ∼ 0.1). These galaxies were investigated as part of the DYnamics of Newly Assembled Massive Objects (DYNAMO) survey. High-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging of these objects reveals the presence of large star forming clumps in the bodies of the galaxies, while spatially resolved spectroscopy of redshifted Hα reveals the presence of high dispersion rotating disks. The internal dynamical state of these galaxies resembles that of disk systems seen at much higher redshifts (1 < z < 3). Using CO(1-0) observations made with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer, we find gas fractions of 20%-30% and depletion times of t {sub dep} ∼ 0.5 Gyr (assuming a Milky-Way-like α{sub CO}). These properties are unlike those expected for low-redshift galaxies of comparable specific star formation rate, but they are normal for their high-z counterparts. DYNAMO galaxies break the degeneracy between gas fraction and redshift, and we show that the depletion time per specific star formation rate for galaxies is closely tied to gas fraction, independent of redshift. We also show that the gas dynamics of two of our local targets corresponds to those expected from unstable disks, again resembling the dynamics of high-z disks. These results provide evidence that DYNAMO galaxies are local analogs to the clumpy, turbulent disks, which are often found at high redshift.

  13. A statistical study of H i gas in nearby narrow-line AGN-hosting galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Yi-Nan; Wu, Hong E-mail: hwu@bao.ac.cn

    2015-01-01

    As a quenching mechanism, active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback could suppress on going star formation in host galaxies. On the basis of a sample of galaxies selected from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) H i survey, the dependence of the H i mass (M{sub H} {sub i}), stellar mass (M{sub *}), and H i-to-stellar mass ratio (M{sub H} {sub i}/M{sub *}) on various tracers of AGN activity are presented and analyzed in this paper. Almost all the AGN hostings in this sample are gas-rich galaxies, and there is not any evidence to indicate that the AGN activity could increase or decrease either M{sub H} {sub i} or M{sub H} {sub i}/M{sub *}. The position of the cold neutral gas cannot be fixed accurately based only on available H i data, due to the large beam size of ALFALFA survey. In addition, even though AGN hostings are more easily detected by an H i survey compared with absorption line galaxies, these two types of galaxies show similar star formation history. If an AGN hosting would ultimately evolve into an old red galaxy with low cold gas, then when and how the gas has been exhausted must be solved by future hypotheses and observations.

  14. Gas stripping and mixing in galaxy clusters: a numerical comparison study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heß, Steffen; Springel, Volker

    2012-11-01

    The ambient hot intrahalo gas in clusters of galaxies is constantly fed and stirred by infalling galaxies, a process that can be studied in detail with cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. However, different numerical methods yield discrepant predictions for crucial hydrodynamical processes, leading for example to different entropy profiles in clusters of galaxies. In particular, the widely used Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) scheme is suspected to strongly damp fluid instabilities and turbulence, which are both crucial to establish the thermodynamic structure of clusters. In this study, we test to which extent our recently developed Voronoi particle hydrodynamics (VPH) scheme yields different results for the stripping of gas out of infalling galaxies and for the bulk gas properties of cluster. We consider both the evolution of isolated galaxy models that are exposed to a stream of intracluster medium or are dropped into cluster models, as well as non-radiative cosmological simulations of cluster formation. We also compare our particle-based method with results obtained with a fundamentally different discretization approach as implemented in the moving-mesh code AREPO. We find that VPH leads to noticeably faster stripping of gas out of galaxies than SPH, in better agreement with the mesh-code than with SPH. We show that despite the fact that VPH in its present form is not as accurate as the moving mesh code in our investigated cases, its improved accuracy of gradient estimates makes VPH an attractive alternative to SPH.

  15. Star Formation as a Function of Neutral Hydrogen Gas Density in Local Group Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Erika K.; Madore, Barry F.; Freedman, Wendy L.

    2016-06-01

    We present a study of the efficiency and timescales of star formation as a function of local neutral hydrogen gas density in four Local Group galaxies: M33, NGC 6822, the LMC, and the SMC. In this work, we conceptualize the process of star formation as a cycle of two major phases - (1) a gas dynamics phase in which neutral hydrogen gas coalesces into clouds, and (2) a stellar phase in which stars have formed and interrupt further gas coalescence during their active lifetimes. By examining the spatial distribution and number densities of stars on maps of neutral hydrogen, we estimate the timescale of the gas coalescence phase relative to the timescale of the stellar phase and infer an efficiency of star formation as a function of neutral hydrogen gas density. From these timescales and efficiencies, we will calculate star formation rates as a function of neutral hydrogen gas density in these galaxies.

  16. Gas accretion as the origin of chemical abundance gradients in distant galaxies.

    PubMed

    Cresci, G; Mannucci, F; Maiolino, R; Marconi, A; Gnerucci, A; Magrini, L

    2010-10-14

    It has recently been suggested that galaxies in the early Universe could have grown through the accretion of cold gas, and that this may have been the main driver of star formation and stellar mass growth. Because the cold gas is essentially primordial, it has a very low abundance of elements heavier than helium (referred to as metallicity). If funnelled to the centre of a galaxy, it will result in the central gas having an overall lower metallicity than gas further from the centre, because the gas further out has been enriched by supernovae and stellar winds, and not diluted by the primordial gas. Here we report chemical abundances across three rotationally supported star-forming galaxies at redshift z ≈ 3, only 2 Gyr after the Big Bang. We find 'inverse' gradients, with the central, star-forming regions having lower metallicities than less active ones, which is opposite to what is seen in local galaxies. We conclude that the central gas has been diluted by the accretion of primordial gas, as predicted by 'cold flow' models.

  17. Defying jet-gas alignment in two radio galaxies at z ~ 2 with extended light profiles: Similarities to brightest cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collet, C.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; De Breuck, C.; Lehnert, M. D.; Best, P.; Bryant, J. J.; Dicken, D.; Johnston, H.; Hunstead, R.; Wylezalek, D.

    2015-07-01

    We report the detection of extended warm ionized gas in two powerful high-redshift radio galaxies, NVSS J210626-314003 at z = 2.10 and TXS 2353-003 at z = 1.49, that does not appear to be associated with the radio jets. This is contrary to what would be expected from the alignment effect, a characteristic feature of distant, powerful radio galaxies at z ≥ 0.6. The gas also has smaller velocity gradients and line widths than most other high-z radio galaxies with similar data. Both galaxies are part of a systematic study of 50 high-redshift radio galaxies with SINFONI, and are the only two that are characterized by the presence of high surface-brightness gas not associated with the jet axis and by the absence of such gas aligned with the jet. Both galaxies are spatially resolved with ISAAC broadband imaging covering the rest-frame R band, and have extended wings that cannot be attributed to line contamination. We argue that the gas and stellar properties of these galaxies are more akin to gas-rich brightest cluster galaxies in cool-core clusters than the general population of high-redshift radio galaxies at z ≳ 2. In support of this interpretation, one of our sources, TXS 2353-003, for which we have Hα narrowband imaging, is associated with an overdensity of candidate Hα emitters by a factor of ~8 relative to the field at z = 1.5. We discuss possible scenarios of the evolutionary state of these galaxies and the nature of their emission line gas within the context of cyclical AGN feedback. Based on observations carried out with the Very Large Telescope of ESO under Program IDs 079.A-0617, 084.A-0324, 085.A-0897, and 090.A-0614.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. CO excitation in four IR luminous galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radford, Simon J. E.; Solomon, P. M.; Downes, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    The correlation between the CO and far infrared luminosities of spiral galaxies is well established. The luminosity ration, L sub FIR/L sub CO in IR luminous active galaxies is, however, systematically five to ten times higher than in ordinary spirals and molecular clouds in our Galaxy. Furthermore, the masses of molecular hydrogen in luminous galaxies are large, M (H2) approx. equals 10(exp 10) solar magnitude, which indicates the observed luminosity ratios are due to an excess of infrared output, rather than a deficiency of molecular gas. These large amounts of molecular gas may fuel luminous galaxies through either star formation or nuclear activity. This interpretation rests on applying the M (H2)/L sub CO ratio calibrated in our Galaxy to galaxies with strikingly different luminosity ratios. But are the physical conditions of the molecular gas different in galaxies with different luminosity ratios. And, if so, does the proportionality between CO and H2 also vary among galaxies. To investigate these questions researchers observed CO (2 to 1) and (1 to 0) emission from four luminous galaxies with the Institute for Radio Astronomy in the Millimeter range (IRAM) 30 m telescope. Researchers conclude that most of the CO emission from these Arp 193, Arp 220, and Mrk 231 arises in regions with moderate ambient densities similar to the clouds in the Milky Way molecular ring. The emission is neither from dense hot cloud cores nor from the cold low density gas characteristic of the envelopes of dark clouds.

  19. GAS-RICH MERGERS IN LCDM: DISK SURVIVABILITY AND THE BARYONIC ASSEMBLY OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Maller, Ariyeh H.

    2009-09-01

    We use N-body simulations and observationally normalized relations between dark matter halo mass, stellar mass, and cold gas mass to derive robust expectations about the baryonic content of major mergers out to redshift z {approx} 2. First, we find that the majority of major mergers (m/M>0.3) experienced by the Milky Way size dark matter halos should have been gas-rich, and that gas-rich mergers are increasingly common at high redshifts. Though the frequency of major mergers into galaxy halos in our simulations greatly exceeds the observed early-type galaxy fraction, the frequency of gas-poor major mergers is consistent with the observed fraction of bulge-dominated galaxies across the halo mass range M{sub DM} {approx} 10{sup 11}-10{sup 13} M{sub sun}. These results lend support to the conjecture that mergers with high-baryonic gas fractions play an important role in building and/or preserving disk galaxies in the universe. Second, we find that there is a transition mass below which a galaxy's past major mergers were primarily gas-rich and above which they were gas-poor. The associated stellar mass scale corresponds closely to that marking the observed bimodal division between blue, star-forming, disk-dominated systems and red, bulge-dominated systems with old populations. Finally, we find that the overall fraction of a galaxy's cold baryons deposited directly via major mergers is significant. Approximately {approx}20%-30% of the cold baryonic material in M{sub star} {approx} 10{sup 10.5} M{sub sun} (M{sub DM} {approx} 10{sup 12} M{sub sun}) galaxies is accreted as cold gas or stars via major mergers since z = 2, with most of this accretion in the form of cold gas. For more massive galaxies with M{sub star} {approx} 10{sup 11} M{sub sun} (M {sub DM} {approx} 10{sup 13} M{sub sun}), the fraction of baryons amassed in mergers since z = 2 is even higher, {approx}40%, but most of these accreted baryons are delivered directly in the form of stars. This baryonic mass

  20. Exploring hot gas at junctions of galaxy filaments with Suzaku

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsuishi, I.; Sasaki, S.; Kawahara, H.; Sekiya, N.; Yamasaki, N. Y; Sousbie, T.

    2014-03-10

    We performed five pointing observations with Suzaku to search for hot gases associated with the junctions of galaxy filaments where no significant diffuse X-ray sources were previously detected. We discovered X-ray sources successfully in all five regions including merging groups of galaxies, Suzaku J0957+2610 and Suzaku J1134+2105, and analyzed two bright sources in each field. Spectral analysis indicates that three sources originate from X-ray diffuse halos associated with optically bright galaxies or groups of galaxies with kT ∼ 0.6-0.8 keV. The three other sources are possibly group- and cluster-scale X-ray halos with temperatures of ∼1 keV and ∼4 keV, respectively while the others are compact object origins such as active galactic nuclei. All of the three observed intracluster media within the junctions of the galaxy filaments previously found are involved in ongoing mergers. Thus, we demonstrate that deep X-ray observations at the filament junctions identified by galaxy surveys are a powerful means to explore previously undetected growing halos in a hierarchical structure.

  1. Exploring Hot Gas at Junctions of Galaxy Filaments with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuishi, I.; Kawahara, H.; Sekiya, N.; Sasaki, S.; Sousbie, T.; Y. Yamasaki, N.

    2014-07-01

    Galaxies are forced to form filamentary structure reflecting the underlying cosmic web of the dark matter. In particular, at junctions of galaxy filaments, one can naturally expect that intense structure formation has high chances to occur. We identified the galaxy filaments by making use of our original method (Sousbie (2011) & Sousbie et al. (2011)) in conjunction with SDSS spectroscopic galaxies. We performed X-ray pointing observations for six fields locating in the junctions of the galaxy filaments where no specific diffuse X-ray emissions had previously been detected so far. We discovered significant X-ray signals in their images and spectra of the all regions compared to a background region. Spectral analysis revealed that six sources originate from diffuse emissions associated with optically bright galaxies, group-scale, or cluster-scale X-ray halos with temperautres of 1-4 keV, while the others are compact object origin. Interestingly, the observed three intracluster media possess peculiar signatures such as complex or elongated morphologies in X-ray and/or optical and hot spot, suggesting that all of the systems are experiencing an ongoing merger (Kawahara et al. (2011) & Mitsuishi et al. (2014)). In this conference, results of follow-up radio observations to search for merger-induced diffuse radio emissions will be reported.

  2. Molecular gas and dust around a radio-quiet quasar at redshift 4.69.

    PubMed

    Omont, A; Petitjean, P; Guilloteau, S; McMahon, R G; Solomon, P M; Pécontal, E

    1996-08-01

    Galaxies are believed to have formed a large proportion of their stars in giant bursts of star formation early in their lives, but when and how this took place are still very uncertain. The presence of large amounts of dust in quasars and radio galaxies at redshifts z > 4 shows that some synthesis of heavy elements had already occurred at this time. This implies that molecular gas--the building material of stars--should also be present, as it is in galaxies at lower redshifts (z approximately = 2.5, refs 7-10). Here we report the detection of emission from dust and carbon monoxide in the radio-quiet quasar BR1202 - 0725, at redshift z = 4.69. Maps of these emissions reveal two objects, separated by a few arc seconds, which could indicated either the presence of a companion to the quasar or gravitational lensing of the quasar itself. Regardless of the precise interpretation of the maps, the detection of carbon monoxide confirms the presence of a large mass of molecular gas in one of the most distant galaxies known, and shows that conditions conducive to huge bursts of star formation existed in the very early Universe.

  3. The long lives of giant clumps and the birth of outflows in gas-rich galaxies at high redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Bournaud, Frédéric; Renaud, Florent; Daddi, Emanuele; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Elbaz, David; Gabor, Jared M.; Juneau, Stéphanie; Kraljic, Katarina; Le Floch', Emeric; Dekel, Avishai; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Teyssier, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Star-forming disk galaxies at high redshift are often subject to violent disk instability, characterized by giant clumps whose fate is yet to be understood. The main question is whether the clumps disrupt within their dynamical timescale (≤50 Myr), like the molecular clouds in today's galaxies, or whether they survive stellar feedback for more than a disk orbital time (≈300 Myr) in which case they can migrate inward and help building the central bulge. We present 3.5-7 pc resolution adaptive mesh refinement simulations of high-redshift disks including photoionization, radiation pressure, and supernovae feedback. Our modeling of radiation pressure determines the mass loading and initial velocity of winds from basic physical principles. We find that the giant clumps produce steady outflow rates comparable to and sometimes somewhat larger than their star formation rate, with velocities largely sufficient to escape the galaxy. The clumps also lose mass, especially old stars, by tidal stripping, and the stellar populations contained in the clumps hence remain relatively young (≤200 Myr), as observed. The clumps survive gaseous outflows and stellar loss, because they are wandering in gas-rich turbulent disks from which they can reaccrete gas at high rates compensating for outflows and tidal stripping, overall keeping realistic and self-regulated gaseous and stellar masses. The outflow and accretion rates have specific timescales of a few 10{sup 8} yr, as opposed to rapid and repeated dispersion and reformation of clumps. Our simulations produce gaseous outflows with velocities, densities, and mass loading consistent with observations, and at the same time suggest that the giant clumps survive for hundreds of Myr and complete their migration to the center of high-redshift galaxies. These long-lived clumps are gas-dominated and contain a moderate mass fraction of stars; they drive inside-out disk evolution, thickening, spheroid growth, and fueling of the central

  4. Ionized gas at the edge of the central molecular zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, W. D.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Pineda, J. L.; Velusamy, T.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Wiesemeyer, H.

    2015-04-01

    Context. The edge of the central molecular zone (CMZ) is the location where massive dense molecular clouds with large internal velocity dispersions transition to the surrounding more quiescent and lower CO emissivity region of the Galaxy. Little is known about the ionized gas surrounding the molecular clouds and in the transition region. Aims: We determine the properties of the ionized gas at the edge of the CMZ near Sgr E using observations of N+ and C+. Methods: We observed a small portion of the edge of the CMZ near Sgr E with spectrally resolved [C ii] 158 μm and [N ii] 205 μm fine structure lines at six positions with the GREAT instrument on SOFIA and in [C ii] using Herschel HIFI on-the-fly strip maps. We use the [N ii] spectra along with a radiative transfer model to calculate the electron density of the gas and the [C ii] maps to illuminate the morphology of the ionized gas and model the column density of CO-dark H2. Results: We detect two [C ii] and [N ii] velocity components, one along the line of sight to a CO molecular cloud at - 207 km s-1 associated with Sgr E and the other at -174 km s-1 outside the edge of another CO cloud. From the [N ii] emission we find that the average electron density is in the range of ~5 to 21 cm-3 for these features. This electron density is much higher than that of the disk's warm ionized medium, but is consistent with densities determined for bright diffuse H ii nebula. The column density of the CO-dark H2 layer in the -207 km s-1 cloud is ~1-2 × 1021 cm-2 in agreement with theoretical models. The CMZ extends further out in Galactic radius by ~7 to 14 pc in ionized gas than it does in molecular gas traced by CO. Conclusions: The edge of the CMZ likely contains dense hot ionized gas surrounding the neutral molecular material. The high fractional abundance of N+ and high electron density require an intense EUV field with a photon flux of order 106 to 107 photons cm-2 s-1, and/or efficient proton charge exchange with

  5. Dissociation and ionization of molecular gas in the spiral arms of M51

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lees, J. F.; Lo, K. Y.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers derive the star formation rate and efficiency in the arm and interarm regions of M51 from observations of the molecular (Lo et al. 1987) and ionized (van der Hulst et al. 1988) phases of the interstellar medium, and show that the HI observations of Tilanus and Allen (1989) are consistent with dissociation of molecular gas by these young, massive stars if n sub H greater than or equal to 200 cm (-2). However, these stars are not able to dissociate or ionize all the gas, and at least 60 percent must remain molecular in the interarm regions. The efficiency of star formation in M51 seems to be similar to that in the Galaxy, and does not appear to be enhanced in the spiral arms. Therefore, the effect of the strong density wave may be only to concentrate the gas, and hence the young stars, to the arm regions.

  6. Young tidal dwarf galaxies around the gas-rich disturbed lenticular NGC 5291

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, P.-A.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1998-05-01

    NGC 5291 is an early type galaxy at the edge of the cluster Abell 3574 which drew the attention because of the unusual high amount of atomic gas ( ~ 5 x 10(10) {M_{\\odot}}) found associated to it. The HI is distributed along a huge and fragmented ring, possibly formed after a tidal interaction with a companion galaxy. We present multi-slit optical spectroscopic observations and optical/near-infrared images of the system. We show that NGC 5291 is a LINER galaxy exhibiting several remnants of previous merging events, in particular a curved dust lane and a counter-rotation of the gas with respect to the stars. The atomic hydrogen has undoubtly an external origin and was probably accreted by the galaxy from a gas-rich object in the cluster. It is unlikely that the HI comes from the closest companion of NGC 5291, the so-called ``Seashell'' galaxy, which appears to be a fly-by object at a velocity greater than 400 km s(-1) . We have analyzed the properties of 11 optical counterparts to the clumps observed in the HI ring. The brightest knots show strong similarities with classical blue compact dwarf galaxies. They are dominated by active star forming regions; their most recent starburst is younger than 5 Myr; we did not find evidences for the presence of an old underlying stellar population. NGC 5291 appears to be a maternity of extremely young objects most probably forming their first generation of stars. Born in pre-enriched gas clouds, these recycled galaxies have an oxygen abundance which is higher than BCDGs ({Z_{\\odot}}/3 on average) and which departs from the luminosity-metallicity relation observed for typical dwarf and giant galaxies. We propose this property as a tool to identify tidal dwarf galaxies (TDGs) among the dwarf galaxy population. Several TDGs in NGC 5291 exhibit strong velocity gradients in their ionized gas and may already be dynamically independent galaxies. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile

  7. Ionized gas outflow in the isolated S0 galaxy NGC 4460

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, Alexei; Karachentsev, Igor; Kaisin, Serafim

    2010-04-01

    We used integral-field and long-slit spectroscopy to study a bright extended nebulosity recently discovered in the isolated lenticular galaxy NGC 4460 during an Hα survey of nearby galaxies. An analysis of archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey, GALEX and Hubble Space Telescope images indicates that current star formation is entirely concentrated in the central kiloparsec of the galaxy disc. The observed ionized gas parameters (morphology, kinematics and ionization state) can be explained by a gas outflow above the plane of the galaxy, caused by star formation in the circumnuclear region. Galactic wind parameters in NGC 4460 (outflow velocity, total kinetic energy) are several times smaller, compared with the known galactic wind in NGC 253, which is explained by the substantially lower total star formation rate. We discuss the cause of the star formation processes in NGC 4460 and in two other known isolated lenticular (S0) and elliptical (E) galaxies of the Local Volume: NGC 404 and 855. We provide evidence suggesting that the feeding of isolated galaxies by intergalactic gas on a cosmological time-scale is a steady process without significant variations. Based on observations collected with the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which is operated under the financial support of the Science Department of Russia (registration number 01-43). E-mail: moisav@gmail.com

  8. Gas-Rich Mergers in LCDM: Disk Survivability and the Baryonic Assembly of Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Maller, Ariyeh H.; /New York City Coll. Tech.

    2009-08-03

    We use N-body simulations and observationally-normalized relations between dark matter halo mass, stellar mass, and cold gas mass to derive robust expectations about the baryonic content of major mergers out to redshift z {approx} 2. First, we find that the majority of major mergers (m/M > 0.3) experienced by Milky Way size dark matter halos should have been gas-rich, and that gas-rich mergers are increasingly common at high redshift. Though the frequency of major mergers into galaxy halos in our simulations greatly exceeds the observed late-type galaxy fraction, the frequency of gas-poor major mergers is consistent with the observed fraction of bulge-dominated galaxies across the halo mass range M{sub DM} {approx} 10{sup 11} - 10{sup 13} M{sub {circle_dot}}. These results lend support to the conjecture that mergers with high baryonic gas fractions play an important role in building and/or preserving disk galaxies in the universe. Secondly, we find that there is a transition mass below which a galaxy's past major mergers were primarily gas-rich and above which they were gas poor. The associated stellar mass scale corresponds closely to that marking the observed bimodal division between blue, star-forming, disk-dominated systems and red, bulge-dominated systems with old populations. Finally, we find that the overall fraction of a galaxy's cold baryons deposited directly via major mergers is substantial. Approximately 30% of the cold baryonic material in M{sub star} {approx} 10{sup 10} M{sub {circle_dot}} (M{sub DM} {approx} 10{sup 11.5} M{sub {circle_dot}}) galaxies is accreted as cold gas in major mergers. For more massive galaxies with M{sub star} {approx} 10{sup 11} M{sub {circle_dot}} (M{sub DM} {approx} 10{sup 13} M{sub {circle_dot}} the fraction of baryons amassed in mergers is even higher, {approx} 50%, but most of these accreted baryons are delivered directly in the form of stars. This baryonic mass deposition is almost unavoidable, and provides a limit on

  9. Ionized gas characteristics in the cavities of the gas and dust disc of the spiral galaxy NGC 6946

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, Yu. N.; Afanasiev, V. L.; Egorov, O. V.

    2011-07-01

    The parameters of the ionized gas in NGC 6946 (in the [NII] λλ6548, 6583, H α and [SII] λλ6717, 6731 lines) are investigated with the SAO RAS BTA telescope along three positions of the long slit of the SCORPIO focal reducer, passing through a number of large and small cavities of the gaseous disc of the galaxy. These cavities correspond exactly to the cavities in warm dust, visible at 5 - 8µm. We found that everywhere in the direction of NGC 6946 the lines of ionized gas are decomposed into two Gaussians, one of which shows almost constant [SII]/H α and [NII]/H α ratios, as well as an almost constant radial velocity within the measurement errors (about -35… - 50 km/s). This component is in fact the foreground radiation from the diffuse ionized gas of our Galaxy, which is not surprising, given the low (12°) latitude of NGC 6946; a similar component is also present in the emission of neutral hydrogen. The analysis of the component of ionized gas, occurring inNGC 6946, has revealed that it shows signs of shock excitation in the cavities of the gaseous disc of the galaxy. This shock excitation is as well typical for the extraplanar diffuse ionized gas (EDIG), observed in a number of spiral galaxies at their high Z-coordinates. This can most likely be explained by low density of the gas in the NGC 6946 disc (with the usual photoionization) inside the cavities, due to what we see the spectral features of the EDIG gas of NGC 6946, projected onto them, and located outside the plane of the galaxy. In the absence of separation of ionized gas into two components by radial velocities, there is an increasing contribution to the integral line parameters by the EDIG of our Galaxy when the gas density in NGC 6946 decreases, which explains some strange results, obtained in the previous studies. Themorphology of warmdust, visible in the infrared range and HI is almost the same (except for the peripheral parts of the galaxy, where there are no sources of dust heating

  10. Galaxy evolution in cosmological simulations with outflows - II. Metallicities and gas fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davé, Romeel; Finlator, Kristian; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.

    2011-09-01

    We use cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to investigate how inflows, star formation and outflows govern the gaseous and metal content of galaxies within a hierarchical structure formation context. In our simulations, galaxy metallicities are established by a balance between inflows and outflows as governed by the mass outflow rate, implying that the mass-metallicity relation reflects how the outflow rate varies with stellar mass. Gas content, meanwhile, is set by a competition between inflow into and gas consumption within the interstellar medium, the latter being governed by the star formation law, while the former is impacted by both wind recycling and preventive feedback. Stochastic variations in the inflow rate move galaxies off the equilibrium mass-metallicity and mass-gas fraction relations in a manner correlated with the star formation rate, and the scatter is set by the time-scale to re-equilibrate. The evolution of both relations from z= 3 → 0 is slow, as individual galaxies tend to evolve mostly along the relations. Gas fractions at a given stellar mass slowly decrease with time because the cosmic inflow rate diminishes faster than the consumption rate, while metallicities slowly increase as infalling gas becomes more enriched. Observations from z˜ 3 → 0 are better matched by simulations employing momentum-driven wind scalings rather than constant wind speeds, but all models predict too low gas fractions at low masses and too high metallicities at high masses. All our models reproduce observed second-parameter trends of the mass-metallicity relation with the star formation rate and environment, indicating that these are a consequence of equilibrium and not feedback. Overall, the analytical framework of our equilibrium scenario broadly captures the relevant physics establishing the galaxy gas and metal content in simulations, which suggests that the cycle of baryonic inflows and outflows centrally governs the cosmic evolution of these properties

  11. High-resolution aperture synthesis of molecular gas in NGC 1068

    SciTech Connect

    Planesas, P.; Scoville, N.; Myers, S.T. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena Toronto Univ. )

    1991-03-01

    High-resolution aperture synthesis imaging of NGC 1068 in the CO J = 1-0 line is presented. The major features of the molecular distribution in the central 3 kpc of the galaxy are a continuous pair of spiral arms originating from the end of the stellar bar seen in 2.2 micron images and a nuclear gas concentration of about 80 million solar masses. The total molecular gas content of the spiral arms is 5 billion solar masses; most of this gas is distributed in 38 complexes of 10 million to 700 million solar masses, with sizes ranging up to 500 pc. The large reservoir of interstellar gas seen in the spiral arms at 1.7 kpc radius may play a central role in both the abundant star formation and nuclear activity. 37 refs.

  12. The Fate of Massive Black Holes in Gas-Rich Galaxy Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escala, A.; Larson, R. B.; Coppi, P. S.; Mardones, D.

    2006-06-01

    Using SPH numerical simulations, we investigate the effects of gas on the inspiral and merger of a massive black hole binary. This study is motivated by the very massive nuclear gas disks observed in the central regions of merging galaxies. Here we present results that expand on the treatment in previous works (Escala et al. 2004, 2005), by studying the evolution of a binary with different black holes masses in a massive gas disk.

  13. Wind-driven gas networks and star formation in galaxies: reaction-advection hydrodynamic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappell, David; Scalo, John

    2001-07-01

    The effects of wind-driven star formation feedback on the spatio-temporal organization of stars and gas in galaxies is studied using two-dimensional intermediate-representational quasi-hydrodynamical simulations. The model retains only a reduced subset of the physics, including mass and momentum conservation, fully non-linear fluid advection, inelastic macroscopic interactions, threshold star formation, and momentum forcing by winds from young star clusters on the surrounding gas. Expanding shells of swept-up gas evolve through the action of fluid advection to form a `turbulent' network of interacting shell fragments which have the overall appearance of a web of filaments (in two dimensions). A new star cluster is formed whenever the column density through a filament exceeds a critical threshold based on the gravitational instability criterion for an expanding shell, which then generates a new expanding shell after some time delay. A filament-finding algorithm is developed to locate the potential sites of new star formation. The major result is the dominance of multiple interactions between advectively distorted shells in controlling the gas and star morphology, gas velocity distribution and mass spectrum of high mass density peaks, and the global star formation history. The gas morphology strongly resembles the model envisioned by Norman & Silk, and observations of gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC)Q1 and local molecular clouds. The dependence of the frequency distribution of present-to-past average global star formation rate on a number of parameters is investigated. Bursts of star formation only occur when the time-averaged star formation rate per unit area is low, or the system is small. Percolation does not play a role. The broad distribution observed in late-type galaxies can be understood as a result of either small size or small metallicity, resulting in larger shell column densities required for gravitational instability. The star formation rate

  14. Toward Measuring Galactic Dense Molecular Gas Properties and 3D Distribution with Hi-GAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zetterlund, Erika; Glenn, Jason; Maloney, Phil

    2016-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory's submillimeter dust continuum survey Hi-GAL provides a powerful new dataset for characterizing the structure of the dense interstellar medium of the Milky Way. Hi-GAL observed a 2° wide strip covering the entire 360° of the Galactic plane in broad bands centered at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm, with angular resolution ranging from 10 to 40 arcseconds. We are adapting a molecular cloud clump-finding algorithm and a distance probability density function distance-determination method developed for the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) to the Hi-GAL data. Using these methods we expect to generate a database of 105 cloud clumps, derive distance information for roughly half the clumps, and derive precise distances for approximately 20% of them. With five-color photometry and distances, we will measure the cloud clump properties, such as luminosities, physical sizes, and masses, and construct a three-dimensional map of the Milky Way's dense molecular gas distribution.The cloud clump properties and the dense gas distribution will provide critical ground truths for comparison to theoretical models of molecular cloud structure formation and galaxy evolution models that seek to emulate spiral galaxies. For example, such models cannot resolve star formation and use prescriptive recipes, such as converting a fixed fraction of interstellar gas to stars at a specified interstellar medium density threshold. The models should be compared to observed dense molecular gas properties and galactic distributions.As a pilot survey to refine the clump-finding and distance measurement algorithms developed for BGPS, we have identified molecular cloud clumps in six 2° × 2° patches of the Galactic plane, including one in the inner Galaxy along the line of sight through the Molecular Ring and the termination of the Galactic bar and one toward the outer Galaxy. Distances have been derived for the inner Galaxy clumps and compared to Bolocam Galactic Plane

  15. The formation of submillimetre-bright galaxies from gas infall over a billion years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Desika; Turk, Matthew; Feldmann, Robert; Robitaille, Thomas; Hopkins, Philip; Thompson, Robert; Hayward, Christopher; Ball, David; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan

    2015-09-01

    Submillimetre-bright galaxies at high redshift are the most luminous, heavily star-forming galaxies in the Universe and are characterized by prodigious emission in the far-infrared, with a flux of at least five millijanskys at a wavelength of 850 micrometres. They reside in haloes with masses about 1013 times that of the Sun, have low gas fractions compared to main-sequence disks at a comparable redshift, trace complex environments and are not easily observable at optical wavelengths. Their physical origin remains unclear. Simulations have been able to form galaxies with the requisite luminosities, but have otherwise been unable to simultaneously match the stellar masses, star formation rates, gas fractions and environments. Here we report a cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulation that is able to form a submillimetre galaxy that simultaneously satisfies the broad range of observed physical constraints. We find that groups of galaxies residing in massive dark matter haloes have increasing rates of star formation that peak at collective rates of about 500-1,000 solar masses per year at redshifts of two to three, by which time the interstellar medium is sufficiently enriched with metals that the region may be observed as a submillimetre-selected system. The intense star formation rates are fuelled in part by the infall of a reservoir gas supply enabled by stellar feedback at earlier times, not through major mergers. With a lifetime of nearly a billion years, our simulations show that the submillimetre-bright phase of high-redshift galaxies is prolonged and associated with significant mass buildup in early-Universe proto-clusters, and that many submillimetre-bright galaxies are composed of numerous unresolved components (for which there is some observational evidence).

  16. The formation of submillimetre-bright galaxies from gas infall over a billion years.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Desika; Turk, Matthew; Feldmann, Robert; Robitaille, Thomas; Hopkins, Philip; Thompson, Robert; Hayward, Christopher; Ball, David; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan

    2015-09-24

    Submillimetre-bright galaxies at high redshift are the most luminous, heavily star-forming galaxies in the Universe and are characterized by prodigious emission in the far-infrared, with a flux of at least five millijanskys at a wavelength of 850 micrometres. They reside in haloes with masses about 10(13) times that of the Sun, have low gas fractions compared to main-sequence disks at a comparable redshift, trace complex environments and are not easily observable at optical wavelengths. Their physical origin remains unclear. Simulations have been able to form galaxies with the requisite luminosities, but have otherwise been unable to simultaneously match the stellar masses, star formation rates, gas fractions and environments. Here we report a cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulation that is able to form a submillimetre galaxy that simultaneously satisfies the broad range of observed physical constraints. We find that groups of galaxies residing in massive dark matter haloes have increasing rates of star formation that peak at collective rates of about 500-1,000 solar masses per year at redshifts of two to three, by which time the interstellar medium is sufficiently enriched with metals that the region may be observed as a submillimetre-selected system. The intense star formation rates are fuelled in part by the infall of a reservoir gas supply enabled by stellar feedback at earlier times, not through major mergers. With a lifetime of nearly a billion years, our simulations show that the submillimetre-bright phase of high-redshift galaxies is prolonged and associated with significant mass buildup in early-Universe proto-clusters, and that many submillimetre-bright galaxies are composed of numerous unresolved components (for which there is some observational evidence).

  17. The formation of submillimetre-bright galaxies from gas infall over a billion years.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Desika; Turk, Matthew; Feldmann, Robert; Robitaille, Thomas; Hopkins, Philip; Thompson, Robert; Hayward, Christopher; Ball, David; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan

    2015-09-24

    Submillimetre-bright galaxies at high redshift are the most luminous, heavily star-forming galaxies in the Universe and are characterized by prodigious emission in the far-infrared, with a flux of at least five millijanskys at a wavelength of 850 micrometres. They reside in haloes with masses about 10(13) times that of the Sun, have low gas fractions compared to main-sequence disks at a comparable redshift, trace complex environments and are not easily observable at optical wavelengths. Their physical origin remains unclear. Simulations have been able to form galaxies with the requisite luminosities, but have otherwise been unable to simultaneously match the stellar masses, star formation rates, gas fractions and environments. Here we report a cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulation that is able to form a submillimetre galaxy that simultaneously satisfies the broad range of observed physical constraints. We find that groups of galaxies residing in massive dark matter haloes have increasing rates of star formation that peak at collective rates of about 500-1,000 solar masses per year at redshifts of two to three, by which time the interstellar medium is sufficiently enriched with metals that the region may be observed as a submillimetre-selected system. The intense star formation rates are fuelled in part by the infall of a reservoir gas supply enabled by stellar feedback at earlier times, not through major mergers. With a lifetime of nearly a billion years, our simulations show that the submillimetre-bright phase of high-redshift galaxies is prolonged and associated with significant mass buildup in early-Universe proto-clusters, and that many submillimetre-bright galaxies are composed of numerous unresolved components (for which there is some observational evidence). PMID:26399829

  18. GAS RESERVOIRS AND STAR FORMATION IN A FORMING GALAXY CLUSTER AT zbsime0.2

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, Yara L.; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Deshev, Boris Z.; Van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.

    2012-09-10

    We present first results from the Blind Ultra-Deep H I Environmental Survey of the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. Our survey is the first direct imaging study of neutral atomic hydrogen gas in galaxies at a redshift where evolutionary processes begin to show. In this Letter we investigate star formation, H I content, and galaxy morphology, as a function of environment in Abell 2192 (at z = 0.1876). Using a three-dimensional visualization technique, we find that Abell 2192 is a cluster in the process of forming, with significant substructure in it. We distinguish four structures that are separated in redshift and/or space. The richest structure is the baby cluster itself, with a core of elliptical galaxies that coincides with (weak) X-ray emission, almost no H I detections, and suppressed star formation. Surrounding the cluster, we find a compact group where galaxies pre-process before falling into the cluster, and a scattered population of 'field-like' galaxies showing more star formation and H I detections. This cluster proves to be an excellent laboratory to understand the fate of the H I gas in the framework of galaxy evolution. We clearly see that the H I gas and the star formation correlate with morphology and environment at z {approx} 0.2. In particular, the fraction of H I detections is significantly affected by the environment. The effect starts to kick in in low-mass groups that pre-process the galaxies before they enter the cluster. Our results suggest that by the time the group galaxies fall into the cluster, they are already devoid of H I.

  19. Gas Reservoirs and Star Formation in a Forming Galaxy Cluster at zbsime0.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffé, Yara L.; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Deshev, Boris Z.; van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.

    2012-09-01

    We present first results from the Blind Ultra-Deep H I Environmental Survey of the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. Our survey is the first direct imaging study of neutral atomic hydrogen gas in galaxies at a redshift where evolutionary processes begin to show. In this Letter we investigate star formation, H I content, and galaxy morphology, as a function of environment in Abell 2192 (at z = 0.1876). Using a three-dimensional visualization technique, we find that Abell 2192 is a cluster in the process of forming, with significant substructure in it. We distinguish four structures that are separated in redshift and/or space. The richest structure is the baby cluster itself, with a core of elliptical galaxies that coincides with (weak) X-ray emission, almost no H I detections, and suppressed star formation. Surrounding the cluster, we find a compact group where galaxies pre-process before falling into the cluster, and a scattered population of "field-like" galaxies showing more star formation and H I detections. This cluster proves to be an excellent laboratory to understand the fate of the H I gas in the framework of galaxy evolution. We clearly see that the H I gas and the star formation correlate with morphology and environment at z ~ 0.2. In particular, the fraction of H I detections is significantly affected by the environment. The effect starts to kick in in low-mass groups that pre-process the galaxies before they enter the cluster. Our results suggest that by the time the group galaxies fall into the cluster, they are already devoid of H I.

  20. The chemical evolution of Dwarf Galaxies with galactic winds - the role of mass and gas distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensler, Gerhard; Recchi, Simone

    2015-08-01

    Energetic feedback from Supernovae and stellar winds can drive galactic winds. Dwarf galaxies (DGs), due to their shallower potential wells, are assumed to be more vulnera-ble to these energetic processes. Metal loss through galactic winds is also commonly invoked to explain the low metal content of DGs.Our main aim in this presentation is to show that galactic mass cannot be the only pa-rameter determining the fraction of metals lost by a galaxy. In particular, the distribution of gas must play an equally important role. We perform 2-D chemo-dynamical simula-tions of galaxies characterized by different gas distributions, masses and gas fractions. The gas distribution can change the fraction of lost metals through galactic winds by up to one order of magnitude. In particular, disk-like galaxies tend to lose metals more easily than roundish ones. Consequently, also the final element abundances attained by models with the same mass but with different gas distributions can vary by up to one dex. Confirming previous studies, we also show that the fate of gas and freshly pro-duced metals strongly depends on the mass of the galaxy. Smaller galaxies (with shal-lower potential wells) more easily develop large-scale outflows; therefore, the fraction of lost metals tends to be higher.Another important issue is that the invoked mechanism to transform central cusps to cored dark-matter distributions by baryon loss due to strong galactic winds cannot work in general, must be critically tested, and should be clearly discernible by the chemical evolution of DGs.

  1. HI Gas in Early Type Galaxies as Measured by ALFALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Wendy; Morrison, Ryan; Green, Jarred; Raskin, Mark; Crawford, Connor; Bomer-Lawson, August; Hannan, Joshua; Crone-Odekon, Mary; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of 1580 early type galaxies (ETGs) in a total sample of 7747 galaxies that have HI measurements or upper limits from the ALFALFA survey. We find a significant correlation between HI content and local density, with HI detections almost exclusively in low-density environments. Using optical line ratios, we split the population into galaxies with spectral lines dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGN) and dominated by star forming regions. Compared with HI-rich star forming ETGs, HI-rich ETGs with AGN tend to be brighter and redder and to exhibit a stronger correlation between stellar mass and HI mass. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  2. Bar formation as driver of gas inflows in isolated disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanali, R.; Dotti, M.; Fiacconi, D.; Haardt, F.

    2015-12-01

    Stellar bars are a common feature in massive disc galaxies. On a theoretical ground, the response of gas to a bar is generally thought to cause nuclear starbursts and, possibly, AGN activity once the perturbed gas reaches the central supermassive black hole. By means of high-resolution numerical simulations, we detail the purely dynamical effects that a forming bar exerts on the gas of an isolated disc galaxy. The galaxy is initially unstable to the formation of non-axisymmetric structures, and within ˜1 Gyr it develops spiral arms that eventually evolve into a central stellar bar on kpc scale. A first major episode of gas inflow occurs during the formation of the spiral arms while at later times, when the stellar bar is establishing, a low-density region is carved between the bar corotational and inner Lindblad resonance radii. The development of such `dead zone' inhibits further massive gas inflows. Indeed, the gas inflow reaches its maximum during the relatively fast bar-formation phase and not, as often assumed, when the bar is fully formed. We conclude that the low efficiency of long-lived, evolved bars in driving gas towards galactic nuclei is the reason why observational studies have failed to establish an indisputable link between bars and AGNs. On the other hand, the high efficiency in driving strong gas inflows of the intrinsically transient process of bar formation suggests that the importance of bars as drivers of AGN activity in disc galaxies has been overlooked so far. We finally prove that our conclusions are robust against different numerical implementations of the hydrodynamics routinely used in galaxy evolution studies.

  3. PEGAS: Hydrodynamical code for numerical simulation of the gas components of interacting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, Igor

    A new hydrodynamical code for numerical simulation of the gravitational gas dynamics is described in the paper. The code is based on the Fluid-in-Cell method with a Godunov-type scheme at the Eulerian stage. The numerical method was adapted for GPU-based supercomputers. The performance of the code is shown by the simulation of the collision of the gas components of two similar disc galaxies in the course of the central collision of the galaxies in the polar direction.

  4. The Star Formation Rate Efficiency of Neutral Atomic-dominated Hydrogen Gas in the Outskirts of Star-forming Galaxies from z ~ 1 to z ~3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafelski, Marc; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Fumagalli, Michele; Neeleman, Marcel; Teplitz, Harry I.; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Scarlata, Claudia

    2016-07-01

    Current observational evidence suggests that the star formation rate (SFR) efficiency of neutral atomic hydrogen gas measured in damped Lyα systems (DLAs) at z˜ 3 is more than 10 times lower than predicted by the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) relation. To understand the origin of this deficit, and to investigate possible evolution with redshift and galaxy properties, we measure the SFR efficiency of atomic gas at z ˜ 1, z ˜ 2, and z˜ 3 around star-forming galaxies. We use new robust photometric redshifts in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field to create galaxy stacks in these three redshift bins, and measure the SFR efficiency by combining DLA absorber statistics with the observed rest-frame UV emission in the galaxies’ outskirts. We find that the SFR efficiency of H i gas at z\\gt 1 is ˜1%-3% of that predicted by the KS relation. Contrary to simulations and models that predict a reduced SFR efficiency with decreasing metallicity and thus with increasing redshift, we find no significant evolution in the SFR efficiency with redshift. Our analysis instead suggests that the reduced SFR efficiency is driven by the low molecular content of this atomic-dominated phase, with metallicity playing a secondary effect in regulating the conversion between atomic and molecular gas. This interpretation is supported by the similarity between the observed SFR efficiency and that observed in local atomic-dominated gas, such as in the outskirts of local spiral galaxies and local dwarf galaxies.

  5. Molecular gas in the Galactic center region. III. Probing shocks in molecular cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huettemeister, S.; Dahmen, G.; Mauersberger, R.; Henkel, C.; Wilson, T. L.; Martin-Pintado, J.

    1998-06-01

    Multiline observations of C(18) O and SiO isotopomers toward 33 molecular peaks in the Galactic center region, taken at the SEST, JCMT and HHT telescopes, are presented. The C(18) O presumably traces the total H_2 column density, while the SiO traces gas affected by shocks and high temperature chemistry. The J =2-> 1 line of SiO is seen only in few regions of the Galactic disk. This line is easily detected in all Galactic center sources observed. A comparison of the strength of the rare isotopomers (29) SiO and (30) SiO to the strength of the main isotopomer (28) SiO implies that the J = 2 -> 1 transition of (28) SiO is optically thick. The (29) Si/(30) Si isotope ratio of 1.6 in the Galactic center clouds is consistent with the terrestrial value. Large Velocity Gradient models show that the dense component (n_H_2 >= 10(4) \\percc) in typical molecular cores in the Galactic center is cool (\\TKIN ~ 25 K), contrary to what is usually found in Giant Molecular Clouds in the disk, where the densest cores are the hottest. High kinetic temperatures, > 100 K, known to exist from NH_3 studies, are only present at lower gas densities of a few 10(3) cm(-3) , where SiO is highly subthermally excited. Assuming that \\CEIO\\ traces all of the molecular gas, it is found that in all cases but one, SiO emission is compatible with arising in gas at higher density that is (presently) relatively cool. The relative abundance of SiO is typically 10(-9) , but differs significantly between individual sources. It shows a dependence on the position of the source within the Galactic center region. High abundances are found in those regions for which bar potential models predict a high likelihood for cloud-cloud collisions. These results can be used to relate the amount of gas that has encountered shocks within the last ~ 10(6) years to the large scale kinematics in the inner ~ 500 pc of the Galaxy. Based on observations obtained at the Swedish-ESO Submillimeter Telescope (SEST, Project C

  6. Structure and Evolution of Interstellar Gas in Flattened, Rotating Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.

    1996-10-01

    We study the time-dependent evolution of interstellar gas in a family of elliptical galaxies having identical masses and central densities but various ellipticities and total angular momenta. Dark halos are assumed to be flattened in the same manner as the stars. Normal mass loss from evolving galactic stars is sufficient to account for the amount of hot interstellar gas observed. Gas ejected from stars shares the random motions of the stars and the bulk stellar velocity relative to the local interstellar medium; the ejected gas thermalizes to a temperature similar to the virial temperature of the stellar system. The random stellar motions and galactic rotation are found by solving Jeans's equations in cylindrical geometry. For a sequence of galaxies differing only in degree of flattening-E0, E2, and E4-we find that the X-ray images and luminosities are not very different. As the hot interstellar gas loses energy by radiation, it cools to the very center of these nonrotating galaxies regardless of flattening. The X-ray surface brightness is generally slightly steeper than the optical surface brightness of starlight. However, when a small but typical galactic rotation is introduced, the evolution of the interstellar medium is radically altered. The average X- ray surface brightness {SIGMA}_X_ is lower in the galactic center compared to nonrotating galaxies. This lower {SIGMA}_X_ can be achieved without invoking an ad hoc mass dropout from the hot gas. As the gas cools in rotating galaxies, it is deposited in a large disk comparable in size to the effective radius. Alter evolving for several gigayears, most of the new gas in the cooling flow is constrained by angular momentum conservation to arrive at the outer edge of the disk, Causing a local enhancement in the X-ray surface brightness. This results in flattened inner X-ray surface brightness contours that have peanut shapes when viewed nearly perpendicular to the axis of galactic rotation. As gas approaches the

  7. A SiO 2-1 SURVEY TOWARD GAS-RICH ACTIVE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Jiangshui; Shi, Yong; Zhang, Zhiyu

    2013-12-01

    In order to study the feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we performed a survey of SiO J = 2-1 (v = 0) transition toward ten gas-rich active galaxies with the IRAM 30 m telescope. As the first survey of SiO in such galaxies, we detected SiO J = 2-1 (v = 0) emission in six galaxies above the 3σ level and one galaxy (NGC 3690) at the 2.7σ level. The detection rate is not related to the AGN type or to star formation activity. In comparison with M82, which is a pure star-forming galaxy without nuclear activity, our SiO detections could not be completely ascribed to being due to star formation activity. This suggests that the AGN feedback may be efficient in producing SiO molecules in such galaxies. Further surveys with large single-dish millimeter telescopes and interferometers are necessary for understanding the origin of SiO in galaxies with nuclear activity.

  8. High-velocity extended molecular outflow in the star-formation dominated luminous infrared galaxy ESO 320-G030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira-Santaella, M.; Colina, L.; García-Burillo, S.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Arribas, S.; Cazzoli, S.; Emonts, B.; Piqueras López, J.; Planesas, P.; Storchi Bergmann, T.; Usero, A.; Villar-Martín, M.

    2016-10-01

    We analyze new high spatial resolution (~60 pc) ALMA CO(2-1) observations of the isolated luminous infrared galaxy ESO 320-G030 (d = 48 Mpc) in combination with ancillary Hubble Space Telescope optical and near infrared (IR) imaging, as well as VLT/SINFONI near-IR integral field spectroscopy. We detect a high-velocity (~450 km s-1) spatially resolved (size~2.5 kpc; dynamical time ~3 Myr) massive (~107 M⊙; Ṁ ~ 2-8 M⊙ yr-1) molecular outflow that has originated in the central ~250 pc. We observe a clumpy structure in the outflowing cold molecular gas with clump sizes between 60 and 150 pc and masses between 105.5 and 106.4 M⊙. The mass of the clumps decreases with increasing distance, while the velocity is approximately constant. Therefore, both the momentum and kinetic energy of the clumps decrease outwards. In the innermost (~100 pc) part of the outflow, we measure a hot-to-cold molecular gas ratio of 7 × 10-5, which is similar to that measured in other resolved molecular outflows. We do not find evidence of an ionized phase in this outflow. The nuclear IR and radio properties are compatible with strong and highly obscured star-formation (Ak ~ 4.6 mag; star formation rate ~ 15 M⊙ yr-1). We do not find any evidence for the presence of an active galactic nucleus. We estimate that supernova explosions in the nuclear starburst (νSN ~ 0.2 yr-1) can power the observed molecular outflow. The kinetic energy and radial momentum of the cold molecular phase of the outflow correspond to about 2% and 20%, respectively, of the supernovae output. The cold molecular outflow velocity is lower than the escape velocity, so the gas will likely return to the galaxy disk. The mass loading factor is ~0.1-0.5, so the negative feedback owing to this star-formation-powered molecular outflow is probably limited. The reduced images and datacubes (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  9. MOLECULAR GAS IN YOUNG DEBRIS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Moor, A.; Abraham, P.; Kiss, Cs.; Juhasz, A.; Kospal, A.; Pascucci, I.; Apai, D.; Henning, Th.; Csengeri, T.; Grady, C.

    2011-10-10

    Gas-rich primordial disks and tenuous gas-poor debris disks are usually considered as two distinct evolutionary phases of the circumstellar matter. Interestingly, the debris disk around the young main-sequence star 49 Ceti possesses a substantial amount of molecular gas and possibly represents the missing link between the two phases. Motivated to understand the evolution of the gas component in circumstellar disks via finding more 49 Ceti-like systems, we carried out a CO J = 3-2 survey with the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment, targeting 20 infrared-luminous debris disks. These systems fill the gap between primordial and old tenuous debris disks in terms of fractional luminosity. Here we report on the discovery of a second 49 Ceti-like disk around the 30 Myr old A3-type star HD21997, a member of the Columba Association. This system was also detected in the CO(2-1) transition, and the reliable age determination makes it an even clearer example of an old gas-bearing disk than 49 Ceti. While the fractional luminosities of HD21997 and 49 Ceti are not particularly high, these objects seem to harbor the most extended disks within our sample. The double-peaked profiles of HD21997 were reproduced by a Keplerian disk model combined with the LIME radiative transfer code. Based on their similarities, 49 Ceti and HD21997 may be the first representatives of a so far undefined new class of relatively old ({approx}>8 Myr), gaseous dust disks. From our results, neither primordial origin nor steady secondary production from icy planetesimals can unequivocally explain the presence of CO gas in the disk of HD21997.

  10. Molecular Gas in Young Debris Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moor, A.; Abraham, P.; Juhasz, A.; Kiss, Cs.; Pascucci, I.; Kospal, A.; Apai, D.; Henning, T.; Csengeri, T.; Grady, C.

    2011-01-01

    Gas-rich primordial disks and tenuous gas-poor debris disks are usually considered as two distinct evolutionary phases of the circumstellar matter. Interestingly, the debris disk around the young main-sequence star 49 Ceti possesses a substantial amount of molecular gas and possibly represents the missing link between the two phases. Motivated to understand the evolution of the gas component in circumstellar disks via finding more 49 Ceti-like systems, we carried out a CO J = 3-2 survey with the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment, targeting 20 infrared-luminous debris disks. These systems fill the gap between primordial and old tenuous debris disks in terms of fractional luminosity. Here we report on the discovery of a second 49 Ceti-like disk around the 30 Myr old A3-type star HD21997, a member of the Columba Association. This system was also detected in the CO(2-1) transition, and the reliable age determination makes it an even clearer example of an old gas-bearing disk than 49 Ceti. While the fractional luminosities of HD21997 and 49 Ceti are not particularly high, these objects seem to harbor the most extended disks within our sample. The double-peaked profiles of HD21997 were reproduced by a Keplerian disk model combined with the LIME radiative transfer code. Based on their similarities, 49 Ceti and HD21997 may be the first representatives of a so far undefined new class of relatively old > or approx.8 Myr), gaseous dust disks. From our results, neither primordia1 origin nor steady secondary production from icy planetesima1s can unequivocally explain the presence of CO gas in the disk ofHD21997.

  11. Observationally Constrained Metal Signatures of Galaxy Evolution in the Stars and Gas of Cosmological Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corlies, Lauren N.

    The halos of galaxies - consisting of gas, stars, and satellite galaxies - are formed and shaped by the most fundamental processes: hierarchical merging and the flow of gas into and out of galaxies. While these processes are hard to disentangle, metals are tied to the gas that fuels star formation and entrained in the wind that the deaths of these stars generate. As such, they can act as important indicators of the star formation, the chemical enrichment, and the outflow histories of galaxies. Thus, this thesis aims to take advantage of such metal signatures in the stars and gas to place observational constraints on current theories of galaxy evolution as implemented in cosmological simulations. The first two chapters consider the metallicities of stars in the stellar halo of the Milky Way and its surviving satellite dwarf galaxies. Chapter 2 pairs an N-body simulation with a semi-analytic model for supernova-driven winds to examine the early environment of a Milky Way-like galaxy. At z = 10, progenitors of surviving z = 0 satellite galaxies are found to sit preferentially on the outskirts of progenitor halos of the eventual main halo. The consequence of these positions is that main halo progenitors are found to more effectively cross-pollute each other than satellite progenitors. Thus, inhomogeneous cross-pollution as a result of different high-z spatial locations of different progenitors can help to explain observed differences in abundance patterns measured today. Chapter 3 expands this work into the analysis of a cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation of dwarf galaxies in the early universe. We find that simple assumptions for modeling the extent of supernova-driven winds used in Chapter 2 agree well with the simulation whereas the presence of inhomogeneous mixing in the simulation has a large effect on the stellar metallicities. Furthermore, the star-forming halos show both bursty and continuous SFHs, two scenarios proposed by stellar metallicity data

  12. ALFALFA DISCOVERY OF THE NEARBY GAS-RICH DWARF GALAXY LEO P. II. OPTICAL IMAGING OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.; Haurberg, Nathalie C.; Van Sistine, Angela; Young, Michael D.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Cannon, John M.; Skillman, Evan D.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W. E-mail: slaz@astro.indiana.edu E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu

    2013-06-15

    We present results from ground-based optical imaging of a low-mass dwarf galaxy discovered by the ALFALFA 21 cm H I survey. Broadband (BVR) data obtained with the WIYN 3.5 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) are used to construct color-magnitude diagrams of the galaxy's stellar population down to V{sub o} {approx} 25. We also use narrowband H{alpha} imaging from the KPNO 2.1 m telescope to identify a H II region in the galaxy. We use these data to constrain the distance to the galaxy to be between 1.5 and 2.0 Mpc. This places Leo P within the Local Volume but beyond the Local Group. Its properties are extreme: it is the lowest-mass system known that contains significant amounts of gas and is currently forming stars.

  13. Exploring The Gas Cycle In High-redshift Galaxies: A Joint Effort Of Theory And Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumagalli, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of high-redshift galaxies is regulated by the balance between the inflow of fresh fuel for star formation and the outflow of metal-polluted material from star forming regions. Hydrodynamic cosmological simulations indicate that galaxies at high redshifts are fed by extended streams of cold gas in a smooth component and in merging satellites, but direct evidence of this mode of accretion is lacking. To investigate the signatures of these "cold streams" in observations, we have studied the Lyman-α emission and hydrogen absorption properties in galaxies simulated at high-resolution, using state-of-the-art radiative transfer codes. I will present these model predictions and I will compare and contrast results of simulations with observations of high-redshift Lyman break galaxies. I will also discuss the prospects of mapping the circumgalactic medium with absorption line systems and present preliminary results from ongoing observations.

  14. the Important Role of Dark Matter Halo in Retaining Hot Gas Content in Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yuanyuan; Irwin, Jimmy; White, Raymond Edwin; Buote, David A.; Gu, Liyi

    2014-08-01

    It has been an ongoing puzzle as to why there is a large scatter in the amount of hot X-ray gas in optically-similar early-type galaxies. With Chandra observations, we investigated the hot gas content of a sample of early-type galaxies. We found their hot X-ray gas per stellar light (L_X/L_opt) is highly correlated with their total masses estimated through stellar kinematics. Furthermore, we found no difference in the scatter in L_X/L_opt between galaxies in the field and in groups and clusters. This suggests that a dark matter halo is the primary factor in determining the hot gas content, as smaller galaxies are more vulnerable to mechanisms that remove hot gas from galaxies such as galactic winds. Other factors such as flattening, environment, rotation, and star formation history may have played a relatively secondary role.

  15. A Detailed Spatial Study of HI and OVI Absorbing Gas Around Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathes, Nigel; Churchill, C. W.; Kacprzak, G.; Nielsen, N. M.; Charlton, J. C.; Muzahid, S.

    2014-01-01

    Neutral hydrogen probed by the Lyα transition in quasar absorption spectra traces the circumgalactic and intergalactic medium (CGM and IGM) of distant galaxies. The exact phase and composition of the gas associated with each region along with the spatial boundary separating the two has yet to be specifically characterized. To probe this region, we present a sample of 17 isolated galaxies with high resolution Hubble Space Telescope images and spectra lying within 400 kpc of a quasar line of sight between redshfits 0.1 < z < 0.7. We model each associated absorption system using a Voigt Profile fitting method for Lyα, Lyβ and OVI, which yields column densities, Doppler b parameters, and velocities for each cloud. We also model each galaxy to obtain its orientation on the sky and employ Halo Abundance Matching to determine the galaxy mass and virial radius. In contrast to previous studies using MgII absorbers, we find a near uniform distribution of absorbing gas clouds at all projected angles around the galaxies. We also find Lyα absorbing clouds out to impact parameters of 300 kpc and OVI absorbers out to 250 kpc. Together, this implies an extended, warm gas halo surrounding the galaxies in our sample. To better characterize these halos and to study the boundary between the CGM and IGM, we explore column densities and kinematics at different impact parameters. We find all Lyα systems with column densities higher than the sample average (logN(HI) > 15 cm-2) are located within the virial radius of their associated galaxies. We also find that kinematically unbound clouds are more likely to be found outside the virial radius (46% of clouds outside the virial radius have velocities in excess of the galaxy escape velocity, whereas only 10% of clouds within the virial radius have velocities high enough to escape). No such boundary exists when considering only physical impact parameters. We observe a distinct physical difference between gas inside and outside of a galaxy

  16. A HIGHER EFFICIENCY OF CONVERTING GAS TO STARS PUSHES GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1.6 WELL ABOVE THE STAR-FORMING MAIN SEQUENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, J. D.; Rujopakarn, W.; Daddi, E.; Liu, D.; Sargent, M.; Renzini, A.; Feruglio, C.; Kashino, D.; Sanders, D.; Kartaltepe, J.; Nagao, T.; Arimoto, N.; Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Béthermin, M.; Koekemoer, A.; and others

    2015-10-20

    Local starbursts have a higher efficiency of converting gas into stars, as compared to typical star-forming galaxies at a given stellar mass, possibly indicative of different modes of star formation. With the peak epoch of galaxy formation occurring at z > 1, it remains to be established whether such an efficient mode of star formation is occurring at high redshift. To address this issue, we measure the molecular gas content of seven high-redshift (z ∼ 1.6) starburst galaxies with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and IRAM/Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our targets are selected from the sample of Herschel far-infrared-detected galaxies having star formation rates (∼300–800 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) elevated (≳4×) above the star-forming main sequence (MS) and included in the FMOS-COSMOS near-infrared spectroscopic survey of star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1.6 with Subaru. We detect CO emission in all cases at high levels of significance, indicative of high gas fractions (∼30%–50%). Even more compelling, we firmly establish with a clean and systematic selection that starbursts, identified as MS outliers, at high redshift generally have a lower ratio of CO to total infrared luminosity as compared to typical MS star-forming galaxies, although with a smaller offset than expected based on past studies of local starbursts. We put forward a hypothesis that there exists a continuous increase in star formation efficiency with elevation from the MS with galaxy mergers as a possible physical driver. Along with a heightened star formation efficiency, our high-redshift sample is similar in other respects to local starbursts, such as being metal rich and having a higher ionization state of the interstellar medium.

  17. Ionized gas kinematics within the inner kiloparsec of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1365

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lena, Davide; Robinson, Andrew; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Couto, Guilherme S.; Schnorr-Müller, Allan; Riffel, Rogemar A.

    2016-07-01

    We observed the nuclear region of the galaxy NGC 1365 with the integral field unit of the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph mounted on the GEMINI-South telescope. The field of view covers 13 × 6 arcsec2(1173 × 541 pc2) centred on the nucleus, at a spatial resolution of 52 pc. The spectral coverage extends from 5600 to 7000 Å, at a spectral resolution R = 1918. NGC 1365 hosts a Seyfert 1.8 nucleus, and exhibits a prominent bar extending out to 100 arcsec (9 kpc) from the nucleus. The field of view lies within the inner Lindblad resonance. Within this region, we found that the kinematics of the ionized gas (as traced by [O I], [N II], Hα, and [S II]) is consistent with rotation in the large-scale plane of the galaxy. While rotation dominates the kinematics, there is also evidence for a fan-shaped outflow, as found in other studies based on the [O III] emission lines. Although evidence for gas inflowing along nuclear spirals has been found in a few barred galaxies, we find no obvious signs of such features in the inner kiloparsec of NGC 1365. However, the emission lines exhibit a puzzling asymmetry that could originate from gas which is slower than the gas responsible for the bulk of the narrow-line emission. We speculate that it could be tracing gas which lost angular momentum, and is slowly migrating from the inner Lindblad resonance towards the nucleus of the galaxy.

  18. Dust and ionized gas in elliptical galaxies: Signatures of merging collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Dejong, Teije

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally elliptical galaxies were thought to be essentially devoid of interstellar matter. However, recent advances in instrumental sensitivity have caused a renaissance of interest in dust and gas in - or associated with - elliptical galaxies. In particular, the technique of co-adding IRAS survey scans has led to the detection of more than half of all ellipticals with BT less than 11 mag. in the Revised Shapley-Ames catalog, indicating the presence of 10(exp 7) - 10(exp 8) solar mass of cold interstellar matter (Jura et al. 1987). In addition, CCD multi-color surface photometry shows dust patches in about 30 percent of the cases studied to date (e.g., Veron-Cetty & Veron 1988). Thorough study of the gas and dust in ellipticals is important to (1) determine its origin (mass-loss from late-type stars, merging collisions with other galaxies or accretion inflows from cooling X-ray gas), and (2) investigate the 3-D shape of ellipticals, as can be derived from the orientation of the dust lanes and the 2-D velocity field of the gas. An important result of our comprehensive CCD imaging program is that a relevant fraction (approximately 40 percent) of the sample objects exhibits dust patches within extended H-alpha+(NII) line-emitting filaments. This common occurrence can be easily accounted for if the dust and gas have an external origin, i.e., mergers or interactions with gas-rich galaxies. Evidence supporting this suggestion: (1) the ionized gas is usually dynamically decoupled from the stellar velocity field (see, e.g., Sharples et al. 1983, Bertola & Bettoni 1988); (2) it is shown in a companion paper (Goudfrooij et al. 1992) that internal stellar mass loss alone can not account for the dust content of elliptical galaxies.

  19. A MILLIMETER-WAVE INTERFEROMETRIC SEARCH FOR A MOLECULAR TORUS IN THE RADIO GALAXY NGC 4261

    SciTech Connect

    Okuda, Takeshi; Iguchi, Satoru; Kohno, Kotaro

    2013-05-01

    NGC 4261 is an elliptical galaxy with a pair of symmetric kiloparsec-scale jets. We observed a nucleus of NGC 4261 at 2.6 mm and 1.3 mm with the NRO RAINBOW interferometer, the Nobeyama Millimeter Array, and the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer to determine the excitation state of molecular gas. In this observation, neither CO(J = 2-1) nor CO(J = 1-0) absorption lines were detected even at higher sensitivity than the previous work. The 3{sigma} upper limits on the optical depths of CO lines were 0.098 for J = 2-1 and 0.042 for J = 1-0, respectively. These upper limits are much smaller than the optical depth obtained from the previous claimed detection of CO(J = 2-1) absorption (0.7), indicating that the claimed CO(J = 2-1) absorption profile could be a false feature. Our results suggest that there is a possibility that CO molecules are highly excited by the active galactic nucleus, since the optical depths of low-J CO molecules in NGC 4261 are significantly low.

  20. What sort of standard candle is Orion for studying molecular hydrogen line emission in galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Michael; Puxley, Phil J.

    1990-01-01

    The total shocked and fluorescent molecular hydrogen 1-0 S(1) line luminosities from Orion have been measured to be about 2.5 solar luminosity and about 2.0 solar luminosity, respectively. The implications for using Orion to study the interstellar medium in galaxies is discussed.

  1. Molecular hydrogen beyond the optical edge of an isolated spiral galaxy.

    PubMed

    Braine, Jonathan; Herpin, Fabrice

    2004-11-18

    Knowledge about the outermost portions of galaxies is limited owing to the small amount of light coming from them. It is known that in many cases atomic hydrogen (H I) extends well beyond the optical radius. In the centres of galaxies, however, molecular hydrogen (H2) usually dominates by a large factor, raising the question of whether H2 is also abundant in the outer regions. Here we report the detection of emission from carbon monoxide (CO), the most abundant tracer of H2, beyond the optical radius of the nearby galaxy NGC 4414. The host molecular clouds probably formed in the regions of relatively high H i column density and in the absence of spiral density waves. The relative strength of the lines from the two lowest rotational levels indicates that both the temperature and density of the H2 are quite low compared to conditions closer to the centre. The inferred surface density of the molecular material continues the monotonic decrease from the inner regions. We conclude that although molecular clouds can form in the outer region of this galaxy, there is little mass associated with them.

  2. The frequency and properties of young tidal dwarf galaxies in nearby gas-rich groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Waddell, K.; Spekkens, K.; Chandra, P.; Patra, N.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Wang, J.; Haynes, M. P.; Cannon, J.; Stierwalt, S.; Sick, J.; Giovanelli, R.

    2016-08-01

    We present high-resolution Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) H I observations and deep Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) optical imaging of two galaxy groups: NGC 4725/47 and NGC 3166/9. These data are part of a multi-wavelength unbiased survey of the gas-rich dwarf galaxy populations in three nearby interacting galaxy groups. The NGC 4725/47 group hosts two tidal knots and one dwarf irregular galaxy (dIrr). Both tidal knots are located within a prominent H I tidal tail, appear to have sufficient mass (Mgas ≈ 108 M⊙) to evolve into long-lived tidal dwarf galaxies (TDGs) and are fairly young in age. The NGC 3166/9 group contains a TDG candidate, AGC 208457, at least three dIrrs and four H I knots. Deep CFHT imaging confirms that the optical component of AGC 208457 is bluer - with a 0.28 mag g - r colour - and a few Gyr younger than its purported parent galaxies. Combining the results for these groups with those from the NGC 871/6/7 group reported earlier, we find that the H I properties, estimated stellar ages and baryonic content of the gas-rich dwarfs clearly distinguish tidal features from their classical counterparts. We optimistically identify four potentially long-lived tidal objects associated with three separate pairs of interacting galaxies, implying that TDGs are not readily produced during interaction events as suggested by some recent simulations. The tidal objects examined in this survey also appear to have a wider variety of properties than TDGs of similar mass formed in current simulations of interacting galaxies, which could be the result of pre- or post-formation environmental influences.

  3. A Systematic Investigation of Cold Gas and Dust in "Normal" Star-Forming Galaxies and Starbursts at Redshifts 5-6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Carilli, Chris Luke; Capak, Peter L.; COSMOS, HerMES

    2016-01-01

    Cold molecular and atomic gas plays a central role in our understanding of early galaxy formation and evolution. It represents the material that stars form out of, and its mass, distribution, excitation, and dynamics provide crucial insight into the physical processes that support the ongoing star formation and stellar mass buildup. We present some of the most recent progress in studies of gas-rich galaxies out to the highest redshifts through detailed investigations of the cold gas and dust with the most powerful facilities, i.e., the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), the NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA) and the Atacama Large (sub-) Millimeter Array (ALMA). Facilitating the impressive sensitivity of ALMA, this investigation encompasses a systematic study of the star-forming interstellar medium, gas dynamics, and dust obscuration in massive dusty starbursts and (much less luminous and massive) "typical" galaxies at such early epochs. These new results show that "typical" z>5 galaxies are significantly metal-enriched, but not heavily dust-obscured, consistent with a decreasing contribution of dust-obscured star formation to the star formation history of the universe towards the earliest cosmic epochs.

  4. Spatial Analysis of the Hot Gas Distribution in a Complete Chandra Survey of Early-Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksym, W. P.; Irwin, J.; Wong, K.; Yukita, M.; Su, Y.; Lin, D.; Million, E.

    2013-04-01

    The amount of hot X-ray-emitting gas in early-type galaxies is thought to be indicative of the hydrodynamic state of the gas, with gas being more easily removed from galaxies with lower mass and/or stronger Type Ia supernovae-driven winds. Escaping gas should lead to more a extended gaseous X-ray emission profile than in galaxies with deep enough potential wells to retain the gas. We search for a correlation between the amount of hot gas and the slope of the hot gas surface brightness profile (normalized by the optical light) for a complete survey of optically bright early-type galaxies observed by Chandra in order to test the accuracy of wind-driven galactic models.

  5. Radial gas motions in The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Tobias M.; Bigiel, Frank; Klessen, Ralf S.; de Blok, W. J. G.

    2016-04-01

    The study of 21 cm line observations of atomic hydrogen allows detailed insight into the kinematics of spiral galaxies. We use sensitive high-resolution Very Large Array data from The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS) to search for radial gas flows primarily in the outer parts (up to 3 × r25) of 10 nearby spiral galaxies. Inflows are expected to replenish the gas reservoir and fuel star formation under the assumption that galaxies evolve approximately in steady state. We carry out a detailed investigation of existing tilted ring fitting schemes and discover systematics that can hamper their ability to detect signatures of radial flows. We develop a new Fourier decomposition scheme that fits for rotational and radial velocities and simultaneously determines position angle and inclination as a function of radius. Using synthetic velocity fields we show that our novel fitting scheme is less prone to such systematic errors and that it is well suited to detect radial inflows in discs. We apply our fitting scheme to 10 THINGS galaxies and find clear indications of, at least partly previously unidentified, radial gas flows, in particular for NGC 2403 and NGC 3198 and to a lesser degree for NGC 7331, NGC 2903 and NGC 6946. The mass flow rates are of the same order but usually larger than the star formation rates. At least for these galaxies a scenario in which continuous mass accretion feeds star formation seems plausible. The other galaxies show a more complicated picture with either no clear inflow, outward motions or complex kinematic signatures.

  6. How are quasars fueled? Simulating interstellar gas in tidally disturbed galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Gene G.

    1986-01-01

    Whether gravitational tides from companions trigger global instabilities in spiral galaxy disks and thus rapid flows of gas into the nucleus to fuel activity is investigated. An n-body computer program is used to simulate the disk of the spiral galaxy within a much more stable, high-velocity dispersion spherical halo. Under sufficient perturbation, the disk undergoes violent distortions due to the disturber and its self-gravitation. The tidal action of companions was simulated and the tidal strengths at which the instabilities appear to match those of the observed companions of Seyferts and quasars was shown. With the additional modifications planned, the gas flow will be more realistically simulated to compare with observations (e.g., colors, velocity fields) of active galaxies.

  7. How the first stars shaped the faintest gas-dominated dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeke, Robbert; Vandenbroucke, Bert; de Rijcke, Sven

    2016-08-01

    Cosmological simulations predict that dark matter halos with circular velocities lower than 30 km/s should have lost most of their neutral gas by heating of the ultra-violet background. This is in stark contrast with gas-rich galaxies such as e.g. Leo T, Leo P and Pisces A, which all have circular velocities of ~15 km/s (Ryan-Weber et al. 2008, Bernstein-Cooper et al. 2014, Tollerud et al. 2015). We show that when we include feedback from the first stars into our models, simulated dwarfs have very different properties at redshift 0 than when this form of feedback is not included. Including this Population-III feedback leads to galaxies that lie on the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation over the entire mass range of star forming dwarf galaxies, as well as reproducing a broad range of other observational properties.

  8. THE DIVERSE HOT GAS CONTENT AND DYNAMICS OF OPTICALLY SIMILAR LOW-MASS ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdan, Akos; David, Laurence P.; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Kraft, Ralph P.

    2012-10-10

    The presence of hot X-ray-emitting gas is ubiquitous in massive early-type galaxies. However, much less is known about the content and physical status of the hot X-ray gas in low-mass ellipticals. In the present paper, we study the X-ray gas content of four low-mass elliptical galaxies using archival Chandra X-ray observations. The sample galaxies, NGC 821, NGC 3379, NGC 4278, and NGC 4697, have approximately identical K-band luminosities, and hence stellar masses, yet their X-ray appearance is strikingly different. We conclude that the unresolved emission in NGC 821 and NGC 3379 is built up from a multitude of faint compact objects, such as coronally active binaries and cataclysmic variables. Despite the non-detection of X-ray gas, these galaxies may host low density, and hence low luminosity, X-ray gas components, which undergo an outflow driven by a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia). We detect hot X-ray gas with a temperature of kT {approx} 0.35 keV in NGC 4278, the component of which has a steeper surface brightness distribution than the stellar light. Within the central 50'' ({approx}3.9 kpc), the estimated gas mass is {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }, implying a gas mass fraction of {approx}0.06%. We demonstrate that the X-ray gas exhibits a bipolar morphology in the northeast-southwest direction, indicating that it may be outflowing from the galaxy. The mass and energy budget of the outflow can be maintained by evolved stars and SNe Ia, respectively. The X-ray gas in NGC 4697 has an average temperature of kT {approx} 0.3 keV and a significantly broader distribution than the stellar light. The total gas mass within 90'' ({approx}5.1 kpc) is {approx}2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, hence the gas mass fraction is {approx}0.4%. Based on the distribution and physical parameters of the X-ray gas, we conclude that it is most likely in hydrostatic equilibrium, although a subsonic outflow may be present.

  9. A Statistical Approach to Galaxy Cluster Gas Inhomogeneity: Chandra Observations of Nearby Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Erik D.; Kawahara, H.; Kitayama, T.; Sasaki, S.; Suto, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, the intracluster medium (ICM) inhomogeneity of galaxy clusters is modeled statistically with a lognormal model for density inhomogeneity. Through mock observations of synthetic clusters the relationship between density inhomogeneities and that of the X-ray surface brightness has been developed. This enables one to infer the statistical properties of the fluctuations of the underlying three-dimensional density distribution of real galaxy clusters from X-ray observations. We explore inhomogeneity in the intracluster medium by applying the above methodology to Chandra observations of a sample of nearby galaxy clusters. We also consider extensions of the model, including Poissonian effects and compare this hybrid lognormal-Poisson model to the nearby cluster Chandra data. EDR gratefully acknowledges support from JSPS (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science) Postdoctoral Fellowhip for Foreign Researchers award P07030. HK is supported by Grands-in-Aid for JSPS of Science Fellows. This work is also supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific research of Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (Nos. 20.10466, 19.07030, 16340053, 20340041, and 20540235) and by JSPS Core-to-Core Program "International Research Network for Dark Energy".

  10. Sloshing Gas in the Core of the Most Luminous Galaxy Cluster RXJ1347.5-1145

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Ryan E.; Zuhone, John; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Markevitvh, Maxim

    2011-01-01

    We present new constraints on the merger history of the most X-ray luminous cluster of galaxies, RXJ1347.5-1145, based on its unique multiwavelength morphology. Our X-ray analysis confirms the core gas is undergoing "sloshing" resulting from a prior, large scale, gravitational perturbation. In combination with extensive multiwavelength observations, the sloshing gas points to the primary and secondary clusters having had at least two prior strong gravitational interactions. The evidence supports a model in which the secondary subcluster with mass M=4.8+/-2.4x10(exp 14) solar Mass has previously (> or approx.0.6 Gyr ago) passed by the primary cluster, and has now returned for a subsequent crossing where the subcluster's gas has been completely stripped from its dark matter halo. RXJ1347 is a prime example of how core gas sloshing may be used to constrain the merger histories of galaxy clusters through multiwavelength analyses.

  11. BUDHIES II: a phase-space view of H I gas stripping and star formation quenching in cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffé, Yara L.; Smith, Rory; Candlish, Graeme N.; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Sheen, Yun-Kyeong; Verheijen, Marc A. W.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the effect of ram-pressure from the intracluster medium on the stripping of H I gas in galaxies in a massive, relaxed, X-ray bright, galaxy cluster at z = 0.2 from the Blind Ultra Deep H I Environmental Survey (BUDHIES). We use cosmological simulations, and velocity versus position phase-space diagrams to infer the orbital histories of the cluster galaxies. In particular, we embed a simple analytical description of ram-pressure stripping in the simulations to identify the regions in phase-space where galaxies are more likely to have been sufficiently stripped of their H I gas to fall below the detection limit of our survey. We find a striking agreement between the model predictions and the observed location of H I-detected and non-detected blue (late-type) galaxies in phase-space, strongly implying that ram-pressure plays a key role in the gas removal from galaxies, and that this can happen during their first infall into the cluster. However, we also find a significant number of gas-poor, red (early-type) galaxies in the infall region of the cluster that cannot easily be explained with our model of ram-pressure stripping alone. We discuss different possible additional mechanisms that could be at play, including the pre-processing of galaxies in their previous environment. Our results are strengthened by the distribution of galaxy colours (optical and UV) in phase-space, that suggests that after a (gas-rich) field galaxy falls into the cluster, it will lose its gas via ram-pressure stripping, and as it settles into the cluster, its star formation will decay until it is completely quenched. Finally, this work demonstrates the utility of phase-space diagrams to analyse the physical processes driving the evolution of cluster galaxies, in particular H I gas stripping.

  12. A SIMPLE PHYSICAL MODEL FOR THE GAS DISTRIBUTION IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Patej, Anna; Loeb, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The dominant baryonic component of galaxy clusters is hot gas whose distribution is commonly probed through X-ray emission arising from thermal bremsstrahlung. The density profile thus obtained has been traditionally modeled with a β-profile, a simple function with only three parameters. However, this model is known to be insufficient for characterizing the range of cluster gas distributions and attempts to rectify this shortcoming typically introduce additional parameters to increase the fitting flexibility. We use cosmological and physical considerations to obtain a family of profiles for the gas with fewer parameters than the β-model but which better accounts for observed gas profiles over wide radial intervals.

  13. The Relationship Between Molecular Gas, H I, and Star Formation in the Low-mass, Low-metallicity Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameson, Katherine E.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Leroy, Adam K.; Meixner, Margaret; Roman-Duval, Julia; Gordon, Karl; Hughes, Annie; Israel, Frank P.; Rubio, Monica; Indebetouw, Remy; Madden, Suzanne C.; Bot, Caroline; Hony, Sacha; Cormier, Diane; Pellegrini, Eric W.; Galametz, Maud; Sonneborn, George

    2016-07-01

    The Magellanic Clouds provide the only laboratory to study the effects of metallicity and galaxy mass on molecular gas and star formation at high (˜20 pc) resolution. We use the dust emission from HERITAGE Herschel data to map the molecular gas in the Magellanic Clouds, avoiding the known biases of CO emission as a tracer of {{{H}}}2. Using our dust-based molecular gas estimates, we find molecular gas depletion times ({τ }{{dep}}{{mol}}) of ˜0.4 Gyr in the Large Magellanic Cloud and ˜0.6 in the Small Magellanic Cloud at 1 kpc scales. These depletion times fall within the range found for normal disk galaxies, but are shorter than the average value, which could be due to recent bursts in star formation. We find no evidence for a strong intrinsic dependence of the molecular gas depletion time on metallicity. We study the relationship between the gas and the star formation rate across a range of size scales from 20 pc to ≥1 kpc, including how the scatter in {τ }{{dep}}{{mol}} changes with the size scale, and discuss the physical mechanisms driving the relationships. We compare the metallicity-dependent star formation models of Ostriker et al. and Krumholz to our observations and find that they both predict the trend in the data, suggesting that the inclusion of a diffuse neutral medium is important at lower metallicity.

  14. Nuclear Gas Dynamics of NGC2110: A Black Hole Offset from the Host Galaxy Mass Center?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mundell, C. G.; Ferruit, P.; Nagar, N.; Wilson, A. S.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the central regions of many galaxies are unlikely to be in a static steady state, with instabilities caused by sinking satellites, the influence of a supermassive black hole or residuals of galaxy formation, resulting in the nuclear black hole orbiting the galaxy center. The observational signature of such an orbiting black hole is an offset of the active nucleus (AGN) from the kinematic center defined by the galaxy rotation curve. This orbital motion may provide fuel for the AGN, as the hole 'grazes' on the ISM, and bent radio jets, due to the motion of their source. The early type (E/SO) Seyfert galaxy, NGC2210, with its striking twin, 'S'-shaped radio jets, is a unique and valuable test case for the offset-nucleus phenomenon since, despite its remarkably normal rotation curve, its kinematically-measured mass center is displaced both spatially (260 pc) and kinematically (170 km/s) from the active nucleus located in optical and radio studies. However, the central kinematics, where the rotation curve rises most steeply, have been inaccessible with ground-based resolutions. We present new, high resolution WFPC2 imaging and long-slit STIS spectroscopy of the central 300 pc of NGC2110. We discuss the structure and kinematics of gas moving in the galactic potential on subarcsecond scales and the reality of the offset between the black hole and the galaxy mass center.

  15. Ionized gas in the circumgalactic vicinity of the M81 galaxy group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Najm, M. N.; Polikarpova, O. L.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of the dust and gas in the tidal region of the M81 galaxy group have been analyzed, and the drift of the dust relative to the gas has been estimated, including the drift due to the action of radiation pressure from stars in M81. It is concluded that a large fraction of the gas in the tidal region is in the form of ionized hydrogen HII that shields the observedHI gas from the extragalactic Lyman continuum: the observed atomic gas could be only 10% of the total mass of gas. Only then it is possible to satisfactorily explain the excess dust abundance, which exceeds the Galactic value by a factor of six. By analogy, extended HI disks in galaxies with sizes appreciably larger than the stellar disks could be surrounded by HII envelopes with a comparable or greater mass. Such disks could play an important role in supporting prolonged star formation in galaxies with extended HI disks. Associated observational manifestations are discussed. Such HII envelopes outside HI disks could be detectable in absorption in Ly α and lines of ions of heavy elements.

  16. The Inner Disk of M31 is Full of Cold Molecular Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. J.; Lequeux, J.; Loinard, L.

    1994-12-01

    The Andromeda galaxy is conspicuously devoid of the classical tracers of star formation inside a radius of about 8 kpc. This ``hole'' shows up in the distribution of HI, of HII regions, and of CO. The IRAS infrared and radio continuum also show similar ``donut''-shaped distributions, although they have additional nuclear sources. The conclusion that the inner disk of M31 contains little or no interstellar gas is, however, quite incorrect. We have carried out a sensitive CO survey with the 30m IRAM millimeter radio telescope at more than two dozen randomly-chosen points in the ``hole'' of M31, and find faint CO emission characteristic of giant molecular clouds at more than half of them, often (but not always) coincident with known dust patches. The CO is more than a factor of 10 under-luminous when compared to Galactic GMC's, a consequence of its very low excitation temperature. Estimates of the mass surface density of molecular gas can be made using the virial theorem, leading to values of about 10 solar masses per square parsec averaged over the inner disk. We conclude that THE ``HOLE'' IN M31 IS FULL OF COLD MOLECULAR GAS. The implications of this for our current views of the distribution of the ISM in galaxies will be discussed.

  17. Analysis of Mass Profiles and Cooling Flows of Bright, Early-Type Galaxies AO2, AO3 and Surface Brightness Profiles and Energetics of Intracluster Gas in Cool Galaxy Clusters AO3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Raymond E., III

    1998-01-01

    This final report uses ROSAT observations to analyze two different studies. These studies are: Analysis of Mass Profiles and Cooling Flows of Bright, Early-Type Galaxies; and Surface Brightness Profiles and Energetics of Intracluster Gas in Cool Galaxy Clusters.

  18. Jet-driven outflows of ionized gas in the nearby radio galaxy 3C 293

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahony, E. K.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Morganti, R.; Tadhunter, C.; Bessiere, P.; Short, P.; Emonts, B. H. C.; Oosterloo, T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Fast outflows of gas, driven by the interaction between the radio jets and interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy, are being observed in an increasing number of galaxies. One such example is the nearby radio galaxy 3C 293. In this paper we present integral field unit observations taken with OASIS on the William Herschel Telescope, enabling us to map the spatial extent of the ionized gas outflows across the central regions of the galaxy. The jet-driven outflow in 3C 293 is detected along the inner radio lobes with a mass outflow rate ranging from ˜0.05 to 0.17 M⊙ yr-1 (in ionized gas) and corresponding kinetic power of ˜0.5-3.5 × 1040 erg s-1. Investigating the kinematics of the gas surrounding the radio jets (i.e. not directly associated with the outflow), we find linewidths broader than 300 km s-1 up to 5 kpc in the radial direction from the nucleus (corresponding to 3.5 kpc in the direction perpendicular to the radio axis at maximum extent). Along the axis of the radio jet linewidths >400 km s-1 are detected out to 7 kpc from the nucleus and linewidths of >500 km s-1 at a distance of 12 kpc from the nucleus, indicating that the disturbed kinematics clearly extend well beyond the high surface brightness radio structures of the jets. This is suggestive of the cocoon structure seen in simulations of jet-ISM interaction and implies that the radio jets are capable of disturbing the gas throughout the central regions of the host galaxy in all directions.

  19. Early Science with the Large Millimeter Telescope: COOL BUDHIES I - a pilot study of molecular and atomic gas at z ≃ 0.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cybulski, Ryan; Yun, Min S.; Erickson, Neal; De la Luz, Victor; Narayanan, Gopal; Montaña, Alfredo; Sánchez, David; Zavala, Jorge A.; Zeballos, Milagros; Chung, Aeree; Fernández, Ximena; van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Haines, Chris P.; Jaffé, Yara L.; Montero-Castaño, María; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Yoon, Hyein; Deshev, Boris Z.; Harrington, Kevin; Hughes, David H.; Morrison, Glenn E.; Schloerb, F. Peter; Velazquez, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    An understanding of the mass build-up in galaxies over time necessitates tracing the evolution of cold gas (molecular and atomic) in galaxies. To that end, we have conducted a pilot study called CO Observations with the LMT of the Blind Ultra-Deep H I Environment Survey (COOL BUDHIES). We have observed 23 galaxies in and around the two clusters Abell 2192 (z = 0.188) and Abell 963 (z = 0.206), where 12 are cluster members and 11 are slightly in the foreground or background, using about 28 total hours on the Redshift Search Receiver on the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) to measure the 12CO J = 1 → 0 emission line and obtain molecular gas masses. These new observations provide a unique opportunity to probe both the molecular and atomic components of galaxies as a function of environment beyond the local Universe. For our sample of 23 galaxies, nine have reliable detections (S/N ≥ 3.6) of the 12CO line, and another six have marginal detections (2.0 < S/N < 3.6). For the remaining eight targets we can place upper limits on molecular gas masses roughly between 109 and 1010 M⊙. Comparing our results to other studies of molecular gas, we find that our sample is significantly more abundant in molecular gas overall, when compared to the stellar and the atomic gas component, and our median molecular gas fraction lies about 1σ above the upper limits of proposed redshift evolution in earlier studies. We discuss possible reasons for this discrepancy, with the most likely conclusion being target selection and Eddington bias.

  20. GAS REGULATION OF GALAXIES: THE EVOLUTION OF THE COSMIC SPECIFIC STAR FORMATION RATE, THE METALLICITY-MASS-STAR-FORMATION RATE RELATION, AND THE STELLAR CONTENT OF HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella; Pipino, Antonio; Peng Yingjie; Renzini, Alvio

    2013-08-01

    functions in standard {Lambda}CDM models. The observed relation also boosts the sSFR relative to the specific accretion rate and produces a different dependence on mass, both of which are observed. The derived Z(m{sub star}, SFR) relation for the regulator system is fit to published Z(m{sub star}, SFR) data for the SDSS galaxy population, yielding {epsilon} and {lambda} as functions of m{sub star}. The fitted {epsilon} is consistent with observed molecular gas-depletion timescales in galaxies (allowing for the extra atomic gas), while the fitted {lambda} is also reasonable. The gas-regulator model also successfully reproduces the Z(m{sub star}) metallicities of star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 2. One consequence of this analysis is that it suggests that the m{sub star}-m{sub halo} relation is established by baryonic processes operating within galaxies, and that a significant fraction (40%) of baryons coming into the halos are being processed through the galaxies. This fraction may be more or less constant. The success of the gas-regulator model in simultaneously explaining many diverse observed relations over the 0 < z < 2 interval suggests that the evolution of galaxies is governed by simple physics that form the basis for this model.

  1. The Gas Phase Mass Metallicity Relation for Dwarf Galaxies: Dependence on Star Formation Rate and H I Gas Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimmy; Tran, Kim-Vy; Saintonge, Amélie; Accurso, Gioacchino; Brough, Sarah; Oliva-Altamirano, Paola

    2015-10-01

    Using a sample of dwarf galaxies observed using the VIMOS IFU on the Very Large Telescope, we investigate the mass–metallicity relation (MZR) as a function of star formation rate (FMRSFR) as well as HI-gas mass (FMRHI). We combine our IFU data with a subsample of galaxies from the ALFALFA HI survey crossmatched to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to study the FMRSFR and FMRHI across the stellar mass range 106.6–108.8 M⊙, with metallicities as low as 12 + log(O/H) = 7.67. We find the 1σ mean scatter in the MZR to be 0.05 dex. The 1σ mean scatter in the FMRSFR (0.02 dex) is significantly lower than that of the MZR. The FMRSFR is not consistent between the IFU observed galaxies and the ALFALFA/SDSS galaxies for SFRs lower than 10‑2.4 M⊙ yr‑1, however, this could be the result of limitations of our measurements in that regime. The lowest mean scatter (0.01 dex) is found in the FMRHI. We also find that the FMRHI is consistent between the IFU observed dwarf galaxies and the ALFALFA/SDSS crossmatched sample. We introduce the fundamental metallicity luminosity counterpart to the FMR, again characterized in terms of SFR (FMLSFR) and HI-gas mass (FMLHI). We find that the FMLHI relation is consistent between the IFU observed dwarf galaxy sample and the larger ALFALFA/SDSS sample. However, the 1σ scatter for the FMLHI relation is not improved over the FMRHI scenario. This leads us to conclude that the FMRHI is the best candidate for a physically motivated fundamental metallicity relation. Based on VLT service mode observations (Programs 081.B-0649 and 083.B-0662) gathered at the European Southern Observatory, Chile.

  2. WEIGHING GALAXY CLUSTERS WITH GAS. I. ON THE METHODS OF COMPUTING HYDROSTATIC MASS BIAS

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke; Nelson, Kaylea

    2013-11-10

    Mass estimates of galaxy clusters from X-ray and Sunyeav-Zel'dovich observations assume the intracluster gas is in hydrostatic equilibrium with their gravitational potential. However, since galaxy clusters are dynamically active objects whose dynamical states can deviate significantly from the equilibrium configuration, the departure from the hydrostatic equilibrium assumption is one of the largest sources of systematic uncertainties in cluster cosmology. In the literature there have been two methods for computing the hydrostatic mass bias based on the Euler and the modified Jeans equations, respectively, and there has been some confusion about the validity of these two methods. The word 'Jeans' was a misnomer, which incorrectly implies that the gas is collisionless. To avoid further confusion, we instead refer these methods as 'summation' and 'averaging' methods respectively. In this work, we show that these two methods for computing the hydrostatic mass bias are equivalent by demonstrating that the equation used in the second method can be derived from taking spatial averages of the Euler equation. Specifically, we identify the correspondences of individual terms in these two methods mathematically and show that these correspondences are valid to within a few percent level using hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy cluster formation. In addition, we compute the mass bias associated with the acceleration of gas and show that its contribution is small in the virialized regions in the interior of galaxy clusters, but becomes non-negligible in the outskirts of ma