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Sample records for galaxy spin chirality

  1. Chiral higher spin gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash

    2017-06-01

    We construct a candidate for the most general chiral higher spin theory with AdS3 boundary conditions. In the Chern-Simons language, on the left it has the Drinfeld-Sokolov reduced form, but on the right all charges and chemical potentials are turned on. Altogether (for the spin-3 case) these are 19 functions. Despite this, we show that the resulting metric has the form of the "most general" AdS3 boundary conditions discussed by Grumiller and Riegler. The asymptotic symmetry algebra is a product of a W3 algebra on the left and an affine s l (3 )k current algebra on the right, as desired. The metric and higher spin fields depend on all the 19 functions. We compare our work with previous results in the literature.

  2. Coupled wire construction of chiral spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomale, Ronny; Meng, Tobias; Neupert, Titus; Greiter, Martin

    We develop a coupled wire construction of chiral spin liquids. The starting point are individual wires of electrons in the Mott regime that are subject to a Zeeman field and Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Suitable spin-flip couplings between the wires yield an Abelian chiral spin liquid state which supports spinon excitations above a bulk gap, and chiral edge states. The approach generalizes to non-Abelian chiral spin liquids at level k with parafermionic edge states. RT is supported by the European Research Council through ERC-StG-336012-TOPOLECTRICS. MG and RT are supported by DFG-SFB 1170.

  3. Lattice spin models for non-Abelian chiral spin liquids

    DOE PAGES

    Lecheminant, P.; Tsvelik, A. M.

    2017-04-26

    Here, we suggest a class of two-dimensional lattice spin Hamiltonians describing non-Abelian SU(2) chiral spin liquids—spin analogs of fractional non-Abelian quantum Hall states—with gapped bulk and gapless chiral edge excitations described by the SU(2)n Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten conformal field theory. The models are constructed from an array of generalized spin-n/2 ladders with multi-spin-exchange interactions which are coupled by isolated spins. Such models allow a controllable analytic treatment starting from the one-dimensional limit and are characterized by a bulk gap and non-Abelian SU(2)n gapless edge excitations.

  4. Chiral spin liquids in arrays of spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorohovsky, Gregory; Pereira, Rodrigo G.; Sela, Eran

    2015-06-01

    We describe a coupled-chain construction for chiral spin liquids in two-dimensional spin systems. Starting from a one-dimensional zigzag spin chain and imposing SU(2) symmetry in the framework of non-Abelian bosonization, we first show that our approach faithfully describes the low-energy physics of an exactly solvable model with a three-spin interaction. Generalizing the construction to the two-dimensional case, we obtain a theory that incorporates the universal properties of the chiral spin liquid predicted by Kalmeyer and Laughlin: charge-neutral edge states, gapped spin-1/2 bulk excitations, and ground-state degeneracy on the torus signaling the topological order of this quantum state. In addition, we show that the chiral spin liquid phase is more easily stabilized in frustrated lattices containing corner-sharing triangles, such as the extended kagome lattice, than in the triangular lattice. Our field-theoretical approach invites generalizations to more exotic chiral spin liquids and may be used to assess the existence of the chiral spin liquid as the ground state of specific lattice systems.

  5. Chiral Potts spin glass in d=2 and 3 dimensions.

    PubMed

    Çağlar, Tolga; Berker, A Nihat

    2016-09-01

    The chiral spin-glass Potts system with q=3 states is studied in d=2 and 3 spatial dimensions by renormalization-group theory and the global phase diagrams are calculated in temperature, chirality concentration p, and chirality-breaking concentration c, with determination of phase chaos and phase-boundary chaos. In d=3, the system has ferromagnetic, left-chiral, right-chiral, chiral spin-glass, and disordered phases. The phase boundaries to the ferromagnetic, left- and right-chiral phases show, differently, an unusual, fibrous patchwork (microreentrances) of all four (ferromagnetic, left-chiral, right-chiral, chiral spin-glass) ordered phases, especially in the multicritical region. The chaotic behavior of the interactions, under scale change, are determined in the chiral spin-glass phase and on the boundary between the chiral spin-glass and disordered phases, showing Lyapunov exponents in magnitudes reversed from the usual ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic spin-glass systems. At low temperatures, the boundaries of the left- and right-chiral phases become thresholded in p and c. In d=2, the chiral spin-glass Potts system does not have a spin-glass phase, consistently with the lower-critical dimension of ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic spin glasses. The left- and right-chirally ordered phases show reentrance in chirality concentration p.

  6. Spin and Chiral Orderings of Frustrated Quantum Spin Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaburagi, Makoto; Kawamura, Hikaru; Hikihara, Toshiya

    1999-10-01

    The ordering offrustrated S=1/2 and 1 XY and Heisenberg spin chains with the competing nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor antiferromagneticcouplings is studied by the exact diagonalization and density-matrix renormalization-group methods. It is found that theS=1 XY chain exhibits both gapless and gapped `chiral' phases characterizedby the spontaneous breaking of parity, in which thelong-range order parameter is a chirality, κi=SixSi+1y-SiySi+1x, whereas the spin correlation decays either algebraically or exponentially. Such chiral phases are not realized in the S=1/2 XY chainor in the Heisenberg chains.

  7. Controlling and imaging chiral spin textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gong

    Chirality in magnetic materials is fundamentally interesting and holds potential for logic and memory applications. Using spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy at National Center for Electron Microscopy, we recently observed chiral domain walls in thin films. We developed ways to tailor the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which drives the chirality, by interface engineering and by forming ternary superlattices. We find that spin-textures can be switched between left-handed, right-handed, cycloidal, helical and mixed domain wall structures by controlling uniaxial strain in magnetic films. We also demonstrate an experimental approach to stabilize skyrmions in magnetic multilayers without external magnetic field. These results exemplify the rich physics of chirality associated with interfaces of magnetic materials

  8. Quantum optics of chiral spin networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, Hannes; Ramos, Tomás; Daley, Andrew J.; Zoller, Peter

    2015-04-01

    We study the driven-dissipative dynamics of a network of spin-1/2 systems coupled to one or more chiral 1D bosonic waveguides within the framework of a Markovian master equation. We determine how the interplay between a coherent drive and collective decay processes can lead to the formation of pure multipartite entangled steady states. The key ingredient for the emergence of these many-body dark states is an asymmetric coupling of the spins to left and right propagating guided modes. Such systems are motivated by experimental possibilities with internal states of atoms coupled to optical fibers, or motional states of trapped atoms coupled to a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate. We discuss the characterization of the emerging multipartite entanglement in this system in terms of the Fisher information.

  9. Chiral spin torque at magnetic domain walls.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kwang-Su; Thomas, Luc; Yang, See-Hun; Parkin, Stuart

    2013-07-01

    Spin-polarized currents provide a powerful means of manipulating the magnetization of nanodevices, and give rise to spin transfer torques that can drive magnetic domain walls along nanowires. In ultrathin magnetic wires, domain walls are found to move in the opposite direction to that expected from bulk spin transfer torques, and also at much higher speeds. Here we show that this is due to two intertwined phenomena, both derived from spin-orbit interactions. By measuring the influence of magnetic fields on current-driven domain-wall motion in perpendicularly magnetized Co/Ni/Co trilayers, we find an internal effective magnetic field acting on each domain wall, the direction of which alternates between successive domain walls. This chiral effective field arises from a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction at the Co/Pt interfaces and, in concert with spin Hall currents, drives the domain walls in lock-step along the nanowire. Elucidating the mechanism for the manipulation of domain walls in ultrathin magnetic films will enable the development of new families of spintronic devices.

  10. Numerical evidence of spin-chirality decoupling in the three-dimensional heisenberg spin glass model.

    PubMed

    Viet, Dao Xuan; Kawamura, Hikaru

    2009-01-16

    Ordering of the three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass with Gaussian coupling is studied by extensive Monte Carlo simulations. The model undergoes successive chiral-glass and spin-glass transitions at nonzero temperatures T_{CG}>T_{SG}>0, exhibiting spin-chirality decoupling.

  11. Spintronics and chirality: spin selectivity in electron transport through chiral molecules.

    PubMed

    Naaman, Ron; Waldeck, David H

    2015-04-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that the electron transmission yield through chiral molecules depends on the electron spin orientation. This phenomenon has been termed the chiral-induced spin selectivity (CISS) effect, and it provides a challenge to theory and promise for organic molecule-based spintronic devices. This article reviews recent developments in our understanding of CISS. Different theoretical models have been used to describe the effect; however, they all presume an unusually large spin-orbit coupling in chiral molecules for the effect to display the magnitudes seen in experiments. A simplified model for an electron's transport through a chiral potential suggests that these large couplings can be manifested. Techniques for measuring spin-selective electron transport through molecules are overviewed, and some examples of recent experiments are described. Finally, we present results obtained by studying several systems, and we describe the possible application of the CISS effect for memory devices.

  12. Spintronics and Chirality: Spin Selectivity in Electron Transport Through Chiral Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naaman, Ron; Waldeck, David H.

    2015-04-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that the electron transmission yield through chiral molecules depends on the electron spin orientation. This phenomenon has been termed the chiral-induced spin selectivity (CISS) effect, and it provides a challenge to theory and promise for organic molecule-based spintronic devices. This article reviews recent developments in our understanding of CISS. Different theoretical models have been used to describe the effect; however, they all presume an unusually large spin-orbit coupling in chiral molecules for the effect to display the magnitudes seen in experiments. A simplified model for an electron's transport through a chiral potential suggests that these large couplings can be manifested. Techniques for measuring spin-selective electron transport through molecules are overviewed, and some examples of recent experiments are described. Finally, we present results obtained by studying several systems, and we describe the possible application of the CISS effect for memory devices.

  13. Projective symmetry group classification of chiral spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieri, Samuel; Lhuillier, Claire; Messio, Laura

    2016-03-01

    We present a general review of the projective symmetry group classification of fermionic quantum spin liquids for lattice models of spin S =1 /2 . We then introduce a systematic generalization of the approach for symmetric Z2 quantum spin liquids to the one of chiral phases (i.e., singlet states that break time reversal and lattice reflection, but conserve their product). We apply this framework to classify and discuss possible chiral spin liquids on triangular and kagome lattices. We give a detailed prescription on how to construct quadratic spinon Hamiltonians and microscopic wave functions for each representation class on these lattices. Among the chiral Z2 states, we study the subset of U(1) phases variationally in the antiferromagnetic J1-J2-Jd Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice. We discuss static spin structure factors and symmetry constraints on the bulk spectra of these phases.

  14. Chirality-sensitive nuclear magnetic resonance effects induced by indirect spin-spin coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbacz, P.; Buckingham, A. D.

    2016-11-01

    It is predicted that, for two spin-1/2 nuclei coupled by indirect spin-spin coupling in a chiral molecule, chirality-sensitive induced electric polarization can be observed at the frequencies equal to the sum and difference between the spin resonance frequencies. Also, an electric field oscillating at the difference frequency can induce spin coherences which allow the direct discrimination between enantiomers by nuclear magnetic resonance. The dominant contribution to the magnitude of these expected chiral effects is proportional to the permanent electric dipole moment and to the antisymmetric part of the indirect spin-spin coupling tensor of the chiral molecule. Promising compounds for experimental tests of the predictions are derivatives of 1,3-difluorocyclopropene.

  15. Chirality-sensitive nuclear magnetic resonance effects induced by indirect spin-spin coupling.

    PubMed

    Garbacz, P; Buckingham, A D

    2016-11-28

    It is predicted that, for two spin-1/2 nuclei coupled by indirect spin-spin coupling in a chiral molecule, chirality-sensitive induced electric polarization can be observed at the frequencies equal to the sum and difference between the spin resonance frequencies. Also, an electric field oscillating at the difference frequency can induce spin coherences which allow the direct discrimination between enantiomers by nuclear magnetic resonance. The dominant contribution to the magnitude of these expected chiral effects is proportional to the permanent electric dipole moment and to the antisymmetric part of the indirect spin-spin coupling tensor of the chiral molecule. Promising compounds for experimental tests of the predictions are derivatives of 1,3-difluorocyclopropene.

  16. Spin Helicity in Chiral Lanthanide Chains.

    PubMed

    Mihalcea, Ionut; Perfetti, Mauro; Pineider, Francesco; Tesi, Lorenzo; Mereacre, Valeriu; Wilhelm, Fabrice; Rogalev, Andrei; Anson, Christopher E; Powell, Annie K; Sessoli, Roberta

    2016-10-17

    We report here the determination of the helical spin structure of three Ln-based chiral chains of the formula [Ln(Hnic)(nic)2(NO3)]n (Hnic = nicotinic acid; Ln = Tb, Dy, and Er) by means of cantilever torque magnetometry. While the Dy and Er derivatives are strongly axial (easy-axis and easy-plane anisotropy, respectively), the Tb derivative is characterized by a remarkable rhombicity. In agreement with these findings, alternating-current susceptibility reveals slow magnetic relaxation only in the Dy derivative. Dilution of Dy(III) ions in the diamagnetic Y-based analogue shows that the weak ferromagnetic intrachain interactions do not contribute significantly to the energy barrier for the reversal of magnetization, which is better described as a single-ion process. Single crystals of the two enantiomers of the Dy derivative have also been investigated using hard X-ray synchrotron radiation at the L-edge of the metal revealing optical activity although with negligible involvement of the 4f electrons of the Dy(III) ion.

  17. Spin-Dependent Transport through Chiral Molecules Studied by Spin-Dependent Electrochemistry

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus Molecular spintronics (spin + electronics), which aims to exploit both the spin degree of freedom and the electron charge in molecular devices, has recently received massive attention. Our recent experiments on molecular spintronics employ chiral molecules which have the unexpected property of acting as spin filters, by way of an effect we call “chiral-induced spin selectivity” (CISS). In this Account, we discuss new types of spin-dependent electrochemistry measurements and their use to probe the spin-dependent charge transport properties of nonmagnetic chiral conductive polymers and biomolecules, such as oligopeptides, L/D cysteine, cytochrome c, bacteriorhodopsin (bR), and oligopeptide-CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) hybrid structures. Spin-dependent electrochemical measurements were carried out by employing ferromagnetic electrodes modified with chiral molecules used as the working electrode. Redox probes were used either in solution or when directly attached to the ferromagnetic electrodes. During the electrochemical measurements, the ferromagnetic electrode was magnetized either with its magnetic moment pointing “UP” or “DOWN” using a permanent magnet (H = 0.5 T), placed underneath the chemically modified ferromagnetic electrodes. The spin polarization of the current was found to be in the range of 5–30%, even in the case of small chiral molecules. Chiral films of the l- and d-cysteine tethered with a redox-active dye, toludin blue O, show spin polarizarion that depends on the chirality. Because the nickel electrodes are susceptible to corrosion, we explored the effect of coating them with a thin gold overlayer. The effect of the gold layer on the spin polarization of the electrons ejected from the electrode was investigated. In addition, the role of the structure of the protein on the spin selective transport was also studied as a function of bias voltage and the effect of protein denaturation was revealed. In addition to

  18. Spin-Dependent Transport through Chiral Molecules Studied by Spin-Dependent Electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Prakash Chandra; Fontanesi, Claudio; Waldeck, David H; Naaman, Ron

    2016-11-15

    Molecular spintronics (spin + electronics), which aims to exploit both the spin degree of freedom and the electron charge in molecular devices, has recently received massive attention. Our recent experiments on molecular spintronics employ chiral molecules which have the unexpected property of acting as spin filters, by way of an effect we call "chiral-induced spin selectivity" (CISS). In this Account, we discuss new types of spin-dependent electrochemistry measurements and their use to probe the spin-dependent charge transport properties of nonmagnetic chiral conductive polymers and biomolecules, such as oligopeptides, L/D cysteine, cytochrome c, bacteriorhodopsin (bR), and oligopeptide-CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) hybrid structures. Spin-dependent electrochemical measurements were carried out by employing ferromagnetic electrodes modified with chiral molecules used as the working electrode. Redox probes were used either in solution or when directly attached to the ferromagnetic electrodes. During the electrochemical measurements, the ferromagnetic electrode was magnetized either with its magnetic moment pointing "UP" or "DOWN" using a permanent magnet (H = 0.5 T), placed underneath the chemically modified ferromagnetic electrodes. The spin polarization of the current was found to be in the range of 5-30%, even in the case of small chiral molecules. Chiral films of the l- and d-cysteine tethered with a redox-active dye, toludin blue O, show spin polarizarion that depends on the chirality. Because the nickel electrodes are susceptible to corrosion, we explored the effect of coating them with a thin gold overlayer. The effect of the gold layer on the spin polarization of the electrons ejected from the electrode was investigated. In addition, the role of the structure of the protein on the spin selective transport was also studied as a function of bias voltage and the effect of protein denaturation was revealed. In addition to "dark" measurements, we also describe

  19. Chirality-Dependent Transmission of Spin Waves through Domain Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buijnsters, F. J.; Ferreiros, Y.; Fasolino, A.; Katsnelson, M. I.

    2016-04-01

    Spin-wave technology (magnonics) has the potential to further reduce the size and energy consumption of information-processing devices. In the submicrometer regime (exchange spin waves), topological defects such as domain walls may constitute active elements to manipulate spin waves and perform logic operations. We predict that spin waves that pass through a domain wall in an ultrathin perpendicular-anisotropy film experience a phase shift that depends on the orientation of the domain wall (chirality). The effect, which is absent in bulk materials, originates from the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and can be interpreted as a geometric phase. We demonstrate analytically and by means of micromagnetic simulations that the phase shift is strong enough to switch between constructive and destructive interference. The two chirality states of the domain wall may serve as a memory bit or spin-wave switch in magnonic devices.

  20. Tunneling between chiral magnets: Spin current generation without external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, Naoya

    2017-06-01

    Magnons can generate a spin current, and the standard generating mechanism requires at least one external field. Since this mechanism is often applied to a multilayer system including a magnet and a paramagnetic metal, the system can possess not only the charge current induced by the spin current but also the charge current induced by the external field. The latter is an unnecessary accompaniment. Here we show that the tunneling of a magnon pair between chiral magnets can generate a spin current even without external fields. This phenomenon originates from a phase difference between magnon pairs of separate, weakly coupled chiral magnets, and is essentially different from the mechanism using the angle degree of freedom of the magnon Bose-Einstein condensates. The pair's tunneling is possible in chiral magnets due to lack of the Goldstone type gapless excitations. This phenomenon opens the door to spintronics not requiring any external field and using the magnon pair tunneling.

  1. Chiral Lagrangians for Baryons Coupled to Massive SPIN-1 Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borasoy, B.; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    We analyze the effective low energy field theory of Goldstone bosons and baryons chirally coupled to massive spin-1 fields. We use the electromagnetic baryon form factors to demonstrate the formal equivalence between the vector and the tensor field formulation for the spin-1 fields. We also discuss the origin of the so-called Weinberg term in pion-nucleon scattering and the role of ρ meson exchange. Chirally coupled vector mesons do not give rise to this two-pion nucleon seagull interaction but rather to higher order corrections. Some problems of the formal equivalence arising in higher orders and related to loops are touched upon.

  2. Continuum model for chiral induced spin selectivity in helical molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, Ernesto; González-Arraga, Luis A.; Finkelstein-Shapiro, Daniel; Mujica, Vladimiro; Berche, Bertrand

    2015-05-21

    A minimal model is exactly solved for electron spin transport on a helix. Electron transport is assumed to be supported by well oriented p{sub z} type orbitals on base molecules forming a staircase of definite chirality. In a tight binding interpretation, the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) opens up an effective π{sub z} − π{sub z} coupling via interbase p{sub x,y} − p{sub z} hopping, introducing spin coupled transport. The resulting continuum model spectrum shows two Kramers doublet transport channels with a gap proportional to the SOC. Each doubly degenerate channel satisfies time reversal symmetry; nevertheless, a bias chooses a transport direction and thus selects for spin orientation. The model predicts (i) which spin orientation is selected depending on chirality and bias, (ii) changes in spin preference as a function of input Fermi level and (iii) back-scattering suppression protected by the SO gap. We compute the spin current with a definite helicity and find it to be proportional to the torsion of the chiral structure and the non-adiabatic Aharonov-Anandan phase. To describe room temperature transport, we assume that the total transmission is the result of a product of coherent steps.

  3. Chiral Spin-Orbital Liquids with Nodal Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natori, W. M. H.; Andrade, E. C.; Miranda, E.; Pereira, R. G.

    2016-07-01

    Strongly correlated materials with strong spin-orbit coupling hold promise for realizing topological phases with fractionalized excitations. Here, we propose a chiral spin-orbital liquid as a stable phase of a realistic model for heavy-element double perovskites. This spin liquid state has Majorana fermion excitations with a gapless spectrum characterized by nodal lines along the edges of the Brillouin zone. We show that the nodal lines are topological defects of a non-Abelian Berry connection and that the system exhibits dispersing surface states. We discuss some experimental signatures of this state and compare them with properties of the spin liquid candidate Ba2YMoO6.

  4. Optical activity via Kerr nonlinearity in a spinning chiral medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Anwar Ali; Bacha, Bakht Amin; Khan, Rahmat Ali

    2016-11-01

    Optical activity is investigated in a chiral medium by employing the four level cascade atomic model, in which the optical responses of the atomic medium are studied with Kerr nonlinearity. Light entering into a chiral medium splits into circular birefringent beams. The angle of divergence between the circular birefringent beams and the polarization states of the two light beams is manipulated with Kerr nonlinearity. In the stationary chiral medium the angle of divergence between the circular birefringent beams is calculated to be 1.3 radian. Furthermore, circular birefringence is optically controlled in a spinning chiral medium, where the maximum rotary photon drag angle for left (right) circularly polarized beam is ±1.1 (±1.5) microradian. The change in the angle of divergence between circular birefringent beams by rotary photon drag is calculated to be 0.4 microradian. The numerical results may help to understand image designing, image coding, discovery of photonic crystals and optical sensing technology.

  5. Chirality-induced spin current through spiral magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hiroki; Hoshi, Koujiro; Ohe, Jun-ichiro

    2016-09-01

    Spin-polarized current through helimagnets and the conductance modulation due to the chirality mismatch are studied numerically. The one-dimensional spiral magnet structure is obtained by taking into account the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and the ferromagnetic interaction. Although the spiral magnetic structure consists of the y -z components of the magnetization, the conduction electron through the spiral magnet is polarized in the x direction, and its sign depends on the chirality of the spiral structure. We also investigate charge transport through the junction system consisting of two helimagnets. Similar to the giant magnetoresistance in the uniform ferromagnet, the conductance is reduced significantly by attaching the helimagnets with different chiralities. It is possible that our proposed mechanism can make use of the chirality measuring method by using electron transport and an alternative type of magnetoresistance using a topological property.

  6. Tunable chiral spin texture in magnetic domain-walls.

    PubMed

    Franken, J H; Herps, M; Swagten, H J M; Koopmans, B

    2014-06-11

    Magnetic domain-walls (DWs) with a preferred chirality exhibit very efficient current-driven motion. Since structural inversion asymmetry (SIA) is required for their stability, the observation of chiral domain walls in highly symmetric Pt/Co/Pt is intriguing. Here, we tune the layer asymmetry in this system and observe, by current-assisted DW depinning experiments, a small chiral field which sensitively changes. Moreover, we convincingly link the observed efficiency of DW motion to the DW texture, using DW resistance as a direct probe for the internal orientation of the DW under the influence of in-plane fields. The very delicate effect of capping layer thickness on the chiral field allows for its accurate control, which is important in designing novel materials for optimal spin-orbit-torque-driven DW motion.

  7. Internal chiral spin structure of topological-insulator/metal superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoxiong; Chiang, Tai-Chang

    2014-05-01

    The electronic structure of a superlattice, made of a topological insulator (Bi2Se3) and a normal metal (Ca/Sr alloy), has been studied by first-principle calculations. Even though spatial inversion and time-reversal symmetries require all electronic states in the system be spin degenerate spin separation in real space is permitted. The system forms a nontrivial three-dimensional spin structure by self-organization into a dense periodic stack of spin-carrying electron sheets of alternating chirality imbedded in the subsurface regions of the topological insulator layers. This highly anisotropic spin configuration makes the system a promising candidate for field-effect spin transducers and transistors.

  8. Spin-orbit optomechanics of optically levitated chiral Bragg microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, Georgiy; Rafayelyan, Mushegh; Brasselet, Etienne

    2017-05-01

    We explore the spin-orbit nature of the optical torque exerted on chiral liquid-crystal microspheres exhibiting circular Bragg reflection. Experimental investigation relies on the direct optomechanical observation of spinning liquid-crystal droplets immersed in water and held in a circularly polarized laser levitator. More generally, we anticipate that the total angular momentum transfer per photon may depart from the commonly assumed spin-only ±2 ℏ contribution, when the topological features of the illuminated microsphere are taken into account.

  9. Measuring the Spin-Polarization Power of a Single Chiral Molecule.

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Albert C; Medina, Ernesto; Ferrer-Huerta, Miriam; Gimeno, Nuria; Teixidó, Meritxell; Palma, Julio L; Tao, Nongjian; Ugalde, Jesus M; Giralt, Ernest; Díez-Pérez, Ismael; Mujica, Vladimiro

    2017-01-01

    The electronic spin filtering capability of a single chiral helical peptide is measured. A ferromagnetic electrode source is employed to inject spin-polarized electrons in an asymmetric single-molecule junction bridging an α-helical peptide sequence of known chirality. The conductance comparison between both isomers allows the direct determination of the polarization power of an individual chiral molecule.

  10. Anisotropy Dependence of the Chiral Susceptibility in Canonical Spin Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Yamazaki, T.; Kawarazaki, S.

    2006-09-01

    The influence of the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) anisotropy on the extraordinary Hall coefficient Rs ≡ ρ xy M, where ρxy is the extraordinary Hall resistivity and which contains the chiral susceptibility, is investigated on canonical spin glass alloys. The strength of the DM anisotropy of the alloys was changed systematically by doping with a third non-magnetic impurity. The Hall resistivity ρh, and the magnetization M were measured simultaneously in the series of (Ag1-xAux)0 9Mn0 1 alloys with x = 0, 0.007, 0.03, and 0.05. The difference between the values of zero field cooled and field cooled Rs, below the spin glass transition temperature, clearly increases with the amount of Au impurities. This indicates that the DM anisotropy plays an important role in the appearance of the chiral susceptibility in canonical spin glasses. The result is discussed in relation to recent proposals for the chirality mechanism of the Hall effect in canonical spin glasses.

  11. Devil's staircase continuum in the chiral clock spin glass with competing ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic and left-right chiral interactions.

    PubMed

    Çağlar, Tolga; Berker, A Nihat

    2017-04-01

    The chiral clock spin-glass model with q=5 states, with both competing ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic and left-right chiral frustrations, is studied in d=3 spatial dimensions by renormalization-group theory. The global phase diagram is calculated in temperature, antiferromagnetic bond concentration p, random chirality strength, and right-chirality concentration c. The system has a ferromagnetic phase, a multitude of different chiral phases, a chiral spin-glass phase, and a critical (algebraically) ordered phase. The ferromagnetic and chiral phases accumulate at the disordered phase boundary and form a spectrum of devil's staircases, where different ordered phases characteristically intercede at all scales of phase-diagram space. Shallow and deep reentrances of the disordered phase, bordered by fragments of regular and temperature-inverted devil's staircases, are seen. The extremely rich phase diagrams are presented as continuously and qualitatively changing videos.

  12. Devil's staircase continuum in the chiral clock spin glass with competing ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic and left-right chiral interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćaǧlar, Tolga; Berker, A. Nihat

    2017-04-01

    The chiral clock spin-glass model with q =5 states, with both competing ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic and left-right chiral frustrations, is studied in d =3 spatial dimensions by renormalization-group theory. The global phase diagram is calculated in temperature, antiferromagnetic bond concentration p , random chirality strength, and right-chirality concentration c . The system has a ferromagnetic phase, a multitude of different chiral phases, a chiral spin-glass phase, and a critical (algebraically) ordered phase. The ferromagnetic and chiral phases accumulate at the disordered phase boundary and form a spectrum of devil's staircases, where different ordered phases characteristically intercede at all scales of phase-diagram space. Shallow and deep reentrances of the disordered phase, bordered by fragments of regular and temperature-inverted devil's staircases, are seen. The extremely rich phase diagrams are presented as continuously and qualitatively changing videos.

  13. An Exact Chiral Spin Liquid with Non-Abelian Anyons

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Hong

    2010-04-06

    We establish the existence of a chiral spin liquid (CSL) as the exact ground state of the Kitaev model on a decorated honeycomb lattice, which is obtained by replacing each site in the familiar honeycomb lattice with a triangle. The CSL state spontaneously breaks time reversal symmetry but preserves other symmetries. There are two topologically distinct CSLs separated by a quantum critical point. Interestingly, vortex excitations in the topologically nontrivial (Chern number {+-}1) CSL obey non-Abelian statistics.

  14. Proton spin problem and chiral constituent quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, J. M. S.; Dahiya, H.; Gupta, M.

    2008-10-13

    Some of the non-relativistic quark model (NRQM) predictions of some spin and flavor parameters are in sharp conflict with the observations made from deep inelastic scattering experiments. Besides this there are other spin and flavor dependent quantities which could not be explained by NRQM. These contradictions are referred to as Proton spin problem. These issues get resolved, to some extent, in Chiral Constituent Quark Model (CQM) which incorporates the basic features of NRQM and chiral symmetry. The implications of the latest data pertaining to u-bar-d-bar asymmetry and the spin polarization functions on the contributions of singlet Goldstone Boson {eta}' within CQM with configuration mixing for explaining the proton spin problem have been investigated. It is found that the present data favors smaller values of the coupling of singlet Goldstone Boson as compared to the corresponding contributions from {pi}, K and {eta}' Goldstone bosons. It seems that a small non-zero value of the coupling of {eta}'({zeta}{ne}0)({zeta}{ne}0) is preferred over {zeta} = -0.10 phenomenologically.

  15. Haldane-Hubbard Mott Insulator: From Tetrahedral Spin Crystal to Chiral Spin Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, Ciarán; Cincio, Lukasz; Papić, Zlatko; Paramekanti, Arun

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by cold atom experiments on Chern insulators, we study the honeycomb lattice Haldane-Hubbard Mott insulator of spin-1 /2 fermions using exact diagonalization and density matrix renormalization group methods. We show that this model exhibits various chiral magnetic orders including a wide regime of triple-Q tetrahedral order. Incorporating third-neighbor hopping frustrates and ultimately melts this tetrahedral spin crystal. From analyzing the low energy spectrum, many-body Chern numbers, entanglement spectra, and modular matrices, we identify the molten state as a chiral spin liquid (CSL) with gapped semion excitations. We formulate and study the Chern-Simons-Higgs field theory of the exotic CSL-to-tetrahedral spin crystallization transition.

  16. Haldane-Hubbard Mott Insulator: From Tetrahedral Spin Crystal to Chiral Spin Liquid.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Ciarán; Cincio, Lukasz; Papić, Zlatko; Paramekanti, Arun

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by cold atom experiments on Chern insulators, we study the honeycomb lattice Haldane-Hubbard Mott insulator of spin-1/2 fermions using exact diagonalization and density matrix renormalization group methods. We show that this model exhibits various chiral magnetic orders including a wide regime of triple-Q tetrahedral order. Incorporating third-neighbor hopping frustrates and ultimately melts this tetrahedral spin crystal. From analyzing the low energy spectrum, many-body Chern numbers, entanglement spectra, and modular matrices, we identify the molten state as a chiral spin liquid (CSL) with gapped semion excitations. We formulate and study the Chern-Simons-Higgs field theory of the exotic CSL-to-tetrahedral spin crystallization transition.

  17. Spin structure factors of chiral quantum spin liquids on the kagome lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halimeh, Jad C.; Punk, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    We calculate dynamical spin structure factors for gapped chiral spin liquid states in the spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the kagome lattice using Schwinger-boson mean-field theory. In contrast to static (equal-time) structure factors, the dynamical structure factor shows clear signatures of time-reversal symmetry breaking for chiral spin liquid states. In particular, momentum inversion k →-k symmetry as well as the sixfold rotation symmetry around the Γ point are lost. We highlight other interesting features, such as a relatively flat onset of the two-spinon continuum for the cuboc1 state. Our work is based on the projective symmetry group classification of time-reversal symmetry breaking Schwinger-boson mean-field states by Messio, Lhuillier, and Misguich.

  18. Coherence properties of holes subject to a fluctuating spin chirality

    SciTech Connect

    Wheatley, J.M. ); Hong, T.M. )

    1991-03-01

    The coherence properties of holes coupled to short-ranged chiral spin fluctuations with a characteristic chiral spin fluctuation time {tau}{sub ch}={omega}{sub ch}{sup {minus}1} are investigated in two dimensions. At temperatures {ital kT}{much lt}4{pi}{sup 2}{l angle}{phi}{sup 2}{r angle}{sup {minus}1}{h bar}{omega}{sub ch} hole quasiparticles exist and propagate with a renormalized mass {ital m}{sup *}/{ital m}=1+{l angle}{phi}{sup 2}{r angle}{h bar}/16{pi}{ital ma}{sub 0}{sup 2}{omega}{sub ch}. $langle phi sup 2 rangle--- is the amplitude of the local fictitious flux fluctuation and {ital a}{sub 0} is a lattice cutoff. At temperatures {ital kT}{much gt}4{pi}{sup 2}{l angle}{phi}{sup 2}{r angle}{sup {minus}1}{h bar}{omega}{sub ch} an effective-mass approximation is invalid and we find that the hole diffuses according to a {ital logarithmic} diffusion law in the quasistatic chiral field. The unusual diffusion law is a consequence of the long-ranged nature of the gauge field. The result shows that the holes do not form a coherent quantum fluid in the quasistatic regime.

  19. Possible SU(3) chiral spin liquid on the kagome lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ying-Hai; Tu, Hong-Hao

    2016-11-01

    We propose an SU(3) symmetric Hamiltonian with short-range interactions on the kagome lattice and show that it hosts an Abelian chiral spin liquid (CSL) state. We provide numerical evidence based on exact diagonalization to show that this CSL state is stabilized in an extended region of the parameter space and can be viewed as a lattice version of the Halperin 221 fractional quantum Hall state of two-component bosons. We also construct a parton wave function for this CSL state and demonstrate that its variational energies are in good agreement with exact diagonalization results. The parton description further supports that the CSL is characterized by a chiral edge conformal field theory of the SU (3) 1 Wess-Zumino-Witten type.

  20. Spin dynamics under local gauge fields in chiral spin-orbit coupling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, S.G.; Jalil, M.B.A.; Fujita, T.; Liu, X.J.

    2011-02-15

    Research Highlights: > We derive a modified LLG equation in magnetic systems with spin-orbit coupling (SOC). > Our results are applied to magnetic multilayers, and DMS and magnetic Rashba systems. > SOC mediated magnetization switching is predicted in rare earth metals (large SOC). > The magnetization trajectory and frequency can be modulated by applied voltage. > This facilitates potential application as tunable microwave oscillators. - Abstract: We present a theoretical description of local spin dynamics in magnetic systems with a chiral spin texture and finite spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Spin precession about the relativistic effective magnetic field in a SOC system gives rise to a non-Abelian SU(2) gauge field reminiscent of the Yang-Mills field. In addition, the adiabatic relaxation of electron spin along the local spin yields an U(1) x U(1) topological gauge (Berry) field. We derive the corresponding equation of motion i.e. modified Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation, for the local spin under the influence of these effects. Focusing on the SU(2) gauge, we obtain the spin torque magnitude, and the amplitude and frequency of spin oscillations in this system. Our theoretical estimates indicate significant spin torque and oscillations in systems with large spin-orbit coupling, which may be utilized in technological applications such as current-induced magnetization-switching and tunable microwave oscillators.

  1. Variational Monte Carlo study of chiral spin liquid in quantum antiferromagnet on the triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wenjun; Gong, Shoushu; Sheng, Donna; Donna Sheng Team

    We investigate the Heisenberg model with chiral coupling on the triangular lattice by using Gutzwiller projected fermionic states and the variational Monte Carlo technique. As the chiral coupling grows, a gapped spin liquid with non-trivial magnetic fluxes and nonzero chiral order is stabilized. Furthermore, we calculate the topological Chern number and the degeneracy of the ground state, both of which lead us to identify this flux state as the chiral spin liquid with C = 1 / 2 fractionalized Chern number. Finally, we add spatial anisotropy in the model to study the effects for the chiral order.

  2. Coriolis effect and spin Hall effect of light in an inhomogeneous chiral medium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongliang; Shi, Lina; Xie, Changqing

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically investigate the spin Hall effect of spinning light in an inhomogeneous chiral medium. The Hamiltonian equations of the photon are analytically obtained within eikonal approximation in the noninertial orthogonal frame. Besides the usual spin curvature coupling, the chiral parameter enters the Hamiltonian as a spin-torsion-like interaction. We reveal that both terms have parallel geometric origins as the Coriolis terms of Maxwell's equations in nontrivial frames.

  3. Spin Chirality and Hall-Like Transport Phenomena of Spin Excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jung Hoon; Lee, Hyunyong

    2017-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical aspects of Hall-type transport of spins in magnetic insulators are reviewed. A general formalism for linear response theory of thermal Hall transport in the spin model is developed, which is general enough to be applicable to both the magnon and the paramagnetic, spin-liquid regimes. The expression of the energy current operator in the spin language is shown to be closely related to the spin chirality operator. Recent experiments on magnon-mediated thermal Hall transport in the two-dimensional kagome, and three-dimensional pyrochlore ferromagnetic insulators are reviewed in light of the multi-band magnon theory of Hall transport, and compared to the more mysterious thermal Hall transport found in the putative quantum spin ice material. As realizations of spin-chirality driven magnon transport in the real space, we review the general theory of emergent gauge fields governing the magnon dynamics in the textured magnet, and discuss its application to the magnon-Skyrmion scattering problem. Topological magnon Hall effect driven by the Skyrmion texture is discussed.

  4. Chiral effective-field theory of the nucleon spin structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascalutsa, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    I will review the recent chiral EFT calculations of the nucleon (spin) structure functions at low Q2, confronted with the Jefferson Lab measurements. The moments of the structure functions correspond with various polarizabilities, and I will explain why one of them - δLT - is especially interesting. I will also discuss how the spin structure functions at low Q enter in the atomic calculations of the hyperfine splittings and how they are impacting the ongoing experimental program at PSI (Switzerland) to measure the ground-state hyperfine splitting of muonic hydrogen. Partially supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) through the Collaborative Research Center SFB 1044 [The Low-Energy Frontier of the Standard Model].

  5. Chiral spin liquid in a frustrated anisotropic kagome Heisenberg model.

    PubMed

    He, Yin-Chen; Sheng, D N; Chen, Yan

    2014-04-04

    Kalmeyer-Laughlin (KL) chiral spin liquid (CSL) is a type of quantum spin liquid without time-reversal symmetry, and it is considered as the parent state of an exotic type of superconductor--anyon superconductor. Such an exotic state has been sought for more than twenty years; however, it remains unclear whether it can exist in a realistic system where time-reversal symmetry is breaking (T breaking) spontaneously. By using the density matrix renormalization group, we show that KL CSL exists in a frustrated anisotropic kagome Heisenberg model, which has spontaneous T breaking. We find that our model has two topological degenerate ground states, which exhibit nonvanishing scalar chirality order and are protected by finite excitation gap. Furthermore, we identify this state as KL CSL by the characteristic edge conformal field theory from the entanglement spectrum and the quasiparticles braiding statistics extracted from the modular matrix. We also study how this CSL phase evolves as the system approaches the nearest-neighbor kagome Heisenberg model.

  6. Chiral-glass transition and replica symmetry breaking of a three-dimensional heisenberg spin glass

    PubMed

    Hukushima; Kawamura

    2000-02-01

    Extensive equilibrium Monte Carlo simulations are performed for a three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass with the nearest-neighbor Gaussian coupling to investigate its spin-glass and chiral-glass orderings. The occurrence of a finite-temperature chiral-glass transition without the conventional spin-glass order is established. Critical exponents characterizing the transition are different from those of the standard Ising spin glass. The calculated overlap distribution suggests the appearance of a peculiar type of replica-symmetry breaking in the chiral-glass ordered state.

  7. Spin-chirality decoupling in the one-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass with long-range power-law interactions.

    PubMed

    Viet, Dao Xuan; Kawamura, Hikaru

    2010-08-27

    We study the issue of the spin-chirality decoupling or coupling in the ordering of the Heisenberg spin glass by performing large-scale Monte Carlo simulations on a one-dimensional Heisenberg spin-glass model with a long-range power-law interaction up to large system sizes. We find that the spin-chirality decoupling occurs for an intermediate range of the power-law exponent. Implications to the corresponding d-dimensional short-range model are discussed.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Spin-Chirality Switching in Multiferroics via Intense Electromagnon Excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2011-09-01

    Chirality, i.e., the right- and left-handedness of structure, is one of the key concepts in many fields of science including biology, chemistry and physics, and its manipulation is an issue of vital importance. The electron spins in solids can form chiral configurations. In perovskite manganites RMnO3 (R = Tb, Dy,...etc), the Mn-spins form a cycloidal structure, which induces ferroelectric polarization (P) through the relativistic spin-orbit interaction. This magnetism-induced ferroelectricity (multiferroics) and associated infrared-active spin waves (electromagnons) open a promising route to control the spins by purely electric means in a very short time. In this paper, we show theoretically with an accurate spin Hamiltonian for TbMnO3 that a picosecond optical pulse can switch the spin chirality by intensely exciting the electromagnons with a terahertz frequency.

  9. Chiral resolution of spin angular momentum in linearly polarized and unpolarized light

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, R. J.; Mazzulla, A.; Provenzano, C.; Pagliusi, P.; Cipparrone, G.

    2015-01-01

    Linearly polarized (LP) and unpolarized (UP) light are racemic entities since they can be described as superposition of opposite circularly polarized (CP) components of equal amplitude. As a consequence they do not carry spin angular momentum. Chiral resolution of a racemate, i.e. separation of their chiral components, is usually performed via asymmetric interaction with a chiral entity. In this paper we provide an experimental evidence of the chiral resolution of linearly polarized and unpolarized Gaussian beams through the transfer of spin angular momentum to chiral microparticles. Due to the interplay between linear and angular momentum exchange, basic manipulation tasks, as trapping, spinning or orbiting of micro-objects, can be performed by light with zero helicity. The results might broaden the perspectives for development of miniaturized and cost-effective devices. PMID:26585284

  10. Chiral resolution of spin angular momentum in linearly polarized and unpolarized light.

    PubMed

    Hernández, R J; Mazzulla, A; Provenzano, C; Pagliusi, P; Cipparrone, G

    2015-11-20

    Linearly polarized (LP) and unpolarized (UP) light are racemic entities since they can be described as superposition of opposite circularly polarized (CP) components of equal amplitude. As a consequence they do not carry spin angular momentum. Chiral resolution of a racemate, i.e. separation of their chiral components, is usually performed via asymmetric interaction with a chiral entity. In this paper we provide an experimental evidence of the chiral resolution of linearly polarized and unpolarized Gaussian beams through the transfer of spin angular momentum to chiral microparticles. Due to the interplay between linear and angular momentum exchange, basic manipulation tasks, as trapping, spinning or orbiting of micro-objects, can be performed by light with zero helicity. The results might broaden the perspectives for development of miniaturized and cost-effective devices.

  11. On the Galactic Spin of Barred Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-Sodi, Bernardo; Li, Cheng; Park, Changbom; Wang, Lixin

    2013-09-01

    We present a study of the connection between the galactic spin parameter (λ d ) and the bar fraction in a volume-limited sample of 10,674 disk galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. The galaxies in our sample are visually classified into one of three groups: non-barred galaxies and galaxies hosting long or short bars, respectively. We find that the spin distributions of these three classes are statistically different, with galaxies hosting long bars having the lowest λ d values, followed by non-barred galaxies, while galaxies with short bars present typically high spin parameters. The bar fraction presents its maximum at low to intermediate λ d values for the case of long bars, while the maximum for short bars is at high λ d . This bimodality is in good agreement with previous studies finding longer bars hosted by luminous, massive, red galaxies with a low content of cold gas, while short bars were found in low luminosity, low mass, blue galaxies that were typically gas rich. In addition, the rise and fall of the bar fraction as a function of λ d , within the long-bar sample shown in our results, can be explained as a result of two competing factors: the self-gravity of the disk that enhances bar instabilities and the support by random motions, instead of ordered rotational motion, that prevents the formation/growth of bars.

  12. Chiral and critical spin liquids in a spin-1/2 kagome antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.; Gong, S. S.; Sheng, D. N.

    2015-07-01

    The kagome spin-1/2 systems have attracted intensive attention in recent years as the primary candidate for hosting different gapped spin liquids (SLs). To uncover the nature of the novel quantum phase transition between the SL states, we study a minimum X Y model with the nearest-neighbor (NN) (Jx y), the second-NN, and the third-NN couplings (J2 x y=J3 x y=Jxy ' ). We identify the time-reversal-symmetry-broken chiral SL (CSL) with the turn on of a small perturbation Jxy '˜0.06 Jx y , which is fully characterized by the fractionally quantized topological Chern number and the conformal edge spectrum as the ν =1 /2 fractional quantum Hall state. Interestingly, the NN X Y model (Jxy '=0 ) is shown to be a critical SL state adjacent to the CSL, characterized by the gapless spin singlet and spin triplet excitations. The quantum phase transition from the CSL to the gapless critical SL is driven by the collapsing of the neutral (spin singlet) excitation gap. The effect of the NN spin-z coupling Jz is also studied, which leads to a quantum phase diagram with an extended regime for the gapless SL.

  13. Probing and controlling spin chirality in Mott insulators by circularly polarized laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Sota; Oka, Takashi; Aoki, Hideo

    2017-07-01

    Scalar spin chirality, a three-body spin correlation that breaks time-reversal symmetry, is revealed to couple directly to circularly polarized laser. This is shown by the Floquet formalism for the periodically driven repulsive Hubbard model with a strong-coupling expansion. A systematic derivation of the effective low-energy Hamiltonian for a spin degree of freedom reveals that the coupling constant for scalar spin chirality can become significant for a situation in which the driving frequency and the on-site interaction are comparable. This implies that the scalar chirality can be induced by circularly polarized lights, or that it can be used conversely for probing the chirality in Mott insulators as a circular dichroism.

  14. Spin Chirality of Cu3 and V3 Nanomagnets. 1. Rotation Behavior of Vector Chirality, Scalar Chirality, and Magnetization in the Rotating Magnetic Field, Magnetochiral Correlations.

    PubMed

    Belinsky, Moisey I

    2016-05-02

    The rotation behavior of the vector chirality κ, scalar chirality χ, and magnetization M in the rotating magnetic field H1 is considered for the V3 and Cu3 nanomagnets, in which the Dzialoshinsky-Moriya coupling is active. The polar rotation of the field H1 of the given strength H1 results in the energy spectrum characterized by different vector and scalar chiralities in the ground and excited states. The magnetochiral correlations between the vector and scalar chiralities, energy, and magnetization in the rotating field were considered. Under the uniform polar rotation of the field H1, the ground-state chirality vector κI performs sawtooth oscillations and the magnetization vector MI performs the sawtooth oscillating rotation that is accompanied by the correlated transformation of the scalar chirality χI. This demonstrates the magnetochiral effect of the joint rotation behavior and simultaneous frustrations of the spin chiralities and magnetization in the rotating field, which are governed by the correlation between the chiralities and magnetization.

  15. Mott insulators of ultracold fermionic alkaline Earth atoms: underconstrained magnetism and chiral spin liquid.

    PubMed

    Hermele, Michael; Gurarie, Victor; Rey, Ana Maria

    2009-09-25

    We study Mott insulators of fermionic alkaline earth atoms, described by Heisenberg spin models with enhanced SU(N) symmetry. In dramatic contrast to SU(2) magnetism, more than two spins are required to form a singlet. On the square lattice, the classical ground state is highly degenerate and magnetic order is thus unlikely. In a large-N limit, we find a chiral spin liquid ground state with topological order and Abelian fractional statistics. We discuss its experimental detection. Chiral spin liquids with non-Abelian anyons may also be realizable with alkaline earth atoms.

  16. Frequent Spin Reorientation of Galaxies due to Local Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Renyue

    2014-04-01

    We study the evolution of angular momenta of M * = 1010-1012 M ⊙ galaxies utilizing large-scale ultra-high resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulations and find that the spin of the stellar component changes direction frequently because of interactions with nearby systems, such as major mergers, minor mergers, significant gas inflows, and torques. The rate and nature of change of spin direction cannot be accounted for by large-scale tidal torques, because the rates of the latter fall short by orders of magnitude and because the apparent random swings of the spin direction are inconsistent with the alignment by linear density field. The implications for galaxy formation as well as the intrinsic alignment of galaxies are profound. Assuming the large-scale tidal field is the sole alignment agent, a new picture emerging is that intrinsic alignment of galaxies would be a balance between slow large-scale coherent torquing and fast spin reorientation by local interactions. What is still open is whether other processes, such as feeding galaxies with gas and stars along filaments or sheets, introduce coherence for spin directions of galaxies along the respective structures.

  17. Large-Scale Photometric Asymmetry in Galaxy Spin Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, Lior

    2017-09-01

    Spin patterns of spiral galaxies can be broadly separated into galaxies with clockwise (Z-wise) patterns and galaxies with counterclockwise (S-wise) spin patterns. While the differences between these patterns are visually noticeable, they are a matter of the perspective of the observer, and therefore in a sufficiently large universe no other differences are expected between galaxies with Z-wise and S-wise patterns. Here, large datasets of spiral galaxies separated by their spin patterns are used to show that spiral galaxies with Z-wise spin patterns are photometrically different from spiral galaxies with S-wise patterns. That asymmetry changes based on the direction of observation, such that the observed asymmetry in one hemisphere is aligned with the inverse observed asymmetry in the opposite hemisphere. The results are consistent across different sky surveys (SDSS and PanSTARRS) and analysis methods. The proximity of the most probable asymmetry axis to the galactic pole suggests that the asymmetry might be driven by relativistic beaming. Annotated data from SDSS and PanSTARRS are publicly available.

  18. Chiral-selective chemistry induced by spin-polarized secondary electrons from a magnetic substrate.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, R A; Abu Haija, M; Ryan, P J

    2008-10-24

    We demonstrate for the first time that low-energy spin-polarized secondary electrons, produced by irradiation of a magnetic substrate, can induce chiral-selective chemistry. Our approach was to perform detailed measurements of the reaction rate for x-ray induced, secondary electron photolysis of a model chiral compound, (R)- or (S)-2-butanol, adsorbed on a magnetized Permalloy substrate. The results showed that there is an enhancement of approximately 10% in the rate of CO bond cleavage that depends on the chirality of the molecule and the spin polarization of the substrate secondary electrons.

  19. Spin-Chirality-Driven Ferroelectricity on a Perfect Triangular Lattice Antiferromagnet

    SciTech Connect

    Mitamura, H.; Watanuki, R.; Kaneko, Koji; Onozaki, N.; Amou, Y.; Kittaka, S.; Kobayashi, Riki; Shimura, Y.; Yamamoto, I.; Suzuki, K.; Chi, Songxue; Sakakibara, T.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic field (B) variation of the electrical polarization Pc ( ∥c) of the perfect triangular lattice antiferromagnet RbFe(MoO4)2 is examined up to the saturation point of the magnetization for B⊥c. Pc is observed only in phases for which chirality is predicted in the in-plane magnetic structures. No strong anomaly is observed in Pc at the field at which the spin modulation along the c axis, and hence the spin helicity, exhibits a discontinuity to the commensurate state. These results indicate that the ferroelectricity in this compound originates predominantly from the spin chirality, the explanation of which would require a new mechanism for magnetoferroelectricity. Lastly, the obtained field-temperature phase diagrams of ferroelectricity well agree with those theoretically predicted for the spin chirality of a Heisenberg spin triangular lattice antiferromagnet.

  20. Spin-Chirality-Driven Ferroelectricity on a Perfect Triangular Lattice Antiferromagnet

    DOE PAGES

    Mitamura, H.; Watanuki, R.; Kaneko, Koji; ...

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic field (B) variation of the electrical polarization Pc ( ∥c) of the perfect triangular lattice antiferromagnet RbFe(MoO4)2 is examined up to the saturation point of the magnetization for B⊥c. Pc is observed only in phases for which chirality is predicted in the in-plane magnetic structures. No strong anomaly is observed in Pc at the field at which the spin modulation along the c axis, and hence the spin helicity, exhibits a discontinuity to the commensurate state. These results indicate that the ferroelectricity in this compound originates predominantly from the spin chirality, the explanation of which would require a newmore » mechanism for magnetoferroelectricity. Lastly, the obtained field-temperature phase diagrams of ferroelectricity well agree with those theoretically predicted for the spin chirality of a Heisenberg spin triangular lattice antiferromagnet.« less

  1. Chiral and Critical Spin Liquids in Spin-1/2 Kagome Antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Dongning; Zhu, Wei; Gong, Shoushu; Group of D. N. Sheng Team, Prof.

    2015-03-01

    The spin liquids (SL) and their phase transitions have attracted much attentions. The extended kagome antiferromagnet emerges as the primary candidate for hosting both time reversal symmetry (TRS) preserving and TRS breaking SLs based on DMRG simulations. To uncover the nature of the novel transition between them, we study a minimum XY model with the nearest-neighbor (NN) (Jxy), the second and third neighbor couplings (J2 xy =J3 xy =Jxy'). We identify the chiral SL (CSL) with the turn on of a small perturbation Jxy' ~ 0 . 06Jxy , which is characterized by topological Chern number and conformal edge spectrum as the ν = 1 / 2 fractional quantum Hall state. On the other hand, the NN XY model (Jxy' = 0) is shown to be a critical SL, characterized by the gapless spin singlet and vanishing small spin triplet excitations. The phase transition from the CSL to the critical SL is driven by the collapsing of singlet gap. By following the evolution of entanglement spectrum, we find the transition takes place through the coupling of the edge states with opposite chiralities, which merge into the bulk and become gapless neutral excitations. The effect of the NN spin- z coupling is also studied, which leads to a phase diagram with an extended regime for the gapless SL. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Grant No. DE-FG02-06ER46305 (W.Z., D.N.S.), the National Science Foundation through Grants DMR-1408560 (S.S.G).

  2. On the Evolution of Galaxy Spin in a Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulation of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hoseung; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2017-03-01

    The traditional view of the morphology–spin connection is being challenged by recent integral field unit observations, as the majority of early-type galaxies are found to have a rotational component that is often as large as a dispersion component. Mergers are often suspected to be critical in galaxy spin evolution, yet the details of their roles are still unclear. We present the first results on the spin evolution of galaxies in cluster environments through a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation. Galaxies spin down globally with cosmic evolution. Major (mass ratios > 1/4) and minor (1/4 ≥slant mass ratios > 1/50) mergers are important contributors to the spin-down in particular in massive galaxies. Minor mergers appear to have stronger cumulative effects than major mergers. Surprisingly, the dominant driver of galaxy spin-down seems to be environmental effects rather than mergers. However, since multiple processes act in combination, it is difficult to separate their individual roles. We briefly discuss the caveats and future studies that are called for.

  3. GALAXY SPIN ALIGNMENT IN FILAMENTS AND SHEETS: OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tempel, Elmo; Libeskind, Noam I. E-mail: nlibeskind@aip.de

    2013-10-01

    The properties of galaxies are known to be affected by their environment. One important question is how their angular momentum reflects the surrounding cosmic web. We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to investigate the spin axes of spiral and elliptical galaxies relative to their surrounding filament/sheet orientations. To detect filaments, a marked point process with interactions (the {sup B}isous model{sup )} is used. Sheets are found by detecting 'flattened' filaments. The minor axes of ellipticals are found to be preferentially perpendicular to hosting filaments. A weak correlation is found with sheets. These findings are consistent with the notion that elliptical galaxies formed via mergers, which predominantly occurred along the filaments. The spin axis of spiral galaxies is found to align with the host filament, with no correlation between spiral spin and sheet normal. When examined as a function of distance from the filament axis, a much stronger correlation is found in the outer parts, suggesting that the alignment is driven by the laminar infall of gas from sheets to filaments. When compared with numerical simulations, our results suggest that the connection between dark matter halo and galaxy spin is not straightforward. Our results provide an important input to the understanding of how galaxies acquire their angular momentum.

  4. Modified High Frequency Radial Spin Wave Mode Spectrum in a Chirality-Controlled Nanopillar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolthammer, J. E.; Rudge, J.; Choi, B. C.; Hong, Y. K.

    2016-09-01

    Circular magnetic spin valve nanopillars in a dual vortex configuration have dynamic characteristics strongly dependent on the interlayer dipole coupling. We report here on frequency domain properties of such nanopillars obtained by micromagnetic simulations. After the free layer is chirality switched with spin transfer torque, a radial spin wave eigenmode spectrum forms in the free layer with unusually large edge amplitude. The structure of these modes indicate a departure from the magnetostatic processes typically observed experimentally and treated analytically in low aspect ratio isolated disks. Our findings give new details of dynamic chirality control and relxation in nanopillars and raise potential signatures for experiments.

  5. Unusual spin Hall effect of a light beam in chiral metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Hailei; Zhang Xiangdong

    2011-05-15

    We present a solution to the problem of reflection and refraction of a polarized Gaussian beam at the interface between the transparent medium and the chiral metamaterials. Some unusual spin Hall effects of reflected and transmitted light have been found. It is shown that the spin-dependent displacements of the reflected beam centroid can not only reach several tens of wavelengths at certain incident angles; the reversed effect for the transmitted beams can also be realized by tuning the chiral parameters. These findings provide an alternative pathway for controlling the spin Hall effects of light and thereby open up the possibility for developing new nanophotonic devices.

  6. Vector-spin-chirality order in a dimerized frustrated spin-1/2 chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Onoda, Shigeki

    2014-01-01

    A frustrated spin-1/2 XXZ chain model comprising a ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor coupling with the bond alternation, J1(1±δ)<0, and an antiferromagnetic second-neighbor exchange coupling J2>0 is studied at zero and weak magnetic fields by means of density-matrix renormalization-group calculations of order parameters, correlation functions, and the entanglement entropy, as well as an Abelian bosonization analysis. At zero magnetic field, the bond alternation δ >0 suppresses the gapless phase characterized by a vector-chiral (VC) long-range order (LRO) and a quasi-LRO of an incommensurate spin spiral, whereas this phase occupies a large region in the space of J1/J2 and the easy-plane exchange anisotropy for δ =0 [S. Furukawa et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 257205 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.257205]. Then, four gapped phases are found to appear as the exchange anisotropy varies from the SU(2)-symmetric case to the U(1)-symmetric case: the Haldane dimer (D+) phase with the same sign of the x ,y- and z-component dimer order parameters, two VC dimer (VCD+/VCD-) phases with the sign of the z-component dimer order parameter being unaltered/reversed, and the even-parity dimer (D-) phase. At small magnetic fields, a field-induced ring-exchange interaction, which is proportional to a staggered scalar chirality and a magnetic flux penetrating the associated triangle, drives a transition from the D- phase into a VC-Neel-dimer (VCND) phase, but not from the D+ phase. This VCND phase is stable up to the large magnetic field at which the Zeeman term closes the spin gap. A possible relevance to Rb2Cu2Mo3O12 is discussed.

  7. Out-of-plane chiral domain wall spin-structures in ultrathin in-plane magnets

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Gong; Kang, Sang Pyo; Ophus, Colin; ...

    2017-05-19

    Chiral spin textures in ultrathin films, such as skyrmions or chiral domain walls, are believed to offer large performance advantages in the development of novel spintronics technologies. While in-plane magnetized films have been studied extensively as media for current- and field-driven domain wall dynamics with applications in memory or logic devices, the stabilization of chiral spin textures in in-plane magnetized films has remained rare. Here we report a phase of spin structures in an in-plane magnetized ultrathin film system where out-of-plane spin orientations within domain walls are stable. Moreover, while domain walls in in-plane films are generally expected to bemore » non-chiral, we show that right-handed spin rotations are strongly favoured in this system, due to the presence of the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. These results constitute a platform to explore unconventional spin dynamics and topological phenomena that may enable high-performance in-plane spin-orbitronics devices.« less

  8. Out-of-plane chiral domain wall spin-structures in ultrathin in-plane magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gong; Kang, Sang Pyo; Ophus, Colin; N'diaye, Alpha T.; Kwon, Hee Young; Qiu, Ryan T.; Won, Changyeon; Liu, Kai; Wu, Yizheng; Schmid, Andreas K.

    2017-05-01

    Chiral spin textures in ultrathin films, such as skyrmions or chiral domain walls, are believed to offer large performance advantages in the development of novel spintronics technologies. While in-plane magnetized films have been studied extensively as media for current- and field-driven domain wall dynamics with applications in memory or logic devices, the stabilization of chiral spin textures in in-plane magnetized films has remained rare. Here we report a phase of spin structures in an in-plane magnetized ultrathin film system where out-of-plane spin orientations within domain walls are stable. Moreover, while domain walls in in-plane films are generally expected to be non-chiral, we show that right-handed spin rotations are strongly favoured in this system, due to the presence of the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. These results constitute a platform to explore unconventional spin dynamics and topological phenomena that may enable high-performance in-plane spin-orbitronics devices.

  9. Out-of-plane chiral domain wall spin-structures in ultrathin in-plane magnets

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gong; Kang, Sang Pyo; Ophus, Colin; N'Diaye, Alpha T.; Kwon, Hee Young; Qiu, Ryan T.; Won, Changyeon; Liu, Kai; Wu, Yizheng; Schmid, Andreas K.

    2017-01-01

    Chiral spin textures in ultrathin films, such as skyrmions or chiral domain walls, are believed to offer large performance advantages in the development of novel spintronics technologies. While in-plane magnetized films have been studied extensively as media for current- and field-driven domain wall dynamics with applications in memory or logic devices, the stabilization of chiral spin textures in in-plane magnetized films has remained rare. Here we report a phase of spin structures in an in-plane magnetized ultrathin film system where out-of-plane spin orientations within domain walls are stable. Moreover, while domain walls in in-plane films are generally expected to be non-chiral, we show that right-handed spin rotations are strongly favoured in this system, due to the presence of the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction. These results constitute a platform to explore unconventional spin dynamics and topological phenomena that may enable high-performance in-plane spin-orbitronics devices. PMID:28524875

  10. Out-of-plane chiral domain wall spin-structures in ultrathin in-plane magnets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gong; Kang, Sang Pyo; Ophus, Colin; N'Diaye, Alpha T; Kwon, Hee Young; Qiu, Ryan T; Won, Changyeon; Liu, Kai; Wu, Yizheng; Schmid, Andreas K

    2017-05-19

    Chiral spin textures in ultrathin films, such as skyrmions or chiral domain walls, are believed to offer large performance advantages in the development of novel spintronics technologies. While in-plane magnetized films have been studied extensively as media for current- and field-driven domain wall dynamics with applications in memory or logic devices, the stabilization of chiral spin textures in in-plane magnetized films has remained rare. Here we report a phase of spin structures in an in-plane magnetized ultrathin film system where out-of-plane spin orientations within domain walls are stable. Moreover, while domain walls in in-plane films are generally expected to be non-chiral, we show that right-handed spin rotations are strongly favoured in this system, due to the presence of the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. These results constitute a platform to explore unconventional spin dynamics and topological phenomena that may enable high-performance in-plane spin-orbitronics devices.

  11. Chirality of nanophotonic waveguide with embedded quantum emitter for unidirectional spin transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, R. J.; Price, D. M.; Dixon, J. E.; Royall, B.; Clarke, E.; Kok, P.; Skolnick, M. S.; Fox, A. M.; Makhonin, M. N.

    2016-03-01

    Scalable quantum technologies may be achieved by faithful conversion between matter qubits and photonic qubits in integrated circuit geometries. Within this context, quantum dots possess well-defined spin states (matter qubits), which couple efficiently to photons. By embedding them in nanophotonic waveguides, they provide a promising platform for quantum technology implementations. In this paper, we demonstrate that the naturally occurring electromagnetic field chirality that arises in nanobeam waveguides leads to unidirectional photon emission from quantum dot spin states, with resultant in-plane transfer of matter-qubit information. The chiral behaviour occurs despite the non-chiral geometry and material of the waveguides. Using dot registration techniques, we achieve a quantum emitter deterministically positioned at a chiral point and realize spin-path conversion by design. We further show that the chiral phenomena are much more tolerant to dot position than in standard photonic crystal waveguides, exhibit spin-path readout up to 95+/-5% and have potential to serve as the basis of spin-logic and network implementations.

  12. Chirality of nanophotonic waveguide with embedded quantum emitter for unidirectional spin transfer

    PubMed Central

    Coles, R. J.; Price, D. M.; Dixon, J. E.; Royall, B.; Clarke, E.; Kok, P.; Skolnick, M. S.; Fox, A. M.; Makhonin, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    Scalable quantum technologies may be achieved by faithful conversion between matter qubits and photonic qubits in integrated circuit geometries. Within this context, quantum dots possess well-defined spin states (matter qubits), which couple efficiently to photons. By embedding them in nanophotonic waveguides, they provide a promising platform for quantum technology implementations. In this paper, we demonstrate that the naturally occurring electromagnetic field chirality that arises in nanobeam waveguides leads to unidirectional photon emission from quantum dot spin states, with resultant in-plane transfer of matter-qubit information. The chiral behaviour occurs despite the non-chiral geometry and material of the waveguides. Using dot registration techniques, we achieve a quantum emitter deterministically positioned at a chiral point and realize spin-path conversion by design. We further show that the chiral phenomena are much more tolerant to dot position than in standard photonic crystal waveguides, exhibit spin-path readout up to 95±5% and have potential to serve as the basis of spin-logic and network implementations. PMID:27029961

  13. Spin orbit torques and chiral spin textures in ultrathin magnetic films (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Geoffrey S.

    2015-09-01

    Spin orbit coupling at interfaces can give rise to chiral magnetic textures such as homochiral domain walls and skyrmions, as well as current-induced torques that can effectively manipulate them [1-3]. This talk will describe interface-driven spin-orbit torques and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions (DMIs) in ultrathin metallic ferromagnets adjacent to nonmagnetic heavy metals. We show that the DMI depends strongly on the heavy metal, differing by a factor of ~20 between Pt and Ta [4], and describe the influence of strong DMI on domain wall dynamics and spin Hall effect switching [5]. We present high-resolution magnetic force microscopy imaging of static magnetic textures that directly reveal the role of DMI and allow its strength to be quantified. Finally, we will describe how SOTs can be enhanced through interface engineering [6] and tuned by a gate voltage [7] by directly controlling the interfacial oxygen coordination at a ferromagnet/oxide interface [8]. [1] A. Thiaville, et al., Europhys. Lett. 100, 57002 (2012). [2] S. Emori, et al., Nature Mater. 12, 611 (2013). [3] J. Sampaio, V. Cros, S. Rohart, A. Thiaville, and A. Fert, Nature Nano. 8, 839 (2013). [4] S. Emori, et al., Phys. Rev. B 90, 184427 (2014). [5] N. Perez, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 092403 (2014). [6] S. Woo, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 212404 (2014). [7] S. Emori, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 222401 (2014). [8] U. Bauer, et al., Nature Mater. 14, 174 (2015).

  14. Simulating Chiral Magnetic and Separation Effects with Spin-Orbit Coupled Atomic Gases

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xu-Guang

    2016-01-01

    The chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects—quantum-anomaly-induced electric current and chiral current along an external magnetic field in parity-odd quark-gluon plasma—have received intense studies in the community of heavy-ion collision physics. We show that analogous effects occur in rotating trapped Fermi gases with Weyl-Zeeman spin-orbit coupling where the rotation plays the role of an external magnetic field. These effects can induce a mass quadrupole in the atomic cloud along the rotation axis which may be tested in future experiments. Our results suggest that the spin-orbit coupled atomic gases are potential simulators of the chiral magnetic and separation effects. PMID:26868084

  15. Variational Monte Carlo study of chiral spin liquid in quantum antiferromagnet on the triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wen-Jun; Gong, Shou-Shu; Sheng, D. N.

    2016-08-01

    By using Gutzwiller projected fermionic wave functions and variational Monte Carlo technique, we study the spin-1 /2 Heisenberg model with the first-neighbor (J1), second-neighbor (J2), and additional scalar chiral interaction JχSi.(Sj×Sk) on the triangular lattice. In the nonmagnetic phase of the J1-J2 triangular model with 0.08 ≲J2/J1≲0.16 , recent density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) studies [Zhu and White, Phys. Rev. B 92, 041105(R) (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.041105 and Hu, Gong, Zhu, and Sheng, Phys. Rev. B 92, 140403(R) (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.140403] find a possible gapped spin liquid with the signal of a competition between a chiral and a Z2 spin liquid. Motivated by the DMRG results, we consider the chiral interaction JχSi.(Sj×Sk) as a perturbation for this nonmagnetic phase. We find that with growing Jχ, the gapless U(1) Dirac spin liquid, which has the best variational energy for Jχ=0 , exhibits the energy instability towards a gapped spin liquid with nontrivial magnetic fluxes and nonzero chiral order. We calculate topological Chern number and ground-state degeneracy, both of which identify this flux state as the chiral spin liquid with fractionalized Chern number C =1 /2 and twofold topological degeneracy. Our results indicate a positive direction to stabilize a chiral spin liquid near the nonmagnetic phase of the J1-J2 triangular model.

  16. Emergence of chiral spin liquids via quantum melting of noncoplanar magnetic orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, Ciarán; Cincio, Lukasz; Papić, Zlatko; Paramekanti, Arun

    2017-09-01

    Quantum spin liquids (QSLs) are highly entangled states of quantum magnets which lie beyond the Landau paradigm of classifying phases of matter via broken symmetries. A physical route to arriving at QSLs is via frustration-induced quantum melting of ordered states such as valence bond crystals or magnetic orders. Here we show, using extensive exact diagonalization (ED) and density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) studies of concrete S U (2 ) invariant spin models on honeycomb, triangular, and square lattices, that chiral spin liquids (CSLs) emerge as descendants of triple-Q spin crystals with tetrahedral magnetic order and a large scalar spin chirality. Such ordered-to-CSL melting transitions may yield lattice realizations of effective Chern-Simons-Higgs field theories. Our work provides a distinct unifying perspective on the emergence of CSLs and suggests that materials with certain noncoplanar magnetic orders might provide a good starting point to search for CSLs.

  17. Low spin wave damping in the insulating chiral magnet Cu2OSeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasinopoulos, I.; Weichselbaumer, S.; Bauer, A.; Waizner, J.; Berger, H.; Maendl, S.; Garst, M.; Pfleiderer, C.; Grundler, D.

    2017-07-01

    Chiral magnets with topologically nontrivial spin order such as Skyrmions have generated enormous interest in both fundamental and applied sciences. We report broadband microwave spectroscopy performed on the insulating chiral ferrimagnet Cu2OSeO3. For the damping of magnetization dynamics, we find a remarkably small Gilbert damping parameter of about 1 ×10-4 at 5 K. This value is only a factor of 4 larger than the one reported for the best insulating ferrimagnet yttrium iron garnet at room temperature. We detect a series of sharp resonances and attribute them to confined spin waves in the mm-sized samples. Considering the small damping, insulating chiral magnets turn out to be promising candidates when exploring non-collinear spin structures for high frequency applications.

  18. Multiple spectra of electron spin resonance in chiral molecule-based magnets networked by a single chiral ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mito, M.; Nagano, T.; Tsuruta, K.; Deguchi, H.; Takagi, S.; Kishine, J.; Yoshida, Y.; Inoue, K.

    2013-10-01

    A molecule-based magnet [Cr(CN)6][Mn(R/S)-pnH(H2O)](H2O) (termed R/S-GN) is a chiral crystal without an inversion center and mirror reflection, and its structural network is constructed using a chiral ligand diaminopropane (R/S)-pn. In S-GN, multiple spectra of ESR were observed below the magnetic ordering temperature by Morgunov et al. [Phys. Rev. B 77, 184419 (2008)]. They concluded that the phenomenon at the high field side occurred because the incommensurate magnetic structure resulted in a length-controllable superlattice of domain walls (the so-called chiral soliton lattice, CSL) under a dc magnetic field H applied perpendicular to the magnetic chiral axis. However, there multiple spectra were observed even for H nearly parallel to the chiral axis, a-axis, and their interpretation is unreasonable. Thus, we conducted an X-band electron spin resonance (ESR) measurement of R-GN under conditions similar to those of their experiment and performed Fourier spectrum analyses for the data of R-GN as an approach of physical characterization. By using two Lorentz spectra, the main ESR spectra for H // a were reproduced, and furthermore two prominent periodic modes were found by spectrum analyses based on Fourier transform. Two characteristic periods, p1 and p2 (chiral crystals.

  19. Collective resonant dynamics of the chiral spin soliton lattice in a monoaxial chiral magnetic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, F. J. T.; Sogo, T.; Shimamoto, Y.; Kousaka, Y.; Akimitsu, J.; Nishihara, S.; Inoue, K.; Yoshizawa, D.; Hagiwara, M.; Mito, M.; Stamps, R. L.; Bostrem, I. G.; Sinitsyn, V. E.; Ovchinnikov, A. S.; Kishine, J.; Togawa, Y.

    2017-03-01

    The magnetic resonance properties of microsized monoaxial chiral crystals of CrNb3S6 are investigated. We observed that the resonance of the chiral soliton lattice is sensitive to the polarization of the driving microwave field. When the microwave field is parallel to the helical axis, the resonance is symmetric with regards to the magnetic field direction. In contrast, asymmetric field dependence emerges when the microwave field is perpendicular to the helical axis. The robustness of the chiral magnetic order, due to topological protection, allows tuning the resonance frequency in ways hardly accessible using nanopatterned films.

  20. Reflective Spin-Orbit Geometric Phase from Chiral Anisotropic Optical Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafayelyan, Mushegh; Tkachenko, Georgiy; Brasselet, Etienne

    2016-06-01

    We report on highly reflective spin-orbit geometric phase optical elements based on a helicity-preserving circular Bragg-reflection phenomenon. First, we present a dynamical geometric phase experiment using a flat chiral Bragg mirror. Then, we show that shaping such a geometric phase allows the efficient spin-orbit tailoring of light fields without the need to fulfill any condition on birefringent phase retardation, in contrast to the case of transmission spin-orbit optical elements. This is illustrated by optical vortex generation from chiral liquid crystal droplets in the Bragg regime that unveils spin-orbit consequences of the droplet's curvature. Our results thus introduce a novel class of geometric phase elements—"Bragg-Berry" optical elements.

  1. Magnetochiral nonreciprocity of volume spin wave propagation in chiral-lattice ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, S.; Okamura, Y.; Kondou, K.; Shibata, K.; Kubota, M.; Takagi, R.; Kagawa, F.; Kawasaki, M.; Tatara, G.; Otani, Y.; Tokura, Y.

    2016-06-01

    In magnetic materials with chiral crystal structure, it has been predicted that quasiparticle flows propagating parallel and antiparallel to the external magnetic field can show different propagating character, with its sign of nonreciprocity dependent on the chirality of the underlying bulk crystal lattice. This unique phenomenon, termed magnetochiral nonreciprocity, has previously been demonstrated for the propagating light and conduction electrons but seldom for other quasiparticles. In this study, we report the experimental observation of magnetochiral nonreciprocity of propagating magnons for a chiral-lattice ferromagnet Cu2OSeO3 by employing the spin wave spectroscopy. We found that the sign of nonreciprocity is reversed for the opposite chirality of crystal, and also directly identified the wave-number-linear term in the spin wave dispersion associated with the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction as the origin of observed nonreciprocity. Our present results pave a route for the design of efficient spin wave diode based on the bulk crystallographic symmetry breaking and also offer a unique method to evaluate the magnitude of DM interaction in chiral-lattice bulk compounds.

  2. How do galaxies build up their spin in the cosmic web?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welker, Charlotte; Dubois, Yohan; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien; Peirani, Sebastien

    2016-10-01

    Using the Horizon-AGN simulation we find a mass dependent spin orientation trend for galaxies: the spin of low-mass, rotation-dominated, blue, star-forming galaxies are preferentially aligned with their closest filament, whereas high-mass, velocity dispersion- supported, red quiescent galaxies tend to possess a spin perpendicular to these filaments. We explore the physical mechanisms driving galactic spin swings and quantify how much mergers and smooth accretion re-orient them relative to their host filaments.

  3. Cooperative phenomenon in a rippled graphene: Chiral spin guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudlak, M.; Pichugin, K. N.; Nazmitdinov, R. G.

    2015-11-01

    We analyze spin scattering in ballistic transport of electrons through a ripple at a normal incidence of an electron flow. The model of a ripple consists of a curved graphene surface in the form of an arc of a circle connected from the left-hand and right-hand sides to two flat graphene sheets. At certain conditions the curvature-induced spin-orbit coupling creates a transparent window for incoming electrons with one spin polarization simultaneously with a backscattering of those with opposite polarization. This window is equally likely transparent for electrons with spin up and spin down that move in opposite directions. The spin-filtering effect that is small in one ripple becomes prominent with the increase of N consequently connected ripples that create a graphene sheet of the sinusoidal type. We present the analytical expressions for spin-up and spin-down transmission probabilities as a function of N connected ripples.

  4. Spin-current induced around half-quantum vortices in chiral p-wave superconducting states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaoka, R.; Tsuchiura, H.; Sigrist, M.

    2017-07-01

    We study the electronic state around a half-quantum vortex (HQV) in a chiral p-wave superconductor based on a square lattice three band tight-binding model by means of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory. In particular, the spatial distribution of charge and spin currents are mainly discussed. This analysis shows that the spin current is strengthened between the neighboring HQVs, resulting in the energy cost for HQV formation.

  5. Quark dynamics and spin structure in the chiral chromodielectric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, V.; Drago, A.; Fiolhais, M.

    1994-11-01

    The dynamical structure of the nucleon is studied in the chiral version of the chromodielectric model. The color-dielectric field and the meson clouds are described by hedgehog coherent states. Standard projection techniques are used to construct zero-linear-momentum eigenstates with the nucleon quantum numbers of angular momentum and isospin. Both the unpolarized and the polarized quark distribution functions are computed. Results are in good agreement with the data and a noticeable improvement with respect to the predictions of the non-chiral model is observed.

  6. Spin-dependent transport through a chiral molecule in the presence of spin-orbit interaction and nonunitary effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matityahu, Shlomi; Utsumi, Yasuhiro; Aharony, Amnon; Entin-Wohlman, Ora; Balseiro, Carlos A.

    2016-02-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated the efficacy of chiral helically shaped molecules in polarizing the scattered electron spin, an effect termed chiral-induced spin selectivity. Here we solve a simple tight-binding model for electron transport through a single helical molecule, with spin-orbit interactions on the bonds along the helix. Quantum interference is introduced via additional electron hopping between neighboring sites in the direction of the helix axis. When the helix is connected to two one-dimensional single-mode leads, time-reversal symmetry prevents spin polarization of the outgoing electrons. One possible way to retrieve such a polarization is to allow leakage of electrons from the helix to the environment, via additional outgoing leads. Technically, the leakage generates complex site self-energies, which break unitarity. As a result, the electron waves in the helix become evanescent, with different decay lengths for different spin polarizations, yielding a net spin polarization of the outgoing electrons, which increases with the length of the helix (as observed experimentally). A maximal polarization can be measured at a finite angle away from the helix axis.

  7. Chirality-induced spin polarization places symmetry constraints on biomolecular interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anup; Capua, Eyal; Kesharwani, Manoj K.; Martin, Jan M. L.; Sitbon, Einat; Waldeck, David H.; Naaman, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Noncovalent interactions between molecules are key for many biological processes. Necessarily, when molecules interact, the electronic charge in each of them is redistributed. Here, we show experimentally that, in chiral molecules, charge redistribution is accompanied by spin polarization. We describe how this spin polarization adds an enantioselective term to the forces, so that homochiral interaction energies differ from heterochiral ones. The spin polarization was measured by using a modified Hall effect device. An electric field that is applied along the molecules causes charge redistribution, and for chiral molecules, a Hall voltage is measured that indicates the spin polarization. Based on this observation, we conjecture that the spin polarization enforces symmetry constraints on the biorecognition process between two chiral molecules, and we describe how these constraints can lead to selectivity in the interaction between enantiomers based on their handedness. Model quantum chemistry calculations that rigorously enforce these constraints show that the interaction energy for methyl groups on homochiral molecules differs significantly from that found for heterochiral molecules at van der Waals contact and shorter (i.e., ∼0.5 kcal/mol at 0.26 nm). PMID:28228525

  8. Chirality-induced spin polarization places symmetry constraints on biomolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anup; Capua, Eyal; Kesharwani, Manoj K; Martin, Jan M L; Sitbon, Einat; Waldeck, David H; Naaman, Ron

    2017-03-07

    Noncovalent interactions between molecules are key for many biological processes. Necessarily, when molecules interact, the electronic charge in each of them is redistributed. Here, we show experimentally that, in chiral molecules, charge redistribution is accompanied by spin polarization. We describe how this spin polarization adds an enantioselective term to the forces, so that homochiral interaction energies differ from heterochiral ones. The spin polarization was measured by using a modified Hall effect device. An electric field that is applied along the molecules causes charge redistribution, and for chiral molecules, a Hall voltage is measured that indicates the spin polarization. Based on this observation, we conjecture that the spin polarization enforces symmetry constraints on the biorecognition process between two chiral molecules, and we describe how these constraints can lead to selectivity in the interaction between enantiomers based on their handedness. Model quantum chemistry calculations that rigorously enforce these constraints show that the interaction energy for methyl groups on homochiral molecules differs significantly from that found for heterochiral molecules at van der Waals contact and shorter (i.e., ∼0.5 kcal/mol at 0.26 nm).

  9. Spin-orbit coupling in nearly metallic chiral carbon nanotubes: a density-functional based study.

    PubMed

    Maslyuk, Volodymyr V; Gutierrez, Rafael; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2017-03-29

    Spin-orbit interaction in carbon nanotubes has been under debate for several years and a variety of theoretical calculations and experimental results have been published. Here, we present an accurate implementation of spin-orbit interactions in a density-functional theory framework including both core and valence orbital contributions, thus using the full potential of the system. We find that the spin-splitting of the frontier bands of armchair nanotubes is of the order of several μeV and does not strongly depend on the diameter of the nanotube. We also provide a systematic analysis of the band splitting in chiral nanotubes as a function of the diameter and the chiral angle. Very good agreement with previous theoretical studies and experimental results is overall found. In particular, our approach can be of great relevance in view of the recently discovered chirality-induced spin selectivity, since it allows us to include not only atomic contributions to the spin-orbit interaction, but more importantly, global contributions to the potential arising from the geometric structure (topology) of the system. Our methodology can thus encode effects such as helical symmetry in a straightforward way.

  10. Circularly polarized near-field optical mapping of spin-resolved quantum Hall chiral edge states.

    PubMed

    Mamyouda, Syuhei; Ito, Hironori; Shibata, Yusuke; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Masumi; Akazaki, Tatsushi; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Ootuka, Youiti; Nomura, Shintaro

    2015-04-08

    We have successfully developed a circularly polarized near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) that enables us to irradiate circularly polarized light with spatial resolution below the diffraction limit. As a demonstration, we perform real-space mapping of the quantum Hall chiral edge states near the edge of a Hall-bar structure by injecting spin polarized electrons optically at low temperature. The obtained real-space mappings show that spin-polarized electrons are injected optically to the two-dimensional electron layer. Our general method to locally inject spins using a circularly polarized NSOM should be broadly applicable to characterize a variety of nanomaterials and nanostructures.

  11. Large-U limit of a Hubbard model in a magnetic field: Chiral spin interactions and paramagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Diptiman; Chitra, R.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the large-U limit of the one-band Hubbard model at half-filling on a nonbipartite two-dimensional lattice. An external magnetic field can induce a three-spin chiral interaction at order 1/U2. We discuss situations in which, at low temperatures, the chiral term may have a larger effect than the Pauli coupling of electron spins to a magnetic field. We present a model that explicitly demonstrates this. The ground state is a singlet with a gap; hence the spin susceptibility is zero while the chiral susceptibility is finite and paramagnetic.

  12. Chiral Magnetic Effect and Anomalous Hall Effect in Antiferromagnetic Insulators with Spin-Orbit Coupling.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Akihiko; Nomura, Kentaro

    2016-03-04

    We search for dynamical magnetoelectric phenomena in three-dimensional correlated systems with spin-orbit coupling. We focus on the antiferromagnetic insulator phases where the dynamical axion field is realized by the fluctuation of the antiferromagnetic order parameter. It is shown that the dynamical chiral magnetic effect, an alternating current generation by magnetic fields, emerges due to such time dependences of the order parameter as antiferromagnetic resonance. It is also shown that the anomalous Hall effect arises due to such spatial variations of the order parameter as antiferromagnetic domain walls. Our study indicates that spin excitations in antiferromagnetic insulators with spin-orbit coupling can result in nontrivial charge responses. Moreover, observing the chiral magnetic effect and anomalous Hall effect in our system is equivalent to detecting the dynamical axion field in condensed matter.

  13. Chiral spin liquid and emergent anyons in a Kagome lattice Mott insulator.

    PubMed

    Bauer, B; Cincio, L; Keller, B P; Dolfi, M; Vidal, G; Trebst, S; Ludwig, A W W

    2014-10-10

    Topological phases in frustrated quantum spin systems have fascinated researchers for decades. One of the earliest proposals for such a phase was the chiral spin liquid, a bosonic analogue of the fractional quantum Hall effect, put forward by Kalmeyer and Laughlin in 1987. Elusive for many years, recent times have finally seen this phase realized in various models, which, however, remain somewhat artificial. Here we take an important step towards the goal of finding a chiral spin liquid in nature by examining a physically motivated model for a Mott insulator on the Kagome lattice with broken time-reversal symmetry. We discuss the emergent phase from a network model perspective and present an unambiguous numerical identification and characterization of its universal topological properties, including ground-state degeneracy, edge physics and anyonic bulk excitations, by using a variety of powerful numerical probes, including the entanglement spectrum and modular transformations.

  14. Chiral Magnetic Effect and Anomalous Hall Effect in Antiferromagnetic Insulators with Spin-Orbit Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, Akihiko; Nomura, Kentaro

    2016-03-01

    We search for dynamical magnetoelectric phenomena in three-dimensional correlated systems with spin-orbit coupling. We focus on the antiferromagnetic insulator phases where the dynamical axion field is realized by the fluctuation of the antiferromagnetic order parameter. It is shown that the dynamical chiral magnetic effect, an alternating current generation by magnetic fields, emerges due to such time dependences of the order parameter as antiferromagnetic resonance. It is also shown that the anomalous Hall effect arises due to such spatial variations of the order parameter as antiferromagnetic domain walls. Our study indicates that spin excitations in antiferromagnetic insulators with spin-orbit coupling can result in nontrivial charge responses. Moreover, observing the chiral magnetic effect and anomalous Hall effect in our system is equivalent to detecting the dynamical axion field in condensed matter.

  15. Chiral transformations of spin-1 mesons in the non-symmetric vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, A. A.; Volkov, M. K.

    2017-07-01

    A new sort of chiral transformations for spin-1 states is obtained as a result of a linearized diagonalization of πa1 mixing in the effective meson Lagrangian. Using this symmetry argument, we argue that there is no physical distinction between such theory and the theory in which a covariant nonlinear diagonalization is used instead. As an illuminating example, the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio type model with the broken SU(2) × SU(2) chiral symmetry in the one-quark-loop approximation is considered.

  16. Scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis for multilayered chiral spin textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucassen, Juriaan; Kloodt-Twesten, Fabian; Frömter, Robert; Oepen, Hans Peter; Duine, Rembert A.; Swagten, Henk J. M.; Koopmans, Bert; Lavrijsen, Reinoud

    2017-09-01

    We show that scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA) that is sensitive to both in-plane magnetization components can be used to image the out-of-plane magnetized multi-domain state in multilayered chiral spin textures. By depositing a thin layer of Fe on top of the multilayer, we image the underlying out-of-plane domain state through the mapping of its stray fields in the Fe. We also demonstrate that SEMPA can be used to image the domain wall chirality in these systems after milling away the capping layer and imaging the topmost magnetic layer directly.

  17. Chiral spin-wave edge modes in dipolar magnetic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindou, Ryuichi; Ohe, Jun-ichiro; Matsumoto, Ryo; Murakami, Shuichi; Saitoh, Eiji

    2013-05-01

    Based on a linearized Landau-Lifshitz equation, we show that two-dimensional periodic allay of ferromagnetic particles coupled with magnetic dipole-dipole interactions supports chiral spin-wave edge modes, when subjected under the magnetic field applied perpendicular to the plane. The mode propagates along a one-dimensional boundary of the system in a unidirectional way and it always has a chiral dispersion within a band gap for spin-wave volume modes. Contrary to the well-known Damon-Eshbach surface mode, the sense of the rotation depends not only on the direction of the field but also on the strength of the field; its chiral direction is generally determined by the sum of the so-called Chern integers defined for spin-wave volume modes below the band gap. Using simple tight-binding descriptions, we explain how the magnetic dipolar interaction endows spin-wave volume modes with nonzero Chern integers and how their values will be changed by the field.

  18. Controlling the dynamical modes of the chiral magnetic structures by spin Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ronghua; Lim, Weng-Lee; Urazhdin, Sergei

    2014-03-01

    Recently, pure spin currents generated due to spin Hall effect have been proved as an efficient approach to reverse the magnetization, modify the dynamical relaxation rates, and excite magnetization oscillations in the heavy metal/ferromagnetic heterostructures. In addition, the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) can also induce chiral magnetization configurations and rich dynamics in these asymmetrical heterostructures . We controllably excited several distinct dynamical modes in spin Hall oscillator based on Pt/ [CoNi] magnetic multilayer with perpendicular anisotropy. At low current, a quasi-linear Slonczewski-like propagating spin wave mode was excited. This mode transforms to a localized soliton mode above a certain threshold current. At large fields, this mode can be identified as the spin wave `bullet' mode. At small fields, the localized mode is transformed to the topological structure of the `droplet' mode, which comes from the oscillations of the chiral domain walls forming the boundary of the bubble domain due to DMI. Our measurements demonstrate a straightforward route for emission of spin waves by nano-oscillators controlled either by current or by the applied magnetic field. This work was supported by the NSF grant ECCS-1218419.

  19. Resonant mixing of optical orbital and spin angular momentum by using chiral silicon nanosphere clusters.

    PubMed

    Al-Jarro, Ahmed; Biris, Claudiu G; Panoiu, Nicolae C

    2016-04-04

    We present an in-depth analysis of the resonant intermixing between optical orbital and spin angular momentum of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams, mediated by chiral clusters made of silicon nanospheres. In particular, we establish a relationship between the spin and orbital quantum numbers characterizing the LG beam and the order q of the rotation symmetry group q of the cluster of nanospheres for which resonantly enhanced coupling between the two components of the optical angular momentum is observed. Thus, similar to the case of diffraction grating-mediated transfer of linear momentum between optical beams, we demonstrate that clusters of nanospheres that are invariant to specific rotation transformations can efficiently transfer optical angular momentum between LG beams with different quantum numbers. We also discuss the conditions in which the resonant interaction between LG beams and a chiral cluster of nanospheres leads to the generation of superchiral light.

  20. The SLUGGS Survey: trails of SLUGGS galaxies in a modified spin-ellipticity diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellstedt, Sabine; Graham, Alister W.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.; Strader, Jay

    2017-09-01

    We present radial tracks for four early-type galaxies with embedded intermediate-scale discs in a modified spin-ellipticity diagram. Here, each galaxy's spin and ellipticity profiles are shown as a radial track, as opposed to a single, flux-weighted aperture-dependent value as is common in the literature. The use of a single ellipticity and spin parameter is inadequate to capture the basic nature of these galaxies, which transition from fast to slow rotation as one moves to larger radii where the disc ceases to dominate. After peaking, the four galaxy's radial tracks feature a downturn in both ellipticity and spin with increasing radius, differentiating them from elliptical galaxies, and from lenticular galaxies whose discs dominate at large radii. These galaxies are examples of so-called discy elliptical galaxies, which are a morphological hybrid between elliptical (E) and lenticular (S0) galaxies and have been designated ES galaxies. The use of spin-ellipticity tracks provides extra structural information about individual galaxies over a single aperture measure. Such tracks provide a key diagnostic for classifying early-type galaxies, particularly in the era of 2D kinematic (and photometric) data beyond one effective radius.

  1. RECOILING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN SPIN-FLIP RADIO GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F. K.; Wang Dong; Chen Xian

    2012-02-20

    Numerical relativity simulations predict that coalescence of supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries leads not only to a spin flip but also to a recoiling of the merger remnant SMBHs. In the literature, X-shaped radio sources are popularly suggested to be candidates for SMBH mergers with spin flip of jet-ejecting SMBHs. Here we investigate the spectral and spatial observational signatures of the recoiling SMBHs in radio sources undergoing black hole spin flip. Our results show that SMBHs in most spin-flip radio sources have mass ratio q {approx}> 0.3 with a minimum possible value q{sub min} {approx_equal} 0.05. For major mergers, the remnant SMBHs can get a kick velocity as high as 2100 km s{sup -1} in the direction within an angle {approx}< 40 Degree-Sign relative to the spin axes of remnant SMBHs, implying that recoiling quasars are biased to be with high Doppler-shifted broad emission lines while recoiling radio galaxies are biased to large apparent spatial off-center displacements. We also calculate the distribution functions of line-of-sight velocity and apparent spatial off-center displacements for spin-flip radio sources with different apparent jet reorientation angles. Our results show that the larger the apparent jet reorientation angle is, the larger the Doppler-shifting recoiling velocity and apparent spatial off-center displacement will be. We investigate the effects of recoiling velocity on the dust torus in spin-flip radio sources and suggest that recoiling of SMBHs would lead to 'dust-poor' active galactic nuclei. Finally, we collect a sample of 19 X-shaped radio objects and for each object give the probability of detecting the predicted signatures of recoiling SMBH.

  2. Chiral phase from three-spin interactions in an optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    D'Cruz, Christian; Pachos, Jiannis K.

    2005-10-15

    A spin-1/2 chain model that includes three-spin interactions can effectively describe the dynamics of two species of bosons trapped in an optical lattice with a triangular-ladder configuration. A perturbative theoretical approach and numerical study of its ground state is performed that reveals a rich variety of phases and criticalities. We identify phases with periodicity one, two, or three, as well as critical points that belong in the same universality class as the Ising or the three-state Potts model. We establish a range of parameters, corresponding to a large degeneracy present between phases with period 2 and 3, that nests a gapless incommensurate chiral phase.

  3. ac current generation in chiral magnetic insulators and Skyrmion motion induced by the spin Seebeck effect.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shi-Zeng; Batista, Cristian D; Reichhardt, Charles; Saxena, Avadh

    2014-05-09

    We show that a temperature gradient induces an ac electric current in multiferroic insulators when the sample is embedded in a circuit. We also show that a thermal gradient can be used to move magnetic Skyrmions in insulating chiral magnets: the induced magnon flow from the hot to the cold region drives the Skyrmions in the opposite direction via a magnonic spin transfer torque. Both results are combined to compute the effect of Skyrmion motion on the ac current generation and demonstrate that Skyrmions in insulators are a promising route for spin caloritronics applications.

  4. Quark contribution to the proton spin in the chiral quark-meson model

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, J. ); Clement, G. )

    1988-12-01

    It has been argued that, to leading order in the 1/N/sub c/ expansion, very little of the spin of the proton is carried by the helicities of its constituent quarks, in accordance with the results of a recent EMC experiment. The authors investigate this question by a direct computation in the chiral quark-meson model, where the proton spin is generated by cranking a mean field hedgehog baryon. For not too small values of the quark-meson coupling constant, their results are consistent with the EMC data.

  5. Strong driving of a single coherent spin by a proximal chiral ferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, M. S.; Badea, R.; Tader, M.; Berezovsky, J.

    2017-07-01

    We experimentally investigate the influence of a driven, dynamic vortex magnetization state on an individual nitrogen-vacancy (NV) spin in diamond. The vortex core can be translated within the ferromagnet using an applied magnetic field, allowing us to map out the spatial dependence of the interaction. The vortex displacement is determined using magneto-optical microscopy, while the vortex's influence on the spin is probed using optically detected magnetic resonance to measure the Rabi oscillation frequency between spin levels. We find that the close proximity of the vortex core to the NV (within about 200 nm) leads to more than an order of magnitude enhancement of the Rabi frequency. The NV/vortex interaction differs significantly for transitions to the ms=+1 and ms=-1 spin states, which we attribute to the chiral nature of the vortex state dynamics. We compare the results with micromagnetic simulations and a simple analytical model to shed light on the mechanisms behind the observed effects.

  6. New predictions for generalized spin polarizabilities from heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Chung-Wen Kao; Barbara Pasquini; Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2004-08-01

    We extract the next-to-next-to-leading order results for spin-flip generalized polarizabilities (GPs) of the nucleon from the spin-dependent amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering (VCS) at {Omicron}(p{sup 4}) in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. At this order, no unknown low energy constants enter the theory, allowing us to make absolute predictions for all spin-flip GPs. Furthermore, by using constraint equations between the GPs due to nucleon crossing combined with charge conjugation symmetry of the VCS amplitudes, we get a next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order prediction for one of the GPs. We provide estimates for forthcoming double polarization experiments which allow to access these spin-flip GPs of the nucleon.

  7. New predictions for generalized spin polarizabilities from heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, C.-W.; Pasquini, Barbara; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    2004-12-01

    We extract the next-to-next-to-leading order results for spin-flip generalized polarizabilities (GPs) of the nucleon from the spin-dependent amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering at O(p{sup 4}) in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. At this order, no unknown low-energy constants enter the theory, allowing us to make absolute predictions for all spin-flip GPs. Furthermore, by using constraint equations between the GPs due to nucleon crossing combined with charge conjugation symmetry of the virtual Compton scattering amplitudes, we get a next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order prediction for one of the GPs. We provide estimates for forthcoming double-polarization experiments which allow one to access these spin-flip GPs of the nucleon.

  8. Broadband chirality-coded meta-aperture for photon-spin resolving

    PubMed Central

    Du, Luping; Kou, Shan Shan; Balaur, Eugeniu; Cadusch, Jasper J.; Roberts, Ann; Abbey, Brian; Yuan, Xiao-Cong; Tang, Dingyuan; Lin, Jiao

    2015-01-01

    The behaviour of light transmitted through an individual subwavelength aperture becomes counterintuitive in the presence of surrounding ‘decoration', a phenomenon known as the extraordinary optical transmission. Despite being polarization-sensitive, such an individual nano-aperture, however, often cannot differentiate between the two distinct spin-states of photons because of the loss of photon information on light-aperture interaction. This creates a ‘blind-spot' for the aperture with respect to the helicity of chiral light. Here we report the development of a subwavelength aperture embedded with metasurfaces dubbed a ‘meta-aperture', which breaks this spin degeneracy. By exploiting the phase-shaping capabilities of metasurfaces, we are able to create specific meta-apertures in which the pair of circularly polarized light spin-states produces opposite transmission spectra over a broad spectral range. The concept incorporating metasurfaces with nano-apertures provides a venue for exploring new physics on spin-aperture interaction and potentially has a broad range of applications in spin-optoelectronics and chiral sensing. PMID:26628047

  9. Emergent Chiral Spin Liquid: Fractional Quantum Hall Effect in a Kagome Heisenberg Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Shou-Shu; Zhu, Wei; Sheng, D. N.

    2014-09-01

    The fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) realized in two-dimensional electron systems under a magnetic field is one of the most remarkable discoveries in condensed matter physics. Interestingly, it has been proposed that FQHE can also emerge in time-reversal invariant spin systems, known as the chiral spin liquid (CSL) characterized by the topological order and the emerging of the fractionalized quasiparticles. A CSL can naturally lead to the exotic superconductivity originating from the condense of anyonic quasiparticles. Although CSL was highly sought after for more than twenty years, it had never been found in a spin isotropic Heisenberg model or related materials. By developing a density-matrix renormalization group based method for adiabatically inserting flux, we discover a FQHE in a isotropic kagome Heisenberg model. We identify this FQHE state as the long-sought CSL with a uniform chiral order spontaneously breaking time reversal symmetry, which is uniquely characterized by the half-integer quantized topological Chern number protected by a robust excitation gap. The CSL is found to be at the neighbor of the previously identified Z2 spin liquid, which may lead to an exotic quantum phase transition between two gapped topological spin liquids.

  10. Cold denaturation induces inversion of dipole and spin transfer in chiral peptide monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckshtain-Levi, Meital; Capua, Eyal; Refaely-Abramson, Sivan; Sarkar, Soumyajit; Gavrilov, Yulian; Mathew, Shinto P.; Paltiel, Yossi; Levy, Yaakov; Kronik, Leeor; Naaman, Ron

    2016-02-01

    Chirality-induced spin selectivity is a recently-discovered effect, which results in spin selectivity for electrons transmitted through chiral peptide monolayers. Here, we use this spin selectivity to probe the organization of self-assembled α-helix peptide monolayers and examine the relation between structural and spin transfer phenomena. We show that the α-helix structure of oligopeptides based on alanine and aminoisobutyric acid is transformed to a more linear one upon cooling. This process is similar to the known cold denaturation in peptides, but here the self-assembled monolayer plays the role of the solvent. The structural change results in a flip in the direction of the electrical dipole moment of the adsorbed molecules. The dipole flip is accompanied by a concomitant change in the spin that is preferred in electron transfer through the molecules, observed via a new solid-state hybrid organic-inorganic device that is based on the Hall effect, but operates with no external magnetic field or magnetic material.

  11. Cold denaturation induces inversion of dipole and spin transfer in chiral peptide monolayers.

    PubMed

    Eckshtain-Levi, Meital; Capua, Eyal; Refaely-Abramson, Sivan; Sarkar, Soumyajit; Gavrilov, Yulian; Mathew, Shinto P; Paltiel, Yossi; Levy, Yaakov; Kronik, Leeor; Naaman, Ron

    2016-02-26

    Chirality-induced spin selectivity is a recently-discovered effect, which results in spin selectivity for electrons transmitted through chiral peptide monolayers. Here, we use this spin selectivity to probe the organization of self-assembled α-helix peptide monolayers and examine the relation between structural and spin transfer phenomena. We show that the α-helix structure of oligopeptides based on alanine and aminoisobutyric acid is transformed to a more linear one upon cooling. This process is similar to the known cold denaturation in peptides, but here the self-assembled monolayer plays the role of the solvent. The structural change results in a flip in the direction of the electrical dipole moment of the adsorbed molecules. The dipole flip is accompanied by a concomitant change in the spin that is preferred in electron transfer through the molecules, observed via a new solid-state hybrid organic-inorganic device that is based on the Hall effect, but operates with no external magnetic field or magnetic material.

  12. Cold denaturation induces inversion of dipole and spin transfer in chiral peptide monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Eckshtain-Levi, Meital; Capua, Eyal; Refaely-Abramson, Sivan; Sarkar, Soumyajit; Gavrilov, Yulian; Mathew, Shinto P.; Paltiel, Yossi; Levy, Yaakov; Kronik, Leeor; Naaman, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Chirality-induced spin selectivity is a recently-discovered effect, which results in spin selectivity for electrons transmitted through chiral peptide monolayers. Here, we use this spin selectivity to probe the organization of self-assembled α-helix peptide monolayers and examine the relation between structural and spin transfer phenomena. We show that the α-helix structure of oligopeptides based on alanine and aminoisobutyric acid is transformed to a more linear one upon cooling. This process is similar to the known cold denaturation in peptides, but here the self-assembled monolayer plays the role of the solvent. The structural change results in a flip in the direction of the electrical dipole moment of the adsorbed molecules. The dipole flip is accompanied by a concomitant change in the spin that is preferred in electron transfer through the molecules, observed via a new solid-state hybrid organic–inorganic device that is based on the Hall effect, but operates with no external magnetic field or magnetic material. PMID:26916536

  13. Broken vector spin chirality in biatomic Fe chains on Ir(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blugel, S.; Mokrousov, Y.; Menzel, M.; Wieser, R.; von Bergmann, K.; Vedmedenko, E.; Kubetzka, A.; Wiesendanger, R.; Heinze, S.

    2012-02-01

    We investigate from ab initio the magnetism of biatomic Fe chains, which form due to self-organization on the (5x1)-reconstructed Ir(001) surface [1,2]. Using the FLEUR code [3], we calculate the magnetic properties and exchange interactions in this system, finding a very small Heisenberg exchange along the chain of the order of 10 meV/Fe-atom. Upon including spin-orbit coupling we obtain the contribution from the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and find that it leads to a 120^o spin-spiral ground state of the Fe chains with a unique rotational sense. The results of the Monte-Carlo simulations based on the parameters from ab initio are in a very good agreement to STM experiments on the system. Moreover, simulations indicate a robustness of the spin chiral order parameter, which decays with temperature much slower than the scalar spin correlation, in analogy to a vector spin chiral liquid state. We discuss possible applications of the magnetism in these chains with respect to the transfer of information on the nanoscale.[1] L. Hammer et al., Phys. Rev. B 67, 125422 (2003). [2] Y. Mokrousov et al., Phys. Rev. B 80, 195420 (2009). [3] www.flapw.de

  14. Emergent Chiral Spin Liquid: Fractional Quantum Hall Effect in a Kagome Heisenberg Model

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Shou-Shu; Zhu, Wei; Sheng, D. N.

    2014-01-01

    The fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) realized in two-dimensional electron systems under a magnetic field is one of the most remarkable discoveries in condensed matter physics. Interestingly, it has been proposed that FQHE can also emerge in time-reversal invariant spin systems, known as the chiral spin liquid (CSL) characterized by the topological order and the emerging of the fractionalized quasiparticles. A CSL can naturally lead to the exotic superconductivity originating from the condense of anyonic quasiparticles. Although CSL was highly sought after for more than twenty years, it had never been found in a spin isotropic Heisenberg model or related materials. By developing a density-matrix renormalization group based method for adiabatically inserting flux, we discover a FQHE in a isotropic kagome Heisenberg model. We identify this FQHE state as the long-sought CSL with a uniform chiral order spontaneously breaking time reversal symmetry, which is uniquely characterized by the half-integer quantized topological Chern number protected by a robust excitation gap. The CSL is found to be at the neighbor of the previously identified Z2 spin liquid, which may lead to an exotic quantum phase transition between two gapped topological spin liquids. PMID:25204626

  15. Broadband chirality-coded meta-aperture for photon-spin resolving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Luping; Kou, Shan Shan; Balaur, Eugeniu; Cadusch, Jasper J.; Roberts, Ann; Abbey, Brian; Yuan, Xiao-Cong; Tang, Dingyuan; Lin, Jiao

    2015-12-01

    The behaviour of light transmitted through an individual subwavelength aperture becomes counterintuitive in the presence of surrounding `decoration', a phenomenon known as the extraordinary optical transmission. Despite being polarization-sensitive, such an individual nano-aperture, however, often cannot differentiate between the two distinct spin-states of photons because of the loss of photon information on light-aperture interaction. This creates a `blind-spot' for the aperture with respect to the helicity of chiral light. Here we report the development of a subwavelength aperture embedded with metasurfaces dubbed a `meta-aperture', which breaks this spin degeneracy. By exploiting the phase-shaping capabilities of metasurfaces, we are able to create specific meta-apertures in which the pair of circularly polarized light spin-states produces opposite transmission spectra over a broad spectral range. The concept incorporating metasurfaces with nano-apertures provides a venue for exploring new physics on spin-aperture interaction and potentially has a broad range of applications in spin-optoelectronics and chiral sensing.

  16. Vector chiral spin liquid phase in quasi-one-dimensional incommensurate helimagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Cinti, Fabio; Cuccoli, Alessandro; Rettori, Angelo

    2011-05-01

    Making use of detailed classical Monte Carlo simulations, we study the critical properties of a two-dimensional planar spin model on a square lattice composed by weakly interacting helimagnetic chains. We find a large temperature window where the vector chirality order parameter, <{kappa}{sub jk}> = , the key quantity in multiferroic systems, takes nonzero value in the absence of long-range order or quasi-long-range order. The phase diagram we obtain for different strengths of the interchain coupling clearly shows that the weakness of the interchain interaction plays an essential role in order to observe the vector chiral spin liquid phase in a temperature range of up to now unattained width ({approx_equal}7%, to be compared with {approx_equal}1% or less previously reported for fully frustrated models, the only well-investigated systems unambiguously displaying spin-chirality decoupling). The relevance of our results for three-dimensional models is also discussed.

  17. Chiral asymmetry driven by unidirectional magnetic anisotropy in Spin-Orbitronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, Paolo; Ajejas, Fernando; Maccariello, Davide; Guerrero, Ruben; Camarero, Julio; Miranda, Rodolfo

    2016-10-01

    Spin-Orbit (SO) effects of a ferromagnetic (FM) layer can be artificially modified by interfacial exchange coupling with an anti-ferro magnet (AFM). Non-symmetric magnetization reversals as well as asymmetric transport behaviors are distinctive signatures of the symmetry-breaking induced by such interfacial coupling. We present a complete picture of the symmetry of the SO effects by studying the magneto-transport properties of single FM film and FM/AFM systems (exchanged-biased bilayer and spin-valve structures) with specific in-plane magnetic anisotropy. Single FM films with a well-defined (two-fold) uniaxial magnetic anisotropy display symmetric magnetization reversals and magneto-resistance responses for any value and direction of the applied magnetic field. On the contrary, in the exchange-biased structures, the exchange interaction at the interface between the FM and AFM layers is responsible of chiral asymmetries in magnetization reversal pathways as well as in the magneto-resistance behaviors. Such asymmetries are directly related to the additional unidirectional (one-fold) magnetic anisotropy imposed by the AFM. In particular, chiral reversals and MR responses are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction. This has been shown in FM/AFM bilayer and spin-valve (where the MR outputs are related to different transport phenomena, i.e. anisotropic magneto-resistance and giant magneto-resistance respectively), hence indicating that the chiral asymmetries are intrinsic of systems with unidirectional anisotropy.

  18. Tunable spin-dependent splitting of light beam in a chiral metamaterial slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. Y.; Yu, Z. W.; Gao, Lei

    2014-07-01

    Spin-dependent splitting of the reflected beam for the chiral metamaterial slab is investigated by analyzing the spatial transverse shifts (TSs) of the two spin-dependent components of the reflected beam. Two components refer to the right-circularly polarized and left-circularly polarized reflected wave components. The influences of the physical parameters and the polarization of the incident beam on the spin-dependent splitting are discussed. The results show that two components are asymmetric due to the cross-polarization of the electromagnetic fields in chiral slab. By adjusting the angle of incidence and the polarization state of the incident beam, the spatial splitting can be enhanced. Moreover, the effect of the thickness on the spatial TSs of the two components becomes weak with increasing the angle of incidence. To one's interest, the spin-dependent splitting also can be realized for two special linear (TE and TM) polarization. Our study may provide an opportunity to realize and control the transverse splitting of the light, and open up the possibility for developing new nanophotonic devices.

  19. Composite spin crystal phase in antiferromagnetic chiral magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, S. A.; Rosales, H. D.; Sturla, M. B.; Cabra, D. C.

    2017-07-01

    We study the classical antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the triangular lattice with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions in a magnetic field. We focus in particular on the emergence of a composite spin crystal phase, dubbed an antiferromagnetic skyrmion lattice, that was recently observed for intermediate fields. This complex phase can be made up from three interpenetrated skyrmion lattices, one for each sublattice of the original triangular one. Following these recent numerical results, in this paper we explicitly construct the low-energy effective action that reproduces the correct phenomenology and could serve as a starting point to study the coupling to charge carriers, lattice vibrations, structural disorder, and transport phenomena.

  20. U(1) chiral symmetry in a one-dimensional interacting electron system with spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taejin

    2016-11-01

    We study a spin-dependent Tomonaga-Luttinger model in one dimension, which describes electron transport through a single barrier. Using the Fermi-Bose equivalence in one dimension, we map the model onto a massless Thirring model with a boundary interaction. A field theoretical perturbation theory for the model has been developed, and the chiral symmetry is found to play an important role. The classical bulk action possesses a global U A (1)4 chiral symmetry because the fermion fields are massless. This global chiral symmetry is broken by the boundary interaction, and the bosonic degrees of freedom, corresponding to a chiral phase transformation, become dynamical. They acquire an additional kinetic action from the fermion path-integral measure and govern the critical behaviors of the physical operators. On the critical line where the boundary interaction becomes marginal, they decouple from the fermi fields. Consequently, the action reduces to the free-field action, which contains only a fermion bilinear boundary mass term as an interaction term. By using a renormalization group analysis, we obtain a new critical line, which differs from the previously known critical lines in the literature. The result of this work implies that the phase diagram of the one-dimensional electron system may have a richer structure than previously thought.

  1. Skyrmion dynamics in a chiral magnet driven by periodically varying spin currents*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Rui; Zhang, Yin-Yan

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we investigated the spin dynamics in a slab of chiral magnets induced by an alternating (ac) spin current. Periodic trajectories of the skyrmion in real space are discovered under the ac current as a result of the Magnus and viscous forces, which originate from the Gilbert damping, the spin transfer torque, and the β-nonadiabatic torque effects. The results are obtained by numerically solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation and can be explained by the Thiele equation characterizing the skyrmion core motion. Supplementary material in the form of one avi file available from the Journal web page at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-70467-9

  2. Kagome Chiral Spin Liquid as a Gauged U (1 ) Symmetry Protected Topological Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yin-Chen; Bhattacharjee, Subhro; Pollmann, Frank; Moessner, R.

    2015-12-01

    While the existence of a chiral spin liquid (CSL) on a class of spin-1 /2 kagome antiferromagnets is by now well established numerically, a controlled theoretical path from the lattice model leading to a low-energy topological field theory is still lacking. This we provide via an explicit construction starting from reformulating a microscopic model for a CSL as a lattice gauge theory and deriving the low-energy form of its continuum limit. A crucial ingredient is the realization that the bosonic spinons of the gauge theory exhibit a U (1 ) symmetry protected topological (SPT) phase, which upon promoting its U (1 ) global symmetry to a local gauge structure ("gauging"), yields the CSL. We suggest that such an explicit lattice-based construction involving gauging of a SPT phase can be applied more generally to understand topological spin liquids.

  3. Excitations from a chiral magnetized state of a frustrated quantum spin liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Garlea, Vasile O; Zheludev, Andrey I; Tsvelik, A.; Regnault, L.-P.; Habicht, Klaus; Kiefer, K.; Roessli, Bertrand

    2009-01-01

    We study excitations in weakly interacting pairs of quantum spin ladders coupled through geometrically frustrated bonds. The ground state is a disordered spin liquid, at high fields replaced by an ordered chiral helimagnetic phase. The spectra observed by high-field inelastic neutron scattering experiments on the prototype compound Sul Cu2Cl4 are qualitatively different from those in the previously studied frustration-free spin liquids. Beyond the critical field Hc = 3.7 T, the soft mode that drives the quantum phase transition spawns two separate excitations: a gapless Goldstone mode and a massive magnon. Additional massive quasiparticles are clearly visible below Hc, but are destroyed in the ordered phase. In their place one observes a sharply bound excitation continuum.

  4. Excitations from a Chiral Magnetized State of a Frustrated Quantum Spin Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Zheludev, A.; Tsvelik, A.; Garlea, V.O.; Regnault, L.-P.; Habicht, K.; Kiefer, K.; Roessli, B.

    2009-12-15

    We study excitations in weakly interacting pairs of quantum spin ladders coupled through geometrically frustrated bonds. The ground state is a disordered spin liquid that at high fields is replaced by an ordered chiral helimagnetic phase. The spectra observed by high-field inelastic neutron scattering experiments on the prototype compound Sul-Cu{sub 2}Cl{sub 4} are qualitatively different from those in the previously studied frustration-free spin liquids. Beyond the critical field H{sub c} = 3.7 T, the soft mode that drives the quantum phase transition spawns two separate excitations: a gapless Goldstone mode and a massive magnon. Additional massive quasiparticles are clearly visible below H{sub c}, but are destroyed in the ordered phase. In their place one observes a sharply bound excitation continuum.

  5. Kagome Chiral Spin Liquid as a Gauged U(1) Symmetry Protected Topological Phase.

    PubMed

    He, Yin-Chen; Bhattacharjee, Subhro; Pollmann, Frank; Moessner, R

    2015-12-31

    While the existence of a chiral spin liquid (CSL) on a class of spin-1/2 kagome antiferromagnets is by now well established numerically, a controlled theoretical path from the lattice model leading to a low-energy topological field theory is still lacking. This we provide via an explicit construction starting from reformulating a microscopic model for a CSL as a lattice gauge theory and deriving the low-energy form of its continuum limit. A crucial ingredient is the realization that the bosonic spinons of the gauge theory exhibit a U(1) symmetry protected topological (SPT) phase, which upon promoting its U(1) global symmetry to a local gauge structure ("gauging"), yields the CSL. We suggest that such an explicit lattice-based construction involving gauging of a SPT phase can be applied more generally to understand topological spin liquids.

  6. Penetration depth and nonlocal manipulation of quantum spin hall edge states in chiral honeycomb nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong; Uddin, Salah; Wang, Jun; Wu, Jiansheng; Liu, Jun-Feng

    2017-08-08

    We have studied numerically the penetration depth of quantum spin hall edge states in chiral honeycomb nanoribbons based on the Green's function method. The changing of edge orientation from armchair to zigzag direction decreases the penetration depth drastically. The penetration depth is used to estimate the gap opened for the finite-size effect. Beside this, we also proposed a nonlocal transistor based on the zigzag-like chiral ribbons in which the current is carried at one edge and the manipulation is by the edge magnetization at the other edge. The difficulty that the edge magnetization is unstable in the presence of a ballistic current can be removed by this nonlocal manipulation.

  7. Chiral magnetism and spin liquid Mott insulators induced by synthetic gauge fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramekanti, Arun; Hickey, Ciaran; Cincio, Lukasz; Papic, Zlatko; Vellat-Sadashivan, Arun; Sohal, Ramanjit

    2016-05-01

    Recent experiments using Raman-assisted tunneling or lattice-shaking have realized synthetic gauge fields and optical lattice bands with nontrivial band topology. Here we examine the effect of particle interactions in such bands, focussing on two-component fermions with local Hubbard repulsion. We show that interactions can drive the integer quantum Hall insulator into Mott insulating states which possess noncoplanar chiral magnetic textures and even chiral spin liquids with many-body topological order. We establish our results using a combination of mean field theory, strong coupling expansions, numerical exact diagonalization and DMRG methods. We also discuss possible signatures of such non-coplanar orders in Bragg scattering and noise measurements.

  8. Waveform measurement of charge- and spin-density wavepackets in a chiral Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashisaka, M.; Hiyama, N.; Akiho, T.; Muraki, K.; Fujisawa, T.

    2017-06-01

    In contrast to a free-electron system, a Tomonaga-Luttinger (TL) liquid in a one-dimensional (1D) electron system hosts charge and spin excitations as independent entities. When an electron is injected into a TL liquid, it transforms into charge- and spin-density wavepackets that propagate at different group velocities and move away from each other. This process, known as spin-charge separation, is the hallmark of TL physics. While spin-charge separation has been probed in momentum- or frequency-domain measurements in various 1D systems, waveforms of separated excitations, which are a direct manifestation of the TL behaviour, have been long awaited to be measured. Here, we present a waveform measurement for the pseudospin-charge separation process in a chiral TL liquid comprising quantum Hall edge channels. The charge- and pseudospin-density waveforms are captured by utilizing a spin-resolved sampling scope that records the spin-up or -down component of the excitations. This experimental technique provides full information for time evolution of the 1D electron system, including not only propagation of TL eigenmodes but also their decay in a practical device.

  9. Lorentz violation bounds from torsion trace fermion sector and galaxy M 51 data and chiral dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia de Andrade, L. C.

    2017-06-01

    Earlier we have computed a Lorentz violation (LV) bound for torsion terms via galactic dynamos and found bounds similar to the one obtained by Kostelecky et al. (Phys Rev Lett 100:111102, 2008) which is of the order of 10^{-31} GeV. Their result was found making use of the axial torsion vector in terms of Dirac spinors and minimal torsion coupling in flat space-time of fermions. In this paper, a torsion dynamo equation obtained using the variation of the torsion trace and galaxy M51 data of 500 pc are used to place an upper bound of 10^{-26} GeV in LV, which agrees with the one by Kostelecky and his group using an astrophysical framework background. Their lowest bound was obtained in earth laboratory using dual masers. One of the purposes of this paper is to apply the Faraday self-induction magnetic equation, recently extended to torsioned space-time, by the author to show that it lends support to physics in Riemann-Cartan space-time, in several distinct physical backgrounds. Backreaction magnetic effects are used to obtain the LV bounds. Previously Bamba et al. (JCAP 10:058, 2012) have used the torsion trace in their teleparallel investigation of the IGMF, with the argument that the torsion trace leads to less weaker effects than the other irreducible components of the torsion tensor. LV is computed in terms of a chiral-torsion-like current in the new dynamo equation analogous to the Dvornikov and Semikoz dynamo equation with chiral magnetic currents. Making use of the chiral-torsion dynamo equation we estimate the LV bounds in the early universe to be of the order of 10^{-24} GeV, which was the order of the charged-lepton sector. Our main result is that it is possible to obtain more stringent bounds than the ones found in the fermion sector of astrophysics in the new revised 2017 data table for CPT and Lorentz violation by Kostelecky and Mewes. They found in several astrophysical backgrounds, orders of magnitude such as 10^{-24} and 10^{-23} GeV which are not so

  10. Many-body localization phase in a spin-driven chiral multiferroic chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagraczyński, S.; Chotorlishvili, L.; Schüler, M.; Mierzejewski, M.; Berakdar, J.

    2017-08-01

    Many-body localization (MBL) is an emergent phase in correlated quantum systems with promising applications, particularly in quantum information. Here, we unveil the existence and analyze this phase in a chiral multiferroic model system. Conventionally, MBL occurrence is traced via level statistics by implementing a standard finite-size scaling procedure. Here, we present an approach based on the full distribution of the ratio of adjacent energy spacings. We find a strong broadening of the histograms of counts of these level spacings directly at the transition point from MBL to the ergodic phase. The broadening signals reliably the transition point without relying on an averaging procedure. The fast convergence of the histograms even for relatively small systems allows monitoring the MBL dynamics with much less computational effort. Numerical results are presented for a chiral spin chain with a dynamical Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, an established model to describe the spin excitations in a single-phase spin-driven multiferroic system. The multiferroic MBL phase is uncovered and it is shown how to steer it via electric fields.

  11. Renormalization and additional degrees of freedom within the chiral effective theory for spin-1 resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Kampf, Karol; Novotny, Jiri; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2010-06-01

    We study in detail various aspects of the renormalization of the spin-1 resonance propagator in the effective field theory framework. First, we briefly review the formalisms for the description of spin-1 resonances in the path integral formulation with the stress on the issue of propagating degrees of freedom. Then we calculate the one-loop 1{sup --} meson self-energy within the resonance chiral theory in the chiral limit using different methods for the description of spin-1 particles, namely, the Proca field, antisymmetric tensor field, and the first-order formalisms. We discuss in detail technical aspects of the renormalization procedure which are inherent to the power-counting nonrenormalizable theory and give a formal prescription for the organization of both the counterterms and one-particle irreducible graphs. We also construct the corresponding propagators and investigate their properties. We show that the additional poles corresponding to the additional one-particle states are generated by loop corrections, some of which are negative norm ghosts or tachyons. We count the number of such additional poles and briefly discuss their physical meaning.

  12. Exact Chiral Spin Liquid with Stable Spin Fermi Surface on the Kagome Lattice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-17

    Mater. Res. Bull 8, 153 (1973). 5P . A. Lee, Science 321, 1306 (2008). 6L. Balents, Nature (London) 464, 199 (2010). 7P . W. Anderson, Science 235, 1196...surface. Moreover, we show that the spin Fermi surface is stable against weak perturbations. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13...fractional quantum Hall effect3 and quantum spin liquids, 4 have garnered a great deal of attention. A quantum spin liquid (QSL) is an insulating state

  13. Interfacial exchange-coupling induced chiral symmetry breaking of spin-orbit effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, P.; Ajejas, F.; Maccariello, D.; Fernandez Cuñado, J. L.; Guerrero, R.; Niño, M. A.; Bollero, A.; Miranda, R.; Camarero, J.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate that the interfacial exchange coupling in ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (FM/AFM) systems induces symmetry breaking of the spin-orbit (SO) effects. This has been done by studying the field and angle dependencies of anisotropic magnetoresistance and vectorial-resolved magnetization hysteresis loops, measured simultaneously and reproduced with numerical simulations. We show how the induced unidirectional magnetic anisotropy at the FM/AFM interface results in strong asymmetric transport behaviors, which are chiral around the magnetization hard-axis direction. Similar asymmetric features are anticipated in other SO-driven phenomena.

  14. Chiral-like tunneling of electrons in two-dimensional semiconductors with Rashba spin-orbit coupling

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Yee Sin; Ma, Zhongshui; Zhang, C.

    2014-01-01

    The unusual tunneling effects of massless chiral fermions (mCF) and massive chiral fermions (MCF) in a single layer graphene and bilayer graphene represent some of the most bizarre quantum transport phenomena in condensed matter system. Here we show that in a two-dimensional semiconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling (R2DEG), the real-spin chiral-like tunneling of electrons at normal incidence simultaneously exhibits features of mCF and MCF. The parabolic branch of opposite spin in R2DEG crosses at a Dirac-like point and has a band turning point. These features generate transport properties not found in usual two-dimensional electron gas. Albeit its π Berry phase, electron backscattering is present in R2DEG. An electron mimics mCF if its energy is in the vicinity of the subband crossing point or it mimics MCF if its energy is near the subband minima. PMID:24445394

  15. Spin precession and spin waves in a chiral electron gas: Beyond Larmor's theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Shahrzad; Baboux, Florent; Perez, Florent; Ullrich, Carsten A.; Karczewski, Grzegorz; Wojtowicz, Tomasz

    2017-07-01

    Larmor's theorem holds for magnetic systems that are invariant under spin rotation. In the presence of spin-orbit coupling this invariance is lost and Larmor's theorem is broken: for systems of interacting electrons, this gives rise to a subtle interplay between the spin-orbit coupling acting on individual single-particle states and Coulomb many-body effects. We consider a quasi-two-dimensional, partially spin-polarized electron gas in a semiconductor quantum well in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. Using a linear-response approach based on time-dependent density-functional theory, we calculate the dispersions of spin-flip waves. We obtain analytic results for small wave vectors and up to second order in the Rashba and Dresselhaus coupling strengths α and β . Comparison with experimental data from inelastic light scattering allows us to extract α and β as well as the spin-wave stiffness very accurately. We find significant deviations from the local density approximation for spin-dependent electron systems.

  16. Non-Markovian dynamics in chiral quantum networks with spins and photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Tomás; Vermersch, Benoît; Hauke, Philipp; Pichler, Hannes; Zoller, Peter

    2016-06-01

    We study the dynamics of chiral quantum networks consisting of nodes coupled by unidirectional or asymmetric bidirectional quantum channels. In contrast to familiar photonic networks where driven two-level atoms exchange photons via 1D photonic nanostructures, we propose and study a setup where interactions between the atoms are mediated by spin excitations (magnons) in 1D X X spin chains representing spin waveguides. While Markovian quantum network theory eliminates quantum channels as structureless reservoirs in a Born-Markov approximation to obtain a master equation for the nodes, we are interested in non-Markovian dynamics. This arises from the nonlinear character of the dispersion with band-edge effects, and from finite spin propagation velocities leading to time delays in interactions. To account for the non-Markovian dynamics we treat the quantum degrees of freedom of the nodes and connecting channel as a composite spin system with the surrounding of the quantum network as a Markovian bath, allowing for an efficient solution with time-dependent density matrix renormalization-group techniques. We illustrate our approach showing non-Markovian effects in the driven-dissipative formation of quantum dimers, and we present examples for quantum information protocols involving quantum state transfer with engineered elements as basic building blocks of quantum spintronic circuits.

  17. Spin-flavor structure of chiral-odd generalized parton distributions in the large-Nc limit

    DOE PAGES

    Schweitzer, P.; Weiss, C.

    2016-10-05

    We study the spin-flavor structure of the nucleon's chiral-odd generalized parton distributions (transversity GPDs) in the large-Nc limit of QCD. In contrast to the chiral-even case, only three combinations of the four chiral-odd GPDs are nonzero in the leading order of the 1/Nc expansion: E-barT = ET+2H-tildeT, HT, and E-tildeT. The degeneracy is explained by the absence of spin-orbit interactions correlating the transverse momentum transfer with the transverse quark spin. It can also be deduced from the natural Nc scaling of the quark-nucleon helicity amplitudes associated with the GPDs. In the GPD E-barT the flavor-singlet component u+d is leading inmore » the 1/Nc expansion, while in HT and E-tildeT it is the flavor-nonsinglet components u–d. Furthermore, the large-Nc relations are consistent with the spin-flavor structure extracted from hard exclusive π0 and η electroproduction data, if it is assumed that the processes are mediated by twist-3 amplitudes involving the chiral-odd GPDs and the chiral-odd pseudoscalar meson distribution amplitudes.« less

  18. SPIN ALIGNMENTS OF SPIRAL GALAXIES WITHIN THE LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE FROM SDSS DR7

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Youcai; Yang, Xiaohu; Luo, Wentao; Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Lei; Mo, H. J.; Van den Bosch, Frank C. E-mail: xyang@sjtu.edu.cn

    2015-01-01

    Using a sample of spiral galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 and Galaxy Zoo 2, we investigate the alignment of spin axes of spiral galaxies with their surrounding large-scale structure, which is characterized by the large-scale tidal field reconstructed from the data using galaxy groups above a certain mass threshold. We find that the spin axes only have weak tendencies to be aligned with (or perpendicular to) the intermediate (or minor) axis of the local tidal tensor. The signal is the strongest in a cluster environment where all three eigenvalues of the local tidal tensor are positive. Compared to the alignments between halo spins and the local tidal field obtained in N-body simulations, the above observational results are in best agreement with those for the spins of inner regions of halos, suggesting that the disk material traces the angular momentum of dark matter halos in the inner regions.

  19. Chiral spin liquid and quantum criticality in extended S =1/2 Heisenberg models on the triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wietek, Alexander; Läuchli, Andreas M.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the J1-J2 Heisenberg model on the triangular lattice with an additional scalar chirality term and show that a chiral spin liquid is stabilized in a sizable region of the phase diagram. This topological phase is situated in between a coplanar 120∘ Néel ordered and a noncoplanar tetrahedrally ordered phase. Furthermore we discuss the nature of the spin-disordered intermediate phase in the J1-J2 model. We compare the ground states from exact diagonalization with a Dirac spin liquid wave function and propose a scenario where this wave function describes the quantum critical point between the 120∘ magnetically ordered phase and a putative Z2 spin liquid.

  20. Crystalline and spin chiralities in multiferroics with langasite-type structure and Fe1- x Co x Si crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikin, S. A.; Lyubutin, I. S.; Dudka, A. P.

    2015-09-01

    It is shown that, when magnetic ordering occurs in layered iron-containing langasites (sp. gr. P321), one of the reasons for spin chiralities of different signs is the presence of structural chirality (the existence of inversion twins), which, in turn, is due to the nonsymmetricity of these crystals. Spin helicoids arise in these multiferroics at split sites of Fe3+ ions below the Néel point. The direction of electric polarization vectors coincides with the direction of the magnetic helicoid axes because of the piezoelectric properties of these materials. Due to the magnetostriction effects, structural chirality wave vector k z exceeds the magnetic helicoid wave vector by a factor of 2: k z = 2 q z. The temperatures of transitions to the chiral structural and chiral magnetic states may differ. In particular, if the structural transition initial temperature exceeds the magnetic transition temperature ( Т U > Т М ), structural displacements may arise in the absence of magnetism at Т М < Т < Т U . In noncentrosymmetric Fe1- x Co x Si crystals (sp. gr. P213), which are not multiferroics, magnetic chirality is due to the Dzyaloshinski-Moriya interaction. The dependence of the moduli of incommensurate wave number of the corresponding helicoid on the atomic composition of the crystals under consideration is nonmonotonic.

  1. Chiral anomaly in real space from stable fractional charges at the edge of a quantum spin Hall insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleckenstein, C.; Traverso Ziani, N.; Trauzettel, B.

    2016-12-01

    The chiral anomaly is based on a nonconserved chiral charge and can happen in Dirac fermion systems under the influence of external electromagnetic fields. In this case, the spectral flow leads to a transfer of right- to left-moving excitations or vice versa. The corresponding transfer of chiral particles happens in momentum space. Here we describe an intriguing way to introduce the chiral anomaly into real space. Our system consists of two quantum dots that are formed at the helical edges of a quantum spin Hall insulator by means of magnetic barriers. Such a setup gives rise to fractional charges which we show to be sharp quantum numbers for large barrier strengths. Interestingly, it is possible to map the system onto a quantum spin Hall ring in the presence of a flux pierced through the ring, where the relative angle between the magnetization directions takes the role of the flux. The chiral anomaly in this system is then directly related to the excess occupation of particles in the two quantum dots. This analogy allows us to predict an observable consequence of the chiral anomaly in real space, which is connected to the presence of fractional charges in the very same system.

  2. Crystal-electric-field excitations and spin dynamics in Ce3Co4Sn13 semimetallic chiral-lattice phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasa, Kazuaki; Otomo, Yuka; Suyama, Kazuya; Tomiyasu, Keisuke; Ohira-Kawamura, Seiko; Nakajima, Kenji; Mignot, Jean-Michel

    2017-05-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering experiments have been conducted to investigate the spin dynamics and crystal-electric-field level scheme of the Ce 4 f electrons in Ce3Co4Sn13 . This compound exhibits a large specific heat at low temperatures and anomalous semimetallic transport in the chiral crystallographic phase below 160 K. Distinctly observed magnetic excitations at approximately 6 and 29 meV are asymmetric in spectral shape and are reproduced by two inequivalent crystal-electric-field splitting schemes, which are deduced from the chiral structure. We have also observed the spin dynamics reflecting antiferromagnetic correlations below 1 meV, which is enhanced with an upturn in the electrical resistivity below 15 K and which yields a low-energy density of state relevant to the large specific heat. We discuss the possibility of a three-dimensional Weyl semimetal state, considering the chiral-lattice symmetry, electronic hybridization, and magnetic correlation.

  3. The role of mergers and halo spin in shaping galaxy morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Sales, Laura V.; Genel, Shy; Pillepich, Annalisa; Zjupa, Jolanta; Nelson, Dylan; Griffen, Brendan; Torrey, Paul; Snyder, Gregory F.; Vogelsberger, Mark; Springel, Volker; Ma, Chung-Pei; Hernquist, Lars

    2017-05-01

    Mergers and the spin of the dark matter halo are factors traditionally believed to determine the morphology of galaxies within a Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology. We study this hypothesis by considering approximately 18 000 central galaxies at z = 0 with stellar masses M* = 109-1012 M⊙ selected from the Illustris cosmological hydrodynamic simulation. The fraction of accreted stars - which measures the importance of massive, recent and dry mergers - increases steeply with galaxy stellar mass, from less than 5 per cent in dwarfs to 80 per cent in the most massive objects, and the impact of mergers on galaxy morphology increases accordingly. For galaxies with M* ≳ 1011 M⊙, mergers have the expected effect: If gas-poor, they promote the formation of spheroidal galaxies, whereas gas-rich mergers favour the formation and survivability of massive discs. This trend, however, breaks at lower masses. For objects with M* ≲ 1011 M⊙, mergers do not seem to play any significant role in determining the morphology, with accreted stellar fractions and mean merger gas fractions that are indistinguishable between spheroidal and disc-dominated galaxies. On the other hand, halo spin correlates with morphology primarily in the least massive objects in the sample (M* ≲ 1010 M⊙), but only weakly for galaxies above that mass. Our results support a scenario where (1) mergers play a dominant role in shaping the morphology of massive galaxies, (2) halo spin is important for the morphology of dwarfs, and (3) the morphology of medium-sized galaxies - including the Milky Way - shows little dependence on galaxy assembly history or halo spin, at least when these two factors are considered individually.

  4. Synthetic-gauge-field stabilization of the chiral-spin-liquid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Hazzard, Kaden R. A.; Rey, Ana Maria; Hermele, Michael

    2016-06-01

    We explore the phase diagram of the SU (N ) Hubbard models describing fermionic alkaline-earth-metal atoms in a square optical lattice with, on average, one atom per site, using a slave rotor mean-field approach. We find that the chiral spin liquid (CSL) predicted for N ≥5 and large interactions passes through a fractionalized state with a spinon Fermi surface as interactions are decreased before transitioning to a weakly interacting metal. We show that by adding a uniform artificial gauge field with 2 π /N flux per plaquette, the CSL becomes the ground state for all N ≥3 at intermediate interactions, persists to weaker interactions, and exhibits a larger spin gap. For N ≥5 we find the CSL is the ground state everywhere the system is a Mott insulator. The gauge field stabilization of the CSL at lower interactions, and thus at weaker lattice depths, together with the increased spin gap, can relax the temperature constraints required for its experimental realization in ultracold atom systems.

  5. Galaxy Formation from a Low-Spin Density Perturbation in a CDM Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Daisuke

    1999-12-01

    In order to understand the formation process of elliptical galaxies which are not rotationally supported, we carried out numerical simulations of galaxy formation from a density perturbation with a rotation corresponding to a small spin parameter. The three-dimensional TREE N-Body/SPH simulation code used included dark matter and gas dynamics, radiative cooling, star formation, supernova feedback, and metal enrichment. The initial condition was a slowly rotating, top-hat over-dense sphere on which the perturbations expected in a cold dark matter (CDM) universe were superposed. By means of a stellar-population synthesis, we calculated the surface-brightness profile, the metallicity distribution, and the photometric properties of the end-product, and found that these properties quantitatively agree with the observed properties of bright elliptical galaxies. Thus, we conclude that, in a CDM universe, a proto-galaxy having a spin-parameter as small as 0.02 evolves into an elliptical galaxy.

  6. Structure of vortex-bound states in spin-singlet chiral superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Darrick; Schnyder, Andreas P.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the structure of vortex-bound states in spin-singlet chiral superconductors with (dx2-y2±i dx y )-wave and (dx z±i dy z )-wave pairing symmetries. It is found that vortices in the (dx z±i dy z )-wave state bind zero-energy states, which are dispersionless along the vortex line, forming a doubly degenerate Majorana flat band. Vortex-bound states of (dx2-y2±i dx y )-wave superconductors, on the other hand, exist only at finite energy. Using exact diagonalization and analytical solutions of tight-binding Bogoliubov-de Gennes Hamiltonians, we compute the energy spectrum of the vortex-bound states and the local density of states around the vortex and antivortex cores. We find that the tunneling conductance peak of the vortex is considerably broader than that of the antivortex. This difference can be used as a direct signature of the chiral order parameter symmetry.

  7. Demonstration of a D-metal from a chiral spin liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, Victor; Fiete, Gregory

    2013-03-01

    We report recent results on a study of a 2D disordered but exactly solvable gapless chiral spin-liquid ground state whose fractionalised quasiparticle excitations are Majorana fermions and are classified as being in the D-class of the Altland-Zirnbauer 10-fold classification scheme [Phys. Rev. B 55, 1142 (1997)]. Transport and quasiparticle localisation properties of this Majorana metal in nanowire configurations are studied and contrasted with the previously predicted D-metal phase of Senthil and Fisher [Phys. Rev. B 61, 9690 (2000)]. The role of Z2 vortices play towards transport properties are also discussed. ARO grant W911NF-09-1-0527 and NSF grant DMR- 0955778

  8. Ring-shaped Racetrack memory based on spin orbit torque driven chiral domain wall motions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Xueying; Hu, Jingtong; Nan, Jiang; Zheng, Zhenyi; Zhang, Zhizhong; Zhang, Youguang; Vernier, Nicolas; Ravelosona, Dafine; Zhao, Weisheng

    2016-01-01

    Racetrack memory (RM) has sparked enormous interest thanks to its outstanding potential for low-power, high-density and high-speed data storage. However, since it requires bi-directional domain wall (DW) shifting process for outputting data, the mainstream stripe-shaped concept certainly suffers from the data overflow issue. This geometrical restriction leads to increasing complexity of peripheral circuits or programming as well as undesirable reliability issue. In this work, we propose and study ring-shaped RM, which is based on an alternative mechanism, spin orbit torque (SOT) driven chiral DW motions. Micromagnetic simulations have been carried out to validate its functionality and exhibit its performance advantages. The current flowing through the heavy metal instead of ferromagnetic layer realizes the “end to end” circulation of storage data, which remains all the data in the device even if they are shifted. It blazes a promising path for application of RM in practical memory and logic. PMID:27725741

  9. Ring-shaped Racetrack memory based on spin orbit torque driven chiral domain wall motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Xueying; Hu, Jingtong; Nan, Jiang; Zheng, Zhenyi; Zhang, Zhizhong; Zhang, Youguang; Vernier, Nicolas; Ravelosona, Dafine; Zhao, Weisheng

    2016-10-01

    Racetrack memory (RM) has sparked enormous interest thanks to its outstanding potential for low-power, high-density and high-speed data storage. However, since it requires bi-directional domain wall (DW) shifting process for outputting data, the mainstream stripe-shaped concept certainly suffers from the data overflow issue. This geometrical restriction leads to increasing complexity of peripheral circuits or programming as well as undesirable reliability issue. In this work, we propose and study ring-shaped RM, which is based on an alternative mechanism, spin orbit torque (SOT) driven chiral DW motions. Micromagnetic simulations have been carried out to validate its functionality and exhibit its performance advantages. The current flowing through the heavy metal instead of ferromagnetic layer realizes the “end to end” circulation of storage data, which remains all the data in the device even if they are shifted. It blazes a promising path for application of RM in practical memory and logic.

  10. Chiral spin liquid emerging between competing magnetic order states in the spin-1/2 J1-J2-J3 kagome Heisenberg model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Shoushu; Zhu, Wei; Balents, Leon; Sheng, Dongning

    2015-03-01

    We studied the extended spin- 1 / 2 kagome model with the first neighbor (J1), the second (J2) and third neighbor (J3) couplings using density matrix renormalization group. We established a quantum phase diagram for 0 <= J 2 <= 0 . 25J1 and 0 <=J3 <=J1 , where we find a q = (0 , 0) Neel phase, a chiral spin liquid (CSL), a cuboc1 phase that breaks both time-reversal and spin rotational symmetries, and a valence-bond solid at the neighbor of the Heisenberg model, where a possible Z2 spin liquid has been previously identified. Interestingly, the classical cuboc1 phase could survive in the spin- 1 / 2 system with strong quantum fluctuations, and the CSL emerges between the q = (0 , 0) and the cuboc1 phases. We discover that the CSL has the short spin correlation pattern consistent with the cuboc1 phase, but the chiral order structure is totally different. The CSL might be understood as a result of the competitions between the q = (0 , 0) and the cuboc1 phases in the presence of strong quantum fluctuations. We further studied the quantum phase transitions from the CSL to the magnetically ordered phases, and to the possible Z2 spin liquid of the Heisenberg kagome model. Interestingly, the exotic continuous topological phase transition might be realized in the system.

  11. The effective action of a spin 1/2 field in the background of a chiral soliton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baacke, J.

    1992-09-01

    We use a recently developed numerical technique in order to evaluate the renormalized effective action of a spin 1/2 field with a chiral mass term, the chiral angle being given by a static hedgehog configuration. The method is based on the use of Euclidean Green's functions. The divergent parts are regularized and renormalized analytically. For the sum over all convergent contributions we obtain an exact expression that can be evaluated numerically. A precarious numerical subtraction of the divergent parts is avoided by making use of integral equations for the partial waves.

  12. Photospintronics: Magnetic Field-Controlled Photoemission and Light-Controlled Spin Transport in Hybrid Chiral Oligopeptide-Nanoparticle Structures

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The combination of photonics and spintronics opens new ways to transfer and process information. It is shown here that in systems in which organic molecules and semiconductor nanoparticles are combined, matching these technologies results in interesting new phenomena. We report on light induced and spin-dependent charge transfer process through helical oligopeptide–CdSe nanoparticles’ (NPs) architectures deposited on ferromagnetic substrates with small coercive force (∼100–200 Oe). The spin control is achieved by the application of the chirality-induced spin-dependent electron transfer effect and is probed by two different methods: spin-controlled electrochemichemistry and photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature. The injected spin could be controlled by excitation of the nanoparticles. By switching the direction of the magnetic field of the substrate, the PL intensity could be alternated. PMID:27027885

  13. Photospintronics: Magnetic Field-Controlled Photoemission and Light-Controlled Spin Transport in Hybrid Chiral Oligopeptide-Nanoparticle Structures.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Prakash Chandra; Roy, Partha; Kim, Dokyun; Fullerton, Eric E; Cohen, Hagai; Naaman, Ron

    2016-04-13

    The combination of photonics and spintronics opens new ways to transfer and process information. It is shown here that in systems in which organic molecules and semiconductor nanoparticles are combined, matching these technologies results in interesting new phenomena. We report on light induced and spin-dependent charge transfer process through helical oligopeptide-CdSe nanoparticles' (NPs) architectures deposited on ferromagnetic substrates with small coercive force (∼100-200 Oe). The spin control is achieved by the application of the chirality-induced spin-dependent electron transfer effect and is probed by two different methods: spin-controlled electrochemichemistry and photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature. The injected spin could be controlled by excitation of the nanoparticles. By switching the direction of the magnetic field of the substrate, the PL intensity could be alternated.

  14. Medium- and high-spin band structure of the chiral candidate 132La

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuti, I.; Timár, J.; Sohler, D.; Paul, E. S.; Starosta, K.; Astier, A.; Bazzacco, D.; Bednarczyk, P.; Boston, A. J.; Buforn, N.; Chantler, H. J.; Chiara, C. J.; Clark, R. M.; Cromaz, M.; Descovich, M.; Dombrádi, Zs.; Fallon, P.; Fossan, D. B.; Fox, C.; Gizon, A.; Gizon, J.; Hecht, A. A.; Kintz, N.; Koike, T.; Lee, I. Y.; Lunardi, S.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Nolan, P. J.; Nyakó, B. M.; Petrache, C. M.; Sampson, J. A.; Scraggs, H. C.; Tornyi, T. G.; Wadsworth, R.; Walker, A.; Zolnai, L.

    2013-04-01

    Medium- and high-spin states of 132La have been studied based on the data obtained from 100Mo(36S,p3n) and 116Cd(23Na,α3n) fusion-evaporation reactions using the EUROBALL and Gammasphere detector arrays, respectively. Triple-γ coincidence relations, angular correlations, and linear polarizations of the observed γ transitions have been deduced. The level scheme of 132La has been considerably extended, and unambiguous spin and parity values have been assigned to most of the excited states. The configuration of one of the bands is πg7/2(h11/2)2νh11/2 instead of the previously thought πh11/2νh11/2; thus its previously suggested magnetic rotational character cannot be upheld. The observed similarities between the level structures of 132La and 134Pr suggest the possible existence of a third πh11/2νh11/2 band in 132La that may show chiral features.

  15. Higher moments of nucleon spin structure functions in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory and in a resonance model

    SciTech Connect

    C. Kao; D. Drechsel; S. Kamalov; M. Vanderhaeghen

    2003-11-01

    The third moment d{sub 2} of the twist-3 part of the nucleon spin structure function g{sub 2} is generalized to arbitrary momentum transfer Q{sup 2} and is evaluated in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory (HBChPT) up to order {Omicron}(p{sup 4}) and in a unitary isobar model (MAID). We show how to link d{sub 2} as well as higher moments of the nucleon spin structure functions g{sub 1} and g{sub 2} to nucleon spin polarizabilities. We compare our results with the most recent experimental data, and find a good description of these available data within the unitary isobar model. We proceed to extract the twist-4 matrix element f{sub 2} which appears in the 1/Q{sup 2} suppressed term in the twist expansion of the spin structure function g{sub 1} for proton and neutron.

  16. Higher spin super-Cotton tensors and generalisations of the linear-chiral duality in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzenko, Sergei M.

    2016-12-01

    In three spacetime dimensions, (super)conformal geometry is controlled by the (super-)Cotton tensor. We present a new duality transformation for N-extended supersymmetric theories formulated in terms of the linearised super-Cotton tensor or its higher spin extensions for the cases N = 2 , 1 , 0. In the N = 2 case, this transformation is a generalisation of the linear-chiral duality, which provides a dual description in terms of chiral superfields for general models of self-interacting N = 2 vector multiplets in three dimensions and N = 1 tensor multiplets in four dimensions. For superspin-1 (gravitino multiplet), superspin-3/2 (supergravity multiplet) and any higher superspin s ≥ 2, the duality transformation relates a higher-derivative theory to one containing at most two derivatives at the component level. In the N = 1 case, we introduce gauge prepotentials for higher spin superconformal gravity and construct the corresponding super-Cotton tensors, as well as the higher spin extensions of the linearised N = 1 conformal supergravity action. Our N = 1 duality transformation is a higher spin extension of the known superfield duality relating the massless N = 1 vector and scalar multiplets. Our N = 0 duality transformation is a higher spin extension of the vector-scalar duality.

  17. Alignment of galaxy spins in the vicinity of voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slosar, Anže; White, Martin

    2009-06-01

    We provide limits on the alignment of galaxy orientations with the direction to the void center for galaxies lying near the edges of voids. We locate spherical voids in volume limited samples of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using the HB inspired void finder and investigate the orientation of (color selected) spiral galaxies that are nearly edge-on or face-on. In contrast with previous literature, we find no statistical evidence for departure from random orientations. Expressed in terms of the parameter c, introduced by Lee & Pen to describe the strength of such an alignment, we find that c0.11(0.13) at 95% (99.7%) confidence limit within a context of a toy model that assumes a perfectly spherical voids with sharp boundaries.

  18. Alignment of galaxy spins in the vicinity of voids

    SciTech Connect

    Slosar, Anže; White, Martin E-mail: mwhite@berkeley.edu

    2009-06-01

    We provide limits on the alignment of galaxy orientations with the direction to the void center for galaxies lying near the edges of voids. We locate spherical voids in volume limited samples of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using the HB inspired void finder and investigate the orientation of (color selected) spiral galaxies that are nearly edge-on or face-on. In contrast with previous literature, we find no statistical evidence for departure from random orientations. Expressed in terms of the parameter c, introduced by Lee and Pen to describe the strength of such an alignment, we find that c0.11(0.13) at 95% (99.7%) confidence limit within a context of a toy model that assumes a perfectly spherical voids with sharp boundaries.

  19. Time-reversal symmetry protected chiral interface states between quantum spin and quantum anomalous Hall insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huaqing; Wang, Zhaoyou; Luo, Nannan; Liu, Zhirong; Lü, Rong; Wu, Jian; Duan, Wenhui

    2015-08-01

    We theoretically investigate the electronic properties of the interface between quantum spin Hall (QSH) and quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) insulators. A robust chiral gapless state, which substantially differs from edge states of QSH or QAH insulators, is predicted at the QSH/QAH interface using an effective Hamiltonian model. We systematically reveal distinctive properties of interface states between QSH and single-valley QAH, multivalley high-Chern-number QAH and valley-polarized QAH insulators based on tight-binding models using the interface Green's function method. As an example, first-principles calculations are conducted for the interface states between fully and semihydrogenated bismuth (111) thin films, verifying the existence of interface states in realistic material systems. Due to the physically protected junction structure, the interface state is expected to be more stable and insensitive than topological boundary states against edge defects and chemical decoration. Hence our results of the interface states provide a promising route towards enhancing the performance and stability of low-dissipation electronics in real environment.

  20. Linking the spin evolution of massive black holes to galaxy kinematics

    SciTech Connect

    Sesana, A.; Barausse, E.; Dotti, M.; Rossi, E. M. E-mail: barausse@iap.fr E-mail: emr@strw.leidenuniv.nl

    2014-10-20

    We present the results of a semianalytical model that evolves the masses and spins of massive black holes together with the properties of their host galaxies across the cosmic history. As a consistency check, our model broadly reproduces a number of observations, e.g., the cosmic star formation history; the black hole mass, luminosity, and galaxy mass functions at low redshift; the black hole-bulge mass relation; and the morphological distribution at low redshift. For the first time in a semianalytical investigation, we relax the simplifying assumptions of perfect coherency or perfect isotropy of the gas fueling the black holes. The dynamics of gas is instead linked to the morphological properties of the host galaxies, resulting in different spin distributions for black holes hosted in different galaxy types. We compare our results with the observed sample of spin measurements obtained through broad Kα iron line fitting. The observational data disfavor both accretion along a fixed direction and isotropic fueling. Conversely, when the properties of the accretion flow are anchored to the kinematics of the host galaxy, we obtain a good match between theoretical expectations and observations. A mixture of coherent accretion and phases of activity in which the gas dynamics is similar to that of the stars in bulges (i.e., with a significant velocity dispersion superimposed to a net rotation) best describes the data, adding further evidence in support of the coevolution of massive black holes and their hosts.

  1. Radio Loudness of AGNs: Host Galaxy Morphology and the Spin Paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Stawarz, L.; Sikora, M.; Lasota, J.-P.

    2007-10-15

    We investigate how the total radio luminosity of AGN-powered radio sources depends on their accretion luminosity and the central black hole mass. We find that AGNs form two distinct and well separated sequences on the radio-loudness -- Eddington-ratio plane. We argue that these sequences mark the real upper bounds of radio-loudness of two distinct populations of AGNs: those hosted respectively by elliptical and disk galaxies. Both sequences show the same dependence of the radio-loudness on the Eddington ratio (an increase with decreasing Eddington ratio), which suggests that another parameter in addition to the accretion rate must play a role in determining the jet production efficiency in active galactic nuclei, and that this parameter is related to properties of the host galaxy. The revealed host-related radio dichotomy breaks down at high accretion rates where the dominant fraction of luminous quasars hosted by elliptical galaxies is radio quiet. We argue that the huge difference between the radio-loudness reachable by AGNs in disc and elliptical galaxies can be explained by the scenario according to which the spin of a black hole determines the outflows power, and central black holes can reach large spins only in early type galaxies (following major mergers), and not (in a statistical sense) in spiral galaxies.

  2. Field-induced transition from chiral spin-triplet to mixed-parity Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Alfonso; Cuoco, Mario; Noce, Canio; Gentile, Paola; Annunziata, Gaetano

    2010-02-01

    We analyze the response to a magnetic field of a two-dimensional spin-triplet superconductor with chiral order parameter when triplet pairing is closely competing with the singlet one. The study is performed via numerical solution of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, assuming that the translational symmetry is broken in one direction by the presence of an interface beyond which superconducting pairing is not effective. We show that as the intensity of the magnetic field is increased above a threshold value, the system undergoes a transition to a spatially inhomogeneous state of the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) type where chirality disappears and a singlet-triplet mixing takes place along the direction perpendicular to the interface. Subdominant singlet components are found to accompany the triplet dominant ones in both phases. They develop close to the interface at low fields, then turning continuously into oscillating long-range ones as the field is increased. A similar behavior is found for the magnetization. It nucleates at the interface in the chiral phase, then acquiring in the FFLO phase an oscillatory behavior reaching its maximum amplitude at the sites where the dominant triplet component has a node. At these sites, the local spin-resolved density of states exhibits strong resonances, associated with the formation of Andreev bound states, which tend to broaden and decay in intensity as increasingly high magnetic fields are considered.

  3. Vestigial chiral and charge orders from bidirectional spin-density waves: Application to the iron-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, R. M.; Kivelson, S. A.; Berg, E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments in optimally hole-doped iron arsenides have revealed a novel magnetically ordered ground state that preserves tetragonal symmetry, consistent with either a charge-spin density wave (CSDW), which displays a nonuniform magnetization, or a spin-vortex crystal (SVC), which displays a noncollinear magnetization. Here we show that, similarly to the partial melting of the usual stripe antiferromagnet into a nematic phase, either of these phases can also melt in two stages. As a result, intermediate paramagnetic phases with vestigial order appears: a checkerboard charge density wave for the CSDW ground state, characterized by an Ising-like order parameter, and a remarkable spin-vorticity density wave for the SVC ground state—a triplet d -density wave characterized by a vector chiral order parameter. We propose experimentally detectable signatures of these phases, show that their fluctuations can enhance the superconducting transition temperature, and discuss their relevance to other correlated materials.

  4. Experimental studies of skyrmion textures and spin torque effects in chiral magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritz, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Small angle neutron scattering and measurements of a topological Hall signal identify the formation of skyrmion lattices in the non-centrosymmetric B20 compounds MnSi [1], Mn1-xFexSi, Mn1-xCoxSi and the strongly doped semiconductor Fe1-xCoxSi [2]. This observation has been confirmed by Lorentz force microscopy in thin samples of Fe1-xCoxSi, FeGe and, most recently, MnSi, where even individual skyrmions have been spotted [3]. Because the skyrmion lattices are exceptionally weakly pinned to the crystal lattice, extreme care has to be exercised when studying the precise intrinsic morphology of related spin textures in bulk samples. As a particularly striking property each skyrmion supports precisely one quantum of emergent magnetic flux. This permits a highly efficient coupling between skyrmions and conduction electrons which results in spin torque effects at ultra-low current densities as seen in small angle neutron scattering [4] and the emergent electric field when the skyrmions move [5].[4pt] Work in collaboration with: T. Adams, A. Bauer, B. Binz, P. B"oni, G. Brandl, R. A. Duine, K. Everschor, C. Franz, M. Garst, R. Georgii, S. Gottlieb-Sch"onmeyer, W. Heusler, M. Janoschek, F. Jonietz, T. Keller, K. Mitterm"uller, S. M"uhlbauer, W. M"unzer, A. Neubauer, P.G. Niklowitz, C. Pfleiderer, A. Rosch, T. Schulz, A. Tischendorf, M. Wagner.[4pt] [1] S. M"uhlbauer et al., Science 323, 915 (2009); A. Neubauer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 186602 (2010); C. Pfleiderer et al., J. Phys. Cond. Matter 22, 164207 (2010); T. Adams et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., in press, arXiv/1107.0993. [0pt] [2] W. M"unzer et al., Phys. Rev. B 81, 041203(R) (2010). [0pt] [3] X. Z. Yu et al., Nature 465, 901 (2010); X. Z. Yu et al., Nature Materials 10, 106 (2010). [0pt] [4] F. Jonietz et al., Science, 330, 1648 (2010). [0pt] [5] Emergent electrodynamics of skyrmions in a chiral magnet, T. Schulz, R. Ritz, A. Bauer, M. Halder, M. Wagner, C. Franz, and C. Pfleiderer, K. Everschor, M. Garst, and A

  5. Metastable configurations of a finite-size chain of classical spins within the one-dimensional chiral XY-model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Alexander P.; Gloria Pini, Maria; Rettori, Angelo

    2016-03-01

    The metastable states of a finite-size chain of N classical spins described by the chiral XY-model on a discrete one-dimensional lattice are calculated by means of a general theoretical method recently developed by one of us. This method allows one to determine all the possible equilibrium magnetic states in an accurate and systematic way. The ground state of a chain consisting of N classical XY spins is calculated in the presence of (i) a symmetric ferromagnetic exchange interaction, favoring parallel alignment of nearest neighbor spins, (ii) a uniaxial anisotropy, favoring a given direction in the film plane, and (iii) an antisymmetric Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI), favoring perpendicular alignment of nearest neighbor spins. In addition to the ground state with a non-uniform helical spin arrangement, which originates from the energy competition in the finite-size chain with open boundary conditions, we have found a considerable number of higher-energy equilibrium states. In the investigated case of a chain with N=10 spins and a DMI much smaller than the in-plane uniaxial anisotropy, it turns out that a metastable (unstable) state of the finite chain is characterized by a configuration where none (at least one) of the inner spins is nearly parallel to the hard axis. The role of the DMI is to establish a unique rotational sense for the helical ground state. Moreover, the number of both metastable and unstable equilibrium states is doubled with respect to the case of zero DMI. This produces modifications in the Peierls-Nabarro potential encountered by a domain wall during its displacement along the discrete spin chain.

  6. Supernovae and the chirality of the amino acids.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R N; Kajino, T; Onaka, T

    2010-06-01

    A mechanism for creating amino acid enantiomerism that always selects the same large-scale chirality is identified, and subsequent chemical replication and galactic mixing that would populate the Galaxy with the predominant species is described. This involves (1) the spin of the 14N in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules from which amino acids might be formed, that couples to the chirality of the molecules; (2) the neutrinos emitted from the supernova, together with the magnetic field from the nascent neutron star or black hole formed from the supernova, which selectively destroy one orientation of the 14N and thus select the chirality associated with the other 14N orientation; (3) chemical evolution, by which the molecules replicate and evolve to more complex forms of a single chirality on a relatively short timescale; and (4) galactic mixing on a longer timescale that mixes the selected molecules throughout the Galaxy.

  7. Spin-flavor structure of chiral-odd generalized parton distributions in the large-Nc limit

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, P.; Weiss, C.

    2016-10-05

    We study the spin-flavor structure of the nucleon's chiral-odd generalized parton distributions (transversity GPDs) in the large-Nc limit of QCD. In contrast to the chiral-even case, only three combinations of the four chiral-odd GPDs are nonzero in the leading order of the 1/Nc expansion: E-barT = ET+2H-tildeT, HT, and E-tildeT. The degeneracy is explained by the absence of spin-orbit interactions correlating the transverse momentum transfer with the transverse quark spin. It can also be deduced from the natural Nc scaling of the quark-nucleon helicity amplitudes associated with the GPDs. In the GPD E-barT the flavor-singlet component u+d is leading in the 1/Nc expansion, while in HT and E-tildeT it is the flavor-nonsinglet components u–d. Furthermore, the large-Nc relations are consistent with the spin-flavor structure extracted from hard exclusive π0 and η electroproduction data, if it is assumed that the processes are mediated by twist-3 amplitudes involving the chiral-odd GPDs and the chiral-odd pseudoscalar meson distribution amplitudes.

  8. Electric-field-induced spin resonance in antiferromagnetic insulators: Inverse process of the dynamical chiral magnetic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, Akihiko; Chiba, Takahiro

    2016-06-01

    We propose a realization of the electric-field-induced antiferromagnetic resonance. We consider three-dimensional antiferromagnetic insulators with spin-orbit coupling characterized by the existence of a topological term called the θ term. By solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation in the presence of the θ term, we show that, in contrast to conventional methods using ac magnetic fields, the antiferromagnetic resonance state is realized by ac electric fields along with static magnetic fields. This mechanism can be understood as the inverse process of the dynamical chiral magnetic effect, an alternating current generation by magnetic fields. In other words, we propose a way to electrically induce the dynamical axion field in condensed matter. We discuss a possible experiment to observe our proposal, which utilizes the spin pumping from the antiferromagnetic insulator into a heavy metal contact.

  9. Chiral-Odd Generalized Parton Distributions, Transversity and Double Transverse-Spin Asymmetry in Drell-Yan Dilepton Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincetti, M.; Pasquini, B.; Boffi, S.

    2007-04-01

    Within the framework of light-cone quantization we derive the overlap representation of generalized parton distributions for transversely polarized quarks using the Fock-state decomposition in the transverse-spin basis. We apply this formalism to the case of light-cone wave functions in a constituent quark model giving numerical results for the four chiral-odd generalized parton distributions in a region where they describe the emission and reabsorption of a quark by the nucleon. With the transversity distribution obtained in the forward limit of the generalized distribution, we provide some predictions for the double transverse-spin asymmetry in Drell-Yan dilepton production in the kinematics of the \\cal {PAX} experiment.

  10. The effect of field cooling on a spin-chiral domain structure in a magnetoelectric helimagnet Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2Fe12O22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraoka, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Oura, M.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Kimura, T.

    2015-06-01

    Spin-chiral domain structures near a cleaved crystal face of a magnetoelectric helimagnet, Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2Fe12O22, were examined after various magnetic and electric field-cooling procedures by means of the scanning resonant X-ray microdiffraction technique using circularly polarized X-rays. We have found that the application of a magnetic field (1-2 k Oe) during the field-cooling procedure stabilizes one of the handedness among the two spin-chiral states (left- or right-handed screw structure) and makes nearly a single spin-chiral domain in the vicinity of the cleaved crystal face. However, it makes the degree of the spin chirality spatially inhomogeneous even within a domain. We discuss the observed field-cooling effect in terms of possible formation of spin-chiral domains with "stripe-type" domain walls accompanied by randomly-distributed ferromagnetic islands.

  11. The origin of spin in galaxies: clues from simulations of atomic cooling haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Joaquin; Jimenez, Raul; Haiman, Zoltán; González, Roberto E.

    2015-09-01

    In order to elucidate the origin of spin in both dark matter and baryons in galaxies, we have performed hydrodynamical simulations from cosmological initial conditions. We study atomic cooling haloes in the redshift range 100 > z > 9 with masses of the order of 109 M⊙ at redshift z = 10. We assume that the gas has primordial composition and that H2-cooling and prior star formation in the haloes have been suppressed. We present a comprehensive analysis of the gas and dark matter properties of four haloes with very low (λ ≈ 0.01), low (λ ≈ 0.04), high (λ ≈ 0.06) and very high (λ ≈ 0.1) spin parameter. Our main conclusion is that the spin orientation and magnitude is initially well described by tidal torque linear theory, but later on is determined by the merging and accretion history of each halo. We provide evidence that the topology of the merging region, i.e. the number of colliding filaments, gives an accurate prediction for the spin of dark matter and gas: haloes at the centre of knots will have low spin while those in the centre of filaments will have high spin. The spin of a halo is given by λ ≈ 0.05 × (7.6/number of filaments)^{5.1}.

  12. Fossil evidence for spin alignment of Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies in filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Bernard J. T.; van de Weygaert, Rien; Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.

    2010-10-01

    We search for and find fossil evidence that the spin axes of galaxies in cosmic web filaments relative to their host filaments are not randomly distributed. This indicates the fact that the action of large-scale tidal torques affected the alignments of galaxies located in cosmic filaments. To this end, we constructed a catalogue of clean filaments containing edge-on galaxies. We started by applying the multiscale morphology filter technique to the galaxies in a redshift-distortion-corrected version of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5. From this sample, we extracted 426 filaments that contained edge-on galaxies (b/a < 0.2). These filaments were then visually classified relative to a variety of quality criteria. These selected filaments contained 69 edge-on galaxies. Statistical analysis using `feature measures' indicates that the distribution of orientations of these edge-on galaxies relative to their parent filament deviates significantly from what would be expected on the basis of a random distribution of orientations. Fewer than 1 per cent of orientation histograms generated from simulated random distributions show the same features as observed in the data histogram. The interpretation of this result may not be immediately apparent, but it is easy to identify a population of 14 objects whose spin axes are aligned perpendicular to the spine of the parent filament (cosθ < 0.2). The candidate objects are found in relatively less dense filaments. This happens because galaxies in such locations suffer less interaction with surrounding galaxies and consequently better preserve their tidally induced orientations relative to the parent filament. These objects are also less intrinsically bright and smaller than their counterparts elsewhere in the filaments. The technique of searching for fossil evidence of alignment yields relatively few candidate objects, but it does not suffer from the dilution effects inherent in correlation analysis of large samples. The

  13. Electrical control of flying spin precession in chiral 1D edge states

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Takashi; Komiyama, Susumu; Lin, Kuan-Ting

    2013-12-04

    Electrical control and detection of spin precession are experimentally demonstrated by using spin-resolved edge states in the integer quantum Hall regime. Spin precession is triggered at a corner of a biased metal gate, where electron orbital motion makes a sharp turn leading to a nonadiabatic change in the effective magnetic field via spin-orbit interaction. The phase of precession is controlled by the group velocity of edge-state electrons tuned by gate bias voltage: Spin-FET-like coherent control of spin precession is thus realized by all-electrical means.

  14. Crystalline and spin chiralities in multiferroics with langasite-type structure and Fe{sub 1–x}Co{sub x}Si crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin, S. A. Lyubutin, I. S.; Dudka, A. P.

    2015-09-15

    It is shown that, when magnetic ordering occurs in layered iron-containing langasites (sp. gr. P321), one of the reasons for spin chiralities of different signs is the presence of structural chirality (the existence of inversion twins), which, in turn, is due to the nonsymmetricity of these crystals. Spin helicoids arise in these multiferroics at split sites of Fe{sup 3+} ions below the Néel point. The direction of electric polarization vectors coincides with the direction of the magnetic helicoid axes because of the piezoelectric properties of these materials. Due to the magnetostriction effects, structural chirality wave vector k{sub z} exceeds the magnetic helicoid wave vector by a factor of 2: k{sub z} = 2q{sub z}. The temperatures of transitions to the chiral structural and chiral magnetic states may differ. In particular, if the structural transition initial temperature exceeds the magnetic transition temperature (Τ{sub U}> Τ{sub M}), structural displacements may arise in the absence of magnetism at Τ{sub M} < Τ < Τ{sub U}. In noncentrosymmetric Fe{sub 1–x}Co{sub x}Si crystals (sp. gr. P2{sub 1}3), which are not multiferroics, magnetic chirality is due to the Dzyaloshinski–Moriya interaction. The dependence of the moduli of incommensurate wave number of the corresponding helicoid on the atomic composition of the crystals under consideration is nonmonotonic.

  15. A High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning NMR Study of the Enantiodiscrimination of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) by an Immobilized Polysaccharide-Based Chiral Phase

    PubMed Central

    Paixão, Márcio W.; Lourenço, Tiago C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the investigation of the chiral interaction between 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) enantiomers and an immobilized polysaccharide-based chiral phase. For that, suspended-state high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H HR-MAS NMR) was used. 1H HR-MAS longitudinal relaxation time and Saturation Transfer Difference (STD NMR) titration experiments were carried out yielding information at the molecular level of the transient diastereoisomeric complexes of MDMA enantiomers and the chiral stationary phase. The interaction of the enantiomers takes place through the aromatic moiety of MDMA and the aromatic group of the chiral selector by π-π stacking for both enantiomers; however, a stronger interaction was observed for the (R)-enantiomer, which is the second one to elute at the chromatographic conditions. PMID:27668862

  16. A NEW APPROACH TO CONSTRAIN BLACK HOLE SPINS IN ACTIVE GALAXIES USING OPTICAL REVERBERATION MAPPING

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian-Min; Du, Pu; Li, Yan-Rong; Hu, Chen; Ho, Luis C.; Bai, Jin-Ming

    2014-09-01

    A tight relation between the size of the broad-line region (BLR) and optical luminosity has been established in about 50 active galactic nuclei studied through reverberation mapping of the broad Hβ emission line. The R {sub BLR}-L relation arises from simple photoionization considerations. Using a general relativistic model of an optically thick, geometrically thin accretion disk, we show that the ionizing luminosity jointly depends on black hole mass, accretion rate, and spin. The non-monotonic relation between the ionizing and optical luminosity gives rise to a complicated relation between the BLR size and the optical luminosity. We show that the reverberation lag of Hβ to the varying continuum depends very sensitively on black hole spin. For retrograde spins, the disk is so cold that there is a deficit of ionizing photons in the BLR, resulting in shrinkage of the hydrogen ionization front with increasing optical luminosity, and hence shortened Hβ lags. This effect is specially striking for luminous quasars undergoing retrograde accretion, manifesting in strong deviations from the canonical R {sub BLR}-L relation. This could lead to a method to estimate black hole spins of quasars and to study their cosmic evolution. At the same time, the small scatter of the observed R {sub BLR}-L relation for the current sample of reverberation-mapped active galaxies implies that the majority of these sources have rapidly spinning black holes.

  17. Using 21 cm absorption surveys to measure the average H I spin temperature in distant galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, J. R.; Zwaan, M. A.; Duchesne, S. W.; Curran, S. J.

    2016-10-01

    We present a statistical method for measuring the average H I spin temperature in distant galaxies using the expected detection yields from future wide-field 21 cm absorption surveys. As a demonstrative case study, we consider an all-southern-sky simulated survey of 2-h per pointing with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder for intervening H I absorbers at intermediate cosmological redshifts between z = 0.4 and 1. For example, if such a survey yielded 1000 absorbers, we would infer a harmonic-mean spin temperature of overline{T}_spin ˜ 100 K for the population of damped Lyman α absorbers (DLAs) at these redshifts, indicating that more than 50 per cent of the neutral gas in these systems is in a cold neutral medium (CNM). Conversely, a lower yield of only 100 detections would imply overline{T}_spin ˜ 1000 K and a CNM fraction less than 10 per cent. We propose that this method can be used to provide independent verification of the spin temperature evolution reported in recent 21 cm surveys of known DLAs at high redshift and for measuring the spin temperature at intermediate redshifts below z ≈ 1.7, where the Lyman α line is inaccessible using ground-based observatories. Increasingly more sensitive and larger surveys with the Square Kilometre Array should provide stronger statistical constraints on the average spin temperature. However, these will ultimately be limited by the accuracy to which we can determine the H I column density frequency distribution, the covering factor and the redshift distribution of the background radio source population.

  18. Chiral Spin Liquids in Triangular-Lattice SU (N ) Fermionic Mott Insulators with Artificial Gauge Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nataf, Pierre; Lajkó, Miklós; Wietek, Alexander; Penc, Karlo; Mila, Frédéric; Läuchli, Andreas M.

    2016-10-01

    We show that, in the presence of a π /2 artificial gauge field per plaquette, Mott insulating phases of ultracold fermions with SU (N ) symmetry and one particle per site generically possess an extended chiral phase with intrinsic topological order characterized by an approximate ground space of N low-lying singlets for periodic boundary conditions, and by chiral edge states described by the SU(N ) 1 Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten conformal field theory for open boundary conditions. This has been achieved by extensive exact diagonalizations for N between 3 and 9, and by a parton construction based on a set of N Gutzwiller projected fermionic wave functions with flux π /N per triangular plaquette. Experimental implications are briefly discussed.

  19. Chiral Spin Liquid on a Kagome Antiferromagnet Induced by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messio, Laura; Bieri, Samuel; Lhuillier, Claire; Bernu, Bernard

    2017-06-01

    The quantum spin liquid material herbertsmithite is described by an antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice with a non-negligible Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). A well-established phase transition to the q =0 long-range order occurs in this model when the DMI strength increases, but the precise nature of a small-DMI phase remains controversial. Here, we describe a new phase obtained from Schwinger-boson mean-field theory that is stable at small DMI, and which can explain the dispersionless spectrum seen in the inelastic neutron scattering experiment by Han et al. [Nature (London) 492, 406 (2012), 10.1038/nature11659]. It is a time-reversal symmetry breaking Z2 spin liquid, with the unique property of a small and constant spin gap in an extended region of the Brillouin zone. The phase diagram as a function of DMI and spin size is given, and dynamical spin structure factors are presented.

  20. Spatially Resolving Spin-split Edge States of Chiral Graphene Nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crommie, M. F.

    2011-03-01

    A central question in the field of graphene-related research is how graphene behaves when it is patterned at the nanometer scale with different edge geometries. The most fundamental shape in this regard is the graphene nanoribbon (GNR), a narrow strip of graphene that is characterized by its width and chirality. GNRs have been predicted to exhibit a wide range of behavior that includes tunable energy gaps and unique 1D edge states with unusual magnetic structure. I will discuss a scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STS) study of GNRs that allows us to examine how GNR electronic structure depends on the chirality of atomically well-defined GNR edges. Our STS measurements reveal the presence of 1D GNR edge states that closely match theoretical expectations for GNRs of similar width and chirality. We additionally observe width-dependent energy splitting in GNR edge states, providing compelling evidence of their magnetic nature. This work performed in collaboration with Chenggang Tao, Liying Jiao, Oleg V. Yazyev, Yen-Chia Chen, Juanjuan Feng, Xiaowei Zhang, Rodrigo B. Capaz, James M. Tour, Alex Zettl, Steven G. Louie, and Hongjie Dai.

  1. Relating pseudospin and spin symmetries through charge conjugation and chiral transformations: The case of the relativistic harmonic oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, A.S. de; Alberto, P.; Lisboa, R.; Malheiro, M.

    2006-05-15

    We solve the generalized relativistic harmonic oscillator in 1+1 dimensions, i.e., including a linear pseudoscalar potential and quadratic scalar and vector potentials which have equal or opposite signs. We consider positive and negative quadratic potentials and discuss in detail their bound-state solutions for fermions and antifermions. The main features of these bound states are the same as the ones of the generalized three-dimensional relativistic harmonic oscillator bound states. The solutions found for zero pseudoscalar potential are related to the spin and pseudospin symmetry of the Dirac equation in 3+1 dimensions. We show how the charge conjugation and {gamma}{sup 5} chiral transformations relate the several spectra obtained and find that for massless particles the spin and pseudospin symmetry-related problems have the same spectrum but different spinor solutions. Finally, we establish a relation of the solutions found with single-particle states of nuclei described by relativistic mean-field theories with scalar, vector, and isoscalar tensor interactions and discuss the conditions in which one may have both nucleon and antinucleon bound states.

  2. Chirality-driven intrinsic spin-glass ordering and field-induced ferromagnetism in Ni3Al nanoparticle aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaul, S. N.; Messala, Umasankar

    2016-03-01

    Weak itinerant-electron ferromagnet Ni3Al is driven to magnetic instability (quantum critical point, QCP, where the long-range ferromagnetic order of the bulk ceases to exist) by reducing the average crystallite size to d=50 nm. 'Zero-field' (H=0) linear and nonlinear ac-susceptibilities, measured on Ni3Al nanoparticle aggregates, with d=50 nm (S1) and d=5 nm (S2), provide strong evidence for two spin glass (SG)-like thermodynamic phase transitions: one at Ti(H = 0) ≃ 30 K (Ti† (H = 0) ≃ 230 K) and the other at a lower temperature Tp(H = 0) ≃ 8 K (Th(H = 0) ≃ 52 K) in S1 (S2). 'In-field' (H ≠ 0) linear ac-susceptibility and dc magnetization demonstrate that the thermodynamic nature of these transitions is preserved in finite fields. The presently determined H-T phase diagrams for the samples S1 and S2 are compared with those predicted by the Kotliar-Sompolinsky and Gabay-Toulouse mean-field models and Monte Carlo simulations, based on the chirality-driven spin glass (SG) ordering scenario, for a three-dimensional nearest-neighbor Heisenberg SG system with or without weak random anisotropy. Such a detailed comparison permits us to unambiguously identify various 'zero-field' and 'in-field' SG phase transitions as: (i) the simultaneous paramagnetic (PM)-chiral glass (CG) and PM-SG phase transitions at Ti(H), (ii) the PM-CG transition at Ti† (H), (iii) the replica symmetry-breaking SG transition at Tp(H), and (iv) the continuous spin-rotation symmetry-breaking SG transition at Th(H). In the presence of random anisotropy, magnetization fails to saturate even at 90 kOe in S1 whereas negligibly small anisotropy allows even fields as weak as 1 kOe to saturate magnetization and induce ferromagnetism in S2. Due to the proximity to CG/SG-QCP, magnetization and susceptibility both exhibit non-Fermi liquid behavior over a wide range at low temperatures.

  3. Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Normal galaxies, radio galaxies, and Seyfert galaxies are considered. The large magellanic cloud and the great galaxy in Andromedia are highlighted. Quasars and BL lacertae objects are also discussed and a review of the spectral observations of all of these galaxies and celestial objects is presented.

  4. Effects of external magnetic field and magnetic anisotropy on chiral spin structures of square nanodisks investigated with a quantum simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaosen; Ian, Hou

    2016-04-01

    We employed a quantum simulation approach to investigate the magnetic properties of monolayer square nanodisks with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) interaction. The computational program converged very quickly, and generated chiral spin structures on the disk planes with good symmetry. When the DM interaction is sufficiently strong, multi-domain structures appears, their sizes or average distance between each pair of domains can be approximately described by a modified grid theory. We further found that the external magnetic field and uniaxial magnetic anisotropy both normal to the disk plane lead to reductions of the total free energy and total energy of the nanosystems, thus are able to stabilize and/or induce the vortical structures, however, the chirality of the vortex is still determined by the sign of the DM interaction parameter. Moreover, the geometric shape of the nanodisk affects the spin configuration on the disk plane as well.

  5. Numerical evidence for a chiral spin liquid in the XXZ antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice at m =2/3 magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Krishna; Changlani, Hitesh J.; Clark, Bryan K.; Fradkin, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    We perform an exact-diagonalization study of the spin-1/2 XXZ Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the kagome lattice at finite magnetization m =2/3 with an emphasis on the X Y point (Jz=0 ) and in the presence of a small chiral term. Recent analytic work by Kumar et al. [K. Kumar, K. Sun, and E. Fradkin, Phys. Rev. B 90, 174409 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.174409] on the same model, using a newly developed flux attachment transformation, predicts a plateau at this value of the magnetization described by a chiral spin liquid (CSL) with a spin Hall conductance of σx y=1/2 . Such a state is topological in nature, has a ground-state degeneracy, and exhibits fractional excitations. We analyze the degeneracy structure in the low-energy manifold, identify the candidate topological states, and use them to compute the modular matrices and Chern numbers, all of which strongly agree with expected theoretical behavior for the σx y=1/2 CSL. In the limit of zero chirality, we find on most (not all) clusters that the topological invariants are still those of a CSL.

  6. Baryons and chiral symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Keh-Fei

    The relevance of chiral symmetry in baryons is highlighted in three examples in the nucleon spectroscopy and structure. The first one is the importance of chiral dynamics in understanding the Roper resonance. The second one is the role of chiral symmetry in the lattice calculation of πNσ term and strangeness. The third one is the role of chiral U(1) anomaly in the anomalous Ward identity in evaluating the quark spin and the quark orbital angular momentum. Finally, the chiral effective theory for baryons is discussed.

  7. Planar-Chiral 1,1'-Diboryl Metallocenes: Diastereoselective Synthesis from Boryl Cyclopentadienides and Spin Density Analysis of a Diborylcobaltocene.

    PubMed

    Lerayer, Emmanuel; Renaut, Patrice; Brandès, Stéphane; Cattey, Hélène; Fleurat-Lessard, Paul; Bouhadir, Ghenwa; Bourissou, Didier; Hierso, Jean-Cyrille

    2017-02-20

    The reaction of nonsubstituted alkali metal cyclopentadienides with haloboranes leads to ∼90:10 mixtures of isomeric diene products that can be deprotonated to give simple boryl cyclopentadienides. We extended this transformation to the sterically hindered lithium tert-butylcyclopentadienide 1 using FBMes2 (Mes = 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl) and ClBCy2 as electrophiles. The boryl group is selectively introduced in the remote position to minimize steric congestion. The new boryl dienes are obtained as mixtures of isomers, and subsequent deprotonation with MeLi or LiHMDS affords the lithium 1,3-disubstituted cyclopentadienides 5a,b in yields over 95%. Direct assembling of tert-butylated boryl cyclopentadienides with MCl2 (M = Fe, Co) selectively leads to 1,1'-planar chiral ferrocenes 6a,b and cobaltocene 7. To shed light into the diastereoselective formation of 6a, DFT calculations were performed. The potential energy surface was scrutinized so as to identify and compare its diastereoisomers and conformers. This stereoselectivity is attributed to minimized steric repulsions between the tert-butyl and the BMes2 groups in the eclipsed conformation of the racemic diastereoisomers. The X-ray structures of boryl diene 2a and diboryl ferrocene 6a are reported. The electronic structure of cobaltocene 7 was analyzed by EPR and DFT calculations. The spin density of this unique open-shell complex is mainly localized on the Co center, but significant spin density is also found on the boron atoms, indicating substantial delocalization of the unpaired electron over the Lewis acid moieties. Consistently, the singly occupied molecular orbital is a combination of a Co-centered 3d orbital with π(BC) orbitals on each CpBMes2 rings. There is only weak, if any, direct M···B interaction in 6 and 7.

  8. Sporadic mass loss, spin-down, and element redistribution in young disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, Jane C.; Salpeter, Edwin E.

    1989-11-01

    Violent conditions in young spiral disks may be conducive to the high-velocity ejection of large 'blobs' of material powered by the concerted action of supernovae. Using explicit numerical Monte Carlo models, treating ejected 'bobs' as 'galactic cannonballs' traveling with little interaction through the corona, several important consequences for galactic evolution are found. Preferential escape from the galaxy or objects with high specific angular momenta lead to a significant spin-down of the disk. In addition, this process may contribute to the production of an exponential column density distribution, and a metallicity gradient. The models predict a reversal in the sign of the metallicity gradient at large radii because the metal-rich objects that return to such a low column density region suffer relatively little dilution.

  9. Spin-orbit assisted chiral-tunneling at semiconductor tunnel junctions: study with advanced 30-band k • p methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Huong T.; Erina, E.; L. Nguyen, Hoai T.; Jaffrès, H.; Drouhin, H.-J.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we report on theoretical investigations and advanced k • p calculations of carrier forward scattering asymmetry (or transmission asymmetry in tunnel junction) vs. their incidence through magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) made of semiconductors involving spin-orbit interactions (SOI). This study represents an extension to our previous contribution1 dealing with the role, on the electronic forward and backward transmission-reflection asymmetry, of the Dresselhaus interaction in the conduction band (CB) of MTJs with antiparallel magnetized electrodes. The role of the atomic-SOI in the p-type valence band (VB) of semiconductors is investigated in a second step. We first developed a perturbative scattering method based on Green's function formalism and applied to both the orbitally non-degenerated CB and degenerated VB to explain the calculated asymmetry in terms of orbital-moment tunneling branching and chirality arguments. This particular asymmetry features are perfectly reproduced by advanced k • p tunneling approaches (30-band) in rather close agreement with the Green's function methods at the first perturbation order in the SOI strength parameter. This forward scattering asymmetry leads to skew-tunneling effects involving the branching of evanescent states within the barrier. Recent experiments involving non-linear resistance variations vs. the transverse magnetization direction or current direction in the in-plane current geometry may be invoked by the phenomenon we discuss.

  10. Photoexcitation of electron wave packets in quantum spin Hall edge states: Effects of chiral anomaly from a localized electric pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolcini, Fabrizio; Iotti, Rita Claudia; Montorsi, Arianna; Rossi, Fausto

    2016-10-01

    We show that, when a spatially localized electric pulse is applied at the edge of a quantum spin Hall system, electron wave packets of the helical states can be photoexcited by purely intrabranch electrical transitions, without invoking the bulk states or the magnetic Zeeman coupling. In particular, as long as the electric pulse remains applied, the photoexcited densities lose their character of right and left movers, whereas after the ending of the pulse they propagate in opposite directions without dispersion, i.e., maintaining their space profile unaltered. Notably we find that, while the momentum distribution of the photoexcited wave packets depends on the temperature T and the chemical potential μ of the initial equilibrium state and displays a nonlinear behavior on the amplitude of the applied pulse, in the mesoscopic regime the space profile of the wave packets is independent of T and μ . Instead, it depends purely on the applied electric pulse, in a linear manner, as a signature of the chiral anomaly characterizing massless Dirac electrons. We also discuss how the photoexcited wave packets can be tailored with the electric pulse parameters, for both low and finite frequencies.

  11. Spectrum of superintegrable chiral Potts model and L(sl2) symmetry in associated XXZ-type spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Akinori; Deguchi, Tetsuo

    2006-03-01

    We study the correspondence between the Ising-like spectra of superintegrable N-state chiral Potts (SCP) model [1,2] and the energy degenerate subspaces of XXZ-type spin chain, called nilpotent Bazhanov-Stroganov (NBS) model [3], whose transfer matrix commutes with the SCP transfer matrix. We show that, if the number of sites is a multiple of N, the NBS model has a loop algebra L(sl2) symmetry in the subspace with ZN-charge Q=0. Applying the approach [4] to the case, we obtain the dimension of L(sl2)-degenerate subspaces through the calculation of Drinfeld polynomials. The Drinfeld polynomials are in fact identified with Baxter's polynomials [2] characterizing the SCP's Ising-like spectra, which shows that each subspace with the Ising-like spectra have the same dimension as the corresponding L(sl2)-degenerate subspace of NBS model. [1] G. Albertini, B. M. McCoy, J. H. H. Perk and S. Tang, Nucl. Phys. B 314 (1989) 741. [2] R. J. Baxter, J. Statist. Phys. 57 (1989) 1. [3] V. V. Bazhanov and Yu. G. Stroganov, J. Statist. Phys. 59 (1990) 803. [4] T. Deguchi, cond-mat/0503564.

  12. Vector chirality for effective total momentum Jeff in a nonfrustrated Mott insulator: Effects of strong spin-orbit coupling and broken inversion symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, Naoya

    2016-11-01

    I propose the emergence of the spin-orbital-coupled vector chirality in a nonfrustrated Mott insulator with the strong spin-orbit coupling due to a b -plane's inversion-symmetry (IS) breaking. I derive the superexchange interactions for a t2 g-orbital Hubbard model on a square lattice with the strong spin-orbit coupling and the IS-breaking-induced hopping integrals, and explain the microscopic origins of the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) -type and the Kitaev-type interactions. Then, by adopting the mean-field approximation to a minimal model including only the Heisenberg-type and the DM-type nearest-neighbor interactions, I show that the IS breaking causes the spin-orbital-coupled chirality as a result of stabilizing the screw state. I also highlight the limit of the hard-pseudospin approximation in discussing the stability of the screw states in the presence of both the DM-type and the Kitaev-type interactions, and discuss its meaning. I finally discuss the effects of tetragonal crystal field and Jeff=3/2 states, and the application to the iridates near the [001 ] surface of Sr2IrO4 and the interface between Sr2IrO4 and Sr3Ir2O7 .

  13. Strong anisotropic anomalous Hall effect and spin Hall effect in the chiral antiferromagnetic compounds Mn3X (X =Ge , Sn, Ga, Ir, Rh, and Pt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Sun, Yan; Yang, Hao; Železný, Jakub; Parkin, Stuart P. P.; Felser, Claudia; Yan, Binghai

    2017-02-01

    We have carried out a comprehensive study of the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect and spin Hall effect of several chiral antiferromagnetic compounds Mn3X (X = Ge, Sn, Ga, Ir, Rh and Pt) by ab initio band structure and Berry phase calculations. These studies reveal large and anisotropic values of both the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect and spin Hall effect. The Mn3X materials exhibit a noncollinear antiferromagnetic order which, to avoid geometrical frustration, forms planes of Mn moments that are arranged in a Kagome-type lattice. With respect to these Kagome planes, we find that both the anomalous Hall conductivity (AHC) and the spin Hall conductivity (SHC) are quite anisotropic for any of these materials. Based on our calculations, we propose how to maximize AHC and SHC for different materials. The band structures and corresponding electron filling, that we show are essential to determine the AHC and SHC, are compared for these different compounds. We point out that Mn3Ga shows a large SHC of about 600 (ℏ /e ) (Ωcm) -1 . Our work provides insights into the realization of strong anomalous Hall effects and spin Hall effects in chiral antiferromagnetic materials.

  14. Sodium layer chiral distribution and spin structure of Na2Ni2TeO6 with a Ni honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karna, Sunil K.; Zhao, Y.; Sankar, R.; Avdeev, M.; Tseng, P. C.; Wang, C. W.; Shu, G. J.; Matan, K.; Guo, G. Y.; Chou, F. C.

    2017-03-01

    The nature of Na ion distribution, diffusion path, and the spin structure of P 2 -type Na2Ni2TeO6 with a Ni honeycomb lattice has been explored. The nuclear density distribution of Na ions reveals a two-dimensional (2D) chiral pattern within Na layers without breaking the original 3D crystal symmetry, which has been achieved uniquely via an inverse Fourier transform (iFT)-assisted neutron-diffraction technique. The Na diffusion pathway described by the calculated isosurface of the Na ion bond valence sum (BVS) map is found consistent to a chiral diffusion mechanism. The Na site occupancy and Ni2 + spin ordering were examined in detail with the neutron diffraction, magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, thermal conductivity, and transport measurements. Signatures of both strong incommensurate (ICM) and weak commensurate (CM) antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin ordering were identified in the polycrystalline sample studied, and the CM-AFM spin ordering was confirmed by using a single-crystal sample through the k scan in the momentum space corresponding to the AFM peak of (1/2 ,0 ,1 ).

  15. Chiral fermion dynamics in 2d magnetic vortices: Manifestation of momentum-spin-locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pötz, W.; Hammer, René

    2016-11-01

    The electronic surface-states of a topological insulator in the presence of an in-plane magnetization vortex M (ϕ)=M (cos(Φ+νϕ), sin(Φ+νϕ)) are investigated theoretically. For a general angle of magnetization Φ∈[0 ,2 π) and topological charge ν = 1, the modifications to the zero-mass single Dirac cone dispersion are treated exactly and the spectrum of bound eigenstates which forms in the energy window ±M cos(Φ) is derived. The space-time resolved dynamics of Dirac fermions in the presence of such vortices is studied numerically using a single-cone (2 + 1)D finite-difference scheme. In the continuous spectral region, Φ-dependent scattering of Dirac fermions at the vortex is observed. Depending on the type of vortex ( Φ, ν) and the impact parameter, the propagation direction of the Dirac fermion is changed: the magnetization of the vortex exerts a torque onto the fermion spin which, by momentum-spin locking associated with the helical Dirac states, results in an in-plane rotation of the propagation direction of the scattered Dirac fermion. In head-on collisions of a Gaussian wave-packet with ν = 1 vortices a Φ-dependent lensing effect is seen in our simulations. Depending on the direction of incidence, the vortex Φ=-π/2 , ν = 2 is identified as a coherent particle-beam splitter or "condenser" in head-on collisions.

  16. ``Cold Denaturation'' induces inversion of dipole and spin transfer in chiral peptide monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Soumyajit; Eckshtain-Levi, Meital; Capua, Eyal; Refaely-Abramson, Sivan; Gavrilov, Yulian; Mathew, Shinto; Paltiel, Yossi; Levy, Yaakov; Kronik, Leeor; Naaman, Ron

    Using a combination of several experimental and computational techniques, we show that the α-helix structure of oligopeptides based on alanine and aminoisobutyric acid is transformed to a more linear conformation upon cooling, due to interaction with neighboring molecules in a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) structure. This process is similar to the known ``cold denaturation'' in peptides, but here the SAM plays the role of the solvent. Our DFT-based first principles calculations show that the structural change results in a flip in the direction of the electrical dipole moment of the adsorbed molecules. The dipole flip is accompanied by an associated change in the spin channel that is preferred in electron transfer through the molecules. This is also experimentally observed via a new solid state hybrid organic-inorganic device that is based on the Hall effect, but operates with no external magnetic field or magnetic material.

  17. Spintronics: Chiral damping

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Whan; Lee, Hyun-Woo

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the magnetic domain wall motion in a nanostructured magnetic system with strong spin-orbit coupling shows that the energy dissipation can be chiral when the inversion symmetry is broken. PMID:26906956

  18. Characterizing optical chirality

    SciTech Connect

    Bliokh, Konstantin Y.; Nori, Franco

    2011-02-15

    We examine the recently introduced measure of chirality of a monochromatic optical field [Y. Tang and A. E. Cohen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 163901 (2010)] using the momentum (plane-wave) representation and helicity basis. Our analysis clarifies the physical meaning of the measure of chirality and unveils its close relation to the polarization helicity, spin angular momentum, energy density, and Poynting energy flow. We derive the operators of the optical chirality and of the corresponding chiral momentum, which acquire remarkably simple forms in the helicity representation.

  19. Supernovae, Neutrinos and the Chirality of Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Richard N.; Kajino, Toshitaka; Onaka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    A mechanism for creating an enantioenrichment in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one handedness by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is defined. The chiral selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. It also requires an asymmetric distribution of neutrinos emitted from the supernova. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth’s proteinaceous amino acids. PMID:21747686

  20. Supernovae, neutrinos and the chirality of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Richard N; Kajino, Toshitaka; Onaka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    A mechanism for creating an enantioenrichment in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one handedness by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is defined. The chiral selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the (14)N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. It also requires an asymmetric distribution of neutrinos emitted from the supernova. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth's proteinaceous amino acids.

  1. Stardust, Supernovae and the Chirality of the Amino Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, R N; Kajino, T; Onaka, T

    2011-03-09

    A mechanism for creating enantiomerism in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one chirality by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is described. The selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth's amino acids.

  2. A MONTE CARLO MARKOV CHAIN BASED INVESTIGATION OF BLACK HOLE SPIN IN THE ACTIVE GALAXY NGC 3783

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Christopher S.; Lohfink, Anne M.; Trippe, Margaret L.; Brenneman, Laura W.; Miller, Jon M.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Nowak, Michael A. E-mail: alohfink@astro.umd.edu

    2012-08-20

    The analysis of relativistically broadened X-ray spectral features from the inner accretion disk provides a powerful tool for measuring the spin of supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). However, AGN spectra are often complex and careful analysis employing appropriate and self-consistent models is required if one has to obtain robust results. In this paper, we revisit the deep 2009 July Suzaku observation of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3783 in order to study in a rigorous manner the robustness of the inferred black hole spin parameter. Using Monte Carlo Markov chain techniques, we identify a (partial) modeling degeneracy between the iron abundance of the disk and the black hole spin parameter. We show that the data for NGC 3783 strongly require both supersolar iron abundance (Z{sub Fe} = 2-4 Z{sub Sun }) and a rapidly spinning black hole (a > 0.89). We discuss various astrophysical considerations that can affect the measured abundance. We note that, while the abundance enhancement inferred in NGC 3783 is modest, the X-ray analysis of some other objects has found extreme iron abundances. We introduce the hypothesis that the radiative levitation of iron ions in the innermost regions of radiation-dominated AGN disks can enhance the photospheric abundance of iron. We show that radiative levitation is a plausible mechanism in the very inner regions of high accretion rate AGN disks.

  3. Multifunctional magnetic materials obtained by insertion of spin-crossover Fe(III) complexes into chiral 3D bimetallic oxalate-based ferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Clemente-León, Miguel; Coronado, Eugenio; López-Jordà, Maurici; Waerenborgh, João C

    2011-09-19

    The syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties of compounds of formula [Fe(III)(5-Clsal(2)-trien)][Mn(II)Cr(III)(ox)(3)]·0.5(CH(3)NO(2)) (1), [Fe(III)(5-Brsal(2)-trien)][Mn(II)Cr(III)(ox)(3)] (2), and [In(III)(5-Clsal(2)-trien)][Mn(II)Cr(III)(ox)(3)] (3) are reported. The structure of the three compounds, which crystallize in the orthorhombic P2(1)2(1)2(1) chiral space group, presents a 3D chiral anionic network formed by Mn(II) and Cr(III) ions linked through oxalate ligands with inserted [Fe(III)(5-Clsal(2)-trien)](+), [Fe(III)(5-Brsal(2)-trien)](+), and [In(III)(5-Clsal(2)-trien)](+) cations. The magnetic properties indicate that the three compounds undergo long-range ferromagnetic ordering at ca. 5 K. On the other hand, the inserted Fe(III) cations undergo a partial spin crossover in the case of 1 and 2.

  4. The no-spin zone: rotation versus dispersion support in observed and simulated dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Coral; Pace, Andrew B.; Bullock, James S.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Oñorbe, Jose; Elbert, Oliver D.; Fitts, Alex; Hopkins, Philip F.; Kereš, Dušan

    2017-02-01

    We perform a systematic Bayesian analysis of rotation versus dispersion support (vrot/σ) in 40 dwarf galaxies throughout the local volume (LV) over a stellar mass range of 10^{3.5} M_{⊙}< M_{star }< 108 M_{⊙}. We find that the stars in ˜80 per cent of the LV dwarf galaxies studied - both satellites and isolated systems - are dispersion-supported. In particular, we show that 6/10 isolated dwarfs in our sample have vrot/σ ≲ 1.0, while all have vrot/σ ≲ 2.0. These results challenge the traditional view that the stars in gas-rich dwarf irregulars (dIrrs) are distributed in cold, rotationally supported stellar discs, while gas-poor dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) are kinematically distinct in having dispersion-supported stars. We see no clear trend between vrot/σ and distance to the closest L⋆ galaxy, nor between vrot/σ and M⋆ within our mass range. We apply the same Bayesian analysis to four FIRE hydrodynamic zoom-in simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies (10^9 M_{⊙}< M_{vir}< 10^{10} M_{⊙}) and show that the simulated isolated dIrr galaxies have stellar ellipticities and stellar vrot/σ ratios that are consistent with the observed population of dIrrs and dSphs without the need to subject these dwarfs to any external perturbations or tidal forces. We posit that most dwarf galaxies form as puffy, dispersion-dominated systems, rather than cold, angular-momentum-supported discs. If this is the case, then transforming a dIrr into a dSph may require little more than removing its gas.

  5. Topologically massive higher spin gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Lal, Shailesh; Saha, Arunabha; Sahoo, Bindusar

    2011-10-01

    We look at the generalisation of topologically massive gravity (TMG) to higher spins, specifically spin-3. We find a special "chiral" point for the spin-three, analogous to the spin-two example, which actually coincides with the usual spin-two chiral point. But in contrast to usual TMG, there is the presence of a non-trivial trace and its logarithmic partner at the chiral point. The trace modes carry energy opposite in sign to the traceless modes. The logarithmic partner of the traceless mode carries negative energy indicating an instability at the chiral point. We make several comments on the asymptotic symmetry and its possible deformations at this chiral point and speculate on the higher spin generalisation of LCFT2 dual to the spin-3 massive gravity at the chiral point.

  6. A new way to measure supermassive black hole spin in accretion disc-dominated active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Done, Chris; Jin, C.; Middleton, M.; Ward, Martin

    2013-09-01

    We show that disc continuum fitting can be used to constrain black hole spin in a subclass of narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) active galactic nuclei as their low mass and high mass accretion rate means that the disc peaks at energies just below the soft X-ray bandpass. We apply the technique to the NLS1 PG1244+026, where the optical/UV/X-ray spectrum is consistent with being dominated by a standard disc component. This gives a best estimate for black hole spin which is low, with a firm upper limit of a* <0.86. This contrasts with the recent X-ray determinations of (close to) maximal black hole spin in other NLS1 based on relativistic smearing of the iron profile. While our data on PG1244+026 do not have sufficient statistics at high energy to give a good measure of black hole spin from the iron line profile, cosmological simulations predict that black holes with similar masses have similar growth histories and so should have similar spins. This suggests that there is a problem either in our understanding of disc spectra, or/and X-ray reflection or/and the evolution of black hole spin.

  7. Chiral Separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalcup, A. M.

    2010-07-01

    The main goal of this review is to provide a brief overview of chiral separations to researchers who are versed in the area of analytical separations but unfamiliar with chiral separations. To researchers who are not familiar with this area, there is currently a bewildering array of commercially available chiral columns, chiral derivatizing reagents, and chiral selectors for approaches that span the range of analytical separation platforms (e.g., high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, supercritical-fluid chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis). This review begins with a brief discussion of chirality before examining the general strategies and commonalities among all of the chiral separation techniques. Rather than exhaustively listing all the chiral selectors and applications, this review highlights significant issues and differences between chiral and achiral separations, providing salient examples from specific classes of chiral selectors where appropriate.

  8. Spin-dimensionality change induced by Co-doping in the chiral magnet Fe1-xCoxSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Menzel, Dirk; Han, Hui; Jin, Chiming; Du, Haifeng; Fan, Jiyu; Ge, Min; Ling, Langsheng; Zhang, Changjin; Pi, Li; Zhang, Yuheng

    2016-09-01

    Dimensionality is one of the most important parameters in the determination of the physical properties. Therefore, tuning of effective dimensionality is of significant importance for modulating the functionality of materials. In this work, we find that the spin-dimensionality can be changed by Co-doping in the Fe1-x Co x Si system. Investigation of the critical behavior shows that the effective critical exponents for x = 0.3 agree with the three-dimensional (3D) Heisenberg model with \\{d:n=3:3\\} (d is the spatial-dimensionality, and n is the spin-dimensionality). With the increase of Co-content, the effective critical exponents for x = 0.5 fulfill the 3D-XY model with \\{d:n=3:2\\} , while those for x = 0.6 approach the 3D-Ising model with \\{d:n=3:1\\} . These results indicate the lowering of the spin-dimensionality with the increase of Co-content in Fe1-x Co x Si. We suggest that the modulation of the spin-dimensionality in Fe1-x Co x Si should result from the enhancement of the anisotropic magnetic interaction induced by the doping of Co.

  9. On the spin bias of satellite galaxies in the local group-like environment

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jounghun; Lemson, Gerard E-mail: lemson@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2013-05-01

    We utilize the Millennium-II simulation databases to study the spin bias of dark subhalos in the Local Group-like systems which have two prominent satellites with comparable masses. Selecting the group-size halos with total mass similar to that of the Local Group (LG) from the friends-of-friends halo catalog and locating their subhalos from the substructure catalog, we determine the most massive (main) and second to the most massive (submain) ones among the subhalos hosted by each selected halo. When the dimensionless spin parameter (λ) of each subhalo is derived from its specific angular momentum and circular velocity at virial radius, a signal of correlation is detected between the spin parameters of the subhalos and the main-to-submain mass ratios of their host halos at z = 0: the higher main-to-submain mass ratio a host halo has, the higher mean spin parameter its subhalos have. It is also found that the correlations exist even for the subhalo progenitors at z = 0.5 and 1. Our interpretation of this result is that the subhalo spin bias is not a transient effect but an intrinsic property of a LG-like system with higher main-to- submain mass ratio, caused by stronger anisotropic stress in the region. A cosmological implication of our result is also discussed.

  10. Lowest-lying even-parity {\\bar{B}}_s mesons: heavy-quark spin-flavor symmetry, chiral dynamics, and constituent quark-model bare masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albaladejo, M.; Fernandez-Soler, P.; Nieves, J.; Ortega, P. G.

    2017-03-01

    The discovery of the D^*_{s0}(2317) and D_{s1}(2460) resonances in the charmed-strange meson spectra revealed that formerly successful constituent quark models lose predictability in the vicinity of two-meson thresholds. The emergence of non-negligible effects due to meson loops requires an explicit evaluation of the interplay between Q{\\bar{q}} and (Q{\\bar{q}})(q{\\bar{q}}) Fock components. In contrast to the c{\\bar{s}} sector, there is no experimental evidence of J^P=0^+,1^+ bottom-strange states yet. Motivated by recent lattice studies, in this work the heavy-quark partners of the D_{s0}^*(2317) and D_{s1}(2460) states are analyzed within a heavy meson chiral unitary scheme. As a novelty, the coupling between the constituent quark-model P-wave {\\bar{B}}_s scalar and axial mesons and the {\\bar{B}}^{(*)}K channels is incorporated employing an effective interaction, consistent with heavy-quark spin symmetry, constrained by the lattice energy levels.

  11. Chiral mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitjean, Michel

    2002-08-01

    An index evaluating the amount of chirality of a mixture of colored random variables is defined. Properties are established. Extreme chiral mixtures are characterized and examples are given. Connections between chirality, Wasserstein distances, and least squares Procrustes methods are pointed out.

  12. Constraints on supermassive black hole spins from observations of active galaxy jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, E.; Wiita, P. J.; Gergely, L. Á.; Keresztes, Z.; Gopal-Krishna; Biermann, P. L.

    2013-11-01

    We discuss the origin of the low-energy cutoff, or LEC, seen in the radio spectra of many extragalactic jets and relate this to the spin of the supermassive black holes that presumably power them. Pion decay via proton-proton collisions is a possible mechanism to supply a secondary positron population with a low energy limit. We expect that pion production would occur in advection dominated accretion flows or ADAFs. In radiatively inefficient ADAFs the heat energy of the accreting gas is unable to radiate in less than the accretion time and the particle temperature could be high enough so that thermal protons can yield such pion production. Strong starbursts are another option for the injection of a truncated particle population into the jet. The role of both mechanisms is discussed with respect to the black hole spin estimate. The energy demanded to produce the pion decay process involves a minimum threshold for kinetic energy of the interacting protons. Therefore the mean proton speed in the flow can determine whether a LEC is generated. In ADAFs the random velocity of the protons can exceed the minimum speed limit of pion production around the jet launching region in the innermost part of the flow. Finally we summarize the additional work needed to put the model assumptions on a more rigorous basis.

  13. THE BLACK HOLE SPIN AND SOFT X-RAY EXCESS OF THE LUMINOUS SEYFERT GALAXY FAIRALL 9

    SciTech Connect

    Lohfink, Anne M.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Miller, Jon M.; Brenneman, Laura W.; Nowak, Michael A.; Fabian, Andrew C.

    2012-10-10

    We present an analysis of all XMM-Newton and Suzaku X-ray spectra of the nearby luminous Seyfert galaxy Fairall 9. Confirming previous analyses, we find robust evidence for a broad iron line associated with X-ray reflection from the innermost accretion disk. By fitting a spectral model that includes a relativistically ionized reflection component, we examine the constraints on the inclination of the inner accretion disk and the black hole spin, and the complications introduced by the presence of a photoionized emission line system. Employing multi-epoch fitting, we attempt to obtain robust and concordant measures of the accretion disk parameters. We also clearly see a soft X-ray excess in Fairall 9. During certain epochs, the soft excess can be described with the same disk reflection component that produces the iron line. However, there are epochs where an additional soft component is required. This can be attributed to either an additional highly ionized, strongly blurred disk reflection component or a new X-ray continuum component.

  14. Dominant chiral optical forces in the vicinity of optical nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, M H; Reinhard, B M

    2016-10-15

    Transverse spin angular momentum (SAM) of light and associated transverse chiral optical forces have received tremendous attention recently, as the latter may lead to an optical separation of chiral biomolecules. In this context, the relative magnitude of chiral and non-chiral forces is a challenge when implementing chiral separation schemes. In this work we have demonstrated that, by spatially separating the maxima of transverse spin density from the gradient of field intensity, it is possible to dominate chiral-specific components of the force over non-chiral ones. To that end, we studied optical nanofibers and nanowires as candidates for such a scheme and demonstrated that in their vicinity, chiral optical forces can emerge that are stronger than gradient and scattering forces. This finding may be of significance in the design of improved optical separation schemes for chiral biomolecules.

  15. Spin-transfer torque induced spin waves in antiferromagnetic insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Matthew W.; Guo, Wei; Stocks, George Malcolm; Xiao, Di; Xiao, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    We explore the possibility of exciting spin waves in insulating antiferromagnetic films by injecting spin current at the surface. We analyze both magnetically compensated and uncompensated interfaces. We find that the spin current induced spin-transfer torque can excite spin waves in insulating antiferromagnetic materials and that the chirality of the excited spin wave is determined by the polarization of the injected spin current. Furthermore, the presence of magnetic surface anisotropy can greatly increase the accessibility of these excitations.

  16. Spin-transfer torque induced spin waves in antiferromagnetic insulators

    DOE PAGES

    Daniels, Matthew W.; Guo, Wei; Stocks, George Malcolm; ...

    2015-01-01

    We explore the possibility of exciting spin waves in insulating antiferromagnetic films by injecting spin current at the surface. We analyze both magnetically compensated and uncompensated interfaces. We find that the spin current induced spin-transfer torque can excite spin waves in insulating antiferromagnetic materials and that the chirality of the excited spin wave is determined by the polarization of the injected spin current. Furthermore, the presence of magnetic surface anisotropy can greatly increase the accessibility of these excitations.

  17. Spin-3 topologically massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Long, Jiang; Wu, Jun-bao

    2011-11-01

    In this Letter, we study the spin-3 topologically massive gravity (TMG), paying special attention to its properties at the chiral point. We propose an action describing the higher spin fields coupled to TMG. We discuss the traceless spin-3 fluctuations around the AdS3 vacuum and find that there is an extra local massive mode, besides the left-moving and right-moving boundary massless modes. At the chiral point, such extra mode becomes massless and degenerates with the left-moving mode. We show that at the chiral point the only degrees of freedom in the theory are the boundary right-moving graviton and spin-3 field. We conjecture that spin-3 chiral gravity with generalized Brown-Henneaux boundary condition is holographically dual to 2D chiral CFT with classical W3 algebra and central charge cR = 3 l / G.

  18. Chiral superconductors.

    PubMed

    Kallin, Catherine; Berlinsky, John

    2016-05-01

    Chiral superconductivity is a striking quantum phenomenon in which an unconventional superconductor spontaneously develops an angular momentum and lowers its free energy by eliminating nodes in the gap. It is a topologically non-trivial state and, as such, exhibits distinctive topological modes at surfaces and defects. In this paper we discuss the current theory and experimental results on chiral superconductors, focusing on two of the best-studied systems, Sr2RuO4, which is thought to be a chiral triplet p-wave superconductor, and UPt3, which has two low-temperature superconducting phases (in zero magnetic field), the lower of which is believed to be chiral triplet f-wave. Other systems that may exhibit chiral superconductivity are also discussed. Key signatures of chiral superconductivity are surface currents and chiral Majorana modes, Majorana states in vortex cores, and the possibility of half-flux quantum vortices in the case of triplet pairing. Experimental evidence for chiral superconductivity from μSR, NMR, strain, polar Kerr effect and Josephson tunneling experiments are discussed.

  19. Chiral closed strings: four massless states scattering amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, Marcelo M.; Siegel, Warren

    2017-01-01

    We compute the scattering amplitudes of four massless states for chiral (closed) bosonic and type II superstrings using the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye ( KLT ) factorization method. The amplitude in the chiral bosonic case is identical to a field theory amplitude corresponding to the spin-2 tachyon, massless gravitational sector and massive spin-2 tardyon states of the spectrum. Chiral type II superstrings amplitude only possess poles associated with the massless gravitational sector. We briefly discuss the extension of the calculation to heterotic superstrings.

  20. Lateral chirality-sorting optical forces

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Amaury; Mueller, J. P. Balthasar; Capasso, Federico

    2015-01-01

    The transverse component of the spin angular momentum of evanescent waves gives rise to lateral optical forces on chiral particles, which have the unusual property of acting in a direction in which there is neither a field gradient nor wave propagation. Because their direction and strength depends on the chiral polarizability of the particle, they act as chirality-sorting and may offer a mechanism for passive chirality spectroscopy. The absolute strength of the forces also substantially exceeds that of other recently predicted sideways optical forces. PMID:26453555

  1. Chirally-sensitive electron-molecule interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreiling, J. M.; Gay, T. J.

    2015-09-01

    All molecular forms of life have chemically-specific handedness. However, the origin of these asymmetries is not understood. A possible explanation was suggested by Vester and Ulbricht immediately following the discovery of parity violation in 1957: chiral beta radiation in cosmic rays may have preferentially destroyed one enantiomeric form of various biological precursors. In the experiments reported here, we observed chiral specificity in two electron- molecule interactions: quasi-elastic scattering and dissociative electron attachment. Using low- energy longitudinally spin-polarized (chiral) electrons as substitutes for beta rays, we found that chiral bromocamphor molecules exhibited both a transmission and dissociative electron attachment rate that depended on their handedness for a given direction of incident electron spin. Consequently, these results, especially those with dissociative electron attachment, connect the universal chiral asymmetry of the weak force with a molecular breakup process, thereby demonstrating the viability of the Vester-Ulbricht hypothesis.

  2. Chiral plasmonics

    PubMed Central

    Hentschel, Mario; Schäferling, Martin; Duan, Xiaoyang; Giessen, Harald; Liu, Na

    2017-01-01

    We present a comprehensive overview of chirality and its optical manifestation in plasmonic nanosystems and nanostructures. We discuss top-down fabricated structures that range from solid metallic nanostructures to groupings of metallic nanoparticles arranged in three dimensions. We also present the large variety of bottom-up synthesized structures. Using DNA, peptides, or other scaffolds, complex nanoparticle arrangements of up to hundreds of individual nanoparticles have been realized. Beyond this static picture, we also give an overview of recent demonstrations of active chiral plasmonic systems, where the chiral optical response can be controlled by an external stimulus. We discuss the prospect of using the unique properties of complex chiral plasmonic systems for enantiomeric sensing schemes. PMID:28560336

  3. Chiral plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, Mario; Schäferling, Martin; Duan, Xiaoyang; Giessen, Harald; Liu, Na

    2017-05-01

    We present a comprehensive overview of chirality and its optical manifestation in plasmonic nanosystems and nanostructures. We discuss top-down fabricated structures that range from solid metallic nanostructures to groupings of metallic nanoparticles arranged in three dimensions. We also present the large variety of bottom-up synthesized structures. Using DNA, peptides, or other scaffolds, complex nanoparticle arrangements of up to hundreds of individual nanoparticles have been realized. Beyond this static picture, we also give an overview of recent demonstrations of active chiral plasmonic systems, where the chiral optical response can be controlled by an external stimulus. We discuss the prospect of using the unique properties of complex chiral plasmonic systems for enantiomeric sensing schemes.

  4. Emergence of soliton chirality in a quantum antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Hans-Benjamin; Kulda, Jiri; Roessli, Bertrand; Visser, Dirk; Krämer, Karl W.; Güdel, Hans-Ulrich; Böni, Peter

    2005-12-01

    Left- and right-handed chiral matter is present at every scale ranging from seashells to molecules to elementary particles. In magnetism, chirality may be inherited from the asymmetry of the underlying crystal structure, or it may emerge spontaneously. In particular, there has been a long-standing search for chiral spin states that emerge spontaneously with the disappearance of antiferromagnetic long-range order. Here we identify a generic system supporting such a behaviour and report on experimental evidence for chirality associated with the quantum dynamics of solitons in antiferromagnetic spin chains. The soliton chirality observed by polarized neutron scattering is in agreement with theoretical predictions and is a manifestation of a Berry phase. Our observations provide the first example of the emergence of spin currents and hidden chiral order that accompany the disappearance of antiferromagnetic order, a scheme believed to lie at the heart of the enigmatic normal state of cuprate superconductors.

  5. Isotopic chirality

    SciTech Connect

    Floss, H.G.

    1994-12-01

    This paper deals with compounds that are chiral-at least in part, due to isotope substitution-and their use in tracing the steric course of enzyme reaction in vitro and in vivo. There are other applications of isotopically chiral compounds (for example, in analyzing the steric course of nonenzymatic reactions and in probing the conformation of biomolecules) that are important but they will not be discussed in this context.

  6. Chiral vortical effect for bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avkhadiev, Artur; Sadofyev, Andrey V.

    2017-08-01

    The thermal contribution to the chiral vortical effect is believed to be related to the axial anomaly in external gravitational fields. We use the universality of the spin-gravity interaction to extend this idea to a wider set of phenomena. We consider the Kubo formula at weak coupling for the spin current of a vector field and derive a novel anomalous effect caused by the medium rotation: the chiral vortical effect for bosons. The effect consists in a spin current of vector bosons along the angular velocity of the medium. We argue that it has the same anomalous nature as in the fermionic case and show that this effect provides a mechanism for helicity transfer, from flow helicity to magnetic helicity.

  7. Dark-ages reionization and galaxy formation simulation - II. Spin and concentration parameters for dark matter haloes during the epoch of reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Paul W.; Poole, Gregory B.; Ludlow, Aaron D.; Duffy, Alan R.; Geil, Paul M.; Mutch, Simon J.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2016-06-01

    We use high-resolution N-body simulations to study the concentration and spin parameters of dark matter haloes in the mass range 108 M⊙ h-1 < M < 1011 M⊙ h-1 and redshifts 5 < z < 10, corresponding to the haloes of galaxies thought to be responsible for reionization. We build a subsample of equilibrium haloes and contrast their properties to the full population that also includes unrelaxed systems. Concentrations are calculated by fitting both NFW and Einasto profiles to the spherically averaged density profiles of individual haloes. After removing haloes that are out of equilibrium, we find a z > 5 concentration-mass (c(M)) relation that is almost flat and well described by a simple power law for both NFW and Einasto fits. The intrinsic scatter around the mean relation is Δcvir ˜ 1 (or 20 per cent) at z = 5. We also find that the analytic model proposed by Ludlow et al. reproduces the mass and redshift dependence of halo concentrations. Our best-fitting Einasto shape parameter, α, depends on peak height, ν, in a manner that is accurately described by α = 0.0070ν2 + 0.1839. The distribution of the spin parameter, λ, has a weak dependence on equilibrium state; λ peaks at roughly ˜0.033 for our relaxed sample, and at ˜0.04 for the full population. The spin-virial mass relation has a mild negative correlation at high redshift.

  8. Establishing the fundamental magnetic interactions in the chiral Skyrmionic Mott insulator Cu(2)OSeO(3) by terahertz electron spin resonance.

    PubMed

    Ozerov, M; Romhányi, J; Belesi, M; Berger, H; Ansermet, J-Ph; van den Brink, Jeroen; Wosnitza, J; Zvyagin, S A; Rousochatzakis, I

    2014-10-10

    The recent discovery of Skyrmions in Cu(2)OSeO(3) has established a new platform to create and manipulate Skyrmionic spin textures. We use high-field electron spin resonance with a terahertz free-electron laser and pulsed magnetic fields up to 64 T to probe and quantify its microscopic spin-spin interactions. In addition to the previously observed long-wavelength Goldstone mode, this technique probes also the high-energy part of the excitation spectrum which is inaccessible by standard low-frequency electron spin resonance. Fitting the behavior of the observed modes in magnetic field to a theoretical framework establishes experimentally that the fundamental magnetic building blocks of this Skyrmionic magnet are rigid, highly entangled and weakly coupled tetrahedra.

  9. Establishing the Fundamental Magnetic Interactions in the Chiral Skyrmionic Mott Insulator Cu2OSeO3 by Terahertz Electron Spin Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozerov, M.; Romhányi, J.; Belesi, M.; Berger, H.; Ansermet, J.-Ph.; van den Brink, Jeroen; Wosnitza, J.; Zvyagin, S. A.; Rousochatzakis, I.

    2014-10-01

    The recent discovery of Skyrmions in Cu2OSeO3 has established a new platform to create and manipulate Skyrmionic spin textures. We use high-field electron spin resonance with a terahertz free-electron laser and pulsed magnetic fields up to 64 T to probe and quantify its microscopic spin-spin interactions. In addition to the previously observed long-wavelength Goldstone mode, this technique probes also the high-energy part of the excitation spectrum which is inaccessible by standard low-frequency electron spin resonance. Fitting the behavior of the observed modes in magnetic field to a theoretical framework establishes experimentally that the fundamental magnetic building blocks of this Skyrmionic magnet are rigid, highly entangled and weakly coupled tetrahedra.

  10. Prebiotic chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekki-Berrada, Ali

    Bringing closer phospholipids each other on a bilayer of liposome, causes their rotation around their fatty acids axis, generating a force which brings closer the two sheets of the bilayer. In this theoretical study I show that for getting the greater cohesion of the liposome, by these forces, the serine in the hydrophilic head must have a L chirality. In the case where the hydrophilic head is absent amino acids with L chirality could contribute to this cohesion by taking the place of L-serine. Some coenzymes having a configuration similar to ethanolamine may also contribute. This is the case of pyridoxamine, thiamine and tetrahydrofolic acid. The grouping of amino acids of L chirality and pyridoxamine on the wall could initialize the prebiotic metabolism of these L amino acids only. This would explain the origin of the homo-chirality of amino acids in living world. Furthermore I show that in the hydrophilic head, the esterification of glycerol-phosphate by two fatty acids go through the positioning of dihydroxyacetone-phosphate and L-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, but not of D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, prior their hydrogenation to glycerol-3- phosphate. The accumulation of D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate in the cytoplasm displace the thermodynamic equilibria towards the synthesis of D-dATP from D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, acetaldehyde and prebiotic adenine, a reaction which does not require a coenzyme in the biotic metabolism. D-dATP and thiamine, more prebiotic metabolism of L-amino acids on the wall, would initialize D-pentoses phosphate and D-nucleotides pathways from the reaction of D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate + dihydroxyacetone-phosphate + prebiotic nucleic bases. The exhaustion of the prebiotic glyceraldehyde (racemic) and the nascent biotic metabolism dominated by D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, would explain the origin of homo-chirality of sugars in living world. References: http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Prebiotic_chirality

  11. Chiral Polymers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    TITLE (mid Subttlo) 񓂬-JS. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED CHIRAL POLYMERS /~O~~ R E~NNE 7. AUTHOR(e) 11. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUNSIER(e) J. K. Stille...acrylamide monomer containing a chiral 1,3-dioxane unit as well as both racemic and ( R )-6.-methyl ene-vi-methyl -7-butyrol actone were synthesi zed...or ( R )-propylene oxide (10)6. The key step in this synthesis is the palladium catalyzed carbonylation of 4-bromopent-4-en-2-ol. Thus, either racemic or

  12. Chirality and gravitational parity violation.

    PubMed

    Bargueño, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    In this review, parity-violating gravitational potentials are presented as possible sources of both true and false chirality. In particular, whereas phenomenological long-range spin-dependent gravitational potentials contain both truly and falsely chiral terms, it is shown that there are models that extend general relativity including also coupling of fermionic degrees of freedom to gravity in the presence of torsion, which give place to short-range truly chiral interactions similar to that usually considered in molecular physics. Physical mechanisms which give place to gravitational parity violation together with the expected size of the effects and their experimental constraints are discussed. Finally, the possible role of parity-violating gravity in the origin of homochirality and a road map for future research works in quantum chemistry is presented.

  13. Chiral Dynamics 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mohammad W.; Gao, Haiyan; Weller, Henry R.; Holstein, Barry

    2007-10-01

    pt. A. Plenary session. Opening remarks: experimental tests of chiral symmetry breaking / A. M. Bernstein. [Double pie symbols] scattering / H. Leutwyler. Chiral effective field theory in a [Triangle]-resonance region / V. Pascalutsa. Some recent developments in chiral perturbation theory / Ulf-G. Mei ner. Chiral extrapolation and nucleon structure from the lattice / R.D. Young. Recent results from HAPPEX / R. Michaels. Chiral symmetries and low energy searches for new physics / M.J. Ramsey-Musolf. Kaon physics: recent experimental progress / M. Moulson. Status of the Cabibbo angle / V. Cirigliano. Lattice QCD and nucleon spin structure / J.W. Negele. Spin sum rules and polarizabilities: results from Jefferson lab / J-P Chen. Compton scattering and nucleon polarisabilities / Judith A. McGovern. Virtual compton scattering at MIT-bates / R. Miskimen. Physics results from the BLAST detector at the BATES accelerator / R.P. Redwine. The [Pie sympbol]NN system, recent progress / C. Hanhart. Application of chiral nuclear forces to light nuclei / A. Nogga. New results on few-body experiments at low energy / Y. Nagai. Few-body lattice calculations / M.J. Savage. Research opportunities at the upgraded HI?S facility / H.R. Weller -- pt. B. Goldstone boson dynamics. Working group summary: Goldstone Boson dynamics / G. Colangelo and S. Giovannella. Recent results on radiative Kaon decays from NA48 and NA48/2 / S.G. López. Cusps in K-->3 [Pie symbol] decays / B. Kubis. Recent KTeV results on radiative Kaon decays / M.C. Ronquest. The [Double pie symbols] scattering amplitude / J.R. Peláez. Determination of the Regge parameters in the [Double pie symbols] scattering amplitude / I. Caprini. e+e- Hadronic cross section measurement at DA[symbol]NE with the KLOE detector / P. Beltrame. Measurement of the form factors of e+e- -->2([Pie symbol]+[Pie symbol]-), pp and the resonant parameters of the heavy charmonia at BES / H. Hu. Measurement of e+e- multihadronic cross section below 4

  14. Chiral multi-electron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berakdar, Jamal; Klar, Hubert

    2001-01-01

    In this report we review recent progress in the understanding of the role of chirality in the multi-electron emission. A brief account of the chiral single-electron photoemission is given. In this case the chirality of the experimental set-up is brought about by an initial orientation of the target or/and by specifying a certain projection of the photoelectron spin. The dependence of the photoelectron spectrum on the chirality of the experiment is probed by changing the initial orientation of the target or by inverting the photoelectron spin projection. In a further section we envisage the direct transition of chiral electron pairs from an isotropic bound initial state into a double-continuum state following the absorption of a circularly polarised photon. We work out the necessary conditions under which the spectrum of the correlated photoelectron pair shows a chiral character, i.e. a dependence on the chirality of the exciting photon. The magnitude and the general behaviour of the chiral effects are estimated from simple analytical models and more elaborate numerical methods are presented for a more quantitative predictions. As a further example for the chiral multi-electron emission we study the photoelectron Auger-electron coincidence spectrum. The Auger hole is created by ionising a randomly oriented target by a circular polarised photon. We investigate how the helicity the photon is transferred to the emitted photoelectron pair. The theoretical findings are analysed and interpreted in light of recent experiments. In a final section we focus on the emission of correlated electrons where the initial state is already oriented, e.g. via optical pumping by circularly polarised light. The initial orientation of the atom is transferred to the continuum states following the ionisation of the target by low-energy electrons. We formulate and analyse the theoretical concepts for the transition of the screw sense of the initially bound atomic electron to the continuum

  15. Chirality-induced magnon transport in AA-stacked bilayer honeycomb chiral magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owerre, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    In this Letter, we study the magnetic transport in AA-stacked bilayer honeycomb chiral magnets coupled either ferromagnetically or antiferromagnetically. For both couplings, we observe chirality-induced gaps, chiral protected edge states, magnon Hall and magnon spin Nernst effects of magnetic spin excitations. For ferromagnetically coupled layers, thermal Hall and spin Nernst conductivities do not change sign as function of magnetic field or temperature similar to single-layer honeycomb ferromagnetic insulator. In contrast, for antiferromagnetically coupled layers, we observe a sign change in the thermal Hall and spin Nernst conductivities as the magnetic field is reversed. We discuss possible experimental accessible honeycomb bilayer quantum materials in which these effects can be observed.

  16. Chiral Thermoelectrics with Quantum Hall Edge States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Rafael; Sothmann, Björn; Jordan, Andrew N.

    2015-04-01

    The thermoelectric properties of a three-terminal quantum Hall conductor are investigated. We identify a contribution to the thermoelectric response that relies on the chirality of the carrier motion rather than on spatial asymmetries. The Onsager matrix becomes maximally asymmetric with configurations where either the Seebeck or the Peltier coefficients are zero while the other one remains finite. Reversing the magnetic field direction exchanges these effects, which originate from the chiral nature of the quantum Hall edge states. The possibility to generate spin-polarized currents in quantum spin Hall samples is discussed.

  17. Chiral thermoelectrics with quantum Hall edge states.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Rafael; Sothmann, Björn; Jordan, Andrew N

    2015-04-10

    The thermoelectric properties of a three-terminal quantum Hall conductor are investigated. We identify a contribution to the thermoelectric response that relies on the chirality of the carrier motion rather than on spatial asymmetries. The Onsager matrix becomes maximally asymmetric with configurations where either the Seebeck or the Peltier coefficients are zero while the other one remains finite. Reversing the magnetic field direction exchanges these effects, which originate from the chiral nature of the quantum Hall edge states. The possibility to generate spin-polarized currents in quantum spin Hall samples is discussed.

  18. Ordering of the three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass in magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, H; Imagawa, D

    2001-11-12

    Spin and chirality orderings of the three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass are studied under magnetic fields in light of the recently developed spin-chirality decoupling-recoupling scenario. It is found by Monte Carlo simulations that the chiral-glass transition and the chiral-glass ordered state, which are essentially of the same character as their zero-field counterparts, occur under magnetic fields. The implication to the experimental phase diagram is discussed.

  19. Chiral electron transport: Scattering through helical potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeganeh, Sina; Ratner, Mark A.; Medina, Ernesto; Mujica, Vladimiro

    2009-07-01

    We present a model for the transmission of spin-polarized electrons through oriented chiral molecules, where the chiral structure is represented by a helix. The scattering potential contains a confining term and a spin-orbit contribution that is responsible for the spin-dependent scattering of electrons by the molecular target. The differential scattering cross section is calculated for right- and left-handed helices and for arbitrary electron spin polarizations. We apply our model to explain chiral effects in the intensity of photoemitted polarized electrons transmitted through thin organic layers. These are molecular interfaces that exhibit spin-selective scattering with surprisingly large asymmetry factors as well as a number of remarkable magnetic properties. In our model, differences in intensity are generated by the preferential transmission of electron beams whose polarization is oriented in the same direction as the sense of advance of the helix. This model can be easily extended to the Landauer regime of conductance where conductance is due to elastic scattering, so that we can consider the conductance of chiral molecular junctions.

  20. Chiral streamers

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Dandan; Cao, Xin; Lu, Xinpei; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2015-10-15

    The interaction of time-varying electromagnetic fields and solid, liquid, and gaseous matter may lead to electrical breakdown phenomena through the excitation of ionization waves or streamers that control the dynamics of localized plasma propagation through the media. The streamers usually propagate along straight lines, either between random points in space or along a certain direction in a guided mode. Here, we report on a new type of plasma discharges with the regular helical propagation pattern driven by a pulsed dc voltage in nitrogen at sub-atmospheric-pressure conditions. The helical guided streamers, named chiral streamers or chi-streamers, are excited without any external magnetic fields, which commonly cause helical plasma motions. We also demonstrate a hybrid propagation mode involving the interchangeable chiral streamers and the straight-line propagating plasmas. High-speed, time-resolved optical imaging reveals that the chiral streamers and the hybrid patterns are made of spatially localized discrete plasma bullets, similar to the straight-line guided streamers. These results may enable effective control of propagation of confined plasmas and electromagnetic energy along pre-determined, potentially deterministic paths, which have important implications for the development of next-generation plasma-based radiation sources, communication devices, and medical treatments.

  1. Chiral streamers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Dandan; Cao, Xin; Lu, Xinpei; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2015-10-01

    The interaction of time-varying electromagnetic fields and solid, liquid, and gaseous matter may lead to electrical breakdown phenomena through the excitation of ionization waves or streamers that control the dynamics of localized plasma propagation through the media. The streamers usually propagate along straight lines, either between random points in space or along a certain direction in a guided mode. Here, we report on a new type of plasma discharges with the regular helical propagation pattern driven by a pulsed dc voltage in nitrogen at sub-atmospheric-pressure conditions. The helical guided streamers, named chiral streamers or chi-streamers, are excited without any external magnetic fields, which commonly cause helical plasma motions. We also demonstrate a hybrid propagation mode involving the interchangeable chiral streamers and the straight-line propagating plasmas. High-speed, time-resolved optical imaging reveals that the chiral streamers and the hybrid patterns are made of spatially localized discrete plasma bullets, similar to the straight-line guided streamers. These results may enable effective control of propagation of confined plasmas and electromagnetic energy along pre-determined, potentially deterministic paths, which have important implications for the development of next-generation plasma-based radiation sources, communication devices, and medical treatments.

  2. Plasmonic enhancement of chiral light-matter interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Mohammadhossein

    Plasmonic nanostructures provide unique opportunities to improve the detection limits of chiroptical spectroscopies by enhancing chiral light-matter interactions. The most significant of such interaction occur in ultraviolet (UV) range of the electromagnetic spectrum that remains challenging to access by conventional localized plasmon resonance based sensors. Although Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs) on noble metal films can sustain resonances in the desired spectral range, their transverse magnetic nature has been an obstacle for enhancing chiroptical effects. We demonstrate, both analytically and numerically, that SPPs excited by near-field sources can exhibit rich and non-trivial chiral characteristics. In particular, we show that the excitation of SPPs by a chiral source not only results in a locally enhanced optical chirality but also achieves manifold enhancement of net optical chirality. Our finding that SPPs facilitate a plasmonic enhancement of optical chirality in the UV part of the spectrum is of great interest in chiral bio-sensing. Next we focus on the new concepts of transverse spin angular momentum and Belinfante spin momentum of evanescent waves, which have recently drawn considerable attention. We investigate these novel physical properties of electromagnetic fields in the context of chiral surface plasmon polaritons. We demonstrate, both analytically and numerically, that locally excited surface plasmon polaritons possess transverse Spin angular momentum and Belinfante momentum with rich and non-trivial characteristics. We also show that the transverse spin angular momentum of locally excited surface plasmon polaritons leads to the emergence of transverse chiral forces in opposite directions for chiral objects of different handedness. The magnitude of such a transverse force is comparable to the optical gradient force and scattering forces. This finding may pave the way for realization of optical separation of chiral biomolecules.

  3. Anatomy of the chiral magnetic effect in and out of equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharzeev, Dmitri; Stephanov, Mikhail; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2017-03-01

    We identify a new contribution to the chiral magnetic conductivity at finite frequencies—the magnetization current. This allows us to quantitatively reproduce the known field-theoretic time-dependent (AC) chiral magnetic response in terms of kinetic theory. We evaluate the corresponding AC chiral magnetic conductivity in two-flavor QCD plasma at weak coupling. The magnetization current results from the spin response of chiral quasiparticles to magnetic field, and is thus proportional to the quasiparticle's g -factor. In condensed matter systems, where the chiral quasiparticles are emergent and the g -factor can significantly differ from 2, this opens up the possibility of tuning the AC chiral magnetic response.

  4. Chiral quantum optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodahl, Peter; Mahmoodian, Sahand; Stobbe, Søren; Rauschenbeutel, Arno; Schneeweiss, Philipp; Volz, Jürgen; Pichler, Hannes; Zoller, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Advanced photonic nanostructures are currently revolutionizing the optics and photonics that underpin applications ranging from light technology to quantum-information processing. The strong light confinement in these structures can lock the local polarization of the light to its propagation direction, leading to propagation-direction-dependent emission, scattering and absorption of photons by quantum emitters. The possibility of such a propagation-direction-dependent, or chiral, light-matter interaction is not accounted for in standard quantum optics and its recent discovery brought about the research field of chiral quantum optics. The latter offers fundamentally new functionalities and applications: it enables the assembly of non-reciprocal single-photon devices that can be operated in a quantum superposition of two or more of their operational states and the realization of deterministic spin-photon interfaces. Moreover, engineered directional photonic reservoirs could lead to the development of complex quantum networks that, for example, could simulate novel classes of quantum many-body systems.

  5. Chiral quantum optics.

    PubMed

    Lodahl, Peter; Mahmoodian, Sahand; Stobbe, Søren; Rauschenbeutel, Arno; Schneeweiss, Philipp; Volz, Jürgen; Pichler, Hannes; Zoller, Peter

    2017-01-25

    Advanced photonic nanostructures are currently revolutionizing the optics and photonics that underpin applications ranging from light technology to quantum-information processing. The strong light confinement in these structures can lock the local polarization of the light to its propagation direction, leading to propagation-direction-dependent emission, scattering and absorption of photons by quantum emitters. The possibility of such a propagation-direction-dependent, or chiral, light-matter interaction is not accounted for in standard quantum optics and its recent discovery brought about the research field of chiral quantum optics. The latter offers fundamentally new functionalities and applications: it enables the assembly of non-reciprocal single-photon devices that can be operated in a quantum superposition of two or more of their operational states and the realization of deterministic spin-photon interfaces. Moreover, engineered directional photonic reservoirs could lead to the development of complex quantum networks that, for example, could simulate novel classes of quantum many-body systems.

  6. Deformed chiral nucleons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, C. E.; Shepard, J. R.

    1991-04-01

    We compute properties of the nucleon in a hybrid chiral model based on the linear σ-model with quark degrees of freedom treated explicity. In contrast to previous calculations, we do not use the hedgehog ansatz. Instead we solve self-consistently for a state with well defined spin and isospin projections. We allow this state to be deformed and find that, although d- and g-state admixtures in the predominantly s-state single quark wave functions are not large, they have profound effects on many nucleon properties including magnetic moments and gA. Our best fit parameters provide excellent agreement with experiment but are much different from those determined in hedgehog calculations.

  7. Chiral symmetry and density waves in quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, E.; Tatsumi, T.

    2005-06-01

    A density wave in quark matter is discussed at finite temperature, which occurs along with the chiral condensation, and is described by a dual standing wave in scalar and pseudoscalar condensates on the chiral circle. The mechanism is quite similar to that for the spin density wave suggested by Overhauser and entirely reflects many-body effects. It is found within a mean-field approximation for the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model that the chiral-condensed phase with the density wave develops at a high-density region just outside the usual chiral-transition line in phase diagram. A magnetic property of the density wave is also elucidated.

  8. Search for and discovery of chiral symmetry in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Pasternak, A. A.

    2010-08-15

    Studies devoted to the discovery and investigation of chiral-symmetry breaking in nuclei are briefly reviewed. Unlike the case of molecules and the macrocosm, where chirality manifests itself in the spatial structure of objects, chirality in nuclei is connected with different relative orientation of valence-quasiparticle spins and the angular momentum of collective rotation of the triaxial core. Decisive arguments in favor of the existence of this effect are based on measurements of lifetimes of high-spin nuclear levels in the picosecond range by Doppler methods of {gamma} spectroscopy.

  9. Broken chiral symmetry on a null plane

    SciTech Connect

    Beane, Silas R.

    2013-10-15

    On a null-plane (light-front), all effects of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking are contained in the three Hamiltonians (dynamical Poincaré generators), while the vacuum state is a chiral invariant. This property is used to give a general proof of Goldstone’s theorem on a null-plane. Focusing on null-plane QCD with N degenerate flavors of light quarks, the chiral-symmetry breaking Hamiltonians are obtained, and the role of vacuum condensates is clarified. In particular, the null-plane Gell-Mann–Oakes–Renner formula is derived, and a general prescription is given for mapping all chiral-symmetry breaking QCD condensates to chiral-symmetry conserving null-plane QCD condensates. The utility of the null-plane description lies in the operator algebra that mixes the null-plane Hamiltonians and the chiral symmetry charges. It is demonstrated that in a certain non-trivial limit, the null-plane operator algebra reduces to the symmetry group SU(2N) of the constituent quark model. -- Highlights: •A proof (the first) of Goldstone’s theorem on a null-plane is given. •The puzzle of chiral-symmetry breaking condensates on a null-plane is solved. •The emergence of spin-flavor symmetries in null-plane QCD is demonstrated.

  10. No signatures of black hole spin in the X-ray spectrum of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Fairall 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaqoob, T.; Turner, T. J.; Tatum, M. M.; Trevor, M.; Scholtes, A.

    2016-11-01

    Fairall 9 is one of several type 1 active galactic nuclei for which it has been claimed that the angular momentum (or spin) of the supermassive black hole can be robustly measured, using the Fe Kα emission line and Compton-reflection continuum in the X-ray spectrum. The method rests upon the interpretation of the Fe Kα line profile and associated Compton-reflection continuum in terms of relativistic broadening in the strong gravity regime in the innermost regions of an accretion disc, within a few gravitational radii of the black hole. Here, we re-examine a Suzaku X-ray spectrum of Fairall 9 and show that a face-on toroidal X-ray reprocessor model involving only non-relativistic and mundane physics provides an excellent fit to the data. The Fe Kα line emission and Compton-reflection continuum are calculated self-consistently, the iron abundance is solar, and an equatorial column density of ˜ 1024 cm- 2 is inferred. In this scenario, neither the Fe Kα line nor the Compton-reflection continuum provides any information on the black hole spin. Whereas previous analyses have assumed an infinite column density for the distant-matter reprocessor, the shape of the reflection spectrum from matter with a finite column density eliminates the need for a relativistically broadened Fe Kα line. We find a 90 per cent confidence range in the Fe Kα line full width at half-maximum of 1895-6205 km s- 1, corresponding to a distance of ˜3100 to 33 380 gravitational radii from the black hole, or 0.015-0.49 pc for a black hole mass of ˜1-3 × 108 M⊙.

  11. Preferential Rotation of Chiral Dipoles in Isotropic Turbulence.

    PubMed

    Kramel, Stefan; Voth, Greg A; Tympel, Saskia; Toschi, Federico

    2016-10-07

    We introduce a new particle shape which shows preferential rotation in three dimensional homogeneous isotropic turbulence. We call these particles chiral dipoles because they consist of a rod with two helices of opposite handedness, one at each end. 3D printing is used to fabricate these particles with a length in the inertial range and their rotations are tracked in a turbulent flow between oscillating grids. High aspect ratio chiral dipoles preferentially align with their long axis along the extensional eigenvectors of the strain rate tensor, and the helical ends respond to the extensional strain rate with a mean spinning rate that is nonzero. We use Stokesian dynamics simulations of chiral dipoles in pure strain flow to quantify the dependence of spinning on particle shape. Based on the known response to pure strain, we build a model that gives the spinning rate of small chiral dipoles using velocity gradients along Lagrangian trajectories from high resolution direct numerical simulations. The statistics of chiral dipole spinning determined with this model show surprisingly good agreement with the measured spinning of much larger chiral dipoles in the experiments.

  12. Invariant Spin in the Proton

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Anthony W.

    2008-10-13

    We discuss recent theoretical progress in understanding the distribution of spin and orbital angular momentum in the proton. Particular attention is devoted to the effect of QCD evolution and to the distinction between 'chiral' and 'invariant' spin. This is particularly significant with respect to the possible presence of polarized strange quarks.

  13. Holographic chiral induced W-gravities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poojary, Rohan R.; Suryanarayana, Nemani V.

    2015-10-01

    We study boundary conditions for 3-dimensional higher spin gravity that admit asymptotic symmetry algebras expected of 2-dimensional induced higher spin theories in the light-cone gauge. For the higher spin theory based on sl(3,{R})oplus sl(3,{R}) algebra, our boundary conditions give rise to one copy of classical W 3 and a copy of sl(3,{R}) or su(1 , 2) Kac-Moody as the asymptotic symmetry algebra. We propose that the higher spin theories with these boundary conditions describe appropriate chiral induced W-gravity theories on the boundary. We also consider boundary conditions of spin-3 higher spin gravity that admit a u(1) ⊕ u(1) current algebra.

  14. Quantum correlations in chiral graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xiao-Dong; Koop, Cornelie; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Sun, Litao

    2016-11-01

    We compute the entanglement and the quantum discord (QD) between two edge spins in chiral graphene nanoribbons (CGNRs) thermalized with a reservoir at temperature T (canonical ensemble). We show that the entanglement only exists in inter-edge coupled spin pairs, and there is no entanglement between any two spins at the same ribbon edge. By contrast, almost all edge spin pairs can hold non-zero QD, which strongly depends on the ribbon width and the Coulomb repulsion among electrons. More intriguingly, the dominant entanglement always occurs in the pair of nearest abreast spins across the ribbon, and even at room temperature this type of entanglement is still very robust, especially for narrow CGNRs with the weak Coulomb repulsion. These remarkable properties make CGNRs very promising for possible applications in spin-quantum devices.

  15. Quantum correlations in chiral graphene nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao-Dong; Koop, Cornelie; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Sun, Litao

    2016-11-02

    We compute the entanglement and the quantum discord (QD) between two edge spins in chiral graphene nanoribbons (CGNRs) thermalized with a reservoir at temperature T (canonical ensemble). We show that the entanglement only exists in inter-edge coupled spin pairs, and there is no entanglement between any two spins at the same ribbon edge. By contrast, almost all edge spin pairs can hold non-zero QD, which strongly depends on the ribbon width and the Coulomb repulsion among electrons. More intriguingly, the dominant entanglement always occurs in the pair of nearest abreast spins across the ribbon, and even at room temperature this type of entanglement is still very robust, especially for narrow CGNRs with the weak Coulomb repulsion. These remarkable properties make CGNRs very promising for possible applications in spin-quantum devices.

  16. Chiral mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, Eric; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2015-06-01

    Mirrors are used in telescopes, microscopes, photo cameras, lasers, satellite dishes, and everywhere else, where redirection of electromagnetic radiation is required making them arguably the most important optical component. While conventional isotropic mirrors will reflect linear polarizations without change, the handedness of circularly polarized waves is reversed upon reflection. Here, we demonstrate a type of mirror reflecting one circular polarization without changing its handedness, while absorbing the other. The polarization-preserving mirror consists of a planar metasurface with a subwavelength pattern that cannot be superimposed with its mirror image without being lifted out of its plane, and a conventional mirror spaced by a fraction of the wavelength from the metasurface. Such mirrors enable circularly polarized lasers and Fabry-Pérot cavities with enhanced tunability, gyroscopic applications, polarization-sensitive detectors of electromagnetic waves, and can be used to enhance spectroscopies of chiral media.

  17. Understanding complex chiral plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Yue, Song; Liu, Na

    2015-11-07

    Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the 'host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant and simple analytical model, which can describe, predict, and comprehend the chiroptical spectra in detail. Our study will shed light on designing well-controlled chiral-achiral coupling platforms for reliable chiral sensing.

  18. Chiral gravitational waves from chiral fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anber, Mohamed M.; Sabancilar, Eray

    2017-07-01

    We report on a new mechanism that leads to the generation of primordial chiral gravitational waves, and hence, the violation of the parity symmetry in the Universe. We show that nonperturbative production of fermions with a definite helicity is accompanied by the generation of chiral gravitational waves. This is a generic and model-independent phenomenon that can occur during inflation, reheating and radiation eras, and can leave imprints in the cosmic microwave background polarization and may be observed in future ground- and space-based interferometers. We also discuss a specific model where chiral gravitational waves are generated via the production of light chiral fermions during pseudoscalar inflation.

  19. Galaxies et trous noirs supermassifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin-Zahn, Suzy

    2016-08-01

    A few percents of galaxies are classified as « active ». An active galaxy is a galaxy whose nucleus emits more energy than the whole galaxy in the form of electromagnetic radiation, relativistic particles, or mechanical energy. It is activated by a supermassive black hole fueled by matter falling on it, whose characteristics (Eddington luminosity, spin) are recalled. The class includes quasars and Seyfert galaxies. All massive "non active" galaxies contain a supermassive black hole, but there is not enough matter in its environment so as the nucleus becomes luminous. Different items are considered in the paper : how supermassive black holes are fueled, the accretion disc, the jets and the winds, the unified model of active galaxies, how are determined the masses of supermassive black holes, and what is the relation between the evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes.

  20. Chiral discrimination in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lazzeretti, Paolo

    2017-08-08

    Chirality is a fundamental property of molecules whose spatial symmetry is characterized by the absence of improper rotations, making them not superimposable to their mirror image. Chiral molecules constitute the elementary building blocks of living species and one enantiomer is in general favoured (e.g., L-aminoacids and D-sugars pervade terrestrial homochiral biochemistry), because most chemical reactions producing natural substances are enantioselective. Since the effect of chiral chemicals and drugs on living beings can be markedly different between enantiomers, the quest for practical spectroscopical methods to scrutinize chirality is an issue of great importance and interest. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a topmost analytical technique, but spectrometers currently used are ``blind'' to chirality, i.e., %%In fact, spectrometers presently used in NMR are unable to discriminate the two mirror-image forms of a chiral molecule, because, in the absence of a chiral solvent, the spectral parameters, chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants, are identical for enantiomers. Therefore, the development of new procedures for routine chiral recognition would offer basic support to scientists. However, in the presence of magnetic fields, a distinction between {\\em true} and {\\em false} chirality is mandatory. The former epitomizes natural optical activity, which is rationalized by a time-even pseudoscalar, i.e., the trace of a second-rank tensor, the mixed electric dipole/mag\\-net\\-ic dipole polarizability. The Faraday effect, magnetic circular dichroism and magnetic optical activity are instead related to a time-odd axial vector. The present review summarizes recent theoretical and experimental efforts to discriminate enantiomers via NMR spectroscopy, with the focus on the deep connection between chirality

  1. Chirality of Viral Capsids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmavaram, Sanjay; Xie, Fangming; Bruinsma, Robijn; Klug, William; Rudnick, Joseph

    Most icosahedral viruses are classified by their T-number which identifies their capsid in terms of the number of capsomers and their relative arrangement. Certain T-numbers (T = 7 for instance) are inherently chiral (with no reflection planes) while others (e.g. T = 1) are achiral. We present a Landau-Brazovskii (LB) theory for weak crystallization in which a scalar order parameter that measures density of capsid proteins successfully predicts the various observed T-numbers and their respective chiralities. We find that chiral capsids gain stability by spontaneously breaking symmetry from an unstable chiral state. The inherently achiral LB-free energy does not preferentially select a particular chiral state from its mirror reflection. Based on the physical observation that proteins are inherently chiral molecules with directional interactions, we propose a new chiral term to the LB energy as a possible selection mechanism for chirality.

  2. Three-dimensional Majorana fermions in chiral superconductors.

    PubMed

    Kozii, Vladyslav; Venderbos, Jörn W F; Fu, Liang

    2016-12-01

    Using a systematic symmetry and topology analysis, we establish that three-dimensional chiral superconductors with strong spin-orbit coupling and odd-parity pairing generically host low-energy nodal quasiparticles that are spin-nondegenerate and realize Majorana fermions in three dimensions. By examining all types of chiral Cooper pairs with total angular momentum J formed by Bloch electrons with angular momentum j in crystals, we obtain a comprehensive classification of gapless Majorana quasiparticles in terms of energy-momentum relation and location on the Fermi surface. We show that the existence of bulk Majorana fermions in the vicinity of spin-selective point nodes is rooted in the nonunitary nature of chiral pairing in spin-orbit-coupled superconductors. We address experimental signatures of Majorana fermions and find that the nuclear magnetic resonance spin relaxation rate is significantly suppressed for nuclear spins polarized along the nodal direction as a consequence of the spin-selective Majorana nature of nodal quasiparticles. Furthermore, Majorana nodes in the bulk have nontrivial topology and imply the presence of Majorana bound states on the surface, which form arcs in momentum space. We conclude by proposing the heavy fermion superconductor PrOs4Sb12 and related materials as promising candidates for nonunitary chiral superconductors hosting three-dimensional Majorana fermions.

  3. Three-dimensional Majorana fermions in chiral superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Kozii, Vladyslav; Venderbos, Jörn W. F.; Fu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Using a systematic symmetry and topology analysis, we establish that three-dimensional chiral superconductors with strong spin-orbit coupling and odd-parity pairing generically host low-energy nodal quasiparticles that are spin-nondegenerate and realize Majorana fermions in three dimensions. By examining all types of chiral Cooper pairs with total angular momentum J formed by Bloch electrons with angular momentum j in crystals, we obtain a comprehensive classification of gapless Majorana quasiparticles in terms of energy-momentum relation and location on the Fermi surface. We show that the existence of bulk Majorana fermions in the vicinity of spin-selective point nodes is rooted in the nonunitary nature of chiral pairing in spin-orbit–coupled superconductors. We address experimental signatures of Majorana fermions and find that the nuclear magnetic resonance spin relaxation rate is significantly suppressed for nuclear spins polarized along the nodal direction as a consequence of the spin-selective Majorana nature of nodal quasiparticles. Furthermore, Majorana nodes in the bulk have nontrivial topology and imply the presence of Majorana bound states on the surface, which form arcs in momentum space. We conclude by proposing the heavy fermion superconductor PrOs4Sb12 and related materials as promising candidates for nonunitary chiral superconductors hosting three-dimensional Majorana fermions. PMID:27957543

  4. Helix-Dependent Spin Filtering through the DNA Duplex.

    PubMed

    Zwang, Theodore J; Hürlimann, Sylvia; Hill, Michael G; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2016-12-07

    Recent work suggests that electrons can travel through DNA and other chiral molecules in a spin-selective manner, but little is known about the origin of this spin selectivity. Here we describe experiments on magnetized DNA-modified electrodes to explore spin-selective electron transport through hydrated duplex DNA. Our results show that the two spins migrate through duplex DNA with a different yield and that spin selectivity requires charge transport through the DNA duplex. Significantly, shifting the same duplex DNA between right-handed B- and left-handed Z-forms leads to a diode-like switch in spin selectivity; which spin moves more efficiently through the duplex depends upon the DNA helicity. With DNA, the supramolecular organization of chiral moieties, rather than the chirality of the individual monomers, determines the selectivity in spin, and thus a conformational change can switch the spin selectivity.

  5. Chiral Inorganic Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei; Xu, Liguang; de Moura, André F; Wu, Xiaoling; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2017-06-28

    The field of chiral inorganic nanostructures is rapidly expanding. It started from the observation of strong circular dichroism during the synthesis of individual nanoparticles (NPs) and their assemblies and expanded to sophisticated synthetic protocols involving nanostructures from metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and nanocarbons. Besides the well-established chirality transfer from bioorganic molecules, other methods to impart handedness to nanoscale matter specific to inorganic materials were discovered, including three-dimentional lithography, multiphoton chirality transfer, polarization effects in nanoscale assemblies, and others. Multiple chiral geometries were observed with characteristic scales from ångströms to microns. Uniquely high values of chiral anisotropy factors that spurred the development of the field and differentiate it from chiral structures studied before, are now well understood; they originate from strong resonances of incident electromagnetic waves with plasmonic and excitonic states typical for metals and semiconductors. At the same time, distinct similarities with chiral supramolecular and biological systems also emerged. They can be seen in the synthesis and separation methods, chemical properties of individual NPs, geometries of the nanoparticle assemblies, and interactions with biological membranes. Their analysis can help us understand in greater depth the role of chiral asymmetry in nature inclusive of both earth and space. Consideration of both differences and similarities between chiral inorganic, organic, and biological nanostructures will also accelerate the development of technologies based on chiroplasmonic and chiroexcitonic effects. This review will cover both experiment and theory of chiral nanostructures starting with the origin and multiple components of mirror asymmetry of individual NPs and their assemblies. We shall consider four different types of chirality in nanostructures and related physical, chemical, and

  6. Dependence of enantioselectivity on the distribution of a chiral hydrogenation catalyst between an aqueous and a micellar phase: investigations using pulsed field gradient spin echo NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, M; Kadyrov, R; Fiedler, H; Haage, K; Selke, R

    2001-08-03

    The enantioselectivity obtained from rhodium complex catalyzed hydrogenations conducted in water can often be increased considerably by the addition of amphiphiles. At present the reasons for this increase in selectivity are not fully understood. The application of pulsed field gradient spin echo NMR (PGSE-NMR) spectroscopy to determine the average diffusion coefficients of the catalysts in both known and novel examples of asymmetric hydrogenation shows definitively that the increase in enantioselectivity is coupled with an aggregation of the catalyst to the micelles. This aggregation or solubilization of the catalyst in the micelles leads to the formation of a new colloidal phase in the aqueous solution. This phase has stronger hydrophobic properties, and thus the hydrogenation is more comparable to those conducted in a hydrophobic or less polar organic solvent. In the case of anionic amphiphiles, which form amphiphilic salts with the cationic catalyst, the embedment of the catalyst complex into the micelle is generally complete. The whole hydrogenation then takes place exclusively inside the micelles, leading to high enantioselectivity. If the catalyst is not completely embedded into the micelle, for example in the cases of nonionic or cationic surfactant solutions, the solubility of the substrate plays an important role. For soluble substrates the hydrogenation of the substrate occurs predominately in the aqueous phase itself, leading to very poor enantioselectivities. In these cases, only the use of a large excess of amphiphile, far above the critical micelle concentration (cmc), will lead to higher enantioselectivities due to a shift of the equilibrium towards the micellar bonded forms of catalyst and substrate. In contrast, poorly soluble substrates exhibit a high tendency to be incorporated into micelles, which leads to much higher enantioselectivities if the cmc of the surfactant is small enough. Changes in the cmc of amphiphiles caused by their aggregation

  7. Introduction to chiral symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, V.

    1996-01-08

    These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. Effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model will be discussed as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. Some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions will be presented.

  8. Andromeda Galaxy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-10

    This image is from NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer is an observation of the large galaxy in Andromeda, Messier 31. The Andromeda galaxy is the most massive in the local group of galaxies that includes our Milky Way.

  9. Replica symmetry breaking transition of the weakly anisotropic Heisenberg spin glass in magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Imagawa, Daisuke; Kawamura, Hikaru

    2004-02-20

    The spin and the chirality orderings of the three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass with the weak random anisotropy are studied under applied magnetic fields by equilibrium Monte Carlo simulations. A replica symmetry breaking transition occurs in the chiral sector accompanied by the simultaneous spin-glass order. The ordering behavior differs significantly from that of the Ising spin glass, despite the similarity in the global symmetry. Our observation is consistent with the spin-chirality decoupling-recoupling scenario of a spin-glass transition.

  10. From helical to planar chirality by on-surface chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetsovych, Oleksandr; Švec, Martin; Vacek, Jaroslav; Chocholoušová, Jana Vacek; Jančařík, Andrej; Rybáček, Jiří; Kosmider, Krzysztof; Stará, Irena G.; Jelínek, Pavel; Starý, Ivo

    2016-11-01

    The chirality of molecular structures is paramount in many phenomena, including enantioselective reactions, molecular self-assembly, biological processes and light or electron-spin polarization. Flat prochiral molecules, which are achiral in the gas phase or solution, can exhibit adsorption-induced chirality when deposited on surfaces. The whole array of such molecular adsorbates is naturally racemic as spontaneous global mirror-symmetry breaking is disfavoured. Here we demonstrate a chemical method of obtaining flat prochiral molecules adsorbed on the solid achiral surface in such a way that a specific adsorbate handedness globally dominates. An optically pure helical precursor is flattened in a cascade of on-surface reactions, which enables chirality transfer. The individual reaction products are identified by high-resolution scanning-probe microscopy. The ultimate formation of globally non-racemic assemblies of flat molecules through stereocontrolled on-surface synthesis allows for chirality to be expressed in as yet unexplored types of organic-inorganic chiral interfaces.

  11. From helical to planar chirality by on-surface chemistry.

    PubMed

    Stetsovych, Oleksandr; Švec, Martin; Vacek, Jaroslav; Chocholoušová, Jana Vacek; Jančařík, Andrej; Rybáček, Jiří; Kosmider, Krzysztof; Stará, Irena G; Jelínek, Pavel; Starý, Ivo

    2017-03-01

    The chirality of molecular structures is paramount in many phenomena, including enantioselective reactions, molecular self-assembly, biological processes and light or electron-spin polarization. Flat prochiral molecules, which are achiral in the gas phase or solution, can exhibit adsorption-induced chirality when deposited on surfaces. The whole array of such molecular adsorbates is naturally racemic as spontaneous global mirror-symmetry breaking is disfavoured. Here we demonstrate a chemical method of obtaining flat prochiral molecules adsorbed on the solid achiral surface in such a way that a specific adsorbate handedness globally dominates. An optically pure helical precursor is flattened in a cascade of on-surface reactions, which enables chirality transfer. The individual reaction products are identified by high-resolution scanning-probe microscopy. The ultimate formation of globally non-racemic assemblies of flat molecules through stereocontrolled on-surface synthesis allows for chirality to be expressed in as yet unexplored types of organic-inorganic chiral interfaces.

  12. Theory of magnon motive force in chiral ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güngördü, Utkan; Kovalev, Alexey A.

    2016-07-01

    We predict that magnon motive force can lead to temperature dependent, nonlinear chiral damping in both conducting and insulating ferromagnets. We estimate that this damping can significantly influence the motion of skyrmions and domain walls at finite temperatures. We also find that in systems with low Gilbert damping moving chiral magnetic textures and resulting magnon motive forces can induce large spin and energy currents in the transverse direction.

  13. Radio Galaxies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on radio galaxies. Topic areas addressed include: what produces the radio emission; radio telescopes; locating radio galaxies; how distances to radio galaxies are found; physics of radio galaxies; computer simulations of radio galaxies; and the evolution of radio galaxies with cosmic time. (JN)

  14. Radio Galaxies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on radio galaxies. Topic areas addressed include: what produces the radio emission; radio telescopes; locating radio galaxies; how distances to radio galaxies are found; physics of radio galaxies; computer simulations of radio galaxies; and the evolution of radio galaxies with cosmic time. (JN)

  15. Current-driven dynamics of chiral ferromagnetic domain walls.

    PubMed

    Emori, Satoru; Bauer, Uwe; Ahn, Sung-Min; Martinez, Eduardo; Beach, Geoffrey S D

    2013-07-01

    In most ferromagnets the magnetization rotates from one domain to the next with no preferred handedness. However, broken inversion symmetry can lift the chiral degeneracy, leading to topologically rich spin textures such as spin spirals and skyrmions through the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). Here we show that in ultrathin metallic ferromagnets sandwiched between a heavy metal and an oxide, the DMI stabilizes chiral domain walls (DWs) whose spin texture enables extremely efficient current-driven motion. We show that spin torque from the spin Hall effect drives DWs in opposite directions in Pt/CoFe/MgO and Ta/CoFe/MgO, which can be explained only if the DWs assume a Néel configuration with left-handed chirality. We directly confirm the DW chirality and rigidity by examining current-driven DW dynamics with magnetic fields applied perpendicular and parallel to the spin spiral. This work resolves the origin of controversial experimental results and highlights a new path towards interfacial design of spintronic devices.

  16. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed. (WHK)

  17. Chiral magnetic effect in ZrTe5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.; Zhang, Cheng; Huang, Yuan; Pletikosić, I.; Fedorov, A. V.; Zhong, R. D.; Schneeloch, J. A.; Gu, G. D.; Valla, T.

    2016-06-01

    The chiral magnetic effect is the generation of an electric current induced by chirality imbalance in the presence of a magnetic field. It is a macroscopic manifestation of the quantum anomaly in relativistic field theory of chiral fermions (massless spin 1/2 particles with a definite projection of spin on momentum)--a remarkable phenomenon arising from a collective motion of particles and antiparticles in the Dirac sea. The recent discovery of Dirac semimetals with chiral quasiparticles opens a fascinating possibility to study this phenomenon in condensed matter experiments. Here we report on the measurement of magnetotransport in zirconium pentatelluride, ZrTe5, that provides strong evidence for the chiral magnetic effect. Our angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments show that this material’s electronic structure is consistent with a three-dimensional Dirac semimetal. We observe a large negative magnetoresistance when the magnetic field is parallel with the current. The measured quadratic field dependence of the magnetoconductance is a clear indication of the chiral magnetic effect. The observed phenomenon stems from the effective transmutation of a Dirac semimetal into a Weyl semimetal induced by parallel electric and magnetic fields that represent a topologically non-trivial gauge field background. We expect that the chiral magnetic effect may emerge in a wide class of materials that are near the transition between the trivial and topological insulators.

  18. Understanding complex chiral plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Yue, Song; Liu, Na

    2015-10-01

    Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the `host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant and simple analytical model, which can describe, predict, and comprehend the chiroptical spectra in detail. Our study will shed light on designing well-controlled chiral-achiral coupling platforms for reliable chiral sensing.Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the `host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant

  19. Gelation induced supramolecular chirality: chirality transfer, amplification and application.

    PubMed

    Duan, Pengfei; Cao, Hai; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua

    2014-08-14

    Supramolecular chirality defines chirality at the supramolecular level, and is generated from the spatial arrangement of component molecules assembling through non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, van der Waals interactions, π-π stacking, hydrophobic interactions and so on. During the formation of low molecular weight gels (LMWGs), one kind of fascinating soft material, one frequently encounters the phenomenon of chirality as well as chiral nanostructures, either from chiral gelators or even achiral gelators. A view of gelation-induced supramolecular chirality will be very helpful to understand the self-assembly process of the gelator molecules as well as the chiral structures, the regulation of the chirality in the gels and the development of the "smart" chiral materials such as chiroptical devices, catalysts and chiral sensors. It necessitates fundamental understanding of chirality transfer and amplification in these supramolecular systems. In this review, recent progress in gelation-induced supramolecular chirality is discussed.

  20. Complex Langevin simulation of chiral symmetry restoration at finite baryonic density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgenfritz, Ernst-Michael

    1986-12-01

    A recently proposed effective SU(3) spin model with chiral order parameter is studied by means of the complex Langevin equation. A first-order chiral symmetry restoring and deconfining transition is observed at sufficiently low temperature at finite baryonic density. Permanent address: Sektion Physik, Karl-Marx Universität, DDR-7010 Leipzig, German Democratic Republic.

  1. HUBBLE REVEALS 'BACKWARDS' SPIRAL GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers have found a spiral galaxy that may be spinning to the beat of a different cosmic drummer. To the surprise of astronomers, the galaxy, called NGC 4622, appears to be rotating in the opposite direction to what they expected. Pictures by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope helped astronomers determine that the galaxy may be spinning clockwise by showing which side of the galaxy is closer to Earth. A Hubble telescope photo of the oddball galaxy is this month's Hubble Heritage offering. The image shows NGC 4622 and its outer pair of winding arms full of new stars [shown in blue]. Astronomers are puzzled by the clockwise rotation because of the direction the outer spiral arms are pointing. Most spiral galaxies have arms of gas and stars that trail behind as they turn. But this galaxy has two 'leading' outer arms that point toward the direction of the galaxy's clockwise rotation. To add to the conundrum, NGC 4622 also has a 'trailing' inner arm that is wrapped around the galaxy in the opposite direction it is rotating. Based on galaxy simulations, a team of astronomers had expected that the galaxy was turning counterclockwise. NGC 4622 is a rare example of a spiral galaxy with arms pointing in opposite directions. What caused this galaxy to behave differently from most galaxies? Astronomers suspect that NGC 4622 interacted with another galaxy. Its two outer arms are lopsided, meaning that something disturbed it. The new Hubble image suggests that NGC 4622 consumed a small companion galaxy. The galaxy's core provides new evidence for a merger between NGC 4622 and a smaller galaxy. This information could be the key to understanding the unusual leading arms. Galaxies, which consist of stars, gas, and dust, rotate very slowly. Our Sun, one of many stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, completes a circuit around the Milky Way every 250 million years. NGC 4622 resides 111 million light-years away in the constellation Centaurus. The pictures were taken in May 2001 with Hubble

  2. Imaging and Tailoring the Chirality of Domain Walls in Magnetic Films.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gong; Schmid, Andreas K

    2015-10-14

    Electric-current-induced magnetization switching is a keystone concept in the development of spintronics devices. In the last few years this field has experienced a significant boost with the discovery of ultrafast domain wall motions and very low threshold currents in structures designed to stabilize chiral spin textures. Imaging domain-wall spin textures in situ, while fabricating magnetic multilayer structures, is a powerful way to investigate the forces stabilizing this type of chirality, and informs strategies to engineer structures with controlled spin textures. Here, recent results applying spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy to image chiral domain walls in magnetic multilayer films are summarized. Providing a way to measure the strength of the asymmetric exchange interaction that causes the chirality, this approach can be used to tailor the texture and handedness of magnetic domain walls by interface engineering. These results advance understanding of the underlying physics and offer new insights toward the design of spintronic devices.

  3. Chiral rotational spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Robert P.; Götte, Jörg B.; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2016-09-01

    We introduce chiral rotational spectroscopy, a technique that enables the determination of the orientated optical activity pseudotensor components BX X, BY Y, and BZ Z of chiral molecules, in a manner that reveals the enantiomeric constitution of a sample and provides an incisive signal even for a racemate. Chiral rotational spectroscopy could find particular use in the analysis of molecules that are chiral solely by virtue of their isotopic constitution and molecules with multiple chiral centers. A basic design for a chiral rotational spectrometer together with a model of its functionality is given. Our proposed technique offers the more familiar polarizability components αX X, αY Y, and αZ Z as by-products, which could see it find use even for achiral molecules.

  4. Emerging chirality in nanoscience.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Xu, Jun; Wang, Yawen; Chen, Hongyu

    2013-04-07

    Chirality in nanoscience may offer new opportunities for applications beyond the traditional fields of chirality, such as the asymmetric catalysts in the molecular world and the chiral propellers in the macroscopic world. In the last two decades, there has been an amazing array of chiral nanostructures reported in the literature. This review aims to explore and categorize the common mechanisms underlying these systems. We start by analyzing the origin of chirality in simple systems such as the helical spring and hair vortex. Then, the chiral nanostructures in the literature were categorized according to their material composition and underlying mechanism. Special attention is paid to highlight systems with original discoveries, exceptional structural characteristics, or unique mechanisms.

  5. Chiral fluctuations in achiral systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Robert A.

    2001-12-01

    "Chiral fluctuations" are defined, and their relation to "dynamic chirality" is discussed. Simple experiments to measure chiral fluctuations are proposed. The unique aspects of these measurements for systems such as atomic clusters and gases are outlined.

  6. Periodic chiral structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggard, Dwight L.; Engheta, Nader; Pelet, Philippe; Liu, John C.; Kowarz, Marek W.; Kim, Yunjin

    1989-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of a structure that is both chiral and periodic are investigated using coupled-mode equations. The periodicity is described by a sinusoidal perturbation of the permittivity, permeability, and chiral admittance. The coupled-mode equations are derived from physical considerations and used to examine bandgap structure and reflected and transmitted fields. Chirality is observed predominantly in transmission, whereas periodicity is present in both reflection and transmission.

  7. Planar plasmonic chiral nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Shuai; Bao, Yanjun; Fang, Zheyu

    2016-02-01

    A strong chiral optical response induced at a plasmonic Fano resonance in a planar Au heptamer nanostructure was experimentally and theoretically demonstrated. The scattering spectra show the characteristic narrow-band feature of Fano resonances for both left and right circular polarized lights, with a chiral response reaching 30% at the Fano resonance. Specifically, we systematically investigate the chiral response of planar heptamers with gradually changing the inter-particle rotation angles and separation distance. The chiral spectral characteristics clearly depend on the strength of Fano resonances and the associated near-field optical distributions. Finite element method simulations together with a multipole expansion method demonstrate that the enhanced chirality is caused by the excitation of magnetic quadrupolar and electric toroidal dipolar modes. Our work provides an effective method for the design of 2D nanostructures with a strong chiral response.A strong chiral optical response induced at a plasmonic Fano resonance in a planar Au heptamer nanostructure was experimentally and theoretically demonstrated. The scattering spectra show the characteristic narrow-band feature of Fano resonances for both left and right circular polarized lights, with a chiral response reaching 30% at the Fano resonance. Specifically, we systematically investigate the chiral response of planar heptamers with gradually changing the inter-particle rotation angles and separation distance. The chiral spectral characteristics clearly depend on the strength of Fano resonances and the associated near-field optical distributions. Finite element method simulations together with a multipole expansion method demonstrate that the enhanced chirality is caused by the excitation of magnetic quadrupolar and electric toroidal dipolar modes. Our work provides an effective method for the design of 2D nanostructures with a strong chiral response. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available

  8. Magnon Dispersion and Specific Heat of Chiral Magnets on the Pyrochlore Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, Naoya

    2017-09-01

    Chiral magnets are magnetically ordered insulators having spin scalar chirality, and magnons of chiral magnets have been poorly understood. We study the magnon dispersion and specific heat for four chiral magnets with Q = 0 on the pyrochlore lattice. This study is based on the linear-spin-wave approximation for the S = 1/2 effective Hamiltonian consisting of two kinds of Heisenberg interaction and two kinds of Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction. We show that the three-in-one-out type chiral magnets possess an optical branch of the magnon dispersion near q = 0, in addition to three quasiacoustic branches. This differs from the all-in/all-out type chiral magnets, which possess four quasiacoustic branches. We also show that all four chiral magnets have a gapped magnon energy at q = 0, indicating the absence of the Goldstone type gapless excitation. These results are useful for experimentally identifying the three-in-one-out or all-in/all-out type chiral order. Then, we show that there is no qualitative difference in the specific heat among the four magnets. This indicates that the specific heat is not useful for distinguishing the kinds of chiral orders. We finally compare our results with experiments and provide a proposal for the three-in-one-out type chiral magnets.

  9. Chiral atomically thin films.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheol-Joo; Sánchez-Castillo, A; Ziegler, Zack; Ogawa, Yui; Noguez, Cecilia; Park, Jiwoong

    2016-06-01

    Chiral materials possess left- and right-handed counterparts linked by mirror symmetry. These materials are useful for advanced applications in polarization optics, stereochemistry and spintronics. In particular, the realization of spatially uniform chiral films with atomic-scale control of their handedness could provide a powerful means for developing nanodevices with novel chiral properties. However, previous approaches based on natural or grown films, or arrays of fabricated building blocks, could not offer a direct means to program intrinsic chiral properties of the film on the atomic scale. Here, we report a chiral stacking approach, where two-dimensional materials are positioned layer-by-layer with precise control of the interlayer rotation (θ) and polarity, resulting in tunable chiral properties of the final stack. Using this method, we produce left- and right-handed bilayer graphene, that is, a two-atom-thick chiral film. The film displays one of the highest intrinsic ellipticity values (6.5 deg μm(-1)) ever reported, and a remarkably strong circular dichroism (CD) with the peak energy and sign tuned by θ and polarity. We show that these chiral properties originate from the large in-plane magnetic moment associated with the interlayer optical transition. Furthermore, we show that we can program the chiral properties of atomically thin films layer-by-layer by producing three-layer graphene films with structurally controlled CD spectra.

  10. Chiral atomically thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Cheol-Joo; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Ziegler, Zack; Ogawa, Yui; Noguez, Cecilia; Park, Jiwoong

    2016-06-01

    Chiral materials possess left- and right-handed counterparts linked by mirror symmetry. These materials are useful for advanced applications in polarization optics, stereochemistry and spintronics. In particular, the realization of spatially uniform chiral films with atomic-scale control of their handedness could provide a powerful means for developing nanodevices with novel chiral properties. However, previous approaches based on natural or grown films, or arrays of fabricated building blocks, could not offer a direct means to program intrinsic chiral properties of the film on the atomic scale. Here, we report a chiral stacking approach, where two-dimensional materials are positioned layer-by-layer with precise control of the interlayer rotation (θ) and polarity, resulting in tunable chiral properties of the final stack. Using this method, we produce left- and right-handed bilayer graphene, that is, a two-atom-thick chiral film. The film displays one of the highest intrinsic ellipticity values (6.5 deg μm-1) ever reported, and a remarkably strong circular dichroism (CD) with the peak energy and sign tuned by θ and polarity. We show that these chiral properties originate from the large in-plane magnetic moment associated with the interlayer optical transition. Furthermore, we show that we can program the chiral properties of atomically thin films layer-by-layer by producing three-layer graphene films with structurally controlled CD spectra.

  11. Backwards Spiral Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have found a spiral galaxy that may rotate in the opposite direction from what was expected.

    A picture of the oddball galaxy is available at http://heritage.stsci.edu or http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/03 or http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . It was taken in May 2001 by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    The picture showed which side of galaxy NGC 4622 is closer to Earth; that information helped astronomers determine that the galaxy may be spinning clockwise. The image shows NGC 4622 and its outer pair of winding arms full of new stars, shown in blue.

    Astronomers are puzzled by the clockwise rotation because of the direction the outer spiral arms are pointing. Most spiral galaxies have arms of gas and stars that trail behind as they turn. But this galaxy has two 'leading' outer arms that point toward the direction of the galaxy's clockwise rotation. NGC 4622 also has a 'trailing' inner arm that is wrapped around the galaxy in the opposite direction. Based on galaxy simulations, a team of astronomers had expected that the galaxy was turning counterclockwise.

    NGC 4622 is a rare example of a spiral galaxy with arms pointing in opposite directions. Astronomers suspect this oddity was caused by the interaction of NGC 4622 with another galaxy. Its two outer arms are lopsided, meaning that something disturbed it. The new Hubble image suggests that NGC 4622 consumed a smaller companion galaxy.

    Galaxies, which consist of stars, gas, and dust, rotate very slowly. Our Sun, one of many stars in our Milky Way galaxy, completes a circuit around the Milky Way every 250 million years. NGC 4622 lies 111 million light-years away in the direction of the constellation Centaurus.

    The science team, consisting of Drs. Ron Buta and Gene Byrd from the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, and Tarsh Freeman of Bevill State

  12. Chiral optical local density of states in a spiral plasmonic cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Aline; Berthel, Martin; Jiang, Quanbo; Bellessa, Joel; Huant, Serge; Genet, Cyriaque; Drezet, Aurélien

    2016-11-01

    We discuss an alternate paradigm: the chiral electromagnetic local density of states (LDOS) in a spiral plasmonic nanostructure. In both classical and quantum regimes, we reveal using near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) in combination with spin analysis that a spiral cavity possesses spin-dependent local optical modes. We expect this work to lead to promising directions for future quantum plasmonic device development, highlighting the potentials of chirality in quantum information processing.

  13. Structure dependent spin selectivity in electron transport through oligopeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiran, Vankayala; Cohen, Sidney R.; Naaman, Ron

    2017-03-01

    The chiral-induced spin selectivity (CISS) effect entails spin-selective electron transmission through chiral molecules. In the present study, the spin filtering ability of chiral, helical oligopeptide monolayers of two different lengths is demonstrated using magnetic conductive probe atomic force microscopy. Spin-specific nanoscale electron transport studies elucidate that the spin polarization is higher for 14-mer oligopeptides than that of the 10-mer. We also show that the spin filtering ability can be tuned by changing the tip-loading force applied on the molecules. The spin selectivity decreases with increasing applied force, an effect attributed to the increased ratio of radius to pitch of the helix upon compression and increased tilt angles between the molecular axis and the surface normal. The method applied here provides new insights into the parameters controlling the CISS effect.

  14. Topological spin texture in a quantum anomalous Hall insulator.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiansheng; Liu, Jie; Liu, Xiong-Jun

    2014-09-26

    The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect has been recently discovered in an experiment using a thin-film topological insulator with ferromagnetic ordering and strong spin-orbit coupling. Here we investigate the spin degree of freedom of a QAH insulator and uncover the fundamental phenomenon that the edge states exhibit a topologically stable spin texture in the boundary when a chiral-like symmetry is present. This result shows that edge states are chiral in both the orbital and spin degrees of freedom, and the chiral edge spin texture corresponds to the bulk topological states of the QAH insulator. We also study the potential applications of the edge spin texture in designing topological-state-based spin devices, which might be applicable to future spintronic technologies.

  15. Implications for the Origin of Early-type Dwarf Galaxies: A Detailed Look at the Isolated Rotating Early-type Dwarf Galaxy LEDA 2108986 (CG 611), Ramifications for the Fundamental Plane’s {S}_{K}^{2} Kinematic Scaling, and the Spin-Ellipticity Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Alister W.; Janz, Joachim; Penny, Samantha J.; Chilingarian, Igor V.; Ciambur, Bogdan C.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Davies, Roger L.

    2017-05-01

    Selected from a sample of nine, isolated, dwarf early-type galaxies (ETGs) with the same range of kinematic properties as dwarf ETGs in clusters, we use LEDA 2108986 (CG 611) to address the nature versus nurture debate regarding the formation of dwarf ETGs. The presence of faint disk structures and rotation within some cluster dwarf ETGs has often been heralded as evidence that they were once late-type spiral or dwarf irregular galaxies prior to experiencing a cluster-induced transformation into an ETG. However, CG 611 also contains significant stellar rotation (≈20 km s-1) over its inner half-light radius ({R}{{e},{maj}}=0.71 kpc), and its stellar structure and kinematics resemble those of cluster ETGs. In addition to hosting a faint young nuclear spiral within a possible intermediate-scale stellar disk, CG 611 has accreted an intermediate-scale, counter-rotating gas disk. It is therefore apparent that dwarf ETGs can be built by accretion events, as opposed to disk-stripping scenarios. We go on to discuss how both dwarf and ordinary ETGs with intermediate-scale disks, whether under (de)construction or not, are not fully represented by the kinematic scaling {S}0.5=\\sqrt{0.5 {V}{rot}2+{σ }2}, and we also introduce a modified spin-ellipticity diagram λ (R)-ɛ (R) with the potential to track galaxies with such disks.

  16. All-electrical production of spin-polarized currents in carbon nanotubes: Rashba spin-orbit interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Hernán; Latgé, A.; Alvarellos, J. E.; Chico, Leonor

    2016-04-01

    We study the effect of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction in the quantum transport of carbon nanotubes with arbitrary chiralities. For certain spin directions, we find a strong spin-polarized electrical current that depends on the diameter of the tube, the length of the Rashba region, and on the tube chirality. Predictions for the spin-dependent conductances are presented for different families of achiral and chiral tubes. We have found that different symmetries acting on spatial and spin variables have to be considered in order to explain the relations between spin-resolved conductances in carbon nanotubes. These symmetries are more general than those employed in planar graphene systems. Our results indicate the possibility of having stable spin-polarized electrical currents in absence of external magnetic fields or magnetic impurities in carbon nanotubes.

  17. Space Group Symmetry Fractionalization in a Chiral Kagome Heisenberg Antiferromagnet.

    PubMed

    Zaletel, Michael P; Zhu, Zhenyue; Lu, Yuan-Ming; Vishwanath, Ashvin; White, Steven R

    2016-05-13

    The anyonic excitations of a spin liquid can feature fractional quantum numbers under space group symmetries. Detecting these fractional quantum numbers, which are analogs of the fractional charge of Laughlin quasiparticles, may prove easier than the direct observation of anyonic braiding and statistics. Motivated by the recent numerical discovery of spin-liquid phases in the kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet, we theoretically predict the pattern of space group symmetry fractionalization in the kagome lattice SO(3)-symmetric chiral spin liquid. We provide a method to detect these fractional quantum numbers in finite-size numerics which is simple to implement in the density matrix renormalization group. Applying these developments to the chiral spin liquid phase of a kagome Heisenberg model, we find perfect agreement between our theoretical prediction and numerical observations.

  18. Observation of the chiral magnetic effect in ZrTe₅

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Qiang; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.; Zhang, Cheng; ...

    2015-02-08

    The chiral magnetic effect is the generation of electric current induced by chirality imbalance in the presence of magnetic field. It is a macroscopic manifestation of the quantum anomaly in relativistic field theory of chiral fermions (massless spin 1/2 particles with a definite projection of spin on momentum) – a dramatic phenomenon arising from a collective motion of particles and antiparticles in the Dirac sea. The recent discovery of Dirac semimetals with chiral quasi-particles opens a fascinating possibility to study this phenomenon in condensed matter experiments. Here we report on the first observation of chiral magnetic effect through the measurementmore » of magneto-transport in zirconium pentatelluride, ZrTe₅. Our angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments show that this material’s electronic structure is consistent with a 3D Dirac semimetal. We observe a large negative magnetoresistance when magnetic field is parallel with the current. The measured quadratic field dependence of the magnetoconductance is a clear indication of the chiral magnetic effect. Furthermore, the observed phenomenon stems from the effective transmutation of Dirac semimetal into a Weyl semimetal induced by the parallel electric and magnetic fields that represent a topologically nontrivial gauge field background.« less

  19. Observation of the chiral magnetic effect in ZrTe₅

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qiang; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.; Zhang, Cheng; Huang, Yuan; Pletikosic, I.; Fedorov, A. V.; Zhong, R. D.; Schneeloch, J. A.; Gu, G. D.; Valla, T.

    2015-02-08

    The chiral magnetic effect is the generation of electric current induced by chirality imbalance in the presence of magnetic field. It is a macroscopic manifestation of the quantum anomaly in relativistic field theory of chiral fermions (massless spin 1/2 particles with a definite projection of spin on momentum) – a dramatic phenomenon arising from a collective motion of particles and antiparticles in the Dirac sea. The recent discovery of Dirac semimetals with chiral quasi-particles opens a fascinating possibility to study this phenomenon in condensed matter experiments. Here we report on the first observation of chiral magnetic effect through the measurement of magneto-transport in zirconium pentatelluride, ZrTe₅. Our angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments show that this material’s electronic structure is consistent with a 3D Dirac semimetal. We observe a large negative magnetoresistance when magnetic field is parallel with the current. The measured quadratic field dependence of the magnetoconductance is a clear indication of the chiral magnetic effect. Furthermore, the observed phenomenon stems from the effective transmutation of Dirac semimetal into a Weyl semimetal induced by the parallel electric and magnetic fields that represent a topologically nontrivial gauge field background.

  20. Chiral magnetic superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharzeev, Dmitri E.

    2017-03-01

    Materials with charged chiral quasiparticles in external parallel electric and magnetic fields can support an electric current that grows linearly in time, corresponding to diverging DC conductivity. From experimental viewpoint, this "Chiral Magnetic Superconductivity" (CMS) is thus analogous to conventional superconductivity. However the underlying physics is entirely different - the CMS does not require a condensate of Cooper pairs breaking the gauge degeneracy, and is thus not accompanied by Meissner effect. Instead, it owes its existence to the (temperature-independent) quantum chiral anomaly and the conservation of chirality. As a result, this phenomenon can be expected to survive to much higher temperatures. Even though the chirality of quasiparticles is not strictly conserved in real materials, the chiral magnetic superconductivity should still exhibit itself in AC measurements at frequencies larger than the chirality-flipping rate, and in microstructures of Dirac and Weyl semimetals with thickness below the mean chirality-flipping length that is about 1 - 100 μm. In nuclear physics, the CMS should contribute to the charge-dependent elliptic flow in heavy ion collisions.

  1. Superenantioselective chiral surface explosions.

    PubMed

    Gellman, Andrew J; Huang, Ye; Feng, Xu; Pushkarev, Vladimir V; Holsclaw, Brian; Mhatre, Bharat S

    2013-12-26

    Chiral inorganic materials predated life on Earth, and their enantiospecific surface chemistry may have played a role in the origins of biomolecular homochirality. However, enantiospecific differences in the interaction energies of chiral molecules with chiral surfaces are small and typically lead to modest enantioselectivities in adsorption, catalysis, and chemistry on chiral surfaces. To yield high enantioselectivities, small energy differences must be amplified by reaction mechanisms such as autocatalytic surface explosions which have nonlinear kinetics. Herein, we report the first observations of superenantiospecificity resulting from an autocatalytic surface explosion reaction of a chiral molecule on a naturally chiral surface. R,R- and S,S-tartaric acid decompose via a vacancy-mediated surface explosion mechanism on Cu single crystal surfaces. When coupled with surface chirality, this leads to decomposition rates that exhibit extraordinarily high enantiospecificity. On the enantiomorphs of naturally chiral Cu(643)(R&S), Cu(17,5,1)(R&S), Cu(531)(R&S) and Cu(651)(R&S) single crystal surfaces, R,R- and S,S-tartaric acid exhibit enantiospecific decomposition rates that differ by as much as 2 orders of magnitude, despite the fact that the effective rates constants for decomposition differ by less than a factor of 2.

  2. Chiral magnetism at oxide interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randeria, Mohit

    2014-03-01

    There are tantalizing hints of magnetism at the n-type LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface, but the experimental evidence remains controversial in view of some of the differences between different samples and probes. I will argue that if magnetism exists at interfaces, symmetry arguments imply chiral interactions that lead to a spiral ground state in zero external field and skyrmion crystals for H ≠ 0 . I will next present a microscopic model that provides a possible mechanism for the formation of local moments. I will show that the coupling of these moments to itinerant electrons leads to ferromagnetic double exchange together with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions and an easy-plane ``compass'' anisotropy, which arise from Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) due to the lack of inversion symmetry at the interface. The compass term, often ignored in the literature on chiral magnetism, is shown to play a crucial role in determining the magnetic ground state. I will compare our results with existing torque magnetometry data on LAO/STO and try to reconcile it with scanning SQUID magnetometry. Finally, I will present the phase diagram in a field and show that easy-plane anisotropy stabilizes an unexpectedly large skyrmion crystal phase and describe its properties. (Work done in collaboration with Sumilan Banerjee, Onur Erten, Daniel Kestner and James Rowland). Supported by DOE-BES DE-SC0005035, NSF-DMR-1006532 and NSF MRSEC DMR-0820414.

  3. Chiral baryon with quantized pions

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, J.A.; Price, J.A.

    1993-04-01

    The authors consider a hybrid chiral baryon model starting from the Gell-Mann-Levy linear sigma model with the sigma and pion fields coupled to quarks. Instead of employing the standard hedgehog ansatz, the authors solve the model using a Fock-space configuration consisting of a component with three quarks plus a component with three quarks and an explicit pion. In each component, the quarks (and pion) are directly coupled to the spin and isospin appropriate to a nucleon and the coupling is preserved throughout the calculation. The authors minimizes the groundstate expectation value of the Gell-Mann-Levy Hamiltonian to obtain the equations of motion which are solved self-consistently. They calculatess the canonical set of nucleon observables and compare them with previous work.

  4. Generalized Stern-Gerlach Effect for Chiral Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Bruder, C.; Sun, C. P.

    2007-09-01

    The Stern-Gerlach effect is well known as spin-dependent splitting of a beam of atoms with magnetic moments by a magnetic-field gradient. Here, we show that an induced gauge potential may lead to a similar effect for chiral molecules. In the presence of three inhomogeneous light fields, the center of mass of a three-level chiral molecule is subject to an optically induced gauge potential, and the internal dynamics of the molecule can be described as an adiabatic evolution in the reduced pseudospin subspace of the two lowest energy levels. We demonstrate numerically that such an induced gauge potential can lead to observable pseudospin-dependent and chirality-dependent generalized Stern-Gerlach effects for mixed left- and right-handed chiral molecules under realistic conditions.

  5. Chiral Lagrangian for baryons in the 1/Nc expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Elizabeth

    1996-03-01

    A 1/Nc expansion of the chiral Lagrangian for baryons is formulated and used to study the low-energy dynamics of baryons interacting with the pion nonet π, K, η, and η' in a combined expansion in chiral symmetry breaking and 1/Nc. Strong CP violation is included. The chiral Lagrangian correctly implements nonet symmetry and contracted spin-flavor symmetry for baryons in the large Nc limit. The implications of nonet symmetry for low-energy baryon-pion interactions are described in detail. The procedure for calculating nonanalytic pion-loop corrections to baryon amplitudes in the 1/Nc expansion for finite Nc is explained. Flavor-27 baryon mass splittings are calculated at leading order in chiral perturbation theory as an example.

  6. Generalized Stern-Gerlach effect for chiral molecules.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Bruder, C; Sun, C P

    2007-09-28

    The Stern-Gerlach effect is well known as spin-dependent splitting of a beam of atoms with magnetic moments by a magnetic-field gradient. Here, we show that an induced gauge potential may lead to a similar effect for chiral molecules. In the presence of three inhomogeneous light fields, the center of mass of a three-level chiral molecule is subject to an optically induced gauge potential, and the internal dynamics of the molecule can be described as an adiabatic evolution in the reduced pseudospin subspace of the two lowest energy levels. We demonstrate numerically that such an induced gauge potential can lead to observable pseudospin-dependent and chirality-dependent generalized Stern-Gerlach effects for mixed left- and right-handed chiral molecules under realistic conditions.

  7. Intensive chiroptical properties of chiral polyfluorenes associated with fibril formation.

    PubMed

    Lakhwani, Girish; Gielen, Jeroen; Kemerink, Martijn; Christianen, Peter C M; Janssen, René A J; Meskers, Stefan C J

    2009-10-29

    Thin films of chiral poly{9,9-bis[(3S)-3,7-dimethyloctyl]-2,7-fluorene} (1) were studied using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Films spin coated from chloroform solution, show CD with a degree of polarization g(abs) (= +4 x 10(-4) at 400 nm) that is independent of film thickness (50-290 nm). This implies that g(abs) is an intensive property of the material and related to the chiral organization of the molecules on a length scale less than 50 nm. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) on the films reveals fibrils. Addition of nonsolvent methanol to a solution of 1 in chloroform leads to fibril formation in solution and results in CD similar in band shape to that of the pristine spin coated films from chloroform solution and a g(abs) comparable in magnitude. Thus the chiral molecular arrangement leading to circular dichroism is part of the internal structure of these fibrils.

  8. Chiral d-wave superconductivity in doped graphene.

    PubMed

    Black-Schaffer, Annica M; Honerkamp, Carsten

    2014-10-22

    A highly unconventional superconducting state with a spin-singlet dx2-y2+/-idxy-wave, or chiral d-wave symmetry has recently been suggested to emerge from electron-electron interactions in doped graphene. It has been argued that graphene doped to the van Hove singularity at 1/4 doping, where the density of states diverge, is particularly likely to be a chiral d-wave superconductor. In this review we summarize the currently mounting theoretical evidence for the existence of a chiral d-wave superconducting state in graphene, obtained with methods ranging from mean-field studies of effective Hamiltonians to angle-resolved renormalization group calculations. We further discuss the multiple distinctive properties of the chiral d-wave superconducting state in graphene, as well as its stability in the presence of disorder. We also review the means of enhancing the chiral d-wave state using proximity-induced superconductivity. The appearance of chiral d-wave superconductivity is intimately linked to the hexagonal crystal lattice and we also offer a brief overview of other materials which have also been proposed to be chiral d-wave superconductors.

  9. Chiral Sensitivity in the Dissociative Electron Attachment of Halocamphor Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreiling, Joan

    2016-05-01

    We have demonstrated chirally-dependent molecular destruction when incident longitudinally-spin-polarized (chiral) electrons break bonds in chiral molecules. This chiral sensitivity was observed through an asymmetry in the dissociative electron attachment (DEA) reaction rate with chiral 3-bromocamphor (C10 H15 BrO). Such an observation provides an unambiguous demonstration of the idea underlying the Vester-Ulbricht hypothesis, which attempts to explain the origins of the homochirality that is observed in many biological systems. While the lack of inversion symmetry in these reactions allows the effects we observe to occur, their dynamic causes are poorly understood. We have further studied the asymmetries in the DEA rates for two additional halocamphor molecules, 3-iodocamphor (C10 H15 IO) and 10-iodocamphor, in a systematic effort to illuminate the mechanisms responsible for the chiral sensitivity. The DEA signal depends on the sign of the incident electron helicity for a given target handedness in all molecules, and it varies with both the atomic number and the location of the heaviest atom in the molecule. Surprisingly, the DEA asymmetries for 10-iodocamphor, in which the heaviest atom is farther from a chiral center than for the other molecules, produced the largest asymmetries. This work was performed at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. This project was funded by NSF Grant PHY-1206067.

  10. Polar Superhelices in Ferroelectric Chiral Nanosprings

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Takahiro; Lich, Le Van; Nagano, Koyo; Wang, Jian-Shan; Wang, Jie; Kitamura, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Topological objects of nontrivial spin or dipolar field textures, such as skyrmions, merons, and vortices, interacting with applied external fields in ferroic materials are of great scientific interest as an intriguing playground of unique physical phenomena and novel technological paradigms. The quest for new topological configurations of such swirling field textures has primarily been done for magnets with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, while the absence of such intrinsic chiral interactions among electric dipoles left ferroelectrics aside in this quest. Here, we demonstrate that a helical polarization coiled into another helix, namely a polar superhelix, can be extrinsically stabilized in ferroelectric nanosprings. The interplay between dipolar interactions confined in the chiral geometry and the complex strain field of mixed bending and twisting induces the superhelical configuration of electric polarization. The geometrical structure of the polar superhelix gives rise to electric chiralities at two different length scales and the coexistence of three order parameters, i.e., polarization, toroidization, and hypertoroidization, both of which can be manipulated by homogeneous electric and/or mechanical fields. Our work therefore provides a new geometrical configuration of swirling dipolar fields, which offers the possibility of multiple order-parameters, and electromechanically controllable dipolar chiralities and associated electro-optical responses. PMID:27713540

  11. Polar Superhelices in Ferroelectric Chiral Nanosprings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Takahiro; Lich, Le Van; Nagano, Koyo; Wang, Jian-Shan; Wang, Jie; Kitamura, Takayuki

    2016-10-01

    Topological objects of nontrivial spin or dipolar field textures, such as skyrmions, merons, and vortices, interacting with applied external fields in ferroic materials are of great scientific interest as an intriguing playground of unique physical phenomena and novel technological paradigms. The quest for new topological configurations of such swirling field textures has primarily been done for magnets with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, while the absence of such intrinsic chiral interactions among electric dipoles left ferroelectrics aside in this quest. Here, we demonstrate that a helical polarization coiled into another helix, namely a polar superhelix, can be extrinsically stabilized in ferroelectric nanosprings. The interplay between dipolar interactions confined in the chiral geometry and the complex strain field of mixed bending and twisting induces the superhelical configuration of electric polarization. The geometrical structure of the polar superhelix gives rise to electric chiralities at two different length scales and the coexistence of three order parameters, i.e., polarization, toroidization, and hypertoroidization, both of which can be manipulated by homogeneous electric and/or mechanical fields. Our work therefore provides a new geometrical configuration of swirling dipolar fields, which offers the possibility of multiple order-parameters, and electromechanically controllable dipolar chiralities and associated electro-optical responses.

  12. Chiral damping of magnetic domain walls.

    PubMed

    Jué, Emilie; Safeer, C K; Drouard, Marc; Lopez, Alexandre; Balint, Paul; Buda-Prejbeanu, Liliana; Boulle, Olivier; Auffret, Stephane; Schuhl, Alain; Manchon, Aurelien; Miron, Ioan Mihai; Gaudin, Gilles

    2016-03-01

    Structural symmetry breaking in magnetic materials is responsible for the existence of multiferroics, current-induced spin-orbit torques and some topological magnetic structures. In this Letter we report that the structural inversion asymmetry (SIA) gives rise to a chiral damping mechanism, which is evidenced by measuring the field-driven domain-wall (DW) motion in perpendicularly magnetized asymmetric Pt/Co/Pt trilayers. The DW dynamics associated with the chiral damping and those with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) exhibit identical spatial symmetry. However, both scenarios are differentiated by their time reversal properties: whereas DMI is a conservative effect that can be modelled by an effective field, the chiral damping is purely dissipative and has no influence on the equilibrium magnetic texture. When the DW motion is modulated by an in-plane magnetic field, it reveals the structure of the internal fields experienced by the DWs, allowing one to distinguish the physical mechanism. The chiral damping enriches the spectrum of physical phenomena engendered by the SIA, and is essential for conceiving DW and skyrmion devices owing to its coexistence with DMI (ref. ).

  13. Tunable inertia of chiral magnetic domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrejon, Jacob; Martinez, Eduardo; Hayashi, Masamitsu

    2016-11-01

    The time it takes to accelerate an object from zero to a given velocity depends on the applied force and the environment. If the force ceases, it takes exactly the same time to completely decelerate. A magnetic domain wall is a topological object that has been observed to follow this behaviour. Here we show that acceleration and deceleration times of chiral Neel walls driven by current are different in a system with low damping and moderate Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya exchange constant. The time needed to accelerate a domain wall with current via the spin Hall torque is much faster than the time it needs to decelerate once the current is turned off. The deceleration time is defined by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya exchange constant whereas the acceleration time depends on the spin Hall torque, enabling tunable inertia of chiral domain walls. Such unique feature of chiral domain walls can be utilized to move and position domain walls with lower current, key to the development of storage class memory devices.

  14. Tunable inertia of chiral magnetic domain walls.

    PubMed

    Torrejon, Jacob; Martinez, Eduardo; Hayashi, Masamitsu

    2016-11-24

    The time it takes to accelerate an object from zero to a given velocity depends on the applied force and the environment. If the force ceases, it takes exactly the same time to completely decelerate. A magnetic domain wall is a topological object that has been observed to follow this behaviour. Here we show that acceleration and deceleration times of chiral Neel walls driven by current are different in a system with low damping and moderate Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya exchange constant. The time needed to accelerate a domain wall with current via the spin Hall torque is much faster than the time it needs to decelerate once the current is turned off. The deceleration time is defined by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya exchange constant whereas the acceleration time depends on the spin Hall torque, enabling tunable inertia of chiral domain walls. Such unique feature of chiral domain walls can be utilized to move and position domain walls with lower current, key to the development of storage class memory devices.

  15. Tunable inertia of chiral magnetic domain walls

    PubMed Central

    Torrejon, Jacob; Martinez, Eduardo; Hayashi, Masamitsu

    2016-01-01

    The time it takes to accelerate an object from zero to a given velocity depends on the applied force and the environment. If the force ceases, it takes exactly the same time to completely decelerate. A magnetic domain wall is a topological object that has been observed to follow this behaviour. Here we show that acceleration and deceleration times of chiral Neel walls driven by current are different in a system with low damping and moderate Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya exchange constant. The time needed to accelerate a domain wall with current via the spin Hall torque is much faster than the time it needs to decelerate once the current is turned off. The deceleration time is defined by the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya exchange constant whereas the acceleration time depends on the spin Hall torque, enabling tunable inertia of chiral domain walls. Such unique feature of chiral domain walls can be utilized to move and position domain walls with lower current, key to the development of storage class memory devices. PMID:27882932

  16. Molecular model for chirality phenomena.

    PubMed

    Latinwo, Folarin; Stillinger, Frank H; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2016-10-21

    Chirality is a hallmark feature for molecular recognition in biology and chemical physics. We present a three-dimensional continuum model for studying chirality phenomena in condensed phases using molecular simulations. Our model system is based upon a simple four-site molecule and incorporates non-trivial kinetic behavior, including the ability to switch chirality or racemize, as well as thermodynamics arising from an energetic preference for specific chiral interactions. In particular, we introduce a chiral renormalization parameter that can locally favor either homochiral or heterochiral configurations. Using this model, we explore a range of chirality-specific phenomena, including the kinetics of chiral inversion, the mechanism of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the liquid, chirally driven liquid-liquid phase separation, and chiral crystal structures.

  17. Suzaku Observations of 4U 1957+11: Potentially the Most Rapidly Spinning Black Hole in (the Halo of) the Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Wilms, Joern; Pottschmidt, Katja; Schulz, Norbert; Maitra, Dipankar; Miller, Jon

    2011-01-01

    We present three Suzaku observations of the black hole candidate 4U 1957+11 (V 1408 Aql) - a source that exhibits some of. the simplest and cleanest examples of soft, disk-dominated spectra. 4U 1957+ II also presents among the. highest peak temperatures found from disk-dominated spectra. Such temperatures may be associated with rapid black hole spin. The 4U 1957+11 spectra also require a very low normalization, which can be explained by a combination of small inner disk radius and a large distance (> 10 kpc) which places 4U 1957+ 11 well into the Galactic halo. We perform Joint fits to the Suzaku spectra with both relativistic and Comptonized disk models. Assuming a low mass black hole and the nearest distance (3 Stellar Mass, 10 kpc), the dimensionless spin parameter a* = Jc/GM(sup 2)> or approx. 0.9. Higher masses and farther distances yield a* approx. = 1. Similar conclusions are reached with Comptonization models; they imply a combination of small inner disk radii (or, equivalently, rapid spin) and large distance. Low spin cannot be recovered unless 4U 1957+11 is a low mass black hole that is at the unusually large distance of > or approx.40 kpc. We speculate whether the suggested maximal spin is related to how the system came to reside in the halo.

  18. SUZAKU OBSERVATIONS OF 4U 1957+11: POTENTIALLY THE MOST RAPIDLY SPINNING BLACK HOLE IN (THE HALO OF) THE GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, Michael A.; Schulz, Norbert; Wilms, Joern; Pottschmidt, Katja; Maitra, Dipankar; Miller, Jon E-mail: nss@space.mit.edu E-mail: katja@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov E-mail: jonmm@umich.edu

    2012-01-10

    We present three Suzaku observations of the black hole candidate 4U 1957+11 (V1408 Aql)-a source that exhibits some of the simplest and cleanest examples of soft, disk-dominated spectra. 4U 1957+11 also presents among the highest peak temperatures found from disk-dominated spectra. Such temperatures may be associated with rapid black hole spin. The 4U 1957+11 spectra also require a very low normalization, which can be explained by a combination of small inner disk radius and a large distance (>10 kpc) which places 4U 1957+11 well into the Galactic halo. We perform joint fits to the Suzaku spectra with both relativistic and Comptonized disk models. Assuming a low-mass black hole and the nearest distance (3 M{sub Sun }, 10 kpc), the dimensionless spin parameter a* {identical_to} Jc/GM{sup 2} {approx}> 0.9. Higher masses and farther distances yield a* Almost-Equal-To 1. Similar conclusions are reached with Comptonization models; they imply a combination of small inner disk radii (or, equivalently, rapid spin) and large distance. Low spin cannot be recovered unless 4U 1957+11 is a low-mass black hole that is at the unusually large distance of {approx}> 40 kpc. We speculate whether the suggested maximal spin is related to how the system came to reside in the halo.

  19. Applications of chiral symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Pisarski, R.D.

    1995-03-01

    The author discusses several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature. First, where does the rho go? The answer: up. The restoration of chiral symmetry at a temperature T{sub {chi}} implies that the {rho} and a{sub 1} vector mesons are degenerate in mass. In a gauged linear sigma model the {rho} mass increases with temperature, m{sub {rho}}(T{sub {chi}}) > m{sub {rho}}(0). The author conjectures that at T{sub {chi}} the thermal {rho} - a{sub 1}, peak is relatively high, at about {approximately}1 GeV, with a width approximately that at zero temperature (up to standard kinematic factors). The {omega} meson also increases in mass, nearly degenerate with the {rho}, but its width grows dramatically with temperature, increasing to at least {approximately}100 MeV by T{sub {chi}}. The author also stresses how utterly remarkable the principle of vector meson dominance is, when viewed from the modern perspective of the renormalization group. Secondly, he discusses the possible appearance of disoriented chiral condensates from {open_quotes}quenched{close_quotes} heavy ion collisions. It appears difficult to obtain large domains of disoriented chiral condensates in the standard two flavor model. This leads to the last topic, which is the phase diagram for QCD with three flavors, and its proximity to the chiral critical point. QCD may be very near this chiral critical point, and one might thereby generated large domains of disoriented chiral condensates.

  20. Universal spin-momentum locked optical forces

    SciTech Connect

    Kalhor, Farid; Thundat, Thomas; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-02-08

    Evanescent electromagnetic waves possess spin-momentum locking, where the direction of propagation (momentum) is locked to the inherent polarization of the wave (transverse spin). We study the optical forces arising from this universal phenomenon and show that the fundamental origin of recently reported non-trivial optical chiral forces is spin-momentum locking. For evanescent waves, we show that the direction of energy flow, the direction of decay, and the direction of spin follow a right hand rule for three different cases of total internal reflection, surface plasmon polaritons, and HE{sub 11} mode of an optical fiber. Furthermore, we explain how the recently reported phenomena of lateral optical force on chiral and achiral particles are caused by the transverse spin of the evanescent field and the spin-momentum locking phenomenon. Finally, we propose an experiment to identify the unique lateral forces arising from the transverse spin in the optical fiber and point to fundamental differences of the spin density from the well-known orbital angular momentum of light. Our work presents a unified view on spin-momentum locking and how it affects optical forces on chiral and achiral particles.

  1. Finite nuclei in relativistic models with a light chiral scalar meson

    SciTech Connect

    Serot, B.D.; Furnstahl, R.J.

    1993-10-01

    Relativistic chiral models with a light scalar, meson appear to provide an economical marriage of successful relativistic mean-field theories and chiral symmetry. In these models, the scalar meson serves as both the chiral partner of the pion and the mediator of the intermediate-range nucleon-nucleon (NN) attraction. However, while some of these models can reproduce the empirical nuclear matter saturation point, they fail to reproduce observed properties of finite nuclei, such as spin-orbit splittings, shell structure, charge densities, and surface energetics. There deficiencies imply that this realization of chiral symmetry is incorrect. An alternative scenario for chiral hadronic models, which features a heavy chiral scalar and dynamical generation of the NN attraction, is discussed.

  2. Anatomy of the chiral magnetic effect in and out of equilibrium

    DOE PAGES

    Kharzeev, Dmitri; Stephanov, Mikhail; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2017-03-28

    Here, we identify a new contribution to the chiral magnetic conductivity at finite frequencies—the magnetization current. This allows us to quantitatively reproduce the known field-theoretic time-dependent (AC) chiral magnetic response in terms of kinetic theory. We also evaluate the corresponding AC chiral magnetic conductivity in two-flavor QCD plasma at weak coupling. The magnetization current results from the spin response of chiral quasiparticles to magnetic field, and is thus proportional to the quasiparticle’s g -factor. Furthemrore, in condensed matter systems, where the chiral quasiparticles are emergent and the g -factor can significantly differ from 2, this opens up the possibility ofmore » tuning the AC chiral magnetic response.« less

  3. Quantum melting of spin ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoda, Shigeki; Tanaka, Yoichi

    2010-03-01

    A quantum melting of the spin ice is proposed for pyrochlore-lattice magnets Pr2TM2O7 (TM =Ir, Zr, and Sn). The quantum pseudospin-1/2 model is derived from the strong-coupling perturbation of the f-p electron transfer in the basis of atomic non-Kramers magnetic doublets. The ground states are characterized by a cooperative ferroquadrupole and pseudospin chirality in the cubic unit cell, forming a magnetic analog of smectic liquid crystals. Then, pinch points observed in spin correlations for dipolar spin-ice systems are replaced with the minima. The relevance to experiments is discussed.

  4. Proposed Chiral Doublet Bands in 98Tc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Huai-Bo; Zhu, Sheng-Jiang; Wang, Jian-Guo; Gu, Long; Xu, Qiang; Xiao, Zhi-Gang; Yeoha, Eing-Yee; Zhang, Ming; Zhu, Li-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Ying; He, Chuang-Ye; Wang, Lie-Lin; Pan, Bo; Li, Guang-Sheng

    2010-07-01

    High spin states in odd-odd98 Tc nuclei are studied by in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy with the 96Zr(6Li, 4n) fusion-evaporation reaction at a beam energy of 35 MeV. The previous level scheme is updated. A band based on 1090.7 keV is expanded, and another band based on 1920.6 keV is newly identified. The observed two negative parity bands in 98Tc are proposed to be a pair of chiral doublet bands with the configuration πg9/2 otimes νh11/2. The evidence supporting the assignment of the chiral doublet bands is discussed. Signature splitting and signature inversion are observed in the πg9/2 otimes νh11/2 band in 98Tc.

  5. Catalysis of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking by chiral chemical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braguta, V. V.; Kotov, A. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we study the properties of media with chiral imbalance parametrized by chiral chemical potential. It is shown that depending on the strength of interaction between constituents in the media the chiral chemical potential either creates or enhances dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Thus, the chiral chemical potential plays the role of the catalyst of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Physically, this effect results from the appearance of the Fermi surface and additional fermion states on this surface, which take part in dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. An interesting conclusion which can be drawn is that at sufficiently small temperature chiral plasma is unstable with respect to condensation of Cooper pairs and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking even for vanishingly small interactions between constituents.

  6. Chirality Differentiation by Diffusion in Chiral Nematic Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jinghua; Yang, Deng-Ke

    2017-01-01

    Chirality is of great importance in the living world. It helps differentiate biochemical reactions such as those that take place during digestion. It may also help differentiate physical processes such as diffusion. Aiming to study the latter effect, we investigate the diffusion of guest chiral molecules in chiral nematic (cholesteric) liquid-crystal hosts. We discover that the diffusion dramatically depends on the handedness of the guest and host molecules and the chiral differentiation is greatly enhanced by the proper alignment of the liquid-crystal host. The diffusion of a guest chiral molecule in a chiral host with the same handedness is much faster than in a chiral host with opposite handedness. We also observe that the differentiation of chirality depends on the diffusion direction with respect to the twisting direction (helical axis). These results might be important in understanding effects of chirality on physical processes that take place in biological organisms. In addition, this effect could be utilized for enantiomer separation.

  7. Inertial Mass from Spin Nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Marcus

    The inertial mass of a Fermion shows up as chiral cross-coupling in its Dirac system. No scalar term can invariantly couple left and right chirality fields; the Dirac matrices must be spin tensors of mixed chirality. We show how such tensor couplings could arise from nonlinear mixing of four spinor fields, two representing the local electron fields and two inertial spinor fields sourced in the distant masses. We thus give a model that implements Mach's principle. Following Mendel Sachs,1 we let the inertial spinors factor the moving spacetime tetrads qα(x) and bar {q}α (x) that appear in the Dirac operator. The inertial spinors do more than set the spacetime "stage;" they are players in the chiral dynamics. Specifically, we show how the massive Dirac system arises as the envelope modulation equations coupling left and right chirality electron fields on a Friedmann universe via nonlinear "spin gratings" with the inertial spinor fields. These gratings implement Penrose's "mass-scatterings," which keep the null zig-zags of the bispinor wave function confined to a timelike world tube. Local perturbations to the inertial spinor fields appear in the Dirac system as Abelian and non-Abelian vector potentials.

  8. Rooting Prebiotic Chirality in Spinomeric Chemistry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Radu; Cimpoiašu, Vily Marius; Scorei, Romulus Ion

    2009-10-01

    Spinomeric chemistry is a domain of physical chemistry that explores the role of spin-isomery in chemical reactivity. In large magnetic fields (B), chemical structures with three adjacent nuclear spins (such as H217O, H233O,-NH2 and 13CH2) form complex spinomers. Known departure from a 1:1 ratio between various types of spinomers opens interesting research avenues in their potential role in asymmetric hydration processes. Recent time domain 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-1HNMR) findings revealed the existence of small, yet consistent, H217O-controlled enantio-different proton exchange reactivity in sugars. The mechanisms behind this effect are unclear and may involve spinomer/enantiocenter (e.g. H217O/*C) interactions or spinomer/spinomer (e.g. H217O-NH2) interactions. We developed an experimental model that allows for the verification and study of such effects. We used TD-1HNMR at 0.589T to study and compare proton exchange enantio-differences in asparagine (Asn) and mandelic acid in response to titration with at constant pH. Unlike Asn, mandelic acid has no complex spinomer group (such as -NH2) in its chiral center. We report finding enantio-differences regarding ΔpK and 1/T2(0) correlated with H217/O, and linear changes in ΔM2 indicating differences in the affinity of enantiomers for H217O surface hydration. These results stress the importance of H217O-based spinomeric chemistry in chiral reactivity and open windows toward a novel interpretation of the origin of prebiotic chiral reactivity in the presence of moderately large B (such as on magnetic mineral surfaces or on satellites of gaseous giants), as well as toward abiotic isotopic fractionation of H217O in the presence of chiral organic molecules.

  9. Chiral magnetic wave

    SciTech Connect

    Kharzeev, Dmitri E.; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2011-04-15

    We consider a relativistic plasma containing charged chiral fermions in an external magnetic field, e.g. a chirally symmetric quark-gluon plasma created in relativistic heavy ion collisions. We show that triangle anomalies imply the existence of a new type of collective gapless excitation in this system that stems from the coupling between the density waves of the electric and chiral charges; we call it ''the chiral magnetic wave'' (CMW). The CMW exists even in a neutral plasma, i.e. in the absence of the axial and vector chemical potentials. We demonstrate the existence of CMW and study its properties using three different approaches: i) relativistic magnetohydrodynamics; ii) dimensional reduction to (1+1) Sine-Gordon model, appropriate in a strong magnetic field; and iii) holographic QCD (Sakai-Sugimoto model), appropriate at strong coupling. We also briefly discuss the phenomenological implications of the CMW for heavy ion collisions.

  10. Relativistic Chiral Kinetic Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephanov, Mikhail

    2016-12-01

    This very brief review of the recent progress in chiral kinetic theory is based on the results of Refs. [J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, Y. Yin, Lorentz Invariance in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (18) (2014) 182302. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.182302; J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, Collisions in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 (2) (2015) 021601. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.021601; M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, The no-drag frame for anomalous chiral fluid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 (12) (2016) 122302. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.122302].

  11. Chiral Hypervalent, Pentacoordinated Phosphoranes.

    PubMed

    Krasowska, Dorota; Chrzanowski, Jacek; Kiełbasiński, Piotr; Drabowicz, Józef

    2016-11-21

    This review presents synthetic procedures applied to the preparation of chiral (mainly optically active) pentacoordinated, hypervalent mono and bicyclic phosphoranes. The mechanisms of their stereoisomerization and their selected interconversions are also presented.

  12. Biocatalysis: Chiral cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Bo; Reetz, Manfred T.

    2015-12-01

    Racemic or enantiomerically pure alcohols can be converted with high yield into enantiopure chiral amines in a one-pot redox-neutral cascade process by the clever combination of an alcohol dehydrogenase and an appropriate amine dehydrogenase.

  13. The mass and spin of the extreme Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy 1H 0707-495 and its implications for the trigger for relativistic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Done, Chris; Jin, Chichuan

    2016-08-01

    Relativistic reflection models of the X-ray spectrum of the `complex' Narrow Line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) 1H 0707-495 require a high-spin, moderate-inclination, low-mass black hole. With these parameters fixed, the observed optical/UV emission directly determines the mass accretion rate through the outer disc and hence predicts the bolometric luminosity. This is 140-260 times the Eddington limit. Such a disc should power a strong wind, and winds are generically expected to be clumpy. Changing inclination angle with respect to a clumpy wind structure gives a possible explanation for the otherwise puzzling difference between `complex' NLS1 such as 1H 0707-495 and `simple' ones like PG 1244+026. Lines of sight which intercept the wind show deep absorption features at iron from the hot phase of the wind, together with stochastic dips and complex absorption when the clumps occult the X-ray source (complex NLS1), whereas both these features are absent for more face-on inclination (simple NLS1). This geometry is quite different from the clean view of a flat disc which is assumed for the spin measurements in relativistic reflection models, so it is possible that even 1H 0707-495 has low spin. If so, this re-opens the simplest and hence very attractive possibility that high black hole spin is a necessary and sufficient condition to trigger highly relativistic (bulk Lorentz factor ˜10-15) jets.

  14. Chirality and protein biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Banik, Sindrila Dutta; Nandi, Nilashis

    2013-01-01

    Chirality is present at all levels of structural hierarchy of protein and plays a significant role in protein biosynthesis. The macromolecules involved in protein biosynthesis such as aminoacyl tRNA synthetase and ribosome have chiral subunits. Despite the omnipresence of chirality in the biosynthetic pathway, its origin, role in current pathway, and importance is far from understood. In this review we first present an introduction to biochirality and its relevance to protein biosynthesis. Major propositions about the prebiotic origin of biomolecules are presented with particular reference to proteins and nucleic acids. The problem of the origin of homochirality is unresolved at present. The chiral discrimination by enzymes involved in protein synthesis is essential for keeping the life process going. However, questions remained pertaining to the mechanism of chiral discrimination and concomitant retention of biochirality. We discuss the experimental evidence which shows that it is virtually impossible to incorporate D-amino acids in protein structures in present biosynthetic pathways via any of the two major steps of protein synthesis, namely aminoacylation and peptide bond formation reactions. Molecular level explanations of the stringent chiral specificity in each step are extended based on computational analysis. A detailed account of the current state of understanding of the mechanism of chiral discrimination during aminoacylation in the active site of aminoacyl tRNA synthetase and peptide bond formation in ribosomal peptidyl transferase center is presented. Finally, it is pointed out that the understanding of the mechanism of retention of enantiopurity has implications in developing novel enzyme mimetic systems and biocatalysts and might be useful in chiral drug design.

  15. The quest for chirality

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, W.A.

    1996-07-01

    The indispensable role played by homochirality and chiral homogeneity in the self-replication of crucial biomolecules is stressed, with the conclusion that life could neither exist nor originate without these chiral molecular attributes. Hypotheses historically proposed for the origin of chiral molecules on Earth are reviewed, including biogenic theories as well as abiotic theories embracing both indeterminate and determinate mechanisms. Indeterminate mechanisms, including autocatalytic symmetry breaking, asymmetric adsorption on quartz and clay minerals, and asymmetric syntheses in chiral crystals, are discussed and evaluated in the context of the prebiotic environment. Abiotic determinate mechanisms based on electric, magnetic and gravitational fields, on circularly polarized light (CPL), and on parity violation effects are summarized, with the emphasis that only CPL has proved practicable experimentally, but that it would be implausible on the primitive Earth. Mechanisms for the amplification of small, indigenous enantiomeric excesses are discussed, with one involving the partial polymerization of amino acids and the partial hydrolysis of polypeptides suggested as potentially viable prebiotically. Aspects of the turbulent, chirality-destructive primeval environment are described, with the conclusion that all of the above mechanisms for the {ital terrestrial} prebiotic origin of chirality would be non-viable, and that an alternative extraterrestrial source for the accumulation of chiral molecules on primitive Earth must have been operative. A scenario for this is outlined, in which we postulate that asymmetric photolysis of the organic mantles on interstellar grains in molecular clouds by circularly polarized ultraviolet synchrotron radiation from the neutron star remnants of supernovae produces chiral molecules in the grain mantles. (Abstract Truncated)

  16. Electrodynamics of chiral matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zebin; Cao, Gaoqing; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2017-02-01

    Many-body systems with chiral fermions can exhibit novel transport phenomena that violate parity and time-reversal symmetries, such as the chiral magnetic effect, the anomalous Hall effect, and the anomalous generation of charge. Based on the Maxwell-Chern-Simons electrodynamics, we examine some electromagnetic and optical properties of such systems including the electrostatics, the magnetostatics, the propagation of electromagnetic waves, the novel optical effects, etc.

  17. Chiral Sensitivity in Electron-Molecule Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreiling, Joan

    2015-09-01

    All molecular forms of life possess a chiral asymmetry, with amino acids and sugars found respectively in L- and D-enantiomers only. The primordial origin of this enantiomeric excess is unknown. One possible explanation is given by the Vester- Ulbricht hypothesis, which suggests that left-handed electrons present in beta-radiation, produced by parity-violating weak decays, interacted with biological precursors and preferentially destroyed one of the two enantiomers. Experimental tests of this idea have thus far yielded inconclusive results. We show direct evidence for chirally-dependent bond breaking through a dissociative electron attachment (DEA) reaction when spin-polarized electrons are incident on gas-phase chiral molecules. This provides unambiguous evidence for a well-defined, chirally-sensitive destructive molecular process and, as such, circumstantial evidence for the Vester-Ulbricht hypothesis. I will also present the results of our systematic study of the DEA asymmetry for different chiral halocamphor molecules. Three halocamphor molecules were investigated: 3-bromocamphor (C10H15BrO), 3-iodocamphor(C10H15IO), and 10-iodocamphor. The DEA asymmetries collected for bromocamphor and iodocamphor are qualitatively different, suggesting that the atomic number of the heaviest atom in the molecule plays a crucial role in the asymmetric interactions. The DEA asymmetry data for 3- and 10-iodocamphor have the same qualitative behavior, but the 10-iodocamphor asymmetry is about twice as large at the lowest energies investigated, so the location of the heavy atom in the camphor molecule also affects the asymmetries. This work was performed at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. This project is funded by NSF Grant PHY-1206067.

  18. Local light-induced magnetization using nanodots and chiral molecules.

    PubMed

    Dor, Oren Ben; Morali, Noam; Yochelis, Shira; Baczewski, Lech Tomasz; Paltiel, Yossi

    2014-11-12

    With the increasing demand for miniaturization, nanostructures are likely to become the primary components of future integrated circuits. Different approaches are being pursued toward achieving efficient electronics, among which are spin electronics devices (spintronics). In principle, the application of spintronics should result in reducing the power consumption of electronic devices. Recently a new, promising, effective approach for spintronics has emerged, using spin selectivity in electron transport through chiral molecules. In this work, using chiral molecules and nanocrystals, we achieve local spin-based magnetization generated optically at ambient temperatures. Through the chiral layer, a spin torque can be transferred without permanent charge transfer from the nanocrystals to a thin ferromagnetic layer, creating local perpendicular magnetization. We used Hall sensor configuration and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to measure the induced local magnetization. At low temperatures, anomalous spin Hall effects were measured using a thin Ni layer. The results may lead to optically controlled spintronics logic devices that will enable low power consumption, high density, and cheap fabrication.

  19. Second-order nonlinear optical effects of spin currents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhu, Bang-Fen; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2010-06-25

    Pure spin currents carry information in spintronics and signify novel quantum spin phenomena such as topological insulators. Measuring pure spin currents, however, is difficult since they have no direct electromagnetic induction. Noticing that a longitudinal spin current, in which electrons move along their spin directions, is a chiral quantity, we envisage that it has a chiral sum-frequency optical effect. A systematic symmetry analysis confirms this idea and reveals the second-order optical effects of general spin currents with unique polarization dependence. Microscopic calculations based on the eight-band model of III-V compound semiconductors show that the susceptibility is sizable under realistic conditions. These findings form a basis for "seeing" spin currents where and while they flow with standard nonlinear optical spectroscopy, providing a toolbox to explore a wealth of physics connecting spins and photons.

  20. Chiral damping in magnetic domain-walls (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jue, Emilie; Safeer, C. K.; Drouard, Marc; Lopez, Alexandre; Balint, Paul; Buda-Prejbeanu, Liliana; Boulle, Olivier; Auffret, Stéphane; Schuhl, Alain; Manchon, Aurélien; Miron, Ioan Mihai; Gaudin, Gilles

    2016-10-01

    The Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction is responsible for chiral magnetic textures (skyrmions, spin spiral structures, …) in systems with structural inversion asymmetry and high spin-orbit coupling. It has been shown that the domain wall (DW) dynamics in such materials can be explained by chiral DWs with (partly or fully) Néel structure, whose stability derives from an interfacial DMI [1]. In this work, we show that DMI is not the only effect inducing chiral dynamics and demonstrate the existence of a chiral damping [2]. This result is supported by the study of the asymmetry induced by an in-plane magnetic field on field induced domain wall motion in perpendicularly magnetized asymmetric Pt/Co/Pt trilayers. Whereas the asymmetry of the DW motion is consistent with the spatial symmetries expected with the DMI, we show that this asymmetry cannot be attributed to an effective field but originates from a purely dissipative mechanism. The observation of chiral damping, not only enriches the spectrum of physical phenomena engendered by the SIA, but since it can coexist with DMI it is essential for conceiving DW and skyrmion devices. [1] A. Thiaville, et al., EPL 100, 57002 (2012) [2] E. Jué, et al., Nat. Mater., in press (doi: 10.1038/nmat4518)

  1. Hyperfine meson splittings: chiral symmetry versus transverse gluon exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Felipe J. Llanes-Estrada; Stephen R. Cotanch; Adam P. Szczepaniak; Eric S. Swanson

    2004-02-01

    Meson spin splittings are examined within an effective Coulomb gauge QCD Hamiltonian incorporating chiral symmetry and a transverse hyperfine interaction necessary for heavy quarks. For light and heavy quarkonium systems the pseudoscalar-vector meson spectrum is generated by approximate BCS-RPA diagonalizations. This relativistic formulation includes both S and D waves for the vector mesons which generates a set of coupled integral equations. A smooth transition from the heavy to the light quark regime is found with chiral symmetry dominating the /pi-/rho mass difference. A good, consistent description of the observed meson spin splittings and chiral quantities, such as the quark condensate and the /pi mass, is obtained. Similar comparisons with TDA diagonalizations, which violate chiral symmetry, are deficient for light pseudoscalar mesons indicating the need to simultaneously include both chiral symmetry and a hyperfine interaction. The /eta{sub b} mass is predicted to be around 9400 MeV consistent with other theoretical expectations and above the unconfirmed 9300 MeV candidate. Finally, for comparison with lattice results, the J reliability parameter is also evaluated.

  2. Tailoring the chirality of magnetic domain walls by interface engineering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gong; Ma, Tianping; N'Diaye, Alpha T; Kwon, Heeyoung; Won, Changyeon; Wu, Yizheng; Schmid, Andreas K

    2013-01-01

    Contacting ferromagnetic films with normal metals changes how magnetic textures respond to electric currents, enabling surprisingly fast domain wall motions and spin texture-dependent propagation direction. These effects are attributed to domain wall chirality induced by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction at interfaces, which suggests rich possibilities to influence domain wall dynamics if the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction can be adjusted. Chiral magnetism was seen in several film structures on appropriately chosen substrates where interfacial spin-orbit-coupling effects are strong. Here we use real-space imaging to visualize chiral domain walls in cobalt/nickel multilayers in contact with platinum and iridium. We show that the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction can be adjusted to stabilize either left-handed or right-handed Néel walls, or non-chiral Bloch walls by adjusting an interfacial spacer layer between the multilayers and the substrate. Our findings introduce domain wall chirality as a new degree of freedom, which may open up new opportunities for spintronics device designs.

  3. Intrinsic spin torque without spin-orbit coupling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Whan; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Stiles, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    We derive an intrinsic contribution to the non-adiabatic spin torque for non-uniform magnetic textures. It differs from previously considered contributions in several ways and can be the dominant contribution in some models. It does not depend on the change in occupation of the electron states due to the current flow but rather is due to the perturbation of the electronic states when an electric field is applied. Therefore it should be viewed as electric-field-induced rather than current-induced. Unlike previously reported non-adiabatic spin torques, it does not originate from extrinsic relaxation mechanisms nor spin-orbit coupling. This intrinsic non-adiabatic spin torque is related by a chiral connection to the intrinsic spin-orbit torque that has been calculated from the Berry phase for Rashba systems. PMID:26877628

  4. Magnetic Field Response and Chiral Symmetry of Time Reversal Invariant Topological Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrescu, Eugen; Sau, Jay D.; Tewari, Sumtanta

    2014-03-01

    We study the magnetic ?eld response of the Majorana Kramers pairs of a one-dimensional time-reversal invariant (TRI) superconductors (class DIII) with or without a coexisting chirality symmetry. For unbroken TR and chirality invariance the parameter regimes for nontrivial values of the (Z2) DIII-invariant and the (Z) BDI chiral invariant coincide. However, broken TR may or may not be accompanied by broken chirality, and if chiral symmetry is unbroken the pair of Majorana fermions (MFs) at a given end survives the loss of TR symmetry in an entire plane perpendicular to the spin-orbit coupling field. Conversely, we show that broken chirality may or may not be accompanied by broken TR, and if TR is unbroken, the pair of MFs survives the loss of broken chirality. In addition to explaining the anomalous magnetic field response of all the DIII class TS systems proposed in the literature, we provide a realistic route to engineer a ``true'' TR-invariant TS, whose pair of MFs at each end is split by an applied Zeeman field in arbitrary direction. We also prove that, quite generally, the splitting of the MFs by TR-breaking fields in TRI superconductors is highly anisotropic in spin space, even in the absence of the topological chiral symmetry.

  5. Chiral nihility effects on energy flow in chiral materials.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Burokur, Nawaz; Zouhd, Saïd; Li, Le-Wei

    2008-01-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic plane waves in an isotropic chiral medium is characterized, and a special interest is shown in chiral nihility and the effects of chirality on energy transmission. In particular, the wave impedance is matched to that of free space. Moreover, the refractive index n is also matched in impedance to that of free space when an appropriate value of the chirality is chosen. A "chiral nihility" medium is explored in which both the permittivity and the permeability tend to zero. Some specific case studies of chiral nihility are presented, and Brewster angles are found to cover an extremely wide range. The E-field distributions in these different cases where the chiral slab is placed in free space are analyzed by using the appropriate constitutive relations. It is shown from numerical calculations that one can obtain some critical characteristics of the effects of chirality on energy transmission and reflection, such as transparency and power tunneling.

  6. Enantioselective synthesis of chiral sulfinates using chiral diamines.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shuichi; Tateyama, Motoaki; Sugimoto, Hideki; Nakagawa, Masaya; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Shibata, Norio; Toru, Takeshi

    2005-02-01

    The reaction of p-toluenesulfinyl chloride with alcohols in the presence of chiral diamines was examined. Chiral sulfinates were obtained in good yields with enantioselectivity up to 76% ee. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Spinning hydraulic jump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abderrahmane, Hamid; Kasimov, Aslan

    2013-11-01

    We report an experimental observation of a new symmetry breaking of circular hydraulic jump into a self-organized structure that consists of a spinning polygonal jump and logarithmic-spiral waves of fluid elevation downstream. The waves are strikingly similar to spiral density waves in galaxies. The fluid flow exhibits counterparts of salient morphological features of galactic flows, in particular the outflow from the center, jets, circum-nuclear rings, gas inflows toward the galactic center, and vortices. The hydrodynamic instability revealed here may have a counterpart that plays a role in the formation and sustainability of spiral arms in galaxies.

  8. Role of the Electron Spin Polarization in Water Splitting

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We show that in an electrochemical cell, in which the photoanode is coated with chiral molecules, the overpotential required for hydrogen production drops remarkably, as compared with cells containing achiral molecules. The hydrogen evolution efficiency is studied comparing seven different organic molecules, three chiral and four achiral. We propose that the spin specificity of electrons transferred through chiral molecules is the origin of a more efficient oxidation process in which oxygen is formed in its triplet ground state. The new observations are consistent with recent theoretical works pointing to the importance of spin alignment in the water-splitting process. PMID:26615833

  9. Chiral anomaly in Dirac semimetals due to dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernodub, M. N.; Zubkov, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    The dislocation in Dirac semimetal carries an emergent magnetic flux parallel to the dislocation axis. We show that due to the emergent magnetic field, the dislocation accommodates a single fermion massless mode of the corresponding low-energy one-particle Hamiltonian. The mode is propagating along the dislocation with its spin directed parallel to the dislocation axis. In agreement with the chiral anomaly observed in Dirac semimetals, an external electric field results in the spectral flow of the one-particle Hamiltonian, in pumping of the fermionic quasiparticles out from vacuum, and in creating a nonzero axial (chiral) charge in the vicinity of the dislocation.

  10. Chirality of light and its interaction with chiral matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yiqiao

    This thesis conducts a systematic study on the chirality of light and its interaction with chiral matter. In the theory section, we introduce a measure of local density of chirality, applying to arbitrary electromagnetic fields. This optical chirality suggests the existence of superchiral modes, which are more selective than circularly polarized light (CPL) in preferentially exciting single enantiomers in certain regions of space. Experimentally, we demonstrate an 11-fold enhancement over CPL in discriminating chiral fluorophores of single handedness in a precisely sculpted superchiral field. This result agrees to within 15% with theoretical predictions. Any chiral configuration of point charges is beyond the scope of our theory on optical chirality. To address chiroptical excitations at nanoscale, we develop a model of twisted dipolar oscillators. We design a simple tunable chiral nanostructure and observe localized chiroptical "hot spots" with dramatically enhanced circular differential scattering. Our work on superchiral light and 3D chiral metamaterials establishes optical chirality as a fundamental and tunable property of light, with implications ranging from plasmonic sensors, absolute asymmetric synthesis to new strategies for fabricating three-dimensional chiral metamaterials. This thesis is organized as such: Chapter 1 provides a background on previous studies of chiroptical phenomena, and recent efforts in preparing chiral metamaterials. Chapter 2 derives theory on optical chirality, superchiral modes and coupled-dipolar oscillators at nanoscale. Chapter 3 introduces material, apparatus, and pitfalls in chiroptical experiments. Chapter 4 is an overview of the experimental procedure and results on generating and observing superchiral enhancement. Chapter 5 describes the experiments on using spectroscopic polarization microscopy to study chiral 3D chiral metamaterials. Finally in Chapter 6, I discuss quantization of optical chirality and perspectives on

  11. Chiral Graphene Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nozomu; Wang, Yichun; Elvati, Paolo; Qu, Zhi-Bei; Kim, Kyoungwon; Jiang, Shuang; Baumeister, Elizabeth; Lee, Jaewook; Yeom, Bongjun; Bahng, Joong Hwan; Lee, Jaebeom; Violi, Angela; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2016-02-23

    Chiral nanostructures from metals and semiconductors attract wide interest as components for polarization-enabled optoelectronic devices. Similarly to other fields of nanotechnology, graphene-based materials can greatly enrich physical and chemical phenomena associated with optical and electronic properties of chiral nanostructures and facilitate their applications in biology as well as other areas. Here, we report that covalent attachment of l/d-cysteine moieties to the edges of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) leads to their helical buckling due to chiral interactions at the "crowded" edges. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the GQDs revealed bands at ca. 210-220 and 250-265 nm that changed their signs for different chirality of the cysteine edge ligands. The high-energy chiroptical peaks at 210-220 nm correspond to the hybridized molecular orbitals involving the chiral center of amino acids and atoms of graphene edges. Diverse experimental and modeling data, including density functional theory calculations of CD spectra with probabilistic distribution of GQD isomers, indicate that the band at 250-265 nm originates from the three-dimensional twisting of the graphene sheet and can be attributed to the chiral excitonic transitions. The positive and negative low-energy CD bands correspond to the left and right helicity of GQDs, respectively. Exposure of liver HepG2 cells to L/D-GQDs reveals their general biocompatibility and a noticeable difference in the toxicity of the stereoisomers. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that d-GQDs have a stronger tendency to accumulate within the cellular membrane than L-GQDs. Emergence of nanoscale chirality in GQDs decorated with biomolecules is expected to be a general stereochemical phenomenon for flexible sheets of nanomaterials.

  12. Exchange anisotropy as mechanism for spin-stripe formation in frustrated spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pregelj, M.; Zaharko, O.; Herak, M.; Gomilšek, M.; Zorko, A.; Chapon, L. C.; Bourdarot, F.; Berger, H.; Arčon, D.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the spin-stripe mechanism responsible for the peculiar nanometer modulation of the incommensurate magnetic order that emerges between the vector-chiral and the spin-density-wave phase in the frustrated zigzag spin-1/2 chain compound β -TeVO4 . A combination of magnetic-torque, neutron-diffraction, and spherical-neutron-polarimetry measurements is employed to determine the complex magnetic structures of all three ordered phases. Based on these results, we develop a simple phenomenological model, which exposes the exchange anisotropy as the key ingredient for the spin-stripe formation in frustrated spin systems.

  13. Spin Selective Charge Transport through Cysteine Capped CdSe Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Brian P; Kiran, Vankayala; Varade, Vaibhav; Naaman, Ron; Waldeck, David H

    2016-07-13

    This work demonstrates that chiral imprinted CdSe quantum dots (QDs) can act as spin selective filters for charge transport. The spin filtering properties of chiral nanoparticles were investigated by magnetic conductive-probe atomic force microscopy (mCP-AFM) measurements and magnetoresistance measurements. The mCP-AFM measurements show that the chirality of the quantum dots and the magnetic orientation of the tip affect the current-voltage curves. Similarly, magnetoresistance measurements demonstrate that the electrical transport through films of chiral quantum dots correlates with the chiroptical properties of the QD. The spin filtering properties of chiral quantum dots may prove useful in future applications, for example, photovoltaics, spintronics, and other spin-driven devices.

  14. Superconductivity in a chiral nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, F.; Shi, W.; Ideue, T.; Yoshida, M.; Zak, A.; Tenne, R.; Kikitsu, T.; Inoue, D.; Hashizume, D.; Iwasa, Y.

    2017-02-01

    Chirality of materials are known to affect optical, magnetic and electric properties, causing a variety of nontrivial phenomena such as circular dichiroism for chiral molecules, magnetic Skyrmions in chiral magnets and nonreciprocal carrier transport in chiral conductors. On the other hand, effect of chirality on superconducting transport has not been known. Here we report the nonreciprocity of superconductivity--unambiguous evidence of superconductivity reflecting chiral structure in which the forward and backward supercurrent flows are not equivalent because of inversion symmetry breaking. Such superconductivity is realized via ionic gating in individual chiral nanotubes of tungsten disulfide. The nonreciprocal signal is significantly enhanced in the superconducting state, being associated with unprecedented quantum Little-Parks oscillations originating from the interference of supercurrent along the circumference of the nanotube. The present results indicate that the nonreciprocity is a viable approach toward the superconductors with chiral or noncentrosymmetric structures.

  15. Chiral anomalies and differential geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zumino, B.

    1983-10-01

    Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references. (WHK)

  16. Superconductivity in a chiral nanotube

    PubMed Central

    Qin, F.; Shi, W.; Ideue, T.; Yoshida, M.; Zak, A.; Tenne, R.; Kikitsu, T.; Inoue, D.; Hashizume, D.; Iwasa, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Chirality of materials are known to affect optical, magnetic and electric properties, causing a variety of nontrivial phenomena such as circular dichiroism for chiral molecules, magnetic Skyrmions in chiral magnets and nonreciprocal carrier transport in chiral conductors. On the other hand, effect of chirality on superconducting transport has not been known. Here we report the nonreciprocity of superconductivity—unambiguous evidence of superconductivity reflecting chiral structure in which the forward and backward supercurrent flows are not equivalent because of inversion symmetry breaking. Such superconductivity is realized via ionic gating in individual chiral nanotubes of tungsten disulfide. The nonreciprocal signal is significantly enhanced in the superconducting state, being associated with unprecedented quantum Little-Parks oscillations originating from the interference of supercurrent along the circumference of the nanotube. The present results indicate that the nonreciprocity is a viable approach toward the superconductors with chiral or noncentrosymmetric structures. PMID:28205518

  17. Superconductivity in a chiral nanotube.

    PubMed

    Qin, F; Shi, W; Ideue, T; Yoshida, M; Zak, A; Tenne, R; Kikitsu, T; Inoue, D; Hashizume, D; Iwasa, Y

    2017-02-16

    Chirality of materials are known to affect optical, magnetic and electric properties, causing a variety of nontrivial phenomena such as circular dichiroism for chiral molecules, magnetic Skyrmions in chiral magnets and nonreciprocal carrier transport in chiral conductors. On the other hand, effect of chirality on superconducting transport has not been known. Here we report the nonreciprocity of superconductivity-unambiguous evidence of superconductivity reflecting chiral structure in which the forward and backward supercurrent flows are not equivalent because of inversion symmetry breaking. Such superconductivity is realized via ionic gating in individual chiral nanotubes of tungsten disulfide. The nonreciprocal signal is significantly enhanced in the superconducting state, being associated with unprecedented quantum Little-Parks oscillations originating from the interference of supercurrent along the circumference of the nanotube. The present results indicate that the nonreciprocity is a viable approach toward the superconductors with chiral or noncentrosymmetric structures.

  18. Chiral electroweak currents in nuclei

    DOE PAGES

    Riska, D. O.; Schiavilla, R.

    2017-01-10

    Here, the development of the chiral dynamics based description of nuclear electroweak currents is reviewed. Gerald E. (Gerry) Brown’s role in basing theoretical nuclear physics on chiral Lagrangians is emphasized. Illustrative examples of the successful description of electroweak observables of light nuclei obtained from chiral effective field theory are presented.

  19. Spin foams without spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnybida, Jeff

    2016-10-01

    We formulate the spin foam representation of discrete SU(2) gauge theory as a product of vertex amplitudes each of which is the spin network generating function of the boundary graph dual to the vertex. In doing so the sums over spins have been carried out. The boundary data of each n-valent node is explicitly reduced with respect to the local gauge invariance and has a manifest geometrical interpretation as a framed polyhedron of fixed total area. Ultimately, sums over spins are traded for contour integrals over simple poles and recoupling theory is avoided using generating functions.

  20. Spectral separation of optical spin based on antisymmetric Fano resonances

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Xianji; Yu, Sunkyu; Hong, Jiho; Park, Namkyoo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a route to the spectral separation of optical spin angular momentum based on spin-dependent Fano resonances with antisymmetric spectral profiles. By developing a spin-form coupled mode theory for chiral materials, the origin of antisymmetric Fano spectra is clarified in terms of the opposite temporal phase shift for each spin, which is the result of counter-rotating spin eigenvectors. An analytical expression of a spin-density Fano parameter is derived to enable quantitative analysis of the Fano-induced spin separation in the spectral domain. As an application, we demonstrate optical spin switching utilizing the extreme spectral sensitivity of the spin-density reversal. Our result paves a path toward the conservative spectral separation of spins without any need of the magneto-optical effect or circular dichroism, achieving excellent purity in spin density superior to conventional approaches based on circular dichroism. PMID:26561372

  1. Energetic molding of chiral magnetic bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Derek; Sundar, Vignesh; Zhu, Jian-Gang; Sokalski, Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Topologically protected magnetic structures such as skyrmions and domain walls (DWs) have drawn a great deal of attention recently due to their thermal stability and potential for manipulation by spin current, which is the result of chiral magnetic configurations induced by the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). Designing devices that incorporate DMI necessitates a thorough understanding of how the interaction presents and can be measured. One approach is to measure growth asymmetry of chiral bubble domains in perpendicularly magnetized thin films, which has been described elsewhere by thermally activated DW motion. Here, we demonstrate that the anisotropic angular dependence of DW energy originating from the DMI is critical to understanding this behavior. Domains in Co/Ni multilayers are observed to preferentially grow into nonelliptical teardrop shapes, which vary with the magnitude of an applied in-plane field. We model the domain profile using energetic calculations of equilibrium shape via the Wulff construction, which serves as a new paradigm for describing chiral domains that explains both the teardrop shape and the reversal of growth symmetry at large fields.

  2. Supramolecular chirality in self-assembled soft materials: regulation of chiral nanostructures and chiral functions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Qin, Long; Wang, Xiufeng; Cao, Hai; Liu, Minghua

    2014-10-29

    Supramolecular chirality, which arises from the nonsymmetric spatial arrangement of components in the self-assembly systems, has gained great attention owing to its relation to the natural biological structures and the possible new functions in advanced materials. During the self-assembling process, both chiral and achiral components are possible to form chiral nanostructures. Therefore, it becomes an important issue how to fabricate these molecular components into chiral nanostructures. Furthermore, once the chiral nanostructure is obtained, will it show new functions that simple component molecule could not? In this research news, we report our recent development in the regulation of chiral nanostructures in soft gels or vesicle materials. We have further developed several new functions pertaining to the soft gel materials, which single chiral molecules could not perform, such as the chiroptical switch, chiral recognition and the asymmetry catalysis.

  3. Symmetries and in-medium effects: Chiral symmetry breaking and modification of meson properties in a strongly interacting medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metag, Volker

    2014-09-01

    Chiral symmetry is a fundamental symmetry of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in the limit of vanishing quark masses. In the hadronic sector chiral symmetry is broken; otherwise chiral partners - hadronic states with the same spin but opposite parity - should be degenerate in mass which is not observed in nature. It has been suggested that chiral symmetry might at least be partially restored in a strongly interacting environment. As a consequence, properties of hadrons, encoded in their mass and width, may be modified when embedded in a nucleus. These ideas have motivated widespread theoretical and experimental activities. As an example, recent experimental results on the in-medium properties of the η' meson are presented.

  4. Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Some implementations provide a composite material that includes a first material and a second material. In some implementations, the composite material is a metamaterial. The first material includes a chiral polymer (e.g., crystalline chiral helical polymer, poly-.gamma.-benzyl-L-glutamate (PBLG), poly-L-lactic acid (PLA), polypeptide, and/or polyacetylene). The second material is within the chiral polymer. The first material and the second material are configured to provide an effective index of refraction value for the composite material of 1 or less. In some implementations, the effective index of refraction value for the composite material is negative. In some implementations, the effective index of refraction value for the composite material of 1 or less is at least in a wavelength of one of at least a visible spectrum, an infrared spectrum, a microwave spectrum, and/or an ultraviolet spectrum.

  5. Creating chiral anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradlyn, Barry; Cano, Jennifer; Wang, Zhijun; Hirschberger, Max; Ong, N. Phuan; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    Materials with intrinsic Weyl points should present exotic magnetotransport phenomena due to spectral flow between Weyl nodes of opposite chirality - the so-called ``chiral anomaly''. However, to date, the most definitive transport data showing the presence of a chiral anomaly comes from Dirac (not Weyl) materials. These semimetals develop Weyl fermions only in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field, when the four-fold degeneracy is lifted. In this talk we examine Berry phase effects on transport due to the emergence of these field-induced Weyl point and (in some cases) line nodes. We pay particular attention to the differences between intrinsic and field-induced Weyl fermions, from the point of view of kinetic theory. Finally, we apply our analysis to a particular material relevant to current experiments performed at Princeton.

  6. [Chirality and drugs].

    PubMed

    Testa, B; Reist, M; Carrupt, P A

    2000-07-01

    The two enantiomers of a chiral drug may have vastly different pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. As a result, the research and development of chiral drugs raises specific problems some of which are discussed here. Thus, various pharmacokinetic interactions may involve two enantiomers, as seen for example when one enantiomer inhibits the metabolism of the other and modifies its effects. A different situation occurs when a third compound stereoselectively inhibits the metabolism of one of the two enantiomers. Another problem examined here results from the lack of configurational stability of some chiral drugs, a little known phenomenon whose consequences can be of pharmacological or pharmaceutical significance depending on the rate of the reaction of racemization or epimerisation. In-depth investigations are needed before choosing between a eutomer or a racemate.

  7. Observation of unconventional quantum spin textures in topological insulators.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, D; Xia, Y; Wray, L; Qian, D; Pal, A; Dil, J H; Osterwalder, J; Meier, F; Bihlmayer, G; Kane, C L; Hor, Y S; Cava, R J; Hasan, M Z

    2009-02-13

    A topologically ordered material is characterized by a rare quantum organization of electrons that evades the conventional spontaneously broken symmetry-based classification of condensed matter. Exotic spin-transport phenomena, such as the dissipationless quantum spin Hall effect, have been speculated to originate from a topological order whose identification requires a spin-sensitive measurement, which does not exist to this date in any system. Using Mott polarimetry, we probed the spin degrees of freedom and demonstrated that topological quantum numbers are completely determined from spin texture-imaging measurements. Applying this method to Sb and Bi(1-x)Sb(x), we identified the origin of its topological order and unusual chiral properties. These results taken together constitute the first observation of surface electrons collectively carrying a topological quantum Berry's phase and definite spin chirality, which are the key electronic properties component for realizing topological quantum computing bits with intrinsic spin Hall-like topological phenomena.

  8. Novel chiral magnetic domain wall structure in Fe/Ni/Cu(001) films.

    PubMed

    Chen, G; Zhu, J; Quesada, A; Li, J; N'Diaye, A T; Huo, Y; Ma, T P; Chen, Y; Kwon, H Y; Won, C; Qiu, Z Q; Schmid, A K; Wu, Y Z

    2013-04-26

    Using spin-polarized low energy electron microscopy, we discovered a new type of domain wall structure in perpendicularly magnetized Fe/Ni bilayers grown epitaxially on Cu(100). Specifically, we observed unexpected Néel-type walls with fixed chirality in the magnetic stripe phase. Furthermore, we find that the chirality of the domain walls is determined by the film growth order with the chirality being right handed in Fe/Ni bilayers and left handed in Ni/Fe bilayers, suggesting that the underlying mechanism is the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction at the film interfaces. Our observations may open a new route to control chiral spin structures using interfacial engineering in transition metal heterostructures.

  9. Chiral Liouville gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compère, Geoffrey; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    Classical two-dimensional Liouville gravity is often considered in conformal gauge which has a residual left and right Virasoro symmetry algebra. We consider an alternate, chiral, gauge which has a residual right Virasoro Kac-Moody algebra, and no left Virasoro algebra. The Kac-Moody zero mode is the left-moving energy. Dirac brackets of the constrained Hamiltonian theory are derived, and the residual symmetries are shown to be generated by integrals of the conserved chiral currents. The central charge and Kac-Moody level are computed. The possible existence of a corresponding quantum theory is discussed.

  10. Strong, spectrally-tunable chirality in diffractive metasurfaces

    PubMed Central

    De Leon, Israel; Horton, Matthew J.; Schulz, Sebastian A.; Upham, Jeremy; Banzer, Peter; Boyd, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Metamaterials and metasurfaces provide a paradigm-changing approach for manipulating light. Their potential has been evinced by recent demonstrations of chiral responses much greater than those of natural materials. Here, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the extrinsic chiral response of a metasurface can be dramatically enhanced by near-field diffraction effects. At the core of this phenomenon are lattice plasmon modes that respond selectively to the illumination’s polarization handedness. The metasurface exhibits sharp features in its circular dichroism spectra, which are tunable over a broad bandwidth by changing the illumination angle over a few degrees. Using this property, we demonstrate an ultra-thin circular-polarization sensitive spectral filter with a linewidth of ~10 nm, which can be dynamically tuned over a spectral range of 200 nm. Chiral diffractive metasurfaces, such as the one proposed here, open exciting possibilities for ultra-thin photonic devices with tunable, spin-controlled functionality. PMID:26338445

  11. Unconventional superconductivity induced in Nb films by adsorbed chiral molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpern, H.; Katzir, E.; Yochelis, S.; Katz, N.; Paltiel, Y.; Millo, O.

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by recent observations of chiral-induced magnetization and spin-selective transport we studied the effect of chiral molecules on conventional BCS superconductors. By applying scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the singlet-pairing s-wave order parameter of Nb is significantly altered upon adsorption of chiral polyalanine alpha-helix molecules on its surface. The tunneling spectra exhibit zero-bias conductance peaks embedded inside gaps or gap-like features, suggesting the emergence of unconventional triplet-pairing components with either d-wave or p-wave symmetry at the Nb organic-molecules interface, as corroborated by simulations. These results may open a way for realizing simple superconducting spintronics devices.

  12. Observation of chiral currents with ultracold atoms in bosonic ladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atala, Marcos; Aidelsburger, Monika; Lohse, Michael; Barreiro, Julio T.; Paredes, Belén; Bloch, Immanuel

    2014-08-01

    Engineering optical lattices with laser-induced tunnelling amplitudes has enabled the realization of artificial magnetic fields with remarkable tunability. Here, we report on the observation of chiral Meissner currents in bosonic ladders exposed to a strong artificial magnetic field. By suddenly decoupling the individual ladders and projecting into isolated double wells, we are able to measure the currents on each side of the ladder. For large coupling strengths along the rungs of the ladder, we find a saturated maximum chiral current, which is analogous to the surface currents in the Meissner effect. Below a critical inter-leg coupling strength, the chiral current decreases in good agreement with our expectations for a vortex lattice phase. Our realization of a low-dimensional Meissner-like effect and spin-orbit coupling in one dimension opens the path to exploring interacting particles in low dimensions exposed to a uniform magnetic field.

  13. Dissipative vibrational model for chiral recognition in olfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirandaz, Arash; Taher Ghahramani, Farhad; Shafiee, Afshin

    2015-09-01

    We examine the olfactory discrimination of left- and right-handed enantiomers of chiral odorants based on the odorant-mediated electron transport from a donor to an acceptor of the olfactory receptors embodied in a biological environment. The chiral odorant is effectively described by an asymmetric double-well potential whose minima are associated to the left- and right-handed enantiomers. The introduced asymmetry is considered an overall measure of chiral interactions. The biological environment is conveniently modeled as a bath of harmonic oscillators. The resulting spin-boson model is adapted by a polaron transformation to derive the corresponding Born-Markov master equation with which we obtain the elastic and inelastic electron tunneling rates. We show that the inelastic tunneling through left- and right-handed enantiomers occurs with different rates. The discrimination mechanism depends on the ratio of tunneling frequency to localization frequency.

  14. Chiral symmetry in quarkyonic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kojo, T.

    2012-05-15

    The 1/N{sub c} expansion classifies nuclear matter, deconfined quark matter, and Quarkyonic matter in low temperature region. We investigate the realization of chiral symmetry in Quarkyonic matter by taking into account condensations of chiral particle-hole pairs. It is argued that chiral symmetry and parity are locally violated by the formation of chiral spirals, <{psi}-bar exp (2i{mu}{sub q} z{gamma}{sup 0} {gamma}{sup z}){psi}> . An extension to multiple chiral spirals is also briefly discussed.

  15. Finite nuclei in relativistic models with a light chiral scalar meson

    SciTech Connect

    Furnstahl, R.J. ); Serot, B.D. )

    1993-05-01

    Relativistic chiral models with a light scalar meson appear to provide an economical marriage of successful relativistic mean-field theories and chiral symmetry. The scalar meson serves as both the chiral partner of the pion and the mediator of the intermediate-range nucleon-nucleon ([ital NN]) attraction. However, while some of these models can reproduce the empirical nuclear matter saturation point, they fail to reproduce observed properties of finite nuclei, such as spin-orbit splittings, shell structure, charge densities, and surface energetics. These deficiencies imply that this realization of chiral symmetry is incorrect. An alternative scenario, which features a heavy chiral scalar and dynamical generation of the [ital NN] attraction, is discussed.

  16. Chiral optical response of planar and symmetric nanotrimers enabled by heteromaterial selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banzer, Peter; Woźniak, Paweł; Mick, Uwe; de Leon, Israel; Boyd, Robert W.

    2016-10-01

    Chirality is an intriguing property of certain molecules, materials or artificial nanostructures, which allows them to interact with the spin angular momentum of the impinging light field. Due to their chiral geometry, they can distinguish between left- and right-hand circular polarization states or convert them into each other. Here we introduce an approach towards optical chirality, which is observed in individual two-dimensional and geometrically mirror-symmetric nanostructures. In this scheme, the chiral optical response is induced by the chosen heterogeneous material composition of a particle assembly and the corresponding resonance behaviour of the constituents it is built from, which breaks the symmetry of the system. As a proof of principle, we investigate such a structure composed of individual silicon and gold nanoparticles both experimentally, as well as numerically. Our proposed concept constitutes an approach for designing two-dimensional chiral media tailored at the nanoscale, allowing for high tunability of their optical response.

  17. Characteristics of domain wall chirality and propagation in a Y-junction nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, W.-Y.; Yoon, Seungha; Kwon, J.-H.; Grünberg, P.; Cho, B. K.

    2016-01-14

    Chirality-dependent propagation of transverse wall along a nanowire was investigated using a Y-junction with spin-valve structure. It was found that the Y-junction can be used for convenient and effective electric detection of transverse domain wall chirality, especially in a nanowire with sub-200 nm width, where it is difficult to electrically detect chirality using conventional artificial defect, such as a notch, due to small resistance change. Domain wall propagation path in the Y-junction was found to be determined by the wall chirality, whether clockwise or counterclockwise. Using the Y-junction nanowire, characteristics of domain wall chirality that was nucleated in a nucleation pad, attached at the end of a nanowire, were studied and found to be in good agreement with the results of theoretical simulation.

  18. Chiral optical response of planar and symmetric nanotrimers enabled by heteromaterial selection

    PubMed Central

    Banzer, Peter; Woźniak, Paweł; Mick, Uwe; De Leon, Israel; Boyd, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Chirality is an intriguing property of certain molecules, materials or artificial nanostructures, which allows them to interact with the spin angular momentum of the impinging light field. Due to their chiral geometry, they can distinguish between left- and right-hand circular polarization states or convert them into each other. Here we introduce an approach towards optical chirality, which is observed in individual two-dimensional and geometrically mirror-symmetric nanostructures. In this scheme, the chiral optical response is induced by the chosen heterogeneous material composition of a particle assembly and the corresponding resonance behaviour of the constituents it is built from, which breaks the symmetry of the system. As a proof of principle, we investigate such a structure composed of individual silicon and gold nanoparticles both experimentally, as well as numerically. Our proposed concept constitutes an approach for designing two-dimensional chiral media tailored at the nanoscale, allowing for high tunability of their optical response. PMID:27734960

  19. Chiral Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in the frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a pyrochlore slab.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Hikaru; Arimori, Takuya

    2002-02-18

    Ordering of the geometrically frustrated two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a pyrochlore slab is studied by Monte Carlo simulations. In contrast to the kagomé Heisenberg antiferromagnet, the model exhibits locally noncoplanar spin structures at low temperatures, bearing nontrivial chiral degrees of freedom. Under certain conditions, the model exhibits a novel Kosterlitz-Thouless-type transition at a finite temperature associated with these chiral degrees of freedom.

  20. Gyrotropic magnetic effects in chiral metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Ivo; Zhong, Shudan; Vanderbilt, David; Moore, Joel

    We consider two conjugate transport effects occuring in chiral metals as the low-frequency limit of natural optical activity (optical gyrotropy). One occurs in the clean limit where ω is small compared to the minimum energy for interband transitions, but large compared to the scattering rate 1 / τ . It consists of a dissipationless current induced by a magnetic field, Ji =αij'Bj , and is different from the chiral magnetic effect requiring a static B and an electric-field pulse E ∥ B . In the inverse effect a magnetization is generated by a dissipative current, Mi = (1 / ω) αji' ' Ej , with E the field driving the current and ω << 1 / τ , as discussed by Yoda et al., Sci. Rep. 5, 12024 (2015). The low-frequency gyrotropic responses α' and α'' in the clean and dirty limits can be combined into a complex tensor α =α' + iα'' given by the Fermi-surface integral of the total (orbital plus spin) intrinsic magnetic moment of the Bloch electrons, with a prefactor proportional to 1 - iωτ . Without spin-orbit coupling, only the orbital moment contributes.

  1. Emergent Electrodynamics of Skyrmions in Chiral Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfleiderer, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Skyrmions are particle-like states of continuous fields named after the English particle physicist Tony Skyrme. Their existence has long been considered in nuclear matter, quantum Hall systems, liquid crystals, superfluid 3He and ultracold atoms. As their defining property they support a topological winding number of 1. In magnetic materials spin configurations with a non-vanishing topological winding number, driven by the interplay of magnetic anisotropies, dipolar interactions and geometrical frustration, have been known for a long time. This is contrasted by the recent discovery of skyrmion lattices in chiral magnets, i.e., long-range magnetic order in which each magnetic unit cell contains a skyrmion and thus a non-zero winding number. As a practical consequence, the non-zero topological winding number implies that the conduction electrons in the presence of a skyrmion experience changes of Berry phase, that correspond precisely to one quantum of emergent magnetic flux. In transport measurements this leads directly to a topological Hall signal. Moreover, tiny electric current densities are already sufficient to generate a motion of the skyrmions first observed indirectly in neutron scattering. Since each skyrmion supports one quantum of emergent magnetic flux the motion of the skyrmions induces an emergent electric field consistent with Faradays law of induction that may also be observed experimentally. The excellent theoretical description of the skyrmion lattices observed so far in metals, doped semiconductors and insulators suggests that they represent a rather universal phenomenon to be expected in a wide range of systems supporting chiral spin interactions. Taken together with the first insights into their emergent electrodynamics, skyrmion lattices in chiral magnets develop into a new area of condensed matter magnetism offering insights relevant for applications.

  2. Spin-wave diode

    DOE PAGES

    Lan, Jin; Yu, Weichao; Wu, Ruqian; ...

    2015-12-28

    A diode, a device allowing unidirectional signal transmission, is a fundamental element of logic structures, and it lies at the heart of modern information systems. The spin wave or magnon, representing a collective quasiparticle excitation of the magnetic order in magnetic materials, is a promising candidate for an information carrier for the next-generation energy-saving technologies. Here, we propose a scalable and reprogrammable pure spin-wave logic hardware architecture using domain walls and surface anisotropy stripes as waveguides on a single magnetic wafer. We demonstrate theoretically the design principle of the simplest logic component, a spin-wave diode, utilizing the chiral bound statesmore » in a magnetic domain wall with a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, and confirm its performance through micromagnetic simulations. As a result, these findings open a new vista for realizing different types of pure spin-wave logic components and finally achieving an energy-efficient and hardware-reprogrammable spin-wave computer.« less

  3. Distinct spin liquids and their transitions in spin-1/2 XXZ kagome antiferromagnets.

    PubMed

    He, Yin-Chen; Chen, Yan

    2015-01-23

    By using the density matrix renormalization group approach, we study spin-liquid phases of spin-1/2 XXZ kagome antiferromagnets. We find that the emergence of the spin-liquid phase is independent of the anisotropy of the XXZ interaction. In particular, the two extreme limits-the Ising (a strong S^{z} interaction) and the XY (zero S^{z} interaction)-host the same spin-liquid phases as the isotropic Heisenberg model. Both a time-reversal-invariant spin liquid and a chiral spin liquid with spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking are obtained. We show that they evolve continuously into each other by tuning the second- and the third-neighbor interactions. And last, we discuss possible implications of our results for the nature of spin liquid in nearest-neighbor XXZ kagome antiferromagnets, including the nearest-neighbor spin-1/2 kagome antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model.

  4. Spin-polarized electron transport through helicene molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ting-Rui; Guo, Ai-Min; Sun, Qing-Feng

    2016-12-01

    Recently, the spin-selectivity effect of chiral molecules has been attracting extensive and growing interest among the scientific communities. Here, we propose a model Hamiltonian to study spin-dependent electron transport through helicene molecules which are connected by two semi-infinite graphene nanoribbons and try to elucidate a recent experiment of the spin-selectivity effect observed in the helicene molecules. The results indicate that the helicene molecules can present a significant spin-filtering effect in the case of extremely weak spin-orbit coupling, which is three orders of magnitude smaller than the hopping integral. The underlying physics is attributed to intrinsic chiral symmetry of the helicene molecules. When the chirality is switched from the right-handed species to the left-handed species, the spin polarization is reversed exactly. These results are consistent with a recent experiment [V. Kiran et al., Adv. Mater. 28, 1957 (2016), 10.1002/adma.201504725]. In addition, the spin-filtering effect of the helicene molecules is robust against molecular lengths, dephasing strengths, and space position disorder. This theoretical work may motivate further studies on chiral-induced spin selectivity in molecular systems.

  5. Chiral fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Victor I.; Churikov, Victor M.; Singer, Jonathan; Neugroschl, Daniel; Genack, Azriel Z.

    2010-04-01

    We have fabricated a variety of chiral fiber sensors by twisting one or more standard or custom optical fibers with noncircular or nonconcentric core as they pass though a miniature oven. The resulting structures are as stable as the glass material and can be produced with helical pitch ranging from microns to hundreds of microns. The polarization selectivity of the chiral gratings is determined by the geometry of the fiber cross section. Single helix structures are polarization insensitive, while double helix gratings interact only with a single optical polarization component. Both single and double helix gratings may function as a fiber long period grating, coupling core and cladding modes or as a diffraction grating scattering light from the fiber core out of the fiber. The resulting dips in the transmission spectrum are sensitive to fiber elongation, twist and temperature, and (in the case of the long period gratings) to the refractive index of the surrounding medium. The suitability of chiral gratings for sensing temperature, elongation, twist and liquid levels will be discussed. Gratings made of radiation sensitive glass can be used to measure the cumulative radiation dose, while gratings made of radiation-hardened glass are suitable for stable sensing of the environment in nuclear power plants. Excellent temperature stability up to 900°C is found in pure silica chiral diffraction grating sensors.

  6. Tuning spontaneous radiation of chiral molecules by asymmetric chiral nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Guzatov, Dmitry V; Klimov, Vasily V; Chan, Hsun-Chi; Guo, Guang-Yu

    2017-03-20

    We have obtained analytical expressions for the radiative decay rate of the spontaneous emission of a chiral molecule located near a dielectric spherical particle with a chiral nonconcentric spherical shell made of a bi-isotropic material. Our numerical and graphical analyses show that material composition, thickness and degree of non-concentricity of the shell can influence significantly the spontaneous radiation of the chiral molecule. In particular, the radiative decay rates can differ in orders of magnitude for a chiral molecule located near the thin and thick parts of a nonconcentric shell as well as near a concentric shell made of chiral metamaterial. We also find that the radiative decay rates of the "right" and "left" chiral molecule enantiomers located near a nanoparticle with a chiral metamaterial shell can differ pronouncedly from each other. Our findings therefore suggest a way to tune the spontaneous emission of chiral molecules by varying the material composition, thickness and degree of non-concentricity of the shell in the nearby composite nanoparticle and also to enhance the chirality selection of chiral molecules in racemic mixtures.

  7. Spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry for confining potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Yaouanc, A.; Oliver, L.; Pène, O.; Raynal, J.-C.

    1984-03-01

    Using the Bogoliubov-Valatin variational method, we show that the chiral-invariant vacuum is unstable for a color, fourth-component vector powerlike potential rα(0<α<3) independently of the strength of the coupling constant. The fermion self-energy is negative and dominates over the positive potential energy, destabilizing the vacuum by ψ¯ψ pair condensation. This self-energy is finite but infrared singular, reflecting the behavior of the potential at large distances. We give an analytical proof of the fact that the energy of the unbroken vacuum is not minimum. The proof extends to logarithmic potentials as α-->0, but breaks down for α>=3 (number of spatial dimensions) due to severe infrared singularities. If the confining potential possesses a spin-spin piece, there are critical values of its strength, depending on the power α, beyond which the stability of the chiral-invariant vacuum is restored. In the case of the harmonic oscillator α=2, the gap equation reduces to a non-linear second-order differential equation. We find (besides the usual chiral degeneracy) an infinite number of solutions breaking chiral symmetry, higher in energy as the number of their nodes increases. We compute the expectation value of ψ¯ψ and the mass gap for the new vacuum, the lowest solution in energy. The infrared singularity of the massless fermion self-energy is removed for the stable broken solution.

  8. Interweaving chiral spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojo, Toru; Hidaka, Yoshimasa; Fukushima, Kenji; McLerran, Larry D.; Pisarski, Robert D.

    2012-02-01

    We elaborate how to construct interweaving chiral spirals in (2+1) dimensions, defined as a superposition of chiral spirals oriented in different directions. We divide a two-dimensional Fermi sea into distinct wedges, characterized by the opening angle 2 Θ and depth Q≃p, where p is the Fermi momentum. In each wedge, the energy is lowered by forming a single chiral spiral. The optimal values for Θ and Q are chosen by balancing this gain in energy versus the cost of deforming the Fermi surface (which dominates at large Θ) and patch-patch interactions (dominant at small Θ). Using a non-local four-Fermi interaction model, we estimate the gain and cost in energy by expanding in terms of 1/N (where N is the number of colors), Λ/Q, and Θ. Due to a form factor in our non-local model, at small 1/N the mass gap (chiral condensate) is large, and the interaction among quarks and the condensate local in momentum space. Consequently, interactions between different patches are localized near their boundaries, and it is simple to embed many chiral spirals. We identify the dominant and subdominant terms at high density and categorize formulate an expansion in terms of Λ/Q or Θ. The kinetic term in the transverse directions is subdominant, so that techniques from (1+1)-dimensional systems can be utilized. To leading order in 1/N and Λ/Q, the total gain in energy is ˜pΛQCD2 with Θ˜(. Since Θ decreases with increasing p, there should be phase transitions associated with the change in the wedge number. We also argue the effects of subdominant terms at lower density where the large- N approximation is more reliable.

  9. Reducible chiral four-body interactions in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, N.; Milkus, R.

    2016-01-01

    The method of unitary transformations generates five classes of leading-order reducible chiral four-nucleon interactions which involve pion exchanges and a spin-spin contact term. Their first-order contributions to the energy per particle of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are evaluated in detail. For most of the closed four-loop diagrams the occurring integrals over four Fermi spheres can be reduced to easily manageable one- or two-parameter integrals. One finds substantial compensations among the different contributions arising from 2-ring and 1-ring diagrams. Altogether, the net attraction generated by the chiral four-nucleon interaction does not exceed values of -1.3 MeV for densities ρ < 2ρ0.

  10. Spin-one matter fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napsuciale, M.; Rodríguez, S.; Ferro-Hernández, Rodolfo; Gómez-Ávila, Selim

    2016-04-01

    Spin-one matter fields are relevant both for the description of hadronic states and as potential extensions of the Standard Model. In this work we present a formalism for the description of massive spin-one fields transforming in the (1 ,0 )⊕(0 ,1 ) representation of the Lorentz group, based on the covariant projection onto parity eigenspaces and Poincaré orbits. The formalism yields a constrained dynamics. We solve the constraints and perform the canonical quantization accordingly. This formulation uses the recent construction of a parity-based covariant basis for matrix operators acting on the (j ,0 )⊕(0 ,j ) representations. The algebraic properties of the covariant basis play an important role in solving the constraints and allowing the canonical quantization of the theory. We study the chiral structure of the theory and conclude that it is not chirally symmetric in the massless limit, hence it is not possible to have chiral gauge interactions. However, spin-one matter fields can have vector gauge interactions. Also, the dimension of the field makes self-interactions naively renormalizable. Using the covariant basis, we classify all possible self-interaction terms.

  11. Spin on a 4D Feynman Checkerboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Brendan Z.; Jacobson, Ted

    2017-01-01

    We discretize the Weyl equation for a massless, spin-1/2 particle on a time-diagonal, hypercubic spacetime lattice with null faces. The amplitude for a step of right-handed chirality is proportional to the spin projection operator in the step direction, while for left-handed it is the orthogonal projector. Iteration yields a path integral for the retarded propagator, with matrix path amplitude proportional to the product of projection operators. This assigns the amplitude i ± T 3- B/2 2- N to a path with N steps, B bends, and T right-handed minus left-handed bends, where the sign corresponds to the chirality. Fermion doubling does not occur in this discrete scheme. A Dirac mass m introduces the amplitude i 𝜖 m to flip chirality in any given time step 𝜖, and a Majorana mass similarly introduces a charge conjugation amplitude.

  12. Spin on a 4D Feynman Checkerboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Brendan Z.; Jacobson, Ted

    2016-11-01

    We discretize the Weyl equation for a massless, spin-1/2 particle on a time-diagonal, hypercubic spacetime lattice with null faces. The amplitude for a step of right-handed chirality is proportional to the spin projection operator in the step direction, while for left-handed it is the orthogonal projector. Iteration yields a path integral for the retarded propagator, with matrix path amplitude proportional to the product of projection operators. This assigns the amplitude i ±T 3-B/2 2-N to a path with N steps, B bends, and T right-handed minus left-handed bends, where the sign corresponds to the chirality. Fermion doubling does not occur in this discrete scheme. A Dirac mass m introduces the amplitude i 𝜖 m to flip chirality in any given time step 𝜖, and a Majorana mass similarly introduces a charge conjugation amplitude.

  13. Spin-electric Berry phase shift in triangular molecular magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimi Mousolou, Vahid; Canali, C. M.; Sjöqvist, Erik

    2016-12-01

    We propose a Berry phase effect on the chiral degrees of freedom of a triangular magnetic molecule. The phase is induced by adiabatically varying an external electric field in the plane of the molecule via a spin-electric coupling mechanism present in these frustrated magnetic molecules. The Berry phase effect depends on spin-orbit interaction splitting and on the electric dipole moment. By varying the amplitude of the applied electric field, the Berry phase difference between the two spin states can take any arbitrary value between zero and π , which can be measured as a phase shift between the two chiral states by using spin-echo techniques. Our result can be used to realize an electric-field-induced geometric phase-shift gate acting on a chiral qubit encoded in the ground-state manifold of the triangular magnetic molecule.

  14. Out-of-plane spin-orientation dependent magnetotransport properties in the anisotropic helimagnet CR1/3NbS2 [Spin-Orbit Coupling Induced Anisotropy in the Magnetotransport of the Chiral Helimagnet Cr1=3NbS2

    DOE PAGES

    Bornstein, Alexander C.; Chapman, Benjamin J.; Ghimire, Nirmal J.; ...

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the role of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) has been crucial for controlling magnetic anisotropy in magnetic multilayer films. It has been shown that electronic structure can be altered via interface SOC by varying the superlattice structure, resulting in spontaneous magnetization perpendicular or parallel to the plane. In lieu of magnetic thin films, we study the similarly anisotropic helimagnet Cr1/3NbS2 where the spin-polarization direction, controlled by the applied magnetic field, can modify the electronic structure. As a result, the direction of spin polarization can modulate the density of states and in turn affect the in-plane electrical conductivity. In Cr1/3NbS2, we foundmore » an enhancement of in-plane conductivity when the spin polarization is out-of-plane as compared to in-plane spin polarization. This is consistent with the increase in density of states near the Fermi energy at the same spin configuration, found from first-principles calculations. We also observe unusual field dependence of the Hall signal in the same temperature range. This is unlikely to originate from the noncollinear spin texture but rather further indicates strong dependence of electronic structure on spin orientation relative to the plane.« less

  15. Out-of-plane spin-orientation dependent magnetotransport properties in the anisotropic helimagnet CR1/3NbS2 [Spin-Orbit Coupling Induced Anisotropy in the Magnetotransport of the Chiral Helimagnet Cr1=3NbS2

    SciTech Connect

    Bornstein, Alexander C.; Chapman, Benjamin J.; Ghimire, Nirmal J.; Mandrus, David G.; Parker, David S.; Lee, Minhyea

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the role of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) has been crucial for controlling magnetic anisotropy in magnetic multilayer films. It has been shown that electronic structure can be altered via interface SOC by varying the superlattice structure, resulting in spontaneous magnetization perpendicular or parallel to the plane. In lieu of magnetic thin films, we study the similarly anisotropic helimagnet Cr1/3NbS2 where the spin-polarization direction, controlled by the applied magnetic field, can modify the electronic structure. As a result, the direction of spin polarization can modulate the density of states and in turn affect the in-plane electrical conductivity. In Cr1/3NbS2, we found an enhancement of in-plane conductivity when the spin polarization is out-of-plane as compared to in-plane spin polarization. This is consistent with the increase in density of states near the Fermi energy at the same spin configuration, found from first-principles calculations. We also observe unusual field dependence of the Hall signal in the same temperature range. This is unlikely to originate from the noncollinear spin texture but rather further indicates strong dependence of electronic structure on spin orientation relative to the plane.

  16. Chiral anomaly and anomalous finite-size conductivity in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Shun-Qing; Li, Chang-An; Niu, Qian

    2017-09-01

    Graphene is a monolayer of carbon atoms packed into a hexagon lattice to host two spin degenerate pairs of massless two-dimensional Dirac fermions with different chirality. It is known that the existence of non-zero electric polarization in reduced momentum space which is associated with a hidden chiral symmetry will lead to the zero-energy flat band of a zigzag nanoribbon and some anomalous transport properties. Here it is proposed that the Adler-Bell-Jackiw chiral anomaly or non-conservation of chiral charges of Dirac fermions at different valleys can be realized in a confined ribbon of finite width, even in the absence of a magnetic field. In the laterally diffusive regime, the finite-size correction to conductivity is always positive and is inversely proportional to the square of the lateral dimension W, which is different from the finite-size correction inversely proportional to W from the boundary modes. This anomalous finite-size conductivity reveals the signature of the chiral anomaly in graphene, and it is measurable experimentally. This finding provides an alternative platform to explore the purely quantum mechanical effect in graphene.

  17. Ternary superlattice boosting interface-stabilized magnetic chirality

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gong; Schmid, Andreas K.; N'Diaye, Alpha T.; Wu, Yizheng

    2015-02-09

    In cobalt-nickel multilayers grown on iridium surfaces, magnetic homo-chirality can be stabilized by Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions (DMI) at the interface with the substrate. When thickness of the multilayers is increased beyond threshold values, then non-chiral bulk properties exceed interface contributions and this type of chirality vanishes. Here, we use spin-polarized low energy electron microscopy to measure these thickness thresholds, and we determine estimates of the strength of the DMI from the measurements. Even though the same 5d heavy metal is used as a substrate, a remarkably large variation is found between the two 3d magnets: our results indicate that the strength of the DMI at Co/Ir interfaces is three times larger than at Ni/Ir interfaces. We show how this finding provides ways to extend interfacial-DMI stabilization of domain wall chirality to 3d/5d/3d ternary multilayers such as [Ni/Ir/Co]{sub n}. Such strategies may extend chirality-control to larger film thickness and a wider range of substrates, which may be useful for designing new spintronics devices.

  18. Counterrotating Cores in Elliptical Galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcells, Marc Comas

    The dynamics of the merger between a high- and a low-luminosity elliptical galaxy has been studied to understand how kinematically peculiar cores in elliptical galaxies might form. Numerical simulations of mergers provide rotation curves, surface density profiles, surface density contour plots and velocity maps of the merger remnants, as well as diagnostics on the dynamics such as phase-space diagrams. This type of merger can create counterrotating cores. The core of the smaller galaxy, of higher density, is not disrupted by the primary tidal field and sinks to the center of the primary as an independent dynamical subsystem. Core counterrotation occurs only when the initial merger orbit is retrograde with respect to the spin of the primary. The remnant has higher effective radius and lower mean central surface density than the primary galaxy, but a smaller core radius. The adsorption of orbital energy and angular momentum by the primary particles greatly modifies the kinematic structure of the larger galaxy. Twisted rotation axes and isophote twists appear over the whole body of the remnant. These diagnostics may be used to determine whether observed peculiar cores might have formed via an elliptical-elliptical merger. Galaxies with counterrotating cores should show a complex velocity field, isophotal irregularities, and, in general, a slow rotation in the main body of the galaxy. The present experiments are the first galaxy-satellite merger experiments involving an active, rotating secondary. They show that part of the orbital angular momentum is absorbed by the secondary, thus the secondary contributes to its own sinking: the sinking rate depends on the orientation of the secondary spin. Long-slit spectroscopic observations of NGC 3656 are reported. Rotation curves indicate that NGC 3656 contains a core spinning in a direction perpendicular to the rotation in the main body of the galaxy. Velocity reversals at intermediate radii are also observed. These features

  19. Enantiospecific spin polarization of electrons photoemitted through layers of homochiral organic molecules.

    PubMed

    Niño, Miguel Ángel; Kowalik, Iwona Agnieszka; Luque, Francisco Jesús; Arvanitis, Dimitri; Miranda, Rodolfo; de Miguel, Juan José

    2014-11-26

    Electrons photoemitted through layers of purely organic chiral molecules become strongly spin-polarized even at room temperature and for double-monolayer thicknesses. The substitution of one enantiomer for its mirror image does not revert the sign of the spin polarization, rather its direction in space. These findings might lead to the obtention of highly efficient spin filters for spintronic applications.

  20. Chiral projected entangled-pair state with topological order.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuo; Wahl, Thorsten B; Tu, Hong-Hao; Schuch, Norbert; Cirac, J Ignacio

    2015-03-13

    We show that projected entangled-pair states (PEPS) can describe chiral topologically ordered phases. For that, we construct a simple PEPS for spin-1/2 particles in a two-dimensional lattice. We reveal a symmetry in the local projector of the PEPS that gives rise to the global topological character. We also extract characteristic quantities of the edge conformal field theory using the bulk-boundary correspondence.

  1. Transition Probabilities And Chiral Symmetry In 134Pr

    SciTech Connect

    Tonev, D.; De Angelis, G.; Gadea, A.; Axiotis, M.; Marginean, N.; Martines, T.; Napoli, D.R.; Prete, G.; Behera, B.R.; Rusu, C.; Petkov, P.; Dewald, A.; Pejovic, P.; Fitzler, A.; Moeller, O.; Zell, K.O.; Balabanski, D.; Bednarczyk, P.; Camera, F.; Paleni, A.

    2005-04-05

    Lifetime measurements in 134Pr were performed by means of the Recoil distance Doppler-shift and Doppler-shift attenuation methods using the multidetector array EUROBALL, in conjunction with the inner BGO ball. The derived B(E2) transition strengths within the two bands candidates for chiral partners behave differently with increasing spin while the corresponding B(M1) values have a similar behaviour within the experimental uncertainties.

  2. Starburst galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weedman, Daniel W.

    1987-01-01

    The infrared properties of star-forming galaxies, primarily as determined by the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), are compared to X-ray, optical, and radio properties. Luminosity functions are reviewed and combined with those derived from optically discovered samples using 487 Markarian galaxies with redshifts and published IRAS 60 micron fluxes, and 1074 such galaxies in the Center for Astrophysics redshift survey. It is found that the majority of infrared galaxies which could be detected are low luminosity sources already known from the optical samples, but non-infrared surveys have found only a very small fraction of the highest luminosity sources. Distributions of infrared to optical fluxes and available spectra indicate that the majority of IRAS-selected galaxies are starburst galaxies. Having a census of starburst galaxies and associated dust allow severl important global calculations. The source counts are predicted as a function of flux limits for both infrared and radio fluxes. These galaxies are found to be important radio sources at faint flux limits. Taking the integrated flux to z = 3 indicates that such galaxies are a significant component of the diffuse X-ray background, and could be the the dominant component depending on the nature of the X-ray spectra and source evolution.

  3. Interfacial organization of achiral porphyrins via unidirectional compression: a general method for chiroptical porphyrin assemblies of selected chirality.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Yanping; Chen, Penglei; Rong, Yunlong; Liu, Minghua

    2016-05-18

    Porphyrins are considered to be important scaffolds bridging supramolecular chemistry and chiral chemistry, where chirality selection via physical effects such as directional stirring and spin-coating has aroused particular interest. Nevertheless, these protocols could only work on a limited number of achiral porphyrins. It still remains a formidable challenge to pave a general avenue for the construction of chiral assemblies using achiral porphyrins. By means of a unique Langmuir-Schaefer (LS) technique of a unidirectional compression configuration, we herein have demonstrated that a series of achiral porphyrins could be facilely organized to form chiral interfacial assemblies of controlled supramolecular chirality. It has been disclosed that such a fascinating chirality selection scenario is intimately related to the direction of the compression-generated vortex-like flow, while the compression speed, one of the most significant parameters of the Langmuir technique, contributes less to this issue. With regard to a surface-pressure-dependent chirality selection phenomenon, it is suggested that the directional vortex-like flow generated by lateral compression might play a role in promoting the preferential growth of chiral assemblies showing an enhanced yet controlled CD signal. Our protocol might be, to some extent, a general method for achieving chiral porphyrin assemblies of controlled chirality.

  4. Characterization of magnetic domain walls using electron magnetic chiral dichroism.

    PubMed

    Che, Ren Chao; Liang, Chong Yun; He, Xiang; Liu, Hai Hua; Duan, Xiao Feng

    2011-04-01

    Domain walls and spin states of permalloy were investigated by electron magnetic chiral dichroism (EMCD) technique in Lorentz imaging mode using a JEM-2100F transmission electron microscope. EMCD signals from both Fe and Ni L3,2 edges were detected from the Bloch lines but not from the adjacent main wall. The magnetic polarity orientation of the circular Bloch line is opposite to that of the cross Bloch line. The orientations of Fe and Ni spins are parallel rather than antiparallel, both at the cross Bloch line and circular Bloch line.

  5. Global phase diagram and quantum spin liquids in a spin-1/2 triangular antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Shou-Shu; Zhu, W.; Zhu, J.-X.; Sheng, D. N.; Yang, Kun

    2017-08-01

    We study the spin-1 /2 Heisenberg model on the triangular lattice with the nearest-neighbor J1>0 , the next-nearest-neighobr J2>0 Heisenberg interactions, and the additional scalar chiral interaction Jχ(S⃗i×S⃗j) .S⃗k for the three spins in all the triangles using large-scale density matrix renormalization group calculation on cylinder geometry. With increasing J2 (J2/J1≤0.3 ) and Jχ (Jχ/J1≤1.0 ) interactions, we establish a quantum phase diagram with the magnetically ordered 120∘, stripe, and noncoplanar tetrahedral phase. In between these magnetic order phases, we find a chiral spin liquid (CSL) phase, which is identified as a ν =1 /2 bosonic fractional quantum Hall state with possible spontaneous rotational symmetry breaking. By switching on the chiral interaction, we find that the previously identified spin liquid in the J1-J2 triangular model (0.08 ≲J2/J1≲0.15 ) shows a phase transition to the CSL phase at very small Jχ. We also compute the spin triplet gap in both spin liquid phases, and our finite-size results suggest a large gap in the odd topological sector but a small or vanishing gap in the even sector. We discuss the implications of our results on the nature of the spin liquid phases.

  6. Spinning fluids in general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, J. R.; Smalley, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    General relativity field equations are employed to examine a continuous medium with internal spin. A variational principle formerly applied in the special relativity case is extended to the general relativity case, using a tetrad to express the spin density and the four-velocity of the fluid. An energy-momentum tensor is subsequently defined for a spinning fluid. The equations of motion of the fluid are suggested to be useful in analytical studies of galaxies, for anisotropic Bianchi universes, and for turbulent eddies.

  7. Spinning fluids in general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, J. R.; Smalley, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    General relativity field equations are employed to examine a continuous medium with internal spin. A variational principle formerly applied in the special relativity case is extended to the general relativity case, using a tetrad to express the spin density and the four-velocity of the fluid. An energy-momentum tensor is subsequently defined for a spinning fluid. The equations of motion of the fluid are suggested to be useful in analytical studies of galaxies, for anisotropic Bianchi universes, and for turbulent eddies.

  8. First-order chiral to non-chiral transition in the angular dependence of the upper critical induction of the Scharnberg-Klemm p-wave pair state.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Lörscher, C; Gu, Q; Klemm, R A

    2014-06-25

    We calculate the temperature T and angular (θ, ϕ) dependencies of the upper critical induction Bc2(θ, ϕ, T) for parallel-spin superconductors with an axially symmetric p-wave pairing interaction pinned to the lattice and a dominant ellipsoidal Fermi surface (FS). For all FS anisotropies, the chiral Scharnberg-Klemm (SK) state Bc2(θ, ϕ, T) exceeds that of the chiral Anderson-Brinkman-Morel (ABM) state and exhibits a kink at θ = θ*(T, ϕ), indicative of a first-order transition from its chiral, nodal-direction behavior to its non-chiral, antinodal-direction behavior. Applicabilities to Sr2RuO4, UCoGe and the candidate topological superconductor CuxBi2Se3 are discussed.

  9. Optical properties of chiral nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecilia, Noguez; Román-Velázquez Carlos, E.; Ariadna, Sánchez; Montes Lilia, Meza

    2004-03-01

    A recent theoretical model [1] is applied to study the optical properties chiral nanostructures like carbon nanotubes. We calculate the Circular Dichroism (CD) spectra for carbon nanotubes with different chirality. The calculated CD spectra show features that allow us to distinguish between nanotubes with different indexes of chirality. Other nanostructures, like chiral fullerenes are also investigated.These results provide theoretical support for the quantification of chirality and its measurement, using the CD lineshapes of chiral. This work has been partly financed by CONACyT grant No. 36651-E and by DGAPA-UNAM grants No. IN104201. [1] C. E. Roman-Velazquez, et al., J. of Phys. Chem. B (Letter) 107, 12035 (2003)

  10. Modes of structurally chiral lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topf, René D. M.; McCall, Martin W.

    2014-11-01

    We employ coupled wave theory to enumerate the lasing modes of structurally chiral lasers. The elliptical modes are shown to be fundamentally distinct from those of a scalar distributed feedback laser. High threshold modes are shown to lase with the opposite chirality as the active medium, in contrast to their low-threshold counterparts that lase with the same chirality as the active medium. The lasing mode structure suggests the intriguing possibility of dynamically changing the polarization handedness of a chiral laser, as well as the possibility of lasing within the forbidden band-gap region. These observations arise from the fundamental interplay between the distributed chirality-preserving reflections within the active medium and the localized chirality-reversing reflections at the medium's boundaries.

  11. ENANTIOMER-SPECIFIC EFFECTS OF CHIRAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enantiomers, the mirror image isomers of chiral pollutants, are known to be selective in their interaction with other chiral molecules, including enzymes and other biochemicals. Considerable research has shown, for example, that chiral pesticides are degraded selectively by micr...

  12. Chiral conical diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, M. V.; Jeffrey, M. R.

    2006-05-01

    The geometrical and wave optics are explored for light emerging from a slab of transparent biaxial crystal with optical activity (chirality), for an incident beam directed along the optic axis. The geometrical optics, here derived from Hamilton's principle, is dominated by a circularly symmetric cusped caustic surface ('spun cusp') threaded by an axial focal line. In wave optics, formulated exactly in the paraxial approximation in terms of integrals previously obtained by Belsky and Stepanov and here derived using a unitary evolution operator, the field is determined by two dimensionless parameters. The geometrical features are decorated by interference, here explored in the focal image plane (where the Poggendorff rings of the non-chiral case are in sharpest focus) and along the axis. Asymptotic approximations are derived in terms of the geometrical optics rays (including interference and evanescent waves), near the spun cusp, and uniformly across the caustic surface far from the cusp.

  13. Spin Physics with CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Yelena Prok

    2010-05-01

    Inelastic scattering using polarized nucleon targets and polarized charged lepton beams allows the extraction of double and single spin asymmetries that provide information about the helicity structure of the nucleon. A program designed to study such processes at low and intermediate $Q^2$ for the proton and deuteron has been pursued by the CLAS Collaboration at Jefferson Lab since 1998. Our inclusive data with high statistical precision and extensive kinematic coverage allow us to better constrain the polarized parton distributions and to accurately determine various moments of spin structure function $g_1$ as a function of $Q^2$. The latest results will be shown, illustrating our contribution to the world data, with comparisons of the data with NLO global fits, phenomenological models, chiral perturbation theory and the GDH and Bjorken sum rules. The semi-inclusive measurements of single and double spin asymmetries for charged and neutral pions are also show, indicating the importance of the orbital motion of quarks in understanding the spin structure of the nucleon.

  14. Chiral symmetry and pentaquarks

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitri Diakonov

    2004-07-01

    Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, mesons and baryons are illustrated in the language of the Dirac theory. Various forces acting between quarks inside baryons are discussed. I explain why the naive quark models typically overestimate pentaquark masses by some 500 MeV and why in the fully relativistic approach to baryons pentaquarks turn out to be light. I discuss briefly why it can be easier to produce pentaquarks at low than at high energies.

  15. [Chirality and drugs].

    PubMed

    Husson, H P

    1997-01-01

    Following a brief historical review of the notion of chirality, the importance of the relationship between pharmacological activity and the enantiomeric forms of drugs is indicated. Different approaches for the preparation of optically-pure molecules are discussed, and an original strategy, known as the "CN(R,S) method", is described. To conclude, an application of this method in the synthesis of a pharmacologically-active molecule is presented.

  16. Chiral Biomarkers in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    The chirality of organic molecules with the asymmetric location of group radicals was discovered in 1848 by Louis Pasteur during his investigations of the rotation of the plane of polarization of light by crystals of sodium ammonium paratartrate. It is well established that the amino acids in proteins are exclusively Levorotary (L-aminos) and the sugars in DNA and RNA are Dextrorotary (D-sugars). This phenomenon of homochirality of biological polymers is a fundamental property of all life known on Earth. Furthermore, abiotic production mechanisms typically yield recemic mixtures (i.e. equal amounts of the two enantiomers). When amino acids were first detected in carbonaceous meteorites, it was concluded that they were racemates. This conclusion was taken as evidence that they were extraterrestrial and produced by abiologically. Subsequent studies by numerous researchers have revealed that many of the amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites exhibit a significant L-excess. The observed chirality is much greater than that produced by any currently known abiotic processes (e.g. Linearly polarized light from neutron stars; Circularly polarized ultraviolet light from faint stars; optically active quartz powders; inclusion polymerization in clay minerals; Vester-Ulbricht hypothesis of parity violations, etc.). This paper compares the measured chirality detected in the amino acids of carbonaceous meteorites with the effect of these diverse abiotic processes. IT is concluded that the levels observed are inconsistent with post-arrival biological contamination or with any of the currently known abiotic production mechanisms. However, they are consistent with ancient biological processes on the meteorite parent body. This paper will consider these chiral biomarkers in view of the detection of possible microfossils found in the Orgueil and Murchison carbonaceous meteorites. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data obtained on these morphological biomarkers will be

  17. Generalized simplicial chiral models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimohammadi, Masoud

    2000-02-01

    Using the auxiliary field representation of the simplicial chiral models on a ( d-1)-dimensional simplex, the simplicial chiral models are generalized through replacing the term Tr (AA †) in the Lagrangian of these models by an arbitrary class function of AA †; V(AA †) . This is the same method used in defining the generalized two-dimensional Yang-Mills theories (gYM 2) from ordinary YM 2. We call these models the "generalized simplicial chiral models". Using the results of the one-link integral over a U( N) matrix, the large- N saddle-point equations for eigenvalue density function ρ( z) in the weak ( β> βc) and strong ( β< βc) regions are computed. In d=2, where the model is in some sense related to the gYM 2 theory, the saddle-point equations are solved for ρ( z) in the two regions, and the explicit value of critical point βc is calculated for V(B)= Tr B n(B=AA †) . For V(B)= Tr B 2, Tr B 3, and Tr B4, the critical behaviour of the model at d=2 is studied, and by calculating the internal energy, it is shown that these models have a third order phase transition.

  18. Chiral magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlović, Petar; Leite, Natacha; Sigl, Günter

    2017-07-01

    In this work the influence of the chiral anomaly effect on the evolution of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence was studied. We argue that before the electroweak symmetry breaking and for temperatures high enough such that the electron mass can be ignored, the description of a charged plasma in general needs to take into account the interplay between turbulence and the anomaly effects. It was demonstrated that this generalization can have important consequences on the evolution of turbulence, leading to the creation of maximally-helical fields from initially nonhelical ones. Therefore, chiral effects can strongly support turbulent inverse cascade, and lead to a slower decrease of the magnetic field with time, and also to a faster growth of the correlation length, when compared to the evolution predicted by the standard magnetohydrodynamics description. Using the weak anomaly approximation, and treating the anomaly contributions to magnetic energy and helicity as a small perturbation, we derive the specific solutions for the inverse cascade regime that demonstrate how chiral effects support the inverse cascade.

  19. Collective Hamiltonian for chiral modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q. B.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhao, P. W.; Jolos, R. V.; Meng, J.

    2013-02-01

    A collective model is proposed to describe the chiral rotation and vibration and applied to a system with one h11/2 proton particle and one h11/2 neutron hole coupled to a triaxial rigid rotor. The collective Hamiltonian is constructed from the potential energy and mass parameter obtained in the tilted axis cranking approach. By diagonalizing the collective Hamiltonian with a box boundary condition, it is found that for the chiral rotation, the partner states become more degenerate with the increase of the cranking frequency, and for the chiral vibrations, their important roles for the collective excitation are revealed at the beginning of the chiral rotation region.

  20. Microchip electrophoresis for chiral separations.

    PubMed

    Belder, Detlev; Ludwig, Martin

    2003-08-01

    Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) is a promising new technique for the separation of enantiomers. This recently introduced technique enables chiral separations to be performed in seconds on tiny micromachined devices. This review is intended to give a brief introduction into the principles of chiral separations with MCE with regard to methodology and instrumentation. Different approaches to realize chiral separations in microfluidic devices are described and discussed. This review gives an overview of original work done in this field with emphasis on approaches to improve detection and resolution in chiral MCE.

  1. Free-standing chiral plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Eunice Sok Ping; Deng, Jie; Wu, Siji; Khoo, Eng Huat; Liu, Yan Jun

    2014-11-01

    Chiral plasmonic nanostructures offer the ability to achieve strong optical circular dichroism (CD) activity over a broad spectral range, which has been challenging for chiral molecules. Chiral plasmonic nanostructures have been extensively studied based on top-down and bottom-up fabrication techniques. Particularly, in the top-down electron-beam lithography, 3D plasmonic nanostructure fabrication involves layer-by-layer patterning and complex alignment, which is time-consuming and causes many defects in the structures. Here, we present a free-standing 3D chiral plamonic nanostructures using the electron-beam lithography technique with much simplified fabrication processes. The 3D chiral plasmonic nanostructures consist of a free-standing ultrathin silicon nitride membrane with well-aligned L-shape metal nanostructures on one side and disk-shape ones on the other side. The free-standing membrane provides an ultra-smooth metal/dielectric interface and uniformly defines the gap between the upper and lower layers in an array of chiral nanostructures. Such free-standing chiral plasmonic nanostructures exhibit strong CD at optical frequencies, which can be engineered by simply changing the disk size on one side of the membrane. Experimental results are in good agreement with the finite-difference time-domain simulations. Such free-standing chiral plasmonics holds great potential for chirality analysis of biomolecules, drugs, and chemicals.

  2. Non-magnetic organic/inorganic spin injector at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Shinto P.; Mondal, Prakash Chandra; Naaman, Ron; Moshe, Hagay; Mastai, Yitzhak

    2014-12-15

    Spin injection into solid-state devices is commonly performed by use of ferromagnetic metal electrodes. Here, we present a spin injector design without permanent magnet; rather, the spin selectivity is determined by a chiral tunneling barrier. The chiral tunneling barrier is composed of an ultrathin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer that is deposited on top of a chiral self-assembled monolayer (SAM), which consists of cysteine or oligopeptide molecules. The experimentally observed magnetoresistance can be up to 20% at room temperature, and it displays an uncommon asymmetric curve as a function of the applied magnetic field. These findings show that the spin injector transmits only one spin orientation, independent of external magnetic field. The sign of the magnetoresistance depends on the handedness of the molecules in the SAM, which act as a spin filter, and the magnitude of the magnetoresistance depends only weakly on temperature.

  3. Extremely large, gate tunable spin Hall angle in 3D Topological Insulator pn junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, K. M. Masum; Sajjad, Redwan; Ghosh, Avik

    2015-03-01

    The band structure of the surface states of a three dimensional Topological Insulator (3D TI) is similar to that of graphene featuring massless Dirac Fermions. We show that due to this similarity, the chiral tunneling of electron in a graphene pn junction also appears in 3D TI. Electrons with very small incident angle (modes) are allowed to transmit through a TI pn junction (TIPNJ) due to the chiral tunneling. The rest of the electrons are reflected. As a result, the charge current in a TIPNJ is suppressed. Due to the spin momentum locking, all the small angle modes are spin-down states. Therefore, the transmitted end of the TIPNJ becomes highly spin polarized. On the other hand, the spin of the reflected electron is flipped due to spin momentum locking. This enhances the spin current at the injection end. Thus, the interplay between the chiral tunneling and spin momentum locking reduces the charge current but enhances the spin current at the same time, leading to an extremely large (~20) spin Hall angle. Since the chiral tunneling can be controlled by an external electric field, the spin Hall angle is gate tunable. The spin current generated by a TIPNJ can be used for energy-efficient switching of nanoscaled ferromagnets, which is an essential part of spintronic devices. This work is supported by the NRI INDEX center.

  4. Emergent electrodynamics from moving magnetic whirls in chiral magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosch, Achim

    2012-02-01

    In chiral magnets a lattice of magnetic whirls -- so-called skyrmions -- is stabilized in a small temperature and field range by thermal fluctuations [1]. We discuss how electric and spin currents couple to these skyrmions. As the spin of the electrons locally adjusts to the magnetic texture, the electron picks up a Berry phase. The effects of these time-dependent Berry phases are best described by ``artificial'' electric and magnetic fields of an emergent electrodynamics which couple to the spin and the spin currents. The efficient Berry phase coupling together with a partial cancellation of pinning forces due to the stiffness of the skyrmion lattice allows to explain theoretically experiments [2], which show that skyrmion lattices can be controlled by ultrasmall current densities. Using tiny gradients of temperature or magnetic field it is also possible to induce rotations of the skyrmion lattice. The topologically quantized winding number of the skyrmions induces exactly one quantum of emergent magnetic flux per skyrmion. Therefore one can also determine quantitatively the emergent electric field induced by a moving skyrmion following Faraday's law of induction as has been measured in recent experiments [3].[4pt] [1] Skyrmion Lattice in a Chiral Magnet, S. M"uhlbauer, B. Binz, F. Jonietz, C. Pfleiderer, A. Rosch, A. Neubauer, R. Georgii, P. B"oni, Science 323, 915 (2009). [0pt] [2] Spin Transfer Torques in MnSi at Ultralow Current Densities, F. Jonietz, S. M"hlbauer, C. Pfleiderer, A. Neubauer, W. M"unzer, A. Bauer, T. Adams, R. Georgii, P. B?ni, R. A. Duine, K. Everschor, M. Garst, and A. Rosch, Science 330, 1648 (2010).[0pt] [3] Emergent electrodynamics of skyrmions in a chiral magnet, T. Schulz, R. Ritz, A. Bauer, M. Halder, M. Wagner, C. Franz, and C. Pfleiderer, K. Everschor, M. Garst, and A. Rosch, preprint 2011.

  5. Spin Nernst Effect of Magnons in Collinear Antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ran; Okamoto, Satoshi; Xiao, Di

    2016-11-01

    In a collinear antiferromagnet with easy-axis anisotropy, symmetry guarantees that the spin wave modes are doubly degenerate. The two modes carry opposite spin angular momentum and exhibit opposite chirality. Using a honeycomb antiferromagnet in the presence of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, we show that a longitudinal temperature gradient can drive the two modes to opposite transverse directions, realizing a spin Nernst effect of magnons with vanishing thermal Hall current. We find that magnons around the Γ point and the K point contribute oppositely to the transverse spin transport, and their competition leads to a sign change of the spin Nernst coefficient at finite temperature. Possible material candidates are discussed.

  6. Widespread spin polarization effects in photoemission from topological insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Jozwiak, C.; Chen, Y. L.; Fedorov, A. V.; Analytis, J. G.; Rotundu, C. R.; Schmid, A. K.; Denlinger, J. D.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Lee, D.-H.; Fisher, I. R.; Birgeneau, R. J.; Shen, Z.-X.; Hussain, Z.; Lanzara, A.

    2011-06-22

    High-resolution spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (spin-ARPES) was performed on the three-dimensional topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} using a recently developed high-efficiency spectrometer. The topological surface state's helical spin structure is observed, in agreement with theoretical prediction. Spin textures of both chiralities, at energies above and below the Dirac point, are observed, and the spin structure is found to persist at room temperature. The measurements reveal additional unexpected spin polarization effects, which also originate from the spin-orbit interaction, but are well differentiated from topological physics by contrasting momentum and photon energy and polarization dependencies. These observations demonstrate significant deviations of photoelectron and quasiparticle spin polarizations. Our findings illustrate the inherent complexity of spin-resolved ARPES and demonstrate key considerations for interpreting experimental results.

  7. Chiral drag force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Krishna; Sadofyev, Andrey V.

    2015-10-01

    We provide a holographic evaluation of novel contributions to the drag force acting on a heavy quark moving through strongly interacting plasma. The new contributions are chiral in the sense that they act in opposite directions in plasmas containing an excess of left- or right-handed quarks. The new contributions are proportional to the coefficient of the axial anomaly, and in this sense also are chiral. These new contributions to the drag force act either parallel to or antiparallel to an external magnetic field or to the vorticity of the fluid plasma. In all these respects, these contributions to the drag force felt by a heavy quark are analogous to the chiral magnetic effect (CME) on light quarks. However, the new contribution to the drag force is independent of the electric charge of the heavy quark and is the same for heavy quarks and antiquarks, meaning that these novel effects do not in fact contribute to the CME current. We show that although the chiral drag force can be non-vanishing for heavy quarks that are at rest in the local fluid rest frame, it does vanish for heavy quarks that are at rest in a suitably chosen frame. In this frame, the heavy quark at rest sees counterpropagating momentum and charge currents, both proportional to the axial anomaly coefficient, but feels no drag force. This provides strong concrete evidence for the absence of dissipation in chiral transport, something that has been predicted previously via consideration of symmetries. Along the way to our principal results, we provide a general calculation of the corrections to the drag force due to the presence of gradients in the flowing fluid in the presence of a nonzero chemical potential. We close with a consequence of our result that is at least in principle observable in heavy ion collisions, namely an anticorrelation between the direction of the CME current for light quarks in a given event and the direction of the kick given to the momentum of all the heavy quarks and

  8. ORBITAL DEPENDENCE OF GALAXY PROPERTIES IN SATELLITE SYSTEMS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho Seong; Park, Changbom E-mail: cbp@kias.re.k

    2010-09-01

    We study the dependence of satellite galaxy properties on the distance to the host galaxy and the orbital motion (prograde and retrograde orbits) using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data. From SDSS Data Release 7, we find 3515 isolated satellite systems of galaxies at z < 0.03 that contain 8904 satellite galaxies. Using this sample, we construct a catalog of 635 satellites associated with 215 host galaxies whose spin directions are determined by our inspection of the SDSS color images and/or by spectroscopic observations in the literature. We divide satellite galaxies into prograde and retrograde orbit subsamples depending on their orbital motion with respect to the spin direction of the host. We find that the number of galaxies in prograde orbit is nearly equal to that of retrograde orbit galaxies: the fraction of satellites in prograde orbit is 50% {+-} 2%. The velocity distribution of satellites with respect to their hosts is found to be almost symmetric: the median bulk rotation of satellites is -1 {+-} 8 km s{sup -1}. It is found that the radial distribution of early-type satellites in prograde orbit is strongly concentrated toward the host while that of retrograde ones shows much less concentration. We also find the orbital speed of late-type satellites in prograde orbit increases as the projected distance to the host (R) decreases while the speed decreases for those in retrograde orbit. At R less than 0.1 times the host virial radius (R < 0.1r{sub vir,host}), the orbital speed decreases in both prograde and retrograde orbit cases. Prograde satellites are on average fainter than retrograde satellites for both early and late morphological types. The u - r color becomes redder as R decreases for both prograde and retrograde orbit late-type satellites. The differences between prograde and retrograde orbit satellite galaxies may be attributed to their different origin or the different strength of physical processes that they have experienced through

  9. On the galaxy-halo connection in the EAGLE simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmond, Harry; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop

    2017-10-01

    Empirical models of galaxy formation require assumptions about the correlations between galaxy and halo properties. These may be calibrated against observations or inferred from physical models such as hydrodynamical simulations. In this Letter, we use the EAGLE simulation to investigate the correlation of galaxy size with halo properties. We motivate this analysis by noting that the common assumption of angular momentum partition between baryons and dark matter in rotationally supported galaxies overpredicts both the spread in the stellar mass-size relation and the anticorrelation of size and velocity residuals, indicating a problem with the galaxy-halo connection it implies. We find the EAGLE galaxy population to perform significantly better on both statistics, and trace this success to the weakness of the correlations of galaxy size with halo mass, concentration and spin at fixed stellar mass. Using these correlations in empirical models will enable fine-grained aspects of galaxy scalings to be matched.

  10. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry of Chiral Polymeric Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Werber, Liora; Preiss, Laura C; Landfester, Katharina; Muñoz-Espí, Rafael; Mastai, Yitzhak

    2015-09-01

    Chiral polymeric nanoparticles are of prime importance, mainly due to their enantioselective potential, for many applications such as catalysis and chiral separation in chromatography. In this article we report on the preparation of chiral polymeric nanoparticles by miniemulsion polymerization. In addition, we describe the use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to measure the chiral interactions and the energetics of the adsorption of enantiomers from aqueous solutions onto chiral polymeric nanoparticles. The characterization of chirality in nano-systems is a very challenging task; here, we demonstrate that ITC can be used to accurately determine the thermodynamic parameters associated with the chiral interactions of nanoparticles. The use of ITC to measure the energetics of chiral interactions and recognition at the surfaces of chiral nanoparticles can be applied to other nanoscale chiral systems and can provide further insight into the chiral discrimination processes of nanomaterials.

  11. Les galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, Francoise

    2016-08-01

    Considerable progress has been made on galaxy formation and evolution in recent years, and new issues. The old Hubble classification according to the tuning fork of spirals, lenticulars and ellipticals, is still useful but has given place to the red sequence, the blue cloud and the green valley, showing a real bimodality of types between star forming galaxies (blue) and quenched ones (red). Large surveys have shown that stellar mass and environment density are the two main factors of the evolution from blue to red sequences. Evolution is followed directly with redshift through a look-back time of more than 12 billion years. The most distant galaxy at z=11. has already a stellar mass of a billion suns. In an apparent anti-hierarchical scenario, the most massive galaxies form stars early on, while essentially dwarf galaxies are actively star-formers now. This downsizing feature also applies to the growth of super-massive black holes at the heart of each bulgy galaxy. The feedback from active nuclei is essential to explain the distribution of mass in galaxies, and in particular to explain why the fraction of baryonic matter is so low, lower by more than a factor 5 than the baryonic fraction of the Universe. New instruments just entering in operation, like MUSE and ALMA, provide a new and rich data flow, which is developed in this series of articles.

  12. Imprint of inflation on galaxy shape correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Fabian; Chisari, Nora Elisa; Dvorkin, Cora E-mail: elisa.chisari@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2015-10-01

    We show that intrinsic (not lensing-induced) correlations between galaxy shapes offer a new probe of primordial non-Gaussianity and inflationary physics which is complementary to galaxy number counts. Specifically, intrinsic alignment correlations are sensitive to an anisotropic squeezed limit bispectrum of the primordial perturbations. Such a feature arises in solid inflation, as well as more broadly in the presence of light higher spin fields during inflation (as pointed out recently by Arkani-Hamed and Maldacena). We present a derivation of the all-sky two-point correlations of intrinsic shapes and number counts in the presence of non-Gaussianity with general angular dependence, and show that a quadrupolar (spin-2) anisotropy leads to the analog in galaxy shapes of the well-known scale-dependent bias induced in number counts by isotropic (spin-0) non-Gaussianity. Moreover, in the presence of non-zero anisotropic non-Gaussianity, the quadrupole of galaxy shapes becomes sensitive to far superhorizon modes. These effects come about because long-wavelength modes induce a local anisotropy in the initial power spectrum, with which galaxies will correlate. We forecast that future imaging surveys could provide constraints on the amplitude of anisotropic non-Gaussianity that are comparable to those from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). These are complementary as they probe different physical scales. The constraints, however, depend on the sensitivity of galaxy shapes to the initial conditions which we only roughly estimate from observed tidal alignments.

  13. Epitaxial electrodeposition of chiral and spintronic metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Hiten Mahendra

    This dissertation presents an investigation of the electrodeposition of epitaxial and polycrystalline functional metal oxide films on conducting polycrystalline and single crystal substrates. In the first part of the study, electrodeposited CuO films are shown to be enantiospecific catalysts. In the second part of the study, Fe3O4 films are electrodeposited with a magnetoresistance of ˜-6 % at 300 K in a field of 9 T. Synthesis, separation and detection of enantiomers are of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Heterogeneous catalysts are easily separated and reduce the cost of the process. Electrodeposited epitaxial films of CuO onto achiral Au and Cu single crystals using chiral precursors to complex Cu(II) are shown to be enantiospecific catalysts. CuO electrodeposits with a chiral orientation, even though the material does not crystallize in a chiral space group. The chirality of the electrodeposited films is dictated at the molecular level by the chiral solution precursors. X-ray diffraction pole figures and azimuthal scans, in conjunction with stereographic projections, are used to determine the absolute configuration and the enantiomeric excess of the chiral CuO films. Polycrystalline and epitaxial films of magnetite are electrodeposited on polycrystalline and Au(111) surfaces by the electrochemical reduction of a Fe(III)-triethanolamine complex in alkaline solution. Room temperature MR values of ˜-6.5 and -6% are obtained in a magnetic field of 9 T with the field parallel and perpendicular to the film plane, respectively. The observed MR behavior is consistent with the reported model of tunneling transport of spin polarized electrons across antiferromagnetic grain boundaries.

  14. Chiral Crystallization of Ethylenediamine Sulfate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koby, Lawrence; Ningappa, Jyothi B.; Dakesssian, Maria; Cuccia, Louis A.

    2005-01-01

    The optimal conditions for the crystallization of achiral ethylenediamine sulfate into large chiral crystals that are ideal for polarimetry studies and observation using Polaroid sheets are presented. This experiment is an ideal undergraduate experiment, which clearly demonstrates the chiral crystallization of an achiral molecule.

  15. Chiral Crystallization of Ethylenediamine Sulfate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koby, Lawrence; Ningappa, Jyothi B.; Dakesssian, Maria; Cuccia, Louis A.

    2005-01-01

    The optimal conditions for the crystallization of achiral ethylenediamine sulfate into large chiral crystals that are ideal for polarimetry studies and observation using Polaroid sheets are presented. This experiment is an ideal undergraduate experiment, which clearly demonstrates the chiral crystallization of an achiral molecule.

  16. CHIRAL PESTICIDES: OCCURRENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Like amino acids, certain pesticides exist in "left-handed" and "right-handed" (chiral) forms. Commercially available chiral pesticides are produced as racemic mixtures in which the ratio of the two forms (or enantiomers) is 1:1. Enantiomers have the same ...

  17. CHIRAL PESTICIDES: OCCURRENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Like amino acids, certain pesticides exist in "left-handed" and "right-handed" (chiral) forms. Commercially available chiral pesticides are produced as racemic mixtures in which the ratio of the two forms (or enantiomers) is 1:1. Enantiomers have the same ...

  18. Empirical description of chiral autocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Micskei, Karoly; Póta, György; Caglioti, Luciano; Palyi, Gyula

    2006-05-11

    The only known example of chiral autocatalysis is the alkylation of N-heterocyclic aldehydes with iPr(2)Zn (Soai reaction). The mechanism and some details of this reaction are not yet clear. An empirical formula is proposed here for the description of this chiral autocatalytic reaction. This formula allows the calculation of some very informative parameters.

  19. Chiral model for nucleon and delta

    SciTech Connect

    Birse, M.C.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    We propose a model of the nucleon and delta based on the idea that strong QCD forces on length scales approx.0.2--1 fm result in hidden chiral SU(2) x SU(2) symmetry and that there is a separation of roles between these forces which are also responsible for binding quarks in hadrons and the forces which produce absolute confinement. This leads us to study a linear sigma model describing the interactions of quarks, sigma mesons, and pions. We have solved this model in the semiclassical (mean-field) approximation for the hedgehog baryon state. We refer to this solution as a chiral soliton. In the semiclassical approximation the hedgehog state is a linear combination of N and ..delta... We project this state onto states of good spin and isospin to calculate matrix elements of various operators in these states. Our results are in reasonable agreement with the observed properties of the nucleon. The mesonic contributions to g/sub A/ and sigma(..pi..N) are about two to three times too large, suggesting the need for quantum corrections.

  20. H I-selected galaxies in hierarchical models of galaxy formation and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoldan, Anna; De Lucia, Gabriella; Xie, Lizhi; Fontanot, Fabio; Hirschmann, Michaela

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we study the basic statistical properties of H I-selected galaxies extracted from six different semi-analytic models, all run on the same cosmological N-body simulation. One model includes an explicit treatment for the partition of cold gas into atomic and molecular hydrogen. All models considered agree nicely with the measured H I mass function in the local Universe, with the measured scaling relations between H I and galaxy stellar mass, and with the predicted two-point correlation function for H I-rich galaxies. One exception is given by one model that predicts very little H I associated with galaxies in haloes above ˜1012 M⊙: we argue this is due to a too efficient radio-mode feedback for central galaxies, and to a combination of efficient stellar feedback and instantaneous stripping of hot gas for satellites. We demonstrate that treatment of satellite galaxies introduces large uncertainties at low H I masses. While models assuming non-instantaneous stripping of hot gas tend to form satellite galaxies with H I masses slightly smaller than those of centrals with the same stellar mass, instantaneous gas stripping does not translate necessarily in lower H I masses. In fact, the adopted stellar feedback and star formation affect the satellites too. We analyse the relation between H I content and spin of simulated haloes: low-spin haloes tend to host H I-poor galaxies, while high-spin haloes are populated by galaxies in a wide range of H I mass. In our simulations, this is due to a correlation between the initial gas disc size and the halo spin.

  1. Chiral ladders and the edges of quantum Hall insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hügel, Dario; Paredes, Belén

    2014-02-01

    The realization and detection of topological phases with ultracold atomic gases is at the frontier of current theoretical and experimental research. Here, we identify cold atoms in optical ladders subjected to synthetic magnetic fields as readily realizable bridges between one-dimensional spin-orbit (time-reversal) topological insulators and two-dimensional quantum Hall insulators. We reveal three instances of their promising potential: (i) they realize spin-orbit coupling, with the left-right leg degree of freedom playing the role of an effective spin, (ii) their energy bands and eigenstates exactly reproduce the topological chiral edge modes of two-dimensional Chern insulators, and (iii) they can be tailored to realize a topological phase transition from a trivial to a topological insulating phase. We propose realistic schemes to observe the chiral and topological properties of ladder systems with current optical lattice-based experiments. Our findings open a door to the exploration of the physics of the edges of quantum Hall insulators and to the realization of spin-orbit coupling and topological superfluid phases with ultracold atomic gases.

  2. Nucleon-to-{delta} axial transition form factors in relativistic baryon chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, L. S.; Camalich, J. Martin; Alvarez-Ruso, L.; Vacas, M. J. Vicente

    2008-07-01

    We report a theoretical study of the axial nucleon-to-delta (1232) (N{yields}{delta}) transition form factors up to one-loop order in relativistic baryon chiral perturbation theory. We adopt a formalism in which the {delta} couplings obey the spin-3/2 gauge symmetry and, therefore, decouple the unphysical spin-1/2 fields. We compare the results with phenomenological form factors obtained from neutrino bubble-chamber data and in quark models.

  3. Lorentz invariance in chiral kinetic theory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing-Yuan; Son, Dam T; Stephanov, Mikhail A; Yee, Ho-Ung; Yin, Yi

    2014-10-31

    We show that Lorentz invariance is realized nontrivially in the classical action of a massless spin-1/2 particle with definite helicity. We find that the ordinary Lorentz transformation is modified by a shift orthogonal to the boost vector and the particle momentum. The shift ensures angular momentum conservation in particle collisions and implies a nonlocality of the collision term in the Lorentz-invariant kinetic theory due to side jumps. We show that 2/3 of the chiral-vortical effect for a uniformly rotating particle distribution can be attributed to the magnetic moment coupling required by the Lorentz invariance. We also show how the classical action can be obtained by taking the classical limit of the path integral for a Weyl particle.

  4. Mass-Selective Chiral Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesl, Ulrich; Kartouzian, Aras

    2016-06-01

    Three ways of realizing mass-selective chiral analysis are reviewed. The first is based on the formation of diastereomers that are of homo- and hetero- type with respect to the enantiomers of involved chiral molecules. This way is quite well-established with numerous applications. The other two ways are more recent developments, both based on circular dichroism (CD). In one, conventional or nonlinear electronic CD is linked to mass spectrometry (MS) by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization. The other is based on CD in the angular distribution of photoelectrons, which is measured in combination with MS via photoion photoelectron coincidence. Among the many important applications of mass-selective chiral analysis, this review focuses on its use as an analytical tool for the development of heterogeneous enantioselective chemical catalysis. There exist other approaches to combine chiral analysis and mass-selective detection, such as chiral chromatography MS, which are not discussed here.

  5. Quark structure of chiral solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitri Diakonov

    2004-05-01

    There is a prejudice that the chiral soliton model of baryons is something orthogonal to the good old constituent quark models. In fact, it is the opposite: the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in strong interactions explains the appearance of massive constituent quarks of small size thus justifying the constituent quark models, in the first place. Chiral symmetry ensures that constituent quarks interact very strongly with the pseudoscalar fields. The ''chiral soliton'' is another word for the chiral field binding constituent quarks. We show how the old SU(6) quark wave functions follow from the ''soliton'', however, with computable relativistic corrections and additional quark-antiquark pairs. We also find the 5-quark wave function of the exotic baryon Theta+.

  6. Controlling Chirality of Entropic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Damasceno, Pablo F; Karas, Andrew S; Schultz, Benjamin A; Engel, Michael; Glotzer, Sharon C

    2015-10-09

    Colloidal crystal structures with complexity and diversity rivaling atomic and molecular crystals have been predicted and obtained for hard particles by entropy maximization. However, thus far homochiral colloidal crystals, which are candidates for photonic metamaterials, are absent. Using Monte Carlo simulations we show that chiral polyhedra exhibiting weak directional entropic forces self-assemble either an achiral crystal or a chiral crystal with limited control over the crystal handedness. Building blocks with stronger faceting exhibit higher selectivity and assemble a chiral crystal with handedness uniquely determined by the particle chirality. Tuning the strength of directional entropic forces by means of particle rounding or the use of depletants allows for reconfiguration between achiral and homochiral crystals. We rationalize our findings by quantifying the chirality strength of each particle, both from particle geometry and potential of mean force and torque diagrams.

  7. Counterrotating cores in elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcella, Marc Comas

    The dynamics of the merger between a high- and a low-elliptical galaxy was studied to understand how kinematically peculiar cores in elliptical galaxies might form. Numerical simulations of mergers provide rotation curves, surface density profiles, surface density contour plots and velocity maps of the merger remnants, as well as diagnostics on the dynamics such as phase-space diagrams. This type of merger can create counterrotating cores. The core of the smaller galaxy, of higher density, is not disrupted by the primary tidal field and sinks to the center of the primary as an independent dynamical subsystem. Core counterrotation occurs only when the initial merger orbit is retrograde with respect to the pin of the primary. The remnant has higher effective radius and lower mean central surface density than the primary galaxy, but a smaller core radius. The adsorption of orbital energy and angular momentum by the primary particles greatly modifies the kinematic structure of the larger galaxy. Twisted rotation axes and isophote twists appear over the whole body of the remnant. These diagnostics may be used to determine whether observed peculiar cores might have formed via an elliptical-elliptical merger. Galaxies with counterrotating cores should show a complex velocity field, isophotal irregularities, and, in general, a slow rotation in the main body of the galaxy. The present experiments are the first galaxy-satellite merger experiments involving an active, rotating secondary. They show that part of the orbital angular momentum is absorbed by the secondary, thus the secondary contributes to its own sinking: the sinking rate depends on the orientation of the secondary spin. Long-slit spectroscopic observations of NGC 3656 are reported.

  8. Chiral models: Geometrical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, A. M.

    1987-02-01

    Two-dimensional classical chiral models of field theory are considered, the main attention being paid on geometrical aspects of such theories. A characteristic feature of these models is that the interaction is inserted not by adding the interaction Lagrangian to the free field Lagrangian, but has a purely geometrical origin and is related to the inner curvature of the manifold. These models are in many respects analogous to non-Abelian gauge theories and as became clear recently, they are also important for the superstring theory which nowadays is the most probable candidate for a truly unified theory of all interactions including gravitation.

  9. Interacting Galaxies

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-04-24

    This beautiful pair of interacting galaxies consists of NGC 5754, the large spiral on the right, and NGC 5752, the smaller companion in the bottom left corner of the image. This image is from NASA Hubble Space Telescope.

  10. Andromeda Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walterbos, R.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Andromeda galaxy is the closest SPIRAL GALAXY to the MILKY WAY, just visible to the naked eye on a dark night as a faint smudge of light in the constellation Andromeda. The earliest records of the Andromeda nebula, as it is still often referred to, date back to AD 964, to the `Book of the Fixed Stars' published by the Persian astronomer AL-SÛFI. The first European to officially note the Andro...

  11. Interface currents and magnetization in singlet-triplet superconducting heterostructures: Role of chiral and helical domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Alfonso; Noce, Canio; Vekhter, Ilya; Cuoco, Mario

    2017-08-01

    Chiral and helical domain walls are generic defects of topological spin-triplet superconductors. We study theoretically the magnetic and transport properties of superconducting singlet-triplet-singlet heterostructure as a function of the phase difference between the singlet leads in the presence of chiral and helical domains inside the spin-triplet region. The local inversion symmetry breaking at the singlet-triplet interface allows the emergence of a static phase-controlled magnetization and generally yields both spin and charge currents flowing along the edges. The parity of the domain wall number affects the relative orientation of the interface moments and currents, while in some cases the domain walls themselves contribute to spin and charge transport. We demonstrate that singlet-triplet heterostructures are a generic prototype to generate and control nondissipative spin and charge effects, putting them in a broader class of systems exhibiting spin-Hall, anomalous Hall effects and similar phenomena. Features of the electron transport and magnetic effects at the interfaces can be employed to assess the presence of domains in chiral/helical superconductors.

  12. Magnetic torque measurements in a chiral magnet CrNb3S6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonemura, Junichiro; Kida, Takanori; Yoshizawa, Daichi; Kousaka, Yusuke; Akimitsu, Jun; Nishihara, Sadafumi; Inoue, Katsua; Kishine, Junichiro; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Togawa, Yoshihiko

    Chiral magnetic orders emerge in a particular class of magnetic materials with a chiral crystal structure. As a consequence of the competition between Heisenberg exchange and Dyzaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions in the presence of external magnetic field, chiral helimagnetic order (CHM) formed at zero magnetic field transforms into a nonlinear magnetic superlattice called chiral soliton lattice (CSL) under magnetic fields perpendicular to the chiral axis. The CSL consists of forced ferromagnetic (FM) regions periodically partitioned by chiral soliton kinks of spins. The period of the CSL increases gradually with increasing magnetic field. The CSL is the ground state and exhibits a phase transition into forced FM state above the critical field. To understand the nature of the phase transition, it is important to examine thermodynamic quantities such as magnetization. Furthermore, it is interesting to explore the possibility of the discretization of such physical quantities in a finite CSL system. In this talk, we will present the development of magnetic torque measurement method using micro cantilever in order to precisely measure the magnetization of a micro-sized sample and a set of experimental data obtained by magnetic torque measurements performed in chiral magnet CrNb3S6. Hysteresis and stepped behavior of magnetization observed are discussed.

  13. Second-order dissipative hydrodynamics for plasma with chiral asymmetry and vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbar, E. V.; Rybalka, D. O.; Shovkovy, I. A.

    2017-05-01

    By making use of the chiral kinetic theory in the relaxation-time approximation, we derive an Israel-Stewart type formulation of the hydrodynamic equations for a chiral relativistic plasma made of neutral particles (e.g., neutrinos). The effects of chiral asymmetry are captured by including an additional continuity equation for the axial charge, as well as the leading-order quantum corrections due to the spin of particles. In a formulation of the chiral kinetic theory used, we introduce a symmetric form of the energy-momentum tensor that is suitable for the description of a weakly nonuniform chiral plasma. By construction, the energy and momentum are conserved to the same leading order in the Planck constant as the kinetic equation itself. By making use of such a chiral kinetic theory and the Chapman-Enskog approach, we obtain a set of second-order dissipative hydrodynamic equations. The effects of the fluid vorticity and velocity fluctuations on the dispersion relations of chiral vortical waves are analyzed.

  14. Spin voltage generation through optical excitation of complementary spin populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottegoni, Federico; Celebrano, Michele; Bollani, Monica; Biagioni, Paolo; Isella, Giovanni; Ciccacci, Franco; Finazzi, Marco

    2014-08-01

    By exploiting the spin degree of freedom of carriers inside electronic devices, spintronics has a huge potential for quantum computation and dissipationless interconnects. Pure spin currents in spintronic devices should be driven by a spin voltage generator, able to drive the spin distribution out of equilibrium without inducing charge currents. Ideally, such a generator should operate at room temperature, be highly integrable with existing semiconductor technology, and not interfere with other spintronic building blocks that make use of ferromagnetic materials. Here we demonstrate a device that matches these requirements by realizing the spintronic equivalent of a photovoltaic generator. Whereas a photovoltaic generator spatially separates photoexcited electrons and holes, our device exploits circularly polarized light to produce two spatially well-defined electron populations with opposite in-plane spin projections. This is achieved by modulating the phase and amplitude of the light wavefronts entering a semiconductor (germanium) with a patterned metal overlayer (platinum). The resulting light diffraction pattern features a spatially modulated chirality inside the semiconductor, which locally excites spin-polarized electrons thanks to electric dipole selection rules.

  15. Spin voltage generation through optical excitation of complementary spin populations.

    PubMed

    Bottegoni, Federico; Celebrano, Michele; Bollani, Monica; Biagioni, Paolo; Isella, Giovanni; Ciccacci, Franco; Finazzi, Marco

    2014-08-01

    By exploiting the spin degree of freedom of carriers inside electronic devices, spintronics has a huge potential for quantum computation and dissipationless interconnects. Pure spin currents in spintronic devices should be driven by a spin voltage generator, able to drive the spin distribution out of equilibrium without inducing charge currents. Ideally, such a generator should operate at room temperature, be highly integrable with existing semiconductor technology, and not interfere with other spintronic building blocks that make use of ferromagnetic materials. Here we demonstrate a device that matches these requirements by realizing the spintronic equivalent of a photovoltaic generator. Whereas a photovoltaic generator spatially separates photoexcited electrons and holes, our device exploits circularly polarized light to produce two spatially well-defined electron populations with opposite in-plane spin projections. This is achieved by modulating the phase and amplitude of the light wavefronts entering a semiconductor (germanium) with a patterned metal overlayer (platinum). The resulting light diffraction pattern features a spatially modulated chirality inside the semiconductor, which locally excites spin-polarized electrons thanks to electric dipole selection rules.

  16. Frankenstein Galaxy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-11

    The galaxy UGC 1382 has been revealed to be far larger and stranger than previously thought. Astronomers relied on a combination of ground-based and space telescopes to uncover the true nature of this "Frankenstein galaxy." The composite image shows the same galaxy as viewed with different instruments. The component images are also available. In the image at left, UGC 1382 appears to be a simple elliptical galaxy, based on optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). But spiral arms emerged when astronomers incorporated ultraviolet data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) and deep optical data from SDSS, as seen in the middle image. Combining that with a view of low-density hydrogen gas (shown in green), detected at radio wavelengths by the Very Large Array, scientists discovered that UGC 1382 is a giant, and one of the largest isolated galaxies known. GALEX in particular was able detect very faint features because it operated from space, which is necessary for UV observations because ultraviolet light is absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere. Astronomers also used Stripe 82 of SDSS, a small region of sky where SDSS imaged the sky 80 times longer than the original standard SDSS survey. This enabled optical detection of much fainter features as well. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20695

  17. Alternative description of chiral properties in 138Nd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raduta, A. A.; Raduta, C. M.; Raduta, Al H.

    2017-04-01

    The phenomenological generalized coherent-state model Hamiltonian is amended with a many-body term describing a set of nucleons moving in a spherical shell-model mean field and interacting among themselves with pairing, as well as with a particle–core interaction involving a harmonic quadrupole–quadrupole, an anharmonic hexdecapole–hexdecapole and a spin–spin interaction. The model Hamiltonian is treated in a restricted space consisting of the core projected states associated to the bands ground, β ,γ ,\\widetilde{γ },{1}+ and \\widetilde{{1}+} and two proton-aligned quasiparticles coupled with the states of the ground band to a total angular momentum. The chirally transformed particle–core states are also included. The Hamiltonian contains two terms which are not invariant to the chiral transformations relating the right-handed trihedral ({{J}}{F},{{J}}{p},{{J}}{n}) and the left-handed ones (-{{J}}{F},{{J}}{p},{{J}}{n}), ({{J}}{F},-{{J}}{p},{{J}}{n}), ({{J}}{F},{{J}}{p},-{{J}}{n}) where {{J}}{F},{{J}}{p},{{J}}{n} are the angular momenta carried by fermions, proton and neutron bosons, respectively. The energies defined with the particle–core states form four chiral bands, two of them being degenerate. The electromagnetic properties of the chiral bands are investigated and the results are compared with the experimental data of 138Nd.

  18. An Anderson-like model of the QCD chiral transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Matteo; Kovács, Tamás G.; Pittler, Ferenc

    2016-06-01

    We study the problems of chiral symmetry breaking and eigenmode localisation in finite-temperature QCD by looking at the lattice Dirac operator as a random Hamiltonian. We recast the staggered Dirac operator into an unconventional three-dimensional Anderson Hamiltonian ("Dirac-Anderson Hamiltonian") carrying internal degrees of freedom, with disorder provided by the fluctuations of the gauge links. In this framework, we identify the features relevant to chiral symmetry restoration and localisation of the low-lying Dirac eigenmodes in the ordering of the local Polyakov lines, and in the related correlation between spatial links across time slices, thus tying the two phenomena to the deconfinement transition. We then build a toy model based on QCD and on the Dirac-Anderson approach, replacing the Polyakov lines with spin variables and simplifying the dynamics of the spatial gauge links, but preserving the above-mentioned relevant dynamical features. Our toy model successfully reproduces the main features of the QCD spectrum and of the Dirac eigenmodes concerning chiral symmetry breaking and localisation, both in the ordered (deconfined) and disordered (confined) phases. Moreover, it allows us to study separately the roles played in the two phenomena by the diagonal and the off-diagonal terms of the Dirac-Anderson Hamiltonian. Our results support our expectation that chiral symmetry restoration and localisation of the low modes are closely related, and that both are triggered by the deconfinement transition.

  19. Extended surface chirality from supramolecular assemblies of adsorbed chiral molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega Lorenzo, M.; Baddeley, C. J.; Muryn, C.; Raval, R.

    2000-03-01

    The increasing demand of the chemical and pharmaceutical industries for enantiomerically pure compounds has spurred the development of a range of so-called `chiral technologies' (ref. 1), which aim to exert the ultimate control over a chemical reaction by directing its enantioselectivity. Heterogeneous enantioselective catalysis is particularly attractive because it allows the production and ready separation of large quantities of chiral product while using only small quantities of catalyst. Heterogeneous enantioselectivity is usually induced by adsorbing chiral molecules onto catalytically active surfaces. A mimic of one such catalyst is formed by adsorbing (R,R)-tartaric acid molecules on Cu(110) surfaces: this generates a variety of surface phases, of which only one is potentially catalytically active, and leaves the question of how adsorbed chiral molecules give rise to enantioselectivity. Here we show that the active phase consists of extended supramolecular assemblies of adsorbed (R,R)-tartaric acid, which destroy existing symmetry elements of the underlying metal and directly bestow chirality to the modified surface. The adsorbed assemblies create chiral `channels' exposing bare metal atoms, and it is these chiral spaces that we believe to be responsible for imparting enantioselectivity, by forcing the orientation of reactant molecules docking onto catalytically active metal sites. Our findings demonstrate that it is possible to sustain a single chiral domain across an extended surface-provided that reflection domains of opposite handedness are removed by a rigid and chiral local adsorption geometry, and that inequivalent rotation domains are removed by successful matching of the rotational symmetry of the adsorbed molecule with that of the underlying metal surface.

  20. Worldline construction of a covariant chiral kinetic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Niklas; Venugopalan, Raju

    2017-07-01

    We discuss a novel worldline framework for computations of the chiral magnetic effect (CME) in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. Starting from the fermion determinant in the QCD effective action, we show explicitly how its real part can be expressed as a supersymmetric worldline action of spinning, colored, Grassmannian particles in background fields. Restricting ourselves for simplicity to spinning particles, we demonstrate how their constrained Hamiltonian dynamics arises for both massless and massive particles. In a semiclassical limit, this gives rise to the covariant generalization of the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equation; the derivation of the corresponding Wong equations for colored particles is straightforward. In a previous paper [N. Mueller and R. Venugopalan, arXiv:1701.03331.], we outlined how Berry's phase arises in a nonrelativistic adiabatic limit for massive particles. We extend the discussion here to systems with a finite chemical potential. We discuss a path integral formulation of the relative phase in the fermion determinant that places it on the same footing as the real part. We construct the corresponding anomalous worldline axial-vector current and show in detail how the chiral anomaly appears. Our work provides a systematic framework for a relativistic kinetic theory of chiral fermions in the fluctuating topological backgrounds that generate the CME in a deconfined quark-gluon plasma. We outline some further applications of this framework in many-body systems.

  1. Making Supermassive Black Holes Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    Where does the angular momentum come from that causes supermassive black holes (SMBHs) to spin on their axes and launch powerful jets? A new study of nearby SMBHs may help to answer this question.High-mass SMBHs are thought to form when two galaxies collide and the SMBHs at their centers merge. [NASA/Hubble Heritage Team (STScI)]High- vs. Low-Mass MonstersObservational evidence suggests a dichotomy between low-mass SMBHs (those with 106-7 M) and high-mass ones (those with 108-10 M). High-mass SMBHs are thought to form via the merger of two smaller black holes, and the final black hole is likely spun up by the rotational dynamics of the merger. But what spins up low-mass SMBHs, which are thought to build up very gradually via accretion?A team of scientists led by Jing Wang (National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences) have attempted to address this puzzle by examining the properties of the galaxies hosting low-mass SMBHs.A Sample of Neighboring SMBHsWang and collaborators began by constructing a sample of radio-selected nearby Seyfert 2 galaxies: those galaxies in which the stellar population and morphology of the host galaxy are visible to us, instead of being overwhelmed by continuum emission from the galaxys active nucleus.An example of a galaxy with a concentrated, classical bulge (M87; top) and a one with a disk-like pseudo bulge (Triangulum Galaxy; bottom). The authors find that for galaxies hosting low-mass SMBHs, those with more disk-like bulges appear to have more powerful radio jets. [Top: NASA/Hubble Heritage Team (STScI), Bottom: Hewholooks]From this sample, the authors then selected 31 galaxies that have low-mass SMBHs at their centers, as measured using the surrounding stellar dynamics. Wang and collaborators cataloged radio information revealing properties of the powerful jets launched by the SMBHs, and they analyzed the host galaxies properties by modeling their brightness profiles.Spin-Up From Accreting GasBy examining this

  2. Nanoscale chirality in metal and semiconductor nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jatish; Thomas, K George; Liz-Marzán, Luis M

    2016-10-18

    The field of chirality has recently seen a rejuvenation due to the observation of chirality in inorganic nanomaterials. The advancements in understanding the origin of nanoscale chirality and the potential applications of chiroptical nanomaterials in the areas of optics, catalysis and biosensing, among others, have opened up new avenues toward new concepts and design of novel materials. In this article, we review the concept of nanoscale chirality in metal nanoclusters and semiconductor quantum dots, then focus on recent experimental and theoretical advances in chiral metal nanoparticles and plasmonic chirality. Selected examples of potential applications and an outlook on the research on chiral nanomaterials are additionally provided.

  3. Nanoscale chirality in metal and semiconductor nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, K. George

    2016-01-01

    The field of chirality has recently seen a rejuvenation due to the observation of chirality in inorganic nanomaterials. The advancements in understanding the origin of nanoscale chirality and the potential applications of chiroptical nanomaterials in the areas of optics, catalysis and biosensing, among others, have opened up new avenues toward new concepts and design of novel materials. In this article, we review the concept of nanoscale chirality in metal nanoclusters and semiconductor quantum dots, then focus on recent experimental and theoretical advances in chiral metal nanoparticles and plasmonic chirality. Selected examples of potential applications and an outlook on the research on chiral nanomaterials are additionally provided. PMID:27752651

  4. Chiral charge pumping in graphene deposited on a magnetic insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evelt, Michael; Ochoa, Hector; Dzyapko, Oleksandr; Demidov, Vladislav E.; Yurgens, Avgust; Sun, Jie; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Bessonov, Vladimir; Rinkevich, Anatoliy B.; Demokritov, Sergej O.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that a sizable chiral charge pumping can be achieved at room temperature in graphene/yttrium iron garnet (YIG) bilayer systems. The effect, which cannot be attributed to the ordinary spin pumping, reveals itself in the creation of a dc electric field/voltage in graphene as a response to the dynamic magnetic excitations (spin waves) in an adjacent out-of-plane magnetized YIG film. We show that the induced voltage changes its sign when the orientation of the static magnetization is reversed, clearly indicating the broken mirror reflection symmetry about the planes normal to the graphene/YIG interface. The strength of effect shows a nonmonotonous dependence on the spin-wave frequency, in agreement with the proposed theoretical model.

  5. Stability of quantized chiral soliton with the Skyrme term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Shoji; Yang, Keyan

    1991-09-01

    Stability of the chiral soliton with the Skyrme term that is quantized by taking account of breathing modes in addition to the spin-isospin rotation is examined on the basis of a family of trial functions for the profile function of the hedgehog ansatz. It is shown that when the effects of the Skyrme term are sufficiently strong (small Skyrme term constant e), the eigenstates of lower spin-isospin are stable, having finite contributions both from the rotational and breathing modes. On the other hand when the effects of the Skyrme term are weak (e>5), the spin-isospin rotational and the breathing modes are completely frozen and all states tend to infinitely degenerate states labeled by the constant SU(2) matrices.

  6. Stability of quantized chiral soliton with the Skyrme term

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, S.; Yang, K. )

    1991-09-01

    Stability of the chiral soliton with the Skyrme term that is quantized by taking account of breathing modes in addition to the spin-isospin rotation is examined on the basis of a family of trial functions for the profile function of the hedgehog ansatz. It is shown that when the effects of the Skyrme term are sufficiently strong (small Skyrme term constant {ital e}), the eigenstates of lower spin-isospin are stable, having finite contributions both from the rotational and breathing modes. On the other hand when the effects of the Skyrme term are weak ({ital e}{gt}5), the spin-isospin rotational and the breathing modes are completely frozen and all states tend to infinitely degenerate states labeled by the constant SU(2) matrices.

  7. From chiral vibration to static chirality in ^135Nd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Almehed, D.; Garg, U.; Frauendorf, S.; Li, T.; Madhusudhana Rao, P. V.; Wang, X.; Ghugre, S. S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Gros, S.; Hecht, A.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.

    2007-10-01

    Lifetimes were obtained in a DSAM measurement at Gammasphere, using the ^100Mo(^40Ar, 5n)^135Nd reaction. Electromagnetic transition probabilities have been measured for the intra- and inter-band transitions in the two sequences in the nucleus ^135Nd that were previously identified as a composite chiral bands [1]. The measurements are in good agreement with results of a new combination of TAC and RPA calculations. The chiral character of the bands is affirmed and it is observed that their behavior is associated with a transition from a vibrational into a static chiral regime. [1] S. Zhu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 132501 (2003).

  8. Chiral limit of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.

    1994-12-31

    This talk contains an analysis of quenched chiral perturbation theory and its consequences. The chiral behavior of a number of quantities such as the pion mass m{sub pi}{sup 2}, the Bernard-Golterman ratios R and {sub X}, the masses of nucleons, and the kaon B-parameter are examined to see if the singular terms induced by the additional Goldstone boson, {eta}{prime}, are visible in present data. The overall conclusion (different from that presented at the lattice meeting) of this analysis is that even though there are some caveats attached to the indications of the extra terms induced by {eta}{prime} loops, the standard expressions break down when extrapolating the quenched data with m{sub q} < m{sub s}/2 to physical light quarks. I then show that due to the single and double poles in the quenched {eta}{prime}, the axial charge of the proton cannot be calculated using the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly condition. I conclude with a review of the status of the calculation of light quark masses from lattice QCD.

  9. Chiral Conjugated Corrals.

    PubMed

    Ball, Melissa; Fowler, Brandon; Li, Panpan; Joyce, Leo A; Li, Fang; Liu, Taifeng; Paley, Daniel; Zhong, Yu; Li, Hexing; Xiao, Shengxiong; Ng, Fay; Steigerwald, Michael L; Nuckolls, Colin

    2015-08-12

    We present here a new design motif for strained, conjugated macrocycles that incorporates two different aromatics into the cycle with an -A-B-A-B- pattern. In this study, we demonstrate the concept by alternating electron donors and acceptors in a conjugated cycle. The donor is a bithiophene, and the acceptor is a perylene diimide derivative. The macrocycle formed has a persistent elliptiform cavity that is lined with the sulfur atoms of the thiophenes and the π-faces of the perylene diimide. Due to the linkage of the perylene diimide subunits, the macrocycles exist in both chiral and achiral forms. We separate the three stereoisomers using chiral high-performance liquid chromatography and study their interconversion. The mechanism for interconversion involves an "intramolecular somersault" in which one of the PDIs rotates around its transverse axis, thereby moving one of its diimide heads through the plane of the cavity. These unusual macrocycles are black in color with an absorption spectrum that spans the visible range. Density functional theory calculations reveal a photoinduced electron transfer from the bithiophene to the perylene diimide.

  10. The hierarchy of chirality.

    PubMed

    Schulgasser, Kalman; Witztum, Allan

    2004-09-21

    Twisting is a prevalent feature of long, thin vertical leaves; it has been shown that this twist contributes to the mechanical integrity of the leaf. We address the question as to how this twist comes about, and posit that it is a reflection of twist at a lower structural (geometric) level. The stiffness required for maintaining verticality in leaves is due to turgescent parenchyma cells, sometimes thickened epidermis, cuticle, and is generally most significantly contributed to by vascular bundles and fibers. These contain cellulose in the cell walls. Such cellulose chains spiral upward within the cell wall layers which are of a characteristic handedness. This results in an isolated cell behaving mechanically in a chiral manner; specifically elongation (contraction) of a single cell will result in rotation of the cell about its axis of particular handedness. We propose a mathematical model that shows that when cells are mechanically associated in groups, the chiral behavior of the cell will be expressed at larger scales, albeit to a mitigated degree. Thus cell extension during leaf development may explain the characteristic twist of such leaves.

  11. Electron spin relaxation in carbon nanotubes: Dyakonov-Perel mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Yuriy; Zavada, John; Kim, Ki Wook

    2010-03-01

    The long standing problem of unaccountable short spin relaxation in carbon nanotubes (CNT) meets a disclosure in terms of curvature-mediated spin-orbital interaction that leads to spin fluctuating precession analogous to Dyakonov-Perel mechanism. Strong anisotropy imposed by arbitrary directed magnetic field has been taken into account in terms of extended Bloch equations. Especially, stationary spin current through CNT can be controlled by spin-flip processes with relaxation time as less as 150 ps, the rate of transversal polarization (i.e. decoherence) runs up to 1/(70 ps) at room temperature while spin interference of the electrons related to different valleys can be responsible for shorter spin dephasing. Dependencies of spin-relaxation parameters on magnetic field strength and orientation, CNT curvature and chirality have been analyzed.

  12. Anomalous spin Josephson effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mei-Juan; Wang, Jun; Hao, Lei; Liu, Jun-Feng

    2016-10-01

    We report a theoretical study on the spin Josephson effect arising from the exchange coupling of the two ferromagnets (Fs), which are deposited on a two-dimensional (2D) time-reversal-invariant topological insulator. An anomalous spin supercurrent Js z˜sin(α +α0) is found to flow in between the two Fs and the ground state of the system is not limited to the magnetically collinear configuration (α =n π ,n is an integer) but determined by a controllable angle α0, where α is the crossed angle between the two F magnetizations. The angle α0 is the dynamic phase of the electrons traveling in between the two Fs and can be controlled electrically by a gate voltage. This anomalous spin Josephson effect, similar to the conventional φ0 superconductor junction, originates from the definite electron chirality of the helical edge states in the 2D topological insulator. These results indicate that the magnetic coupling in a topological system is different from the usual one in conventional materials.

  13. Chiral perturbation theory with nucleons

    SciTech Connect

    Meissner, U.G.

    1991-09-01

    I review the constraints posed on the interactions of pions, nucleons and photons by the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry of QCD. The framework to perform these calculations, chiral perturbation theory, is briefly discussed in the meson sector. The method is a simultaneous expansion of the Greens functions in powers of external moments and quark masses around the massless case, the chiral limit. To perform this expansion, use is made of a phenomenological Lagrangian which encodes the Ward-identities and pertinent symmetries of QCD. The concept of chiral power counting is introduced. The main part of the lectures of consists in describing how to include baryons (nucleons) and how the chiral structure is modified by the fact that the nucleon mass in the chiral limit does not vanish. Particular emphasis is put on working out applications to show the strengths and limitations of the methods. Some processes which are discussed are threshold photopion production, low-energy compton scattering off nucleons, {pi}N scattering and the {sigma}-term. The implications of the broken chiral symmetry on the nuclear forces are briefly described. An alternative approach, in which the baryons are treated as very heavy fields, is touched upon.

  14. Chiral quantum dot based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govan, Joseph; Loudon, Alexander; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the use of stereospecific chiral stabilising molecules has also opened another avenue of interest in the area of quantum dot (QD) research. The main goal of our research is to develop new types of technologically important quantum dot materials containing chiral defects, study their properties and explore their applications. The utilisation of chiral penicillamine stabilisers allowed the preparation of new water soluble white emitting CdS quantum nanostructures which demonstrated circular dichroism in the band-edge region of the spectrum. It was also demonstrated that all three types of QDs (D-, L-, and Rac penicillamine stabilised) show very broad emission bands between 400 and 700 nm due to defects or trap states on the surfaces of the nanocrystals. In this work the chiral CdS based quantum nanostructures have also been doped by copper metal ions and new chiral penicilamine stabilized CuS nanoparticles have been prepared and investigated. It was found that copper doping had a strong effect at low levels in the synthesis of chiral CdS nanostructures. We expect that this research will open new horizons in the chemistry of chiral nanomaterials and their application in biotechnology, sensing and asymmetric synthesis.

  15. [A comment on chiral thin layer chromatography].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuexian; Yuan, Liming

    2016-01-01

    In recent eight years, authors' group has repeated a lot of experiments of chiral thin layer chromatography coming from literature. From the practical opinion, we summarized that there are nine characteristics for chiral thin layer chromatography. Some progresses of chiral thin layer chromatography are reviewed, and the enantioselectivity of a commercial chiral thin layer plate is introduced. The study of vancomycin as the chiral selector in thin layer chromatography is also reported.

  16. Spin-glass transition of the three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass.

    PubMed

    Campos, I; Cotallo-Aban, M; Martin-Mayor, V; Perez-Gaviro, S; Tarancon, A

    2006-11-24

    It is shown, by means of Monte Carlo simulation and finite size scaling analysis, that the Heisenberg spin glass undergoes a finite-temperature phase transition in three dimensions. There is a single critical temperature, at which both a spin glass and a chiral glass ordering develop. The Monte Carlo algorithm, adapted from lattice gauge theory simulations, makes it possible to thermalize lattices of size L = 32, larger than in any previous spin-glass simulation in three dimensions. High accuracy is reached thanks to the use of the Marenostrum supercomputer. The large range of system sizes studied allows us to consider scaling corrections.

  17. Epitaxial Electrodeposition of Chiral Metal Oxide Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switzer, Jay

    2006-03-01

    Chirality is ubiquitous in Nature. One enantiomer of a molecule is often physiologically active, while the other enantiomer may be either inactive or toxic. Chiral surfaces offer the possibility of developing heterogeneous enantiospecific catalysts that can more readily be separated from the products and reused. Chiral surfaces might also serve as electrochemical sensors for chiral molecules- perhaps even implantable chiral sensors that could be used to monitor drug levels in the body. Our trick to produce chiral surfaces is to electrodeposit low symmetry metal oxide films with chiral orientations on achiral substrates (see, Nature 425, 490, 2003). The relationship between three-dimensional and two-dimensional chirality will be discussed. Chiral surfaces lack mirror or glide plane symmetry. It is possible to produce chiral surfaces of materials which do not crystallize in chiral space groups. We have deposited chiral orientations of achiral CuO onto single-crystal Au and Cu using both tartaric acid and the amino acids alanine and valine to control the handedness of the electrodeposited films. We will present results on the chiral recognition of molecules such as tartaric or malic acid and L-dopa on the chiral electrodeposited CuO. Initial work on the electrochemical biomineralization of chiral nanostructures of calcite will also be discussed.

  18. Chiral crystal in cold QCD matter at intermediate densities?

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, Ralf; Shuryak, Edward; Zahed, Ismail

    2001-02-01

    The analogue of Overhauser (particle-hole) pairing in electronic systems (spin-density waves with non-zero total momentum Q) is analyzed in finite-density QCD for 3 colors and 2 flavors, and compared to the color-superconducting BCS ground state (particle-particle pairing, Q=0). The calculations are based on effective nonperturbative four-fermion interactions acting in both the scalar diquark as well as the scalar-isoscalar quark-hole (''{sigma}'') channel. Within the Nambu-Gorkov formalism we set up the coupled channel problem, including multiple chiral density wave formation, and evaluate the resulting gaps and free energies. Employing medium-modified instanton-induced 't Hooft interactions, as applicable around {mu}{sub q}{approx_equal}0.4GeV (or 4 times nuclear saturation density), we find the ''chiral crystal phase'' to be competitive with the color superconductor.

  19. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    SciTech Connect

    Perna, P. Guerrero, R.; Niño, M. A.; Muñoz, M.; Prieto, J. L.; Miranda, R.; Camarero, J.

    2016-05-15

    We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold) magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM)/ antiferromagnetic (AFM) bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR) response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and giant magnetoresistance (GMR), chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  20. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, P.; Ajejas, F.; Maccariello, D.; Cuñado, J. L.; Guerrero, R.; Niño, M. A.; Muñoz, M.; Prieto, J. L.; Miranda, R.; Camarero, J.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold) magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM)/ antiferromagnetic (AFM) bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR) response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and giant magnetoresistance (GMR), chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  1. Random matrix models for chiral and diquark condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderheyden, B.; Jackson, A.D.

    2005-06-14

    We consider random matrix models for the thermodynamic competition between chiral symmetry breaking and diquark condensation in QCD at finite temperature and finite baryon density. The models produce mean field phase diagrams whose topology depends solely on the global symmetries of the theory. We discuss the block structure of the interactions that is imposed by chiral, spin, and color degrees of freedom and comment on the treatment of density and temperature effects. Extension of the coupling parameters to a larger class of theories allows us to investigate the robustness of the phase topology with respect to variations in the dynamics of the interactions. We briefly study the phase structure as a function of coupling parameters and the number of colors.

  2. Transverse charge and magnetization densities in the nucleon's chiral periphery

    SciTech Connect

    Granados, Carlos G.; Weiss, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In the light-front description of nucleon structure the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent transverse densities of charge and magnetization. Recent work has studied the transverse densities at peripheral distances b = O(M{pi}{sup -1}), where they are governed by universal chiral dynamics and can be computed in a model-independent manner. Of particular interest is the comparison of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities. We summarize (a) their interpretation as spin-independent and -dependent current matrix elements; (b) the leading-order chiral effective field theory results; (c) their mechanical interpretation in the light-front formulation; (d) the large-N_c limit of QCD and the role of {Delta} intermediate states; (e) the connection with generalized parton distributions and peripheral high-energy scattering processes.

  3. Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Christopher J. Miller

    2012-03-01

    There are many examples of clustering in astronomy. Stars in our own galaxy are often seen as being gravitationally bound into tight globular or open clusters. The Solar System's Trojan asteroids cluster at the gravitational Langrangian in front of Jupiter’s orbit. On the largest of scales, we find gravitationally bound clusters of galaxies, the Virgo cluster (in the constellation of Virgo at a distance of ˜50 million light years) being a prime nearby example. The Virgo cluster subtends an angle of nearly 8◦ on the sky and is known to contain over a thousand member galaxies. Galaxy clusters play an important role in our understanding of theUniverse. Clusters exist at peaks in the three-dimensional large-scale matter density field. Their sky (2D) locations are easy to detect in astronomical imaging data and their mean galaxy redshifts (redshift is related to the third spatial dimension: distance) are often better (spectroscopically) and cheaper (photometrically) when compared with the entire galaxy population in large sky surveys. Photometric redshift (z) [Photometric techniques use the broad band filter magnitudes of a galaxy to estimate the redshift. Spectroscopic techniques use the galaxy spectra and emission/absorption line features to measure the redshift] determinations of galaxies within clusters are accurate to better than delta_z = 0.05 [7] and when studied as a cluster population, the central galaxies form a line in color-magnitude space (called the the E/S0 ridgeline and visible in Figure 16.3) that contains galaxies with similar stellar populations [15]. The shape of this E/S0 ridgeline enables astronomers to measure the cluster redshift to within delta_z = 0.01 [23]. The most accurate cluster redshift determinations come from spectroscopy of the member galaxies, where only a fraction of the members need to be spectroscopically observed [25,42] to get an accurate redshift to the whole system. If light traces mass in the Universe, then the locations

  4. Supercurrent-induced skyrmion dynamics and tunable Weyl points in chiral magnet with superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, Rina; Fujimoto, Satoshi

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies show superconductivity provides new perspectives on spintronics. We study a heterostructure composed of an s -wave superconductor and a cubic chiral magnet that stabilizes a topological spin texture, a skyrmion. We propose a supercurrent-induced spin torque, which originates from the spin-orbit coupling, and we show that the spin torque can drive a skyrmion in an efficient way that reduces Joule heating. We also study the band structure of Bogoliubov quasiparticles and show the existence of Weyl points, whose positions can be controlled by the magnetization. This results in an effective magnetic field acting on the Weyl quasiparticles in the presence spin textures. Furthermore, the tilt of the Weyl cones can also be tuned by the strength of the spin-orbit coupling, and we propose a possible realization of type-II Weyl points.

  5. Exotic skyrmion crystals in chiral magnets with compass anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Chen, J P; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Liu, J-M

    2016-07-05

    The compass-type anisotropy appears naturally in diverse physical contexts with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) such as transition metal oxides and cold atomic gases etc, and it has been receiving substantial attention. Motivated by recent studies and particularly recent experimental observations on helimagnet MnGe, we investigate the critical roles of this compass-type anisotropy in modulating various spin textures of chiral magnets with strong SOC, by Monte Carlo simulations based on a classical Heisenberg spin model with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction and compass anisotropy. A phase diagram with emergent spin orders in the space of compass anisotropy and out-of-plane magnetic field is presented. In this phase diagram, we propose that a hybrid super-crystal structure consisting of alternating half-skyrmion and half-anti-skyrmion is the possible zero-field ground state of MnGe. The simulated evolution of the spin structure driven by magnetic field is in good accordance with experimental observations on MnGe. Therefore, this Heisenberg spin model successfully captures the main physics responsible for the magnetic structures in MnGe, and the present work may also be instructive to research on the magnetic states in other systems with strong SOC.

  6. Exotic skyrmion crystals in chiral magnets with compass anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. P.; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Liu, J.-M.

    2016-07-01

    The compass-type anisotropy appears naturally in diverse physical contexts with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) such as transition metal oxides and cold atomic gases etc, and it has been receiving substantial attention. Motivated by recent studies and particularly recent experimental observations on helimagnet MnGe, we investigate the critical roles of this compass-type anisotropy in modulating various spin textures of chiral magnets with strong SOC, by Monte Carlo simulations based on a classical Heisenberg spin model with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction and compass anisotropy. A phase diagram with emergent spin orders in the space of compass anisotropy and out-of-plane magnetic field is presented. In this phase diagram, we propose that a hybrid super-crystal structure consisting of alternating half-skyrmion and half-anti-skyrmion is the possible zero-field ground state of MnGe. The simulated evolution of the spin structure driven by magnetic field is in good accordance with experimental observations on MnGe. Therefore, this Heisenberg spin model successfully captures the main physics responsible for the magnetic structures in MnGe, and the present work may also be instructive to research on the magnetic states in other systems with strong SOC.

  7. Exotic skyrmion crystals in chiral magnets with compass anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J. P.; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Liu, J. -M.

    2016-01-01

    The compass-type anisotropy appears naturally in diverse physical contexts with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) such as transition metal oxides and cold atomic gases etc, and it has been receiving substantial attention. Motivated by recent studies and particularly recent experimental observations on helimagnet MnGe, we investigate the critical roles of this compass-type anisotropy in modulating various spin textures of chiral magnets with strong SOC, by Monte Carlo simulations based on a classical Heisenberg spin model with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction and compass anisotropy. A phase diagram with emergent spin orders in the space of compass anisotropy and out-of-plane magnetic field is presented. In this phase diagram, we propose that a hybrid super-crystal structure consisting of alternating half-skyrmion and half-anti-skyrmion is the possible zero-field ground state of MnGe. The simulated evolution of the spin structure driven by magnetic field is in good accordance with experimental observations on MnGe. Therefore, this Heisenberg spin model successfully captures the main physics responsible for the magnetic structures in MnGe, and the present work may also be instructive to research on the magnetic states in other systems with strong SOC. PMID:27377149

  8. Control of Electrons’ Spin Eliminates Hydrogen Peroxide Formation During Water Splitting

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The production of hydrogen through water splitting in a photoelectrochemical cell suffers from an overpotential that limits the efficiencies. In addition, hydrogen-peroxide formation is identified as a competing process affecting the oxidative stability of photoelectrodes. We impose spin-selectivity by coating the anode with chiral organic semiconductors from helically aggregated dyes as sensitizers; Zn-porphyrins and triarylamines. Hydrogen peroxide formation is dramatically suppressed, while the overall current through the cell, correlating with the water splitting process, is enhanced. Evidence for a strong spin-selection in the chiral semiconductors is presented by magnetic conducting (mc-)AFM measurements, in which chiral and achiral Zn-porphyrins are compared. These findings contribute to our understanding of the underlying mechanism of spin selectivity in multiple electron-transfer reactions and pave the way toward better chiral dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells. PMID:28132505

  9. Critical spin-flip scattering at the helimagnetic transition of MnSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindervater, J.; Häußler, W.; Janoschek, M.; Pfleiderer, C.; Böni, P.; Garst, M.

    2014-05-01

    We report spherical neutron polarimetry (SNP) and discuss the spin-flip scattering cross sections as well as the chiral fraction η close to the helimagnetic transition in MnSi. For our study we have developed a miniaturized SNP device that allows fast data collection when used in small angle scattering geometry with an area detector. Critical spin-flip scattering is found to be governed by chiral paramagnons that soften on a sphere in momentum space. Carefully accounting for the incoherent spin-flip background, we find that the resulting chiral fraction η decreases gradually above the helimagnetic transition reflecting a strongly renormalized chiral correlation length with a temperature dependence in excellent quantitative agreement with the Brazovskii theory for a fluctuation-induced first order transition.

  10. Amino Acids and Chirality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  11. Chiral electroweak gauge interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajpoot, Subhash

    1990-10-01

    The hypercharge U(1)Y of the standard electroweak model is split into chiral hypercharges U(1)L×U(1)R. Under the new gauge symmetry SU(2)L×U(1)L×U(1)R, quarks and leptons are left-handed doublets transforming only under SU(2)L×U(1)L and right-handed singlets transforming only under U(1)R. Consistent with the measurements of the mass of the standard massive neutral boson Z0 at the SLAC and CERN colliders and the neutral-current couplings involving neutrino beams and electron beams, the additional massive neutral gauge boson can be as light as a few hundred GeV. The model utilizes the generalized see saw mechanism of Gell-Mann, Ramond, and Slansky to give masses to all the fermions of the theory.

  12. Majorana Fermions in Chiral Topological Ferromagnetic Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrescu, Eugen; Roberts, Brenden; Tewari, Sumanta; Sau, Jay D.

    2015-03-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment in which zero-bias peaks have been observed in STM experiments performed on chains of magnetic atoms on a superconductor, we show that a multichannel ferromagnetic wire deposited on a spin-orbit coupled superconducting substrate can realize a non-trivial chiral topological superconducting state with Majorana bound states localized at the wire ends. The non-trivial topological state occurs for generic parameters requiring no fine tuning, at least for very large exchange spin splitting in the wire. We theoretically obtain the signatures which appear in the presence of an arbitrary number of Majorana modes in multi-wire systems incorporating the role of finite temperature, finite potential barrier at the STM tip, and finite wire length. These signatures are presented in terms of spatial profiles of STM differential conductance which clearly reveal zero energy Majorana end modes and the prediction of a multiple Majorana based fractional Josephson effect. Co-author: S. Das Sarma. Work supported by AFOSR (FA9550-13-1-0045) at Clemson University and by LPS-CMTC and JQI-NSF-PFC at the University of Maryland.

  13. Emergence of transverse spin in optical modes of semiconductor nanowires

    DOE PAGES

    Alizadeh, M. H.; Reinhard, Bjorn M.

    2016-04-11

    The transverse spin angular momentum of light has recently received tremendous attention as it adds a new degree of freedom for controlling light-matter interactions. In this work we demonstrate the generation of transverse spin angular momentum by the weakly-guided mode of semiconductor nanowires. The evanescent field of these modes in combination with the transversality condition rigorously accounts for the occurrence of transverse spin angular momentum. Furthermore, the intriguing and nontrivial spin properties of optical modes in semiconductor nanowires are of high interest for a broad range of new applications including chiral optical trapping, quantum information processing, and nanophotonic circuitry.

  14. Fluctuation-dissipation ratio of the Heisenberg spin glass.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Hikaru

    2003-06-13

    The fluctuation-dissipation (FD) relation of the three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass with weak random anisotropy is studied by off-equilibrium Monte Carlo simulation. The numerically determined FD ratio exhibits a "one-step-like" behavior, the effective temperature of the spin-glass state being about twice the spin-glass transition temperature, T(eff) approximately 2T(g), irrespective of the bath temperature. The results are discussed in conjunction with the recent experiment by Hérisson and Ocio, and with the chirality scenario of the spin-glass transition.

  15. Galaxy formation

    SciTech Connect

    Silk, J.

    1984-11-01

    Implications of the isotropy of the cosmic microwave background on large and small angular scales for galaxy formation are reviewed. In primeval adiabatic fluctuations, a universe dominated by cold, weakly interacting nonbaryonic matter, e.g., the massive photino is postulated. A possible signature of photino annihilation in our galactic halo involves production of cosmic ray antiprotons. If the density is near its closure value, it is necessary to invoke a biasing mechanism for suppressing galaxy formation throughout most of the universe in order to reconcile the dark matter density with the lower astronomical determinations of the mean cosmological density. A mechanism utilizing the onset of primordial massive star formation to strip gaseous protogalaxies is described. Only the densest, early collapsing systems form luminous galaxies. (ESA)

  16. Chiral Bosonization of Superconformal Ghosts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Deheng; Shen, Yang; Liu, Jinling; Xiong, Yongjian

    1996-01-01

    We explain the difference of the Hilbert space of the superconformal ghosts (beta,gamma) system from that of its bosonized fields phi and chi. We calculate the chiral correlation functions of phi, chi fields by inserting appropriate projectors.

  17. Chiral discrimination in optical binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Kayn A.; Andrews, David L.

    2015-05-01

    The laser-induced intermolecular force that exists between two or more particles in the presence of an electromagnetic field is commonly termed "optical binding." Distinct from the single-particle forces that are at play in optical trapping at the molecular level, the phenomenon of optical binding is a manifestation of the coupling between optically induced dipole moments in neutral particles. In other, more widely known areas of optics, there are many examples of chiral discrimination—signifying the different response a chiral material has to the handedness of an optical input. In the present analysis, extending previous work on chiral discrimination in optical binding, a mechanism is identified using a quantum electrodynamical approach. It is shown that the optical binding force between a pair of chiral molecules can be significantly discriminatory in nature, depending upon both the handedness of the interacting particles and the polarization of the incident light, and it is typically several orders of magnitude larger than previously reported.

  18. Spontaneous compactification and chiral fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, Paul H.; Yamamoto, Katsuji

    The question is addressed of which chiral fermions survive in spontaneously compactified solutions of the generalized Einstein-Yang-Mills field equations for higher even space-time dimensions. First, we study the allowed fermion representations of SU( N) which have no gauge or gravitational chiral anomalies in arbitrary even dimension and show how to find all such representations for the case of totally antisymmetric SU( N) tensors. Second, we look explicitly at monopole-induced spontaneous compactification in six dimensions; here, interesting chiral fermions in four dimensions do not occur easily but instead require highly artificial assignments of quantum numbers under the U(1) gauge group associated with the monopole. Finally, we consider instanton-induced spontaneous compactification in eight dimensions; for this case, we may readily obtain acceptable chiral fermions in four dimensions, including Georgi's three-family SU(11) model.

  19. Chirally motivated K - nuclear potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieplý, A.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Gazda, D.; Mareš, J.

    2011-08-01

    In-medium subthreshold Kbar N scattering amplitudes calculated within a chirally motivated meson-baryon coupled-channel model are used self consistently to confront K- atom data across the periodic table. Substantially deeper K- nuclear potentials are obtained compared to the shallow potentials derived in some approaches from threshold Kbar N amplitudes, with Re VK-chiral = - (85 ± 5) MeV at nuclear matter density. When Kbar NN contributions are incorporated phenomenologically, a very deep K- nuclear potential results, Re VK-chiral + phen . = - (180 ± 5) MeV, in agreement with density dependent potentials obtained in purely phenomenological fits to the data. Self consistent dynamical calculations of K--nuclear quasibound states generated by VK-chiral are reported and discussed.

  20. Meta-Chirality: Fundamentals, Construction and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoliang; Pu, Mingbo; Li, Xiong; Guo, Yinghui; Gao, Ping; Luo, Xiangang

    2017-01-01

    Chiral metamaterials represent a special type of artificial structures that cannot be superposed to their mirror images. Due to the lack of mirror symmetry, cross-coupling between electric and magnetic fields exist in chiral mediums and present unique electromagnetic characters of circular dichroism and optical activity, which provide a new opportunity to tune polarization and realize negative refractive index. Chiral metamaterials have attracted great attentions in recent years and have given rise to a series of applications in polarization manipulation, imaging, chemical and biological detection, and nonlinear optics. Here we review the fundamental theory of chiral media and analyze the construction principles of some typical chiral metamaterials. Then, the progress in extrinsic chiral metamaterials, absorbing chiral metamaterials, and reconfigurable chiral metamaterials are summarized. In the last section, future trends in chiral metamaterials and application in nonlinear optics are introduced. PMID:28513560