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Sample records for galaxy clusters

  1. Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Christopher J. Miller

    2012-03-01

    There are many examples of clustering in astronomy. Stars in our own galaxy are often seen as being gravitationally bound into tight globular or open clusters. The Solar System's Trojan asteroids cluster at the gravitational Langrangian in front of Jupiter’s orbit. On the largest of scales, we find gravitationally bound clusters of galaxies, the Virgo cluster (in the constellation of Virgo at a distance of ˜50 million light years) being a prime nearby example. The Virgo cluster subtends an angle of nearly 8◦ on the sky and is known to contain over a thousand member galaxies. Galaxy clusters play an important role in our understanding of theUniverse. Clusters exist at peaks in the three-dimensional large-scale matter density field. Their sky (2D) locations are easy to detect in astronomical imaging data and their mean galaxy redshifts (redshift is related to the third spatial dimension: distance) are often better (spectroscopically) and cheaper (photometrically) when compared with the entire galaxy population in large sky surveys. Photometric redshift (z) [Photometric techniques use the broad band filter magnitudes of a galaxy to estimate the redshift. Spectroscopic techniques use the galaxy spectra and emission/absorption line features to measure the redshift] determinations of galaxies within clusters are accurate to better than delta_z = 0.05 [7] and when studied as a cluster population, the central galaxies form a line in color-magnitude space (called the the E/S0 ridgeline and visible in Figure 16.3) that contains galaxies with similar stellar populations [15]. The shape of this E/S0 ridgeline enables astronomers to measure the cluster redshift to within delta_z = 0.01 [23]. The most accurate cluster redshift determinations come from spectroscopy of the member galaxies, where only a fraction of the members need to be spectroscopically observed [25,42] to get an accurate redshift to the whole system. If light traces mass in the Universe, then the locations

  2. Brightest Cluster Galaxy Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisman, Luke; Haarsma, D. B.; Sebald, D. A.; ACCEPT Team

    2011-01-01

    Brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) play an important role in several fields of astronomical research. The literature includes many different methods and criteria for identifying the BCG in the cluster, such as choosing the brightest galaxy, the galaxy nearest the X-ray peak, or the galaxy with the most extended profile. Here we examine a sample of 75 clusters from the Archive of Chandra Cluster Entropy Profile Tables (ACCEPT) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), measuring masked magnitudes and profiles for BCG candidates in each cluster. We first identified galaxies by hand; in 15% of clusters at least one team member selected a different galaxy than the others.We also applied 6 other identification methods to the ACCEPT sample; in 30% of clusters at least one of these methods selected a different galaxy than the other methods. We then developed an algorithm that weighs brightness, profile, and proximity to the X-ray peak and centroid. This algorithm incorporates the advantages of by-hand identification (weighing multiple properties) and automated selection (repeatable and consistent). The BCG population chosen by the algorithm is more uniform in its properties than populations selected by other methods, particularly in the relation between absolute magnitude (a proxy for galaxy mass) and average gas temperature (a proxy for cluster mass). This work supported by a Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship and a Sid Jansma Summer Research Fellowship.

  3. Clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikhlinin, A. A.; Kravtsov, A. V.; Markevich, M. L.; Sunyaev, R. A.; Churazov, E. M.

    2014-04-01

    Galaxy clusters are formed via nonlinear growth of primordial density fluctuations and are the most massive gravitationally bound objects in the present Universe. Their number density at different epochs and their properties depend strongly on the properties of dark matter and dark energy, making clusters a powerful tool for observational cosmology. Observations of the hot gas filling the gravitational potential well of a cluster allows studying gasdynamic and plasma effects and the effect of supermassive black holes on the heating and cooling of gas on cluster scales. The work of Yakov Borisovich Zeldovich has had a profound impact on virtually all cosmological and astrophysical studies of galaxy clusters, introducing concepts such as the Harrison-Zeldovich spectrum, the Zeldovich approximation, baryon acoustic peaks, and the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Here, we review the most basic properties of clusters and their role in modern astrophysics and cosmology.

  4. Cosmology with galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartoris, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    Clusters of galaxies are powerful probes to constrain parameters that describe the cosmological models and to distinguish among different models. Since, the evolution of the cluster mass function and large-scale clustering contain the informations about the linear growth rate of perturbations and the expansion history of the Universe, clusters have played an important role in establishing the current cosmological paradigm. It is crucial to know how to determine the cluster mass from observational quantities when using clusters as cosmological tools. For this, numerical simulations are helpful to define and study robust cluster mass proxies that have minimal and well understood scatter across the mass and redshift ranges of interest. Additionally, the bias in cluster mass determination can be constrained via observations of the strong and weak lensing effect, X-ray emission, the Sunyaev- Zel’dovic effect, and the dynamics of galaxies.A major advantage of X-ray surveys is that the observable-mass relation is tight. Moreover, clusters can be easily identified in X-ray as continuous, extended sources. As of today, interesting cosmological constraints have been obtained from relatively small cluster samples (~102), X-ray selected by the ROSAT satellite over a wide redshift range (0clusters, the ROSAT All-Sky Survey.The next generation of X-ray telescopes will enhance the statistics of detected clusters and enlarge their redshift coverage. In particular, eROSITA will produce a catalog of >105 clusters with photometric redshifts from multi-band optical surveys (e.g. PanSTARRS, DES, and LSST). This will vastly improve upon current cosmological constraints, especially by the synergy with other cluster surveys that

  5. The origin of galaxies and clusters of galaxies.

    PubMed

    Peebles, P J

    1984-06-29

    Debate on how galaxies and clusters of galaxies formed has reached an interesting stage at which one can find arguments for quite different scenarios. The galaxy distribution has a complex "frothy" character that could be the fossil of a network of protoclusters or pancakes that produced galaxies. However, there are galaxies like our own that seem never to have been in a protocluster but are physically similar to the galaxies in dense clusters. Some clues to be assessed in resolving this dilemma are the possible existence of galaxy filaments, the relative ages of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, and the continuity between cluster and field galaxies and between galaxies and clusters of galaxies.

  6. The Assembly of Galaxy Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Berrier, Joel C.; Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Purcell, Chris W.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2008-05-16

    We study the formation of fifty-three galaxy cluster-size dark matter halos (M = 10{sup 14.0-14.76} M{sub {circle_dot}}) formed within a pair of cosmological {Lambda}CDM N-body simulations, and track the accretion histories of cluster subhalos with masses large enough to host {approx} 0.1L{sub *} galaxies. By associating subhalos with cluster galaxies, we find the majority of galaxies in clusters experience no 'pre-processing' in the group environment prior to their accretion into the cluster. On average, {approx} 70% of cluster galaxies fall into the cluster potential directly from the field, with no luminous companions in their host halos at the time of accretion; and less than {approx} 12% are accreted as members of groups with five or more galaxies. Moreover, we find that cluster galaxies are significantly less likely to have experienced a merger in the recent past ({approx}< 6 Gyr) than a field halo of the same mass. These results suggest that local, cluster processes like ram-pressure stripping, galaxy harassment, or strangulation play the dominant role in explaining the difference between cluster and field populations at a fixed stellar mass; and that pre-evolution or past merging in the group environment is of secondary importance for setting cluster galaxy properties for most clusters. The accretion times for z = 0 cluster members are quite extended, with {approx} 20% incorporated into the cluster halo more than 7 Gyr ago and {approx} 20% within the last 2 Gyr. By comparing the observed morphological fractions in cluster and field populations, we estimate an approximate time-scale for late-type to early-type transformation within the cluster environment to be {approx} 6 Gyr.

  7. THE ORIENTATION OF GALAXIES IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Godlowski, Wlodzimierz; Piwowarska, Paulina; Panko, Elena; Flin, Piotr E-mail: paoletta@interia.p E-mail: sfflin@cyf-kr.edu.p

    2010-11-10

    We present an analysis of the spatial orientations of galaxies in 247 optically selected rich Abell clusters which have at least 100 members in the considered area. We investigated the relation between angles that give information about galaxy angular momenta and the number of members in each structure. The position angles of the galaxies' major axes, as well as two angles describing the spatial orientation of the galaxy plane, were tested for isotropy by applying three different statistical tests. It is found that the values of the statistics increase with the amount of the galaxies' members, which is equivalent to the existence of a relation between anisotropy and the number of galaxies in a cluster. The search for connection between the galaxies' alignments and Bautz-Morgan (BM) morphological types of examined clusters showed a weak dependence. A statistically marginal relation between velocity dispersion and cluster richness was observed. In addition, it was found that the velocity dispersion decreases with BM type at almost 3{sigma} level. These results show the dependence of alignments with respect to clusters' richness, which can be regarded as an environmental effect.

  8. The Rotation of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovmassian, H. M.

    2015-09-01

    The method for detection of the galaxy cluster rotation based on the study of distribution of member galaxies with velocities lower and higher than the cluster mean velocity over the cluster image is proposed. The search for rotation is made for flat clusters with a/b > 1.8 and BMI type clusters which are expected to be rotating. For comparison there were studied also round clusters and clusters of NBMI type, the second by brightness galaxy, which does not differ significantly from the cluster cD galaxy. Seventeen out of studied 65 clusters are found to be rotating. It was found that the detection rate is sufficiently high for flat clusters, over 60%, and clusters of BMI type with dominant cD galaxy, ≈ 35% . The obtained results show that clusters were formed from the huge primordial gas clouds and preserved the rotation of the primordial clouds, unless they did not experience mergings with other clusters and groups of galaxies, as a result of which the rotation was prevented.

  9. Massive star clusters in galaxies.

    PubMed

    Harris, William E

    2010-02-28

    The ensemble of all star clusters in a galaxy constitutes its star cluster system. In this review, the focus of the discussion is on the ability of star clusters, particularly the systems of old massive globular clusters (GCs), to mark the early evolutionary history of galaxies. I review current themes and key findings in GC research, and highlight some of the outstanding questions that are emerging from recent work.

  10. Astrophysics of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettori, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    As the nodes of the cosmic web, clusters of galaxies trace the large-scale distribution of matter in the Universe. They are thus privileged sites in which to investigate the complex physics of structure formation. However, the complete story of how these structures grow, and how they dissipate the gravitational and non-thermal components of their energy budget over cosmic time, is still beyond our grasp. Most of the baryons gravitationally bound to the cluster's halo is in the form of a diffuse, hot, metal-enriched plasma that radiates primarily in the X-ray band. X-ray observations of the evolving cluster population provide a unique opportunity to address such fundamental open questions as: How do hot diffuse baryons accrete and dynamically evolve in dark matter potentials? How and when was the energy that we observe in the ICM generated and distributed? Where and when are heavy elements produced and how are they circulated? We will present the ongoing activities to define the strategy on how an X-ray observatory with large collecting area and an unprecedented combination of high spectral and angular resolution, such as Athena, can address these questions.

  11. Luminosity function for galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajan, K.; Biernacka, M.; Flin, P.; Godłowski, W.; Panko, E.; Popiela, J.

    2016-10-01

    We constructed and studied the luminosity function of 6188 galaxyclusters. This was performed by counting brightness of galaxiesbelonging to clusters in the PF catalogue, taking galaxy data fromMRSS. Our result shows that the investigated structures arecharacterized by a luminosity function different from that ofoptical galaxies and radiogalaxies (Machalski & Godłowski2000). The implications of this result for theoriesof galaxy formation are briefly discussed.

  12. Stormy weather in galaxy clusters

    PubMed

    Burns

    1998-04-17

    Recent x-ray, optical, and radio observations coupled with particle and gas dynamics numerical simulations reveal an unexpectedly complex environment within clusters of galaxies, driven by ongoing accretion of matter from large-scale supercluster filaments. Mergers between clusters and continuous infall of dark matter and baryons from the cluster periphery produce long-lived "stormy weather" within the gaseous cluster atmosphere-shocks, turbulence, and winds of more than 1000 kilometers per second. This weather may be responsible for shaping a rich variety of extended radio sources, which in turn act as "barometers" and "anemometers" of cluster weather.

  13. Stormy weather in galaxy clusters

    PubMed

    Burns

    1998-04-17

    Recent x-ray, optical, and radio observations coupled with particle and gas dynamics numerical simulations reveal an unexpectedly complex environment within clusters of galaxies, driven by ongoing accretion of matter from large-scale supercluster filaments. Mergers between clusters and continuous infall of dark matter and baryons from the cluster periphery produce long-lived "stormy weather" within the gaseous cluster atmosphere-shocks, turbulence, and winds of more than 1000 kilometers per second. This weather may be responsible for shaping a rich variety of extended radio sources, which in turn act as "barometers" and "anemometers" of cluster weather. PMID:9545210

  14. Seven poor clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, T. C.; Geller, M. J.; Huchra, J. P.; Latham, D. W.; Davis, R. J.

    1984-08-01

    The authors have measured 83 new redshifts for galaxies in the region of seven of the poor clusters of galaxies identified by Morgan, Kayser, and White and Albert, White, and Morgan. For three systems (MKW 1s, AWM 1, and AWM 7) complete redshift samples were obtained for galaxies brighter than mB(0) = 15.7 within 1° of the D or cD galaxy. The authors estimate masses for the clusters by applying both the virial theorem and the projected mass method. For the two clusters with the highest X-ray luminosities, the line-of-sight velocity dispersions are ≡700 km s-1, and mass-to-light ratios M/LB(0) ⪆ 400 M_sun;/L_sun;. For the five other clusters the velocity dispersions are ⪉370 km s-1, and four of the five have mass-to-light ratios ⪉250 M_sun;/L_sun;. The D or cD galaxy in each poor cluster is at the kinematic center of the system.

  15. Combining Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing and Galaxy Clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Youngsoo; Krause, Elisabeth; Dodelson, Scott; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Amara, Adam; Becker, Matt; Bridle, Sarah; Clampitt, Joseph; Crocce, Martin; Honscheid, Klaus; Gaztanaga, Enrique; Sanchez, Carles; Wechsler, Risa

    2015-01-01

    Combining galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising method for inferring the growth rate of large scale structure, a quantity that will shed light on the mechanism driving the acceleration of the Universe. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a prime candidate for such an analysis, with its measurements of both the distribution of galaxies on the sky and the tangential shears of background galaxies induced by these foreground lenses. By constructing an end-to-end analysis that combines large-scale galaxy clustering and small-scale galaxy-galaxy lensing, we also forecast the potential of a combined probes analysis on DES datasets. In particular, we develop a practical approach to a DES combined probes analysis by jointly modeling the assumptions and systematics affecting the different components of the data vector, employing a shared halo model, HOD parametrization, photometric redshift errors, and shear measurement errors. Furthermore, we study the effect of external priors on different subsets of these parameters. We conclude that DES data will provide powerful constraints on the evolution of structure growth in the universe, conservatively/ optimistically constraining the growth function to 8%/4.9% with its first-year data covering 1000 square degrees, and to 4%/2.3% with its full five-year data covering 5000 square degrees.

  16. DISTANT CLUSTER OF GALAXIES [left

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    One of the deepest images to date of the universe, taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST), reveals thousands of faint galaxies at the detection limit of present day telescopes. Peering across a large volume of the observable cosmos, Hubble resolves thousands of galaxies from five to twelve billion light-years away. The light from these remote objects has taken billions of years to cross the expanding universe, making these distant galaxies fossil evidence' of events that happened when the universe was one-third its present age. A fraction of the galaxies in this image belong to a cluster located nine billion light-years away. Though the field of view (at the cluster's distance) is only two million light-years across, it contains a multitude of fragmentary objects. (By comparison, the two million light-years between our Milky Way galaxy and its nearest large companion galaxy, in the constellation Andromeda, is essentially empty space!) Very few of the cluster's members are recognizable as normal spiral galaxies (like our Milky Way), although some elongated members might be edge-on disks. Among this zoo of odd galaxies are ``tadpole-like'' objects, disturbed and apparently merging systems dubbed 'train-wrecks,' and a multitude of faint, tiny shards and fragments, dwarf galaxies or possibly an unknown population of objects. However, the cluster also contains red galaxies that resemble mature examples of today's elliptical galaxies. Their red color comes from older stars that must have formed shortly after the Big Bang. The image is the full field view of the Wide Field and Planetary Camera-2. The picture was taken in intervals between May 11 and June 15, 1994 and required an 18-hour long exposure, over 32 orbits of HST, to reveal objects down to 29th magnitude. [bottom right] A close up view of the peculiar radio galaxy 3C324 used to locate the cluster. The galaxy is nine billion light-years away as measured by its spectral redshift (z=1.2), and located in the

  17. Percolation technique for galaxy clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Shandarin, Sergei F.

    1993-01-01

    We study percolation in mass and galaxy distributions obtained in 3D simulations of the CDM, C + HDM, and the power law (n = -1) models in the Omega = 1 universe. Percolation statistics is used here as a quantitative measure of the degree to which a mass or galaxy distribution is of a filamentary or cellular type. The very fast code used calculates the statistics of clusters along with the direct detection of percolation. We found that the two parameters mu(infinity), characterizing the size of the largest cluster, and mu-squared, characterizing the weighted mean size of all clusters excluding the largest one, are extremely useful for evaluating the percolation threshold. An advantage of using these parameters is their low sensitivity to boundary effects. We show that both the CDM and the C + HDM models are extremely filamentary both in mass and galaxy distribution. The percolation thresholds for the mass distributions are determined.

  18. Galaxy Cluster Smashes Distance Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-10-01

    he most distant galaxy cluster yet has been discovered by combining data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and optical and infrared telescopes. The cluster is located about 10.2 billion light years away, and is observed as it was when the Universe was only about a quarter of its present age. The galaxy cluster, known as JKCS041, beats the previous record holder by about a billion light years. Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound objects in the Universe. Finding such a large structure at this very early epoch can reveal important information about how the Universe evolved at this crucial stage. JKCS041 is found at the cusp of when scientists think galaxy clusters can exist in the early Universe based on how long it should take for them to assemble. Therefore, studying its characteristics - such as composition, mass, and temperature - will reveal more about how the Universe took shape. "This object is close to the distance limit expected for a galaxy cluster," said Stefano Andreon of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) in Milan, Italy. "We don't think gravity can work fast enough to make galaxy clusters much earlier." Distant galaxy clusters are often detected first with optical and infrared observations that reveal their component galaxies dominated by old, red stars. JKCS041 was originally detected in 2006 in a survey from the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT). The distance to the cluster was then determined from optical and infrared observations from UKIRT, the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope in Hawaii and NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. Infrared observations are important because the optical light from the galaxies at large distances is shifted into infrared wavelengths because of the expansion of the universe. The Chandra data were the final - but crucial - piece of evidence as they showed that JKCS041 was, indeed, a genuine galaxy cluster. The extended X-ray emission seen by Chandra shows that hot gas has been detected

  19. Combining cluster number counts and galaxy clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacasa, Fabien; Rosenfeld, Rogerio

    2016-08-01

    The abundance of clusters and the clustering of galaxies are two of the important cosmological probes for current and future large scale surveys of galaxies, such as the Dark Energy Survey. In order to combine them one has to account for the fact that they are not independent quantities, since they probe the same density field. It is important to develop a good understanding of their correlation in order to extract parameter constraints. We present a detailed modelling of the joint covariance matrix between cluster number counts and the galaxy angular power spectrum. We employ the framework of the halo model complemented by a Halo Occupation Distribution model (HOD). We demonstrate the importance of accounting for non-Gaussianity to produce accurate covariance predictions. Indeed, we show that the non-Gaussian covariance becomes dominant at small scales, low redshifts or high cluster masses. We discuss in particular the case of the super-sample covariance (SSC), including the effects of galaxy shot-noise, halo second order bias and non-local bias. We demonstrate that the SSC obeys mathematical inequalities and positivity. Using the joint covariance matrix and a Fisher matrix methodology, we examine the prospects of combining these two probes to constrain cosmological and HOD parameters. We find that the combination indeed results in noticeably better constraints, with improvements of order 20% on cosmological parameters compared to the best single probe, and even greater improvement on HOD parameters, with reduction of error bars by a factor 1.4-4.8. This happens in particular because the cross-covariance introduces a synergy between the probes on small scales. We conclude that accounting for non-Gaussian effects is required for the joint analysis of these observables in galaxy surveys.

  20. Decaying neutrinos in galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melott, Adrian L.; Splinter, Randall J.; Persic, Massimo; Salucci, Paolo

    1994-01-01

    Davidsen et al. (1991) have argued that the failure to detect UV photons from the dark matter (DM) in cluster A665 excludes the decaying neutrino hypothesis. Sciama et al. (1993) argued that because of high central concentration the DM in that cluster must be baryonic. We study the DM profile in clusters of galaxies simulated using the Harrison-Zel'dovich spectrum of density fluctuations, and an amplitude previously derived from numerical simulations (Melott 1984b; Anninos et al. 1991) and in agreement with microwave background fluctuations (Smoot et al. 1992). We find that with this amplitude normalization cluster neutrino DM densities are comparable to observed cluster DM values. We conclude that given this normalization, the cluster DM should be at least largely composed of neutrinos. The constraint of Davidsen et al. can be somewhat weakened by the presence of baryonic DM; but it cannot be eliminated given our assumptions.

  1. Galaxy clustering on large scales.

    PubMed

    Efstathiou, G

    1993-06-01

    I describe some recent observations of large-scale structure in the galaxy distribution. The best constraints come from two-dimensional galaxy surveys and studies of angular correlation functions. Results from galaxy redshift surveys are much less precise but are consistent with the angular correlations, provided the distortions in mapping between real-space and redshift-space are relatively weak. The galaxy two-point correlation function, rich-cluster two-point correlation function, and galaxy-cluster cross-correlation function are all well described on large scales ( greater, similar 20h-1 Mpc, where the Hubble constant, H0 = 100h km.s-1.Mpc; 1 pc = 3.09 x 10(16) m) by the power spectrum of an initially scale-invariant, adiabatic, cold-dark-matter Universe with Gamma = Omegah approximately 0.2. I discuss how this fits in with the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite detection of large-scale anisotropies in the microwave background radiation and other measures of large-scale structure in the Universe.

  2. Decaying neutrinos in galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melott, Adrian L.; Splinter, Randall J.; Persic, Massimo; Salucci, Paolo

    1993-01-01

    The DM profile in clusters of galaxies was studied and simulated using the Harrison-Zel'dovich spectrum of density fluctuations, and an amplitude previously derived from numerical simulations and in agreement with microwave background fluctuations. Neutrino DM densities, with this amplitude normalization cluster, are comparable to observed cluster DM values. It was concluded that given this normalization, the cluster DM should be al least largely composed of neutrinos. The constraint of Davidson et al., who argued that the failure to detect uv photons from the dark matter (DM) in cluster A665 excludes the decaying neutrino hypothesis, could be somewhat weakened by the presence of baryonic DM; but it cannot be eliminated given our assumptions.

  3. The Origin of the Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinski, John

    1998-07-01

    Most clusters and groups of galaxies contain a giant elliptical galaxy in their centers that far outshines and outweighs normal ellipticals. The origin of these brightest cluster galaxies is intimately related to the collapse and formation of the cluster. Using an N-body simulation of a cluster of galaxies in a hierarchical cosmological model, we show that galaxy merging naturally produces a massive central galaxy with surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles similar to those of observed BCGs. To enhance the resolution of the simulation, 100 dark halos at z = 2 are replaced with self-consistent disk + bulge + halo galaxy models following a Tully-Fisher relation using 100,000 particles for the 20 largest galaxies and 10,000 particles for the remaining ones. This technique allows us to analyze the stellar and dark-matter components independently. The central galaxy forms through the merger of several massive galaxies along a filament early in the cluster's history. Galactic cannibalism of smaller galaxies through dynamical friction over a Hubble time only accounts for a small fraction of the accreted mass. The galaxy is a flattened, triaxial object whose long axis aligns with the primordial filament and the long axis of the cluster galaxy distribution, agreeing with observed trends for galaxy cluster alignment.

  4. Understanding Galaxy Cluster MKW10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Tim; Henry, Swain; Coble, Kimberly A.; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team (UAT), we are studying the galaxy cluster MKW 10 (RA = 175.454, Dec = 10.306, z ~ 0.02), a poor cluster with a compact core in which tidal interactions have occurred. This cluster has been observed in HI and Hα. We used SDSS and NED to search for optical counterparts. By comparing data at multiple wavelengths, we hope to understand the structure, environment, and star formation history of this cluster. Following the techniques of others involved in the groups project and using the program TOPCAT to manipulate the data, we explored both the spatial and velocity distributions to determine cluster membership. We have determined that this cluster consists of 11 galaxies, mostly spiral in shape. Chicago State University is new the UAT and we began our work after taking part in the winter workshop at Arecibo.This work was supported by: Undergraduate ALFALFA Team NSF Grant AST-1211005 and the Illinois Space Grant Consortium.

  5. Color and magnitude dependence of galaxy clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Volker

    2016-10-01

    A quantitative study of the clustering properties of galaxies in the cosmic web as a function of absolute magnitude and colour is presented using the SDSS Data Release 7 galaxy redshift survey. We compare our results with mock galaxy samples obtained with four different semi-analytical models of galaxy formation imposed on the merger trees of the Millenium simulation.

  6. Lopsidedness of cluster galaxies in modified gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xufen; Zhao, HongSheng; Famaey, Benoit E-mail: hz4@st-andrews.ac.uk

    2010-06-01

    We point out an interesting theoretical prediction for elliptical galaxies residing inside galaxy clusters in the framework of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND), that could be used to test this paradigm. Apart from the central brightest cluster galaxy, other galaxies close enough to the centre experience a strong gravitational influence from the other galaxies of the cluster. This influence manifests itself only as tides in standard Newtonian gravity, meaning that the systematic acceleration of the centre of mass of the galaxy has no consequence. However, in the context of MOND, a consequence of the breaking of the strong equivalence principle is that the systematic acceleration changes the own self-gravity of the galaxy. We show here that, in this framework, initially axisymmetric elliptical galaxies become lopsided along the external field's direction, and that the centroid of the galaxy, defined by the outer density contours, is shifted by a few hundreds parsecs with respect to the densest point.

  7. Nature of multiple-nucleus cluster galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, D.

    1984-05-01

    In models for the evolution of galaxy clusters which include dynamical friction with the dark binding matter, the distribution of galaxies becomes more concentrated to the cluster center with time. In a cluster like Coma, this evolution could increase by a factor of approximately 3 the probability of finding a galaxy very close to the cluster center, without decreasing the typical velocity of such a galaxy significantly below the cluster mean. Such an enhancement is roughly what is needed to explain the large number of first-ranked cluster galaxies which are observed to have extra ''nuclei''; it is also consistent with the high velocities typically measured for these ''nuclei.'' Unlike the cannibalism model, this model predicts that the majority of multiple-nucleus systems are transient phenomena, and not galaxies in the process of merging.

  8. Galaxy Evolution in Clusters Since z ~ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragón-Salamanca, A.

    Galaxy clusters provide some of the most extreme environments in which galaxies evolve, making them excellent laboratories to study the age old question of "nature" vs. "nurture" in galaxy evolution. Here I review some of the key observational results obtained during the last decade on the evolution of the morphology, structure, dynamics, star-formation history and stellar populations of cluster galaxies since the time when the Universe was half its present age. Many of the results presented here have been obtained within the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS) and Space Telescope A901/02 Galaxy Evolution Survey (STAGES) collaborations.

  9. Galaxy evolution in clusters since z~1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso

    2010-09-01

    Galaxy clusters provide some of the most extreme environments in which galaxies evolve, making them excellent laboratories to study the age old question of "nature" vs. "nurture" in galaxy evolution. Here I review some of the key observational results obtained during the last decade on the evolution of the morphology, structure, dynamics, star-formation history and stellar populations of cluster galaxies since the time when the universe was half its present age. Many of the results presented here have been obtained within the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS) and Space Telescope A901/02 Galaxy Evolution Survey (STAGES) collaborations.

  10. Hot outflows in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, C. C.; McNamara, B. R.

    2015-10-01

    The gas-phase metallicity distribution has been analysed for the hot atmospheres of 29 galaxy clusters using Chandra X-ray Observatory observations. All host brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) with X-ray cavity systems produced by radio AGN. We find high elemental abundances projected preferentially along the cavities of 16 clusters. The metal-rich plasma was apparently lifted out of the BCGs with the rising X-ray cavities (bubbles) to altitudes between twenty and several hundred kiloparsecs. A relationship between the maximum projected altitude of the uplifted gas (the `iron radius') and jet power is found with the form R_Fe ∝ P_jet^{0.45}. The estimated outflow rates are typically tens of solar masses per year but exceed 100 M⊙ yr- 1 in the most powerful AGN. The outflow rates are 10-20 per cent of the cooling rates, and thus alone are unable to offset a cooling inflow. Nevertheless, hot outflows effectively redistribute the cooling gas and may play a significant role at regulating star formation and AGN activity in BCGs and presumably in giant elliptical galaxies. The metallicity distribution overall can be complex, perhaps due to metal-rich gas returning in circulation flows or being blown around in the hot atmospheres. Roughly 15 per cent of the work done by the cavities is expended lifting the metal-enriched gas, implying their nuclear black holes have increased in mass by at least ˜107-109 M⊙. Finally, we show that hot outflows can account for the broad, gas-phase metallicity distribution compared to the stellar light profiles of BCGs, and we consider a possible connection between hot outflows and cold molecular gas flows discovered in recent Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations.

  11. Investigations of Galaxy Clusters Using Gravitational Lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesner, Matthew P.

    2014-08-01

    In this dissertation, we discuss the properties of galaxy clusters that have been determined using strong and weak gravitational lensing. A galaxy cluster is a collection of galaxies that are bound together by the force of gravity, while gravitational lensing is the bending of light by gravity. Strong lensing is the formation of arcs or rings of light surrounding clusters and weak lensing is a change in the apparent shapes of many galaxies. In this work we examine the properties of several samples of galaxy clusters using gravitational lensing. In Chapter 1 we introduce astrophysical theory of galaxy clusters and gravitational lensing. In Chapter 2 we examine evidence from our data that galaxy clusters are more concentrated than cosmology would predict. In Chapter 3 we investigate whether our assumptions about the number of galaxies in our clusters was valid by examining new data. In Chapter 4 we describe a determination of a relationship between mass and number of galaxies in a cluster at higher redshift than has been found before. In Chapter 5 we describe a model of the mass distribution in one of the ten lensing systems discovered by our group at Fermilab. Finally in Chapter 6 we summarize our conclusions.

  12. The environments of poor clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliton, Mark Alan

    Poor clusters of galaxies are fundamental cosmological structures, but have received relatively little attention compared to rich, Abell clusters. In order to fully understand galaxy clustering, we must examine galaxy associations of all masses and richness levels. We have therefore undertaken an X-ray, optical, and radio investigation of the environments of poor clusters, in order to understand how their galaxies, radio sources, and intracluster media influence and interact with one another. To examine the global properties of poor clusters as observed in these three wavelength regimes, we have utilized three major sky surveys: the ROSAT All-Sky Survey, the Digitized Sky Survey, and the NRAO VLA Sky Survey. For the purposes of this study, we construct a complete, volume-limited sample of 306 poor clusters in the redshift range 0.01--0.03. We compute the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of poor clusters and compare to XLFs of nearby, rich, Abell clusters. We also compute the bivariate radio luminosity function (BRLF), which is the fraction of radio-loud galaxies of a given optical magnitude. Higher richness clusters produce increased AGN activity in M* galaxies. We find that only clusters with an elliptical as their dominant galaxy possess an ICM. This implies that the presence of a dominant elliptical at the center of a poor cluster is more closely linked to the presence of an ICM than the overall morphological mix of the cluster galaxies. We also find a strong anti-correlation between richness and the fraction of starburst radio galaxies in poor clusters. There may be two factors which contribute to this anti-correlation. For richer clusters, the ICM density may be sufficiently strong that it can strip gas from starforming galaxies, thereby reducing the level of star formation in richer systems. Conversely, the poorest clusters contain higher galaxy compactness, which results in smaller nearest-neighbor distances between galaxies. These smaller galaxy separations

  13. Photometric Properties of Galaxies in Poor Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Prabhu, T.

    We study several statistical properties of galaxies in four poor clusters of galaxies using optical photometry. We select these poor clusters as luminous, extended X-ray sources identified with poor galaxy systems in the EMSS catalogue of clusters of galaxies. The clusters are at moderate redshifts (0.08galaxy populations are clearly evolved, as traced by the tightness of their color--magnitude relations and accordance of the latter with those of the Virgo Cluster. The fraction of blue galaxies is similar to those of low-redshift richness 0 clusters and higher than those of richer clusters at similar redshifts. The luminosity functions (LFs) of the individual clusters are not significantly different from each other. Using these, we construct composite LFs in B, V , and R bands (to MV=-18). The faint-end of these LFs are flat, like the V-band LF of other (e.g., MKW/AWM) poor clusters, but steeper than the field LF in the R-band. In terms of the statistical properties of their member galaxies, poor clusters appear to be lower-mass extensions of their rich counterparts.

  14. STAR CLUSTERS IN PSEUDOBULGES OF SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Di Nino, Daiana; Trenti, Michele; Stiavelli, Massimo; Carollo, C. Marcella; Scarlata, Claudia; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    2009-11-15

    We present a study of the properties of the star-cluster systems around pseudobulges of late-type spiral galaxies using a sample of 11 galaxies with distances from 17 Mpc to 37 Mpc. Star clusters are identified from multiband Hubble Space Telescope ACS and WFPC2 imaging data by combining detections in three bands (F435W and F814W with ACS and F606W with WFPC2). The photometric data are then compared to population synthesis models to infer the masses and ages of the star clusters. Photometric errors and completeness are estimated by means of artificial source Monte Carlo simulations. Dust extinction is estimated by considering F160W NICMOS observations of the central regions of the galaxies, augmenting our wavelength coverage. In all galaxies we identify star clusters with a wide range of ages, from young (age {approx}< 8 Myr) blue clusters, with typical mass of 10{sup 3} M {sub sun} to older (age >100-250 Myr), more massive, red clusters. Some of the latter might likely evolve into objects similar to the Milky Way's globular clusters. We compute the specific frequencies for the older clusters with respect to the galaxy and bulge luminosities. Specific frequencies relative to the galaxy light appear consistent with the globular cluster specific frequencies of early-type spirals. We compare the specific frequencies relative to the bulge light with the globular cluster specific frequencies of dwarf galaxies, which have a surface brightness profile that is similar to that of the pseudobulges in our sample. The specific frequencies we derive for our sample galaxies are higher than those of the dwarf galaxies, supporting an evolutionary scenario in which some of the dwarf galaxies might be the remnants of harassed late-type spiral galaxies that hosted a pseudobulge.

  15. Galaxy and mass assembly (GAMA): projected galaxy clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrow, D. J.; Cole, Shaun; Norberg, Peder; Metcalfe, N.; Baldry, I.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brown, Michael J. I.; Hopkins, A. M.; Lacey, Cedric G.; Liske, J.; Loveday, Jon; Palamara, David P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Sridhar, Srivatsan

    2015-12-01

    We measure the projected two-point correlation function of galaxies in the 180 deg2 equatorial regions of the GAMA II survey, for four different redshift slices between z = 0.0 and 0.5. To do this, we further develop the Cole method of producing suitable random catalogues for the calculation of correlation functions. We find that more r-band luminous, more massive and redder galaxies are more clustered. We also find that red galaxies have stronger clustering on scales less than ˜3 h-1 Mpc. We compare to two different versions of the GALFORM galaxy formation model, Lacey et al. (in preparation) and Gonzalez-Perez et al., and find that the models reproduce the trend of stronger clustering for more massive galaxies. However, the models underpredict the clustering of blue galaxies, can incorrectly predict the correlation function on small scales and underpredict the clustering in our sample of galaxies with {˜ } 3 Lr^*. We suggest possible avenues to explore to improve these clustering predictions. The measurements presented in this paper can be used to test other galaxy formation models, and we make the measurements available online to facilitate this.

  16. Clustering of galaxies in brane world models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameeda, Mir; Faizal, Mir; Ali, Ahmed Farag

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we analyze the clustering of galaxies using a modified Newtonian potential. This modification of the Newtonian potential occurs due to the existence of extra dimensions in brane world models. We will analyze a system of galaxies interacting with each other through this modified Newtonian potential. The partition function for this system of galaxies will be calculated, and this partition function will be used to calculate the free energy of this system of galaxies. The entropy and the chemical potential for this system will also be calculated. We will derive explicit expression for the clustering parameter for this system. This parameter will determine the behavior of this system, and we will be able to express various thermodynamic quantities using this clustering parameter. Thus, we will be able to explicitly analyze the effect that modifying the Newtonian potential can have on the clustering of galaxies. We also analyse the effect of extra dimensions on the two-point functions between galaxies.

  17. Star formation and substructure in galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Seth A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Wegner, Gary A.; Einasto, Maret; Vennik, Jaan

    2014-03-10

    We investigate the relationship between star formation (SF) and substructure in a sample of 107 nearby galaxy clusters using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Several past studies of individual galaxy clusters have suggested that cluster mergers enhance cluster SF, while others find no such relationship. The SF fraction in multi-component clusters (0.228 ± 0.007) is higher than that in single-component clusters (0.175 ± 0.016) for galaxies with M{sub r}{sup 0.1}<−20.5. In both single- and multi-component clusters, the fraction of star-forming galaxies increases with clustercentric distance and decreases with local galaxy number density, and multi-component clusters show a higher SF fraction than single-component clusters at almost all clustercentric distances and local densities. Comparing the SF fraction in individual clusters to several statistical measures of substructure, we find weak, but in most cases significant at greater than 2σ, correlations between substructure and SF fraction. These results could indicate that cluster mergers may cause weak but significant SF enhancement in clusters, or unrelaxed clusters exhibit slightly stronger SF due to their less evolved states relative to relaxed clusters.

  18. THE STRUCTURE OF 2MASS GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburne, Jeffrey A.; Kochanek, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    We use a sample of galaxies from the Two Micron All Sky Survey Extended Source Catalog to refine a matched filter method of finding galaxy clusters that takes into account each galaxy's position, magnitude, and redshift if available. The matched filter postulates a radial density profile, luminosity function, and line-of-sight velocity distribution for cluster galaxies. We use this method to search for clusters in the galaxy catalog, which is complete to an extinction-corrected K-band magnitude of 13.25 and has spectroscopic redshifts for roughly 40% of the galaxies, including nearly all brighter than K = 11.25. We then use a stacking analysis to determine the average luminosity function, radial distribution, and velocity distribution of cluster galaxies in several richness classes, and use the results to update the parameters of the matched filter before repeating the cluster search. We also investigate the correlations between a cluster's richness and its velocity dispersion and core radius using these relations to refine priors that are applied during the cluster search process. After the second cluster search iteration, we repeat the stacking analysis. We find a cluster galaxy luminosity function that fits a Schechter form, with parameters M{sub K*} - 5log h = -23.64 {+-} 0.04 and {alpha} = -1.07 {+-} 0.03. We can achieve a slightly better fit to our luminosity function by adding a Gaussian component on the bright end to represent the brightest cluster galaxy population. The radial number density profile of galaxies closely matches a projected Navarro-Frenk-White profile at intermediate radii, with deviations at small radii due to well-known cluster centering issues and outside the virial radius due to correlated structure. The velocity distributions are Gaussian in shape, with velocity dispersions that correlate strongly with richness.

  19. ORIENTATION OF BRIGHTER GALAXIES IN NEARBY GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Panko, E.; Juszczyk, T.; Flin, P. E-mail: sfflin@cyf-kr.edu.pl

    2009-12-15

    A sample of 6188 nearby galaxy structures, complete to r{sub F} = 18fm3 and containing at least 10 members each, was the observational basis for an investigation of the alignment of bright galaxies with the major axes for the parent clusters. The distribution of position angles for galaxies within the clusters, specifically the brightest, the second brightest, the third, and the tenth brightest galaxies was tested for isotropy. Galaxy position angles appear to be distributed isotropically, as are the distributions of underlying cluster structure position angles. The characterization of galaxy structures according to richness class also appears to be isotropic. Characterization according to BM types, which are known for 1056 clusters, is more interesting. Only in the case of clusters of BM type I is there an alignment of the brightest cluster member with the major axis of the parent cluster. The effect is observed at the 2 significance level. In other investigated cases the distributions are isotropic. The results confirm the special role of cD galaxies in the origin/evolution of large-scale structures.

  20. Spiral Galaxies in MKW/AWM Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Barbara A.

    1997-03-01

    Observations have been made of the neutral hydrogen content of more than 170 galaxies within MKW 4, MKW 7, MKW 8, MKW 9, MKW 11, AWM 1, AWM 3, AWM 4, and AWM 5. This sample of nine clusters is representative of the general class of poor clusters identified by MKW and AWM in that they all contain D-- or cD--like dominant galaxies at their dynamical centers. We examine the neutral hydrogen (HI) content of the spiral members in these systems as a function of the local and global properties of the cluster, i.e., galaxy density, x-ray intra cluster gas pressure, x-ray and optical luminosities, and compare our findings with the HI properties of similar galaxies in rich clusters and loose groups of galaxies.

  1. Observing dynamical friction in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Susmita; Dalal, Neal; Clampitt, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    We present a novel method to detect the effects of dynamical friction in observed galaxy clusters. Following accretion into clusters, massive satellite galaxies will backsplash to systematically smaller radii than less massive satellites, an effect that may be detected by stacking the number density profiles of galaxies around clusters. We show that this effect may be understood using a simple toy model which reproduces the trends with halo properties observed in simulations. We search for this effect using SDSS redMaPPer clusters with richness 10 < λ < 20, and find that bright (Mi < ‑21.5) satellites have smaller splashback radii than fainter (Mi > ‑20) satellites at 99% confidence.

  2. Record-breaking ancient galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-12-01

    A tale of two record-breaking clusters hi-res Size hi-res: 768 kb Credits: for RDCS1252: NASA, ESA, J.Blakeslee (Johns Hopkins Univ.), M.Postman (Space Telescope Science Inst.) and P.Rosati, Chris Lidman & Ricardo Demarco (European Southern Observ.) for TNJ1338: NASA, ESA, G.Miley (Leiden Observ.) and R.Overzier (Leiden Obs) A tale of two record-breaking clusters Looking back in time to when the universe was in its formative youth, the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope captured these revealing images of two galaxy clusters. The image at left, which is made with an additional infrared exposure taken with the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope, shows mature galaxies in a massive cluster that existed when the cosmos was 5000 million years old. The cluster, called RDCS1252.9-2927, is as massive as ‘300 trillion’ suns and is the most massive known cluster for its epoch. The image reveals the core of the cluster and is part of a much larger mosaic of the entire cluster. Dominating the core are a pair of large, reddish elliptical galaxies [near centre of image]. Their red colour indicates an older population of stars. Most of the stars are at least 1000 million years old. The two galaxies appear to be interacting and may eventually merge to form a larger galaxy that is comparable to the brightest galaxies seen in present-day clusters. The red galaxies surrounding the central pair are also cluster members. The cluster probably contains many thousands of galaxies, but only about 50 can be seen in this image. The full mosaic (heic0313d) reveals several hundred cluster members. Many of the other galaxies in the image, including several of the blue galaxies, are foreground or background galaxies. The colour-composite image was assembled from two observations (through i and z filters) taken between May and June 2002 by the ACS Wide Field Camera, and one image with the ISAAC instrument on the VLT taken in 2002

  3. Reconstructing galaxy histories from globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Michael J.; Côté, Patrick; Marzke, Ronald O.; Jordán, Andrés

    2004-01-01

    Nearly a century after the true nature of galaxies as distant `island universes' was established, their origin and evolution remain great unsolved problems of modern astrophysics. One of the most promising ways to investigate galaxy formation is to study the ubiquitous globular star clusters that surround most galaxies. Globular clusters are compact groups of up to a few million stars. They generally formed early in the history of the Universe, but have survived the interactions and mergers that alter substantially their parent galaxies. Recent advances in our understanding of the globular cluster systems of the Milky Way and other galaxies point to a complex picture of galaxy genesis driven by cannibalism, collisions, bursts of star formation and other tumultuous events.

  4. Reconstructing galaxy histories from globular clusters.

    PubMed

    West, Michael J; Côté, Patrick; Marzke, Ronald O; Jordán, Andrés

    2004-01-01

    Nearly a century after the true nature of galaxies as distant 'island universes' was established, their origin and evolution remain great unsolved problems of modern astrophysics. One of the most promising ways to investigate galaxy formation is to study the ubiquitous globular star clusters that surround most galaxies. Globular clusters are compact groups of up to a few million stars. They generally formed early in the history of the Universe, but have survived the interactions and mergers that alter substantially their parent galaxies. Recent advances in our understanding of the globular cluster systems of the Milky Way and other galaxies point to a complex picture of galaxy genesis driven by cannibalism, collisions, bursts of star formation and other tumultuous events. PMID:14702077

  5. Reconstructing galaxy histories from globular clusters.

    PubMed

    West, Michael J; Côté, Patrick; Marzke, Ronald O; Jordán, Andrés

    2004-01-01

    Nearly a century after the true nature of galaxies as distant 'island universes' was established, their origin and evolution remain great unsolved problems of modern astrophysics. One of the most promising ways to investigate galaxy formation is to study the ubiquitous globular star clusters that surround most galaxies. Globular clusters are compact groups of up to a few million stars. They generally formed early in the history of the Universe, but have survived the interactions and mergers that alter substantially their parent galaxies. Recent advances in our understanding of the globular cluster systems of the Milky Way and other galaxies point to a complex picture of galaxy genesis driven by cannibalism, collisions, bursts of star formation and other tumultuous events.

  6. Galaxy evolution in clusters since z=1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragón-Salamanca, A.

    2011-11-01

    It is now 30 years since Alan Dressler published his seminal paper onthe morphology-density relation. Although there is still much to learnon the effect of the environment on galaxy evolution, extensive progress has been made since then both observationally and theoretically.Galaxy clusters provide some of the most extreme environments in which galaxies evolve, making them excellent laboratories to study the age old question of "nature'' vs. "nurture'' in galaxy evolution. Here I review some of the key observational results obtained during the last decade on the evolution of the morphology, structure, dynamics, star-formation history and stellar populations of cluster galaxies since the time when the universe was half its present age.Many of the results presented here have been obtainedwithin the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS) and Space Telescope A901/02 Galaxy Evolution Survey (STAGES) collaborations.

  7. Galaxy Clustering Around Nearby Luminous Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Karl B.; Bahcall, John N.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Schneider, Donald P.

    1996-01-01

    We examine the clustering of galaxies around a sample of 20 luminous low redshift (z approx. less than 0.30) quasars observed with the Wide Field Camera-2 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST resolution makes possible galaxy identification brighter than V = 24.5 and as close as 1 min or 2 min to the quasar. We find a significant enhancement of galaxies within a projected separation of approx. less than 100 1/h kpc of the quasars. If we model the QSO/galaxy correlation function as a power law with a slope given by the galaxy/galaxy correlation function, we find that the ratio of the QSO/galaxy to galaxy/galaxy correlation functions is 3.8 +/- 0.8. The galaxy counts within r less than 15 1/h kpc of the quasars are too high for the density profile to have an appreciable core radius (approx. greater than 100 1/h kpc). Our results reinforce the idea that low redshift quasars are located preferentially in groups of 10-20 galaxies rather than in rich clusters. We see no significant difference in the clustering amplitudes derived from radio-loud and radio-quiet subsamples.

  8. Photometric Properties of Poor Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Prabhu, T. P.

    2002-12-01

    We study several statistical properties of galaxies in four poor clusters of galaxies using multi-color optical photometry obtained at the Vainu Bappu Telescope, India. The clusters, selected from the EMSS Catalog, are at moderate redshifts (0.08 < z < 0.25), of equivalent Abell richness R=0, and appear to be dynamically young. The early-type galaxy populations are clearly evolved, as traced by the tightness of the color-magnitude relations and the accordance of the latter with those of the Virgo cluster. The blue galaxy fractions are similar to those of R=0 clusters and higher than those of richer clusters at similar redshifts. The composite luminosity functions (LFs) in B, V, and R bands are flat at the faint end, similar to the V-band LF derived by Yamagata & Maehara for other (MKW/AWM) poor clusters but steeper than the R-band field LF derived by Lin et al. In terms of the statistical properties of their member galaxies, poor clusters appear to be lower-mass extensions of their rich counterparts. The brightest galaxies of three of these poor clusters appear to be luminous ellipticals with no incontrovertible signatures of a halo. It is likely that they were formed from multiple mergers early in the history of the clusters.

  9. On the clustering of faint red galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haojie; Zheng, Zheng; Guo, Hong; Zhu, Ju; Zehavi, Idit

    2016-08-01

    Faint red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey show a puzzling clustering pattern in previous measurements. In the two-point correlation function (2PCF), they appear to be strongly clustered on small scales, indicating a tendency to reside in massive haloes as satellite galaxies. However, their weak clustering on large scales suggests that they are more likely to be found in low-mass haloes. The interpretation of the clustering pattern suffers from the large sample variance in the 2PCF measurements, given the small volume of the volume-limited sample of such faint galaxies. We present improved clustering measurements of faint galaxies by making a full use of a flux-limited sample to obtain volume-limited measurements with an increased effective volume. In the improved 2PCF measurements, the fractional uncertainties on large scales drop by more than 40 per cent, and the strong contrast between small-scale and large-scale clustering amplitudes seen in previous work is no longer prominent. From halo occupation distribution modelling of the measurements, we find that a considerable fraction of faint red galaxies to be satellites in massive haloes, a scenario supported by the strong covariance of small-scale 2PCF measurements and the relative spatial distribution of faint red galaxies and luminous galaxies. However, the satellite fraction is found to be degenerate with the slope of the distribution profile of satellites in inner haloes. We compare the modelling results with semi-analytic model predictions and discuss the implications.

  10. The dwarf galaxy population of nearby galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisker, Thorsten; Wittmann, Carolin; Pak, Mina; Janz, Joachim; Bialas, Daniel; Peletier, Reynier; Grebel, Eva; Falcon Barroso, Jesus; Toloba, Elisa; Smakced Collaboration, Focus Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Fornax, Virgo, Ursa Major and Perseus galaxy clusters all have very different characteristics, in terms of their density, mass, and large-scale environment. We can regard these clusters as laboratories for studying environmental influence on galaxy evolution, using the sensitive low-mass galaxies as probes for external mechanisms. Here we report on recent and ongoing observational studies of the said clusters with imaging and spectroscopy, as well as on the interpretation of present-day cluster galaxy populations with the aid of cosmological simulations.Multicolor imaging data allow us to identify residual star formation in otherwise red early-type dwarf galaxies, which hold clues to the strength of gas stripping processes. Major-axis spectra and 2D kinematical maps provide insight regarding the amount of rotational support and how much dynamical heating a dwarf galaxy may have experienced. To this end, dedicated N-body simulations that follow the evolution of galaxies since early epochs reveal their path through parameter space, and can be compared to observations in order to understand the time-integrated effect of environmental influence.

  11. Extragalactic Globular Clusters: Tracers of Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassino, Lilia P.

    2008-09-01

    The study of globular cluster systems provides clues about different topics related to galaxy evolution. In the past years we have been investigating the globular cluster systems of galaxies in the Fornax and Antlia clusters, particularly those associated to the cluster-dominant galaxies. We present here the main results related to these systems. All of them have bimodal color distributions, even those around low-luminosity galaxies, that correspond to the metal-poor (``blue'') and metal-rich (``red'') globular cluster subpopulations. The radial and azimuthal projected areal distributions of the globular clusters are also analyzed. Total globular cluster populations are estimated through the luminosity functions. We stress on the properties of the globular cluster systems that allow us to trace possible interaction processes between the galaxies, like tidal stripping of globular clusters. The observational material consists of CCD images obtained with the wide-field MOSAIC Imager of the CTIO 4-m telescope (La Serena, Chile), and the FORS1 camera at the VLT ``Antu'' 8-m telescope (Cerro Paranal, Chile).

  12. The rate of gravitational galaxy clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saslaw, William C.

    1992-06-01

    The rate of gravitational galaxy clustering is considered within the framework of the simple but fundamental case when the initial distribution of galaxy positions is close to Poisson and most of the matter is closely associated with the galaxies. Simple gravitational clustering in an expanding universe is found to evolve along an adiabat of the equation of state which includes gravitational interactions. The faster the universe expands relative to its gravitational clustering time scale, the better this adiabatic approximation becomes. This generalizes the well-known result that a homogeneous unclustered perfect gas in an expanding universe evolves along an adiabat of the perfect gas equation of state. The evolving clustering is characterized. There is a critical value of 0.8604 at which clustering dominates the equation of state and the specific heat at constant volume becomes negative. Subsequent growth of clustering slows appreciably. Numerical N-body experiments are consistent with these properties.

  13. Radio luminosity function of brightest cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Z. S.; Han, J. L.; Wen, Z. L.

    2016-08-01

    By cross-matching the currently largest optical catalogue of galaxy clusters and the NVSS radio survey data base, we obtain a large complete sample of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in the redshift range of 0.05 < z ≤ 0.45, which have radio emission and redshift information. We confirm that more powerful radio BCGs tend to be these optically very bright galaxies located in more relaxed clusters. We derived the radio luminosity functions of the largest sample of radio BCGs, and find that the functions depend on the optical luminosity of BCGs and the dynamic state of galaxy clusters. However, the radio luminosity function does not show significant evolution with redshift.

  14. The Formation of Galaxies and Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Stephen; Morrison, Nancy D.

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes recent research on the formation of galaxies and clusters, focusing on research examining how the materials in galaxies seen today separated from the universal expansion and collapsed into stable bodies. A list of six nontechnical books and articles for readers with less background is included. (JN)

  15. On the dust content of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, C. M.; López-Corredoira, M.

    2014-11-01

    Context. Most of the contribution to dust emission in clusters of galaxies comes from late-type galaxies. However, several ejection processes of material from these galaxies could introduce dust in the intracluster media. Even a relatively low abundance of this dust could act as an efficient cooling agent and have a relevant role in the evolution of clusters. Aims: We present a study to estimate the dust content in galaxy clusters. Methods: This was done by using one the most complete existing catalogues of galaxy clusters based on Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data and following two methods: the first one compares the colours of samples of galaxies in the background of clusters with those of galaxies in the field. Using this method, we have explored clustercentric distances up to 6 Mpc; this covers at least 2 × R200 for all the clusters in the sample. The galaxies used in this first method were selected from the SDSS-DR9, among those having reliable photometry and accurate estimation of photometric redshifts. Using the colours of background galaxies, we analyzed several regions at galactic latitudes | b | > 20° and >50°. The results are largely independent of the galactic cut applied. At | b | > 20°, the sample contains 56 985 clusters in the redshift range 0.05 galaxies. The second method computes the contribution of dust in clusters of galaxies to the far infrared sky. That is estimated indirectly by measuring the effect of clusters in the E(B - V) extinction map. Results: Using the first method, we did not find any dependence with clustercentric distance in the colours of background galaxies. As representative of the whole results, the surface integral of the excess of colour g - i in three rings centred in the clusters and with radius 0-1, 0-2, and 0-3 Mpc is -3.7 ± 3.5, + 3.2 ± 6.8, and -4.5 ± 10.1 milimag Mpc2, respectively. This allows us to constrain the mass of dust in the intracluster media

  16. Cooling Flow Spectra in Ginga Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Raymond E., III

    1997-01-01

    The primary focus of this research project has been a joint analysis of Ginga LAC and Einstein SSS X-ray spectra of the hot gas in galaxy clusters with cooling flows is reported. We studied four clusters (A496, A1795, A2142 & A2199) and found their central temperatures to be cooler than in the exterior, which is expected from their having cooling flows. More interestingly, we found central metal abundance enhancements in two of the clusters, A496 and A2142. We have been assessing whether the abundance gradients (or lack thereof) in intracluster gas is correlated with galaxy morphological gradients in the host clusters. In rich, dense galaxy clusters, elliptical and SO galaxies are generally found in the cluster cores, while spiral galaxies are found in the outskirts. If the metals observed in clusters came from proto-ellipticals and proto-S0s blowing winds, then the metal distribution in intracluster gas may still reflect the distribution of their former host galaxies. In a research project which was inspired by the success of the Ginga LAC/Einstein SSS work, we analyzed X-ray spectra from the HEAO-A2 MED and the Einstein SSS to look for temperature gradients in cluster gas. The HEAO-A2 MED was also a non-imaging detector with a large field of view compared to the SSS, so we used the differing fields of view of the two instruments to extract spatial information. We found some evidence of cool gas in the outskirts of clusters, which may indicate that the nominally isothermal mass density distributions in these clusters are steepening in the outer parts of these clusters.

  17. SUPERDENSE MASSIVE GALAXIES IN WINGS LOCAL CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Valentinuzzi, T.; D'Onofrio, M.; Fritz, J.; Poggianti, B. M.; Bettoni, D.; Fasano, G.; Moretti, A.; Omizzolo, A.; Varela, J.; Cava, A.; Couch, W. J.; Dressler, A.; Moles, M.; Kjaergaard, P.; Vanzella, E.

    2010-03-20

    Massive quiescent galaxies at z > 1 have been found to have small physical sizes, and hence to be superdense. Several mechanisms, including minor mergers, have been proposed for increasing galaxy sizes from high- to low-z. We search for superdense massive galaxies in the WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (WINGS) of X-ray selected galaxy clusters at 0.04 < z < 0.07. We discover a significant population of superdense massive galaxies with masses and sizes comparable to those observed at high redshift. They approximately represent 22% of all cluster galaxies more massive than 3 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}, are mostly S0 galaxies, have a median effective radius (R{sub e} ) = 1.61 +- 0.29 kpc, a median Sersic index (n) = 3.0 +- 0.6, and very old stellar populations with a median mass-weighted age of 12.1 +- 1.3 Gyr. We calculate a number density of 2.9 x 10{sup -2} Mpc{sup -3} for superdense galaxies in local clusters, and a hard lower limit of 1.3 x 10{sup -5} Mpc{sup -3} in the whole comoving volume between z = 0.04 and z = 0.07. We find a relation between mass, effective radius, and luminosity-weighted age in our cluster galaxies, which can mimic the claimed evolution of the radius with redshift, if not properly taken into account. We compare our data with spectroscopic high-z surveys and find that-when stellar masses are considered-there is consistency with the local WINGS galaxy sizes out to z {approx} 2, while a discrepancy of a factor of 3 exists with the only spectroscopic z > 2 study. In contrast, there is strong evidence for a large evolution in radius for the most massive galaxies with M{sub *} > 4 x 10{sup 11} M{sub sun} compared to similarly massive galaxies in WINGS, i.e., the brightest cluster galaxies.

  18. AGN feedback in galaxy clusters and groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardcastle, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Mechanical feedback via Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) jets in the centres of galaxy groups and clusters is a crucial ingredient in current models of galaxy formation and cluster evolution. Jet feedback is believed to regulate gas cooling and thus star formation in the most massive galaxies, but a robust physical understanding of this feedback mode is currently lacking. Athena will provide (1) the first kinematic measurements on relevant spatial scales of the hot gas in galaxy, group and cluster haloes as it absorbs the impact of AGN jets, and (2) vastly improved ability to map thermodynamic conditions on scales well-matched to the jets, lobes and gas disturbances produced by them. I will present new predictions of Athena's ability to measure the energetic impact of powerful jets based on our most recent set of numerical models.

  19. Massive Star Clusters in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Soeren

    2015-08-01

    Dwarf galaxies are often characterized by very high globular cluster specific frequencies, in some cases exceeding that of the Milky Way by a factor of 100 or more. Moreover, the GCs are typically much more metal-poor than the bulk of the field stars, so that a substantial fraction (up to 20-25% or more) of all metal-poor stars in some dwarf galaxies are associated with GCs. The metal-poor components of these galaxies thus represent an extreme case of the "specific frequency problem". In this talk I will review the current status of our understanding of GC systems in dwarf galaxies. Particular emphasis will be placed on the implications of the high GC specific frequencies for the amount of mass loss the clusters could have experienced and the constraints this provides on theories for the origin of multiple populations in globular clusters.

  20. The Dynamical Equilibrium of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlberg, R. G.; Yee, H. K. C.; Ellingson, E.; Morris, S. L.; Abraham, R.; Gravel, P.; Pritchet, C. J.; Smecker-Hane, T.; Hartwick, F. D. A.; Hesser, J. E.; Hutchings, J. B.; Oke, J. B.

    1997-02-01

    If a galaxy cluster is effectively in dynamical equilibrium, then all galaxy populations within the cluster must have distributions in velocity and position that individually reflect the same underlying mass distribution, although the derived virial masses can be quite different. Specifically, within the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology cluster sample, the virial radius of the red galaxy population is, on the average, a factor of 2.05 +/- 0.34 smaller than that of the blue population. The red galaxies also have a smaller rms velocity dispersion, a factor of 1.31 +/- 0.13 within our sample. Consequently, the virial mass calculated from the blue galaxies is 3.5 +/- 1.3 times larger than from the red galaxies. However, applying the Jeans equation of stellar hydrodynamic equilibrium to the red and blue subsamples separately gives statistically identical cluster mass profiles. This is strong evidence that these clusters are effectively equilibrium systems and therefore demonstrates empirically that the masses in the virialized region are reliably estimated using dynamical techniques.

  1. On the Dynamics of Galaxy Clustering.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivolo, Arthur Rex

    The galaxies of the Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) redshift catalog, which is complete to B(TURN)13 are used to conduct a statistical search for binary galaxies, and to determine the dynamical parameters of galaxy pairs. By analyzing the velocity differences of neighboring pairs of galaxies, the velocity dispersion per galaxy is determined as a function of isolation. This velocity dispersion is found to be constant in pairs of galaxies irrespective of how isolated they are, and whether or not they are each other's nearest neighbors. The interpretation of isolated galaxy pairs as binaries, whose dynamics is dominated by the two-body force, is therefore questioned. The velocity dispersion of the general galaxy field within 4000 kms(' -1)/H(,0) of the Sun is also determined. Various implications of the derived velocity dispersion are discussed, with particular attention given to its significance in the virialization process occurring in the cores of the great clusters of galaxies. A model for the evolutionary dynamics of superclusters is presented incorporating the velocity dispersion of galaxies as boundary conditions in time and space. The model is evolved numerically using an N-body spherically symmetric algorithm, from the epoch at which density perturbations were of order unity to the present. It is shown that the effects of velocity dispersion during adiabatic collapse are: (1) to halt the collapse by virialization of a core, through orbital phase mixing, (2) to give rise to power -law density profiles with indices between -2 and -3, and (3) to generate one-dimensional velocity dispersion of (TURN)1000 kms('-1) in the cores of great clusters. In the context of Virial theorem analyses, projection factors at various stages of cluster evolution are discussed as a function of cylindrical sampling. It is shown that projection factors may be routinely over-estimated by factors of 1.5-2, resulting in a proportionate over-estimate for virial mass/light in the great clusters.

  2. SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY NUMBER COUNTS AND MAGNIFICATION BY GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, Marcos; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Devlin, Mark; Aguirre, James

    2010-07-01

    We present an analytical model that reproduces measured galaxy number counts from surveys in the wavelength range of 500 {mu}m-2 mm. The model involves a single high-redshift galaxy population with a Schechter luminosity function that has been gravitationally lensed by galaxy clusters in the mass range 10{sup 13}-10{sup 15} M{sub sun}. This simple model reproduces both the low-flux and the high-flux end of the number counts reported by the BLAST, SCUBA, AzTEC, and South Pole Telescope (SPT) surveys. In particular, our model accounts for the most luminous galaxies detected by SPT as the result of high magnifications by galaxy clusters (magnification factors of 10-30). This interpretation implies that submillimeter (submm) and millimeter surveys of this population may prove to be a useful addition to ongoing cluster detection surveys. The model also implies that the bulk of submm galaxies detected at wavelengths larger than 500 {mu}m lie at redshifts greater than 2.

  3. Heating and Turbulence Driving by Galaxy Motions in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woong-Tae

    2007-09-01

    Using three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate heating and turbulence driving in an intracluster medium (ICM) by orbital motions of galaxies in a galaxy cluster. We consider Ng member galaxies on isothermal and isotropic orbits through an ICM typical of rich clusters. An introduction of the galaxies immediately produces gravitational wakes, providing perturbations that can potentially grow via resonant interaction with the background gas. When N1/2gM11<~100, where M11 is each galaxy mass in units of 1011 Msolar, the perturbations are in the linear regime and the resonant excitation of gravity waves is efficient in generating kinetic energy in the ICM, resulting in the velocity dispersion σv~2.2N1/2gM11 km s-1. When N1/2gM11>~100, on the other hand, nonlinear fluctuations of the background ICM destroy galaxy wakes and thus render resonant excitation weak or absent. In this case, the kinetic energy saturates at the level corresponding to σv~220 km s-1. The angle-averaged velocity power spectra of turbulence driven in our models have slopes in the range of -3.7 to -4.3. With the nonlinear saturation of resonant excitation, none of the cooling models considered are able to halt the cooling catastrophe, suggesting that the galaxy motions alone are unlikely to solve the cooling flow problem.

  4. Studying Dark Energy with Galaxy Cluster Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, J.; Majumdar, S.

    2003-05-01

    Galaxy cluster surveys provide a powerful means of studying the amount and nature of the dark energy. Cluster surveys are complementary to studies using supernova distance estimates, because the cosmological parameter degeneracies are quite different. The redshift distribution of detected clusters in a deep, large solid angle survey is very sensitive to the dark energy equation of state, but robust constraints require mass--observable relations that connect cluster halo mass to observables such as the X-ray luminosity, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect distortion, galaxy light or weak lensing shear. Observed regularity in the cluster population and the application of multiple, independent mass estimators provide evidence that these scaling relations exist in the local and intermediate redshift universe. Large cluster surveys contain enough information to study the dark energy and solve for these scaling relations and their evolution with redshift. This self--calibrating nature of galaxy cluster surveys provides a level of robustness that is extremely attractive. Cosmological constraints from a survey can be improved by including more than just the redshift distribution. Limited followup of as few as 1% of the surveyed clusters to make detailed mass measurements improves the cosmological constraints. Including constraints on the mass function at each redshift provides additional power in solving for the evolution of the mass--observable relation. An analysis of the clustering of the surveyed clusters provides additional cosmological discriminating power. There are several planned or proposed cluster surveys that will take place over the next decade. Observational challenges include estimating cluster redshifts and understanding the survey completeness. These challenges vary with wavelength regime, suggesting that multiwavelength surveys provide the most promising avenue for precise galaxy cluster studies of the dark energy. This work is supported in part by the NASA Long

  5. The Evolving Shape of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, Dennis W.; Yee, H. K. C.; Muzzin, Adam; Wilson, Gillian; Gilbank, David G.; Gladders, Michael

    2016-10-01

    We present the first measurement of the evolution of the apparent projected shape of galaxy clusters from 0.2<~ z<~2. We measure the ellipticities (ɛcl) of homogeneously selected galaxy clusters over this wide redshift range. We confirm the predictions of N-body simulations that clusters are more elongated at higher redshift, finding the mean projected ellipticity changes linearly from 0.36+/-0.01 to 0.25+/-0.01 over that range. The fraction of relaxed clusters (defined as having ɛ cl <0.2) is 9+5-3% at z~1.8, steadily increasing to 42+7-6% by z~0.3. Because more spherical clusters have a higher degree of virialization, our result shows significant evolution in the degree of cluster virialization over cosmic time.

  6. A Cluster and a Sea of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-05-01

    A new wide-field image released today by ESO displays many thousands of distant galaxies, and more particularly a large group belonging to the massive galaxy cluster known as Abell 315. As crowded as it may appear, this assembly of galaxies is only the proverbial "tip of the iceberg", as Abell 315 - like most galaxy clusters - is dominated by dark matter. The huge mass of this cluster deflects light from background galaxies, distorting their observed shapes slightly. When looking at the sky with the unaided eye, we mostly only see stars within our Milky Way galaxy and some of its closest neighbours. More distant galaxies are just too faint to be perceived by the human eye, but if we could see them, they would literally cover the sky. This new image released by ESO is both a wide-field and long-exposure one, and reveals thousands of galaxies crowding an area on the sky roughly as large as the full Moon. These galaxies span a vast range of distances from us. Some are relatively close, as it is possible to distinguish their spiral arms or elliptical halos, especially in the upper part of the image. The more distant appear just like the faintest of blobs - their light has travelled through the Universe for eight billion years or more before reaching Earth. Beginning in the centre of the image and extending below and to the left, a concentration of about a hundred yellowish galaxies identifies a massive galaxy cluster, designated with the number 315 in the catalogue compiled by the American astronomer George Abell in 1958 [1]. The cluster is located between the faint, red and blue galaxies and the Earth, about two billion light-years away from us. It lies in the constellation of Cetus (the Whale). Galaxy clusters are some of the largest structures in the Universe held together by gravity. But there is more in these structures than the many galaxies we can see. Galaxies in these giants contribute to only ten percent of the mass, with hot gas in between galaxies

  7. Evidence for Tides and Interactions in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conselice, C. J.; Gallagher, J. S.

    1997-12-01

    We present preliminary results of a search for tidally distorted, or interacting galaxies in the galaxy clusters: Abell 2199, AWM 5, AWM 3, the Coma and Perseus clusters. This is part of a large study to determine the nature of small-scale structure in galaxy clusters of various morphologies. Our B and R band observations were made with the CCD imager on the WIYN 3.5-m telescope, and typically have an angular resolution of 1 arcsec or better. We are able to classify all of the observed structures into seven different types. These include: Galaxy Interactions, Multiple Galaxies, Tailed Galaxies, Dwarf Galaxy Groups, Galaxy Aggregates, Distorted Galaxies, and Line Galaxies. We present examples of objects in these categories and conclude that interactions that perturb individual galaxies are common in clusters of galaxies, despite the high relative random velocities between cluster members.

  8. Dynamics & Morphology of Coma Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beijersbergen, M.; van der Hulst, J. M.

    The principal aim of this project is to explore the link between the cluster and its environment, and to study the effects that changes in environment have on the properties of galaxies. Coma, the richest of the nearby clusters, appears to be a close equivalent to clusters at higher redshift. The most remarkable similarity is the presence of blue disk galaxies and galaxies with E+A type spectra, making Coma the perfect link between nearby and distant clusters. Despite numerous observations, many aspects of both the dynamics of the Coma cluster and of its galaxy populations remain unexplained. One of the most notable pieces of information that is as yet unavailable, is a proper, unbiased HI survey of the entire Coma area. The few pointed observations that have been done show a variety in HI properties: stripped disks, blue disk galaxies with quite a range in HI content and galaxies with low surface brightness companions. We have used the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) to perform a blind survey of galaxies in Coma in the redshifted HI line. We have covered an area of 4.6 square degrees with 17 MHz bandwidth in 432 hours of total integration time. This allows us to study the HI properties as function of environment and assess the importance of merging and stripping. The HI observations will be used in combination with optical data from the wide field camera on the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) to address a large number of interesting problems. Our data sets are unrivalled by what is available for any other cluster and will greatly enhance the ability to study the structure and dynamics of Coma. Here, I will discuss the data and the status of this ongoing project.

  9. Tidally Induced Bars of Galaxies in Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łokas, Ewa L.; Ebrová, Ivana; del Pino, Andrés; Sybilska, Agnieszka; Athanassoula, E.; Semczuk, Marcin; Gajda, Grzegorz; Fouquet, Sylvain

    2016-08-01

    Using N-body simulations, we study the formation and evolution of tidally induced bars in disky galaxies in clusters. Our progenitor is a massive, late-type galaxy similar to the Milky Way, composed of an exponential disk and a Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo. We place the galaxy on four different orbits in a Virgo-like cluster and evolve it for 10 Gyr. As a reference case, we also evolve the same model in isolation. Tidally induced bars form on all orbits soon after the first pericenter passage and survive until the end of the evolution. They appear earlier, are stronger and longer, and have lower pattern speeds for tighter orbits. Only for the tightest orbit are the properties of the bar controlled by the orientation of the tidal torque from the cluster at pericenter. The mechanism behind the formation of the bars is the angular momentum transfer from the galaxy stellar component to its halo. All of the bars undergo extended periods of buckling instability that occur earlier and lead to more pronounced boxy/peanut shapes when the tidal forces are stronger. Using all simulation outputs of galaxies at different evolutionary stages, we construct a toy model of the galaxy population in the cluster and measure the average bar strength and bar fraction as a function of clustercentric radius. Both are found to be mildly decreasing functions of radius. We conclude that tidal forces can trigger bar formation in cluster cores, but not in the outskirts, and thus can cause larger concentrations of barred galaxies toward the cluster center.

  10. Quenching star formation in cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranu, Dan S.; Hudson, Michael J.; Balogh, Michael L.; Smith, Russell J.; Power, Chris; Oman, Kyle A.; Krane, Brad

    2014-05-01

    In order to understand the processes that quench star formation in cluster galaxies, we construct a library of subhalo orbits drawn from Λ cold dark matter cosmological N-body simulations of four rich clusters. We combine these orbits with models of star formation followed by environmental quenching, comparing model predictions with observed bulge and disc colours and stellar absorption line-strength indices of luminous cluster galaxies. Models in which the bulge stellar populations depend only on the galaxy subhalo mass while the disc is quenched upon infall are acceptable fits to the data. An exponential disc quenching time-scale of 3-3.5 Gyr is preferred. Quenching in lower mass groups prior to infall (`pre-processing') provides better fits, with similar quenching time-scales. Models with short (≲1 Gyr) quenching time-scales yield excessively steep cluster-centric gradients in disc colours and Balmer line indices, even if quenching is delayed for several Gyr. The data slightly prefer models where quenching occurs only for galaxies falling within ˜0.5r200. These results imply that the environments of rich clusters must impact star formation rates of infalling galaxies on relatively long time-scales, indicative of gentler quenching mechanisms such as slow `strangulation' over more rapid ram-pressure stripping.

  11. HUBBLE SPIES GLOBULAR CLUSTER IN NEIGHBORING GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope has captured a view of a globular cluster called G1, a large, bright ball of light in the center of the photograph consisting of at least 300,000 old stars. G1, also known as Mayall II, orbits the Andromeda galaxy (M31), the nearest major spiral galaxy to our Milky Way. Located 130,000 light-years from Andromeda's nucleus, G1 is the brightest globular cluster in the Local Group of galaxies. The Local Group consists of about 20 nearby galaxies, including the Milky Way. The crisp image is comparable to ground-based telescope views of similar clusters orbiting the Milky Way. The Andromeda cluster, however, is nearly 100 times farther away. A glimpse into the cluster's finer details allow astronomers to see its fainter helium-burning stars whose temperatures and brightnesses show that this cluster in Andromeda and the oldest Milky Way clusters have approximately the same age. These clusters probably were formed shortly after the beginning of the universe, providing astronomers with a record of the earliest era of galaxy formation. During the next two years, astronomers will use Hubble to study about 20 more globular clusters in Andromeda. The color picture was assembled from separate images taken in visible and near-infrared wavelengths taken in July of 1994. CREDIT: Michael Rich, Kenneth Mighell, and James D. Neill (Columbia University), and Wendy Freedman (Carnegie Observatories), and NASA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on Internet via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

  12. Brightest Cluster Galaxies and Dry Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Z. G.; Liu, F. S.; Xia, X. Y.; Mao, S.

    2008-01-01

    Photometric properties of the early type Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) has been investigated for a sample of 85 BCGs with redshifts less than 0.1 selected from the C4 cluster catalogue. The results are compared to those obtained from a sample of elliptical galaxies chosen with similar apparent magnitude and redshift ranges. We find that BCGs have steeper size-luminosity (R~Lα) and Faber-Jackson (L~σβ) relations than the bulk of early type galaxies. The differences in the scaling relations suggest that the dynamical structure and formation route of BCGs may be different from the bulk of early type galaxies, in particular dry (dissipationless) mergers may play a more important role in their formation.

  13. Far-infrared properties of cluster galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bicay, M. D.; Giovanelli, R.

    1987-01-01

    Far-infrared properties are derived for a sample of over 200 galaxies in seven clusters: A262, Cancer, A1367, A1656 (Coma), A2147, A2151 (Hercules), and Pegasus. The IR-selected sample consists almost entirely of IR normal galaxies, with Log of L(FIR) = 9.79 solar luminosities, Log of L(FIR)/L(B) = 0,79, and Log of S(100 microns)/S(60 microns) = 0.42. None of the sample galaxies has Log of L(FIR) greater than 11.0 solar luminosities, and only one has a FIR-to-blue luminosity ratio greater than 10. No significant differences are found in the FIR properties of HI-deficient and HI-normal cluster galaxies.

  14. Testing Cosmological Models with Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhringer, Hans; Schuecker, Peter

    2003-05-01

    Galaxy clusters are ideal probes for the large-scale structure of the Universe and for the tests of cosmological models. We use, REFLEX, the currently largest and best defined cluster X-ray survey to illustrate this application of galaxy cluster studies. Based on this survey of X-ray selected clusters of galaxies we determine statistical properties of the galaxy cluster population, their spatial correlation, and the density fluctuation power spectrum of the cosmic matter distribution on large scales up to about 1 Gpc. Comparing these results with predictions of cosmological models we obtain tight constrains for the matter density parameter of the Universe, consistent with the combined results from observations of the microwave background anisotropies and distant type Ia supernovae. The only difference between the present results and the ``concordance model'' is a low value for the σ8-normalization. Exploring the parameter space of the cosmic matter density and the equation of state parameter of dark energy most favoured by the combined observations of REFLEX clusters and distant type Ia supernovae we find that the conventional cosmological constant model is best consistent with the observational data.

  15. Clusters of galaxies: a cosmological probe.

    PubMed

    Mushotzky, Richard

    2002-09-15

    The constraints on cosmological parameters presently obtained and those that can be obtained from X-ray cluster surveys are presented. Extremely strong bounds on the values of Omega, Lambda, sigma(8) and the power spectrum of fluctuations, as well as constraints on the equation of state of dark energy, can be determined. Recent Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics and XMM results on the chemical composition of clusters show that the Fe abundance is not universal, but is correlated with cluster mass and central gas density. The Si, S and Fe abundances do not resemble those seen in Milky Way Halo stars or those in the Lyman-limit galaxies. The XMM RGS abundances for gas in elliptical galaxies are subsolar and the abundance pattern is not alpha-element rich, in contradiction with all models of elliptical-galaxy gas abundances. PMID:12804244

  16. Clusters of galaxies: a cosmological probe.

    PubMed

    Mushotzky, Richard

    2002-09-15

    The constraints on cosmological parameters presently obtained and those that can be obtained from X-ray cluster surveys are presented. Extremely strong bounds on the values of Omega, Lambda, sigma(8) and the power spectrum of fluctuations, as well as constraints on the equation of state of dark energy, can be determined. Recent Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics and XMM results on the chemical composition of clusters show that the Fe abundance is not universal, but is correlated with cluster mass and central gas density. The Si, S and Fe abundances do not resemble those seen in Milky Way Halo stars or those in the Lyman-limit galaxies. The XMM RGS abundances for gas in elliptical galaxies are subsolar and the abundance pattern is not alpha-element rich, in contradiction with all models of elliptical-galaxy gas abundances.

  17. A Cluster and a Sea of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-05-01

    A new wide-field image released today by ESO displays many thousands of distant galaxies, and more particularly a large group belonging to the massive galaxy cluster known as Abell 315. As crowded as it may appear, this assembly of galaxies is only the proverbial "tip of the iceberg", as Abell 315 - like most galaxy clusters - is dominated by dark matter. The huge mass of this cluster deflects light from background galaxies, distorting their observed shapes slightly. When looking at the sky with the unaided eye, we mostly only see stars within our Milky Way galaxy and some of its closest neighbours. More distant galaxies are just too faint to be perceived by the human eye, but if we could see them, they would literally cover the sky. This new image released by ESO is both a wide-field and long-exposure one, and reveals thousands of galaxies crowding an area on the sky roughly as large as the full Moon. These galaxies span a vast range of distances from us. Some are relatively close, as it is possible to distinguish their spiral arms or elliptical halos, especially in the upper part of the image. The more distant appear just like the faintest of blobs - their light has travelled through the Universe for eight billion years or more before reaching Earth. Beginning in the centre of the image and extending below and to the left, a concentration of about a hundred yellowish galaxies identifies a massive galaxy cluster, designated with the number 315 in the catalogue compiled by the American astronomer George Abell in 1958 [1]. The cluster is located between the faint, red and blue galaxies and the Earth, about two billion light-years away from us. It lies in the constellation of Cetus (the Whale). Galaxy clusters are some of the largest structures in the Universe held together by gravity. But there is more in these structures than the many galaxies we can see. Galaxies in these giants contribute to only ten percent of the mass, with hot gas in between galaxies

  18. Cluster galaxy evolution with the Las Campanas Distant Cluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Amy Elizabeth

    Understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies is a principal goal of modern cosmology. In this thesis, we place constraints on galaxy evolution models using the largest sample of high redshift clusters to date. Our sample consists of 63 clusters at 0.3 ≲ z ≲ 0.9 drawn from the Las Campanas Distant Cluster Survey (LCDCS). This survey differs from traditional optical surveys in that we detect clusters as regions of excess surface brightness relative to the background sky rather than selecting overdensities of resolved galaxies. Therefore, not only does this sample result in a significant increase in the number of known clusters at these redshifts, but because our cluster identification criteria is independent of those utilized in previous surveys, this catalog provides an independent, well-defined sample with which to compare the results of more traditional surveys. In this work, we take a two-pronged approach to studying galaxy evolution. First, we examine the luminosity and color evolution of the bright cluster galaxies as a class. Specifically, we measure the evolution of: (1) M*I , the characteristic luminosity of cluster galaxies, (2) the location of the red envelope in V--I and I--K', and (3) the fraction of blue galaxies (i.e. the Butcher-Oemler effect; Butcher & Oemler 1984). Our data suggest that luminous early type galaxies (or the progenitors of current day early type galaxies) form the bulk of their stellar populations at high redshifts ( ≲ 5) and that many of these galaxies, if not all, experience a short term episode of star formation at lower redshifts (1.5 < z < 2). Second, we narrow the focus and study a single type of cluster galaxy, the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG). We constrain the amount of luminosity and color evolution of BCGs, particularly in the context of recent claims in the literature of significant mass accretion since z ˜ 1 (Aragon-Salamanca 1998; Burke, Collins, & Mann 2000). Consistent with previous results (Burke

  19. Recent Galaxy Mergers and Residual Star Formation of Red Sequence Galaxies in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, Yun-Kyeong; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Ree, Chang H.; Jaffé, Yara; Demarco, Ricardo; Treister, Ezequiel

    2016-08-01

    This study explored the Galaxy Evolution Explorer ultraviolet (UV) properties of optical red sequence galaxies in four rich Abell clusters at z≤slant 0.1. In particular, we tried to find a hint of merger-induced recent star formation (RSF) in red sequence galaxies. Using the NUV - r\\prime colors of the galaxies, RSF fractions were derived based on various criteria for post-merger galaxies and normal galaxies. Following k-correction, about 36% of the post-merger galaxies were classified as RSF galaxies with a conservative criterion (NUV - r\\prime ≤slant 5), and that number was doubled (˜72%) when using a generous criterion (NUV - r\\prime ≤slant 5.4). The trend was the same when we restricted the sample to galaxies within 0.5 × R 200. Post-merger galaxies with strong UV emission showed more violent, asymmetric features in the deep optical images. The RSF fractions did not show any trend along the clustocentric distance within R 200. We performed a Dressler–Shectman test to check whether the RSF galaxies had any correlation with the substructures in the galaxy clusters. Within R 200 of each cluster, the RSF galaxies did not appear to be preferentially related to the clusters’ substructures. Our results suggested that only 30% of RSF red sequence galaxies show morphological hints of recent galaxy mergers. This implies that internal processes (e.g., stellar mass loss or hot gas cooling) for the supply of cold gas to early-type galaxies may play a significant role in the residual star formation of early-type galaxies at a recent epoch.

  20. Recent Galaxy Mergers and Residual Star Formation of Red Sequence Galaxies in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, Yun-Kyeong; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Ree, Chang H.; Jaffé, Yara; Demarco, Ricardo; Treister, Ezequiel

    2016-08-01

    This study explored the Galaxy Evolution Explorer ultraviolet (UV) properties of optical red sequence galaxies in four rich Abell clusters at z≤slant 0.1. In particular, we tried to find a hint of merger-induced recent star formation (RSF) in red sequence galaxies. Using the NUV - r\\prime colors of the galaxies, RSF fractions were derived based on various criteria for post-merger galaxies and normal galaxies. Following k-correction, about 36% of the post-merger galaxies were classified as RSF galaxies with a conservative criterion (NUV - r\\prime ≤slant 5), and that number was doubled (˜72%) when using a generous criterion (NUV - r\\prime ≤slant 5.4). The trend was the same when we restricted the sample to galaxies within 0.5 × R 200. Post-merger galaxies with strong UV emission showed more violent, asymmetric features in the deep optical images. The RSF fractions did not show any trend along the clustocentric distance within R 200. We performed a Dressler-Shectman test to check whether the RSF galaxies had any correlation with the substructures in the galaxy clusters. Within R 200 of each cluster, the RSF galaxies did not appear to be preferentially related to the clusters’ substructures. Our results suggested that only 30% of RSF red sequence galaxies show morphological hints of recent galaxy mergers. This implies that internal processes (e.g., stellar mass loss or hot gas cooling) for the supply of cold gas to early-type galaxies may play a significant role in the residual star formation of early-type galaxies at a recent epoch.

  1. Properties of The Brightest Cluster Galaxy and Its Host Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, H.; Hayashida, K.; Takahara, F.

    2001-09-01

    We investigate the relation between the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) and its host cluster. A BCG is a bright and massive elliptical galaxy in a cluster of galaxies. The luminosity of a BCG is 10 times larger than that of normal field galaxy and the mass of a BCG is about 1013Msolar which corresponds to that of galaxy group. In order to explain the origin of BCGs, the following three models are proposed: (1) star formation from cooling flow. In this model, intracluster gas gradually condenses at the center of the cluster and forms the BCG. (2) ``Galactic cannibalism'' or the accretion of smaller galaxies. In this model, dynamical friction accounts for the formation of the BCG. These two models predict the BCG evolves with the evolution of cluster. (3) Galaxy merging in the early history of the formation of the cluster. In this model, the property of BCGs is determined no later than cluster collapse. In any model, the formation of BCGs is related to the collapse and formation of its host cluster. The relation between the BCG and its host cluster was studied by Edge (1991). Edge (1991) found that the optical luminosity of the BCG is positively correlated with the X-ray luminosity and temperature of its host cluster. Edge (1991) concludes that these correlations indicate that the BCG responds to the overall cluster properties. In order to investigate the other relation between the BCG and its host cluster, we analyzed ROSAT archival data and compared the displacement between the X-ray peak and the BCG with the Z parameter of the fundamental relation found by Fujita and Takahara (1999). It is found that the displacement is larger with decreasing Z. Furthermore, the large Z clusters tend to have a regular X-ray profile, which implies a relaxed system. The fundamental parameter Z depends mainly on the virial density ρvir, and is considered to be related to the formation epoch of the cluster, i.e., large Z clusters are old clusters and small Z clusters are young

  2. Intracluster Light in Galaxy Groups and Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMaio, Tahlia; Gonzalez, Anthony; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Zaritsky, Dennis F.

    2016-01-01

    We present recent results from our study on the origin and assembly history of the intracluster starlight (ICL) for a sample of 29 galaxy groups and clusters with 3x1013clusters show clear negative color gradients. Such negative colour (and equivalently, metallicity) gradients can arise from tidal stripping of L* galaxies and/or the disruption of dwarf galaxies, but not major mergers with the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG). We also find ICL luminosities of 3-9 L* in the range 10 < r < 110 kpc for these clusters. Dwarf disruption alone cannot explain the total luminosity of the ICL and remain consistent with the observed evolution in the faint-end slope of the luminosity function. The results of our study are suggestive of a formation history in which the ICL is built-up by a combination of stripping of L* galaxies and/or dwarf disruption and disfavor significant contribution by major mergers with the BCG.This sample of groups and clusters is the largest with HST/WFC3 data for ICL analysis that spans two orders of magnitude in halo mass at redshifts >0.3. Because of this we can investigate how the ICL color profile changes as a function of cluster mass for the first time, as well as expand previous studies of the changing fraction of cluster luminosity that is contained in the BCG+ICL as a function of halo mass. We present our preliminary results and describe our next steps using this sample to investigate the intracluster light in massive halos.

  3. SPECTRAL IMAGING OF GALAXY CLUSTERS WITH PLANCK

    SciTech Connect

    Bourdin, H.; Mazzotta, P.; Rasia, E.

    2015-12-20

    The Sunyaev–Zeldovich (SZ) effect is a promising tool for detecting the presence of hot gas out to the galaxy cluster peripheries. We developed a spectral imaging algorithm dedicated to the SZ observations of nearby galaxy clusters with Planck, with the aim of revealing gas density anisotropies related to the filamentary accretion of materials, or pressure discontinuities induced by the propagation of shock fronts. To optimize an unavoidable trade-off between angular resolution and precision of the SZ flux measurements, the algorithm performs a multi-scale analysis of the SZ maps as well as of other extended components, such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and the Galactic thermal dust. The demixing of the SZ signal is tackled through kernel-weighted likelihood maximizations. The CMB anisotropies are further analyzed through a wavelet analysis, while the Galactic foregrounds and SZ maps are analyzed via a curvelet analysis that best preserves their anisotropic details. The algorithm performance has been tested against mock observations of galaxy clusters obtained by simulating the Planck High Frequency Instrument and by pointing at a few characteristic positions in the sky. These tests suggest that Planck should easily allow us to detect filaments in the cluster peripheries and detect large-scale shocks in colliding galaxy clusters that feature favorable geometry.

  4. Watching the Birth of a Galaxy Cluster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    First Visiting Astronomers to VLT ANTU Observe the Early Universe When the first 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (ANTU) was "handed over" to the scientists on April 1, 1999, the first "visiting astronomers" at Paranal were George Miley and Huub Rottgering from the Leiden Observatory (The Netherlands) [1]. They obtained unique pictures of a distant exploding galaxy known as 1138 - 262 . These images provide new information about how massive galaxies and clusters of galaxies may have formed in the early Universe. Formation of clusters of galaxies An intriguing question in modern astronomy is how the first galaxies and groupings or clusters of galaxies emerged from the primeval gas produced in the Big Bang. Some theories predict that giant galaxies, often found at the centres of rich galaxy clusters, are built up through a step-wise process. Clumps develop in this gas and stars condense out of those clumps to form small galaxies. Finally these small galaxies merge together to form larger units. An enigmatic class of objects important for investigating such scenarios are galaxies which emit intense radio emission from explosions that occur deep in their nuclei. The explosions are believed to be triggered when material from the merging swarm of smaller galaxies is fed into a rotating black hole located in the central regions. There is strong evidence that these distant radio galaxies are amongst the oldest and most massive galaxies in the early Universe and are often located at the heart of rich clusters of galaxies. They can therefore help pinpoint regions of the Universe in which large galaxies and clusters of galaxies are being formed. The radio galaxy 1138-262 The first visiting astronomers pointed ANTU towards a particularly important radio galaxy named 1138-262 . It is located in the southern constellation Hydra (The Water Snake). This galaxy was discovered some years ago using ESO's 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at La Silla. Because 1138-262 is at a distance of

  5. UNCLOAKING GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN THE INNER GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Garcia, Javier; Catelan, Marcio; Minniti, Dante; Mateo, Mario; Sen, Bodhisattva; Banerjee, Moulinath; Von Braun, Kaspar E-mail: mcatelan@astro.puc.cl E-mail: mmateo@umich.edu E-mail: moulib@umich.edu

    2012-03-15

    Extensive photometric studies of the globular clusters located toward the center of the Milky Way have been historically neglected. The presence of patchy differential reddening in front of these clusters has proven to be a significant obstacle to their detailed study. We present here a well defined and reasonably homogeneous photometric database for 25 of the brightest Galactic globular clusters located in the direction of the inner Galaxy. These data were obtained in the B, V, and I bands using the Magellan 6.5 m Telescope and the Hubble Space Telescope. A new technique is extensively used in this paper to map the differential reddening in the individual cluster fields, and to produce cleaner, dereddened color-magnitude diagrams for all the clusters in the database. Subsequent papers will detail the astrophysical analysis of the cluster populations, and the properties of the obscuring material along the clusters' lines of sight.

  6. STAR CLUSTERS, GALAXIES, AND THE FUNDAMENTAL MANIFOLD

    SciTech Connect

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Gonzalez, Anthony H. E-mail: azabludoff@as.arizona.edu

    2011-02-01

    We explore whether global observed properties, specifically half-light radii, mean surface brightness, and integrated stellar kinematics, suffice to unambiguously differentiate galaxies from star clusters, which presumably formed differently and lack dark matter halos. We find that star clusters lie on the galaxy scaling relationship referred to as the fundamental manifold (FM), on the extension of a sequence of compact galaxies, and so conclude that there is no simple way to differentiate star clusters from ultracompact galaxies. By extending the validity of the FM over a larger range of parameter space and a wider set of objects, we demonstrate that the physics that constrains the resulting baryon and dark matter distributions in stellar systems is more general than previously appreciated. The generality of the FM implies (1) that the stellar spatial distribution and kinematics of one type of stellar system do not arise solely from a process particular to that set of systems, such as violent relaxation for elliptical galaxies, but are instead the result of an interplay of all processes responsible for the generic settling of baryons in gravitational potential wells, (2) that the physics of how baryons settle is independent of whether the system is embedded within a dark matter halo, and (3) that peculiar initial conditions at formation or stochastic events during evolution do not ultimately disturb the overall regularity of baryonic settling. We also utilize the relatively simple nature of star clusters to relate deviations from the FM to the age of the stellar population and find that stellar population models systematically and significantly overpredict the mass-to-light ratios of old, metal-rich clusters. We present an empirical calibration of stellar population mass-to-light ratios with age and color. Finally, we use the FM to estimate velocity dispersions for the low surface brightness, outer halo clusters that lack such measurements.

  7. A Multivariate Analysis of Galaxy Cluster Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogle, P. M.; Djorgovski, S.

    1993-05-01

    We have assembled from the literature a data base on on 394 clusters of galaxies, with up to 16 parameters per cluster. They include optical and x-ray luminosities, x-ray temperatures, galaxy velocity dispersions, central galaxy and particle densities, optical and x-ray core radii and ellipticities, etc. In addition, derived quantities, such as the mass-to-light ratios and x-ray gas masses are included. Doubtful measurements have been identified, and deleted from the data base. Our goal is to explore the correlations between these parameters, and interpret them in the framework of our understanding of evolution of clusters and large-scale structure, such as the Gott-Rees scaling hierarchy. Among the simple, monovariate correlations we found, the most significant include those between the optical and x-ray luminosities, x-ray temperatures, cluster velocity dispersions, and central galaxy densities, in various mutual combinations. While some of these correlations have been discussed previously in the literature, generally smaller samples of objects have been used. We will also present the results of a multivariate statistical analysis of the data, including a principal component analysis (PCA). Such an approach has not been used previously for studies of cluster properties, even though it is much more powerful and complete than the simple monovariate techniques which are commonly employed. The observed correlations may lead to powerful constraints for theoretical models of formation and evolution of galaxy clusters. P.M.O. was supported by a Caltech graduate fellowship. S.D. acknowledges a partial support from the NASA contract NAS5-31348 and the NSF PYI award AST-9157412.

  8. Cosmology and astrophysics with galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, Daisuke

    2014-11-20

    Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound objects in the universe, whose formation is driven by dark energy and dark matter. The majority of the baryonic mass in clusters resides in the hot X-ray emitting plasma, which also leaves imprints in the cosmic microwave background radiation. Recent X-ray and microwave observations have revealed detailed thermodynamic structure of the hot X-ray emitting plasma from their cores to the virial radii, making comparisons of baryonic component in simulations to observations a strong cosmological probe. However, the statistical power of these future surveys can only be exploited for cosmology if and only if we are able to measure the cluster mass with a very high precision. I will discuss recent progress and future challenges for the use of galaxy clusters as precise cosmological probes, with highlights on (1) the importance of understanding thermodynamics and plasma physics in the outskirts of galaxy clusters and (2) prospects for improving the power of cluster-based cosmological measurements using numerical simulations and multi-wavelength observations.

  9. GALAXY CLUSTERS AT HIGH REDSHIFT AND EVOLUTION OF BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Z. L.; Han, J. L.

    2011-06-10

    Identification of high-redshift clusters is important for studies of cosmology and cluster evolution. Using photometric redshifts of galaxies, we identify 631 clusters from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) wide field, 202 clusters from the CFHT deep field, 187 clusters from the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field, and 737 clusters from the Spitzer Wide-area InfraRed Extragalactic Survey (SWIRE) field. The redshifts of these clusters are in the range 0.1 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.6. Merging these cluster samples gives 1644 clusters in the four survey fields, of which 1088 are newly identified and more than half are from the large SWIRE field. Among 228 clusters of z {>=} 1, 191 clusters are newly identified, and most of them from the SWIRE field. With this large sample of high-redshift clusters, we study the color evolution of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). The r' - z' and r{sup +} - m{sub 3.6{mu}m} colors of the BCGs are consistent with a stellar population synthesis model in which the BCGs are formed at redshift z{sub f} {>=} 2 and evolved passively. The g' - z' and B - m{sub 3.6{mu}m} colors of the BCGs at redshifts z > 0.8 are systematically bluer than the passive evolution model for galaxies formed at z{sub f} {approx} 2, indicating star formation in high-redshift BCGs.

  10. Interpreting the Clustering of Distant Red Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Tinker, Jeremy L.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Zheng, Zheng; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2009-08-03

    We analyze the angular clustering of z {approx} 2.3 distant red galaxies (DRGs) measured by Quadri et al. (2008). We find that, with robust estimates of the measurement errors and realistic halo occupation distribution modeling, the measured clustering can be well fit within standard halo occupation models, in contrast to previous results. However, in order to fit the strong break in w({theta}) at {theta} = 10{double_prime}, nearly all satellite galaxies in the DRG luminosity range are required to be DRGs. Within this luminosity-threshold sample, the fraction of galaxies that are DRGs is {approx} 44%, implying that the formation of DRGs is more efficient for satellite galaxies than for central galaxies. Despite the evolved stellar populations contained within DRGs at z = 2.3, 90% of satellite galaxies in the DRG luminosity range have been accreted within 500 Myr. Thus, satellite DRGs must have known they would become satellites well before the time of their accretion. This implies that the formation of DRGs correlates with large-scale environment at fixed halo mass, although the large-scale bias of DRGs can be well fit without such assumptions. Further data are required to resolve this issue. Using the observational estimate that {approx} 30% of DRGs have no ongoing star formation, we infer a timescale for star formation quenching for satellite galaxies of 450 Myr, although the uncertainty on this number is large. However, unless all non-star forming satellite DRGs were quenched before accretion, the quenching timescale is significantly shorter than z {approx} 0 estimates. Down to the completeness limit of the Quadri et al sample, we find that the halo masses of central DRGs are {approx} 50% higher than non-DRGs in the same luminosity range, but at the highest halo masses the central galaxies are DRGs only {approx} 2/3 of the time.

  11. Diffuse optical light in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krick, Jessica E.

    We have measured the flux, profile, color, and substructure in the diffuse intracluster light (ICL) in a sample of ten galaxy clusters that have varying mass, morphology, redshift, and density. Deep, wide-field observations for this project were made in two bands at the one meter Swope and 2.5 meter du Pont telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Careful attention in reduction and analysis was paid to the illumination correction, background subtraction, point spread function determination, galaxy subtraction, and ICL flux determination. ICL flux is detected in both r - and either B - or V - band in all ten clusters ranging from 7.6 × 10 10 to 7.0 × 10 11 [Special characters omitted.] in r - and 1.4 × 10 10 to 1.2 × 10 11 [Special characters omitted.] in the B -band. These fluxes account for 6 to 22% of the total cluster light within one quarter of the virial radius in r - and 4 to 21% in the B - band. ICL B - r colors range from 1.49 to 2.75 when k and evolution corrected to the present epoch. ICL profiles extend to 28-29 mag arcsec -2 and radii up to 600 [Special characters omitted.] kpc, and are well fit by exponential, deVaucouleurs, and Hubble Reynolds profiles (substitute for an NFW density profile). Low surface brightness features are present in the clusters as evidence of ongoing tidal interactions. We find that the ICL forms in group environments and remains with those groups as they are in-falling into the cluster environment. Our sample, having been selected from the Abell sample, is incomplete. The sample does not include high redshift clusters with low density, low flux, or low mass, and it does not include low redshift clusters with high flux, mass, or density. Given this selection bias between ICL properties and cluster properties we do find that the presence of a cD galaxy corresponds to both centrally concentrated galaxy profiles and centrally concentrated ICL profiles. This is consistent with ICL either forming from galaxy interactions at the

  12. Clusters of Galaxies: Setting the Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaferio, A.; Schindler, S.; Dolag, K.

    2008-02-01

    Clusters of galaxies are self-gravitating systems of mass ˜1014 1015 h -1 M⊙ and size ˜1 3 h -1 Mpc. Their mass budget consists of dark matter (˜80%, on average), hot diffuse intracluster plasma (≲20%) and a small fraction of stars, dust, and cold gas, mostly locked in galaxies. In most clusters, scaling relations between their properties, like mass, galaxy velocity dispersion, X-ray luminosity and temperature, testify that the cluster components are in approximate dynamical equilibrium within the cluster gravitational potential well. However, spatially inhomogeneous thermal and non-thermal emission of the intracluster medium (ICM), observed in some clusters in the X-ray and radio bands, and the kinematic and morphological segregation of galaxies are a signature of non-gravitational processes, ongoing cluster merging and interactions. Both the fraction of clusters with these features, and the correlation between the dynamical and morphological properties of irregular clusters and the surrounding large-scale structure increase with redshift. In the current bottom-up scenario for the formation of cosmic structure, where tiny fluctuations of the otherwise homogeneous primordial density field are amplified by gravity, clusters are the most massive nodes of the filamentary large-scale structure of the cosmic web and form by anisotropic and episodic accretion of mass, in agreement with most of the observational evidence. In this model of the universe dominated by cold dark matter, at the present time most baryons are expected to be in a diffuse component rather than in stars and galaxies; moreover, ˜50% of this diffuse component has temperature ˜0.01 1 keV and permeates the filamentary distribution of the dark matter. The temperature of this Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) increases with the local density and its search in the outer regions of clusters and lower density regions has been the quest of much recent observational effort. Over the last thirty

  13. The evolution of galaxy groups and clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzotta, Pasquale

    2016-07-01

    The Athena mission will implement the Hot and Energetic Universe science theme which poses the question of How does ordinary matter assemble into the large-scale structures we see today?. Groups and Galaxy clusters are key laboratories to understand the role of the various physical processes governing the baryonic matter from the kilo-parsec scale of super-massive black holes to the mega-parsec one of the clusters outskirts on assembling and evolving large scale structures. We will focus on the study of the galaxy groups and clusters evolution with the Athen a mission. We will review the status of current constraints in light of the newest results obtained from state of the art cosmological simulations and will discuss the perspectives out to the mission launch time in 2028.

  14. VLA Discovers Giant Rings Around Galaxy Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-11-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope have discovered giant, ring-like structures around a cluster of galaxies. The discovery provides tantalizing new information about how such galaxy clusters are assembled, about magnetic fields in the vast spaces between galaxy clusters, and possibly about the origin of cosmic rays. Radio-Optical Image of Cluster Galaxy Cluster Abell 3376 (Radio/Optical) CREDIT: Joydeep Bagchi, IUCAA, NRAO/AUI/NSF Above, a combined radio/optical image shows the galaxy cluster Abell 3376 in visible light (blue) and radio (red) images. The giant radio arcs surrounding the cluster were discovered using the Very Large Array. The visible-light image is from the Digitized Sky survey. Below, an X-ray image of Abell 3376 made using the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton telescope shows a spectacular, bullet-shaped region of X-rays coming from gas heated to 60 million degrees Kelvin. The bullet shape results from the supersonic collision of a smaller smaller galaxy subcluster with the main body of the larger cluster. Click on images for larger version. X-Ray Image of Cluster Galaxy Cluster Abell 3376 (X-Ray) CREDIT: Joydeep Bagchi, IUCAA, ESA "These giant, radio-emitting rings probably are the result of shock waves caused by violent collisions of smaller groups of galaxies within the cluster," said Joydeep Bagchi, of the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics in Pune, India, who led an international research team. The scientists reported their findings in the November 3 edition of the journal Science. The newly-discovered ring segments, some 6 million light-years across, surround a galaxy cluster called Abell 3376, more than 600 million light-years from Earth. They were revealed because fast-moving electrons emitted radio waves as they spiraled around magnetic field lines in intergalactic space. "Even from this large distance, the feeble radio waves were easily picked up by the VLA

  15. MASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN CENTRAL CLUSTER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Volonteri, Marta; Ciotti, Luca

    2013-05-01

    We explore how the co-evolution of massive black holes (MBHs) and galaxies is affected by environmental effects, addressing in particular MBHs hosted in the central cluster galaxies (we will refer to these galaxies in general as ''CCGs''). Recently, the sample of MBHs in CCGs with dynamically measured masses has increased, and it has been suggested that these MBH masses (M{sub BH}) deviate from the expected correlations with velocity dispersion ({sigma}) and mass of the bulge (M{sub bulge}) of the host galaxy: MBHs in CCGs appear to be ''overmassive''. This discrepancy is more pronounced when considering the M{sub BH}-{sigma} relation than the M{sub BH}-M{sub bulge} one. We show that this behavior stems from a combination of two natural factors: (1) CCGs experience more mergers involving spheroidal galaxies and their MBHs and (2) such mergers are preferentially gas poor. We use a combination of analytical and semi-analytical models to investigate the MBH-galaxy co-evolution in different environments and find that the combination of these two factors is in accordance with the trends observed in current data sets.

  16. Properties of the Brightest Cluster Galaxy and Its Host Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Haruyoshi; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Takahara, Fumio; Fujita, Yutaka

    2003-03-01

    We investigate the relation between the properties of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and those of their host clusters. To quantify the properties of cluster hot gas, we employ the parameter Z of the fundamental plane of X-ray clusters. It is found that the offset of the BCG from the peak of cluster X-ray emission is larger for smaller Z clusters. The parameter Z (not the redshift z), which depends mainly on virial density ρvir, is considered to represent the formation epoch of a cluster. We thus consider that the offset of the BCG is correlated with the dynamical equilibrium state of its host cluster. On the contrary, no significant correlation is found between the absolute optical magnitude of the BCG and the parameter Z. If the extreme brightness of the BCG is acquired mainly in the course of cluster evolution by environmental effect, BCGs are expected to be brighter in large Z clusters. Our result is not consistent with this simplified view. On the contrary, it is possible that the extreme brightness of the BCG is likely to be determined in the early history of cluster collapse.

  17. ChaMP Serendipitous Galaxy Cluster Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Barkhouse, Wayne A.; Green, P.J.; Vikhlinin, A.; Kim, D.-W.; Perley, D.; Cameron, R.; Silverman, J.; Mossman, A.; Burenin, R.; Jannuzi, B.T.; Kim, M.; Smith, M.G.; Smith, R.C.; Tananbaum, H.; Wilkes, B.J.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /SLAC /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE /Moscow, Space Res. Inst. /NOAO, Tucson /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.

    2006-04-03

    We present a survey of serendipitous extended X-ray sources and optical cluster candidates from the Chandra Multi-wavelength Project (ChaMP). Our main goal is to make an unbiased comparison of X-ray and optical cluster detection methods. In 130 archival Chandra pointings covering 13 square degrees, we use a wavelet decomposition technique to detect 55 extended sources, of which 6 are nearby single galaxies. Our X-ray cluster catalog reaches a typical flux limit of about {approx} 10{sup -14} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, with a median cluster core radius of 21''. For 56 of the 130 X-ray fields, we use the ChaMP's deep NOAO/4m MOSAIC g', r', and i' imaging to independently detect cluster candidates using a Voronoi tessellation and percolation (VTP) method. Red-sequence filtering decreases the galaxy fore/background contamination and provides photometric redshifts to z {approx} 0.7. From the overlapping 6.1 square degree X-ray/optical imaging, we find 115 optical clusters (of which 11% are in the X-ray catalog) and 28 X-ray clusters (of which 46% are in the optical VTP catalog). The median redshift of the 13 X-ray/optical clusters is 0.41, and their median X-ray luminosity (0.5-2 keV) is L{sub X} = (2.65 {+-} 0.19) x 10{sup 43} ergs s{sup -1}. The clusters in our sample that are only detected in our optical data are poorer on average ({approx} 4{sigma}) than the X-ray/optically matched clusters, which may partially explain the difference in the detection fractions.

  18. The 3-Dimensional Structure of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Lindsay

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope Multi-Cycle Treasury Program CLASH (PI Postman) has provided the community with the most detailed views ever of the central regions of massive galaxy clusters. These galaxy clusters have also been observed with NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory, with the ground-based Subaru telescope, and with other ground- and space-based facilities, resulting in unprecedented multi-wavelength data sets of the most massive bound structures in the universe. Fitting 3-Dimensional mass models is crucial to understanding how mass is distributed in individual clusters, investigating the properties of dark matter, and testing our cosmological model. With the exquisite data available, the time is now ideal to undertake this analysis. We propose to use algorithms that we have developed and obtain mass models for the clusters from the CLASH sample. The project would use archival gravitational lensing data, X-ray data of the cluster's hot gas and additional constraints from Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) data. Specifically, we would model the 23 clusters for which both HST and Subaru data (or in one case WFI data) are publicly available, since the exquisite imaging of HST in the clusters' central regions is beautifully augmented by the wide field coverage of Subaru imaging. If the true 3-D shapes of clusters are not properly accounted for when analysing data, this can lead to inaccuracies in the mass density profiles of individual clusters - up to 50% bias in mass for the most highly triaxial systems. Our proposed project represents an independent analysis of the CLASH sample, complementary to that of the CLASH team, probing the triaxial shapes and orientations of the cluster dark matter halos and hot gas. Our findings will be relevant to the analysis of data from future missions such as JWST and Euclid, and also to ground-based surveys to be made with telescopes such as LSST.

  19. Evolution of brightest cluster galaxies in X-ray clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brough, S.; Collins, C. A.; Burke, D. J.; Mann, R. G.; Lynam, P. D.

    2002-01-01

    A recent paper presents the analysis of the K-band Hubble diagram of 76 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in X-ray clusters and shows that the properties of BCGs depend on the X-ray luminosity (LX) of their host clusters. Unfortunately, the low numbers of nearby clusters in this sample makes it difficult to constrain evolutionary trends. In this letter we extend the Hubble diagram of Burke, Collins & Mann to a total of 155 clusters using new data on 79 BCGs at z<=0.1 from the 2MASS extended source catalogue. We show that the major division between BCGs in high- and low-LX clusters disappears at z<=0.1, with BCGs having similar absolute magnitudes independent of the X-ray luminosity of their host clusters. At larger redshifts, the K-band light of BCGs in high-LX systems is consistent with little or no merging back to z~0.8, whereas BCGs in the low-LX systems have a different evolutionary history, with many increasing their mass by a factor >=4 since z~=1. This provides direct evidence of hierarchical merging in a galaxy population.

  20. SUPERMODEL ANALYSIS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Fusco-Femiano, R.; Cavaliere, A.; Lapi, A.

    2009-11-01

    We present the analysis of the X-ray brightness and temperature profiles for six clusters belonging to both the Cool Core (CC) and Non Cool Core (NCC) classes, in terms of the Supermodel (SM) developed by Cavaliere et al. Based on the gravitational wells set by the dark matter (DM) halos, the SM straightforwardly expresses the equilibrium of the intracluster plasma (ICP) modulated by the entropy deposited at the boundary by standing shocks from gravitational accretion, and injected at the center by outgoing blast waves from mergers or from outbursts of active galactic nuclei. The cluster set analyzed here highlights not only how simply the SM represents the main dichotomy CC versus NCC clusters in terms of a few ICP parameters governing the radial entropy run, but also how accurately it fits even complex brightness and temperature profiles. For CC clusters like A2199 and A2597, the SM with a low level of central entropy straightforwardly yields the characteristic peaked profile of the temperature marked by a decline toward the center, without requiring currently strong radiative cooling and high mass deposition rates. NCC clusters like A1656 require instead a central entropy floor of a substantial level, and some like A2256 and even more A644 feature structured temperature profiles that also call for a definite floor extension; in such conditions the SM accurately fits the observations, and suggests that in these clusters the ICP has been just remolded by a merger event, in the way of a remnant cool core. The SM also predicts that DM halos with high concentration should correlate with flatter entropy profiles and steeper brightness in the outskirts; this is indeed the case with A1689, for which from X-rays we find concentration values c approx 10, the hallmark of an early halo formation. Thus, we show the SM to constitute a fast tool not only to provide wide libraries of accurate fits to X-ray temperature and density profiles, but also to retrieve from the ICP

  1. Brightest Cluster Galaxies and Core Gas Density in REXCESS Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haarsma, Deborah B.; Leisman, Luke; Donahue, Megan; Bruch, Seth; Böhringer, Hans; Croston, Judith H.; Pratt, Gabriel W.; Voit, G. Mark; Arnaud, Monique; Pierini, Daniele

    2010-04-01

    We investigate the relationship between brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and their host clusters using a sample of nearby galaxy clusters from the Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey. The sample was imaged with the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research in R band to investigate the mass of the old stellar population. Using a metric radius of 12 h -1 kpc, we found that the BCG luminosity depends weakly on overall cluster mass as L BCG vprop M 0.18±0.07 cl, consistent with previous work. We found that 90% of the BCGs are located within 0.035 r 500 of the peak of the X-ray emission, including all of the cool core (CC) clusters. We also found an unexpected correlation between the BCG metric luminosity and the core gas density for non-cool-core (non-CC) clusters, following a power law of ne vprop L 2.7±0.4 BCG (where ne is measured at 0.008 r 500). The correlation is not easily explained by star formation (which is weak in non-CC clusters) or overall cluster mass (which is not correlated with core gas density). The trend persists even when the BCG is not located near the peak of the X-ray emission, so proximity is not necessary. We suggest that, for non-CC clusters, this correlation implies that the same process that sets the central entropy of the cluster gas also determines the central stellar density of the BCG, and that this underlying physical process is likely to be mergers.

  2. When galaxy clusters collide: the impact of merger shocks on cluster gas and galaxy evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroe, A.

    2015-09-01

    Galaxy clusters mainly grow through mergers with other clusters and groups. Major mergers give rise to cluster-wide traveling shocks, which can be detected at radio wavelengths as relics: elongated, diffuse synchrotron emitting areas located at the periphery of merging clusters. The 'Sausage' cluster hosts an extraordinary Mpc-wide relic, which enables us to study to study particle acceleration and the effects of shocks on cluster galaxies. We derive shock properties and the magnetic field structure for the relic. Our results indicate that particles are shock-accelerated, but turbulent re-acceleration or unusually efficient transport of particles in the downstream area are important effects. We demonstrate the feasibility of high-frequency observations of radio relics, by presenting a 16 GHz detection of the 'Sausage' relic. Halpha mapping of the cluster provides the first direct test as to whether the shock drives or prohibits star formation. We find numerous galaxies in! close proximity to the radio relic which are extremely massive, metal-rich, star-forming with evidence for gas mass loss though outflows. We speculate that the complex interaction between the merger, the shock wave and gas is a fundamental driver in the evolution of cluster galaxies from gas rich spirals to gas-poor ellipticals.

  3. Clusters of Galaxies in the last 5 Billion Years: from the Brightest Cluster Galaxy to the Intra-Cluster Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillepich, Annalisa

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the physical processes which shape the galaxy population in the high density environment of galaxy clusters as a function of cosmic time is a central open question in galaxy evolution studies. With the Frontier Field Initiative, HST will provide an ultra-deep view and an unprecedented multi-wavelength dataset to study the galaxy population in and around galaxy clusters at intermediate redshift. With our study, we aim at providing the first self-consistent theoretical framework based on cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to understand the evolution of cluster galaxies: our analysis is designed to complement and aid the interpretation of the wealth of observational data within the LCDM Cosmology. In particular, we plan an in-depth analysis of a sample of 15 haloes with masses between 7x10^13 and 2x10^15 Msun at z=0, simulated with the gravity+hydrodynamics code Arepo. The numerical scheme and the galaxy formation model adopted in this study have already been successfully tested against a series of global measurements: they will allow us to follow the fate, within each cluster, of hundreds of well-resolved galaxies with stellar masses above 5x10^9 Msun. Our analysis will include the assembly properties of the central brightest galaxies as well as the demographics of the satellite populations and their cluster-centric gradients of colors, morphologies and star formation rates. Our setup is suitable to quantify the effects of environment on star formation, stripping, and quenching across an unprecedented range of galaxy masses, cluster masses and spatial scales, in addition to providing valuable clues about the diffuse intra-cluster light.

  4. Galaxy luminosity functions in WINGS clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, A.; Bettoni, D.; Poggianti, B. M.; Fasano, G.; Varela, J.; D'Onofrio, M.; Vulcani, B.; Cava, A.; Fritz, J.; Couch, W. J.; Moles, M.; Kjærgaard, P.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: Using V band photometry of the WINGS survey, we derive galaxy luminosity functions (LF) in nearby clusters. This sample is complete down to MV = -15.15, and it is homogeneous, thus facilitating the study of an unbiased sample of clusters with different characteristics. Methods: We constructed the photometric LF for 72 out of the original 76 WINGS clusters, excluding only those without a velocity dispersion estimate. For each cluster we obtained the LF for galaxies in a region of radius = 0.5 × r200, and fitted them with single and double Schechter's functions. We also derive the composite LF for the entire sample, and those pertaining to different morphological classes. Finally, we derive the spectroscopic cumulative LF for 2009 galaxies that are cluster members. Results: The double Schechter fit parameters are correlated neither with the cluster velocity dispersion nor with the X-ray luminosity. Our median values of the Schechter's fit slope are, on average, in agreement with measurements of nearby clusters, but are less steep that those derived from large surveys, such as the SDSS. Early-type galaxies out number late-types at all magnitudes, but both early and late types contribute equally to the faint end of the LF. Finally, the spectroscopic LF is in excellent agreement with the one derived for A2199, A85 and Virgo, and with the photometric LF at the bright magnitudes (where both are available). Conclusions: There is a large spread in the LF of different clusters, however, this spread is not caused by correlation of the LF shape with cluster characteristics such as X-ray luminosity or velocity dispersions. The faint end is flatter than previously derived (αf = -1.7), which is at odds with that predicted from numerical simulations. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile. Progs. ID 67.A-0030, 68.A-0139, and 69.A-0119.Table 1 and full Fig. 1 (Fig. A.1) are available in

  5. Merging Galaxy Cluster A2255 in Mid-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Hyunjin; Im, Myungshin; Lee, Hyung Mok; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Kim, Seong Jin; Hwang, Ho Seong; Hwang, Narae; Ko, Jongwan; Lee, Jong Chul; Lim, Sungsoon; Matsuhara, Hideo; Seo, Hyunjong; Wada, Takehiko; Goto, Tomotsugu

    2011-01-01

    We present the mid-infrared (MIR) observation of a nearby galaxy cluster, A2255, by the AKARI space telescope. Using AKARI's continuous wavelength coverage between 3 and 24 μm and the wide field of view, we investigate the properties of cluster member galaxies to see how the infall of the galaxies, the cluster substructures, and the cluster-cluster merger influence their evolution. We show that the excess of MIR (~11 μm) flux is a good indicator for discriminating galaxies at different evolutionary stages and for dividing galaxies into three classes accordingly: strong MIR-excess (N3 - S11>0.2) galaxies that include both unobscured and obscured star-forming galaxies; weak MIR-excess (-2.0 < N3 - S11 < -1.2) galaxies that are quiescent, old (>5 Gyr) galaxies where the MIR emission arises mainly from the circumstellar dust around AGB stars; and intermediate MIR-excess (-1.2 < N3 - S11 < 0.2) galaxies in between the two classes that are less than a few Gyr old past the prime star formation activity. With the MIR-excess diagnostics, we investigate how local and cluster-scale environments affect the individual galaxies. We derive the total star formation rate (SFR) and the specific SFR of A2255 using the strong MIR-excess galaxies. The dust-free, total SFR of A2255 is ~130 M sun yr-1, which is consistent with the SFRs of other clusters of galaxies at similar redshifts and with similar masses. We find no strong evidence that supports enhanced star formation either inside the cluster or in the substructure region, suggesting that the infall or the cluster merging activities tend to suppress star formation. The intermediate MIR-excess galaxies, representing galaxies in transition from star-forming galaxies to quiescent galaxies, are located preferentially at the medium density region or cluster substructures with higher surface density of galaxies. Our findings suggest that galaxies are being transformed from star-forming galaxies into red, quiescent galaxies from the

  6. Two confirmed compact elliptical galaxies in the Antlia cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith Castelli, A. V.; Faifer, F. R.; Bassino, L. P.; Romero, G. A.; Cellone, S. A.; Richtler, T.

    We confirm the existence of two compact elliptical (cE) galaxies in the cen- tral region of the Antlia cluster through MAGELLAN-MIKE and GEMINI- GMOS spectra. Only about a dozen galaxies of this rare type are known today up to a distance of 100 Mpc. With this finding, Antlia becomes the nearest galaxy cluster harbouring more than one cE galaxy among its galaxy population. One of these galaxies shows evidence of interaction with one of the giant ellipticals that dominate the central region of the cluster.

  7. The galaxy cluster outskirts probed by Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morandi, Andrea; Sun, Ming; Forman, William; Jones, Christine

    2015-08-01

    Exploring the virialization region of galaxy clusters has recently raised the attention of the scientific community, offering a direct view of structure formation. In this talk, I will present recent results on the physical properties of the intracluster medium in the outer volumes of a sample of 320 clusters (0.056 3 keV) in the Chandra archive, with a total integration time of ~20 Ms. We stacked the emission measure profiles of the clusters to detect a signal out to R_{100}. We then measured the average emission measure, gas density and gas fraction, which scale according to the self-similar model of cluster formation. We observe a steepening of the density profiles beyond R_{500} with slope beta ~ 0.68 at R_{500} and beta ~ 1 at R_{200} and beyond. By tracking the direction of the cosmic filaments where the clusters are embedded, we report that galaxy clusters deviate from spherical symmetry. We also did not find evolution of the gas density with redshift, confirming the self-similar evolution of the gas density. The value of the baryon fraction reaches the cosmic value at R_{200}: however, systematics due to non-thermal pressure support and clumpiness might enhance the measured gas fraction, leading to an actual deficit of the baryon budget with respect to the primordial value). This novel method, the stacking the X-ray signal of cluster outskirts, has the capacity to provide a generational leap forward in our understanding of cluster physics and formation, and the use of clusters as cosmological probes.

  8. Galaxy Cluster Takes It to the Extreme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-05-01

    Evidence for an awesome upheaval in a massive galaxy cluster was discovered in an image made by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The origin of a bright arc of ferociously hot gas extending over two million light years requires one of the most energetic events ever detected. The cluster of galaxies is filled with tenuous gas at 170 million degree Celsius that is bound by the mass equivalent of a quadrillion, or 1,000 trillion, suns. The temperature and mass make this cluster a giant among giants. VLA Radio Image of 3C438 VLA Radio Image of 3C438 "The huge feature detected in the cluster, combined with the high temperature, points to an exceptionally dramatic event in the nearby Universe," said Ralph Kraft of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Mass., and leader of a team of astronomers involved in this research. "While we're not sure what caused it, we've narrowed it down to a couple of exciting possibilities." The favored explanation for the bright X-ray arc is that two massive galaxy clusters are undergoing a collision at about 4 million miles per hour. Shock waves generated by the violent encounter of the clusters' hot gas clouds could produce a sharp change in pressure along the boundary where the collision is occurring, giving rise to the observed arc-shaped structure which resembles a titanic weather front. "Although this would be an extreme collision, one of the most powerful ever seen, we think this may be what is going on," said team member Martin Hardcastle, of the University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom. Images of 3C438 and Surrounding Galaxy Cluster Images of 3C438 and Surrounding Galaxy Cluster A problem with the collision theory is that only one peak in the X-ray emission is seen, whereas two are expected. Longer observations with Chandra and the XMM-Newton X-ray observatories should help determine how serious this problem is for the collision hypothesis. Another possible explanation is that the disturbance was

  9. BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES AT THE PRESENT EPOCH

    SciTech Connect

    Lauer, Tod R.; Postman, Marc; Strauss, Michael A.; Graves, Genevieve J.; Chisari, Nora E.

    2014-12-20

    We have obtained photometry and spectroscopy of 433 z ≤ 0.08 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in a full-sky survey of Abell clusters to construct a BCG sample suitable for probing deviations from the local Hubble flow. The BCG Hubble diagram over 0 < z < 0.08 is consistent to within 2% of the Hubble relation specified by a Ω {sub m} = 0.3, Λ = 0.7 cosmology. This sample allows us to explore the structural and photometric properties of BCGs at the present epoch, their location in their hosting galaxy clusters, and the effects of the cluster environment on their structure and evolution. We revisit the L{sub m} -α relation for BCGs, which uses α, the log-slope of the BCG photometric curve of growth, to predict the metric luminosity in an aperture with 14.3 kpc radius, L{sub m} , for use as a distance indicator. Residuals in the relation are 0.27 mag rms. We measure central stellar velocity dispersions, σ, of the BCGs, finding the Faber-Jackson relation to flatten as the metric aperture grows to include an increasing fraction of the total BCG luminosity. A three-parameter ''metric plane'' relation using α and σ together gives the best prediction of L{sub m} , with 0.21 mag residuals. The distribution of projected spatial offsets, r{sub x} of BCGs from the X-ray-defined cluster center is a steep γ = –2.33 power law over 1 < r{sub x} < 10{sup 3} kpc. The median offset is ∼10 kpc, but ∼15% of the BCGs have r{sub x} > 100 kpc. The absolute cluster-dispersion normalized BCG peculiar velocity |ΔV {sub 1}|/σ {sub c} follows an exponential distribution with scale length 0.39 ± 0.03. Both L{sub m} and α increase with σ {sub c}. The α parameter is further moderated by both the spatial and velocity offset from the cluster center, with larger α correlated with the proximity of the BCG to the cluster mean velocity or potential center. At the same time, position in the cluster has little effect on L{sub m} . Likewise, residuals from the metric plane

  10. The Adopted Morphological Types of 247 Rich PF Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panko, Elena; Bajan, Katarzyna; Flin, Piotr; Gotsulyak, Alla

    2016-10-01

    Morphological types were determined for 247 rich galaxy clusters from the PF Catalogue of Galaxy Clusters and Groups. The adopted types are based on classical morphological schemes and consider concentration to the cluster center, the signs of preferential direction or plane in the cluster, and the positions of the brightest galaxies. It is shown that both concentration and preferential plane are significant and independent morphological criteria.

  11. Dynamical evolution of globular-cluster systems in clusters of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Muzzio, J.C.

    1987-04-01

    The dynamical processes that affect globular-cluster systems in clusters of galaxies are analyzed. Two-body and impulsive approximations are utilized to study dynamical friction, drag force, tidal stripping, tidal radii, globular-cluster swapping, tidal accretion, and galactic cannibalism. The evolution of galaxies and the collision of galaxies are simulated numerically; the steps involved in the simulation are described. The simulated data are compared with observations. Consideration is given to the number of galaxies, halo extension, location of the galaxies, distribution of the missing mass, nonequilibrium initial conditions, mass dependence, massive central galaxies, globular-cluster distribution, and lost globular clusters. 116 references.

  12. A systematic survey for distant galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunn, J. E.; Hoessel, J. G.; Oke, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    A photographic survey for faint clusters of galaxies has been carried out with fine-grained photographic emulsions using the 1.2 m Schmidt and 5 m Hale telescopes, as well as the 4 m Mayall telescope. A total of 418 clusters have been found with redshifts mostly in the range from 0.15 to 0.92. The survey was planned to minimize distance-dependent selection effects in the resulting catalog. In areas of sky where the deepest search was made, the sample is complete to about z = 0.50; there are 11 clusters per square degree at this limit. At a redshift of 1.0 there should be 63 or 45 clusters per square degree depending on whether q0 is 0.0 or 0.5, provided there is no evolution.

  13. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-06-01

    Brightest X-ray Cluster Acts as Strong Gravitational Lens Based on exciting new data obtained with the ROSAT X-ray satellite and a ground-based telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, a team of European astronomers [2] has just discovered a very distant cluster of galaxies with unique properties. It emits the strongest X-ray emission of any cluster ever observed by ROSAT and is accompanied by two extraordinarily luminous arcs that represent the gravitationally deflected images of even more distant objects. The combination of these unusual characteristics makes this cluster, now known as RXJ1347.5-1145, a most interesting object for further cosmological studies. DISCOVERY AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS This strange cluster of galaxies was discovered during the All Sky Survey with the ROSAT X-ray satellite as a moderately intense X-ray source in the constellation of Virgo. It could not be identified with any already known object and additional ground-based observations were therefore soon after performed with the Max-Planck-Society/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile. These observations took place within a large--scale redshift survey of X-ray clusters of galaxies detected by the ROSAT All Sky Survey, a so-called ``ESO Key Programme'' led by astronomers from the Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera. The main aim of this programme is to identify cluster X-ray sources, to determine the distance to the X-ray emitting clusters and to investigate their overall properties. These observations permitted to measure the redshift of the RXJ1347.5-1145 cluster as z = 0.45, i.e. it moves away from us with a velocity (about 106,000 km/sec) equal to about one-third of the velocity of light. This is an effect of the general expansion of the universe and it allows to determine the distance as about 5,000 million light-years (assuming a Hubble constant of 75 km/sec/Mpc). In other words, we see these

  14. Study of bright globular clusters and Ultra-Compact Dwarf galaxies in the Antlia cluster.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caso, J. P.; Bassino, L. P.; Richtler, T.; Smith Castelli, A. V.; Faifer, F. R.; Calderón, J. P.

    A sample of confirmed Ultra-Compact Dwarf galaxies and globular clusters around the giant galaxy NGC 3268 in the Antlia cluster is presented, including their Washington photometry. For the Antlia objects discovered so far, the reliability of a common origin with the globular clusters of the galaxies NGC 3258 and NGC 3268 is analyzed.

  15. Chandra View of Galaxy Cluster Abell 2554

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kıyami Erdim, Muhammed; Hudaverdi, Murat

    2016-07-01

    We study the structure of the galaxy cluster Abell 2554 at z = 0.11, which is a member of Aquarius Super cluster using the Chandra archival data. The X-ray peak coincides with a bright elliptical cD galaxy. Slightly elongated X-ray plasma has an average temperature and metal abundance values of ˜6 keV and 0.28 solar, respectively. We observe small-scale temperature variations in the ICM. There is a significantly hot wall-like structure with 9 keV at the SE and also radio-lope locates at the tip of this hot region. A2554 is also part of a trio-cluster. Its close neighbors A2550 (at SW) and A2556 (at SE) have only 2 Mpc and 1.5 Mpc separations with A2554. Considering the temperature fluctuations and the dynamical environment of super cluster, we examine the possible ongoing merger scenarios within A2554.

  16. A GMBCG Galaxy Cluster Catalog of 55,424 Rich Clusters from SDSS DR7

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Jiangang; McKay, Timothy A.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Rykoff, Eli S.; Rozo, Eduardo; Annis, James; Wechsler, Risa H.; Evrard, August; Siegel, Seth R.; Becker, Matthew; Busha, Michael; Gerdes, David; Johnston, David E.; Sheldon, Erin; /Brookhaven

    2011-08-22

    We present a large catalog of optically selected galaxy clusters from the application of a new Gaussian Mixture Brightest Cluster Galaxy (GMBCG) algorithm to SDSS Data Release 7 data. The algorithm detects clusters by identifying the red sequence plus Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) feature, which is unique for galaxy clusters and does not exist among field galaxies. Red sequence clustering in color space is detected using an Error Corrected Gaussian Mixture Model. We run GMBCG on 8240 square degrees of photometric data from SDSS DR7 to assemble the largest ever optical galaxy cluster catalog, consisting of over 55,000 rich clusters across the redshift range from 0.1 < z < 0.55. We present Monte Carlo tests of completeness and purity and perform cross-matching with X-ray clusters and with the maxBCG sample at low redshift. These tests indicate high completeness and purity across the full redshift range for clusters with 15 or more members.

  17. A GMBCG galaxy cluster catalog of 55,880 rich clusters from SDSS DR7

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Jiangang; McKay, Timothy A.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Rykoff, Eli S.; Rozo, Eduardo; Annis, James; Wechsler, Risa H.; Evrard, August; Siegel, Seth R.; Becker, Matthew; Busha, Michael; /Fermilab /Michigan U. /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /UC, Santa Barbara /KICP, Chicago /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Caltech /Brookhaven

    2010-08-01

    We present a large catalog of optically selected galaxy clusters from the application of a new Gaussian Mixture Brightest Cluster Galaxy (GMBCG) algorithm to SDSS Data Release 7 data. The algorithm detects clusters by identifying the red sequence plus Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) feature, which is unique for galaxy clusters and does not exist among field galaxies. Red sequence clustering in color space is detected using an Error Corrected Gaussian Mixture Model. We run GMBCG on 8240 square degrees of photometric data from SDSS DR7 to assemble the largest ever optical galaxy cluster catalog, consisting of over 55,000 rich clusters across the redshift range from 0.1 < z < 0.55. We present Monte Carlo tests of completeness and purity and perform cross-matching with X-ray clusters and with the maxBCG sample at low redshift. These tests indicate high completeness and purity across the full redshift range for clusters with 15 or more members.

  18. The Radio Properties of Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, M. T.

    2014-09-01

    Energetic feedback from the Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) of the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) is required to prevent catastrophic cooling of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) in galaxy clusters. Evidence for this is seen through the inflation of cavities in the ICM by AGN-launched, radio-emitting jets, and understanding this process is an active area of research. Radio observations play an integral role in this, as they trace the active stages of the feedback cycle. Understanding the radio properties of BCGs is therefore paramount for understanding both galaxy clusters and AGN feedback processes globally. Within this thesis, the BCGs in a large (>700) sample of X-ray selected clusters are studied. We observe these BCGs with a wide variety of facilities, building a census of their radio properties across a range of frequencies, timescales and angular resolutions. Radio spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are built for over 200 BCGs, and then decomposed into two components; a core, attributable to ongoing nuclear activity, and a non-core, attributable to historical accretion. Both components are not only more common, but also significantly more powerful in cool-core (CC) clusters than non-cool core (NCC) clusters. However, it is the presence of an active core that shows BCGs in CC clusters are constantly `on' - explaining how they regulate their environments over gigayear timescales. We observe 35 currently active BCGs at high (15-353 GHz) radio frequencies, and monitor their variability. Self-absorbed, active components are found to be common at high frequency. Little variability is seen on < year timescales, although longer term variation of ~10% annually over few-decade timescales is observed. Evidence is presented for a hitherto unseen component in BCG spectra that may be attributable to a naked Advection Dominated Accretion Flow (ADAF). The milli-arcsecond scale radio properties of 59 sources are studied, with a large range of morphologies recovered although no

  19. The Cluster of Galaxies Surrounding Cygnus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Frazer N.; Ledlow, Michael J.; Morrison, Glenn E.; Hill, John M.

    1997-10-01

    We report optical imaging and spectroscopy of 41 galaxies in a 22' square region surrounding Cygnus A. The results show that there is an extensive rich cluster associated with Cyg A of Abell richness of at least 1 and possibly as high as 4. The velocity histogram has two peaks, one centered on Cyg A and a more significant peak redshifted by about 2060 km s-1 from the velocity of Cyg A. The dynamical centroid of the spatial distribution is also shifted somewhat to the northwest. However, statistical tests show only weak evidence that there are two distinct clusters. The entire system has a velocity dispersion of 1581 km s-1, which is slightly larger than other, well-studied examples of rich clusters.

  20. STUDYING INTERCLUSTER GALAXY FILAMENTS THROUGH STACKING gmBCG GALAXY CLUSTER PAIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yuanyuan; Dietrich, Joerg P.; McKay, Timothy A.; Nguyen, Alex T. Q.; Sheldon, Erin S.

    2013-08-20

    We present a method to study the photometric properties of galaxies in filaments by stacking the galaxy populations between pairs of galaxy clusters. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, this method can detect the intercluster filament galaxy overdensity with a significance of {approx}5{sigma} out to z = 0.40. Using this approach, we study the g - r color and luminosity distribution of filament galaxies as a function of redshift. Consistent with expectation, filament galaxies are bimodal in their color distribution and contain a larger blue galaxy population than clusters. Filament galaxies are also generally fainter than cluster galaxies. More interestingly, the observed filament population seems to show redshift evolution at 0.12 < z < 0.40: the blue galaxy fraction has a trend to increase at higher redshift; such evolution is parallel to the ''Butcher-Oemler effect'' of galaxy clusters. We test the dependence of the observed filament density on the richness of the cluster pair: richer clusters are connected by higher density filaments. We also test the spatial dependence of filament galaxy overdensity: this quantity decreases when moving away from the intercluster axis between a cluster pair. This method provides an economical way to probe the photometric properties of filament galaxies and should prove useful for upcoming projects like the Dark Energy Survey.

  1. Studying Intercluster Galaxy Filaments through Stacking gmBCG Galaxy Cluster Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Dietrich, Jörg P.; McKay, Timothy A.; Sheldon, Erin S.; Nguyen, Alex T. Q.

    2013-08-01

    We present a method to study the photometric properties of galaxies in filaments by stacking the galaxy populations between pairs of galaxy clusters. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, this method can detect the intercluster filament galaxy overdensity with a significance of ~5σ out to z = 0.40. Using this approach, we study the g - r color and luminosity distribution of filament galaxies as a function of redshift. Consistent with expectation, filament galaxies are bimodal in their color distribution and contain a larger blue galaxy population than clusters. Filament galaxies are also generally fainter than cluster galaxies. More interestingly, the observed filament population seems to show redshift evolution at 0.12 < z < 0.40: the blue galaxy fraction has a trend to increase at higher redshift; such evolution is parallel to the "Butcher-Oemler effect" of galaxy clusters. We test the dependence of the observed filament density on the richness of the cluster pair: richer clusters are connected by higher density filaments. We also test the spatial dependence of filament galaxy overdensity: this quantity decreases when moving away from the intercluster axis between a cluster pair. This method provides an economical way to probe the photometric properties of filament galaxies and should prove useful for upcoming projects like the Dark Energy Survey.

  2. The ESO nearby Abell cluster survey. VII. Galaxy density profiles of rich clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, C.; Mazure, A.; Katgert, P.; Biviano, A.

    1998-08-01

    We have analyzed the projected galaxy distributions in a subset of the ENACS cluster sample, viz. in those 77 clusters that have z < 0.1 and R_ACO >= 1 and for which ENACS and COSMOS data are available. For 20 % of these, the distribution of galaxies in the COSMOS catalogue does not allow a reliable centre position to be determined. For the other 62 clusters, we first determined the centre and elongation of the galaxy distribution. Subsequently, we made Maximum-Likelihood fits to the distribution of COSMOS galaxies for 4 theoretical profiles, two with `cores' (generalized King- and Hubble-profiles) and two with `cusps' (generalized Navarro, Frenk and White, or NFW, and de Vaucouleurs profiles). We obtain average core radii (or characteristic radii for the profiles without core) of 128, 189, 292 and 1582 kpc for fits with King, Hubble, NFW and de Vaucouleurs profiles respectively, with dispersions around these average values of 88, 116, 191 and 771 kpc. The surface density of background galaxies is about 4 10(-5) gals arcsec(-2) (with a spread of about 2 10(-5) ), and there is very good agreement between the values found for the 4 profiles. There is also very good agreement on the outer logarithmic slope of the projected galaxy distribution, which is that for the non-generalized King- and Hubble-profile (i.e. beta_ {King} = beta_ {Hubble} = 1, with the corresponding values for the two other model-profiles). We use the Likelihood ratio to investigate whether the observations are significantly better described by profiles with cusps or by profiles with cores. Taking the King and NFW profiles as `model' of either class, we find that about 75 % of the clusters are better fit by the King profile than by the NFW profile. However, for the individual clusters the preference for the King profile is rarely significant at a confidence level of more than 90 %. When we limit ourselves to the central regions it appears that the signifance increases drastically, with 65 % of the

  3. ON THE CLUSTERING OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Christina C.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Yun, Min S.; Pope, Alexandra; Wilson, Grant W.; Cybulski, Ryan; Schloerb, F. Peter; Porciani, Cristiano; Scott, Kimberly S.; Austermann, Jason E.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David H.; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Kawabe, Ryo; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Kohno, Kotaro; Perera, Thushara

    2011-06-01

    We measure the angular two-point correlation function of submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) from 1.1 mm imaging of the COSMOS field with the AzTEC camera and ASTE 10 m telescope. These data yield one of the largest contiguous samples of SMGs to date, covering an area of 0.72 deg{sup 2} down to a 1.26 mJy beam{sup -1} (1{sigma}) limit, including 189 (328) sources with S/N {>=}3.5 (3). We can only set upper limits to the correlation length r{sub 0}, modeling the correlation function as a power law with pre-assigned slope. Assuming existing redshift distributions, we derive 68.3% confidence level upper limits of r{sub 0} {approx}< 6-8h{sup -1} Mpc at 3.7 mJy and r{sub 0} {approx}< 11-12 h{sup -1} Mpc at 4.2 mJy. Although consistent with most previous estimates, these upper limits imply that the real r{sub 0} is likely smaller. This casts doubts on the robustness of claims that SMGs are characterized by significantly stronger spatial clustering (and thus larger mass) than differently selected galaxies at high redshift. Using Monte Carlo simulations we show that even strongly clustered distributions of galaxies can appear unclustered when sampled with limited sensitivity and coarse angular resolution common to current submillimeter surveys. The simulations, however, also show that unclustered distributions can appear strongly clustered under these circumstances. From the simulations, we predict that at our survey depth, a mapped area of 2 deg{sup 2} is needed to reconstruct the correlation function, assuming smaller beam sizes of future surveys (e.g., the Large Millimeter Telescope's 6'' beam size). At present, robust measures of the clustering strength of bright SMGs appear to be below the reach of most observations.

  4. A COMPARISON OF THE CLUSTERING PROPERTIES BETWEEN GALAXIES AND GROUPS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Xinfa

    2013-03-01

    In this study, I apply cluster analysis and perform comparative studies of clustering properties between galaxies and groups of galaxies. It is found that the number of objects N{sub max} of the richest system and the maximal length D{sub max} of the largest system for groups in all samples are apparently larger than ones for galaxies, and that galaxies preferentially form isolated, paired, and small systems, while groups preferentially form grouped and clustered systems. These results show that groups are more strongly clustered than galaxies, which is consistent with statistical results of the correlation function.

  5. Dynamical Analyses of Galaxy Clusters With Large Redshift Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, J. J.; Richstone, D. O.; Wegner, G.

    1998-12-01

    We construct equilibrium models of galaxy orbits in five nearby galaxy clusters to study the distribution of binding mass, the nature of galaxy orbits and the kinematic differences between cluster populations of emission-line and non emission-line galaxies. We avail ourselves of 1718 galaxy redshifts (and 1203 cluster member redshifts) in this Jeans analysis; most of these redshifts are new, coming from multifiber spectroscopic runs on the MDM 2.4m with the Decaspec and queue observing on WIYN with Hydra. In addition to the spectroscopic data we have V and R band CCD mosaics (obtained with the MDM 1.3m) of the Abell region in each of these clusters. Our scientific goals include: (i) a quantitative estimate of the range of binding masses M500 consistent with the optical and X-ray data, (ii) an estimate of the typical galaxy oribital anisotropies required to make the galaxy data consistent with the NFW expectation for the cluster potential, (iii) a better understanding of the systematics inherent in the process of rescaling and ``stacking'' galaxy cluster observations, (iv) a reexamination of the recent CNOC results implying that emission-line (blue) galaxies are an equilibrium population with a more extended radial distribution than their non emission-line (red) galaxy counterparts and (v) a measure of the galaxy contribution to the cluster mass of baryons.

  6. Statistical Issues in Galaxy Cluster Cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantz, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The number and growth of massive galaxy clusters are sensitive probes of cosmological structure formation. Surveys at various wavelengths can detect clusters to high redshift, but the fact that cluster mass is not directly observable complicates matters, requiring us to simultaneously constrain scaling relations of observable signals with mass. The problem can be cast as one of regression, in which the data set is truncated, the (cosmology-dependent) underlying population must be modeled, and strong, complex correlations between measurements often exist. Simulations of cosmological structure formation provide a robust prediction for the number of clusters in the Universe as a function of mass and redshift (the mass function), but they cannot reliably predict the observables used to detect clusters in sky surveys (e.g. X-ray luminosity). Consequently, observers must constrain observable-mass scaling relations using additional data, and use the scaling relation model in conjunction with the mass function to predict the number of clusters as a function of redshift and luminosity.

  7. Cosmological Constraints from Galaxy Clustering and the Mass-to-number Ratio of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinker, Jeremy L.; Sheldon, Erin S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Becker, Matthew R.; Rozo, Eduardo; Zu, Ying; Weinberg, David H.; Zehavi, Idit; Blanton, Michael R.; Busha, Michael T.; Koester, Benjamin P.

    2012-01-01

    We place constraints on the average density (Ω m ) and clustering amplitude (σ8) of matter using a combination of two measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: the galaxy two-point correlation function, wp (rp ), and the mass-to-galaxy-number ratio within galaxy clusters, M/N, analogous to cluster M/L ratios. Our wp (rp ) measurements are obtained from DR7 while the sample of clusters is the maxBCG sample, with cluster masses derived from weak gravitational lensing. We construct nonlinear galaxy bias models using the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) to fit both wp (rp ) and M/N for different cosmological parameters. HOD models that match the same two-point clustering predict different numbers of galaxies in massive halos when Ω m or σ8 is varied, thereby breaking the degeneracy between cosmology and bias. We demonstrate that this technique yields constraints that are consistent and competitive with current results from cluster abundance studies, without the use of abundance information. Using wp (rp ) and M/N alone, we find Ω0.5 m σ8 = 0.465 ± 0.026, with individual constraints of Ω m = 0.29 ± 0.03 and σ8 = 0.85 ± 0.06. Combined with current cosmic microwave background data, these constraints are Ω m = 0.290 ± 0.016 and σ8 = 0.826 ± 0.020. All errors are 1σ. The systematic uncertainties that the M/N technique are most sensitive to are the amplitude of the bias function of dark matter halos and the possibility of redshift evolution between the SDSS Main sample and the maxBCG cluster sample. Our derived constraints are insensitive to the current level of uncertainties in the halo mass function and in the mass-richness relation of clusters and its scatter, making the M/N technique complementary to cluster abundances as a method for constraining cosmology with future galaxy surveys.

  8. Gas loss in simulated galaxies as they fall into clusters.

    PubMed

    Cen, Renyue; Pop, Ana Roxana; Bahcall, Neta A

    2014-06-01

    We use high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulations to gain insights into how galaxies lose their cold gas at low redshift as they migrate from the field to the high-density regions of clusters of galaxies. We find that beyond three cluster virial radii, the fraction of gas-rich galaxies is constant, representing the field. Within three cluster-centric radii, the fraction of gas-rich galaxies declines steadily with decreasing radius, reaching <10% near the cluster center. Our results suggest galaxies start to feel the effect of the cluster environment on their gas content well beyond the cluster virial radius. We show that almost all gas-rich galaxies at the cluster virial radius are falling in for the first time at nearly radial orbits. Furthermore, we find that almost no galaxy moving outward at the cluster virial radius is gas-rich (with a gas-to-baryon ratio greater than 1%). These results suggest that galaxies that fall into clusters lose their cold gas within a single radial round-trip.

  9. Gas loss in simulated galaxies as they fall into clusters.

    PubMed

    Cen, Renyue; Pop, Ana Roxana; Bahcall, Neta A

    2014-06-01

    We use high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulations to gain insights into how galaxies lose their cold gas at low redshift as they migrate from the field to the high-density regions of clusters of galaxies. We find that beyond three cluster virial radii, the fraction of gas-rich galaxies is constant, representing the field. Within three cluster-centric radii, the fraction of gas-rich galaxies declines steadily with decreasing radius, reaching <10% near the cluster center. Our results suggest galaxies start to feel the effect of the cluster environment on their gas content well beyond the cluster virial radius. We show that almost all gas-rich galaxies at the cluster virial radius are falling in for the first time at nearly radial orbits. Furthermore, we find that almost no galaxy moving outward at the cluster virial radius is gas-rich (with a gas-to-baryon ratio greater than 1%). These results suggest that galaxies that fall into clusters lose their cold gas within a single radial round-trip. PMID:24843167

  10. Gas loss in simulated galaxies as they fall into clusters

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Renyue; Pop, Ana Roxana; Bahcall, Neta A.

    2014-01-01

    We use high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulations to gain insights into how galaxies lose their cold gas at low redshift as they migrate from the field to the high-density regions of clusters of galaxies. We find that beyond three cluster virial radii, the fraction of gas-rich galaxies is constant, representing the field. Within three cluster-centric radii, the fraction of gas-rich galaxies declines steadily with decreasing radius, reaching <10% near the cluster center. Our results suggest galaxies start to feel the effect of the cluster environment on their gas content well beyond the cluster virial radius. We show that almost all gas-rich galaxies at the cluster virial radius are falling in for the first time at nearly radial orbits. Furthermore, we find that almost no galaxy moving outward at the cluster virial radius is gas-rich (with a gas-to-baryon ratio greater than 1%). These results suggest that galaxies that fall into clusters lose their cold gas within a single radial round-trip. PMID:24843167

  11. The Criteria for Morphological Classification of PF Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panko, E. A.

    The morphological types of galaxy clusters resulting from their out ward appearance is physically related to the clusters and their member galaxies. Presented here is an adopted system of morphological types of galaxy clusters based on the Zwicky, Boutz&Morgan, Rood&Sastry, and L'opez-Cruz systems. The adopted types are suitable for automated classification of galaxy clusters from The Catalogue of Galaxy Clusters and Groups (Panko& Flin 2006). Numerical criteria describing 6 main types were distinguished: Concentrated C, Intermediate I, Open O, Line L, Flat F, and cD. The types correspond to the base divisions from regular to irregular clusters, but also note the presence of preferential direction orplane in each cluster.

  12. Cosmological parameter constraints from galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering with the SDSS DR7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; Slosar, Anže; Baldauf, Tobias; Seljak, Uroš; Hirata, Christopher M.; Nakajima, Reiko; Reyes, Reinabelle; Smith, Robert E.

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that the cross-correlation coefficient between galaxies and dark matter is very close to unity on scales outside a few virial radii of galaxy haloes, independent of the details of how galaxies populate dark matter haloes. This finding makes it possible to determine the dark matter clustering from measurements of galaxy-galaxy weak lensing and galaxy clustering. We present new cosmological parameter constraints based on large-scale measurements of spectroscopic galaxy samples from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 7. We generalize the approach of Baldauf et al. to remove small-scale information (below 2 and 4 h-1 Mpc for lensing and clustering measurements, respectively), where the cross-correlation coefficient differs from unity. We derive constraints for three galaxy samples covering 7131 deg2, containing 69 150, 62 150 and 35 088 galaxies with mean redshifts of 0.11, 0.28 and 0.40. We clearly detect scale-dependent galaxy bias for the more luminous galaxy samples, at a level consistent with theoretical expectations. When we vary both σ8 and Ωm (and marginalize over non-linear galaxy bias) in a flat Λ cold dark matter model, the best-constrained quantity is σ8(Ωm/0.25)0.57 = 0.80 ± 0.05 (1σ, stat. + sys.), where statistical and systematic errors (photometric redshift and shear calibration) have comparable contributions, and we have fixed ns = 0.96 and h = 0.7. These strong constraints on the matter clustering suggest that this method is competitive with cosmic shear in current data, while having very complementary and in some ways less serious systematics. We therefore expect that this method will play a prominent role in future weak lensing surveys. When we combine these data with Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7-year (WMAP7) cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, constraints on σ8, Ωm, H0, wde and ∑mν become 30-80 per cent tighter than with CMB data alone, since our data break several parameter

  13. Joint Analysis of Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing and Galaxy Clustering: Methodology and Forecasts for DES

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.

    2015-07-19

    The joint analysis of galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising method for inferring the growth function of large scale structure. Our analysis will be carried out on data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES), with its measurements of both the distribution of galaxies and the tangential shears of background galaxies induced by these foreground lenses. We develop a practical approach to modeling the assumptions and systematic effects affecting small scale lensing, which provides halo masses, and large scale galaxy clustering. Introducing parameters that characterize the halo occupation distribution (HOD), photometric redshift uncertainties, and shear measurement errors, we study how external priors on different subsets of these parameters affect our growth constraints. Degeneracies within the HOD model, as well as between the HOD and the growth function, are identified as the dominant source of complication, with other systematic effects sub-dominant. The impact of HOD parameters and their degeneracies necessitate the detailed joint modeling of the galaxy sample that we employ. Finally, we conclude that DES data will provide powerful constraints on the evolution of structure growth in the universe, conservatively/optimistically constraining the growth function to 7.9%/4.8% with its first-year data that covered over 1000 square degrees, and to 3.9%/2.3% with its full five-year data that will survey 5000 square degrees, including both statistical and systematic uncertainties.

  14. Brightest cluster galaxies as standard candles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postman, Marc; Lauer, Tod R.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the use of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) as standard candles for measuring galaxy peculiar velocities on large scales. We have obtained precise large-format CCD surface photometry and redshifts for an all-sky, volume-limited (z less than or = 0.05) sample of 199 BCG. We reinvestigate the Hoessel (1980) relationship between the metric luminosity, L(sub m), within the central 10 kpc/h of the BCGs and the logarithmic slope of the surface brightness profile, alpha. The L(sub m)-alpha relationship reduces the cosmic scatter in L(sub m) from 0.327 mag to 0.244 mag, yielding a typical distance accuracy of 17% per BCG. Residuals about the L(sub m)-alpha relationship are independent of BCG luminosity, BCG B - R(sub c) color, BCG location within the host cluster, and richness of the host cluster. The metric luminosity is independent of cluster richness even before correcting for its dependence on alpha, which provides further evidence for the unique nature of the BCG luminosity function. Indeed, the BCG luminosity function, both before and after application of the alpha-correction, is consistent with a single Gaussian distribution. Half the BCGs in the sample show some evidence of small color gradients as a function of radius within their central 50 kpc/h regions but with almost equal numbers becoming redder as becoming bluer. However, with the central 10 kpc/h the colors are remarkably constant -- the mean B - R(sub c) color is 1.51 with a dispersion of only 0.06 mag. The narrow photometric and color distributions of the BCGs, the lack of 'second-parameter' effects, as well as the unique rich cluster environment of BCGs, argue that BCGs are the most homogeneous distance indicators presently available for large-scale structure research.

  15. Alignments of the Dominant Galaxies in Poor Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Todd M.; West, Michael J.; Bridges, Terry J.

    1999-07-01

    We have examined the orientations of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in poor MKW (Morgan, Kayser, and White) and AWM (Albert, White, and Morgan) clusters and find that, like their counterparts in richer Abell clusters, poor cluster BCGs exhibit a strong propensity to be aligned with the principal axes of their host clusters as well as the surrounding distribution of nearby (<=20 h-1 Mpc) Abell clusters. The processes responsible for dominant galaxy alignments are therefore independent of cluster richness. We argue that these alignments most likely arise from anisotropic infall of material into clusters along large-scale filaments.

  16. Major axis alignments of poor cluster dominant galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, T.; West, M.; Bridges, T.

    1996-12-01

    The MKW and AWM poor clusters are very different environments from rich Abell clusters. We obtained images with the Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope of 21 brightest cluster members (BCM) of the MKW/AWM clusters and determined that the major axis of the BCMs exhibits alignments similar to those in rich cluster dominant galaxies. Specifically, the major axes of the poor cluster BCMs point to nearby (< 20 Mpc) Abell clusters. Using the Kolmolgorov-Smirnov test, we reject the hypothesis that the position angles are randomly distributed at the 97% confidence level. The processes responsible for dominant galaxy alignments are therefore independent of cluster richness.

  17. On the distribution of galaxy ellipticity in clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Eugenio, F.; Houghton, R. C. W.; Davies, R. L.; Dalla Bontà, E.

    2015-07-01

    We study the distribution of projected ellipticity n(ɛ) for galaxies in a sample of 20 rich (Richness ≥ 2) nearby (z < 0.1) clusters of galaxies. We find no evidence of differences in n(ɛ), although the nearest cluster in the sample (the Coma Cluster) is the largest outlier (P(same) < 0.05). We then study n(ɛ) within the clusters, and find that ɛ increases with projected cluster-centric radius R (hereafter the ɛ-R relation). This trend is preserved at fixed magnitude, showing that this relation exists over and above the trend of more luminous galaxies to be both rounder and more common in the centres of clusters. The ɛ-R relation is particularly strong in the subsample of intrinsically flattened galaxies (ɛ > 0.4), therefore it is not a consequence of the increasing fraction of round slow rotator galaxies near cluster centers. Furthermore, the ɛ-R relation persists for just smooth flattened galaxies and for galaxies with de Vaucouleurs-like light profiles, suggesting that the variation of the spiral fraction with radius is not the underlying cause of the trend. We interpret our findings in light of the classification of early type galaxies (ETGs) as fast and slow rotators. We conclude that the observed trend of decreasing ɛ towards the centres of clusters is evidence for physical effects in clusters causing fast rotator ETGs to have a lower average intrinsic ellipticity near the centres of rich clusters.

  18. Gas and iron content of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiosi, C.

    2000-12-01

    Up to now, many theoretical studies aimed at reproducing the total amount of iron and gas in the intra-cluster medium meet the embarrassing situation, in which if the iron content is reproduced, the gas is not. More precisely, at given iron mass, too little gas and too high Fe abundance in turn are obtained as compared to the observational data. Large dilution by primordial gas is then invoked to get rid of the difficulty. In this paper we present a new approach to this problem. Basic ingredients of the present analysis are: (i) The adoption of multi-zone models of elliptical galaxies in the framework of the super-nova driven galactic wind scheme. They yield a more realistic description of the galactic ejecta in which the effects of gradients in star formation and chemical enrichment are taken into account. (ii) The stellar initial mass function is let vary with the physical conditions of the star forming medium. More precisely, the typical mass scale of the initial mass function increases with the gas temperature. Since no cooling process exists decreasing the temperature of a galaxy's gas below the limit set by the current value of the cosmic background radiation, it immediately follows that the stellar initial mass function of proto-galaxies whose stellar activity began at high red-shift (when the CBR temperature was higher than the present-day mean temperature of molecular clouds) is different from the one in galaxies which did the same but at lower red-shift. Because of this, at given galaxy mass the ejecta are expected to depend on the red-shift. (iii) Finally, the basic assumption is made that at any time (red-shift) the mass distribution of proto-galaxies follows the Press-Schechter law holding for Dark Matter, however with masses comprised between suitable minimum and maximum values, M_Lmin and M_L*, respectively, that are also varying with time and/or red-shift. This is equivalent to assume a sort of continuously varying mass function for galaxies as well

  19. QUASAR-GALAXY CLUSTERING THROUGH PROJECTED GALAXY COUNTS AT z = 0.6-1.2

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shaohua; Zhou Hongyan; Wang Tinggui; Wang Huiyuan E-mail: twang@ustc.edu.cn

    2013-08-20

    We investigate the spatial clustering of galaxies around quasars at z = 0.6-1.2 using photometric data from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82. The quasar and galaxy cross-correlation functions are measured through the projected galaxy number density n(r{sub p} ) on scales of 0.05 < r{sub p} < 20 h {sup -1} Mpc around quasars for a sample of 2300 quasars from Schneider et al. We detect strong clustering signals at all redshifts and find that the clustering amplitude increases significantly with redshift. We examine the dependence of quasar-galaxy clustering on quasar and galaxy properties and find that the clustering amplitude is significantly larger for quasars with more massive black holes or with bluer colors, while there is no dependence on quasar luminosity. We also show that quasars have a stronger correlation amplitude with blue galaxies than with red galaxies. We finally discuss the implications of our findings.

  20. Tides, Interactions, and Fine-Scale Substructures in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conselice, Christopher J.; Gallagher, John S., III

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of a study on galaxy interactions, tides, and other processes that produce luminous fine-scale substructures in the galaxy clusters: Coma, Perseus, Abell 2199, AWM 3, and AWM 5. All unusual structures in these clusters can be categorized into seven morphologies: interacting galaxies, multiple galaxies (noninteracting), distorted galaxies, tailed galaxies, line galaxies, dwarf galaxy groups, and galaxy aggregates. The various morphologies are described, and a catalog is presented, of 248 objects in these five clusters along with color, and positional information obtained from CCD images taken with the WIYN 3.5 m telescope in broadband B and R filters. Distorted, interacting, and fine-scale substructures have a range of colors extending from blue objects with B-R~0 to redder colors at B-R~2.5. We also find that the structures with the most disturbed morphology have the bluest colors. In addition, the relative number distributions of these structures suggest that two separate classes of galaxy clusters exist: one dominated by distorted structures and the other dominated by galaxy associations. The Coma and Perseus clusters, respectively, are proposed as models for these types of clusters. These structures avoid the deep potentials of the dominant D or cD galaxies in the Coma and Perseus clusters, and tend to clump together. Possible mechanisms for the production of fine-scale substructure are reviewed and compared with observations of z~0.4 Butcher-Oemler clusters. We conclude, based on color, positional, and statistical data, that the most likely mechanism for the creation of these structures is through an interaction with the gravitational potential of the cluster, possibly coupled with effects of weak interactions with cluster ellipticals.

  1. Detection of CO emission in Hydra 1 cluster galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huchtmeier, W. K.

    1990-01-01

    A survey of bright Hydra cluster spiral galaxies for the CO(1-0) transition at 115 GHz was performed with the 15m Swedish-ESO submillimeter telescope (SEST). Five out of 15 galaxies observed have been detected in the CO(1-0) line. The largest spiral galaxy in the cluster, NGC 3312, got more CO than any spiral of the Virgo cluster. This Sa-type galaxy is optically largely distorted and disrupted on one side. It is a good candidate for ram pressure stripping while passing through the cluster's central region. A comparison with global CO properties of Virgo cluster spirals shows a relatively good agreement with the detected Hydra cluster galaxies.

  2. A Statistical Approach to Galaxy Cluster Gas Inhomogeneity: Chandra Observations of Nearby Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Erik D.; Kawahara, H.; Kitayama, T.; Sasaki, S.; Suto, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, the intracluster medium (ICM) inhomogeneity of galaxy clusters is modeled statistically with a lognormal model for density inhomogeneity. Through mock observations of synthetic clusters the relationship between density inhomogeneities and that of the X-ray surface brightness has been developed. This enables one to infer the statistical properties of the fluctuations of the underlying three-dimensional density distribution of real galaxy clusters from X-ray observations. We explore inhomogeneity in the intracluster medium by applying the above methodology to Chandra observations of a sample of nearby galaxy clusters. We also consider extensions of the model, including Poissonian effects and compare this hybrid lognormal-Poisson model to the nearby cluster Chandra data. EDR gratefully acknowledges support from JSPS (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science) Postdoctoral Fellowhip for Foreign Researchers award P07030. HK is supported by Grands-in-Aid for JSPS of Science Fellows. This work is also supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific research of Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (Nos. 20.10466, 19.07030, 16340053, 20340041, and 20540235) and by JSPS Core-to-Core Program "International Research Network for Dark Energy".

  3. A partial list of southern clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quintana, H.; White, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    An inspection of 34 SRC/ESO J southern sky fields is the basis of the present list of clusters of galaxies and their approximate classifications in terms of cluster concentration, defined independently of richness and shape-symmetry. Where possible, an estimate of the cluster morphological population is provided. The Bautz-Morgan classification was applied using a strict comparison with clusters on the Palomar Sky Survey. Magnitudes were estimated on the basis of galaxies with photoelectric or photographic magnitudes.

  4. THE GALAXY POPULATION OF LOW-REDSHIFT ABELL CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Barkhouse, Wayne A.; Yee, H. K. C.; Lopez-Cruz, Omar E-mail: hyee@astro.utoronto.c

    2009-10-01

    We present a study of the luminosity and color properties of galaxies selected from a sample of 57 low-redshift Abell clusters. We utilize the non-parametric dwarf-to-giant ratio (DGR) and the blue galaxy fraction (f{sub b} ) to investigate the clustercentric radial-dependent changes in the cluster galaxy population. Composite cluster samples are combined by scaling the counting radius by r {sub 200} to minimize radius selection bias. The separation of galaxies into a red and blue population was achieved by selecting galaxies relative to the cluster color-magnitude relation. The DGR of the red and blue galaxies is found to be independent of cluster richness (B {sub gc}), although the DGR is larger for the blue population at all measured radii. A decrease in the DGR for the red and red+blue galaxies is detected in the cluster core region, while the blue galaxy DGR is nearly independent of radius. The f{sub b} is found not to correlate with B {sub gc}; however, a steady decline toward the inner-cluster region is observed for the giant galaxies. The dwarf galaxy f{sub b} is approximately constant with clustercentric radius except for the inner-cluster core region where f{sub b} decreases. The clustercentric radial dependence of the DGR and the galaxy blue fraction indicates that it is unlikely that a simple scenario based on either pure disruption or pure fading/reddening can describe the evolution of infalling dwarf galaxies; both outcomes are produced by the cluster environment.

  5. The Formation of Cluster Populations Through Direct Galaxy Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Bradley W.; Smith, Beverly J.; Struck, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    Much progress has been made on the question of how globular clusters form. In particular, the study of extragalactic populations of young, high-mass clusters ("super star clusters") has revealed a class of objects can evolve into globular clusters. The process by which these clusters form, and how many survive long enough to become globular clusters, is not wholly understood. Here, we use new data on the colliding galaxy system Arp 261 to investigate the possibility that young, massive clusters form in greater numbers during direct galaxy collisions, compared to less direct tidal collisions.

  6. Cosmology with EMSS Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Megan; Voit, G. Mark

    1999-01-01

    We use ASCA observations of the Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey sample of clusters of galaxies to construct the first z = 0.5 - 0.8 cluster temperature function. This distant cluster temperature function, when compared to local z approximately 0 and to a similar moderate redshift (z = 0.3 - 0.4) temperature function strongly constrains the matter density of the universe. Best fits to the distributions of temperatures and redshifts of these cluster samples results in Omega(sub M) = 0.45 +/- 0.1 if Lambda = 0 and Omega = 0.27 +/- 0.1 if Lambda + Omega(sub M) = 1. The uncertainties are 1sigma statistical. We examine the systematics of our approach and find that systematics, stemming mainly from model assumptions and not measurement errors, are about the same size as the statistical uncertainty +/- 0.1. In this poster proceedings, we clarify the issue of a8 as reported in our paper Donahue & Voit (1999), since this was a matter of discussion at the meeting.

  7. Mass-Luminosity Relationship of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanek, Rebecca; Evrard, August

    2004-04-01

    Deriving cosmological parameters from counts of galaxy clusters requires a clear understanding of the relationship between cluster observables and their underlying mass. While previous work has assumed pure power-law forms for these relationships, we explore here a power-law model with log-normal scatter and apply it to describing the REFLEX X-ray cluster luminosity function within a ΛCDM universe. We assume a space density calibrated from Hubble Volume simulations (the ``Jenkins mass function'' dn(M)/d ln M) and compute a luminosity function dn(L)/d ln L by assuming a conditional probability p(M|L) described by a Gaussian of fixed log-normal width ΔM and mean relation L = L_15 M^p. Because of the flux-limited nature of the REFLEX catalog, the space density of clusters at different luminosities is effectively sampling the mass function at different redshifts. We explore different corrections for this effect, and derive maximum-likelihood estimates for the three model parameters, L_15, p and Δ_M. The most likely model requires large scatter ΔM ˜ 1, but the allowed region in parameter space is fairly broad. We discuss the role that independent observables such as gas temperature and lensing mass will have in helping to break the model degeneracy.

  8. EXTERNAL MASS ACCUMULATION ONTO CORE POTENTIALS: IMPLICATIONS FOR STAR CLUSTERS, GALAXIES, AND GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Naiman, J. P.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Lin, D. N. C.

    2011-07-01

    Accretion studies have been focused on the flow around bodies with point mass gravitational potentials, but few general results are available for non-point mass distributions. Here, we study the accretion flow onto non-divergent, core potentials moving through a background medium. We use Plummer and Hernquist potentials as examples to study gas accretion onto star clusters, dwarf and large galaxy halos, and galaxy clusters in a variety of astrophysical environments. The general conditions required for a core potential to collectively accrete large quantities of gas from the external medium are derived using both simulations and analytic results. The consequences of large mass accumulation in galaxy nuclei, dwarf galaxies, and star clusters are twofold. First, if the gas cools effectively star formation can be triggered, generating new stellar members in the system. Second, if the collective potential of the system is able to alter the ambient gas properties before the gas is accreted onto the individual core members, the augmented mass supply rates could significantly alter the state of the various accreting stellar populations and result in an enhanced central black hole accretion luminosity.

  9. The galaxy population of the z= 1 cluster of galaxies MG2016+112

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toft, S.; Soucail, G.; Hjorth, J.

    2003-09-01

    A photometric redshift analysis of galaxies in the field of the wide-separation gravitational lens MG2016+112 reveals a population of 69 galaxies with photometric redshifts consistent with being in a cluster at the redshift of the giant elliptical lensing galaxy z= 1.00. The Ks-band luminosity function of the cluster galaxies is well represented by the Schechter function with a characteristic magnitude K*s= 18.90+0.45-0.57 and faint-end slope α=-0.60+0.39-0.33, consistent with what is expected for a passively evolving population of galaxies formed at high redshift, zf > 2. From the total Ks-band flux of the cluster galaxies and a dynamical estimate of the total mass of the cluster, the rest-frame Ks-band mass-to-light ratio of the cluster is derived to be M/LKs= 27+64-17h50(M/LKs)solar, in agreement with the upper limit derived earlier from Chandra X-ray observations and the value derived locally in the Coma cluster. The cluster galaxies span a red sequence with a considerable scatter in the colour-magnitude diagrams, suggesting that they contain young stellar populations in addition to the old populations of main-sequence stars that dominate the Ks-band luminosity function. This is in agreement with spectroscopic observations which show that 5 out of the 6 galaxies in the field confirmed to be at the redshift of the lensing galaxy have emission lines. The projected spatial distribution of the cluster galaxies is filamentary-like rather than centrally concentrated around the lensing galaxy, and shows no apparent luminosity segregation. A handful of the cluster galaxies show evidence of merging/interaction. The results presented in this paper suggest that a young cluster of galaxies is assembling around MG2016+112.

  10. SPATIAL ANISOTROPY OF GALAXY KINEMATICS IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Skielboe, Andreas; Wojtak, Radoslaw; Pedersen, Kristian; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli S.

    2012-10-10

    Measurements of galaxy cluster kinematics are important in understanding the dynamical state and evolution of clusters of galaxies, as well as constraining cosmological models. While it is well established that clusters exhibit non-spherical geometries, evident in the distribution of galaxies on the sky, azimuthal variations of galaxy kinematics within clusters have yet to be observed. Here we measure the azimuthal dependence of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion profile in a stacked sample of 1743 galaxy clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The clusters are drawn from the SDSS DR8 redMaPPer catalog. We find that the line-of-sight velocity dispersion of galaxies lying along the major axis of the central galaxy is larger than those that lie along the minor axis. This is the first observational detection of anisotropic kinematics of galaxies in clusters. We show that the result is consistent with predictions from numerical simulations. Furthermore, we find that the degree of projected anisotropy is strongly dependent on the line-of-sight orientation of the galaxy cluster, opening new possibilities for assessing systematics in optical cluster finding.

  11. The Effect of Mergers on Galaxy Cluster Mass Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ryan E.; Zuhone, John A.; Thorsen, Tessa; Hinds, Andre

    2015-08-01

    At vertices within the filamentary structure that describes the universal matter distribution, clusters of galaxies grow hierarchically through merging with other clusters. As such, the most massive galaxy clusters should have experienced many such mergers in their histories. Though we cannot see them evolve over time, these mergers leave lasting, measurable effects in the cluster galaxies' phase space. By simulating several different galaxy cluster mergers here, we examine how the cluster galaxies kinematics are altered as a result of these mergers. Further, we also examine the effect of our line of sight viewing angle with respect to the merger axis. In projecting the 6-dimensional galaxy phase space onto a 3-dimensional plane, we are able to simulate how these clusters might actually appear to optical redshift surveys. We find that for those optical cluster statistics which are most often used as a proxy for the cluster mass (variants of σv), the uncertainty due to an inprecise or unknown line of sight may alter the derived cluster masses moreso than the kinematic disturbance of the merger itself. Finally, by examining these, and several other clustering statistics, we find that significant events (such as pericentric crossings) are identifiable over a range of merger initial conditions and from many different lines of sight.

  12. Chemical Enrichment in the Third Closest Galaxy Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Million, Evan

    2011-10-01

    We propose a 180 ks XMM-Newton observation of the Antlia Cluster, the third closest galaxy cluster in the sky. We will determine the central temperature, Si and Fe abundance structure of the cluster to constrain detailed chemical enrichment processes in the nearest cluster without a strong cool core. The detailed abundance structure of the cluster will be resolved at the best physical resolution of any non-cool core cluster to date.

  13. The nature and evolution of infrared galaxies in clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahmandi, Alireza

    In chapter 1, I present a spectroscopic and photometric study of 105 Spitzer-MIPS 24 micron detected galaxies in the fields of candidate clusters from the SpARCS survey. I spectroscopically both confirm nine clusters of galaxies at 0.07 < z < 0.49 and investigate the nature of the cluster members and field galaxies to compare their optical and infrared star formation activities. Spectroscopic classifications reveal different populations of galaxies in clusters and in the field. Most 24 micron sources are star forming galaxies which are mostly dusty starbursts. I conclude that specific star formation rates of star forming galaxies in clusters are not dependent upon clustercentric radius, but, rather, dependent upon stellar mass. In chapter 2, I present the results of an infrared study of 250 galaxy clusters at 0.2 < z < 1 from the SpARCS survey. My sample spans a cluster mass range 14 < log M_sun < 15 with an average about 2x10. 14 M_sun overthe redshift. Assuming a star forming galaxy template, I statistically count the number of infrared luminous galaxies in clusters above a fixed inferred infrared luminosity of 6x10. 11 L_sun per unit cluster mass and find it increaseswith redshift. Fitting a simple power law, I measure an evolution of (1 + z ). (5.2+/-0.5) within R_200 and (1 + z ). (9.6+/-1.6) within R =2Mpc from the cluster center over the redshift range of this sample. By accounting for the evolution of infrared galaxies in the field, I show that this observed evolution in clusters is due to new infalling field galaxies. Also, I estimate the total star formation rate per unit cluster mass (SigmaSFR/M_cluster) and find a similar evolution of (1+z). (5.6+/-0.5) within R_(200) and(1+z). (8.6+/-1.5) within R = 2Mpc from the cluster center. The surfacedensity of the infrared luminous galaxies seems to decrease as the distance from cluster center increases. Finally, I show that the accretion rate of infalling infrared galaxies from the field into clusters increases

  14. Looking Wider and Further: The Evolution of Galaxies Inside Galaxy Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are rare objects in the universe, but on-going wide field optical surveys are identifying many thousands of them to redshift 1.0 and beyond. Using early data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and publicly released data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), this dissertation explores the evolution of cluster galaxies in the redshift range from 0 to 1.0. As it is common for deep wide field sky surveys like DES to struggle with galaxy detection efficiency at cluster core, the first component of this dissertation describes an efficient package that helps resolving the issue. The second part focuses on the formation of cluster galaxies. The study quantifies the growth of cluster bright central galaxies (BCGs), and argues for the importance of merging and intra-cluster light production during BCG evolution. An analysis of cluster red sequence galaxy luminosity function is also performed, demonstrating that the abundance of these galaxies is mildly dependent on cluster mass and redshift. The last component of the dissertation characterizes the properties of galaxy filaments to help understanding cluster environments

  15. Hα star formation rates of z > 1 galaxy clusters in the IRAC shallow cluster survey

    SciTech Connect

    Zeimann, Gregory R.; Stanford, S. A.; Brodwin, Mark; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Mancone, Conor; Snyder, Gregory F.; Stern, Daniel; Eisenhardt, Peter; Dey, Arjun; Moustakas, John

    2013-12-20

    We present Hubble Space Telescope near-IR spectroscopy for 18 galaxy clusters at 1.0 Cluster Survey. We use Wide Field Camera 3 grism data to spectroscopically identify Hα emitters in both the cores of galaxy clusters as well as in field galaxies. We find a large cluster-to-cluster scatter in the star formation rates within a projected radius of 500 kpc, and many of our clusters (∼60%) have significant levels of star formation within a projected radius of 200 kpc. A stacking analysis reveals that dust reddening in these star-forming galaxies is positively correlated with stellar mass and may be higher in the field than the cluster at a fixed stellar mass. This may indicate a lower amount of gas in star-forming cluster galaxies than in the field population. Also, Hα equivalent widths of star-forming galaxies in the cluster environment are still suppressed below the level of the field. This suppression is most significant for lower mass galaxies (log M {sub *} < 10.0 M {sub ☉}). We therefore conclude that environmental effects are still important at 1.0 galaxies in galaxy clusters with log M {sub *} ≲ 10.0 M {sub ☉}.

  16. Galaxy Populations and Evolution in Clusters IV Deep H 1 Observations of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conselice, Christopher J.; ONeil, Karen; Gallagher, John S.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present deep Arecibo H I and WIYN optical observations of Virgo Cluster dwarf elliptical galaxies. Based on this data we argue that a significant fraction of low-mass galaxies in the Virgo Cluster recently underwent evolution. Our new observations consist of H I 21 cm line observations for 22 classified dE galaxies with optical radial velocities consistent with membership in the Virgo Cluster. Cluster members VCC 390 and VCC 1713 are detected with H 1 masses M H1= 6 x 10 sup 7 and 8 x 10 sup 7 M , respectively, while MH I values in the remaining 20 dE galaxies have upper limits as low as about 5 x 1O sup 5 M. We combine our results with those for 26 other Virgo Cluster dE galaxies with H 1 observations in the literature, seven of which have H I detection claims.

  17. Simulations of clusters of galaxies with massive cores.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarinen, S.; Valtonen, M. J.

    Clusters of galaxies with strong concentration of mass in their cores can be very far from dynamical equilibrium during their early evolution. Then a straightforward application of the virial theorem can lead to a totally wrong idea of the mass distribution of the cluster, hiding away the very central mass concentration. Numerical simulations have been carried out of clusters of galaxies which separate out of the Hubble flow and collapse on their massive cores.

  18. Understanding the physical processes driving galaxy evolution in clusters : a case study of two z~0.5 galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Sean M.

    Clusters of galaxies represent the largest laboratories in the universe for testing the incredibly chaotic physics governing the collapse of baryons into the stars, galaxies, groups, and diffuse clouds that we see today. Within the cluster environment, there are a wide variety of physical processes that may be acting to transform galaxies.In this thesis, we combine extensive Keck spectroscopy with wide-field HST imaging to perform a detailed case study of two intermediate redshift galaxy clusters, Cl 0024+1654 (z=0.395) and MS 0451-03 (z=0.540). Leveraging a comprehensive multiwavelength data set that spans the X-ray to infrared, and with spectral-line measurements serving as the key to revealing both the recent star-formation histories and kinematics of infalling galaxies, we aim to shed light on the environmental processes that could be acting to transform galaxies in clusters.We adopt a strategy to make maximal use of our HST-based morphologies by splitting our sample of cluster galaxies according to morphological type, characterizing signs of recent evolution in spirals and early types separately. This approach proves to be powerful in identifying galaxies that are currently being altered by an environmental interaction: early-type galaxies that have either been newly transformed or prodded back into an active phase, and spiral galaxies where star formation is being suppressed or enhanced all stand out in our sample.We begin by using variations in the early-type galaxy population as indicators of recent activity. Because ellipticals and S0s form such a homogeneous class in the local universe, we are sensitive to even very subtle signatures of recent and current environmental interactions. This study has yielded two key results: By constructing the Fundamental Plane (FP) of Cl 0024, we observe that elliptical and S0 galaxies exhibit a high scatter in their FP residuals, which occurs only among galaxies in the cluster core, suggesting a turbulent assembly history

  19. THE ACCRETION OF DWARF GALAXIES AND THEIR GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, Craig E.; Ashman, Keith M. E-mail: ashmank@umkc.ed

    2010-12-10

    The question of where the low-metallicity globular clusters in early-type galaxies came from has profound implications for the formation of those galaxies. Our work supports the idea that the metal-poor globular cluster systems of giant early-type galaxies formed in dwarf galaxies that have been subsumed by the giants. To support this hypothesis, two linear relations, one involving globular cluster metallicity versus host galaxy luminosity and one involving metallicity versus velocity dispersion were studied. Tentatively, these relations show that the bright ellipticals do not obey the same trend as the dwarfs, suggesting that the low-metallicity globular clusters did not form within their parent bright ellipticals.

  20. The Clustering of Massive Galaxies in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quadri, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Until recently it was thought that the early universe was dominated by low-mass galaxies undergoing rapid star formation. But deep near-infrared (NIR) surveys have uncovered a population of red, massive galaxies at z=2-3 with a wide range of star formation rates. This talk is concerned with the identification and analysis of red galaxies at these redshifts, and particularly with their clustering properties. First, we present deep NIR imaging from the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC). These data are used to assess differences between several sets of selection criteria that are commonly used to identify distant galaxies, including the J-K>2.3 criterion for distant red galaxies (DRGs). Next, we present MUSYC results for galaxy clustering at z 2.5. While the broad population of NIR-selected galaxies clusters similarly to the low-mass, star-forming galaxies found in previous surveys, the reddest galaxies have much higher correlation lengths. This suggests that a color-density relationship was in place at these redshifts. We use the clustering results to estimate the mass of the dark matter halos that host NIR-selected galaxies. We find that the reddest galaxies, which include DRGs, significantly outnumber the halos that are massive enough to host them. This suggests that the observations may be incompatible with the models. To test whether this discrepancy is an artifact due to limited field size, we also investigate the clustering of DRGs in the larger UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey, but the models remain inconsistent with the observations. The disagreement could be due to inaccurate photometric redshifts or to incorrect models. An explanation for this disagreement will result in a more complete understanding of the relationship between different galaxy populations, and of the relationship between galaxy evolution and dark matter.

  1. Central Dominant Galaxies and the evolution of their host Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caretta, C. A.; Andernach, H.; Trejo-Alonso, J. J.; De Anda-Suárez, J.; Santoyo-Ruiz, H.; Muñiz-Torres, M. A.; Hernández-Aguayo, C.

    2014-10-01

    We have studied a sample of 50 galaxy clusters, all with more than 100 spectroscopically confirmed member galaxies, from all Bautz-Morgan types, in order to determine the importance of the brightest cluster members (BCMs) and their relation to the structure and dynamical state of their host clusters. Strict tests for membership and for the presence of substructures were applied. Near-infrared data were used for photometry and astrometry, which allowed us to rank the member galaxies in order of their stellar mass content. The large spectroscopic sampling, the broad range of morphologies, masses and intra-cluster medium properties, beyond the improved analyses for membership and substructuring, make this sample an especially suitable reference of nearby optical clusters (0.005 < z < 0.150) for the study of cluster evolution and environment effects on member galaxies. Only 35% of the clusters revealed to be unimodal, 50% to be substructured and other 15% to be multi-modal. Also, for about 20% of the sample, the Central Dominant Galaxy (CDG) of the main structure is not the first-ranked BCM, but the CDG of a substructure. More massive clusters present more than one dominant galaxy, while the less massive ones present only one, if any. This correlation goes in the sense that most of the evolution of CDGs occurs in groups that are doomed to merge and form clusters.

  2. Optical signatures of high-redshift galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evrard, August E.; Charlot, Stephane

    1994-01-01

    We combine an N-body and gasdynamic simulation of structure formation with an updated population synthesis code to explore the expected optical characteristics of a high-redshift cluster of galaxies. We examine a poor (2 keV) cluster formed in a biased, cold dark matter cosmology and employ simple, but plausible, threshold criteria to convert gas into stars. At z = 2, the forming cluster appears as a linear chain of very blue (g-r approximately equals 0) galaxies, with 15 objects brighter than r = 25 within a 1 square arcmin field of view. After 2 Gyr of evolution, the cluster viewed at z = 1 displays both freshly infalling blue galaxies and red galaxies robbed of recent accretion by interaction with the hot intracluster medium. The range in G-R colors is approximately 3 mag at z = 1, with the reddest objects lying at sites of highest galaxy density. We suggest that red, high-redshift galaxies lie in the cores of forming clusters and that their existence indicates the presence of a hot intracluster medium at redshifts z approximately equals 2. The simulated cluster viewed at z = 2 has several characteristics similar to the collection of faint, blue objects identified by Dressler et al. in a deep Hubble Space Telescope observation. The similarities provide some support for the interpretation of this collection as a high-redshift cluster of galaxies.

  3. Probing Globular Cluster Formation in Low Metallicity Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kelsey E.; Hunt, Leslie K.; Reines, Amy E.

    2008-12-01

    The ubiquitous presence of globular clusters around massive galaxies today suggests that these extreme star clusters must have been formed prolifically in the earlier universe in low-metallicity galaxies. Numerous adolescent and massive star clusters are already known to be present in a variety of galaxies in the local universe; however most of these systems have metallicities of 12 + log(O/H) > 8, and are thus not representative of the galaxies in which today's ancient globular clusters were formed. In order to better understand the formation and evolution of these massive clusters in environments with few heavy elements, we have targeted several low-metallicity dwarf galaxies with radio observations, searching for newly-formed massive star clusters still embedded in their birth material. The galaxies in this initial study are HS 0822+3542, UGC 4483, Pox 186, and SBS 0335-052, all of which have metallicities of 12 + log(O/H) < 7.75. While no thermal radio sources, indicative of natal massive star clusters, are found in three of the four galaxies, SBS 0335-052 hosts two such objects, which are incredibly luminous. The radio spectral energy distributions of these intense star-forming regions in SBS 0335-052 suggest the presence of ~12,000 equivalent O-type stars, and the implied star formation rate is nearing the maximum starburst intensity limit.

  4. Star Clusters in Intermediate-Age Galaxy Merger Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Bryan W.; Trancho, G.; Schweizer, F.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of globular cluster systems play a critical role in our understanding of galaxy formation. Star clusters are useful tracers of major star-formation events in galaxies since they are compact, relatively easy to detect, and have properties well described by simple-stellar-population models. Imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope has revealed that young compact star clusters are formed copiously during galaxy mergers, strengthening theories in which giant elliptical galaxies are formed through mergers of spirals. However, the formation and evolution of globular cluster systems is still not well understood. We should be able to observe how cluster systems evolve from the very young systems with power-law luminosity functions to old systems with log-normal luminosity functions like those observed in old elliptical galaxies. Finding intermediate-age cluster systems would constrain theories of cluster formation and destruction (evaporation, shocking, dynamical friction) as well as show the significance of merger events in the histories of galaxies. We present results of combining HST optical photometry with ground-based K-band photometry from NIRI and Flamingos-I on Gemini to study the star cluster systems of five intermediate-age merger remnants. The galaxies were chosen based on blue colors and fine structure such as shells and ripples that are indicative of past interactions. We find evidence for star clusters with ages consistent with the estimated merger ages. The properties of the star clusters systems and implications for galaxy and star cluster formation will be discussed. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada

  5. Completing the survey of the most massive southern galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehringer, Hans

    2014-09-01

    With the recently completed REFLEX II galaxy cluster survey we obtained a new sample of the most X-ray luminous and most massive galaxy clusters comprising a total of 45 galaxy clusters (Lx>=6e44 erg/s) at z>=0.3 in the southern sky. The majority of these prominent clusters have been detected in various surveys and have been well studied in X-rays before, except for 8 clusters in our new sample. These clusters are the most interesting objects of this kind since they are prominent gravitational lensing objects, easily detected through the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, and important cosmological probes. To complete this sample of massive clusters, we propose Chandra observations with a total of 220 ks exposure to well characterize their global parameters and explore their morphology.

  6. Cold Fronts in Clusters of Galaxies: Observations and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markevitch, Maxim

    2012-01-01

    Mergers of galaxy clusters -- some of the most energetic events in the Universe -- produce disturbances in hot intracluster medium, such as shocks and cold fronts, that can be used as tools to study the physics of galaxy clusters. Cold fronts may constrain viscosity and the structure and strength of the cluster magnetic fields. Combined with radio data, these observations also shed light on the production of ultrarelativistic particles that are known to coexist with the cluster thermal plasma. This talk will summarize the current X-ray observations of cluster mergers, as well as some recent radio data and high resolution hydrodynamic simulations.

  7. LENSING NOISE IN MILLIMETER-WAVE GALAXY CLUSTER SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Hezaveh, Yashar; Vanderlinde, Keith; Holder, Gilbert; De Haan, Tijmen

    2013-08-01

    We study the effects of gravitational lensing by galaxy clusters of the background of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and examine the implications for Sunyaev-Zel'dovich-based (SZ) galaxy cluster surveys. At the locations of galaxy clusters, gravitational lensing modifies the probability distribution of the background flux of the DSFGs as well as the CMB. We find that, in the case of a single-frequency 150 GHz survey, lensing of DSFGs leads both to a slight increase ({approx}10%) in detected cluster number counts (due to a {approx}50% increase in the variance of the DSFG background, and hence an increased Eddington bias) and a rare (occurring in {approx}2% of clusters) 'filling-in' of SZ cluster signals by bright strongly lensed background sources. Lensing of the CMB leads to a {approx}55% reduction in CMB power at the location of massive galaxy clusters in a spatially matched single-frequency filter, leading to a net decrease in detected cluster number counts. We find that the increase in DSFG power and decrease in CMB power due to lensing at cluster locations largely cancel, such that the net effect on cluster number counts for current SZ surveys is subdominant to Poisson errors.

  8. Brightest cluster galaxies in the extended GMRT radio halo cluster sample. Radio properties and cluster dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, R.; Venturi, T.; Cassano, R.; Giacintucci, S.; Bardelli, S.; Dallacasa, D.; Zucca, E.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: First-ranked galaxies in clusters, usually referred to as brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), show exceptional properties over the whole electromagnetic spectrum. They are the most massive elliptical galaxies and show the highest probability to be radio loud. Moreover, their special location at the centres of galaxy clusters raises the question of the role of the environment in shaping their radio properties. In the attempt to separate the effect of the galaxy mass and of the environment on their statistical radio properties, we investigate the possible dependence of the occurrence of radio loudness and of the fractional radio luminosity function on the dynamical state of the hosting cluster. Methods: We studied the radio properties of the BCGs in the Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey (EGRHS), which consists of 65 clusters in the redshift range 0.2-0.4, with X-ray luminosity LX ≥ 5 × 1044 erg s-1, and quantitative information on their dynamical state from high-quality Chandra imaging. We obtained a statistical sample of 59 BCGs, which we divided into two classes, depending on whether the dynamical state of the host cluster was merging (M) or relaxed (R). Results: Of the 59 BCGs, 28 are radio loud and 31 are radio quiet. The radio-loud sources are favourably located in relaxed clusters (71%), while the reverse is true for the radio-quiet BCGs, which are mostly located in merging systems (81%). The fractional radio luminosity function for the BCGs in merging and relaxed clusters is different, and it is considerably higher for BCGs in relaxed clusters, where the total fraction of radio loudness reaches almost 90%, to be compared to the ~30% in merging clusters. For relaxed clusters, we found a positive correlation between the radio power of the BCGs and the strength of the cool core, consistent with previous studies on local samples. Conclusions: Our study suggests that the radio loudness of the BCGs strongly depends on the cluster dynamics; their fraction is

  9. Abundances in Spiral Galaxies of the Pegasus I Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Paul; Shields, G. A.; Blanc, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of abundances in spiral galaxies of the Pegasus I cluster (cz = 4000 km/s), motivated by evidence for high interstellar abundances in the spirals of the Virgo cluster. Spectra of H II regions in six galaxies with a range of H I deficiency were obtained with the VIRUS-P integral field spectrograph on the 2.7-meter telescope at McDonald Observatory. The results suggest a pattern of higher abundances in more hydrogen deficient galaxies. This resembles the case for Virgo, despite the lower velocity dispersion and higher spiral fraction in the Pegasus cluster.

  10. CO deficiency in galaxies of the Fornax cluster?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horellou, Cathy; Casoli, Fabienne; Dupraz, Christophe

    1993-01-01

    There is ample observational evidence that cluster galaxies are different from those in the field. Interaction with the hot intracluster medium affects the morphology of the galaxies, their gaseous content and possibly their star-formation activity. Tidal encounters between galaxies also play an important role. The atomic component has been investigated in detail for several clusters, among them our neighbor Virgo. With the Swedish-ESO 15 m telescope, we have observed in the 12CO(1-0) transition the 23 brightest spirals and lenticulars of the Formax cluster.

  11. THE LUMINOSITY PROFILES OF BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Donzelli, C. J.; Muriel, H.; Madrid, J. P.

    2011-08-01

    We have derived detailed R-band luminosity profiles and structural parameters for a total of 430 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), down to a limiting surface brightness of 24.5 mag arcsec{sup -2}. Light profiles were initially fitted with a Sersic's R {sup 1/n} model, but we found that 205 ({approx}48%) BCGs require a double component model to accurately match their light profiles. The best fit for these 205 galaxies is an inner Sersic model, with indices n {approx} 1-7, plus an outer exponential component. Thus, we establish the existence of two categories of the BCG luminosity profiles: single and double component profiles. We found that double profile BCGs are brighter ({approx}0.2 mag) than single profile BCGs. In fact, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test applied to these subsamples indicates that they have different total magnitude distributions, with mean values M{sub R} = -23.8 {+-} 0.6 mag for single profile BCGs and M{sub R} = -24.0 {+-} 0.5 mag for double profile BCGs. We find that partial luminosities for both subsamples are indistinguishable up to r = 15 kpc, while for r > 20 kpc the luminosities we obtain are on average 0.2 mag brighter for double profile BCGs. This result indicates that extra-light for double profile BCGs does not come from the inner region but from the outer regions of these galaxies. The best-fit slope of the Kormendy relation for the whole sample is a = 3.13 {+-} 0.04. However, when fitted separately, single and double profile BCGs show different slopes: a{sub single} = 3.29 {+-} 0.06 and a{sub double} = 2.79 {+-} 0.08. Also, the logarithmic slope of the metric luminosity {alpha} is higher in double profile BCGs ({alpha}{sub double} = 0.65 {+-} 0.12) than in single profile BCGs ({alpha}{sub single} = 0.59 {+-} 0.14). The mean isophote outer ellipticity (calculated at {mu} {approx} 24 mag arcsec{sup -2}) is higher in double profile BCGs (e{sub double} = 0.30 {+-} 0.10) than in single profile BCGs (e{sub single} = 0.26 {+-} 0.11). Similarly

  12. Evolutionary Effects on Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) Detections in the CFHTLS-Deep Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alis, S.

    2009-09-01

    Brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) are the most massive and most luminous galaxies in the universe. These galaxies dominate galaxy clusters and lie at the top of the potential well of clusters. Investigating these galaxies can improve our understandings on galaxy cluster evolution. In this work, evolutionary effects on BCG detections are emphasized. For detecting BCGs, CFHTLS (Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey) galaxy clusters, detected by Olsen et al. (2007) were used. To make a proper BCG detection, modeled galaxy colors should be evolved according to redshift. In this work, it is shown how unevolved galaxy colors can effect BCG detection.

  13. GAMMA RAYS FROM STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, Emma M.; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Profumo, Stefano

    2012-08-20

    Star formation in galaxies is observed to be associated with gamma-ray emission, presumably from non-thermal processes connected to the acceleration of cosmic-ray nuclei and electrons. The detection of gamma rays from starburst galaxies by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has allowed the determination of a functional relationship between star formation rate and gamma-ray luminosity. Since star formation is known to scale with total infrared (8-1000 {mu}m) and radio (1.4 GHz) luminosity, the observed infrared and radio emission from a star-forming galaxy can be used to quantitatively infer the galaxy's gamma-ray luminosity. Similarly, star-forming galaxies within galaxy clusters allow us to derive lower limits on the gamma-ray emission from clusters, which have not yet been conclusively detected in gamma rays. In this study, we apply the functional relationships between gamma-ray luminosity and radio and IR luminosities of galaxies derived by the Fermi Collaboration to a sample of the best candidate galaxy clusters for detection in gamma rays in order to place lower limits on the gamma-ray emission associated with star formation in galaxy clusters. We find that several clusters have predicted gamma-ray emission from star formation that are within an order of magnitude of the upper limits derived in Ackermann et al. based on non-detection by Fermi-LAT. Given the current gamma-ray limits, star formation likely plays a significant role in the gamma-ray emission in some clusters, especially those with cool cores. We predict that both Fermi-LAT over the course of its lifetime and the future Cerenkov Telescope Array will be able to detect gamma-ray emission from star-forming galaxies in clusters.

  14. Dynamical Mass Measurements of Contaminated Galaxy Clusters Using Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntampaka, Michelle; Trac, Hy; Sutherland, Dougal; Fromenteau, Sebastien; Poczos, Barnabas; Schneider, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are a rich source of information for examining fundamental astrophysical processes and cosmological parameters, however, employing clusters as cosmological probes requires accurate mass measurements derived from cluster observables. We study dynamical mass measurements of galaxy clusters contaminated by interlopers, and show that a modern machine learning (ML) algorithm can predict masses by better than a factor of two compared to a standard scaling relation approach. We create a mock catalog from Multidark's publicly-available N-body MDPL1 simulation where a simple cylindrical cut around the cluster center allows interlopers to contaminate the clusters. In the standard approach, we use a power law scaling relation to infer cluster mass from galaxy line of sight (LOS) velocity dispersion. The presence of interlopers in the catalog produces a wide, flat fractional mass error distribution, with width = 2.13. We employ the Support Distribution Machine (SDM) class of algorithms to learn from distributions of data to predict single values. Applied to distributions of galaxy observables such as LOS velocity and projected distance from the cluster center, SDM yields better than a factor-of-two improvement (width = 0.67). Remarkably, SDM applied to contaminated clusters is better able to recover masses than even a scaling relation approach applied to uncontaminated clusters. We show that the SDM method more accurately reproduces the cluster mass function, making it a valuable tool for employing cluster observations to evaluate cosmological models.

  15. Probing dark energy via galaxy cluster outskirts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morandi, Andrea; Sun, Ming

    2016-04-01

    We present a Bayesian approach to combine Planck data and the X-ray physical properties of the intracluster medium in the virialization region of a sample of 320 galaxy clusters (0.056 < z < 1.24, kT ≳ 3 keV) observed with Chandra. We exploited the high level of similarity of the emission measure in the cluster outskirts as cosmology proxy. The cosmological parameters are thus constrained assuming that the emission measure profiles at different redshift are weakly self-similar, that is their shape is universal, explicitly allowing for temperature and redshift dependence of the gas fraction. This cosmological test, in combination with Planck+SNIa data, allows us to put a tight constraint on the dark energy models. For a constant-w model, we have w = -1.010 ± 0.030 and Ωm = 0.311 ± 0.014, while for a time-evolving equation of state of dark energy w(z) we have Ωm = 0.308 ± 0.017, w0 = -0.993 ± 0.046 and wa = -0.123 ± 0.400. Constraints on the cosmology are further improved by adding priors on the gas fraction evolution from hydrodynamic simulations. Current data favour the cosmological constant with w ≡ -1, with no evidence for dynamic dark energy. We checked that our method is robust towards different sources of systematics, including background modelling, outlier measurements, selection effects, inhomogeneities of the gas distribution and cosmic filaments. We also provided for the first time constraints on which definition of cluster boundary radius is more tenable, namely based on a fixed overdensity with respect to the critical density of the Universe. This novel cosmological test has the capacity to provide a generational leap forward in our understanding of the equation of state of dark energy.

  16. Galaxy Infall by Interacting with Its Environment: A Comprehensive Study of 340 Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Liyi; Wen, Zhonglue; Gandhi, Poshak; Inada, Naohisa; Kawaharada, Madoka; Kodama, Tadayuki; Konami, Saori; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Xu, Haiguang; Makishima, Kazuo

    2016-07-01

    To study systematically the evolution of the angular extents of the galaxy, intracluster medium (ICM), and dark matter components in galaxy clusters, we compiled the optical and X-ray properties of a sample of 340 clusters with redshifts <0.5, based on all the available data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Chandra/XMM-Newton. For each cluster, the member galaxies were determined primarily with photometric redshift measurements. The radial ICM mass distribution, as well as the total gravitational mass distribution, was derived from a spatially resolved spectral analysis of the X-ray data. When normalizing the radial profile of galaxy number to that of the ICM mass, the relative curve was found to depend significantly on the cluster redshift; it drops more steeply toward the outside in lower-redshift subsamples. The same evolution is found in the galaxy-to-total mass profile, while the ICM-to-total mass profile varies in an opposite way. The behavior of the galaxy-to-ICM distribution does not depend on the cluster mass, suggesting that the detected redshift dependence is not due to mass-related effects, such as sample selection bias. Also, it cannot be ascribed to various redshift-dependent systematic errors. We interpret that the galaxies, the ICM, and the dark matter components had similar angular distributions when a cluster was formed, while the galaxies traveling in the interior of the cluster have continuously fallen toward the center relative to the other components, and the ICM has slightly expanded relative to the dark matter although it suffers strong radiative loss. This cosmological galaxy infall, accompanied by an ICM expansion, can be explained by considering that the galaxies interact strongly with the ICM while they are moving through it. The interaction is considered to create a large energy flow of 1044‑45 erg s‑1 per cluster from the member galaxies to their environment, which is expected to continue over cosmological timescales.

  17. Galaxy Infall by Interacting with Its Environment: A Comprehensive Study of 340 Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Liyi; Wen, Zhonglue; Gandhi, Poshak; Inada, Naohisa; Kawaharada, Madoka; Kodama, Tadayuki; Konami, Saori; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Xu, Haiguang; Makishima, Kazuo

    2016-07-01

    To study systematically the evolution of the angular extents of the galaxy, intracluster medium (ICM), and dark matter components in galaxy clusters, we compiled the optical and X-ray properties of a sample of 340 clusters with redshifts <0.5, based on all the available data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Chandra/XMM-Newton. For each cluster, the member galaxies were determined primarily with photometric redshift measurements. The radial ICM mass distribution, as well as the total gravitational mass distribution, was derived from a spatially resolved spectral analysis of the X-ray data. When normalizing the radial profile of galaxy number to that of the ICM mass, the relative curve was found to depend significantly on the cluster redshift; it drops more steeply toward the outside in lower-redshift subsamples. The same evolution is found in the galaxy-to-total mass profile, while the ICM-to-total mass profile varies in an opposite way. The behavior of the galaxy-to-ICM distribution does not depend on the cluster mass, suggesting that the detected redshift dependence is not due to mass-related effects, such as sample selection bias. Also, it cannot be ascribed to various redshift-dependent systematic errors. We interpret that the galaxies, the ICM, and the dark matter components had similar angular distributions when a cluster was formed, while the galaxies traveling in the interior of the cluster have continuously fallen toward the center relative to the other components, and the ICM has slightly expanded relative to the dark matter although it suffers strong radiative loss. This cosmological galaxy infall, accompanied by an ICM expansion, can be explained by considering that the galaxies interact strongly with the ICM while they are moving through it. The interaction is considered to create a large energy flow of 1044-45 erg s-1 per cluster from the member galaxies to their environment, which is expected to continue over cosmological timescales.

  18. Tracing galaxy evolution through resolved stellar populations and star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Villa, E.

    2011-09-01

    Field stars and star clusters contain a big part of the galaxy’s history. To understand galaxy formation and evolution we need then to understand the parts of which galaxies are composed. It has commonly been assumed that most stars formed in clusters. However, the connection between these two systems is not clear, and the fraction of actual star formation happening in clusters is still uncertain. Through this thesis, we aim to use field stars and star clusters to attack different problems regarding galaxy formation and evolution, named: 1. the cluster formation efficiency and its (co-)relation with environment (i.e. the host galaxy), 2. the star formation rate in the arms and inter-arm regions of spiral galaxies, and 3. the indications of a possible interaction between two galaxies observed through their resolved stellar populations. We performed a systematic and homogeneous study over the galaxies NGC45, NGC1313, NGC4395, NGC5236 and NGC7793, where star clusters and field stars are analyze separately. For this aim, we used Hubble Space Telescope observations in the optical bands U, B, V and I, using the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. Standard photometric procedures are use to study the properties of these two main parts of the galaxies. However, incompleteness constrains our results to ages younger than 100 Myr. Following the synthetic CMD method we recovered the star formation history for the last 100 Myr over the five galaxies. Comparing observed clusters properties with simple stellar population models, we estimate ages and masses of star clusters. We observe that the galaxies NGC5236 and NGC1313 show higher star and cluster formation rates, while NGC45, NGC4395 and NGC7793 show lower values. We found that the actual fraction of star formation happening in clusters presents low values (< 10%), contrary to common assumptions, however in agreement with studies in other galaxies. Observations of the surface star formation

  19. Kinematics and evolution of poor clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koranyi, Daniel Mark

    2000-11-01

    The AWM and MKW poor clusters form a complete nearby sample of poor clusters that span a range of velocity dispersions and populations; they were selected on the basis of a cD-like galaxy at their centers. I describe a photometric and kinematic study of AWM 7, the richest cluster in the sample, and extend the galaxy sample to perform a detailed analysis of the mass profile of this cluster. I assess the performance of the virial mass estimator under a variety of assumptions about the orbital anisotropy profile. I then describe an extensive kinematic analysis of 17 AWM and MKW clusters, investigating velocity distributions, spectral segregation, velocity dispersion profiles, and X-ray properties. This section establishes a robust observational baseline for comparison to simulations. The AWM and MKW clusters are as varied in their properties as their richer counterparts, and are globally no different from poor clusters without cD galaxies. This similarity suggests that the formation of the cD in such clusters is governed by local physics, independent of the global cluster properties. Finally, I describe and analyze high-resolution N-body simulations of poor clusters that are a good match to the AWM and MKW clusters in mass, galaxy population, and velocity dispersion. The simulations consist of ~10 million particles, of which typically 2 million constitute the final virialized region. The simulations track galaxies and dark matter separately, permitting an analysis of the morphological evolution of the galaxy population. I summarize the kinematic properties of the simulated clusters and their evolution with redshift, I compare them to the observed sample of AWM and MKW clusters, and test the accuracy with which the standard virial mass estimator recovers the true underlying mass profile. The virial estimator recovers the total mass accurately on average, but systematically overestimates the mass profile interior to the virial radius.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies (CGCG) (Zwicky, 1968)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicky, F.; et al.

    1995-10-01

    This document describes a machine-readable version of a portion of the "Catalogue of Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies" (Zwicky, et al.). The published catalogue covers 560 Palomar Sky Survey fields, and for each field it lists both individual galaxies and clusters of galaxies. Its limiting magnitude for galaxies is approximately +15.5 apparent photographic magnitude. The present machine-readable version includes only the individual galaxies. It consists of two files, the first of which lists the galaxies (data file) and the second of which enumerates the fields covered (headers file). Note: the abbreviation ADC used in this document refers to the Astronomical Data Center, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. (2 data files).

  1. Dwarf Galaxies in the Antlia Cluster: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith Castelli, A. V.; Bassino, L. P.; Cellone, S. A.; Richtler, T.; Dirsch, B.; Infante, L.; Aruta, C.; Gómez, M.

    The Antlia cluster (l = 273°, b = 19°) is the third nearest galaxy cluster (d = 35 Mpc) after Virgo and Fornax. In spite of its proximity, it has been poorly investigated. Its population is dominated by early type galaxies, with dwarf ellipticals being the most abundant galaxy type [1]. Here we present the first results of a project aimed to study the galaxy population of the Antlia cluster. Our results correspond to the identification and classification of dwarf galaxies in the central cluster region, extending the list of \\cite{FS90} (FS90 catalogue), a photographic survey that is complete only up to B_T ≃ 18 mag (M_B ≃ -14.7 mag at the Antlia cluster distance). The final aim of our project is to study the luminosity function, morphology and structural parameters of dwarf galaxies in the Antlia cluster with a more complete sample. We also intend to investigate the kinematics of the cluster (50 spectra have been already obtained).

  2. 60 micron luminosity evolution of rich clusters of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.M.; Rieke, G.H. )

    1990-10-01

    The average 60-micron flux has been determined for a collection of optically selected galaxy clusters at redshifts ranging from 0.30 to 0.92. The result, 26 mJy per cluster, represents the faintest flux determination known of using the IRAS data base. The flux from this set of clusters has been compared to the 60-micron flux from a sample of nearby galaxy clusters. It is found that the far-infrared luminosity evolution in cluster galaxies can be no more than a factor of 1.7 from z = 0.4 to the present epoch. This upper limit is close to the evolution predicted for simple aging of the stellar populations. Additional processes such as mergers, cannibalism, or enhanced rates of starbursts appear to occur at a low enough level that they have little influence on the far-infrared emission from clusters over this redshift range. 38 refs.

  3. 60 micron luminosity evolution of rich clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Douglas M.; Rieke, George H.

    1990-01-01

    The average 60-micron flux has been determined for a collection of optically selected galaxy clusters at redshifts ranging from 0.30 to 0.92. The result, 26 mJy per cluster, represents the faintest flux determination known of using the IRAS data base. The flux from this set of clusters has been compared to the 60-micron flux from a sample of nearby galaxy clusters. It is found that the far-infrared luminosity evolution in cluster galaxies can be no more than a factor of 1.7 from z = 0.4 to the present epoch. This upper limit is close to the evolution predicted for simple aging of the stellar populations. Additional processes such as mergers, cannibalism, or enhanced rates of starbursts appear to occur at a low enough level that they have little influence on the far-infrared emission from clusters over this redshift range.

  4. Structures and Components in Galaxy Clusters: Observations and Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, A. M.; Churazov, E. M.; Ferrari, C.; Forman, W. R.; Kaastra, J. S.; Klein, U.; Markevitch, M.; de Plaa, J.

    2015-05-01

    Clusters of galaxies are the largest gravitationally bounded structures in the Universe dominated by dark matter. We review the observational appearance and physical models of plasma structures in clusters of galaxies. Bubbles of relativistic plasma which are inflated by supermassive black holes of AGNs, cooling and heating of the gas, large scale plasma shocks, cold fronts, non-thermal halos and relics are observed in clusters. These constituents are reflecting both the formation history and the dynamical properties of clusters of galaxies. We discuss X-ray spectroscopy as a tool to study the metal enrichment in clusters and fine spectroscopy of Fe X-ray lines as a powerful diagnostics of both the turbulent plasma motions and the energetics of the non-thermal electron populations. The knowledge of the complex dynamical and feedback processes is necessary to understand the energy and matter balance as well as to constrain the role of the non-thermal components of clusters.

  5. WITNESSING THE FORMATION OF A BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXY IN A NEARBY X-RAY CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Mulchaey, John S.; Bai, Lei; Ponman, Trevor J.; Raychaudhury, Somak; Dariush, Ali

    2010-07-10

    The central dominant galaxies in galaxy clusters constitute the most massive and luminous galaxies in the universe. Despite this, the formation of these brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and the impact of this on the surrounding cluster environment remain poorly understood. Here we present multiwavelength observations of the nearby poor X-ray cluster MZ 10451, in which both processes can be studied in unprecedented detail. Chandra observations of the intracluster medium (ICM) in the cluster core, which harbors two optically bright early-type galaxies in the process of merging, show that the system has retained a cool core and a central metal excess. This suggests that any merger-induced ICM heating and mixing remain modest at this stage. Tidally stripped stars seen around either galaxy likely represent an emerging intracluster light component, and the central ICM abundance enhancement may have a prominent contribution from in situ enrichment provided by these stars. The smaller of the merging galaxies shows evidence for having retained a hot gas halo, along with tentative evidence for some obscured star formation, suggesting that not all BCG major mergers at low redshift are completely dissipationless. Both galaxies are slightly offset from the peak of the ICM emission, with all three lying on an axis that roughly coincides with the large-scale elongation of the ICM. Our data are consistent with a picture in which central BCGs are built up by mergers close to the cluster core, by galaxies infalling on radial orbits aligned with the cosmological filaments feeding the cluster.

  6. The dynamics and evolution of clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Margaret; Huchra, John P.

    1987-01-01

    Research was undertaken to produce a coherent picture of the formation and evolution of large-scale structures in the universe. The program is divided into projects which examine four areas: the relationship between individual galaxies and their environment; the structure and evolution of individual rich clusters of galaxies; the nature of superclusters; and the large-scale distribution of individual galaxies. A brief review of results in each area is provided.

  7. STAR-FORMING GALAXY EVOLUTION IN NEARBY RICH CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, K. D.; Rieke, G. H.; Bai, L.

    2013-08-20

    Dense environments are known to quench star formation in galaxies, but it is still unknown what mechanism(s) are directly responsible. In this paper, we study the star formation of galaxies in A2029 and compare it to that of Coma, combining indicators at 24 {mu}m, H{alpha}, and UV down to rates of 0.03 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. We show that A2029's star-forming galaxies follow the same mass-SFR relation as the field. The Coma cluster, on the other hand, has a population of galaxies with star formation rates (SFRs) significantly lower than the field mass-SFR relation, indicative of galaxies in the process of being quenched. Over half of these galaxies also host active galactic nuclei. Ram-pressure stripping and starvation/strangulation are the most likely mechanisms for suppressing the star formation in these galaxies, but we are unable to disentangle which is dominating. The differences we see between the two clusters' populations of star-forming galaxies may be related to their accretion histories, with A2029 having accreted its star-forming galaxies more recently than Coma. Additionally, many early-type galaxies in A2029 are detected at 24 {mu}m and/or in the far-UV, but this emission is not directly related to star formation. Similar galaxies have probably been classified as star forming in previous studies of dense clusters, possibly obscuring some of the effects of the cluster environment on true star-forming galaxies.

  8. Globular Clusters and Spur Clusters in NGC 4921, the Brightest Spiral Galaxy in the Coma Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Jang, In Sung

    2016-03-01

    We resolve a significant fraction of globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 4921, the brightest spiral galaxy in the Coma cluster. We also find a number of extended bright star clusters (star complexes) in the spur region of the arms. The latter are much brighter and bluer than those in the normal star-forming region, being as massive as 3 × 105 M⊙. The color distribution of the GCs in this galaxy is found to be bimodal. The turnover magnitudes of the luminosity functions of the blue (metal-poor) GCs (0.70 < (V - I) ≤ 1.05) in the halo are estimated V(max) = 27.11 ± 0.09 mag and I(max) = 26.21 ± 0.11 mag. We obtain similar values for NGC 4923, a companion S0 galaxy, and two Coma cD galaxies (NGC 4874 and NGC 4889). The mean value for the turnover magnitudes of these four galaxies is I(max) = 26.25 ± 0.03 mag. Adopting MI (max) = -8.56 ± 0.09 mag for the metal-poor GCs, we determine the mean distance to the four Coma galaxies to be 91 ± 4 Mpc. Combining this with the Coma radial velocity, we derive a value of the Hubble constant, H0 = 77.9 ± 3.6 km s-1 Mpc-1. We estimate the GC specific frequency of NGC 4921 to be SN = 1.29 ± 0.25, close to the values for early-type galaxies. This indicates that NGC 4921 is in the transition phase to S0s.

  9. Galaxy clusters as probes for cosmology and dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistelli, Elia S.; Burigana, Carlo; de Bernardis, Paolo; Kirillov, Alexander A.; Neto, Gastao B. Lima; Masi, Silvia; Norgaard-Nielsen, Hans U.; Ostermann, Peter; Roman, Matthieu; Rosati, Piero; Rossetti, Mariachiara

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, significant progress has been made in building new galaxy clusters samples, at low and high redshifts, from wide-area surveys, particularly exploiting the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) effect. A large effort is underway to identify and characterize these new systems with optical/NIR and X-ray facilities, thus opening new avenues to constraint cosmological models using structure growth and geometrical tests. A census of galaxy clusters sets constraints on reionization mechanisms and epochs, which need to be reconciled with recent limits on the reionization optical depth from cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. Future advances in SZ effect measurements will include the possibility to (unambiguously) measure directly the kinematic SZ effect, to build an even larger catalogue of galaxy clusters able to study the high redshift universe, and to make (spatially-)resolved galaxy cluster maps with even spectral capability to (spectrally-)resolve the relativistic corrections of the SZ effect.

  10. THE GALAXY CONTENT OF SDSS CLUSTERS AND GROUPS

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Sarah M.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Koester, Benjamin P.

    2009-07-10

    Imaging data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey are used to characterize the population of galaxies in groups and clusters detected with the MaxBCG algorithm. We investigate the dependence of brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) luminosity, and the distributions of satellite galaxy luminosity and satellite color, on cluster properties over the redshift range 0.1 {<=} z {<=} 0.3. The size of the data set allows us to make measurements in many bins of cluster richness, radius and redshift. We find that, within r {sub 200} of clusters with mass above 3 x 10{sup 13} h {sup -1} M {sub sun}, the luminosity function (LF) of both red and blue satellites is only weakly dependent on richness. We further find that the shape of the satellite LF does not depend on cluster-centric distance for magnitudes brighter than {sup 0.25} M{sub i} - 5log{sub 10} h =-19. However, the mix of faint red and blue galaxies changes dramatically. The satellite red fraction is dependent on cluster-centric distance, galaxy luminosity, and cluster mass, and also increases by {approx}5% between redshifts 0.28 and 0.2, independent of richness. We find that BCG luminosity is tightly correlated with cluster richness, scaling as L {sub BCG} {approx} M {sup 0.3} {sub 200}, and has a Gaussian distribution at fixed richness, with {sigma}{sub logL} {approx} 0.17 for massive clusters. The ratios of BCG luminosity to total cluster luminosity and characteristic satellite luminosity scale strongly with cluster richness: in richer systems, BCGs contribute a smaller fraction of the total light, but are brighter compared to typical satellites. This study demonstrates the power of cross-correlation techniques for measuring galaxy populations in purely photometric data.

  11. The Galaxy Content of SDSS Clusters And Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Sarah M.; Sheldon, Erin S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Koester, Benjamin P.; /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.

    2007-11-09

    Imaging data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey are used to characterize the population of galaxies in groups and clusters detected with the MaxBCG algorithm. We investigate the dependence of Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) luminosity, and the distributions of satellite galaxy luminosity and satellite color, on cluster properties over the redshift range 0.1 {le} z {le} 0.3. The size of the dataset allows us to make measurements in many bins of cluster richness, radius and redshift. We find that, within r200 of clusters with mass above 3x10{sup 13}h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}}, the luminosity function of both red and blue satellites is only weakly dependent on richness. We further find that the shape of the satellite luminosity function does not depend on cluster-centric distance for magnitudes brighter than {sup 0.25}M{sub i} - 5log{sub 10}h = -19. However, the mix of faint red and blue galaxies changes dramatically. The satellite red fraction is dependent on cluster-centric distance, galaxy luminosity and cluster mass, and also increases by {approx}5% between redshifts 0.28 and 0.2, independent of richness. We find that BCG luminosity is tightly correlated with cluster richness, scaling as L{sub BCG} {approx} M{sup 0.3}{sub 200}, and has a Gaussian distribution at fixed richness, with {sigma}{sub log}L {approx} 0.17 for massive clusters. The ratios of BCG luminosity to total cluster luminosity and characteristic satellite luminosity scale strongly with cluster richness: in richer systems, BCGs contribute a smaller fraction of the total light, but are brighter compared to typical satellites. This study demonstrates the power of cross-correlation techniques for measuring galaxy populations in purely photometric data.

  12. Multiple object redshift determinations in clusters of galaxies using OCTOPUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazure, A.; Proust, D.; Sodre, L.; Lund, G.; Capelato, H.

    1987-03-01

    The ESO multiobject facility, Octopus, was used to observe a sample of galaxy clusters such as SC2008-565 in an attempt to collect a large set of individual radial velocities. A dispersion of 114 A/mm was used, providing spectral coverage from 3800 to 5180 A. Octopus was found to be a well-adapted instrument for the rapid and simultaneous determination of redshifts in cataloged galaxy clusters.

  13. Multiple object redshift determinations in clusters of galaxies using OCTOPUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazure, A.; Proust, D.; Sodre, L.; Capelato, H. V.; Lund, G.

    1988-04-01

    The ESO multiobject facility, Octopus, was used to observe a sample of galaxy clusters such as SC2008-565 in an attempt to collect a large set of individual radial velocities. A dispersion of 114 A/mm was used, providing spectral coverage from 3800 to 5180 A. Octopus was found to be a well-adapted instrument for the rapid and simultaneous determination of redshifts in cataloged galaxy clusters.

  14. A study of cooling flows in poor clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriss, Gerard A.; Dillingham, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    We observed three poor clusters with central dominant galaxies (AWM 4, MKW 4, and MKW 3's) using the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter on the ROSAT X-ray satellite. The images reveal smooth, symmetrical X-ray emission filling the cluster with a sharp peak on each central galaxy. The cluster surface brightness profiles can be decomposed using superposed King models for the central galaxy and the intracluster medium. The King model parameters for the cluster portions are consistent with previous observations of these clusters. The newly measured King model parameters for the central galaxies are typical of the X-ray surface brightness distributions of isolated elliptical galaxies. Spatially resolved temperature measurements in annular rings throughout the clusters show a nearly isothermal profile. Temperatures are consistent with previously measured values, but are much better determined. There is no significant drop in temperature noted in the innermost bins where cooling flows are likely to be present, nor is any excess absorption by cold gas required. All cold gas columns are consistent with galactic foreground absorption. We derive mass profiles for the clusters assuming both isothermal temperature profiles and cooling flow models with constant mass flow rates. Our results are consistent with previous Einstein IPC observations by Kriss, Cioffi, & Canizares, but extend the mass profiles out to 1 Mpc in these poor clusters.

  15. A study of cooling flows in poor clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriss, Gerard A.; Dillingham, Stephen

    1995-08-01

    We observed three poor clusters with central dominant galaxies (AWM 4, MKW 4, and MKW 3's) using the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter on the ROSAT X-ray satellite. The images reveal smooth, symmetrical X-ray emission filling the cluster with a sharp peak on each central galaxy. The cluster surface brightness profiles can be decomposed using superposed King models for the central galaxy and the intracluster medium. The King model parameters for the cluster portions are consistent with previous observations of these clusters. The newly measured King model parameters for the central galaxies are typical of the X-ray surface brightness distributions of isolated elliptical galaxies. Spatially resolved temperature measurements in annular rings throughout the clusters show a nearly isothermal profile. Temperatures are consistent with previously measured values, but are much better determined. There is no significant drop in temperature noted in the innermost bins where cooling flows are likely to be present, nor is any excess absorption by cold gas required. All cold gas columns are consistent with galactic foreground absorption. We derive mass profiles for the clusters assuming both isothermal temperature profiles and cooling flow models with constant mass flow rates. Our results are consistent with previous Einstein IPC observations by Kriss, Cioffi, & Canizares, but extend the mass profiles out to 1 Mpc in these poor clusters.

  16. A 1400-MHz survey of 1478 Abell clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, F. N.; White, R. A.; Hilldrup, K. C.; Hanisch, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Observations of 1478 Abell clusters of galaxies with the NRAO 91-m telescope at 1400 MHz are reported. The measured beam shape was deconvolved from the measured source Gaussian fits in order to estimate the source size and position angle. All detected sources within 0.5 corrected Abell cluster radii are listed, including the cluster number, richness class, distance class, magnitude of the tenth brightest galaxy, redshift estimate, corrected cluster radius in arcmin, right ascension and error, declination and error, total flux density and error, and angular structure for each source.

  17. Disentangling Structures in the Cluster of Galaxies Abell 133

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, Michael J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A dynamical analysis of the structure of the cluster of galaxies Abell 133 will be presented using multi-wavelength data combined from multiple space and earth based observations. New and familiar statistical clustering techniques are used in combination in an attempt to gain a fully consistent picture of this interesting nearby cluster of galaxies. The type of analysis presented should be typical of cluster studies in the future, especially those to come from the surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2DF.

  18. Dynamical Mass Measurements of Contaminated Galaxy Clusters Using Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntampaka, M.; Trac, H.; Sutherland, D. J.; Fromenteau, S.; Póczos, B.; Schneider, J.

    2016-11-01

    We study dynamical mass measurements of galaxy clusters contaminated by interlopers and show that a modern machine learning algorithm can predict masses by better than a factor of two compared to a standard scaling relation approach. We create two mock catalogs from Multidark’s publicly available N-body MDPL1 simulation, one with perfect galaxy cluster membership information and the other where a simple cylindrical cut around the cluster center allows interlopers to contaminate the clusters. In the standard approach, we use a power-law scaling relation to infer cluster mass from galaxy line-of-sight (LOS) velocity dispersion. Assuming perfect membership knowledge, this unrealistic case produces a wide fractional mass error distribution, with a width of {{Δ }}ε ≈ 0.87. Interlopers introduce additional scatter, significantly widening the error distribution further ({{Δ }}ε ≈ 2.13). We employ the support distribution machine (SDM) class of algorithms to learn from distributions of data to predict single values. Applied to distributions of galaxy observables such as LOS velocity and projected distance from the cluster center, SDM yields better than a factor-of-two improvement ({{Δ }}ε ≈ 0.67) for the contaminated case. Remarkably, SDM applied to contaminated clusters is better able to recover masses than even the scaling relation approach applied to uncontaminated clusters. We show that the SDM method more accurately reproduces the cluster mass function, making it a valuable tool for employing cluster observations to evaluate cosmological models.

  19. cluster-lensing: Tools for calculating properties and weak lensing profiles of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Jes

    2016-05-01

    The cluster-lensing package calculates properties and weak lensing profiles of galaxy clusters. Implemented in Python, it includes cluster mass-richness and mass-concentration scaling relations, and NFW halo profiles for weak lensing shear, the differential surface mass density ΔΣ(r), and for magnification, Σ(r). Optionally the calculation will include the effects of cluster miscentering offsets.

  20. Weighing galaxy clusters with gas. II. On the origin of hydrostatic mass bias in ΛCDM galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Kaylea; Nagai, Daisuke; Yu, Liang; Lau, Erwin T.; Rudd, Douglas H.

    2014-02-20

    The use of galaxy clusters as cosmological probes hinges on our ability to measure their masses accurately and with high precision. Hydrostatic mass is one of the most common methods for estimating the masses of individual galaxy clusters, which suffer from biases due to departures from hydrostatic equilibrium. Using a large, mass-limited sample of massive galaxy clusters from a high-resolution hydrodynamical cosmological simulation, in this work we show that in addition to turbulent and bulk gas velocities, acceleration of gas introduces biases in the hydrostatic mass estimate of galaxy clusters. In unrelaxed clusters, the acceleration bias is comparable to the bias due to non-thermal pressure associated with merger-induced turbulent and bulk gas motions. In relaxed clusters, the mean mass bias due to acceleration is small (≲ 3%), but the scatter in the mass bias can be reduced by accounting for gas acceleration. Additionally, this acceleration bias is greater in the outskirts of higher redshift clusters where mergers are more frequent and clusters are accreting more rapidly. Since gas acceleration cannot be observed directly, it introduces an irreducible bias for hydrostatic mass estimates. This acceleration bias places limits on how well we can recover cluster masses from future X-ray and microwave observations. We discuss implications for cluster mass estimates based on X-ray, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, and gravitational lensing observations and their impact on cluster cosmology.

  1. Small-scale Conformity of the Virgo Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hye-Ran; Lee, Joon Hyeop; Jeong, Hyunjin; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the small-scale conformity in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions in the Virgo Cluster. Cluster member galaxies are spectroscopically determined using the Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. We find that the luminosity-weighted mean color of faint galaxies depends on the color of adjacent bright galaxy as well as on the cluster-scale environment (gravitational potential index). From this result for the entire area of the Virgo Cluster, it is not distinguishable whether the small-scale conformity is genuine or if it is artificially produced due to cluster-scale variation of galaxy color. To disentangle this degeneracy, we divide the Virgo Cluster area into three sub-areas so that the cluster-scale environmental dependence is minimized: A1 (central), A2 (intermediate), and A3 (outermost). We find conformity in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions (color-color slope significance S ˜ 2.73σ and correlation coefficient {cc}˜ 0.50) in A2, where the cluster-scale environmental dependence is almost negligible. On the other hand, the conformity is not significant or very marginal (S ˜ 1.75σ and {cc}˜ 0.27) in A1. The conformity is not significant either in A3 (S ˜ 1.59σ and {cc}˜ 0.44), but the sample size is too small in this area. These results are consistent with a scenario in which the small-scale conformity in a cluster is a vestige of infallen groups and these groups lose conformity as they come closer to the cluster center.

  2. Small-scale Conformity of the Virgo Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hye-Ran; Lee, Joon Hyeop; Jeong, Hyunjin; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the small-scale conformity in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions in the Virgo Cluster. Cluster member galaxies are spectroscopically determined using the Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. We find that the luminosity-weighted mean color of faint galaxies depends on the color of adjacent bright galaxy as well as on the cluster-scale environment (gravitational potential index). From this result for the entire area of the Virgo Cluster, it is not distinguishable whether the small-scale conformity is genuine or if it is artificially produced due to cluster-scale variation of galaxy color. To disentangle this degeneracy, we divide the Virgo Cluster area into three sub-areas so that the cluster-scale environmental dependence is minimized: A1 (central), A2 (intermediate), and A3 (outermost). We find conformity in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions (color–color slope significance S ˜ 2.73σ and correlation coefficient {cc}˜ 0.50) in A2, where the cluster-scale environmental dependence is almost negligible. On the other hand, the conformity is not significant or very marginal (S ˜ 1.75σ and {cc}˜ 0.27) in A1. The conformity is not significant either in A3 (S ˜ 1.59σ and {cc}˜ 0.44), but the sample size is too small in this area. These results are consistent with a scenario in which the small-scale conformity in a cluster is a vestige of infallen groups and these groups lose conformity as they come closer to the cluster center.

  3. Detailed modeling of cluster galaxies in free-form lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    The main goal of the Frontier Fields is to characterize the population of high redshift galaxies that are gravitationally lensed and magnified by foreground massive galaxy clusters. The magnification received by lensed images has to be accurately quantified in order to derive the correct science results. The magnification is in turn computed from lens models, which are constructed from various constraints, most commonly the positions and redshifts of multiply-lensed galaxies.The locations and magnification of multiple images that appear near cluster galaxies are very sensitive to the mass distribution of those individual galaxies. In current free-form lens models, they are at best crudely approximated by arbitrary mass halos and are usually being completely neglected. Given sufficient free parameters and iterations, such models may be highly consistent but their predictive power would be rather limited. This shortcoming is particularly pronounced in light of the recent discovery of the first multiply-lensed supernova in the Frontier Fields cluster MACSJ1149. The proximity of its images to cluster galaxies mandates detailed modeling on galaxy-scales, where free-form methods solely based on grid solutions simply fail.We present a hybrid free-form lens model of Abell 2744, which for the first time incorporates a detailed mass component modeled by GALFIT that accurately captures the stellar light distribution of the hundred brightest cluster galaxies. The model better reproduces the image positions than a previous version, which modeled cluster galaxies with simplistic NFW halos. Curiously, this improvement is found in all but system 2, which has two radial images appearing around the BCG. Despite its complex light profile is being captured by GALFIT, the persistent discrepancies suggest considering mass distributions that may be largely offset from the stellar light distribution.

  4. Effects of Cosmological Constant on Clustering of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameeda, Mir; Upadhyay, Sudhaker; Faizal, Mir; Ali, Ahmed Farag

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we analyse the effect of the expansion of the universe on the clustering of galaxies. We evaluate the configurational integral for interacting system of galaxies in an expanding universe by including effects produced by the cosmological constant. The gravitational partition function is obtained using this configuration integral. Thermodynamic quantities, specifically, Helmholtz free energy, entropy, internal energy, pressure and chemical potential are also derived for this system. It is observed that they depend on the modified clustering parameter for this system of galaxies. It is also demonstrated that these thermodynamical quantities get corrected because of the cosmological constant.

  5. MODELING THE ALIGNMENT PROFILE OF SATELLITE GALAXIES IN CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Hyunmi; Lee, Jounghun E-mail: jounghun@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2012-04-01

    Analyzing the halo and galaxy catalogs from the Millennium Simulations at redshifts z = 0, 0.5, 1, we determine the alignment profiles of cluster galaxies by measuring the average alignments between the major axes of the pseudo inertia tensors from all satellites within a cluster's virial radius and from only those satellites within some smaller radius as a function of the top-hat scale difference. The alignment profiles quantify how well the satellite galaxies retain the memory of the external tidal fields after merging into their host clusters and how fast they lose the initial alignment tendency as the cluster's relaxation proceeds. It is found that the alignment profile drops faster at higher redshifts and on smaller mass scales. This result is consistent with the picture that the faster merging of the satellites and earlier onset of the nonlinear effect inside clusters tend to break the preferential alignments of the satellites with the external tidal fields. Modeling the alignment profile of cluster galaxies as a power law of the density correlation coefficient that is independent of the power spectrum normalization ({sigma}{sub 8}) and demonstrating that the density correlation coefficient varies sensitively with the density parameter ({Omega}{sub m}) and neutrino mass fraction (f{sub {nu}}), we suggest that the alignment profile of cluster galaxies might be useful for breaking the {Omega}{sub m}-{sigma}{sub 8} and f{sub {nu}}-{sigma}{sub 8} degeneracies.

  6. A GMBCG GALAXY CLUSTER CATALOG OF 55,424 RICH CLUSTERS FROM SDSS DR7

    SciTech Connect

    Hao Jiangang; Annis, James; Johnston, David E.; McKay, Timothy A.; Evrard, August; Siegel, Seth R.; Gerdes, David; Koester, Benjamin P.; Rykoff, Eli S.; Rozo, Eduardo; Wechsler, Risa H.; Busha, Michael; Becker, Matthew; Sheldon, Erin

    2010-12-15

    We present a large catalog of optically selected galaxy clusters from the application of a new Gaussian Mixture Brightest Cluster Galaxy (GMBCG) algorithm to SDSS Data Release 7 data. The algorithm detects clusters by identifying the red-sequence plus brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) feature, which is unique for galaxy clusters and does not exist among field galaxies. Red-sequence clustering in color space is detected using an Error Corrected Gaussian Mixture Model. We run GMBCG on 8240 deg{sup 2} of photometric data from SDSS DR7 to assemble the largest ever optical galaxy cluster catalog, consisting of over 55,000 rich clusters across the redshift range from 0.1 < z < 0.55. We present Monte Carlo tests of completeness and purity and perform cross-matching with X-ray clusters and with the maxBCG sample at low redshift. These tests indicate high completeness and purity across the full redshift range for clusters with 15 or more members.

  7. Obscured starbursts in galaxy clusters: a MIPS survey of z=0.5 clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smail, Ian; Ebeling, Harald; Edge, Alastair; Geach, Jim; Ma, Cheng-Jiun; Wardlow, Julie

    2008-03-01

    We propose panoramic MIPS 24um imaging of four intermediate redshift (z~0.5) clusters selected from the MACS X-ray Survey. We will combine these with observations of four clusters at the same epoch from our pilot study (which span a broader range in mass) to parameterize the evolutionary sequence of infalling field galaxies in terms of the cluster global structure. This analysis will distinguish between the role of global and local environment in determining the star formation histories of starburst galaxies entering the cluster potential from the low-density field. Our previous successful MIPS project has yielded some exciting results - in particular the existence of large populations of starburst galaxies in z~0.5 clusters with strong PAH emission - which have been completely overlooked by previous optical/near-IR surveys of these well-studied systems. These are potentially the missing link between distant spirals and the local passive S0 galaxies which are the dominant population in local clusters. Our initial results point to a strong dependence of star formation on specific cluster properties - either the dynamical state or the cluster mass (or equivalently temperature of the ICM). By specifically targeting four clusters with a narrow range in mass, but a wide range of structures, we aim to determine the key drivers of the variation in the starburst population within clusters. This will provide vital clues as to the physics of environmental transformations of galaxies: an important ingredient of current galaxy evolution models.

  8. N-Body Simulations of Galaxies in the Cluster Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, Nicholas; Berrington, R. C.

    2010-01-01

    We present numerous N-body simulations of galaxy clusters consisting of up to 600,000 total particles and 50 galaxies each to characterize the evolution of galaxies in the cluster environment. These simulations were run on the Ball State University (BSU) College of Science and Humanities (CSH) 64-node Beowulf Cluster. Because the velocity dispersion (σ) is a tracer of a galaxies’ potential well and therefore its mass, we will use it to examine the mass evolution of the galaxies in the simulations by fitting a function to the σ of the galaxies. The strength of this function is its direct comparison to observational data. We further investigate the evolution of the galaxy structure parameters through the use of projected mass radii and line-of-sight (LOS) σ. Additionally, we discuss the use of alternate orbital parameters such as Vesc to investigate the potential wells of the galaxies. Our goal is to isolate the mass and luminosity evolution from the environmental effects on the evolution of elliptical galaxies. This project is a subset of a continuing study whose intent is to combine observational data with numerical techniques to study the effects of a galaxies’ environment on its mass evolution and internal dynamics.

  9. FAR-FLUNG GALAXY CLUSTERS MAY REVEAL FATE OF UNIVERSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A selection of NASA Hubble Space Telescope snapshots of huge galaxy clusters that lie far away and far back in time. These are selected from a catalog of 92 new clusters uncovered during a six-year Hubble observing program known as the Medium Deep Survey. If the distances and masses of the clusters are confirmed by ground based telescopes, the survey may hold clues to how galaxies quickly formed into massive large-scale structures after the big bang, and what that may mean for the eventual fate of the expanding universe. The images are each a combination of two exposures in yellow and deep red taken with Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Each cluster's distance is inferred from the reddening of the starlight, which is due to the expansion of space. Astronomers assume these clusters all formed early in the history of the universe. HST133617-00529 (left) This collection of spiral and elliptical galaxies lies an estimated 4 to 6 billion light-years away. It is in the constellation of Virgo not far from the 3rd magnitude star Zeta Virginis. The brighter galaxies in this cluster have red magnitudes between 20 and 22 near the limit of the Palomar Sky Survey. The bright blue galaxy (upper left) is probably a foreground galaxy, and not a cluster member. The larger of the galaxies in the cluster are probably about the size of our Milky Way Galaxy. The diagonal line at lower right is an artificial satellite trail. HST002013+28366 (upper right) This cluster of galaxies lies in the constellation of Andromeda a few degrees from the star Alpheratz in the northeast corner of the constellation Pegasus. It is at an estimated distance of 4 billion light-years, which means the light we are seeing from the cluster is as it appeared when the universe was roughly 2/3 of its present age. HST035528+09435 (lower right) At an estimated distance of about 7 to 10 billion light-years (z=1), this is one of the farthest clusters in the Hubble sample. The cluster lies in the

  10. High-energy Neutrinos from Sources in Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ke; Olinto, Angela V.

    2016-09-01

    High-energy cosmic rays can be accelerated in clusters of galaxies, by mega-parsec scale shocks induced by the accretion of gas during the formation of large-scale structures, or by powerful sources harbored in clusters. Once accelerated, the highest energy particles leave the cluster via almost rectilinear trajectories, while lower energy ones can be confined by the cluster magnetic field up to cosmological time and interact with the intracluster gas. Using a realistic model of the baryon distribution and the turbulent magnetic field in clusters, we studied the propagation and hadronic interaction of high-energy protons in the intracluster medium. We report the cumulative cosmic-ray and neutrino spectra generated by galaxy clusters, including embedded sources, and demonstrate that clusters can contribute a significant fraction of the observed IceCube neutrinos above 30 TeV while remaining undetected in high-energy cosmic rays and γ rays for reasonable choices of parameters and source scenarios.

  11. A WISE VIEW OF STAR FORMATION IN LOCAL GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Sun Mi; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Stern, Daniel; Stanford, Spencer A.; Brodwin, Mark; Jarrett, Thomas

    2011-12-10

    We present results from a systematic study of star formation in local galaxy clusters using 22 {mu}m data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The 69 systems in our sample are drawn from the Cluster Infall Regions Survey, and all have robust mass determinations. The all-sky WISE data enable us to quantify the amount of star formation, as traced by 22 {mu}m, as a function of radius well beyond R{sub 200}, and investigate the dependence of total star formation rate upon cluster mass. We find that the fraction of star-forming galaxies increases with cluster radius but remains below the field value even at 3R{sub 200}. We also find that there is no strong correlation between the mass-normalized total specific star formation rate and cluster mass, indicating that the mass of the host cluster does not strongly influence the total star formation rate of cluster members.

  12. Star-forming galaxies in low-redshift clusters: comparison of integrated properties of cluster and field galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretherton, C. F.; James, P. A.; Moss, C.; Whittle, M.

    2010-12-01

    Aims: We investigate the effect of the cluster environment on the star formation properties of galaxies in 8 nearby Abell clusters. Methods: Star formation properties are determined for individual galaxies using the equivalent width of Hα+[Nii] line emission from narrow-band imaging. Equivalent width distributions are derived for each galaxy type in each of 3 environments - cluster, supercluster (outside the cluster virial radius) and field. The effects of morphological disturbance on star formation are also investigated. Results: We identify a population of early-type disk galaxies in the cluster population with enhanced star formation compared to their field counterparts. The enhanced cluster galaxies frequently show evidence of disturbance, and the disturbed galaxies show marginal evidence for a higher velocity dispersion, possibly indicative of an infalling population. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias; and with the Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope, which was operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  13. Super Star Cluster Nebula in the Starburst Galaxy NGC 660

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naiman, J. P.; Turner, J. L.; Tsai, C.-W.; Beck, S. C.; Ho, P. T. P.

    2004-12-01

    We have mapped the starburst galaxy NGC 660 at 100mas resolution at K band (1.3 cm) with the NRAO Very Large Array. A peculiar galaxy at a distance of 13 Mpc, NGC 660 contains concentrated central star formation of power ˜ 2 x 1010 Lsun. Our 1.3 cm continuum image reveals a bright, compact source of less than 10 pc extent with a rising spectral index. We infer that this is optically thick free-free emission from a super star cluster nebula. The nebula is less than 10 pc in size, comparable in luminosity to the ``supernebula" in the dwarf galaxy, NGC 5253. We estimate that there are a few thousand O stars contained in this single young cluster. There are a number of other weaker continuum sources, either slightly smaller or more evolved clusters of similar size within the central 300 parsecs of the galaxy. This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation.

  14. Violent galaxy evolution in the Frontier Fields clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, Harald; McPartland, Conor; Blumenthal, Kelly; Roediger, Elke

    2015-08-01

    In a recent study we used customized morphological selection criteria to identify potential ram-pressure stripping events in shallow HST images of MACS clusters at z=0.3-0.7 and found tantalising evidence of such violent evolution (a) being at least partly triggered by galaxy mergers and (b) causing extensive star formation and thus brightening of the affected galaxies. Due to the limited depth of the HST data used, our project focused (by design and necessity) on the brightest galaxies. We here present results of a similar survey for “jellyfish” galaxies conducted using the much deeper, multi-passband imaging data of the Frontier Fields clusters that allow us to probe much farther into the luminosity function of ram-pressure stripping in some of the most massive and most dynamically disturbed clusters known.

  15. Intermediate-age globular clusters in four galaxy merger remnants

    SciTech Connect

    Trancho, Gelys; Miller, Bryan W.; Schweizer, François; Burdett, Daniel P.; Palamara, David

    2014-08-01

    We present the results of combining Hubble Space Telescope optical photometry with ground-based K{sub s} -band photometry from the Gemini imagers NIRI and FLAMINGOS-I to study the globular cluster (GC) populations in four early-type galaxies that are candidate remnants of recent mergers (NGC 1700, NGC 2865, NGC 4382, and NGC 7727). These galaxies were chosen based on their blue colors and fine structure, such as shells and ripples that are indicative of past interactions. We fit the combined VIK{sub s} GC data with simple toy models of mixed cluster populations that contain three subpopulations of different age and metallicity. The fits, done via chi-squared mapping of the parameter space, yield clear evidence for the presence of intermediate-age clusters in each galaxy. We find that the ages of ∼1-2 Gyr for these GC subpopulations are consistent with the previously estimated merger ages for the host galaxies.

  16. Intermediate-age Globular Clusters in Four Galaxy Merger Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trancho, Gelys; Miller, Bryan W.; Schweizer, François; Burdett, Daniel P.; Palamara, David

    2014-08-01

    We present the results of combining Hubble Space Telescope optical photometry with ground-based Ks -band photometry from the Gemini imagers NIRI and FLAMINGOS-I to study the globular cluster (GC) populations in four early-type galaxies that are candidate remnants of recent mergers (NGC 1700, NGC 2865, NGC 4382, and NGC 7727). These galaxies were chosen based on their blue colors and fine structure, such as shells and ripples that are indicative of past interactions. We fit the combined VIKs GC data with simple toy models of mixed cluster populations that contain three subpopulations of different age and metallicity. The fits, done via chi-squared mapping of the parameter space, yield clear evidence for the presence of intermediate-age clusters in each galaxy. We find that the ages of ~1-2 Gyr for these GC subpopulations are consistent with the previously estimated merger ages for the host galaxies.

  17. Redshifts for galaxies in three Yerkes poor clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, J.; Spinrad, H.

    1980-01-01

    Redshifts have been obtained for 11 galaxies in the Yerkes poor cluster AWM 7, five galaxies in AWM 5, and two galaxies in AWM 1. In contrast to the result for AWM 4 previously noted by Stauffer and Spinrad, both AWM 5 and AWM 7 are real clusters with apparent line-of-sight velocity dispersions of 400 km/s and 600 km/s respectively. Surface photometry of the cD galaxy in AWM 7, obtained with the Berkeley PDS from a Crossley plate of the cluster, indicates that it is quite luminous, with an absolute magnitude to r about 30 kpc of M(v) about -23.5. A rough dynamical estimate of the AWM 7 cD mass from the spectroscopic data gives M(cD) about 2.0 x 10 to the 13th solar masses.

  18. Gas Poor Galaxies in MKW/AWM Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, B. A.

    1995-03-01

    Follow-up observations were made of the neutral hydrogen content of 129 galaxies near the cores of MKW 4, MKW 8, MKW 11, AWM 4, and AWM 5. The neutral hydrogen content of these galaxies appears to be lower than that of galaxies of similar type in the field or in loose groups and are more consistent with those of galaxies in the richer Abell clusters. Of the 14 galaxies that appear to be spirals in MKW 4, only one was detected above a sensitivity limit of ~ 10(5) Msun /Mpc(2) . The low detection rate of galaxies in MKW 4 suggest that its core is truly deficient in neutral hydrogen gas.

  19. The environment of x ray selected BL Lacs: Host galaxies and galaxy clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtz, Ron; Stocke, John T.; Ellingson, Erica; Yee, Howard K. C.

    1993-01-01

    Using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we have imaged a complete, flux-limited sample of Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey BL Lacertae objects in order to study the properties of BL Lac host galaxies and to use quantitative methods to determine the richness of their galaxy cluster environments.

  20. The Influence of Cluster Mergers on Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawle, T. D.; Altieri, B.; Bouy, H.; Egami, E.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Richard, J.; Valtchanov, I.; Walth, G.

    2016-06-01

    The rich environment of galaxy clusters is understood to have a profound effect on the evolution of constituent galaxies. However, even clusters of a similar mass and at fixed redshift are not homogeneous, displaying a range in structural complexity. Here we concentrate on the effect of cluster merging, the most massive dynamic process in the Universe. Two spectacular cluster mergers at z~0.3 are explored: the archetypal Bullet cluster (1E0657-558; Rawle et al. 2012), and the HST Frontier Field, Pandora's cluster (Abell 2744; Rawle et al. 2014, 2016). We present detailed analysis of their total star formation, derived from multi-wavelength observations of both dusty and unobscured activity from Herschel, Spitzer, WISE and GALEX. Examination of the morphologies of individual cluster galaxies reveals striking evidence for transformation and enhanced star formation, triggered by the merger-induced shock front. This includes several galaxies identified as having "jellyfish" morphologies caused by the passing shock. We discuss the implications, and preview future work exploring a large sample of clusters covering a range of dynamic states and redshifts.

  1. Physics of Galaxy Clusters and How it Affects Cosmological Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vikhlinin, Alexey; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have worked on the analysis of the Chandra observations of the nearby and distant clusters of galaxies, and on the expansion of the sample of distant X-ray clusters based on the archival ROSAT PSPC data. Some of the scientific results are discussed.

  2. The Morphologies and Alignments of Gas, Mass, and the Central Galaxies of CLASH Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Megan; Ettori, Stefano; Rasia, Elena; Sayers, Jack; Zitrin, Adi; Meneghetti, Massimo; Voit, G. Mark; Golwala, Sunil; Czakon, Nicole; Yepes, Gustavo; Baldi, Alessandro; Koekemoer, Anton; Postman, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Morphology is often used to infer the state of relaxation of galaxy clusters. The regularity, symmetry, and degree to which a cluster is centrally concentrated inform quantitative measures of cluster morphology. The Cluster Lensing and Supernova survey with Hubble Space Telescope (CLASH) used weak and strong lensing to measure the distribution of matter within a sample of 25 clusters, 20 of which were deemed to be “relaxed” based on their X-ray morphology and alignment of the X-ray emission with the Brightest Cluster Galaxy. Toward a quantitative characterization of this important sample of clusters, we present uniformly estimated X-ray morphological statistics for all 25 CLASH clusters. We compare X-ray morphologies of CLASH clusters with those identically measured for a large sample of simulated clusters from the MUSIC-2 simulations, selected by mass. We confirm a threshold in X-ray surface brightness concentration of C ≳ 0.4 for cool-core clusters, where C is the ratio of X-ray emission inside 100 h70-1 kpc compared to inside 500 {h}70-1 kpc. We report and compare morphologies of these clusters inferred from Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect (SZE) maps of the hot gas and in from projected mass maps based on strong and weak lensing. We find a strong agreement in alignments of the orientation of major axes for the lensing, X-ray, and SZE maps of nearly all of the CLASH clusters at radii of 500 kpc (approximately 1/2 R500 for these clusters). We also find a striking alignment of clusters shapes at the 500 kpc scale, as measured with X-ray, SZE, and lensing, with that of the near-infrared stellar light at 10 kpc scales for the 20 “relaxed” clusters. This strong alignment indicates a powerful coupling between the cluster- and galaxy-scale galaxy formation processes.

  3. Gaussian covariance matrices for anisotropic galaxy clustering measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieb, Jan Niklas; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of the redshift-space galaxy clustering have been a prolific source of cosmological information in recent years. Accurate covariance estimates are an essential step for the validation of galaxy clustering models of the redshift-space two-point statistics. Usually, only a limited set of accurate N-body simulations is available. Thus, assessing the data covariance is not possible or only leads to a noisy estimate. Further, relying on simulated realizations of the survey data means that tests of the cosmology dependence of the covariance are expensive. With these points in mind, this work presents a simple theoretical model for the linear covariance of anisotropic galaxy clustering observations with synthetic catalogues. Considering the Legendre moments (`multipoles') of the two-point statistics and projections into wide bins of the line-of-sight parameter (`clustering wedges'), we describe the modelling of the covariance for these anisotropic clustering measurements for galaxy samples with a trivial geometry in the case of a Gaussian approximation of the clustering likelihood. As main result of this paper, we give the explicit formulae for Fourier and configuration space covariance matrices. To validate our model, we create synthetic halo occupation distribution galaxy catalogues by populating the haloes of an ensemble of large-volume N-body simulations. Using linear and non-linear input power spectra, we find very good agreement between the model predictions and the measurements on the synthetic catalogues in the quasi-linear regime.

  4. STAR CLUSTER DISRUPTION IN THE STARBURST GALAXY MESSIER 82

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shuo; Li, Chengyuan; De Grijs, Richard; Anders, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Using high-resolution, multiple-passband Hubble Space Telescope images spanning the entire optical/near-infrared wavelength range, we obtained a statistically complete U-band-selected sample of 846 extended star clusters across the disk of the nearby starburst galaxy M82. Based on a careful analysis of the clusters' spectral energy distributions, we determined their galaxy-wide age and mass distributions. The M82 clusters exhibit three clear peaks in their age distribution, thus defining relatively young, log (t yr{sup –1}) ≤ 7.5, intermediate-age, log (t yr{sup –1}) in [7.5, 8.5], and old samples, log (t yr{sup –1}) ≥ 8.5. Comparison of the completeness-corrected mass distributions offers a firm handle on the galaxy's star cluster disruption history. The most massive star clusters in the young and old samples are (almost) all concentrated in the most densely populated central region, while the intermediate-age sample's most massive clusters are more spatially dispersed, which may reflect the distribution of the highest-density gas throughout the galaxy's evolutionary history, combined with the solid-body nature of the galaxy's central region.

  5. Radio Selected Clusters of Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, Joshua; Blanton, Elizabeth

    2010-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that three-component radio sources exhibiting some degree of bending between components are likely to be found in galaxy clusters. Often this radio emission is associated with a cD type galaxy at the center of a cluster. We have cross-correlated the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with samples selected from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST) catalog and measured the richness of the cluster environments surrounding three- component sources exhibiting both bent and straight lobes. This has lead to the discovery and classification of a large number of galaxy clusters out to a redshift of z ~ 0.5. For both bent- and straight- lobed sources without an optical counterpart it is likely that the radio emission is associated with a galaxy fainter than m_r=22 (the limiting magnitude of the SDSS) and at a redshift higher than z~0.8. We propose to observe a small sub-sample of these sources with the FLAMINGOS instrument on the Mayall 4-m telescope in an attempt to discover if these sources are located in high redshift (z≳0.8) galaxy clusters. In our visually-selected bent radio source sample, 78% of sources with counterparts in the SDSS are associated with clusters.

  6. Active galactic nucleus feedback in clusters of galaxies

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Elizabeth L.; Clarke, T. E.; Sarazin, Craig L.; Randall, Scott W.; McNamara, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    Observations made during the last ten years with the Chandra X-ray Observatory have shed much light on the cooling gas in the centers of clusters of galaxies and the role of active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating. Cooling of the hot intracluster medium in cluster centers can feed the supermassive black holes found in the nuclei of the dominant cluster galaxies leading to AGN outbursts which can reheat the gas, suppressing cooling and large amounts of star formation. AGN heating can come in the form of shocks, buoyantly rising bubbles that have been inflated by radio lobes, and the dissipation of sound waves. PMID:20351250

  7. Low-Frequency Radio Observations of Galaxy Cluster Merger Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Weeren, Reinout

    2014-10-01

    In a few dozen merging galaxy clusters diffuse extended radio emission has been found, implying the presence of relativistic particles and magnetic fields in the intracluster medium. A major question is how these particles are accelerated up to such extreme energies. In this talk I will present LOFAR and JVLA radio observations of the Toothbrush galaxy cluster. The Toothbrush cluster hosts diffuse 2 Mpc extended radio emission in the form of a radio relic and halo. Our deep LOFAR and JVLA observations allow a radio spectral study to test the shock origin of the relic and underlying particle acceleration mechanisms.

  8. The Spiderweb Galaxy: A Forming Massive Cluster Galaxy at z ~ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George K.; Overzier, Roderik A.; Zirm, Andrew W.; Ford, Holland C.; Kurk, Jaron; Pentericci, Laura; Blakeslee, John P.; Franx, Marijn; Illingworth, Garth D.; Postman, Marc; Rosati, Piero; Röttgering, Huub J. A.; Venemans, Bram P.; Helder, Eveline

    2006-10-01

    We present a deep image of the radio galaxy MRC 1138-262 taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) at a redshift of z=2.2. The galaxy is known to have properties of a cD galaxy progenitor and be surrounded by a 3 Mpc-sized structure, identified with a protocluster. The morphology shown on the new deep HST ACS image is reminiscent of a spider's web. More than 10 individual clumpy features are observed, apparently star-forming satellite galaxies in the process of merging with the progenitor of a dominant cluster galaxy 11 Gyr ago. There is an extended emission component, implying that star formation was occurring over a 50×40 kpc region at a rate of more than 100 Msolar yr-1. A striking feature of the newly named ``Spiderweb galaxy'' is the presence of several faint linear galaxies within the merging structure. The dense environments and fast galaxy motions at the centers of protoclusters may stimulate the formation of these structures, which dominate the faint resolved galaxy populations in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. The new image provides a unique testbed for simulations of forming dominant cluster galaxies.

  9. Star clusters in the interacting galaxy system Arp 284

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Bradley W.; Struck, Curtis; Smith, Beverly J.; Hancock, Mark

    2009-12-01

    We present results from a study of protoglobular cluster candidates in the interacting galaxy system Arp 284 (NGC 7714/5) using data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Previous studies of the Antennae and M51 have suggested that the majority of young massive star clusters dissolve within 20 Myr due to mass loss. We use the evolutionary synthesis code STARBURST99 to estimate ages and extinctions for approximately 175 clusters visible with HST. We also use lower resolution Galaxy Evolution Explorer and ground-based Hα data to estimate the ages of the giant HII regions in which these clusters are found, and compare the Spitzer colours of these HII regions to those of star-forming regions in other interacting systems. The ages are also used to aid in the interpretation of Chandra X-ray data. Clusters in the tidal tails of NGC 7714 are generally found to have ages less than 20 Myr, though observational limits make the significance of this result uncertain. Older clusters, though not numerous, have nearly the same spatial distribution within the imaged portion of NGC 7714 as young clusters. The cluster population in the bridge connecting the two galaxies appears to be older, but the data in this part of the system are too limited to draw firm conclusions. The ages of the giant HII regions in NGC 7714 are generally older than those of their constituent clusters, possibly indicating that the young clusters we detect are surrounded by their dispersed predecessors.

  10. Galaxy cluster thermal x-ray spectra constrain axionlike particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conlon, Joseph P.; Powell, Andrew J.; Marsh, M. C. David

    2016-06-01

    Axionlike particles (ALPs) and photons interconvert in the presence of a magnetic field. At keV energies in the environment of galaxy clusters, the conversion probability can become unsuppressed for light ALPs. Conversion of thermal x-ray photons into ALPs can introduce a steplike feature into the cluster thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum, and we argue that existing x-ray data on galaxy clusters should be sufficient to extend bounds on ALPs in the low-mass region ma≲1 ×10-12 eV down to M ˜7 ×1011 GeV , and that for 1011 GeV galaxy clusters.

  11. THE MASSIVE DISTANT CLUSTERS OF WISE SURVEY: THE FIRST DISTANT GALAXY CLUSTER DISCOVERED BY WISE

    SciTech Connect

    Gettings, Daniel P.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Mancone, Conor; Stanford, S. Adam; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Brodwin, Mark; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Masci, Frank J.; Papovich, Casey; Tanaka, Ichi; Wright, Edward L.

    2012-11-01

    We present spectroscopic confirmation of a z = 0.99 galaxy cluster discovered using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). This is the first z {approx} 1 cluster candidate from the Massive Distant Clusters of WISE Survey to be confirmed. It was selected as an overdensity of probable z {approx}> 1 sources using a combination of WISE and Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR8 photometric catalogs. Deeper follow-up imaging data from Subaru and WIYN reveal the cluster to be a rich system of galaxies, and multi-object spectroscopic observations from Keck confirm five cluster members at z = 0.99. The detection and confirmation of this cluster represents a first step toward constructing a uniformly selected sample of distant, high-mass galaxy clusters over the full extragalactic sky using WISE data.

  12. X-ray morphological study of galaxy cluster catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Democles, Jessica; Pierre, Marguerite; Arnaud, Monique

    2016-07-01

    Context : The intra-cluster medium distribution as probed by X-ray morphology based analysis gives good indication of the system dynamical state. In the race for the determination of precise scaling relations and understanding their scatter, the dynamical state offers valuable information. Method : We develop the analysis of the centroid-shift so that it can be applied to characterize galaxy cluster surveys such as the XXL survey or high redshift cluster samples. We use it together with the surface brightness concentration parameter and the offset between X-ray peak and brightest cluster galaxy in the context of the XXL bright cluster sample (Pacaud et al 2015) and a set of high redshift massive clusters detected by Planck and SPT and observed by both XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories. Results : Using the wide redshift coverage of the XXL sample, we see no trend between the dynamical state of the systems with the redshift.

  13. Constraints on the alignment of galaxies in galaxy clusters from ~14 000 spectroscopic members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sifón, Cristóbal; Hoekstra, Henk; Cacciato, Marcello; Viola, Massimo; Köhlinger, Fabian; van der Burg, Remco F. J.; Sand, David J.; Graham, Melissa L.

    2015-03-01

    Torques acting on galaxies lead to physical alignments, but the resulting ellipticity correlations are difficult to predict. As they constitute a major contaminant for cosmic shear studies, it is important to constrain the intrinsic alignment signal observationally. We measured the alignments of satellite galaxies within 90 massive galaxy clusters in the redshift range 0.05 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts with high-quality data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We used phase-space information to select 14 576 cluster members, 14 250 of which have shape measurements and measured three different types of alignment: the radial alignment of satellite galaxies toward the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), the common orientations of satellite galaxies and BCGs, and the radial alignments of satellites with each other. Residual systematic effects are much smaller than the statistical uncertainties. We detect no galaxy alignment of any kind out to at least 3r200. The signal is consistent with zero for both blue and red galaxies, bright and faint ones, and also for subsamples of clusters based on redshift, dynamical mass, and dynamical state. These conclusions are unchanged if we expand the sample with bright cluster members from the red sequence. We augment our constraints with those from the literature to estimate the importance of the intrinsic alignments of satellites compared to those of central galaxies, for which the alignments are described by the linear alignment model. Comparison of the alignment signals to the expected uncertainties of current surveys such as the Kilo-Degree Survey suggests that the linear alignment model is an adequate treatment of intrinsic alignments, but it is not clear whether this will be the case for larger surveys. Table is available in electronic form at

  14. Featured Image: A Galaxy Plunges Into a Cluster Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    The galaxy that takes up most of the frame in this stunning image (click for the full view!) is NGC 1427A. This is a dwarf irregular galaxy (unlike the fortuitously-located background spiral galaxy in the lower right corner of the image), and its currently in the process of plunging into the center of the Fornax galaxy cluster. Marcelo Mora (Pontifical Catholic University of Chile) and collaborators have analyzed observations of this galaxy made by both the Very Large Telescope in Chile and the Hubble Advanced Camera for Surveys, which produced the image shown here as a color composite in three channels. The team worked to characterize the clusters of star formation within NGC 1427A identifiable in the image as bright knots within the galaxy and determine how the interactions of this galaxy with its cluster environment affect the star formation within it. For more information and the original image, see the paper below.Citation:Marcelo D. Mora et al 2015 AJ 150 93. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/3/93

  15. Cosmological Constraints from Galaxy Clusters and Clustering in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinker, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    I will present constraints on cosmological parameters from a combination of cluster mass to galaxy number ratios combined with halo occupation analysis of the galaxy autocorrelation function. In two-point clustering, cosmology an bias are degenerate; good fits to the correlation function can be obtained for a wide variety of comologies. However, in order to match the observed level of clustering, each cosmology predicts a different number of galaxies per unit mass at the cluster mass scale. A combination of DR7 galaxy clustering results and M/N data from the weak lensing analysis of the maxBCG catalog break the degeneracy between cosmology and bias, leading to constraints on \\Omega_m and \\sigma_8 that are competitive with current CMB results.

  16. HUBBLE CAPTURES VIEW OF SUPERNOVA BLAST IN REMOTE GALAXY CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In March 1996, the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 just happened to be pointed at the faraway galaxy cluster MS1054-0321 when it captured the light from an exploding star, called supernova 1996CL. The cluster is 8 billion light-years from Earth. The Hubble telescope can clearly distinguish the supernova light from the glow of its parent galaxy. The larger image on the left shows the entire cluster of galaxies. The galaxy where the supernova was discovered is located in the boxed area. The bright knot of light from the supernova and the fainter glow from the parent galaxy are shown in the inset image on the right. The arrow points to the light from the supernova explosion. The supernova was discovered by members of the Supernova Cosmology Project, led by Saul Perlmutter of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in California. Perlmutter and his team made this discovery using images from the Hubble telescope and ground-based observatories. The Hubble data were furnished by Megan Donahue of the Space Telescope Science Institute. Donahue was using the Hubble telescope to study galaxy cluster MS1054-0321. Members of the Supernova Project use ground-based telescopes to search for distant supernovae, such as 1996CL, by comparing multiple, wide-field images of galaxies and clusters of galaxies taken at different times. Supernovae are named for the year and the order in which they are found. Supernova 1996CL is a Type Ia supernova. Exploding stars of this type are particularly useful for cosmology because they share a standard maximum brightness. By measuring this brightness, astronomers can determine a Type Ia's distance from Earth. Astronomers use this information to measure the expansion rate of the universe.

  17. DISENTANGLING THE ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Fernandez, Jonathan D.; Vilchez, J. M.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.

    2012-05-20

    In this work, we present the results of a novel approach devoted to disentangling the role of the environmental processes affecting galaxies in clusters. This is based on the analysis of the near-UV (NUV) - r' distributions of a large sample of star-forming galaxies in clusters spanning more than four absolute magnitudes. The galaxies inhabit three distinct environmental regions: virial regions, cluster infall regions, and field environment. We have applied rigorous statistical tests to analyze both the complete NUV - r' distributions and their averages for three different bins of the r'-band galaxy luminosity down to M{sub r{sup '}}{approx}-18, throughout the three environmental regions considered. We have identified the environmental processes that significantly affect the star-forming galaxies in a given luminosity bin by using criteria based on the characteristics of these processes: their typical timescales, the regions where they operate, and the galaxy luminosity range for which their effects are more intense. We have found that the high-luminosity (M{sub r{sup '}}{<=}-20) star-forming galaxies do not show significant signs in their star formation activity of being affected by: (1) the environment in the last {approx}10{sup 8} yr, or (2) a sudden quenching in the last 1.5 Gyr. The intermediate-luminosity (-20< M{sub r{sup '}}{<=}-19) star-forming galaxies appear to be affected by starvation in the virial regions and by the harassment in the virial and infall regions. Low-luminosity (-19galaxies seem to be affected by the same environmental processes as intermediate-luminosity star-forming galaxies in a stronger way, which would be expected for their lower luminosities.

  18. Baryon content and dynamic state of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.

    2016-06-01

    We are carrying out a panchromatic observing program to study the baryon content and dynamic state of galaxy clusters. In this talk, I will present results primarily from XMM-Newton observations of optically-selected clusters in the redshift range of 0.1-0.4. These clusters are selected because of their fortuitous alignment with background far-UV-bright QSOs, which thus allows for Ly-alpha and O VI absorption line spectroscopy with HST/COS, probing physical processes of the evolving intracluster medium, freshly accreted from the intergalactic medium and/or stripped out of individual galaxies, as well as the gaseous halos of individual cluster galaxies. Interestingly, such clusters tend to be dynamically young and often consist of merging subcluster pairs at similar redshifts. These subclusters themselves typically show substantial substructures, including strongly distorted radio lobes, as well as large position offsets between the diffuse X-ray centroids and the brightest galaxies. A comparison of the hot gas and stellar masses of each cluster with the expected cosmological baryonic mass fraction indicates a significant room for other gas components. I will also briefly examine the limitations of both optically and X-ray selected clusters, as well as how they may be used in a complementary fashion.

  19. Chandra Finds Surprising Black Hole Activity In Galaxy Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    Scientists at the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, California, have uncovered six times the expected number of active, supermassive black holes in a single viewing of a cluster of galaxies, a finding that has profound implications for theories as to how old galaxies fuel the growth of their central black holes. The finding suggests that voracious, central black holes might be as common in old, red galaxies as they are in younger, blue galaxies, a surprise to many astronomers. The team made this discovery with NASA'S Chandra X-ray Observatory. They also used Carnegie's 6.5-meter Walter Baade Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for follow-up optical observations. "This changes our view of galaxy clusters as the retirement homes for old and quiet black holes," said Dr. Paul Martini, lead author on a paper describing the results that appears in the September 10 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The question now is, how do these black holes produce bright X-ray sources, similar to what we see from much younger galaxies?" Typical of the black hole phenomenon, the cores of these active galaxies are luminous in X-ray radiation. Yet, they are obscured, and thus essentially undetectable in the radio, infrared and optical wavebands. "X rays can penetrate obscuring gas and dust as easily as they penetrate the soft tissue of the human body to look for broken bones," said co-author Dr. Dan Kelson. "So, with Chandra, we can peer through the dust and we have found that even ancient galaxies with 10-billion-year-old stars can have central black holes still actively pulling in copious amounts of interstellar gas. This activity has simply been hidden from us all this time. This means these galaxies aren't over the hill after all and our theories need to be revised." Scientists say that supermassive black holes -- having the mass of millions to billions of suns squeezed into a region about the size of our Solar System -- are the engines in the cores of

  20. cluster-lensing: a new Python package for galaxy clusters & lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Jes

    2016-03-01

    Short demo and links to a newly released pure Python package called cluster- lensing. This package contains tools to calculate galaxy cluster halo properties and weak lensing shear and magnification profiles. The model can easily include the effects of possible cluster miscentering offsets, which would otherwise lead to biased mass or concentration estimates.

  1. Hubble tracks down a galaxy cluster's dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    Unique mass map hi-res Size hi-res: 495 kb Credits: European Space Agency, NASA and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, France/Caltech, USA) Unique mass map This is a mass map of galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654 derived from an extensive Hubble Space Telescope campaign. The colour image is made from two images: a dark-matter map (the blue part of the image) and a 'luminous-matter' map determined from the galaxies in the cluster (the red part of the image). They were constructed by feeding Hubble and ground-based observations into advanced mathematical mass-mapping models. The map shows that dark matter is present where the galaxies clump together. The mass of the galaxies is shown in red, the mass of the dark matter in blue. The dark matter behaves like a 'glue', holding the cluster together. The dark-matter distribution in the cluster is not spherical. A secondary concentration of dark-matter mass is shown in blue to the upper right of the main concentration. Sky around galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654 hi-res Size hi-res: 3742 kb Credits: European Space Agency, NASA and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, France/Caltech, USA) Sky around galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654 This is a 2.5-degree field around galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654. The cluster galaxies are visible in the centre of the image in yellow. The image is a colour composite constructed from three Digitized Sky Survey 2 images: Blue (shown in blue), Red (shown in green), and Infrared (shown in red). HST observes shapes of more than 7000 faint background galaxies hi-res Size hi-res: 5593 kb Credits: European Space Agency, NASA and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, France/Caltech, USA) Hubble observes shapes of more than 7000 faint background galaxies Five days of observations produced the altogether 39 Hubble Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) images required to map the mass of the galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654. Each WFPC2 image has a size of about 1/150 the diameter of the full Moon. In

  2. Galaxy Cluster Bulk Flows and Collision Velocities in QUMOND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Harley; McGaugh, Stacy; Teuben, Peter; Angus, G. W.

    2013-07-01

    We examine the formation of clusters of galaxies in numerical simulations of a QUMOND cosmogony with massive sterile neutrinos. Clusters formed in these exploratory simulations develop higher velocities than those found in ΛCDM simulations. The bulk motions of clusters attain ~1000 km s-1 by low redshift, comparable to observations whereas ΛCDM simulated clusters tend to fall short. Similarly, high pairwise velocities are common in cluster-cluster collisions like the Bullet Cluster. There is also a propensity for the most massive clusters to be larger in QUMOND and to appear earlier than in ΛCDM, potentially providing an explanation for "pink elephants" like El Gordo. However, it is not obvious that the cluster mass function can be recovered.

  3. GALAXY CLUSTER BULK FLOWS AND COLLISION VELOCITIES IN QUMOND

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Harley; McGaugh, Stacy; Teuben, Peter; Angus, G. W. E-mail: stacy.mcgaugh@case.edu E-mail: angus.gz@gmail.com

    2013-07-20

    We examine the formation of clusters of galaxies in numerical simulations of a QUMOND cosmogony with massive sterile neutrinos. Clusters formed in these exploratory simulations develop higher velocities than those found in {Lambda}CDM simulations. The bulk motions of clusters attain {approx}1000 km s{sup -1} by low redshift, comparable to observations whereas {Lambda}CDM simulated clusters tend to fall short. Similarly, high pairwise velocities are common in cluster-cluster collisions like the Bullet Cluster. There is also a propensity for the most massive clusters to be larger in QUMOND and to appear earlier than in {Lambda}CDM, potentially providing an explanation for ''pink elephants'' like El Gordo. However, it is not obvious that the cluster mass function can be recovered.

  4. Sommerfeld enhancement of invisible dark matter annihilation in galaxies and galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Man Ho

    2016-07-01

    Recent observations indicate that core-like dark matter structures exist in many galaxies, while numerical simulations reveal a singular dark matter density profile at the center. In this article, I show that if the annihilation of dark matter particles gives invisible sterile neutrinos, the Sommerfeld enhancement of the annihilation cross-section can give a sufficiently large annihilation rate to solve the core-cusp problem. The resultant core density, core radius, and their scaling relation generally agree with recent empirical fits from observations. Also, this model predicts that the resultant core-like structures in dwarf galaxies can be easily observed, but not for large normal galaxies and galaxy clusters.

  5. STAR FORMATION AND RELAXATION IN 379 NEARBY GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Seth A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Wegner, Gary A.

    2015-06-10

    We investigate the relationship between star formation (SF) and level of relaxation in a sample of 379 galaxy clusters at z < 0.2. We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to measure cluster membership and level of relaxation, and to select star-forming galaxies based on mid-infrared emission detected with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer. For galaxies with absolute magnitudes M{sub r} < −19.5, we find an inverse correlation between SF fraction and cluster relaxation: as a cluster becomes less relaxed, its SF fraction increases. Furthermore, in general, the subtracted SF fraction in all unrelaxed clusters (0.117 ± 0.003) is higher than that in all relaxed clusters (0.097 ± 0.005). We verify the validity of our SF calculation methods and membership criteria through analysis of previous work. Our results agree with previous findings that a weak correlation exists between cluster SF and dynamical state, possibly because unrelaxed clusters are less evolved relative to relaxed clusters.

  6. Galaxy Clustering in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Ashley; Crocce, Martin; Dark Energy Survey Large Scale Structure Working Group Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    I present the results of a study of galaxy clustering in a flux-limited sample (iAB < 22 . 5) selected from the photometric Science Verification (SV) data of the Dark Energy Survey (DES), conducted by the DES large scale structure working group. The SV data provides science-quality images for more than 250 deg2 at the nominal DES depth (iAB ? 24). I will present the clustering analysis of this data, performed over five tomographic bins, with photometric redshifts, z, in the range 0.2 < z < 1.2. I will describe our work to identify and ameliorate systematics in the data set, which has allowed us to robustly measure the clustering amplitude of the galaxies in each tomographic bin. We test the relationship between the clustering of the galaxies and analytic predictions of the clustering of the dark matter, known as the bias relationship and determine the regime where it is described by a linear model I will present these results and compare them against a similar sample from the (previously) state-of-the-art CFHTLS, with which we find very good agreement. These results pave the way for exciting cosmological measurements to be made with future (larger) DES data sets and by combining the results with other probes such as CMB lensing and galaxy-galaxy lensing.

  7. Enhanced Abundances in Spiral Galaxies of the Pegasus I Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Paul; Shields, Gregory A.; Blanc, Guillermo A.

    2012-03-01

    We study the influence of cluster environment on the chemical evolution of spiral galaxies in the Pegasus I cluster. We determine the gas-phase heavy element abundances of six galaxies in Pegasus derived from H II region spectra obtained from integral-field spectroscopy. These abundances are analyzed in the context of Virgo, whose spirals are known to show increasing interstellar metallicity as a function of H I deficiency. The galaxies in the Pegasus cluster, despite its lower density and velocity dispersion, also display gas loss due to interstellar-medium-intracluster-medium interaction, albeit to a lesser degree. Based on the abundances of three H I deficient spirals and two H I normal spirals, we observe a heavy element abundance offset of +0.13 ± 0.07 dex for the H I deficient galaxies. This abundance differential is consistent with the differential observed in Virgo for galaxies with a similar H I deficiency, and we observe a correlation between log (O/H) and the H I deficiency parameter DEF for the two clusters analyzed together. Our results suggest that similar environmental mechanisms are driving the heavy element enhancement in both clusters.

  8. Clustering of Dust-Obscured Galaxies at z ~ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodwin, Mark; Dey, Arjun; Brown, Michael J. I.; Pope, Alexandra; Armus, Lee; Bussmann, Shane; Desai, Vandana; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Le Floc'h, Emeric

    2008-11-01

    We present the angular autocorrelation function of 2603 dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) in the Boötes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. DOGs are red, obscured galaxies, defined as having R - [ 24] >= 14 (F24/FRgtrsim 1000). Spectroscopy indicates that they are located at 1.5 lesssim z lesssim 2.5. We find strong clustering, with r0 = 7.40-0.84+1.27 h-1 Mpc for the full F24 > 0.3 mJy sample. The clustering and space density of the DOGs are consistent with those of submillimeter galaxies, suggestive of a connection between these populations. We find evidence for luminosity-dependent clustering, with the correlation length increasing to r0 = 12.97-2.64+4.26 h-1 Mpc for brighter (F24 > 0.6 mJy) DOGs. Bright DOGs also reside in richer environments than fainter ones, suggesting these subsamples may not be drawn from the same parent population. The clustering amplitudes imply average halo masses of log M = 12.2-0.2+0.3 M⊙ for the full DOG sample, rising to log M = 13.0-0.3+0.4 M⊙ for brighter DOGs. In a biased structure formation scenario, the full DOG sample will, on average, evolve into ~3L* present-day galaxies, whereas the most luminous DOGs may evolve into brightest cluster galaxies.

  9. Kinematic evidence of satellite galaxy populations in the potential wells of first-ranked cluster galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Cowie, L.L.; Hu, E.M.

    1986-06-01

    The velocities of 38 centrally positioned galaxies (r much less than 100 kpc) were measured relative to the velocity of the first-ranked galaxy in 14 rich clusters. Analysis of the velocity distribution function of this sample and of previous data shows that the population cannot be fit by a single Gaussian. An adequate fit is obtained if 60 percent of the objects lie in a Gaussian with sigma = 250 km/s and the remainder in a population with sigma = 1400 km/s. All previous data sets are individually consistent with this conclusion. This suggests that there is a bound population of galaxies in the potential well of the central galaxy in addition to the normal population of the cluster core. This is taken as supporting evidence for the galactic cannibalism model of cD galaxy formation. 14 references.

  10. Kinematic evidence of satellite galaxy populations in the potential wells of first-ranked cluster galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowie, L. L.; Hu, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    The velocities of 38 centrally positioned galaxies (r much less than 100 kpc) were measured relative to the velocity of the first-ranked galaxy in 14 rich clusters. Analysis of the velocity distribution function of this sample and of previous data shows that the population cannot be fit by a single Gaussian. An adequate fit is obtained if 60 percent of the objects lie in a Gaussian with sigma = 250 km/s and the remainder in a population with sigma = 1400 km/s. All previous data sets are individually consistent with this conclusion. This suggests that there is a bound population of galaxies in the potential well of the central galaxy in addition to the normal population of the cluster core. This is taken as supporting evidence for the galactic cannibalism model of cD galaxy formation.

  11. Cosmological simulations of isotropic conduction in galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Britton; O'Shea, Brian W.; Voit, G. Mark; Ventimiglia, David; Skillman, Samuel W.

    2013-12-01

    Simulations of galaxy clusters have a difficult time reproducing the radial gas-property gradients and red central galaxies observed to exist in the cores of galaxy clusters. Thermal conduction has been suggested as a mechanism that can help bring simulations of cluster cores into better alignment with observations by stabilizing the feedback processes that regulate gas cooling, but this idea has not yet been well tested with cosmological numerical simulations. Here we present cosmological simulations of 10 galaxy clusters performed with five different levels of isotropic Spitzer conduction, which alters both the cores and outskirts of clusters, though not dramatically. In the cores, conduction flattens central temperature gradients, making them nearly isothermal and slightly lowering the central density, but failing to prevent a cooling catastrophe there. Conduction has little effect on temperature gradients outside of cluster cores because outward conductive heat flow tends to inflate the outer parts of the intracluster medium (ICM), instead of raising its temperature. In general, conduction tends reduce temperature inhomogeneity in the ICM, but our simulations indicate that those homogenizing effects would be extremely difficult to observe in ∼5 keV clusters. Outside the virial radius, our conduction implementation lowers the gas densities and temperatures because it reduces the Mach numbers of accretion shocks. We conclude that, despite the numerous small ways in which conduction alters the structure of galaxy clusters, none of these effects are significant enough to make the efficiency of conduction easily measurable, unless its effects are more pronounced in clusters hotter than those we have simulated.

  12. Star Formation in Galaxy Clusters Over the Past 10 Billion Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Kim-Vy

    2012-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound systems in the universe and include the most massive galaxies in the universe; this makes galaxy clusters ideal laboratories for disentangling the nature versus nurture aspect of how galaxies evolve. Understanding how galaxies form and evolve in clusters continues to be a fundamental question in astronomy. The ages and assembly histories of galaxies in rich clusters test both stellar population models and hierarchical formation scenarios. Is star formation in cluster galaxies simply accelerated relative to their counterparts in the lower density field, or do cluster galaxies assemble their stars in a fundamentally different manner? To answer this question, I review multi-wavelength results on star formation in galaxy clusters from Coma to the most distant clusters yet discovered at look-back times of 10 billion years (z 2).

  13. New Fast Lane towards Discoveries of Clusters of Galaxies Inaugurated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    Space and Ground-Based Telescopes Cooperate to Gain Deep Cosmological Insights Summary Using the ESA XMM-Newton satellite, a team of European and Chilean astronomers [2] has obtained the world's deepest "wide-field" X-ray image of the cosmos to date. This penetrating view, when complemented with observations by some of the largest and most efficient ground-based optical telescopes, including the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), has resulted in the discovery of several large clusters of galaxies. These early results from an ambitious research programme are extremely promising and pave the way for a very comprehensive and thorough census of clusters of galaxies at various epochs. Relying on the foremost astronomical technology and with an unequalled observational efficiency, this project is set to provide new insights into the structure and evolution of the distant Universe. PR Photo 19a/03: First image from the XMM-LSS survey. PR Photo 19b/03: Zoom-in on PR Photo 19b/03. PR Photo 19c/03: XMM-Newton contour map of the probable extent of a cluster of galaxies, superimposed upon a CHFT I-band image. PR Photo 19d/03: Velocity distribution in the cluster field shown in PR Photo 19c/03. The universal web Unlike grains of sand on a beach, matter is not uniformly spread throughout the Universe. Instead, it is concentrated into galaxies which themselves congregate into clusters (and even clusters of clusters). These clusters are "strung" throughout the Universe in a web-like structure, cf. ESO PR 11/01. Our Galaxy, the Milky Way, for example, belongs to the so-called Local Group which also comprises "Messier 31", the Andromeda Galaxy. The Local Group contains about 30 galaxies and measures a few million light-years across. Other clusters are much larger. The Coma cluster contains thousands of galaxies and measures more than 20 million light-years. Another well known example is the Virgo cluster, covering no less than 10 degrees on the sky ! Clusters of galaxies are the most

  14. TELESCOPES UNVEIL VIEW OF REMOTE, MASSIVE GALAXY CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    hese images, taken by three different telescopes, show the distant, hefty galaxy cluster MS1054-0321, containing thousands of galaxies and trillions of stars. Weighing the equivalent of several thousand of our Milky Ways, the cluster is 8 billion light-years from Earth. The image on the left is a color composite taken by ground-based and X-ray observatories showing the entire galaxy cluster surrounded by background and foreground galaxies. The blue color in the center of the image represents the huge amount of hot gas that fills the space between the galaxies in the cluster. This gas - colored blue - cannot be seen in visible light, but glows in X-ray frequencies. Astronomers have measured its temperature at 300 million degrees Fahrenheit. The X-ray information was used to estimate the cluster's total mass. The boxed area in the center of the image pinpoints the Hubble telescope's field of view. The image on the right, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, shows a clearer view of the galaxies in the heart of the cluster. The width of this massive cluster is a few million light-years. The ground-based image was taken between May 1992 and November 1993 by the 88-inch telescope at the University of Hawaii. Astronomers Isabella Gioia and Gerry Luppino of the University of Hawaii made this four-hour exposure with a near-infrared filter (8,000 angstroms). The X-ray image was taken in 1996 by astronomer Megan Donahue of the Space Telescope Science Institute with the High Resolution Imager aboard the Rosat satellite. The exposure time was 34 hours. Donahue used a near-infrared filter (F814W) to take the Hubble telescope image in 1996. The exposure time was four hours.

  15. Isolated elliptical galaxies, their globular cluster systems, and LCDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Richard; Salinas, Ricardo; Richtler, Tom

    2015-08-01

    The globular cluster (GC) systems of isolated elliptical galaxies (IEs) have only recently begun to be studied in detail, and may exhibit morphological connections to the evolutionary histories of their hosts. In fact evidence is mounting that the GC systems of massive galaxies in clusters are largely assembled by infall/accretion processes. IEs are their counterparts in low density environments and a comparison of their GC systems should directly highlight environmental effects. Are GCs the answer to unlocking the evolution of isolated galaxies? In addition, the GC systems of reasonably nearby galaxies are detectable out to large radii, making them useful tracers for producing dynamical models of their hosts. How much dark matter is contained within IEs? Very little it seems, at least in some cases. GCs are, therefore, also one of the most important tools we have for testing Lambda CDM models observationally.

  16. Hubble tracks down a galaxy cluster's dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    Unique mass map hi-res Size hi-res: 495 kb Credits: European Space Agency, NASA and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, France/Caltech, USA) Unique mass map This is a mass map of galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654 derived from an extensive Hubble Space Telescope campaign. The colour image is made from two images: a dark-matter map (the blue part of the image) and a 'luminous-matter' map determined from the galaxies in the cluster (the red part of the image). They were constructed by feeding Hubble and ground-based observations into advanced mathematical mass-mapping models. The map shows that dark matter is present where the galaxies clump together. The mass of the galaxies is shown in red, the mass of the dark matter in blue. The dark matter behaves like a 'glue', holding the cluster together. The dark-matter distribution in the cluster is not spherical. A secondary concentration of dark-matter mass is shown in blue to the upper right of the main concentration. Sky around galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654 hi-res Size hi-res: 3742 kb Credits: European Space Agency, NASA and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, France/Caltech, USA) Sky around galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654 This is a 2.5-degree field around galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654. The cluster galaxies are visible in the centre of the image in yellow. The image is a colour composite constructed from three Digitized Sky Survey 2 images: Blue (shown in blue), Red (shown in green), and Infrared (shown in red). HST observes shapes of more than 7000 faint background galaxies hi-res Size hi-res: 5593 kb Credits: European Space Agency, NASA and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, France/Caltech, USA) Hubble observes shapes of more than 7000 faint background galaxies Five days of observations produced the altogether 39 Hubble Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) images required to map the mass of the galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654. Each WFPC2 image has a size of about 1/150 the diameter of the full Moon. In

  17. Cosmological constraints from galaxy clustering and the mass-to-number ratio of galaxy clusters: marginalizing over the physics of galaxy formation

    SciTech Connect

    Reddick, Rachel M.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Lu, Yu; Tinker, Jeremy L. E-mail: rwechsler@stanford.edu

    2014-03-10

    Many approaches to obtaining cosmological constraints rely on the connection between galaxies and dark matter. However, the distribution of galaxies is dependent on their formation and evolution as well as on the cosmological model, and galaxy formation is still not a well-constrained process. Thus, methods that probe cosmology using galaxies as tracers for dark matter must be able to accurately estimate the cosmological parameters. This can be done without knowing details of galaxy formation a priori as long as the galaxies are well represented by a halo occupation distribution (HOD). We apply this reasoning to the method of obtaining Ω {sub m} and σ{sub 8} from galaxy clustering combined with the mass-to-number ratio of galaxy clusters. To test the sensitivity of this method to variations due to galaxy formation, we consider several different models applied to the same cosmological dark matter simulation. The cosmological parameters are then estimated using the observables in each model, marginalizing over the parameters of the HOD. We find that for models where the galaxies can be well represented by a parameterized HOD, this method can successfully extract the desired cosmological parameters for a wide range of galaxy formation prescriptions.

  18. Properties of the galaxy population in hydrodynamical simulations of clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saro, A.; Borgani, S.; Tornatore, L.; Dolag, K.; Murante, G.; Biviano, A.; Calura, F.; Charlot, S.

    2006-11-01

    We present a study of the galaxy population predicted by hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters. These simulations, which are based on the GADGET-2 TREE + SPH code, include gas cooling, star formation, a detailed treatment of stellar evolution and chemical enrichment, as well as supernova energy feedback in the form of galactic winds. As such, they can be used to extract the spectrophotometric properties of the simulated galaxies, which are identified as clumps in the distribution of star particles. Simulations have been carried out for a representative set of 19 cluster-sized haloes, having mass M200 in the range 5 × 1013-1.8 × 1015h-1Msolar. All simulations have been performed for two choices of the stellar initial mass function (IMF), namely using a standard Salpeter IMF with power-law index x = 1.35, and a top-heavy IMF with x = 0.95. In general, we find that several of the observational properties of the galaxy population in nearby clusters are reproduced fairly well by simulations. A Salpeter IMF is successful in accounting for the slope and the normalization of the colour-magnitude relation for the bulk of the galaxy population. In contrast, the top-heavy IMF produces too red galaxies, as a consequence of their exceedingly large metallicity. Simulated clusters have a relation between mass and optical luminosity, which generally agrees with observations, both in normalization and in slope. Also in keeping with observational results, galaxies are generally bluer, younger and more star forming in the cluster outskirts. However, we find that our simulated clusters have a total number of galaxies which is significantly smaller than the observed one, falling short by about a factor of 2-3. We have verified that this problem does not have an obvious numerical origin, such as lack of mass and force resolution. Finally, the brightest cluster galaxies are always predicted to be too massive and too blue, when compared to observations. This is due to gas

  19. Globular clusters as tracers of the halo assembly of nearby central cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilker, Michael; Richtler, Tom

    2016-08-01

    The properties of globular cluster systems (GCSs) in the core of the nearby galaxy clusters Fornax and Hydra I are presented. In the Fornax cluster we have gathered the largest radial velocity sample of a GCS system so far, which enables us to identify photometric and kinematic sub-populations around the central galaxy NGC 1399. Moreover, ages, metallicities and [α/Fe] abundances of a sub-sample of 60 bright globular clusters (GCs) with high S/N spectroscopy show a multi-modal distribution in the correlation space of these three parameters, confirming heterogeneous stellar populations in the halo of NGC 1399. In the Hydra I cluster very blue GCs were identified. They are not uniformly distributed around the central galaxies. 3-color photometry including the U-band reveals that some of them are of intermediate age. Their location coincides with a group of dwarf galaxies under disruption. This is evidence of a structurally young stellar halo ``still in formation'', which is also supported by kinematic measurements of the halo light that point to a kinematically disturbed system. The most massive GCs divide into generally more extended ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) and genuine compact GCs. In both clusters, the spatial distribution and kinematics of UCDs are different from those of genuine GCs. Assuming that some UCDs represent nuclei of stripped galaxies, the properties of those UCDs can be used to trace the assembly of nucleated dwarf galaxies into the halos of central cluster galaxies. We show via semi-analytical approaches within a cosmological simulation that only the most massive UCDs in Fornax-like clusters can be explained by stripped nuclei, whereas the majority of lower mass UCDs belong to the star cluster family.

  20. Optical bias and hierarchical clustering. [Of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Bonometto, S.A.; Lucchin, F.; Matarrese, S.

    1987-12-01

    The present transfer of statistical results for biased theories of galaxy origin to a direct analysis of the celestial sphere's luminosity field notes that magnitude-limited galaxy catalogs are interpretable as sets of luminosity peaks bypassing suitable luminosity limits. The relationship between this view and that based on the Limber equation is discussed, and a tentative explanation is proposed for peculiarities arising in observed spatial correlations. Zwicky catalog data appear to confirm the validity of the concepts presented. 30 references.

  1. THE IMACS CLUSTER BUILDING SURVEY. II. SPECTRAL EVOLUTION OF GALAXIES IN THE EPOCH OF CLUSTER ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect

    Dressler, Alan; Oemler, Augustus Jr.; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Vulcani, Benedetta; Gladders, Michael D.; Abramson, Louis

    2013-06-10

    The IMACS Cluster Building Survey (ICBS) provides spectra of {approx}2200 galaxies 0.31 < z < 0.54 in five rich clusters (R {approx}< 5 Mpc) and the field. Infalling, dynamically cold groups with tens of members account for approximately half of the supercluster population, contributing to a growth in cluster mass of {approx}100% by the present day. The ICBS spectra distinguish non-star-forming (PAS) and poststarburst (PSB) from star-forming galaxies-continuously star-forming (CSF) or starbursts (SBH or SBO), identified by anomalously strong H{delta} absorption or [O II] emission. For the infalling cluster groups and similar field groups, we find a correlation between PAS+PSB fraction and group mass, indicating substantial ''preprocessing'' through quenching mechanisms that can turn star-forming galaxies into passive galaxies without the unique environment of rich clusters. SBH + SBO starburst galaxies are common, and they maintain an approximately constant ratio (SBH+SBO)/CSF Almost-Equal-To 25% in all environments-from field, to groups, to rich clusters. Similarly, while PSB galaxies strongly favor denser environments, PSB/PAS Almost-Equal-To 10%-20% for all environments. This result, and their timescale {tau} {approx} 500 Myr, indicates that starbursts are not signatures of a quenching mechanism that produces the majority of passive galaxies. We suggest instead that starbursts and poststarbursts signal minor mergers and accretions, in star-forming and passive galaxies, respectively, and that the principal mechanisms for producing passive systems are (1) early major mergers, for elliptical galaxies, and (2) later, less violent processes-such as starvation and tidal stripping, for S0 galaxies.

  2. INTRINSIC ALIGNMENT OF CLUSTER GALAXIES: THE REDSHIFT EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Hao Jiangang; Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Feldmann, Robert; Annis, James; Johnston, David E.; Lin Huan; McKay, Timothy A.

    2011-10-10

    We present measurements of two types of cluster galaxy alignments based on a volume limited and highly pure ({>=}90%) sample of clusters from the GMBCG catalog derived from Data Release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR7). We detect a clear brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) alignment (the alignment of major axis of the BCG toward the distribution of cluster satellite galaxies). We find that the BCG alignment signal becomes stronger as the redshift and BCG absolute magnitude decrease and becomes weaker as BCG stellar mass decreases. No dependence of the BCG alignment on cluster richness is found. We can detect a statistically significant ({>=}3{sigma}) satellite alignment (the alignment of the major axes of the cluster satellite galaxies toward the BCG) only when we use the isophotal fit position angles (P.A.s), and the satellite alignment depends on the apparent magnitudes rather than the absolute magnitudes of the BCGs. This suggests that the detected satellite alignment based on isophotal P.A.s from the SDSS pipeline is possibly due to the contamination from the diffuse light of nearby BCGs. We caution that this should not be simply interpreted as non-existence of the satellite alignment, but rather that we cannot detect them with our current photometric SDSS data. We perform our measurements on both SDSS r-band and i-band data, but do not observe a passband dependence of the alignments.

  3. Constructing mock catalogues for the REFLEX II galaxy cluster sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaguera-Antolínez, A.; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Böhringer, H.; Collins, C.

    2012-09-01

    We describe the construction of a suite of galaxy cluster mock catalogues from N-body simulations, based on the properties of the new ROSAT-ESO Flux Limited X-Ray (REFLEX II) galaxy cluster catalogue. Our procedure is based on the measurements of the cluster abundance, and involves the calibration of the underlying scaling relation linking the mass of dark matter haloes to the cluster X-ray luminosity determined in the ROSAT energy band 0.1-2.4 keV. In order to reproduce the observed abundance in the luminosity range probed by the REFLEX II X-ray luminosity function [0.01 < LX/(1044 erg s-1 h-2) < 10], a mass-X-ray luminosity relation deviating from a simple power law is required. We discuss the dependence of the calibration of this scaling relation on the X-ray luminosity and the definition of halo masses and analyse the one- and two-point statistical properties of the mock catalogues. Our set of mock catalogues provides samples with self-calibrated scaling relations of galaxy clusters together with inherent properties of flux-limited surveys. This makes them a useful tool to explore different systematic effects and statistical methods involved in constraining both astrophysical and cosmological information from present and future galaxy cluster surveys.

  4. Galaxy clustering with photometric surveys using PDF redshift information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asorey, J.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Brunner, R. J.; Thaler, J.

    2016-06-01

    Photometric surveys produce large-area maps of the galaxy distribution, but with less accurate redshift information than is obtained from spectroscopic methods. Modern photometric redshift (photo-z) algorithms use galaxy magnitudes, or colours, that are obtained through multiband imaging to produce a probability density function (PDF) for each galaxy in the map. We used simulated data to study the effect of using different photo-z estimators to assign galaxies to redshift bins in order to compare their effects on angular clustering and galaxy bias measurements. We found that if we use the entire PDF, rather than a single-point (mean or mode) estimate, the deviations are less biased, especially when using narrow redshift bins. When the redshift bin widths are Δz = 0.1, the use of the entire PDF reduces the typical measurement bias from 5 per cent, when using single point estimates, to 3 per cent.

  5. Galaxy clustering with photometric surveys using PDF redshift information

    DOE PAGES

    Asorey, J.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Brunner, R. J.; Thaler, J.

    2016-03-28

    Here, photometric surveys produce large-area maps of the galaxy distribution, but with less accurate redshift information than is obtained from spectroscopic methods. Modern photometric redshift (photo-z) algorithms use galaxy magnitudes, or colors, that are obtained through multi-band imaging to produce a probability density function (PDF) for each galaxy in the map. We used simulated data to study the effect of using different photo-z estimators to assign galaxies to redshift bins in order to compare their effects on angular clustering and galaxy bias measurements. We found that if we use the entire PDF, rather than a single-point (mean or mode) estimate, the deviations are less biased, especially when using narrow redshift bins. When the redshift bin widths aremore » $$\\Delta z=0.1$$, the use of the entire PDF reduces the typical measurement bias from 5%, when using single point estimates, to 3%.« less

  6. Clustering of very luminous infrared galaxies and their environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, YU

    1993-01-01

    The IRAS survey reveals a class of ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies (ULIRG's) with IR luminosities comparable to the bolometric luminosities of quasars. The nature, origin, and evolution of ULIRG's are attracting more and more attention recently. Since galaxy morphology is certainly a function of environment, morphological observations show that ULIRG's are interacting/merging galaxies, and some ULIRG's might be the dust-enshrouded quasars (S88) or giant ellipticals, the study of ULIRG's environment and large scale clustering effects should be worthwhile. ULIRG's and very luminous IR galaxies have been selected from the 2Jy IRAS redshift survey. Meanwhile, a catalog of IRAS groups of galaxies has been constructed using a percolation-like algorithm. Therefore, whether ULIRG's and/or VLIRG's have a group environment can be checked immediately. Other aspects of the survey are discussed.

  7. Chandra Finds Most Distant X-ray Galaxy Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-02-01

    The most distant X-ray cluster of galaxies yet has been found by astronomers using NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory. Approximately 10 billion light years from Earth, the cluster 3C294 is 40 percent farther than the next most distant X-ray galaxy cluster. The existence of such a distant galaxy cluster is important for understanding how the universe evolved. "Distant objects like 3C294 provide snapshots to how these galaxy clusters looked billions of years ago," said Andrew Fabian of the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, England and lead author of the paper accepted for publication in the Monthly Notices of Britain’s Royal Astronomical Society. "These latest results help us better understand what the universe was like when it was only 20 percent of its current age." Chandra’s image reveals an hourglass-shaped region of X-ray emission centered on the previously known central radio source. This X-ray emission extends outward from the central galaxy for at least 300,000 light years and shows that the known radio source is in the central galaxy of a massive cluster. Scientists have long suspected that distant radio-emitting galaxies like 3C294 are part of larger groups of galaxies known as "clusters." However, radio data provides astronomers with only a partial picture of these distant objects. Confirmation of the existence of clusters at great distances - and, hence, at early stages of the universe - requires information from other wavelengths. Optical observations can be used to pinpoint individual galaxies, but X-ray data are needed to detect the hot gas that fills the space within the cluster. "Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe," said Fabian. "We do not expect to find many massive objects, such as the 3C294 cluster, in early times because structure is thought to grow from small scales to large scales." The vast clouds of hot gas that envelope galaxies in clusters are thought to be heated by collapse toward the

  8. Imaging the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect in Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joy, Marshall K.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect imaging capabilities have recently advanced to the point that high signal-to-noise measurements are available for numerous clusters of galaxies. We discuss the results of these S-Z observations, including determination of the pressure distribution of the hot intracluster medium and the cluster gas mass; total cluster masses can also be inferred via x-ray measurements of the gas temperature, resulting in a significant constraint on the cosmological mass density parameter. S-Z Effect measurements have been further combined with x-ray imaging data, including high resolution data recently obtained with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, to estimate cluster distances and to place independent constraints on the expansion rate of the universe. We also discuss future S-Z Effect survey instruments, which will provide powerful probes of cosmology by measuring the abundance of galaxy clusters at intermediate and high redshift.

  9. The Alignment effect of brightest cluster galaxies in the SDSS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, R. S. J.; Annis, J.; Strauss, M. A.; Lupton, R. H.; Bahcall, N. A.; Gunn, J. E.; Kepner, J. V.; Postman, M.

    2001-10-01

    One of the most vital observational clues for unraveling the origin of Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCG) is the observed alignment of the BCGs with their host cluster and its surroundings. We have examined the BCG-cluster alignment effect, using clusters of galaxies detected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find that the BCGs are preferentially aligned with the principal axis of their hosts, to a much higher redshift (z >~ 0.3) than probed by previous studies (z <~ 0.1). The alignment effect strongly depends on the magnitude difference of the BCG and the second and third brightest cluster members: we find a strong alignment effect for the dominant BCGs, while less dominant BCGs do not show any departure from random alignment with respect to the cluster. We therefore claim that the alignment process originates from the same process that makes the BCG grow dominant, be it direct mergers in the early stage of cluster formation, or a later process that resembles the galactic cannibalism scenario. We do not find strong evidence for (or against) redshift evolution between 0clusters). However, we have developed a framework by which we can examine many more clusters in an automated fashion for the upcoming SDSS cluster catalogs, which will provide us with better statistics for systematic investigations of the alignment with redshift, richness and morphology of both the cluster and the BCG.

  10. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF MASSIVE STELLAR CLUSTER CANDIDATES IN THE GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Emily E.; Lang, Cornelia C.; Trombley, Christine; Figer, Donald F. E-mail: er7@indiana.edu

    2012-09-01

    The Galaxy appears to be richer in young, massive stellar clusters than previously known, due to advances in infrared surveys that have uncovered deeply embedded regions of star formation. Young, massive clusters can significantly impact the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) and hence radio observations can also be an important tracer of their activity. Several hundred cluster candidates are now known by examining survey data. Here, we report on multiwavelength observations of six of these candidates in the Galaxy. We carried out 4.9 and 8.5 GHz Very Large Array observations of the radio emission associated with these clusters to obtain the physical characteristics of the surrounding gas, including the Lyman continuum photon flux and ionized gas mass. Spitzer Infrared Array Camera observations were also made of these regions, and provide details on the stellar population as well as the dust continuum and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission. When compared to the known young, massive clusters in the Galaxy, the six cluster candidates have less powerful Lyman ionizing fluxes and ionize less of the H II mass in the surrounding ISM. Therefore, these cluster candidates appear to be more consistent with intermediate-mass clusters (10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }).

  11. Globular Cluster Populations in Four Early-Type Poststarburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maybhate, Aparna; Goudfrooij, Paul; Schweizer, François; Puzia, Thomas H.; Carter, David

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of the globular cluster (GC) systems of four early-type poststarburst galaxies using deep g- and I-band images from the Advanced Camera for Surveys aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. All the galaxies feature shells distributed around their main bodies and are thus likely merger remnants. The color distribution of the GCs in all four galaxies shows a broad peak centered on g - I ≈ 1.4, while PGC 6240 and PGC 42871 show a significant number of GCs with g - I ≈ 1.0. The latter GCs are interpreted as being of age ~500 Myr and likely having been formed in the merger. The color of the redder peak is consistent with that expected for an old metal-poor population that is very commonly found around normal galaxies. However, all galaxies except PGC 10922 contain several GCs that are significantly brighter than the maximum luminosity expected of a single old metal-poor population. To test for multiple-age populations of overlapping g - I color, we model the luminosity functions of the GCs as composites of an old metal-poor subpopulation with a range of plausible specific frequencies and an intermediate-age subpopulation of solar metallicity. We find that three of the four sample galaxies show evidence for the presence of an intermediate-age (~1 Gyr) GC population, in addition to the old metal-poor GC population seen in normal early-type galaxies. None of the galaxies show a significant population of clusters consistent with an old, metal-rich red cluster population that is typically seen in early-type galaxies. The presence of a substantial number of intermediate-age clusters and the absence of old, metal-rich clusters indicate that the progenitor galaxies which formed the resulting shell galaxy were gas rich and did not host significant bulges. Late-type spirals seem to be the most plausible progenitors. These results lend credence to the "merger scenario" in which the red, metal-rich GCs observed in normal ellipticals are formed during a dissipative

  12. ON THE BARYON FRACTIONS IN CLUSTERS AND GROUPS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Dai Xinyu; Bregman, Joel N.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Rasia, Elena

    2010-08-10

    We present the baryon fractions of 2MASS groups and clusters as a function of cluster richness using total and gas masses measured from stacked ROSAT X-ray data and stellar masses estimated from the infrared galaxy catalogs. We detect X-ray emission even in the outskirts of clusters, beyond r {sub 200} for richness classes with X-ray temperatures above 1 keV. This enables us to more accurately determine the total gas mass in these groups and clusters. We find that the optically selected groups and clusters have flatter temperature profiles and higher stellar-to-gas mass ratios than the individually studied, X-ray bright clusters. We also find that the stellar mass in poor groups with temperatures below 1 keV is comparable to the gas mass in these systems. Combining these results with individual measurements for clusters, groups, and galaxies from the literature, we find a break in the baryon fraction at {approx}1 keV. Above this temperature, the baryon fraction scales with temperature as f{sub b} {proportional_to} T {sup 0.20{+-}0.03}. We see significantly smaller baryon fractions below this temperature and the baryon fraction of poor groups joins smoothly onto that of systems with still shallower potential wells such as normal and dwarf galaxies where the baryon fraction scales with the inferred velocity dispersion as f{sub b} {proportional_to} {sigma}{sup 1.6}. The small scatter in the baryon fraction at any given potential well depth favors a universal baryon loss mechanism and a preheating model for the baryon loss. The scatter is, however, larger for less massive systems. Finally, we note that although the broken power-law relation can be inferred from data points in the literature alone, the consistency between the baryon fractions for poor groups and massive galaxies inspires us to fit the two categories of objects (galaxies and clusters) with one relation.

  13. Galaxies at the Extremes: Ultra-diffuse Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihos, J. Christopher; Durrell, Patrick R.; Ferrarese, Laura; Feldmeier, John J.; Côté, Patrick; Peng, Eric W.; Harding, Paul; Liu, Chengze; Gwyn, Stephen; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles

    2015-08-01

    We report the discovery of three large ({R}29 ≳ 1‧) extremely low surface brightness (LSB; {μ }V,0≈ 27.0) galaxies identified using our deep, wide-field imaging of the Virgo Cluster from the Burrell Schmidt telescope. Complementary data from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey do not resolve red giant branch stars in these objects down to i = 24, yielding a lower distance limit of 2.5 Mpc. At the Virgo distance, these objects have half-light radii 3-10 kpc and luminosities {L}{{V}} = 2-9 × 107 {L}⊙ . These galaxies are comparable in size but lower in surface brightness than the large ultradiffuse LSB galaxies recently identified in the Coma cluster, and are located well within Virgo’s virial radius; two are projected directly on the cluster core. One object appears to be a nucleated LSB in the process of being tidally stripped to form a new Virgo ultracompact dwarf galaxy. The others show no sign of tidal disruption, despite the fact that such objects should be most vulnerable to tidal destruction in the cluster environment. The relative proximity of Virgo makes these objects amenable to detailed studies of their structural properties and resolved stellar populations. They thus provide an important new window onto the connection between cluster environment and galaxy evolution at the extremes.

  14. Spatial and kinematic distributions of transition populations in intermediate redshift galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Steven M.; Wirth, Gregory D.; Bershady, Matthew A. E-mail: wirth@keck.hawaii.edu

    2014-05-01

    We analyze the spatial and velocity distributions of confirmed members in five massive clusters of galaxies at intermediate redshift (0.5 < z < 0.9) to investigate the physical processes driving galaxy evolution. Based on spectral classifications derived from broad- and narrow-band photometry, we define four distinct galaxy populations representing different evolutionary stages: red sequence (RS) galaxies, blue cloud (BC) galaxies, green valley (GV) galaxies, and luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs). For each galaxy class, we derive the projected spatial and velocity distribution and characterize the degree of subclustering. We find that RS, BC, and GV galaxies in these clusters have similar velocity distributions, but that BC and GV galaxies tend to avoid the core of the two z ≈ 0.55 clusters. GV galaxies exhibit subclustering properties similar to RS galaxies, but their radial velocity distribution is significantly platykurtic compared to the RS galaxies. The absence of GV galaxies in the cluster cores may explain their somewhat prolonged star-formation history. The LCBGs appear to have recently fallen into the cluster based on their larger velocity dispersion, absence from the cores of the clusters, and different radial velocity distribution than the RS galaxies. Both LCBG and BC galaxies show a high degree of subclustering on the smallest scales, leading us to conclude that star formation is likely triggered by galaxy-galaxy interactions during infall into the cluster.

  15. DUST-OBSCURED STAR FORMATION IN INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFT GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, Rose A.; Desai, Vandana; Rudnick, Gregory; Poggianti, Bianca; Bell, Eric F.; Hinz, Joannah; Zaritsky, Dennis; Jablonka, Pascale; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Moustakas, John; Rines, Kenneth E-mail: jmoustakas@ucsd.ed

    2010-09-01

    We present Spitzer MIPS 24 {mu}m observations of sixteen 0.4 < z < 0.8 galaxy clusters drawn from the ESO Distant Cluster Survey. This is the first large 24 {mu}m survey of clusters at intermediate redshift. The depth of our imaging corresponds to a total IR luminosity of 8 x 10{sup 10} L{sub sun}, just below the luminosity of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), and 6{sup +1}{sub -1}% of M{sub V} < -19 cluster members show 24 {mu}m emission at or above this level. We compare with a large sample of coeval field galaxies and find that while the fraction of cluster LIRGs lies significantly below that of the field, the IR luminosities of the field and cluster galaxies are consistent. However, the stellar masses of the EDisCS LIRGs are systematically higher than those of the field LIRGs. A comparison with optical data reveals that {approx}80% of cluster LIRGs are blue and the remaining 20% lie on the red sequence. Of LIRGs with optical spectra, 88{sup +4} {sub -5}% show [O II] emission with EW([O II]) > 5 A, and {approx}75% exhibit optical signatures of dusty starbursts. On average, the fraction of cluster LIRGs increases with projected clustercentric radius but remains systematically lower than the field fraction over the area probed (<1.5x R {sub 200}). The amount of obscured star formation declines significantly over the 2.4 Gyr interval spanned by the EDisCS sample, and the rate of decline is the same for the cluster and field populations. Our results are consistent with an exponentially declining LIRG fraction, with the decline in the field delayed by {approx}1 Gyr relative to the clusters.

  16. Modelling galaxy clustering: halo occupation distribution versus subhalo matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hong; Zheng, Zheng; Behroozi, Peter S.; Zehavi, Idit; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Comparat, Johan; Favole, Ginevra; Gottloeber, Stefan; Klypin, Anatoly; Prada, Francisco; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio A.; Weinberg, David H.; Yepes, Gustavo

    2016-07-01

    We model the luminosity-dependent projected and redshift-space two-point correlation functions (2PCFs) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 Main galaxy sample, using the halo occupation distribution (HOD) model and the subhalo abundance matching (SHAM) model and its extension. All the models are built on the same high-resolution N-body simulations. We find that the HOD model generally provides the best performance in reproducing the clustering measurements in both projected and redshift spaces. The SHAM model with the same halo-galaxy relation for central and satellite galaxies (or distinct haloes and subhaloes), when including scatters, has a best-fitting χ2/dof around 2-3. We therefore extend the SHAM model to the subhalo clustering and abundance matching (SCAM) by allowing the central and satellite galaxies to have different galaxy-halo relations. We infer the corresponding halo/subhalo parameters by jointly fitting the galaxy 2PCFs and abundances and consider subhaloes selected based on three properties, the mass Macc at the time of accretion, the maximum circular velocity Vacc at the time of accretion, and the peak maximum circular velocity Vpeak over the history of the subhaloes. The three subhalo models work well for luminous galaxy samples (with luminosity above L*). For low-luminosity samples, the Vacc model stands out in reproducing the data, with the Vpeak model slightly worse, while the Macc model fails to fit the data. We discuss the implications of the modelling results.

  17. DARK MATTER HALOS IN GALAXIES AND GLOBULAR CLUSTER POPULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, Michael J.; Harris, Gretchen L.; Harris, William E.

    2014-05-20

    We combine a new, comprehensive database for globular cluster populations in all types of galaxies with a new calibration of galaxy halo masses based entirely on weak lensing. Correlating these two sets of data, we find that the mass ratio η ≡ M {sub GCS}/M {sub h} (total mass in globular clusters, divided by halo mass) is essentially constant at (η) ∼ 4 × 10{sup –5}, strongly confirming earlier suggestions in the literature. Globular clusters are the only known stellar population that formed in essentially direct proportion to host galaxy halo mass. The intrinsic scatter in η appears to be at most 0.2 dex; we argue that some of this scatter is due to differing degrees of tidal stripping of the globular cluster systems between central and satellite galaxies. We suggest that this correlation can be understood if most globular clusters form at very early stages in galaxy evolution, largely avoiding the feedback processes that inhibited the bulk of field-star formation in their host galaxies. The actual mean value of η also suggests that about one-fourth of the initial gas mass present in protogalaxies collected into giant molecular clouds large enough to form massive, dense star clusters. Finally, our calibration of (η) indicates that the halo masses of the Milky Way and M31 are (1.2 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉} and (3.9 ± 1.8) × 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}, respectively.

  18. Small Stellar Systems in Antlia: Globular Clusters and Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassino, L. P.; Smith Castelli, A. V.; Richtler, T.; Cellone, S.; Gómez, M.; Infante, L.; Aruta, C.; Dirsch, B.

    2009-05-01

    We present the combined results of two investigations of the Antlia galaxy cluster: (1) A study of the globular cluster (GC) systems around NGC 3258 and NGC 3268 (Bassino et al. 2008, MNRAS, 386, 1145), on the basis of V, I photometry performed on FORS1-VLT images. The distance to the galaxies are determined by means of the GC luminosity functions. The GC colour distributions are bimodal, except for the brightest clusters which show unimodal distributions. The radial density profiles of the red (metal-rich) GCs follow closely the V brightness profiles of the galaxies. The existence of intracluster GCs is also discussed. (2) A study of Antlia early-type galaxies in the central region of the cluster (Smith Castelli et al. 2008, MNRAS, 386, 2311), based on wide-field MOSAIC-CTIO images, obtained in the Washington photometric system. We analyze the colour-magnitude relation of early-type dwarf galaxies, previously listed in the Ferguson & Sandage's (1990, AJ, 100, 1) photographic catalog, which follow a very tight sequence. We have found several new dwarf candidates not included in the catalog. In addition, we are studying the properties of several blue compact dwarfs (BCDs) located in the field.

  19. A Snapshot Survey of The Most Massive Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, Harald

    2007-07-01

    We propose the continuation of our highly successful SNAPshot survey of a sample of 125 very X-ray luminous clusters in the redshift range 0.3-0.7. As demonstrated by the 25 snapshots obtained so far in Cycle14 and Cycle15 these systems frequently exhibit strong gravitational lensing as well as spectacular examples of violent galaxy interactions. The proposed observations will provide important constraints on the cluster mass distributions, the physical nature of galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-gas interactions in cluster cores, and a set of optically bright, lensed galaxies for further 8-10m spectroscopy. All of our primary science goals require only the detection and characterisation of high-surface-brightness features and are thus achievable even at the reduced sensitivity of WFPC2. Because of their high redshift and thus compact angular scale our target clusters are less adversely affected by the smaller field of view of WFPC2 than more nearby systems. Acknowledging the broad community interest in this sample we waive our data rights for these observations. Due to a clerical error at STScI our approved Cycle15 SNAP program was barred from execution for 3 months and only 6 observations have been performed to date - reinstating this SNAP at Cycle16 priority is of paramount importance to reach meaningful statistics.

  20. METAL PRODUCTION IN GALAXY CLUSTERS: THE NON-GALACTIC COMPONENT

    SciTech Connect

    Bregman, Joel N.; Anderson, Michael E.; Dai Xinyu E-mail: michevan@umich.ed

    2010-06-10

    The metallicity in galaxy clusters is expected to originate from the stars in galaxies, with a population dominated by high-mass stars likely being the most important stellar component, especially in rich clusters. We examine the relationship between the metallicity and the prominence of galaxies as measured by the star-to-baryon ratio, M{sub *}/M{sub bary}. Counter to expectations, we rule out a metallicity that is proportional to M{sub *}/M{sub bary}, where the best fit has the gas-phase metallicity decreasing with M{sub *}/M{sub bary}, or the metallicity of the gas plus the stars being independent of M{sub *}/M{sub bary}. This implies that the population of stars responsible for the metals is largely proportional to the total baryonic mass of the cluster, not to the galaxy mass within the cluster. If generally applicable, most of the heavy elements in the universe were not produced within galaxies.

  1. Galaxy Clusters, Near and Far, Have a Lot in Common

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    Using two orbiting X-ray telescopes, a team of international astronomers has examined distant galaxy clusters in order to compare them with their counterparts that are relatively close by. Speaking today at the RAS National Astronomy Meeting in Birmingham, Dr. Ben Maughan (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), presented the results of this new analysis. The observations indicate that, despite the great expansion that the Universe has undergone since the Big Bang, galaxy clusters both local and distant have a great deal in common. This discovery could eventually lead to a better understanding of how to "weigh" these enormous structures, and, in so doing, answer important questions about the nature and structure of the Universe. Clusters of galaxies, the largest known gravitationally-bound objects, are the knots in the cosmic web of structure that permeates the Universe. Theoretical models make predictions about the number, distribution and properties of these clusters. Scientists can test and improve models of the Universe by comparing these predictions with observations. The most powerful way of doing this is to measure the masses of galaxy clusters, particularly those in the distant Universe. However, weighing galaxy clusters is extremely difficult. One relatively easy way to weigh a galaxy cluster is to use simple laws ("scaling relations") to estimate its weight from properties that are easy to observe, like its luminosity (brightness) or temperature. This is like estimating someone's weight from their height if you didn't have any scales. Over the last 3 years, a team of researchers, led by Ben Maughan, has observed 11 distant galaxy clusters with ESA's XMM-Newton and NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The clusters have redshifts of z = 0.6-1.0, which corresponds to distances of 6 to 8 billion light years. This means that we see them as they were when the Universe was half its present age. The survey included two unusual systems, one in which two massive

  2. Kinematics of cD Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J. M.; Oegerle, W. R.

    1992-12-01

    In order to determine the distribution and frequency of peculiar velocities of cD galaxies and the nature of their parent clusters, we have begun a survey of a statistically complete sample of cD clusters with the MX multifiber spectrometer at Steward Observatory. If ``speeding'' cDs are common, then their existence must be taken into account by formation models, which usually assume that cDs lie at rest in the bottom of the cluster potential well (ie. the cannibalism model). Our sample is the subset of the Hoessel, Gunn & Thuan (1980) Abell cluster sample satisfying the following constraints: (1) the cluster must be of Rood-Sastry type cD, (2) have redshift <0.08, and (3) have declination >-10(deg) . This provides a statistically complete, unbiased sample of cD clusters. There are 24 Abell clusters in this sample, and we present data for 10 clusters. The goal of the survey is to collect ~ 60 redshifts per cluster, in order that peculiar velocities of 250\\ km\\ s(-1) or higher can be verified at a >2.5sigma level of significance. In the current sample of clusters, 7 cD galaxies have no statistically significant peculiar velocities (A399, 401, 1749, 1809, 2063, 2124, 2589). Three other clusters (A1795, 2107, and 2634) have peculiar or marginally peculiar velocities, but show evidence for subclustering or non-Gaussian velocity distributions. Based on the data taken so far, ~ 25% of all cD galaxies appear to have statistically significant peculiar velocities with respect to their parent clusters. Evidence is now beginning to mount that these peculiar velocities are due to subclustering, as first suggested by Sharples etal (1988) & Hill etal (1988).

  3. GALAXY CLUSTERING TOPOLOGY IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY MAIN GALAXY SAMPLE: A TEST FOR GALAXY FORMATION MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yun-Young; Kim, Juhan; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Park, Changbom; Gott, J. Richard; Weinberg, David H.; Vogeley, Michael S.

    2010-09-15

    We measure the topology of the main galaxy distribution using the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, examining the dependence of galaxy clustering topology on galaxy properties. The observational results are used to test galaxy formation models. A volume-limited sample defined by M{sub r} < -20.19 enables us to measure the genus curve with an amplitude of G = 378 at 6 h {sup -1} Mpc smoothing scale, with 4.8% uncertainty including all systematics and cosmic variance. The clustering topology over the smoothing length interval from 6 to 10 h {sup -1} Mpc reveals a mild scale dependence for the shift ({Delta}{nu}) and void abundance (A{sub V}) parameters of the genus curve. We find substantial bias in the topology of galaxy clustering with respect to the predicted topology of the matter distribution, which varies with luminosity, morphology, color, and the smoothing scale of the density field. The distribution of relatively brighter galaxies shows a greater prevalence of isolated clusters and more percolated voids. Even though early (late)-type galaxies show topology similar to that of red (blue) galaxies, the morphology dependence of topology is not identical to the color dependence. In particular, the void abundance parameter A{sub V} depends on morphology more strongly than on color. We test five galaxy assignment schemes applied to cosmological N-body simulations of a {Lambda}CDM universe to generate mock galaxies: the halo-galaxy one-to-one correspondence model, the halo occupation distribution model, and three implementations of semi-analytic models (SAMs). None of the models reproduces all aspects of the observed clustering topology; the deviations vary from one model to another but include statistically significant discrepancies in the abundance of isolated voids or isolated clusters and the amplitude and overall shift of the genus curve. SAM predictions of the topology color dependence are usually correct in sign but incorrect in magnitude

  4. A simple recipe for estimating masses of elliptical galaxies and clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyskova, N.

    2013-04-01

    We discuss a simple and robust procedure to evaluate the mass/circular velocity of massive elliptical galaxies and clusters of galaxies. It relies only on the surface density and the projected velocity dispersion profiles of tracer particles and therefore can be applied even in case of poor or noisy observational data. Stars, globular clusters or planetary nebulae can be used as tracers for mass determination of elliptical galaxies. For clusters the galaxies themselves can be used as tracer particles. The key element of the proposed procedure is the selection of a ``sweet'' radius R_sweet, where the sensitivity to the unknown anisotropy of the tracers' orbits is minimal. At this radius the surface density of tracers declines approximately as I(R)∝ R-2, thus placing R_sweet not far from the half-light radius of the tracers R_eff. The procedure was tested on a sample of cosmological simulations of individual galaxies and galaxy clusters and then applied to real observational data. Independently the total mass profile was derived from the hydrostatic equilibrium equation for the gaseous atmosphere. Mismatch in mass profiles obtained from optical and X-ray data is used to estimate the non-thermal contribution to the gas pressure and/or to constrain the distribution of tracers' orbits.

  5. Optical galaxy cluster detection across a wide redshift range

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Jiangang

    2009-04-01

    The past decade is one of the most exciting period in the history of physics and astronomy. The discovery of cosmic acceleration dramatically changed our understanding about the evolution and constituents of the Universe. To accommodate the new acceleration phase into our well established Big Bang cosmological scenario under the frame work of General Relativity, there must exist a very special substance that has negative pressure and make up about 73% of the total energy density in our Universe. It is called Dark Energy. For the first time people realized that the vast majority of our Universe is made of things that are totally different from the things we are made of. Therefore, one of the major endeavors in physics and astronomy in the coming years is trying to understand, if we can, the nature of dark energy. Understanding dark energy cannot be achieved from pure logic. We need empirical evidence to finally determine about what is dark energy. The better we can constrain the energy density and evolution of the dark energy, the closer we will get to the answer. There are many ways to constrain the energy density and evolution of dark energy, each of which leads to degeneracy in certain directions in the parameter space. Therefore, a combination of complimentary methods will help to reduce the degeneracies and give tighter constraints. Dark energy became dominate over matter in the Universe only very recently (at about z ~ 1.5) and will affect both the cosmological geometry and large scale structure formation. Among the various experiments, some of them constrain the dark energy mainly via geometry (such as CMB, Supernovae) while some others provides constraints from both structures and geometry (such as BAO, Galaxy Clusters) Galaxy clusters can be used as a sensitive probe for cosmology. A large cluster catalog that extends to high redshift with well measured masses is indispensable for precisely constraining cosmological parameters. Detecting clusters in optical

  6. COSMOLOGICAL DEPENDENCE OF THE MEASUREMENTS OF LUMINOSITY FUNCTION, PROJECTED CLUSTERING AND GALAXY-GALAXY LENSING SIGNAL

    SciTech Connect

    More, Surhud

    2013-11-10

    Observables such as the galaxy luminosity function, Φ(M), projected galaxy clustering, w {sub p}(r {sub p}), and the galaxy-galaxy lensing signal, ΔΣ(r {sub p}), are often measured from galaxy redshift surveys assuming a fiducial cosmological model for calculating distances to, and between galaxies. There are a growing number of studies that perform joint analyses of these measurements and constrain cosmological parameters. We quantify the amount by which such measurements systematically vary as the fiducial cosmology used for the measurements is changed, and show that these effects can be significant at high redshifts (z ∼ 0.5). Cosmological analyses (or halo occupation distribution analyses) that use the luminosity function, clustering and the galaxy-galaxy lensing signal but ignore such systematic effects may bias the inference of the parameters. We present a simple way to account for the differences in the cosmological model used for the measurements and those used for the prediction of observables, thus allowing a fair comparison between models and data.

  7. Recovering dark-matter clustering from galaxies with Gaussianization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullagh, Nuala; Neyrinck, Mark; Norberg, Peder; Cole, Shaun

    2016-04-01

    The Gaussianization transform has been proposed as a method to remove the issues of scale-dependent galaxy bias and non-linearity from galaxy clustering statistics, but these benefits have yet to be thoroughly tested for realistic galaxy samples. In this paper, we test the effectiveness of the Gaussianization transform for different galaxy types by applying it to realistic simulated blue and red galaxy samples. We show that in real space, the shapes of the Gaussianized power spectra of both red and blue galaxies agree with that of the underlying dark matter, with the initial power spectrum, and with each other to smaller scales than do the statistics of the usual (untransformed) density field. However, we find that the agreement in the Gaussianized statistics breaks down in redshift space. We attribute this to the fact that red and blue galaxies exhibit very different fingers of god in redshift space. After applying a finger-of-god compression, the agreement on small scales between the Gaussianized power spectra is restored. We also compare the Gaussianization transform to the clipped galaxy density field and find that while both methods are effective in real space, they have more complicated behaviour in redshift space. Overall, we find that Gaussianization can be useful in recovering the shape of the underlying dark-matter power spectrum to k ˜ 0.5 h Mpc-1 and of the initial power spectrum to k ˜ 0.4 h Mpc-1 in certain cases at z = 0.

  8. The Mass Accretion Rate of Galaxy Clusters: A Measurable Quantity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Boni, C.; Serra, A. L.; Diaferio, A.; Giocoli, C.; Baldi, M.

    2016-02-01

    We explore the possibility of measuring the mass accretion rate (MAR) of galaxy clusters from their mass profiles beyond the virial radius R200. We derive the accretion rate from the mass of a spherical shell whose inner radius is 2R200, whose thickness changes with redshift, and whose infall velocity is assumed to be equal to the mean infall velocity of the spherical shells of dark matter halos extracted from N-body simulations. This approximation is rather crude in hierarchical clustering scenarios where both smooth accretion and aggregation of smaller dark matter halos contribute to the mass accretion of clusters. Nevertheless, in the redshift range z = [0, 2], our prescription returns an average MAR within 20%-40% of the average rate derived from the merger trees of dark matter halos extracted from N-body simulations. The MAR of galaxy clusters has been the topic of numerous detailed numerical and theoretical investigations, but so far it has remained inaccessible to measurements in the real universe. Since the measurement of the mass profile of clusters beyond their virial radius can be performed with the caustic technique applied to dense redshift surveys of the cluster outer regions, our result suggests that measuring the mean MAR of a sample of galaxy clusters is actually feasible. We thus provide a new potential observational test of the cosmological and structure formation models.

  9. Understanding the physical processes driving galaxy evolution in clusters : a case study of two z~0.5 galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Sean M.

    Clusters of galaxies represent the largest laboratories in the universe for testing the incredibly chaotic physics governing the collapse of baryons into the stars, galaxies, groups, and diffuse clouds that we see today. Within the cluster environment, there are a wide variety of physical processes that may be acting to transform galaxies.In this thesis, we combine extensive Keck spectroscopy with wide-field HST imaging to perform a detailed case study of two intermediate redshift galaxy clusters, Cl 0024+1654 (z=0.395) and MS 0451-03 (z=0.540). Leveraging a comprehensive multiwavelength data set that spans the X-ray to infrared, and with spectral-line measurements serving as the key to revealing both the recent star-formation histories and kinematics of infalling galaxies, we aim to shed light on the environmental processes that could be acting to transform galaxies in clusters.We adopt a strategy to make maximal use of our HST-based morphologies by splitting our sample of cluster galaxies according to morphological type, characterizing signs of recent evolution in spirals and early types separately. This approach proves to be powerful in identifying galaxies that are currently being altered by an environmental interaction: early-type galaxies that have either been newly transformed or prodded back into an active phase, and spiral galaxies where star formation is being suppressed or enhanced all stand out in our sample.We begin by using variations in the early-type galaxy population as indicators of recent activity. Because ellipticals and S0s form such a homogeneous class in the local universe, we are sensitive to even very subtle signatures of recent and current environmental interactions. This study has yielded two key results: By constructing the Fundamental Plane (FP) of Cl 0024, we observe that elliptical and S0 galaxies exhibit a high scatter in their FP residuals, which occurs only among galaxies in the cluster core, suggesting a turbulent assembly history

  10. Dark matter searches with Cherenkov telescopes: nearby dwarf galaxies or local galaxy clusters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Conde, Miguel A.; Cannoni, Mirco; Zandanel, Fabio; Gómez, Mario E.; Prada, Francisco

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we compare dwarf galaxies and galaxy clusters in order to elucidate which object class is the best target for gamma-ray DM searches with imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). We have built a mixed dwarfs+clusters sample containing some of the most promising nearby dwarf galaxies (Draco, Ursa Minor, Wilman 1 and Segue 1) and local galaxy clusters (Perseus, Coma, Ophiuchus, Virgo, Fornax, NGC 5813 and NGC 5846), and then compute their DM annihilation flux profiles by making use of the latest modeling of their DM density profiles. We also include in our calculations the effect of DM substructure. Willman 1 appears as the best candidate in the sample. However, its mass modeling is still rather uncertain, so probably other candidates with less uncertainties and quite similar fluxes, namely Ursa Minor and Segue 1, might be better options. As for galaxy clusters, Virgo represents the one with the highest flux. However, its large spatial extension can be a serious handicap for IACT observations and posterior data analysis. Yet, other local galaxy cluster candidates with more moderate emission regions, such as Perseus, may represent good alternatives. After comparing dwarfs and clusters, we found that the former exhibit annihilation flux profiles that, at the center, are roughly one order of magnitude higher than those of clusters, although galaxy clusters can yield similar, or even higher, integrated fluxes for the whole object once substructure is taken into account. Even when any of these objects are strictly point-like according to the properties of their annihilation signals, we conclude that dwarf galaxies are best suited for observational strategies based on the search of point-like sources, while galaxy clusters represent best targets for analyses that can deal with rather extended emissions. Finally, we study the detection prospects for present and future IACTs in the framework of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model. We

  11. Dark Matter Searches with Cherenkov Telescopes: Nearby Dwarf Galaxies or Local Galaxy Clusters?

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Conde, Miguel A.; Cannoni, Mirco; Zandanel, Fabio; Gomez, Mario E.; Prada, Francisco; /IAA, Granada

    2012-06-06

    In this paper, we compare dwarf galaxies and galaxy clusters in order to elucidate which object class is the best target for gamma-ray DM searches with imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). We have built a mixed dwarfs+clusters sample containing some of the most promising nearby dwarf galaxies (Draco, Ursa Minor, Wilman 1 and Segue 1) and local galaxy clusters (Perseus, Coma, Ophiuchus, Virgo, Fornax, NGC 5813 and NGC 5846), and then compute their DM annihilation flux profiles by making use of the latest modeling of their DM density profiles. We also include in our calculations the effect of DM substructure. Willman 1 appears as the best candidate in the sample. However, its mass modeling is still rather uncertain, so probably other candidates with less uncertainties and quite similar fluxes, namely Ursa Minor and Segue 1, might be better options. As for galaxy clusters, Virgo represents the one with the highest flux. However, its large spatial extension can be a serious handicap for IACT observations and posterior data analysis. Yet, other local galaxy cluster candidates with more moderate emission regions, such as Perseus, may represent good alternatives. After comparing dwarfs and clusters, we found that the former exhibit annihilation flux profiles that, at the center, are roughly one order of magnitude higher than those of clusters, although galaxy clusters can yield similar, or even higher, integrated fluxes for the whole object once substructure is taken into account. Even when any of these objects are strictly point-like according to the properties of their annihilation signals, we conclude that dwarf galaxies are best suited for observational strategies based on the search of point-like sources, while galaxy clusters represent best targets for analyses that can deal with rather extended emissions. Finally, we study the detection prospects for present and future IACTs in the framework of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model. We

  12. Can a galaxy redshift survey measure dark energy clustering?

    SciTech Connect

    Takada, Masahiro

    2006-08-15

    A wide-field galaxy redshift survey allows one to probe galaxy clustering at largest spatial scales, which carries invaluable information on horizon-scale physics complementarily to the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Assuming the planned survey consisting of z{approx}1 and z{approx}3 surveys with areas of 2000 and 300 deg.{sup 2}, respectively, we study the prospects for probing dark energy clustering from the measured galaxy power spectrum, assuming the dynamical properties of dark energy are specified in terms of the equation of state and the effective sound speed c{sub e} in the context of an adiabatic cold dark dominated matter model. The dark energy clustering adds a power to the galaxy power spectrum amplitude at spatial scales greater than the sound horizon, and the enhancement is sensitive to redshift evolution of the net dark energy density, i.e. the equation of state. We find that the galaxy survey, when combined with CMB expected from the Planck satellite mission, can distinguish dark energy clustering from a smooth dark energy model such as the quintessence model (c{sub e}=1), when c{sub e} < or approx. 0.04 (0.02) in the case of the constant equation of state w{sub 0}=-0.9 (-0.95). An ultimate full-sky survey of z{approx}1 galaxies allows the detection when c{sub e}(less-or-similar sign)0.08 (0.04) for w{sub 0}=0.9 (-0.95). These forecasts show a compatible power with an all-sky CMB and galaxy cross correlation that probes the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. We also investigate a degeneracy between the dark energy clustering and the nonrelativistic neutrinos implied from the neutrino oscillation experiments, because the two effects both induce a scale-dependent modification in the galaxy power spectrum shape at largest spatial scales accessible from the galaxy survey. It is shown that a wider redshift coverage can efficiently separate the two effects by utilizing the different redshift dependences, where dark energy clustering is apparent only at

  13. Highlights of the Merging Cluster Collaboration's Analysis of 26 Radio Relic Galaxy Cluster Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, William; Golovich, Nathan; Wittman, David M.; Bradac, Marusa; Brüggen, Marcus; Bullock, James; Elbert, Oliver; Jee, James; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Kim, Stacy; Mahdavi, Andisheh; Merten, Julian; Ng, Karen; Annika, Peter; Rocha, Miguel E.; Sobral, David; Stroe, Andra; Van Weeren, Reinout J.; Merging Cluster Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Merging galaxy clusters are now recognized as multifaceted probes providing unique insight into the properties of dark matter, the environmental impact of plasma shocks on galaxy evolution, and the physics of high energy particle acceleration. The Merging Cluster Collaboration has used the diffuse radio emission associated with the synchrotron radiation of relativistic particles accelerated by shocks generated during major cluster mergers (i.e. radio relics) to identify a homogenous sample of 26 galaxy cluster mergers. We have confirmed theoretical expectations that radio relics are predominantly associated with mergers occurring near the plane of the sky and at a relatively common merger phase; making them ideal probes of self-interacting dark matter, and eliminating much of the dominant uncertainty when relating the observed star formation rates to the event of the major cluster merger. We will highlight a number of the discovered common traits of this sample as well as detailed measurements of individual mergers.

  14. Galaxy cluster mass estimation from stacked spectroscopic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahi, Arya; Evrard, August E.; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli S.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-08-01

    We use simulated galaxy surveys to study: (i) how galaxy membership in redMaPPer clusters maps to the underlying halo population, and (ii) the accuracy of a mean dynamical cluster mass, Mσ(λ), derived from stacked pairwise spectroscopy of clusters with richness λ. Using ˜130 000 galaxy pairs patterned after the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) redMaPPer cluster sample study of Rozo et al., we show that the pairwise velocity probability density function of central-satellite pairs with mi < 19 in the simulation matches the form seen in Rozo et al. Through joint membership matching, we deconstruct the main Gaussian velocity component into its halo contributions, finding that the top-ranked halo contributes ˜60 per cent of the stacked signal. The halo mass scale inferred by applying the virial scaling of Evrard et al. to the velocity normalization matches, to within a few per cent, the log-mean halo mass derived through galaxy membership matching. We apply this approach, along with miscentring and galaxy velocity bias corrections, to estimate the log-mean matched halo mass at z = 0.2 of SDSS redMaPPer clusters. Employing the velocity bias constraints of Guo et al., we find = ln (M30) + αm ln (λ/30) with M30 = 1.56 ± 0.35 × 1014 M⊙ and αm = 1.31 ± 0.06stat ± 0.13sys. Systematic uncertainty in the velocity bias of satellite galaxies overwhelmingly dominates the error budget.

  15. Richness-based masses of rich and famous galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreon, S.

    2016-03-01

    We present a catalog of galaxy cluster masses derived by exploiting the tight correlation between mass and richness, i.e., a properly computed number of bright cluster galaxies. The richness definition adopted in this work is properly calibrated, shows a small scatter with mass, and has a known evolution, which means that we can estimate accurate (0.16 dex) masses more precisely than by adopting any other richness estimates or X-ray or SZ-based proxies based on survey data. We measured a few hundred galaxy clusters at 0.05 < z < 0.22 in the low-extinction part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey footprint that are in the 2015 catalog of Planck-detected clusters, that have a known X-ray emission, that are in the Abell catalog, or that are among the most most cited in the literature. Diagnostic plots and direct images of clusters are individually inspected and we improved cluster centers and, when needed, we revised redshifts. Whenever possible, we also checked for indications of contamination from other clusters on the line of sight, and found ten such cases. All this information, with the derived cluster mass values, are included in the distributed value-added cluster catalog of the 275 clusters with a derived mass larger than 1014M⊙. Finally, in a technical appendix we illustrate with Planck clusters how to minimize the sensitivity of comparisons between masses listed in different catalogs to the specific overlapping of the considerd subsamples, a problem recognized but not solved in the literature. Full Table 1 is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A158A web front-end is available at the URL http://www.brera.mi.astro.it/~andreon/famous.html

  16. Warm and Hot Gases in and around Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. Daniel

    2012-10-01

    We propose a pilot joint XMM-Newton/HST observing program to study both warm and hot gases in two optically-selected galaxy clusters at z=0.1-0.2. Each cluster has a UV-bright background QSO projected within the expected strong accretion shock. We will measure the luminosity, temperature,and morphology of the hot gas component and observe UV absorption lines of the O VI doublet and other ion transitions of the clusters. These lines are sensitive to the thermal, kinetic, and chemical properties of warm gas, associated with the halos of individual galaxies and the intracluster medium. This joint study will thus allow us for the first time to characterize the heating/cooling and dynamic processes of the gases in the clusters.

  17. Cosmological constraints from strong gravitational lensing in clusters of galaxies.

    PubMed

    Jullo, Eric; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Kneib, Jean-Paul; D'Aloisio, Anson; Limousin, Marceau; Richard, Johan; Schimd, Carlo

    2010-08-20

    Current efforts in observational cosmology are focused on characterizing the mass-energy content of the universe. We present results from a geometric test based on strong lensing in galaxy clusters. Based on Hubble Space Telescope images and extensive ground-based spectroscopic follow-up of the massive galaxy cluster Abell 1689, we used a parametric model to simultaneously constrain the cluster mass distribution and dark energy equation of state. Combining our cosmological constraints with those from x-ray clusters and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 5-year data gives Omega(m) = 0.25 +/- 0.05 and w(x) = -0.97 +/- 0.07, which are consistent with results from other methods. Inclusion of our method with all other available techniques brings down the current 2sigma contours on the dark energy equation-of-state parameter w(x) by approximately 30%.

  18. Cosmological constraints from strong gravitational lensing in clusters of galaxies.

    PubMed

    Jullo, Eric; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Kneib, Jean-Paul; D'Aloisio, Anson; Limousin, Marceau; Richard, Johan; Schimd, Carlo

    2010-08-20

    Current efforts in observational cosmology are focused on characterizing the mass-energy content of the universe. We present results from a geometric test based on strong lensing in galaxy clusters. Based on Hubble Space Telescope images and extensive ground-based spectroscopic follow-up of the massive galaxy cluster Abell 1689, we used a parametric model to simultaneously constrain the cluster mass distribution and dark energy equation of state. Combining our cosmological constraints with those from x-ray clusters and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 5-year data gives Omega(m) = 0.25 +/- 0.05 and w(x) = -0.97 +/- 0.07, which are consistent with results from other methods. Inclusion of our method with all other available techniques brings down the current 2sigma contours on the dark energy equation-of-state parameter w(x) by approximately 30%. PMID:20724628

  19. Statistical association of QSO's with foreground galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodrigues-Williams, Liliya L.; Hogan, Craig J.

    1994-01-01

    We report a statistically significant overdensity of high redshift quasi-stellar objects (QSO's) in the directions of foreground galaxy clusters. QSO's are taken from the Large Bright QSO Survey (LBQS) between 1.4 less than or equal z less than or equal 2.2 with a limiting magnitude of m(sub B) = 18.5. Foreground clusters are regions within 6 Zwicky radii of small Zwicky clusters at a characteristic redshift of about z approximately = 0.2, covering about 40% of the total area surveyed (304 sq. deg). The overdensity, defined as the ratio of the number density of QSO's in the directions of clusters ('association QSO's) to that in the remainder of the fields ('background QSO's), is equal to 1.7, and formally differs from unity at 4.7 sigma significance. The observed overdensity probably is not due to statistical variation in QSO density, intrinsic QSO-QSO and/or cluster-cluster autocorrelations, or patchy Galactic obscuration. We thus interpret this observation as being due to statistical gravitational lensing of background QSO's by galaxy clusters. However, this amplitude of overdensity behind clusters cannot be accounted for in any cluster lensing model if the background QSO number-magnitude counts are similar to the intrinsic (unlensed) counts, and is implausible in any conventional model of cosmic mass distribution.

  20. Shapley Supercluster Survey: Galaxy evolution from filaments to cluster cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merluzzi, P.; Busarello, G.; Haines, C. P.; Mercurio, A.; Okabe, N.; Pimbblet, K. J.; Dopita, M. A.; Grado, A.; Limatola, L.; Bourdin, H.; Mazzotta, P.; Capaccioli, M.; Napolitano, N. R.; Schipani, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of a multiwavelength survey of the Shapley Supercluster (SSC; z ˜ 0.05) covering a contiguous area of 260 h^{-2}_{70} Mpc2 including the supercluster core. The project main aim is to quantify the influence of cluster-scale mass assembly on galaxy evolution in one of the most massive structures in the local Universe. The Shapley Supercluster Survey (ShaSS) includes nine Abell clusters (A3552, A3554, A3556, A3558, A3559, A3560, A3562, AS0724, AS0726) and two poor clusters (SC1327-312, SC1329-313) showing evidence of cluster-cluster interactions. Optical (ugri) and near-infrared (K) imaging acquired with VLT Survey Telescope and Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy allow us to study the galaxy population down to m⋆ + 6 at the supercluster redshift. A dedicated spectroscopic survey with AAOmega on the Anglo-Australian Telescope provides a magnitude-limited sample of supercluster members with 80 per cent completeness at ˜m⋆ + 3. We derive the galaxy density across the whole area, demonstrating that all structures within this area are embedded in a single network of clusters, groups and filaments. The stellar mass density in the core of the SSC is always higher than 9 × 109 M⊙ Mpc-3, which is ˜40× the cosmic stellar mass density for galaxies in the local Universe. We find a new filamentary structure (˜7 Mpc long in projection) connecting the SSC core to the cluster A3559, as well as previously unidentified density peaks. We perform a weak-lensing analysis of the central 1 deg2 field of the survey obtaining for the central cluster A3558 a mass of M_{500}=7.63_{-3.40}^{+3.88}× 10^{14} M_{⊙}, in agreement with X-ray based estimates.

  1. The C4 clustering algorithm: Clusters of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Christopher J.; Nichol, Robert; Reichart, Dan; Wechsler, Risa H.; Evrard, August; Annis, James; McKay, Timothy; Bahcall, Neta; Bernardi, Mariangela; Boehringer, Hans; Connolly, Andrew; Goto, Tomo; Kniazev, Alexie; Lamb, Donald; Postman, Marc; Schneider, Donald; Sheth, Ravi; Voges, Wolfgang; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Portsmouth U., ICG /North Carolina U. /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Chicago U., EFI /Michigan U. /Fermilab /Princeton U. Observ. /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE /Pittsburgh U. /Tokyo U., ICRR /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Penn State U. /Chicago U. /Stavropol, Astrophys. Observ. /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. Astron. /INI, SAO

    2005-03-01

    We present the ''C4 Cluster Catalog'', a new sample of 748 clusters of galaxies identified in the spectroscopic sample of the Second Data Release (DR2) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The C4 cluster-finding algorithm identifies clusters as overdensities in a seven-dimensional position and color space, thus minimizing projection effects that have plagued previous optical cluster selection. The present C4 catalog covers {approx}2600 square degrees of sky and ranges in redshift from z = 0.02 to z = 0.17. The mean cluster membership is 36 galaxies (with redshifts) brighter than r = 17.7, but the catalog includes a range of systems, from groups containing 10 members to massive clusters with over 200 cluster members with redshifts. The catalog provides a large number of measured cluster properties including sky location, mean redshift, galaxy membership, summed r-band optical luminosity (L{sub r}), velocity dispersion, as well as quantitative measures of substructure and the surrounding large-scale environment. We use new, multi-color mock SDSS galaxy catalogs, empirically constructed from the {Lambda}CDM Hubble Volume (HV) Sky Survey output, to investigate the sensitivity of the C4 catalog to the various algorithm parameters (detection threshold, choice of passbands and search aperture), as well as to quantify the purity and completeness of the C4 cluster catalog. These mock catalogs indicate that the C4 catalog is {approx_equal}90% complete and 95% pure above M{sub 200} = 1 x 10{sup 14} h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}} and within 0.03 {le} z {le} 0.12. Using the SDSS DR2 data, we show that the C4 algorithm finds 98% of X-ray identified clusters and 90% of Abell clusters within 0.03 {le} z {le} 0.12. Using the mock galaxy catalogs and the full HV dark matter simulations, we show that the L{sub r} of a cluster is a more robust estimator of the halo mass (M{sub 200}) than the galaxy line-of-sight velocity dispersion or the richness of the cluster. However, if we

  2. Unbiased methods for removing systematics from galaxy clustering measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Franz; Leistedt, Boris; Peiris, Hiranya V.

    2016-02-01

    Measuring the angular clustering of galaxies as a function of redshift is a powerful method for extracting information from the three-dimensional galaxy distribution. The precision of such measurements will dramatically increase with ongoing and future wide-field galaxy surveys. However, these are also increasingly sensitive to observational and astrophysical contaminants. Here, we study the statistical properties of three methods proposed for controlling such systematics - template subtraction, basic mode projection, and extended mode projection - all of which make use of externally supplied template maps, designed to characterize and capture the spatial variations of potential systematic effects. Based on a detailed mathematical analysis, and in agreement with simulations, we find that the template subtraction method in its original formulation returns biased estimates of the galaxy angular clustering. We derive closed-form expressions that should be used to correct results for this shortcoming. Turning to the basic mode projection algorithm, we prove it to be free of any bias, whereas we conclude that results computed with extended mode projection are biased. Within a simplified setup, we derive analytical expressions for the bias and discuss the options for correcting it in more realistic configurations. Common to all three methods is an increased estimator variance induced by the cleaning process, albeit at different levels. These results enable unbiased high-precision clustering measurements in the presence of spatially varying systematics, an essential step towards realizing the full potential of current and planned galaxy surveys.

  3. NASA Telescopes Help Identify Most Distant Galaxy Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    WASHINGTON -- Astronomers have uncovered a burgeoning galactic metropolis, the most distant known in the early universe. This ancient collection of galaxies presumably grew into a modern galaxy cluster similar to the massive ones seen today. The developing cluster, named COSMOS-AzTEC3, was discovered and characterized by multi-wavelength telescopes, including NASA's Spitzer, Chandra and Hubble space telescopes, and the ground-based W.M. Keck Observatory and Japan's Subaru Telescope. "This exciting discovery showcases the exceptional science made possible through collaboration among NASA projects and our international partners," said Jon Morse, NASA's Astrophysics Division director at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Scientists refer to this growing lump of galaxies as a proto-cluster. COSMOS-AzTEC3 is the most distant massive proto-cluster known, and also one of the youngest, because it is being seen when the universe itself was young. The cluster is roughly 12.6 billion light-years away from Earth. Our universe is estimated to be 13.7 billion years old. Previously, more mature versions of these clusters had been spotted at 10 billion light-years away. The astronomers also found that this cluster is buzzing with extreme bursts of star formation and one enormous feeding black hole. "We think the starbursts and black holes are the seeds of the cluster," said Peter Capak of NASA's Spitzer Science Center at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. "These seeds will eventually grow into a giant, central galaxy that will dominate the cluster -- a trait found in modern-day galaxy clusters." Capak is first author of a paper appearing in the Jan. 13 issue of the journal Nature. Most galaxies in our universe are bound together into clusters that dot the cosmic landscape like urban sprawls, usually centered around one old, monstrous galaxy containing a massive black hole. Astronomers thought that primitive versions of these clusters, still forming and clumping

  4. The spatial clustering of radio sources in NVSS and FIRST; implications for galaxy clustering evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overzier, R. A.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Rengelink, R. B.; Wilman, R. J.

    2003-07-01

    We have measured the angular correlation function, w(theta ), of radio sources in the 1.4 GHz NVSS and FIRST radio surveys. Below ~ 6arcmin the signal is dominated by the size distribution of classical double radio galaxies, an effect underestimated in some previous studies. We model the physical size distribution of FRII radio galaxies to account for this excess signal in w(theta ). The amplitude of the true cosmological clustering of radio sources is roughly constant at A =~ 1*E-3 for flux limits of 3-40 mJy, but has increased to A =~ 7*E-3 at 200 mJy. This can be explained if powerful (FRII) radio galaxies probe significantly more massive structures compared to radio galaxies of average power at z ~ 1. This is consistent with powerful high-redshift radio galaxies generally having massive (forming) elliptical hosts in rich (proto-)cluster environments. For FRIIs we derive a spatial (comoving) correlation length of r0=14+/-3 h-1 Mpc. This is remarkably close to that measured for extremely red objects (EROs) associated with a population of old elliptical galaxies at z ~ 1 by \\citet{daddi01}. Based on their similar clustering properties, we propose that EROs and powerful radio galaxies may be the same systems seen at different evolutionary stages. Their r0 is ~ 2x higher than that of QSOs at a similar redshift, and comparable to that of bright ellipticals locally. This suggests that r0 (comoving) of these galaxies has changed little from z ~ 1 to z=0, in agreement with current Lambda CDM hierarchical merging models for the clustering evolution of massive early-type galaxies. Alternatively, the clustering of radio galaxies can be explained by the galaxy conservation model. This then implies that radio galaxies of average power are the progenitors of the local field population of early-types, while the most powerful radio galaxies will evolve into a present-day population with r0 comparable to that of local rich clusters.

  5. COMPARISONS OF COSMOLOGICAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC GALAXY CLUSTER SIMULATIONS TO RADIO OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Hao; Li Hui; Collins, David C.; Govoni, Federica; Murgia, Matteo; Norman, Michael L.; Cen Renyue; Feretti, Luigina; Giovannini, Gabriele E-mail: hli@lanl.gov E-mail: mlnorman@ucsd.edu E-mail: matteo@oa-cagliari.inaf.it E-mail: lferetti@ira.inaf.it

    2012-11-01

    Radio observations of galaxy clusters show that there are {mu}G magnetic fields permeating the intracluster medium (ICM), but it is hard to accurately constrain the strength and structure of the magnetic fields without the help of advanced computer simulations. We present qualitative comparisons of synthetic Very Large Array observations of simulated galaxy clusters to radio observations of Faraday rotation measure (RM) and radio halos. The cluster formation is modeled using adaptive mesh refinement magnetohydrodynamic simulations with the assumption that the initial magnetic fields are injected into the ICM by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at high redshift. In addition to simulated clusters in Xu et al., we present a new simulation with magnetic field injections from multiple AGNs. We find that the cluster with multiple injection sources is magnetized to a similar level as in previous simulations with a single AGN. The RM profiles from simulated clusters, both |RM| and the dispersion of RM ({sigma}{sub RM}), are consistent at a first order with the radial distribution from observations. The correlations between the {sigma}{sub RM} and X-ray surface brightness from simulations are in a broad agreement with the observations, although there is an indication that the simulated clusters could be slightly overdense and less magnetized with respect to those in the observed sample. In addition, the simulated radio halos agree with the observed correlations between the radio power versus the cluster X-ray luminosity and between the radio power versus the radio halo size. These studies show that the cluster-wide magnetic fields that originate from AGNs and are then amplified by the ICM turbulence match observations of magnetic fields in galaxy clusters.

  6. The Globular Cluster System of the Spiral Galaxy NGC 7814

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhode, Katherine L.; Zepf, Stephen E.

    2003-11-01

    We present the results of a wide-field photometric study of the globular cluster (GC) system of the edge-on Sab spiral NGC 7814. This is the first spiral to be fully analyzed from our survey of the GC systems of a large sample of galaxies beyond the Local Group. NGC 7814 is of particular interest because a previous study estimated that it has 500-1000 GCs, giving it the largest specific frequency (SN) known for a spiral. Understanding this galaxy's GC system is important in terms of our understanding of the GC populations of spirals in general and has implications for the formation of massive galaxies. We observed the galaxy in BVR filters with the WIYN 3.5 m telescope and used image classification and three-color photometry to select GC candidates. We also analyzed archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images of NGC 7814, both to help quantify the contamination level of the WIYN GC candidate list and to detect GCs in the inner part of the galaxy halo. Combining HST data with high-quality ground-based images allows us to trace the entire radial extent of this galaxy's GC system and determine the total number of GCs directly through observation. We find that rather than being an especially high-SN spiral, NGC 7814 has <~200 GCs and SN~1, making it comparable to the two most well-studied spiral galaxies, the Milky Way and M31. We explore the implications of these results for models of the formation of galaxies and their GC systems. The initial results from our survey suggest that the GC systems of typical elliptical galaxies can be accounted for by the merger of two or more spirals, but that for highly luminous elliptical galaxies, additional physical processes may be needed.

  7. Radio active galactic nuclei in galaxy clusters: Feedback, merger signatures, and cluster tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterno-Mahler, Rachel Beth

    Galaxy clusters, the largest gravitationally-bound structures in the universe, are composed of 50-1000s of galaxies, hot X-ray emitting gas, and dark matter. They grow in size over time through cluster and group mergers. The merger history of a cluster can be imprinted on the hot gas, known as the intracluster medium (ICM). Merger signatures include shocks, cold fronts, and sloshing of the ICM, which can form spiral structures. Some clusters host double-lobed radio sources driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN). First, I will present a study of the galaxy cluster Abell 2029, which is very relaxed on large scales and has one of the largest continuous sloshing spirals yet observed in the X-ray, extending outward approximately 400 kpc. The sloshing gas interacts with the southern lobe of the radio galaxy, causing it to bend. Energy injection from the AGN is insufficient to offset cooling. The sloshing spiral may be an important additional mechanism in preventing large amounts of gas from cooling to very low temperatures. Next, I will present a study of Abell 98, a triple system currently undergoing a merger. I will discuss the merger history, and show that it is causing a shock. The central subcluster hosts a double-lobed AGN, which is evacuating a cavity in the ICM. Understanding the physical processes that affect the ICM is important for determining the mass of clusters, which in turn affects our calculations of cosmological parameters. To further constrain these parameters, as well as models of galaxy evolution, it is important to use a large sample of galaxy clusters over a range of masses and redshifts. Bent, double-lobed radio sources can potentially act as tracers of galaxy clusters over wide ranges of these parameters. I examine how efficient bent radio sources are at tracing high-redshift (z>0.7) clusters. Out of 646 sources in our high-redshift Clusters Occupied by Bent Radio AGN (COBRA) sample, 282 are candidate new, distant clusters of galaxies based on

  8. Clues to galaxy activity from rich cluster simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evrard, August E.

    1990-01-01

    New simulations of rich cluster evolution are used to evaluate the first infall hypothesis of Gunn and Dressler - the idea that the enhanced fraction of active galaxies seen in high redshift clusters is due to a one-time burst of star formation triggered by the rapid rise in external pressure as a galaxy plows into the hot intracluster medium (ICM). Using three-dimensional simulations which contain both baryonic gas and collisionless dark material, local static pressure histories for test orbits of galaxies are generated and a simple trigger threshold based on dP/dt/P sub ISM is applied to define an active fraction of the population. The results lend qualitative and quantitative support to the first infall interpretation.

  9. The dearth of nuclear star clusters in bright galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arca-Sedda, M.; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.; Spera, M.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the interaction of a massive globular cluster (GC) with a super massive black hole (SMBH), located at the centre of its host galaxy, by means of direct N-body simulations. The results show that tidal distortions induced by the stellar background and the SMBH act on a time shorter than that of dynamical friction decay for a 106 M⊙ GC whenever the SMBH mass exceeds ˜108 M⊙. This implies an almost complete dissolution of the infalling GC before it reaches the inner region (≲5 pc) of the parent galaxy. The generalization of this result to a larger sample of infalling GCs shows that such destructive process may prevent the formation and growth of a bright galactic nucleus. Another interesting, serendipitous, result we obtained is that the close interaction between the SMBH and the GC produces a `wave' of stars that escape from the cluster and, in a fraction, even from the whole galaxy.

  10. Turbulent heating in galaxy clusters brightest in X-rays.

    PubMed

    Zhuravleva, I; Churazov, E; Schekochihin, A A; Allen, S W; Arévalo, P; Fabian, A C; Forman, W R; Sanders, J S; Simionescu, A; Sunyaev, R; Vikhlinin, A; Werner, N

    2014-11-01

    The hot (10(7) to 10(8) kelvin), X-ray-emitting intracluster medium (ICM) is the dominant baryonic constituent of clusters of galaxies. In the cores of many clusters, radiative energy losses from the ICM occur on timescales much shorter than the age of the system. Unchecked, this cooling would lead to massive accumulations of cold gas and vigorous star formation, in contradiction to observations. Various sources of energy capable of compensating for these cooling losses have been proposed, the most promising being heating by the supermassive black holes in the central galaxies, through inflation of bubbles of relativistic plasma. Regardless of the original source of energy, the question of how this energy is transferred to the ICM remains open. Here we present a plausible solution to this question based on deep X-ray data and a new data analysis method that enable us to evaluate directly the ICM heating rate from the dissipation of turbulence. We find that turbulent heating is sufficient to offset radiative cooling and indeed appears to balance it locally at each radius-it may therefore be the key element in resolving the gas cooling problem in cluster cores and, more universally, in the atmospheres of X-ray-emitting, gas-rich systems on scales from galaxy clusters to groups and elliptical galaxies.

  11. Turbulent heating in galaxy clusters brightest in X-rays.

    PubMed

    Zhuravleva, I; Churazov, E; Schekochihin, A A; Allen, S W; Arévalo, P; Fabian, A C; Forman, W R; Sanders, J S; Simionescu, A; Sunyaev, R; Vikhlinin, A; Werner, N

    2014-11-01

    The hot (10(7) to 10(8) kelvin), X-ray-emitting intracluster medium (ICM) is the dominant baryonic constituent of clusters of galaxies. In the cores of many clusters, radiative energy losses from the ICM occur on timescales much shorter than the age of the system. Unchecked, this cooling would lead to massive accumulations of cold gas and vigorous star formation, in contradiction to observations. Various sources of energy capable of compensating for these cooling losses have been proposed, the most promising being heating by the supermassive black holes in the central galaxies, through inflation of bubbles of relativistic plasma. Regardless of the original source of energy, the question of how this energy is transferred to the ICM remains open. Here we present a plausible solution to this question based on deep X-ray data and a new data analysis method that enable us to evaluate directly the ICM heating rate from the dissipation of turbulence. We find that turbulent heating is sufficient to offset radiative cooling and indeed appears to balance it locally at each radius-it may therefore be the key element in resolving the gas cooling problem in cluster cores and, more universally, in the atmospheres of X-ray-emitting, gas-rich systems on scales from galaxy clusters to groups and elliptical galaxies. PMID:25363764

  12. A BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXY WITH AN EXTREMELY LARGE FLAT CORE

    SciTech Connect

    Postman, Marc; Coe, Dan; Koekemoer, Anton; Bradley, Larry; Lauer, Tod R.; Donahue, Megan; Graves, Genevieve; Moustakas, John; Ford, Holland C.; Lemze, Doron; Medezinski, Elinor; Grillo, Claudio; Zitrin, Adi; Broadhurst, Tom; Ascaso, Begona

    2012-09-10

    Hubble Space Telescope images of the galaxy cluster A2261, obtained as part of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble, show that the brightest galaxy in the cluster, A2261-BCG, has the largest core yet detected in any galaxy. The cusp radius of A2261-BCG is 3.2 kpc, twice as big as the next largest core known, and {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign bigger than those typically seen in the most luminous brightest cluster galaxies. The morphology of the core in A2261-BCG is also unusual, having a completely flat interior surface brightness profile, rather than the typical shallow cusp rising into the center. This implies that the galaxy has a core with constant or even centrally decreasing stellar density. Interpretation of the core as an end product of the 'scouring' action of a binary supermassive black hole implies a total black hole mass {approx}10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} from the extrapolation of most relationships between core structure and black hole mass. The core falls 1{sigma} above the cusp radius versus galaxy luminosity relation. Its large size in real terms, and the extremely large black hole mass required to generate it, raises the possibility that the core has been enlarged by additional processes, such as the ejection of the black holes that originally generated the core. The flat central stellar density profile is consistent with this hypothesis. The core is also displaced by 0.7 kpc from the center of the surrounding envelope, consistent with a local dynamical perturbation of the core.

  13. Chandra Observation of Abell 1142: A Cool-core Cluster Lacking a Central Brightest Cluster Galaxy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yuanyuan; Buote, David A.; Gastaldello, Fabio; van Weeren, Reinout

    2016-04-01

    Abell 1142 is a low-mass galaxy cluster at low redshift containing two comparable brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) resembling a scaled-down version of the Coma Cluster. Our Chandra analysis reveals an X-ray emission peak, roughly 100 kpc away from either BCG, which we identify as the cluster center. The emission center manifests itself as a second beta-model surface brightness component distinct from that of the cluster on larger scales. The center is also substantially cooler and more metal-rich than the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM), which makes Abell 1142 appear to be a cool-core cluster. The redshift distribution of its member galaxies indicates that Abell 1142 may contain two subclusters, each of which contain one BCG. The BCGs are merging at a relative velocity of ≈1200 km s-1. This ongoing merger may have shock-heated the ICM from ≈2 keV to above 3 keV, which would explain the anomalous LX-TX scaling relation for this system. This merger may have displaced the metal-enriched “cool core” of either of the subclusters from the BCG. The southern BCG consists of three individual galaxies residing within a radius of 5 kpc in projection. These galaxies should rapidly sink into the subcluster center due to the dynamical friction of a cuspy cold dark matter halo.

  14. The ACS Fornax Cluster Survey. XII. Diffuse Star Clusters in Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yiqing; Peng, Eric W.; Lim, Sungsoon; Jordán, Andrés; Blakeslee, John; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Pattarakijwanich, Petchara

    2016-10-01

    Diffuse star clusters (DSCs) are old and dynamically hot stellar systems that have lower surface brightness and more extended morphology than globular clusters (GCs). Using the images from Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/ACS Fornax Cluster Survey, we find that 12 out of 43 early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the Fornax Cluster host significant numbers of DSCs. Together with literature data from the HST/ACS Virgo Cluster Survey, where 18 out of 100 ETGs were found to host DSCs, we systematically study the relationship of DSCs with GCs and their host galaxy environment. Two DSC hosts are post-merger galaxies, with most of the other hosts either having low mass or showing clear disk components. We find that while the number ratio of DSCs to GCs is nearly constant in massive galaxies, the DSC-to-GC ratio becomes systematically higher in lower-mass hosts. This suggests that DSCs may be more efficient at forming (or surviving) in low-density environments. DSC hosts are not special either in their position in the cluster or in the galactic color–magnitude diagram. Why some disk and low-mass galaxies host DSCs while others do not is still a puzzle, however. The mean ages of DSC hosts and nonhosts are similar at similar masses, implying that formation efficiency rather than survival is the reason behind different DSC number fractions in ETGs.

  15. Chandra Observation of Abell 1142: A Cool-core Cluster Lacking a Central Brightest Cluster Galaxy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yuanyuan; Buote, David A.; Gastaldello, Fabio; van Weeren, Reinout

    2016-04-01

    Abell 1142 is a low-mass galaxy cluster at low redshift containing two comparable brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) resembling a scaled-down version of the Coma Cluster. Our Chandra analysis reveals an X-ray emission peak, roughly 100 kpc away from either BCG, which we identify as the cluster center. The emission center manifests itself as a second beta-model surface brightness component distinct from that of the cluster on larger scales. The center is also substantially cooler and more metal-rich than the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM), which makes Abell 1142 appear to be a cool-core cluster. The redshift distribution of its member galaxies indicates that Abell 1142 may contain two subclusters, each of which contain one BCG. The BCGs are merging at a relative velocity of ≈1200 km s‑1. This ongoing merger may have shock-heated the ICM from ≈2 keV to above 3 keV, which would explain the anomalous LX–TX scaling relation for this system. This merger may have displaced the metal-enriched “cool core” of either of the subclusters from the BCG. The southern BCG consists of three individual galaxies residing within a radius of 5 kpc in projection. These galaxies should rapidly sink into the subcluster center due to the dynamical friction of a cuspy cold dark matter halo.

  16. Coevolution of brightest cluster galaxies and intracluster light using CLASH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Claire; Hilton, Matt; Collins, Chris

    2015-05-01

    We examine the stellar mass assembly in galaxy cluster cores using data from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). We measure the growth of brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) stellar mass, the fraction of the total cluster light which is in the intracluster light (ICL) and the numbers of mergers that occur in the BCG over the redshift range of the sample, 0.18 < z < 0.90. We find that BCGs grow in stellar mass by a factor of 1.4 on average from accretion of their companions, and this growth is reduced to a factor of 1.2 assuming 50 per cent of the accreted stellar mass becomes ICL, in line with the predictions of simulations. We find that the ICL shows significant growth over this same redshift range, growing by a factor of 4-5 in its contribution to the total cluster light. This result is in line with our previous findings for ICL at higher redshifts, however, our measured growth is somewhat steeper than is predicted by simulations of ICL assembly. We find high-mass companions and hence major merging (mergers with objects of masses ≥1/2 of the BCG) to be very rare for our sample. We conclude that minor mergers (mergers with objects with masses <1/2 of the BCG) are the dominant process for stellar mass assembly at low redshifts, with the majority of the stellar mass from interactions ending up contributing to the ICL rather than building up the BCG. From a rough estimate of the stellar mass growth of the ICL we also conclude that the majority of the ICL stars must come from galaxies which fall from outside of the core of the cluster, as predicted by simulations. It appears that the growth of the ICL is the major evolution event in galaxy cluster cores during the second half of the lifetime of the Universe.

  17. The distribution of nearby rich clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postman, Marc; Huchra, John P.; Geller, Margaret J.

    1992-01-01

    Redshifts are acquired for a complete sample of 351 Abell clusters with tenth-ranked galaxy magnitudes (m10) less than or equal to 16.5, including 115 entirely new cluster redshifts. Analysis of the spatial distribution of these clusters reveals no clustering on scales larger than 75/h Mpc. The correlation length is 20.0 (+/-4.3)/h Mpc, consistent with the results from other surveys. The frequency of voids with radii of order 60/h Mpc or less is consistent with the form and amplitude of the observed two-point correlation function. There is no significant difference between the clustering properties of clusters with RC = 0 and RC not less than 1. A percolation analysis yields 23 superclusters, 17 of which are new. The superclusters are not significantly elongated in the radial direction; large-scale peculiar motions are of order 1000 km/s or less.

  18. Major Cluster Mergers and the Location of the Brightest Cluster Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Hugo; Robichaud, Fidèle; Barai, Paramita

    2014-05-01

    Using a large N-body cosmological simulation combined with a subgrid treatment of galaxy formation, merging, and tidal destruction, we study the formation and evolution of the galaxy and cluster population in a comoving volume (100 Mpc)3 in a ΛCDM universe. At z = 0, our computational volume contains 1788 clusters with mass M cl > 1.1 × 1012 M ⊙, including 18 massive clusters with M cl > 1014 M ⊙. It also contains 1, 088, 797 galaxies with mass M gal >= 2 × 109 M ⊙ and luminosity L > 9.5 × 105 L ⊙. For each cluster, we identified the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG). We then computed two separate statistics: the fraction f BNC of clusters in which the BCG is not the closest galaxy to the center of the cluster in projection, and the ratio Δv/σ, where Δv is the difference in radial velocity between the BCG and the whole cluster and σ is the radial velocity dispersion of the cluster. We found that f BNC increases from 0.05 for low-mass clusters (M cl ~ 1012 M ⊙) to 0.5 for high-mass clusters (M cl > 1014 M ⊙) with very little dependence on cluster redshift. Most of this result turns out to be a projection effect and when we consider three-dimensional distances instead of projected distances, f BNC increases only to 0.2 at high-cluster mass. The values of Δv/σ vary from 0 to 1.8, with median values in the range 0.03-0.15 when considering all clusters, and 0.12-0.31 when considering only massive clusters. These results are consistent with previous observational studies and indicate that the central galaxy paradigm, which states that the BCG should be at rest at the center of the cluster, is usually valid, but exceptions are too common to be ignored. We built merger trees for the 18 most massive clusters in the simulation. Analysis of these trees reveal that 16 of these clusters have experienced 1 or several major or semi-major mergers in the past. These mergers leave each cluster in a non-equilibrium state, but eventually the cluster settles into an

  19. Major cluster mergers and the location of the brightest cluster galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Martel, Hugo; Robichaud, Fidèle; Barai, Paramita

    2014-05-10

    Using a large N-body cosmological simulation combined with a subgrid treatment of galaxy formation, merging, and tidal destruction, we study the formation and evolution of the galaxy and cluster population in a comoving volume (100 Mpc){sup 3} in a ΛCDM universe. At z = 0, our computational volume contains 1788 clusters with mass M {sub cl} > 1.1 × 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}, including 18 massive clusters with M {sub cl} > 10{sup 14} M {sub ☉}. It also contains 1, 088, 797 galaxies with mass M {sub gal} ≥ 2 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} and luminosity L > 9.5 × 10{sup 5} L {sub ☉}. For each cluster, we identified the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG). We then computed two separate statistics: the fraction f {sub BNC} of clusters in which the BCG is not the closest galaxy to the center of the cluster in projection, and the ratio Δv/σ, where Δv is the difference in radial velocity between the BCG and the whole cluster and σ is the radial velocity dispersion of the cluster. We found that f {sub BNC} increases from 0.05 for low-mass clusters (M {sub cl} ∼ 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}) to 0.5 for high-mass clusters (M {sub cl} > 10{sup 14} M {sub ☉}) with very little dependence on cluster redshift. Most of this result turns out to be a projection effect and when we consider three-dimensional distances instead of projected distances, f {sub BNC} increases only to 0.2 at high-cluster mass. The values of Δv/σ vary from 0 to 1.8, with median values in the range 0.03-0.15 when considering all clusters, and 0.12-0.31 when considering only massive clusters. These results are consistent with previous observational studies and indicate that the central galaxy paradigm, which states that the BCG should be at rest at the center of the cluster, is usually valid, but exceptions are too common to be ignored. We built merger trees for the 18 most massive clusters in the simulation. Analysis of these trees reveal that 16 of these clusters have experienced 1 or several major or semi

  20. Line-of-sight structure toward strong lensing galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Johnson, Traci; Sharon, Keren; Gladders, Michael D.; Oguri, Masamune

    2014-03-01

    We present an analysis of the line-of-sight structure toward a sample of 10 strong lensing cluster cores. Structure is traced by groups that are identified spectroscopically in the redshift range, 0.1 ≤ z ≤ 0.9, and we measure the projected angular and comoving separations between each group and the primary strong lensing clusters in each corresponding line of sight. From these data we measure the distribution of projected angular separations between the primary strong lensing clusters and uncorrelated large-scale structure as traced by groups. We then compare the observed distribution of angular separations for our strong lensing selected lines of sight against the distribution of groups that is predicted for clusters lying along random lines of sight. There is clear evidence for an excess of structure along the line of sight at small angular separations (θ ≤ 6') along the strong lensing selected lines of sight, indicating that uncorrelated structure is a significant systematic that contributes to producing galaxy clusters with large cross sections for strong lensing. The prevalence of line-of-sight structure is one of several biases in strong lensing clusters that can potentially be folded into cosmological measurements using galaxy cluster samples. These results also have implications for current and future studies—such as the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields—that make use of massive galaxy cluster lenses as precision cosmological telescopes; it is essential that the contribution of line-of-sight structure be carefully accounted for in the strong lens modeling of the cluster lenses.

  1. Globular cluster clustering around ultra compact dwarf galaxies in the halo of NGC 1399

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voggel, Karina; Hilker, Michael; Richtler, Tom

    2016-08-01

    We tested the spatial distribution of UCDs and GCs in the halo of NGC 1399 in the Fornax cluster. In particular we tried to find out if globular clusters are more abundant in the vicinity of UCDs than what is expected from their global distribution. A local overabundance of globular clusters was found around UCDs on a scale of 1 kpc compared to what is expected from the large scale distribution of globulars in the host galaxy. This effect is stronger for the metal-poor blue GCs and weaker for the red GCs. An explanation for these clustered globulars is either that they are the remains of a GC system of an ancestor dwarf galaxy before it was stripped to its nucleus, which appears as UCD today. Alternatively these clustered GCs could have been originally part of a super star cluster complex.

  2. Two populations of open star clusters in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozha, M. L.; Koval', V. V.; Marsakov, V. A.

    2012-08-01

    Based on our compiled catalogue of fundamental astrophysical parameters for 593 open clusters, we analyze the relations between the chemical composition, spatial positions, Galactic orbital elements, age, and other physical parameters of open star clusters. We show that the population of open clusters is heterogeneous and is divided into two groups differing by their mean parameters, properties, and origin. One group includes the Galactic clusters formed mainly from the interstellar matter of the thin disk with nearly solarmetallicities ([Fe/H] > -0.2) and having almost circular orbits a short distance away from the Galactic plane, i.e., typical of the field stars of the Galactic thin disk. The second group includes the peculiar clusters formed through the interaction of extragalactic objects (such as high-velocity clouds, globular clusters, or dwarf galaxies) with the interstellar matter of the thin disk, which, as a result, derived abnormally low (for field thin-disk stars) metallicities and/or Galactic orbits typical of objects of the older Galactic subsystems. About 70% of the clusters older than 1Gyr have been found to be peculiar, suggesting a slower disruption of clusters with noncircular high orbits. Analysis of orbital elements has shown that the bulk of the clusters from both groups were formed within a Galactocentric radius of ≈10.5 kpc and closer than ≈180 pc from the Galactic plane, but owing to their high initial velocities, the peculiar clusters gradually took up the volumes occupied by the objects of the thick disk, the halo, and even the accreted halo of the Galaxy. Analysis of the relative abundances of magnesium (a representative of the α-elements) in clusters that, according to their kinematical parameters, belong to different Galactic subsystems has shown that all clusters are composed of matter incorporating the interstellar matter of a single protogalactic cloud in different proportions, i.e., reprocessed in genetically related stars of

  3. Mass and galaxy distributions of four massive galaxy clusters from Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    DOE PAGES

    Melchior, P.; Suchyta, E.; Huff, E.; Hirsch, M.; Kacprzak, T.; Rykoff, E.; Gruen, D.; Armstrong, R.; Bacon, D.; Bechtol, K.; et al

    2015-03-31

    We measure the weak-lensing masses and galaxy distributions of four massive galaxy clusters observed during the Science Verification phase of the Dark Energy Survey. This pathfinder study is meant to 1) validate the DECam imager for the task of measuring weak-lensing shapes, and 2) utilize DECam's large field of view to map out the clusters and their environments over 90 arcmin. We conduct a series of rigorous tests on astrometry, photometry, image quality, PSF modelling, and shear measurement accuracy to single out flaws in the data and also to identify the optimal data processing steps and parameters. We find Sciencemore » Verification data from DECam to be suitable for the lensing analysis described in this paper. The PSF is generally well-behaved, but the modelling is rendered difficult by a flux-dependent PSF width and ellipticity. We employ photometric redshifts to distinguish between foreground and background galaxies, and a red-sequence cluster finder to provide cluster richness estimates and cluster-galaxy distributions. By fitting NFW profiles to the clusters in this study, we determine weak-lensing masses that are in agreement with previous work. For Abell 3261, we provide the first estimates of redshift, weak-lensing mass, and richness. Additionally, the cluster-galaxy distributions indicate the presence of filamentary structures attached to 1E 0657-56 and RXC J2248.7-4431, stretching out as far as 1degree (approximately 20 Mpc), showcasing the potential of DECam and DES for detailed studies of degree-scale features on the sky.« less

  4. Mass and galaxy distributions of four massive galaxy clusters from Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    SciTech Connect

    Melchior, P.; et al.

    2015-05-21

    We measure the weak-lensing masses and galaxy distributions of four massive galaxy clusters observed during the Science Verification phase of the Dark Energy Survey. This pathfinder study is meant to 1) validate the DECam imager for the task of measuring weak-lensing shapes, and 2) utilize DECam's large field of view to map out the clusters and their environments over 90 arcmin. We conduct a series of rigorous tests on astrometry, photometry, image quality, PSF modeling, and shear measurement accuracy to single out flaws in the data and also to identify the optimal data processing steps and parameters. We find Science Verification data from DECam to be suitable for the lensing analysis described in this paper. The PSF is generally well-behaved, but the modeling is rendered difficult by a flux-dependent PSF width and ellipticity. We employ photometric redshifts to distinguish between foreground and background galaxies, and a red-sequence cluster finder to provide cluster richness estimates and cluster-galaxy distributions. By fitting NFW profiles to the clusters in this study, we determine weak-lensing masses that are in agreement with previous work. For Abell 3261, we provide the first estimates of redshift, weak-lensing mass, and richness. In addition, the cluster-galaxy distributions indicate the presence of filamentary structures attached to 1E 0657-56 and RXC J2248.7-4431, stretching out as far as 1 degree (approximately 20 Mpc), showcasing the potential of DECam and DES for detailed studies of degree-scale features on the sky.

  5. Mass and galaxy distributions of four massive galaxy clusters from Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    SciTech Connect

    Melchior, P.; Suchyta, E.; Huff, E.; Hirsch, M.; Kacprzak, T.; Rykoff, E.; Gruen, D.; Armstrong, R.; Bacon, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bridle, S.; Clampitt, J.; Honscheid, K.; Jain, B.; Jouvel, S.; Krause, E.; Lin, H.; MacCrann, N.; Patton, K.; Plazas, A.; Rowe, B.; Vikram, V.; Wilcox, H.; Young, J.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S. S.; Banerji, M.; Bernstein, J. P.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Castander, F. J.; da Costa, L. N.; Cunha, C. E.; Depoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Neto, A. F.; Fernandez, E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J. A.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G. R.; Jarvis, M.; Karliner, I.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.; Marriner, J.; Marshall, J. L.; Merritt, K. W.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B. D.; Reil, K.; Roe, N. A.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B. X.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Sypniewski, A. J.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D. L.; Walker, A.; Wechsler, R.; Weller, J.; Wester, W.

    2015-03-31

    We measure the weak-lensing masses and galaxy distributions of four massive galaxy clusters observed during the Science Verification phase of the Dark Energy Survey. This pathfinder study is meant to 1) validate the DECam imager for the task of measuring weak-lensing shapes, and 2) utilize DECam's large field of view to map out the clusters and their environments over 90 arcmin. We conduct a series of rigorous tests on astrometry, photometry, image quality, PSF modelling, and shear measurement accuracy to single out flaws in the data and also to identify the optimal data processing steps and parameters. We find Science Verification data from DECam to be suitable for the lensing analysis described in this paper. The PSF is generally well-behaved, but the modelling is rendered difficult by a flux-dependent PSF width and ellipticity. We employ photometric redshifts to distinguish between foreground and background galaxies, and a red-sequence cluster finder to provide cluster richness estimates and cluster-galaxy distributions. By fitting NFW profiles to the clusters in this study, we determine weak-lensing masses that are in agreement with previous work. For Abell 3261, we provide the first estimates of redshift, weak-lensing mass, and richness. Additionally, the cluster-galaxy distributions indicate the presence of filamentary structures attached to 1E 0657-56 and RXC J2248.7-4431, stretching out as far as 1degree (approximately 20 Mpc), showcasing the potential of DECam and DES for detailed studies of degree-scale features on the sky.

  6. Searching for decaying axionlike dark matter from clusters of galaxies.

    PubMed

    Riemer-Sørensen, Signe; Zioutas, Konstantin; Hansen, Steen H; Pedersen, Kristian; Dahle, Håkon; Liolios, Anastasios

    2007-09-28

    We constrain the lifetime of radiatively decaying dark matter in clusters of galaxies inspired by generic Kaluza-Klein axions, which have been invoked as a possible explanation for the solar coronal x-ray emission. These particles can be produced inside stars and remain confined by the gravitational potential of clusters. By analyzing x-ray observations of merging clusters, where gravitational lensing observations have identified massive, baryon poor structures, we derive the first cosmological lifetime constraint on this kind of particles of tau > or = 10(23) sec.

  7. Dark Energy and Key Physical Parameters of Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.

    We discuss the physics of clusters of galaxies embedded in the cosmic dark energy background and show that 1) the halo cut-off radius of a cluster like the Virgo cluster is practically, if not exactly, equal to the zero-gravity radius at which the dark matter gravity is balanced by the dark energy antigravity; 2) the halo averaged density is equal to two densities of dark energy; 3) the halo edge (cut-off) density is the dark energy density with a numerical factor of the unity order slightly depending on the halo profile.

  8. Clusters of galaxies in the Chandra and XMM - Newton Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weratschnig, Julia

    We present new results in the study of clusters of galaxies obtained with modern X-ray satellites like XMM-Newton and Chandra. Over the last ten years, both telescopes have studied these objects in detail and made many new insights into the involved physical processes possible. We present some highlights of the last ten years, like the measurement of the Hubble parameter, a probably detection of warm-hot matter in the filament between two clusters, new constraints on the nature of dark matter and some others. This choice is of course a personal "hit list" of the author, but hopefully contains an interesting overview of recent cluster research.

  9. Searching for Decaying Axionlike Dark Matter from Clusters of Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Riemer-Soerensen, Signe; Hansen, Steen H.; Pedersen, Kristian; Zioutas, Konstantin; Dahle, Haakon; Liolios, Anastasios

    2007-09-28

    We constrain the lifetime of radiatively decaying dark matter in clusters of galaxies inspired by generic Kaluza-Klein axions, which have been invoked as a possible explanation for the solar coronal x-ray emission. These particles can be produced inside stars and remain confined by the gravitational potential of clusters. By analyzing x-ray observations of merging clusters, where gravitational lensing observations have identified massive, baryon poor structures, we derive the first cosmological lifetime constraint on this kind of particles of {tau} > or approx. 10{sup 23} sec.

  10. The abundance and spatial distribution of ultra-diffuse galaxies in nearby galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Burg, Remco F. J.; Muzzin, Adam; Hoekstra, Henk

    2016-05-01

    Recent observations have highlighted a significant population of faint but large (reff> 1.5 kpc) galaxies in the Coma cluster. The origin of these ultra diffuse galaxies (UDGs) remains puzzling, as the interpretation of these observational results has been hindered by the (partly) subjective selection of UDGs, and the limited study of only the Coma (and some examples in the Virgo-) cluster. In this paper we extend the study of UDGs using eight clusters in the redshift range 0.044 galaxies. We find that the abundance of the UDGs we can detect increases with cluster mass, reaching ~200 in typical haloes of M200 ≃ 1015M⊙. For the ensemble cluster we measure the size distribution of UDGs, their colour-magnitude distribution, and their completeness-corrected radial density distribution within the clusters. The morphologically-selected cluster UDGs have colours consistent with the cluster red sequence, and have a steep size distribution that, at a given surface brightness, declines as n [ dex-1 ] ∝ reff-3.4 ± 0.2. Their radial distribution is significantly steeper than NFW in the outskirts, and is significantly shallower in the inner parts. We find them to follow the same radial distribution as the more massive quiescent galaxies in the clusters, except within the core region of r ≲ 0.15 × R200 (or ≲ 300 kpc). Within this region the number density of UDGs drops and is consistent with zero. These diffuse galaxies can only resist tidal forces down to this cluster-centric distance if they are highly centrally dark-matter dominated. The observation that the radial distribution of more compact dwarf galaxies (reff< 1.0 kpc) with similar luminosities follows the same distribution as the UDGs, but exist down to a smaller distance of 100 kpc from the

  11. nIFTY galaxy cluster simulations - III. The similarity and diversity of galaxies and subhaloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elahi, Pascal J.; Knebe, Alexander; Pearce, Frazer R.; Power, Chris; Yepes, Gustavo; Cui, Weiguang; Cunnama, Daniel; Kay, Scott T.; Sembolini, Federico; Beck, Alexander M.; Davé, Romeel; February, Sean; Huang, Shuiyao; Katz, Neal; McCarthy, Ian G.; Murante, Giuseppe; Perret, Valentin; Puchwein, Ewald; Saro, Alexandro; Teyssier, Romain

    2016-05-01

    We examine subhaloes and galaxies residing in a simulated Λ cold dark matter galaxy cluster (M^crit_{200}=1.1× 10^{15} h^{-1} M_{⊙}) produced by hydrodynamical codes ranging from classic smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH), newer SPH codes, adaptive and moving mesh codes. These codes use subgrid models to capture galaxy formation physics. We compare how well these codes reproduce the same subhaloes/galaxies in gravity-only, non-radiative hydrodynamics and full feedback physics runs by looking at the overall subhalo/galaxy distribution and on an individual object basis. We find that the subhalo population is reproduced to within ≲10 per cent for both dark matter only and non-radiative runs, with individual objects showing code-to-code scatter of ≲0.1 dex, although the gas in non-radiative simulations shows significant scatter. Including feedback physics significantly increases the diversity. Subhalo mass and Vmax distributions vary by ≈20 per cent. The galaxy populations also show striking code-to-code variations. Although the Tully-Fisher relation is similar in almost all codes, the number of galaxies with 109 h- 1 M⊙ ≲ M* ≲ 1012 h- 1 M⊙ can differ by a factor of 4. Individual galaxies show code-to-code scatter of ˜0.5 dex in stellar mass. Moreover, systematic differences exist, with some codes producing galaxies 70 per cent smaller than others. The diversity partially arises from the inclusion/absence of active galactic nucleus feedback. Our results combined with our companion papers demonstrate that subgrid physics is not just subject to fine-tuning, but the complexity of building galaxies in all environments remains a challenge. We argue that even basic galaxy properties, such as stellar mass to halo mass, should be treated with errors bars of ˜0.2-0.4 dex.

  12. New Frontiers in Galaxy Clusters with ASTRO-H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Eric D.; Kitayama, Tetsu; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Allen, Steven W.; Bautz, Mark W.; de Plaa, Jelle; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Kawaharada, Madoka; Madejski, Grzegorz Maria; Markevitch, Maxim L.; Matsushita, Kyoko; McNamara, Brian R.; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Ota, Naomi; Russell, Helen; Sato, Kosuke; Sekiya, Norio; Simionescu, Aurora; Tamura, Takayuki; Uchida, Yuusuke; Ursino, Eugenio; Werner, Norbert; Zhuravleva, Irina; Zuhone, John A.; ASTRO-H Team

    2015-01-01

    The next generation X-ray observatory ASTRO-H will open up a new dimension in the study of galaxy clusters. For the first time, the focal plane calorimeter aboard ASTRO-H will achieve the spectral resolution required to measure velocities of the intracluster plasma. At the same time, the Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) will extend the simultaneous spectral coverage to energies well above 10 keV, critical for studying both thermal and non-thermal gas in clusters. We present an overview of the capabilities of ASTRO-H for exploring gas motions in galaxy clusters, including their cosmological implications, the physics of AGN feedback, the dynamics of cluster mergers and associated high-energy processes, the chemical enrichment of the intracluster medium, and the nature of missing baryons and unidentified dark matter. By demonstrating these capabilities explicitly on representative galaxy clusters, we hope to aid and encourage the broader astrophysical community in developing ASTRO-H science.

  13. New Frontiers in Galaxy Clusters with ASTRO-H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Eric D.; Kitayama, Tetsu; Bautz, Marshall; Markevitch, Maxim; Matsushita, Kyoko; Allen, Steven; Kawaharada, Madoka; McNamara, Brian; Ota, Naomi; Akamatsu, Hiroki; de Plaa, Jelle; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Madejski, Grzegorz; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Russell, Helen; Sato, Kosuke; Sekiya, Norio; Simionescu, Aurora; Tamura, Takayuki; Uchida, Yuusuke; Ursino, Eugenio; Werner, Norbert; Zhuravleva, Irina; ZuHone, John; ASTRO-H Team

    2015-08-01

    The next generation X-ray observatory ASTRO-H will open up a new dimension in the study of galaxy clusters. For the first time, the focal plane calorimeter aboard ASTRO-H will achieve the spectral resolution required to measure velocities of the intracluster plasma. At the same time, the Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) will extend the simultaneous spectral coverage to energies well above 10 keV, critical for studying both thermal and non-thermal gas in clusters. We present an overview of the capabilities of ASTRO-H for exploring gas motions in galaxy clusters, including their cosmological implications, the physics of AGN feedback, the dynamics of cluster mergers and associated high-energy processes, the chemical enrichment of the intracluster medium, and the nature of missing baryons and unidentified dark matter. By demonstrating these capabilities explicitly on representative galaxy clusters, we hope to aid and encourage the broader astrophysical community in developing ASTRO-H science.

  14. Galaxy Luminosity Function of the Dynamically Young Abell 119 Cluster: Probing the Cluster Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youngdae; Rey, Soo-Chang; Hilker, Michael; Sheen, Yun-Kyeong; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2016-05-01

    We present the galaxy luminosity function (LF) of the Abell 119 cluster down to {M}r˜ -14 mag based on deep images in the u, g, and r bands taken by using MOSAIC II CCD mounted on the Blanco 4 m telescope at the CTIO. The cluster membership was accurately determined based on the radial velocity information and on the color-magnitude relation for bright galaxies and the scaling relation for faint galaxies. The overall LF exhibits a bimodal behavior with a distinct dip at r˜ 18.5 mag ({M}r˜ -17.8 mag), which is more appropriately described by a two-component function. The shape of the LF strongly depends on the clustercentric distance and on the local galaxy density. The LF of galaxies in the outer, low-density region exhibits a steeper slope and more prominent dip compared with that of counterparts in the inner, high-density region. We found evidence for a substructure in the projected galaxy distribution in which several overdense regions in the Abell 119 cluster appear to be closely associated with the surrounding, possible filamentary structure. The combined LF of the overdense regions exhibits a two-component function with a distinct dip, while the LF of the central region is well described by a single Schechter function. We suggest that, in the context of the hierarchical cluster formation scenario, the observed overdense regions are the relics of galaxy groups, retaining their two-component LFs with a dip, which acquired their shapes through a galaxy merging process in group environments, before they fall into a cluster.

  15. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, IONIZED GAS, AND MOLECULAR HYDROGEN IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES OF COOL-CORE CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, Megan; Mark Voit, G.; Hoffer, Aaron; De Messieres, Genevieve E.; O'Connell, Robert W.; McNamara, Brian R.; Nulsen, Paul E. J. E-mail: voit@pa.msu.edu

    2011-05-01

    We present measurements of 5-25 {mu}m emission features of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) with strong optical emission lines in a sample of nine cool-core clusters of galaxies observed with the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. These systems provide a view of dusty molecular gas and star formation, surrounded by dense, X-ray-emitting intracluster gas. Past work has shown that BCGs in cool-core clusters may host powerful radio sources, luminous optical emission-line systems, and excess UV, while BCGs in other clusters never show this activity. In this sample, we detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), extremely luminous, rotationally excited molecular hydrogen line emission, forbidden line emission from ionized gas ([Ne II] and [Ne III]), and infrared continuum emission from warm dust and cool stars. We show here that these BCGs exhibit more luminous forbidden neon and H{sub 2} rotational line emission than star-forming galaxies with similar total infrared luminosities, as well as somewhat higher ratios of 70 {mu}m/24 {mu}m luminosities. Our analysis suggests that while star formation processes dominate the heating of the dust and PAHs, a heating process consistent with suprathermal electron heating from the hot gas, distinct from star formation, is heating the molecular gas and contributing to the heating of the ionized gas in the galaxies. The survival of PAHs and dust suggests that dusty gas is somehow shielded from significant interaction with the X-ray gas.

  16. The Virgo Cluster of Galaxies in the Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    VLT Observations of Planetary Nebulae Confirm the Dynamical Youth of Virgo [1] Summary An international team of astronomers [2] has succeeded in measuring with high precision the velocities of a large number of planetary nebulae [3] in the intergalactic space within the Virgo Cluster of galaxies. For this they used the highly efficient FLAMES spectrograph [4] on the ESO Very Large Telescope at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). These planetary nebulae stars free floating in the otherwise seemingly empty space between the galaxies of large clusters can be used as "probes" of the gravitational forces acting within these clusters. They trace the masses, visible as well as invisible, within these regions. This, in turn, allows astronomers to study the formation history of these large bound structures in the universe. The accurate velocity measurements of 40 of these stars confirm the view that Virgo is a highly non-uniform galaxy cluster, consisting of several subunits that have not yet had time to come to equilibrium. These new data clearly show that the Virgo Cluster of galaxies is still in its making. They also prove for the first time that one of the bright galaxies in the region scrutinized, Messier 87, has a very extended halo of stars, reaching out to at least 65 kpc. This is more than twice the size of our own galaxy, the Milky Way. PR Photo 29a/04: Velocity Measurements of Forty Intracluster Planetary Nebulae (FLAMES/VLT) PR Photo 29b/04: Intracluster Planetary Nebulae in the SUC field in the Virgo Cluster (Digital Sky Survey) A young cluster At a distance of approximately 50 million light-years, the Virgo Cluster is the nearest galaxy cluster. It is located in the zodiacal constellation Virgo (The Virgin) and contains many hundreds of galaxies, ranging from giant and massive elliptical galaxies and spirals like our own Milky Way, to dwarf galaxies, hundreds of times smaller than their big brethren. French astronomer Charles Messier entered 16 members of the

  17. On Escaping a Galaxy Cluster in an Accelerating Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Alejo; Miller, Christopher J.; Gifford, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    We derive the escape velocity profile for an Einasto density field in an accelerating universe and demonstrate its physical viability by comparing theoretical expectations to both light-cone data generated from N-body simulations and archival data on 20 galaxy clusters. We demonstrate that the projection function (g(β )) is deemed physically viable only for the theoretical expectation that includes a cosmology-dependent term. Using simulations, we show that the inferred velocity anisotropy is more than 6σ away from the expected value for the theoretical profile that ignores the acceleration of the universe. In the archival data, we constrain the average velocity anisotropy parameter of a sample of 20 clusters to be β ={0.248}-0.360+0.164 at the 68% confidence level. Lastly, we briefly discuss how our analytic model may be used as a novel cosmological probe based on galaxy clusters.

  18. Giant ringlike radio structures around galaxy cluster Abell 3376.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Joydeep; Durret, Florence; Neto, Gastão B Lima; Paul, Surajit

    2006-11-01

    In the current paradigm of cold dark matter cosmology, large-scale structures are assembling through hierarchical clustering of matter. In this process, an important role is played by megaparsec (Mpc)-scale cosmic shock waves, arising in gravity-driven supersonic flows of intergalactic matter onto dark matter-dominated collapsing structures such as pancakes, filaments, and clusters of galaxies. Here, we report Very Large Array telescope observations of giant ( approximately 2 Mpc by 1.6 Mpc), ring-shaped nonthermal radio-emitting structures, found at the outskirts of the rich cluster of galaxies Abell 3376. These structures may trace the elusive shock waves of cosmological large-scale matter flows, which are energetic enough to power them. These radio sources may also be the acceleration sites where magnetic shocks are possibly boosting cosmic-ray particles with energies of up to 10(18) to 10(19) electron volts.

  19. Galaxy cluster center detection methods with weak lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simet, Melanie

    The precise location of galaxy cluster centers is a persistent problem in weak lensing mass estimates and in interpretations of clusters in a cosmological context. In this work, we test methods of centroid determination from weak lensing data and examine the effects of such self-calibration on the measured masses. Drawing on lensing data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82, a 275 square degree region of coadded data in the Southern Galactic Cap, together with a catalog of MaxBCG clusters, we show that halo substructure as well as shape noise and stochasticity in galaxy positions limit the precision of such a self-calibration (in the context of Stripe 82, to ˜ 500 h-1 kpc or larger) and bias the mass estimates around these points to a level that is likely unacceptable for the purposes of making cosmological measurements. We also project the usefulness of this technique in future surveys.

  20. Chandra Finds Ghosts Of Eruption In Galaxy Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    "Ghostly" relics of an ancient eruption that tore through a cluster of galaxies were recently uncovered by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The discovery implies that galaxy clusters are the sites of enormously energetic and recurring explosions, and may provide an explanation why galaxy clusters behave like giant cosmic magnets. "Chandra's image revealed vast regions in the galaxy cluster Abell 2597 that contain almost no X-ray or radio emission. We call them ghost cavities," said Brian McNamara of Ohio University in Athens today during a press conference at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Washington. "They appear to be remnants of an old explosion where the radio emission has faded away over millions of years." The ghost cavities were likely created by extremely powerful explosions, due to material falling toward a black hole millions of times more massive than the Sun. As the matter swirled around the black hole, located in a galaxy near the center of the cluster, it generated enormous electromagnetic fields that expelled material from the vicinity of the black hole at high speeds. This explosive activity in Abell 2597 created jets of highly energetic particles that cleared out voids in the hot gas. Because they are lighter than the surrounding material, the cavities will eventually push their way to the edge of the cluster, just as air bubbles in water make their way to the surface. Researchers also found evidence that this explosion was not a one-time event. "We detected a small, bright radio source near the center of the cluster that indicates a new explosion has occurred recently," said team member Michael Wise of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, "so the cycle of eruption is apparently continuing." Though dim, the ghost cavities are not completely empty. They contain a mixture of very hot gas, high-energy particles and magnetic fields -- otherwise the cavities would have collapsed under the pressure of the surrounding hot

  1. Giant ringlike radio structures around galaxy cluster Abell 3376.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Joydeep; Durret, Florence; Neto, Gastão B Lima; Paul, Surajit

    2006-11-01

    In the current paradigm of cold dark matter cosmology, large-scale structures are assembling through hierarchical clustering of matter. In this process, an important role is played by megaparsec (Mpc)-scale cosmic shock waves, arising in gravity-driven supersonic flows of intergalactic matter onto dark matter-dominated collapsing structures such as pancakes, filaments, and clusters of galaxies. Here, we report Very Large Array telescope observations of giant ( approximately 2 Mpc by 1.6 Mpc), ring-shaped nonthermal radio-emitting structures, found at the outskirts of the rich cluster of galaxies Abell 3376. These structures may trace the elusive shock waves of cosmological large-scale matter flows, which are energetic enough to power them. These radio sources may also be the acceleration sites where magnetic shocks are possibly boosting cosmic-ray particles with energies of up to 10(18) to 10(19) electron volts. PMID:17082451

  2. The clustering of warm and cool IRAS galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, R. G.; Saunders, W.; Taylor, A. N.

    1996-03-01

    We use a series of statistical techniques to compare the clustering of samples of IRAS galaxies selected on the basis of their far-infrared emission temperature, to see whether a temperature-dependent effect, such as might be produced by interaction-induced star formation, could be responsible for the increase in clustering strength with redshift in the QDOT redshift survey that has been reported by several authors. The temperature-luminosity relation for IRAS galaxies means that warm and cool samples drawn from a flux-limited sample like QDOT will sample quite different volumes of space. To overcome this problem, and to distinguish truly temperature-dependent results from those depending directly on the volume of space sampled, we consider a pair of samples of warmer and cooler galaxies with matched redshift distributions, as well as pairs of samples selected using a simple temperature cut. We find that the redshift-space autocorrelation function of warm QDOT galaxies is significantly stronger than that of cool galaxies on large scales, but that this difference disappears when we come to consider the warmer and cooler samples with matched redshift distributions. A counts- in-cells analysis reveals no significant difference between the clustering of the warm and cool QDOT samples, while the use of a new, symmetric estimator reveals that the cross-correlations of warm and cool IRAS galaxies with Abell clusters do not differ significantly. A higher signal-to-noise ratio test is provided by computing the projected cross- correlations of the matched samples with the parent two-dimensional catalogue from which QDOT is drawn, and this does yield a marginal detection of greater large-scale power for warmer galaxies. A direct comparison of the distributions of the warmer and cooler samples, using a new technique which tests the null hypothesis that they are drawn from the same population, reveals that the two classes of galaxy do cluster differently on small scales in

  3. Characterising superclusters with the galaxy cluster distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chon, Gayoung; Böhringer, Hans; Collins, Chris A.; Krause, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Superclusters are the largest observed matter density structures in the Universe. Recently, we presented the first supercluster catalogue constructed with a well-defined selection function based on the X-ray flux-limited cluster survey, REFLEX II. To construct the sample we proposed a concept to find large objects with a minimum overdensity such that it can be expected that most of their mass will collapse in the future. The main goal is to provide support for our concept here by using simulation that we can, on the basis of our observational sample of X-ray clusters, construct a supercluster sample defined by a certain minimum overdensity. On this sample we also test how superclusters trace the underlying dark matter distribution. Our results confirm that an overdensity in the number of clusters is tightly correlated with an overdensity of the dark matter distribution. This enables us to define superclusters within which most of the mass will collapse in the future. We also obtain first-order mass estimates of superclusters on the basis of the properties of the member clusters. We also show that in this context the ratio of the cluster number density and dark matter mass density is consistent with the theoretically expected cluster bias. Our previous work provided evidence that superclusters are a special environment in which the density structures of the dark matter grow differently from those in the field, as characterised by the X-ray luminosity function. Here we confirm for the first time that this originates from a top-heavy mass function at high statistical significance that is provided by a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We also find in close agreement with observations that the superclusters only occupy a small volume of a few per cent, but contain more than half of the clusters in the present-day Universe.

  4. Faint Submillimeter Galaxies Behind the Frontier Field Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Li-Yen; Cowie, Lennox; Barger, Amy; Wang, Wei-Hao; Chen, Chian-Chou

    2015-08-01

    Faint submillimeter galaxies are the major contributors to the submillimeter extragalactic background light and hence the dominant star-forming population in the dusty universe. Determining how much these galaxies overlap the optically selected samples is critical to fully account for the cosmic star formation history. To explore this faint submillimeter population, we have been observing nine galaxy clusters with the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, including five of the clusters in the HST Frontier Fields program. We have also been using the Submillimeter Array to determine the positions of our detected sources precisely. Our recent observations have discovered several high-redshift dusty galaxies with far-infrared luminosities similar to that of the Milky Way or luminous infrared galaxies but which are undetected in current deep radio, optical and near-infrared images. These remarkable results suggest that a substantial amount of star formation in even the faint submillimeter population may be hidden from rest-frame optical surveys.

  5. Cosmological constraints from Chandra observations of galaxy clusters.

    PubMed

    Allen, Steven W

    2002-09-15

    Chandra observations of rich, relaxed galaxy clusters allow the properties of the X-ray gas and the total gravitating mass to be determined precisely. Here, we present results for a sample of the most X-ray luminous, dynamically relaxed clusters known. We show that the Chandra data and independent gravitational lensing studies provide consistent answers on the mass distributions in the clusters. The mass profiles exhibit a form in good agreement with the predictions from numerical simulations. Combining Chandra results on the X-ray gas mass fractions in the clusters with independent measurements of the Hubble constant and the mean baryonic matter density in the Universe, we obtain a tight constraint on the mean total matter density of the Universe, Omega(m), and an interesting constraint on the cosmological constant, Omega(Lambda). We also describe the 'virial relations' linking the masses, X-ray temperatures and luminosities of galaxy clusters. These relations provide a key step in linking the observed number density and spatial distribution of clusters to the predictions from cosmological models. The Chandra data confirm the presence of a systematic offset of ca. 40% between the normalization of the observed mass-temperature relation and the predictions from standard simulations. This finding leads to a significant revision of the best-fit value of sigma(8) inferred from the observed temperature and luminosity functions of clusters.

  6. New Limits on Gamma-Ray Emission from Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danae Griffin, Rhiannon; Dai, Xinyu; Kochanek, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are predicted to produce gamma-ray emission, through cosmic ray interaction and/or dark matter annihilation, potentially detectable by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT). Specifically, cosmic ray interactions with the intra-cluster gas results in neutral pion decay, producing gamma-rays. As yet, this emission has not been detected using small samples of clusters. We present a new, independent stacking analysis of Fermi-LAT photon count maps using the 78 richest nearby clusters (z < 0.12) from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) cluster catalog. Our initial search yields non-detections of gamma-ray emission from galaxy clusters but we achieve the lowest upper limits on the photon flux to date. Scaling to recent cosmic ray acceleration and gamma-ray emission models, we find that cosmic rays represent a negligible contribution to the intra-cluster energy density and gas pressure. Furthermore, either merger shocks must have lower Mach numbers than inferred from radio emission, so < 2 - 4, or significantly less than 50% of the baryon mass has been processed through such shocks, and thus, the majority of baryons should be assembled through minor mergers or through cold accretion.

  7. The Alignment Effect of Brightest Cluster Galaxies in the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, R. S. J.; Sloan Digital Sky Survey Collaboration

    2001-12-01

    One of the most vital observational clues for unraveling the origin of Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCG) is the observed alignment of the BCGs with their host cluster and its surroundings. We have examined the BCG-cluster alignment effect, using clusters of galaxies detected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find that the BCGs are preferentially aligned with the principal axis of their hosts, to a much higher redshift (z > 0.3) than probed by previous studies (z < 0.1). The alignment effect strongly depends on the magnitude difference of the BCG and the second and third brightest cluster members: we find a strong alignment effect for the dominant BCGs, while less dominant BCGs do not show any departure from random alignment with respect to the cluster. We therefore claim that the alignment process originates from the same process that makes the BCG grow dominant, be it direct mergers in the early stage of cluster formation, or a later process that resembles the galactic cannibalism scenario. We discuss ways in which we can distinguish between the viable scenarios.

  8. The era of star formation in galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Brodwin, M.; Stanford, S. A.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Mancone, C. L.; Gettings, D. P.; Zeimann, G. R.; Snyder, G. F.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Pope, A.; Alberts, S.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Stern, D.; Moustakas, L. A.; Brown, M. J. I.; Chary, R.-R.; Dey, Arjun; Galametz, A.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Miller, E. D.; Moustakas, J.

    2013-12-20

    We analyze the star formation properties of 16 infrared-selected, spectroscopically confirmed galaxy clusters at 1 < z < 1.5 from the Spitzer/IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS). We present new spectroscopic confirmation for six of these high-redshift clusters, five of which are at z > 1.35. Using infrared luminosities measured with deep Spitzer/Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer observations at 24 μm, along with robust optical + IRAC photometric redshifts and spectral-energy-distribution-fitted stellar masses, we present the dust-obscured star-forming fractions, star formation rates, and specific star formation rates in these clusters as functions of redshift and projected clustercentric radius. We find that z ∼ 1.4 represents a transition redshift for the ISCS sample, with clear evidence of an unquenched era of cluster star formation at earlier times. Beyond this redshift, the fraction of star-forming cluster members increases monotonically toward the cluster centers. Indeed, the specific star formation rate in the cores of these distant clusters is consistent with field values at similar redshifts, indicating that at z > 1.4 environment-dependent quenching had not yet been established in ISCS clusters. By combining these observations with complementary studies showing a rapid increase in the active galactic nucleus (AGN) fraction, a stochastic star formation history, and a major merging episode at the same epoch in this cluster sample, we suggest that the starburst activity is likely merger-driven and that the subsequent quenching is due to feedback from merger-fueled AGNs. The totality of the evidence suggests we are witnessing the final quenching period that brings an end to the era of star formation in galaxy clusters and initiates the era of passive evolution.

  9. GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES: A NEAR-UNIVERSAL LUMINOSITY FUNCTION?

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, William E.; O'Halloran, Heather; Cockcroft, Robert E-mail: ohallohm@mcmaster.ca; and others

    2014-12-20

    We present the first results from our Hubble Space Telescope brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) survey of seven central supergiant cluster galaxies and their globular cluster (GC) systems. We measure a total of 48,000 GCs in all seven galaxies, representing the largest single GC database. We find that a log-normal shape accurately matches the observed the luminosity function (LF) of the GCs down to the globular cluster luminosity function turnover point, which is near our photometric limit. In addition, the LF has a virtually identical shape in all seven galaxies. Our data underscore the similarity in the formation mechanism of massive star clusters in diverse galactic environments. At the highest luminosities (L ≳ 10{sup 7} L {sub ☉}), we find small numbers of ''superluminous'' objects in five of the galaxies; their luminosity and color ranges are at least partly consistent with those of ultra-compact dwarfs. Last, we find preliminary evidence that in the outer halo (R ≳ 20 kpc), the LF turnover point shows a weak dependence on projected distance, scaling as L {sub 0} ∼ R {sup –0.2}, while the LF dispersion remains nearly constant.

  10. A Snapshot Survey of The Most Massive Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, Harald

    2010-09-01

    We propose the continuation of our highly successful HST/ACS SNAPshot survey of a sample of 123 very X-ray luminous clusters in the redshift range 0.3-0.7, detected and compiled by the MACS cluster survey. As demonstrated by dedicated HST observations of the 12 most distant MACS clusters {GO-09722} as well as by the MACS SNAPshots of an additional 25 obtained with ACS so far in Cycles 14 and 15, these systems frequently exhibit strong gravitational lensing as well as spectacular examples of violent galaxy evolution. A large number of additional MACS SNAPs have since been obtained with WFPC2, leading to the discovery of several more powerful cluster lenses. The dramatic loss, however, of depth, field-of-view, and angular resolution compared to ACS led to significantly reduced scientific returns, underlining the need for ACS for this project. The proposed observations will provide important constraints on the cluster mass distributions, on the physical nature of !galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-gas interactions in cluster cores, and will yield a set of optically bright, lensed galaxies for further 8-10m spectroscopy. For those of our targets with existing ACS SNAPshot images, we propose SNAPshots in the WFC3 F110W and F140W passbands to obtain colour information that will greatly improve the secure identification of multiple-image systems and may, in the form of F606W or F814W dropouts, lead to the lensing-enabled discovery of very distant galaxies at z>5. Acknowledging the broad community interest in this sample {16 of the 25 targets of the approved MCT cluster program are MACS discoveries} we waive our data rights for these observations.This proposal is an updated and improved version of our successful Cycle 15 proposal of the same title. Alas, SNAP-10875 collected only six snapshots in the F606W or F814W passbands, due to, first, a clerical error at STScI which caused the program to be barred from execution for four months and, ultimately, the failure of ACS. With ACS

  11. Gas stripping in galaxy clusters: a new SPH simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jáchym, P.; Palouš, J.; Köppen, J.; Combes, F.

    2007-09-01

    Aims:The influence of a time-varying ram pressure on spiral galaxies in clusters is explored with a new simulation method based on the N-body SPH/tree code GADGET. Methods: We have adapted the code to describe the interaction of two different gas phases, the diffuse hot intracluster medium (ICM) and the denser and colder interstellar medium (ISM). Both the ICM and ISM components are introduced as SPH particles. As a galaxy arrives on a highly radial orbit from outskirts to cluster center, it crosses the ICM density peak and experiences a time-varying wind. Results: Depending on the duration and intensity of the ISM-ICM interaction, early and late type galaxies in galaxy clusters with either a large or small ICM distribution are found to show different stripping efficiencies, amounts of reaccretion of the extra-planar ISM, and final masses. We compare the numerical results with analytical approximations of different complexity and indicate the limits of the Gunn & Gott simple stripping formula. Conclusions: Our investigations emphasize the role of the galactic orbital history to the stripping amount. We discuss the contribution of ram pressure stripping to the origin of the ICM and its metallicity. We propose gas accumulations like tails, filaments, or ripples to be responsible for stripping in regions with low overall ICM occurrence. Appendix A is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  12. Selecting background galaxies in weak-lensing analysis of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formicola, I.; Radovich, M.; Meneghetti, M.; Mazzotta, P.; Grado, A.; Giocoli, C.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to select the faint, background galaxies used to derive the mass of galaxy clusters by weak lensing. The method is based on the simultaneous analysis of the shear signal, that should be consistent with zero for the foreground, unlensed galaxies, and of the colours of the galaxies: photometric data from the COSMic evOlution Survey are used to train the colour selection. In order to validate this methodology, we test it against a set of state-of-the-art image simulations of mock galaxy clusters in different redshift [0.23-0.45] and mass [0.5-1.55 × 1015 M⊙] ranges, mimicking medium-deep multicolour imaging observations [e.g. Subaru, Large Binocular Telescope]. The performance of our method in terms of contamination by unlensed sources is comparable to a selection based on photometric redshifts, which however requires a good spectral coverage and is thus much more observationally demanding. The application of our method to simulations gives an average ratio between estimated and true masses of ˜0.98 ± 0.09. As a further test, we finally apply our method to real data, and compare our results with other weak-lensing mass estimates in the literature: for this purpose, we choose the cluster Abell 2219 (z = 0.228), for which multiband (BVRi) data are publicly available.

  13. Testing gravity with the stacked phase space around galaxy clusters.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tsz Yan; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Schmidt, Fabian; Takada, Masahiro

    2012-08-01

    In general relativity, the average velocity field of dark matter around galaxy clusters is uniquely determined by the mass profile. The latter can be measured through weak lensing. We propose a new method of measuring the velocity field (phase space density) by stacking redshifts of surrounding galaxies from a spectroscopic sample. In combination with lensing, this yields a direct test of gravity on scales of 1-30 Mpc. Using N-body simulations, we show that this method can improve upon current constraints on f(R) and Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model parameters by several orders of magnitude when applied to upcoming imaging and redshift surveys. PMID:23006162

  14. The radial distribution of galaxies in groups and clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzynski, J. M.; Koposov, S. E.; McCarthy, I. G.; McGee, S. L.; Belokurov, V.

    2012-06-01

    We present a new catalogue of 55 121 groups and clusters centred on luminous red galaxies from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 in the redshift range 0.15 ≤z≤ 0.4. We provide halo mass (M500) estimates for each of these groups derived from a calibration between the optical richness of bright galaxies (Mr≤-20.5) within 1 Mpc and X-ray-derived mass for a small subset of 129 groups and clusters with X-ray measurements. For 20 157 high-mass groups and clusters with M500 > 1013.7 M⊙, we find that the catalogue has a purity of >97 per cent and a completeness of ˜90 per cent. We derive the mean (stacked) surface number density profiles of galaxies as a function of total halo mass in different mass bins. We find that derived profiles can be well described by a projected Navarro-Frenk-White profile with a concentration parameter (≈ 2.6) that is approximately a factor of 2 lower than that of the dark matter (as predicted by N-body cosmological simulations) and nearly independent of halo mass. Interestingly, in spite of the difference in shape between the galaxy and dark matter radial distributions, both exhibit a high degree of self-similarity. We also stack the satellite profiles based on other observables, namely redshift, brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) luminosity and satellite luminosity and colour. We see no evidence for strong variation in profile shape with redshift over the range we probe or with BCG luminosity (or BCG luminosity fraction), but we do find a strong dependence on satellite luminosity and colours, in agreement with previous studies. A self-consistent comparison to several recent semi-analytic models of galaxy formation indicates that (1) beyond ≈0.3r500 current models are able to reproduce both the shape and normalization of the satellite profiles, and (2) within ≈0.3r500 the predicted profiles are sensitive to the details of the satellite-BCG merger time-scale calculation. The former is a direct result of the models

  15. New Limits on Gamma-Ray Emission from Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Rhiannon D.; Dai, Xinyu; Kochanek, Christopher S.

    2014-11-01

    Galaxy clusters are predicted to produce γ-rays through cosmic ray interactions and/or dark matter annihilation, potentially detectable by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT). We present a new, independent stacking analysis of Fermi-LAT photon count maps using the 78 richest nearby clusters (z < 0.12) from the Two Micron All Sky Survey cluster catalog. We obtain the lowest limit on the photon flux to date, 2.3 × 10-11 photons cm-2 s-1 (95% confidence) per cluster in the 0.8-100 GeV band, which corresponds to a luminosity limit of 3.5 × 1044 photons s-1. We also constrain the emission limits in a range of narrower energy bands. Scaling to recent cosmic ray acceleration and γ-ray emission models, we find that cosmic rays represent a negligible contribution to the intra-cluster energy density and gas pressure.

  16. The Latest Cosmological Results from X-ray Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantz, Adam

    2014-11-01

    X-ray observations of galaxy clusters have played an important role in cosmology over the years, and the field continues to be fruitful. I will focus on two particular observations: the gas mass fractions of dynamically relaxed clusters provide a unique measurement of the cosmic matter density and the expansion of the Universe, while surveys probing the cluster mass function are sensitive to the expansion, the initial conditions for cosmic structure formation, and the processes governing the growth of structure. I will present new work, in which previously exploited X-ray data sets are supplemented by weak gravitational lensing data, providing a precise and unbiased measurements of cluster total masses, and thereby significantly tightening cosmological constraints from clusters.

  17. Dark Matter in Galaxy Clusters: Shape, Projection, and Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groener, Austen M.

    We explore the intrinsic distribution of dark matter within galaxy clusters, by combining insights from the largest N-body simulations as well as the largest observational dataset of its kind. Firstly, we study the intrinsic shape and alignment of isodensities of galaxy cluster halos extracted from the MultiDark MDR1 cosmological simulation. We find that the simulated halos are extremely prolate on small scales and increasingly spherical on larger ones. Due to this trend, analytical projection along the line of sight produces an overestimate of the concentration index as a decreasing function of radius, which we quantify by using both the intrinsic distribution of 3D concentrations (c200) and isodensity shape on weak and strong lensing scales. We find this difference to be ˜ 18% (˜ 9%) for low (medium) mass cluster halos with intrinsically low concentrations (c200=1- 3), while we find virtually no difference for halos with intrinsically high concentrations. Isodensities are found to be fairly well-aligned throughout the entirety of the radial scale of each halo population. However, major axes of individual halos have been found to deviate by as much as ˜ 30°. We also present a value-added catalog of our analysis results, which we have made publicly available to download. Following that, we then turn to observational measurements galaxy clusters. Scaling relations of clusters have made them particularly important cosmological probes of structure formation. In this work, we present a comprehensive study of the relation between two profile observables, concentration (cvir ) and mass (Mvir). We have collected the largest known sample of measurements from the literature which make use of one or more of the following reconstruction techniques: Weak gravitational lensing (WL), strong gravitational lensing (SL), Weak+Strong Lensing (WL+SL), the Caustic Method (CM), Line-of-sight Velocity Dispersion (LOSVD), and X-ray. We find that the concentration-mass (c-M) relation

  18. Unidentified line in x-ray spectra of the Andromeda galaxy and Perseus galaxy cluster.

    PubMed

    Boyarsky, A; Ruchayskiy, O; Iakubovskyi, D; Franse, J

    2014-12-19

    We report a weak line at 3.52±0.02  keV in x-ray spectra of the Andromeda galaxy and the Perseus galaxy cluster observed by the metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) and p-n (PN) CCD cameras of the XMM-Newton telescope. This line is not known as an atomic line in the spectra of galaxies or clusters. It becomes stronger towards the centers of the objects; is stronger for Perseus than for M31; is absent in the spectrum of a deep "blank sky" data set. Although for each object it is hard to exclude that the feature is due to an instrumental effect or an atomic line, it is consistent with the behavior of a dark matter decay line. Future (non-)detections of this line in multiple objects may help to reveal its nature.

  19. Unidentified line in x-ray spectra of the Andromeda galaxy and Perseus galaxy cluster.

    PubMed

    Boyarsky, A; Ruchayskiy, O; Iakubovskyi, D; Franse, J

    2014-12-19

    We report a weak line at 3.52±0.02  keV in x-ray spectra of the Andromeda galaxy and the Perseus galaxy cluster observed by the metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) and p-n (PN) CCD cameras of the XMM-Newton telescope. This line is not known as an atomic line in the spectra of galaxies or clusters. It becomes stronger towards the centers of the objects; is stronger for Perseus than for M31; is absent in the spectrum of a deep "blank sky" data set. Although for each object it is hard to exclude that the feature is due to an instrumental effect or an atomic line, it is consistent with the behavior of a dark matter decay line. Future (non-)detections of this line in multiple objects may help to reveal its nature. PMID:25554871

  20. The REFLEX II Galaxy Cluster sample: mock catalogues and clustering analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaguera-Antolinez, Andres; Sanchez, Ariel G.; Bohringer, Hans

    2012-09-01

    We present results of the analysis of abundance and clustering from the new ROSAT-ESO Flux-Limited X-Ray (REFLEX) II galaxy cluster catalogue. To model the covariance matrix of the different statistics, we have created a set of 100 mock galaxy cluster catalogues built from a suite large volume LambdaCDM N-Body simulations (L-BASICC and calibrated with the X-ray luminosity function. We discuss the calibration scheme and some implications regarding the cluster scaling relations, particularly, the link between mass and luminosity. Similarly we show the behavior of the clustering signal as a function of the X-ray luminosity and some cosmological implications.

  1. The Astrophysics of galaxy groups and clusters with Athena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettori, Stefano

    The complete story of how groups and clusters of galaxies grow, and how they dissipate the gravitational and non-thermal components of their energy budget over cosmic time, is still beyond our grasp. X-ray observations of the evolving cluster population provide a unique opportunity to address such fundamental open questions as: • How do hot diffuse baryons accrete and dynamically evolve in dark matter potentials? • How and when was the energy that we observe in the ICM generated and distributed? • Where and when are heavy elements produced and how are they circulated? Athena, the next-generation X-ray observatory with large collecting area and an unprecedented combination of high spectral and angular resolution, offers the only way to make major advances in answering these questions. We present the impact of Athena on the study of galaxy group and cluster astrophysics. We focus on observations of nearby (z < 0.5) systems, where Athen+ will revolutionize our understanding of the basic process of energy transfer into the ICM, transform our view of the outer regions of galaxy clusters where material continues to accrete, and allow us to track the generation and diffusion of metals in the intracluster gas.

  2. Radio Bubbles in Clusters of Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Robert J.H.; Fabian, A.C.; Taylor, G.B.; /NRAO, Socorro /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2005-12-14

    We extend our earlier work on cluster cores with distinct radio bubbles, adding more active bubbles, i.e. those with GHz radio emission, to our sample, and also investigating ''ghost bubbles'', i.e. those without GHz radio emission. We have determined k, which is the ratio of the total particle energy to that of the electrons radiating between 10MHz and 10GHz. Constraints on the ages of the active bubbles confirm that the ratio of the energy factor, k, to the volume filling factor, f lies within the range 1 {approx}< k/f {approx}< 1000. In the assumption that there is pressure equilibrium between the radio-emitting plasma and the surrounding thermal X-ray gas, none of the radio lobes has equipartition between the relativistic particles and the magnetic field. A Monte-Carlo simulation of the data led to the conclusion that there are not enough bubbles present in the current sample to be able to determine the shape of the population. An analysis of the ghost bubbles in our sample showed that on the whole they have higher upper limits on k/f than the active bubbles, especially when compared to those in the same cluster. A study of the Brightest 55 cluster sample shows that 17, possibly 20, clusters required some form of heating as they have a short central cooling time, t{sub cool} {approx}< 3 Gyr, and a large central temperature drop, T{sub centre}/T{sub outer} < 1/2. Of these between 12 (70 per cent) and 15 (75 per cent), contain bubbles. This indicates that the duty cycle of bubbles is large in such clusters and that they can play a major role in the heating process.

  3. Stellar mass and population diagnostics of cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roediger, Joel C.

    2013-12-01

    We conduct a broad investigation about stellar mass and population diagnostics in order to formulate novel constraints related to the formation and evolution of galaxies from a nearby cluster environment. Our work is powered by the use of stellar population models which transform galaxy colours and/or absorption line strengths into estimates of its stellar properties. As input to such models, we assemble an extensive compilation of age and chemical abundance information for Galactic globular clusters. This compilation allows a confident expansion of these models into new regions of parameter space that promise to refine our knowledge of galactic chemical evolution. We then draw upon a state-of-the-art spectroscopic and photometric survey of the Virgo galaxy cluster in order to constrain spatial variations of the stellar ages, metallicities, and masses within its member galaxies, and their dynamical masses. We interpret these data in the context of the histories of star formation, chemical enrichment, and stellar mass assembly to formulate a broad picture of the build-up of this cluster's content over time. In it, the giant early-type galaxies formed through highly dissipational processes at early times that built up most of their stellar mass and drew significant amounts of dark matter within their optical radii. Conversely, dwarf early-types experienced environmental processes that quenched their star formation during either the early stages of cluster assembly or upon infall at later times. Somewhat perplexing is our finding that the internal dynamics of these galaxies are largely explained by their stellar masses. Lastly, Virgo spirals also suffer from their dense environment, through ram pressure stripping and/or tidal harrassment. In addition to quenching, these effects leave an imprint on their internal dynamical evolution too. Late-type spirals exhibit evidence of having ejected significant amounts of baryons from their inner regions, likely via energetic

  4. Weak Lensing by Galaxy Clusters: from Pixels to Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Gruen, Daniel

    2015-03-11

    The story of the origin and evolution of our Universe is told, equivalently, by space-time itself and by the structures that grow inside of it. Clusters of galaxies are the frontier of bottom-up structure formation. They are the most massive objects to have collapsed at the present epoch. By that virtue, their abundance and structural parameters are highly sensitive to the composition and evolution of the Universe. The most common probe of cluster cosmology, abundance, uses samples of clusters selected by some observable. Applying a mass-observable relation (MOR), cosmological parameters can be constrained by comparing the sample to predicted cluster abundances as a function of observable and redshift. Arguably, however, cluster probes have not yet entered the era of per cent level precision cosmology. The primary reason for this is our imperfect understanding of the MORs. The overall normalization, the slope of mass vs. observable, the redshift evolution, and the degree and correlation of intrinsic scatters of observables at fixed mass have to be constrained for interpreting abundances correctly. Mass measurement of clusters by means of the differential deflection of light from background sources in their gravitational field, i.e. weak lensing, is a powerful approach for achieving this. This thesis presents new methods for and scientific results of weak lensing measurements of clusters of galaxies. The former include, on the data reduction side, (i) the correction of CCD images for non-linear effects due to the electric fields of accumulated charges and (ii) a method for masking artifact features in sets of overlapping images of the sky by comparison to the median image. Also, (iii) I develop a method for the selection of background galaxy samples based on their color and apparent magnitude that includes a new correction for contamination with cluster member galaxies. The main scientific results are the following. (i) For the Hubble Frontier Field cluster RXC J

  5. Towards a realistic population of simulated galaxy groups and clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Brun, Amandine M. C.; McCarthy, Ian G.; Schaye, Joop; Ponman, Trevor J.

    2014-06-01

    We present a new suite of large-volume cosmological hydrodynamical simulations called cosmo-OWLS. They form an extension to the OverWhelmingly Large Simulations (OWLS) project, and have been designed to help improve our understanding of cluster astrophysics and non-linear structure formation, which are now the limiting systematic errors when using clusters as cosmological probes. Starting from identical initial conditions in either the Planck or WMAP7 cosmologies, we systematically vary the most important `sub-grid' physics, including feedback from supernovae and active galactic nuclei (AGN). We compare the properties of the simulated galaxy groups and clusters to a wide range of observational data, such as X-ray luminosity and temperature, gas mass fractions, entropy and density profiles, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich flux, I-band mass-to-light ratio, dominance of the brightest cluster galaxy and central massive black hole (BH) masses, by producing synthetic observations and mimicking observational analysis techniques. These comparisons demonstrate that some AGN feedback models can produce a realistic population of galaxy groups and clusters, broadly reproducing both the median trend and, for the first time, the scatter in physical properties over approximately two decades in mass (1013 M⊙ ≲ M500 ≲ 1015 M⊙) and 1.5 decades in radius (0.05 ≲ r/r500 ≲ 1.5). However, in other models, the AGN feedback is too violent (even though they reproduce the observed BH scaling relations), implying that calibration of the models is required. The production of realistic populations of simulated groups and clusters, as well as models that bracket the observations, opens the door to the creation of synthetic surveys for assisting the astrophysical and cosmological interpretation of cluster surveys, as well as quantifying the impact of selection effects.

  6. Dark energy and key physical parameters of clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.; Chernin, A. D.

    2012-04-01

    We study physics of clusters of galaxies embedded in the cosmic dark energy background. Under the assumption that dark energy is described by the cosmological constant, we show that the dynamical effects of dark energy are strong in clusters like the Virgo cluster. Specifically, the key physical parameters of the dark mater halos in clusters are determined by dark energy: (1) the halo cut-off radius is practically, if not exactly, equal to the zero-gravity radius at which the dark matter gravity is balanced by the dark energy antigravity; (2) the halo averaged density is equal to two densities of dark energy; (3) the halo edge (cut-off) density is the dark energy density with a numerical factor of the unity order slightly depending on the halo profile. The cluster gravitational potential well in which the particles of the dark halo (as well as galaxies and intracluster plasma) move is strongly affected by dark energy: the maximum of the potential is located at the zero-gravity radius of the cluster.

  7. Radio Point Sources Toward Galaxy Clusters at 30 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coble, K.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Bonamente, M.; Dawson, K.; Holzapfel, W.; Joy, M.; LaRoque, S.; Reese, E. D.

    2006-01-01

    Extra-galactic point sources are a significant contaminant in cosmic microwave background and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect experiments. Deep interferometric observations with the BIMA and OVRO arrays are used to characterize the spatial, spectral, and flux distributions of radio point sources toward galaxy clusters at 28.5 GHz. We compute counts of mJy point source fluxes from 90 fields centered on known massive galaxy clusters and 8 non-cluster fields. Counts in the non-cluster fields are consistent with extrapolations from the results of other surveys. We also compute counts towards clusters as a function of luminosity in three redshift bins out to z = 1.0 and see no clear evidence for evolution with redshift. We compute spectral indices of mJy sources in cluster fields between 1.4 and 28.5 GHz. The distribution is skewed, with a median spectral index of 0.76 and 25th and 75th percentiles of 0.55 and 0.95, respectively. This is steeper than the spectral indices of brighter field point sources measured by other surveys.

  8. Distant Compact Clusters of Galaxies from the BMW survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Antonio, Ian; Guzzo, Luigi; Longhetti, Marcella; Moretti, Alberto; Campana, Sergio; Lazzati, Davide; Panzera, Mariarosa; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero

    2002-02-01

    We propose to use SQIID to identify high-redshift clusters of galaxies from the BMW, an X-ray selected sample of serendipitously detected extended sources from the ROSAT HRI archive. The BMW survey is unique because of the superior angular resolution of the HRI. In fact, this is the only modern sample of distant clusters available that is not based on the low-resolution PSPC. Using 4m optical imaging, we have already identified several high-redshift clusters, two of which have z> 0.8, thus confirming the ability of the survey to peer efficiently into the z~ 1 regime, where only a handful of X-ray clusters are known. To test the evolution of the cluster abundance, we must increase the number of clusters known in this redshift regime. The BMW survey provides us with the only current opportunity to study compact clusters missing in all PSPC surveys. Because z~ 1 ellipticals have very red colors, K-band imaging is the most effective way of identifying these clusters. With SQIID, we also can obtain redshift estimates via the J-K red sequence. We propose near-IR imaging in J,H,K of 30 highest-z cluster candidates from the BMW survey, as indicated by their small size and low flux. This will allow efficient use of 8-meter spectroscopy to follow up the high-end tail of the redshift distribution.

  9. Radio Sources Toward Galaxy Clusters at 30 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coble, K.; Bonamente, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Dawson, K.; Hasler, N.; Holzapfel, W.; Joy, M.; LaRoque, S.; Marrone, D. P.; Reese, E. D.

    2007-01-01

    Extra-galactic radio sources are a significant contaminant in cosmic microwave background and Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect experiments. Deep interferometric observations with the BIMA and OVRO arrays are used to characterize the spatial, spectral, and flux distributions of radio sources toward massive galaxy clusters at 28.5 GHz. We compute counts of mJy source fluxes from 89 fields centered on known massive galaxy clusters and 8 non-cluster fields. We find that source counts in the inner regions of the cluster fields (within 0.5 arcmin of the cluster center) are a factor of 8.9 (+4.2 to -3.8) times higher than counts in the outer regions of the cluster fields (radius greater than 0.5 arcmin). Counts in the outer regions of the cluster fields are in turn a factor of 3.3 (+4.1 -1.8) greater than those in the noncluster fields. Counts in the non-cluster fields are consistent with extrapolations from the results of other surveys. We compute spectral indices of mJy sources in cluster fields between 1.4 and 28.5 GHz and find a mean spectral index of al[ja = 0.66 with an rms dispersion of 0.36, where flux S varies as upsilon(sup -alpha). The distribution is skewed, with a median spectral index of 0.72 and 25th and 75th percentiles of 0.51 and 0.92, respectively. This is steeper than the spectral indices of stronger field sources measured by other surveys.

  10. The clustering evolution of dusty star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, William I.; Lacey, Cedric G.; Baugh, Carlton M.; Cole, Shaun

    2016-09-01

    We present predictions for the clustering of galaxies selected by their emission at far-infrared (FIR) and sub-millimetre wavelengths. This includes the first predictions for the effect of clustering biases induced by the coarse angular resolution of single-dish telescopes at these wavelengths. We combine a new version of the GALFORM model of galaxy formation with a self-consistent model for calculating the absorption and re-emission of radiation by interstellar dust. Model galaxies selected at 850μm reside in dark matter haloes of mass Mhalo ˜ 1011.5-1012 h-1 M⊙, independent of redshift (for 0.2 ≲ z ≲ 4) or flux (for 0.25 ≲ S850 μm ≲ 4 mJy). At z ˜ 2.5, the brightest galaxies (S850 μm > 4 mJy) exhibit a correlation length of r0=5.5_{-0.5}^{+0.3} h-1 Mpc, consistent with observations. We show that these galaxies have descendants with stellar masses M⋆ ˜ 1011 h-1 M⊙ occupying haloes spanning a broad range in mass Mhalo ˜ 1012-1014 h-1 M⊙. The FIR emissivity at shorter wavelengths (250, 350 and 500 μm) is also dominated by galaxies in the halo mass range Mhalo ˜ 1011.5-1012 h-1 M⊙, again independent of redshift (for 0.5 ≲ z ≲ 5). We compare our predictions for the angular power spectrum of cosmic infrared background anisotropies at these wavelengths with observations, finding agreement to within a factor of ˜2 over all scales and wavelengths, an improvement over earlier versions of the model. Simulating images at 850 μm, we show that confusion effects boost the measured angular correlation function on all scales by a factor of ˜4. This has important consequences, potentially leading to inferred halo masses being overestimated by an order of magnitude.

  11. GALAXY EVOLUTION IN OVERDENSE ENVIRONMENTS AT HIGH REDSHIFT: PASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN A CLUSTER AT z {approx} 2

    SciTech Connect

    Strazzullo, V.; Gobat, R.; Daddi, E.; Onodera, M.; Carollo, M.; Dickinson, M.; Renzini, A.; Arimoto, N.; Cimatti, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Chary, R.-R.

    2013-08-01

    We present a study of galaxy populations in the central region of the IRAC-selected, X-ray-detected galaxy cluster Cl J1449+0856 at z = 2. Based on a sample of spectroscopic and photometric cluster members, we investigate stellar populations and the morphological structure of cluster galaxies over an area of {approx}0.7 Mpc{sup 2} around the cluster core. The cluster stands out as a clear overdensity both in redshift space and in the spatial distribution of galaxies close to the center of the extended X-ray emission. The cluster core region (r < 200 kpc) shows a clearly enhanced passive fraction with respect to field levels. However, together with a population of massive, passive galaxies mostly with early-type morphologies, the cluster core also hosts massive, actively star-forming, often highly dust reddened sources. Close to the cluster center, a multi-component system of passive and star-forming galaxies could represent the future brightest cluster galaxy still forming. We observe a clear correlation between passive stellar populations and an early-type morphology, in agreement with field studies at similar redshift. Passive early-type galaxies in this cluster are typically a factor of 2-3 smaller than similarly massive early types at z {approx} 0. On the other hand, these same objects are on average larger by a factor of {approx}2 than field early-types at similar redshift, lending support to recent claims of an accelerated structural evolution in high-redshift dense environments. These results point toward the early formation of a population of massive galaxies, already evolved both in their structure and stellar populations, coexisting with still actively forming massive galaxies in the central regions of young clusters 10 billion years ago.

  12. The XXL survey: first results on clusters of galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacaud, Florian

    2016-07-01

    With a total geometric area of 50deg2, XXL is the largest contiguous survey undertaken by the XMM-Newton satellite. The final survey catalogues are expected to contain ~25000 AGNs down to a flux limit of 3e-15 erg/s/cm2 and ~500 groups and clusters of galaxies up to a redshift of z~1.5. The first results of the survey focus on a sub-sample of the 100 brightest galaxy clusters and have recently been released to the public. In this contribution, I will first describe the sample and the modeling of its selection function. Then, I will discuss some of the most significant early scientific results based on the catalogue, namely the measured scaling relations, the baryon budget of XXL groups, the detection of superstructures and the cosmological implications of the sample.

  13. Super Star Clusters in Luminous Infrared Galaxies: the SUNBIRD Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väisänen, P.; Randriamanakoto, Z.; Escala, A.; Kankare, E.; Kniazev, A.; Kotilainen, J. K.; Mattila, S.; Ramphul, R.; Ryder, S.; Tekola, A.

    2014-09-01

    We summarize recent results from an Adaptive Optics (AO) imaging survey of 40 Luminous IR Galaxies (LIRGs). We have constructed the first statistically significant sample of Luminosity Functions (LFs) of Super Star Clusters (SSCs) in the near-IR, and find evidence that the LF slopes in LIRGs are shallower than in more quiescent spiral galaxies. Distance and blending effects were investigated in detail paving the way for SSC studies further out than done previously. We have also correlated the luminosities of the brightest clusters with the star formation rates of the hosts and find that the characteristics of the relation suggest an underlying physical driver rather than solely a size-of-sample effect. Finally we present early results of using SSC age and mass properties to trace the histories of the target LIRG systems.

  14. Globular clusters: DNA of early-type galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, Juan C.; Vega, E. Irene; Faifer, Favio R.; Smith Castelli, Analía V.; Escudero, Carlos; González, Nélida M.; Sesto, Leandro

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores if the mean properties of early-type galaxies (ETGs) can be reconstructed from `genetic' information stored in their globular clusters (GCs; i.e. in their chemical abundances, spatial distributions and ages). This approach implies that the formation of each globular occurs in very massive stellar environments, as suggested by some models that aim at explaining the presence of multipopulations in these systems. The assumption that the relative number of GCs to diffuse stellar mass depends exponentially on chemical abundance, [Z/H], and the presence of two dominant GC subpopulations (blue and red), allows the mapping of low-metallicity haloes and of higher metallicity (and more heterogeneous) bulges. In particular, the masses of the low-metallicity haloes seem to scale up with dark matter mass through a constant. We also find a dependence of the GC formation efficiency with the mean projected stellar mass density of the galaxies within their effective radii. The analysis is based on a selected subsample of galaxies observed within the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey of the Hubble Space Telescope. These systems were grouped, according to their absolute magnitudes, in order to define composite fiducial galaxies and look for a quantitative connection with their (also composite) GCs systems. The results strengthen the idea that GCs are good quantitative tracers of both baryonic and dark matter in ETGs.

  15. A filament of dark matter between two clusters of galaxies.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Jörg P; Werner, Norbert; Clowe, Douglas; Finoguenov, Alexis; Kitching, Tom; Miller, Lance; Simionescu, Aurora

    2012-07-12

    It is a firm prediction of the concordance cold-dark-matter cosmological model that galaxy clusters occur at the intersection of large-scale structure filaments. The thread-like structure of this 'cosmic web' has been traced by galaxy redshift surveys for decades. More recently, the warm–hot intergalactic medium (a sparse plasma with temperatures of 10(5) kelvin to 10(7) kelvin) residing in low-redshift filaments has been observed in emission and absorption. However, a reliable direct detection of the underlying dark-matter skeleton, which should contain more than half of all matter, has remained elusive, because earlier candidates for such detections were either falsified or suffered from low signal-to-noise ratios and unphysical misalignments of dark and luminous matter. Here we report the detection of a dark-matter filament connecting the two main components of the Abell 222/223 supercluster system from its weak gravitational lensing signal, both in a non-parametric mass reconstruction and in parametric model fits. This filament is coincident with an overdensity of galaxies and diffuse, soft-X-ray emission, and contributes a mass comparable to that of an additional galaxy cluster to the total mass of the supercluster. By combining this result with X-ray observations, we can place an upper limit of 0.09 on the hot gas fraction (the mass of X-ray-emitting gas divided by the total mass) in the filament.

  16. A filament of dark matter between two clusters of galaxies.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Jörg P; Werner, Norbert; Clowe, Douglas; Finoguenov, Alexis; Kitching, Tom; Miller, Lance; Simionescu, Aurora

    2012-07-12

    It is a firm prediction of the concordance cold-dark-matter cosmological model that galaxy clusters occur at the intersection of large-scale structure filaments. The thread-like structure of this 'cosmic web' has been traced by galaxy redshift surveys for decades. More recently, the warm–hot intergalactic medium (a sparse plasma with temperatures of 10(5) kelvin to 10(7) kelvin) residing in low-redshift filaments has been observed in emission and absorption. However, a reliable direct detection of the underlying dark-matter skeleton, which should contain more than half of all matter, has remained elusive, because earlier candidates for such detections were either falsified or suffered from low signal-to-noise ratios and unphysical misalignments of dark and luminous matter. Here we report the detection of a dark-matter filament connecting the two main components of the Abell 222/223 supercluster system from its weak gravitational lensing signal, both in a non-parametric mass reconstruction and in parametric model fits. This filament is coincident with an overdensity of galaxies and diffuse, soft-X-ray emission, and contributes a mass comparable to that of an additional galaxy cluster to the total mass of the supercluster. By combining this result with X-ray observations, we can place an upper limit of 0.09 on the hot gas fraction (the mass of X-ray-emitting gas divided by the total mass) in the filament. PMID:22763438

  17. X-ray analysis of filaments in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, S. A.; Kosec, P.; Fabian, A. C.; Sanders, J. S.

    2015-11-01

    We perform a detailed X-ray study of the filaments surrounding the brightest cluster galaxies in a sample of nearby galaxy clusters using deep Chandra observations, namely the Perseus, Centaurus and Virgo clusters, and Abell 1795. We compare the X-ray properties and spectra of the filaments in all of these systems, and find that their Chandra X-ray spectra are all broadly consistent with an absorbed two-temperature thermal model, with temperature components at 0.75 and 1.7 keV. We find that it is also possible to model the Chandra ACIS filament spectra with a charge exchange model provided a thermal component is also present, and the abundance of oxygen is suppressed relative to the abundance of Fe. In this model, charge exchange provides the dominant contribution to the spectrum in the 0.5-1.0 keV band. However, when we study the high spectral resolution RGS spectrum of the filamentary plume seen in X-rays in Centaurus, the opposite appears to be the case. The properties of the filaments in our sample of clusters are also compared to the X-ray tails of galaxies in the Coma cluster and Abell 3627. In the Perseus cluster, we search for signs of absorption by a prominent region of molecular gas in the filamentary structure around NGC 1275. We do find a decrement in the X-ray spectrum below 2 keV, indicative of absorption. However, the spectral shape is inconsistent with this decrement being caused by simply adding an additional absorbing component. We find that the spectrum can be well fit (with physically sensible parameters) with a model that includes both absorption by molecular gas and X-ray emission from the filament, which partially counteracts the absorption.

  18. Multifrequency constraints on the nonthermal pressure in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colafrancesco, S.; Emritte, M. S.; Mhlahlo, N.; Marchegiani, P.

    2014-06-01

    Context. The origin of radio halos in galaxy clusters is still unknown and is the subject of a vibrant debate from both observational and theoretical points of view. In particular, the amount and the nature of nonthermal plasma and of the magnetic field energy density in clusters hosting radio halos is still unclear. Aims: The aim of this paper is to derive an estimate of the pressure ratio X = Pnon - th/Pth between the nonthermal and thermal plasma in radio halo clusters that have combined radio, X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect observations. Methods: From the simultaneous P1.4 - LX and P1,4 - YSZ correlations for a sample of clusters observed with Planck, we derive a correlation between YSZ and LX that we use to derive a value for X. This is possible since the Compton parameter YSZ is proportional to the total plasma pressure in the cluster, which we characterize as the sum of the thermal and nonthermal pressure, while the X-ray luminosity LX is proportional only to the thermal pressure of the intracluster plasma. Results: Our results indicate that the average (best-fit) value of the pressure ratio in a self-similar cluster formation model is X = 0.55 ± 0.05 in the case of an isothermal β-model with β = 2/3 and a core radius rc = 0.3·R500, holding on average for the cluster sample. We also show that the theoretical prediction for the YSZ - LX correlation in this model has a slope that is steeper than the best-fit value for the available data. The agreement with the data can be recovered if the pressure ratio X decreases with increasing X-ray luminosity as LX-0.96. Conclusions: We conclude that the available data on radio halo clusters indicate a substantial amount of nonthermal pressure in cluster atmospheres whose value must decrease with increasing X-ray luminosity or increasing cluster mass (temperature). This is in agreement with the idea that nonthermal pressure is related to nonthermal sources of cosmic rays that live in cluster cores and inject

  19. New measurements of radial velocities in clusters of galaxies. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proust, D.; Mazure, A.; Sodre, L.; Capelato, H.; Lund, G.

    1988-03-01

    Heliocentric radial velocities are determined for 100 galaxies in five clusters, on the basis of 380-518-nm observations obtained using a CCD detector coupled by optical fibers to the OCTOPUS multiobject spectrograph at the Cassegrain focus of the 3.6-m telescope at ESO La Silla. The data-reduction procedures and error estimates are discussed, and the results are presented in tables and graphs and briefly characterized.

  20. A faint galaxy redshift survey behind massive clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, Brenda

    1999-12-01

    This thesis is concerned with the gravitational lensing effect by massive galaxy clusters. We have explored a new technique for measuring galaxy masses and for detecting high-z galaxies by their optical colors. A redshift survey has been obtained at the Keck for a magnitude limited sample of objects (I<23) behind three clusters, A1689, A2390, and A2218 within a radius of 0.5M pc. For each cluster we see both a clear trend of increasing flux and redshift towards the center. This behavior is the result of image magnifications, such that at fixed redshift one sees further down the luminosity function. The gradient of this magnification is, unlike measurements of image distortion, sensitive to the mass profile, and found to depart strongly from a pure isothermal halo. We have found that V RI color selection can be used effectively as a discriminant for finding high-z galaxies behind clusters and present five 4.1 < z < 5.1 spectra which are of very high quality due to their high mean magnification of {approximately}20, showing strong, visibly-saturated interstellar metal lines in some cases. We have also investigated the radio ring lens PKS 1830-211, locating the source and multiple images and detected molecular absorption at mm wavelengths. Broad molecular absorption of width 1/40kms is found toward the southwest component only, where surprisingly it does not reach the base of the continuum, which implies incomplete coverage of the SW component by molecular gas, despite the small projected size of the source, less than 1/8h pc at the absorption redshift.

  1. Low-frequency radio observations of poor clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, R. J.; White, R. A.

    1981-06-01

    Observations have been made at the Clark Lake Radio Observatory of 16 poor clusters of galaxies at 34.3 MHz. Four of the poor clusters were detected at flux densities greater than 20 Jy. The spectra of the four detected clusters are all rather steep. Two of the detected clusters, AWM 4 and AWM 5, are also known to be X-ray sources. The possibility that the X-ray-emitting gas is heated by Coulomb interactions with the relativistic electrons responsible for the radio emission is investigated, and it is found that the observed X-ray luminosities can be accounted for if the electron energy spectrum extends to very low energies (gamma approximately 1-10). Collective plasma effects may increase the heating efficiency and eliminate the need to extrapolate the electron energy spectrum to such low values.

  2. Low-frequency radio observations of poor clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanisch, R. J.; White, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    Observations have been made at the Clark Lake Radio Observatory of 16 poor clusters of galaxies at 34.3 MHz. Four of the poor clusters were detected at flux densities greater than 20 Jy. The spectra of the four detected clusters are all rather steep. Two of the detected clusters, AWM 4 and AWM 5, are also known to be X-ray sources. The possibility that the X-ray-emitting gas is heated by Coulomb interactions with the relativistic electrons responsible for the radio emission is investigated, and it is found that the observed X-ray luminosities can be accounted for if the electron energy spectrum extends to very low energies (gamma approximately 1-10). Collective plasma effects may increase the heating efficiency and eliminate the need to extrapolate the electron energy spectrum to such low values.

  3. Chandra Observations of Dying Radio Sources in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murgia, M.; Markevitch, M.; Govoni, F.; Parma, P.; Fanti, R.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Mack, K.-H.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The dying radio sources represent a very interesting and largely unexplored stage of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) evolution. They are considered to be very rare, and almost all of the few known ones were found in galaxy clusters. However, considering the small number detected so far, it has not been possible to draw any firm conclusions about their X-ray environment. Aims. We present X-ray observations performed with the Chandra satellite of the three galaxy clusters Abell 2276, ZwCl 1829.3+6912, and RX J1852.1+5711, which harbor at their center a dying radio source with an ultra-steep spectrum that we recently discovered. Methods. We analyzed the physical properties of the X-ray emitting gas surrounding these elusive radio sources. We determined the global X-ray properties of the clusters, derived the azimuthally averaged profiles of metal abundance, gas temperature, density, and pressure. Furthermore, we estimated the total mass profiles. Results. The large-scale X-ray emission is regular and spherical, suggesting a relaxed state for these systems. Indeed, we found that the three clusters are also characterized by significant enhancements in the metal abundance and declining temperature profiles toward the central region. For all these reasons, we classified RX J1852.1+5711, Abell 2276, and ZwCl 1829.3+6912 as cool-core galaxy clusters. Conclusions. We calculated the non-thermal pressure of the radio lobes assuming that the radio sources are in the minimum energy condition. For all dying sources we found that this is on average about one to two orders of magnitude lower than that of the external gas, as found for many other radio sources at the center of galaxy groups and clusters. We found marginal evidence for the presence of X-ray surface brightness depressions coincident with the fossil radio lobes of the dying sources in A2276 and ZwCl 1829.3+691. We estimated the outburst age and energy output for these two dying sources. The energy power from

  4. Galaxy Cluster Center Detection Methods with Weak Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simet, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    The precise location of galaxy cluster centers is a persistent problem in weak lensing mass estimates and in interpretations of clusters in a cosmological context. Misidentification of centers, either because a well-defined center does not exist or because candidate centers are incorrectly identified or ranked, leads to systematic underestimates of cluster masses. Weak lensing provides a potential lever on this issue by directly probing the distribution of dark matter. We test methods of determining cluster centers directly from weak lensing data and examine the effects of such self-calibration on the measured masses. Drawing on lensing data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82, a 275 square degree region of coadded data in the Southern Galactic Cap, together with a catalog of MaxBCG clusters, we show that halo substructure as well as shape noise and stochasticity in galaxy positions limit the precision of such a self-calibration (in the context of Stripe 82, to ~500 h-1 kpc or larger) and bias the mass estimates around these points to a level that is likely unacceptable for the purposes of making cosmological measurements. In cases where other center identification methods fail, however, the method may still be useful to distinguish between competing options.

  5. The UV-upturn in brightest cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loubser, S. I.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.

    2015-03-01

    This study is part of a series devoted to the investigation of a large sample of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), their properties and the relationships between these and the properties of the host clusters. In this paper, we compare the stellar population properties derived from high signal-to-noise, optical long-slit spectra with the GALEX ultraviolet (UV) colour measurements for 36 nearby BCGs to understand the diversity in the most rapidly evolving feature in old stellar systems, the UV-upturn. We investigate: (1) the possible differences between the UV-upturn of BCGs and those of a control sample of ordinary ellipticals in the same mass range, as well as possible correlations between the UV-upturn and other general properties of the galaxies; (2) possible correlations between the UV-upturn and the properties of the host clusters; (3) recently proposed scenarios where helium-sedimentation in the cluster centre can produce an enhanced UV-upturn. We find systematic differences between the UV-colours of BCGs and ordinary ellipticals, but we do not find correlations between these colours and the properties of the host clusters. Furthermore, the observations do not support the predictions made by the helium-sedimentation model as an enhancer of the UV-upturn.

  6. DISRUPTION OF STAR CLUSTERS IN THE INTERACTING ANTENNAE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Karl, Simon J.; Naab, Thorsten; Fall, S. Michael E-mail: naab@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2011-06-10

    We re-examine the age distribution of star clusters in the Antennae in the context of N-body+hydrodynamical simulations of these interacting galaxies. All of the simulations that account for the observed morphology and other properties of the Antennae have star formation rates that vary relatively slowly with time, by factors of only 1.3-2.5 in the past 10{sup 8} yr. In contrast, the observed age distribution of the clusters declines approximately as a power law, dN/d{tau}{proportional_to}{tau}{sup {gamma}} with {gamma} = -1.0, for ages 10{sup 6} yr {approx}< {tau} {approx}< 10{sup 9} yr. These two facts can only be reconciled if the clusters are disrupted progressively for at least {approx}10{sup 8} yr and possibly {approx}10{sup 9} yr. When we combine the simulated formation rates with a power-law model, f{sub surv}{proportional_to}{tau}{sup {delta}}, for the fraction of clusters that survive to each age {tau}, we match the observed age distribution with exponents in the range -0.9 {approx}< {delta} {approx}< -0.6 (with a slightly different {delta} for each simulation). The similarity between {delta} and {gamma} indicates that dN/d{tau} is shaped mainly by the disruption of clusters rather than variations in their formation rate. Thus, the situation in the interacting Antennae resembles that in relatively quiescent galaxies such as the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds.

  7. Angular momenta, dynamical masses, and mergers of brightest cluster galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Jimmy; Tran, Kim-Vy; Brough, Sarah; Gebhardt, Karl; Von der Linden, Anja; Couch, Warrick J.; Sharp, Rob

    2013-12-01

    Using the VIMOS integral field unit (IFU) spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope, we have spatially mapped the kinematic properties of 10 nearby brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and 4 BCG companion galaxies located within a redshift of z = 0.1. In the hierarchical formation model, these massive galaxies (10{sup 10.5} M {sub ☉} < M {sub dyn} < 10{sup 11.9} M {sub ☉}) are expected to undergo more mergers than lower mass galaxies, and simulations show that dry minor mergers can remove angular momentum. We test whether BCGs have low angular momenta by using the λ {sub Re} parameter developed by the SAURON and ATLAS{sup 3D} teams and combine our kinematics with Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry to analyze the BCGs' merger status. We find that 30% (3/10) of the BCGs and 100% of the companion galaxies (4/4) are fast rotators as defined by the ATLAS{sup 3D} criteria. Our fastest rotating BCG has a λ {sub Re} = 0.35 ± 0.05. We increase the number of BCGs analyzed from 1 in the combined SAURON and ATLAS{sup 3D} surveys to 11 BCGs total and find that above M {sub dyn} ∼ 11.5 M {sub ☉}, virtually all galaxies, regardless of environment, are slow rotators. To search for signs of recent merging, we analyze the photometry of each system and use the G – M {sub 20} selection criteria to identify mergers. We find that 40% ± 20% of our BCGs are currently undergoing or have recently undergone a merger (within 0.2 Gyr). Surprisingly, we find no correlation between galaxies with high angular momentum and morphological signatures of merging.

  8. Angular Momenta, Dynamical Masses, and Mergers of Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimmy; Tran, Kim-Vy; Brough, Sarah; Gebhardt, Karl; von der Linden, Anja; Couch, Warrick J.; Sharp, Rob

    2013-12-01

    Using the VIMOS integral field unit (IFU) spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope, we have spatially mapped the kinematic properties of 10 nearby brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and 4 BCG companion galaxies located within a redshift of z = 0.1. In the hierarchical formation model, these massive galaxies (1010.5 M ⊙ < M dyn < 1011.9 M ⊙) are expected to undergo more mergers than lower mass galaxies, and simulations show that dry minor mergers can remove angular momentum. We test whether BCGs have low angular momenta by using the λ Re parameter developed by the SAURON and ATLAS3D teams and combine our kinematics with Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry to analyze the BCGs' merger status. We find that 30% (3/10) of the BCGs and 100% of the companion galaxies (4/4) are fast rotators as defined by the ATLAS3D criteria. Our fastest rotating BCG has a λ Re = 0.35 ± 0.05. We increase the number of BCGs analyzed from 1 in the combined SAURON and ATLAS3D surveys to 11 BCGs total and find that above M dyn ~ 11.5 M ⊙, virtually all galaxies, regardless of environment, are slow rotators. To search for signs of recent merging, we analyze the photometry of each system and use the G - M 20 selection criteria to identify mergers. We find that 40% ± 20% of our BCGs are currently undergoing or have recently undergone a merger (within 0.2 Gyr). Surprisingly, we find no correlation between galaxies with high angular momentum and morphological signatures of merging. Based on Very Large Telescope (VLT) service mode observations (Programs 381.B-0728 and 087.B-0366) gathered at the European Southern Observatory, Chile.

  9. Measuring the neutral hydrogen mass of galaxy cluster A262

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mohd Shaiful Rizal; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Ibrahim, Ungku Ferwani Salwa Ungku; Hashim, Norsiah

    2013-05-01

    The total neutral hydrogen mass of galaxy cluster, MHI is measured using spectra taken by a 7 meter single dish radio telescope at Jodrell Bank Observatory. This have been done by using a concept introduced by R. A. Bettye which is make use of small single radio telescope for findings MHI as a whole. MHI is calculated by using simple relationship involving parameter distance of the object from the observer, D and radiated flux of continuum radio source, Sν. A262 is chosen as our test subject since it is compatible with the capability of our instrument. It is a spiral rich galaxy cluster and a fragment of Pisces in the Perseus supercluster, located approximately at 62 - 77 Mpc. It is a part of Local Group Supercluster that is centered at giant elliptical galaxy, NGC 708, and it is also called `cluster dominant' because of its strongly X-ray source concentrated. A262 is chosen as our candidate in this study because of its relatively low redshift, z = 0.0156, observed in 21 cm emission as their tracer. We calculate MHI of A262 according to some analysis from previous studies. Preliminary detection of A262 showed some degree of success.

  10. The redistribution of matter in the cores of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, Chervin F. P.; White, Simon D. M.

    2015-08-01

    We present cosmological N-body resimulations of the assembly of the Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) in rich clusters. At z = 2, we populate dark matter subhaloes with self-gravitating stellar systems whose abundance and structure match observed high-redshift galaxies. By z = 0, mergers have built much larger galaxies at cluster centre. Their dark matter density profiles are shallower than in corresponding dark-matter-only simulations, but their total mass density profiles (stars + dark matter) are quite similar. Differences are found only at radii where the effects of central black holes may be significant. Dark matter density slopes shallower than γ = 1.0 occur for r/r200 < 0.015, close to the half-light radii of the BCGs. Our experiments support earlier suggestions that NFW-like profiles are an attractor for the hierarchical growth of structure in collisionless systems - total mass density profiles asymptote to the solution found in dark-matter-only simulations over the radial range where mergers produce significant mixing between stars and dark matter. Simulated dark matter fractions are substantially higher in BCGs than in field ellipticals, reaching 80 per cent within the half-light radius. We also estimate that supermassive black hole mergers should create BCG cores as large as rc ˜ 3 kpc. The good agreement of all these properties with recent observational studies of BCG structure suggests that dissipational processes have not played a dominant role in the assembly of the observed systems.

  11. ISO Lensing Studies: background galaxies and foreground cluster properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Martinez, Ricardo

    2003-02-01

    A number of ISO programmes, totaling over 100 hours of observation time, made use of the gravitational lensing phenomenon to extend the sensitivity of ISO observations. Substantial results derived from those programmes have been published, or are in the peer review process, addressing the MIR properties of the background lensed galaxy population. These results, which have important implications for galaxy evolution, and which resolve a large fraction of the 15 and 7 μm infrared-background light, will be briefly summarised. But the data has much further potential. Little has been published to date concerning the implications of the ISO lensing data for the foreground clusters themselves, nor addressing the overlap between the observed ISO sources and lensed populations seen at X-Ray and Sub-mm wavelengths. We report briefly on an ongoing programme to systematically reassess the set of ISO observations of lensing galaxy clusters and to describe and compare the IR properties of the clusters themselves. The overlap between ISO source lists and recently published lists of X-Ray and Sub-mm sources in the same fields is under study.

  12. Motions in Nearby Galaxy Cluster Reveal Presence of Hidden Superstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    A nearby galaxy cluster is facing an intergalactic headwind as it is pulled by an underlying superstructure of dark matter, according to new evidence from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. Astronomers think that most of the matter in the universe is concentrated in long large filaments of dark matter and that galaxy clusters are formed where these filaments intersect. A Chandra survey of the Fornax galaxy cluster revealed a vast, swept-back cloud of hot gas near the center of the cluster. This geometry indicates that the hot gas cloud, which is several hundred thousand light years in length, is moving rapidly through a larger, less dense cloud of gas. The motion of the core gas cloud, together with optical observations of a group of galaxies racing inward on a collision course with it, suggests that an unseen, large structure is collapsing and drawing everything toward a common center of gravity. X-ray Image of Fornax with labels X-ray Image of Fornax with labels "At a relatively nearby distance of about 60 million light years, the Fornax cluster represents a crucial laboratory for studying the interplay of galaxies, hot gas and dark matter as the cluster evolves." said Caleb Scharf of Columbia University in New York, NY, lead author of a paper describing the Chandra survey that was presented at an American Astronomical Society meeting in New Orleans, LA. "What we are seeing could be associated directly with the intergalactic gas surrounding a very large scale structure that stretches over millions of light years." The infalling galaxy group, whose motion was detected by Michael Drinkwater of the University of Melbourne in Australia, and colleagues, is about 3 million light years from the cluster core, so a collision with the core will not occur for a few billion years. Insight as to how this collision will look is provided by the elliptical galaxy NGC 1404 that is plunging into the core of the cluster for the first time. As discussed by Scharf and another group

  13. On the formation of cD galaxies and their parent clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovmassian, Hrant M.; Andernach, Heinz

    2012-12-01

    In order to study the mechanism of the formation of cD galaxies, we search for possible dependencies between the K-band luminosity of cD galaxies and the parameters of their host clusters which we select to have a dominant cD galaxy, corresponding to a cluster morphology of Bautz-Morgan type I (BM I). As a comparison sample we use cD galaxies in clusters where they are not dominant, which we define here as non-BM I (NBMI) type clusters. We find that for 71 BM I clusters the absolute K-band luminosity of cD galaxies depends on the cluster richness, but less strongly on the cluster velocity dispersion. Meanwhile, for 35 NBMI clusters the correlation between cD luminosity and cluster richness is weaker, and is absent between cD luminosity and velocity dispersion. In addition, we find that the luminosity of the cD galaxy hosted in BM I clusters tends to increase with the cD's peculiar velocity with respect to the cluster mean velocity. In contrast, for NBMI clusters the cD luminosity decreases with increasing peculiar velocity. Also, the X-ray luminosity of BM I clusters depends on the cluster velocity dispersion, while in NBMI clusters such a correlation is absent. These findings favour the cannibalism scenario for the formation of cD galaxies. We suggest that cD galaxies in clusters of BM I type were formed and evolved preferentially in one and the same cluster. In contrast, cD galaxies in NBMI-type clusters were either originally formed in clusters that later merged with groups or clusters to form the current cluster, or are now in the process of merging.

  14. The photometric properties of brightest cluster galaxies. I - Absolute magnitudes in 116 nearby Abell clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoessel, J. G.; Gunn, J. E.; Thuan, T. X.

    1980-01-01

    Two-color aperture photometry of the brightest galaxies in a complete sample of nearby Abell clusters is presented. The results are used to anchor the bright end of the Hubble diagram; essentially the entire formal error for this method is then due to the sample of distant clusters used. New determinations of the systematic trend of galaxy absolute magnitude with the cluster properties of richness and Bautz-Morgan type are derived. When these new results are combined with the Gunn and Oke (1975) data on high-redshift clusters, a formal value (without accounting for any evolution) of q sub 0 = -0.55 + or - 0.45 (1 standard deviations) is found.

  15. Hitomi observations of the Perseus Cluster / Constant metallicity in the outskirts of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Norbert; Simionescu, Aurora; Urban, Ondrej; Allen, Steven

    2016-07-01

    X-ray observations with the Suzaku satellite reveal a remarkably homogeneous distribution of iron out to the virial radii of nearby galaxy clusters. Observations of the Virgo Cluster, that also allow us to measure the abundances of Si, S, and Mg out to the outskirts, show that the chemical composition of the intra-cluster medium is constant on large scales. These observations require that most of the metal enrichment and mixing of the intergalactic medium occurred before clusters formed, probably more than ten billion years ago, during the period of maximal star formation and black hole activity. We estimate the ratio between the number of SN Ia and the total number of supernovae enriching the intergalactic medium to be between 15-20%, generally consistent with the metal abundance patterns in our own Galaxy.

  16. Stellar Clusters Forming in the Blue Dwarf Galaxy NGC 5253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-11-01

    ; it is located at a distance of about 11 million light-years in the direction of the southern constellation Centaurus. Some time ago a group of European astronomers [1] decided to take a closer look at this object and to study star-forming processes in the primordial-like environment of this galaxy. True, NGC 5253 does contains some dust and heavier elements, but significantly less than our own Milky Way galaxy. However, it is quite extreme as a site of intense star formation, a profuse "starburst galaxy" in astronomical terminology, and a prime object for detailed studies of large-scale star formation. ESO PR Photo 31a/04 provides an impressive view of NGC 5253. This composite image is based on a near-infrared exposure obtained with the multi-mode ISAAC instrument mounted on the 8.2-m VLT Antu telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile), as well as two images in the optical waveband obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope data archive (located at ESO Garching). The VLT image (in the K-band at wavelength 2.16 μm) is coded red, the HST images are blue (V-band at 0.55 μm) and green (I-band at 0.79 μm), respectively. The enormous light-gathering capability and the fine optical quality of the VLT made it possible to obtain the very detailed near-infrared image (cf. PR Photo 31b/04) during an exposure lasting only 5 min. The excellent atmospheric conditions of Paranal at the time of the observation (seeing 0.4 arcsec) allow the combination of space- and ground-based data into a colour photo of this interesting object. A major dust lane is visible at the western (right) side of the galaxy, but patches of dust are visible all over, together with a large number of colourful stars and stellar clusters. The different colour shades are indicative of the ages of the objects and the degree of obscuration by interstellar dust. The near-infrared VLT image penetrates the dust clouds much better than the optical HST images, and some deeply embedded objects that are not

  17. Cosmology from large scale galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing with Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    DOE PAGES

    Kwan, J.

    2016-10-05

    Here, we present cosmological constraints from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) using a combined analysis of angular clustering of red galaxies and their cross-correlation with weak gravitational lensing of background galaxies. We use a 139 square degree contiguous patch of DES data from the Science Verification (SV) period of observations. Using large scale measurements, we constrain the matter density of the Universe as Ωm = 0.31 ± 0.09 and the clustering amplitude of the matter power spectrum as σ8 = 0.74 ± 0.13 after marginalizing over seven nuisance parameters and three additional cosmological parameters. This translates into S8 Ξ σ8more » (Ωm/0.3)0.16 = 0.74 ± 0.12 for our fiducial lens redshift bin at 0.35 < z < 0.5, while S8 = 0.78 ± 0.09 using two bins over the range 0.2 < z < 0.5. We study the robustness of the results under changes in the data vectors, modelling and systematics treatment, including photometric redshift and shear calibration uncertainties, and find consistency in the derived cosmological parameters. We show that our results are consistent with previous cosmological analyses from DES and other data sets and conclude with a joint analysis of DES angular clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing with Planck CMB data, Baryon Accoustic Oscillations and Supernova type Ia measurements.« less

  18. Cosmology from large scale galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing with Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, J.; Sánchez, C.; Clampitt, J.; Blazek, J.; Crocce, M.; Jain, B.; Zuntz, J.; Amara, A.; Becker, M. R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bonnett, C.; DeRose, J.; Dodelson, S.; Eifler, T. F.; Gaztanaga, E.; Giannantonio, T.; Gruen, D.; Hartley, W. G.; Kacprzak, T.; Kirk, D.; Krause, E.; MacCrann, N.; Miquel, R.; Park, Y.; Ross, A. J.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sheldon, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Wechsler, R. H.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Carrasco Kind, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Fernandez, E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kuehn, K.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.

    2016-10-01

    We present cosmological constraints from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) using a combined analysis of angular clustering of red galaxies and their cross-correlation with weak gravitational lensing of background galaxies. We use a 139 square degree contiguous patch of DES data from the Science Verification (SV) period of observations. Using large scale measurements, we constrain the matter density of the Universe as Ωm = 0.31 ± 0.09 and the clustering amplitude of the matter power spectrum as σ8 = 0.74 ± 0.13 after marginalizing over seven nuisance parameters and three additional cosmological parameters. This translates into S8 ≡ σ8(Ωm/0.3)0.16 = 0.74 ± 0.12 for our fiducial lens redshift bin at 0.35 clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing with Planck CMB data, Baryon Accoustic Oscillations and Supernova type Ia measurements.

  19. The X-ray emitting gas in poor clusters with central dominant galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriss, G. A.; Cioffi, D. F.; Canizares, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    The 12 clusters detected in the present study by the Einstein Observatory's X-ray imaging proportional counter show X-ray emission centered on the dominant galaxy in all cases. Comparison of the deduced distribution of binding mass with the light distribution of the central galaxies of four clusters indicates that the mass/luminosity ratio rises to over 200 solar masses/solar luminosity in the galaxy halos. These halos must therefore, like the clusters themselves, posses dark matter. The X-ray data clearly show that the dominant galaxies sit at the bottoms of the poor cluster gravitational potential wells, suggesting a similar origin for dominant galaxies in poor and rich clusters, perhaps through the merger and cannibalism of cluster galaxies. It is the luminosity of the distended cD envelope that reflects the relative wealth of the cluster environment.

  20. Galaxy populations in the Antlia cluster - I. Photometric properties of early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith Castelli, Analía V.; Bassino, Lilia P.; Richtler, Tom; Cellone, Sergio A.; Aruta, Cristian; Infante, Leopoldo

    2008-06-01

    We present the first colour-magnitude relation (CMR) of early-type galaxies in the central region of the Antlia cluster, obtained from CCD wide-field photometry in the Washington photometric system. Integrated (C - T1) colours, T1 magnitudes, and effective radii have been measured for 93 galaxies (i.e. the largest galaxies sample in the Washington system till now) from the FS90 Antlia Group catalogue. Membership of 37 objects can be confirmed through new radial velocities and data collected from the literature. The resulting colour-magnitude diagram shows that early-type FS90 galaxies that are spectroscopically confirmed Antlia members or that were considered as definite members by FS90, follow a well-defined CMR that spans 9 mag in brightness with no apparent change of slope. This relation is very tight for the whole magnitude range but S0 galaxies show a larger dispersion, apparently due to a separation of ellipticals and S0s. Antlia displays a slope of -13.6 in a T1 versus (C - T1) diagram, in agreement with results for clusters like Fornax, Virgo, Coma and Perseus, which are dynamically different to Antlia. This fact might indicate that the build-up of the CMR in cluster of galaxies is more related to galaxies internal processes than to the influence of the environment. Interpreting the CMR as a luminosity-metallicity relation of old stellar systems, the metallicities of the Antlia galaxies define a global relation down to MV ~ -13. We also find, for early-type dwarfs, no clear relation between luminosity and effective radius, indicating a nearly constant mean effective radius of ~1 kpc. This value is also found in several samples of dwarf galaxies in Virgo and Coma. This paper is based on data obtained with the 4-m telescope at CTIO, Chile, with the 6.5-m Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and at CASLEO, operated under agreement between CONICET and the Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina. E-mail: asmith

  1. Ultra-diffuse cluster galaxies as key to the MOND cluster conundrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    2015-12-01

    Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) reduces greatly the mass discrepancy in clusters of galaxies,but does leave a global discrepancy of about a factor of 2 (epitomized by the structure of the Bullet Cluster). It has been proposed, within the minimalist and purist MOND, that clusters harbour some indigenous, yet undetected, cluster baryonic (dark) matter (CBDM), whose total amount is comparable with that of the observed hot gas. Koda et al. have recently identified more than a thousand ultra-diffuse, galaxy-like objects (UDGs) in the Coma cluster. These, they argue, require, within Newtonian dynamics, that they are much more massive than their observed stellar component. Here, I propound that some of the CBDM is internal to UDGs, which endows them with robustness. The rest of the CBDM objects formed in now-disrupted kin of the UDGs, and is dispersed in the intracluster medium. The discovery of cluster UDGs is not in itself a resolution of the MOND cluster conundrum, but it lends greater plausibility to CBDM as its resolution. Alternatively, if the UDGs are only now falling into Coma, their large size and very low surface brightness could result from the inflation due to the MOND, variable external-field effect (EFE). I also consider briefly solutions to the conundrum that invoke more elaborate extensions of purist MOND, e.g. that in clusters, the MOND constant takes up larger than canonical values of the MOND constant. Whatever solves the cluster conundrum within MOND might also naturally account for UDGs.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Jellyfish galaxy candidates in galaxy clusters (Poggianti+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggianti, B. M.; Fasano, G.; Omizzolo, A.; Gullieuszik, M.; Bettoni, D.; Moretti, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Jaffe, Y. L.; Vulcani, B.; Fritz, J.; Couch, W.; D'Onofrio, M.

    2016-10-01

    WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (WINGS) is a large survey targeting 76 clusters of galaxies selected on the basis of their X-ray luminosity (Ebeling et al. 1996, Cat. J/MNRAS/281/799; Ebeling et al. 1998, Cat. J/MNRAS/301/881; Ebeling et al. 2000, Cat. J/MNRAS/318/333), covering a wide range in cluster masses (σ=500-1200+km/s, logLX=43.3-45erg/s, Fasano et al. 2006A&A...445..805F). The original WINGS data set consisted of B and V deep photometry of a 34'*34' field of view with the WFC@INT and the WFC@2.2mMPG/ESO (Varela et al. 2009, Cat. J/A+A/497/667), spectroscopic follow-ups with 2dF@AAT and WYFFOS@WHT (Cava et al. 2009, Cat. J/A+A/495/707), plus J and K imaging with WFC@UKIRT (Valentinuzzi et al. 2009, Cat. J/A+A/501/851) and some U-band imaging (Omizzolo et al. 2014, Cat. J/A+A/561/A111). This database is presented in Moretti et al. 2014A&A...564A.138M and has been employed for a number of studies (see https://sites.google.com/site/wingsomegawings/). OmegaCAM-VST observations of WINGS galaxy clusters (OMEGAWINGS) is a recent extention of this project, that quadruples the area covered (1deg2) and allows to reach up to ~2.5 cluster virial radii. OMEGAWINGS is based on two OmegaCAM@VST GTO programs for 46 WINGS clusters: a B and V campaign completed in P93, and an ongoing u-band programme. The B and V data, the data reduction and the photometric catalogs are presented in Gullieuszik et al. 2015 (Cat. J/A+A/581/A41). Spectra are obtained with AAOmega@AAT on the OmegaCAM field. So far, we have secured high quality spectra for ~30 OMEGAWINGS clusters, reaching very high spectroscopic completeness levels for galaxies brighter than V=20 from the cluster cores to their periphery (A. Moretti et al. 2016, in preparation). Galaxies are considered cluster members if they are within 3σ from the cluster redshift. The mean redshift uncertainty, computed from the differences between WINGS and OMEGAWINGS redshift values of repeated objects, is Δz=0.0002. For this

  3. STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY IN CLASH BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Fogarty, Kevin; Postman, Marc; Connor, Thomas; Donahue, Megan; Moustakas, John

    2015-11-10

    The CLASH X-ray selected sample of 20 galaxy clusters contains 10 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) that exhibit significant (>5σ) extinction-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). Star formation activity is inferred from photometric estimates of UV and Hα+[N ii] emission in knots and filaments detected in CLASH Hubble Space Telescope ACS and WFC3 observations. UV-derived SFRs in these BCGs span two orders of magnitude, including two with a SFR ≳ 100 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. These measurements are supplemented with [O ii], [O iii], and Hβ fluxes measured from spectra obtained with the SOAR telescope. We confirm that photoionization from ongoing star formation powers the line emission nebulae in these BCGs, although in many BCGs there is also evidence of a LINER-like contribution to the line emission. Coupling these data with Chandra X-ray measurements, we infer that the star formation occurs exclusively in low-entropy cluster cores and exhibits a correlation with gas properties related to cooling. We also perform an in-depth study of the starburst history of the BCG in the cluster RXJ1532.9+3021, and create 2D maps of stellar properties on scales down to ∼350 pc. These maps reveal evidence for an ongoing burst occurring in elongated filaments, generally on ∼0.5–1.0 Gyr timescales, although some filaments are consistent with much younger (≲100 Myr) burst timescales and may be correlated with recent activity from the active galactic nucleus. The relationship between BCG SFRs and the surrounding intracluster medium gas properties provide new support for the process of feedback-regulated cooling in galaxy clusters and is consistent with recent theoretical predictions.

  4. The XMM Cluster Survey: A Massive Galaxy Cluster at z = 1.45

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford, S A; Romer, A K; Sabirli, K; Davidson, M; Hilton, M; Viana, P P; Collins, C A; Kay, S T; Liddle, A R; Mann, R G; Miller, C J; Nichol, R C; West, M J; Conselice, C J; Spinrad, H; Stern, D; Bundy, K

    2006-05-24

    We report the discovery of XMMXCS J2215.9-1738, a massive galaxy cluster at z = 1.45, which was found in the XMM Cluster Survey. The cluster candidate was initially identified as an extended X-ray source in archival XMM data. Optical spectroscopy shows that 6 galaxies within a {approx}60 arcsec diameter region lie at z = 1.45 {+-} 0.01. Model fits to the X-ray spectra of the extended emission yield kT = 7.4{sub -1.8}{sup +2.7} keV (90% confidence); if there is an undetected central X-ray point source then kT = 6.5{sub -1.8}{sup +2.6} keV. The bolometric X-ray luminosity is L{sub x} = 4.4{sub -0.6}{sup +0.8} x 10{sup 44} ergs s{sup -1} over a 2 Mpc radial region. The measured T{sub x}, which is the highest for any known cluster at z > 1, suggests that this cluster is relatively massive for such a high redshift. The redshift of XMMXCS J2215.9-1738 is the highest currently known for a spectroscopically-confirmed cluster of galaxies.

  5. Not a galaxy: IRAS 04186+5143, a new young stellar cluster in the outer Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, J. L.; Elia, Davide; Djupvik, A. A.; Torrelles, J. M.; Molinari, S.

    2015-09-01

    We report the discovery of a new young stellar cluster in the outer Galaxy located at the position of an IRAS Point Source Catalog source that has been previously misidentified as an external galaxy. The cluster is seen in our near-infrared imaging towards IRAS 04186+5143 and in archive Spitzer images confirming the young stellar nature of the sources detected. There is also evidence of subclustering seen in the spatial distributions of young stars and of gas and dust. Near- and mid-infrared photometry indicates that the stars exhibit colours compatible with reddening by interstellar and circumstellar dust and are likely to be low- and intermediate-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) with a large proportion of Class I YSOs. Ammonia and CO lines were detected, with the CO emission well centred near the position of the richest part of the cluster. The velocity of the CO and NH3 lines indicates that the gas is Galactic and located at a distance of about 5.5 kpc, in the outer Galaxy. Herschel data of this region characterize the dust environment of this molecular cloud core where the young cluster is embedded. We derive masses, luminosities, and temperatures of the molecular clumps where the young stars reside and discuss their evolutionary stages.

  6. Observational and Numerical Diagnostics of Galaxy Cluster Outer Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.; Nagai, D.; Lau, E.; Roncarelli, M.; Rossetti, M.; Snowden, S. L.; Gastaldello, F.

    2011-01-01

    Aims. We present the analysis of a local (z = 0.04 - 0.2) sample of 31 galaxy clusters with the aim of measuring the density of the X-ray emitting gas in cluster outskirts. We compare our results with numerical simulations to set constraints on the azimuthal symmetry and gas clumping in the outer regions of galaxy clusters. Methods. We exploit the large field-of-view and low instrumental background of ROSAT/PSPC to trace the density of the intracluster gas out to the virial radius. We perform a stacking of the density profiles to detect a signal beyond r(sub 200) and measure the typical density and scatter in cluster outskirts. We also compute the azimuthal scatter of the profiles with respect to the mean value to look for deviations from spherical symmetry. Finally, we compare our average density and scatter profiles with the results of numerical simulations. Results. As opposed to several recent results, we observe a steepening of the density profiles beyond approximately 0.3r(sub 500). Comparing our density profiles with simulations, we find that non-radiative runs predict too steep density profiles, whereas runs including additional physics and/or gas clumping are in better agreement with the observed gas distribution. We note a systematic difference between cool-core and non-cool core clusters beyond approximately 0.3r(sub 200), which we explain by a different distribution of the gas in the two classes. Beyond approximately r(sub 500), galaxy clusters deviate significantly from spherical symmetry, with only little differences between relaxed and disturbed systems. We find good agreement between the observed and predicted scatter profiles, but only when the 1% densest clumps are filtered out in the simulations. Conclusions. The general trend of steepening density around the virial radius indicates that the shallow density profiles found in several recent works were probably obtained along particular directions (e.g., filaments) and are not representative of the

  7. The Wide-Field Nearby Galaxy-Cluster Survey (WINGS) and Its Extension OMEGAWINGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggianti, B. M.; Fasano, G.; Bettoni, D.; Cava, A.; Couch, W.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dressler, A.; Fritz, J.; Kjaergaard, P.; Gullieuszik, M.; Moles, M.; Moretti, A.; Omizzolo, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Varela, J.; Vulcani, B.

    WINGS is a wide-field multi-wavelength survey of 76 X-ray selected clusters at low redshift. The WINGS database has been used for a variety of cluster and cluster galaxy studies, investigating galaxy star formation, morphologies, structure, stellar mass functions and other properties. We present the recent wider-field extension of WINGS, OMEGAWINGS, conducted with OmegaCAM@VST and AAOmega@AAT. We show two of our latest results regarding jellyfish galaxies and galaxy sizes. OMEGAWINGS has allowed the first systematic search of galaxies with signs of ongoing ram pressure stripping (jellyfishes), yielding a catalog of ˜ 240 galaxies in 41 clusters. We discuss the first results obtained from this sample and the prospects for integral field data. Finally, we summarize our results regarding the discovery of compact massive galaxies at low redshift, their properties, dependence on environment and the implications for the evolution of galaxy sizes from high- to low-z.

  8. Revisiting Scaling Relations for Giant Radio Halos in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassano, R.; Ettori, S.; Brunetti, G.; Giacintucci, S.; Pratt, G. W.; Venturi, T.; Kale, R.; Dolag, K.; Markevitch, Maxim L.

    2013-01-01

    Many galaxy clusters host megaparsec-scale radio halos, generated by ultrarelativistic electrons in the magnetized intracluster medium. Correlations between the synchrotron power of radio halos and the thermal properties of the hosting clusters were established in the last decade, including the connection between the presence of a halo and cluster mergers. The X-ray luminosity and redshift-limited Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey provides a rich and unique dataset for statistical studies of the halos. We uniformly analyze the radio and X-ray data for the GMRT cluster sample, and use the new Planck Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) catalog to revisit the correlations between the power of radio halos and the thermal properties of galaxy clusters. We find that the radio power at 1.4 GHz scales with the cluster X-ray (0.1-2.4 keV) luminosity computed within R(sub 500) as P(sub 1.4) approx. L(2.1+/-0.2) - 500). Our bigger and more homogenous sample confirms that the X-ray luminous (L(sub 500) > 5 × 10(exp 44) erg/s)) clusters branch into two populations-radio halos lie on the correlation, while clusters without radio halos have their radio upper limits well below that correlation. This bimodality remains if we excise cool cores from the X-ray luminosities. We also find that P(sub 1.4) scales with the cluster integrated SZ signal within R(sub 500), measured by Planck, as P(sub 1.4) approx. Y(2.05+/-0.28) - 500), in line with previous findings. However, contrary to previous studies that were limited by incompleteness and small sample size, we find that "SZ-luminous" Y(sub 500) > 6×10(exp -5) Mpc(exp 2) clusters show a bimodal behavior for the presence of radio halos, similar to that in the radio-X-ray diagram. Bimodality of both correlations can be traced to clusters dynamics, with radio halos found exclusively in merging clusters. These results confirm the key role of mergers for the origin of giant radio halos, suggesting that they trigger the relativistic particle acceleration.

  9. REVISITING SCALING RELATIONS FOR GIANT RADIO HALOS IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Cassano, R.; Brunetti, G.; Venturi, T.; Kale, R.; Pratt, G. W.; Markevitch, M.

    2013-11-10

    Many galaxy clusters host megaparsec-scale radio halos, generated by ultrarelativistic electrons in the magnetized intracluster medium. Correlations between the synchrotron power of radio halos and the thermal properties of the hosting clusters were established in the last decade, including the connection between the presence of a halo and cluster mergers. The X-ray luminosity and redshift-limited Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey provides a rich and unique dataset for statistical studies of the halos. We uniformly analyze the radio and X-ray data for the GMRT cluster sample, and use the new Planck Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) catalog to revisit the correlations between the power of radio halos and the thermal properties of galaxy clusters. We find that the radio power at 1.4 GHz scales with the cluster X-ray (0.1-2.4 keV) luminosity computed within R{sub 500} as P{sub 1.4}∼L{sup 2.1±0.2}{sub 500}. Our bigger and more homogenous sample confirms that the X-ray luminous (L{sub 500} > 5 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup –1}) clusters branch into two populations—radio halos lie on the correlation, while clusters without radio halos have their radio upper limits well below that correlation. This bimodality remains if we excise cool cores from the X-ray luminosities. We also find that P{sub 1.4} scales with the cluster integrated SZ signal within R{sub 500}, measured by Planck, as P{sub 1.4}∼Y{sup 2.05±0.28}{sub 500}, in line with previous findings. However, contrary to previous studies that were limited by incompleteness and small sample size, we find that 'SZ-luminous' Y{sub 500} > 6 × 10{sup –5} Mpc{sup 2} clusters show a bimodal behavior for the presence of radio halos, similar to that in the radio-X-ray diagram. Bimodality of both correlations can be traced to clusters dynamics, with radio halos found exclusively in merging clusters. These results confirm the key role of mergers for the origin of giant radio halos, suggesting that they trigger the relativistic particle

  10. Radio Sources toward Galaxy Clusters at 30 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coble, K.; Bonamente, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Dawson, K.; Hasler, N.; Holzapfel, W.; Joy, M.; LaRoque, S.; Marrone, D. P.; Reese, E. D.

    2007-01-01

    Extragalactic radio sources are a significant contaminant in cosmic microwave background and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect experiments. Deep interferometric observations with the BIMA and OVRO arrays are used to characterize the spatial, spectral, and flux distributions of radio sources toward massive galaxy clusters at 28.5 GHz. We compute counts of millijansky source fluxes from 89 fields centered on known massive galaxy clusters and 8 noncluster fields. We find that source counts in the inner regions of the cluster fields (within 0.5' of the cluster center) are a factor of 8.9 (sup +4.3)(sub -2.8) times higher than counts in the outer regions of the cluster fields (radius greater than 0.5'). Counts in the outer regions of the cluster fields are, in turn, a factor of 3.3 (sup +4.1) (sub -1.8) greater than those in the noncluster fields. Counts in the noncluster fields are consistent with extrapolations from the results of other surveys. We compute the spectral indices of millijansky sources in the cluster fields between 1.4 and 28.5 GHz and find a mean spectral index of alpha = 0.66 with an rms dispersion of 0.36, where flux S proportional to nu(sup -alpha). The distribution is skewed, with a median spectral index of 0.72 and 25th and 75th percentiles of 0.51 and 0.92, respectively. This is steeper than the spectral indices of stronger field sources measured by other surveys.

  11. Galaxy cluster lensing masses in modified lensing potentials

    DOE PAGES

    Barreira, Alexandre; Li, Baojiu; Jennings, Elise; Merten, Julian; King, Lindsay; Baugh, Carlton M.; Pascoli, Silvia

    2015-10-28

    In this study, we determine the concentration–mass relation of 19 X-ray selected galaxy clusters from the Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble survey in theories of gravity that directly modify the lensing potential. We model the clusters as Navarro–Frenk–White haloes and fit their lensing signal, in the Cubic Galileon and Nonlocal gravity models, to the lensing convergence profiles of the clusters. We discuss a number of important issues that need to be taken into account, associated with the use of non-parametric and parametric lensing methods, as well as assumptions about the background cosmology. Our results show that the concentrationmore » and mass estimates in the modified gravity models are, within the error bars, the same as in Λ cold dark matter. This result demonstrates that, for the Nonlocal model, the modifications to gravity are too weak at the cluster redshifts, and for the Galileon model, the screening mechanism is very efficient inside the cluster radius. However, at distances ~ [2–20] Mpc/h from the cluster centre, we find that the surrounding force profiles are enhanced by ~ 20–40% in the Cubic Galileon model. This has an impact on dynamical mass estimates, which means that tests of gravity based on comparisons between lensing and dynamical masses can also be applied to the Cubic Galileon model.« less

  12. Galaxy cluster lensing masses in modified lensing potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Barreira, Alexandre; Li, Baojiu; Jennings, Elise; Merten, Julian; King, Lindsay; Baugh, Carlton M.; Pascoli, Silvia

    2015-10-28

    In this study, we determine the concentration–mass relation of 19 X-ray selected galaxy clusters from the Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble survey in theories of gravity that directly modify the lensing potential. We model the clusters as Navarro–Frenk–White haloes and fit their lensing signal, in the Cubic Galileon and Nonlocal gravity models, to the lensing convergence profiles of the clusters. We discuss a number of important issues that need to be taken into account, associated with the use of non-parametric and parametric lensing methods, as well as assumptions about the background cosmology. Our results show that the concentration and mass estimates in the modified gravity models are, within the error bars, the same as in Λ cold dark matter. This result demonstrates that, for the Nonlocal model, the modifications to gravity are too weak at the cluster redshifts, and for the Galileon model, the screening mechanism is very efficient inside the cluster radius. However, at distances ~ [2–20] Mpc/h from the cluster centre, we find that the surrounding force profiles are enhanced by ~ 20–40% in the Cubic Galileon model. This has an impact on dynamical mass estimates, which means that tests of gravity based on comparisons between lensing and dynamical masses can also be applied to the Cubic Galileon model.

  13. Role of peculiar veocity of galaxy clusters in gravitational clustering of cosmological many body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, Tabasum

    2016-07-01

    The distribution of galaxies in the universe can be well understood by correlation function analysis. The lowest order two point auto correlation function has remained a successful tool for understanding the galaxy clustering phenomena. The two point correlation function is a probability of finding two galaxies in a given volume separated by some particular distance. Given a random galaxy in a location, the correlation function describes the probability that another galaxy will be found within a given distance .The correlation function tool is important for theoretical models of physical cosmology because it provides means of testing models which assume different things about the contents of the universe Correlation function is one of the way to characterize the distribution of galaxies in the space . This can be done by observations and can be extracted from numerical N-body experiments. Correlation function is a natural quantity in theoretical dynamical description of gravitating systems. These correlations can answer many interesting questions about the evolution and the distribution of galaxies.

  14. A CATALOG OF GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS: WHAT DETERMINES THE SIZE OF A GALAXY'S GLOBULAR CLUSTER POPULATION?

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, William E.; Alessi, Matthew; Harris, Gretchen L. H. E-mail: alessimj@mcmaster.ca

    2013-08-01

    We present a catalog of 422 galaxies with published measurements of their globular cluster (GC) populations. Of these, 248 are E galaxies, 93 are S0 galaxies, and 81 are spirals or irregulars. Among various correlations of the total number of GCs with other global galaxy properties, we find that N{sub GC} correlates well though nonlinearly with the dynamical mass of the galaxy bulge M{sub dyn}= 4{sigma}{sub e}{sup 2} R{sub e} /G, where {sigma}{sub e} is the central velocity dispersion and R{sub e} the effective radius of the galaxy light profile. We also present updated versions of the GC specific frequency S{sub N} and specific mass S{sub M} versus host galaxy luminosity and baryonic mass. These graphs exhibit the previously known U-shape: highest S{sub N} or S{sub M} values occur for either dwarfs or supergiants, but in the midrange of galaxy size (10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} L{sub Sun }) the GC numbers fall along a well-defined baseline value of S{sub N} {approx_equal} 1 or S{sub M} = 0.1, similar among all galaxy types. Along with other recent discussions, we suggest that this trend may represent the effects of feedback, which systematically inhibited early star formation at either very low or very high galaxy mass, but which had its minimum effect for intermediate masses. Our results strongly reinforce recent proposals that GC formation efficiency appears to be most nearly proportional to the galaxy halo mass M{sub halo}. The mean 'absolute' efficiency ratio for GC formation that we derive from the catalog data is M{sub GCS}/M{sub halo} = 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}. We suggest that the galaxy-to-galaxy scatter around this mean value may arise in part because of differences in the relative timing of GC formation versus field-star formation. Finally, we find that an excellent empirical predictor of total GC population for galaxies of all luminosities is N{sub GC} {approx} (R{sub e} {sigma}{sub e}){sup 1.3}, a result consistent with fundamental plane scaling

  15. The XMM Cluster Survey: The Halo Occupation Number of BOSS galaxies in X-ray clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrtens, Nicola; Romer, A. Kathy; Nichol, Robert C.; Collins, Chris A.; Sahlén, Martin; Rooney, Philip J.; Mayers, Julian A.; Bermeo-Hernandez, A.; Bristow, Martyn; Capozzi, Diego; Christodoulou, L.; Comparat, Johan; Hilton, Matt; Hoyle, Ben; Kay, Scott T.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Mann, Robert G.; Masters, Karen; Miller, Christopher J.; Parejko, John K.; Prada, Francisco; Ross, Ashley J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Stott, John P.; Streblyanska, Alina; Viana, Pedro T. P.; White, Martin; Wilcox, Harry; Zehavi, Idit

    2016-08-01

    We present a direct measurement of the mean halo occupation distribution (HOD) of galaxies taken from the eleventh data release (DR11) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III Baryon Acoustic Oscillation Survey (BOSS). The HOD of BOSS low-redshift (LOWZ: 0.2 < z < 0.4) and Constant-Mass (CMASS: 0.43 < z < 0.7) galaxies is inferred via their association with the dark-matter halos of 174 X-ray-selected galaxy clusters drawn from the XMM Cluster Survey (XCS). Halo masses are determined for each galaxy cluster based on X-ray temperature measurements, and range between log10(M180/M⊙) = 13 - 15. Our directly-measured HODs are consistent with the HOD-model fits inferred via the galaxy-clustering analyses of Parejko et al. (2013) for the BOSS LOWZ sample and White et al. (2011) for the BOSS CMASS sample. Under the simplifying assumption that the other parameters that describe the HOD hold the values measured by these authors, we have determined a best-fit alpha-index of 0.91±0.08 and 1.27^{+0.03}_{-0.04} for the CMASS and LOWZ HOD, respectively. These alpha-index values are consistent with those measured by White et al. (2011) and Parejko et al. (2013). In summary, our study provides independent support for the HOD-models assumed during the development of the BOSS mock-galaxy catalogues that have subsequently been used to derive BOSS cosmological constraints.

  16. Kinematics of the Globular Cluster System of the Sombrero Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windschitl, Jessica L.; Rhode, K. L.; Bridges, T. J.; Zepf, S. E.; Gebhardt, K.; Freeman, K. C.

    2013-06-01

    Using spectra from the Hydra spectrograph on the 3.5m WIYN telescope and from the AAOmega spectrograph on the 3.9m Anglo-Australian Telescope, we have measured heliocentric radial velocities for >50 globular clusters in the Sombrero Galaxy (M104). We combine these new measurements with those from previous studies to construct and analyze a total sample of >360 globular cluster velocities in M104. We use the line-of-sight velocity dispersion to determine the mass and mass-to-light ratio profiles for the galaxy using a spherical, isotropic Jeans mass model. In addition to the increased sample size, our data provide a significant expansion in radial coverage compared to previous spectroscopic studies. This allows us to reliably compute the mass profile of M104 out to ~43 kpc, nearly 14 kpc farther into the halo than previous work. We find that the mass-to-light ratio profile increases from the center to a value of ~20 at 43 kpc. We also look for the presence of rotation in the globular cluster system as a whole and within the red and blue subpopulations. Despite the large number of clusters and better radial sampling, we do not find strong evidence of rotation.

  17. X-ray spectra of clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    The X-ray emission from luminous clusters of galaxies is dominated by thermal bremsstrahlung from an intergalactic medium. The central density of the gas is strongly correlated with the X-ray surface brightness. The X-ray surface brightness S(sigma) of many clusters is well modeled by a law of the form S(sigma) alpha S(o) 1 + R(2)/A(2) to the minus 3 beta + 1/2 power with beta approximately equal to 0.66. However, this model does not fit the X-ray spectral or optical galaxy counts well. In clusters with cooling flows in their center there is a strong correlation between the cooling rates of X-ray emitting material and optical H alpha emission. It is not clear, at present, what percentage of the virial mass of the cluster is in hot gas but if beta = 0.66, it is possible for the values to be of the order of 1/2. Spatially resoled X-ray spectroscopy is necessary to determine this value with any accuracy.

  18. Luminosity segregation in galaxy clusters as an indication of dynamical evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baier, F. W.; Schmidt, K.-H.

    1993-01-01

    Theoretical models describing the dynamical evolution of self-gravitating systems predict a spatial mass segregation for more evolved systems, with the more massive objects concentrated toward the center of the configuration. From the observational point of view, however, the existence of mass segregation in galaxy clusters seems to be a matter of controversy. A special problem in this connection is the formation of cD galaxies in the centers of galaxy clusters. The most promising scenarios of their formation are galaxy cannibalism (merger scenario) and growing by cooling flows. It seems to be plausible to consider the swallowing of smaller systems by a dominant galaxy as an important process in the evolution of a cD galaxy. The stage of the evolution of the dominant galaxy should be reflected by the surrounding galaxy population, especially by possible mass segregation effects. Assuming that mass segregation is tantamount to luminosity segregation we analyzed luminosity segregation in roughly 40 cD galaxy clusters. Obviously there are three different groups of clusters: (1) clusters with luminosity segregation, (2) clusters without luminosity segregation, and (3) such objects exhibiting a phenomenon which we call antisegregation in luminosity, i.e. a deficiency of bright galaxies in the central regions of clusters. This result is interpreted in the sense of different degrees of mass segregation and as an indication for different evolution stages of these clusters. The clusters are arranged in the three segregation classes 2, 1, and 0 (S2 = strong mass segregation, S1 = moderate mass segregation, S0 = weak or absent mass segregation). We assume that a galaxy cluster starts its dynamical evolution after virialization without any radial mass segregation. Energy exchange during encounters of cluster members as well as merger processes between cluster galaxies lead to an increasing radial mass segregation in the cluster (S1). If a certain degree of segregation (S2) has

  19. Constraining Dark Matter Through the Study of Merging Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, William Anthony

    2013-03-01

    Context: The majority (~85%) of the matter in the universe is composed of dark matter, a mysterious particle that does not interact via the electromagnetic force yet does interact with all other matter via the gravitational force. Many direct detection experiments have been devoted to finding interactions of dark matter with baryonic matter via the weak force. It is still possible that dark matter interacts with itself via a strong scale force and has a self-scattering cross-section of ~0.5 cm2g -1. In fact such a strong scale scattering force could resolve several outstanding astronomical mysteries: a discrepancy between the cuspy density profiles seen in ΛCDM simulations and the cored density profiles observed in low surface brightness galaxies, dwarf spheroidal galaxies, and galaxy clusters, as well as the discrepancy between the significant number of massive Milky Way dwarf spheroidal halos predicted by ΛCDM and the dearth of observed Milky Way dwarf spheroidal halos. Need: While such observations are in conflict with ΛCDM and suggest that dark matter may self-scatter, each suffers from a baryonic degeneracy, where the observations might be explained by various baryonic processes (e.g., AGN or supernove feedback, stellar winds, etc.) rather than self-interacting dark matter (SIDM). If dark matter lags behind the effectively collisionless galaxies then this is clear evidence that dark matter self-interacts. The expected galaxy-dark matter offset is typically >25 kpc (for cross-sections that would explain the other aforementioned issues with ΛCDM), this is larger than the scales of that are plagued by the baryonic degeneracies. Task: To test whether dark matter self-interacts we have carried out a comprehensive survey of the dissociative merging galaxy cluster DLSCL J0916.2+2951 (also known as the Musket Ball Cluster). This survey includes photometric and spectroscopic observations to quantify the position and velocity of the cluster galaxies, weak

  20. A MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF LOW-REDSHIFT CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES. II. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ON GALAXY GROWTH

    SciTech Connect

    Atlee, David W.; Martini, Paul

    2012-12-20

    Galaxy clusters provide powerful laboratories for the study of galaxy evolution, particularly the origin of correlations of morphology and star formation rate (SFR) with density. We construct visible to MIR spectral energy distributions of galaxies in eight low-redshift (z < 0.3) clusters and use them to measure stellar masses and SFRs as a function of environment. A partial correlation analysis indicates that the SFRs of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) depend strongly on M{sub *} (>99% confidence) with no dependence on R/R{sub 200} or projected local density at fixed mass. A merged sample of galaxies from the five best measured clusters shows (SFR){proportional_to}(R/R{sub 200}){sup 1.1{+-}0.3} for galaxies with R/R{sub 200} {<=} 0.4. A decline in the fraction of SFGs toward the cluster center contributes most of this effect, but it is accompanied by a reduction in (SFR) for SFGs with R {<=} 0.1 R{sub 200}. The increase in the fraction of SFGs toward larger R/R{sub 200} and the isolation of SFGs with reduced SFRs near the cluster center are consistent with the truncation of star formation by ram-pressure stripping, as is the tendency for more massive SFGs to have higher SFRs. We conclude that stripping is more likely than slower processes to drive the properties of SFGs with R < 0.4 R{sub 200} in clusters. We also find that galaxies near the cluster center are more massive than galaxies farther out in the cluster at {approx}3.5{sigma}, which suggests that dynamical relaxation significantly impacts the distribution of cluster galaxies as the clusters evolve.

  1. Neutral hydrogen gas, past and future star formation in galaxies in and around the `Sausage' merging galaxy cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroe, Andra; Oosterloo, Tom; Röttgering, Huub J. A.; Sobral, David; van Weeren, Reinout; Dawson, William

    2015-09-01

    CIZA J2242.8+5301 (z = 0.188, nicknamed `Sausage') is an extremely massive (M200 ˜ 2.0 × 1015 M⊙), merging cluster with shock waves towards its outskirts, which was found to host numerous emission line galaxies. We performed extremely deep Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope H I observations of the `Sausage' cluster to investigate the effect of the merger and the shocks on the gas reservoirs fuelling present and future star formation (SF) in cluster members. By using spectral stacking, we find that the emission line galaxies in the `Sausage' cluster have, on average, as much H I gas as field galaxies (when accounting for the fact cluster galaxies are more massive than the field galaxies), contrary to previous studies. Since the cluster galaxies are more massive than the field spirals, they may have been able to retain their gas during the cluster merger. The large H I reservoirs are expected to be consumed within ˜0.75-1.0 Gyr by the vigorous SF and active galactic nuclei activity and/or driven out by the outflows we observe. We find that the star formation rate (SFR) in a large fraction of H α emission line cluster galaxies correlates well with the radio broad-band emission, tracing supernova remnant emission. This suggests that the cluster galaxies, all located in post-shock regions, may have been undergoing sustained SFR for at least 100 Myr. This fully supports the interpretation proposed by Stroe et al. and Sobral et al. that gas-rich cluster galaxies have been triggered to form stars by the passage of the shock.

  2. Galaxy Transformation as probed by Morphology and Velocity Fields of Distant Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Bodo

    2005-07-01

    We seek to obtain ACS imaging of four distant {0.3clusters of galaxies within a 6'x6' field covered by a 2x2 mosaic to determine morphological and structural parameters of late-type galaxies. We specifically concentrate on peculiarities indicative of past or ongoing interaction processes. The 90 target galaxies have been {Period74} or will be {P75} observed with 3D-spectroscopy at ESO-VLT yielding 2D-velocity fields with unprecedented spatial coverage and sampling. The good spatial resolution of the ground-based data will be further enhanced by a deconvolution method based on the proposed ACS images. The velocity field and the morphology in restframe-UV light will reveal possible transformation mechanisms affecting not only the stellar populations but also the mass distribution of the galaxies. Additionally, it will be possible to pin down the nature of the interaction {e.g. tidally or ram-pressure induced}. This assessment gets supported by our N-body/SPH simulations {including star formation} of different interaction processes that allow the direct comparison of structural and kinematical characteristics at each time step with the observations on an individual basis taking into account all observational constraints for a given galaxy. All together, we will be able to explore the relative efficiency of the various proposed transformation phenomena. In the case of non-disturbed spirals, a rotation curve can be extracted from the full 2D velocity field with unprecedented quality, from which the maximum rotation speed can be derived with high confidence. In combination with accurate size and luminosity determinations from the ACS images, we will be able to establish the Tully-Fisher and Fundamental Plane relations of cluster spiral members at cosmological epochs. At these distances cluster assembly is predicted to peak and we can probe the galaxies' luminosity, size and mass evolution with robust methods. Together with our already existing sample of 200

  3. Strong lensing in the inner halo of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saez, C.; Campusano, L. E.; Cypriano, E. S.; Sodré, L.; Kneib, J.-P.

    2016-08-01

    We present an axially symmetric formula to calculate the probability of finding gravitational arcs in galaxy clusters, being induced by their massive dark matter haloes, as a function of clusters redshifts and virial masses. The formula includes the ellipticity of the clusters dark matter potential by using a pseudo-elliptical approximation. The probabilities are calculated and compared for two dark matter halo profiles, the Navarro, Frenk and White (NFW) and the non-singular-isothermal-sphere (NSIS). We demonstrate the power of our formulation through a Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test on the strong lensing statistics of an X-ray bright sample of low-redshift Abell clusters. This KS test allows us to establish limits on the values of the concentration parameter for the NFW profile (c_Δ) and the core radius for the NSIS profile (rc), which are related to the lowest cluster redshift (zcut) where strong arcs can be observed. For NFW dark matter profiles, we infer cluster haloes with concentrations that are consistent to those predicted by ΛCDM simulations. As for NSIS dark matter profiles, we find only upper limits for the clusters core radii and thus do not rule out a purely SIS model. For alternative mass profiles, our formulation provides constraints through zcut on the parameters that control the concentration of mass in the inner region of the clusters haloes. We find that zcut is expected to lie in the 0.0-0.2 redshift, highlighting the need to include very low-z clusters in samples to study the clusters mass profiles.

  4. The Gas Distribution in Galaxy Cluster Outer Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.; Nagai, D.; Laue, E. T.; Roncarelli, M.; Rossetti, M.; Snowden, S. L.; Gastaldello, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We present the analysis of a local (z = 0.04 - 0.2) sample of 31 galaxy clusters with the aim of measuring the density of the X-ray emitting gas in cluster outskirts. We compare our results with numerical simulations to set constraints on the azimuthal symmetry and gas clumping in the outer regions of galaxy clusters. Methods. We exploit the large field-of-view and low instrumental background of ROSAT/PSPC to trace the density of the intracluster gas out to the virial radius. We perform a stacking of the density profiles to detect a signal beyond r200 and measure the typical density and scatter in cluster outskirts. We also compute the azimuthal scatter of the profiles with respect to the mean value to look for deviations from spherical symmetry. Finally, we compare our average density and scatter profiles with the results of numerical simulations. Results. As opposed to some recent Suzaku results, and confirming previous evidence from ROSAT and Chandra, we observe a steepening of the density profiles beyond approximately r(sub 500). Comparing our density profiles with simulations, we find that non-radiative runs predict too steep density profiles, whereas runs including additional physics and/or treating gas clumping are in better agreement with the observed gas distribution. We report for the first time the high-confidence detection of a systematic difference between cool-core and non-cool core clusters beyond 0.3r(sub 200), which we explain by a different distribution of the gas in the two classes. Beyond r(sub 500), galaxy clusters deviate significantly from spherical symmetry, with only little differences between relaxed and disturbed systems. We find good agreement between the observed and predicted scatter profiles, but only when the 1% densest clumps are filtered out in the simulations. Conclusions. Comparing our results with numerical simulations, we find that non-radiative simulations fail to reproduce the gas distribution, even well outside cluster

  5. The Gas Distribution in the Outer Regions of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.; Nagai, D.; Lau, E. T.; Roncarelli, M.; Rossetti, M.; Snowden, L.; Gastaldello, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We present our analysis of a local (z = 0.04 - 0.2) sample of 31 galaxy clusters with the aim of measuring the density of the X-ray emitting gas in cluster outskirts. We compare our results with numerical simulations to set constraints on the azimuthal symmetry and gas clumping in the outer regions of galaxy clusters. Methods. We have exploited the large field-of-view and low instrumental background of ROSAT/PSPC to trace the density of the intracluster gas out to the virial radius, We stacked the density profiles to detect a signal beyond T200 and measured the typical density and scatter in cluster outskirts. We also computed the azimuthal scatter of the profiles with respect to the mean value to look for deviations from spherical symmetry. Finally, we compared our average density and scatter profiles with the results of numerical simulations. Results. As opposed to some recent Suzaku results, and confirming previous evidence from ROSAT and Chandra, we observe a steepening of the density profiles beyond approximately r(sub 500). Comparing our density profiles with simulations, we find that non-radiative runs predict density profiles that are too steep, whereas runs including additional physics and/ or treating gas clumping agree better with the observed gas distribution. We report high-confidence detection of a systematic difference between cool-core and non cool-core clusters beyond approximately 0.3r(sub 200), which we explain by a different distribution of the gas in the two classes. Beyond approximately r(sub 500), galaxy clusters deviate significantly from spherical symmetry, with only small differences between relaxed and disturbed systems. We find good agreement between the observed and predicted scatter profiles, but only when the 1% densest clumps are filtered out in the ENZO simulations. Conclusions. Comparing our results with numerical simulations, we find that non-radiative simulations fail to reproduce the gas distribution, even well outside

  6. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. X. QUANTIFYING THE STAR CLUSTER FORMATION EFFICIENCY OF NEARBY DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, David O.; Dale, Daniel A.; Seth, Anil C.; Johnson, L. Clifton; Weisz, Daniel R.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Olsen, Knut A. G.; Engelbracht, Charles W.

    2012-06-01

    We study the relationship between the field star formation and cluster formation properties in a large sample of nearby dwarf galaxies. We use optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope and from ground-based telescopes to derive the ages and masses of the young (t{sub age} {approx}< 100 Myr) cluster sample. Our data provide the first constraints on two proposed relationships between the star formation rate (SFR) of galaxies and the properties of their cluster systems in the low SFR regime. The data show broad agreement with these relationships, but significant galaxy-to-galaxy scatter exists. In part, this scatter can be accounted for by simulating the small number of clusters detected from stochastically sampling the cluster mass function. However, this stochasticity does not fully account for the observed scatter in our data, suggesting that there may be true variations in the fraction of stars formed in clusters in dwarf galaxies. Comparison of the cluster formation and the brightest cluster in our sample galaxies also provide constraints on cluster destruction models.

  7. FURTHER DEFINITION OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS AROUND BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Cockcroft, Robert; Harris, William E.; Wehner, Elizabeth M. H.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Rothberg, Barry E-mail: harris@physics.mcmaster.ca E-mail: whitmore@stsci.edu

    2009-09-15

    We combine the globular cluster (GC) data for 15 brightest cluster galaxies and use this material to trace the mass-metallicity relations (MMRs) in their globular cluster systems (GCSs). This work extends previous studies which correlate the properties of the MMR with those of the host galaxy. Our combined data sets show a mean trend for the metal-poor subpopulation that corresponds to a scaling of heavy-element abundance with cluster mass Z {approx} M {sup 0.30{+-}}{sup 0.05}. No trend is seen for the metal-rich subpopulation which has a scaling relation that is consistent with zero. We also find that the scaling exponent is independent of the GCS specific frequency and host galaxy luminosity, except perhaps for dwarf galaxies. We present new photometry in (g',i') obtained with Gemini/GMOS for the GC populations around the southern giant ellipticals NGC 5193 and IC 4329. Both galaxies have rich cluster populations which show up as normal, bimodal sequences in the color-magnitude diagram. We test the observed MMRs and argue that they are statistically real, and not an artifact caused by the method we used. We also argue against asymmetric contamination causing the observed MMR as our mean results are no different from other contamination-free studies. Finally, we compare our method to the standard bimodal fitting method (KMM or RMIX) and find our results are consistent. Interpretation of these results is consistent with recent models for GC formation in which the MMR is determined by GC self-enrichment during their brief formation period.

  8. Deep Radio Observations of the Toothbrush Galaxy Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Weeren, Reinout J.; Jones, C.; Forman, W. R.; Röttgering, H.; Brüggen, M.; Brunetti, G.; de Gasperin, F.; Bonafede, A.; Pizzo, R.; Ferrari, C.; Orrù, E.; Ogrean, G. A.; LOFAR Busyweek Team; surveys KSP, LOFAR

    2014-01-01

    We present LOFAR and JVLA radio observations of the Toothbrush galaxy cluster. The Toothbrush cluster hosts diffuse 2 Mpc extended radio emission in the form of a radio relic and halo. XMM-Newton X-ray observations show that the cluster is undergoing a major merger event. Both the radio relic and halo are likely related to this ongoing merger. Radio relics are proposed to be direct tracers of shock waves in the intracluster medium. The XMM observations indeed reveal a shock, but there is a puzzling 200 kpc spatial offset between the shock position and relic. Our deep LOFAR and JVLA observations allow a detailed spectral study to test the shock origin of the relic and underlying particle acceleration mechanisms. Finally, the LOFAR observations highlight the science that could be obtained from a deep low-frequency all-sky survey.

  9. Magnetorotational instability in cool cores of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nipoti, Carlo; Posti, L.; Ettori, S.; Bianconi, M.

    2015-10-01

    > Clusters of galaxies are embedded in halos of optically thin, gravitationally stratified, weakly magnetized plasma at the system's virial temperature. Owing to radiative cooling and anisotropic heat conduction, such intracluster medium (ICM) is subject to local instabilities, which are combinations of the thermal, magnetothermal and heat-flux-driven buoyancy instabilities. If the ICM rotates significantly, its stability properties are substantially modified and, in particular, also the magnetorotational instability (MRI) can play an important role. We study simple models of rotating cool-core clusters and we demonstrate that the MRI can be the dominant instability over significant portions of the clusters, with possible implications for the dynamics and evolution of the cool cores. Our results give further motivation for measuring the rotation of the ICM with future X-ray missions such as ASTRO-H and ATHENA.

  10. AGN-driven convection in clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, B. D. G.; Dennis, T. J.

    2005-12-01

    This poster shows how magnetic fields and cosmic rays affect the convective stability criterion of the intracluster medium (ICM). The poster also suggests that clusters are convective and presents a two-fluid (plasma and cosmic-ray) mixing-length model of galaxy clusters that accounts for convection driven by the cosmic rays produced by a central radio source. The model compares reasonably well with observational data. The model also predicts levels of diffuse gamma-ray emission resulting from interactions between cosmic-ray protons and thermal nucleons that will be detectable by GLAST. Convection may be important for solving the cooling-flow problem and regulating the temperature and density structure of the ICM, thereby affecting the mass-observable relations needed to use cluster surveys to constrain cosmological parameters. This work was supported by NASA under ATP grant NNG 05GH39G and by NSF under grant AST 05-49577.

  11. The REFLEX II galaxy cluster survey: power spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaguera-Antolínez, A.; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Böhringer, H.; Collins, C.; Guzzo, L.; Phleps, S.

    2011-05-01

    We present the power spectrum of galaxy clusters measured from the new ROSAT-ESO Flux-Limited X-Ray (REFLEX II) galaxy cluster catalogue. This new sample extends the flux limit of the original REFLEX catalogue to 1.8 × 10-12 erg s-1 cm-2, yielding a total of 911 clusters with ≥94 per cent completeness in redshift follow-up. The analysis of the data is improved by creating a set of 100 REFLEX II-catalogue-like mock galaxy cluster catalogues built from a suite of large-volume Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) N-body simulations (L-BASICC II). The measured power spectrum is in agreement with the predictions from a ΛCDM cosmological model. The measurements show the expected increase in the amplitude of the power spectrum with increasing X-ray luminosity. On large scales, we show that the shape of the measured power spectrum is compatible with a scale-independent bias and provide a model for the amplitude that allows us to connect our measurements with a cosmological model. By implementing a luminosity-dependent power-spectrum estimator, we observe that the power spectrum measured from the REFLEX II sample is weakly affected by flux-selection effects. The shape of the measured power spectrum is compatible with a featureless power spectrum on scales k > 0.01 h Mpc-1 and hence no statistically significant signal of baryonic acoustic oscillations can be detected. We show that the measured REFLEX II power spectrum displays signatures of non-linear evolution.

  12. Star formation in globular clusters and dwarf galaxies and implications for the early evolution of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Douglas N. C.; Murray, Stephen D.

    1991-01-01

    Based upon the observed properties of globular clusters and dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, we present important theoretical constraints on star formation in these systems. These constraints indicate that protoglobular cluster clouds had long dormant periods and a brief epoch of violent star formation. Collisions between protocluster clouds triggered fragmentation into individual stars. Most protocluster clouds dispersed into the Galactic halo during the star formation epoch. In contrast, the large spread in stellar metallicity in dwarf galaxies suggests that star formation in their pregenitors was self-regulated: we propose the protocluster clouds formed from thermal instability in the protogalactic clouds and show that a population of massive stars is needed to provide sufficient UV flux to prevent the collapsing protogalactic clouds from fragmenting into individual stars. Based upon these constraints, we propose a unified scenario to describe the early epochs of star formation in the Galactic halo as well as the thick and thin components of the Galactic disk.

  13. BRIGHT Lights, BIG City: Massive Galaxies, Giant Ly-A Nebulae, and Proto-Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    van Breugel, W; Reuland, M; de Vries, W; Stanford, A; Dey, A; Kurk, J; Venemans, B; Rottgering, H; Miley, G; De Breuck, C; Dopita, M; Sutherland, R; Bland-Hawthorn, J

    2002-08-01

    High redshift radio galaxies are great cosmological tools for pinpointing the most massive objects in the early Universe: massive forming galaxies, active super-massive black holes and proto-clusters. They report on deep narrow-band imaging and spectroscopic observations of several z > 2 radio galaxy fields to investigate the nature of giant Ly-{alpha} nebulae centered on the galaxies and to search for over-dense regions around them. They discuss the possible implications for our understanding of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies and galaxy clusters.

  14. Dwarf galaxies in the Coma cluster - I. Velocity dispersion measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourkchi, E.; Khosroshahi, H. G.; Carter, D.; Karick, A. M.; Mármol-Queraltó, E.; Chiboucas, K.; Tully, R. B.; Mobasher, B.; Guzmán, R.; Matković, A.; Gruel, N.

    2012-03-01

    We present the study of a large sample of early-type dwarf galaxies in the Coma cluster observed with DEIMOS on the Keck II to determine their internal velocity dispersion. We focus on a subsample of 41 member dwarf elliptical galaxies for which the velocity dispersion can be reliably measured, 26 of which were studied for the first time. The magnitude range of our sample is -21 < MR < -15 mag. This paper (Paper I) focuses on the measurement of the velocity dispersion and their error estimates. The measurements were performed using penalized pixel fitting (PPXF) and using the calcium triplet absorption lines. We use Monte Carlo bootstrapping to study various sources of uncertainty in our measurements, namely statistical uncertainty, template mismatch and other systematics. We find that the main source of uncertainty is the template mismatch effect which is reduced by using templates with a range of spectral types. Combining our measurements with those from the literature, we study the Faber-Jackson relation (L∝σα) and find that the slope of the relation is α= 1.99 ± 0.14 for galaxies brighter than MR≃-16 mag. A comprehensive analysis of the results combined with the photometric properties of these galaxies is reported in Paper II.

  15. Anisotropic thermal conduction with magnetic fields in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arth, Alexander; Dolag, Klaus; Beck, Alexander; Petkova, Margarita; Lesch, Harald

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic fields play an important role for the propagation and diffusion of charged particles, which are responsible for thermal conduction. In this poster, we present an implementation of thermal conduction including the anisotropic effects of magnetic fields for smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). The anisotropic thermal conduction is mainly proceeding parallel to magnetic fields and suppressed perpendicular to the fields. We derive the SPH formalism for the anisotropic heat transport and solve the corresponding equation with an implicit conjugate gradient scheme. We discuss several issues of unphysical heat transport in the cases of extreme ansiotropies or unmagnetized regions and present possible numerical workarounds. We implement our algorithm into the cosmological simulation code GADGET and study its behaviour in several test cases. In general, we reproduce the analytical solutions of our idealised test problems, and obtain good results in cosmological simulations of galaxy cluster formations. Within galaxy clusters, the anisotropic conduction produces a net heat transport similar to an isotropic Spitzer conduction model with low efficiency. In contrast to isotropic conduction our new formalism allows small-scale structure in the temperature distribution to remain stable, because of their decoupling caused by magnetic field lines. Compared to observations, strong isotropic conduction leads to an oversmoothed temperature distribution within clusters, while the results obtained with anisotropic thermal conduction reproduce the observed temperature fluctuations well. A proper treatment of heat transport is crucial especially in the outskirts of clusters and also in high density regions. It's connection to the local dynamical state of the cluster also might contribute to the observed bimodal distribution of cool core and non cool core clusters. Our new scheme significantly advances the modelling of thermal conduction in numerical simulations and overall gives

  16. Next generation cosmology: constraints from the Euclid galaxy cluster survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartoris, B.; Biviano, A.; Fedeli, C.; Bartlett, J. G.; Borgani, S.; Costanzi, M.; Giocoli, C.; Moscardini, L.; Weller, J.; Ascaso, B.; Bardelli, S.; Maurogordato, S.; Viana, P. T. P.

    2016-06-01

    We study the characteristics of the galaxy cluster samples expected from the European Space Agency's Euclid satellite and forecast constraints on parameters describing a variety of cosmological models. In this paper we use the same method of analysis already adopted in the Euclid Red Book, which is based on the Fisher matrix approach. Based on our analytical estimate of the cluster selection function in the photometric Euclid survey, we forecast the constraints on cosmological parameters corresponding to different extensions of the standard Λ cold dark matter model. Using only Euclid clusters, we find that the amplitude of the matter power spectrum will be constrained to Δσ8 = 0.0014 and the mass density parameter to ΔΩm = 0.0011. The dynamical evolution of dark energy will be constrained to Δw0 = 0.03 and Δwa = 0.2 with free curvature Ωk, resulting in a (w0, wa) figure of merit (FoM) of 291. In combination with Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) constraints, the amplitude of primordial non-Gaussianity will be constrained to ΔfNL ≃ 6.6 for the local shape scenario. The growth factor parameter γ, which signals deviations from general relativity, will be constrained to Δγ = 0.02, and the neutrino density parameter to ΔΩν = 0.0013 (or Δ∑mν = 0.01). Including the Planck CMB covariance matrix improves dark energy constraints to Δw0 = 0.02, Δwa = 0.07, and a FoM = 802. Knowledge of the observable-cluster mass scaling relation is crucial to reach these accuracies. Imaging and spectroscopic capabilities of Euclid will enable internal mass calibration from weak lensing and the dynamics of cluster galaxies, supported by external cluster surveys.

  17. Galaxy populations in the Antlia cluster - II. Compact elliptical galaxy candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith Castelli, Analía V.; Faifer, Favio R.; Richtler, Tom; Bassino, Lilia P.

    2008-12-01

    Continuing our study of galaxy populations in the Antlia cluster, we present a photometric analysis of four galaxies classified as compact elliptical (cE) galaxies in the 1990 Antlia Group catalogue of Ferguson and Sandage. Until now, there have been only six known members of this rare type of galaxy. Using data from various photometric systems (Washington C, Kron-Cousins R, Bessel V and I, Hubble Space Telesecope F814W and F435W), we measured the brightness and colour profiles, as well as the structural parameters. By comparing these with those of other galaxies in the Antlia cluster, as well as with confirmed cE galaxies from the literature, we found that two of the cE candidates, although spectroscopically confirmed Antlia members, are not cE galaxies. However, one of these objects presents strong ellipticity and position angle variations that resemble those already reported for M32, leading us to speculate about this type of object being a progenitor of a cE galaxy. The other two cE candidates, for which radial velocities are not available, match some features typical of cE galaxies, such as being close in projection to a larger galaxy, displaying flat colour profiles, and having a high degree of compactness. Only one of the remaining cE candidates shows a high central surface brightness, two components in its brightness profile and distinct changes in ellipticity and position angle where the outer component begins to dominate. It seems to follow the same trend as other confirmed cE galaxies in a luminosity versus mean effective surface brightness diagram. Moreover, it shows a distorted inner structure with similar characteristics to those found by simulations of interacting galaxies. Also, an extremely faint structure, which seems to link this object with one of the Antlia dominant galaxies, has been detected in images from the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory MOSAIC, the Very Large Telescope FORS1 and the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for

  18. Detection of enhancement in number densities of background galaxies due to magnification by massive galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, I.; Dietrich, J. P.; Mohr, J.; Applegate, D. E.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bayliss, M. B.; Bocquet, S.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Capasso, R.; Desai, S.; Gangkofner, C.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Gupta, N.; Hennig, C.; Hoekstra, H.; von der Linden, A.; Liu, J.; McDonald, M.; Reichardt, C. L.; Saro, A.; Schrabback, T.; Strazzullo, V.; Stubbs, C. W.; Zenteno, A.

    2016-04-01

    We present a detection of the enhancement in the number densities of background galaxies induced from lensing magnification and use it to test the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE-) inferred masses in a sample of 19 galaxy clusters with median redshift z ≃ 0.42 selected from the South Pole Telescope SPT-SZ survey. These clusters are observed by the Megacam on the Magellan Clay Telescope though gri filters. Two background galaxy populations are selected for this study through their photometric colours; they have median redshifts zmedian ≃ 0.9 (low-z background) and zmedian ≃ 1.8 (high-z background). Stacking these populations, we detect the magnification bias effect at 3.3σ and 1.3σ for the low- and high-z backgrounds, respectively. We fit Navarro, Frenk and White models simultaneously to all observed magnification bias profiles to estimate the multiplicative factor η that describes the ratio of the weak lensing mass to the mass inferred from the SZE observable-mass relation. We further quantify systematic uncertainties in η resulting from the photometric noise and bias, the cluster galaxy contamination and the estimations of the background properties. The resulting η for the combined background populations with 1σ uncertainties is 0.83 ± 0.24(stat) ± 0.074(sys), indicating good consistency between the lensing and the SZE-inferred masses. We use our best-fitting η to predict the weak lensing shear profiles and compare these predictions with observations, showing agreement between the magnification and shear mass constraints. This work demonstrates the promise of using the magnification as a complementary method to estimate cluster masses in large surveys.

  19. FUSE Observations of QSOs behind Galaxy Clusters and of Galactic O VI Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, William V.

    2005-01-01

    We observed five quasars located behind clusters of galaxies with the goal of detecting resonant O VI absorption from warm (T approx. 10(exp 6) K) gas in the clusters' intracluster medium. The presence of such warm gas is predicted by cosmological hydrodynamic simulations and is observationally supported by the detection of "soft excess" emission in several galaxy clusters. A second goal was the detection of diffuse O VI emission from warm gas in our own Galaxy.

  20. THE XMM CLUSTER SURVEY: THE STELLAR MASS ASSEMBLY OF FOSSIL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Craig D.; Miller, Christopher J.; Richards, Joseph W.; Deadman, Paul-James; Lloyd-Davies, E. J.; Kathy Romer, A.; Mehrtens, Nicola; Liddle, Andrew R.; Hoyle, Ben; Hilton, Matt; Stott, John P.; Capozzi, Diego; Collins, Chris A.; Sahlen, Martin; Stanford, S. Adam; Viana, Pedro T. P.

    2012-06-10

    This paper presents both the result of a search for fossil systems (FSs) within the XMM Cluster Survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the results of a study of the stellar mass assembly and stellar populations of their fossil galaxies. In total, 17 groups and clusters are identified at z < 0.25 with large magnitude gaps between the first and fourth brightest galaxies. All the information necessary to classify these systems as fossils is provided. For both groups and clusters, the total and fractional luminosity of the brightest galaxy is positively correlated with the magnitude gap. The brightest galaxies in FSs (called fossil galaxies) have stellar populations and star formation histories which are similar to normal brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). However, at fixed group/cluster mass, the stellar masses of the fossil galaxies are larger compared to normal BCGs, a fact that holds true over a wide range of group/cluster masses. Moreover, the fossil galaxies are found to contain a significant fraction of the total optical luminosity of the group/cluster within 0.5 R{sub 200}, as much as 85%, compared to the non-fossils, which can have as little as 10%. Our results suggest that FSs formed early and in the highest density regions of the universe and that fossil galaxies represent the end products of galaxy mergers in groups and clusters.

  1. Galaxy cluster scaling relations measured with APEX-SZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, A. N.; Kennedy, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Basu, K.; Bertoldi, F.; Burkutean, S.; Clarke, J.; Dahlin, D.; Dobbs, M.; Ferrusca, D.; Flanigan, D.; Halverson, N. W.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Horellou, C.; Johnson, B. R.; Kermish, Z. D.; Klein, M.; Kneissl, R.; Lanting, T.; Lee, A. T.; Mehl, J.; Menten, K. M.; Muders, D.; Nagarajan, A.; Pacaud, F.; Reichardt, C. L.; Richards, P. L.; Schaaf, R.; Schwan, D.; Sommer, M. W.; Spieler, H.; Tucker, C.; Westbrook, B.

    2016-08-01

    We present thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) measurements for 42 galaxy clusters observed at 150 GHz with the APEX-SZ experiment. For each cluster, we model the pressure profile and calculate the integrated Comptonization Y to estimate the total thermal energy of the intracluster medium (ICM). We compare the measured Y values to X-ray observables of the ICM from the literature (cluster gas mass Mgas, temperature TX, and YX = MgasTX) that relate to total cluster mass. We measure power-law scaling relations, including an intrinsic scatter, between the SZE and X-ray observables for three subsamples within the set of 42 clusters that have uniform X-ray analysis in the literature. We observe that differences between these X-ray analyses introduce significant variance into the measured scaling relations, particularly affecting the normalization. For all three subsamples, we find results consistent with a self-similar model of cluster evolution dominated by gravitational effects. Comparing to predictions from numerical simulations, these scaling relations prefer models that include cooling and feedback in the ICM. Lastly, we measure an intrinsic scatter of ˜28 per cent in the Y - YX scaling relation for all three subsamples.

  2. Shock Heating of the Merging Galaxy Cluster A521

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourdin, H.; Mazzotta, P.; Markevitch, M.; Giacintucci, S.; Brunetti, G.

    2013-01-01

    A521 is an interacting galaxy cluster located at z = 0.247, hosting a low-frequency radio halo connected to an eastern radio relic. Previous Chandra observations hinted at the presence of an X-ray brightness edge at the position of the relic, which may be a shock front. We analyze a deep observation of A521 recently performed with XMM-Newton in order to probe the cluster structure up to the outermost regions covered by the radio emission. The cluster atmosphere exhibits various brightness and temperature anisotropies. In particular, two cluster cores appear to be separated by two cold fronts. We find two shock fronts, one that was suggested by Chandra and that is propagating to the east, and another to the southwestern cluster outskirt. The two main interacting clusters appear to be separated by a shock-heated region, which exhibits a spatial correlation with the radio halo. The outer edge of the radio relic coincides spatially with a shock front, suggesting that this shock is responsible for the generation of cosmic-ray electrons in the relic. The propagation direction and Mach number of the shock front derived from the gas density jump, M = 2.4 +/- 0.2, are consistent with expectations from the radio spectral index, under the assumption of Fermi I acceleration mechanism.

  3. SHOCK HEATING OF THE MERGING GALAXY CLUSTER A521

    SciTech Connect

    Bourdin, H.; Mazzotta, P.; Markevitch, M.; Giacintucci, S.; Brunetti, G.

    2013-02-10

    A521 is an interacting galaxy cluster located at z = 0.247, hosting a low-frequency radio halo connected to an eastern radio relic. Previous Chandra observations hinted at the presence of an X-ray brightness edge at the position of the relic, which may be a shock front. We analyze a deep observation of A521 recently performed with XMM-Newton in order to probe the cluster structure up to the outermost regions covered by the radio emission. The cluster atmosphere exhibits various brightness and temperature anisotropies. In particular, two cluster cores appear to be separated by two cold fronts. We find two shock fronts, one that was suggested by Chandra and that is propagating to the east, and another to the southwestern cluster outskirt. The two main interacting clusters appear to be separated by a shock-heated region, which exhibits a spatial correlation with the radio halo. The outer edge of the radio relic coincides spatially with a shock front, suggesting that this shock is responsible for the generation of cosmic-ray electrons in the relic. The propagation direction and Mach number of the shock front derived from the gas density jump, M = 2.4 {+-} 0.2, are consistent with expectations from the radio spectral index, under the assumption of Fermi I acceleration mechanism.

  4. Early and late life - bulge-dominated cluster galaxies over the last 8-9 Gyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, Inger; Chiboucas, Kristin; Bergmann, Marcel; Toft, Sune; Schiavon, Ricardo

    2015-08-01

    We present results from the Gemini/HST Galaxy Cluster Project and its extension, which aims to map the evolution of bulge-dominated galaxies in rich clusters from redshift two to the present. Our high signal-to-noise spectra obtained with Gemini combined with HST imaging make it possible to study individual galaxies with masses as low as 1010.3 solar masses at redshift 1.3 (our current sample limit). In rich clusters out to z=1.3 we find no size evolution of the bulge-dominated galaxies. Further, the epoch of last star formation, as mapped by the M/L ratios, depends on the galaxy masses. At redshift 1.3 in the Lynx W cluster our data support a cluster-wide star formation episode only 1-2 Gyr prior, consistent with the epoch of last star formation epoch found from the M/L ratios. However, other aspects of our results question the simple picture of passive evolution of the bulge-dominated galaxies resulting in low redshift galaxies as observed in, e.g., the Coma cluster. Specifically, we find cluster-to-cluster variations in the metallicities and the abundance ratios of the galaxies. We are currently analyzing data of more clusters at redshifts 0.2-0.5 to investigate if such variations between clusters are common. Observations of additional clusters at z>1 are in progress.

  5. Measuring the neutrino mass from future wide galaxy cluster catalogues

    SciTech Connect

    Carbone, Carmelita; Moscardini, Lauro; Cimatti, Andrea; Fedeli, Cosimo E-mail: cosimo.fedeli@astro.ufl.edu E-mail: a.cimatti@unibo.it

    2012-03-01

    We present forecast errors on a wide range of cosmological parameters obtained from a photometric cluster catalogue of a future wide-field Euclid-like survey. We focus in particular on the total neutrino mass as constrained by a combination of the galaxy cluster number counts and correlation function. For the latter we consider only the shape information and the Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO), while marginalising over the spectral amplitude and the redshift space distortions. In addition to the cosmological parameters of the standard ΛCDM+ν model we also consider a non-vanishing curvature, and two parameters describing a redshift evolution for the dark energy equation of state. For completeness, we also marginalise over a set of ''nuisance'' parameters, representing the uncertainties on the cluster mass determination. We find that combining cluster counts with power spectrum information greatly improves the constraining power of each probe taken individually, with errors on cosmological parameters being reduced by up to an order of magnitude. In particular, the best improvements are for the parameters defining the dynamical evolution of dark energy, where cluster counts break degeneracies. Moreover, the resulting error on neutrino mass is at the level of σ(M{sub ν}) ∼ 0.9 eV, comparable with that derived from present Lyα forest measurements and Cosmic Microwave background (CMB) data in the framework of a non-flat Universe. Further adopting Planck priors and reducing the number of free parameters to a ΛCDM+ν cosmology allows to place constraints on the total neutrino mass of σ(M{sub ν}) ∼ 0.08 eV, close to the lower bound enforced by neutrino oscillation experiments. Finally, in the optimistic case where uncertainties in the calibration of the mass-observable relation were so small to be neglected, the combination of Planck priors with cluster counts and power spectrum would constrain the total neutrino mass down to σ(M{sub ν}) ∼ 0.034 eV, i

  6. When clusters collide - A numerical Hydro/N-body simulation of merging galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roettiger, Kurt; Burns, Jack; Loken, Chris

    1993-01-01

    A 3D numerical simulation of two merging clusters of galaxies, using a hybrid Hydro/N-body code, is presented. The hydrodynamics of the code is solved by an Eulerian finite difference method. Initial results disclose that the X-ray emission of the dominant cluster becomes elongated and broadened; heating occurs at the core of the dominant cluster as a result of multiple shocks, and high velocity gas motions within the intracluster medium. It is predicted that clusters which have undergone recent mergers and do not have cooling flows will have high peculiar gas velocities and that the shocks and turbulence generated during the merger may power cluster-wide radio halos. Prolonged high-velocity gas motions through the dominant cluster core possibly play a major role in the formation and shaping of wide-angle tailed radio sources associated with central dominant galaxies. The N-body component of the simulation reveals the subcluster to be dispersed as it passes through the dominant cluster.

  7. MEASUREMENT OF THE HALO BIAS FROM STACKED SHEAR PROFILES OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Covone, Giovanni; Sereno, Mauro

    2014-04-01

    We present observational evidence of the two-halo term in the stacked shear profile of a sample of ∼1200 optically selected galaxy clusters based on imaging data and the public shear catalog from the CFHTLenS. We find that the halo bias, a measure of the correlated distribution of matter around galaxy clusters, has amplitude and correlation with galaxy cluster mass in very good agreement with the predictions based on the LCDM standard cosmological model. The mass-concentration relation is flat but higher than theoretical predictions. We also confirm the close scaling relation between the optical richness of galaxy clusters and their mass.

  8. Dependence of the bright end of composite galaxy luminosity functions on cluster dynamical states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Z. L.; Han, J. L.

    2015-03-01

    The luminosity function of cluster galaxies provides a fundamental constraint on galaxy evolution in cluster environments. By using the bright member galaxies of a large sample of rich clusters identified from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we obtain the bright end of composite luminosity functions of cluster galaxies, and study their dependence on a cluster dynamical states. After a redshift-evolution correction of absolute magnitude, the luminosity function of member galaxies can be well fitted by a Schechter function when the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) are excluded. The absolute magnitudes of BCGs follow a Gaussian function with a characteristic width of about 0.36 mag. We find that the luminosity function of galaxies in more relaxed clusters has a fainter characteristic absolute magnitude (M*), and these clusters have fewer bright non-BCG member galaxies but a brighter BCG. Our results suggest the co-evolution of galaxy population with a cluster dynamical state and support the hierarchical formation scenario of the BCGs.

  9. The Effect of Cluster Environment on Galaxy Evolution in the Core Pegasus I Cluster.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, L.; Rose, J. A.; van Gorkom, J. H.

    2004-12-01

    We present HI observations of 28 galaxies which complete the sample of spiral galaxies within 1 RA of the core Pegasus I cluster. The observations include single dish neutral Hydrogen measurements, obtained with the Arecibo telescope for all 28 galaxies in the sample, as well as HI spatial distribution maps, obtained with the VLA. The HI morphology of some galaxies shows that the HI is smaller than the optical disk and slightly offset from the stars. This could indicate an ICM-ISM interaction. This would be very surprising since the Pegasus cluster has a virtually undetectable level of X-ray emission, and a very low velocity dispersion. The low velocity dispersion, coupled with the lack of a dense hot ICM indicate that ram pressure stripping should not play a significant role in this environment. Nonetheless, we find evidence of some galaxies with HI deficiencies of up to a factor of 2 and with displaced HI. Also, two of the galaxies, NGC7604 and NGC7648, are morphologically peculiar. Their peculiarities indicate contradictory scenarios of what is triggering their unusual star formation. Hα imaging, along with long-slit spectroscopy of NGC7648 reveal morphological features which point to a recent tidal interaction. On the other hand, Hα imaging of NGC7604 reveals a strong episode of star formation concentrated into an symmetric arc, preferentially located on one side of the galaxy. VLA HI mapping shows the HI also highly concentrated into that region, suggestive of a ram pressure event. Our data hint at the possibility that ram pressure stripping may play a role in a wider variety of environments than previously considered.

  10. Near-IR imaging of moderate redshift galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, S. A.; Dickinson, M. E.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.

    1993-01-01

    We have obtained near-IR imaging of 3 moderate-z clusters on the 1.3 m at KPNO with SQIID, a new camera offering wide-field (5.5 arcmin) simultaneous JHK band imaging. Our photometry on a sample of approximately 100 likely member galaxies in one of the clusters, Abell 370 at z = 0.37, shows that we can obtain magnitudes good to 20 percent down to K = 18, considerably below the estimated K* = 16.5 at this redshift. These data indicate that there are no systematic problems in obtaining photometry at faint levels with SQIID. With the development of larger arrays, the field is open to progress. The resulting J, H, and K data for three clusters are combined with previously obtained multiband optical photometry. We present an investigation of the spectral properties and evolution of the dominant cold stellar populations by comparing optical-to-IR colors and color-magnitude diagrams to predictions from population synthesis models and galaxy spectral evolution codes.

  11. Diffuse stellar components in cosmological simulations: From the outskirts of galaxies to intra cluster light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolag, Klaus; Remus, Rhea-Silvia; Teklu, Adelheid F.

    2015-08-01

    Recent, cosmological hydrodynamical simulations can cover very large dynamical ranges in the resolved structures, while following a large variety of physical processes which are important for the formation of galaxies and galaxy clusters. I will present the results from the "Magneticum" set of cosmological simulations with special emphasis on the outer stellar halos of galaxies and galaxy clusters. Our investigations show that -- despite the fact that the galaxies formed in our simulations can clearly be classified into different morphological types -- the outer stellar envelope shows a universal stellar profile, resulting in outer slopes which are very well in agreement with the still rare observational data currently available. For galaxy clusters, we find that despite the fact that the ICL component always shows a clear dynamical seperation from the BCG, the stellar profile in many galaxy clusters is characterized by a single sersic profile, covering the BCG and the ICL, very much in agreement with current, observational results.

  12. The Environment of z < 1 3CR Radio Galaxies and QSOs: From Proto-clusters to Clusters of Galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)