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Sample records for galaxy zoo forum

  1. Galaxy Zoo User Behaviors 2: How Forums, Favorites, and having Fun relates to User Classifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Pamela L.; Bracey, G.; Raddick, M. J.; CS390/490 Class, SIUE; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2010-01-01

    In this poster we examine how the rate at which Galaxy Zoo users classify galaxies varies as a function of other interactions they have within the Galaxy Zoo interface. The Galaxy Zoo project (Lintott 2008) asks users to look at images of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and to classify them based on their appearance. As of the submission of this abstract, nearly 240,000 individuals had registered to participate through two different interfaces - Galaxy Zoo 1 (GZ1) and Galaxy Zoo 2 (GZ2) - and had contributed over 10,000,000 classification to the GZ2 project alone. To support the efforts of these users and to add some fun to what they are doing, we have provided them discussion forums, the ability to favorite items, and a variety of ways to explore their favorites, including the ability to create World Wide Telescope sky tours (see related poster, Luebbert et al.). We find that there are correlations between how users interact with these additional features and their rate of classifications, including a weak anti-correlation between extreme forum usage and classification number. In addition to forum-classification relationships, we look at trends in favoriting galaxies (including what types of objects get favorited), and trends as a function of generating WWT sky tours. This work has been funded through NASA ROSES NNX09AD34G.

  2. A Zoo of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen L.

    2015-03-01

    We live in a universe filled with galaxies with an amazing variety of sizes and shapes. One of the biggest challenges for astronomers working in this field is to understand how all these types relate to each other in the background of an expanding universe. Modern astronomical surveys (like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey) have revolutionised this field of astronomy, by providing vast numbers of galaxies to study. The sheer size of the these databases made traditional visual classification of the types galaxies impossible and in 2007 inspired the Galaxy Zoo project (www.galaxyzoo.org); starting the largest ever scientific collaboration by asking members of the public to help classify galaxies by type and shape. Galaxy Zoo has since shown itself, in a series of now more than 30 scientific papers, to be a fantastic database for the study of galaxy evolution. In this Invited Discourse I spoke a little about the historical background of our understanding of what galaxies are, of galaxy classification, about our modern view of galaxies in the era of large surveys. I finish with showcasing some of the contributions galaxy classifications from the Galaxy Zoo project are making to our understanding of galaxy evolution.

  3. Morphologies at High Redshift from Galaxy Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen; Melvin, Tom; Simmons, Brooke; Willett, Kyle; Lintott, Chris

    2015-08-01

    I will present results from Galaxy Zoo classification of galaxies observed in public observed frame optical HST surveys (e.g. COSMOS, GOODS) as well as in observed frame NIR with (ie. CANDELS). Early science results from these classifications have investigated the changing bar fraction in disc galaxies as a function of redshift (to z~1 in Melvin et al. 2014; and at z>1 in Simmons et al. 2015), as well as how the morphologies of galaxies on the red sequence have been changing since z~1 (Melvin et al. in prep.). These unique dataset of quantitative visual classifications for high redshift galaxies will be made public in forthcoming publications (planned as Willett et al. for Galaxy Zoo Hubble, and Simmons et al. for Galaxy Zoo CANDELS).

  4. Extragalatic zoo. I. [New galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Schorn, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of various types of extragalactic objects are described. Consideration is given to cD galaxies, D galaxies, N galaxies, Markarian galaxies, liners, starburst galaxies, and megamasers. Emphasis is also placed on the isolated extragalatic H I region; the isolated extragalatic H II region; primeval galaxies or photogalaxies; peculiar galaxies; Arp galaxies; interacting galaxies; ring galaxies; and polar-ring galaxies. Diagrams of these objects are provided.

  5. Galaxy Zoo: Motivations of Citizen Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raddick, M. Jordan; Bracey, Georgia; Gay, Pamela L.; Lintott, Chris J.; Cardamone, Carie; Murray, Phil; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science, in which volunteers work with professional scientists to conduct research, is expanding due to large online datasets. To plan projects, it is important to understand volunteers' motivations for participating. This paper analyzes results from an online survey of nearly 11000 volunteers in Galaxy Zoo, an astronomy citizen…

  6. An Interpretive Study of Meanings Citizen Scientists Make When Participating in Galaxy Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankowski, T. S.; Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.

    2011-09-01

    As the Web 2.0 world lurches forward, so do intellectual opportunities for students and the general public to meaningfully engage in the scientific enterprise. In an effort to assess the intrinsic motivation afforded by participation in Galaxy Zoo, we have inductively analyzed more than 1,000 contributions in the Galaxy Zoo Forum and coded posts thematically. We find that participants overwhelmingly want to meaningfully contribute to a larger scientific enterprise as well as have seemingly unique access to high quality, professional astronomical data. While other citizen science projects work through large data sets, Galaxy Zoo is unique in its motivations and retention abilities. Many of these motivations originate in the aesthetic power of astronomical images, which Galaxy Zoo successfully harnesses, while not compromising the scientific value of the project. From the data emerged several trends of motivation, the primary being the sense of community created within the project that promotes professional-amateur collaboration; fulfilling a dream of being an astronomer, physicist, or astronaut; tapping into a potential well of interest created during the space race era; the spiritual aspect generated when the imagination interacts with Galaxy Zoo; and, uniting them all, the aesthetic appeal of the galaxy images. In addition, a very powerful tool also emerged as a method of retention unique to Galaxy Zoo. This tool, known as variable ratio reinforcement in behavioral psychology, uses the most appealing images as positive reinforcement to maintain classification rates over time.

  7. The "Valencian-GALAXY-zoo"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-González, J.; Ricciardelli, E.; Quilis, V.; Vazdekis, A.

    2013-05-01

    We present a sample of the most massive galaxies (M^{*}>10^{11}{M}_{⊙}) found at z=0 in a fully cosmological simulation performed with MASCLET (Mesh Adaptative Scheme for CosmologicaL structurE evoluTion). te{quilis04} The Upper (lower) pannel shows the merger (quiet) galaxies depending on elipticity (ɛ) and velocity vs velocity-dispersion (v/σ). We use the ssp MILES models to make our galaxies bright and study some observables of our fully cosmological synthetic galaxies.

  8. AGN Zoo and Classifications of Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2015-07-01

    We review the variety of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) classes (so-called "AGN zoo") and classification schemes of galaxies by activity types based on their optical emission-line spectrum, as well as other parameters and other than optical wavelength ranges. A historical overview of discoveries of various types of active galaxies is given, including Seyfert galaxies, radio galaxies, QSOs, BL Lacertae objects, Starbursts, LINERs, etc. Various kinds of AGN diagnostics are discussed. All known AGN types and subtypes are presented and described to have a homogeneous classification scheme based on the optical emission-line spectra and in many cases, also other parameters. Problems connected with accurate classifications and open questions related to AGN and their classes are discussed and summarized.

  9. Galaxy Zoo: Morphological Classification and Citizen Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortson, Lucy; Masters, Karen; Nichol, Robert; Borne, Kirk D.; Edmondson, Edward M.; Lintott, Chris; Raddick, Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Wallin, John

    2012-03-01

    We provide a brief overview of the Galaxy Zoo and Zooniverse projects, including a short discussion on the history of, and motivation for, these projects as well as reviewing the science these innovative Internet-based citizen science projects have produced so far. We briefly describe the method of applying en-masse human pattern recognition capabilities to complex data in data-intensive research. We also provide a discussion on the lessons learned from developing and running these community-based projects including thoughts on future applications of this methodology. This review is intended to give the reader a quick and simple introduction to the Zooniverse.

  10. Galaxy Zoo: Observing secular evolution through bars

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Edmond; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Melvin, Thomas; Bell, Eric F.; Lintott, Chris; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A.; Willett, Kyle W.

    2013-12-20

    In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We find that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).

  11. The intrinsic shape of galaxies in SDSS/Galaxy Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Silvio; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2013-09-01

    By modelling the axis ratio distribution of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 galaxies, we find the intrinsic 3D shapes of spirals and ellipticals. We use morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo project and assume a non-parametric distribution intrinsic of shapes, while taking into account dust extinction. We measure the dust extinction of the full sample of spiral galaxies and find a smaller value than previous estimations, with an edge-on extinction of E_0 = 0.284^{+0.015}_{-0.026} in the SDSS r band. We also find that the distribution of minor to major axis ratio has a mean value of 0.267 ± 0.009, slightly larger than previous estimates mainly due to the lower extinction used; the same affects the circularity of galactic discs, which are found to be less round in shape than in previous studies, with a mean ellipticity of 0.215 ± 0.013. For elliptical galaxies, we find that the minor to major axis ratio, with a mean value of 0.584 ± 0.006, is larger than previous estimations due to the removal of spiral interlopers present in samples with morphological information from photometric profiles. These interlopers are removed when selecting ellipticals using Galaxy Zoo data. We find that the intrinsic shapes of galaxies and their dust extinction vary with absolute magnitude, colour and physical size. We find that bright elliptical galaxies are more spherical than faint ones, a trend that is also present with galaxy size, and that there is no dependence of elliptical galaxy shape with colour. For spiral galaxies, we find that the reddest ones have higher dust extinction as expected, due to the fact that this reddening is mainly due to dust. We also find that the thickness of discs increases with luminosity and size, and that brighter, smaller and redder galaxies have less round discs.

  12. Galaxy Zoo: Outreach and Science Hand in Hand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen L.

    2015-03-01

    Galaxy Zoo (www.galaxyzoo.org) is familiar to many as a hugely successful public engagement project. Hundreds of thousands of members of the public have contributed to Galaxy Zoo which collects visual classifications of galaxies in Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Hubble Space Telescope images. Galaxy Zoo has inspired a suite of similar Citizen Science projects known as ``The Zooniverse`` (www.zooniverse.org) which now has well over half a million participants. Galaxy Zoo has also shown itself, in a series of peer reviewed papers, to be a fantastic database for the study of galaxy evolution. In this invited talk I described how that public engagement via citizen science is not only an effective means of outreach from data intensive surveys, but if done right can and must also increase the scientific output of the survey.

  13. Dreamers, Poets, Citizens, and Scientists: Motivations for Engaging in GalaxyZoo Citizen Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, S. J.; Mankowski, T.; Slater, T. F.; CenterAstronomy; Physics Education Research Caper Team

    2010-12-01

    A particularly successful effort to engage the public in science has been to move the nearly countless galaxies imaged by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to citizen scientists in a project known widely as Galaxy Zoo (URL; http://www.galaxyzoo.org). To everyone’s surprise, the unexpectedly large participation in the website has caused the data set, numbering over a million images, to be classified multiple times, quicker than the project leader anticipated, and continues to boast a high hit count on the website (15 classifications per second). Within 24 hours of launch, the site was receiving 70,000 classifications an hour, and more than 50 million classifications were received by the project during its first year, from almost 150,000 people. In a parallel effort, the Galaxy Zoo forum was created to handle the flood of emails that occurred alongside the flood of classifications, the team hoping that it would encourage the participants to handle each others' questions. By examining the motivations, methods and appeal of Galaxy Zoo to the participating public, other models of citizen science might be purposefully formulated to take advantage of the success exhibited in Galaxy Zoo. In addition, we want to understand the reasons people engage in science in informal settings in order to better enhance teaching methods in formal settings. Although in the past citizen science has primarily been used as a data collection method, there are many new opportunities contained in citizen science motivations and methods that we can use in future applications. This new and innovative method of online citizen science creates data for researchers of galaxies, but there is a parallel set of underlying data that has not yet been deeply analyzed: the motivations and underlying themes within the population of citizen scientists that could lead us to improve future citizen science projects. To address this, we pursued an investigation of the underlying reasons for the success of Galaxy Zoo

  14. Galaxy Zoo: reproducing galaxy morphologies via machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerji, Manda; Lahav, Ofer; Lintott, Chris J.; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Schawinski, Kevin; Bamford, Steven P.; Andreescu, Dan; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alex; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-07-01

    We present morphological classifications obtained using machine learning for objects in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR6 that have been classified by Galaxy Zoo into three classes, namely early types, spirals and point sources/artefacts. An artificial neural network is trained on a subset of objects classified by the human eye, and we test whether the machine-learning algorithm can reproduce the human classifications for the rest of the sample. We find that the success of the neural network in matching the human classifications depends crucially on the set of input parameters chosen for the machine-learning algorithm. The colours and parameters associated with profile fitting are reasonable in separating the objects into three classes. However, these results are considerably improved when adding adaptive shape parameters as well as concentration and texture. The adaptive moments, concentration and texture parameters alone cannot distinguish between early type galaxies and the point sources/artefacts. Using a set of 12 parameters, the neural network is able to reproduce the human classifications to better than 90 per cent for all three morphological classes. We find that using a training set that is incomplete in magnitude does not degrade our results given our particular choice of the input parameters to the network. We conclude that it is promising to use machine-learning algorithms to perform morphological classification for the next generation of wide-field imaging surveys and that the Galaxy Zoo catalogue provides an invaluable training set for such purposes. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 100000 volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their contributions are individually acknowledged at http://www.galaxyzoo.org/Volunteers.aspx. E-mail: mbanerji@ast.cam.ac.uk ‡ Einstein Fellow.

  15. Galaxy Zoo: Exploring the Motivations of Citizen Science Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raddick, M. Jordan; Bracey, Georgia; Gay, Pamela L.; Lintott, Chris J.; Murray, Phil; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The Galaxy Zoo citizen science website invites anyone with an Internet connection to participate in research by classifying galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. As of April 2009, more than 200,000 volunteers have made more than 100 million galaxy classifications. In this article, we present results of a pilot study into the motivations and…

  16. Galaxy Zoo: Science and Public Engagement Hand in Hand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen; Lintott, Chris; Feldt, Julie; Keel, Bill; Skibba, Ramin

    2015-08-01

    Galaxy Zoo (www.galaxyzoo.org) is familiar to many as a hugely successful citizen science project. Hundreds of thousands of members of the public have contributed to Galaxy Zoo which collects visual classifications of galaxies in images from a variety of surveys (e.g. the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Hubble Space Telescope surveys, and others) using an internet tool. Galaxy Zoo inspired the creation of "The Zooniverse" (www.zooniverse.org) which is now the world's leading online platform for citizens science, hosting a growing number of projects (at the time of writing ~30) making use of crowdsourced data analysis in all areas of academic research, and boasting over 1.3 million participants.Galaxy Zoo has also shown itself, in a series of (now ~60) peer reviewed papers, to be a fantastic database for the study of galaxy evolution. Participation in citizen science is also fantastic public engagement with scientific research. But what do the participants learn while they are involved in crowdsourced data analysis?In this talk I will discuss how public engagement via citizen science can be an effective means of outreach from data intensive astronomical surveys. A citizen science project (if done right) can and should increase the scientific output of an astronomical project, while at the same time inspiring participants to learn more about the science and techniques of astronomy.

  17. Radio Galaxy Zoo: host galaxies and radio morphologies derived from visual inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banfield, J. K.; Wong, O. I.; Willett, K. W.; Norris, R. P.; Rudnick, L.; Shabala, S. S.; Simmons, B. D.; Snyder, C.; Garon, A.; Seymour, N.; Middelberg, E.; Andernach, H.; Lintott, C. J.; Jacob, K.; Kapińska, A. D.; Mao, M. Y.; Masters, K. L.; Jarvis, M. J.; Schawinski, K.; Paget, E.; Simpson, R.; Klöckner, H.-R.; Bamford, S.; Burchell, T.; Chow, K. E.; Cotter, G.; Fortson, L.; Heywood, I.; Jones, T. W.; Kaviraj, S.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Maksym, W. P.; Polsterer, K.; Borden, K.; Hollow, R. P.; Whyte, L.

    2015-11-01

    We present results from the first 12 months of operation of Radio Galaxy Zoo, which upon completion will enable visual inspection of over 170 000 radio sources to determine the host galaxy of the radio emission and the radio morphology. Radio Galaxy Zoo uses 1.4 GHz radio images from both the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST) and the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) in combination with mid-infrared images at 3.4 μm from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and at 3.6 μm from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We present the early analysis of the WISE mid-infrared colours of the host galaxies. For images in which there is >75 per cent consensus among the Radio Galaxy Zoo cross-identifications, the project participants are as effective as the science experts at identifying the host galaxies. The majority of the identified host galaxies reside in the mid-infrared colour space dominated by elliptical galaxies, quasi-stellar objects and luminous infrared radio galaxies. We also find a distinct population of Radio Galaxy Zoo host galaxies residing in a redder mid-infrared colour space consisting of star-forming galaxies and/or dust-enhanced non-star-forming galaxies consistent with a scenario of merger-driven active galactic nuclei (AGN) formation. The completion of the full Radio Galaxy Zoo project will measure the relative populations of these hosts as a function of radio morphology and power while providing an avenue for the identification of rare and extreme radio structures. Currently, we are investigating candidates for radio galaxies with extreme morphologies, such as giant radio galaxies, late-type host galaxies with extended radio emission and hybrid morphology radio sources.

  18. Mining the Galaxy Zoo Database: Machine Learning Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borne, Kirk D.; Wallin, J.; Vedachalam, A.; Baehr, S.; Lintott, C.; Darg, D.; Smith, A.; Fortson, L.

    2010-01-01

    The new Zooniverse initiative is addressing the data flood in the sciences through a transformative partnership between professional scientists, volunteer citizen scientists, and machines. As part of this project, we are exploring the application of machine learning techniques to data mining problems associated with the large and growing database of volunteer science results gathered by the Galaxy Zoo citizen science project. We will describe the basic challenge, some machine learning approaches, and early results. One of the motivators for this study is the acquisition (through the Galaxy Zoo results database) of approximately 100 million classification labels for roughly one million galaxies, yielding a tremendously large and rich set of training examples for improving automated galaxy morphological classification algorithms. In our first case study, the goal is to learn which morphological and photometric features in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database correlate most strongly with user-selected galaxy morphological class. As a corollary to this study, we are also aiming to identify which galaxy parameters in the SDSS database correspond to galaxies that have been the most difficult to classify (based upon large dispersion in their volunter-provided classifications). Our second case study will focus on similar data mining analyses and machine leaning algorithms applied to the Galaxy Zoo catalog of merging and interacting galaxies. The outcomes of this project will have applications in future large sky surveys, such as the LSST (Large Synoptic Survey Telescope) project, which will generate a catalog of 20 billion galaxies and will produce an additional astronomical alert database of approximately 100 thousand events each night for 10 years -- the capabilities and algorithms that we are exploring will assist in the rapid characterization and classification of such massive data streams. This research has been supported in part through NSF award #0941610.

  19. Galaxy Zoo User Behaviors 1: User classification trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchett, Brian; Gay, P. L.; CS390/490 Class, SIUE; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2010-01-01

    In this poster we examine patterns of classification behavior among Galaxy Zoo users. The Galaxy Zoo project (Lintott 2008) asks users to look at images of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and to classify them based on their appearance. The success of this project, measured through 14 scientific journal articles, comes in large part from the dedicated contributions from over 230,000 registered users. These users have each contributed anywhere from a small handful of galaxy classifications to a few tens-of-thousands of classifications. While user behaviors vary greatly, we find that there are certain patterns of behavior that predict which individuals will make significant numbers of classifications over the course of their involvement in the project. Specifically, we study how the number of classifications a person makes shortly after they register for the site can predict future classification behavior. We also look for patterns in what events trigger users registering for the site and returning to site. Where possible, we break patterns of behavior down by gender, and study differences between populations who join at pivotal moments (site launch, major announcement, etc), join as the result of one-on-one contact with a member of the Galaxy Zoo collaboration, and the remaining population. The research was funded by NASA ROSES NNX09AD34G.

  20. An Interpretive Study of Meanings Citizen Scientists Make When Participating in Galaxy Zoo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mankowski, Trent A.; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    A particularly successful effort to engage the public in science has been to move the nearly countless galaxies imaged by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to citizen scientists in a project known widely as Galaxy Zoo (URL; http://www.galaxyzoo.org). By examining the motivations, methods and appeal of Galaxy Zoo to the participating public, other…

  1. Revealing galactic scale bars with the help of Galaxy Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen L.

    2015-03-01

    We use visual classifications of the brightest 250,000 galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Main Galaxy Sample provided by citizen scientists via the Galaxy Zoo project (www.galaxyzoo.org, Lintott et al. 2008) to identify a sample of local disc galaxies with reliable bar identifications. These data, combined with information on the atomic gas content from the ALFALFA survey (Haynes et al. 2011) show that disc galaxies with higher gas content have lower bar fractions. We use a gas deficiency parameter to show that disc galaxies with more/less gas than expected for their stellar mass are less/more likely to host bars. Furthermore, we see that at a fixed gas content there is no residual correlation between bar fraction and stellar mass. We argue that this suggests previously observed correlations between galaxy colour/stellar mass and (strong) bar fraction (e.g. from the sample in Masters et al. 2011, and also see Nair & Abraham 2010) could be driven by the interaction between bars and the gas content of the disc, since more massive, optically redder disc galaxies are observed to have lower gas contents. Furthermore we see evidence that at a fixed gas content the global colours of barred galaxies are redder than those of unbarred galaxies. We suggest that this could be due to the exchange of angular momentum beyond co-rotation which might stop a replenishment of gas from external sources, and act as a source of feedback to temporarily halt or reduce the star formation in the outer parts of barred discs. These results (published as Masters et al. 2012) combined with those of Skibba et al. (2012), who use the same sample to show a clear (but subtle and complicated) environmental dependence of the bar fraction in disc galaxies, suggest that bars are intimately linked to the evolution of disc galaxies.

  2. Galaxy Zoo: morphologies derived from visual inspection of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lintott, Chris J.; Schawinski, Kevin; Slosar, Anže; Land, Kate; Bamford, Steven; Thomas, Daniel; Raddick, M. Jordan; Nichol, Robert C.; Szalay, Alex; Andreescu, Dan; Murray, Phil; Vandenberg, Jan

    2008-09-01

    In order to understand the formation and subsequent evolution of galaxies one must first distinguish between the two main morphological classes of massive systems: spirals and early-type systems. This paper introduces a project, Galaxy Zoo, which provides visual morphological classifications for nearly one million galaxies, extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). This achievement was made possible by inviting the general public to visually inspect and classify these galaxies via the internet. The project has obtained more than 4 × 107 individual classifications made by ~105 participants. We discuss the motivation and strategy for this project, and detail how the classifications were performed and processed. We find that Galaxy Zoo results are consistent with those for subsets of SDSS galaxies classified by professional astronomers, thus demonstrating that our data provide a robust morphological catalogue. Obtaining morphologies by direct visual inspection avoids introducing biases associated with proxies for morphology such as colour, concentration or structural parameters. In addition, this catalogue can be used to directly compare SDSS morphologies with older data sets. The colour-magnitude diagrams for each morphological class are shown, and we illustrate how these distributions differ from those inferred using colour alone as a proxy for morphology. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 100000 volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their contributions are individually acknowledged at http://www.galaxyzoo.org/Volunteers.aspx E-mail: cjl@astro.ox.ac.uk (CJL); kevins@astro.ox.ac.uk (KS)

  3. Galaxy Zoo Hubble: Crowdsourced Morphologies for 169,944 Galaxies at 0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Kyle; Galloway, Melanie; Fortson, Lucy; Bamford, Steven; Masters, Karen; Lintott, Chris; Simmons, Brooke; Cheung, Edmond; Schawinski, Kevin; Scarlata, Claudia; Beck, Melanie; Galaxy Zoo volunteers

    2016-01-01

    The Galaxy Zoo project uses crowdsourced visual classifications to create large and statistically robust catalogs of detailed galaxy morphology. We present initial results for the Galaxy Zoo: Hubble dataset, which includes 169,944 images of galaxies selected from the AEGIS, COSMOS, GEMS, and GOODS surveys. The galaxies span a redshift range of 0galaxies, as well as identifying kpc-scale features including galactic bars, spiral arms, irregular structure, and mergers. In addition, we also measure the geometry and relative positions of clumpy structures that are unique to high-redshift star-forming galaxies. Visual classifications are calibrated using a set of z≈0.05 SDSS images that are processed to appear as they would at a variety of simulated redshifts using Hubble; this measures the morphological bias for galaxies as a function of changing the apparent size and brightness, without overcorrecting for effects such as an evolving Lstar. We present a new technique for debiasing the morphologies based on a simple parametric model of surface brightness and distance, which adjusts the threshold for detecting feature or disk-dominated galaxies in fainter galaxies and at higher redshifts. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique for bulge/disk separation, and discuss its applications and limitations for smaller physical sub-structures. We also present preliminary results analyzing the evolution of disk sub-structure as a function of cosmic time. All the above data will be included in the upcoming release of the full Galaxy Zoo: Hubble catalog.

  4. A Galaxy Zoo - WorldWide Telescope Mashup: Expanding User Defined Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luebbert, Jarod; Sands, M.; Fay, J.; Smith, A.; Gay, P. L.; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2010-01-01

    We present a new way of exploring your favorite Galaxy Zoo galaxies within the context of the sky using Microsoft Research's WorldWide Telescope. Galaxy Zoo has a fantastic community that is eager to learn and contribute to science through morphological classifications of galaxies. WorldWide Telescope is an interactive observatory that allows users to explore the sky. WorldWide Telescope uses images from the world's best telescopes, including the galaxies of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. WorldWide Telescope provides a fantastic sense of size and distance that is hard to experience in Galaxy Zoo. Creating tours from favorite galaxies directly from Galaxy Zoo aims to solve this dilemma.The incorporation of Galaxy Zoo and WorldWide telescope provides a great resource for users to learn more about the galaxies they are classifying. Users can now explore the areas around certain galaxies and view information about that location from within WorldWide Telescope. Not only does this encourage self-motivated research but after tours are created they can be shared with anyone. We hope this will help spread citizen science to different audiences via email, Facebook, and Twitter.Without the WorldWide Telescope team at Microsoft Research this project would not have been possible. Please go start exploring at http://wwt.galaxyzoo.org. This project was funded through the Microsoft Research Academic Program.

  5. Galaxy Zoo: Mergers - Dynamical models of interacting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holincheck, Anthony J.; Wallin, John F.; Borne, Kirk; Fortson, Lucy; Lintott, Chris; Smith, Arfon M.; Bamford, Steven; Keel, William C.; Parrish, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The dynamical history of most merging galaxies is not well understood. Correlations between galaxy interaction and star formation have been found in previous studies, but require the context of the physical history of merging systems for full insight into the processes that lead to enhanced star formation. We present the results of simulations that reconstruct the orbit trajectories and disturbed morphologies of pairs of interacting galaxies. With the use of a restricted three-body simulation code and the help of citizen scientists, we sample 105 points in parameter space for each system. We demonstrate a successful recreation of the morphologies of 62 pairs of interacting galaxies through the review of more than 3 million simulations. We examine the level of convergence and uniqueness of the dynamical properties of each system. These simulations represent the largest collection of models of interacting galaxies to date, providing a valuable resource for the investigation of mergers. This paper presents the simulation parameters generated by the project. They are now publicly available in electronic format at http://data.galaxyzoo.org/mergers.html. Though our best-fitting model parameters are not an exact match to previously published models, our method for determining uncertainty measurements will aid future comparisons between models. The dynamical clocks from our models agree with previous results of the time since the onset of star formation from starburst models in interacting systems and suggest that tidally induced star formation is triggered very soon after closest approach.

  6. An Interpretive Study of Meanings Citizen Scientists Make When Participating in Galaxy Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankowski, Trent A.

    A particularly successful effort to engage the public in science has been to move the nearly countless galaxies imaged by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to citizen scientists in a project known widely as Galaxy Zoo (URL; http://www.galaxyzoo.org). By examining the motivations, methods and appeal of Galaxy Zoo to the participating public, other models of citizen science might be purposefully formulated to take advantage of the success exhibited in Galaxy Zoo. In addition, we want to understand the reasons people engage in science in informal settings in order to better enhance teaching methods in formal settings. We pursued an investigation of the underlying reasons for the success of Galaxy Zoo revealed by inductively analyzing contributor's posts and discussions through the accompanying Galaxy Zoo online bulletin board Using a grounded theory approach, we learned that many of these motivations originate in the aesthetic power of astronomical images or the opportunity to become an empowered and contributing scientist, which Galaxy Zoo successfully harnesses while not compromising the scientific value of the project.

  7. Galaxy Zoo and ALFALFA: atomic gas and the regulation of star formation in barred disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Haynes, Martha P.; Keel, William C.; Lintott, Chris; Simmons, Brooke; Skibba, Ramin; Bamford, Steven; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Schawinski, Kevin

    2012-08-01

    We study the observed correlation between atomic gas content and the likelihood of hosting a large-scale bar in a sample of 2090 disc galaxies. Such a test has never been done before on this scale. We use data on morphologies from the Galaxy Zoo project and information on the galaxies' H I content from the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFALFA) blind H I survey. Our main result is that the bar fraction is significantly lower among gas-rich disc galaxies than gas-poor ones. This is not explained by known trends for more massive (stellar) and redder disc galaxies to host more bars and have lower gas fractions: we still see at fixed stellar mass a residual correlation between gas content and bar fraction. We discuss three possible causal explanations: (1) bars in disc galaxies cause atomic gas to be used up more quickly, (2) increasing the atomic gas content in a disc galaxy inhibits bar formation and (3) bar fraction and gas content are both driven by correlation with environmental effects (e.g. tidal triggering of bars, combined with strangulation removing gas). All three explanations are consistent with the observed correlations. In addition our observations suggest bars may reduce or halt star formation in the outer parts of discs by holding back the infall of external gas beyond bar co-rotation, reddening the global colours of barred disc galaxies. This suggests that secular evolution driven by the exchange of angular momentum between stars in the bar, and gas in the disc, acts as a feedback mechanism to regulate star formation in intermediate-mass disc galaxies. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 200 000 volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their contributions are individually acknowledged at South East Physics Network, E-mail: karen.masters@port.ac.ukEinstein fellow.

  8. Galaxy Zoo 1: data release of morphological classifications for nearly 900 000 galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Linott, C.; Slosar, A.; Lintott, C.; Schawinski, K.; Bamford, S.; Slosar, A.; Land, K.; Thomas, D.; Edmondson, E.; Masters, K.; Nichol, R.C.; Raddick, M.J.; Szalay, A.; Andreescu, D.; Murray, P.; Vandenberg, J.

    2011-01-01

    Morphology is a powerful indicator of a galaxy's dynamical and merger history. It is strongly correlated with many physical parameters, including mass, star formation history and the distribution of mass. The Galaxy Zoo project collected simple morphological classifications of nearly 900,000 galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, contributed by hundreds of thousands of volunteers. This large number of classifications allows us to exclude classifier error, and measure the influence of subtle biases inherent in morphological classification. This paper presents the data collected by the project, alongside measures of classification accuracy and bias. The data are now publicly available and full catalogues can be downloaded in electronic format from http://data.galaxyzoo.org.

  9. Galaxy Zoo: spiral galaxy morphologies and their relation to the star-forming main sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Kyle; Schawinski, Kevin; Masters, Karen; Melvin, Tom; Skibba, Ramin A.; Nichol, Robert; Cheung, Edmond; Lintott, Chris; Simmons, Brooke D.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Keel, William C.; Fortson, Lucy; Galaxy Zoo volunteers

    2015-01-01

    We examine the relationship between stellar mass and star formation rate in disk galaxies at z<0.085, measuring different populations of spirals as classified by their kiloparsec-scale structure. The morphologies of disk galaxies are obtained from the Galaxy Zoo 2 project, which includes the number of spiral arms, the arm pitch angle, and the presence of strong galactic bars. We show that both the slope and dispersion of the star-forming main sequence (SFMS) is constant no matter what the morphology of the spiral disk. We also show that mergers (both major and minor), which represent the strongest conditions for increases in star formation at a constant mass, only boost the SFR above the main relation by 0.3 dex; this is a significant reduction over the increase seen in merging systems at higher redshifts (z > 1). Of the galaxies that do lie significantly above the SFMS in the local Universe, more than 50% are mergers, with a large contribution from the compact green pea galaxies. We interpret our results as evidence that the number and pitch angle of spiral arms, which are imperfect reflections of the galaxy's current gravitational potential, are either fully independent of the various quenching mechanisms for star formation or are completely overwhelmed by the combination of outflows and feedback.

  10. Galaxy Zoo 2: A Study of Bar Fraction Versus Stellar Mass and Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortson, Lucy; Bamford, S.; Lintott, C.; Schawinski, K.; Smith, A.; Whyte, L.; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2010-01-01

    Galaxy Zoo has involved ¼ million of the public through the Internet in providing morphological classifications of nearly a million galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Galaxy Zoo 2 is a follow on project and has already recorded more than 40 million detailed morphological classifications on the brightest 250,000 galaxies in the SDSS. Among the most interesting products is a catalog of 10,000 barred spirals - an order of magnitude increase on the sample sizes used in most current population studies of barred spirals. In this poster we present a first look at the properties of this catalog focusing in particular on the fraction of spirals with bars as a function of environment, stellar mass and star formation history. Barred spirals are a sensitive indicator of the dynamical state of a galaxy and we discuss the implications for the evolution of the spiral population.

  11. Galaxy Zoo CANDELS Data Release I: Morphologies of ~50,000 Galaxies With z ≤ 3 in Deep Hubble Legacy Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Brooke; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen; Willett, Kyle; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Closson Ferguson, Henry; Faber, Sandra M.; Galaxy Zoo Team, CANDELS Team

    2016-01-01

    We present quantified visual morphologies of approximately 48,000 galaxies in rest-frame optical to z ~ 3, using galaxies observed in three Hubble Space Telescope legacy fields by the Cosmic And Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and classified by participants in the Galaxy Zoo project. Each galaxy received an average of 43 independent classifications, which we combine into detailed morphological information on galaxy features such as clumpiness, bar instabilities, spiral structure, and merger and tidal signatures. We apply a consensus-based classifier weighting method that preserves classifier independence while effectively down-weighting significantly errant classifications. Comparing the Galaxy Zoo classifications to previous human and machine classifications of the same galaxies shows very good agreement; in some cases the high number of independent classifications provided by Galaxy Zoo provides an advantage in selecting galaxies with a particular morphological profile, while in others the combination of Galaxy Zoo with other classifications is a more promising approach than using any one method alone. We combine the Galaxy Zoo classifications of "smooth" galaxies with parametric morphologies to select a sample of featureless disks at 1 ≤ z ≤ 2, which may represent a dynamically warmer progenitor population to the settled disk galaxies seen at later epochs.

  12. GALAXY ZOO MORPHOLOGY AND PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Way, M. J.

    2011-06-10

    It has recently been demonstrated that one can accurately derive galaxy morphology from particular primary and secondary isophotal shape estimates in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging catalog. This was accomplished by applying Machine Learning techniques to the Galaxy Zoo morphology catalog. Using the broad bandpass photometry of the SDSS in combination with precise knowledge of galaxy morphology should help in estimating more accurate photometric redshifts for galaxies. Using the Galaxy Zoo separation for spirals and ellipticals in combination with SDSS photometry we attempt to calculate photometric redshifts. In the best case we find that the root-mean-square error for luminous red galaxies classified as ellipticals is as low as 0.0118. Given these promising results we believe better photometric redshift estimates for all galaxies in the SDSS ({approx}350 million) will be feasible if researchers can also leverage their derived morphologies via Machine Learning. These initial results look to be promising for those interested in estimating weak lensing, baryonic acoustic oscillation, and other fields dependent upon accurate photometric redshifts.

  13. Galaxy Zoo: evidence for diverse star formation histories through the green valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smethurst, R. J.; Lintott, C. J.; Simmons, B. D.; Schawinski, K.; Marshall, P. J.; Bamford, S.; Fortson, L.; Kaviraj, S.; Masters, K. L.; Melvin, T.; Nichol, R. C.; Skibba, R. A.; Willett, K. W.

    2015-06-01

    Does galaxy evolution proceed through the green valley via multiple pathways or as a single population? Motivated by recent results highlighting radically different evolutionary pathways between early- and late-type galaxies, we present results from a simple Bayesian approach to this problem wherein we model the star formation history (SFH) of a galaxy with two parameters, [t, τ] and compare the predicted and observed optical and near-ultraviolet colours. We use a novel method to investigate the morphological differences between the most probable SFHs for both disc-like and smooth-like populations of galaxies, by using a sample of 126 316 galaxies (0.01 < z < 0.25) with probabilistic estimates of morphology from Galaxy Zoo. We find a clear difference between the quenching time-scales preferred by smooth- and disc-like galaxies, with three possible routes through the green valley dominated by smooth- (rapid time-scales, attributed to major mergers), intermediate- (intermediate time-scales, attributed to minor mergers and galaxy interactions) and disc-like (slow time-scales, attributed to secular evolution) galaxies. We hypothesize that morphological changes occur in systems which have undergone quenching with an exponential time-scale τ < 1.5 Gyr, in order for the evolution of galaxies in the green valley to match the ratio of smooth to disc galaxies observed in the red sequence. These rapid time-scales are instrumental in the formation of the red sequence at earlier times; however, we find that galaxies currently passing through the green valley typically do so at intermediate time-scales.†

  14. Galaxy Zoo Hubble: First results of the redshift evolution of disk fraction in the red sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Melanie; Willett, Kyle; Fortson, Lucy; Scarlata, Claudia; Beck, Melanie; Masters, Karen; Melvin, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The transition of galaxies from the blue cloud to the red sequence is commonly linked to a morphological transformation from disk to elliptical structure. However, the correlation between color and morphology is not one-to-one, as evidenced by the existence of a significant population of red disks. As this stage in a galaxy's evolution is likely to be transitory, the mechanism by which red disks are formed offers insight to the processes that trigger quenching of star formation and the galaxy's position on the star-forming sequence. To study the population of disk galaxies in the red sequence as a function of cosmic time, we utilize data from the Galaxy Zoo: Hubble project, which uses crowdsourced visual classifications of images of galaxies selected from the AEGIS, COSMOS, GEMS, and GOODS surveys. We construct a large sample of over 10,000 disk galaxies spanning a wide (0 < z < 1.0) redshift range. We use this sample to examine the change in the fraction of disks in the red sequence with respect to all disks from z˜1 to the present day. Preliminary results confirm that the fraction of disks in the red sequence decreases as the Universe evolves. We discuss the quenching processes which may explain this trend, and which morphological transformations are most affected by it.

  15. Galaxy Zoo: the effect of bar-driven fuelling on the presence of an active galactic nucleus in disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Melanie A.; Willett, Kyle W.; Fortson, Lucy F.; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Schawinski, Kevin; Cheung, Edmond; Lintott, Chris J.; Masters, Karen L.; Melvin, Thomas; Simmons, Brooke D.

    2015-04-01

    We study the influence of the presence of a strong bar in disc galaxies which host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and morphological classifications from the Galaxy Zoo 2 project, we create a volume-limited sample of 19 756 disc galaxies at 0.01 < z < 0.05 which have been visually examined for the presence of a bar. Within this sample, AGN host galaxies have a higher overall percentage of bars (51.8 per cent) than inactive galaxies exhibiting central star formation (37.1 per cent). This difference is primarily due to known effects: that the presence of both AGN and galactic bars is strongly correlated with both the stellar mass and integrated colour of the host galaxy. We control for this effect by examining the difference in AGN fraction between barred and unbarred galaxies in fixed bins of mass and colour. Once this effect is accounted for, there remains a small but statistically significant increase that represents 16 per cent of the average barred AGN fraction. Using the L_{[O III]}/MBH ratio as a measure of AGN strength, we show that barred AGNs do not exhibit stronger accretion than unbarred AGNs at a fixed mass and colour. The data are consistent with a model in which bar-driven fuelling does contribute to the probability of an actively growing black hole, but in which other dynamical mechanisms must contribute to the direct AGN fuelling via smaller, non-axisymmetric perturbations.

  16. Galaxy Zoo: the dependence of the star formation-stellar mass relation on spiral disc morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Kyle W.; Schawinski, Kevin; Simmons, Brooke D.; Masters, Karen L.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Melvin, Thomas; Wong, O. Ivy; Nichol, Robert C.; Cheung, Edmond; Lintott, Chris J.; Fortson, Lucy

    2015-05-01

    We measure the stellar mass-star formation rate (SFR) relation in star-forming disc galaxies at z ≤ 0.085, using Galaxy Zoo morphologies to examine different populations of spirals as classified by their kiloparsec-scale structure. We examine the number of spiral arms, their relative pitch angle, and the presence of a galactic bar in the disc, and show that both the slope and dispersion of the M⋆-SFR relation is constant when varying all the above parameters. We also show that mergers (both major and minor), which represent the strongest conditions for increases in star formation at a constant mass, only boost the SFR above the main relation by ˜0.3 dex; this is significantly smaller than the increase seen in merging systems at z > 1. Of the galaxies lying significantly above the M⋆-SFR relation in the local Universe, more than 50 per cent are mergers. We interpret this as evidence that the spiral arms, which are imperfect reflections of the galaxy's current gravitational potential, are either fully independent of the various quenching mechanisms or are completely overwhelmed by the combination of outflows and feedback. The arrangement of the star formation can be changed, but the system as a whole regulates itself even in the presence of strong dynamical forcing.

  17. Galaxy Zoo: Evidence for rapid, recent quenching within a population of AGN host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smethurst, R. J.; Lintott, C. J.; Simmons, B. D.; Schawinski, K.; Bamford, S. P.; Cardamone, C. N.; Kruk, S. J.; Masters, K. L.; Urry, C. M.; Willett, K. W.; Wong, O. I.

    2016-09-01

    We present a population study of the star formation history of 1244 Type 2 AGN host galaxies, compared to 6107 inactive galaxies. A Bayesian method is used to determine individual galaxy star formation histories, which are then collated to visualise the distribution for quenching and quenched galaxies within each population. We find evidence for some of the Type 2 AGN host galaxies having undergone a rapid drop in their star formation rate within the last 2 Gyr. AGN feedback is therefore important at least for this population of galaxies. This result is not seen for the quenching and quenched inactive galaxies whose star formation histories are dominated by the effects of downsizing at earlier epochs, a secondary effect for the AGN host galaxies. We show that histories of rapid quenching cannot account fully for the quenching of all the star formation in a galaxy's lifetime across the population of quenched AGN host galaxies, and that histories of slower quenching, attributed to secular (non-violent) evolution, are also key in their evolution. This is in agreement with recent results showing both merger-driven and non-merger processes are contributing to the co-evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes. The availability of gas in the reservoirs of a galaxy, and its ability to be replenished, appear to be the key drivers behind this co-evolution.

  18. Radio Galaxy Zoo: discovery of a poor cluster through a giant wide-angle tail radio galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banfield, J. K.; Andernach, H.; Kapińska, A. D.; Rudnick, L.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Cotter, G.; Vaughan, S.; Jones, T. W.; Heywood, I.; Wing, J. D.; Wong, O. I.; Matorny, T.; Terentev, I. A.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Norris, R. P.; Seymour, N.; Shabala, S. S.; Willett, K. W.

    2016-08-01

    We have discovered a previously unreported poor cluster of galaxies (RGZ-CL J0823.2+0333) through an unusual giant wide-angle tail radio galaxy found in the Radio Galaxy Zoo project. We obtained a spectroscopic redshift of z = 0.0897 for the E0-type host galaxy, 2MASX J08231289+0333016, leading to Mr = -22.6 and a 1.4 GHz radio luminosity density of L1.4 = 5.5 × 1024 W Hz-1. These radio and optical luminosities are typical for wide-angle tailed radio galaxies near the borderline between Fanaroff-Riley classes I and II. The projected largest angular size of ≈8 arcmin corresponds to 800 kpc and the full length of the source along the curved jets/trails is 1.1 Mpc in projection. X-ray data from the XMM-Newton archive yield an upper limit on the X-ray luminosity of the thermal emission surrounding RGZ J082312.9+033301 at 1.2-2.6 × 1043 erg s-1 for assumed intracluster medium temperatures of 1.0-5.0 keV. Our analysis of the environment surrounding RGZ J082312.9+033301 indicates that RGZ J082312.9+033301 lies within a poor cluster. The observed radio morphology suggests that (a) the host galaxy is moving at a significant velocity with respect to an ambient medium like that of at least a poor cluster, and that (b) the source may have had two ignition events of the active galactic nucleus with 107 yr in between. This reinforces the idea that an association between RGZ J082312.9+033301 and the newly discovered poor cluster exists.

  19. Chandra Observations of Galaxy Zoo Mergers: Frequency of Binary Active Nuclei in Massive Mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Schawinski, Kevin; Urry, C. Megan; Darg, Dan W.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Oh, Kyuseok; Bonning, Erin W.; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Keel, William C.; Lintott, Chris J.; Simmons, Brooke D.; Treister, Ezequiel

    2012-01-01

    We present the results from a Chandra pilot study of 12 massive galaxy mergers selected from Galaxy Zoo. The sample includes major mergers down to a host galaxy mass of 1011 M that already have optical AGN signatures in at least one of the progenitors. We find that the coincidences of optically selected active nuclei with mildly obscured (N(sub H) approx < 1.1 10(exp 22)/sq cm) X-ray nuclei are relatively common (8/12), but the detections are too faint (< 40 counts per nucleus; (sub -10) keV approx < 1.2 10(exp -13) erg/s/sq cm) to reliably separate starburst and nuclear activity as the origin of the X-ray emission. Only one merger is found to have confirmed binary X-ray nuclei, though the X-ray emission from its southern nucleus could be due solely to star formation. Thus, the occurrences of binary AGN in these mergers are rare (0-8%), unless most merger-induced active nuclei are very heavily obscured or Compton thick.

  20. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF GALAXY ZOO MERGERS: FREQUENCY OF BINARY ACTIVE NUCLEI IN MASSIVE MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Stacy H.; Darg, Dan W.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Lintott, Chris J.; Oh, Kyuseok; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Keel, William C.; Simmons, Brooke D.; Treister, Ezequiel

    2012-07-10

    We present the results from a Chandra pilot study of 12 massive galaxy mergers selected from Galaxy Zoo. The sample includes major mergers down to a host galaxy mass of 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} that already have optical active galactic nucleus (AGN) signatures in at least one of the progenitors. We find that the coincidences of optically selected active nuclei with mildly obscured (N{sub H} {approx}< 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}) X-ray nuclei are relatively common (8/12), but the detections are too faint (<40 counts per nucleus; f{sub 2-10keV} {approx}< 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -13} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}) to reliably separate starburst and nuclear activity as the origin of the X-ray emission. Only one merger is found to have confirmed binary X-ray nuclei, though the X-ray emission from its southern nucleus could be due solely to star formation. Thus, the occurrences of binary AGNs in these mergers are rare (0%-8%), unless most merger-induced active nuclei are very heavily obscured or Compton thick.

  1. Galaxy Zoo: comparing the demographics of spiral arm number and a new method for correcting redshift bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Ross E.; Bamford, Steven P.; Willett, Kyle W.; Masters, Karen L.; Cardamone, Carolin; Lintott, Chris J.; Mackay, Robert J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Rosslowe, Christopher K.; Simmons, Brooke D.; Smethurst, Rebecca J.

    2016-10-01

    The majority of galaxies in the local Universe exhibit spiral structure with a variety of forms. Many galaxies possess two prominent spiral arms, some have more, while others display a many-armed flocculent appearance. Spiral arms are associated with enhanced gas content and star formation in the discs of low-redshift galaxies, so are important in the understanding of star formation in the local universe. As both the visual appearance of spiral structure, and the mechanisms responsible for it vary from galaxy to galaxy, a reliable method for defining spiral samples with different visual morphologies is required. In this paper, we develop a new debiasing method to reliably correct for redshift-dependent bias in Galaxy Zoo 2, and release the new set of debiased classifications. Using these, a luminosity-limited sample of ˜18 000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey spiral galaxies is defined, which are then further sub-categorized by spiral arm number. In order to explore how different spiral galaxies form, the demographics of spiral galaxies with different spiral arm numbers are compared. It is found that whilst all spiral galaxies occupy similar ranges of stellar mass and environment, many-armed galaxies display much bluer colours than their two-armed counterparts. We conclude that two-armed structure is ubiquitous in star-forming discs, whereas many-armed spiral structure appears to be a short-lived phase, associated with more recent, stochastic star-formation activity.

  2. Chandra Observations of Galaxy Zoo Mergers: Frequency of Binary Active Nuclei in Massive Mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Schwainski, Kevin; Urry, C. Megan; Darg, Dan W.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Oh, Kyuseok; Bonning, Erin W.; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Keel, William C.; Lintott, Chris J.; Simmons, Brooke D.; Treister, Ezequiel

    2012-01-01

    We present the results from a Chandra pilot study of 12 massive mergers selected from Galaxy Zoo. The sample includes major mergers down to a host galaxy mass of 10(sup 11) solar mass that already have optical AGN signatures in at least one of the progenitors. We find that the coincidences of optically selected active nuclei with mildly obscured (N(sub H) less than or approximately 1.1 x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter) X-ray nuclei are relatively common (8/12), but the detections are too faint (less than 40 counts per nucleus; f(sub 2-10 keV) less than or approximately 1.2 x 10(exp -13) ergs per second per square centimeter) to separate starburst and nuclear activity as the origin of the X-ray emission. Only one merger is found to have confirmed binary X-ray nuclei, though the X-ray emission from its southern nucleus could be due solely to star formation. Thus, the occurrences of binary AGN in these mergers are rare (0-8%), unless most merger-induced active nuclei are very heavily obscured or Compton thick.

  3. Bivariate mass-size relation as a function of morphology as determined by Galaxy Zoo 2 crowdsourced visual classifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Melanie; Scarlata, Claudia; Fortson, Lucy; Willett, Kyle; Galloway, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the mass-size distribution evolves as a function of cosmic time and that this evolution is different between passive and star-forming galaxy populations. However, the devil is in the details and the precise evolution is still a matter of debate since this requires careful comparison between similar galaxy populations over cosmic time while simultaneously taking into account changes in image resolution, rest-frame wavelength, and surface brightness dimming in addition to properly selecting representative morphological samples.Here we present the first step in an ambitious undertaking to calculate the bivariate mass-size distribution as a function of time and morphology. We begin with a large sample (~3 x 105) of SDSS galaxies at z ~ 0.1. Morphologies for this sample have been determined by Galaxy Zoo crowdsourced visual classifications and we split the sample not only by disk- and bulge-dominated galaxies but also in finer morphology bins such as bulge strength. Bivariate distribution functions are the only way to properly account for biases and selection effects. In particular, we quantify the mass-size distribution with a version of the parametric Maximum Likelihood estimator which has been modified to account for measurement errors as well as upper limits on galaxy sizes.

  4. The green valley is a red herring: Galaxy Zoo reveals two evolutionary pathways towards quenching of star formation in early- and late-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schawinski, Kevin; Urry, C. Megan; Simmons, Brooke D.; Fortson, Lucy; Kaviraj, Sugata; Keel, William C.; Lintott, Chris J.; Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Sarzi, Marc; Skibba, Ramin; Treister, Ezequiel; Willett, Kyle W.; Wong, O. Ivy; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2014-05-01

    We use SDSS+GALEX+Galaxy Zoo data to study the quenching of star formation in low-redshift galaxies. We show that the green valley between the blue cloud of star-forming galaxies and the red sequence of quiescent galaxies in the colour-mass diagram is not a single transitional state through which most blue galaxies evolve into red galaxies. Rather, an analysis that takes morphology into account makes clear that only a small population of blue early-type galaxies move rapidly across the green valley after the morphologies are transformed from disc to spheroid and star formation is quenched rapidly. In contrast, the majority of blue star-forming galaxies have significant discs, and they retain their late-type morphologies as their star formation rates decline very slowly. We summarize a range of observations that lead to these conclusions, including UV-optical colours and halo masses, which both show a striking dependence on morphological type. We interpret these results in terms of the evolution of cosmic gas supply and gas reservoirs. We conclude that late-type galaxies are consistent with a scenario where the cosmic supply of gas is shut off, perhaps at a critical halo mass, followed by a slow exhaustion of the remaining gas over several Gyr, driven by secular and/or environmental processes. In contrast, early-type galaxies require a scenario where the gas supply and gas reservoir are destroyed virtually instantaneously, with rapid quenching accompanied by a morphological transformation from disc to spheroid. This gas reservoir destruction could be the consequence of a major merger, which in most cases transforms galaxies from disc to elliptical morphology, and mergers could play a role in inducing black hole accretion and possibly active galactic nuclei feedback.

  5. GALAXY ZOO: THE FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT CO-EVOLUTION OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AND THEIR EARLY- AND LATE-TYPE HOST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Schawinski, Kevin; Urry, C. Megan; Virani, Shanil; Coppi, Paolo; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Bamford, Steven P.; Treister, Ezequiel; Lintott, Chris J.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Sarzi, Marc; Keel, William C.; Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Thomas, Daniel; Ross, Nicholas P.; Andreescu, Dan; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Szalay, Alex S.; Slosar, Anze

    2010-03-01

    We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and visual classifications of morphology from the Galaxy Zoo project to study black hole growth in the nearby universe (z < 0.05) and to break down the active galactic nucleus (AGN) host galaxy population by color, stellar mass, and morphology. We find that the black hole growth at luminosities L[O{sub III}]>10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} in early- and late-type galaxies is fundamentally different. AGN host galaxies as a population have a broad range of stellar masses (10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} M{sub sun}), reside in the green valley of the color-mass diagram and their central black holes have median masses around 10{sup 6.5} M{sub sun}. However, by comparing early- and late-type AGN host galaxies to their non-active counterparts, we find several key differences: in early-type galaxies, it is preferentially the galaxies with the least massive black holes that are growing, while in late-type galaxies, it is preferentially the most massive black holes that are growing. The duty cycle of AGNs in early-type galaxies is strongly peaked in the green valley below the low-mass end (10{sup 10} M{sub sun}) of the red sequence at stellar masses where there is a steady supply of blue cloud progenitors. The duty cycle of AGNs in late-type galaxies on the other hand peaks in massive (10{sup 11} M{sub sun}) green and red late-types which generally do not have a corresponding blue cloud population of similar mass. At high-Eddington ratios (L/L{sub Edd}>0.1), the only population with a substantial fraction of AGNs are the low-mass green valley early-type galaxies. Finally, the Milky Way likely resides in the 'sweet spot' on the color-mass diagram where the AGN duty cycle of late-type galaxies is highest. We discuss the implications of these results for our understanding of the role of AGNs in the evolution of galaxies.

  6. Galaxy Zoo: Are bars responsible for the feeding of active galactic nuclei at 0.2 < z < 1.0?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Edmond; Trump, Jonathan R.; Athanassoula, E.; Bamford, Steven P.; Bell, Eric F.; Bosma, A.; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Faber, S. M.; Fang, Jerome J.; Fortson, Lucy F.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; Laine, Seppo; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L.; Melvin, Thomas; Nichol, Robert C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Simmons, Brooke; Smethurst, Rebecca; Willett, Kyle W.

    2015-02-01

    We present a new study investigating whether active galactic nuclei (AGN) beyond the local universe are preferentially fed via large-scale bars. Our investigation combines data from Chandra and Galaxy Zoo: Hubble (GZH) in the AEGIS (All-wavelength Extended Groth strip International Survey), COSMOS (Cosmological Evolution Survey), and (Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South) GOODS-S surveys to create samples of face-on, disc galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0. We use a novel method to robustly compare a sample of 120 AGN host galaxies, defined to have 1042 erg s-1 < LX < 1044 erg s-1, with inactive control galaxies matched in stellar mass, rest-frame colour, size, Sérsic index, and redshift. Using the GZH bar classifications of each sample, we demonstrate that AGN hosts show no statistically significant enhancement in bar fraction or average bar likelihood compared to closely-matched inactive galaxies. In detail, we find that the AGN bar fraction cannot be enhanced above the control bar fraction by more than a factor of 2, at 99.7 per cent confidence. We similarly find no significant difference in the AGN fraction among barred and non-barred galaxies. Thus we find no compelling evidence that large-scale bars directly fuel AGN at 0.2 < z < 1.0. This result, coupled with previous results at z = 0, implies that moderate-luminosity AGN have not been preferentially fed by large-scale bars since z = 1. Furthermore, given the low bar fractions at z > 1, our findings suggest that large-scale bars have likely never directly been a dominant fuelling mechanism for supermassive black hole growth.

  7. The Galazy Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schawinski, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    When the Galaxy Zoo website calling for citizen scientists around the world to help classify galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey was launched, it brought down the servers hosting the images. The Galaxy Zoo tapped into the incredible desire of the public to get involved in and contribute to scientific research. With the he help of over a quarter million citizen scientists, we were able to map out the evolution of galaxy populations from star formation to quiescence and how this "quenching" is related to changes in morphology. Citizen scientists also discovered unusual objects in public data, such as "Hanny's Voorwerp", a quasar light echo which can constrain black hole accretion on timescales of 10-100 kyr. Finally, the work of citizen scientists taking part in Galaxy Zoo points to a future where machine learning and humans both contribute to systems capable of analyzing extremely large data sets.

  8. Zoo Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warden, Marian

    1978-01-01

    Zoo Day was one of the culminating activities of Art Extravaganza, a pilot summer art program for high ability first-and second-graders. Field trips, art history lessons, box sculpture, and a study of cavemen were included. (SJL)

  9. Gamma-ray emitting narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies and their place in the AGN zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ammando, Filippo; Orienti, Monica; Finke, Justin; Giroletti, Marcello; Larsson, Josefin

    2016-08-01

    Relativistic jets are usually produced by radio-loud AGN hosted in giant elliptical galaxies such as blazars and radio galaxies. The discovery by Fermi-LAT of variable gamma-ray emission from narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxies revealed the presence of a new class of AGN with relativistic jets. Considering that NLSy1 are usually hosted in spiral galaxies, this finding poses intriguing questions about the nature of these objects and the formation of relativistic jets. In this talk I discuss the radio-to-gamma-ray properties of the gamma-ray NLSy1 detected during the first 7 years of Fermi operation, the observations of their host galaxies, and the estimation of their black hole masses.

  10. Elemental ZOO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helser, Terry L.

    2003-04-01

    This puzzle uses the symbols of 39 elements to spell the names of 25 animals found in zoos. Underlined spaces and the names of the elements serve as clues. To solve the puzzle, students must find the symbols that correspond to the elemental names and rearrange them into the animals' names.

  11. Our Zoo to You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickless, Mimi; Brooks, David W.; Abuloum, Amjad; Mancuso, Brian; Heng-Moss, Tiffany M.; Mayo, Lois

    2003-01-01

    An innovative zoo outreach program, Our Zoo to You, places zoo animals in local classrooms for extended observation periods. With guidance and support from zoo staff, students are able to safely experience a variety of animals, including geckos, snakes, legless lizards, horned toads, ringneck doves, ferrets, hedgehogs, African brown millipedes,…

  12. Zoo animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Kohn, B

    1994-03-01

    The history of zoo animal welfare legislation extends back to 1876, and is often tied to general animal welfare regulations. As knowledge and societal values have changed, so have the focus of zoos and the regulations governing them. Today, the issues involved in zoo animal welfare are complex and broad-based. Building on the basic welfare tenets of adequate feed, water, shelter, sanitation and veterinary care, current issues include the following: handling and training of captive animals, psychological well-being and environmental enrichment, enclosure design, species preservation, environmental and conservation issues, captive-breeding programmes. Complicating the matter further, government regulations try to assimilate all aspects of zoo animal welfare into the laws to provide humane care and handling for all species concerned. Zoo animal welfare will remain a challenging area, as increasing demands are placed on zoos and regulatory agencies to manage this diminishing resource.

  13. Bronx Zoo cogeneration project

    SciTech Connect

    Rivet, P.H.

    1988-09-01

    The New York Zoological Society commenced feasibility studies for a proposed cogeneration and district heating system for the Bronz Zoo in spring 1982. Early studies focused on evaluating the Zoo's energy loads, infrastructure, and energy delivery and financing systems. The Zoological Society and New York City joined in the decision to support the construction of a system which would serve not only the Bronx Zoo but also five nearby City-funded installations, including the adjacent New York Botanical Garden. Since the submission of that study, the project has been modified in scope, scaling back to a generating capacity designed to serve only the Bronz Zoo.

  14. Who's in the Zoo?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slack, Amy

    2010-01-01

    To make the concept of biomes fresh for high school students and help them achieve more conceptual depth, the author Amy Slack created the "Who's in the Zoo?" project. Working in groups, students design a zoo that represents five of Earth's biomes and the climate found in their respective habitats. These groups prepare a proposal and a poster of…

  15. Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Normal galaxies, radio galaxies, and Seyfert galaxies are considered. The large magellanic cloud and the great galaxy in Andromedia are highlighted. Quasars and BL lacertae objects are also discussed and a review of the spectral observations of all of these galaxies and celestial objects is presented.

  16. Zoo-Risa [Fun at the Zoo].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galarza, Ernesto

    This Spanish language picture and rhyme book about animals in the zoo was designed for Spanish-speaking students in grades 1 through 5. It is intended to meet the early reading needs of these students and to establish a foundation for the acquisition of reading skills. It may be used in compensatory education classes for Spanish-speaking students,…

  17. Investigations: Zoo Mania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamphere, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    Presents mathematics activities that give students in grades three through six practice in writing and problem solving by using the setting of a zoo or animal park. Includes reproducible student worksheets. (MKR)

  18. A Trip to the Zoo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Karen K.

    1995-01-01

    A trip to the zoo can be a terrific way for young children to learn about animals, especially using planned learning experiences. Presents some activities for use before, during, and after a trip to the zoo. (NB)

  19. Measuring ultraviolet extinction with GALEX in overlapping galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    Dust in spiral galaxies is an all encompassing factor in star formation history, measurements of luminosity, and galaxy dynamics. To learn more about galaxy formation and the influence of dust, White & Keel 1992 formulated a direct method to estimate optical depth. In the past few years, with the aid of the Galaxy Zoo forum and its members, known as zooites, a scientifically acceptable number of galaxy pairs have been identified to create a full catalog for this particular research. The White & Keel 1992 method uses differential photometry which eliminates many of the errors that plague statistical techniques that rely on the internal structure of a galaxy to estimate optical depth. The method relies heavily on the symmetry of the galaxies that make up the pair. To fulfill the symmetry requirement of the ideal geometry, the most suitable pair consists of a foreground spiral backlit by an elliptical galaxy. As evidenced here, non-interacting visually symmetric galaxies pairs yield the best results. Observations at the WIYN telescope combined with exposures downloaded from the GALEX archive are used to estimate the optical depth in these pairs as outlined by White & Keel 1992 and additionally, to trace the star formation in UV detections. Two examples of extended dust far beyond the optical radius were observed and analyzed for extinction. In this sample of galaxies, the optical depth of each wavelength scaled to the B filter was generally constant across the wavelengths observed. The effects of clumpy dust structure in the spiral arms dominated the reddening law which likely resulted in an overestimate of the optical depth measurements.

  20. Shaping galaxy evolution with galaxy structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Edmond

    A fundamental pursuit of astronomy is to understand galaxy evolution. The enormous scales and complex physics involved in this endeavor guarantees a never-ending journey that has enamored both astronomers and laymen alike. But despite the difficulty of this task, astronomers have still attempted to further this goal. Among of these astronomers is Edwin Hubble. His work, which includes the famous Hubble sequence, has immeasurably influenced our understanding of galaxy evolution. In this thesis, we present three works that continues Hubble's line of study by using galaxy structure to learn about galaxy evolution. First, we examine the dependence of galaxy quiescence on inner galactic structure with the AEGIS/ DEEP2 survey at 0.5In this thesis, we present three works that continues Hubble's line of study by using galaxy structure to learn about galaxy evolution. First, we examine the dependence of galaxy quiescence on inner galactic structure with the AEGIS/ DEEP2 survey at 0.5galaxies from quiescent galaxies. Our method indicates that the inner stellar mass is the most correlated parameter of quenching, implying that the process that quenches galaxies must also buildup their inner structure. Second, we explore the relationship between galactic bars and their host galaxies with Galaxy Zoo 2 at z˜0. The correlations of bar properties and galaxy properties are consistent with simulations of bar formation and evolution, indicating that bars affect their host galaxies. Finally, we investigate whether bars can drive supermassive black hole growth with data from Chandra and Galaxy Zoo: Hubble at 0.2galaxies to a matched sample of inactive, control galaxies shows that there is no statistically significant excess of bars in active hosts. Our result shows that bars are not the primary fueling mechanism of supermassive black hole

  1. Forum Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanno, Yasuko

    2014-01-01

    Social class has been underresearched in the field of applied linguistics. The central goal of this forum was to stimulate more conversation about social class as it impacts language learning and teaching. In this article, I comment on 3 salient themes that have emerged in the 5 articles: (1) agency and structure in language learning and teaching,…

  2. Visitor Behavior at Melbourne Zoo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchman, David

    The potential educational impact of the Melbourne Zoo (Australia) for recreational visitors was examined in this study using time as the major dependent variable. Specific goals included: (1) assessment of the potential cognitive and affective educational impact of zoos on recreational visitors; (2) determination of the temporal and spatial…

  3. It's a Zoo out There!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Zoos can provide exciting educational opportunities for students to learn about a wide range of science subject matter. Zoos and similar nonschool sites have the added advantage of getting students out of school and into another environment, demonstrating that science learning can take place anywhere--not only in formal school settings. Through…

  4. K-2 at the Zoo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Lori; Andrews, Steve

    This packet is designed to help teachers maximize a zoo visit for children ages 5 to 7. The packet provides activities for use before, during, and after the zoo visit. Activities are provided to enhance student skills in language arts, reading, art, science, and math, and are correlated to the Oregon Essentials Learning Skills Common Curriculum…

  5. ZooScope. Teacher's Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrie, Charis

    This curriculum provides background information and activities for teaching inquiry-based science in the classroom and at the Oregon Zoo. The ZooScope program was created to provide students with hands-on and minds-on activities that are crucial to taking theoretical learning into the real world. The hope is that as students begin asking about the…

  6. Oxyspiruriasis in zoo birds.

    PubMed

    Vellayan, S; Jeffery, J; Oothuman, P; Zahedi, M; Krishnasamy, M; Paramaswaran, S; Rohela, M; Abdul-Aziz, N M

    2012-06-01

    Oxyspiruriasis caused by the bird eyeworm, Oxyspirura mansoni, a thelaziid nematode, in three species of pheasants, 3 Chrysolophus pictus (golden pheasant), 7 Lophura nycthemera (silver pheasant) and 9 Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant) in Zoo Negara Malaysia are reported. Birds with the disease were treated with a solution of 0.5% iodine or 0.5% lysol. Antistress powder for 4 days in water and non-strep vitamin powder in water was also provided. Control measures included removal of the cockroach intermediate host, Pycnoscelus surinamensis (Surinam cockroach) from the vicinity of the birds. The golden pheasant is a new host for O. mansoni in peninsular Malaysia. PMID:22735854

  7. The neutron star zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2013-12-01

    Neutron stars are a very diverse population, both in their observational and their physical properties. They prefer to radiate most of their energy at X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. But whether their emission is powered by rotation, accretion, heat, magnetic fields or nuclear reactions, they are all different species of the same animal whose magnetic field evolution and interior composition remain a mystery. This article will broadly review the properties of inhabitants of the neutron star zoo, with emphasis on their high-energy emission.

  8. Modern Zoos: New Challenges, New Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandford, Floyd

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the changing function of the modern zoo from its merely recreational role to its newly emerging role as preserver of species, educator, and center for research. Describes the San Diego Zoo as the model for the modern zoo and provides tips for planning field trips to a zoo. (JM)

  9. Teaching Scientific Inquiry with Galaxy Zoo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.; Lyons, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The universe of topics to choose from when teaching an astronomy course is astronomically immense. This wide array of opportunity presents some inherently difficult choices for teachers at all levels on how to limit the scope of the course to make the syllabus manageable. As but one example, consider that even the most experienced astronomy…

  10. Looking around at the Zoo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milson, James L.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests various observations that can be made while at a zoo, including behavior of animals, adaptations to special environments, locomotion, food type, and physical characteristics. Provides a sample data sheet for animal observations, citing the usefulness of organized observation. (JM)

  11. Buying time for wild animals with zoos.

    PubMed

    Conway, William G

    2011-01-01

    Zoos and aquariums exhibit many rare species, but sustain few for long periods. Demanding genetic, demographic, and behavioral requirements are a part of the sustainability challenge, and historical zoo goals and limiting animal management objectives are another, but they have been overtaken by worldwide wildlife population contraction and endangerment. New policies are essential for zoo continuance and, if vanishing species are to be helped by zoo propagation, they must be given priority. However, zoos have little animal carrying capacity and propagation must be much more sharply focused. In addition, it is becoming urgent that zoos help to support parks and reserves and, where possible, manage some especially endangered species mutually with parks.

  12. What Do We Learn at the Zoo?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert

    1972-01-01

    The zoo's role in public education is analyzed. Despite good intentions, zoos may be creating animal stereotypes that are not only incorrect but that actually work against the interests of wildlife preservation. (BL)

  13. Teaching Operant Conditioning at the Zoo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukas, Kristen E.; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a partnership between Zoo Atlanta and the Georgia Institute of Technology in teaching the principles of operant conditioning to students in an experimental psychology class. Maintains that the positive training techniques used in zoos are models of applied operant conditioning. Includes a discussion of zoo training goals. (MJP)

  14. Mental models students hold of zoos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Patricia Gail

    The purpose of this study was to depict the mental models high school students, ages 14-18, hold of zoos. This study also examined how students define conservation and the role of zoos in conservation. This study examined the differences in mental models of 84 students (1) 21 students who had visited a zoo with their teacher in the same semester in which the study was conducted, (2) 21 students who had visited a zoo during another school year with their teacher, (3) 21 students who had visited the zoo without a teacher, and (4) 21 students who had never visited a zoo. It also examined the mental models of students of different ethnicities and examined differences in mental models of young men and women. This study was conducted and the data analyzed using a qualitative methodology research design. All 84 students completed a demographic questionnaire, a concept map, and a ranking concepts exercise. Twenty-four students were interviewed. The findings indicated that: (1) students who had visited a zoo have a richer mental model of zoos than students who have never visited a zoo, (2) students who had visited a zoo with their teacher provided a deeper richer understanding of the roles of zoos in conservation and education, (3) students who have never visited a zoo do have mental models of zoos, (4) students do not mention conservation with respect to zoos unless specifically asked about the role of zoos in conservation, and (5) students did not mention the zoo's connection to species survival nor did they view zoos as a source of information for conservation-related topics. The data indicated that the mental models student hold of zoos consist of seven themes: (1) organisms, (2) people, (3) amenities, (4) descriptive terms, (5) habitats, (6) education, and (7) conservation. The seven themes were defined and used to create the Zoo Acuity Model. The central constructs of the Zoo Acuity Model are the Observation Framework, the Interaction Framework, and the Information

  15. Young and Exotic Stellar Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Summary Super star clusters are groups of hundreds of thousands of very young stars packed into an unbelievably small volume. They represent the most extreme environments in which stars and planets can form. Until now, super star clusters were only known to exist very far away, mostly in pairs or groups of interacting galaxies. Now, however, a team of European astronomers [1] have used ESO's telescopes to uncover such a monster object within our own Galaxy, the Milky Way, almost, but not quite, in our own backyard! The newly found massive structure is hidden behind a large cloud of dust and gas and this is why it took so long to unveil its true nature. It is known as "Westerlund 1" and is a thousand times closer than any other super star cluster known so far. It is close enough that astronomers may now probe its structure in some detail. Westerlund 1 contains hundreds of very massive stars, some shining with a brilliance of almost one million suns and some two-thousand times larger than the Sun (as large as the orbit of Saturn)! Indeed, if the Sun were located at the heart of this remarkable cluster, our sky would be full of hundreds of stars as bright as the full Moon. Westerlund 1 is a most unique natural laboratory for the study of extreme stellar physics, helping astronomers to find out how the most massive stars in our Galaxy live and die. From their observations, the astronomers conclude that this extreme cluster most probably contains no less than 100,000 times the mass of the Sun, and all of its stars are located within a region less than 6 light-years across. Westerlund 1 thus appears to be the most massive compact young cluster yet identified in the Milky Way Galaxy. PR Photo 09a/05: The Super Star Cluster Westerlund 1 (2.2m MPG/ESO + WFI) PR Photo 09b/05: Properties of Young Massive Clusters Super Star Clusters Stars are generally born in small groups, mostly in so-called "open clusters" that typically contain a few hundred stars. From a wide range of

  16. The Neutron Star Zoo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2014-01-01

    Neutron stars are a very diverse population, both in their observational and their physical properties. They prefer to radiate most of their energy at X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. But whether their emission is powered by rotation, accretion, heat, magnetic fields or nuclear reactions, they are all different species of the same animal whose magnetic field evolution and interior composition remain a mystery. This article will broadly review the properties of inhabitants of the neutron star zoo, with emphasis on their high-energy emission. XXX Neutron stars are found in a wide variety of sources, displaying an amazing array of behavior. They can be isolated or in binary systems, accreting, heating, cooling, spinning down, spinning up, pulsing, flaring and bursting. The one property that seems to determine their behavior most strongly is their magnetic field strength, structure and evolution. The hot polar caps, bursts and flares of magnetars are likely due to the rapid decay and twisting of their superstrong magnetic fields, whose very existence requires some kind of early dynamo activity. The intermediate-strength magnetic fields of RPPs determines their spin-down behavior and radiation properties. However, the overlap of the magnetar and RPP populations is not understood at present. Why don't high-field RPPs burst or flare? Why don't lower-field magnetars sometimes behave more like RPPs? INS may be old magnetars whose high fields have decayed, but they do not account for the existence of younger RPPs with magnetar-strength fields. Not only the strength of the magnetic field but also its configuration may be important in making a NS a magnetar or a RPP. Magnetic field decay is a critical link between other NS populations as well. "Decay" of the magnetic field is necessary for normal RPPs to evolve into MSPs through accretion and spin up in LMXBs. Some kind of accretion-driven field reduction is the most likely mechanism, but it is controversial since it is not

  17. Bring the Zoo to You!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Dawn Renee; Sterling, Donna R.

    2008-01-01

    This hands-on, minds-on zoo project provides a fun and safe opportunity for students to experience the world of animals and nature right in their own classroom. Students have the chance to work individually or in small groups to explore, observe, and discover answers to their questions about the natural world. In addition, it provides numerous…

  18. Bronx Zoo Fuel Cell Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang Pham

    2007-09-30

    A 200 kW Fuel Cell has been installed in the Lion House, Bronx Zoo, NY. The Fuel Cell is a 200 kW phosphoric acid type manufactured by United Technologies Corporation (UTC) and will provide thermal energy at 725,000 Btu/hr.

  19. Atmoshperic Science User Forum

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-26

    article title:  Atmospheric Science User Forum     View Larger Image ... ASDC is pleased to announce the release of the Atmospheric Science User Forum. The purpose of this forum is to improve user service, quality, and efficiency of NASA atmospheric science data by providing a quick and easy way to facilitate scientific ...

  20. The Virtual Astronomical Observatory Users Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muench, August A.; Emery Bunn, S.; Astronomical Observatory, Virtual

    2013-01-01

    We present the online forum astrobabel.com, which has the goal of being a gathering place for the collective community intelligence about astronomical computing. The audience for this forum is anyone engaged in the analysis of astronomical or planetary data, whether that data be observational or theoretical. It is a free, community driven site where discussions are formulated primarily around the "question and answer" format. Current topics on the forum range from “Is there a photometry package in Python?” to “Where are the support forums for astronomy software packages?” and “Why is my SDSS SkyQuery query missing galaxies?” The poster will detail the full scope of discussions in the forum, and provide some basic guidelines for ensuring high quality forum posts. We will highlight the ways astronomers can discover and participate in discussions. Further, we view this as an excellent opportunity to gather feedback and feature requests from AAS221 attendees. Acknowledgement: The Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) is managed by the VAO, LLC, a non-profit company established as a partnership of the Associated Universities, Inc. and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. The VAO is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  1. The Zoo, Benchmarks & You: How To Reach the Oregon State Benchmarks with Zoo Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document aligns Oregon state educational benchmarks and standards with Oregon Zoo resources. Benchmark areas examined include English, mathematics, science, social studies, and career and life roles. Brief descriptions of the programs offered by the zoo are presented. (SOE)

  2. Arthropods of medicoveterinary importance in zoos.

    PubMed

    Adler, Peter H; Tuten, Holly C; Nelder, Mark P

    2011-01-01

    Zoos present a unique assemblage of arthropods, captive vertebrates, free-roaming wildlife, humans, and plants, each with its own biota of symbiotic organisms. Arthropods of medicoveterinary importance are well represented in zoos, and an ample literature documents their influence in these animal-rich environments. Mosquitoes are of greatest significance because of the animal and human pathogens they transmit, followed by ectoparasites, many of which are exotic and present health risks to captive and native animals. Biting flies, cockroaches, filth flies, and triatomid bugs represent additional concerns. Integrated management programs for arthropods in zoos are commonplace. Zoos can play a role in biosurveillance, serving as an advanced guard for detecting exotic arthropods and vector-borne diseases. We provide the first review of arthropods of medicoveterinary importance in zoos. A case is made for the value of collaborations between entomologists and zoo personnel as a means of enhancing research and public education while safeguarding the health of captive animals and the public.

  3. How Zoos Are Meeting the Challenges Facing Biodiversity: Bristol Zoo Gardens as a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Simon

    2010-01-01

    As ideas about effective conservation of biodiversity develop, zoos are adapting their roles to meet the new challenges. This article considers these changes, using the work of Bristol and other UK zoos as a case study. The significance of zoos in both global and local conservation of biodiversity, their role in promoting public engagement and…

  4. SEROEPIDEMIOLOGY OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN ZOO ANIMALS IN SELECTED ZOOS IN MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to T. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, h...

  5. Teaching and learning about zoos and biodiversity conservation: Student, teacher, and zoo staff perspectives and experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner-Winslow, Jennifer Anastasia

    This study is situated at the intersection of school science and zoo education programs. It seeks to contribute to the literature by focusing on the perspectives and experiences of students, teachers, and zoo staff. The research moves beyond focusing on a visit to the zoo to include a complementary unit of study in a science classroom. Using a case study research design (Yin, 1994), I engaged in a unit of study focusing on zoos and biodiversity conservation with a teacher and his Grade 11 biology class; conducted interviews with the teacher, 14 students, and 11 zoo staff; administered teacher and student surveys; and collected supporting documentation. The curricular context for this study aligned with STSE education emphases and strategies (Pedretti & Nazir, 2011). Significant themes were identified in the data using the constant comparative method (Lincoln & Guba, 1985) and formed the basis for six vignettes (Polkinghorne, 1995). It was found that the teacher and most students held mixed views (concurrently for and against zoos), except for one student who held a consistent against-zoos stance. The zoo staff held a predominately for-zoos stance, yet were concerned about poor public perception of zoos. Findings suggest that the complex nature of modern zoos in society (Hyson, 2004; Lindburg, 1999) was reflected in the participants' views. The teacher and zoo staff responded to these views in various ways, but educating the students about zoos was most common. The students stated that views against zoos did not impact their learning, although occasional tension over views occurred amongst students and the variable nature of zoos appeared to affect the students' willingness to learn in zoos. The students revealed that exposure to multiple perspectives influenced how they formed views on zoos, and educator positioning on zoos was noticed by the students. These findings suggest that the teacher and zoo staff faced pedagogical challenges when responding to multiple

  6. Microbiological quality and safety of zoo food.

    PubMed Central

    Richter, E R; al-Sheddy, I

    1990-01-01

    Two types of commercial products for feeding zoo animals (a frozen meat product, referred to as zoo food, and a dry product, referred to as dry food) were microbiologically examined for spoilage organisms (aerobic, psychrotrophic, coliform, Escherichia coli, mold, and yeasts) and pathogens (Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter jejuni). Levels of microorganisms in frozen ground zoo food were compared with those in frozen ground beef and frozen ground turkey meat. The level of microbial contaminants in frozen ground zoo meat was found to be similar to that in frozen ground beef and higher than that in frozen ground turkey meat. Sixty percent of the frozen zoo meat samples were Salmonella positive, and all of the samples were L. monocytogenes positive. Dry zoo food was documented to have microbial levels lower than those in frozen zoo meat; the pathogen levels were less than 1/25 g of food. Defrosting zoo meat at 10, 25, and 37 degrees C for 24 h showed that 10 degrees C is the best temperature for defrosting frozen ground zoo meat loaves (length, 9 in. [22.8 cm]; radius, 2 in. [5.1 cm]) without affecting the microbiological quality or safety of the product. PMID:2111115

  7. Zoo and aquarium webcams: an informed view.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Gary; Murphy, Cory

    2012-01-01

    Providing webcams for public viewing is a relatively new but growing phenomenon among zoos and aquariums. Reasons for incorporating this programmatic feature are varied, and no guidelines exist to aid institutions considering webcam installations. Decision makers need to know how much effort the cameras require as well as how successful other zoos have found them to be. We evaluated existing webcams and provide an overview of their characteristics, including reliability. Quantitative evaluations provided by zoo/aquarium staff and by zoo members indicate generally positive perceptions of webcams, whereas staff acknowledge a notable level of effort required. Here, we strive to offer guidelines that will help institutions considering this venture.

  8. San Francisco's New Zoo's Connections for Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Routman, Emily

    2001-01-01

    Provides information on a redevelopment project at the San Francisco Zoo known as the New Zoo. The explicit goal of the project is to inspire a sense of caring and appreciation for wildlife that is the foundation of a conservation ethic. (DDR)

  9. Zoo and Wildlife Libraries: An International Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Linda L.; Tierney, Kaitlyn Rose

    2010-01-01

    The conservation and well-being of exotic animals is core to the mission of zoos, aquariums and many small nonprofit wildlife groups. Increasingly, these organizations are committed to scientific research, both basic and applied. To ascertain the current state of the libraries that support their efforts, librarians at the San Diego Zoo conducted…

  10. Zoos, Aquariums, and Expanding Students' Data Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokros, Jan; Wright, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    Zoo and aquarium educators are increasingly providing educationally rigorous programs that connect their animal collections with curriculum standards in mathematics as well as science. Partnering with zoos and aquariums is a powerful way for teachers to provide students with more opportunities to observe, collect, and analyze scientific data. This…

  11. The HI absorption "Zoo"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geréb, K.; Maccagni, F. M.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present an analysis of the H I 21 cm absorption in a sample of 101 flux-selected radio AGN (S1.4 GHz> 50 mJy) observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). We detect H I absorption in 32 objects (30% of the sample). In a previous paper, we performed a spectral stacking analysis on the radio sources, while here we characterize the absorption spectra of the individual detections using the recently presented busy function. The H I absorption spectra show a broad variety of widths, shapes, and kinematical properties. The full width half maximum (FWHM) of the busy function fits of the detected H I lines lies in the range 32 km s-1 200 km s-1). We study the kinematical and radio source properties of each group, with the goal of identifying different morphological structures of H I. Narrow lines mostly lie at the systemic velocity and are likely produced by regularly rotating H I disks or gas clouds. More H I disks can be present among galaxies with lines of intermediate widths; however, the H I in these sources is more unsettled. We study the asymmetry parameter and blueshift/redshift distribution of the lines as a function of their width. We find a trend for which narrow profiles are also symmetric, while broad lines are the most asymmetric. Among the broadest lines, more lines appear blueshifted than redshifted, similarly to what was found by previous studies. Interestingly, symmetric broad lines are absent from the sample. We argue that if a profile is broad, it is also asymmetric and shifted relative to the systemic velocity because it is tracing unsettled H I gas. In particular, besides three of the broadest (up to FW20 = 825 km s-1

  12. Moon Zoo: Educating side-by-side with Doing Science (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, P. L.; Moon Zoo Team

    2010-12-01

    The Moon Zoo citizen science project (http://www.moonzoo.org) engages individuals - primarily members of the public - in identifying geological (and sometimes technological) features on the lunar surface. Using a flash-based interface that runs in a web browser, users can mark craters, linear features, and even left-behind lunar landers on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter images. These science tools are embedded in an environment designed to encourage learning and collaboration. On the main Moon Zoo site users can explore educational content, including video tutorials, articles, glossary terms, and flash interactive activities. Additionally, there is a blog and a forum to encourage collaboration and social learning, and a twitter feed for general communications. Through this suite of software Moon Zoo users can contribute to science while learning about the Moon and geology. The Moon Zoo educational content is designed with one purpose in mind: To make sure that a curious user can find information quickly, easily, and on (or within 1-click of) the Moon Zoo site. The Internet is filled with many excellent lunar educational products, and many high-quality digital products exist in offline archives. Finding desired resources, however, can sometimes be a challenge even for professional educators. In order to make finding content easier, we developed a glossary list and a basic concept map for our website that addresses geology, lunar exploration, observing, and the moon in history and culture, and then we populated these terms and concepts with already available materials. We also do things in a way that encourages both doing science tasks and learning at the same time! Specifically, we use pop-out audio and video players that allow users to listen, learn, and classify the lunar surface all at once. To try and understand our users better we are conducting both learning and motivations studies while also monitoring site usage. Our learning assessments use an assessment tool

  13. LLW Forum meeting report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This report summarizes the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) meeting on May 29 through May 31, 1996.The LLW Forum is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  14. Internet Fuel Cells Forum

    SciTech Connect

    Sudhoff, Frederick A.

    1996-08-01

    The rapid development and integration of the Internet into the mainstream of professional life provides the fuel cell industry with the opportunity to share new ideas with unprecedented capabilities. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has undertaken the task to maintain a Fuel Cell Forum on the Internet. Here, members can exchange ideas and information pertaining to fuel cell technologies. The purpose of this forum is to promote a better understanding of fuel cell concepts, terminology, processes, and issues relating to commercialization of fuel cell power technology. The Forum was developed by METC to provide those interested with fuel cell conference information for its current concept of exchanging ideas and information pertaining to fuel cells. Last August, the Forum expanded to an on-line and world-wide network. There are 250 members, and membership is growing at a rate of several new subscribers per week. The forum currently provides updated conference information and interactive information exchange. Forum membership is encouraged from utilities, industry, universities, and government. Because of the public nature of the internet, business sensitive, confidential, or proprietary information should not be placed on this system. The Forum is unmoderated; therefore, the views and opinions of authors expressed in the forum do not necessarily state or reflect those of the U.S. government or METC.

  15. Dermatophytosis in zoo macropods: a questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Katie Alyce; Vogelnest, Linda Jean; Vogelnest, Larry

    2013-09-01

    Limited published data are available on dermatophytosis in zoo macropods, despite anecdotal reports of disease occurrence and recurrent mob outbreaks. The aim of this questionnaire study was to analyze data from Australian and international zoos to evaluate estimated disease prevalence in zoos housing macropods, affected macropod species, causative organisms, predisposing factors, clinical presentations, diagnostics, treatments, and disease risk management. Two questionnaires (initial detailed and subsequent brief) were distributed via email to zoo veterinarians, with an estimated response rate of 23%. The overall estimated disease prevalence from responding zoos was 28%, with 73% of responding Australian zoos and 14% of responding non-Australian zoos reporting disease. The first cases of confirmed and suspected dermatophytosis in several macropod species and in association with Trichophyton verrucosum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. nodulare are reported, with young red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) appearing predisposed. Diagnosis was most commonly based on fungal culture or presumptively on typical clinical signs of minimally/nonpruritic alopecia, crusting, and scaling distributed most frequently on the tail, pinnae, and hind limbs. Both disease resolution without treatment and resolution after an average of 1 to 2 mo of treatment were reported. PMID:24063082

  16. Dermatophytosis in zoo macropods: a questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Katie Alyce; Vogelnest, Linda Jean; Vogelnest, Larry

    2013-09-01

    Limited published data are available on dermatophytosis in zoo macropods, despite anecdotal reports of disease occurrence and recurrent mob outbreaks. The aim of this questionnaire study was to analyze data from Australian and international zoos to evaluate estimated disease prevalence in zoos housing macropods, affected macropod species, causative organisms, predisposing factors, clinical presentations, diagnostics, treatments, and disease risk management. Two questionnaires (initial detailed and subsequent brief) were distributed via email to zoo veterinarians, with an estimated response rate of 23%. The overall estimated disease prevalence from responding zoos was 28%, with 73% of responding Australian zoos and 14% of responding non-Australian zoos reporting disease. The first cases of confirmed and suspected dermatophytosis in several macropod species and in association with Trichophyton verrucosum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. nodulare are reported, with young red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) appearing predisposed. Diagnosis was most commonly based on fungal culture or presumptively on typical clinical signs of minimally/nonpruritic alopecia, crusting, and scaling distributed most frequently on the tail, pinnae, and hind limbs. Both disease resolution without treatment and resolution after an average of 1 to 2 mo of treatment were reported.

  17. Efficiently Sorting Zoo-Mesh Data Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R; Max, N; Silva, C; Williams, P

    2001-03-26

    The authors describe the SXMPVO algorithm for performing a visibility ordering zoo-meshed polyhedra. The algorithm runs in practice in linear time and the visibility ordering which it produces is exact.

  18. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS.

  19. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos

    PubMed Central

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS. PMID:26440494

  20. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS. PMID:26440493

  1. Advancing Behavior Analysis in Zoos and Aquariums.

    PubMed

    Maple, Terry L; Segura, Valerie D

    2015-05-01

    Zoos, aquariums, and other captive animal facilities offer promising opportunities to advance the science and practice of behavior analysis. Zoos and aquariums are necessarily concerned with the health and well-being of their charges and are held to a high standard by their supporters (visitors, members, and donors), organized critics, and the media. Zoos and aquariums offer unique venues for teaching and research and a locus for expanding the footprint of behavior analysis. In North America, Europe, and the UK, formal agreements between zoos, aquariums, and university graduate departments have been operating successfully for decades. To expand on this model, it will be necessary to help zoo and aquarium managers throughout the world to recognize the value of behavior analysis in the delivery of essential animal health and welfare services. Academic institutions, administrators, and invested faculty should consider the utility of training students to meet the growing needs of applied behavior analysis in zoos and aquariums and other animal facilities such as primate research centers, sanctuaries, and rescue centers.

  2. Advancing Behavior Analysis in Zoos and Aquariums.

    PubMed

    Maple, Terry L; Segura, Valerie D

    2015-05-01

    Zoos, aquariums, and other captive animal facilities offer promising opportunities to advance the science and practice of behavior analysis. Zoos and aquariums are necessarily concerned with the health and well-being of their charges and are held to a high standard by their supporters (visitors, members, and donors), organized critics, and the media. Zoos and aquariums offer unique venues for teaching and research and a locus for expanding the footprint of behavior analysis. In North America, Europe, and the UK, formal agreements between zoos, aquariums, and university graduate departments have been operating successfully for decades. To expand on this model, it will be necessary to help zoo and aquarium managers throughout the world to recognize the value of behavior analysis in the delivery of essential animal health and welfare services. Academic institutions, administrators, and invested faculty should consider the utility of training students to meet the growing needs of applied behavior analysis in zoos and aquariums and other animal facilities such as primate research centers, sanctuaries, and rescue centers. PMID:27540508

  3. Forum on Organizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Janet Ruth; Jenkins, Trish; Mechenbier, Mahli Xuan; Moeller, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The forum contributors draw on their personal experiences and insights to put forth ideas about how contingent faculty might improve their working conditions through various kinds of alliances. (Contains 1 note.)

  4. Science Forum II: Bioethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusimano, Vincent J.; Halpern, Stephen

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes the affective nature of bioethical issues, the role of the teacher in implementing programs and directing students, and specific guidelines for using the Science Forum technique in considering bioethical issues. (Author/MA)

  5. Zoo theater's influence on affect and cognition: a case study from the Central Park Zoo in New York.

    PubMed

    Penn, Laura

    2009-09-01

    Zoo theater is used by zoos as a means to influence visitor feelings and knowledge gain about wildlife and environmental themes. This study examined whether and to what extent zoo theater fulfilled these aims by investigating its impact on affect and cognition. The study consisted of an in-depth case study at the Central Park Zoo in New York, a location that has one of the most diverse zoo theater programs in the United States. Using a multimethod approach the study explored many facets of the Central Park Zoo's extensive zoo theater program. These included performances at a main stage, at exhibits, and in the children's zoo. The study found that the extent of zoo theater's influence on affect and cognition is dependent on a combination of a variety of characteristics that include the length of a performance, audience participation, the level of structure of a performance, the presence of song and dance elements, and the scale of the productions.

  6. The Spacelab Accomplishments Forum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emond, J. (Editor); Bennett, N. (Compiler); McCauley, D. (Compiler); Murphy, K. (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    This document is a record of the Spacelab Accomplishments Forum held in March 1999. Presentations made at the Forum covered the design, engineering, utilization, and science associated with Spacelab, as well as the international associations and impact of Spacelab and its use in the design and utilization of the International Space Station. Topics included Earth observations, space science, life science, commercial uses, microgravity science, and international participation.

  7. Programmatic Evaluation in Association of Zoos and Aquariums--Accredited Zoos and Aquariums: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalil, Kathayoon; Ardoin, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of educational programs in zoos and aquariums is a growing area of interest for researchers and professionals. In this review, the authors examine the literature that focuses on these settings. They then discuss evaluations that have been conducted in institutions accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums in relation to…

  8. JSPAM: Interacting galaxies modeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallin, John F.; Holincheck, Anthony; Harvey, Allen

    2015-11-01

    JSPAM models galaxy collisions using a restricted n-body approach to speed up computation. Instead of using a softened point-mass potential, the software supports a modified version of the three component potential created by Hernquist (1994, ApJS 86, 389). Although spherically symmetric gravitationally potentials and a Gaussian model for the bulge are used to increase computational efficiency, the potential mimics that of a fully consistent n-body model of a galaxy. Dynamical friction has been implemented in the code to improve the accuracy of close approaches between galaxies. Simulations using this code using thousands of particles over the typical interaction times of a galaxy interaction take a few seconds on modern desktop workstations, making it ideal for rapidly prototyping the dynamics of colliding galaxies. Extensive testing of the code has shown that it produces nearly identical tidal features to those from hierarchical tree codes such as Gadget but using a fraction of the computational resources. This code was used in the Galaxy Zoo: Mergers project and is very well suited for automated fitting of galaxy mergers with automated pattern fitting approaches such as genetic algorithms. Java and Fortran versions of the code are available.

  9. The Risk of Delivering Disturbing Messages to Zoo Family Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esson, Maggie; Moss, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    One of the roles of the modern zoo is to provide environmental education. Zoo visitation comprises primarily family groups seeking to spend time together. There is potential for tension between message and audience expectation as zoos seek to raise awareness of the effects of irresponsible human behavior on the environment. This may unsettle…

  10. At the Zoo: Kindergartners Reinvent a Dramatic Play Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowne, Mary; Brokmeier, Sue

    2008-01-01

    In a South Dakota early childhood program, children and adults in the kindergarten classroom collaborated to build a "classroom zoo" in support of the children's pretend play. Creation of the zoo incorporated information about animals and zoos that the children and their families and teachers located in secondary sources such as nonfiction books…

  11. Assessment of Change in Conservation Attitudes through Zoo Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted at the Oklahoma City Zoo in fall 2010 and subjects were students' ages 14-18 who either participated in a formal conservation education class led by zoo educators or in a field trip in which they were engaged in free-choice learning. Two research questions were: 1) Does a trip to the zoo affect conservation attitudes and…

  12. Issues regarding Nonformal Evaluation of Nonformal Education in Zoos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchman, David

    Education is one important role of zoos, but there is relatively little research on the extent to which zoos are serving this role. Traditional methods for collecting and analyzing such information have significant disadvantages in zoo settings and should be supplemented (not replaced) by nonreactive measures. To test this concept, teams of…

  13. Space support forum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posvar, Wesley W.; Laidlaw, Donald A.; Brown, Robert; King, Douglas; Graham, Daniel O.; Strine, Linda; Hopkins, Mark; Mcnair, Carl

    1992-01-01

    This is a report of the discussions held by the Space Support Forum on the subject of education as an investment in the future. The Space Support Forum is a gathering of representatives of various space-related organizations that interact or overlap with the mission of the Space Foundation. They reported that an international science assessment in 17 countries ranked the United States either near or at the bottom in biology, chemistry, and physics. The U.S. Department of Education has laid out 6 National Education Goals to turn this status around and is helping hundreds of communities to work towards these goals, referred to as America 2000.

  14. Two fatal tiger attacks in zoos.

    PubMed

    Tantius, Britta; Wittschieber, Daniel; Schmidt, Sven; Rothschild, Markus A; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2016-01-01

    Two captive tiger attacks are presented that took place in Cologne and Münster zoos. Both attacks occurred when the handlers, intent on cleaning the enclosures, entered whilst the tigers accidently retained access to the location, and thus defended their territory against the perceived intruders. Both victims suffered fatal neck injuries from the bites. At Münster, colleagues managed to lure the tiger away from its victim to enable treatment, whilst the Cologne zoo tiger had to be shot in order to allow access to be gained. Whilst it was judged that human error led to the deaths of the experienced zookeepers, the investigation in Münster was closed as no third party was found to be at fault, whereas the Cologne zoo director was initially charged with being negligent. These charges were subsequently dismissed as safety regulations were found to be up to date.

  15. Energy Production from Zoo Animal Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, KT

    2003-04-07

    Elephant and rhinoceros dung was used to investigate the feasibility of generating methane from the dung. The Knoxville Zoo produces 30 cubic yards (23 m{sup 3}) of herbivore dung per week and cost of disposal of this dung is $105/week. The majority of this dung originates from the Zoo's elephant and rhinoceros population. The estimated weight of the dung is 20 metric tons per week and the methane production potential determined in experiments was 0.033 L biogas/g dung (0.020 L CH{sub 4}/g dung), and the digestion of elephant dung was enhanced by the addition of ammonium nitrogen. Digestion was better overall at 37 C when compared to digestion at 50 C. Based on the amount of dung generated at the Knoxville Zoo, it is estimated that two standard garden grills could be operated 24 h per day using the gas from a digester treating 20 metric ton herbivore dung per week.

  16. 2012 National Leadership Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Two key themes emerged from the 2012 National Leadership Forum: Taking Business to School, which was hosted by the Career and Technical Education Foundation at the end of May. The first was that employers are looking for a workforce that is technologically savvy while having leadership and employability skills. The second is that the business…

  17. Atmospheric Forum Release

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-24

    ... science data by providing a quick and easy way to facilitate scientific discussion among scientist and data users.   Expected user ... A tool to foster inter-project and inter-disciplinary research and development   All are welcome to use this forum, simply ...

  18. Forestry: Forum summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, R.

    1981-01-01

    A synopsis of a forum addressing the use of LANDSAT data in forestry is given. Broad inventory studies, clear-cut monitoring, and insect and disease detection were among the subject areas discussed. Concerns regarding the vailability of data, cloud cover, resolution and classification accuracy, and product format were expressed by foresters.

  19. Feeding live prey to zoo animals: response of zoo visitors in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Cottle, Lauren; Tamir, Dan; Hyseni, Mimoza; Bühler, Dominique; Lindemann-Matthies, Petra

    2010-01-01

    In summer 2007, with the help of a written questionnaire, the attitudes of more than 400 visitors to the zoological garden of Zurich, Switzerland, toward the idea of feeding live insects to lizards, live fish to otters, and live rabbits to tigers were investigated. The majority of Swiss zoo visitors agreed with the idea of feeding live prey (invertebrates and vertebrates) to zoo animals, both off- and on-exhibit, except in the case of feeding live rabbits to tigers on-exhibit. Women and frequent visitors of the zoo disagreed more often with the on-exhibit feeding of live rabbits to tigers. Study participants with a higher level of education were more likely to agree with the idea of feeding live invertebrates and vertebrates to zoo animals off-exhibit. In comparison to an earlier study undertaken in Scotland, zoo visitors in Switzerland were more often in favor of the live feeding of vertebrates. Feeding live prey can counter the loss of hunting skills of carnivores and improve the animals' well-being. However, feeding enrichments have to strike a balance between optimal living conditions of animals and the quality of visitor experience. Our results show that such a balance can be found, especially when live feeding of mammals is carried out off-exhibit. A good interpretation of food enrichment might help zoos to win more support for the issue, and for re-introduction programs and conservation.

  20. Visitor interest in zoo animals and the implications for collection planning and zoo education programmes.

    PubMed

    Moss, Andrew; Esson, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    As zoos have sought to further their conservation missions, they have become powerful providers of environmental education. Outside of "formal" education initiatives, such as those designed for school and other organized groups, or structured public talks programmes, much of the learning potential that the zoo has to offer is around the viewing of animals and the response of visitors to them. In this, zoo learning is a very personal construct, develops from the previous knowledge, and experiences and motivations of each individual. In this article, we make the assertion that learning potential, although difficult to quantify, is very much related to the attractiveness of animal species and the interest that visitors show in them. Using standard behaviorist measures of attraction and interest (the proportion of visitors that stop and for how long), we analyzed the relative interest in 40 zoo species held in a modern UK zoo and the variables that are significant in predicting that popularity. Further to this, the suggestion is made that the zoo collection planning process could use such information to make more informed decisions about which species should be housed for their educational value. Taxonomic grouping was found to be the most significant predictor of visitor interest--that is, visitors were far more interested in mammals than any other group--although body size (length), increasing animal activity and whether the species was the primary or "flagship" species in an exhibit or not, were all found to have a significant bearing on visitor interest.

  1. IQ Zoo and Teaching Operant Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bihm, Elson M.; Gillaspy, J. Arthur, Jr.; Lammers, William J.; Huffman, Stephanie P.

    2010-01-01

    Psychology texts often cite the work of Marian and Keller Breland and their business, Animal Behavior Enterprises (ABE), to demonstrate operant conditioning and the "misbehavior of organisms" from an evolutionary perspective. Now available on the Internet at the official IQ Zoo website (http://www3.uca.edu/iqzoo/), the artifacts of ABE's work, in…

  2. School Zoo. USMES Teacher Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Ray, Jr., Ed.

    This USMES unit challenges students to collect and maintain a variety of animals in the classroom. The teacher resource book for the School Zoo unit contains five sections. The first section describes the USMES approach to student-initiated investigations of real problems, including a discussion of the nature of the USMES "challenges" and of…

  3. Steller Cove. Oregon Zoo Teacher Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Kristin

    The goal of this teacher guide is to promote education by providing resources and information to aid classroom teachers in using the Oregon Zoo as an educational setting. The unit also emphasizes the integration of science, mathematics, reading, writing, speaking, and problem solving. It is designed for grades 3-5 and is based on the Oregon State…

  4. Achieving true sustainability of zoo populations.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    For the last 30 years, cooperative management of irreplaceable animal populations in zoos and aquariums has focused primarily on the goal of minimizing genetic decay within defined time frames, and large advances have been made in technologies to optimize genetic management of closed populations. However, recent analyses have shown that most zoo programs are not projected to meet their stated goals. This has been described as a lack of achieving "sustainability" of the populations, yet by definition a goal of managed decay is not a plan for sustainability. True sustainability requires management of the resource in manner that does not deplete its value for the future. Achieving such sustainability for many managed populations may require changing from managing isolated populations to managing populations that are part of a broader metapopulation, with carefully considered exchange between populations across a spectrum of ex situ to in situ. Managing zoo populations as components of comprehensive conservation strategies for the species will require research on determinants of various kinds of genetic, physiological, behavioral, and morphological variation and their roles in population viability, development of an array of management techniques and tools, training of population managers in metapopulation management and integrated conservation planning, and projections of impacts of management strategies on the viability of the captive populations and all populations that are interactively managed or affected. Such a shift in goals and methods would result in zoo population management being an ongoing part of species conservation rather than short-term or isolated from species conservation. Zoo Biol. 32:19-26, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Achieving true sustainability of zoo populations.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    For the last 30 years, cooperative management of irreplaceable animal populations in zoos and aquariums has focused primarily on the goal of minimizing genetic decay within defined time frames, and large advances have been made in technologies to optimize genetic management of closed populations. However, recent analyses have shown that most zoo programs are not projected to meet their stated goals. This has been described as a lack of achieving "sustainability" of the populations, yet by definition a goal of managed decay is not a plan for sustainability. True sustainability requires management of the resource in manner that does not deplete its value for the future. Achieving such sustainability for many managed populations may require changing from managing isolated populations to managing populations that are part of a broader metapopulation, with carefully considered exchange between populations across a spectrum of ex situ to in situ. Managing zoo populations as components of comprehensive conservation strategies for the species will require research on determinants of various kinds of genetic, physiological, behavioral, and morphological variation and their roles in population viability, development of an array of management techniques and tools, training of population managers in metapopulation management and integrated conservation planning, and projections of impacts of management strategies on the viability of the captive populations and all populations that are interactively managed or affected. Such a shift in goals and methods would result in zoo population management being an ongoing part of species conservation rather than short-term or isolated from species conservation. Zoo Biol. 32:19-26, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22753040

  6. Young physicists' forum

    SciTech Connect

    T. Adams et al.

    2001-11-02

    The Young Physicists' Forum was an opportunity for the younger members of the particle-physics community to gather at Snowmass 2001 and to study and debate major issues that face the field over the next twenty years. Discussions were organized around three major topics: outreach and education, the impact of globalization, and building a robust and balanced field. We report on the results of these discussions, as presented on July 17, 2001.

  7. Evaluating children's conservation biology learning at the zoo.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Millions of children visit zoos every year with parents or schools to encounter wildlife firsthand. Public conservation education is a requirement for membership in professional zoo associations. However, in recent years zoos have been criticized for failing to educate the public on conservation issues and related biological concepts, such as animal adaptation to habitats. I used matched pre- and postvisit mixed methods questionnaires to investigate the educational value of zoo visits for children aged 7-15 years. The questionnaires gathered qualitative data from these individuals, including zoo-related thoughts and an annotated drawing of a habitat. A content analysis of these qualitative data produced the quantitative data reported in this article. I evaluated the relative learning outcomes of educator-guided and unguided zoo visits at London Zoo, both in terms of learning about conservation biology (measured by annotated drawings) and changing attitudes toward wildlife conservation (measured using thought-listing data). Forty-one percent of educator-guided visits and 34% of unguided visits resulted in conservation biology-related learning. Negative changes in children's understanding of animals and their habitats were more prevalent in unguided zoo visits. Overall, my results show the potential educational value of visiting zoos for children. However, they also suggest that zoos' standard unguided interpretive materials are insufficient for achieving the best outcomes for visiting children. These results support a theoretical model of conservation biology learning that frames conservation educators as toolmakers who develop conceptual resources to enhance children's understanding of science.

  8. Evaluating children's conservation biology learning at the zoo.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Millions of children visit zoos every year with parents or schools to encounter wildlife firsthand. Public conservation education is a requirement for membership in professional zoo associations. However, in recent years zoos have been criticized for failing to educate the public on conservation issues and related biological concepts, such as animal adaptation to habitats. I used matched pre- and postvisit mixed methods questionnaires to investigate the educational value of zoo visits for children aged 7-15 years. The questionnaires gathered qualitative data from these individuals, including zoo-related thoughts and an annotated drawing of a habitat. A content analysis of these qualitative data produced the quantitative data reported in this article. I evaluated the relative learning outcomes of educator-guided and unguided zoo visits at London Zoo, both in terms of learning about conservation biology (measured by annotated drawings) and changing attitudes toward wildlife conservation (measured using thought-listing data). Forty-one percent of educator-guided visits and 34% of unguided visits resulted in conservation biology-related learning. Negative changes in children's understanding of animals and their habitats were more prevalent in unguided zoo visits. Overall, my results show the potential educational value of visiting zoos for children. However, they also suggest that zoos' standard unguided interpretive materials are insufficient for achieving the best outcomes for visiting children. These results support a theoretical model of conservation biology learning that frames conservation educators as toolmakers who develop conceptual resources to enhance children's understanding of science. PMID:24684607

  9. An Investigation into the Determining Factors of Zoo Visitor Attendances in UK Zoos

    PubMed Central

    Whitworth, Andrew William

    2012-01-01

    The debate as to which animals are most beneficial to keep in zoos in terms of financial and conservative value is readily disputed; however, demographic factors have also been shown to relate to visitor numbers on an international level. The main aims of this research were: (1) To observe the distribution and location of zoos across the UK, (2) to develop a way of calculating zoo popularity in terms of the species kept within a collection and (3) to investigate the factors related to visitor numbers regarding admission costs, popularity of the collection in terms of the species kept and local demographic factors. Zoo visitor numbers were positively correlated with generated popularity ratings for zoos based on the species kept within a collection and admission prices (Pearson correlation: n = 34, r = 0.268, P = 0.126 and n = 34, r = −0.430, P = 0.011). Animal collections are aggregated around large cities and tourist regions, particularly coastal areas. No relationship between demographic variables and visitor numbers was found (Pearson correlation: n = 34, r = 0.268, P = 0.126), which suggests that the popularity of a zoo's collection relative to the types and numbers of species kept is more indicative of a collection's visitor numbers than its surrounding demographic figures. Zoos should incorporate generating high popularity scores as part of their collection planning strategies, to ensure that they thrive in the future, not only as tourist attractions but also as major conservation organizations. PMID:22253799

  10. An investigation into the determining factors of zoo visitor attendances in UK zoos.

    PubMed

    Whitworth, Andrew William

    2012-01-01

    The debate as to which animals are most beneficial to keep in zoos in terms of financial and conservative value is readily disputed; however, demographic factors have also been shown to relate to visitor numbers on an international level. The main aims of this research were: (1) To observe the distribution and location of zoos across the UK, (2) to develop a way of calculating zoo popularity in terms of the species kept within a collection and (3) to investigate the factors related to visitor numbers regarding admission costs, popularity of the collection in terms of the species kept and local demographic factors. Zoo visitor numbers were positively correlated with generated popularity ratings for zoos based on the species kept within a collection and admission prices (Pearson correlation: n = 34, r = 0.268, P = 0.126 and n = 34, r = -0.430, P = 0.011). Animal collections are aggregated around large cities and tourist regions, particularly coastal areas. No relationship between demographic variables and visitor numbers was found (Pearson correlation: n = 34, r = 0.268, P = 0.126), which suggests that the popularity of a zoo's collection relative to the types and numbers of species kept is more indicative of a collection's visitor numbers than its surrounding demographic figures. Zoos should incorporate generating high popularity scores as part of their collection planning strategies, to ensure that they thrive in the future, not only as tourist attractions but also as major conservation organizations.

  11. A horizon scan for species conservation by zoos and aquariums.

    PubMed

    Gusset, Markus; Fa, John E; Sutherland, William J

    2014-01-01

    We conducted the first horizon scan for zoos and aquariums to identify the 10 most important emerging issues for species conservation. This involved input from more than 100 experts from both the wider conservation community and the world zoo and aquarium community. Some of the issues are globally important: diseases, zoonoses, and biosecurity issues; new (communication) technologies; global water shortage and food insecurity; developing economies and markets for wildlife consumption; changes in wildlife population dynamics; and political instability and conflicts. Other issues are more specific to zoos and aquariums: need for extractive reserves; space shortage in zoos and aquariums; need for metapopulation management; and demand for caring of more species in zoos and aquariums. We also identified some broad approaches to these issues. Addressing the emerging issues identified in our horizon scan will further increase the contribution of the world zoo and aquarium community to global biodiversity conservation. PMID:25065560

  12. A horizon scan for species conservation by zoos and aquariums.

    PubMed

    Gusset, Markus; Fa, John E; Sutherland, William J

    2014-01-01

    We conducted the first horizon scan for zoos and aquariums to identify the 10 most important emerging issues for species conservation. This involved input from more than 100 experts from both the wider conservation community and the world zoo and aquarium community. Some of the issues are globally important: diseases, zoonoses, and biosecurity issues; new (communication) technologies; global water shortage and food insecurity; developing economies and markets for wildlife consumption; changes in wildlife population dynamics; and political instability and conflicts. Other issues are more specific to zoos and aquariums: need for extractive reserves; space shortage in zoos and aquariums; need for metapopulation management; and demand for caring of more species in zoos and aquariums. We also identified some broad approaches to these issues. Addressing the emerging issues identified in our horizon scan will further increase the contribution of the world zoo and aquarium community to global biodiversity conservation.

  13. Technology at the zoo: the influence of a touchscreen computer on orangutans and zoo visitors.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Bonnie M; Clay, Andrea W; Gaalema, Diann E; Maple, Terry L; Stoinski, Tara S

    2012-01-01

    A computer-controlled touchscreen apparatus (hereafter referred to as "touchscreen") in the orangutan exhibit at Zoo Atlanta provides enrichment to the animals and allows cognitive research to take place on exhibit. This study investigated the impact of the touchscreen on orangutan behavior and visibility, as well as its impact on zoo visitors. Despite previous research suggesting that providing a single computer system may negatively affect orangutan behavior, there was not a significant increase in aggression, stereotypic, or distress-related behaviors following the activation of the on-exhibit touchscreen. We also investigated the possibility that zoo visitors may be negatively affected by technology because it deviates from naturalism. However, we did not find a change in stay time or overall experience rating when the computer was turned on. This research was the first to assess visitor attitudes toward technology at the zoo, and we found that visitors report highly positive attitudes about technology for both animals and visitors. If subjects visited the exhibit when the computer was turned on, they more strongly agreed that orangutans benefit from interacting with computerized enrichment. This study is the first investigation of an on-exhibit touchscreen in group-housed apes; our findings of no negative effects on the animals or zoo visitors and positive attitudes toward technology suggest a significant value of this practice.

  14. Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in an Italian zoo

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A fatal Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection epidemic involving fifteen primates occurred between October 2006 and February 2007 at the Natura Viva Zoo. This large open-field zoo park located near Lake Garda in Northern Italy hosts one thousand animals belonging to one hundred and fifty different species, including various lemur species. This lemur collection is the most relevant and rich in Italy. A second outbreak between September and November 2008 involved three lemurs. In all cases, the clinical signs were sudden deaths generally without any evident symptoms or only with mild unspecific clinical signs. Gross pathologic changes were characterized by myocarditis (diffuse or focal pallor of the myocardium), pulmonary congestion, emphysema, oedema and thoracic fluid. The EMCV was isolated and recognized as the causative agent of both outbreaks. The first outbreak in particular was associated with a rodent plague, confirming that rats are an important risk factor for the occurrence of the EMCV infection. PMID:20298561

  15. Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in an Italian zoo.

    PubMed

    Canelli, Elena; Luppi, Andrea; Lavazza, Antonio; Lelli, Davide; Sozzi, Enrica; Martin, Ana M Moreno; Gelmetti, Daniela; Pascotto, Ernesto; Sandri, Camillo; Magnone, William; Cordioli, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    A fatal Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection epidemic involving fifteen primates occurred between October 2006 and February 2007 at the Natura Viva Zoo. This large open-field zoo park located near Lake Garda in Northern Italy hosts one thousand animals belonging to one hundred and fifty different species, including various lemur species. This lemur collection is the most relevant and rich in Italy. A second outbreak between September and November 2008 involved three lemurs. In all cases, the clinical signs were sudden deaths generally without any evident symptoms or only with mild unspecific clinical signs. Gross pathologic changes were characterized by myocarditis (diffuse or focal pallor of the myocardium), pulmonary congestion, emphysema, oedema and thoracic fluid. The EMCV was isolated and recognized as the causative agent of both outbreaks. The first outbreak in particular was associated with a rodent plague, confirming that rats are an important risk factor for the occurrence of the EMCV infection.

  16. Visceral leishmaniasis in zoo and wildlife.

    PubMed

    Souza, Tayse Domingues; Turchetti, Andréia Pereira; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Paixão, Tatiane Alves; Santos, Renato Lima

    2014-03-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an emerging zoonosis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. Although the domestic dog is the main vertebrate host, many zoo and wild mammal species have been diagnosed with L. infantum infection, especially in endemic areas. There are many available diagnostic approaches, including serological, parasitological and molecular tests. Among wild animals, carnivores and primates are more often clinically affected, with some species, such as the bush dog (Speothos venaticus) being especially susceptible to development of clinical signs. There are also reports and research articles of VL in felids, rodents, and marsupials. This work aims to review the occurrence of VL in zoo and wildlife and raise awareness of its importance in the field of conservational veterinary medicine.

  17. Ecological status of soils in Moscow Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurkova, N. E.; Yurkov, A. M.; Smagin, A. V.

    2009-03-01

    The quantitative assessment of the status of soils in Moscow Zoo was performed using traditional and original methods based on the differentiated system of indices. The studies were conducted in animal open-air cages and on plots available for visitors. The dynamics of the temperature and water-air regimes in the root-inhabited layer, the density, the acidity, and the salinity of the soils were studied. The level of the biological activity was assessed according to the intensity of the organic matter decomposition and the substrate-induced respiration. In the background of the rather satisfactory status of the soils, negative factors were found: a periodic excess or deficit of moisture and, for the most part, low biological activity (low respiration and decomposition of the lignin-cellulose test material). Recommendations for the improvement of the status of the soil cover in Moscow Zoo are proposed.

  18. Expornitic of avian pox in a zoo.

    PubMed

    Ensley, P K; Anderson, M P; Costello, M L; Powell, H C; Cooper, R

    1978-11-01

    During a 6-week period at the San Diego Zoo, avian pox occurred in 9 pheasants representing 5 species. Lesions were limited to facial skin and consisted of epithelial cell hyperplasia, secondary inflammatory changes, and intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion bodies which, by electron microscopy, were shown to contain pox virus. The disease was self-limiting in 7 pheasants, but 2 pheasants died. Free-ranging Indian red junglefowl were implicated as the source of the infection. PMID:216657

  19. Pneumocystis carinii infections in zoo animals.

    PubMed

    Poelma, F G

    1975-01-01

    Pneumocystis carinii was found to be present in the lungs of twenty-three zoo animals in the Netherlands. The following species were represented: red kangaroo, common tree shrew, Senegal-Galago, Demidoff's-Galago, brown howler monkey, woolly monkey, long-haired spider monkey, white-eared marmoset, chimpanzee, three-toed sloth, palm squirrel, red panda, fennec fox, tree hyrax and large-toothed hyrax.

  20. Cosmic Collisions: Galaxy Mergers and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouille, Laura; Willett, Kyle; Masters, Karen; Lintott, Christopher; Whyte, Laura; Lynn, Stuart; Tremonti, Christina A.

    2014-08-01

    Over the years evidence has mounted for a significant mode of galaxy evolution via mergers. This process links gas-rich, spiral galaxies; starbursting galaxies; active galactic nuclei (AGN); post-starburst galaxies; and gas-poor, elliptical galaxies, as objects representing different phases of major galaxy mergers. The post-starburst phase is particularly interesting because nearly every galaxy that evolves from star-forming to quiescent must pass through it. In essence, this phase is a sort of galaxy evolution “bottleneck” that indicates that a galaxy is actively evolving through important physical transitions. In this talk I will present the results from the ‘Galaxy Zoo Quench’ project - using post-starburst galaxies to place observational constraints on the role of mergers and AGN activity in quenching star formation. `Quench’ is the first fully collaborative research project with Zooniverse citizen scientists online; engaging the public in all phases of research, from classification to data analysis and discussion to writing the article and submission to a refereed journal.

  1. 13. WEST END, LOOKING NE, PHILADELPHIA ZOO LION SCULPTURE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. WEST END, LOOKING NE, PHILADELPHIA ZOO LION SCULPTURE IN FOREGROUND. - Connecting Railway, Schuylkill River Bridge, Spanning Schuylkill River, north of Girard Avenue Bridge, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. Programs for invasive research in North American zoos and aquariums.

    PubMed

    Goodrowe, Karen L

    2003-01-01

    Zoo-based research in North America is an emerging field, which has progressed from an ad hoc approach in a small number of zoos to a coordinated, integrated network of scientists with recognized research programs in approximately one half of the accredited institutions in North America. The disciplines most active in these programs--veterinary medicine and pathology, nutrition, reproductive biology, contraception, and behavior--are now becoming coordinated in zoos through Scientific Advisory Groups. Zoos with research programs generally establish either an institutional animal care and use committee or another committee to evaluate research proposals. In addition to scientific merit and experimental design, zoos evaluate proposals based on factors such as priority by conservation program/identified need; direct effect on species conservation, species type, and appropriateness; availability and location of animals; operational requirements/logistics; communication between institutions; and available funding. Euthanasia is considered only in rare circumstances. Zoo-based research has evolved into an integral component in animal management and conservation programs by providing practical information that is used to improve animal care, well-being, health, and reproduction. However, the degree to which zoos participate in invasive research varies considerably among institutions, due not only to resource limitations but also to how the term "invasive" is defined and accepted at each institution. A more standardized approach among zoological institutions for examining and approving research projects that are supported by zoo-based conservation programs would greatly facilitate the wildlife research efforts of North American zoos.

  3. Is wounding aggression in zoo-housed chimpanzees and ring-tailed lemurs related to zoo visitor numbers?

    PubMed

    Hosey, Geoff; Melfi, Vicky; Formella, Isabel; Ward, Samantha J; Tokarski, Marina; Brunger, Dave; Brice, Sara; Hill, Sonya P

    2016-05-01

    Chimpanzees in laboratory colonies experience more wounds on weekdays than on weekends, which has been attributed to the increased number of people present during the week; thus, the presence of more people was interpreted as stressful. If this were also true for primates in zoos, where high human presence is a regular feature, this would clearly be of concern. Here we examine wounding rates in two primate species (chimpanzees Pan troglodytes and ring-tailed lemurs Lemur catta) at three different zoos, to determine whether they correlate with mean number of visitors to the zoo. Wounding data were obtained from a zoo electronic record keeping system (ZIMS™). The pattern of wounds did not correlate with mean gate numbers for those days for either species in any group. We conclude that there is no evidence that high visitor numbers result in increased woundings in these two species when housed in zoos. Zoo Biol. 35:205-209, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Probing AGN Unification with galaxy neighbours: pitfalls and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarroel, B.

    2015-09-01

    Statistical tests of AGN unification harbour many caveats. One way of constraining the validity of the AGN unification is through studies of close neighbours to Type-1 and Type-2 AGN. Examining thousands of AGN- galaxy pairs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 and the Galaxy Zoo project, we found that Type-2 AGN appear to reside in more star-forming environments than Type-1 AGN.

  5. LLW Forum meeting report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    This document reports the details of the Quarterly Meeting of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Forum held in San Diego, California during January 23-25, 1991. Topics discussed include: State and Compact Progress Reports; Legal Updates; Update on Technical Assistance; Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Regarding Surcharge Rebates; Update on TCC Activities; NRC Update; Disposal of Commercial Mixed Waste; Update on EPA Activities; ACNW Working Group on Mixed Waste; National Profile on Mixed Waste; Commercial Perspective on Mixed Waste; Update on DOT Activities; Source Terms; Materials and Waste; Storage: and Waste Acceptance Criteria and Packaging.

  6. (Tribology conferences and forums)

    SciTech Connect

    Yust, C.S.

    1990-11-30

    The principal meeting attended during this trip was the Japan International Tribology Conference Nagoya 1990. The conference encompassed a wide range of topics, including the tribology of ceramics, the tribology in high-performance automobiles, and many aspects of lubrication technology. Associated forums were also held on the tribology of advanced ceramics, on solid lubrication, and on automotive lubricants. Presentations made during the latter forum discussed anticipated trends in engine development and anticipated improvements in lubricants required for the next generation of engines. In addition to meetings, site visits were made to five industrial organizations to discuss ceramic tribology. Nippon Steel Corporation and Toshiba Corporation are both very active in the ceramic area, Nippon Steel from their interest in research on new materials and Toshiba from both an interest in new materials and in support of their work in electronic devices. Two engine manufacturers were also visited, Toyota Motor Corporation, and Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. These companies were somewhat reserved in their discussion of progress in the utilization of ceramics in automobile engines.

  7. London International Youth Science Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the 2010 London International Youth Science Forum (LIYSF) and shares his experience in attending the forum. Unlike the Harry Messel event in Sydney, which takes place every two years, LIYSF is an annual event. Before moving to Imperial College London, LIYSF was held at the Institute of Electrical Engineers and…

  8. Visitors or visits? An examination of zoo visitor numbers using the case study of Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Liam

    2013-01-01

    Usually cited in reference to the potential reach of zoo education, one of the popular figures for global zoo visitation is that 600 million people visit zoos annually. However, this number needs clarification on two fronts. First, there are many zoo visitors who are not included in the calculation because they visited a zoo that was not included in the count. Second, it does not take into consideration the people visit either the same or different zoos more than once annually. Using data collected from several sources, including zoo visitors themselves, this article focuses on one country--Australia--that contributes 15.6 million to the visitation total, and contends that the correct number of unique annual zoo visitors to Australian zoos is likely to be between 8 and 10 million. However, rather than suggesting an overemphasis on the potential of zoos for educating visitors, having regular repeat visitors represents a distinct advantage for zoos, allowing for progressive education opportunities.

  9. Computers vs. Humans in Galaxy Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    In this age of large astronomical surveys, one major scientific bottleneck is the analysis of enormous data sets. Traditionally, this task requires human input but could computers eventually take over? A pair of scientists explore this question by testing whether computers can classify galaxies as well as humans.Examples of disagreement: galaxies that Galaxy-Zoo humans classified as spirals with 95% agreement, but the computer algorithm classified as ellipticals with 70% certainty. Most are cases where the computer got it wrong but not all of them. [Adapted from Kuminski et al. 2016]Limits of Citizen ScienceGalaxy Zoo is an internet-based citizen science project that uses non-astronomer volunteers to classify galaxy images. This is an innovative way to provide more manpower, but its still only practical for limited catalog sizes. How do we handle the data from upcoming surveys like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which will produce billions of galaxy images when it comes online?In a recent study by Evan Kuminski and Lior Shamir, two computer scientists at Lawrence Technological University in Michigan, a machine learning algorithm known as Wndchrm was used to classify a dataset of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies into ellipticals and spirals. The authors goal is to determine whether their algorithm can classify galaxies as accurately as the human volunteers for Galaxy Zoo.Automatic ClassificationAfter training their classifier on a small set of spiral and elliptical galaxies, Kuminski and Shamir set it loose on a catalog of ~3 million SDSS galaxies. The classifier first computes a set of 2,885 numerical descriptors (like textures, edges, and shapes) for each galaxy image, and then uses these descriptors to categorize the galaxy as spiral or elliptical.Rate of agreement of the computer classification with human classification (for the Galaxy Zoo superclean subset) for different ranges of computed classification certainties. For certainties above

  10. Activities of the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, A.; Miyazaki, H.

    2012-07-01

    This reports a history and future prospects of the activities by the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan. For growths of academic fields, active communications among students and young scientists are indispensable. Several academic communities in geoinformation fields are established by youths and play important roles of building networks over schools and institutes. The networks are expected to be innovative cooperation after the youths achieve their professions. Although academic communities are getting fixed growth particularly in Japan, youths had gotten little opportunities to make contacts with youths themselves. To promote gotten youth activities among geoinformation fields, in 1998, we started a series of programs that named the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan involving students and young scientists within the annual conferences, Geoinformation Forum Japan. The programs have provided opportunities to do presentation their studies by posters, some events, and motivations to create networks among students and young scientists. From 2009, some members of our activities set additional conference in west area of Japan. Thus our activities are spread within Japan. As a result of these achievements, the number of youth dedicating to the programs keeps growing. From 2009, it's getting international gradually, however, almost all the participants are still Japanese. To keep and expand the network, we are planning to make some nodes with some Asian youth organizations in the field of geoinformation. This paper is concluded with proposals and future prospects on the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan.

  11. [Animal welfare and contraception of zoo and wild animals].

    PubMed

    Wiesner, H

    1998-03-01

    Side effects and disadvantages of contraceptive methods currently used in zoo- and wild animals are presented and discussed. For the preservation of wild animal populations in captivity, i.e. in zoos, wild animal- and national parks, contraception alone is not suitable without a sensible supplementary postnatal selection.

  12. Zoo Visitor Knowledge and Attitudes toward Gorillas and Chimpanzees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukas, K. E.; Ross, S. R.

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted an evaluation of visitor knowledge and conservation attitudes toward African apes at Chicago's Lincoln Park Zoo. Using S. R. Kellert's and J. Dunlap's (1989) analysis of zoo visitor knowledge and attitudes as a model, they modified and administered a survey to 1,000 visitors to the ape facility. On average, visitors correctly…

  13. The Role of the Zoo in Environmental Education Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatley, Jan

    1984-01-01

    Discusses issues related to the role of the zoo in environmental education. Suggests that zoos must learn to interpret their collections (through better enclosure, design, graphics, labels, and guides) to influence attitudes of visitors toward the natural world and to become aware of the community's educational needs. (JN)

  14. Factors Influencing Zoo Visitors' Conservation Attitudes and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanagan, Jeffrey S.

    2000-01-01

    Predicts that Zoo Atlanta visitors who had interactive experience with the zoo's elephant demonstration and bio-fact program would be more likely to actively support elephant conservation than those who simply viewed the animals in their exhibit and read graphics. Uses survey instruments including 25 closed-ended questions, petitions, and…

  15. Free-Choice Learning at a Metropolitan Zoo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Richard K.; Tofield, Sara; Vyle, Brent; Bolstad, Rachel

    This paper reports on an inquiry into the use of zoos as a source of informal or free choice learning. The study was contextualized within the zoo's environmental enrichment program - an animal husbandry principle that seeks to develop species-typical behavior for captive animals by using naturalistic enclosures or artificial items that stimulate…

  16. Volunteers as Products of a Zoo Conservation Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bixler, Robert D.; Joseph, Stephanie L.; Searles, Vicki M.

    2014-01-01

    Zoos embrace docents/volunteers as a means of interpreting the threats to wildlife and biodiversity to visitors. To accomplish this, zoos provide docents' education, training, and work experience. Docents themselves also engage in solitary and social wildlife experiences outside of their volunteer obligations. This study examined what…

  17. The "Science" Behind a Successful Field Trip to the Zoo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Catherine Marie; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2011-01-01

    A field trip to the local zoo is often a staple in many elementary school curricula. Many zoos offer free entry to local teachers and their students. Teachers take students on field trips to enrich the curriculum, make connections to what students are learning in school, and provide students with meaningful learning experiences (Kisiel 2007).…

  18. Conservation and Education: Prominent Themes in Zoo Mission Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Patricia G.; Matthews, Catherine E.; Ayers, David Franklin; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the mission statements of 136 zoos in the United States that the American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) has accredited, and report on the predominant themes of education and conservation in the statements. To explore the relation between these two themes, the authors present a literature review of the roles…

  19. 36 CFR 520.4 - Protection of zoo animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of zoo animals. 520.4 Section 520.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS... Protection of zoo animals. Except for official purposes, no person shall: (a) Kill, injure, or disturb...

  20. Zoos as a Source of Free Choice Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofield, Sara; Coll, Richard K.; Vyle, Brent; Bolstad, Rachel

    2003-01-01

    Indicates that the zoo considers that it has an important role in education and provides many opportunities for learning but that visitors' prime purpose is for entertainment. Concludes that science learning at the zoo is limited for general visitors, but is enhanced for school children by pre- and post-visit activities and strong curricular…

  1. Extraordinary Animals and Expository Writing: Zoo in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainin, Guy; Wilson, Kathleen; Wickless, Mimi; Brooks, David

    2005-01-01

    A zoo outreach program led to placing animals in classrooms where those animals became foci for numerous learning activities such as writing, observing, and care. Systematic debriefings suggested uniqueness to learning outcomes connected to zoo animals. Subsequent analysis of student writing indicated that students responded to situational…

  2. 36 CFR 520.4 - Protection of zoo animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection of zoo animals. 520.4 Section 520.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS... Protection of zoo animals. Except for official purposes, no person shall: (a) Kill, injure, or disturb...

  3. 36 CFR 520.4 - Protection of zoo animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection of zoo animals. 520.4 Section 520.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS... Protection of zoo animals. Except for official purposes, no person shall: (a) Kill, injure, or disturb...

  4. 36 CFR 520.4 - Protection of zoo animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection of zoo animals. 520.4 Section 520.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS... Protection of zoo animals. Except for official purposes, no person shall: (a) Kill, injure, or disturb...

  5. 36 CFR 520.4 - Protection of zoo animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Protection of zoo animals. 520.4 Section 520.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS... Protection of zoo animals. Except for official purposes, no person shall: (a) Kill, injure, or disturb...

  6. How and What Recreational Visitors Learn at Zoos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchman, David

    The impact of the educational programs of zoos on the recreational visitor is addressed in this report. Unobtrusive or nonreactive research methods were employed as primary evaluative techniques by graduate social science students conducting six research projects at the Los Angeles Zoo. These studies were designed and implemented to examine: (1)…

  7. Zoo School for Preschoolers: Laying the Foundation for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Rose; Hakverdi, Meral; Cronin-Jones, Linda; Johnson, Courtney

    The traditional approach to education in zoo settings operated under the premise that meaningful learning and improved attitudes toward environmental education would occur by simply exposing children to wild animals. This study was a preliminary evaluation of an innovative environmental education program at a medium-sized Florida zoo. The study…

  8. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    de Camps, Silvia; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J A

    2008-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to T. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern United States was determined by using the modified agglutination test (MAT). A titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of T. gondii exposure. Among wild felids, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 6 (27.3%) of 22 cheetahs (Acynonyx jubatus jubatus), 2 of 4 African lynx (Caracal caracal), 1 of 7 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), 1 of 5 Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul), 12 (54.5%) of 22 African lions (Panthera leo), 1 of 1 jaguar (Panthera onca), 1 of 1 Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 of 1 Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), 5 (27.8%) of 18 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), 1 of 4 fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus), 3 of 6 pumas (Puma concolor), 2 of 2 Texas pumas (Puma concolor stanleyana), and 5 (35.7%) of 14 snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Antibodies were found in 10 of 34 feral domestic cats (Felis domesticus) trapped in 3 zoos. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any of the 78 fecal samples from wild and domestic cats. Among the macropods, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 Dama wallabies (Macropus eugenii), 1 of 1 western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus), 1 of 2 wallaroos (Macropus robustus), 6 of 8 Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), 21 (61.8%) of 34 red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), and 1 of 1 dusky pademelon (Thylogale brunii). Among prosimians, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), 1 of 21 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 2 of 9 red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra), and 2 of 4 black- and white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Among the avian species tested, 2 of 3 bald

  9. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    de Camps, Silvia; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J A

    2008-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to T. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern United States was determined by using the modified agglutination test (MAT). A titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of T. gondii exposure. Among wild felids, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 6 (27.3%) of 22 cheetahs (Acynonyx jubatus jubatus), 2 of 4 African lynx (Caracal caracal), 1 of 7 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), 1 of 5 Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul), 12 (54.5%) of 22 African lions (Panthera leo), 1 of 1 jaguar (Panthera onca), 1 of 1 Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 of 1 Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), 5 (27.8%) of 18 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), 1 of 4 fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus), 3 of 6 pumas (Puma concolor), 2 of 2 Texas pumas (Puma concolor stanleyana), and 5 (35.7%) of 14 snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Antibodies were found in 10 of 34 feral domestic cats (Felis domesticus) trapped in 3 zoos. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any of the 78 fecal samples from wild and domestic cats. Among the macropods, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 Dama wallabies (Macropus eugenii), 1 of 1 western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus), 1 of 2 wallaroos (Macropus robustus), 6 of 8 Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), 21 (61.8%) of 34 red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), and 1 of 1 dusky pademelon (Thylogale brunii). Among prosimians, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), 1 of 21 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 2 of 9 red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra), and 2 of 4 black- and white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Among the avian species tested, 2 of 3 bald

  10. Office managers' forum.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M; Hankins, Launa; Dieter, Andrea; Garcia, Sandie; Hepp, Delphine; Jordan, Janet L; Silver, William E; Shorr, Jay Alan; Sullivan, Susan E; Whatcott, Pam; Williams, Edwin F; Waldman, S Randolph

    2010-11-01

    This article is a summary of the key elements presented during the conference held as part of the Practice Management and Development course sponsored by the Multi-Specialty Foundation in Las Vegas, Nevada in 2009. This article represents an amalgam of perspectives from practices across the United States. The Office Managers' Forum brought together the office managers and surgeons from practices across the United States as panelists. The panelists answered a multitude of practice management questions that included wide-ranging topics such as accounting and financing, staff well being, working with a spouse, hiring and firing, staff meetings, accreditation, motivation, and problems and perks specifically associated with a facial plastic surgery practice.

  11. Current husbandry of red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in zoos.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, P; Zidar, J; White, D; Westander, J; Andersson, M

    2010-01-01

    The endangered red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is held in zoos worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine how red pandas are kept and managed in captivity and to compare it with the management guidelines. Sixty-nine zoos, mainly from Europe but also from North America and Australia/New Zealand, responded to our survey. The results revealed that in general zoos follow the management guidelines for most of the investigated issues. The average enclosure is almost four times larger than the minimum size recommended by the management guidelines, although seven zoos have smaller enclosures. About half the zoos do not follow the guidelines concerning visitor access and number of nest boxes. Other issues that may compromise animal welfare include proximity of neighboring carnivore species and placement of nest boxes.

  12. The seroepidemiology of Lyme borreliosis in zoo animals in Germany.

    PubMed Central

    Stoebel, K.; Schoenberg, A.; Streich, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted the first seroepidemiological study to evaluate the exposure of zoo animals to Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in German zoos and wildlife parks. A total of 1487 individuals representing 148 ungulate and carnivore species belonging to 19 families were examined using a non-species dependent ELISA. Specific antibodies were detected in 154 (10.4%) animals; 168 (11.3%) sera produced borderline results. The percentage of seropositive individuals was related to species and origin (zoo), and increased with age of the animals. Sex and season did not influence seroprevalence. Examination of 600 ticks (Ixodes ricinus; caught from vegetation in the zoos) by darkfield microscopy and indirect immunofluorescence technique revealed infection rates within the range typical for Central Europe. The results substantiate that there is an infection risk for zoo animals. A differential diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis should be taken into account in case of suspicious clinical symptoms and possible contact to ticks. PMID:14596540

  13. Zoo and aquarium research: priority setting for the coming decades.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Michael; Thompson, Steven D

    2008-11-01

    Scientific study within contemporary zoos and aquariums has developed ad hoc as an extremely broad, academically oriented mixture of basic and applied research spanning a wide array of concepts and disciplines. Several papers have considered prioritization of present or future research efforts within disciplines, but only a few have touched on prioritization across institutions, disciplines, and species. This lack of prioritization across institutions and disciplines is surprising given the growing interdependence of zoos and aquariums to maintain populations through exchange of animals, standardization of animal care procedures, and maintenance of self-sustaining populations. The purpose of this paper is to explore prioritization of scientific research, and support of that prioritized research, within and among the professionally managed zoo and aquarium members of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA). Zoo Biol 27:488-497, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Learning on Zoo Field Trips: The Interaction of the Agendas and Practices of Students, Teachers, and Zoo Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Susan Kay; Passmore, Cynthia; Anderson, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a case study that investigated the interaction of the agendas and practices of students, teachers, and zoo educators during a class field trip to a zoo. The study reports on findings of the analysis of two case classes of students and their perceptions of their learning experiences during the field trip. The…

  15. Behavior problems of equids in zoos.

    PubMed

    Boyd, L

    1986-12-01

    Behavior problems in zoo equids commonly result from a failure to provide for needs basic to equine nature. Equids are gregarious, and failure to provide companions may result in pacing. Wild equids spend 60 to 70 per cent of their time grazing, and failure to provide ad libitum roughage contributes to the problems of pacing, cribbing, wood chewing, and coprophagia. Mimicking the normal processes of juvenile dispersal, bachelor-herd formation, and mate acquisition reduces the likelihood of agonistic and reproductive behavior problems. Infanticide can be avoided by introducing new stallions to herds containing only nonpregnant mares and older foals. PMID:3492252

  16. Radio Galaxies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on radio galaxies. Topic areas addressed include: what produces the radio emission; radio telescopes; locating radio galaxies; how distances to radio galaxies are found; physics of radio galaxies; computer simulations of radio galaxies; and the evolution of radio galaxies with cosmic time. (JN)

  17. Forum outlines top emerging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Extance, Andy

    2015-04-01

    Additive manufacturing, next-generation robotics, "sense and avoid" drones that fly themselves, artificial intelligence and "neuromorphic" computing have all made it into the World Economic Forum's top 10 emerging technologies for 2015.

  18. The FASST Aerospace Student Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Leonard

    1976-01-01

    Describes a three-day Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST), at which students from 20 colleges and universities and six Soviet students discussed the application of aerospace technology to the problems of society. (MLH)

  19. Commercial Crew Planning Status Forum

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA presents an overview of common themes captured from industry responses provided to NASA's Commercial Crew Initiative Request for Information (RFI) published on May 21, 2010. The forum includes...

  20. Encephalomyocarditis virus infections in an Australian zoo.

    PubMed

    Reddacliff, L A; Kirkland, P D; Hartley, W J; Reece, R L

    1997-06-01

    Fatal encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infections in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus), three mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), a pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis), and two Goodfellows tree kangaroos (Dendrolagus goodfellowi) occurred at Taronga Zoo. This is the first description of EMCV in a zoological collection outside of the United States. Regardless of species, the most common clinical presentation was sudden death. The gross pathologic changes were diffuse or focal pallor of the myocardium with occasional marked pulmonary congestion. Necrotizing nonsuppurative myocarditis was consistently present. EMCV was isolated from only one of 54 feral rodents examined. No antibodies to EMCV were detected with a serum neutralization test in 79 stored sera from a wide variety of zoo mammals. Titers of 1:16, 1:16, and 1:4 were recorded for a spider monkey (Aeteles geoffroyi), a lion (Panthera leo), and an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), respectively. Of seven mandrills tested in 1988, six had measurable virus titers. Later testing indicated that these titers did not persist, and one mandrill with a titer > 1:128 in 1988 subsequently succumbed to EMCV infection in 1991. PMID:9279403

  1. Baltimore Zoo digester project. Final report. [Elephants

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, P.W.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a project to produce methane using the manure from zoo animals as a feedstock is presented. Two digesters are in operation, the first (built in 1974) utilizing wastes from the Hippo House and a second (built in 1980) utilizing wastes from the Elephant House. Demonstrations on the utilization of the gas were performed during zoo exhibits. The Elephant House Digester has a capacity of 4200 gallons and a floating gas dome which can retain at least 150 cu ft of gas. Solar energy has been incorporated into the design to maintain digester temperature at 95/sup 0/F. The system produces 50 cu ft per day. After cleaning the gas, it is used to generate electricity to power an electric light, a roof fan, and an air conditioner. The gas is also used to operate a gas range and a gas lamp. During the opening day exhibit, 50 meals were cooked using the bio-gas from just 2 elephants. (DMC)

  2. Forum on orthophotography: Summary Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1990-01-01

    A Forum on Orthophotography was held on May 15, 1990, at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The forum was sponsored jointly by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service, the U.S. Geological Survey, the National Governors' Association, and the National Association of Counties. The purpose of the forum was to expand the understanding and use of orthophoto products among the user community, as well as among those currently considering, or as yet unfamiliar with, the use of these products. It was also intended to provide a forum for assessing requirements for, and interest in, orthophoto products and for the identification and discussion of issues and future needs concerning orthophoto use and coordination. The 1-day forum was organized into three major sessions that focussed on technical aspects, user applications, and management issues. The first session presented a brief background and overview of the technical characteristics of standard and digital orthophotos. The second session included formal presentations by Federal, State, and county government agencies on their current and planned applications of orthophoto products, with particular emphasis on their use within geographic information systems. In the third session, private industry addressed their community's interest, capabilities, and potential role. This session also included a proposal by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service for a national cooperative program for the production of l:12,000-scale orthophotoquad products. In addition to the formal presentations, the forum provided a time for open discussion in which attendees had an opportunity to exchange information and make statements about their needs or other items pertinent to the production and dissemination of orthophoto products. Several agency orthophoto product exhibits and interactive demonstrations were also available throughout the day. This report includes a forum agenda and

  3. Diseases Transmitted by Domestic Livestock: Perils of the Petting Zoo.

    PubMed

    Dunn, John R; Behravesh, Casey Barton; Angulo, Frederick J

    2015-12-01

    Petting zoo venues encourage or permit public contact with animals which provide opportunities for education and entertainment. These venues vary but are common at county or state fairs, zoos, and aquariums. In addition to these common petting zoo settings, animals are present in many other venues where the public is permitted to contact them and their environment. Thus, humans may have contact with animals in a wide range of settings, and transmission of infectious diseases from animals to humans may occur at any of these venues, creating perils associated with petting zoos.There are many considerations when evaluating perils associated with the wide range of venues where animal contact can occur. First, many venues or events draw large numbers of people; some operate during a short time frame, while others, such as zoos and aquariums, operate year round. Second, petting zoos and other animal contact venues are particularly popular with children, who compared with adults, commonly have less stringent hygienic practices and are more susceptible to severe disease outcomes. Finally, there is remarkable variability in the physical layout of venues that permit animal contact and in the types of animals that may be contacted. Animal contact areas range from well-designed permanent exhibits targeting risk reduction to various temporary or seasonal exhibits established without detailed planning. Many petting zoos house only small ruminant species such as sheep and goats, but other venues house a wide variety of mammalian species, exotic animals, poultry and other avian species, reptiles and amphibians, and aquatic animals. PMID:27337283

  4. Diseases Transmitted by Domestic Livestock: Perils of the Petting Zoo.

    PubMed

    Dunn, John R; Behravesh, Casey Barton; Angulo, Frederick J

    2015-12-01

    Petting zoo venues encourage or permit public contact with animals which provide opportunities for education and entertainment. These venues vary but are common at county or state fairs, zoos, and aquariums. In addition to these common petting zoo settings, animals are present in many other venues where the public is permitted to contact them and their environment. Thus, humans may have contact with animals in a wide range of settings, and transmission of infectious diseases from animals to humans may occur at any of these venues, creating perils associated with petting zoos.There are many considerations when evaluating perils associated with the wide range of venues where animal contact can occur. First, many venues or events draw large numbers of people; some operate during a short time frame, while others, such as zoos and aquariums, operate year round. Second, petting zoos and other animal contact venues are particularly popular with children, who compared with adults, commonly have less stringent hygienic practices and are more susceptible to severe disease outcomes. Finally, there is remarkable variability in the physical layout of venues that permit animal contact and in the types of animals that may be contacted. Animal contact areas range from well-designed permanent exhibits targeting risk reduction to various temporary or seasonal exhibits established without detailed planning. Many petting zoos house only small ruminant species such as sheep and goats, but other venues house a wide variety of mammalian species, exotic animals, poultry and other avian species, reptiles and amphibians, and aquatic animals.

  5. Blood-feeding ecology of mosquitoes in zoos.

    PubMed

    Tuten, H C; Bridges, W C; Paul, K S; Adler, P H

    2012-12-01

    To determine if the unique host assemblages in zoos influence blood-feeding by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), a sampling programme was conducted in Greenville and Riverbanks Zoos, South Carolina, U.S.A., from April 2009 to October 2010. A total of 4355 female mosquitoes of 14 species were collected, of which 106 individuals of nine species were blood-fed. The most common taxa were Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes triseriatus (Say), Anopheles punctipennis (Say), Culex erraticus (Dyar & Knab), Culex pipiens complex (L.) and Culex restuans (Theobald). Molecular analyses (cytochrome b) of bloodmeals revealed that mosquitoes fed on captive animals, humans and wildlife, and took mixed bloodmeals. Host species included one amphibian, 16 birds, 10 mammals (including humans) and two reptiles. Minimum dispersal distances after feeding on captive hosts ranged from 15.5 m to 327.0 m. Mosquito-host associations generally conformed to previous accounts, indicating that mosquito behaviour inside zoos reflects that outside zoos. However, novel variation in host use, including new, exotic host records, warrants further investigation. Zoos, thus, can be used as experiment environments in which to study mosquito behaviour, and the findings extrapolated to non-zoo areas, while providing medical and veterinary benefits to zoo animals, employees and patrons.

  6. The green highway forum

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    In late 2004, as part of American Coal Ash Association's (ACAA) strategic planning process, a plan was approved by its Board of Directors implementing a 'green highways' concept which emphasized use of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highways in a variety of ways including being used alone, in combination with other forms of CCPs, and combined with non ash materials. The incentives behind the developed concept were the derived advantages from beneficial technical economic and environmental impacts. Although the primary use of fly ash is concrete, other forms of CCPs could be considered for more non-traditional highway applications. For example, these might include soils stabilization, binders for in-place pavement recycling, use in flowable fills, aggregates, source materials for structural fills and embankments, components in manufactured soils, and for granular base courses beneath pavements. At this same time, unknown to ACCA, EPA Region 3 in Philadelphia was working with the Wetlands and Watershed Work Group, a non-profit organization involved in wetlands policy and management along with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) on their own Green Highways initiative. These groups were planning a conference, the 'Green Highway Forum'. This was held in College Park, Maryland at the University of Maryland, Nov 8-10 2005. At the conference a draft 'roadmap' was presented as a guide to executive level participants bringing the diverse viewpoints of many agencies and interest groups together. Ten guiding principals were considered. The 'Green Highways' is a new effort to recognize the 'greenness' of many projects already completed and those to be initiated. 2 photos.

  7. Rotation-invariant convolutional neural networks for galaxy morphology prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieleman, Sander; Willett, Kyle W.; Dambre, Joni

    2015-06-01

    Measuring the morphological parameters of galaxies is a key requirement for studying their formation and evolution. Surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey have resulted in the availability of very large collections of images, which have permitted population-wide analyses of galaxy morphology. Morphological analysis has traditionally been carried out mostly via visual inspection by trained experts, which is time consuming and does not scale to large (≳104) numbers of images. Although attempts have been made to build automated classification systems, these have not been able to achieve the desired level of accuracy. The Galaxy Zoo project successfully applied a crowdsourcing strategy, inviting online users to classify images by answering a series of questions. Unfortunately, even this approach does not scale well enough to keep up with the increasing availability of galaxy images. We present a deep neural network model for galaxy morphology classification which exploits translational and rotational symmetry. It was developed in the context of the Galaxy Challenge, an international competition to build the best model for morphology classification based on annotated images from the Galaxy Zoo project. For images with high agreement among the Galaxy Zoo participants, our model is able to reproduce their consensus with near-perfect accuracy (>99 per cent) for most questions. Confident model predictions are highly accurate, which makes the model suitable for filtering large collections of images and forwarding challenging images to experts for manual annotation. This approach greatly reduces the experts' workload without affecting accuracy. The application of these algorithms to larger sets of training data will be critical for analysing results from future surveys such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  8. A Cosmic Zoo in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-06-01

    galaxy can be included. Dozens of clusters of young stars can be seen as well as traces of glowing gas clouds. Huge numbers of faint stars fill the image from edge to edge and in the background, more galaxies, far beyond the LMC, are visible. Globular clusters are collections of hundreds of thousands to millions of stars bound by gravity into a roughly spherical shape just a few light-years across. Many clusters orbit the Milky Way and most are ancient, over ten billion years old, and composed mainly of old red stars. The LMC also has globular clusters and one is visible as the fuzzy white oval cluster of stars in the upper right part of the image. This is NGC 1978, an unusually massive globular cluster. Unlike most other globular clusters, NGC 1978 is believed to be just 3.5 billion years old. The presence of this kind of object in the LMC leads astronomers to think that the LMC has a more recent history of active star formation than our own Milky Way. As well as being a vigorous region of star birth, the LMC has also seen many spectacular stellar deaths in the form of brilliant supernova explosions. At the top right of the image, the remnant of one such supernova, a strangely shaped wispy cloud called DEM L 190, often also referred to as N 49, can be seen. This giant cloud of glowing gas is the brightest supernova remnant in the LMC, and is about 30 light-years across. At the centre, where the star once burned, now lies a magnetar, a neutron star with an extremely powerful magnetic field. It was only in 1979 that satellites orbiting Earth detected a powerful gamma-ray burst from this object, drawing attention to the extreme properties of this new class of stellar exotica created by supernova explosions. This part of the Large Magellanic Cloud is so packed with star clusters and other objects that astronomers can spend entire careers exploring it. With so much activity, it is easy to see why astronomers are so keen to study the strange creatures in this heavenly zoo

  9. The Radio Meteor Zoo: a citizen science project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calders, S.; Verbeeck, C.; Lamy, H.; Martínez Picar, A.

    2016-01-01

    Scientists from the BRAMS radio meteor network have started a citizen science project called Radio Meteor Zoo in collaboration with Zooniverse in order to identify meteor reflections in BRAMS spectrograms. First, a small-scale version of the Radio Meteor Zoo was carried out with a sample of meteor identifications in 12 spectrograms by 35 volunteers. Results are presented here and allowed us to define a method that reliably detects meteor reflections based on the identifications by the volunteers. It turns out that, if each spectrogram is inspected by 10 volunteers, hit and false detection percentages of 95% respectively 6% are expected. The Radio Meteor Zoo is online at https://www.zooniverse.org/projects/zooniverse/radio-meteor-zoo. Citizen scientists are kindly invited to inspect spectrograms.

  10. 20. Zoo Substation. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Zoo Substation. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 87.25. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Lighting retrofits at the Pittsburgh Zoo and Aviary

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, E.C.

    1995-09-01

    The Pittsburgh Zoo occupies approximately 52 acres in the City`s Highland Park. Thirty structures serve as animal holding facilities, public display buildings, classrooms, food service facilities, offices, warehouses, a veterinary hospital, and gift shops. The cost of energy for heating, cooling, lighting, pumping, food service, etc. is approximately $280,000 a year. Of this, about 79 percent, or $220,000, is spent for electricity. About 20 percent ($44,000) of that electricity cost is spent directly on lighting. In mid-1992 a series of retrofits to the lighting systems in the Zoo`s buildings was begun. These were completed in mid-1994. These improvements cost $127,690, and they are expected to reduce electricity costs by $24,500 a year. The most interesting projects were carried out in the Tropical Forest Building, the Aqua Zoo, and the Niches of the World Building.

  12. Zoo visitors' understanding of terms denoting research activity.

    PubMed

    Carson, Lloyd

    2014-07-01

    Zoos have increasingly sought to justify their existence by reference to a scientific role particularly in the domains of animal welfare and conservation. Given recent initiatives by the UK government to foster public engagement with science, it is timely to investigate public attitudes towards primary research activity by zoos. This study reports the views of 83 visitors to Edinburgh Zoo. Within certain items in a structured interview noun terms denoting research activity were manipulated ("research" versus "studies") as was their qualification (adjective "scientific" present or absent before the noun term). "Research" was associated with a restricted and negative perception of investigatory activity. This effect was intensified when the noun term was preceded by "scientific". It is concluded that there is a continuing need to challenge public perceptions, particularly of the phrase "scientific research"; that in the meantime zoos should perhaps exercise caution when using it in relation to their activities. PMID:25414921

  13. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Multi-Institutional Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierking, Lynn D.

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes the results of a literature review of the level of conservation-related knowledge, attitudes, affect, and behavior among visitors to zoos and aquariums. Includes some details of the pilot project related to the literature review. (DDR)

  14. Wild Jobs with Wildlife: Jobs in Zoos and Aquariums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Olivia

    2001-01-01

    Provides job descriptions and information for keepers and other animal caretakers at zoos and aquariums. Includes information about skills and training needed, working conditions, employment outlook, and earnings. Includes a list of resources for further information. (JOW)

  15. Tracing galaxy evolution by their present-day luminosity function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempel, Elmo

    2011-04-01

    Galaxies, which are complex objects containing up to several tens of billions stars, as well as gas and dust, are remarkable objects. The Universe contains a very diverse "zoo" of galaxies: there are galaxies with a discy shape and spiral structure, elliptical galaxies, and even galaxies, which show no sign of structure. This variety of galaxies leads to the basic question: how the galaxies form and evolve and which processes shape the structure of galaxies? Due to the complexity of galaxy formation and evolution, this question is still an unresolved puzzle and it is one of the biggest challenges in modern cosmology. The present thesis is based on large galaxy surveys and concentrates on the large-scale structure: how galaxy evolution is related to the surrounding large-scale environment of superclusters and voids. To study the evolution of galaxies, we use the luminosity function, which is in this respect one of the most fundamental of all cosmological observables. One of the principal results of the present study was the conclusion that the evolution of spiral galaxies is almost independent of the global environment, especially for blue and red spirals separately, showing that the formation of spiral galaxies has to be similar in all environments. Meanwhile, the luminosity function of elliptical galaxies depends strongly on the environment. This shows that the global environmental density is an important factor (via merging history) in the formation of elliptical galaxies. The results of the present study show clearly, that besides the local/group environment, the global (supercluster-void) environment plays also an important role in the formation and evolution of galaxies. Accounting for the role of global environment can help to solve several problems in the present picture of galaxy formation and evolution.

  16. An analysis of zoo and aquarium provided teacher professional development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubarek-Sandor, Joy

    Informal science institutions are a significant provider of science teacher professional development. As pressure continues to critically analyze the work of teachers and their effectiveness in the classroom, it is important to understand how informal science institutions contribute to effective change in teacher science content knowledge and pedagogy. This research study analyzed zoo and aquarium provided teacher professional development to respond to the research questions: How do zoos and aquaria determine and assess their goals for teacher professional development? How do these goals align with effective teacher change for science content knowledge and pedagogy? Theoretical frameworks for high quality teacher professional development, effective evaluation of teacher professional development, and learning in informal science settings guided the research. The sample for the study was AZA accredited zoos and aquariums providing teacher professional development (N=107). Data collection consisted of an online questionnaire, follow-up interviews, and content analysis of teacher professional development artifacts. Analysis revealed that by and large zoos and aquariums are lacking in their provision of science teacher professional development. Most professional development focuses on content or resources, neglecting pedagogy. Assessments mismatch the goals and rely heavily on self-report and satisfaction measures. The results demonstrate a marked difference between those zoos and aquariums that are larger in capacity versus those that are medium to small in size. This may be an area of research for the future, as well as analyzing the education resources produced by zoos and aquariums as these were emphasized heavily as a way they serve teachers.

  17. Zoos as a Source of Free Choice Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofield, Sara; Coll, Richard K.; Vyle, Brent; Bolstad, Rachel

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on an inquiry into the use of zoos as a source of informal or free choice learning. The study was contexualised within the zoo's environmental enrichment programme (an animal husbandry principle that seeks to develop species-typical behaviour for captive animals by using naturalistic enclosures or artificial items that stimulate animal interest). Visitor perceptions and actual use of the zoo were investigated using structured interviews based on an interview protocol that elicited their perspectives of the nature and character of zoo settings including the use of photographs of selected exhibits to induce stimulated recall. These data were triangulated with unobtrusive observation at the same exhibits (Bitgood et al., 1988). The visitors spent little time at a given exhibit, and rated the more naturalistic or enriched exhibits more favourably, but older visitors seemed less concerned with naturalness of exhibits. The zoo considers that it has an important role in education and provides many opportunities for learning for both general visitors and school groups. Both general visitors and school groups reported that the prime purpose of their visit was for entertainment. It appears learning of science at the zoo is limited for general visitors, however, the learning of science for school children is enhanced by pre- and post-visit activities and strong curricula links.

  18. Solid state sciences committee forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Philip

    1992-05-01

    The 1991 SSSC Forum was conducted under the auspices of the Board on Physics and Astronomy's Solid State Sciences Committee (SSSC) and cosponsored with the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB). The Forum was the culmination of a year-long dissemination effort following up the NCR study Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s that was released in September of 1989 and successfully brought together experts and policy makers in the field of advanced materials processing to discuss issues pertinent to the field. Support for the Forum was provided by the Air Force office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), the Department of Energy (DOE), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the office of Naval Research (ONR).

  19. The global reach of zoos and aquariums in visitor numbers and conservation expenditures.

    PubMed

    Gusset, Markus; Dick, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    A survey conducted by the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums, in collaboration with national and regional zoo and aquarium associations, showed that annually more than 700 million people visit zoos and aquariums worldwide and are thus potentially exposed to environmental education. Furthermore, the world zoo and aquarium community reportedly spends about US$ 350 million on wildlife conservation each year. Therefore, the world zoo and aquarium community has the potential to play an important role in both environmental education and wildlife conservation. Systematic reviews are encouraged to provide further evidence for the effectiveness of zoos and aquariums as centers of education and conservation.

  20. Automatic Galaxy Classification via Machine Learning Techniques: Parallelized Rotation/Flipping INvariant Kohonen Maps (PINK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polsterer, K. L.; Gieseke, F.; Igel, C.

    2015-09-01

    In the last decades more and more all-sky surveys created an enormous amount of data which is publicly available on the Internet. Crowd-sourcing projects such as Galaxy-Zoo and Radio-Galaxy-Zoo used encouraged users from all over the world to manually conduct various classification tasks. The combination of the pattern-recognition capabilities of thousands of volunteers enabled scientists to finish the data analysis within acceptable time. For up-coming surveys with billions of sources, however, this approach is not feasible anymore. In this work, we present an unsupervised method that can automatically process large amounts of galaxy data and which generates a set of prototypes. This resulting model can be used to both visualize the given galaxy data as well as to classify so far unseen images.

  1. Is wounding aggression in zoo-housed chimpanzees and ring-tailed lemurs related to zoo visitor numbers?

    PubMed

    Hosey, Geoff; Melfi, Vicky; Formella, Isabel; Ward, Samantha J; Tokarski, Marina; Brunger, Dave; Brice, Sara; Hill, Sonya P

    2016-05-01

    Chimpanzees in laboratory colonies experience more wounds on weekdays than on weekends, which has been attributed to the increased number of people present during the week; thus, the presence of more people was interpreted as stressful. If this were also true for primates in zoos, where high human presence is a regular feature, this would clearly be of concern. Here we examine wounding rates in two primate species (chimpanzees Pan troglodytes and ring-tailed lemurs Lemur catta) at three different zoos, to determine whether they correlate with mean number of visitors to the zoo. Wounding data were obtained from a zoo electronic record keeping system (ZIMS™). The pattern of wounds did not correlate with mean gate numbers for those days for either species in any group. We conclude that there is no evidence that high visitor numbers result in increased woundings in these two species when housed in zoos. Zoo Biol. 35:205-209, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26928968

  2. Community Forums: A Boost for the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Diane U.

    Interest in the humanities is being revitalized at community and junior colleges through community forums and town meetings. The idea of melding the community forum with the humanities was at the heart of a national humanities demonstration program, in which 11 community colleges participated by developing model community forum programs based upon…

  3. Premixed Prevaporized Combustor Technology Forum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Forum was held to present the results of recent and current work intended to provide basic information required for demonstration of lean, premixed prevaporized combustors for aircraft gas turbine engine application. Papers are presented which deal with the following major topics: (1) engine interfaces; (2) fuel-air preparation; (3) autoignition; (4) lean combustion; and (5) concept design studies.

  4. Emotional isolation in BBC Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sienkiewicz, J.; Chmiel, A.

    2014-03-01

    We analyze emotionally annotated massive data from BBC Forum and examine properties of the isolation phenomenon of negative and positive users. Our results show the existence of a percolation threshold dependent on the average emotional value in the network of negatively charged nodes.

  5. Wonderful Wikis and Internet Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Sami

    2009-01-01

    Wikis are collaborative websites where visitors can edit anything they want, anytime they want. Essentially online "whiteboards," wikis allow groups of people to create documents and projects together. Internet forums, also known as message boards or discussion boards, are web applications that provide online discussions. Like wikis, your forum…

  6. Zoo experiences: conversations, connections, and concern for animals.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Susan; Fraser, John; Saunders, Carol D

    2009-09-01

    One way in which zoos attempt to fulfill their goal of conservation is by educating visitors about the importance of protecting wildlife. Research has only begun to examine the effectiveness of zoos in place-based learning, and there has been much debate about how such informal learning is defined and measured. Free-choice learning research has demonstrated that educational outcomes are often indirect, constructed by the visitor as much as they are influenced by the zoo's educational staff. This constructivist definition of education includes emotional dimensions and personal meaning-making that occur in the social context of visiting, as well as any structured interpretive material provided on signs and through live presentations. This paper presents an examination of how the zoo is experienced by the visitor, through surveys and through observations of how visitors watch animals and incorporate those viewings into their social experience. Results from surveys of 206 zoo visitors show that support for protecting both individual animals and species is associated with learning, with wanting to know more, and with a feeling of connection to the animal. An analysis of 1,900 overheard visitor conversations suggests that zoo animals are used to facilitate topical interaction among social groups and to explore the connections that people share with nonhuman animals. The authors propose that these perceived positive connections may be related to support for conservation initiatives, and conclude that a visit to the zoo appears to be a positive emotional experience that leaves visitors interested in learning more about animals, irrespective of their reading the exhibit labels.

  7. Welfare evaluations of nonhuman animals in selected zoos in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Almazan, Ronnel R; Rubio, Roberto P; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated 3 zoos in the Philippines: the Wildlife Rescue Center and Mini Zoo, Manila Zoological and Botanical Garden, and Cavite Botanical and Zoological Park to determine the standards of nonhuman animal welfare. The study measured and compared the cage sizes of various animals to the international minimum standards. According to the categories of management and husbandry, the 3 zoos showed a significant difference on the mean scores of ranking. The Wildlife Rescue Center and Mini Zoo ranked first, followed by Manila Zoo and Cavite Zoo. Although most cages in the 3 zoos followed acceptable minimum standards, the study identified several problems related to animal welfare, hygiene, husbandry, and management. Based on the evaluations, the study recommended that the 3 zoos improve animal welfare standards.

  8. The BRAMS Zoo, a citizen science project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calders, S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the BRAMS network comprises around 30 receiving stations, and each station collects 24 hours of data per day. With such a large number of raw data, automatic detection of meteor echoes is mandatory. Several algorithms have been developed, using different techniques. (They are discussed in the Proceedings of IMC 2014.) This task is complicated because of the presence of parasitic signals (mostly airplane echoes) on one hand and the fact that some meteor echoes (overdense) exhibit complex shapes that are hard to recognize on the other hand. Currently, none of the algorithms can perfectly mimic the human eye which stays the best detector. Therefore we plan to collaborate with Citizen Science in order to create a "BRAMS zoo". The idea is to ask their very large community of users to draw boxes around meteor echoes in spectrograms. The results will be used to assess the accuracy of the automatic detection algorithms on a large data set. We will focus on a few selected meteor showers which are always more fascinating for the large public than the sporadic background. Moreover, during meteor showers, many more complex overdense echoes are observed for which current automatic detection methods might fail. Finally, the dataset of manually detected meteors can also be useful e.g. for IMCCE to study the dynamic evolution of cometary dust.

  9. Distressed animal behaviors and some recommendations for improvements at the Kuala Lumpur Zoo, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Haque, Amber

    2006-01-01

    The artificial living conditions of captive animals present numerous challenges for animal caretakers. In this study I explored abnormal behaviors in certain caged animals at the Kuala Lumpur Zoo. Findings obtained from observations of animals and interviews of the zoo staff are followed by recommendations: including the development of standards and manuals, licensing of zoos and animals, and increased budgets from governments or alternative sources. Such interventions should bring considerable improvements in animal welfare at the zoos in the region. PMID:17209757

  10. DISTANT CLUSTER OF GALAXIES [left

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    One of the deepest images to date of the universe, taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST), reveals thousands of faint galaxies at the detection limit of present day telescopes. Peering across a large volume of the observable cosmos, Hubble resolves thousands of galaxies from five to twelve billion light-years away. The light from these remote objects has taken billions of years to cross the expanding universe, making these distant galaxies fossil evidence' of events that happened when the universe was one-third its present age. A fraction of the galaxies in this image belong to a cluster located nine billion light-years away. Though the field of view (at the cluster's distance) is only two million light-years across, it contains a multitude of fragmentary objects. (By comparison, the two million light-years between our Milky Way galaxy and its nearest large companion galaxy, in the constellation Andromeda, is essentially empty space!) Very few of the cluster's members are recognizable as normal spiral galaxies (like our Milky Way), although some elongated members might be edge-on disks. Among this zoo of odd galaxies are ``tadpole-like'' objects, disturbed and apparently merging systems dubbed 'train-wrecks,' and a multitude of faint, tiny shards and fragments, dwarf galaxies or possibly an unknown population of objects. However, the cluster also contains red galaxies that resemble mature examples of today's elliptical galaxies. Their red color comes from older stars that must have formed shortly after the Big Bang. The image is the full field view of the Wide Field and Planetary Camera-2. The picture was taken in intervals between May 11 and June 15, 1994 and required an 18-hour long exposure, over 32 orbits of HST, to reveal objects down to 29th magnitude. [bottom right] A close up view of the peculiar radio galaxy 3C324 used to locate the cluster. The galaxy is nine billion light-years away as measured by its spectral redshift (z=1.2), and located in the

  11. Do Zoo Visitors Come to Learn? An Internationally Comparative, Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Katie; McConney, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Zoo visitors go to see animals, but are they there to learn? This mixed-methods study examines visitor learning from both zoos' and visitors' perspectives using qualitative and quantitative data. Five hundred and forty zoo visitor interviews from nine case studies provide insight into visitor intentions, which indicate that the majority of…

  12. Monkeying Around: Examining the Effects of a Community Zoo on the Science Achievement of Third Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Heather A.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation examined the efficacy of a model of integrated science and literacy instruction situated at a community zoo. Three intact cohorts of third grade urban students received instruction via different treatments: inquiry-based instruction at a zoo; inquiry-based instruction at school; and activity-based instruction at a zoo. All three…

  13. The Role of Zoos and Aquariums in Education for a Sustainable Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Jan; Ballantyne, Roy

    2010-01-01

    Zoos and aquariums today consider education to be a central role. The vision of the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (2005, p. 35) is that "Zoos and aquariums with their unique resource of live animals, their expertise, and their links to field conservation will be recognized as leaders and mentors in formal and informal education for…

  14. The Influence of an Interactive Educational Approach on Visitors' Learning in a Swiss Zoo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindemann-Matthies, Petra; Kamer, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    A new but costly approach to providing visitors of zoos with information on conservation is the presentation of small exhibits by zoo professionals or volunteers. At these "touch tables" visitors can find out about the biology, ecology, and conservation of animals kept in the zoo. We studied the effect of a touch table on visitors' learning in a…

  15. Zoo visitor perceptions, attitudes, and conservation intent after viewing African elephants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Charlotte E; Miller, Lance J

    2016-07-01

    Elephants in the wild face several conservation issues. With the rebranding of zoos as conservation and education pioneers, they have the ability to both educate and inspire guests to action. The purpose of this research was to analyze visitor perceptions and attitudes toward elephant conservation and outcomes post-exhibit visit. A one-page survey was randomly administered to assess perceptions of elephant behavior, attitudes about elephant conservation, and intended conservation-related outcomes from September 2013 to January 2014. Principle component analysis identified three major components: concern for elephants in zoos, importance of elephants in the wild, and modification of nature. Visitors who scored highly on conservation intent were those with positive attitudes towards elephants in the wild and negative attitudes regarding the modification of nature. The greatest changes in conservation intent were a result of a self-reported up-close encounter and the ability to witness active behaviors. Providing guests with the opportunity to witness or experience such occurrences may aid in a more successful delivery of the zoo's conservation message. Further research into guest emotions and affective states in relation to viewing elephants in a zoological institution would provide greater insight into improving the guest experience and helping zoos meet their conservation mission. Zoo Biol. 35:355-361, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27291643

  16. Prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovar Albany in captive zoo wild animals in the Culiacán Zoo in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Silva-Hidalgo, Gabriela; López-Moreno, Héctor Samuel; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney Francisco; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Rendón-Maldonado, José Guadalupe; López-Valenzuela, José Angel; López-Valenzuela, Martin; Juárez-Barranco, Felipe

    2013-03-01

    Salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease but little is known about the role that free-living animals play as carriers of this pathogen. Moreover, the primary route of infection in the wild needs to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the source and the route of transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Albany (S. Albany) infection in captive zoo wild animals in the Culiacán Zoo. A total of 267 samples were analyzed including 220 fecal samples from zoo animals, 15 fecal samples from rodents, 5 pooled samples each of two insects (Musca domestica and Periplaneta americana), and 22 samples of animal feed. We detected S. Albany in 28 (10.5%) of the samples analyzed, including in samples from raw chicken meat. Characterization of isolates was performed by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All isolates shared a single pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile, indicating a possible common origin. These data suggest that the infected meat consumed by the wild felines was the primary source of infection in this zoo. It is likely that the pathogen was shed in the feces and disseminated by insects and rats to other locations in the zoo.

  17. Zoo visitor perceptions, attitudes, and conservation intent after viewing African elephants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Charlotte E; Miller, Lance J

    2016-07-01

    Elephants in the wild face several conservation issues. With the rebranding of zoos as conservation and education pioneers, they have the ability to both educate and inspire guests to action. The purpose of this research was to analyze visitor perceptions and attitudes toward elephant conservation and outcomes post-exhibit visit. A one-page survey was randomly administered to assess perceptions of elephant behavior, attitudes about elephant conservation, and intended conservation-related outcomes from September 2013 to January 2014. Principle component analysis identified three major components: concern for elephants in zoos, importance of elephants in the wild, and modification of nature. Visitors who scored highly on conservation intent were those with positive attitudes towards elephants in the wild and negative attitudes regarding the modification of nature. The greatest changes in conservation intent were a result of a self-reported up-close encounter and the ability to witness active behaviors. Providing guests with the opportunity to witness or experience such occurrences may aid in a more successful delivery of the zoo's conservation message. Further research into guest emotions and affective states in relation to viewing elephants in a zoological institution would provide greater insight into improving the guest experience and helping zoos meet their conservation mission. Zoo Biol. 35:355-361, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Mutual benefits of research collaborations between zoos and academic institutions.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Eduardo J; Timberlake, William

    2008-11-01

    Zoos focus on welfare, conservation, education, and research related to animals they keep. Academic institutions emphasize description, experimentation, modeling, and teaching of general and specific animal biology and behavior through work in both laboratory and field. The considerable overlap in concerns and methods has increased interest in collaborative projects, but there is ample room for closer and more extensive interactions. The purpose of this article is to increase awareness of potential research collaborations in three areas: (1) control and analysis of behavior, (2) conservation and propagation of species, and (3) education of students and the general public. In each area, we outline (a) research in zoos, (b) research in academics, and (c) potential collaborative efforts. Zoo Biol 27:470-487, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Nuclear waste disposal educational forum

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-18

    In keeping with a mandate from the US Congress to provide opportunities for consumer education and information and to seek consumer input on national issues, the Department of Energy's Office of Consumer Affairs held a three-hour educational forum on the proposed nuclear waste disposal legislation. Nearly one hundred representatives of consumer, public interest, civic and environmental organizations were invited to attend. Consumer affairs professionals of utility companies across the country were also invited to attend the forum. The following six papers were presented: historical perspectives; status of legislation (Senate); status of legislation (House of Representatives); impact on the legislation on electric utilities; impact of the legislation on consumers; implementing the legislation. All six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

  20. LSAMO forum UK strategic plan.

    PubMed

    Richards, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, the LSA role and function have developed and strengthened significantly and it is crucial that this development continues in the new NHS. The biennial LSAMO UK conference which is entitled Future proofing supervision will launch the strategic plan for 2012-2015. It is essential that LSAMOs and supervisors of midwives (SoMs) look to the future to continue to maintain safety and protect the public, but within a modernised forward thinking framework. The forum will work collaboratively to encourage a greater consistency in the provision of supervision to ensure the standards set by the NMC for the LSAs and the supervision of midwives are met. Protecting the public and supporting safe midwifery practice will continue to be the driving principles behind the LSAMO UK forum's work plan. The specific challenges to LSAMOs will be to continue providing leadership and support and be pivotal in addressing the future significant challenges faced by the NHS throughout the UK.

  1. Salmonella prevalence among reptiles in a zoo education setting.

    PubMed

    Hydeskov, H B; Guardabassi, L; Aalbaek, B; Olsen, K E P; Nielsen, S S; Bertelsen, M F

    2013-06-01

    Clinically healthy reptiles may shed Salmonella and therefore act as a potential zoonotic threat. Most people in Northern European countries are rarely exposed to reptiles, but many zoos have education departments where children have direct contact with this group of animals. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and serotype distribution of Salmonella among reptiles in the Education Department (n = 55) at Copenhagen Zoo and compare it to the Zoo's main reptile collection (n = 145) to evaluate the zoonotic risk. Salmonella was isolated from cloacal swabs by selective enrichment, and a single isolate from each positive sample was further identified by biochemical tests and serotyped. The overall prevalence was 35% (69/200) with significant difference between the Education Department (64%, 35/55) and the main reptile collection (23%, 34/145). A total of 28 serotypes were detected. Ten serotypes were isolated from more than one specimen and four from more than one species. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Eastbourne was the predominant serotype (32%, 22/69) and was also the serotype isolated from most reptile species (n = 7). Transmission of serotypes from one department to another was very limited indicated by the serotype distribution. Despite the relative high prevalence observed among the reptiles in the Zoo's Education Department compared to the reptiles in the Zoo's main reptile collection, no Salmonella cases have been linked to the Zoo, and Salmonella ser. Eastbourne is very rarely isolated from humans in Denmark. Simple hygienic procedures such as hand washing which is consistently carried out following handling of reptiles at the Education Department may reduce the risk and therefore contribute to this low prevalence.

  2. Assessment of change in conservation attitudes through zoo education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Teresa

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted at the Oklahoma City Zoo in fall 2010 and subjects were students' ages 14-18 who either participated in a formal conservation education class led by zoo educators or in a field trip in which they were engaged in free-choice learning. Two research questions were: 1) Does a trip to the zoo affect conservation attitudes and 2) does learning experience, free-choice or formal, affect conservation attitudes? A criterion group design was used and the instrument used to measure conservation attitudes was Tool 4 from the Visitor Evaluation Toolbox produced by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums MIRP study (Falk, J., Bronnenkant, K., Vernon, C., & Heimlich, J., 2009). Group one (N=110) engaged in a free-choice (field trip only) experience and group two (N=367) engaged in a formal conservation education class. The survey was administered retrospectively to both groups upon completion of their learning experience at the zoo. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 17.0. A paired sample t-test showed the overall mean within both groups increased in a positive direction from 67.965 (retrospective) to 72.345 (present). With alpha set at .05 the two-tailed probability was <0.001, therefore confirming that the change in conservation attitudes was significant. An independent sample t-test of the change in scores between the groups produced p values of 0.792 and 0.773 and revealed that the change was not significant. Findings did illustrate that a trip to the zoo did positively and significantly affect conservation attitudes among teens and that the type of learning experience did not significantly affect change in conservation attitude scores.

  3. Science in the 19th-century zoo.

    PubMed

    Hochadel, Oliver

    2005-03-01

    The 19th century saw the advent of the modern zoological garden. The newly founded zoos not only claimed to educate and entertain their audiences, but also to serve science by providing direct access to exotic animals. However, reality did not live up to the promise of such rhetoric. The vast majority of biologists preferred to use dead bodies as the material for their morphological research. Nevertheless, there was still a strong interaction between the zoo and science. In the debate on Darwinism, the apes in the cage played a vital role.

  4. Quantification of false positives within Moon Zoo crater annotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tar, P.; Thacker, N.

    2014-04-01

    The Moon Zoo citizen science project [1] allows members of the public to annotate lunar images, providing researchers with a wealth of location and size information regarding the population of small craters on the Moon. To date, approximately 4 million images have been inspected. Here, we show how a quantitative pattern recognition system can be used to estimate the quantity of contamination in Moon Zoo data from erroneous annotations. The proposed method produces not only estimates of true verses false crater annotations, but also a full error covariance, with additional conformity checks, which is essential for the meaningful interpretation of measurements, e.g. for plotting error bars.

  5. Extraordinary Animals and Expository Writing: Zoo in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainin, Guy; Wilson, Kathleen; Wickless, Mimi; Brooks, David

    2005-09-01

    A zoo outreach program led to placing animals in classrooms where those animals became foci for numerous learning activities such as writing, observing, and care. Systematic debriefings suggested uniqueness to learning outcomes connected to zoo animals. Subsequent analysis of student writing indicated that students responded to situational interest by recording more observations, made use of more science facts, and used more science vocabulary when writing about unique animals (albino hedgehog, legless lizard) than `ordinary' animals (rabbit, dove). The results are interpreted in terms of motivation, creating situational interest, and the familiarity of the schema available to the students. Policy implications are discussed.

  6. The 20th International Reid Bioanalytical Forum.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The 20th International Reid Bioanalytical Forum University of Surrey, Guildford, UK, 9-12 September 2013The 20th International Reid Bioanalytical Forum was attended by a little over 100 participants from pharma, contract research, instrument vendors and academia. The Forum was divided into six broad themes, which included collaborative partnerships between CROs and pharmaceutical companies, technology developments, problem solving, the bioanalytical toolbox, biomarker analysis and regulations in bioanalysis. PMID:24423590

  7. A Computer-generated Visual Morphology Catalog of ~3,000,000 SDSS Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuminski, Evan; Shamir, Lior

    2016-04-01

    We have applied computer analysis to classify the broad morphological types of ∼3 · 106 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies. For each galaxy, the catalog provides the DR8 object ID, the R.A., the decl., and the certainty for the automatic classification as either spiral or elliptical. The certainty of the classification allows us to control the accuracy of a subset of galaxies by sacrificing some of the least certain classifications. The accuracy of the catalog was tested using galaxies that were classified by the manually annotated Galaxy Zoo catalog. The results show that the catalog contains ∼900,000 spiral galaxies and ∼600,000 elliptical galaxies with classification certainty that has a statistical agreement rate of ∼98% with the Galaxy Zoo debiased “superclean” data set. The catalog also shows that objects assigned by the SDSS pipeline with a relatively high redshift (z > 0.4) can have clear visual spiral morphology. The catalog can be downloaded at http://vfacstaff.ltu.edu/lshamir/data/morph_catalog. The image analysis software that was used to create the catalog is also publicly available.

  8. Designing a Zoo-Based Endangered Species Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Christopher L.

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a class activity that uses the database feature of the Appleworks program to create a database from which students may study endangered species. The use of a local zoo as a base of information about the animals is suggested. Procedures and follow-up activities are included. (CW)

  9. It's a Zoo out There!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillan, Amy Larrison; Hebert, Terri

    2014-01-01

    The People Learning Urban Science (PLUS) program creates partnerships and coordinates efforts involving a local zoo, university, and school district, seeking to instill within students a sense of the natural environment. Even though the majority of students live among concrete and metal structures, their eyes and ears can be trained to make…

  10. Beyond Borders: Zoo as Training Location for Wildlife Biologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melber, Leah M.; Bergren, Rachel; Santymire, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    The role of institutions such as zoos in global conservation efforts is critical. In addition to serving as informal learning centers for the general public, these institutions are well-positioned to provide training and professional development for the next generation of conservation scientists. And while many organizations traditionally have…

  11. Introduction to the special issue on zoo animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Watters, Jason V; Wielebnowski, Nadja

    2009-11-01

    In May 2008, the Chicago Zoological Society's Center for the Science of Animal Welfare (CSAW) held a two-day international workshop designed to establish and foster new connections between zoo animal welfare scientists and welfare scientists in other fields, and to take the first step toward the development of a research agenda for zoo animal welfare science. Such a research agenda by its very nature would need to be highly multi-disciplinary and collaborative. In support of this purpose this article serves as an introduction for a collection of invited papers presented at the workshop. Workshop themes included the investigation of welfare metrics currently used and in development, elucidating gaps and determining needs for zoo welfare research, and gaining a deeper understanding of the value that understanding animals in the wild can bring to zoo animal welfare. Here we discuss some of the most relevant points made at the workshop and describe the seven most salient research needs that were suggested in consensus.

  12. Non-typhi Salmonella serovars found in Mexican zoo animals.

    PubMed

    Silva-Hidalgo, G; Ortiz-Navarrete, V F; Alpuche-Aranda, C M; Rendón-Maldonado, J G; López-Valenzuela, M; Juárez-Barranco, F; López-Moreno, H S

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the bacteriological prevalence of subclinical non-typhi Salmonella infections in zoo animals and to determine the most frequently isolated serovars of the bacteria. A total of 267 samples were analyzed, including fecal samples from zoo animals and rodents, insects (Musca domestica and Periplaneta americana) and samples of the zoo animal's food. Salmonella was detected in 11.6% of the samples analyzed. Characterization of the isolates was performed with serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The following serovars were isolated: S. San Diego, S. Oranienburg, S. Weltevreden, S. Braenderup, S. Derby, S. 6,7, H:en x:- and S. 3,10, H:r:-. The isolates showed seven pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns with a Jaccard coefficient≥0.75 indicating a possible common origin. The prevalence of asymptomatic infections caused by Salmonella spp. in zoo animals was high. These findings demonstrate the diversity of Salmonella serovars in several captive wild animal species.

  13. Hediger revisited: how do zoo animals see us?

    PubMed

    Hosey, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Contact with people, both familiar (e.g., caretakers) and unfamiliar (e.g., members of the public), is a significant part of the lives of nonhuman animals in zoos. The available empirical evidence shows that in many cases this contact represents a source of stress to the animals, although there is sufficient overall ambiguity in these studies to suggest that the effect of people on the animals is much more complex than this. A possible way to try to understand human-animal relationships in the zoo is to ask how the animals might perceive the humans with whom they have contact, and here this question is explored further, using a framework first published by Hediger as a starting point. Hediger suggested that zoo animals might perceive people as an enemy, as part of the inanimate environment, or as a member of the same species. He supported these categories with anecdotal evidence, which was all that was available at the time, but more empirical evidence is available now, so it is appropriate to revisit these categories. The evidence suggests that animals discriminate both conspecific and heterospecific others, rather than just viewing familiar people as members of their own species, and that additional categories (stimulating part of the environment and friendship) may be warranted. These categories are then placed in a general model that suggests how relationships of different qualities, and hence different perceptions of each other, might develop between animals and the people they are in contact with in zoos.

  14. Observing Animal Behavior at the Zoo: A Learning Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Debra B.

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduate students in a learning laboratory course initially chose a species to study; researched that species' physical and behavioral characteristics; then learned skills necessary to select, operationalize, observe, and record animal behavior accurately. After their classroom preparation, students went to a local zoo to observe the behavior…

  15. Zoo Project for Handicapped Children. Final Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego Unified School District, CA.

    Presented is the final report (1971-72) of San Diego's Zoo Project for Handicapped Children, designed to increase the language arts skills of 870 trainable or educable mentally handicapped or educationally handicapped children through the use of animals as motivating devices. The program included a teacher training program enabling teachers to…

  16. A quantitative microbiological risk assessment for Campylobacter in petting zoos.

    PubMed

    Evers, Eric G; Berk, Petra A; Horneman, Mijke L; van Leusden, Frans M; de Jonge, Rob

    2014-09-01

    The significance of petting zoos for transmission of Campylobacter to humans and the effect of interventions were estimated. A stochastic QMRA model simulating a child or adult visiting a Dutch petting zoo was built. The model describes the transmission of Campylobacter in animal feces from the various animal species, fences, and the playground to ingestion by visitors through touching these so-called carriers and subsequently touching their lips. Extensive field and laboratory research was done to fulfill data needs. Fecal contamination on all carriers was measured by swabbing in 10 petting zoos, using Escherichia coli as an indicator. Carrier-hand and hand-lip touching frequencies were estimated by, in total, 13 days of observations of visitors by two observers at two petting zoos. The transmission from carrier to hand and from hand to lip by touching was measured using preapplied cow feces to which E. coli WG5 was added as an indicator. Via a Beta-Poisson dose-response function, the number of Campylobacter cases for the whole of the Netherlands (16 million population) in a year was estimated at 187 and 52 for children and adults, respectively, so 239 in total. This is significantly lower than previous QMRA results on chicken fillet and drinking water consumption. Scenarios of 90% reduction of the contamination (meant to mimic cleaning) of all fences and just goat fences reduces the number of cases by 82% and 75%, respectively. The model can easily be adapted for other fecally transmitted pathogens.

  17. Vocal activity of lesser galagos (Galago spp.) at zoos.

    PubMed

    Schneiderová, Irena; Zouhar, Jan; Štefanská, Lucie; Bolfíková, Barbora Černá; Lhota, Stanislav; Brandl, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Almost nothing is known about the natural vocal behavior of lesser galagos living in zoos. This is perhaps because they are usually kept in nocturnal exhibits separated from the visitors by a transparent and acoustically insulating glass barrier. The aim of the present study was therefore to fill this gap in knowledge of the vocal behavior of lesser galagos from zoos. This knowledge might be beneficial because the vocalizations of these small primates can be used for species determination. We performed a 10-day-long acoustic monitoring of vocal activity in each of seven various groups of Galago senegalensis and G. moholi living at four zoos. We quantitatively evaluated the occurrence of four loud vocalization types present in both species, including the most species-specific advertisement call. We found that qualitative as well as quantitative differences exist in the vocal behavior of the studied groups. We confirmed that the observed vocalization types can be collected from lesser galagos living at zoos, and the success can be increased by selecting larger and more diverse groups. We found two distinct patterns of diel vocal activity in the most vocally active groups. G. senegalensis groups were most vocally active at the beginning and at the end of their activity period, whereas one G. moholi group showed an opposite pattern. The latter is surprising, as it is generally accepted that lesser galagos emit advertisement calls especially at dawn and dusk, i.e., at the beginning and at the end of their diel activity.

  18. FORUM: Partnership Forum Framework: Participative Framework for Protected Area Outreach.

    PubMed

    VENTER; BREEN

    1998-11-01

    / Contemporary trends in natural resource management are reviewed, with specific reference to the shift in conservation management strategies away from law enforcement-based strategies towards strategies aimed at facilitating local community participation in the management of natural resources. This review lays a foundation for the presentation of a conceptual framework, the partnership forum framework, for the planning, implementation, and evaluationof protected area outreach programmes. The framework proposes that protected areas should function as integral components of the local social, economic, and environmental systems and that the integration of the protected area into these systems should be managed through comanagement institutions. The establishment of such institutions is discussed, and it is argued that the development of comanagement institutions can be characterized into four progressive phases: a preliminary communication phase, a problem-solving phase, a pilot project phase, and a comanagement phase. The framework proposes that during the three initial phases the partnership forum members will develop management procedures that they will use during the comanagement phase. The framework is presented as a design skeleton around which the site-specific characteristics of specific protected area outreach programs will combine to form an outreach program, i.e., the framework is process rather than project based.KEY WORDS: Sub-Saharan Africa; Integrated conservation and development

  19. Online groups and patient forums.

    PubMed

    Dosani, Sabina; Harding, Claire; Wilson, Simon

    2014-11-01

    Online mental health support forums are becoming increasingly popular and there is evidence that they are useful: particularly for providing anonymous support and filling information gaps. However, there are also very real concerns about negative outcomes for users. One online mental health service, Big White Wall, manages these risks and supports its members through the provision of 24 hour professional moderation. Comparison of Big White Wall's member population with the population of one London borough shows a diverse user group, but members are more likely to be female, and aged 25 to 34, or unemployed. PMID:25273668

  20. [The killing of surplus and old animals in zoos].

    PubMed

    Engel, H

    2001-03-01

    The painless killing of animals in order to avoid considerable suffering has a legal basis and is sufficiently accepted by the society. The situation is, however, different when the matter concerns zoological gardens having on some occasions to put down apparently healthy animals. Since the natural populations of many species have almost been extinguished in the wild or are already eradicated, zoos play a prominent role in the ex-situ survival-breeding of many wild animals. This means that zoos often have self-supporting populations of species rather than only single individuals, as was frequently the case in the past. Such breeding also brings with it the possibility that animals will survive without the option of transferring them to other acceptable locations. In the wild, natural environmental factors prevent excessive population growth, whereas in zoos and in other protective reservations, such regulatory mechanisms are simply not existent. Such regulation can, however, often be achieved by animal transfers and other stock regulating measures. If these measures are not available the option of putting the animals down must be considered. Preventing suffering is of course the priority, as is demanded by zoos together with recognised animal protection organisations. This is compliant with German law and takes place for obvious and sensible reasons. The scientific zoological gardens organised in the German Zoo Directors Council discussed the problem of killing animals at the 1999 conference at Rostock and drafted a paper presenting its position on the subject. The paper argues that even under optimal husbandry conditions, while alternative options of breeding, planning and stabilisation of stock must be considered, the humane killing of animals will sometimes be unavoidable.

  1. GAPs in the study of zoo and wild animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Vinícius D; Azevedo, Pedro G; van de Schepop, Joanna A; Teixeira, Camila P; Barçante, Luciana; Azevedo, Cristiano S; Young, Robert J

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the science of animal welfare for zoo and wild animals in the period from 1966 to 2007, we conducted a bibliometric analysis of abstracts downloaded from The Web of Science((c)) database using the keyword combination "Animal welfare, Zoo* and wild" in the topic field. In total we downloaded 1,125 abstracts, which were classified into the following categories: year of publication; environment of the study (e.g., zoo) or theoretical; area of knowledge (e.g., conservation in situ); number of experimental animals used; species; addresses of authors; taxonomic classification; publication language; journal name; number of citations received. Since 1990, there has been a rapid increase in the number of articles published in this area of animal welfare. One worrying result was that published articles were predominately of a theoretical nature (58.65%, N=563). Most of the articles were published by authors either in Europe (47.43%, N=480) or North America (37.65%, N=381) and written in English (87.71%, N=971). The majority of experimental studies were conducted with mammals (75.92%, N=391), and had small sample sizes (N=7 for zoo-based studies). In terms of impact factor (IF), the journals in this study had a median factor equivalent to that for the area of biological sciences (median IF=1.013). Little knowledge cross-over from farm animal welfare was found (only four articles) in this study. In conclusion, zoo and wild animal welfare as a science may benefit from a greater interaction with farm animal welfare.

  2. Lighting retrofits at the Pittsburgh Zoo and Aviary

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, E.C.

    1995-06-01

    Energy bills for the Pittsburgh Zoo typically total $280,000 a year, of which about $220,000 are spent on electricity. Until recently, lighting accounted for 20 percent of this electricity use. This translated into an annual cost of $44,000. Recent advances in lighting technology have made it possible to perform lighting retrofits in Zoo facilities that reduce energy costs while also providing improved light quality and better lit and more natural looking exhibits and animal holding areas. Through an investment of $127,690 in these projects from mid-1992 through mid-1994, the Zoo expects to realize an annual savings in electricity costs of $24,500 and further savings from a reduction in maintenance and plant replacement costs. Retrofits to the lighting systems in the Tropical Forest Building, the Aquarium, and the Niches of the World Building were the most interesting and are described in detail. Providing a sufficient amount of ultraviolet light to maintain the health of reptiles was a particular challenge in the Niches of the World Building. Lack of separate meters and additions to the Zoo have made the determination of the actual performance of these retrofit projects impossible. A similar retrofit project at the Pittsburgh Aviary (now the National Aviary) in 1989 through 1990 provides savings figures that should be comparable to those expected at the Zoo, however. This project cost $100,000 and saved $21,008 in electricity costs during the first year of operation. Maintenance costs were reduced by approximately $5000 a year.

  3. Revealing the nature of star forming blue early-type galaxies at low redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Koshy; Zingade, Kshama

    2015-11-01

    Context. Star forming early-type galaxies with blue optical colours at low redshift can be used to test our current understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. Aims: We want to reveal the fuel and triggering mechanism for star formation in these otherwise passively evolving red and dead stellar systems. Methods: We undertook an optical and ultraviolet study of 55 star forming blue early-type galaxies, searching for signatures of recent interactions that could be driving the molecular gas into the galaxy and potentially triggering the star formation. Results: We report here our results on star forming blue early-type galaxies with tidal trails and in close proximity to neighbouring galaxies that are evidence of ongoing or recent interactions between galaxies. There are 12 galaxies with close companions with similar redshifts, among which two galaxies are having ongoing interactions that potentially trigger the star formation. Two galaxies show a jet feature that could be due to the complete tidal disruption of the companion galaxy. The interacting galaxies have high star formation rates and very blue optical colours. Galaxies with no companion could have undergone a minor merger in the recent past. Conclusions: The recent or ongoing interaction with a gas-rich neighbouring galaxy could be responsible for bringing cold gas to an otherwise passively evolving early-type galaxy. The sudden gas supply could trigger the star formation, eventually creating a blue early-type galaxy. The galaxies with ongoing tidal interaction are blue and star forming, thereby implying that blue early-type galaxies can exist even when the companion is on flyby so does not end up in a merger. Based on data compiled from Galaxy Zoo project, and the volunteers contribution are acknowledged at http://www.galaxyzoo.org/Volunteers.aspx

  4. Ocular oxyspirurosis of primates in zoos: intermediate host, worm morphology, and probable origin of the infection in the Moscow zoo.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, E; Spiridonov, S; Bain, O

    2007-12-01

    Over the last century, only two cases of ocular oxyspirurosis were recorded in primates, both in zoos, and two species were described: in Berlin, Germany, Oxyspirura (O.) conjunctivalis from the lemurid Microcebus murinus, later also found in the lorisid Loris gracilis; in Jacksonville, Florida, O. (O.) youngi from the cercopithecid monkey Erythrocebus patas. In the present case from the Moscow zoo, oxyspirurosis was recorded in several species of Old World lemuriforms and lorisiforms, and some South American monkeys. i) The intermediate host was discovered to be a cockroach, as for O. (O.) mansoni, a parasite of poultry. The complete sequence identity between ITS-1 rDNA from adult nematodes of the primate and that of the larval worms from the vector, Nauphoete cinerea, confirmed their conspecificity. ii) Parasites from Moscow zoo recovered from Nycticebus c. coucang were compared morphologically to those from other zoos. The length and shape of the gubernaculum, used previously as a distinct character, were found to be variable. However, the vulvar bosses arrangement, the distal extremity of left spicule and the position of papillae of the first postcloacal pair showed that the worms in the different samples were not exactly identical and that each set seemed characteristic of a particular zoo. iii) The presence of longitudinal cuticular crests in the infective stage as well as in adult worms was recorded. Together with several other morphological and biological characters (long tail and oesophagus, cockroach vector), this confirmed that Oxyspirura is not closely related to Thelazia, another ocular parasite genus. iv) The disease in the Moscow zoo is thought to have started with Nycticebus pygmaeus imported fromVietnam, thus the suggestion was that Asiatic lorisids were at the origin of the Moscow set of cases. The natural host(s) for the Berlin and Jacksonville cases remain unknown but they are unlikely to be the species found infected in zoos. Consequently the

  5. Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Wendy, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a study conducted by Cornelia Yarbrough and Jennifer Whitaker titled "Analysis of Reviewer Comments About Quantitative Manuscripts Accepted by the "Journal of Research in Music Education"." The study aims to analyze reviewers' comments for quantitative manuscripts with regard to the following categories: section discussed…

  6. Forum

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.

    2007-02-01

    This paper considers applying the principles for successful energy research and development that Bob Fri puts forward in his paper in Issues in Science and Technology to the specific problem of cliamte change.

  7. Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgerton, Harold E.

    1985-04-01

    As I struggled to complete my thesis research, for advanced degrees in electrical engineering at MIT (1927 and 1931), little did I realize that two important developments of considerable engineering application were in their embryonic stages, and I was right on the cutting edge of both. These were (1) the first practical analog computer?"' with the capability to solve nonlinear differential equations and (2) the strobe light,5-7 which gives ample light to record rapidly moving mechanical motions. These two devices were used together as a system to study the transient performance of synchronous machines for my graduate studies. I must say that they did it well for many years.

  8. Surveillance of rabies prevalence and bite protocols in captive mammals in American zoos.

    PubMed

    Zelepsky, Jacqueline; Harrison, Tara M

    2010-09-01

    A national survey questionnaire was conducted in 32 zoos throughout 17 U.S. states between February and May 2008. The questionnaire consisted of six questions that evaluated rabies prevalence on zoo grounds; captive mammalian bites among zoo visitors and personnel; and the outcome of each incident. The survey was completed by zoo staff after review of their most recent bite incident reports. Rabies was documented, albeit minimally, on zoo grounds in both wild and collection animals. The information collected documented that mammalian bites occur commonly. An average of 9.1 bite incidents per zoo involving zoo visitors were reported in the last 5 yr, compared to an average of 7.5 bite incidents per zoo involving personnel within the last 5 yr. Zoo personnel had a larger variety of mammals inflicting bites of greater injury severity, with an average rating 3.83 out of 5. While victim profile and severity of the wound differed between visitor and personnel bites, the majority of bites were not reported to the local health department. Lack of reporting may be due to low rabies risk, fear of media involvement, and an unknown conclusion for the offending animal. Animals involved in reported attacks had an average quarantine of 47.5 days when the bite involved a zoo visitor versus an average quarantine of 18 days when the bite involved personnel. These results demonstrate the need for a standardized protocol following a bite incident, including cooperation with the local health department, as necessary.

  9. Extracting Structural information from Galaxy Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Wayne B.; Davis, D.

    2010-05-01

    The amount of data from sky images is large and growing. About 1 million galaxies can be discerned in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is being built and will scan the entire sky repeatedly, providing images of millions of galaxies and petabytes of data every night. The Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) is a proposed orbiting satellite that will repeatedly map the entire sky from orbit, providing images of perhaps billions of galaxies. Unfortunately, given an image of a spiral galaxy, there does not exist an automated vision algorithm that can even tell us which direction the spiral arms wind, much less count them or provide any other quantitative information about them. To wit, the largest galaxy classification project is the Galaxy Zoo, in which thousands of human volunteers classify images by eye over the web. Although valuable, such human classifications will provide only limited objective quantitative measurements, and will soon be overwhelmed with more data than humans can handle. However, such information would prove an invaluable source for astronomers and cosmologists to test current theories of galaxy formation and cosmic evolution (which can now be simulated with high accuracy on large computers, producing copious predictions that cannot be tested due to a lack of objective, quantitative observational data). In this talk, I will report on preliminary results from dynamical grammars and other machine learning and vision techniques to "parse" images of galaxies, starting us on the road towards producing quantitative data that will be useful for astronomers to test theories.

  10. Proceedings: EPRI Manufactured Gas Plants 2003 Forum

    SciTech Connect

    2004-02-01

    The EPRI Manufactured Gas Plants 2003 Forum covered a range of topics related to remediation and management of former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites, with emphasis on technological advances and current issues associated with site cleanup. In specific, the forum covered MGP coal-tar delineation, soil and groundwater remediation technologies, improvements in air monitoring, and ecological risk characterization/risk management tools.

  11. Forum, Changing Values: Where are We Going?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Peggy H., Ed.; And Others

    This issue of "Forum" magazine for adults and accompanying teaching units for use with students of all age levels deals with recent value trends. "Forum" is one of a group of educational publications and teaching units that JC Penney stores provide for local community groups and school consumer education programs. The magazine contains varied…

  12. Narrative and Deliberation in Small Group Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryfe, David M.

    2006-01-01

    In a videotape analysis of five National Issues Forums, I investigate the nature of deliberative talk in small group deliberative settings. I show that deliberative talk in these forums mostly takes the form of storytelling. I argue that storytelling helps participants overcome barriers to deliberation, such as lack of knowledge and the need to…

  13. 2009 SREB State Leadership Forum Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) Learning-Centered Leadership Program hosted its sixth Annual State Leadership Forum May 7 and 8, 2009, in Atlanta. More than 160 education leaders, district officials and policymakers from 25 states attended the forum to hear from practitioners who are getting results in student learning amidst…

  14. ECEF Research Forum Report, September 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This document presents a record of the content covered at a 2-day research forum on linking research, policy, and practice in vocational education and training (VET) and on school-to-work transitions in Australia. The first half of the document contains the following materials from and about day 1 of the forum: an executive summary; a list of key…

  15. The Art of Citizenship: Public Issue Forums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Leonard P.; Feldmann, Ann, Ed.

    This study examines past and present public issue forums and their role in the United States political system. The first chapter describes traditional forms of the public forum such as town meetings, neighborhood societies, lyceums, university extension programs, and settlement house networks. Analyzed next are the content, organization, and…

  16. National Dissemination Forum, 1977. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickell, Henry M.

    Presented is an analysis of nine agreements focused on three areas of common concern to dissemination specialists involved in the 1977 National Dissemination Forum: resources, linkage, research, evaluation and quality control. FORUM participants represented the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC of the National Institute of Education…

  17. How Do Zoos "Talk" to Their General Visitors? Do Visitors "Listen"? A Mixed Method Investigation of the Communication between Modern Zoos and Their General Visitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Katie; McConney, Andrew; Mansfield, Caroline F.

    2014-01-01

    Modern zoos utilise a variety of education tools for communicating with visitors. Previous research has discussed the benefits of providing multiple education communications, yet little research provides an indication of what communications are being employed within zoos today. This research is a two-phased, mixed-methods investigation into the…

  18. Coopr Forum v 1.0

    2009-12-04

    SNL Coopr Forum is a set of Python routines that provide extensions to the Coopr optimization software. This software augments the open-source Coopr project to provide a more comprehensive capability for formulating and solving optimization applications.Optimization is a common analysis tool used in engineering design and scientific discovery. The SNL Coopr Forum software augments the Coopr Forum open source project to provide extensions of the Coopr optimization framework. Specifically, Coopr Forum provides plugin tools thatmore » allow Coopr to apply different optimization solvers, manage optimization solvers in a distributed manner, and to process input and output files. Thus, Coopr Forum is comprised of a variety of distinct software components, each of which provides a different capability that can be used within Coopr.« less

  19. Weather sensitivity for zoo visitation in Toronto, Canada: a quantitative analysis of historical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewer, Micah J.; Gough, William A.

    2016-03-01

    Based on a case study of the Toronto Zoo (Canada), multivariate regression analysis, involving both climatic and social variables, was employed to assess the relationship between daily weather and visitation. Zoo visitation was most sensitive to weather variability during the shoulder season, followed by the off-season and, then, the peak season. Temperature was the most influential weather variable in relation to zoo visitation, followed by precipitation and, then, wind speed. The intensity and direction of the social and climatic variables varied between seasons. Temperatures exceeding 26 °C during the shoulder season and 28 °C during the peak season suggested a behavioural threshold associated with zoo visitation, with conditions becoming too warm for certain segments of the zoo visitor market, causing visitor numbers to decline. Even light amounts of precipitation caused average visitor numbers to decline by nearly 50 %. Increasing wind speeds also demonstrated a negative influence on zoo visitation.

  20. The effect of visiting zoos on human health and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Taketo; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2010-02-01

    The increased mental stress of daily life and aging of the population are serious matters in Japan. There are many studies regarding the effects of human-animal interactions on mental and physical human health, whereas there are few studies examining the effects of visiting zoos. To determine the effect of visiting zoos on human health and quality of life, two different zoos were visited by 70 participants in Experiment 1 and 163 participants in Experiment 2. In this study we administered the WHO QOL-26 questionnaire in Japanese to assess the psychological scales of participants, and blood pressures and pulse rates were measured to assess their physical scales. We also used pedometers to count the number of steps taken during zoo visits. Both zoo visits decreased blood pressure and participants demonstrated more than 6000 steps during each visit. The quality of life sub-scale scores were improved after zoo visits.

  1. BIAZA statistics guidelines: toward a common application of statistical tests for zoo research.

    PubMed

    Plowman, Amy B

    2008-05-01

    Zoo research presents many statistical challenges, mostly arising from the need to work with small sample sizes. Efforts to overcome these often lead to the misuse of statistics including pseudoreplication, inappropriate pooling, assumption violation or excessive Type II errors because of using tests with low power to avoid assumption violation. To tackle these issues and make some general statistical recommendations for zoo researchers, the Research Group of the British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquariums (BIAZA) conducted a workshop. Participants included zoo-based researchers, university academics with zoo interests and three statistical experts. The result was a BIAZA publication Zoo Research Guidelines: Statistics for Typical Zoo Datasets (Plowman [2006] Zoo research guidelines: statistics for zoo datasets. London: BIAZA), which provides advice for zoo researchers on study design and analysis to ensure appropriate and rigorous use of statistics. The main recommendations are: (1) that many typical zoo investigations should be conducted as single case/small N randomized designs, analyzed with randomization tests, (2) that when comparing complete time budgets across conditions in behavioral studies, G tests and their derivatives are the most appropriate statistical tests and (3) that in studies involving multiple dependent and independent variables there are usually no satisfactory alternatives to traditional parametric tests and, despite some assumption violations, it is better to use these tests with careful interpretation, than to lose information through not testing at all. The BIAZA guidelines were recommended by American Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) researchers at the AZA Annual Conference in Tampa, FL, September 2006, and are free to download from www.biaza.org.uk.

  2. BIAZA statistics guidelines: toward a common application of statistical tests for zoo research.

    PubMed

    Plowman, Amy B

    2008-05-01

    Zoo research presents many statistical challenges, mostly arising from the need to work with small sample sizes. Efforts to overcome these often lead to the misuse of statistics including pseudoreplication, inappropriate pooling, assumption violation or excessive Type II errors because of using tests with low power to avoid assumption violation. To tackle these issues and make some general statistical recommendations for zoo researchers, the Research Group of the British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquariums (BIAZA) conducted a workshop. Participants included zoo-based researchers, university academics with zoo interests and three statistical experts. The result was a BIAZA publication Zoo Research Guidelines: Statistics for Typical Zoo Datasets (Plowman [2006] Zoo research guidelines: statistics for zoo datasets. London: BIAZA), which provides advice for zoo researchers on study design and analysis to ensure appropriate and rigorous use of statistics. The main recommendations are: (1) that many typical zoo investigations should be conducted as single case/small N randomized designs, analyzed with randomization tests, (2) that when comparing complete time budgets across conditions in behavioral studies, G tests and their derivatives are the most appropriate statistical tests and (3) that in studies involving multiple dependent and independent variables there are usually no satisfactory alternatives to traditional parametric tests and, despite some assumption violations, it is better to use these tests with careful interpretation, than to lose information through not testing at all. The BIAZA guidelines were recommended by American Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) researchers at the AZA Annual Conference in Tampa, FL, September 2006, and are free to download from www.biaza.org.uk. PMID:19360620

  3. Forum on ancillary services: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Zadeh, K.N.; Meyer, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    These are proceedings for the Forum on Ancillary Services that was held on July 12 through 14, 1995 in La Jolla, California. The need for this event came from the almost coincident release of EPRI`s ``Transmission Services Costing Framework`` (EPRI TR-105121-Volume 1 and Volume 2, April 1995) and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC`s) Notice Of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR) addressing ancillary services (Docket No. RM95-8-000, March 29, 1995). This forum could then address the subject of ancillary services prior to the deadline for comments on that NOPR and show how EPRI`s Framework relates to and could be used in addressing them. The stated objectives were to present the regulatory, technical, and economic background for provision of unbundled transmission services; discuss the requirements, metering, supply options, costing, pricing, trading mechanisms, and accounting of the ancillary services; and discuss the implications of ancillary services provision for power system planning, operation, and analysis. This two and one-half day workshop addressed the following topics: Regulatory Backdrop Emerging Industry and Market Structures, Industry Restructuring in California, NERC`s View, IPP`s View, FERC`s View, EPRI`s Transmission Services Costing Framework, Components of Transmission Services and their Costs, Costing and Pricing Methods, Loss-Compensation Service, Load-Following Service, Reserve (System Protection) Service, Energy Imbalances Service, VAR/Voltage Control Service, Scheduling and Dispatching Service, Experience in England and Wales, Investment Planning, Operations Planning, Power System Analysis, and Research and Development. These proceedings contain summaries of what was presented and discussed in each area, plus summaries of any subsequent discussion from questions, answers, and comments.

  4. Isolation of Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni from zoo animals.

    PubMed

    Luechtefeld, N W; Cambre, R C; Wang, W L

    1981-12-01

    Over a 1-year period, 619 fecal specimens from animals at the Denver Zoo were cultured for Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni. The organism was isolated from 35 animals, including 12 primates, 2 felids, a red panda, 13 hooved animals, 6 birds, and 1 reptile. Of 44 cultured fecal specimens from diarrheal animals, 31.8% were positive for Campylobacter, whereas only 5.6% of 575 specimens from animals without diarrhea were positive (P less than 0.001). Among 25 isolates tested, 12 serotypes were represented; several of these serotypes are commonly associated with Campylobacter enteritis in human beings. Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni was isolated from 8% of 75 wild pigeons trapped on the zoo premises during winter months and from 26% of 75 trapped during March and April (P less than 0.01).

  5. Behavioral management at the Phoenix Zoo: new strategies and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tresz, Hilda

    2006-01-01

    It all started with a seemingly simple decision to re-evaluate and document the Phoenix Zoo's behavioral management protocol. The purpose of this project was to present proactive standards for the care and psychological well-being of our living collection, while meeting or exceeding the guidelines of the Animal Welfare Act (U. S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health and Inspection Service, Animal Care, 1999). Preparing the protocol was a catalyst to re-evaluate the zoo's philosophy and application of behavioral management. It suggested a restructuring of collection management and the rethinking of future goals and practices. Gradually, the process became more focused and organized. Behavioral enrichment, training, animal behavior issues, and exhibit architecture were embraced as essential components for providing quality of life. Staff from all levels worked side-by-side on assignments. Our way of thinking and working was changing.

  6. Zoonoses associated with petting farms and open zoos.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Jonathan; Griffith, Michael; Dooley, James S G; Goldsmith, Colin E; Loughrey, Anne; Lowery, Colm J; McClurg, Robert; McCorry, Kieran; McDowell, David; McMahon, Ann; Millar, B Cherie; Rao, Juluri; Rooney, Paul J; Snelling, William J; Matsuda, Motoo; Moore, John E

    2008-01-01

    The popularity of open farms and petting zoos has increased markedly over the last 5 years, with most children in developed countries now having the opportunity to visit such a facility at some stage in their childhood, either through school or family visits. The open access policy of these establishments allows visitors to be in direct contact with animals such as sheep (lambs), goats, cats (kittens), dogs (puppies), and birds and to have the opportunity to feed such animals. This contact may lead to the transmission of microbial pathogens from animals to humans, e.g., Escherichia coli O157:H7, resulting in human disease. This review outlines the causal organisms associated with such zoonoses, a description of previous outbreaks at farms and zoos, as well as infection control measures to help prevent such zoonotic infections.

  7. The dynamic of stellar wind accretion and the HMXB zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Roland; Manousakis, Antonios

    2016-07-01

    The dynamic of the accretion of stellar wind on the pulsar in Vela X-1 is dominated by unstable hydrodynamical flows. Off-states, 10^{37} erg/s flares, quasi-periodic oscillations and log normal flux distribution can all be reproduced by hydrodynamical simulations and reveal the complex motion of bow shocks moving either towards or away from the neutron star. These behaviors are enlightening the zoo of HMXB and suggest new phenomenology to be detected.

  8. Three cases giant panda attack on human at Beijing Zoo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peixun; Wang, Tianbing; Xiong, Jian; Xue, Feng; Xu, Hailin; Chen, Jianhai; Zhang, Dianying; Fu, Zhongguo; Jiang, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    Panda is regarded as Chinese national treasure. Most people always thought they were cute and just ate bamboo and had never imagined a panda could be vicious. Giant panda attacks on human are rare. There, we present three cases of giant panda attacks on humans at the Panda House at Beijing Zoo from September 2006 to June 2009 to warn people of the giant panda's potentially dangerous behavior.

  9. Naturally acquired picornavirus infections in primates at the Dhaka zoo.

    PubMed

    Oberste, M Steven; Feeroz, Mohammed M; Maher, Kaija; Nix, W Allan; Engel, Gregory A; Begum, Sajeda; Hasan, Kamrul M; Oh, Gunwha; Pallansch, Mark A; Jones-Engel, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The conditions in densely populated Bangladesh favor picornavirus transmission, resulting in a high rate of infection in the human population. Data suggest that nonhuman primates (NHP) may play a role in the maintenance and transmission of diverse picornaviruses in Bangladesh. At the Dhaka Zoo, multiple NHP species are caged in close proximity. Their proximity to other species and to humans, both zoo workers and visitors, provides the potential for cross-species transmission. To investigate possible interspecies and intraspecies transmission of picornaviruses among NHP, we collected fecal specimens from nine NHP taxa at the Dhaka Zoo at three time points, August 2007, January 2008, and June 2008. Specimens were screened using real-time PCR for the genera Enterovirus, Parechovirus, and Sapelovirus, and positive samples were typed by VP1 sequencing. Fifty-two picornaviruses comprising 10 distinct serotypes were detected in 83 fecal samples. Four of these serotypes, simian virus 19 (SV19), baboon enterovirus (BaEV), enterovirus 112 (EV112), and EV115, have been solely associated with infection in NHP. EV112, EV115, and SV19 accounted for 88% of all picornaviruses detected. Over 80% of samples from cages housing rhesus macaques, olive baboons, or hamadryas baboons were positive for a picornavirus, while no picornaviruses were detected in samples from capped langurs or vervet monkeys. In contrast to our findings among synanthropic NHP in Bangladesh where 100% of the picornaviruses detected were of human serotypes, in the zoo population, only 15% of picornaviruses detected in NHP were of human origin. Specific serotypes tended to persist over time, suggesting either persistent infection of individuals or cycles of reinfection.

  10. Motivation of Citizen Scientists Participating in Moon Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Shanique; Gay, P. L.; Daus, C. S.

    2011-01-01

    Moon Zoo is an online citizen science project with the aim of providing detailed crater counts for as much of the Moon's surface as possible. In addition to focusing on craters, volunteers are encouraged to remain vigilant for sightings of atypical features which may lead to new discoveries. Volunteers accomplish these tasks by exploring images captured by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) which has a resolution of 50cm per pixel. To be successful, Moon Zoo needs to attract and retain a large population of citizen scientists. In this study, we examine the factors motivating Moon Zoo participants who invest many hours exploring these images. In this, the first of a two-phased study, we conducted a qualitative analysis using semi-structured interviews as a means of data collection. A stratified sample of participants was used in an attempt to uncover the driving forces behind decisions to participate from a wide-range of participants. Inquiring and probing questions were asked about factors which led volunteers to Moon Zoo as well as reasons which kept them committed to exploring the Moon's surface through this online portal. Responses were then categorized using a grounded theory approach, and frequency distributions are calculated where appropriate. Aggregate results from these interviews are presented here including the demographics of the sample and motivators as per the content analysis. The information gathered from this phase will be used to guide the development of an online survey to further explore volunteers’ motivation based on the presented classification schemes. The survey will then be used to guide future research and development in the area of citizen science in the field of astronomy. These findings will also be useful in charting new boundaries for future research.

  11. Three cases giant panda attack on human at Beijing Zoo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peixun; Wang, Tianbing; Xiong, Jian; Xue, Feng; Xu, Hailin; Chen, Jianhai; Zhang, Dianying; Fu, Zhongguo; Jiang, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    Panda is regarded as Chinese national treasure. Most people always thought they were cute and just ate bamboo and had never imagined a panda could be vicious. Giant panda attacks on human are rare. There, we present three cases of giant panda attacks on humans at the Panda House at Beijing Zoo from September 2006 to June 2009 to warn people of the giant panda’s potentially dangerous behavior. PMID:25550978

  12. A national survey of sun safety activities at U.S. zoos.

    PubMed

    Talosig, M A; Mayer, J A; Eckhardt, L; Lewis, E C; Kwon, H; Belch, G E; Eichenfield, L F; Elder, J P; Engelberg, M

    2000-08-01

    Skin cancer incidence in the United States has increased. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a major risk factor for skin cancer. Every year, millions of children with their families visit outdoor leisure facilities such as zoos where overexposure to UVR may occur. This study was conducted to assess the proportion of U.S. zoos that provided sun safety activities during the summer of 1998 and their willingness to incorporate skin cancer prevention strategies at their facility in the future. A 56 item self-administered questionnaire was mailed to 140 zoos accredited by the American Zoo and Aquarium Association. A follow-up telephone survey was also conducted with 33 mail non-respondents. The response rate was 97% (N = 136). Results revealed that in the summer of 1998, only 5% of zoos provided sun safety recommendations to visitors and 25% of zoos provided recommendations to their employees. The recommendations made most often to visitors and employees were to use sunscreen and wear protective clothing. Eighty-five percent of zoos indicated interest in providing sun safety activities at their facilities in the future. The next step will be to design environmentally appropriate sun safety programs for zoos and to encourage zoos to implement these programs.

  13. The Assessment of Animal Welfare in British Zoos by Government-Appointed Inspectors.

    PubMed

    Draper, Chris; Harris, Stephen

    2012-09-28

    We analysed the reports of government-appointed inspectors from 192 zoos between 2005-2008 to provide the first review of how animal welfare was assessed in British zoos since the enactment of the Zoo Licensing Act 1981. We examined the effects of whether or not a veterinarian was included in the inspection team, type of inspection, licence status of the zoo and membership of a zoo association on the inspectors' assessments of animal welfare standards in five areas that approximate to the Five Freedoms. At least 11% of full licence inspections did not comply with the legal requirement for two inspectors. The inspectors' reports were unclear as to how animal welfare was assessed, whether all animals or only a sub-sample had been inspected, and were based predominantly on welfare inputs rather than outcomes. Of 9,024 animal welfare assessments across the 192 zoos, 7,511 (83%) were graded as meeting the standards, 782 (9%) as substandard and the rest were not graded. Of the 192 zoos, 47 (24%) were assessed as meeting all the animal welfare standards. Membership of a zoo association was not associated with a higher overall assessment of animal welfare standards, and specialist collections such as Farm Parks and Other Bird collections performed least well. We recommend a number of changes to the inspection process that should lead to greater clarity in the assessment of animal welfare in British zoos.

  14. Endoparasite Infections in Pet and Zoo Birds in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Papini, Roberto; Girivetto, Martine; Marangi, Marianna; Mancianti, Francesca; Giangaspero, Annunziata

    2012-01-01

    Faecal samples were individually collected from pet (n = 63) and zoo (n = 83) birds representing 14 orders and 63 species. All the samples were examined by faecal flotation technique. In a subgroup of samples (n = 75), molecular assays were also used to detect Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia duodenalis cysts. Overall, 35.6% of the birds harboured parasites (42.2% of zoo birds and 27% of pet birds), including Strongyles-Capillarids (8.9%), Ascaridia (6.8%), Strongyles (5.5%), G. duodenalis Assemblage A (5.3%), Coccidia (4.1%), Cryptosporidium (4%), Porrocaecum (2.7%), Porrocaecum-Capillarids (2%), and Syngamus-Capillarids (0.7%). The zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblage A and Cryptosporidium were exclusively found in Psittaciformes, with prevalences of 10.3% and 7.7% within this bird group. Zoo birds were more likely to harbor mixed infections (OR = 14.81) and symptomatic birds to be parasitized (OR = 4.72). Clinicians should be aware of the public health implications posed by zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblages and Cryptosporidium species in captive birds. PMID:22536128

  15. A survey of diabetes prevalence in zoo-housed primates.

    PubMed

    Kuhar, C W; Fuller, G A; Dennis, P M

    2013-01-01

    In humans, type II diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas is capable of producing insulin but cells do not appropriately respond to insulin with an uptake of glucose. While multiple factors are associated with type II diabetes in humans, a high calorie diet and limited exercise are significant risk factors for the development of this disease. Zoo primates, with relatively high caloric density diets and sedentary lifestyles, may experience similar conditions that could predispose them to the development of diabetes. We surveyed all Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) facilities with primates in their collections to determine the prevalence of diabetes, diagnosis and treatment methods, and treatment outcomes. Nearly 30% of responding institutions reported at least one diabetic primate in their current collection. Although the majority of reported cases were in Old World Monkeys (51%), all major taxonomic groups were represented. Females represented nearly 80% of the diagnosed cases. A wide variety of diagnosing, monitoring, and treatment techniques were reported. It is clear from these results diabetes should be considered prominently in decisions relating to diet, weight and activity levels in zoo-housed primates, as well as discussions surrounding animal health and welfare.

  16. Geoinformatics paves the way for a zoo information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Ulrich

    2008-10-01

    The use of modern electronic media offers new ways of (environmental) knowledge transfer. All kind of information can be made quickly available as well as queryable and can be processed individually. The Institute for Geoinformatics and Remote Sensing (IGF) in collaboration with the Osnabrueck Zoo, is developing a zoo information system, especially for new media (e.g. mobile devices), which provides information about the animals living there, their natural habitat and endangerment status. Thereby multimedia information is being offered to the zoo visitors. The implementation of the 2D/3D components is realized by modern database and Mapserver technologies. Among other technologies, the VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) standard is used for the realization of the 3D visualization so that it can be viewed in every conventional web browser. Also, a mobile information system for Pocket PCs, Smartphones and Ultra Mobile PCs (UMPC) is being developed. All contents, including the coordinates, are stored in a PostgreSQL database. The data input, the processing and other administrative operations are executed by a content management system (CMS).

  17. Intestinal parasites in various animals at a zoo in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Y A L; Ngui, R; Shukri, J; Rohela, M; Mat Naim, H R

    2008-10-20

    A survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasites from different groups of mammals housed in a zoological garden in Malaysia. A total of 197 faecal samples were collected randomly from various primates (99), hoofed mammals (70) and feline (28). It was discovered that 89.3% of feline, 54.5% of primates and 45.7% of hoofed mammals were infected with intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasites found in primates were Balantidium coli (19.2%), Cryptosporidium spp. (14.1%), hookworm (10.1%), Trichuris spp. (5.1%), Ascaris (4.0%) and Blastocystis spp. (2.0%). For hoofed mammals, hookworm had the highest prevalence (34.3%) followed by Trichuris spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. (5.7%). Meanwhile, for feline, Toxocara cati was the most prevalent (64.3%), followed by Cryptosporidium spp. (14.3%), Spirometra spp. (7.1%), and hookworm (3.6%). Animals that were infected were all asymptomatic with low parasite load. Routine monitoring of the presence of parasites in animals kept in the zoo is imperative in assisting zoo management in the formulation and implementation of preventive and control measures against the spread of infectious parasitic diseases among animals within the zoo or to humans.

  18. Intestinal parasites in various animals at a zoo in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Y A L; Ngui, R; Shukri, J; Rohela, M; Mat Naim, H R

    2008-10-20

    A survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasites from different groups of mammals housed in a zoological garden in Malaysia. A total of 197 faecal samples were collected randomly from various primates (99), hoofed mammals (70) and feline (28). It was discovered that 89.3% of feline, 54.5% of primates and 45.7% of hoofed mammals were infected with intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasites found in primates were Balantidium coli (19.2%), Cryptosporidium spp. (14.1%), hookworm (10.1%), Trichuris spp. (5.1%), Ascaris (4.0%) and Blastocystis spp. (2.0%). For hoofed mammals, hookworm had the highest prevalence (34.3%) followed by Trichuris spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. (5.7%). Meanwhile, for feline, Toxocara cati was the most prevalent (64.3%), followed by Cryptosporidium spp. (14.3%), Spirometra spp. (7.1%), and hookworm (3.6%). Animals that were infected were all asymptomatic with low parasite load. Routine monitoring of the presence of parasites in animals kept in the zoo is imperative in assisting zoo management in the formulation and implementation of preventive and control measures against the spread of infectious parasitic diseases among animals within the zoo or to humans. PMID:18723289

  19. A survey of diabetes prevalence in zoo-housed primates.

    PubMed

    Kuhar, C W; Fuller, G A; Dennis, P M

    2013-01-01

    In humans, type II diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas is capable of producing insulin but cells do not appropriately respond to insulin with an uptake of glucose. While multiple factors are associated with type II diabetes in humans, a high calorie diet and limited exercise are significant risk factors for the development of this disease. Zoo primates, with relatively high caloric density diets and sedentary lifestyles, may experience similar conditions that could predispose them to the development of diabetes. We surveyed all Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) facilities with primates in their collections to determine the prevalence of diabetes, diagnosis and treatment methods, and treatment outcomes. Nearly 30% of responding institutions reported at least one diabetic primate in their current collection. Although the majority of reported cases were in Old World Monkeys (51%), all major taxonomic groups were represented. Females represented nearly 80% of the diagnosed cases. A wide variety of diagnosing, monitoring, and treatment techniques were reported. It is clear from these results diabetes should be considered prominently in decisions relating to diet, weight and activity levels in zoo-housed primates, as well as discussions surrounding animal health and welfare. PMID:22847472

  20. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    SciTech Connect

    Sternwheeler, W.D.E.

    1992-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the 1992 winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Wastes Forum. Topics of discussion included: legal information; state and compact reports; freedom of information requests; and storage.

  1. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    This report provides highlights from the 1992 fall meeting of the Low LEvel Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: disposal options after 1992; interregional agreements; management alternatives; policy; and storage.

  2. Assessing the global zoo response to the amphibian crisis through 20-year trends in captive collections.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Jeff; Patel, Freisha; Griffiths, Richard A; Young, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    Global amphibian declines are one of the biggest challenges currently facing the conservation community, and captive breeding is one way to address this crisis. Using information from the International Species Information System zoo network, we examined trends in global zoo amphibian holdings across species, zoo region, and species geographical region of origin from 1994 to 2014. These trends were compared before and after the 2004 Global Amphibian Assessment to assess whether any changes occurred and whether zoo amphibian conservation effort had increased. The numbers of globally threatened species (GTS) and their proportional representation in global zoo holdings increased and this rate of increase was significantly greater after 2004. North American, European, and Oceanian GTS were best represented in zoos globally, and proportions of Oceanian GTS held increased the most since 2004. South American and Asian GTS had the lowest proportional representation in zoos. At a regional zoo level, European zoos held the lowest proportions of GTS, and this proportion did not increase after 2004. Since 1994, the number of species held in viable populations has increased, and these species are distributed among more institutions. However, as of 2014, zoos held 6.2% of globally threatened amphibians, a much smaller figure than for other vertebrate groups and one that falls considerably short of the number of species for which ex situ management may be desirable. Although the increased effort zoos have put into amphibian conservation over the past 20 years is encouraging, more focus is needed on ex situ conservation priority species. This includes building expertise and capacity in countries that hold them and tracking existing conservation efforts if the evidence-based approach to amphibian conservation planning at a global level is to be further developed.

  3. Assessing the global zoo response to the amphibian crisis through 20-year trends in captive collections.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Jeff; Patel, Freisha; Griffiths, Richard A; Young, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    Global amphibian declines are one of the biggest challenges currently facing the conservation community, and captive breeding is one way to address this crisis. Using information from the International Species Information System zoo network, we examined trends in global zoo amphibian holdings across species, zoo region, and species geographical region of origin from 1994 to 2014. These trends were compared before and after the 2004 Global Amphibian Assessment to assess whether any changes occurred and whether zoo amphibian conservation effort had increased. The numbers of globally threatened species (GTS) and their proportional representation in global zoo holdings increased and this rate of increase was significantly greater after 2004. North American, European, and Oceanian GTS were best represented in zoos globally, and proportions of Oceanian GTS held increased the most since 2004. South American and Asian GTS had the lowest proportional representation in zoos. At a regional zoo level, European zoos held the lowest proportions of GTS, and this proportion did not increase after 2004. Since 1994, the number of species held in viable populations has increased, and these species are distributed among more institutions. However, as of 2014, zoos held 6.2% of globally threatened amphibians, a much smaller figure than for other vertebrate groups and one that falls considerably short of the number of species for which ex situ management may be desirable. Although the increased effort zoos have put into amphibian conservation over the past 20 years is encouraging, more focus is needed on ex situ conservation priority species. This includes building expertise and capacity in countries that hold them and tracking existing conservation efforts if the evidence-based approach to amphibian conservation planning at a global level is to be further developed. PMID:26219401

  4. HICC 1990 Latin American energy forum

    SciTech Connect

    Dorman, F.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of the Forum were to bring together senior industry leaders and energy government officials of Latin America and the United States to explore new business opportunities and enhance trade relations between energy forum participants. The Forum focused on the economic and energy outlook of the countries, legislative and/or administrative changes which have an impact on foreign company relations, including concession policies and other joint venture arrangements. Additionally, the Latin American Energy Forum was designed to present the energy needs of the national oil companies of Latin America for United States oil equipment, service and technology as well as to project long-term expansion of development plans providing new and attractive investor opportunities for US businesses. The goal of the first Latin American Energy Forum was to provide a comfortable, friendly business environment in which each country or state-owned oil firm could project and overview of the country's energy outlook and/or most important energy matters at present, providing each speaker the viable option to customize his or her presentation to best suit the immediate needs of the featured Latin American country. By allowing a broad-base of optional subjects to be presented in an informal structure, the Houston Interamerican Chamber of Commerce (HICC) felt this approach for the first Energy Forum in Houston would open doors for a return visit by the Latin American delegation for future energy conferences organized.

  5. Les galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, Francoise

    2016-08-01

    Considerable progress has been made on galaxy formation and evolution in recent years, and new issues. The old Hubble classification according to the tuning fork of spirals, lenticulars and ellipticals, is still useful but has given place to the red sequence, the blue cloud and the green valley, showing a real bimodality of types between star forming galaxies (blue) and quenched ones (red). Large surveys have shown that stellar mass and environment density are the two main factors of the evolution from blue to red sequences. Evolution is followed directly with redshift through a look-back time of more than 12 billion years. The most distant galaxy at z=11. has already a stellar mass of a billion suns. In an apparent anti-hierarchical scenario, the most massive galaxies form stars early on, while essentially dwarf galaxies are actively star-formers now. This downsizing feature also applies to the growth of super-massive black holes at the heart of each bulgy galaxy. The feedback from active nuclei is essential to explain the distribution of mass in galaxies, and in particular to explain why the fraction of baryonic matter is so low, lower by more than a factor 5 than the baryonic fraction of the Universe. New instruments just entering in operation, like MUSE and ALMA, provide a new and rich data flow, which is developed in this series of articles.

  6. Why Should I Care? Exploring the Use of Environmental Concern as a Frame of Communication in Zoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yocco, Victor S.; Bruskotter, Jeremy; Wilson, Robyn; Heimlich, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Effectively communicating environmental issues to motivate visitors' behavior is critical for zoos to accomplish their missions. We examined the relationship between zoo visitors' environmental concern and agreement with messages framed by environmental concern. Findings from two zoos (N = 298; N = 400), using two message formats,…

  7. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs.

    PubMed

    Conde, Dalia A; Colchero, Fernando; Gusset, Markus; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Byers, Onnie; Flesness, Nate; Browne, Robert K; Jones, Owen R

    2013-01-01

    Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23%) terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threatened. Only two of the 59 taxonomic orders show a higher proportion of threatened species in ISIS zoos than would be expected if species were selected at random. In addition, for most taxa, the management of a zoo metapopulation of more than 250 individuals will require the coordination of a cluster of 11 to 24 ISIS zoos within a radius of 2,000 km. Thus, in the zoo network, the representation of species that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates the expertise and facilities of zoos where it can be helpful.

  8. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs.

    PubMed

    Conde, Dalia A; Colchero, Fernando; Gusset, Markus; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Byers, Onnie; Flesness, Nate; Browne, Robert K; Jones, Owen R

    2013-01-01

    Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23%) terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threatened. Only two of the 59 taxonomic orders show a higher proportion of threatened species in ISIS zoos than would be expected if species were selected at random. In addition, for most taxa, the management of a zoo metapopulation of more than 250 individuals will require the coordination of a cluster of 11 to 24 ISIS zoos within a radius of 2,000 km. Thus, in the zoo network, the representation of species that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates the expertise and facilities of zoos where it can be helpful. PMID:24348999

  9. Cybersafari: The Effects of Inquiry and Information Apps on Visitor Learning and Satisfaction at Zoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Marybeth; Conkey, April; Challoo, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Educating the public about wildlife and conservation has long been a core component of many zoos' mission statements (Patrick, Matthews, Ayers, & Tunnicliffe, 2007). However, research has demonstrated that most patrons visit zoos to be entertained and to socialize rather than to be educated. Thus, greater emphasis is now placed on encouraging…

  10. 77 FR 43167 - Safety Zone; Electric Zoo Fireworks, East River, Randall's Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking COTP... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Electric Zoo Fireworks, East River, Randall... Zone; Electronic Zoo Fireworks, East River, Randall's Island, NY. (a) Regulated Area. The...

  11. Unsilencing Voices: A Study of Zoo Signs and Their Language of Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogelberg, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Zoo signs are important for informal learning, but their effect on visitor perception of animals has been sparsely studied. Other studies have established the importance of informal learning in American society; this study discusses zoo signs in the context of such learning. Through the lens of Critical Theory framed by informal learning, and by…

  12. Using Animals as Teaching Tools: A Handbook for the Zoo Project for Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Gerald F.

    The handbook was developed to allow teachers to take advantage of the ideas of persons participating in the Zoo Project for Handicapped Children, in which educationally and mentally handicapped children received language arts instruction organized around the use of animals at the zoo site and in classrooms. The first section of the handbook lists…

  13. Zoo Project for Handicapped Children: Language Development Through Animal Utilization. Final Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego Unified School District, CA.

    The report examines the 1972-73 dissemination program of San Diego's Zoo Project for Handicapped Children which was designed to stimulate language arts improvement in mentally or educationally handicapped students by using animals at the zoo site and in schools. The following program objectives are identified: to encourage and the…

  14. Do Formal Inspections Ensure that British Zoos Meet and Improve on Minimum Animal Welfare Standards?

    PubMed

    Draper, Chris; Browne, William; Harris, Stephen

    2013-11-08

    We analysed two consecutive inspection reports for each of 136 British zoos made by government-appointed inspectors between 2005 and 2011 to assess how well British zoos were complying with minimum animal welfare standards; median interval between inspections was 1,107 days. There was no conclusive evidence for overall improvements in the levels of compliance by British zoos. Having the same zoo inspector at both inspections affected the outcome of an inspection; animal welfare criteria were more likely to be assessed as unchanged if the same inspector was present on both inspections. This, and erratic decisions as to whether a criterion applied to a particular zoo, suggest inconsistency in assessments between inspectors. Zoos that were members of a professional association (BIAZA) did not differ significantly from non-members in the overall number of criteria assessed as substandard at the second inspection but were more likely to meet the standards on both inspections and less likely to have criteria remaining substandard. Lack of consistency between inspectors, and the high proportion of zoos failing to meet minimum animal welfare standards nearly thirty years after the Zoo Licensing Act came into force, suggest that the current system of licensing and inspection is not meeting key objectives and requires revision.

  15. Are we ignoring neutral and negative human-animal relationships in zoos?

    PubMed

    Hosey, Geoff; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Human-animal interactions (HAI), which may lead to human-animal relationships (HAR), may be positive, neutral, or negative in nature. Zoo studies show that visitors may be stressful, may have no effect, or may be enriching. There is also evidence that good HARs set up between animals and their keepers can have positive effects on animal welfare. However, we need to know more about negative HARs, and as a first step we attempt to do this here by considering cases where animals attack people in the zoo. Due to the sensitivity and rarity of these events data appear sparse and unsystematically collected. Here, information available in the public domain about the circumstances of these attacks has been collated to test hypotheses about negative HAIs derived from a model of zoo HARs. The limited data presented here broadly support the zoo HAR model, and suggest that attacks usually happen in unusual circumstances, where there may be a failure by the animal to recognise the HAR, or where the relationship, if there is one, does not hold; and give some support to the prediction that exposure to many keepers may impair the development of a positive HAR. This study may provide useful information for the zoo community to proactively collect systematic standardised records, which will enable a fuller understanding of zoo HARs, upon which appropriate measures might be adopted to build better zoo HARs, which are likely to positively impact zoo animal welfare, and reduce these rare incidences further.

  16. The educational claims of zoos: where do we go from here?

    PubMed

    Moss, Andrew; Esson, Maggie

    2013-01-01

    Zoos exude a certain self-confidence regarding their roles as education providers. Indeed, the education outputs of zoos are, at face value, pretty impressive, with most investing in learning opportunities for leisure visitors, education groups and in some cases, as part of their in situ programs. However, these outputs are not necessarily reliable indicators of the educational achievements of zoos. Quantity does not necessarily equate to quality, just as outputs do not necessarily lead to outcomes. Zoo-accreditation organizations such as the AZA and EAZA offer us clear insight into the strategic vision underpinning the education goals for zoo visitors; a heightened appreciation of the value of biodiversity and a connectedness with the natural world. Unsurprisingly, most zoos have educational goals that ally neatly with the vision of their respective accreditation body. Consequently, we are left with fairly narrow, top-down educational goals. This does not necessarily sit well with what we know about the unpredictability of "free choice" learning in environments such as zoos and aquariums, or what is known about public science communication. Research that seeks to explore the impacts of zoo visits often focuses on evaluating performance based on educational goals and the findings are used as a means of providing evidence of institutional achievement. However, any visitor outcome that falls outside of this narrow range could well be missed by the research. In this article, we propose that research that takes unpredictable and unexpected outcomes into account is necessary and overdue.

  17. Are we ignoring neutral and negative human-animal relationships in zoos?

    PubMed

    Hosey, Geoff; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Human-animal interactions (HAI), which may lead to human-animal relationships (HAR), may be positive, neutral, or negative in nature. Zoo studies show that visitors may be stressful, may have no effect, or may be enriching. There is also evidence that good HARs set up between animals and their keepers can have positive effects on animal welfare. However, we need to know more about negative HARs, and as a first step we attempt to do this here by considering cases where animals attack people in the zoo. Due to the sensitivity and rarity of these events data appear sparse and unsystematically collected. Here, information available in the public domain about the circumstances of these attacks has been collated to test hypotheses about negative HAIs derived from a model of zoo HARs. The limited data presented here broadly support the zoo HAR model, and suggest that attacks usually happen in unusual circumstances, where there may be a failure by the animal to recognise the HAR, or where the relationship, if there is one, does not hold; and give some support to the prediction that exposure to many keepers may impair the development of a positive HAR. This study may provide useful information for the zoo community to proactively collect systematic standardised records, which will enable a fuller understanding of zoo HARs, upon which appropriate measures might be adopted to build better zoo HARs, which are likely to positively impact zoo animal welfare, and reduce these rare incidences further. PMID:25328013

  18. Fruit Bats, Cats, and Naked Mole Rats: Lifelong Learning at the Zoo. ERIC/CSMEE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Barbara S.; Diem, Jason J.

    An informal study found that zoo visitors want to know not just the name, weight, and age of animals in a collection, but also about diet, reproduction, life span, and behavioral characteristics. What kinds of learning opportunities, beyond enhanced signage, can be offered to the sophisticated new breed of visitors in zoos, aquariums, and nature…

  19. A Curriculum Plan for the Columbus Zoo Aquarium. Grades 3 through 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsdorf, Brian

    This curriculum plan is submitted as a framework for developing educational programs at the Columbus Zoo Aquarium (CZA) for elementary school students in grades 3 through 6. It is intended to provide support and assistance to those involved with CZA programs. Major sections include: (1) "Review of Columbus Zoo's Educational Programs"; (2)…

  20. The educational claims of zoos: where do we go from here?

    PubMed

    Moss, Andrew; Esson, Maggie

    2013-01-01

    Zoos exude a certain self-confidence regarding their roles as education providers. Indeed, the education outputs of zoos are, at face value, pretty impressive, with most investing in learning opportunities for leisure visitors, education groups and in some cases, as part of their in situ programs. However, these outputs are not necessarily reliable indicators of the educational achievements of zoos. Quantity does not necessarily equate to quality, just as outputs do not necessarily lead to outcomes. Zoo-accreditation organizations such as the AZA and EAZA offer us clear insight into the strategic vision underpinning the education goals for zoo visitors; a heightened appreciation of the value of biodiversity and a connectedness with the natural world. Unsurprisingly, most zoos have educational goals that ally neatly with the vision of their respective accreditation body. Consequently, we are left with fairly narrow, top-down educational goals. This does not necessarily sit well with what we know about the unpredictability of "free choice" learning in environments such as zoos and aquariums, or what is known about public science communication. Research that seeks to explore the impacts of zoo visits often focuses on evaluating performance based on educational goals and the findings are used as a means of providing evidence of institutional achievement. However, any visitor outcome that falls outside of this narrow range could well be missed by the research. In this article, we propose that research that takes unpredictable and unexpected outcomes into account is necessary and overdue. PMID:22674295

  1. Monkeying around: Examining the effects of a community zoo on the science achievement of third graders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenny, Heather A.

    This investigation examined the efficacy of a model of integrated science and literacy instruction situated at a community zoo. Three intact cohorts of third grade urban students received instruction via different treatments: inquiry-based instruction at a zoo; inquiry-based instruction at school; and activity-based instruction at a zoo. All three treatment conditions promoted increased science achievement. There was no difference between the zoo groups at post-test; however the classroom group outperformed both zoo groups. When examined in light of contextual factors (differences in socioeconomic status, teacher level of experience, familiarity of the learning environment), results suggest the effectiveness of the integrated instructional model in promoting increased science achievement. In planning instruction, teachers should consider the novelty of a learning environment, student interest, and how texts can support inquiry.

  2. Planning or something else? Examining neuropsychological predictors of Zoo Map performance.

    PubMed

    Oosterman, Joukje M; Wijers, Marijn; Kessels, Roy P C

    2013-01-01

    The Zoo Map Test of the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome battery is often applied to measure planning ability as part of executive function. Successful performance on this test is, however, dependent on various cognitive functions, and deficient Zoo Map performance does therefore not necessarily imply selectively disrupted planning abilities. To address this important issue, we examined whether planning is still the most important predictor of Zoo Map performance in a heterogeneous sample of neurologic and psychiatric outpatients (N = 71). In addition to the Zoo Map Test, the patients completed other neuropsychological tests of planning, inhibition, processing speed, and episodic memory. Planning was the strongest predictor of the total raw score and inappropriate places visited, and no additional contribution of other cognitive scores was found. One exception to this was the total time, which was associated with processing speed. Overall, our findings indicate that the Zoo Map Test is a valid indicator of planning ability in a heterogeneous patient sample.

  3. Is the cluster environment quenching the Seyfert activity in elliptical and spiral galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.; Dantas, M. L. L.; Krone-Martins, A.; Cameron, E.; Coelho, P.; Hattab, M. W.; de Val-Borro, M.; Hilbe, J. M.; Elliott, J.; Hagen, A.; COIN Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model (HBM) to investigate how the presence of Seyfert activity relates to their environment, herein represented by the galaxy cluster mass, M200, and the normalized cluster centric distance, r/r200. We achieved this by constructing an unbiased sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, with morphological classifications provided by the Galaxy Zoo Project. A propensity score matching approach is introduced to control the effects of confounding variables: stellar mass, galaxy colour, and star formation rate. The connection between Seyfert-activity and environmental properties in the de-biased sample is modelled within an HBM framework using the so-called logistic regression technique, suitable for the analysis of binary data (e.g. whether or not a galaxy hosts an AGN). Unlike standard ordinary least square fitting methods, our methodology naturally allows modelling the probability of Seyfert-AGN activity in galaxies on their natural scale, i.e. as a binary variable. Furthermore, we demonstrate how an HBM can incorporate information of each particular galaxy morphological type in an unified framework. In elliptical galaxies our analysis indicates a strong correlation of Seyfert-AGN activity with r/r200, and a weaker correlation with the mass of the host cluster. In spiral galaxies these trends do not appear, suggesting that the link between Seyfert activity and the properties of spiral galaxies are independent of the environment.

  4. Ubiquitous Discussion Forum: Introducing Mobile Phones and Voice Discussion into a Web Discussion Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Fu-Hsiang; Chen, Gwo-Dong; Wang, Chin-Yeh; Li, Liang-Yi

    2007-01-01

    Web-based discussion forums enable users to share knowledge in straightforward and popular platforms. However, discussion forums have several problems, such as the lack of immediate delivery and response, the heavily text-based medium, inability to hear expressions of voice and the heuristically created discussion topics which can impede the…

  5. There are big gaps in our knowledge, and thus approach, to zoo animal welfare: a case for evidence-based zoo animal management.

    PubMed

    Melfi, V A

    2009-11-01

    There are gaps in knowledge that hinder our ability within zoos to provide good animal welfare. This does not mean that zoos cannot or do not provide good welfare, only that currently this goal is hindered. Three reasons for these gaps are identified as: (1) there is an emphasis on the identification and monitoring of indicators that represent poor welfare and it is assumed that an absence of poor welfare equates to good welfare. This assumption is overly simplistic and potentially erroneous; (2) our understanding of how housing and husbandry (H&H) affects animals is limited to a small set of variables determined mostly by our anthropogenic sensitivities. Thus, we place more value on captive environmental variables like space and companionship, ignoring other factors that may have a greater impact on welfare, like climate; (3) finally, whether intentional or not, our knowledge and efforts to improve zoo animal welfare are biased to very few taxa. Most attention has been focused on mammals, notably primates, large cats, bears, and elephants, to the exclusion of the other numerous species about which very little is known. Unfortunately, the extent to which these gaps limit our ability to provide zoo animals with good welfare is exacerbated by our over reliance on using myth and tradition to determine zoo animal management. I suggest that we can fill these gaps in our knowledge and improve our ability to provide zoo animals with good welfare through the adoption of an evidence-based zoo animal management framework. This approach uses evidence gathered from different sources as a basis for making any management decisions, as good quality evidence increases the likelihood that these decisions result in good zoo animal welfare.

  6. The catalog of edge-on disk galaxies from SDSS. I. The catalog and the structural parameters of stellar disks

    SciTech Connect

    Bizyaev, D. V.; Kautsch, S. J.; Mosenkov, A. V.; Reshetnikov, V. P.; Sotnikova, N. Ya.; Yablokova, N. V.; Hillyer, R. W.

    2014-05-20

    We present a catalog of true edge-on disk galaxies automatically selected from the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). A visual inspection of the g, r, and i images of about 15,000 galaxies allowed us to split the initial sample of edge-on galaxy candidates into 4768 (31.8% of the initial sample) genuine edge-on galaxies, 8350 (55.7%) non-edge-on galaxies, and 1865 (12.5%) edge-on galaxies not suitable for simple automatic analysis because these objects either show signs of interaction and warps, or nearby bright stars project on it. We added more candidate galaxies from RFGC, EFIGI, RC3, and Galaxy Zoo catalogs found in the SDSS footprints. Our final sample consists of 5747 genuine edge-on galaxies. We estimate the structural parameters of the stellar disks (the stellar disk thickness, radial scale length, and central surface brightness) in the galaxies by analyzing photometric profiles in each of the g, r, and i images. We also perform simplified three-dimensional modeling of the light distribution in the stellar disks of edge-on galaxies from our sample. Our large sample is intended to be used for studying scaling relations in the stellar disks and bulges and for estimating parameters of the thick disks in different types of galaxies via the image stacking. In this paper, we present the sample selection procedure and general description of the sample.

  7. The Animal Welfare Act and the zoo: A positive approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Interpretations of the Animal Welfare Act and other regulations governing use of research animals in the United States are changing. Recent amendments to the Act have resulted in the inclusion of more species under the umbrella of regulation. The role of the zoo and wildlife veterinarian should be that of leading his or her institution into a positive endorsement of these regulations and their application. Recent additions to the Code of Federal Regulations spell out the roles of the veterinarian and the Animal Care and Use Committee at an institution.

  8. Coalescence and refinement of Moon Zoo crater annotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tar, P.; Thacker, N.

    2014-04-01

    The Moon Zoo citizen science project [1] allows members of the public to annotate lunar images, providing researchers with a wealth of location and size information regarding the population of small craters on the Moon. To date, approximately 4 million images have been inspected. Here, we show how data from multiple users can be combined to give a consensus as to the parameters of annotated craters. The process uses annotations and image data to provide Likelihood solutions, revealing the most probable crater parameters, from which crater Size-Frequency Distributions (SFDs) might be produced.

  9. Conference Report: Masters Forum IV, February 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, Todd

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the APPL Masters Forum is to bring together some of the best project managers at NASA, as well as those in industry and other government agencies, for 2 1/2 days of knowledge sharing. The project managers come eager to reflect on their project experiences, to learn new things from one another--and to unlearn a few things, too. This was the fourth Masters Forum, and the first one held outside Washington, DC. Fifty participants from across the country came to Dallas at the American Airlines Conference Center, a wonderful facility that was conveniently located by the airport and yet still seemed isolated from the rest of the world. Masters Forum IV was also the first one held during the winter. Previous Masters Forums have been during the summer. Hot, sticky Washington, D.C. in the summer may sound unpleasant, but frankly the popularity of earlier Forums is what led to this annual event becoming a semiannual one.

  10. Dynamic patterns of academic forum activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Gao, Ya-Chun; Cai, Shi-Min; Zhou, Tao

    2016-11-01

    A mass of traces of human activities show rich dynamic patterns. In this article, we comprehensively investigate the dynamic patterns of 50 thousands of researchers' activities in Sciencenet, the largest multi-disciplinary academic community in China. Through statistical analyses, we found that (i) there exists a power-law scaling between the frequency of visits to an academic forum and the number of corresponding visitors, with the exponent being about 1.33; (ii) the expansion process of academic forums obeys the Heaps' law, namely the number of distinct visited forums to the number of visits grows in a power-law form with exponent being about 0.54; (iii) the probability distributions of time intervals and the number of visits taken to revisit the same academic forum both follow power-laws, indicating the existence of memory effect in academic forum activities. On the basis of these empirical results, we propose a dynamic model that incorporates the exploration, preferential return with memory effect, which can well reproduce the observed scaling laws.

  11. Interpretive signs designed to trigger naturalist intelligence at two American zoos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Martha

    An investigation of interpretive graphics was conducted in 2005 at two mid-sized AZA-accredited zoos, Lowry Park Zoo, Tampa, Florida and Knoxville Zoo, Knoxville, Tennessee. The Lowry Park Zoo study investigated signs at a red-tailed hawk and sandhill crane exhibit. Combination signs and wordless signs were more effective helping visitors see animals, increasing holding time, and number of engagements than treatments of no signs, or signs with words only. A second study, at Knoxville Zoo, tested combination and wordless signs in a children's zoo, investigating 31 signs at a 3.5-acre exhibit. Comparisons of visitors seeing the animals/using interactive exhibit elements, holding time, and engagement activities, showed wordless signs were more effective than combination signs. Differences in gender ratio, age, group size, and other demographics were not significant. Visit motivation differed between zoos, with visitors from Lowry Park Zoo more often articulating reason for a visit as wanting to see animals. Visitors at Knoxville Zoo most often said they wanted to spend time with family and friends. Differences in potential for naturalist intelligence were probably related to local practices rather than to innate differences in naturalist intelligence. The number of communities in Florida that regulate pet ownership and provide lawn service could account for the lower number of people who have pets and plants. At both institutions, behaviors supported educational theories. The importance of signs as advanced organizers was shown where signs were removed at the bird exhibit at Lowry Park Zoo, with fewer visitors seeing the animals. Social interaction was noted at both zoos, with intra- and inter-group conversations observed. If naturalist intelligence is necessary to see animals, visitors run a continuum. Some are unable to see animals with signs and assistance from other visitors; others see animals with little difficulty. The importance of honing naturalist

  12. Unraveling the complexity of the zoo community: identifying the variables related to conservation performance in zoological parks.

    PubMed

    Fàbregas, María C; Guillén-Salazar, Federico; Garcés-Narro, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Zoological parks make up a highly heterogeneous community. Ranging from small collections at shopping malls to highly developed bioparks, their contribution to conservation is expected to vary enormously. Although several studies have focused on assessing such contribution, the parameters used frequently do not apply when considering more modest zoos. The goals of this study are to determine, within the wide range of zoos, which type tend to fulfill the conservation mission of modern zoos and to identify the variables associated to their conservation performance. We used the requirements demanded by the European Community Zoos Directive 1999/22/EC, relating to the keeping of wild animals in zoological parks, to assess conservation performance in 72% of officially registered Spanish zoos. Sampled zoos were classified into groups according to their common characteristics, and then the variables related to how they met each of the Directive's requirements in the groups were assessed. We found that private zoological parks with large zoological collections, located within metropolitan areas, and members of a zoo association tended to fulfill the requirements. Being a member of a zoo association was the variable that better explained fulfillment of the requirements among the evaluated zoos. Data revealed that zoos not meeting any requirement were few, although those meeting all of them were not frequent. The requirement related to adequate record keeping showed the lowest level of fulfillment. We discuss the implications of our results and propose measures of change in order to promote the contribution of zoos to biodiversity conservation.

  13. Limits to captive breeding of mammals in zoos.

    PubMed

    Alroy, John

    2015-06-01

    Captive breeding of mammals in zoos is the last hope for many of the best-known endangered species and has succeeded in saving some from certain extinction. However, the number of managed species selected is relatively small and focused on large-bodied, charismatic mammals that are not necessarily under strong threat and not always good candidates for reintroduction into the wild. Two interrelated and more fundamental questions go unanswered: have the major breeding programs succeeded at the basic level of maintaining and expanding populations, and is there room to expand them? I used published counts of births and deaths from 1970 to 2011 to quantify rates of growth of 118 captive-bred mammalian populations. These rates did not vary with body mass, contrary to strong predictions made in the ecological literature. Most of the larger managed mammalian populations expanded consistently and very few programs failed. However, growth rates have declined dramatically. The decline was predicted by changes in the ratio of the number of individuals within programs to the number of mammal populations held in major zoos. Rates decreased as the ratio of individuals in programs to populations increased. In other words, most of the programs that could exist already do exist. It therefore appears that debates over the general need for captive-breeding programs and the best selection of species are moot. Only a concerted effort could create room to manage a substantially larger number of endangered mammals. PMID:25736919

  14. Limits to captive breeding of mammals in zoos.

    PubMed

    Alroy, John

    2015-06-01

    Captive breeding of mammals in zoos is the last hope for many of the best-known endangered species and has succeeded in saving some from certain extinction. However, the number of managed species selected is relatively small and focused on large-bodied, charismatic mammals that are not necessarily under strong threat and not always good candidates for reintroduction into the wild. Two interrelated and more fundamental questions go unanswered: have the major breeding programs succeeded at the basic level of maintaining and expanding populations, and is there room to expand them? I used published counts of births and deaths from 1970 to 2011 to quantify rates of growth of 118 captive-bred mammalian populations. These rates did not vary with body mass, contrary to strong predictions made in the ecological literature. Most of the larger managed mammalian populations expanded consistently and very few programs failed. However, growth rates have declined dramatically. The decline was predicted by changes in the ratio of the number of individuals within programs to the number of mammal populations held in major zoos. Rates decreased as the ratio of individuals in programs to populations increased. In other words, most of the programs that could exist already do exist. It therefore appears that debates over the general need for captive-breeding programs and the best selection of species are moot. Only a concerted effort could create room to manage a substantially larger number of endangered mammals.

  15. Influences on visitor behavior at a modern immersive zoo exhibit.

    PubMed

    Ross, Stephen R; Gillespie, Katie L

    2009-09-01

    Zoos serve as centers for both research and education. The challenge is to convey messages about their conservation projects while meeting visitor expectations, which often include recreation and entertainment. One way this can be achieved is through the design of immersive exhibits that draw visitors in and engage them with interactive educational elements. Regenstein African Journey (RAJ) opened at Lincoln Park Zoo in 2003 and was designed to take visitors on a simulated safari through Africa. Because visitor experience was a major design goal, we conducted a timing and tracking study to evaluate use of the building and educational components. For a 9-week period in 2003, we tracked 338 visitors to RAJ and recorded continuous data as they moved through the building. Data were collected on handheld computers that provided precise timing data. The median visit was 11.08 min, 41% of which was spent looking at animals and 9% of which was spent engaged with interpretive elements. We found significant differences in the way visitors used signage: those in groups without children spent more of their visit engaged with signage than those with children and visitors who spent more of their visit interacting socially spent less time engaged with signage. By understanding how visitors use the educational opportunities presented to them, we can better meet their expectations and more effectively achieve the goal of conservation education.

  16. Do naturalistic enclosures provide suitable environments for zoo animals?

    PubMed

    Fàbregas, María C; Guillén-Salazar, Federico; Garcés-Narro, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Zoo visitors perceive naturalistic enclosures (i.e. those attempting to replicate identifiable parts of the landscape of the species' habitat) as those that best satisfy the biological needs of the animals, and ensure therefore their welfare. However, the provision of a suitable environment with the resources that will allow the animals to satisfy their main biological needs in naturalistic enclosures has never been systematically explored; instead, it has been assumed. In this study we provide evidence that supports the general idea that naturalistic designs provide suitable environments for the animals. For that purpose, we analyzed 1,381 naturalistic and non-naturalistic enclosures in 63 Spanish zoological parks. In order to assess the suitability of the environment provided within each enclosure, a number of aspects related to the animals' main biological requirements were analyzed. We found a relationship between naturalistic designs and the suitability of the environment for the species housed. Most naturalistic enclosures (77.8%) provided suitable environments for their inhabitants. Non-naturalistic ones also had suitable environments, but in a lower percentage (39.7%). These results should be taken into account during zoo inspection and accreditation appointments, where enclosure suitability must be assessed in an accurate and fast manner. In this regard, a naturalistic design can be used as an adjunct indicator of enclosure suitability, but not exclusively, as not every naturalistic enclosure was suitable for the animals, neither as an indispensable one, given that near 40% of non-naturalistic ones were appropriate for the species housed.

  17. Student perspectives on their school trips to zoos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Susan Kay

    This dissertation aimed to explore students' perspectives on their school trips to informal education sites. In particular, what did students think they learned, what did they want to do, what was fun or boring, and how did their trip relate to classroom activities? The two case studies presented here explore these ideas with 11-12-year olds in New Zealand and their class trips to zoos, in contrasting situations: one is a class in which the teacher thoughtfully and explicitly linked the trip to classroom learning both before and after the trip; the other classroom teacher did not. These differences impacted how students thought about their learning and how they valued the trip. Despite the differences, students had similarities in some of their perspectives, particularly in their focus on social interactions with peers and their desire to see the animals at the zoos. This study concludes with recommendations for informal and classroom educators, especially to find out what students are interested in, give them choices, and connect trips to classroom activities.

  18. A potentially fatal mix of herpes in zoos.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Alex D; Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Ho, Simon Y W; Szentiks, Claudia A; Nikolin, Veljko M; Ma, Guanggang; Damiani, Armando; East, Marion L; Lawrenz, Arne; Hofer, Heribert; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2012-09-25

    Pathogens often have a limited host range, but some can opportunistically jump to new species. Anthropogenic activities that mix reservoir species with novel, hence susceptible, species can provide opportunities for pathogens to spread beyond their normal host range. Furthermore, rapid evolution can produce new pathogens by mechanisms such as genetic recombination. Zoos unintentionally provide pathogens with a high diversity of species from different continents and habitats assembled within a confined space. Institutions alert to the problem of pathogen spread to unexpected hosts can monitor the emergence of pathogens and take preventative measures. However, asymptomatic infections can result in the causative pathogens remaining undetected in their reservoir host. Furthermore, pathogen spread to unexpected hosts may remain undiagnosed if the outcome of infection is limited, as in the case of compromised fertility, or if more severe outcomes are restricted to less charismatic species that prompt only limited investigation. We illustrate this problem here with a recombinant zebra herpesvirus infecting charismatic species including zoo polar bears over at least four years. The virus may cause fatal encephalitis and infects at least five mammalian orders, apparently without requiring direct contact with infected animals.

  19. Seroprevalence of leptospirosis in Korean municipal zoo animals.

    PubMed

    Jung, Byeong Yeal; Choi, Jeong Soo; Kim, Kyoo Tae; Song, Yun Kyung; Lee, Su Hwa; Lee, Kyung Woo; Kim, Ji Yeon; Moon, Oun Kyoung

    2007-08-01

    From 2002 to 2005, we collected 118 serum samples from 34 species belonging to 13 families of zoo animals in Korea and determined the prevalence of antibodies for 18 serovars of Leptospira spp. using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Twenty-nine (25%) of the serum samples tested were positive for one or more of the serovars. There were no significant differences in relation to genders: 23% and 26% of positives occurring in male and female animals, respectively (P>0.05). However, the seroprevalence for the Leptospira spp. was significantly higher (P<0.05) in herbivores (45%) than in either carnivores (17%) or omnivores (17%). Among the 5 serovars detected in this study, the most common was sejroe (n=27; 87% of all positive reactions). All positive reactions showed low titers (< or = 1:200) and the positives were most frequently detected in 1:25 (58%) and 1:50 (23%) serum dilutions. The highest antibody titer (1:200) was observed for the serovars sejroe (n=1) and bratislava (n=1). We conclude that the exposure of zoo animals to Leptospira spp. is relatively common in Korea and produces low MAT titers, with sejroe being the most commonly encountered serovar.

  20. FIAP Forum on Entrepreneurship in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-03-01

    With the changes in science as globalization has taken root, the future role of physicists becoming a part of the industrial physics community is more imperative. When 80% of graduating physicists will not be employed in academic positions, and 50% of all jobs for these physicists will be industrial sector, the importance of bringing our next generation of scientists up to speed on industrial applications is becoming much more important with the rapid, world-wide development of technology. FIAP is initiating a forum on entrepreneurship as a major role for the next generation of scientists. As physicists are problem solvers and the entrepreneurial experience is all about problem solving: whether involving technology, building a team, or financing a business. This forum seeks to link successful entrepreneurial physicists with the upcoming generation, through the dissemination of their global expertise and experience. The forum will consist of a panel discussion and then be open to question and answers from the audience.

  1. Discussion Forum for Technical Codes Users

    SciTech Connect

    Kaspar, Bryce P.; Dillon, Heather E.

    2006-03-30

    One goal of the Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) is to provide useful, easy to understand information about the national energy codes. A forum where users could ask for, and receive clarification on these codes and software from other users would allow the Energy codes project to reach and instruct a broader audience for a modest resource cost. The forum proposed would be a staff moderated discussion board where staff would post topics, and users would post discussion of those topics, with staff joining in to the discussions. The forum would be moderated by staff members, to remove objectionable and irrelevant postings, and to answer any technical questions that arise. The topics and discussions would be archived and searchable to allow users to answer their own questions, if they pertain to a previously discussed topic.

  2. The metabolism and growth of web forums.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lingfei; Zhang, Jiang; Zhao, Min

    2014-01-01

    We view web forums as virtual living organisms feeding on user's clicks and investigate how they grow at the expense of clickstreams. We find that PV(t) (the number of page views in a given time period) and UV(t) (the number of unique visitors in the time period) of the studied forums satisfy the law of the allometric growth, i.e., PV(t) ~ UV(t)((θ). We construct clickstream networks and explain the observed temporal dynamics of networks by the interactions between nodes. We describe the transportation of clickstreams using the function D(i) ~ T(i)(γ), in which T(i) is the total amount of clickstreams passing through node i and D(i) is the amount of the clickstreams dissipated from i to the environment. It turns out that γ, an indicator for the efficiency of network dissipation, not only negatively correlates with θ, but also sets the bounds for θ. In particular, 1/γ > θ when 0 < γ < 1 and 1/γ < θ when γ > 1. Our findings have practical consequences. For example, θ can be used as a measure of the "stickiness" of forums, which quantifies the stable ability of forums to remain users "lock-in" on the forum. Meanwhile, the correlation between γ and θ provides a method to predict the long-term "stickiness" of forums from the clickstream data in a short time period. Finally, we discuss a random walk model that replicates both of the allometric growth PV(t) ~ UV(t)(θ) and the dissipation function D(i) ~ T(γ)(i).

  3. Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Christopher J. Miller

    2012-03-01

    There are many examples of clustering in astronomy. Stars in our own galaxy are often seen as being gravitationally bound into tight globular or open clusters. The Solar System's Trojan asteroids cluster at the gravitational Langrangian in front of Jupiter’s orbit. On the largest of scales, we find gravitationally bound clusters of galaxies, the Virgo cluster (in the constellation of Virgo at a distance of ˜50 million light years) being a prime nearby example. The Virgo cluster subtends an angle of nearly 8◦ on the sky and is known to contain over a thousand member galaxies. Galaxy clusters play an important role in our understanding of theUniverse. Clusters exist at peaks in the three-dimensional large-scale matter density field. Their sky (2D) locations are easy to detect in astronomical imaging data and their mean galaxy redshifts (redshift is related to the third spatial dimension: distance) are often better (spectroscopically) and cheaper (photometrically) when compared with the entire galaxy population in large sky surveys. Photometric redshift (z) [Photometric techniques use the broad band filter magnitudes of a galaxy to estimate the redshift. Spectroscopic techniques use the galaxy spectra and emission/absorption line features to measure the redshift] determinations of galaxies within clusters are accurate to better than delta_z = 0.05 [7] and when studied as a cluster population, the central galaxies form a line in color-magnitude space (called the the E/S0 ridgeline and visible in Figure 16.3) that contains galaxies with similar stellar populations [15]. The shape of this E/S0 ridgeline enables astronomers to measure the cluster redshift to within delta_z = 0.01 [23]. The most accurate cluster redshift determinations come from spectroscopy of the member galaxies, where only a fraction of the members need to be spectroscopically observed [25,42] to get an accurate redshift to the whole system. If light traces mass in the Universe, then the locations

  4. Evaluating physiological stress in Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) managed in Australian zoos.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Tempe; Narayan, Edward J; Magrath, Michael J L; Roe, Sheila; Clark, Giles; Nicolson, Vere; Martin-Vegue, Patrick; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoid quantification using non-invasive methods provides a powerful tool for assessing the health and welfare of wildlife in zoo-based programmes. In this study, we provide baseline data on faecal-based glucocorticoid (cortisol) monitoring of Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) managed at the Melbourne Zoo in Victoria, Australia. We sampled five tigers daily for 60 days. Faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs) in tiger faecal extracts were quantified using enzyme immunoassays that were successfully validated using parallelism and accuracy recovery checks. Two female tigers had significantly higher mean FCM levels than the two males and another female, suggesting that females may have higher FCM levels. A significant elevation was noted in the FCM levels for one female 2 days after she was darted and anaesthetized; however, the FCM levels returned to baseline levels within 3 days after the event. Comparative analysis of FCM levels of tigers sampled at Melbourne Zoo with tigers sampled earlier at two other Australian Zoos (Dreamworld Themepark and Australia Zoo) showed that FCM levels varied between zoos. Differences in the enclosure characteristics, timing of sampling, size and composition of groupings and training procedures could all contribute to this variation. Overall, we recommend the use of non-invasive sampling for the assessment of adrenocortical activity of felids managed in zoos in Australia and internationally in order to improve the welfare of these charismatic big cats. PMID:27293659

  5. Molecular characterization of Blastocystis isolates from zoo animals and their animal-keepers.

    PubMed

    Parkar, Unaiza; Traub, Rebecca J; Vitali, Simone; Elliot, Aileen; Levecke, Bruno; Robertson, Ian; Geurden, Thomas; Steele, Jan; Drake, Bev; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2010-04-19

    Blastocystis is an enteric protist and one of the most frequently reported parasitic infections in humans and a variety of animal hosts. It has also been reported in numerous parasite surveys of animals in zoological gardens and in particular in non-human primate species. PCR-based methods capable of the direct detection of Blastocystis in faeces were used to detect Blastocystis from various hosts, including non-human primates, Australian native fauna, elephants and giraffes, as well as their keepers from a Western Australian zoo. Additional faecal samples were also collected from elephants and giraffes from four other zoos in Amsterdam (The Netherlands), Antwerp (Belgium), Melbourne and Werribee (Australia). Information regarding the general health and lifestyle of the human volunteers were obtained by questionnaire. Overall, 42% and 63% of animals and zoo-keepers sampled from the Western Australian zoo were positive for Blastocystis, respectively. The occurrence of Blastocystis in elephants and giraffes from other cities was similar. This is the first report of Blastocystis found in the elephant, giraffe, quokka, southern hairy nosed wombat and western grey kangaroo. Three novel and what appear to be highly host-specific subtypes (STs) of Blastocystis in the elephant, giraffe and quokka are also described. These findings indicate that further exploration of the genetic diversity of Blastocystis is crucial. Most zoo-keepers at the Perth Zoo were harbouring Blastocystis. Four of these zoo-keeper isolates were identical to the isolates from the southern hairy nosed wombat and five primate species.

  6. Retrospective Study on Fatal Melioidosis in Captive Zoo Animals in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kasantikul, T; Sommanustweechai, A; Polsrila, K; Kongkham, W; Chaisongkram, C; Sanannu, S; Kongmakee, P; Narongwanichgarn, W; Bush, M; Sermswan, R W; Banlunara, W

    2016-10-01

    Melioidosis is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei and is an important zoonotic infectious disease causing high mortality from fulminant septicaemia in humans and a wide variety of animal species. The incidence of fatal melioidosis in zoo animals has been significant in many Thai zoos. A total number of 32 cases were evaluated throughout the Thai zoo animal populations. The highest prevalence of disease has been reported from the north-eastern region followed by the zoos in the southern part of the country, approximately 47% and 38%, respectively, while the other zoos reported sporadic infections. Herbivores and non-human primates were the most commonly affected animals with incidences of 59% and 28%, respectively. This appears to be a seasonal correlation with the highest incidence of melioidosis in zoo animals reported in the rainy season (44%) or subdivided monthly in June (19%) followed by September and November (16% and 12%, respectively). The route of infection and the incubation period still remain unclear. This retrospective study examined the clinical presentation in various zoo species, pathological findings and epidemiological data as well as conducting an in depth literature review.

  7. Naturally occurring and melengestrol acetate-associated reproductive tract lesions in zoo canids.

    PubMed

    Moresco, A; Munson, L; Gardner, I A

    2009-11-01

    As husbandry practices have improved, safe and effective contraception for captive wildlife management has become a necessity. Melengestrol acetate (MGA), a synthetic progestin, is highly effective and has been used in many zoo species. Long-term use of MGA has been associated with uterine lesions in zoo felids, but effects in zoo canids have not been evaluated. This retrospective study documented spontaneously occurring lesions and investigated the impact of MGA on the reproductive health of zoo canids. Reproductive tracts from adult females were submitted by US zoos to the Association of Zoos & Aquariums' Wildlife Contraception Center Health Surveillance Program. Reproductive tracts were sampled and processed for histopathologic examination following standard protocols. Microscopic evaluations were performed without prior knowledge of MGA treatment status. Prevalence of uterine lesions was evaluated and compared between MGA-treated animals (n = 20) and control (untreated) animals (n = 61). Common lesions within the study population as a whole included endometrial hyperplasia (predominantly cystic) (53%), hydrometra (33%), and adenomyosis (25%). Treatment with MGA was a risk factor for endometrial hyperplasia, hydrometra, fibrosis, and adenomyosis. Uterine mineralization occurred exclusively in MGA-treated animals. Results indicate that MGA contraception can lead to lesions that may permanently impair the fertility of females. Therefore, if long-term contraception of zoo canids is necessary, the use of alternate methods of reproductive control such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs or GnRH vaccines that reduce gonadal hormone exposure should be pursued.

  8. Measuring animal personality for use in population management in zoos: suggested methods and rationale.

    PubMed

    Watters, Jason V; Powell, David M

    2012-01-01

    The concept that animals have personalities is gaining traction in the scientific community and is well established in zoos and aquariums. Applying knowledge of animal personalities has occurred more slowly and is most often only considered informally. However, animal personalities are likely to affect the welfare animals experience in captivity and thus should be of primary concern to zoo managers. In addition, animal personality likely affects the outcomes of zoo guest experiences and potentially guests' conservation-related behavior. With over 1,000,000 animals in the care of zoos internationally and hundreds of millions of visitors annually, it would be prudent and beneficial to maximize our use of animal personality data in zoos to effect positive conservation outcomes. Understanding how to broaden population planning techniques to include measures of animal personality and the important outcomes of welfare and education value is of prime importance to the zoo industry. In order to succeed, it is necessary to employ techniques that reliably assess animal personalities and provide measures that can easily be used in population planning models. We discuss the outcomes of recent workshops designed to determine the best techniques for measuring animal personalities in the zoo setting with the goal of incorporating personality into population planning.

  9. The sizes of elephant groups in zoos: implications for elephant welfare.

    PubMed

    Rees, Paul A

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the distribution of 495 Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and 336 African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in 194 zoos, most of which were located in Europe (49.1%) and North America (32.6%). Cows outnumbered bulls 4 to 1 (Loxodonta) and 3 to 1 (Elephas). Groups contained 7 or fewer: mean, 4.28 (sigma = 5.73). One fifth of elephants lived alone or with one conspecific. Forty-six elephants (5.5%) had no conspecific. Many zoos ignore minimum group sizes of regional zoo association guidelines. The American Zoo and Aquarium Association recommends that breeding facilities keep herds of 6 to 12 elephants. The British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquariums recommends keeping together at least 4 cows over 2 years old. Over 69% Asian and 80% African cow groups-including those under 2 years-consisted of fewer than 4 individuals. Recently, Europe and North America have made progress with some zoos no longer keeping elephants and with others investing in improved facilities and forming larger herds. The welfare of individual elephants should outweigh all other considerations; zoos should urgently seek to integrate small groups into larger herds.

  10. Evaluating physiological stress in Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) managed in Australian zoos.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Tempe; Narayan, Edward J; Magrath, Michael J L; Roe, Sheila; Clark, Giles; Nicolson, Vere; Martin-Vegue, Patrick; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoid quantification using non-invasive methods provides a powerful tool for assessing the health and welfare of wildlife in zoo-based programmes. In this study, we provide baseline data on faecal-based glucocorticoid (cortisol) monitoring of Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) managed at the Melbourne Zoo in Victoria, Australia. We sampled five tigers daily for 60 days. Faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs) in tiger faecal extracts were quantified using enzyme immunoassays that were successfully validated using parallelism and accuracy recovery checks. Two female tigers had significantly higher mean FCM levels than the two males and another female, suggesting that females may have higher FCM levels. A significant elevation was noted in the FCM levels for one female 2 days after she was darted and anaesthetized; however, the FCM levels returned to baseline levels within 3 days after the event. Comparative analysis of FCM levels of tigers sampled at Melbourne Zoo with tigers sampled earlier at two other Australian Zoos (Dreamworld Themepark and Australia Zoo) showed that FCM levels varied between zoos. Differences in the enclosure characteristics, timing of sampling, size and composition of groupings and training procedures could all contribute to this variation. Overall, we recommend the use of non-invasive sampling for the assessment of adrenocortical activity of felids managed in zoos in Australia and internationally in order to improve the welfare of these charismatic big cats.

  11. Evaluating physiological stress in Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) managed in Australian zoos

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Tempe; Narayan, Edward J.; Magrath, Michael J. L.; Roe, Sheila; Clark, Giles; Nicolson, Vere; Martin-Vegue, Patrick; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoid quantification using non-invasive methods provides a powerful tool for assessing the health and welfare of wildlife in zoo-based programmes. In this study, we provide baseline data on faecal-based glucocorticoid (cortisol) monitoring of Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) managed at the Melbourne Zoo in Victoria, Australia. We sampled five tigers daily for 60 days. Faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs) in tiger faecal extracts were quantified using enzyme immunoassays that were successfully validated using parallelism and accuracy recovery checks. Two female tigers had significantly higher mean FCM levels than the two males and another female, suggesting that females may have higher FCM levels. A significant elevation was noted in the FCM levels for one female 2 days after she was darted and anaesthetized; however, the FCM levels returned to baseline levels within 3 days after the event. Comparative analysis of FCM levels of tigers sampled at Melbourne Zoo with tigers sampled earlier at two other Australian Zoos (Dreamworld Themepark and Australia Zoo) showed that FCM levels varied between zoos. Differences in the enclosure characteristics, timing of sampling, size and composition of groupings and training procedures could all contribute to this variation. Overall, we recommend the use of non-invasive sampling for the assessment of adrenocortical activity of felids managed in zoos in Australia and internationally in order to improve the welfare of these charismatic big cats. PMID:27293659

  12. Second Annual HEDS-UP Forum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    HEDS-UP (Human Exploration and Development of Space-University Partners) conducted its second annual forum on May 6-7, 1999, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston. This year, the topics focused on human exploration of Mars, including considerations ranging from systems analysis of the transportation and surface architecture to very detailed considerations of surface elements such as greenhouses, rovers, and EVA suits. Ten undergraduate projects and four graduate level projects were presented with a total of 13 universities from around the country. Over 200 students participated on the study teams and nearly 100 students attended the forum meeting.

  13. The Number of Tidal Dwarf Satellite Galaxies in Dependence of Bulge Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Corredoira, Martín; Kroupa, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    We show that a significant correlation (up to 5σ) emerges between the bulge index, defined to be larger for a larger bulge/disk ratio, in spiral galaxies with similar luminosities in the Galaxy Zoo 2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the number of tidal-dwarf galaxies in the catalog by Kaviraj et al. In the standard cold or warm dark matter cosmological models, the number of satellite galaxies correlates with the circular velocity of the dark matter host halo. In generalized gravity models without cold or warm dark matter, such a correlation does not exist, because host galaxies cannot capture infalling dwarf galaxies due to the absence of dark-matter-induced dynamical friction. However, in such models, a correlation is expected to exist between the bulge mass and the number of satellite galaxies because bulges and tidal-dwarf satellite galaxies form in encounters between host galaxies. This is not predicted by dark matter models in which bulge mass and the number of satellites are a priori uncorrelated because higher bulge/disk ratios do not imply higher dark/luminous ratios. Hence, our correlation reproduces the prediction of scenarios without dark matter, whereas an explanation is not found readily from the a priori predictions of the standard scenario with dark matter. Further research is needed to explore whether some application of the standard theory may explain this correlation.

  14. Determining Connections between the Daily Lives of Zoo Elephants and Their Welfare: An Epidemiological Approach.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Cheryl L; Mench, Joy A; Carlstead, Kathy; Hogan, Jennifer N

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about animal welfare increasingly shape people's views about the acceptability of keeping animals for food production, biomedical research, and in zoos. The field of animal welfare science has developed over the past 50 years as a method of investigating these concerns via research that assesses how living in human-controlled environments influences the behavior, health and affective states of animals. Initially, animal welfare research focused on animals in agricultural settings, but the field has expanded to zoos because good animal welfare is essential to zoos' mission of promoting connections between animals and visitors and raising awareness of conservation issues. A particular challenge for zoos is ensuring good animal welfare for long-lived, highly social species like elephants. Our main goal in conducting an epidemiological study of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephant welfare in 68 accredited North American zoos was to understand the prevalence of welfare indicators in the population and determine the aspects of an elephant's zoo environment, social life and management that are most important to prevent and reduce a variety of welfare problems. In this overview, we provide a summary of the findings of the nine papers in the collection titled: Epidemiological Investigations of North American Zoo Elephant Welfare with a focus on the life history, social, housing, and management factors found to be associated with particular aspects of elephant welfare, including the performance of abnormal behavior, foot and joint problems, recumbence, walking rates, and reproductive health issues. Social and management factors were found to be important for multiple indicators of welfare, while exhibit space was found to be less influential than expected. This body of work results from the largest prospective zoo-based animal welfare study conducted to date and sets in motion the process of using science-based welfare benchmarks to

  15. Determining Connections between the Daily Lives of Zoo Elephants and Their Welfare: An Epidemiological Approach.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Cheryl L; Mench, Joy A; Carlstead, Kathy; Hogan, Jennifer N

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about animal welfare increasingly shape people's views about the acceptability of keeping animals for food production, biomedical research, and in zoos. The field of animal welfare science has developed over the past 50 years as a method of investigating these concerns via research that assesses how living in human-controlled environments influences the behavior, health and affective states of animals. Initially, animal welfare research focused on animals in agricultural settings, but the field has expanded to zoos because good animal welfare is essential to zoos' mission of promoting connections between animals and visitors and raising awareness of conservation issues. A particular challenge for zoos is ensuring good animal welfare for long-lived, highly social species like elephants. Our main goal in conducting an epidemiological study of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephant welfare in 68 accredited North American zoos was to understand the prevalence of welfare indicators in the population and determine the aspects of an elephant's zoo environment, social life and management that are most important to prevent and reduce a variety of welfare problems. In this overview, we provide a summary of the findings of the nine papers in the collection titled: Epidemiological Investigations of North American Zoo Elephant Welfare with a focus on the life history, social, housing, and management factors found to be associated with particular aspects of elephant welfare, including the performance of abnormal behavior, foot and joint problems, recumbence, walking rates, and reproductive health issues. Social and management factors were found to be important for multiple indicators of welfare, while exhibit space was found to be less influential than expected. This body of work results from the largest prospective zoo-based animal welfare study conducted to date and sets in motion the process of using science-based welfare benchmarks to

  16. SPIN ALIGNMENTS OF SPIRAL GALAXIES WITHIN THE LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE FROM SDSS DR7

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Youcai; Yang, Xiaohu; Luo, Wentao; Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Lei; Mo, H. J.; Van den Bosch, Frank C. E-mail: xyang@sjtu.edu.cn

    2015-01-01

    Using a sample of spiral galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 and Galaxy Zoo 2, we investigate the alignment of spin axes of spiral galaxies with their surrounding large-scale structure, which is characterized by the large-scale tidal field reconstructed from the data using galaxy groups above a certain mass threshold. We find that the spin axes only have weak tendencies to be aligned with (or perpendicular to) the intermediate (or minor) axis of the local tidal tensor. The signal is the strongest in a cluster environment where all three eigenvalues of the local tidal tensor are positive. Compared to the alignments between halo spins and the local tidal field obtained in N-body simulations, the above observational results are in best agreement with those for the spins of inner regions of halos, suggesting that the disk material traces the angular momentum of dark matter halos in the inner regions.

  17. [Keeping of bears and big cats in the zoo and circus].

    PubMed

    Rietschel, W

    2002-03-01

    The exhibition of bears and big cats in zoo and circus causes regular criticism, justified and unjustified, by people engaged in the prevention of cruelty to animals. Main points of critique are holding conditions, feeding and health status of the animals. The official veterinarian involved in the supervision often needs the cooperation of a specialised zoo veterinarian. In most cases the clinical examination of bears and big cats requires an immobilisation. This article will enter into some of the most common holding problems and diseases of big carnivores in zoo and circus.

  18. Whirlpool Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Scientists are seeing unprecedented detail of the spiral arms and dust clouds in the nearby Whirlpool galaxy, thanks to a new Hubble Space Telescope image, available at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/pictures/wfpc/wfpc.html. The image uses data collected January 15 and 24, 1995, and July 21, 1999, by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by JPL. Using the image, a research group led by Dr. Nick Scoville of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, clearly defined the structure of the galaxy's cold dust clouds and hot hydrogen, and they linked star clusters within the galaxy to their parent dust clouds.

    The Whirlpool galaxy is one of the most photogenic galaxies. This celestial beauty is easily seen and photographed with smaller telescopes and studied extensively from large ground- and space-based observatories. The new composite image shows visible starlight and light from the emission of glowing hydrogen, which is associated with the most luminous young stars in the spiral arms.

    The galaxy is having a close encounter with a nearby companion galaxy, NGC 5195, just off the upper edge of the image. The companion's gravitational pull is triggering star formation in the main galaxy, lit up by numerous clusters of young and energetic stars in brilliant detail. Luminous clusters are highlighted in red by their associated emission from glowing hydrogen gas.

    This image was composed by the Hubble Heritage Team from Hubble archive data and was superimposed onto data taken by Dr. Travis Rector of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory at the .9-meter (35-inch) telescope at the National Science Foundation's Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, Ariz. Scoville's team includes M. Polletta of the University of Geneva, Switzerland; S. Ewald and S. Stolovy of Caltech; and R. Thompson and M. Rieke of the University of Arizona, Tucson.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md., manages space operations for the Hubble Space

  19. National Charter School Policy Forum (Washington, DC, May 5, 2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Charter School Policy Forum of May 5, 2005 brought together 100 charter school leaders representing philanthropy, research, and practice. The panel discussants and forum participants participated in an interactive conversation about the next generation of charter schools. The forum's panels focused on three key topics: (1) The…

  20. World Forum Communications: Analyses of Student and Mentor Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar, William A.; Bonk, Curtis Jay

    This study analyzed new forms of student social interaction and dialogue within asynchronous communications of six middle schools and six high schools participating in the World Forum. In the World Forum, students discussed, questioned, and debated with Arctic explorers, researchers, World Forum mentors, and peers about environmental issues. One…

  1. 78 FR 19024 - Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... SAFETY BOARD Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum On Thursday and Friday, April 11-12, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a forum titled, ``Lithium Ion... Inquiry. The forum is organized into three topic areas: Lithium ion battery design, development, and...

  2. 10 CFR 903.15 - Public information forums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... shall be answered by PMA representatives at the forum, at a subsequent forum, or in writing at least 15... data contained in the PMA records may be answered by providing an opportunity for consultation and for a review of the records at the PMA offices. As a minimum, the proceedings of the forum held at...

  3. 10 CFR 903.15 - Public information forums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public information forums. 903.15 Section 903.15 Energy... Administrations § 903.15 Public information forums. (a) One or more public information forums shall be held for... basis of and justification for proposing such rates. The number, dates, and locations of such...

  4. Engagement with and Participation in Online Discussion Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokoena, Sello

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a small-scale study that examined student engagement with and participation in a university online discussion forum site. The main aim of the study was to identify factors that encourage or discourage student participation in the forum. The study involved the tasks posted on the forum site with which students could engage…

  5. Evaluation of a Discussion Forum in an Online Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letendre, William

    2002-01-01

    Discusses pharmacy students' dissatisfaction with an online discussion forum based on course evaluations and describes the instructors' redesign of the discussion forum. Reports on the action research project used to evaluate the current discussion forum in the online class and concludes the more learner-centered design has been successful.…

  6. 76 FR 71081 - Public Aircraft Oversight Safety Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... SAFETY BOARD Public Aircraft Oversight Safety Forum The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a Public Aircraft Oversight Safety Forum which will begin at 9 a.m., Wednesday, November 30, 2011... participate. The forum is open to all and free to attend (there is no registration). Public aircraft...

  7. Facilitating Learning Spaces in Forum Theatre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which forum theatre interventions can support non-hierarchical approaches to learning, development and change management initiatives in organisations. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with theatre consultancies, actors/facilitators,…

  8. ACC forum looks at 'burning' questions

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.

    2005-06-01

    The American Coal Council's (ACC) Spring Coal Forum had as its theme: Coal's renaissance: prospects for regenerating coal generation'. It explored US coal demand, supply, end-user technology and market trends. The article gives an overview of the conference, highlighting several presentations. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Advocacy workshop: a forum in regulatory communication

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, G.R.; Prep, V.M.

    1982-03-04

    Rate-case decisions made by regulatory bodies are the result of hearings in which a great many statements of fact and opinion are made. This article describes a forum designed for the sake of improving the communication of such facts and opinions and indicates the preparation necessary to accomplish the aim of producing better witness-lawyer teams.

  10. Interaction and Interpersonality in Online Discussion Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beuchot, Alberto; Bullen, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study evaluated the amount and type of interaction and interpersonal content in messages posted by online graduate students in small group asynchronous forums. It also assessed the relationship between interpersonality and interactivity. To achieve this, a new coding scheme was developed to categorize the content of online…

  11. Space Radiation Program Element Tissue Sharing Forum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H.; Mayeaux, B M.; Huff, J. L.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, a large number of animal experiments have been conducted at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory and other facilities under the support of the NASA Space Radiation Program Element (SRPE). Studies using rodents and other animal species to address the space radiation risks will remain a significant portion of the research portfolio of the Element. In order to maximize scientific return of the animal studies, the SRPE has recently released the Space Radiation Tissue Sharing Forum. The Forum provides access to an inventory of investigator-stored tissue samples and enables both NASA SRPE members and NASA-funded investigators to exchange information regarding stored and future radiobiological tissues available for sharing. Registered users may review online data of available tissues, inquire about tissues posted, or request tissues for an upcoming study using an online form. Investigators who have upcoming sacrifices are also encouraged to post the availability of samples using the discussion forum. A brief demo of the forum will be given during the presentation

  12. Literacy Program. National Issues Forums Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Issues Forums, Dayton, OH.

    In the spring of 1988, 33 representatives from 20 institutions or organizations sponsoring National Issues Forum (NIF) literacy programs attended a national conference in Washington, D.C. Throughout the conference, representatives from the organizations sponsoring NIF literacy programs made statements on the importance of NIF as a tool for…

  13. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This paper provides the results of the winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Discussions were held on the following topics: new developments in states and compacts; adjudicatory hearings; information exchange on siting processes, storage surcharge rebates; disposal after 1992; interregional access agreements; and future tracking and management issues.

  14. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the October 1990 meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: a special session on liability and financial assurance needs; proposal to dispose of mixed waste at federal facilities; state plans for interim storage; and hazardous materials legislation.

  15. Asynchronous Learning Forums for Business Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Christine Cope; Wulf, Catharina

    2009-01-01

    The use of IT as a facilitator for student collaboration in higher business education has grown rapidly since 2000. Asynchronous discussion forums are used abundantly for collaborative training purposes and for teaching students business-relevant tools for their future careers. This article presents an analysis of the asynchronous discussion forum…

  16. The Twenty-Third LACUS Forum, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melby, Alan K., Ed.

    Fifty-nine papers on language research and linguistic theory from the annual forum address these topics: correctness in language; aspects of neurolinguistics and psycholinguistics; historical linguistics and language evolution; linguistic philosophy; aspects of syntax; aspects of discourse analysis; lexicon and semantics; language contact and…

  17. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    This report contains highlights from the 1991 fall meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included legal updates; US NRC updates; US EPA updates; mixed waste issues; financial assistance for waste disposal facilities; and a legislative and policy report.

  18. Issues in California Community Colleges. Forum, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laroche, Jonnah J., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Designed as a forum for the exchange and dissemination of ideas and viewpoints of California community college faculty, this journal offers six brief articles on various aspects of 2-year college education. In "Academic Standards and the Open Door," Leon Baradat asserts that community colleges must reverse the trend toward decreased academic…

  19. Issues in California Community Colleges. Forum, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petit, Susan, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This issue of "Forum," a journal designed to provide a marketplace of ideas for California community college faculty, contains six articles on current educational concerns. First, "Seeking a Working Vision: Community Colleges and the Mission Statement," by Richard A. Garcia, argues that community colleges must put joint emphasis on vocational and…

  20. CbN Community Forum Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Mary A.

    In 1977 and 1978, Black Hawk College sponsored two series of community discussion forums paralleling the year's Courses by Newspaper (CbN). With the fall series, based on "Crime and Justice in America," Black Hawk became one of eleven national demonstration models. In the spring, the college sponsored "The Impact of Mass Media on American Life,"…

  1. E-Patient Reputation in Health Forums.

    PubMed

    Abdaoui, Amine; Azé, Jérôme; Bringay, Sandra; Poncelet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Online health forums are increasingly used by patients to get information and help related to their health. However, information reliability in these forums is unfortunately not always guaranteed. Obviously, consequences of self-diagnosis may be severe on the patient's health if measures are taken without consulting a doctor. Many works on trust issues related to social media have been proposed, but most of them mainly focus only on the structure part of the social network (number of posts, number of likes, etc.). In the case of online health forums, a lot of trust and distrust is expressed inside the posted messages and cannot be inferred by only considering the structure. In this study, we rather suggest inferring the user's trustworthiness from the replies he receives in the forum. The proposed method is divided into three main steps: First, the recipient(s) of each post must be identified. Next, the trust or distrust expressed in these posts is evaluated. Finally, the user's reputation is computed by aggregating all the posts he received. Conducted experiments using a manually annotated corpus are encouraging. PMID:26262026

  2. Program Handbook: Community-College Forums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution, Washington, DC.

    More than 200 years after its founding, the U.S. government continues to thrive on argument, dispute, and debate. For citizens to be fully engaged in the political process, they must continue to participate in the tradition of public discourse exemplified by the ratification debate of 1787-88. College-Community Forums are designed to further…

  3. Issues in California Community Colleges. Forum, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laroche, Jonnah J., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    This issue of "Forum," a journal designed to present ideas of California community college faculty, begins with "Community Colleges Can Keep the Door Open," by Jean B. Trapnell, which urges community colleges to reassess and integrate the new goals associated with lifelong learning with the primary goals of providing transfer, technical, and…

  4. School PE through Internet Discussion Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauritsalo, Kirsti; Sääkslahti, Arja; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical education is a subject that generates strong feelings and emotions, as can be seen in written accounts of PE experiences. It is also important to listen to students' voices in the research context. Nowadays, students can be listened to in a new way--through the Internet. Various discussion forums on the Internet make it…

  5. "Galaxy," Defined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willman, B.; Strader, J.

    2012-09-01

    A growing number of low luminosity and low surface brightness astronomical objects challenge traditional notions of both galaxies and star clusters. To address this challenge, we propose a definition of galaxy that does not depend on a cold dark matter model of the universe: a galaxy is a gravitationally bound collection of stars whose properties cannot be explained by a combination of baryons and Newton's laws of gravity. After exploring several possible observational diagnostics of this definition, we critically examine the classification of ultra-faint dwarfs, globular clusters, ultra-compact dwarfs, and tidal dwarfs. While kinematic studies provide an effective diagnostic of the definition in many regimes, they can be less useful for compact or very faint systems. To explore the utility of using the [Fe/H] spread as a complementary diagnostic, we use published spectroscopic [Fe/H] measurements of 16 Milky Way dwarfs and 24 globular clusters to uniformly calculate their [Fe/H] spreads and associated uncertainties. Our principal results are (1) no known, old star cluster less luminous than MV = -10 has a significant (gsim0.1 dex) spread in its iron abundance; (2) known ultra-faint dwarf galaxies can be unambiguously classified with a combination of kinematic and [Fe/H] observations; (3) the observed [Fe/H] spreads in massive (gsim 106 M ⊙) globular clusters do not necessarily imply that they are the stripped nuclei of dwarfs, nor a need for dark matter; and (4) if ultra-compact dwarf galaxies reside in dark matter halos akin to those of ultra-faint dwarfs of the same half-light radii, then they will show no clear dynamical signature of dark matter. We suggest several measurements that may assist the future classification of massive globular clusters, ultra-compact dwarfs, and ultra-faint galaxies. Our galaxy definition is designed to be independent of the details of current observations and models, while our proposed diagnostics can be refined or replaced as

  6. [A case of influenza infection of zoo touracos].

    PubMed

    Louzis, C; Andral, B; Lernoud, J M

    1985-01-01

    A respiratory disease occurred in a colony of 14 touracos in a zoological garden. Birds developed signs of disease during a period of 2 weeks and three died. Gross lesions consisted of hyperaemia of lungs, liver and kidney. An avian orthomyxovirus serotype Hav3 (or H11) was isolated. Five and 11 months after the outbreak antibodies against this serotype were present in the previously affected birds. Disease signs were not observed in another group of 14 touracos housed at the exit to the Zoo, and these birds did not contract the disease when they were moved into the building where the outbreak had taken place 4 1/2 months before. Antibodies against influenza virus were not found in these birds. It is concluded that the disease was caused by the influenza virus isolated. PMID:18766906

  7. Parasitological survey on birds at some selected brazilian zoos.

    PubMed

    Hofstatter, Paulo Gonzalez; Guaraldo, Ana Maria Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    A parasitological survey was conducted at some zoos in the states of São Paulo and Paraná, Brazil, from 2009 to 2011. Several groups of birds were surveyed for fecal samples, but the most important was Psittacidae. Among the parasites, Eimeria (coccidian) and Capillaria, Ascaridia and Heterakis (nematodes) were observed in almost one third of the samples. Presence of a rich parasite fauna associated with captive birds seems to be an effect of captivity, since data on free-ranging birds indicate few or virtually no parasites at all. The discovery of new coccidian species during this survey reveals the need of more research on the subject as even well-known bird species have unknown parasites, but caution must be exercised in order to avoid descriptions of pseudoparasites.

  8. Closed sets of correlations: answers from the zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Ben; Vértesi, Tamás; Navascués, Miguel

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the conditions under which a set of multipartite nonlocal correlations can describe the distributions achievable by distant parties conducting experiments in a consistent universe. Several questions are posed, such as: are all such sets ‘nested’, i.e., contained into one another? Are they discrete or do they form a continuum? How many of them are supraquantum? Are there non-trivial polytopes among them? We answer some of these questions or relate them to established conjectures in complexity theory by introducing a ‘zoo’ of physically consistent sets, which can be characterized efficiently via either linear or semidefinite programming. As a bonus, we use the zoo to derive, for the first time, concrete impossibility results in nonlocality distillation. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.

  9. Biting midges of the genus Culicoides in South Carolina zoos.

    PubMed

    Nelder, Mark P; Swanson, Dustin A; Adler, Peter H; Grogan, William L

    2010-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected during the summer of 2007 at the Greenville and Riverbanks Zoos in South Carolina with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps equipped with ultraviolet or incandescent lights and baited with carbon dioxide. Sixteen species of Culicoides were collected, four of which represented more than 80%. They were Culicoides guttipennis (Coquillett), Culicoides mulrenanni Beck, Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen), and Culicoides sanguisuga (Coquillett). C. guttipennis was found on a dead colobus monkey and a dead golden-headed lion tamarin; Culicoides husseyi Wirth & Blanton was collected from an unidentified, abandoned bird's nest. Ultraviolet light-equipped traps captured significantly more Culicoides specimens than traps with incandescent light. Half of the collected species previously have been associated with vertebrate pathogens, indicating a potential risk to captive animals.

  10. [Laboratory animals and official Mexican norms (NOM-062-ZOO-1999)].

    PubMed

    de Aluja, Aline S

    2002-01-01

    This article concerns animal experimentation and official Mexican norm Nom 0062-Zoo-1999 entitled Technical specifications for the production, care and use of laboratory animals. The history of animal experimentation is briefly resumed. During the nineteenth century, doubts arose as to the right to expose animals to experimental procedures that frequently cause pain and suffering. The first law which protected animals against cruelty was passed in Great Britain in 1876; subsequently, other nations approved similar legislation. During the second part of the twentieth century, opposition to animal experimentation grew. Other groups, mainly scientists and pharmaceutical concerns, defended the right to use animals in research. New knowledge concerning the neurophysiology, cognitive capacity, and the animal faculty to experience pain is briefly mentioned. Guidelines on care and use of animals used in research published in several countries are listed. Finally, the recently published Mexican legislation (Norm) referring to production, care and use of laboratory animals is discussed and its benefits are stressed.

  11. A Comparison of Walking Rates Between Wild and Zoo African Elephants.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lance J; Chase, Michael J; Hacker, Charlotte E

    2016-01-01

    With increased scrutiny surrounding the welfare of elephants in zoological institutions, it is important to have empirical evidence on their current welfare status. If elephants are not receiving adequate exercise, it could lead to obesity, which can lead to many issues including acyclicity and potentially heart disease. The goal of the current study was to compare the walking rates of elephants in the wild versus elephants in zoos to determine if elephants are walking similar distances relative to their wild counterparts. Eleven wild elephants throughout different habitats and locations in Botswana were compared to 8 elephants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. Direct comparisons revealed no significant difference in average walking rates of zoo elephants when compared with wild elephants. These results suggest that elephants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park walk similar rates to those of wild elephants and may be meeting their exercise needs.

  12. Molecular diversity of methanogens in fecal samples from Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) at two zoos.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Kathryn L; Smith, Rachel P; St-Pierre, Benoit; Wright, André-Denis G

    2012-08-01

    Animals are dependent on mutualistic microbial communities that reside in their gastrointestinal track for essential physiological functions such as nutrition and pathogen resistance. The composition of microbial communities in an animal is influenced by various factors, including species, diet and geographical location. In this preliminary study, the population structure of fecal methanogens in Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) from two zoos was studied using separate 16S rRNA gene libraries for each zoo. While methanogen sequences belonging to the genus Methanobrevibacter were dominant in both libraries, they showed significant differences in diversity (p=0.05) and structure (p<0.0001). Population structure analysis revealed that only two operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were shared between libraries, while two OTUs were unique to the Southwick Zoo library and seven OTUs were unique to the Potter Park Zoo library. These preliminary results highlight how methanogen population structures can vary greatly between animals of the same species maintained in captivity at different locations.

  13. Why Are They Doing That? Animal Investigations at the Local Zoo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melber, Leah M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes activities that link classroom science to real world scientific ventures. Uses field trips to zoos or wildlife centers for in-depth learning experiences that help students observe, investigate, and explore issues in animal science. (SAH)

  14. A Comparison of Walking Rates Between Wild and Zoo African Elephants.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lance J; Chase, Michael J; Hacker, Charlotte E

    2016-01-01

    With increased scrutiny surrounding the welfare of elephants in zoological institutions, it is important to have empirical evidence on their current welfare status. If elephants are not receiving adequate exercise, it could lead to obesity, which can lead to many issues including acyclicity and potentially heart disease. The goal of the current study was to compare the walking rates of elephants in the wild versus elephants in zoos to determine if elephants are walking similar distances relative to their wild counterparts. Eleven wild elephants throughout different habitats and locations in Botswana were compared to 8 elephants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. Direct comparisons revealed no significant difference in average walking rates of zoo elephants when compared with wild elephants. These results suggest that elephants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park walk similar rates to those of wild elephants and may be meeting their exercise needs. PMID:26963741

  15. Effects of porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptives in zoo felids.

    PubMed

    Harrenstien, Lisa A; Munson, Linda; Chassy, Lisa M; Liu, Irwin K M; Kirkpatrick, Jay F

    2004-09-01

    Methods of contraception are necessary for management of zoo felids; however, the most commonly used contraceptive (melengestrol acetate implant) is associated with serious adverse reactions with long-term use. Porcine zona pellucida (pZP) vaccines are promising as contraceptives, but their safety in zoo felids has not been tested. pZP vaccine was administered to 27 female felids representing 10 species, including African lion (Panthera leo), Asian leopard (P. pardus), jaguar (P. onca), tiger (P. tigris), snow leopard (P. uncia), cougar (Felis concolor), Siberian lynx (F. lynx), Canada lynx (F. canadensis), serval (F. serval), and bobcat (F. rufus), in 15 facilities. Over 6 wk, each animal received three i.m. injections of 65 microg pZP with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), Freund's incomplete adjuvant, or carbopol as the adjuvant. Behavioral signs of estrus were seen in 14 of the vaccinated felids. An unacceptably high incidence of adverse reactions was seen including injection site swelling, lameness, limb swelling, or abscessation (or all) in five felids after injection with FCA as the initial adjuvant. Adverse behavioral signs, including increased irritability and aggression, were seen in four felids. Six of the felids were assayed for antibodies against pZP during the 12 mo after vaccination; all showed antibody production. Antibody levels appeared to peak 1-4 mo after vaccination began, although elevated antibody levels persisted in two animals for > 12 mo after the first injection. All vaccinated felids were ovariohysterectomized 3-13 mo after vaccination. Folliculogenesis was present in all treated animals, and there was no histopathologic evidence of inflammatory damage to ovaries. Contraceptive efficacy was not specifically evaluated in this study; however, two of the three felids housed with an intact male became pregnant during the study, one of which gave birth to healthy cubs.

  16. Effects of porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptives in zoo felids.

    PubMed

    Harrenstien, Lisa A; Munson, Linda; Chassy, Lisa M; Liu, Irwin K M; Kirkpatrick, Jay F

    2004-09-01

    Methods of contraception are necessary for management of zoo felids; however, the most commonly used contraceptive (melengestrol acetate implant) is associated with serious adverse reactions with long-term use. Porcine zona pellucida (pZP) vaccines are promising as contraceptives, but their safety in zoo felids has not been tested. pZP vaccine was administered to 27 female felids representing 10 species, including African lion (Panthera leo), Asian leopard (P. pardus), jaguar (P. onca), tiger (P. tigris), snow leopard (P. uncia), cougar (Felis concolor), Siberian lynx (F. lynx), Canada lynx (F. canadensis), serval (F. serval), and bobcat (F. rufus), in 15 facilities. Over 6 wk, each animal received three i.m. injections of 65 microg pZP with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), Freund's incomplete adjuvant, or carbopol as the adjuvant. Behavioral signs of estrus were seen in 14 of the vaccinated felids. An unacceptably high incidence of adverse reactions was seen including injection site swelling, lameness, limb swelling, or abscessation (or all) in five felids after injection with FCA as the initial adjuvant. Adverse behavioral signs, including increased irritability and aggression, were seen in four felids. Six of the felids were assayed for antibodies against pZP during the 12 mo after vaccination; all showed antibody production. Antibody levels appeared to peak 1-4 mo after vaccination began, although elevated antibody levels persisted in two animals for > 12 mo after the first injection. All vaccinated felids were ovariohysterectomized 3-13 mo after vaccination. Folliculogenesis was present in all treated animals, and there was no histopathologic evidence of inflammatory damage to ovaries. Contraceptive efficacy was not specifically evaluated in this study; however, two of the three felids housed with an intact male became pregnant during the study, one of which gave birth to healthy cubs. PMID:15526881

  17. Low pathogenic influenza A virus activity at avian interfaces in Ohio zoos, 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Nolting, Jacqueline M; Dennis, Patricia; Long, Lindsey; Holtvoigt, Lauren; Brown, Deniele; King, Mary Jo; Shellbarger, Wynonna; Hanley, Chris; Killian, Mary Lea; Slemons, Richard D

    2013-09-01

    This investigation to examine influenza A virus activity in avian species at four Ohio zoos was initiated to better understand the ecology of avian-origin influenza A (AIV) virus in wild aquatic birds and the possibility of spill-over of such viruses into captive zoo birds, both native and foreign species. Virus isolation efforts resulted in the recovery of three low pathogenic (LP) AIV isolates (one H7N3 and two H3N6) from oral-pharyngeal or cloacal swabs collected from over 1000 zoo birds representing 94 species. In addition, 21 LPAIV isolates possessing H3N6, H4N6, or H7N3 subtype combinations were recovered from 627 (3.3%) environmental fecal samples collected from outdoor habitats accessible to zoo and wild birds. Analysis of oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs collected from free-ranging mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) live-trapped at one zoo in 2007 resulted in the recovery of 164 LPAIV isolates (48% of samples) representing five HA and six NA subtypes and at least nine HA-NA combinations. The high frequency of isolate recovery is undoubtedly due to the capture and holding of wild ducks in a common pen before relocation. Serologic analyses using an agar gel immune diffusion assay detected antibodies to the influenza A virus type-specific antigen in 147 of 1237 (11.9%) zoo bird sera and in 14 of 154 (9%) wild mallard sera. Additional analyses of a limited number of zoo bird sera demonstrated HA- and NA-inhibition activity to 15 HA and nine NA subtypes. The spectrum of HA antibodies indicate antibody diversity of AIV infecting zoo birds; however, the contribution of heterologous cross-reactions and steric interference was not ruled out. This proactive investigation documented that antigenically diverse LPAIVs were active in all three components of the avian zoologic-wild bird interfaces at Ohio zoos (zoo birds, the environment, and wild birds). The resulting baseline data provides insight and justification for preventive medicine strategies for zoo birds.

  18. Conservation caring: measuring the influence of zoo visitors' connection to wildlife on pro-conservation behaviors.

    PubMed

    Skibins, Jeffrey C; Powell, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    Zoos in the 21st century are striving to make effective contributions to conservation. Although zoos are extremely popular and host over 600 million visitors worldwide, one challenge zoos face is how to effectively engage visitors and raise awareness and action for conservation. To this end, zoos commonly rely on charismatic megafauna, which have been shown to elicit a connection with zoo visitors. However, little is known about how to measure a connection to a species or how this connection may influence conservation behaviors. This study had two sequential objectives. The first was to develop a scale to measure visitors' connection to a species (Conservation Caring). The second was to investigate the relationship of Conservation Caring to pro-conservation behaviors, following a zoo experience. Pre- (n = 411) and post-visit (n = 452) responses were collected from three sites in order to assess the reliability and validity of a scale to measure Conservation Caring. Structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship between Conservation Caring and pro-conservation behaviors. Conservation Caring was deemed a valid and reliable scale and was a strong predictor of species oriented behaviors (β = 0.62), for example, "adopting" an animal, but a weak predictor for biodiversity oriented behaviors (β = 0.07), for example, supporting sustainability policies. Results support the role zoos can play in fostering a connection to wildlife and stimulating pro-conservation behaviors. Additionally, visitors connected to a wide array of animals. On the basis of these results, zoos may recruit a wider assemblage of species as potential flagships.

  19. Determining Connections between the Daily Lives of Zoo Elephants and Their Welfare: An Epidemiological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, Cheryl L.; Mench, Joy A.; Carlstead, Kathy; Hogan, Jennifer N.

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about animal welfare increasingly shape people’s views about the acceptability of keeping animals for food production, biomedical research, and in zoos. The field of animal welfare science has developed over the past 50 years as a method of investigating these concerns via research that assesses how living in human-controlled environments influences the behavior, health and affective states of animals. Initially, animal welfare research focused on animals in agricultural settings, but the field has expanded to zoos because good animal welfare is essential to zoos’ mission of promoting connections between animals and visitors and raising awareness of conservation issues. A particular challenge for zoos is ensuring good animal welfare for long-lived, highly social species like elephants. Our main goal in conducting an epidemiological study of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephant welfare in 68 accredited North American zoos was to understand the prevalence of welfare indicators in the population and determine the aspects of an elephant’s zoo environment, social life and management that are most important to prevent and reduce a variety of welfare problems. In this overview, we provide a summary of the findings of the nine papers in the collection titled: Epidemiological Investigations of North American Zoo Elephant Welfare with a focus on the life history, social, housing, and management factors found to be associated with particular aspects of elephant welfare, including the performance of abnormal behavior, foot and joint problems, recumbence, walking rates, and reproductive health issues. Social and management factors were found to be important for multiple indicators of welfare, while exhibit space was found to be less influential than expected. This body of work results from the largest prospective zoo-based animal welfare study conducted to date and sets in motion the process of using science-based welfare benchmarks

  20. Elephant Management in North American Zoos: Environmental Enrichment, Feeding, Exercise, and Training.

    PubMed

    Greco, Brian J; Meehan, Cheryl L; Miller, Lance J; Shepherdson, David J; Morfeld, Kari A; Andrews, Jeff; Baker, Anne M; Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A

    2016-01-01

    The management of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants in zoos involves a range of practices including feeding, exercise, training, and environmental enrichment. These practices are necessary to meet the elephants' nutritional, healthcare, and husbandry needs. However, these practices are not standardized, resulting in likely variation among zoos as well as differences in the way they are applied to individual elephants within a zoo. To characterize elephant management in North America, we collected survey data from zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, developed 26 variables, generated population level descriptive statistics, and analyzed them to identify differences attributable to sex and species. Sixty-seven zoos submitted surveys describing the management of 224 elephants and the training experiences of 227 elephants. Asian elephants spent more time managed (defined as interacting directly with staff) than Africans (mean time managed: Asians = 56.9%; Africans = 48.6%; p<0.001), and managed time increased by 20.2% for every year of age for both species. Enrichment, feeding, and exercise programs were evaluated using diversity indices, with mean scores across zoos in the midrange for these measures. There were an average of 7.2 feedings every 24-hour period, with only 1.2 occurring during the nighttime. Feeding schedules were predictable at 47.5% of zoos. We also calculated the relative use of rewarding and aversive techniques employed during training interactions. The population median was seven on a scale from one (representing only aversive stimuli) to nine (representing only rewarding stimuli). The results of our study provide essential information for understanding management variation that could be relevant to welfare. Furthermore, the variables we created have been used in subsequent elephant welfare analyses. PMID:27414654

  1. Elephant Management in North American Zoos: Environmental Enrichment, Feeding, Exercise, and Training

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Brian J.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Miller, Lance J.; Shepherdson, David J.; Morfeld, Kari A.; Andrews, Jeff; Baker, Anne M.; Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A.

    2016-01-01

    The management of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants in zoos involves a range of practices including feeding, exercise, training, and environmental enrichment. These practices are necessary to meet the elephants’ nutritional, healthcare, and husbandry needs. However, these practices are not standardized, resulting in likely variation among zoos as well as differences in the way they are applied to individual elephants within a zoo. To characterize elephant management in North America, we collected survey data from zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, developed 26 variables, generated population level descriptive statistics, and analyzed them to identify differences attributable to sex and species. Sixty-seven zoos submitted surveys describing the management of 224 elephants and the training experiences of 227 elephants. Asian elephants spent more time managed (defined as interacting directly with staff) than Africans (mean time managed: Asians = 56.9%; Africans = 48.6%; p<0.001), and managed time increased by 20.2% for every year of age for both species. Enrichment, feeding, and exercise programs were evaluated using diversity indices, with mean scores across zoos in the midrange for these measures. There were an average of 7.2 feedings every 24-hour period, with only 1.2 occurring during the nighttime. Feeding schedules were predictable at 47.5% of zoos. We also calculated the relative use of rewarding and aversive techniques employed during training interactions. The population median was seven on a scale from one (representing only aversive stimuli) to nine (representing only rewarding stimuli). The results of our study provide essential information for understanding management variation that could be relevant to welfare. Furthermore, the variables we created have been used in subsequent elephant welfare analyses. PMID:27414654

  2. Elephant Management in North American Zoos: Environmental Enrichment, Feeding, Exercise, and Training.

    PubMed

    Greco, Brian J; Meehan, Cheryl L; Miller, Lance J; Shepherdson, David J; Morfeld, Kari A; Andrews, Jeff; Baker, Anne M; Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A

    2016-01-01

    The management of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants in zoos involves a range of practices including feeding, exercise, training, and environmental enrichment. These practices are necessary to meet the elephants' nutritional, healthcare, and husbandry needs. However, these practices are not standardized, resulting in likely variation among zoos as well as differences in the way they are applied to individual elephants within a zoo. To characterize elephant management in North America, we collected survey data from zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, developed 26 variables, generated population level descriptive statistics, and analyzed them to identify differences attributable to sex and species. Sixty-seven zoos submitted surveys describing the management of 224 elephants and the training experiences of 227 elephants. Asian elephants spent more time managed (defined as interacting directly with staff) than Africans (mean time managed: Asians = 56.9%; Africans = 48.6%; p<0.001), and managed time increased by 20.2% for every year of age for both species. Enrichment, feeding, and exercise programs were evaluated using diversity indices, with mean scores across zoos in the midrange for these measures. There were an average of 7.2 feedings every 24-hour period, with only 1.2 occurring during the nighttime. Feeding schedules were predictable at 47.5% of zoos. We also calculated the relative use of rewarding and aversive techniques employed during training interactions. The population median was seven on a scale from one (representing only aversive stimuli) to nine (representing only rewarding stimuli). The results of our study provide essential information for understanding management variation that could be relevant to welfare. Furthermore, the variables we created have been used in subsequent elephant welfare analyses.

  3. Crashing galaxies, cosmic fireworks

    SciTech Connect

    Keel, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    The study of binary systems is reviewed. The history of the study of interacting galaxies, the behavior of gas in binary systems, studies to identify the processes that occur when galaxies interact, and the relationship of Seyfert galaxies and quasars to binary systems are discussed. The development of an atlas of peculiar galaxies (Arp, 1966) and methods for modeling galaxy interactions are examined.

  4. Morfometryka—A New Way of Establishing Morphological Classification of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, F.; de Carvalho, R. R.; Trevisan, M.

    2015-11-01

    We present an extended morphometric system to automatically classify galaxies from astronomical images. The new system includes the original and modified versions of the CASGM coefficients (Concentration C1, Asymmetry A3, and Smoothness S3), and the new parameters entropy, H, and spirality σψ. The new parameters A3, S3, and H are better to discriminate galaxy classes than A1, S1, and G, respectively. The new parameter σψ captures the amount of non-radial pattern on the image and is almost linearly dependent on T-type. Using a sample of spiral and elliptical galaxies from the Galaxy Zoo project as a training set, we employed the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) technique to classify EFIGI (Baillard et al. 4458 galaxies), Nair & Abraham (14,123 galaxies), and SDSS Legacy (779,235 galaxies) samples. The cross-validation test shows that we can achieve an accuracy of more than 90% with our classification scheme. Therefore, we are able to define a plane in the morphometric parameter space that separates the elliptical and spiral classes with a mismatch between classes smaller than 10%. We use the distance to this plane as a morphometric index (Mi) and we show that it follows the human based T-type index very closely. We calculate morphometric index Mi for ∼780k galaxies from SDSS Legacy Survey–DR7. We discuss how Mi correlates with stellar population parameters obtained using the spectra available from SDSS–DR7.

  5. Morfometryka—A New Way of Establishing Morphological Classification of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, F.; de Carvalho, R. R.; Trevisan, M.

    2015-11-01

    We present an extended morphometric system to automatically classify galaxies from astronomical images. The new system includes the original and modified versions of the CASGM coefficients (Concentration C1, Asymmetry A3, and Smoothness S3), and the new parameters entropy, H, and spirality σψ. The new parameters A3, S3, and H are better to discriminate galaxy classes than A1, S1, and G, respectively. The new parameter σψ captures the amount of non-radial pattern on the image and is almost linearly dependent on T-type. Using a sample of spiral and elliptical galaxies from the Galaxy Zoo project as a training set, we employed the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) technique to classify EFIGI (Baillard et al. 4458 galaxies), Nair & Abraham (14,123 galaxies), and SDSS Legacy (779,235 galaxies) samples. The cross-validation test shows that we can achieve an accuracy of more than 90% with our classification scheme. Therefore, we are able to define a plane in the morphometric parameter space that separates the elliptical and spiral classes with a mismatch between classes smaller than 10%. We use the distance to this plane as a morphometric index (Mi) and we show that it follows the human based T-type index very closely. We calculate morphometric index Mi for ˜780k galaxies from SDSS Legacy Survey-DR7. We discuss how Mi correlates with stellar population parameters obtained using the spectra available from SDSS-DR7.

  6. The influence of an interactive educational approach on visitors' learning in a Swiss zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemann-Matthies, Petra; Kamer, Tobias

    2006-03-01

    A new but costly approach to providing visitors of zoos with information on conservation is the presentation of small exhibits by zoo professionals or volunteers. At these touch tables visitors can find out about the biology, ecology, and conservation of animals kept in the zoo. We studied the effect of a touch table on visitors' learning in a Swiss zoo (Tierpark Goldau) using an experimental approach. For half of each day, visitors could choose to gain information from labels next to the enclosures and posters. In addition, for the other half of the day visitors could also choose to make use of a touch table on the bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus). More than 600 visitors participated in the study. Results revealed that the modern approach was successful. Visitors using the touch table knew more about the biology, ecology, and conservation of bearded vultures, both immediately after their visit to the zoo and two months later. It is suggested that more use be made of touch tables in zoos, museums, visitor centers, and other settings for nature education.

  7. What do population-level welfare indices suggest about the well-being of zoo elephants?

    PubMed

    Mason, Georgia J; Veasey, Jake S

    2010-01-01

    To assess zoo elephants' welfare using objective population-level indices, we sought data from zoos and other protected populations (potential "benchmarks") on variables affected by poor well-being. Such data were available on fecundity, potential fertility, stillbirths, infant mortality, adult survivorship, and stereotypic behavior. Most of these can also be affected by factors unrelated to well-being; therefore, for each, we analyzed the potential role of these other factors. Population-level comparisons generally indicate poor reproduction, and poor infant and adult survivorship in zoos compared with benchmark populations (with some differences between zoo regions and over time). Stereotypic behavior also occurs in c. 60% of zoo elephants; as the population-level welfare index least open to alternative interpretations, this represents the strongest evidence that well-being is/has been widely compromised. Poor well-being is a parsimonious explanation for the diverse range of population-level effects seen, but to test this hypothesis properly, data are now needed on, for example, potential confounds that can affect these indices (to partition out effects of factors unrelated to well-being), and causes of the observed temporal effects, and differences between species and zoo regions. Regardless of whether such additional data implicate poor well-being, our findings suggest that elephant management has generally been sub-optimal. We also discuss the selection and utilization of benchmark data, as a useful future approach for evaluating such issues.

  8. An epidemiological approach to welfare research in zoos: the Elephant Welfare Project.

    PubMed

    Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A; Meehan, Cheryl; Brown, Janine L

    2013-01-01

    Multi-institutional studies of welfare have proven to be valuable in zoos but are hampered by limited sample sizes and difficulty in evaluating more than just a few welfare indicators. To more clearly understand how interactions of husbandry factors influence the interrelationships among welfare outcomes, epidemiological approaches are needed as well as multifactorial assessments of welfare. Many questions have been raised about the housing and care of elephants in zoos and whether their environmental and social needs are being met in a manner that promotes good welfare. This article describes the background and rationale for a large-scale study of elephant welfare in North American zoos funded by the (U.S.) Institute of Museum and Library Services. The goals of this project are to document the prevalence of positive and negative welfare states in 291 elephants exhibited in 72 Association of Zoos and Aquariums zoos and then determine the environmental, management, and husbandry factors that impact elephant welfare. This research is the largest scale nonhuman animal welfare project ever undertaken by the zoo community, and the scope of environmental variables and welfare outcomes measured is unprecedented.

  9. An epidemiological approach to welfare research in zoos: the Elephant Welfare Project.

    PubMed

    Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A; Meehan, Cheryl; Brown, Janine L

    2013-01-01

    Multi-institutional studies of welfare have proven to be valuable in zoos but are hampered by limited sample sizes and difficulty in evaluating more than just a few welfare indicators. To more clearly understand how interactions of husbandry factors influence the interrelationships among welfare outcomes, epidemiological approaches are needed as well as multifactorial assessments of welfare. Many questions have been raised about the housing and care of elephants in zoos and whether their environmental and social needs are being met in a manner that promotes good welfare. This article describes the background and rationale for a large-scale study of elephant welfare in North American zoos funded by the (U.S.) Institute of Museum and Library Services. The goals of this project are to document the prevalence of positive and negative welfare states in 291 elephants exhibited in 72 Association of Zoos and Aquariums zoos and then determine the environmental, management, and husbandry factors that impact elephant welfare. This research is the largest scale nonhuman animal welfare project ever undertaken by the zoo community, and the scope of environmental variables and welfare outcomes measured is unprecedented. PMID:24079487

  10. Galaxy-galaxy(-galaxy) lensing as a sensitive probe of galaxy evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghiha, H.; Hilbert, S.; Schneider, P.; Simon, P.

    2012-11-01

    Context. The gravitational lensing effect provides various ways to study the mass environment of galaxies. Aims: We investigate how galaxy-galaxy(-galaxy) lensing can be used to test models of galaxy formation and evolution. Methods: We consider two semi-analytic galaxy formation models based on the Millennium Run N-body simulation: the Durham model by Bower et al. (2006, MNRAS, 370, 645) and the Garching model by Guo et al. (2011, MNRAS, 413, 101). We generate mock lensing observations for the two models, and then employ Fast Fourier Transform methods to compute second- and third-order aperture statistics in the simulated fields for various galaxy samples. Results: We find that both models predict qualitatively similar aperture signals, but there are large quantitative differences. The Durham model predicts larger amplitudes in general. In both models, red galaxies exhibit stronger aperture signals than blue galaxies. Using these aperture measurements and assuming a linear deterministic bias model, we measure relative bias ratios of red and blue galaxy samples. We find that a linear deterministic bias is insufficient to describe the relative clustering of model galaxies below ten arcmin angular scales. Dividing galaxies into luminosity bins, the aperture signals decrease with decreasing luminosity for brighter galaxies, but increase again for fainter galaxies. This increase is likely an artifact due to too many faint satellite galaxies in massive group and cluster halos predicted by the models. Conclusions: Our study shows that galaxy-galaxy(-galaxy) lensing is a sensitive probe of galaxy evolution.

  11. Galaxy formation.

    PubMed

    Peebles, P J

    1998-01-01

    It is argued that within the standard Big Bang cosmological model the bulk of the mass of the luminous parts of the large galaxies likely had been assembled by redshift z approximately 10. Galaxy assembly this early would be difficult to fit in the widely discussed adiabatic cold dark matter model for structure formation, but it could agree with an isocurvature version in which the cold dark matter is the remnant of a massive scalar field frozen (or squeezed) from quantum fluctuations during inflation. The squeezed field fluctuations would be Gaussian with zero mean, and the distribution of the field mass therefore would be the square of a random Gaussian process. This offers a possibly interesting new direction for the numerical exploration of models for cosmic structure formation.

  12. Galaxy formation

    PubMed Central

    Peebles, P. J. E.

    1998-01-01

    It is argued that within the standard Big Bang cosmological model the bulk of the mass of the luminous parts of the large galaxies likely had been assembled by redshift z ∼ 10. Galaxy assembly this early would be difficult to fit in the widely discussed adiabatic cold dark matter model for structure formation, but it could agree with an isocurvature version in which the cold dark matter is the remnant of a massive scalar field frozen (or squeezed) from quantum fluctuations during inflation. The squeezed field fluctuations would be Gaussian with zero mean, and the distribution of the field mass therefore would be the square of a random Gaussian process. This offers a possibly interesting new direction for the numerical exploration of models for cosmic structure formation. PMID:9419326

  13. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Keystones of galaxy evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1994-01-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are the most insignificant extragalactic stellar systems in terms of their visibility, but potentially very significant in terms of their role in the formation and evolution of much more luminous galaxies. We discuss the present observational data and their implications for theories of the formation and evolution of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The putative dark-matter content of these low-surface-brightness systems is of particular interest, as is their chemical evolution. Surveys for new dwarf spheroidals hidden behind the stars of our Galaxy and those which are not bound to giant galaxies may give new clues as to the origins of this unique class of galaxy.

  14. Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Fournon, I.; Balcells, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Sánchez, F.

    2010-08-01

    Participants; Group photograph; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Galaxy formation and evolution: recent progress R. Ellis; 2. Galaxies at high redshift M. Dickinson; 3. High-redshift galaxies: the far-infrared and sub-millimeter view A. Franceschini; 4. Quasar absorption lines J. Bechtold; 5. Stellar population synthesis models at low and high redshift G. Bruzual A.; 6. Elliptical galaxies K. C. Freeman; 7. Disk galaxies K. C. Freeman; 8. Dark matter in disk galaxies K. C. Freeman.

  15. Radiology practice models: the 2008 ACR Forum.

    PubMed

    Gunderman, Richard B; Weinreb, Jeffrey C; Van Moore, Arl; Hillman, Bruce J; Neiman, Harvey L; Thrall, James H

    2008-09-01

    The 2008 ACR Forum brought together a diverse group of participants from clinical radiology, radiology leadership and practice management, managed care, economics, law, and entrepreneurship in Washington, DC, in January 2008 to discuss current models of radiology practice and anticipate new ones. It addressed what forces shape the practice of radiology, how these forces are changing, and how radiology practices can most effectively respond to them in the future.

  16. The CSCE forum for security cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Borawski, J.; George, B.

    1993-10-01

    What are the next steps for arms control in Europe, given the tectonic changes that have shaken the continent over the past four years? Negotiators in Europe, who labored for nearly two decades on the details of conventional force reductions and confidence-building measures, are grappling with that question. On September 22, 1992, a fresh, if perhaps belated, attempt to adapt to the new conditions of the post-Cold War era began in Vienna with the creation of the 54-member Forum for Security Cooperation (FSC). The FSC is the security component of the multifaceted Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCEO), which deals with a range of issues, including human rights, in addition to the various items on the security agenda. The forum is facing a task unprecedented in the scope of the CSCE: it is simultaneously trying to address arms control negotiations, security enhancement and cooperation, and conflict prevention. The primary objective of the forum will be to adapt the traditional tools of arms control, including those applied to military activity, to the contemporary {open_quotes}security parlance{close_quotes} of preventive diplomacy, peacemaking, peacekeeping, peace enforcement and peace building.

  17. Genome-wide profiling of forum domains in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Tchurikov, Nickolai A.; Kretova, Olga V.; Sosin, Dmitri V.; Zykov, Ivan A.; Zhimulev, Igor F.; Kravatsky, Yuri V.

    2011-01-01

    Forum domains are stretches of chromosomal DNA that are excised from eukaryotic chromosomes during their spontaneous non-random fragmentation. Most forum domains are 50–200 kb in length. We mapped forum domain termini using FISH on polytene chromosomes and we performed genome-wide mapping using a Drosophila melanogaster genomic tiling microarray consisting of overlapping 3 kb fragments. We found that forum termini very often correspond to regions of intercalary heterochromatin and regions of late replication in polytene chromosomes. We found that forum domains contain clusters of several or many genes. The largest forum domains correspond to the main clusters of homeotic genes inside BX-C and ANTP-C, cluster of histone genes and clusters of piRNAs. PRE/TRE and transcription factor binding sites often reside inside domains and do not overlap with forum domain termini. We also found that about 20% of forum domain termini correspond to small chromosomal regions where Ago1, Ago2, small RNAs and repressive chromatin structures are detected. Our results indicate that forum domains correspond to big multi-gene chromosomal units, some of which could be coordinately expressed. The data on the global mapping of forum domains revealed a strong correlation between fragmentation sites in chromosomes, particular sets of mobile elements and regions of intercalary heterochromatin. PMID:21247882

  18. Quenching histories of galaxies and the role of AGN feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smethurst, Rebecca Jane; Lintott, Chris; Simmons, Brooke; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2016-01-01

    Two open issues in modern astrophysics are: (i) how do galaxies fully quench their star formation and (ii) how is this affected - or not - by AGN feedback? I present the results of a new Bayesian-MCMC analysis of the star formation histories of over 126,000 galaxies across the colour magnitude diagram showing that diverse quenching mechanisms are instrumental in the formation of the present day red sequence. Using classifications from Galaxy Zoo we show that the rate at which quenching can occur is morphologically dependent in each of the blue cloud, green valley and red sequence. We discuss the nature of these possible quenching mechanisms, considering the influence of secular evolution, galaxy interactions and mergers, both with and without black hole activity. We focus particularly on the relationship between these quenched star formation histories and the presence of an AGN by using this new Bayesian method to show a population of type 2 AGN host galaxies have recently (within 2 Gyr) undergone a rapid (τ < 1 Gyr) drop in their star formation rate. With this result we therefore present the first statistically supported observational evidence that AGN feedback is an important mechanism for the cessation of star formation in this population of galaxies. The diversity of this new method also highlights that such rapid quenching histories cannot account fully for all the quenching across the current AGN host population. We demonstrate that slower (τ > 2 Gyr) quenching rates dominate for high stellar mass (log10[M*/M⊙] > 10.75) hosts of AGN with both early- and late-type morphology. We discuss how these results show that both merger-driven and non-merger processes are contributing to the co-evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes across the entirety of the colour magnitude diagram.

  19. PREFACE: IV Nanotechnology International Forum (RUSNANOTECH 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvurechenskii, Anatoly; Alfimov, Mikhail; Suzdalev, Igor; Osiko, Vyacheslav; Khokhlov, Aleksey; Son, Eduard; Skryabin, Konstantin; Petrov, Rem; Deev, Sergey

    2012-02-01

    Logo The RUSNANOTECH 2011 International Forum on Nanotechnology was held from 26-28 October 2011, in Moscow, Russia. It was the fourth forum organized by RUSNANO (Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies) since 2008. In March 2011 RUSNANO was established as an open joint-stock company through the reorganization of the state corporation Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies. RUSNANO's mission is to develop the Russian nanotechnology industry through co-investment in nanotechnology projects with substantial economic potential or social benefit. Within the framework of the Forum Science and Technology Program, presentations on key trends of nanotechnology development were given by foreign and Russian scientists, R&D officers of leading international companies, universities and scientific centers. The science and technology program of the Forum was divided into four sections as follows (by following hyperlinks you may find each section's program including videos of all oral presentations): Nanoelectronics and Nanophotonics Nanomaterials Nanotechnology and Green Energy Nanotechnology in Healthcare and Pharma (United business and science & technology section on 'RUSNANOTECH 2011') The scientific program of the forum included more than 50 oral presentations by leading scientists from 15 countries. Among them were world-known specialists such as Professor S Bader (Argonne National Laboratory, USA), Professor O Farokzhad (Harvard Medical School, USA), Professor K Chien (Massachusetts General Hospital, USA), Professor L Liz-Marzan (University of Vigo), A Luque (Polytechnic University of Madrid) and many others. The poster session consisted of over 120 presentations, 90 of which were presented in the framework of the young scientists' nanotechnology papers competition. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes a selection of 47 submissions. Section editors of the proceedings: Nanoelectronics and nanophotonics Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of

  20. From the Exoplanetary Bestiary to the Exoplanetary Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unterborn, C. T.; Panero, W. R.; Stixrude, L. P.; Kellogg, L. H.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.; Diamond, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    While much attention has been focused on the exoplanetary "bestiary" of super-Earths, lava worlds, and diamond planets, habitable planets are more likely to be found in a more similar exoplanetary "zoo." Many planet-hosting stars are similar in composition to the Sun, with moderate variations in metal abundances. Even for those stars with O and Fe abundances similar to the Sun, many have 100% variations in the refractory, rock-forming elements such as Si, Mg, Al and Ca. For an Earth sized planet, this variation creates planets with drastically different mantle mineral assemblages and variable melting, elastic, and viscous properties, leading to variable dynamical behavior. This dynamical behavior dictates the dominant mode of heat extraction, be it through a conducting rigid lid or via plate tectonics. Without tectonics, there is no mechanism known with which to create a deep water and carbon cycle, thus creating a long-lived habitable surface. We present the results of integrated modeling in which we consider the effects of variations in bulk mantle composition on Earth-mass planets. To explore the variations expected in this planetary zoo, we present condensation sequence calculations for stars of varying refractory element abundances. These calculations constrain the potential refractory mineral reservoir from which Earth-mass terrestrial planets will form. As planets of this size inevitably will convect, the thermal structure of the mantle is controlled by surface melting temperature and the first crust can be estimated from decompression melting of a convecting mantle. The thermodynamic code HeFESTo determines the mineralogy and resulting thermoelastic properties of both the mantle and potential foundering of crustal material. Finally, with parameterized convection modeling and 2- and 3-D convection modeling, we determine terrestrial mantle's convective regime as a function of bulk composition. We therefore consider a planet's potential for Earth-like plate

  1. Evaluating the contribution of zoos and aquariums to Aichi Biodiversity Target 1.

    PubMed

    Moss, Andrew; Jensen, Eric; Gusset, Markus

    2015-04-01

    The United Nations Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 is a key initiative within global efforts to halt and eventually reverse the loss of biodiversity. The very first target of this plan states that "by 2020, at the latest, people are aware of the values of biodiversity and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably." Zoos and aquariums worldwide, attracting more than 700 million visits every year, could potentially make a positive contribution to this target. However, a global evaluation of the educational impacts of visits to zoos and aquariums is entirely lacking in the existing literature. To address this gap, we conducted a large-scale impact evaluation study. We used a pre- and postvisit repeated-measures survey design to evaluate biodiversity literacy-understanding of biodiversity and knowledge of actions to help protect it-of zoo and aquarium visitors worldwide. Ours was the largest and most international study of zoo and aquarium visitors ever conducted. In total, 5661 visitors to 26 zoos and aquariums from 19 countries around the globe participated in the study. Aggregate biodiversity understanding and knowledge of actions to help protect biodiversity both significantly increased over the course of zoo and aquarium visits. There was an increase from previsit (69.8%) to postvisit (75.1%) in respondents demonstrating at least some positive evidence of biodiversity understanding. Similarly, there was an increase from previsit (50.5%) to postvisit (58.8%) in respondents who could identify actions to help protect biodiversity that could be achieved at an individual level. Our results are the most compelling evidence to date that zoo and aquarium visits contribute to increasing the number of people who understand biodiversity and know actions they can take to help protect biodiversity.

  2. Evaluating the contribution of zoos and aquariums to Aichi Biodiversity Target 1.

    PubMed

    Moss, Andrew; Jensen, Eric; Gusset, Markus

    2015-04-01

    The United Nations Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 is a key initiative within global efforts to halt and eventually reverse the loss of biodiversity. The very first target of this plan states that "by 2020, at the latest, people are aware of the values of biodiversity and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably." Zoos and aquariums worldwide, attracting more than 700 million visits every year, could potentially make a positive contribution to this target. However, a global evaluation of the educational impacts of visits to zoos and aquariums is entirely lacking in the existing literature. To address this gap, we conducted a large-scale impact evaluation study. We used a pre- and postvisit repeated-measures survey design to evaluate biodiversity literacy-understanding of biodiversity and knowledge of actions to help protect it-of zoo and aquarium visitors worldwide. Ours was the largest and most international study of zoo and aquarium visitors ever conducted. In total, 5661 visitors to 26 zoos and aquariums from 19 countries around the globe participated in the study. Aggregate biodiversity understanding and knowledge of actions to help protect biodiversity both significantly increased over the course of zoo and aquarium visits. There was an increase from previsit (69.8%) to postvisit (75.1%) in respondents demonstrating at least some positive evidence of biodiversity understanding. Similarly, there was an increase from previsit (50.5%) to postvisit (58.8%) in respondents who could identify actions to help protect biodiversity that could be achieved at an individual level. Our results are the most compelling evidence to date that zoo and aquarium visits contribute to increasing the number of people who understand biodiversity and know actions they can take to help protect biodiversity. PMID:25155574

  3. Galaxies Collide to Create Hot, Huge Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This image of a pair of colliding galaxies called NGC 6240 shows them in a rare, short-lived phase of their evolution just before they merge into a single, larger galaxy. The prolonged, violent collision has drastically altered the appearance of both galaxies and created huge amounts of heat turning NGC 6240 into an 'infrared luminous' active galaxy.

    A rich variety of active galaxies, with different shapes, luminosities and radiation profiles exist. These galaxies may be related astronomers have suspected that they may represent an evolutionary sequence. By catching different galaxies in different stages of merging, a story emerges as one type of active galaxy changes into another. NGC 6240 provides an important 'missing link' in this process.

    This image was created from combined data from the infrared array camera of NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope at 3.6 and 8.0 microns (red) and visible light from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (green and blue).

  4. Galaxy NGC 55

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of the nearby edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 55 was taken by Galaxy Evolution Explorer on September 14, 2003, during 2 orbits. This galaxy lies 5.4 million light years from our Milky Way galaxy and is a member of the 'local group' of galaxies that also includes the Andromeda galaxy (M31), the Magellanic clouds, and 40 other galaxies. The spiral disk of NGC 55 is inclined to our line of sight by approximately 80 degrees and so this galaxy looks cigar-shaped. This picture is a combination of Galaxy Evolution Explorer images taken with the far ultraviolet (colored blue) and near ultraviolet detectors, (colored red). The bright blue regions in this image are areas of active star formation detected in the ultraviolet by Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The red stars in this image are foreground stars in our own Milky Way galaxy.

  5. "Our Zoo to You": The Link between Zoo Animals in the Classroom and Science and Literacy Concepts in First-Grade Journal Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kathleen; Trainin, Guy; Laughridge, Virginia; Brooks, David; Wickless, Mimi

    2011-01-01

    This study examined first-grade students' journal writing to determine how placing live zoo animals in classrooms for science education links to students' emergent and early writing. Students were asked to write journal entries during the daily language arts period. Although no direct instruction in informational text writing was offered, teachers…

  6. Host Galaxy Properties of the Swift BAT Ultra Hard X-Ray Selected AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Gehrels, Neil; Valencic, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    We have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected (14-195 keV) AGN with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (z<0.05), moderate luminosity AGN from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) sample. The BAT AGN host galaxies have intermediate optical colors (u -- r and g -- r) that are bluer than a comparison sample of inactive galaxies and optically selected AGN from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are chosen to have the same stellar mass. Based on morphological classifications from the RC3 and the Galaxy Zoo, the bluer colors of BAT AGN are mainly due to a higher fraction of mergers and massive spirals than in the comparison samples. BAT AGN in massive galaxies (log Stellar Mass >10.5) have a 5 to 10 times higher rate of spiral morphologies than in SDSS AGN or inactive galaxies. We also see enhanced far-IR emission in BAT AGN suggestive of higher levels of star formation compared to the comparison samples. BAT AGN are preferentially found in the most massive host galaxies with high concentration indexes indicative of large bulge-to-disk ratios and large supermassive black holes. The narrow-line (NL) BAT AGN have similar intrinsic luminosities as the SDSS NL Seyferts based on measurements of [O III] Lambda 5007. There is also a correlation between the stellar mass and X-ray emission. The BAT AGN in mergers have bluer colors and greater ultra hard X-ray emission compared to the BAT sample as whole. In agreement with the Unified Model of AGN, and the relatively unbiased nature of the BAT sources, the host galaxy colors and morphologies are independent of measures of obscuration such as X-ray column density or Seyfert type. The high fraction of massive spiral galaxies and galaxy mergers in BAT AGN suggest that host galaxy morphology is related to the activation and fueling of local AGN.

  7. SpArcFiRe: Scalable automated detection of spiral galaxy arm segments

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Darren R.; Hayes, Wayne B. E-mail: whayes@uci.edu

    2014-08-01

    Given an approximately centered image of a spiral galaxy, we describe an entirely automated method that finds, centers, and sizes the galaxy (possibly masking nearby stars and other objects if necessary in order to isolate the galaxy itself) and then automatically extracts structural information about the spiral arms. For each arm segment found, we list the pixels in that segment, allowing image analysis on a per-arm-segment basis. We also perform a least-squares fit of a logarithmic spiral arc to the pixels in that segment, giving per-arc parameters, such as the pitch angle, arm segment length, location, etc. The algorithm takes about one minute per galaxies, and can easily be scaled using parallelism. We have run it on all ∼644,000 Sloan objects that are larger than 40 pixels across and classified as 'galaxies'. We find a very good correlation between our quantitative description of a spiral structure and the qualitative description provided by Galaxy Zoo humans. Our objective, quantitative measures of structure demonstrate the difficulty in defining exactly what constitutes a spiral 'arm', leading us to prefer the term 'arm segment'. We find that pitch angle often varies significantly segment-to-segment in a single spiral galaxy, making it difficult to define the pitch angle for a single galaxy. We demonstrate how our new database of arm segments can be queried to find galaxies satisfying specific quantitative visual criteria. For example, even though our code does not explicitly find rings, a good surrogate is to look for galaxies having one long, low-pitch-angle arm—which is how our code views ring galaxies. SpArcFiRe is available at http://sparcfire.ics.uci.edu.

  8. HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES OF THE SWIFT BAT ULTRA HARD X-RAY SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Gehrels, Neil; Valencic, Lynne

    2011-10-01

    We have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected (14-195 keV) active galactic nucleus (AGN) with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (z < 0.05), moderate luminosity AGNs from the Swift BAT sample. The BAT AGN host galaxies have intermediate optical colors (u - r and g - r) that are bluer than a comparison sample of inactive galaxies and optically selected AGNs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are chosen to have the same stellar mass. Based on morphological classifications from the RC3 and the Galaxy Zoo, the bluer colors of BAT AGNs are mainly due to a higher fraction of mergers and massive spirals than in the comparison samples. BAT AGNs in massive galaxies (log M{sub *} >10.5) have a 5-10 times higher rate of spiral morphologies than in SDSS AGNs or inactive galaxies. We also see enhanced far-infrared emission in BAT AGN suggestive of higher levels of star formation compared to the comparison samples. BAT AGNs are preferentially found in the most massive host galaxies with high concentration indexes indicative of large bulge-to-disk ratios and large supermassive black holes. The narrow-line (NL) BAT AGNs have similar intrinsic luminosities as the SDSS NL Seyferts based on measurements of [O III] {lambda}5007. There is also a correlation between the stellar mass and X-ray emission. The BAT AGNs in mergers have bluer colors and greater ultra hard X-ray emission compared to the BAT sample as a whole. In agreement with the unified model of AGNs, and the relatively unbiased nature of the BAT sources, the host galaxy colors and morphologies are independent of measures of obscuration such as X-ray column density or Seyfert type. The high fraction of massive spiral galaxies and galaxy mergers in BAT AGNs suggest that host galaxy morphology is related to the activation and fueling of local AGN.

  9. Sharing Gravity's Microscope: Star Formation and Galaxy Evolution for Underserved Arizonans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knierman, Karen A.; Monkiewicz, Jacqueline A.; Bowman, Catherine DD; Taylor, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Learning science in a community is important for children of all levels and especially for many underserved populations. This project combines HST research of galaxy evolution using gravitationally lensed galaxies with hands-on activities and the Starlab portable planetarium to link astronomy with families, teachers, and students. To explore galaxy evolution, new activities were developed and evaluated using novel evaluation techniques. A new set of galaxy classification cards enable inquiry-based learning about galaxy ages, evolution, and gravitational lensing. Activities using new cylinder overlays for the Starlab transparent cylinder will enable the detailed examination of star formation and galaxy evolution as seen from the viewpoint inside of different types of galaxies. These activities were presented in several Arizona venues that enable family and student participation including ASU Earth and Space Open House, Arizona Museum of Natural History Homeschooling Events, on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community, and inner city Phoenix schools serving mainly Hispanic populations. Additional events targeted underserved families at the Phoenix Zoo, in Navajo County, and for the Pascua Yaqui Tribe. After evaluation, the activities and materials will also be shared with local teachers and nationally.

  10. A Semantics-Based Information Distribution Framework for Large Web-Based Course Forum System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chim, Hung; Deng, Xiaotie

    2008-01-01

    We propose a novel data distribution framework for developing a large Web-based course forum system. In the distributed architectural design, each forum server is fully equipped with the ability to support some course forums independently. The forum servers collaborating with each other constitute the whole forum system. Therefore, the workload of…

  11. Enhancing Mathematical Literacy with the Use of Metacognitive Guidance in Forum Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramarski, Bracha; Mizrachi, Nava

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of forum discussion embedded within metacognitive guidance on mathematical literacy. In particular the study compares two learning environments: (a) Forum discussion with metacognitive guidance (FORUM+META); and (b) Forum discussion without metacognitive guidance (FORUM). Participants…

  12. The ultraviolet attenuation law in backlit spiral galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Keel, William C.; Manning, Anna M.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Lintott, Chris J.; Schawinski, Kevin E-mail: ammanning@bama.ua.edu E-mail: Twitter@BenneHolwerda E-mail: Twitter@chrislintott E-mail: Twitter@kevinschawinski

    2014-02-01

    The effective extinction law (attenuation behavior) in galaxies in the emitted ultraviolet (UV) regime is well known only for actively star-forming objects and combines effects of the grain properties, fine structure in the dust distribution, and relative distributions of stars and dust. We use Galaxy Evolution Explorer, XMM Optical Monitor, and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to explore the UV attenuation in the outer parts of spiral disks which are backlit by other UV-bright galaxies, starting with the candidate list of pairs provided by Galaxy Zoo participants. New optical images help to constrain the geometry and structure of the target galaxies. Our analysis incorporates galaxy symmetry, using non-overlapping regions of each galaxy to derive error estimates on the attenuation measurements. The entire sample has an attenuation law across the optical and UV that is close to the Calzetti et al. form; the UV slope for the overall sample is substantially shallower than found by Wild et al., which is a reasonable match to the more distant galaxies in our sample but not to the weighted combination including NGC 2207. The nearby, bright spiral NGC 2207 alone gives an accuracy almost equal to the rest of our sample, and its outer arms have a very low level of foreground starlight. Thus, this widespread, fairly 'gray' law can be produced from the distribution of dust alone, without a necessary contribution from differential escape of stars from dense clouds. Our results indicate that the extrapolation needed to compare attenuation between backlit galaxies at moderate redshifts from HST data, and local systems from Sloan Digital Sky Survey and similar data, is mild enough to allow the use of galaxy overlaps to trace the cosmic history of dust in galaxies. For NGC 2207, HST data in the near-UV F336W band show that the covering factor of clouds with small optical attenuation becomes a dominant factor farther into the UV, which opens the possibility that widespread

  13. Conservation genetics of Nordic carnivores: lessons from zoos.

    PubMed

    Laikre, L

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from genetic studies of Nordic carnivore populations bred in captivity. The conservation genetic implications of those results for the management of wild populations of the same species are discussed. Inbreeding depression has been documented in the brown bear (Ursus arctos), wolf (Canis lupus), and lynx (Lynx lynx) populations held in Nordic zoos. The characters negatively affected by inbreeding include litter size (brown bear and wolf), longevity (lynx and wolf), female reproduction, and weight (wolf). In addition, hereditary defects caused by single autosomal alleles occur in the wolf and brown bear populations. These deleterious alleles cause blindness (wolf) and albinism (brown bear) in the homozygous state. The amount of inbreeding depression observed in Nordic carnivores are similar to that documented in other species. The captive populations have the same genetic background as the current wild ones and inbreeding depression is therefore a potential threat to wild carnivore populations in Sweden. This threat is presently not being adequately recognized in the management of these species. Frequently occurring misunderstandings regarding the kind of conclusions that can be drawn from the presented genetic observations are also discussed.

  14. Integrating evolution in the management of captive zoo populations.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F

    2015-06-01

    Both natural animal populations and those in captivity are subject to evolutionary forces. Evolutionary changes to captive populations may be an important, but poorly understood, factor that can affect the sustainability of these populations. The importance of maintaining the evolutionary integrity of zoo populations, especially those that are used for conservation efforts including reintroductions, is critical for the conservation of biodiversity. Here, we propose that a greater appreciation for an evolutionary perspective may offer important insights that can enhance the reproductive success and health for the sustainability of captive populations. We provide four examples and associated strategies that highlight this approach, including minimizing domestication (i.e., genetic adaptation to captivity), integrating natural mating systems into captive breeding protocols, minimizing the effects of translocation on variation in photoperiodism, and understanding the interplay of parasites/pathogens and inflammation. There are a myriad of other issues that may be important for captive populations, and we conclude that these may often be species specific. Nonetheless, an evolutionary perspective may mitigate some of the challenges currently facing captive populations that are important from a conservation perspective, including their sustainability.

  15. Integrating evolution in the management of captive zoo populations

    PubMed Central

    Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F

    2015-01-01

    Both natural animal populations and those in captivity are subject to evolutionary forces. Evolutionary changes to captive populations may be an important, but poorly understood, factor that can affect the sustainability of these populations. The importance of maintaining the evolutionary integrity of zoo populations, especially those that are used for conservation efforts including reintroductions, is critical for the conservation of biodiversity. Here, we propose that a greater appreciation for an evolutionary perspective may offer important insights that can enhance the reproductive success and health for the sustainability of captive populations. We provide four examples and associated strategies that highlight this approach, including minimizing domestication (i.e., genetic adaptation to captivity), integrating natural mating systems into captive breeding protocols, minimizing the effects of translocation on variation in photoperiodism, and understanding the interplay of parasites/pathogens and inflammation. There are a myriad of other issues that may be important for captive populations, and we conclude that these may often be species specific. Nonetheless, an evolutionary perspective may mitigate some of the challenges currently facing captive populations that are important from a conservation perspective, including their sustainability. PMID:26029256

  16. Integrating evolution in the management of captive zoo populations.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F

    2015-06-01

    Both natural animal populations and those in captivity are subject to evolutionary forces. Evolutionary changes to captive populations may be an important, but poorly understood, factor that can affect the sustainability of these populations. The importance of maintaining the evolutionary integrity of zoo populations, especially those that are used for conservation efforts including reintroductions, is critical for the conservation of biodiversity. Here, we propose that a greater appreciation for an evolutionary perspective may offer important insights that can enhance the reproductive success and health for the sustainability of captive populations. We provide four examples and associated strategies that highlight this approach, including minimizing domestication (i.e., genetic adaptation to captivity), integrating natural mating systems into captive breeding protocols, minimizing the effects of translocation on variation in photoperiodism, and understanding the interplay of parasites/pathogens and inflammation. There are a myriad of other issues that may be important for captive populations, and we conclude that these may often be species specific. Nonetheless, an evolutionary perspective may mitigate some of the challenges currently facing captive populations that are important from a conservation perspective, including their sustainability. PMID:26029256

  17. The impact of curiosity on learning during a school field trip to the zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlin, Kerry Ann

    1999-11-01

    This study was designed to examine (a) differences in cognitive learning as a result of a zoo field trip, (b) if the trip to the zoo had an impact on epistemic curiosity, (c) the role epistemic curiosity plays in learning, (d) the effect of gender, race, prior knowledge and prior visitation to the zoo on learning and epistemic curiosity, (e) participants' affect for the zoo animals, and (f) if prior visitation to the zoo contributes to prior knowledge. Ninety-six fourth and fifth grade children completed curiosity, cognitive, and affective written tests before and after a field trip to the Lowery Park Zoo in Tampa, Florida. The data showed that students were very curious about zoo animals. Dependent T-tests indicated no significant difference between pretest and posttest curiosity levels. The trip did not influence participants' curiosity levels. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the dependent variable, curiosity, and the independent variables, gender, race, prior knowledge, and prior visitation. No significant differences were found. Dependent T-tests indicated no significant difference between pretest and posttest cognitive scores. The field trip to the zoo did not cause an increase in participants' knowledge. However, participants did learn on the trip. After the field trip, participants identified more animals displayed by the zoo than they did before. Also, more animals were identified by species and genus names after the trip than before. These differences were significant (alpha = .05). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the dependent variable, posttest cognitive performance, and the independent variables, curiosity, gender, race, prior knowledge, and prior visitation. A significant difference was found for prior knowledge (alpha = .05). No significant differences were found for the other independent variables. Chi-square tests of significance indicated significant differences

  18. Using a Field Trip Inventory to Determine If Listening to Elementary School Students' Conversations, While on a Zoo Field Trip, Enhances Preservice Teachers' Abilities to Plan Zoo Field Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Patricia; Mathews, Cathy; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether listening to spontaneous conversations of elementary students and their teachers/chaperones, while they were visiting a zoo, affected preservice elementary teachers' conceptions about planning a field trip to the zoo. One hundred five preservice elementary teachers designed field trips prior to and after…

  19. Using a Field Trip Inventory to Determine If Listening to Elementary School Students' Conversations, While on a Zoo Field Trip, Enhances Preservice Teachers' Abilities to Plan Zoo Field Trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Patricia; Mathews, Cathy; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated whether listening to spontaneous conversations of elementary students and their teachers/chaperones, while they were visiting a zoo, affected preservice elementary teachers' conceptions about planning a field trip to the zoo. One hundred five preservice elementary teachers designed field trips prior to and after listening to students' conversations during a field trip to the zoo. In order to analyze the preservice teachers' field trip designs, we conducted a review of the literature on field trips to develop the field trip inventory (FTI). The FTI focussed on three major components of field trips: cognitive, procedural, and social. Cognitive components were subdivided into pre-visit, during-visit, and post-visit activities and problem-solving. Procedural components included information about the informal science education facility (the zoo) and the zoo staff and included advanced organizers. Social components on student groups, fun, control during the zoo visit, and control of student learning. The results of the investigation showed that (a) the dominant topic in conversations among elementary school groups at the zoo was management, (b) procedural components were mentioned least often, (c) preservice teachers described during-visit activities more often than any other characteristic central to field trip design, (d) seven of the nine characteristics listed in the FTI were noted more frequently in the preservice teachers' field trip designs after they listened to students' conversations at the zoo, and (e) preservice teachers thought that students were not learning and that planning was important.

  20. Prevalence and characterization of Chlamydia DNA in zoo animals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kabeya, Hidenori; Sato, Shingo; Maruyama, Soichi

    2015-09-01

    Because many people visit zoos, prevention of zoonoses is important from the standpoint of public health. This study examined the prevalence of Chlamydia among zoo animals in Japan by PCR and characterized these bacteria by performing phylogenetic analyses of the sequences of the variable domain (VD) 2 and VD4 regions of the ompA gene, which encodes the Chlamydia major outer membrane protein. Fecal samples were collected from 1150 zoo animals in five zoos and examined for Chlamydia DNA. Chlamydia psittaci DNA was found in 3.9% of mammals, 7.2% of birds and 8.1% of reptiles. The prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA was significantly higher in reptiles (5.8%) than in mammals (0.3%) and birds (0.3%). Phylogenetic analysis of the ompA VD2 region from 18 samples showed that nine were in three different clusters containing C. psittaci strains, six were in a cluster containing C. pneumoniae strains and three each formed a distinct branch. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of the ompA VD4 region showed that C. pneumoniae DNAs from reptiles were close to those from human patients. The C. pneumoniae DNAs from the European glass lizard, Emerald tree boa, and Panther chameleon were classified in clusters that were distinct from other strains, suggesting that these reptiles had each been infected with a specific C. pneumoniae genotype. This study showed that diverse Chlamydia strains have been prevalent among a variety of zoo animals. PMID:26215334

  1. MoZis: mobile zoo information system: a case study for the city of Osnabrueck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Ulrich

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes a new project of the Institute for Geoinformatics and Remote Sensing, funded by the German Federal Foundation for the Environment (DBU, Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt www.dbu.de). The goal of this project is to develop a mobile zoo information system for Pocket PCs and Smart phones. Visitors of the zoo will be able to use their own mobile devices or use Pocket PCs, which could be borrowed from the zoo to navigate around the zoo's facilities. The system will also provide additional multimedia based information such as audio-based material, animal video clips, and maps of their natural habitat. People could have access to the project at the zoo via wireless local area network or by downloading the necessary files using a home internet connection. Our software environment consists of proprietary and non-proprietary software solutions in order to make it as flexible as possible. Our first prototype was developed with Visual Studio 2003 and Visual Basic.Net.

  2. The impact of zoo live animal presentations on students' propensity to engage in conservation behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchgessner, Mandy L.

    Zoos frequently deploy outreach programs, often called "Zoomobiles," to schools; these programs incorporate zoo resources, such as natural artifacts and live animals, in order to teach standardized content and in hopes of inspiring students to protect the environment. Educational research at zoos is relatively rare, and research on their outreach programs is non-existent. This leaves zoos vulnerable to criticisms as they have little to no evidence that their strategies support their missions, which target conservation outcomes. This study seeks to shed light on this gap by analyzing the impact that live animals have on offsite program participants' interests in animals and subsequent conservation outcomes. The theoretical lens is derived from the field of Conservation Psychology, which believes personal connections with nature serve as the motivational component to engagement with conservation efforts. Using pre, post, and delayed surveys combined with Zoomobile presentation observations, I analyzed the roles of sensory experiences in students' (N=197) development of animal interest and conservation behaviors. Results suggest that touching even one animal during presentations has a significant impact on conservation intents and sustainment of those intents. Although results on interest outcomes are conflicting, this study points to ways this kind of research can make significant contributions to zoo learning outcomes. Other significant variables, such as emotional predispositions and animal-related excitement, are discussed in light of future research directions.

  3. Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Zoo Wildlife and Pet Birds in Fujian, China

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, Renfeng; LIN, Xuan; HU, Lingying; CHEN, Xiaoli; TANG, Yao; ZHANG, Jia; CHEN, Meizhen; WANG, Shoukun; HUANG, Cuiqin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Toxoplasmosis, a worldwide zoonotic disease, is caused by Toxoplasma gondii. The distribution of genetic diversity of T. gondii in wild animals is of great importance to understand the transmission of the parasite in the environment. However, little is known about T. gondii prevalence in wild animals and birds in China. Methods: We conducted the genetic characterization of T. gondii isolated from Zoo Wild Animals and Pet Birds in Fujian Province, Southeastern China. Heart tissues were collected from 45 zoo animals and 140 pet birds. After identified using B1 gene, the genetic diversity of T. gondii isolates were typed at 11 genetic markers, including SAG1, 5’ and 3’-SAG2, alternative SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico, and CS3. Results: Seven of 45 zoo animals and 3 of 140 pet birds were positive by PCR amplification using T. gondii B1 gene specific primers. Of these positive isolates, 3 isolates from Black-capped (Cebus apella), Peacock (Peafowl) and Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) were successfully genotyped at 11 genetic loci, and grouped to three distinct genotypes: ToxoDB Genotype #9, #2 and #10, respectively. Conclusion: This is the first genotyping of T. gondii isolated from zoo wild animals and pet birds in Fujian, China. There is a potential risk for the transmission of this parasite through zoo wild animals and pet birds in this region. PMID:26811736

  4. Prevalence and characterization of Chlamydia DNA in zoo animals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kabeya, Hidenori; Sato, Shingo; Maruyama, Soichi

    2015-09-01

    Because many people visit zoos, prevention of zoonoses is important from the standpoint of public health. This study examined the prevalence of Chlamydia among zoo animals in Japan by PCR and characterized these bacteria by performing phylogenetic analyses of the sequences of the variable domain (VD) 2 and VD4 regions of the ompA gene, which encodes the Chlamydia major outer membrane protein. Fecal samples were collected from 1150 zoo animals in five zoos and examined for Chlamydia DNA. Chlamydia psittaci DNA was found in 3.9% of mammals, 7.2% of birds and 8.1% of reptiles. The prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA was significantly higher in reptiles (5.8%) than in mammals (0.3%) and birds (0.3%). Phylogenetic analysis of the ompA VD2 region from 18 samples showed that nine were in three different clusters containing C. psittaci strains, six were in a cluster containing C. pneumoniae strains and three each formed a distinct branch. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of the ompA VD4 region showed that C. pneumoniae DNAs from reptiles were close to those from human patients. The C. pneumoniae DNAs from the European glass lizard, Emerald tree boa, and Panther chameleon were classified in clusters that were distinct from other strains, suggesting that these reptiles had each been infected with a specific C. pneumoniae genotype. This study showed that diverse Chlamydia strains have been prevalent among a variety of zoo animals.

  5. Isolation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 strain from fecal samples of zoo animal.

    PubMed

    Mohammed Hamzah, Aseel; Mohammed Hussein, Aseel; Mahmoud Khalef, Jenan

    2013-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains from 22 out of 174 fecal samples from petting zoo animals representing twenty-two different species (camel, lion, goats, zebra, bear, baboon monkey, Siberian monkey, deer, elk, llama, pony, horses, fox, kangaroo, wolf, porcupine, chickens, tiger, ostrich, hyena, dogs, and wildcats) were investigated. One petting Al-Zawraa zoological society of Baghdad was investigated for E. coli O157:H7 over a 16-month period that spanned two summer and two autumn seasons. Variation in the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7-positive petting zoo animals was observed, with animals being culture positive only in the summer months but not in the spring, autumn, or winter. E. coli O157:H7 isolates were distinguished by agglutination with E. coli O157:H7 latex reagent (Oxoid), identified among the isolates, which showed that multiple E. coli strains were isolated from one petting zoo animal, in which a single animal simultaneously shed multiple E. coli strains; E. coli O157:H7 was isolated only by selective enrichment culture of 2 g of petting zoo animal feces. In contrast, strains other than O157:H7 were cultured from feces of petting zoo animals without enrichment.

  6. Human-animal bonds between zoo professionals and the animals in their care.

    PubMed

    Hosey, Geoff; Melfi, Vicky

    2012-01-01

    Some human-animal relationships can be so positive that they confer emotional well-being to both partners and can thus be viewed as bonds. In this study, 130 delegates at zoo research and training events completed questionnaires in which they were asked about their professional work in the zoo and whether they believed they had established bonds with any animals. They were also asked to indicate agreement or disagreement with several statements about human-animal bonds. Results showed that many zoo professionals consider that they have established bonds with some of their animals; 103 respondents believed that they had a bond with at least one animal, and 78 of these identified that the bond was with a zoo animal. The most frequent bonds reported were with primates (n = 24) and carnivores (n = 28). Perceived benefits of these bonds to the respondents included both operational (animal easier to handle, easier to administer treatments to) and affective (sense of well-being, enjoyment at being with the animal). Identifying benefits to the animals was more difficult. Most respondents identified similar benefits for their animals as for themselves, i.e. operational (animal responded more calmly, appeared less stressed) and affective (animal appeared to enjoy contact with respondent, seemed more content). This suggests that bonding between zoo professionals and their animals could have profound consequences for the management and welfare of the animals, not to mention the job satisfaction of the people involved.

  7. Habitat characteristics of larval mosquitoes in zoos of South Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Tuten, Holly C

    2011-06-01

    To investigate whether the unique assemblage of habitats in zoos could affect mosquito oviposition behavior and to provide zoos with suggestions for mosquito control, larvae were sampled and associated habitat variables were measured in 2 zoos in South Carolina, U.S.A. Fifty-nine sites were sampled from March 2008 to January 2009. A total of 1630 larvae representing 16 species was collected and identified. The dominant species was Aedes albopictus (46.0%), followed by Ae. triseriatus (23.6%), Culex restuans (12.4%), and Cx. pipiens complex (9.7%). Principal components and multiple logistic regression analyses showed that across both zoos the distribution of Ae. albopictus larvae was predicted by ambient and site temperature, precipitation, dissolved oxygen, and container habitats. The distribution of Ae. triseriatus larvae was predicted by natural containers and shade height < or =2 m. Overall larval mosquito presence (regardless of species) was predicted by ambient and site temperature, precipitation, dissolved oxygen, presence of natural habitats, and absence of aquatic vegetation. Additionally, C8 values of pairwise species associations indicated significant habitat-based relationships between Ae. albopictus and Ae. triseriatus, and Cx. pipiens complex and Cx. restuans. In general, species-habitat associations conformed to previously published studies. Recommendations to zoo personnel include elimination of artificial container habitats, reduction of shade sources < or =2 m over aquatic habitats, use of approved mosquito larvicides, and training in recognizing and mitigating larval mosquito habitats.

  8. Role of Brazilian zoos in ex situ bird conservation: from 1981 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Cristiano S; Young, Robert J; Rodrigues, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Zoos may play an important role in conservation when they maintain and breed large numbers of animals that are threatened with extinction. Bird conservation is in a privileged situation owing to the extensive biological information available about this class. Annual inventories produced by the "Sociedade de Zoológicos do Brasil" in the years 1981, 1990, 2000, and 2005 were analyzed. Variables, such as the number of zoos per geographic region; number of birds held; number of bird species in each IUCN threat category; number of exotic and native bird species; number of potentially breeding bird species; number of bird species in each order; and number of threatened bird species breeding, were analyzed. Brazilian zoos kept more than 350 bird species. The number of bird species and specimens held by the Brazilian Zoos increased from 1981 to 2000, but decreased in 2005. The same pattern was observed for the number of species in each IUCN threat category. Results showed that the potential of the Brazilian zoos in bird conservation needs to be enhanced because they maintain threatened species but do not implement systematic genetic, reproductive, or behavioral management protocols for most species.

  9. Unsilencing voices: a study of zoo signs and their language of authority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogelberg, Katherine

    2014-12-01

    Zoo signs are important for informal learning, but their effect on visitor perception of animals has been sparsely studied. Other studies have established the importance of informal learning in American society; this study discusses zoo signs in the context of such learning. Through the lens of Critical Theory framed by informal learning, and by applying critical discourse analysis, I discovered subtle institutional power on zoo signs. This may influence visitors through dominant ideological discursive formations and emergent discourse objects, adding to the paradox of "saving" wild animals while simultaneously oppressing them. Signs covering a variety of species from two different United States-accredited zoos were analyzed. Critical Theory looks to emancipate oppressed human populations; here I apply it zoo animals. As physical emancipation is not practical, I define emancipation in the sociological sense—in this case, freedom from silence. Through this research, perhaps we can find a way to represent animals as living beings who have their own lives and voices, by presenting them honestly, with care and compassion.

  10. Galaxy groups

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Tully, R.

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times 10{sup 12}M{sub ⊙} are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of Ω{sub matter}∼0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.

  11. The origin of galaxies and clusters of galaxies.

    PubMed

    Peebles, P J

    1984-06-29

    Debate on how galaxies and clusters of galaxies formed has reached an interesting stage at which one can find arguments for quite different scenarios. The galaxy distribution has a complex "frothy" character that could be the fossil of a network of protoclusters or pancakes that produced galaxies. However, there are galaxies like our own that seem never to have been in a protocluster but are physically similar to the galaxies in dense clusters. Some clues to be assessed in resolving this dilemma are the possible existence of galaxy filaments, the relative ages of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, and the continuity between cluster and field galaxies and between galaxies and clusters of galaxies.

  12. Behaviors and Motivations observed in the Zooniverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, P. L.; Brown, S.; Huang, A. D.; Lehan, C.; Moon Zoo Team

    2010-12-01

    Today, the total number of astronomers and geophysicists working in academia is dwarfed by the legions of citizen scientists who are flocking to citizen science programs like Moon Zoo, StarDust@Home, Solar Storm Watch, and Be a Martian. Through the Zooniverse collection of projects (including Moon Zoo and Solar Storm Watch), more than 2-dozen peer-reviewed science papers have been generated. These everyday people are, in their spare time, accomplishing necessary tasks and proving themselves to be a vital part of the research pipeline. While it is now understood they can make meaningful contributions to research, the questions of why they are contributing, and how they interact with the projects are still being investigated. In this presentation, preliminary results of a two-part study of Zooniverse user motivations and behaviors are presented. Motivations: We present the results of two sets of studies: detailed research into the motivations of Galaxy Zoo users during the Galaxy Zoo 1 and 2 projects and preliminary results into the investigations of Moon Zoo users. From Galaxy Zoo, we know that the largest primary motivation for people participating in Galaxy Zoo is the desire to contribute to science. At the time of this writing, interviews are being prepared to see if Moon Zoo users have similar motivations to Galaxy Zoo users, and to understand the personal context in which they make their contributions. Behaviors: As users explore the Zooniverse, they have the opportunity to participate in multiple science projects, to consume educational content, to take advantage of tutorials, and to be part of a community on the forums. Preliminary results examining how users moved between different science projects during the duration of Galaxy Zoo 2, and how they are moving between content and classifications in Galaxy Zoo Hubble and Moon Zoo are presented.

  13. Pathways for Success in Developing a Nature Trail at a Zoo: A Mixed-Methods Evaluative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Carol F.

    2010-01-01

    Modern zoos serve as tourist attractions and recreational facilities, while providing educational outreach programs in ecology, conservation, and animal needs. However, in the 21st century, there has been a negative backlash of people associating zoos with animals being shut away in cages or pits. This case study included an examination of the…

  14. Zoo Playgrounds: A Source of Enrichment or Stress for a Group of Nearby Cockatoos? A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Collins, Courtney K; Marples, Nicola M

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that in some circumstances, zoo visitors may be aversive stimuli to nonhuman animals housed in zoos. Yet, most previous research has focused on primates with little attention given to numerous other species who are housed in zoos. The focus animal of this project was the cockatoo, a species who has received minimal attention in zoo-based research. Furthermore, although the influence of the zoo setting has become increasingly important in visitor effect studies, this is the 1st study to quantify the effect of activity at a children's playground on zoo animals. There was an investigation on the effect of a zoo playground on the behavior of citron-crested and Moluccan cockatoos (Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata and Cacatua moluccensis), as well as the effect of children standing in front of the birds' aviaries. The results showed that in some circumstances, the Moluccan cockatoos retreated from visitors, while the citron-crested cockatoos did not retreat from visitors and became more social in the presence of visitors. These findings highlight the importance of careful selection of species and individual animals to be housed near zoo playgrounds.

  15. Adolescent Learning in the Zoo: Embedding a Non-Formal Learning Environment to Teach Formal Aspects of Vertebrate Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randler, Christoph; Kummer, Barbara; Wilhelm, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of a zoo visit in terms of learning and retention of knowledge concerning the adaptations and behavior of vertebrate species. Basis of the work was the concept of implementing zoo visits as an out-of-school setting for formal, curriculum based learning. Our theoretical framework centers on the…

  16. Zoo Playgrounds: A Source of Enrichment or Stress for a Group of Nearby Cockatoos? A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Collins, Courtney K; Marples, Nicola M

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that in some circumstances, zoo visitors may be aversive stimuli to nonhuman animals housed in zoos. Yet, most previous research has focused on primates with little attention given to numerous other species who are housed in zoos. The focus animal of this project was the cockatoo, a species who has received minimal attention in zoo-based research. Furthermore, although the influence of the zoo setting has become increasingly important in visitor effect studies, this is the 1st study to quantify the effect of activity at a children's playground on zoo animals. There was an investigation on the effect of a zoo playground on the behavior of citron-crested and Moluccan cockatoos (Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata and Cacatua moluccensis), as well as the effect of children standing in front of the birds' aviaries. The results showed that in some circumstances, the Moluccan cockatoos retreated from visitors, while the citron-crested cockatoos did not retreat from visitors and became more social in the presence of visitors. These findings highlight the importance of careful selection of species and individual animals to be housed near zoo playgrounds. PMID:25932924

  17. HEDS-UP Mars Exploration Forum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budden, Nancy Ann (Editor); Duke, Micheal B. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    In the early 1990s, Duke and Budden convened a series of workshops addressing mission rationale, exploration objectives, and key constraints and issues facing human crews on Mars. The focal point was "why" the U.S. should fly humans to Mars. In the mid-1990s, strategies for a Mars mission matured and evolved, driven formally by NASA Johnson Space Center's Office of Exploration. In 1997, NASA published a report capturing the current thinking: the NASA Mars Reference Mission. In the 1997-1998 school year, HEDS-UP sponsored six universities to conduct design studies on Mars exploration, using the Reference Mission as a basis for their work. The 1998 Mars Exploration Forum presents the results of these university studies, suggesting "how" we might explore Mars, in terms of specific technical components that would enable human missions to Mars. A primary objective of the HEDS-UP Mars Exploration Forum was to provide a forum for active interaction among NASA, industry, and the university community on the subject of human missions to Mars. NASA scientists and engineers were asked to present the state of exploration for Mars mission options currently under study. This status "snapshot" of current Mars strategies set the stage for the six HEDS-UP universities to present their final design study results. Finally, a panel of industry experts discussed readiness for human missions to Mars as it pertains to the aerospace industries and technologies. A robust poster session provided the backdrop for government-industry-university discussions and allowed for feedback to NASA on the Mars Reference Mission. The common thread woven through the two days was discussion of technologies, proven and emerging, that will be required to launch, land, and sustain human crews on the Red Planet. As this decade (and indeed this millenium) draws to a close, Mars will continue to loom in our sights as the next target for human space exploration. It is our hope that the efforts of the Mars

  18. Addendum 2: Forum for Injection Technique, India

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Baruah, Manash P.; Chadha, Manoj; Chandalia, Hemraj B.; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Kesavadev, Jothydev; Prasanna Kumar, K. M.; Modi, Sonal; Pitale, Shailesh; Rishi, Shukla; Sahay, Rakesh; Sundaram, Annamalai; Unnikrishnan, Ambika G.; Wangnoo, Subhash K.

    2014-01-01

    The second addendum to the Forum for Injection Techniques (FIT), India recommendations, first published in 2012 and followed by an addendum in 2013, covers various important issues. It describes how the impact of the so-called non-modifiable factors, which influence the injection technique, can be modulated; provides fresh information on timing of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist injections, methods of minimizing pain during injections, amyloidosis, and factors that impact adherence to insulin therapy. The addendum also lists semantic changes made to keep the FIT recommendations updated.

  19. Activity of Nagoya Science Literacy Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, J.; Taniguchi, M.; Uchida, T.; Kawakatsu, H.

    2010-07-01

    Recently in Japan, there is growing interest in scientific literacy and education on it. In order to make various people to learn scientific literacy, we, the faculty members of the universities in Nagoya, established an organization, Nagoya Science Literacy Forum. We have hosted events as to scientific literacy and science experiments for students, faculty members, and the general public. In these events, we give them opportunities to learn scientific literacy and consider it with enjoying the science experiments. In this article, we show firstly an outline of education on scientific literacy in Japan, and then introduce our activities.

  20. A modified operational sequence methodology for zoo exhibit design and renovation: conceptualizing animals, staff, and visitors as interdependent coworkers.

    PubMed

    Kelling, Nicholas J; Gaalema, Diann E; Kelling, Angela S

    2014-01-01

    Human factors analyses have been used to improve efficiency and safety in various work environments. Although generally limited to humans, the universality of these analyses allows for their formal application to a much broader domain. This paper outlines a model for the use of human factors to enhance zoo exhibits and optimize spaces for all user groups; zoo animals, zoo visitors, and zoo staff members. Zoo exhibits are multi-faceted and each user group has a distinct set of requirements that can clash or complement each other. Careful analysis and a reframing of the three groups as interdependent coworkers can enhance safety, efficiency, and experience for all user groups. This paper details a general creation and specific examples of the use of the modified human factors tools of function allocation, operational sequence diagram and needs assessment. These tools allow for adaptability and ease of understanding in the design or renovation of exhibits.

  1. A modified operational sequence methodology for zoo exhibit design and renovation: conceptualizing animals, staff, and visitors as interdependent coworkers.

    PubMed

    Kelling, Nicholas J; Gaalema, Diann E; Kelling, Angela S

    2014-01-01

    Human factors analyses have been used to improve efficiency and safety in various work environments. Although generally limited to humans, the universality of these analyses allows for their formal application to a much broader domain. This paper outlines a model for the use of human factors to enhance zoo exhibits and optimize spaces for all user groups; zoo animals, zoo visitors, and zoo staff members. Zoo exhibits are multi-faceted and each user group has a distinct set of requirements that can clash or complement each other. Careful analysis and a reframing of the three groups as interdependent coworkers can enhance safety, efficiency, and experience for all user groups. This paper details a general creation and specific examples of the use of the modified human factors tools of function allocation, operational sequence diagram and needs assessment. These tools allow for adaptability and ease of understanding in the design or renovation of exhibits. PMID:24838689

  2. Analysis of post-blood meal flight distances in mosquitoes utilizing zoo animal blood meals

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Jacob A.; DiMenna, Mark A.; Hanelt, Ben

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the post-blood meal flight distance of four mosquito species in a unique environment using blood meal analysis. Mosquitoes were trapped at the Rio Grande Zoo in Albuquerque, NM, and the blood source of blood-engorged mosquitoes was identified. The distance from the enclosure of the animal serving as a blood source to the trap site was then determined. We found that mosquitoes captured at the zoo flew no more than 170 m with an average distance of 106.7 m after taking a blood meal. This is the first study in which the flight distance of wild mosquitoes has been assessed using blood meal analysis and the first in which zoo animals have served as the exclusive source of blood meals. PMID:22548540

  3. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in Wrinkled Hornbill and other birds in the Kuala Lumpur National Zoo.

    PubMed

    Rohela, M; Lim, Y A L; Jamaiah, I; Khadijah, P Y Y; Laang, S T; Nazri, M H Mohd; Nurulhuda, Z

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of a coccidian parasite, Cryptosporidium, among birds in the Kuala Lumpur National Zoo was investigated in this study. A hundred bird fecal samples were taken from various locations of the zoo. Fecal smears prepared using direct smear and formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique were stained with modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain. Samples positive for Cryptosporidium with Ziehl-Neelsen stain were later confirmed using the immunofluorescence technique and viewed under the epifluorescence microscope. Six species of bird feces were confirmed positive with Cryptosporidium oocysts. They included Wrinkled Hornbill (Aceros corrugatus), Great Argus Pheasant (Argusianus argus), Black Swan (Cygnus atratus), Swan Goose (Anser cygnoides), Marabou Stork (Leptoptilos crumeniferus), and Moluccan Cockatoo (Cacatua moluccencis). These birds were located in the aviary and lake, with the Moluccan Cockatoo routinely used as a show bird. Results obtained in this study indicated that animal sanctuaries like zoos and bird parks are important sources of Cryptosporidium infection to humans, especially children and other animals.

  4. The role of zoos in the rehabilitation of animals in the circus.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Brij Kishor; Chakraborty, Bipul

    2005-01-01

    In 1998, the government of India enforced a ban on performance/exhibition of 5 species of nonhuman animals: (a) lions, (b) tigers, (c) leopards, (d) bears, and (e) monkeys. The Ministry of Environment and Forests gave the responsibility to the Central Zoo Authority (CZA) for rehabilitation of these animals. Between 1999 and 2001, the CZA created rescue centers for rehabilitation of lions and tigers in the off-display areas of 5 zoos: (a) Bangalore, (b) Chennai, (c) Vishakhapatnam, (d) Tirupathi, and (e) Jaipur. Today, the CZA has rehabilitated 314 lions and tigers from circuses. The CZA has been meeting the expenses toward maintenance (feeding of and providing health care for) of the animals, outsourcing of staff, and maintaining enclosures. This article focuses on the mammoth work that the selected zoos had to carry out in rehabilitating the lions and tigers from the circuses.

  5. The rate of Salmonella spp. infection in zoo animals at Seoul Grand Park, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Y. H.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, J. G.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, T. J.; Park, J. H.; Chung, B. H.

    2008-01-01

    Salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease that affects both people and animals. The incidence of reptile-associated salmonellosis has increased in Western countries due to the increasing popularity of reptiles as pets. In Korea, where reptiles are not popular as pets, many zoos offer programs in which people have contact with animals, including reptiles. So, we determined the rate of Salmonella spp. infection in animals by taking anal swabs from 294 animals at Seoul Grand Park. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 14 of 46 reptiles (30.4%), 1 of 15 birds (6.7%) and 2 of 233 mammals (0.9%). These findings indicate that vigilance is required for determining the presence of zoonotic pathogen infections in zoo animals and contamination of animal facilities to prevent human infection with zoonotic diseases from zoo facilities and animal exhibitions. In addition, prevention of human infection requires proper education about personal hygiene. PMID:18487939

  6. The Big, the Bad, and the Ugly: Citizen scientist sunspot classification with Sunspot Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, P. A.; O'Callaghan, D.; Perez-Suarez, D.; Roche, J.; Leka, K. D.; Barnes, G.; Slater, G. L.; Murray, S.; Gallagher, P.

    2013-12-01

    It is not currently possible to reliably forecast the occurrence of solar flares. To date, one of the best predictors for the occurrence of flares is that a sunspot group has already produced large flares. Without knowledge of prior activity, the best predictions are generally achieved by systems using human-based visual recognition (e.g., human expert forecasters). This project explores the possibility of using `the crowd' to feed information to a forecasting algorithm to improve the current state of flare prediction. The aims of Sunspot Zoo are: to create a crowd-sourced sunspot group complexity ranking; to test if complexity predicts flaring; to stimulate interest in solar physics and citizen science in school students and the public. Sunspot Zoo will soon be made available through Zooniverse.org to allow large-scale participation. An outreach program will bring Sunspot Zoo to schools in Ireland this Autumn.

  7. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    PubMed

    Ward, Samantha J; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated unique dyads

  8. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Samantha J.; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman’s zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals’ latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: “attitude towards the animals” and “knowledge and experience of the animals”. In this novel study, data demonstrated

  9. Seroprevalences of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals.

    PubMed

    Sedlák, K; Bártová, E

    2006-03-31

    Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that causes neuromuscular disease in dogs and abortions in cattle. Little is known about the prevalence of antibodies to this parasite in zoo animals. Sera from 556 animals, from 13 Czech and Slovak zoos were tested for antibodies to N. caninum and Toxoplasma gondii by indirect fluorescent antibody test. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 31 of 556 zoo animals (5.6%), representing 18 of 114 species tested: Eurasian wolf (Canis lupus lupus), Maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), fennec (Vulpes zerda), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), Indian lion (Panthera leo goojratensis), fisher (Martes pennanti), blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), European bison (Bison bonasus), lechwe (Kobus leche), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer), eland (Taurotragus oryx), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei gratus), Thorold's deer (Cervus albirostris), Eastern elk (C. elaphus canadensis), Vietnam sika deer (C. nippon pseudaxis) and Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus). Titres ranged from 1:40 to 1:2560. The highest prevalence 50% was found in family mustelidae of the order carnivora. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 193 of 556 zoo animals (34.7%) representing 72 of 114 species tested, with titres ranging from 1:40 to 1:40960. The highest prevalence 100% was found in families: hyaenidae, mustelidae, ursidae and viveridae of the order carnivora. The results of this study indicate that zoo animals have more exposure to T. gondii than to N. caninum. It is the first report of seroprevalence of antibodies to N. caninum in European zoo animals. PMID:16387445

  10. An investigation into resting behavior in Asian elephants in UK zoos.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ellen; Bremner-Harrison, Samantha; Harvey, Naomi; Evison, Emma; Yon, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining adequate welfare in captive elephants is challenging. Few studies have investigated overnight rest behavior in zoo elephants, yet time spent resting has been identified as a welfare indicator in some species. We investigated resting behavior in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in UK zoos, with the aim of identifying patterns or preferences in lying rest. Details of standing (SR) and lying (LR) rest behavior were identified by observing video footage of inside enclosures collected for 14 elephants (2 male, 12 female) housed at three UK zoos (Zoo A: 18 nights; Zoo B: 27 nights; Zoo C: 46 nights) from 16:00 to 08:30 (approximately). Elephants engaged in a mean of 58-337 min rest per night. Time of night affected mean duration of LR bouts (P < 0.001); longest bouts were observed between 22:01 and 06:00. Elephants showed a substrate preference when lying to rest; LR was not observed on concrete or tiled flooring. Where sand was available (to 11/14 elephants), all elephants engaged in LR on sand flooring. Only two elephants engaged in LR on rubber flooring (available to 7/14 elephants). Mean duration of rest bouts was greater when a conspecific was within two body lengths than when conspecifics were not (P < 0.01). Our study indicated that elephants show substrate preferences when choosing an area for rest and engage in more rest when conspecifics are in close proximity. The results of this study could be used as a basis for future studies investigating the link between rest and welfare in captive elephants. PMID:26189573

  11. An investigation into resting behavior in Asian elephants in UK zoos.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ellen; Bremner-Harrison, Samantha; Harvey, Naomi; Evison, Emma; Yon, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining adequate welfare in captive elephants is challenging. Few studies have investigated overnight rest behavior in zoo elephants, yet time spent resting has been identified as a welfare indicator in some species. We investigated resting behavior in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in UK zoos, with the aim of identifying patterns or preferences in lying rest. Details of standing (SR) and lying (LR) rest behavior were identified by observing video footage of inside enclosures collected for 14 elephants (2 male, 12 female) housed at three UK zoos (Zoo A: 18 nights; Zoo B: 27 nights; Zoo C: 46 nights) from 16:00 to 08:30 (approximately). Elephants engaged in a mean of 58-337 min rest per night. Time of night affected mean duration of LR bouts (P < 0.001); longest bouts were observed between 22:01 and 06:00. Elephants showed a substrate preference when lying to rest; LR was not observed on concrete or tiled flooring. Where sand was available (to 11/14 elephants), all elephants engaged in LR on sand flooring. Only two elephants engaged in LR on rubber flooring (available to 7/14 elephants). Mean duration of rest bouts was greater when a conspecific was within two body lengths than when conspecifics were not (P < 0.01). Our study indicated that elephants show substrate preferences when choosing an area for rest and engage in more rest when conspecifics are in close proximity. The results of this study could be used as a basis for future studies investigating the link between rest and welfare in captive elephants.

  12. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    PubMed

    Ward, Samantha J; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated unique dyads

  13. The Green Valley is a Red Herring: Different Evolutionary Pathways for Spheroidal and Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urry, C. M.; Schawinski, K.; Simmons, B. D.; Fortson, L.; Kaviraj, S.; Keel, W. C.; Lintott, C.; Masters, K.; Nichol, R.; Sarzi, M.; Skibba, R. A.; Treister, E.; Willett, K.; Wong, O.; Yi, S.; Zoo Citizen Scientists, Galaxy

    2014-01-01

    Using SDSS+GALEX+Galaxy Zoo data, we show that the green valley in the color-mass diagram (between the blue cloud of star-forming galaxies and the red sequence of quiescent galaxies) is not a single transitional state through which most blue galaxies evolve into red galaxies. Rather, an analysis that takes morphology and UV colors into account makes clear that only a small population of blue galaxies moves rapidly across the green valley, after star formation is abruptly quenched and the morphology is transformed from disk to spheroid. In contrast, the majority of blue star-forming galaxies retain significant disks as their star formation rates decline very slowly. We detail a range of observations that lead to these conclusions, including UV-optical colors and halo masses, which both show a striking dependence on morphological type. We interpret these results in terms of how much gas is available for star formation. We conclude that disky galaxies are consistent with a scenario where the cosmic supply of gas is shut off, perhaps at a critical halo mass, followed by a slow exhaustion of the remaining gas over several Gigayears, driven by secular and/or environmental processes. In contrast, spheroidal galaxies require the gas supply and gas reservoir to be destroyed virtually instantaneously, with rapid quenching accompanied by a morphological transformation from disk to spheroid. This gas reservoir destruction could be the consequence of a major merger, and mergers could play a role in inducing black hole accretion and possibly AGN feedback in this minority of galaxies.

  14. Epidemiological survey of zoonotic pathogens in feral pigeons (Columba livia var. domestica) and sympatric zoo species in Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Cano-Terriza, David; Guerra, Rafael; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Cabezón, Oscar; Almería, Sonia; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio

    2015-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of pathogenic zoonotic agents (flaviviruses, avian influenza viruses (AIVs), Salmonella spp. and Toxoplasma gondii) in feral pigeons and sympatric zoo animals from Córdoba (Southern Spain) between 2013 and 2014. Antibodies against flaviviruses were detected in 7.8% out of 142 (CI95%: 3.7-11.8) pigeons, and 8.2% of 49 (CI95%: 0.9-15.4) of zoo animals tested. Antibodies with specificity against West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) were confirmed both in pigeons and in zoo birds. Even though seropositivity to AIVs was not detected in any of the analyzed pigeons, 17.9% of 28 (CI95%: 3.7-32.0) zoo birds tested showed positive results. Salmonella spp. was not isolated in any of 152 fecal samples collected from pigeons, while 6.8% of 44 zoo animals were positive. Antibodies against T. gondii were found in 9.2% of 142 (CI95%: 4.8-13.6) feral pigeons and 26.9% of 108 (CI95%: 19.6-34.1) zoo animals. This is the first study on flaviviruses and T. gondii in feral pigeons and captive zoo species in Spain. Antibodies against WNV and USUV detected in non-migratory pigeons and captive zoo animals indicate local circulation of these emerging pathogens in the study area. T. gondii was widespread in species analyzed. This finding could be of importance for Public Health and Conservation of endangered species present in zoo parks. Pigeons and zoo animals may be included as sentinel species for monitoring zoonotic pathogens in urban areas.

  15. Factors influencing weight changes in callitrichids at the Bronx Zoo.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Elena; Shelmidine, Nichole

    2010-01-01

    Callitrichids are small monkeys with high metabolic rates who appear to be susceptible to spontaneous diseases and possibly to environmental changes creating challenges in maintaining them in captivity. This study investigates whether life events (i.e. medical, social and housing changes) can influence weight. In previous research, body mass has been shown to be correlated with periods of illness, group composition changes and stress. Weights of 56 individual callitrichid monkeys (20 marmosets, 26 tamarins and 11 lion tamarins) at the WCS's Bronx Zoo were examined over approximately 2½ years. Weight fluctuations were scored based on 5%, 10% and 1 standard deviation criteria during periods of medical (illness and injury), social (introductions and separations), housing (movement within or between buildings) events and during periods when no-events occurred. Additionally, weights were examined for 3 months before and after periods of illness to look for trends in weight changes for 47 medical events (14 marmosets, 21 tamarins and 12 lion tamarins). Moreover, in five alloparenting males (four tamarins and one lion tamarin), weights were examined to determine if weight loss occurred after births as observed in earlier studies. The results show that a 5% and 1SD criterion may be too sensitive a criterion. We therefore deemed that a 10% weight loss may be the best criterion. For marmosets, a 10% weight loss occurred in association with all events. For tamarins, weight loss occurred with housing events. In lion tamarins, weight loss was observed with medical events. No significant weight loss was observed in alloparenting males. PMID:19890903

  16. Fish quarantine: current practices in public zoos and aquaria.

    PubMed

    Hadfield, Catherine A; Clayton, Leigh A

    2011-12-01

    The primary goal of quarantine is to reduce the risk of introducing infectious diseases into established collections. Fish quarantine is inherently complex because of the variety of species, environmental requirements, and facilities. To examine current practices, questionnaires were submitted to 60 public zoos and aquaria, predominantly in North America. Questions reviewed system type (closed, flow-through), quarantine length, diagnostics, treatments, and cleaning and disinfection. Forty-two of the 60 institutions responded. Most institutions had separate quarantine protocols for freshwater teleosts, marine teleosts, and elasmobranchs. Ninety-five percent of institutions had a minimum quarantine period of 30 days or more. Sixty-four percent of institutions used isolated areas for some or all of their fish quarantine. Twenty-five percent had designated fish quarantine staff. All institutions used regular visual examinations to assess animal health. Fifty-four percent of the institutions carried out routine hands-on diagnostics on some fish; this was more common for elasmobranchs than teleosts. All institutions carried out necropsies on mortalities. Fifteen percent of institutions performed histopathology on almost all fresh mortalities; 54% percent performed histopathology on less than 10% of mortalities. Prophylactic treatments were common in closed systems, in particular, formalin immersion for teleosts, freshwater dips and copper sulfate immersion for marine teleosts, and praziquantel immersion for marine teleosts and elasmobranchs. Institutions using dips generally did so at the start or end of quarantine. Fenbendazole- and praziquantel-medicated foods were used commonly in teleosts, but dosages varied greatly. Cleaning and disinfection of systems and equipment increased in response to known pathogens. These results can be used to compare and discuss fish quarantine practices at display facilities in order to improve quarantine success.

  17. Note on optimizing environmental enrichment: a study of fennec fox and zoo guests.

    PubMed

    Watters, Jason V; Miller, Jessica T; Sullivan, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is widely used to stimulate animal time budgets that seem more natural and diverse than those of unenriched animals. Uncertainty of reward is a suggested means to maintain enrichment's efficacy. Foraging tasks are widely applied in zoo animal enrichment, yet few rely on the logic of optimal foraging theory to help maintain animal motivation. We applied a foraging strategy to zoo housed fennec foxes as enrichment. We varied only the probability of when and where food would occur in the animals' exhibit. Our methods increased behavioral diversity, animal activity, and stimulated guest interest in the exhibit.

  18. 17 CFR 240.14a-17 - Electronic shareholder forums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic shareholder forums... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14a: Solicitation of Proxies § 240.14a-17 Electronic shareholder... establish, maintain, or operate an electronic shareholder forum to facilitate interaction among...

  19. 76 FR 68828 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Responder Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...'s complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Emergency Responder Forum AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Forum....

  20. 78 FR 11236 - Positive Train Control Public Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... SAFETY BOARD Positive Train Control Public Forum On Wednesday, February 27, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a Forum titled, ``Positive Train Control: Is it on Track?'' The... many train collisions and over-speed derailments caused by operational errors involving...

  1. Online Forum Discussion Interactions as an Indicator of Student Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Shane

    2006-01-01

    Given the current diversity of communication tools at an educator's disposal, what role (if any) does the discussion forum play in the development of a strong sense of community among students? This study sought to investigate the relationship between discussion forum interaction and perceived student sense of community. The results of the study…

  2. Forum for Action on Leadership in Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Brunswick Labour Force Development Board, Fredericton.

    These minutes summarize the New Brunswick Forum for Action on Leadership in Career Development, which was the third in a series of provincial forums being conducted throughout Canada to stimulate dialogue among a spectrum of labor market partners and develop an action plan to support career development in Canada's provinces. The following items…

  3. Enacting Democracy: Using Forum Theatre to Confront Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourd, Karen M.; Gourd, Tina Y.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a curriculum project designed to create opportunities for transformative educational experiences in relation to democratic and social justice ideals. The project used an empowering interactive art form, Forum Theatre, to explore the topic of bullying. Through the development of Forum Theatre scenes by eighth grade students…

  4. Gender and Equity: Experience of the Working Women's Forum, India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azad, Nandini

    1996-01-01

    Illustrates how poor women were able to move out of poverty and dehumanization through a process of mobilization and organization. The process was catalyzed by the intervention of a non-governmental organization, the Working Women's Forum. Outlines the Forum's program of economic, social, and technological empowerment. (MJP)

  5. 10 CFR 903.16 - Public comment forums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... adjustments, to provide interested persons an opportunity for oral presentation of views, data, and arguments... designate a forum chairperson. At the forum, PMA representatives may question those persons making oral... limits for, oral presentations and to determine if the comments are relevant and noncumulative....

  6. Acceptability of an Asynchronous Learning Forum on Mobile Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chih-Kai

    2010-01-01

    Mobile learning has recently become noteworthy because mobile devices have become popular. To construct an asynchronous learning forum on mobile devices is important because an asynchronous learning forum is always an essential part of networked asynchronous distance learning. However, the input interface in handheld learning devices, which is…

  7. Transitioning through College with Diabetes: Themes Found in Online Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravert, Russell D.; Boren, Suzanne A.; Wiebke, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Content analysis of Internet-based diabetes forum text was used to examine the experiences encountered by students with diabetes transitioning into and through college. Participants: Forum posts (N = 238) regarding attending college with diabetes were collected and analyzed. Methods: Thematic coding was used to identify prominent…

  8. FARM RADIO FORUM PROJECT-GHANA, 1964-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ABELL, HELEN C.

    IN 1964-65 THE GOVERNMENT OF GHANA, IN COOPERATION WITH UNESCO AND THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA, CARRIED ON THE FARM RADIO FORUM PILOT PROJECT IN 80 VILLAGES IN GHANA TO TRANSMIT INFORMATION AND STIMULATE RURAL SELF-HELP ACTIVITIES. IN 20 VILLAGES ONE FORUM LISTENING GROUP WAS ORGANIZED, 20 VILLAGES HAD TWO LISTENING GROUPS, 20 CONTROL VILLAGES WERE…

  9. Meaningful Learning through Video-Supported Forum-Theater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkarainen, Paivi; Vapalahti, Kati

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the first cycle of a design-based study at Mikkeli University of Applied Sciences, Finland, during which a video-supported forum-theater approach was implemented and evaluated. Students enrolled in the Drama course in the Civic Activities and Youth Work degree program produced and recorded forum-theater performances about…

  10. Enabling Easier Information Access in Online Discussion Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Sumit

    2013-01-01

    Online discussion forums have become popular in recent times. They provide a platform for people from different parts of the world sharing a common interest to come together and topics of mutual interest and seek solutions to their problems. There are hundreds of thousands of internet forums containing tens of millions of discussion threads and…

  11. Emotions as Data in the Act of Jokering Forum Theatre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, Anne

    2007-01-01

    For three years the author has been using Forum Theatre strategies as a means of experientially exploring classroom management with preservice teachers in a post-degree BEd program. During the third year, the author undertook an arts-based action research project to examine her actions as facilitator, or "Joker", and to explore Forum Theatre's…

  12. Join the Play, Policy, and Practice Interest Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite-Stupiansky, Sandra; Klugman, Ed; Cohen, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Interest Forums address the diverse issues encountered in the field of early childhood education. This article focuses on one, the Play, Policy, and Practice Interest Forum, and its origin, development as a caucus, and eventual formalization within the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) organizational structure. The…

  13. National Issues Forums in an ABE Setting. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molek, Carol

    National Issues Forums (NIFs) were conducted for adult basic education (ABE) students in a Pennsylvania adult education and job training center. The forums provide a process of sharing thoughts and opinions about areas of pressing national concerns in an open exchange of everyone's opinion. After instructors participated in NIFs, they developed a…

  14. The Eleanor Chelimsky Forum: Integrating Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Jill; Kelley, John

    2015-01-01

    In response to Eleanor Chelimsky's inspiring plenary address 3 years ago, and with generous support from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the Eastern Evaluation Research Society launched the Eleanor Chelimsky Forum at its 2013 Annual Conference. The objective of this annual Forum, which has become a hallmark event in the evaluation world, is to…

  15. The Environmental and Ecological Forum 1970-1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC. Office of Information Services.

    This report contains the papers presented in the 1970-1971 Environmental and Ecological Forum series, planned to provide an overview of the significant environmental, social, and economic aspects of electric power generation, more specifically, the pros and cons of nuclear power production. The Forum was organized as a public service to foster…

  16. Analysing Interactions in a Teacher Network Forum: A Sociometric Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisboa, Eliana Santana; Coutinho, Clara Pereira

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the sociometric analysis of the interactions in a forum of a social network created for the professional development of Portuguese-speaking teachers. The main goal of the forum, which was titled Stricto Sensu, was to discuss the educational value of programmes that joined the distance learning model in Brazil. The empirical…

  17. Students' Activity Focus in Online Asynchronous Peer Learning Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaspar, Alessio; Langevin, Sarah; Boyer, Naomi; Armitage, William

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how using Peer Learning Forums (PLF) in an online asynchronous computer programming course can be analyzed to derive information about Student Activity Focus (SAF) for adult Information Technology students. Three instruments are proposed to assist instructors classify questions posted by students on these forums,…

  18. 75 FR 64258 - Cloud Computing Forum & Workshop II

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Cloud Computing Forum & Workshop II AGENCY: National... announces the Cloud Computing Forum & Workshop II to be held on November 4 and 5, 2010. This workshop will provide information on a Cloud Computing Roadmap Strategy as well as provide an updated status on...

  19. 76 FR 13984 - Cloud Computing Forum & Workshop III

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Cloud Computing Forum & Workshop III AGENCY: National... announces the Cloud Computing Forum & Workshop III to be held on April 7 and 8, 2011. The event will include... tactical Cloud Computing program, including progress on the NIST efforts to advance open standards...

  20. Leadership Lessons from the State Early Childhood Policy Leadership Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebbins, Helene

    2004-01-01

    The State Early Childhood Policy Leadership Forum seeks to build state capacity to develop and strengthen statewide, cross-system early childhood policies and programs. The Forum provides intense leadership retreats, professional development opportunities, policy discussions, and one-on-one technical assistance for individuals who are leading…

  1. Assessment of Online Discussion Forums for Law Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Judith; Burton, Kelley

    2009-01-01

    This paper goes beyond the existing literature and explores the innovative topic of designing criterion-referenced assessment for online discussion forums. There are several benefits of embedding online discussion forums into subjects including engaging students in collaborative learning, and encouraging deeper analysis, critical thinking and…

  2. Student Engagement with, and Participation in, an e-Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Roger B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines engagement with an online discussion forum, aiming to identify the different levels of participation and to investigate factors that encourage or discourage student participation. The case involved the posing of a short real-life problem via a forum on the university's virtual learning environment. An in-class survey was…

  3. 77 FR 15398 - Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... SAFETY BOARD Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction Forum The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a forum, Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction, which will begin... from the date of the event. Distracted driving is a serious safety risk on our highways, as...

  4. Building Problem Forums: On Troubleshooting in the Professional Writing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vealey, Kyle P.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the use of "problem forums" in undergraduate professional writing courses as a technique for facilitating and sustaining learning from increasingly complex, messy, and wicked problems that are characteristic of 21st-century work. Problem forums are designed to scaffold project team discussions of rhetorical,…

  5. Homeless and Special Education Administrative Collaboration: Recommendations. Policy Forum Proceedings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Diana; Burdette, Paula; Julianelle, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Project Forum at the National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE) and the National Center for Homeless Education (NCHE) worked together to collect information regarding the need for a policy forum on the topic of administrative collaboration between school personnel who support homeless education under the McKinney-Vento…

  6. 17 CFR 240.14a-17 - Electronic shareholder forums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic shareholder forums... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14a: Solicitation of Proxies § 240.14a-17 Electronic shareholder forums. (a) A shareholder, registrant, or third party acting on behalf of a shareholder or registrant...

  7. Learning Instructor Intervention from MOOC Forums: Early Results and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Muthu; Kan, Min-Yen; Tan, Bernard C. Y.; Ragupathi, Kiruthika

    2015-01-01

    With large student enrollment, MOOC instructors face the unique challenge in deciding when to intervene in forum discussions with their limited bandwidth. We study this problem of "instructor intervention." Using a large sample of forum data culled from 61 courses, we design a binary classifier to predict whether an instructor should…

  8. Star Formation in Irregular Galaxies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Deidre; Wolff, Sidney

    1985-01-01

    Examines mechanisms of how stars are formed in irregular galaxies. Formation in giant irregular galaxies, formation in dwarf irregular galaxies, and comparisons with larger star-forming regions found in spiral galaxies are considered separately. (JN)

  9. RADIO DETECTION OF GREEN PEAS: IMPLICATIONS FOR MAGNETIC FIELDS IN YOUNG GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Yadav, Naveen; Ray, Alak; Cardamone, Carolin

    2012-02-10

    Green Peas are a new class of young, emission line galaxies that were discovered by citizen volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their low stellar mass, low metallicity, and very high star formation rates make Green Peas the nearby (z {approx} 0.2) analogs of the Lyman break galaxies which account for the bulk of the star formation in the early universe (z {approx} 2-5). They thus provide accessible laboratories in the nearby universe for understanding star formation, supernova feedback, particle acceleration, and magnetic field amplification in early galaxies. We report the first direct radio detection of Green Peas with low frequency Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations and our stacking detection with archival Very Large Array FIRST data. We show that the radio emission implies that these extremely young galaxies already have magnetic fields ({approx}> 30 {mu}G) even larger than that of the Milky Way. This is at odds with the present understanding of magnetic field growth based on amplification of seed fields by dynamo action over a galaxy's lifetime. Our observations strongly favor models with pregalactic magnetic fields at {mu}G levels.

  10. Combining Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing and Galaxy Clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Youngsoo; Krause, Elisabeth; Dodelson, Scott; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Amara, Adam; Becker, Matt; Bridle, Sarah; Clampitt, Joseph; Crocce, Martin; Honscheid, Klaus; Gaztanaga, Enrique; Sanchez, Carles; Wechsler, Risa

    2015-01-01

    Combining galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising method for inferring the growth rate of large scale structure, a quantity that will shed light on the mechanism driving the acceleration of the Universe. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a prime candidate for such an analysis, with its measurements of both the distribution of galaxies on the sky and the tangential shears of background galaxies induced by these foreground lenses. By constructing an end-to-end analysis that combines large-scale galaxy clustering and small-scale galaxy-galaxy lensing, we also forecast the potential of a combined probes analysis on DES datasets. In particular, we develop a practical approach to a DES combined probes analysis by jointly modeling the assumptions and systematics affecting the different components of the data vector, employing a shared halo model, HOD parametrization, photometric redshift errors, and shear measurement errors. Furthermore, we study the effect of external priors on different subsets of these parameters. We conclude that DES data will provide powerful constraints on the evolution of structure growth in the universe, conservatively/ optimistically constraining the growth function to 8%/4.9% with its first-year data covering 1000 square degrees, and to 4%/2.3% with its full five-year data covering 5000 square degrees.

  11. Galaxies as gravitational lenses.

    PubMed

    Barnothy, J; Barnothy, M F

    1968-10-18

    Of all the galaxies in the visible part of the universe, 500 million are seen through intervening galaxies. In some instances the foreground galaxy will act as a gravitational lens and produce distorted and (in brightness) greatly amplified images of the galaxy behind it; such images may simulate starlike superluminous objects such as quasars (quasi-stellar objects). The number of gravitational lenses is several times greater than the number of quasars yet observed. In other instances the superposition of the image upon a visible foreground galaxy may simulate morphological configurations resembling N-type, dumbbell, spiral, or barred-spiral galaxies. PMID:17836654

  12. Hubble's deepest view ever of the Universe unveils earliest galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS). Both images reveal some galaxies that are too faint to be seen by ground-based telescopes, or even in Hubble's previous faraway looks, called the Hubble Deep Fields (HDFs), taken in 1995 and 1998. The HUDF field contains an estimated 10,000 galaxies in a patch of sky just one-tenth the diameter of the full Moon. Besides the rich harvest of classic spiral and elliptical galaxies, there is a zoo of oddball galaxies littering the field. Some look like toothpicks; others like links on a bracelet. A few appear to be interacting. Their strange shapes are a far cry from the majestic spiral and elliptical galaxies we see today. These oddball galaxies chronicle a period when the Universe was more chaotic. Order and structure were just beginning to emerge. The combination of ACS and NICMOS images will be used to search for galaxies that existed between 400 and 800 million years after the Big Bang (in cosmological terms this corresponds to a 'redshift' range of 7 to 12). Astronomers around the world will use these data to understand whether in this very early stages the Universe appears to be the same as it did when the cosmos was between 1000 and 2000 million years old. Hubble's ACS allows astronomers to see galaxies two to four times fainter than Hubble could view previously, but the NICMOS sees even farther than the ACS. The NICMOS reveals the farthest galaxies ever seen because the expanding Universe has stretched their light into the near-infrared portion of the spectrum. The ACS uncovered galaxies that existed 800 million years after the Big Bang (at a redshift of 7). But the NICMOS might have spotted galaxies that lived just 400 million years after the birth of the cosmos (at a redshift of 12). Just like the previous HDFs, the new data are expected to galvanise the astronomical community and lead to dozens of research papers that will offer new insights into the birth and evolution of galaxies. This will hold the record as the deepest

  13. Third Annual HEDS-UP Forum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The HEDS-UP (Human Exploration and Development of Space-University Partners) program has been instituted to build new relationships between university faculty and students and NASA in support of the Human Exploration and Development of Space. The program provides a mechanism whereby university students can explore problems of interest to NASA through student design projects, led by a university professor or mentor, and aided by the HEDSUP staff. HEDS-UP advises on the type of project that is of interest and provides contacts to NASA and industry professionals who may serve as mentors to the student project. Students become acquainted with objectives, strategies, development issues, and technologic characteristics of space exploration programs. In doing so, they are preparing themselves for future engineering challenges and may well find that the program is on their critical path to professional advancement. Many of the ideas are novel and are of interest to NASA. Industry finds in HEDS-UP a mechanism to meet many bright and enthusiastic students who are about to enter the work force. The universities become more involved with space exploration and the students are encouraged to include an outreach element in their work, to bring their efforts and their excitement to others in their universities or in their communities. The climax of the HEDS-UP program each year is the HEDS-UP Forum, held at the Lunar and Planetary Institute. Here, the university teams bring their projects - written reports, oral reports, models, prototypes, and experiment demonstrations - to show to one another and to NASA and industry participants. NASA, industry, and academic professionals present discussions of problems of current interest to space exploration. All meet informally around the posters that each of the teams brings to the Forum. This year the HEDS-UP Forum was held May 4-5 at the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston. Thirteen university teams from twelve universities

  14. Second Annual HEDS-UP Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1999-01-01

    HEDS-UP (Human Exploration and Development of Space-University Partners) conducted its second annual forum on May 6-7, 1999, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston. This year, the topics focused on human exploration of Mars, including considerations ranging from systems analysis of the transportation and surface architecture to very detailed considerations of surface elements such as greenhouses, rovers, and EVA suits. Ten undergraduate projects and four graduate level projects were presented with a total of 13 universities from around the country. Over 200 students participated on the study teams and nearly 100 students attended the forum meeting. The overall quality of reports and presentations was extremely high, with most projects requiring that the students dig into space systems concepts, designs, and technologies in detail. University team outreach projects also reached approximately 1500 people through articles and Web sites developed by the students. Several of the teams had NASA or industry mentors and included visits to NASA centers as part of their class activities. Awards were made to the three top undergraduate teams and the top team of graduate students. The first-place award went to a team from Wichita State University, Wichita, Kansas. Their faculty advisor was Dr. Gawad Nagati of the Department of Aerospace Engineering. Second place went to a team from the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, with Dr. James Burke of the jet Propulsion Laboratory as advisor. Third place was awarded to the University of Houston in Houston, Texas, where Dr. David Zimmerman was the faculty sponsor. The graduate award was made to a team from the University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, under the sponsorship of Dr. David Akin.

  15. NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, I.; Vondrak, R.; Alcorn, K.; Thieman, J.

    1998-05-01

    The Office of Space Science (OSS) recently created a new Education Ecosystem structure to facilitate the participation of OSS scientists in K-14 education and outreach. As part of this Ecosystem, four Education Forums have been established at major institutions active in each of the space science themes: the Structure and Evolution of the Universe; the Astronomical Search for Origins and Planetary Systems; Solar System Exploration; and the Sun-Earth Connection. The University of California at Berkeley and NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center are jointly hosting the Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF). The goal of SECEF is to tap SEC NASA science knowledge and mission discoveries to: (a) excite and inspire students of all backgrounds and ages through space and solar physics discoveries in ways that are both tangible and meaningful to their daily lives; (b) achieve significant and sustained enhancement of science, mathematics, and technology education at K-14 (kindergarten through community college) levels; (c) provide tools and assistance to educators; (d) help develop an appreciation of the analytical approach of science; and (e) contribute to the scientific and technological literacy of the general public. We will present an overview of the SECEF, with particular emphasis on how the Ecosystem structure will benefit and assist solar and space physicists in the context of their education outreach efforts. We will also give a summary of high-leverage education and public outreach activities that we've already carried out in partnership with science museums, featuring the science, data, and people of NASA SEC missions. This work has been supported by NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC5-253 between UC Berkeley/Space Sciences Laboratory and NASA/GSFC.

  16. Hemosporidian parasites of free-living birds in the São Paulo Zoo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Carolina Romeiro Fernandes; Guimarães, Lilian de Oliveira; Monteiro, Eliana Ferreira; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Katayama, Michele Viana; Santos, Stéfanie Vanessa; Guida, Fernanda Junqueira Vaz; Simões, Roseli França; Kirchgatter, Karin

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies addressed the diversity of bird Plasmodium and Haemoproteus parasites. However, a few have been carried out in continental avian hotspot regions such as Brazil, a country with markedly different biomes, including Amazon, Brazilian Savanna, Atlantic Forest, Caatinga, Pantanal, and Pampas. We present the first study on hemosporidian (Haemosporida) parasites in free-living birds from an Atlantic Forest fragment where more than 80 avian species have been reported. Within this area, the São Paulo Zoo locates, and it is the fourth largest zoo in the world and the largest in Latin America. A total of 133 free-living bird samples representing 12 species were collected in the zoo, with the overall hemosporidian prevalence of 18 % by PCR-based diagnostics. Twenty-four positive PCR signals were reported from four different bird species, including migratory ones. Columba livia, an urban species, considered nowadays a pest in big cities, showed 100 % prevalence of Haemoproteus spp., mainly Haemoproteus columbae. We discuss the epidemiological importance of new parasites introduced by migratory birds in the São Paulo Zoo area and the risk it poses to the captive species, which are natives or exotics. We also warn about the influence these parasites can have on the biodiversity and the structure of host populations by altering the competitive interaction between the free-living and the captive birds. PMID:26677094

  17. Measuring a professional conservation education training program for zoos and wildlife parks in China.

    PubMed

    Askue, Laurel; Heimlich, Joe; Yu, Jin Ping; Wang, Xiaohong; Lakly, Shelly

    2009-09-01

    Designed and implemented in 2006, the Academy for Conservation Training (ACT) is a conservation education academy modeled after the Association for Zoos and Aquariums' (AZA) professional conservation education course. ACT incorporates conservation education best practices utilized by AZA-accredited institutions to provide zoo and wildlife park professionals in China with the skills, knowledge, and tools needed to design, implement, and evaluate effective conservation education programs at their facilities. Initial findings indicate that the ACT model is an effective approach to connect these emerging educators with conservation education best practices. The strongest satisfaction responses in this study were in perceptions of the program preparing the individual for work and in personal development. In terms of the longitudinal survey conducted with ACT graduates after the training, the lowest scoring items were the opportunities to meet other zoo educators in China and the quantity of information provided. The most revealing trend in regards to preparedness in becoming zoo educators was that specific pedagogical skills were those where perceived gain was consistent and strong across all three academies. PMID:19821503

  18. The Educational Role of Zoos: A Synthesis of the Literature (1928-1987) with Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchman, David

    Zoos generally claim their four purposes to be conservation, research, entertainment, and education. This paper is intended to synthesize the literature relevant to the educational function and provide an annotated bibliography of that literature. The first section of the synthesis, "Audiences," addresses staff, volunteers, outreach programs, and…

  19. Retreat space and human visitor density moderate undesirable behavior in petting zoo animals.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ursula S; Benne, Marcie; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Maple, Terry L

    2002-01-01

    This study focused on the relationship between nonhuman animal behavior and envi-ronment- specifically, between the undesirable behavior exhibited by domestic pet-ting zoo animals in the presence of humans and the spatial design of the petting zoo environment. A spatial feature of a petting zoo referred to as a retreat space was ma-nipulated so that it affected the animals' opportunity for individual control over inter-action with humans. Three conditions were tested: no retreat space, semi-retreat space, and a full-retreat space. The subjects of this study were 5 African pygmy goats (Capra hircus) and 2 Romanov sheep (Ovis aries). Investigators used a focal sam-pling technique to analyze approximately 27 hr of behavioral data collected. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regression methods. The findings suggest that the full-retreat design beneficially moderated both sheep and goat behavior: Undesirable behaviors were lowest in the full-retreat condition. This study provides information that may improve human-animal interactions in a petting zoo setting and may in-crease animal well-being through exhibit design and management techniques. PMID:12738581

  20. A Comparison of Zoo Animal Behavior in the Presence of Familiar and Unfamiliar People.

    PubMed

    Martin, Rosemary Anne; Melfi, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    As recorded in domestic nonhuman animals, regular interactions between animals in zoos and keepers and the resulting relationship formed (human-animal relationship [HAR]) are likely to influence the animals' behaviors with associated welfare consequences. HAR formation requires that zoo animals distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar people. This ability was tested by comparing zoo animal behavioral responses to familiar (routine) keepers and unfamiliar keepers (participants in the "Keeper for the Day" program). Study subjects included 1 African elephant (Loxodonta Africana), 3 Rothschild's giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi), 2 Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris), and 2 slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Different behavior was evident and observed as decreased avoidance behavior toward familiar keepers (t7 = 6.00, p <  .001). This finding suggests the zoo animals have a lower level of fear toward familiar keepers. Keeper familiarity did not significantly affect any other behavioral measure. This finding suggests that in the current study, unfamiliar keeper presence did not appear to have detrimental effects. Furthermore, unfamiliar keeper-animal interactions could provide an increased number of positive human-animal interactions and potentially enhance animal welfare.