Science.gov

Sample records for galega galega orientalis

  1. Symbiotic and Genetic Diversity of Rhizobium galegae Isolates Collected from the Galega orientalis Gene Center in the Caucasus

    PubMed Central

    Andronov, E. E.; Terefework, Z.; Roumiantseva, M. L.; Dzyubenko, N. I.; Onichtchouk, O. P.; Kurchak, O. N.; Dresler-Nurmi, A.; Young, J. P. W.; Simarov, B. V.; Lindström, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the genetic diversity of rhizobia and the morphological diversity of their plant hosts. Rhizobium galegae strains were isolated from nodules of wild Galega orientalis and Galega officinalis in the Caucasus, the center of origin for G. orientalis. All 101 isolates were characterized by genomic amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting and by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the rRNA intergenic spacer and of five parts of the symbiotic region adjacent to nod box sequences. By all criteria, the R. galegae bv. officinalis and R. galegae bv. orientalis strains form distinct clusters. The nod box regions are highly conserved among strains belonging to each of the two biovars but differ structurally to various degrees between the biovars. The findings suggest varying evolutionary pressures in different parts of the symbiotic genome of closely related R. galegae biovars. Sixteen R. galegae bv. orientalis strains harbored copies of the same insertion sequence element; all were isolated from a particular site and belonged to a limited range of chromosomal genotypes. In all analyses, the Caucasian R. galegae bv. orientalis strains were more diverse than R. galegae bv. officinalis strains, in accordance with the gene center theory. PMID:12571030

  2. Genetic diversity of culturable bacteria in oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Minna M; Jurgens, German; Lindström, Kristina; Suominen, Leena

    2006-01-01

    A collection of 50 indigenous meta-toluate tolerating bacteria isolated from oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis on selective medium was characterized and identified by classical and molecular methods. 16S rDNA partial sequencing showed the presence of five major lineages of the Bacteria domain. Gram-positive Rhodococcus, Bacillus and Arthrobacter and gram-negative Pseudomonas were the most abundant genera. Only one-fifth of the strains that tolerated m-toluate also degraded m-toluate. The inoculum Pseudomonas putida PaW85 was not found in the rhizosphere samples. The ability to degrade m-toluate by the TOL plasmid was detected only in species of the genus Pseudomonas. However, a few Rhodococcus erythropolis strains were found which were able to degrade m-toluate. A new finding was that Pseudomonas migulae strains and a few P. oryzihabitans strains were able to grow on m-toluate and most likely contained the TOL plasmid. Because strain specific differences in degradation abilities were found for P. oryzihabitans, separation at the strain level was important. For strain specific separation (GTG)5 fingerprinting was the best method. A combination of the single locus ribotyping and the whole genomic fingerprinting techniques with the selective partial sequencing formed a practical molecular toolbox for studying genetic diversity of culturable bacteria in oil-contaminated rhizosphere.

  3. Genetic diversity of culturable bacteria in oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Minna M; Jurgens, German; Lindström, Kristina; Suominen, Leena

    2006-01-01

    A collection of 50 indigenous meta-toluate tolerating bacteria isolated from oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis on selective medium was characterized and identified by classical and molecular methods. 16S rDNA partial sequencing showed the presence of five major lineages of the Bacteria domain. Gram-positive Rhodococcus, Bacillus and Arthrobacter and gram-negative Pseudomonas were the most abundant genera. Only one-fifth of the strains that tolerated m-toluate also degraded m-toluate. The inoculum Pseudomonas putida PaW85 was not found in the rhizosphere samples. The ability to degrade m-toluate by the TOL plasmid was detected only in species of the genus Pseudomonas. However, a few Rhodococcus erythropolis strains were found which were able to degrade m-toluate. A new finding was that Pseudomonas migulae strains and a few P. oryzihabitans strains were able to grow on m-toluate and most likely contained the TOL plasmid. Because strain specific differences in degradation abilities were found for P. oryzihabitans, separation at the strain level was important. For strain specific separation (GTG)5 fingerprinting was the best method. A combination of the single locus ribotyping and the whole genomic fingerprinting techniques with the selective partial sequencing formed a practical molecular toolbox for studying genetic diversity of culturable bacteria in oil-contaminated rhizosphere. PMID:16055251

  4. Isolation and characterization of GoRAV, a novel gene encoding a RAV-type protein in Galegae orientalis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaofang; Wang, Zan; Wang, Xuemin; Dong, Jie; Ren, Jizhou; Gao, Hongwen

    2009-04-01

    RAV is a unique transcription factor in higher plants with AP2 and B3-like two distinct DNA-binding domains, but its roles in plant growth and development remains unknown. We have isolated a novel RAV family gene from Galegae orientalis, called GoRAV, which responds to cold induction. Sequence alignment showed that it shares high identity with other RAV family members in AP2 and B3 domain. Transient expression analysis using onion epidermal cells indicated that GoRAV protein is localized in the nucleus. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR (S-Q RT-PCR) analysis indicated that GoRAV is induced by cold, dehydration, high-salinity and abscisic acid, with the strongest induction in G. orientalis leaves during the early response to abiotic elicitors. GoRAV is more abundant in leaf than in stem, but is not expressed in root. This work adds a new member to the RAV family. PMID:19556704

  5. Phenolic compounds of 'Galega Vulgar' and 'Cobrançosa' olive oils along early ripening stages.

    PubMed

    Peres, Fátima; Martins, Luisa L; Mourato, Miguel; Vitorino, Conceição; Antunes, Paulo; Ferreira-Dias, Suzana

    2016-11-15

    In this study, the lipophilic and hydrophilic phenol composition of virgin olive oils (VOO) obtained from olives from two of the most important Portuguese cultivars ('Galega Vulgar' and 'Cobrançosa'), harvested at different ripening stages and under two irrigation schemes (rain fed and irrigated), was evaluated. Phenolic alcohols (hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol), phenolic acids and derivatives and flavonoids (luteolin and apigenin), as well as tocopherols were quantified. Lipophilic (>300mgkg(-1)) and hydrophilic phenols (>600mgkg(-1)) were present in high contents in both VOO, for early ripening stages. Gamma-tocopherol content is higher in 'Galega Vulgar' VOO. Total phenols showed a decrease between ripening index 2.5 and 3.5. The dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA), also known as oleacein, was the major phenolic compound identified in both oils. The concentration of free hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol in both VOO is very low while their esterified derivatives, like 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and p-HPEA-EDA, are much more abundant. PMID:27283606

  6. Phenolic compounds of 'Galega Vulgar' and 'Cobrançosa' olive oils along early ripening stages.

    PubMed

    Peres, Fátima; Martins, Luisa L; Mourato, Miguel; Vitorino, Conceição; Antunes, Paulo; Ferreira-Dias, Suzana

    2016-11-15

    In this study, the lipophilic and hydrophilic phenol composition of virgin olive oils (VOO) obtained from olives from two of the most important Portuguese cultivars ('Galega Vulgar' and 'Cobrançosa'), harvested at different ripening stages and under two irrigation schemes (rain fed and irrigated), was evaluated. Phenolic alcohols (hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol), phenolic acids and derivatives and flavonoids (luteolin and apigenin), as well as tocopherols were quantified. Lipophilic (>300mgkg(-1)) and hydrophilic phenols (>600mgkg(-1)) were present in high contents in both VOO, for early ripening stages. Gamma-tocopherol content is higher in 'Galega Vulgar' VOO. Total phenols showed a decrease between ripening index 2.5 and 3.5. The dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA), also known as oleacein, was the major phenolic compound identified in both oils. The concentration of free hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol in both VOO is very low while their esterified derivatives, like 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and p-HPEA-EDA, are much more abundant.

  7. [The Effect of Cadmium on the Efficiency of Development of Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis].

    PubMed

    Chuhukova, O V; Postrigan, B N; Baimiev, A Kh; Chemeris, A V

    2015-01-01

    Screening of nodule bacteria (rhizobia) forming symbiotic relationships with legumes has been performed in order to isolate strains resistant to cadmium ions in a wide range of concentrations (6-132 mg/kg). The effect ofcadmium salts (6, 12, 24 mg/kg) on the legume-rhizobium symbiosis ofthe pea Pisum sativum L. with Rhizobium leguminosarum and of the fodder galega Galega orientalis Lam. with Rhizobium galegae has been studied under experimental laboratory conditions. No statistically significant differences have been revealed in the growth and biomass of plants with regard to the control in the range of concentrations given above. However, it was found that cadmium inhibited nodulation in P. sativum and stimulated it in G. orientalis. PMID:26638242

  8. [The Effect of Cadmium on the Efficiency of Development of Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis].

    PubMed

    Chuhukova, O V; Postrigan, B N; Baimiev, A Kh; Chemeris, A V

    2015-01-01

    Screening of nodule bacteria (rhizobia) forming symbiotic relationships with legumes has been performed in order to isolate strains resistant to cadmium ions in a wide range of concentrations (6-132 mg/kg). The effect ofcadmium salts (6, 12, 24 mg/kg) on the legume-rhizobium symbiosis ofthe pea Pisum sativum L. with Rhizobium leguminosarum and of the fodder galega Galega orientalis Lam. with Rhizobium galegae has been studied under experimental laboratory conditions. No statistically significant differences have been revealed in the growth and biomass of plants with regard to the control in the range of concentrations given above. However, it was found that cadmium inhibited nodulation in P. sativum and stimulated it in G. orientalis.

  9. Biology of Chiloloba orientalis

    PubMed Central

    Kumbhar, S.M.; Mamlavya, A.B.; Patil, S.J.; Bhawane, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    This study, related to emergence of the cetoniid beetle, Chiloloba orientalis D and R (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae), was conducted annually from August to the middle of October from 2007 to 2010 in maize (Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae)), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), and grass (Hetropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. and Schult., Apluda mutica L.) cultivated fields in a selected plot of grassland in Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India. Adults of C. orientalis feed on the inflorescence of S. bicolor, Z. mays, H. contortus and A. mutica. The occurrence of adults in this study indicates that the emergence of beetles coincides with the flowering period of its host plants. The immature stages of this beetle feed on the decaying organic matter of crop residues in composting heaps, indicating these immature stages play a key role in the recycling of organic waste of plant and animal origin and help in the enrichment of soil nutrients, especially in the red brown soil where primary decomposers are scarce. This study provides detailed information on the morphological peculiarities of immature stages with the duration required for the completion of the life cycle. The average incubation period of eggs was 15.2 days. The first, second, and third instar lasted for 22.7, 54.3, and 46.6 days respectively. The mean pupal period was 14.7 days. The average adult longevity was 9.4 days. PMID:23448133

  10. TOL plasmid transfer during bacterial conjugation in vitro and rhizoremediation of oil compounds in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Minna M; Zhao, Ji; Suominen, Leena; Lindström, Kristina

    2007-03-01

    Molecular profiling methods for horizontal transfer of aromatics-degrading plasmids were developed and applied during rhizoremediation in vivo and conjugations in vitro. pWW0 was conjugated from Pseudomonas to Rhizobium. The xylE gene was detected both in Rhizobium galegae bv. officinalis and bv. orientalis, but it was neither stably maintained in orientalis nor functional in officinalis. TOL plasmids were a major group of catabolic plasmids among the bacterial strains isolated from the oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis. A new finding was that some Pseudomonas migulae and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans strains harbored a TOL plasmid with both pWW0- and pDK1-type xylE gene. P. oryzihabitans 29 had received the archetypal TOL plasmid pWW0 from Pseudomonas putida PaW85. As an application for environmental biotechnology, the biodegradation potential of oil-polluted soil and the success of bioremediation could be estimated by monitoring changes not only in the type and amount but also in transfer of degradation plasmids.

  11. TOL plasmid transfer during bacterial conjugation in vitro and rhizoremediation of oil compounds in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Minna M; Zhao, Ji; Suominen, Leena; Lindström, Kristina

    2007-03-01

    Molecular profiling methods for horizontal transfer of aromatics-degrading plasmids were developed and applied during rhizoremediation in vivo and conjugations in vitro. pWW0 was conjugated from Pseudomonas to Rhizobium. The xylE gene was detected both in Rhizobium galegae bv. officinalis and bv. orientalis, but it was neither stably maintained in orientalis nor functional in officinalis. TOL plasmids were a major group of catabolic plasmids among the bacterial strains isolated from the oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis. A new finding was that some Pseudomonas migulae and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans strains harbored a TOL plasmid with both pWW0- and pDK1-type xylE gene. P. oryzihabitans 29 had received the archetypal TOL plasmid pWW0 from Pseudomonas putida PaW85. As an application for environmental biotechnology, the biodegradation potential of oil-polluted soil and the success of bioremediation could be estimated by monitoring changes not only in the type and amount but also in transfer of degradation plasmids. PMID:17000041

  12. Oil composition and some morphological characters of Crambe orientalis var. orientalis and Crambe tataria var. tataria from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Comlekcioglu, N; Karaman, S; Ilcim, A

    2008-04-15

    Native Crambe orientalis var. orientalis and Crambe tataria var. tataria collected from Kahramanmaras flora were morphologically examined and seed oil composition was determined. Volatile acid and fatty acid composition of seeds were examined with GC and GC/MS and the ratio of volatile acids to total oil was 3.49% in C. orientalis and 17.49% in C. tataria. The ratio of fatty acids to total oil was 92.03 and 67.28% in C. orientalis, and C. Tataria, respectively. The amount of erucic acid was 39.29% in C. orientalis and 29.87% in C. tataria. High linolenic acid (21.21%) and linoleic acid (12.42%) was found in C. orientalis oil, and high linolenic acid (15.01%) and linoleic acid (9.00%) was also found in C. tataria oil.

  13. Molecular characterization of Theileria orientalis from cattle in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Gasser, Robin B; Baneth, Gad; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Hailu, Asrat; Jabbar, Abdul

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the first molecular characterization of Theileria orientalis in local breeds of cattle in Ethiopia. A conventional PCR utilizing major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene and an established multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) were used to characterize T. orientalis and to assess the infection intensity, respectively. Of 232 blood samples tested, T. orientalis DNA was detected in only 2.2% of samples using conventional PCR; two genotypes buffeli (1.3%; 3/232) and type 5 (0.9%; 2/232) of T. orientalis were detected. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the buffeli MPSP sequences from Ethiopia were closely related to those reported from Kenya, Sri Lanka and Myanmar, and type 5 sequences from Ethiopia grouped with those from Korea, Japan, Vietnam and Thailand. A higher number of samples (3.9%; 9/232) were test-positive by MT-PCR and four genotypes (buffeli, chitose, ikeda and type 5) of T. orientalis were detected. The average intensity of infections with genotypes buffeli (DNA copy numbers 11,056) and type 5 (7508) were significantly higher (P<0.0001) than the pathogenic genotype ikeda (61 DNA copies). This first insight into T. orientalis from cattle in Ethiopia using MPSP gene provides a basis for future studies of T. orientalis in various agroclimatic zones and of the impact of oriental theilerosis on cattle in this and other countries of Africa. PMID:27034193

  14. Numerical discrimination by frogs (Bombina orientalis).

    PubMed

    Stancher, G; Rugani, R; Regolin, L; Vallortigara, G

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has been reported for quantity discrimination in mammals and birds and, to a lesser extent, fish and amphibians. For the latter species, however, whether quantity discrimination would reflect sensitivity to number or to the continuous physical variables that covary with number is unclear. Here we reported a series of experiments with frogs (Bombina orientalis) tested in free-choice experiments for their preferences for different amounts of preys (Tenebrio molitor larvae) with systematic controls for variables such as surface area, volume, weight, and movement. Frogs showed quantity discrimination in the range of both small (1 vs. 2, 2 vs. 3, but not 3 vs. 4) and large numerousness (3 vs. 6, 4 vs. 8, but not 4 vs. 6), with clear evidence of being able to discriminate numerousness even when continuous physical variables were controlled for in the case of small numerousness (i.e., 1 vs. 2), whereas in the case of large numerousness it remains unclear whether the number or surface areas were dominant. We suggested that task demands are likely to be responsible for the activation of different systems for small and large numerousness and for their relative susceptibility to quantitative stimulus variables. PMID:25108417

  15. Biofilm formation of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Halliday-Simmonds, Iona; Francis, Stewart; Kearney, Michael T; Hansen, John D

    2015-12-31

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen in both marine and fresh water environments. The bacterium is suspected to persist in the environment even without the presence of a suitable fish host. In the present study, the influence of different abiotic factors such as salinity and temperature were used to study the biofilm formation of different isolates of Fno including intracellular growth loci C (iglC) and pathogenicity determinant protein A (pdpA) knockout strains. Finally, we compared the susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm to three disinfectants used in the aquaculture and ornamental fish industry, namely Virkon(®), bleach and hydrogen peroxide. The data indicates that Fno is capable of producing biofilms within 24 h where both salinity as well as temperature plays a role in the growth and biofilm formation of Fno. Mutations in the iglC or pdpA, both known virulence factors, do not appear to affect the capacity of Fno to produce biofilms, and the minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum biocidal concentration for the three disinfectants were lower than the minimum biofilm eradication concentration values. This information needs to be taken into account if trying to eradicate the pathogen from aquaculture facilities or aquariums.

  16. Biofilm formation of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soto, Esteban; Halliday-Wimmonds, Iona; Kearney, Michael T; Hansen, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen in both marine and fresh water environments. The bacterium is suspected to persist in the environment even without the presence of a suitable fish host. In the present study, the influence of different abiotic factors such as salinity and temperature were used to study the biofilm formation of different isolates of Fno including intracellular growth loci C (iglC)and pathogenicity determinant protein A (pdpA) knockout strains. Finally, we compared the susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm to three disinfectants used in the aquaculture and ornamental fish industry, namely Virkon®, bleach and hydrogen peroxide. The data indicates that Fno is capable of producing biofilms within 24 h where both salinity as well as temperature plays a role in the growth and biofilm formation of Fno. Mutations in theiglC or pdpA, both known virulence factors, do not appear to affect the capacity of Fno to produce biofilms, and the minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum biocidal concentration for the three disinfectants were lower than the minimum biofilm eradication concentration values. This information needs to be taken into account if trying to eradicate the pathogen from aquaculture facilities or aquariums.

  17. Biofilm formation of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Halliday-Simmonds, Iona; Francis, Stewart; Kearney, Michael T; Hansen, John D

    2015-12-31

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen in both marine and fresh water environments. The bacterium is suspected to persist in the environment even without the presence of a suitable fish host. In the present study, the influence of different abiotic factors such as salinity and temperature were used to study the biofilm formation of different isolates of Fno including intracellular growth loci C (iglC) and pathogenicity determinant protein A (pdpA) knockout strains. Finally, we compared the susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm to three disinfectants used in the aquaculture and ornamental fish industry, namely Virkon(®), bleach and hydrogen peroxide. The data indicates that Fno is capable of producing biofilms within 24 h where both salinity as well as temperature plays a role in the growth and biofilm formation of Fno. Mutations in the iglC or pdpA, both known virulence factors, do not appear to affect the capacity of Fno to produce biofilms, and the minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum biocidal concentration for the three disinfectants were lower than the minimum biofilm eradication concentration values. This information needs to be taken into account if trying to eradicate the pathogen from aquaculture facilities or aquariums. PMID:26507830

  18. Metschnikowia orientalis sp. nov., an Australasian yeast from nitidulid beetles.

    PubMed

    Lachance, Marc-André; Bowles, Jane M; Wiens, Frank; Dobson, Jessica; Ewing, Curtis P

    2006-10-01

    A novel species, Metschnikowia orientalis sp. nov., is described for haploid, heterothallic yeasts isolated from nitidulid beetles sampled in flowers in Rarotonga in the Cook Islands, and the Cameron Highlands of Malaysia. As evidenced by analysis of D1/D2 large subunit rDNA sequences, the species is related to Candida hawaiiana, to which it is similar in growth responses. Cylindrical, conjugated asci and acicular ascospores of moderate size are formed. Rudimentary mating reactions were observed with Metschnikowia aberdeeniae and Metschnikowia continentalis, but not with C. hawaiiana. The type strain of M. orientalis is UWOPS 99-745.6(T) (h(+)) (=CBS 10331(T)=NRRL Y-27991(T)) and the designated allotype is UWOPS 05-269.1 (h(-)) (=CBS 10330=NRRL Y-27992). PMID:17012584

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Brachirus orientalis (Pleuronectiformes: Soleidae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Gong, Li; Wang, Shu-Ying; Kong, Xiao-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The oriental sole Brachirus orientalis (Pleuronectiformes: Soleidae) is characterized by both eyes on the right side of the body and orbicular-ovate body. In this paper, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of this sole was first determined. The total length is 16,602 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 2 rRNA genes (12S and 16S), as well as a putative control region and a putative L-strand replication origin (OL). Gene contents, locations, and arrangements are identical to those of typical bony fishes. Overall base composition of the mitogenome is 30.4%, 28.6%, 15.3%, and 25.7% for A, C, G, and T, with a high A + T content (56.1%). The determination of B. orientalis complete mitogenome sequence could contribute to phylogenetic study on Soleidae and Pleuronectiformes.

  20. In vitro Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Nauclea orientalis Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Raghavamma, S. T. V.; Rao, N. Rama

    2010-01-01

    Antianthelmintic activity of successive extracts (chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous) of Nauclea orientalis leaves were evaluated separately on adult Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma) and compared with that of albendazole. It was found that the extracts exhibited, respectively dose-dependent action and inhibition of spontaneous motility (paralysis) and death of earthworms. The results indicated that the chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts were more potent. PMID:21218070

  1. Prey Preference and Life Table of Amblyseius orientalis on Bemisia tabaci and Tetranychus cinnabarinus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Lv, Jiale; Hu, Yue; Wang, Boming; Chen, Xi; Xu, Xuenong; Wang, Endong

    2015-01-01

    Amblyseius orientalis (Ehara) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a native predatory mite species in China. It used to be considered as a specialist predator of spider mites. However, recent studies show it also preys on other small arthropod pests, such as Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Experiments were conducted to investigate (1) prey preference of A. orientalis between Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd.) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and B. tabaci, and (2) development, consumption and life table parameters of A. orientalis when reared on T. cinnabarinus, B. tabaci or a mix of both prey species. When preying on different stages of T. cinnabarinus, A. orientalis preferred protonymphs, whereas when preying on different stages of B. tabaci, A. orientalis preferred eggs. When these two most preferred stages were provided together (T. cinnabarinus protonymphs and B. tabaci eggs), A. orientalis randomly selected its prey. Amblyseius orientalis was able to complete its life cycle on B. tabaci eggs, T. cinnabarinus protonymphs, or a mix of both prey. However, its developmental duration was 53.9% and 30.0% longer when reared on B. tabaci eggs than on T. cinnabarinus and a mix of both prey, respectively. In addition, it produced only a few eggs and its intrinsic rate of increase was negative when reared on B. tabaci eggs, which indicates that B. tabaci is not sufficient to maintain A. orientalis population. The intrinsic rates of increase were 0.16 and 0.23 when A. orientalis was fed on the prey mix and T. cinnabarinus, respectively. These results suggest that although B. tabaci is a poor food resource for A. orientalis in comparison to T. cinnabarinus, A. orientalis is able to sustain its population on a mix of both prey. This predatory mite may thus be a potential biological control agent of B. tabaci when this pest co-occurs with the alternative minor pest T. cinnabarinus. PMID:26436422

  2. Prey Preference and Life Table of Amblyseius orientalis on Bemisia tabaci and Tetranychus cinnabarinus

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yue; Wang, Boming; Chen, Xi; Xu, Xuenong; Wang, Endong

    2015-01-01

    Amblyseius orientalis (Ehara) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a native predatory mite species in China. It used to be considered as a specialist predator of spider mites. However, recent studies show it also preys on other small arthropod pests, such as Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Experiments were conducted to investigate (1) prey preference of A. orientalis between Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd.) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and B. tabaci, and (2) development, consumption and life table parameters of A. orientalis when reared on T. cinnabarinus, B. tabaci or a mix of both prey species. When preying on different stages of T. cinnabarinus, A. orientalis preferred protonymphs, whereas when preying on different stages of B. tabaci, A. orientalis preferred eggs. When these two most preferred stages were provided together (T. cinnabarinus protonymphs and B. tabaci eggs), A. orientalis randomly selected its prey. Amblyseius orientalis was able to complete its life cycle on B. tabaci eggs, T. cinnabarinus protonymphs, or a mix of both prey. However, its developmental duration was 53.9% and 30.0% longer when reared on B. tabaci eggs than on T. cinnabarinus and a mix of both prey, respectively. In addition, it produced only a few eggs and its intrinsic rate of increase was negative when reared on B. tabaci eggs, which indicates that B. tabaci is not sufficient to maintain A. orientalis population. The intrinsic rates of increase were 0.16 and 0.23 when A. orientalis was fed on the prey mix and T. cinnabarinus, respectively. These results suggest that although B. tabaci is a poor food resource for A. orientalis in comparison to T. cinnabarinus, A. orientalis is able to sustain its population on a mix of both prey. This predatory mite may thus be a potential biological control agent of B. tabaci when this pest co-occurs with the alternative minor pest T. cinnabarinus. PMID:26436422

  3. Dynamics of Theileria orientalis genotype population in cattle in a year-round grazing system.

    PubMed

    Masatani, Tatsunori; Yoshihara, Shunpei; Matsubara, Atsuko; Gotoh, Takafumi; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Andoh, Masako; Endo, Yasuyuki; Matsuo, Tomohide

    2016-03-01

    Theirelia orientalis is a tick-borne haemoprotozoan parasite, and infection with this parasite is one of the most important diseases for grazing cattle. Co-infection of cattle with different genotypes of T. orientalis often occurs. In this study, we investigated the temporal dynamics of genotypes in cattle in a year-round grazing system in Japan. Genotype-specific PCR assays to determine major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) genotypes (types 1 to 5) of T. orientalis were performed by using time-course blood samples collected from grazing cattle and ticks in a pasture. All 20 cattle investigated in this study were infected with T. orientalis. By using genotype-specific PCR, we detected the combination of genotypes of T. orientalis (types 1 to 5) from each cattle. These multiple genotypes of T. orientalis were also confirmed in ticks. Notably, each genotype of T. orientalis in cattle was temporally detected from cattle and more variable genotypes were found in summer. The observed temporal dynamics of the MPSP genotypes of T. orientalis in cattle could be explained by host immunity against the parasites or genetic recombination of parasite in ticks. PMID:27078669

  4. [Measurement accuracy of granier calibration based on transpiration of Platycladus orientalis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing-Xin; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jin-Song; Gao, Jun; Sun, Shou-Jia; Jia, Chang-Rong

    2012-06-01

    In order to understand the accuracy of Granier' s thermal dissipation method in measuring tree water consumption, a comparative study was made from May to June, 2010. The sap flow density of potted Platycladus orientalis was measured with thermal dissipation probe, which was compared with the whole-plant gravimetric measurement. There were significant linear relationships (R2 > 0.825) between the sap flow velocity in both north and south directions of P. orientalis measured by thermal dissipation probe and the transpiration rate measured by gravimetric method. The average daily sap flux in the north and south directions of P. orientalis were 10.6% and 15.1% lower than the daily average transpiration of P. orientalis, respectively, but the differences were not significant. Therefore, Granier's method had high reliability in the measurement of P. orientalis transpiration at daily scale, though the large temperature fluctuation between day and night could result in a lower daily sap flux than daily transpiration.

  5. Gastrointestinal nematodes of wild sheep (Ovis orientalis) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Eslami, A; Meydani, M; Maleki, S; Zargarzadeh, A

    1979-04-01

    A total of 250 wild sheep (Ovis orientalis) from different national parks and protected regions of Iran were examined for gastrointestinal nematodes at necropsy. Twenty five species of nematodes were found. Marshallagia marshalli, Ostertagia spp; Nematodirus spp; and Skrjabinema ovis were the most prevalent. Although all the species found are recorded from wild sheep for the first time in Iran, 88% were reported previously from domestic sheep. New host and distribution records for Nematodirus davtiani, N. gazellae and Nematodirella longissimespiculata were established during the present study.

  6. [Optimization of extraction process for tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2 method].

    PubMed

    Xie, Song; Tong, Zhi-Ping; Tan, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Zhen

    2014-08-01

    In order to optimize extraction process conditions of tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2, the content of tannins was determined by phosphomolybdium tungsten acid-casein reaction, with extraction pressure, extraction temper- ature and extraction time as factors, the content of tannins from extract of G. orientali-tibeticum as index, technology conditions were optimized by orthogonal test. Optimum technology conditions were as follows: extraction pressure was 25 MPa, extraction temperature was 50 °C, extracted 1.5 h. The content of tannins in extract was 12.91 mg x g(-1), extract rate was 3.67%. The method established could be used for assay the contents of tannin in G. orientali-tibeticum. The circulated extraction was an effective extraction process that was stable and feasible, and that provides a way of the extraction process conditions of tannin from G. orientali-tibeticum.

  7. The cytochemistry of oocytes of Chinese shrimp Penaeus orientalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiu

    1991-06-01

    In the growth of oocytes of Penaeus orientalis Kishinouye, five stages were distinguished. Histochemical tests showed the presence of DNA in the chromatin and nucleolus of the cell. The cytoplasm at the previtellogenetic stage and the nucleolus are rich in RNA and the proteins abounding with cysteine, tyrosine and tryptophan. The yolk consists mainly of proteins and phospholipids. The 1,2-glycol groups of carbohydrate occur in the cytoplasm at stage II, and aggregate mostly into cortical rods at stages IV and V. Neutral lipid droplets, and protein containing disulfides, appear in the cytoplasm at stages III and IV respectively. The proteins in the cortical rod differ from those in other components of the cell in the presence of cystine and absence of arginine.

  8. N-Cinnamoyltetraketide Derivatives from the Leaves of Toussaintia orientalis.

    PubMed

    Nyandoro, Stephen S; Ndanu, Joseph; Munissi, Joan J E; Gruhonjic, Amra; Fitzpatrick, Paul A; Landberg, Göran; Lu, Yu; Wang, Bin; Pan, Fangfang; Rissanen, Kari; Erdélyi, Máté

    2015-08-28

    Seven N-cinnamoyltetraketides (1-7), including the new Z-toussaintine E (2), toussaintine F (6), and toussaintine G (7), were isolated from the methanol extract of the leaves of Toussaintia orientalis using column chromatography and HPLC. The configurations of E-toussaintine E (1) and toussaintines A (3) and D (5) are revised based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data from racemic crystals. Both the crude methanol extract and the isolated constituents exhibit antimycobacterial activities (MIC 83.3-107.7 μM) against the H37Rv strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Compounds 1, 3, 4, and 5 are cytotoxic (ED50 15.3-105.7 μM) against the MDA-MB-231 triple negative aggressive breast cancer cell line. PMID:26214247

  9. Development and validation of an inexpensive and efficient method for the extraction of Theileria orientalis DNA from blood.

    PubMed

    Bogema, D R; Fell, S A; O'Rourke, B A; Collins, D; Eamens, G J; Jenkins, C

    2015-09-15

    Theileria orientalis is an emerging bovine pathogen in Australasia. PCR-based detection methods for this parasite are sensitive but relatively expensive, partly due to costs associated with DNA extraction. An inexpensive and efficient technique was developed for the extraction of T. orientalis DNA from blood based on hypotonic erythrocyte lysis and detergent-proteinase K treatment (DPK method). The DPK method compares favourably to a commercial extraction kit when paired with a T. orientalis multiplex qPCR.

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel heat shock protein 20 of Babesia orientalis.

    PubMed

    He, Lan; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Qing-Li; Fan, Li-Zhe; Miao, Xiao-Yan; Khan, Muhammad Kasib; Hu, Min; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Zhao, Jun-Long

    2014-08-29

    The heat shock protein 20 (HSP20) gene of Babesia orientalis (BoHSP20) was identified from both genomic DNA and cDNA. The full-length BoHSP20 gene was 690bp with one intron from position 88-243bp. The amplicon obtained from cDNA corresponded to a full-length open reading frame (ORF) with a length of 534bp, encoding a polypeptide of 178 amino acid residues with a predicted size of 20kDa. The ORF was cloned into a pET-28a plasmid and subsequently expressed as a His-fusion protein. The recombinant HSP20 of B. orientalis (rBoHSP20) was purified and evaluated as an antigen using Western blotting. Anti-B. orientalis water buffalo serum reacted with rBoHSP20, indicating that this protein was an immunodominant antigen and could be a useful diagnostic reagent to detect antibodies against B. orientalis in water buffalo. The native BoHSP20 was recognized by polyclonal antibody from the serum of rabbit immunized with rBoHSP20. Strong immunofluorescence signals were observed from B. orientalis in blood smears by fluorescence microscopy. Bacterial survival experiments indicated that HSP20 can significantly increase the viability of bacteria when the culture is exposed to thermal stress. The results suggest that BoHSP20 might play an important role during B. orientalis transmission from tick to host animal, given the sudden shifts in temperature involved. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that B. orientalis is in the Babesia clade and most closely related to Babesia bovis. Similar topologies were obtained from trees based on 18S rRNA and the HSP70 gene. The present study suggests that BoHSP20 might be a potential diagnostic antigen and that the HSP20 genes can aid in the classification of Babesia and Theileria species.

  11. Genetic diversity of Theileria orientalis in tick vectors detected in Hokkaido and Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Naoaki; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Ota, Naomi; Igarashi, Ikuo; Nakamura, Yukio; Yamashina, Hidenari; Matsui, Shirou; Fukumoto, Natsuko; Hata, Hiroshi; Kondo, Seiji; Oshiro, Mamoru; Zakimi, Satoshi; Kuroda, Yasuhiro; Kojima, Naoya; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated the possible tick vectors that can transmit Theileria orientalis in eastern Hokkaido, Japan. Questing ticks collected from three different districts, Taiki, Otofuke, and Shin-Hidaka, of Hokkaido included Ixodes persulcatus, Haemaphysalis megaspinosa, Haemaphysalis douglasi, and Ixodes ovatus, while all the ticks collected from Yonaguni island of Okinawa were identified as Haemaphysalis longicornis. When the ticks were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for T. orientalis, the parasite was commonly detected among all tick species. Genotype-specific PCR assays revealed that all tick species in Hokkaido were predominantly detected with type 2, while ticks collected from Okinawa (H. longicornis) were predominantly detected with type 1. Consistent with the genetic diversity of T. orientalis in ticks, genotyping PCR assays from cattle grazed in the same Hokkaido sampling locations identified type 2 as the most prevalent genotype. This study provides the first identification of I. persulcatus, H. megaspinosa, H. douglasi, and I. ovatus as possible tick vectors of T. orientalis, and finds that the variety of vectors apparently capable of transmitting T. orientalis is wider in Japan than expected. The authors suggest that tick control strategies should be modified in Hokkaido based on the seasonal activities of ticks identified in the present study.

  12. Improved Broth Microdilution Method for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Francisella Noatunensis Orientalis.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Halliday-Simmonds, Iona; Francis, Stewart; Fraites, Trellor; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Wiles, Judy; Hawke, John P; Endris, Richard D

    2016-09-01

    In this project we optimized a minimal inhibitory concentration testing protocol for Francisella noatunensis orientalis. Thirty-three F. noatunensis orientalis isolates recovered from different fish species and locations were tested, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was used as a quality control reference strain. A modified cation-adjusted Mueller Hinton broth supplemented with 2% IsoVitalex and 0.1% glucose (MMH) was tested at a pH of 6.4 ± 0.1, 7.1 ± 0.1, and 7.3 ± 0.1. Growth curves generated for F. noatunensis orientalis indicated that MMH at a pH of 6.4 ± 0.1 provided optimal growth. There were no significant differences in the growth curves obtained from isolates recovered from different fish species or from fresh or marine water. The pH of 6.4 ± 0.1 in the MMH media interfered with the inhibitory properties of the potentiated sulfonamides (ormetoprim-sulfadimethoxine and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) when using the E. coli ATCC reference strain. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of eight antimicrobials (gentamicin, enrofloxacin, ampicillin, oxytetracycline, erythromycin, florfenicol, flumequine, and oxolinic acid) were similar for all F. noatunensis orientalis isolates. The in vitro susceptibility data provided here can provide a baseline for monitoring the development of antimicrobial resistance among F. noatunensis orientalis isolates, as well as provide valuable data in the development of potential therapeutics. Received October 27, 2015; accepted April 13, 2016. PMID:27484609

  13. Emergence of new types of Theileria orientalis in Australian cattle and possible cause of theileriosis outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Kamau, Joseph; de Vos, Albertus J; Playford, Matthew; Salim, Bashir; Kinyanjui, Peter; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2011-02-21

    Theileria parasites cause a benign infection of cattle in parts of Australia where they are endemic, but have, in recent years, been suspected of being responsible for a number of outbreaks of disease in cattle near the coast of New South Wales. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the species of Theileria in cattle on six farms in New South Wales where disease outbreaks have occurred, and compare with Theileria from three disease-free farms in Queensland that is endemic for Theileria. Special reference was made to sub-typing of T. orientalis by type-specific PCR and sequencing of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, and sequence analysis of the gene encoding a polymorphic merozoite/piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) that may be under immune selection. Nucleotide sequencing of SSU rRNA and MPSP genes revealed the presence of four Theileria genotypes: T. orientalis (buffeli), T. orientalis (ikeda), T. orientalis (chitose) and T. orientalis type 4 (MPSP) or type C (SSU rRNA). The majority of animals showed mixed infections while a few showed single infection. When MPSP nucleotide sequences were translated into amino acids, base transition did not change amino acid composition of the protein product, suggesting possible silent polymorphism. The occurrence of ikeda and type 4 (type C) previously not reported to occur and silent mutation is thought to have enhanced parasite evasion of the host immune response causing the outbreak.

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of Babesia orientalis rhoptry-associated protein 1.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qian; He, Lan; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Cheng, Jian-Xi; Hu, Jin-Fang; Miao, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Yuan; Fan, Li-Zhe; Khan, Muhammad Kasib; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Hu, Min; Zhao, Jun-Long

    2014-10-15

    The rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP-1) gene of Babesia orientalis was obtained from a cDNA expression library by immunoscreening with B. orientalis-infected water buffalo sera. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA was 1732 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1434 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 478 amino acid residues with a predicted size of 52.5 kDa. The ORF was cloned into a pGEX-KG plasmid and subsequently expressed as a GST-fusion protein. The recombinant RAP-1 of B. orientalis (rBoRAP-1) was purified and evaluated as an antigen using Western blotting. The native BoRAP-1 was recognized by the antibodies raised in rabbits against rBoRAP-1. Strong immunofluorescence signals were observed in erythrocytes infected with B. orientalis. Phylogentic analysis revealed that B. orientalis fell into a Babesia clade and most closely related to Babesia bovis and Babesia ovis, which was similar to the previous reported trees based on 18S rRNA and HSP70 genes. The present study suggests that the BoRAP-1 might be a potential diagnostic antigen, and the RAP-1 genes can aid in the classification of Babesia and Theileria species.

  15. Hearing thresholds of swimming Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis.

    PubMed

    Dale, Jonathan J; Gray, Michael D; Popper, Arthur N; Rogers, Peter H; Block, Barbara A

    2015-05-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) is a highly migratory, commercially valuable species potentially vulnerable to acoustic noise generated from human activities which could impact behavior and fitness. Although significant efforts have been made to understand hearing abilities of fishes, the large size and need to continuously swim for respiration have hindered investigations with tuna and other large pelagic species. In this study, Pacific bluefin tuna were trained to respond to a pure tone sound stimulus ranging 325-800 Hz and their hearing abilities quantified using a staircase psychophysical technique. Hearing was most sensitive from 400 to 500 Hz in terms of particle motion (radial acceleration -88 dB re 1 m s(-2); vertical acceleration -86 dB re 1 m s(-2)) and sound pressure (83 dB re 1 μPa). Compared to yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis), Pacific bluefin tuna has a similar bandwidth of hearing and best frequency, but greater sensitivity overall. Careful calibration of the sound stimulus and experimental tank environment, as well as the adoption of behavioral methodology, demonstrates an experimental approach highly effective for the study of large fish species in the laboratory.

  16. Hearing thresholds of swimming Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis.

    PubMed

    Dale, Jonathan J; Gray, Michael D; Popper, Arthur N; Rogers, Peter H; Block, Barbara A

    2015-05-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) is a highly migratory, commercially valuable species potentially vulnerable to acoustic noise generated from human activities which could impact behavior and fitness. Although significant efforts have been made to understand hearing abilities of fishes, the large size and need to continuously swim for respiration have hindered investigations with tuna and other large pelagic species. In this study, Pacific bluefin tuna were trained to respond to a pure tone sound stimulus ranging 325-800 Hz and their hearing abilities quantified using a staircase psychophysical technique. Hearing was most sensitive from 400 to 500 Hz in terms of particle motion (radial acceleration -88 dB re 1 m s(-2); vertical acceleration -86 dB re 1 m s(-2)) and sound pressure (83 dB re 1 μPa). Compared to yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis), Pacific bluefin tuna has a similar bandwidth of hearing and best frequency, but greater sensitivity overall. Careful calibration of the sound stimulus and experimental tank environment, as well as the adoption of behavioral methodology, demonstrates an experimental approach highly effective for the study of large fish species in the laboratory. PMID:25732931

  17. Haematological characteristics associated with parasitism in bream, Abramis brama orientalis.

    PubMed

    Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Khara, Hossein; Movahed, Rashideh; Sayadborani, Mohammad; Rohi, Javad Daghigh; Ahmadnezhad, Mohadesseh; Rahbar, Mina; Rad, Amir Sajedi

    2014-12-01

    A parasitological investigation was done on 175 specimens. Infections of A. brama orientalis were analyzed according to the age and sex. The fish also were examined for evaluation changes of haematological parameters in relation to parasitic infection. Four parasites were found, including-Caryophyllaeus laticeps and Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda), Diplostomum spathaceum (Platyhelminthes) and Trichodina sp. (Ciliophora). Among identified parasites maximum prevalence and mean intensity were related to Ligula intestinalis and Caryophyllaeus laticeps respectively. The values of prevalence and mean intensity showed significant differences among ages. Our results revealed prevalence, mean intensity and abundance had not significant difference between males and females. Parasite infection provoked reduction (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, mean cell volume and lymphocyte. On the other hand, significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC), mean cell haemoglobin concentration and neutrophil in blood of infected fish was observed. Significant differences were detected for the WBC, lymphocyte and neutrophil (infected versus uninfected by Trichodina sp., Diplostomum spathaceum and Caryophyllaeus laticeps). In addition to WBC and lymphocytes, significant change was observed for the haemoglobin (Hb) (infected versus uninfected by Ligula intestinalis).

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of Metorchis orientalis (Trematoda: Opisthorchiidae): Comparison with other closely related species and phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Na, Lu; Gao, Jun-Feng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Fu, Xue; Su, Xin; Yue, Dong-Mei; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Chun-Ren

    2016-04-01

    Metorchis orientalis (Trematoda: Opisthorchiidae) is an important trematode infecting many animals and humans, causing metorchiasis. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of M. orientalis was sequenced. The complete mt genome of M. orientalis is 13,834 bp circular DNA molecule and contains 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes. The gene content and arrangement of M. orientalis is the same as those of Opisthorchiidae trematodes (Opisthorchis viverrini, Opisthorchis felineus and Clonorchis sinensis), but distinct from Schistosoma spp. Phylogenetic analyses using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes with three different computational algorithms (Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony) revealed that M. orientalis and O. viverrini represent sister taxa. The mt genome provides a novel genetic marker for further studies of the identification, classification and molecular epidemiology of Opisthorchiidae trematodes, and should have implications for the diagnosis, prevention and control of metorchiasis in animals and humans. PMID:26805437

  19. Morphometric and preliminary genetic characteristics of Branchinecta orientalis populations from Iran (Crustacea: Anostraca).

    PubMed

    Atashbar, Behroz; Agh, Naser; Manaffar, Ramin; Stappen, Gilbert Van; Mohamadyari, Ali; Mertens, Johan; Beladjal, Lynda

    2016-01-01

    Branchinecta orientalis is a fairy shrimp endemic to the Palearctic region, from Mongolia to Spain. The patchy nature of its habitat is thought to result in a high degree of subdivision among populations, potentially promoting speciation. We combined morphometric characteristics with molecular phylogeny of cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) to test whether B. orientalis could be a species complex and whether there is any correlation between the genetic variation, morphometric characteristics and geographical variables. We studied six populations from Iran based on the comparison of morphometric and molecular datasets, we confirmed that the Aigher Goli (AIG) population is biometrically well separated from the Akh Gol, Hassar, Rashakan, Khaslou and Garagojanlou populations in northwestern Iran. The relatively high genetic divergence in the AIG from the other populations and its congruence with morphometric data were observed in B. orientalis populations. However, as these results were generated using a small sample size and on a limited sampling range, they should be considered as preliminary. PMID:27394849

  20. Molecular epidemiological survey of Theileria orientalis in Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Khukhuu, Altangerel; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich; Long, Phung Thang; Ueno, Akio; Li, Yan; Luo, Yuzi; Macedo, Alan Caine Costa de; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Kawazu, Shin-Ichiro; Igarashi, Ikuo; Xuan, Xuenan; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2011-05-01

    Theileria orientalis is a benign bovine protozoan parasite that occasionally causes serious economic loss in the livestock industry. We report the findings of a molecular epidemiological survey of T. orientalis in 94 Vietnamese yellow cattle, 43 water buffaloes, 21 sheep, 21 goats and 85 blood-sucking ticks of cattle in the Thua Thien Hue province of Vietnam. The major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene of T. orientalis was detected using polymerase chain reaction from 13 cattle (13.8%), 11 water buffaloes (25.6%), 1 sheep (4.8%) and 9 ticks (10.6%). Phylogenetic analysis using MPSP gene sequences showed the presence of seven genotypes, four previously categorized genotypes (Types 1, 3, 5 and 7) and three new genotypes (Types N-1, N-2 and N-3).

  1. An observational study of the vertical transmission of Theileria orientalis (Ikeda) in a New Zealand pastoral dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, K E; Gedye, K; McFadden, A M J; Pulford, D J; Pomroy, W E

    2016-03-15

    Although only recently recognised, Theileria orientalis (Ikeda) is now the most important infectious cause of anaemia in New Zealand cattle. The aim of this study was to test if vertical transmission of T. orientalis (Ikeda) from dam to calf across the placenta occurs in naturally infected New Zealand dairy cattle and to also test whether the infection status of the dam at calving affects the future susceptibility of its offspring to T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection. Dairy cows (n=97) and their calves were sampled at calving; and the calves again at 4 months of age. All samples were measured for haematocrit and screened for T. orientalis genotypes using a multiplex Buffeli, Chitose and Ikeda specific TaqMan assay. Ikeda positive samples were further tested by singleplex PCR in triplicate to calculate the Ikeda infection intensity as genomes/μl of blood from each infected animal. No T. orientalis (Ikeda) infected calves were born to either T. orientalis (Ikeda) infected or uninfected dams. There were 56/97 dams positive for T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection at calving and 79/90 calves positive for T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection at 4 months of age but no effect on calf susceptibility of dam infection status at calving. There was a significant negative effect of infection intensity on haematocrit after controlling for whether the infected animal was a dam or a 4 month old calf. Vertical trans-uterine transmission of T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection is unlikely in chronically infected dairy cows and thus not a factor in the epidemiology of T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection. PMID:26872929

  2. An observational study of the vertical transmission of Theileria orientalis (Ikeda) in a New Zealand pastoral dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, K E; Gedye, K; McFadden, A M J; Pulford, D J; Pomroy, W E

    2016-03-15

    Although only recently recognised, Theileria orientalis (Ikeda) is now the most important infectious cause of anaemia in New Zealand cattle. The aim of this study was to test if vertical transmission of T. orientalis (Ikeda) from dam to calf across the placenta occurs in naturally infected New Zealand dairy cattle and to also test whether the infection status of the dam at calving affects the future susceptibility of its offspring to T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection. Dairy cows (n=97) and their calves were sampled at calving; and the calves again at 4 months of age. All samples were measured for haematocrit and screened for T. orientalis genotypes using a multiplex Buffeli, Chitose and Ikeda specific TaqMan assay. Ikeda positive samples were further tested by singleplex PCR in triplicate to calculate the Ikeda infection intensity as genomes/μl of blood from each infected animal. No T. orientalis (Ikeda) infected calves were born to either T. orientalis (Ikeda) infected or uninfected dams. There were 56/97 dams positive for T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection at calving and 79/90 calves positive for T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection at 4 months of age but no effect on calf susceptibility of dam infection status at calving. There was a significant negative effect of infection intensity on haematocrit after controlling for whether the infected animal was a dam or a 4 month old calf. Vertical trans-uterine transmission of T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection is unlikely in chronically infected dairy cows and thus not a factor in the epidemiology of T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection.

  3. Characterisation of a Babesia orientalis apical membrane antigen, and comparison of its orthologues among selected apicomplexans.

    PubMed

    He, Lan; Fan, Lizhe; Hu, Jinfang; Miao, Xiaoyan; Huang, Yuan; Zhou, Yanqin; Hu, Min; Zhao, Junlong

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we identified and characterised the complete coding sequence of Babesia orientalis apical membrane antigen 1 (designated Bo-ama1); it is 1803bp in length and encodes a polypeptide of 601 amino acids (aa). The Bo-ama-1 gene product (Bo-AMA1) is predicted to be 67kDa in size and contains a signal peptide. Mature Bo-AMA1 is predicted to have one transmembrane region and a short cytoplasmic tail (C-terminal domain). The extracellular part of Bo-AMA1 has three functional domains (DI, DII and DIII) with 14 conserved cysteine residues. A Bo-AMA1 fragment containing all three of these domains (designated Bo-AMA1-DI/II/III) was cloned into the plasmid vector pET-28a and expressed as a recombinant (His-fusion) protein of 53kDa. Antibodies in the serum from a B. orientalis-infected water buffalo specifically recognised this protein in immunoblotting analysis. Rabbit antibodies raised against the recombinant protein were able to detect native Bo-AMA1 (67kDa) from erythrocytes of B. orientalis-infected water buffalo. Bo-AMA1 is a new member of the AMA1 family and might be a good antigen for the specific detection of antibodies produced in B. orientalis infected cattle. This protein is likely to play critical roles during host cell adherence and invasion by B. orientalis, as the AMA1s reported in other organisms such as Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. Further research is required to explore the biological functions of this protein and to determine whether its immunisation can induce protective effects in water buffalo against B. orientalis infection.

  4. Phenolic compounds from the stem bark Erythrina Orientalis and detection of antimalaria activity by ELISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjahjadarie, Tjitjik Srie; Saputri, Ratih Dewi; Tanjung, Mulyadi

    2016-03-01

    Erythrina orientalis has local name "Dadap". This plant has known producing alkaloids, flavonoids, pterocarpans, stilbenes, and arylbenzofurans which are active compounds.Three prenylated flavonoids, 8-prenyl-daidzein (1), alpinumisoflavone (2) and 4'-O-methyl licoflavanone (3) had been isolated from the stem bark of Erythrina Orientalis. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data,which are IR, UV, MS, and NMR 1D (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR) and 2D (COSY, HMQC, and HMBC).

  5. A new record for Lispe orientalis Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Muscidae) from peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chew, W K; Kurahashi, H; Nazni, W A; Heo, C C; Heah, S K; Jeffery, J; Lee, H L

    2012-09-01

    Lispe orientalis Wiedemann, 1824 is recorded for the first time in peninsular Malaysia. Specimens were collected from a mushroom cultivation farm in Genting Highlands, Pahang (3°25'18"N 101°47'48"E). Previously, this species had been recorded from Azerbaijin, India, Russia, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkey and South Korea. The male of Lispe orientalis can be determined by the following characteristics: body non-metallic, ashy gray, third antennal segment black, R5 cell not narrow apically, hind metatarsus normal, legs entirely black, femora with long bristle-like hairs on av and pv surfaces, hind tibia without av and pv seta and the palpi orangish in colour.

  6. Serological investigations on Babesia orientalis infection. Status of water buffaloes in Hubei Province.

    PubMed

    Yao, Baoan; Zhao, Junlong; Liu, Enyong; Ding, Sutian; Shi, Junhua; Liu, Zhongling

    2002-05-01

    A total of 230 water buffaloes were sampled for the determination of the epidemiological situation of Babesia orientalis infection in Hubei Province, using the latex agglutination test. This serological test revealed that 74.7% of the collected sera were positive for antibodies against B. orientalis in endemic areas. In contrast, only 1.79% of water buffaloes were positive in non-epidemic areas. The incidence of the infection was substantially higher in older than in younger animals. The results were analysed using mathematical model and indicated that these areas were in a stable situation.

  7. Predicting the potential environmental suitability for Theileria orientalis transmission in New Zealand cattle using maximum entropy niche modelling.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, K E; Summers, S R; Heath, A C G; McFadden, A M J; Pulford, D J; Pomroy, W E

    2016-07-15

    The tick-borne haemoparasite Theileria orientalis is the most important infectious cause of anaemia in New Zealand cattle. Since 2012 a previously unrecorded type, T. orientalis type 2 (Ikeda), has been associated with disease outbreaks of anaemia, lethargy, jaundice and deaths on over 1000 New Zealand cattle farms, with most of the affected farms found in the upper North Island. The aim of this study was to model the relative environmental suitability for T. orientalis transmission throughout New Zealand, to predict the proportion of cattle farms potentially suitable for active T. orientalis infection by region, island and the whole of New Zealand and to estimate the average relative environmental suitability per farm by region, island and the whole of New Zealand. The relative environmental suitability for T. orientalis transmission was estimated using the Maxent (maximum entropy) modelling program. The Maxent model predicted that 99% of North Island cattle farms (n=36,257), 64% South Island cattle farms (n=15,542) and 89% of New Zealand cattle farms overall (n=51,799) could potentially be suitable for T. orientalis transmission. The average relative environmental suitability of T. orientalis transmission at the farm level was 0.34 in the North Island, 0.02 in the South Island and 0.24 overall. The study showed that the potential spatial distribution of T. orientalis environmental suitability was much greater than presumed in the early part of the Theileria associated bovine anaemia (TABA) epidemic. Maximum entropy offers a computer efficient method of modelling the probability of habitat suitability for an arthropod vectored disease. This model could help estimate the boundaries of the endemically stable and endemically unstable areas for T. orientalis transmission within New Zealand and be of considerable value in informing practitioner and farmer biosecurity decisions in these respective areas. PMID:27270395

  8. Molecular epidemiology of bovine Babesia spp. and Theileria orientalis parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Adjou Moumouni, Paul Franck; Cao, Shinuo; Iguchi, Aiko; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Zhou, Mo; Vudriko, Patrick; Changbunjong, Tanasak; Sungpradit, Sivapong; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Moonarmart, Walasinee; Sedwisai, Poonyapat; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Wongsawang, Witsanu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2016-02-01

    Beef cattle production represents the largest cattle population in Thailand. Their productivity is constrained by tick-borne diseases such as babesiosis and theileriosis. In this study, we determined the prevalence of Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Theileria orientalis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genetic markers that were used for detection of the above parasites were sequenced to determine identities and similarity for Babesia spp. and genetic diversity of T. orientalis. Furthermore the risk factors for the occurrence of the above protozoan parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern parts of Thailand were assessed. A total of 329 blood samples were collected from beef cattle in 6 provinces. The study revealed that T. orientalis was the most prevalent (30.1%) parasite in beef cattle followed by B. bigemina (13.1%) and B. bovis (5.5%). Overall, 78.7% of the cattle screened were infected with at least one of the above parasites. Co-infection with Babesia spp. and T. orientalis was 30.1%. B. bigemina and T. orientalis were the most prevalent (15.1%) co-infection although triple infection with the three parasites was observed in 3.0% of the samples. Sequencing analysis revealed that B. bigemina RAP1 gene and B. bovis SBP2 gene were conserved among the parasites from different cattle samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the T. orientalis MPSP gene from parasites isolated from cattle in north and northeast Thailand was classified into types 5 and 7 as reported previously. Lack of tick control program was the universal risk factor of the occurrence of Babesia spp. and T. orientalis infection in beef cattle in northern and northeastern Thailand. We therefore recommend training of farmers on appropriate tick control strategies and further research on potential vectors for T. orientalis and elucidate the effect of co-infection with Babesia spp. on the pathogenicity of T. orientalis infection on beef in northern and northeastern Thailand.

  9. First identification of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis causing mortality in Mexican tilapia Oreochromis spp.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Cesar; Mancera, Gerardo; Enríquez, Ricardo; Vargas, Augusto; Martínez, Simón; Fajardo, Raúl; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Navarrete, María José; Romero, Alex

    2016-08-01

    Francisellosis, an emerging disease in tilapia Oreochromis spp., is caused by the facultative, intracellular bacterium Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis, which is present in various countries where tilapia farming is commercially important. We confirmed the presence of francisellosis in Mexican tilapia cultures in association with an outbreak during the second semester of 2012. Broodstock fish presented a mortality rate of approximately 40%, and disease was characterized by histologically classified granulomas, or whitish nodules, in different organs, mainly the spleen and kidney. Through DNA obtained from infected tissue and pure cultures in a cysteine heart medium supplemented with hemoglobin, F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis was initially confirmed through the amplification and analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer region. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes demonstrated close similarity with previously reported F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis sequences obtained from infected tilapia from various countries. The identification of this subspecies as the causative agent of the outbreak was confirmed using the iglC gene as a target sequence, which showed 99.5% identity to 2 F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis strains (Ethime-1 and Toba04). These findings represent the first documented occurrence of francisellosis in Mexican tilapia cultures, which highlights the importance of establishing preventative measures to minimize the spread of this disease within the Mexican aquaculture industry. PMID:27503916

  10. Predicting Impacts of Future Climate Change on the Distribution of the Widespread Conifer Platycladus orientalis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xian-Ge; Jin, Yuqing; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Mao, Jian-Feng; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Chinese thuja (Platycladus orientalis) has a wide but fragmented distribution in China. It is an important conifer tree in reforestation and plays important roles in ecological restoration in the arid mountains of northern China. Based on high-resolution environmental data for current and future scenarios, we modeled the present and future suitable habitat for P. orientalis, evaluated the importance of environmental factors in shaping the species' distribution, and identified regions of high risk under climate change scenarios. The niche models showed that P. orientalis has suitable habitat of ca. 4.2×106 km2 across most of eastern China and identified annual temperature, monthly minimum and maximum ultraviolet-B radiation and wet-day frequency as the critical factors shaping habitat availability for P. orientalis. Under the low concentration greenhouse gas emissions scenario, the range of the species may increase as global warming intensifies; however, under the higher concentrations of emissions scenario, we predicted a slight expansion followed by contraction in distribution. Overall, the range shift to higher latitudes and elevations would become gradually more significant. The information gained from this study should be an useful reference for implementing long-term conservation and management strategies for the species. PMID:26132163

  11. First identification of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis causing mortality in Mexican tilapia Oreochromis spp.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Cesar; Mancera, Gerardo; Enríquez, Ricardo; Vargas, Augusto; Martínez, Simón; Fajardo, Raúl; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Navarrete, María José; Romero, Alex

    2016-08-01

    Francisellosis, an emerging disease in tilapia Oreochromis spp., is caused by the facultative, intracellular bacterium Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis, which is present in various countries where tilapia farming is commercially important. We confirmed the presence of francisellosis in Mexican tilapia cultures in association with an outbreak during the second semester of 2012. Broodstock fish presented a mortality rate of approximately 40%, and disease was characterized by histologically classified granulomas, or whitish nodules, in different organs, mainly the spleen and kidney. Through DNA obtained from infected tissue and pure cultures in a cysteine heart medium supplemented with hemoglobin, F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis was initially confirmed through the amplification and analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer region. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes demonstrated close similarity with previously reported F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis sequences obtained from infected tilapia from various countries. The identification of this subspecies as the causative agent of the outbreak was confirmed using the iglC gene as a target sequence, which showed 99.5% identity to 2 F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis strains (Ethime-1 and Toba04). These findings represent the first documented occurrence of francisellosis in Mexican tilapia cultures, which highlights the importance of establishing preventative measures to minimize the spread of this disease within the Mexican aquaculture industry.

  12. Molecular prevalence of different genotypes of Theileria orientalis detected from cattle and water buffaloes in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Altangerel, Khukhuu; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Inpankaew, Tawin; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Ueno, Akio; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2011-12-01

    Here we report on an epidemiological study regarding the molecular prevalence of different genotypes of Theileria orientalis present among domestic cattle and water buffalo populations bred in Thailand. A phylogenetic analysis based on the parasitic gene encoding a major piroplasm surface protein revealed the presence of 5 genotypes (Types 1, 3, 5, 7, and N-3) in cattle and 7 genotypes (Types 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, N-2, and N-3) in water buffaloes. Types 4, 7, and N-3 of T. orientalis were reported for the first time in water buffaloes. The previously reported C and Thai types from Thailand clustered as types 7 and 6, respectively, in the present analysis. Great similarities were observed among nucleotide sequences of isolates of the same genotype from cattle and water buffaloes, and, therefore, water buffaloes were considered to serve as a reservoir for these genotypes of T. orientalis in Thailand. In conclusion, T. orientalis parasites circulating in Thailand are more diverse in their genetic characters than previously anticipated.

  13. Molecular prevalence and genetic diversity of bovine Theileria orientalis in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Bawm, Saw; Shimizu, Kohei; Hirota, Jun-Ichi; Tosa, Yusuke; Htun, Lat Lat; Maw, Ni Ni; Thein, Myint; Kato, Hirotomo; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Katakura, Ken

    2014-08-01

    Theileria orientalis is a causative agent of benign theileriosis in cattle and distributed in mainly Asian countries. In the present study, we examined the prevalence of T. orientalis infection by PCR based on the major piroplasm surface protein gene (MPSP) sequences in cattle in Myanmar, followed by phylogenetic analysis of the MPSP genes. The MPSP gene was amplified in 258 of 713 (36.2%) cattle blood DNA samples collected from five cities in different geographical regions of Myanmar. Phylogenetic analysis of MPSP sequences from 54 T. orientalis-positive DNA samples revealed the presence of six allelic genotypes, including Types 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, and N-3. Types 5 and 7 were the predominant types detected. Sequences of the MPSP genes detected in Myanmar were closely related to those from Thailand, Vietnam or Mongolia. These findings suggest that movement of animals carrying T. orientalis parasites between Southeast Asian countries could be a reason for the similar genotype distribution of the parasites in Myanmar.

  14. Emergence of new genotype and diversity of Theileria orientalis parasites from bovines in India.

    PubMed

    George, Neena; Bhandari, Vasundhra; Reddy, D Peddi; Sharma, Paresh

    2015-12-01

    Bovine theileriosis is a serious threat to livestock worldwide. Uncertainty around species prevalence, antigenic diversity and genotypes of strains make it difficult to assess the impact of this parasite and to provide necessary treatment. We aimed to characterize genotypic diversity, phylogeny and prevalence of Theileria orientalis parasites from the states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, India by collecting bovine blood samples from the major districts of the two states. Bioinformatic analysis identified antigenic diversity among the prevalent parasite strains using major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene. Our study revealed a prevalence rate of 4.8% (n=41/862) of T. orientalis parasites in bovine animals and a new genotype of T. orientalis parasite which was not previously reported in India. The emergence of these new genotypes could be an explanation for the frequent outbreaks of bovine theileriosis. Further, whole genome sequencing of T. orientalis strains will help to elucidate the genetic factors relevant for transmissibility and virulence as well as vaccine and new drug development.

  15. Investigation of Erythrina spp. VII. Chemical constituents of Erythrina variegata var. orientalis bark.

    PubMed

    Singh, H; Chawla, A S; Jindal, A K; Conner, A H; Rowe, J W

    1975-01-01

    The petroleum ether extractive of the bark of Erythrina variegata var. orientalis was fractionated and shown to be composed of wax alcohols and wax acids, alkyl ferulates, alkyl phenolates, stigmasterol, sitosterol, campesterol and possibly citrostadienol/24-methylenelophenol. The ethanol extractive yielded chloroform-soluble and water-soluble bases, identified as erysovine and stachydrine, respectively. PMID:1134218

  16. Characterization of the digestive-tract microbiota of Hirudo orientalis, a european medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Laufer, Alison S; Siddall, Mark E; Graf, Joerg

    2008-10-01

    FDA-approved, postoperative use of leeches can lead to bacterial infections. In this study, we used culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches to characterize the digestive-tract microbiota of Hirudo orientalis. Surprisingly, two Aeromonas species, A. veronii and A. jandaei, were cultured. Uncultured Rikenella-like bacteria were most similar to isolates from Hirudo verbana.

  17. Predicting Impacts of Future Climate Change on the Distribution of the Widespread Conifer Platycladus orientalis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xian-Ge; Jin, Yuqing; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Mao, Jian-Feng; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Chinese thuja (Platycladus orientalis) has a wide but fragmented distribution in China. It is an important conifer tree in reforestation and plays important roles in ecological restoration in the arid mountains of northern China. Based on high-resolution environmental data for current and future scenarios, we modeled the present and future suitable habitat for P. orientalis, evaluated the importance of environmental factors in shaping the species´ distribution, and identified regions of high risk under climate change scenarios. The niche models showed that P. orientalis has suitable habitat of ca. 4.2×106 km2 across most of eastern China and identified annual temperature, monthly minimum and maximum ultraviolet-B radiation and wet-day frequency as the critical factors shaping habitat availability for P. orientalis. Under the low concentration greenhouse gas emissions scenario, the range of the species may increase as global warming intensifies; however, under the higher concentrations of emissions scenario, we predicted a slight expansion followed by contraction in distribution. Overall, the range shift to higher latitudes and elevations would become gradually more significant. The information gained from this study should be an useful reference for implementing long-term conservation and management strategies for the species. PMID:26132163

  18. In vitro antibacterial effect of wasp (Vespa orientalis) venom

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The emergence of antibacterial resistance against several classes of antibiotics is an inevitable consequence of drug overuse. As antimicrobial resistance spreads throughout the globe, new substances will always be necessary to fight against multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Venoms of many animals have recently gained attention in the search for new antimicrobials to treat infectious diseases. Thefore, the present study aimed to study the antibacterial effects of wasp (Vespa orientalis) crude venom. Two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and two gram-negative ones (Escherichia coli and Klesiella pneumonia) were compared for their sensitivity to the venom by determining the inhibition zone (Kirby-Bauer method) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). A microbroth kinetic system based on continuous monitoring of changes in the optical density of bacterial growth was also used for determination of antimicrobial activity. Results The venom exhibited a well-recognized antimicrobial property against the tested bacterial strains. The inhibition zones were determined to be 12.6, 22.7, 22.4 and 10.2 mm for S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and K. pneumonia, respectively. The corresponding MIC values were determined to be 64, 8, 64 and 128 μg/mL, respectively. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of the venom were respectively determined to be 63.6 and 107 μg/mL for S. aureus, 4.3 and 7.0 μg/mL for B. subtilis, 45.3 and 65.7 μg/mL for E. coli and 74.4 and 119.2 μg/mL for K. pneumonia. Gram-positive bacteria were generally more sensitive to the venom than gram-negative ones. Conclusions Results revealed that the venom markedly inhibits the growth of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and could be considered a potential source for developing new antibacterial drugs. PMID:24955088

  19. [Effect of byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates on ethanol fermentation by Issatchenkia orientalis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengqin; Liu, Yaqiong; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xie, Hui; Song, Andong

    2014-05-01

    Byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates, namely sodium formate (1 to 5 g/L), sodium acetic (2.5 to 8.0 g/L), furfural (0.2-2 g/L), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 1 to 1.0 g/L) or vanillin (0.5 to 2 g/L) were used to evaluate their effects on ethanol fermentation by Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1 using single factor test and the response surface central composite experiment. Results showed that most of the byproducts had no obvious inhibition on the production of ethanol, except for the addition of 2 g/L vanillin or 1 g/L of 5-HMF, which reduced the ethanol production by 20.38% and 11.2%, respectively. However, high concentration of some byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates, such as sodium formate (1 to 5 g/L), sodium acetic (2.5 to 8.0 g/L), furfural (0.2 to 2 g/L) and vanillin (0.5 to 2 g/L) inhibited the growth of I. orientalis HN-1 significantly. Compared with the control, the dry cell weight of I. orientalis HN-1 decreased by 25.04% to 37.02%, 28.83% to 43.82%, 20.06% to 37.60% and 26.39% to 52.64%, respectively, when the above components were added into the fermentation broth and the fermentation lasted for 36 h. No significant interaction effect of the various inhibitors (sodium formate, sodium acetic, furfural and vanillin) except for vanillin single factor on the ethanol production was observed based on the central composite experiments. The concentrations of byproducts in most lignocellulose hydrolysates were below the initial inhibition concentration on ethanol production by Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1, which indicated that Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1 can be used for ethanol production from lignocellulose hydrolysates.

  20. Detection of Theileria orientalis in Iran by semi-nested PCR.

    PubMed

    Ghaemi, Peyman; Hoghooghi-Rad, Nasser; Shayan, Parviz; Eckert, Brigitte

    2012-02-01

    In order to identify and differentiate Theileria orientalis in cattle which may be infected with Theileria annulata simultaneously, a semi-nested PCR was performed. Thus, 160 blood samples were collected from apparently healthy native cattle in Golestan province of northern Iran, during 2009 to 2011. The Tbs-S/Tbs-A primer set derived from the 18S rRNA encoding gene was used for first PCR amplification, and the amplified sequence weight by this primer set for Theileria sp. was 426-430 bp. Then, DNA solution from purified PCR product was used for the semi-nested PCR analysis. The first PCR product amplified using T. orientalis primer set (To-S/Tbs-A) derived from the 18SrRNA encoding gene, and this specific primer weight was 235 bp. Also, the first PCR product amplified using T. annulata primer set (Ta-S/Tbs-A) derived from the 18SrRNA encoding gene and this specific primer weight was 193 bp. Having extracted DNA of each sample, using Tbs-S/Tbs-A primer set for PCR and analyzing the PCR products on the 2% agarose gel electrophoresis, 13 out of 160 blood samples (8.12%) were positive for Theileria sp. Meanwhile, performing semi-nested PCR with T. orientalis-specific primers, 9 out of 13 blood samples (5.62%) were positive and performing semi-nested PCR with T. annulata-specific primers, 12 out of 13 blood samples (7.5%) were also positive. This molecular assay approves the presence of T. orientalis in the native cattle of northern parts of Iran for the first time. In addition, this procedure will detect the concurrent infection of T. orientalis and T. annulata in the cattle too.

  1. Identification and characterization of a novel 34 kDa merozoite protein in Babesia orientalis.

    PubMed

    He, Lan; Fan, Lizhe; Liu, Qin; Hu, Jinfang; Miao, Xiaoyan; Huang, Yuan; He, Pei; He, Junwei; Yu, Long; Khan, Muhammad Kasib; Zhou, Yanqin; Shen, Bang; Zhao, Junlong

    2015-09-15

    A novel Babesia orientalis 34 kDa protein (designated BoP34) was obtained by immunoscreening of a cDNA expression library using B. orientalis infected water buffalo serum. The complete nucleotide sequence of the BoP34 was 1088 bp, which contained one open reading frame (ORF), two untranslated regions (UTRs) and a poly (A) tail. The length of ORF was 933 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 310 aa with a predicted size of 34 kDa. BLAST analysis showed that the nucleotide sequence of BoP34 had 71% similarity with that of the Babesia bovis gene XM_001611335, which encodes a nuclear movement family protein. This suggested that BoP34 is a homologous of the movement family protein. Structural analysis of the BoP34 protein indicated a CS domain which may interact with the ATPase domain of the heat shock protein 90. A truncated version of BoP34 was cloned into the expression vector pET-32a and subsequently expressed and purified from the Escherichia coli Rosetta™ (DE3) pLysS stain as a Trx-fusion (designated rBoP34-T). Antibodies in the serum of a B. orientalis-infected water buffalo were able to recognize this protein in immune-bloting analysis. Rabbit antibodies raised against rBoP34-T could detecte native BoP34 (34 kDa) in B. orientalis-infected water buffalo erythrocytes. These results suggested that BoP34 might be a good diagnostic antigen for the specific detection of anti-B. orientalis antibody in water buffalo. Further research is required to explore the biological function and diagnostic potential of this molecule.

  2. An aquaporin protein is associated with drought stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Ban, Liping; Wen, Hongyu; Wang, Zan; Dzyubenko, Nikolay; Chapurin, Vladimir; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Xuemin

    2015-04-01

    Water channel proteins known as aquaporins (AQPs) regulate the movement of water and other small molecules across plant vacuolar and plasma membranes; they are associated with plant tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, a PIP type AQPs gene, designated as GoPIP1, was cloned from Galega orientalis, a high value leguminous forage crop. The GoPIP1 gene consists of an 870 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 289 amino acids, and belongs to the PIP1 subgroup of the PIP subfamily. The transcript level of GoPIP1 was higher in the root of G. orientalis than in the leaf and stem. The level of GoPIP1 transcript increased significantly when treated with 200 mM NaCl or 20% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. Transient expression of GoPIP1 in onion epidermal cells revealed that the GoPIP1 protein was localized to the plasma membrane. Over-expression of GoPIP1 increased the rosette/root ratio and increased sensitivity to drought in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. However, GoPIP1 over-expression in Arabidopsis had no significant effect under saline condition. The present data provides a gene resource that contributes to furthering our understanding of water channel protein and their application in plant stress tolerance.

  3. Caesium-137 soil-to-plant transfer for representative agricultural crops of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants in post-Chernobyl steppe landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramonova, Tatiana; Komissarova, Olga; Turykin, Leonid; Kuzmenkova, Natalia; Belyaev, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 had a large-scale action on more than 2.3 million hectares agricultural lands in Russia. The area of radioactively contaminated chernozems of semi-arid steppe zone with initial levels of Cs-137 185-555 kBq/m2 in Tula region received the name "Plavsky radioactive hotspot". Nowadays, after the first half-life period of Cs-137 arable chernozems of the region are still polluted with 3-6-fold excess above the radioactive safety standard (126-228 kBq/m2). Therefore, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of Cs-137 soil-to-plant transfer are currently a central problem for land use on the territory. The purpose of the present study was revealing the biological features of Cs-137 root uptake from contaminated arable chernozems by different agricultural crops. The components of a grass mixture growing at the central part of Plavsky radioactive hotspot with typical dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants - galega (Galega orientalis, Fabaceae family) and bromegrass (Bromus inermis, Gramineae family) respectively - were selected for the investigation, that was conducted during the period of harvesting in 2015. An important point was that the other factors influenced on Cs-137 soil-to-plant transfer - the level of soil pollution, soil properties, climatic conditions, vegetative phase, etc. - were equal. So, biological features of Cs-137 root uptake could be estimated the most credible manner. As a whole, general discrimination of Cs-137 root uptake was clearly shown for both agricultural crops. Whereas Cs-137 activity in rhizosphere 30-cm layer of arable chernozem was 371±74 Bq/kg (140±32 kBq/m2), Cs-137 activities in plant biomass were one-two orders of magnitude less, and transfer factor (TF) values (the ratio of the Cs-137 activities in vegetation and in soil) not exceeded 0.11. At the same time bioavailability of Cs-137 for bromegrass was significantly higher than for galega: TFs in total biomass of the

  4. Development of a real-time PCR assay for identification and quantification of the fish pathogen Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Bowles, Kimberly; Fernandez, Denise; Hawke, John P

    2010-04-01

    Members of the genus Francisella are small Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacteria that cause francisellosis in a wide variety of fish species worldwide. F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis has been recently described as a warm-water pathogen of tilapia Oreochromis spp. In this study, a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) TaqMan probe assay was developed to rapidly and accurately detect and quantify F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis from fish tissue. The target region of the assay was the F. tularensis iglC gene homologue previously found in F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis. Probe specificity was confirmed by the lack of signal and cross-reactivity with 12 common fish pathogens, 2 subspecies of F. tularensis, F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis, and tilapia tissue. The range of linearity was determined to be 50 fg to 1.4 mg, and the lower limit of detection was 50 fg of DNA (equivalent to approximately 25 genome equivalents) per reaction. A similar sensitivity was observed with DNA extracted from a mixture of F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis and fish tissue. The assay was also able to detect and quantify F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis from the spleens of experimentally infected tilapia. No signal was observed in the control groups. In conclusion, we have developed a highly sensitive and specific assay that can be used for the specific identification and quantification of F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis. PMID:20481087

  5. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) detection of Babesia orientalis in water buffalo (Bubalus babalis, Linnaeus, 1758) in China.

    PubMed

    He, Lan; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Zhao, Jun-Long

    2009-10-28

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a rapid method with high specificity and efficiency under isothermal condition using a set of four specifically designed primers that recognize six distinct sequences on the target gene. In this study, a LAMP method was developed for specific detection of Babesia orientalis in water buffalo (Bubalus babalis, Linnaeus, 1758). Four primers were designed from the V4 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene of B. orientalis. Blood samples were collected from B. orientalis experimentally infected water buffalo as well as from 165 water buffalo from eight different regions of the Hubei province, south China. Genomic DNA was extracted, subjected to the LAMP assay and compared with results obtained using a previously described semi-nested PCR. The LAMP assay proofed to be B. orientalis specific and more sensitive than the semi-nested PCR. While previously B. orientalis had not been reported north of the Yangtse River, our results show that B. orientalis has spread to the north of the river. This could pose a serious threat to the water buffalo industry.

  6. Discovery of a bird-parasitic fly, Carnus orientalis (Diptera: Carnidae), in Japan, with bionomic remarks and a key to Carnus species.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Mitsuhiro; Sakamoto, Hironori; Asahi, Kento

    2014-03-01

    A bird-parasitic fly, Carnus orientalis Maa, 1968, is recorded for the first time from Japan, and it is taxonomically reexamined on the basis of specimens collected in Okinawa Prefecture. Adult flies were found from nestlings of Ryukyu scops owl (Otus elegans Cassin, 1852), which is a new host for C. orientalis. Bionomic remarks regarding C. orientalis are presented, and akey to the world species of Carnus is also provided. PMID:24724300

  7. Discovery of a bird-parasitic fly, Carnus orientalis (Diptera: Carnidae), in Japan, with bionomic remarks and a key to Carnus species.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Mitsuhiro; Sakamoto, Hironori; Asahi, Kento

    2014-03-01

    A bird-parasitic fly, Carnus orientalis Maa, 1968, is recorded for the first time from Japan, and it is taxonomically reexamined on the basis of specimens collected in Okinawa Prefecture. Adult flies were found from nestlings of Ryukyu scops owl (Otus elegans Cassin, 1852), which is a new host for C. orientalis. Bionomic remarks regarding C. orientalis are presented, and akey to the world species of Carnus is also provided.

  8. Patent ductus arteriosus in an adult amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Douay, Guillaume; Drut, Amandine; Ribas, Thibault; Gomis, David; Graille, Mélanie; Lemberger, Karin; Bublot, Isabelle

    2013-03-01

    A clinically healthy 16-yr-old female leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) was diagnosed with a patent ductus arteriosus on echocardiography and later confirmed on necropsy A murmur was heard on auscultation during a routine examination, and the congenital defect was an incidental finding. The animal had been asymptomatic its entire life. This deformity is rarely observed in nondomestic felids and may be asymptomatic, as has been described in domestic cats.

  9. Burrowing mayfly Ephemera orientalis (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae) as a new test species for pesticide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mo, Hyoung-Ho; Kim, Yongeun; Lee, Yun-Sik; Bae, Yeon Jae; Khim, Jong Seong; Cho, Kijong

    2016-09-01

    The potential of mayfly Ephemera orientalis McLachlan eggs and first-instar larvae in ecotoxicological testing was investigated. Both stages of E. orientalis showed high tolerance to various environmental variables, such as water temperature, pH, water hardness, and dissolved organic carbon. Toxicological assays were conducted with three insecticides (emamectin benzoate, endosulfan, and cypermethrin), one fungicide (mancozeb), and one herbicide (paraquat dichloride). The two toxicity endpoints for the assay were the 14-day egg median hatching rate (EHC50) in static and renewal exposure systems and 24-h median larval mortality (LC50). Cypermethrin was the most toxic to both eggs (EHC50 in static system = 36.9 μg/L; EHC50 in renewal system < 0.15 μg/L) and larvae (LC50 = 4.5 μg/L), and paraquat dichloride was the least toxic to eggs (EHC50 in static system = 54,359.8 μg/L; EHC50 in renewal system = 49541.3 μg/L) and larvae (LC50 = 9259.5 μg/L). The results were compared to literature data of Daphnia magna Straus and Cloeon dipterum Linnaeus to determine its relative sensitivity to pesticides. These three species had different toxicities to the tested pesticides, especially according to the exposure system. E. orientalis eggs in the static system were found to be less sensitive were D. magna and C. dipterum, but eggs in the renewal system and larvae had similar or higher sensitivities to the tested pesticides. The results revealed that this species has potential for use in ecotoxicological testing of pesticides. Because of its geographic distribution, E. orientalis may be used as an alternative or complementary test species for ecotoxicological studies in Northeast Asian countries, where natural populations of the international standard species, D. magna, are rarely found. PMID:27316648

  10. Temporal dynamics and subpopulation analysis of Theileria orientalis genotypes in cattle.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, C; Micallef, M; Alex, S M; Collins, D; Djordjevic, S P; Bogema, D R

    2015-06-01

    In Australia, outbreaks of clinical theileriosis caused by Theileria orientalis have been largely associated with the Ikeda genotype which can occur as a sole infection, or more commonly, as a mixture of genotypes. The most prevalent genotype, Chitose, frequently co-occurs with type Ikeda, however the role of this genotype in clinical disease has not been clearly established. Furthermore, the dynamics of individual genotypes in field infection of cattle have not been examined. In this study we developed quantitative PCR (qPCR) and genotyping methods to examine the role of the Chitose genotype in clinical disease and to investigate the temporal dynamics of T. orientalis Ikeda, Chitose and Buffeli genotypes in naïve animals introduced to a T. orientalis-endemic area. Analysis of the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) genes of Chitose isolates revealed the presence of two distinct phylogenetic clusters, Chitose A and Chitose B. A genotyping assay aimed at determining Chitose A/B allele frequency revealed that the Chitose A phylogenetic cluster is strongly associated with clinical disease but nearly always co-occurs with the Ikeda genotype. qPCR revealed that the Chitose genotype (particularly Chitose A), undergoes temporal switching in conjunction with the Ikeda genotype and contributes substantially to the overall parasite burden. The benign Buffeli genotype can also undergo temporal switching but levels of this genotype appear to remain low relative to the Ikeda and Chitose types. Interplay between vector and host immunological factors is presumed to be critical to the population dynamics observed in this study. Genotypic switching likely contributes to the persistence of T. orientalis in the host.

  11. The potential function of prohibitin during spermatogenesis in Chinese fire-bellied newt Cynops orientalis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jia-Min; Hou, Cong-Cong; Tan, Fu-Qing; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2016-03-01

    Prohibitin proteins are multifunctional proteins located mainly at the inner membrane of mitochondria expressed in universal species. They play a vital role in mitochondria's function, cell proteolysis, senescence, apoptosis and as a substrate for ubiquitination. In this study, we used PCR cloning, protein and nucleotide acids alignment, protein structure prediction, western blot, in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence to study the characteristics of the prohibitin gene and the potential role of prohibitin in spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis processes in the Chinese fire-bellied newt Cynops orientalis. First, we cloned a 1452-bp full-length cDNA from the testis of Cynops orientalis. Second, we found that the 272 amino acids of prohibitin have a SPFH family domain. Thirdly, the western blots showed high expression of prohibitin in testis while the protein size was approximately 32 kDa. Fourthly, the results of in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence experiments showed that most of the prohibitins travelled with the mitochondria's migration in Cynops orientalis. The quantities of mRNA decreased as spermiogenesis proceeded, although the signals of prohibitins existed during the whole period of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. In the mature germ cells, the signals of prohibitins were weak and aggregated at the end of the cell. Finally, we discovered that the Sertoli cells had a large quantity of prohibitins and we made several assumptions of prohibitins' potential roles in those cells. This is the first time that the relationship between mitochondria and prohibitin in different stages of the sperm cells in Cynops orientalis has been examined, which also revealed that Sertoli cells have abundant prohibitins. PMID:26384251

  12. Importance of molehill disturbances for invasion by Bunias orientalis in meadows and pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiełtyk, Piotr; Mirek, Zbigniew

    2015-04-01

    Small-scale soil disturbances by fossorial animals can change physical and biotic conditions in disturbed patches and influence spatial and temporal dynamics, and the composition of plant communities. They create regeneration niches and colonization openings for native plants and, according to the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, they are expected to increase plant community diversity. However, it also has been reported that increased disturbance resource availability and decreased competition with native species may result in the invasion of communities by alien plant species, as predicted by the fluctuating resources theory of invasibility. In this study, we investigated the importance of European mole disturbances for the invasion of semi-natural fresh meadows and pastures by the alien plant, Bunias orientalis, which has mainly spread throughout Central Europe on anthropogenically disturbed sites. We hypothesized that the invader, being particularly well adapted to anthropogenic disturbances, enters into dense vegetation of meadows and pastures mainly on mole mounds. To assess the seedling recruitment of B. orientalis in relation to disturbance, we counted the number of seedlings that emerged on molehills and control plots in meadows and pastures. The establishment of juvenile (0-1 year) rosette plants on and off molehills was surveyed on 5 × 5 m plots. In accordance with our hypothesis, mole disturbances were found to serve as a gateway for B. orientalis by which the invader may colonize semi-natural grasslands. The seedlings of the species emerged almost solely on molehills and the young rosettes were established predominantly on mole mounds. Although the seedling density did not differ significantly between the meadows and pastures, the number of established plants in the pastures was considerably higher. We suggest that the invasion by B. orientalis in pastures may be facilitated by vegetative regeneration following root fragmentation by sheep pasturing.

  13. Semiquantitative Multiplexed Tandem PCR for Detection and Differentiation of Four Theileria orientalis Genotypes in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Piyumali K.; Gasser, Robin B.; Firestone, Simon M.; Smith, Lee; Roeber, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Oriental theileriosis is an emerging, tick-borne disease of bovines in the Asia-Pacific region and is caused by one or more genotypes of the Theileria orientalis complex. This study aimed to establish and validate a multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) assay using three distinct markers (major piroplasm surface protein, 23-kDa piroplasm membrane protein, and the first internal transcribed spacer of nuclear DNA), for the simultaneous detection and semiquantification of four genotypes (Buffeli, Chitose, Ikeda, and type 5) of the T. orientalis complex. Analytical specificity, analytical sensitivity, and repeatability of the established MT-PCR assay were assessed in a series of experiments. Subsequently, the assay was evaluated using 200 genomic DNA samples collected from cattle from farms on which oriental theileriosis outbreaks had occurred, and 110 samples from a region where no outbreaks had been reported. The results showed the MT-PCR assay specifically and reproducibly detected the expected genotypes (i.e., genotypes Buffeli, Chitose, Ikeda, and type 5) of the T. orientalis complex, reliably differentiated them, and was able to detect as little as 1 fg of genomic DNA from each genotype. The diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the MT-PCR were estimated at 94.0% and 98.8%, respectively. The MT-PCR assay established here is a practical and effective diagnostic tool for the four main genotypes of T. orientalis complex in Australia and should assist studies of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of oriental theileriosis in the Asia-Pacific region. PMID:25339402

  14. Enzymatic and histopathologic biomarkers in the flatfish Euryglossa orientalis from the northwestern Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Chupani, Latifeh; Savari, Ahmad; Zolgharnein, Hossein; Rezaie, Anahita; Zeinali, Majid

    2016-05-01

    Most of the chemicals in the petrochemical sewages cause oxidative stress in marine organisms. Antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) as biomarkers of oxidative stress and liver histopathological alterations were investigated in the current study to evaluate the toxic effects of petrochemical pollutions in flatfish, Euryglossa orientalis The enzymatic and histopathological changes were assessed in the liver of E. orientalis from Khowr-e Jafari (one of the creeks from Khowr-e Musa estuary) and Sajafi harbor as polluted and clean areas, respectively. A significant increase in the antioxidant enzyme activities was observed in response to aquatic pollutions of Khowr-e Jafari. Liver lesions were diagnosed and categorized using standard methods. The results of histopathological examinations showed more lesion scores in the fish from Khowr-e Jafari. Various histopathological changes including hepatocyte degeneration, inflammatory lesions, peliosis hepatis and pancreatic acinar cell adenoma, and increase in the number of pigmented macrophage aggregates were observed in the fish from polluted site. It is suggested that activities of CAT and SOD along with semi-quantitative histopathologic analysis of E. orientalis can be used for biomonitoring programs in Persian Gulf.

  15. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses

    PubMed Central

    Adinortey, Michael Buenor; Galyuon, Isaac K.; Asamoah, Nicholas Oteng

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials. PMID:23922459

  16. Establishment of the invasive perennial herb Bunias orientalis L.: An experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz, Hansjörg; Steinlein, Thomas; Ullmann, Isolde

    1999-11-01

    A 2-year field experiment was performed to assess regeneration, establishment and growth of the invasive polycarpic perennial Brassicaceae Bunias orientalis L. from transplanted juveniles and propagules (seeds, fruits and root fragments). Further treatments were: different planting depths of the propagules, different root fragment sizes and a varied competition intensity by the matrix vegetation. In contrast to a high number of individuals established from planted juveniles (ca. 90 %), only relatively few propagules gave rise to seedlings or regenerating plants (0-16 %). However, upon emergence, all plants showed low mortality. Although the number of regenerated or recruited plants was affected by all treatments, only one treatment level (the use of very small root fragments of 1 cm length) completely failed in establishing plants. Plants experiencing low competition intensity attained high aboveground performance and reproductive output as well as reproductive success within two growth periods. Under high competition intensity recruitment, regeneration and growth were strongly negatively affected. The high morphological plasticity of rosette growth of B. orientalis seems to be advantageous for persistence in such situations. The results show that young B. orientalis plants are robust and can efficiently sequester and translate elevated resources into rapid growth and early reproductive output although the species is a rather long-lived iteroparous perennial. In addition, population foundation or regeneration can be based on both seeds and root fragments, even when buried under a thick soil layer. This seems to be a very efficient adaption to habitats which are subject to anthropogenic soil perturbations.

  17. Ferulone A and ferulone B: two new coumarin esters from Ferula orientalis L. roots.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Seyed Mehdi; Nahar, Lutfun; Talischi, Hamideh; Sarker, Satyajit Dey

    2016-10-01

    Ferula orientalis (Apiaceae) is a well-known perennial herb growing wild in Iran used in traditional medicine. To perform phytochemical studies, dried ground roots of F. orientalis were sequentially Soxhlet-extracted using n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol. A combination of vacuum liquid chromatography and preparative thin-layer chromatographic analyses were performed to isolate coumarin esters. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic means, and in vitro free-radical-scavenging property was determined by the DPPH assay. Two new coumarin esters, 7-O-(4,8,12,16-tetrahydroxy-4,8,12,16-tetramethyl-heptadecanoyl)-coumarinand 7-O-(4-hydroxy-4,8,12-trimethyl-trideca-7,11-dienoyl)-coumarin, named ferulone A and ferulone B, respectively, were isolated from the n-hexane extract of the roots of F. orientalis. Both compounds showed a low level of free-radical-scavenging property with the RC50 values of 0.252 and 0.556 mg/mL for compounds 1 and 2, respectively, as opposed to that of the positive control (quercetin) 0.004 mg/mL. This is the first report on the purification of coumarin esters from the genus Ferula.

  18. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses.

    PubMed

    Adinortey, Michael Buenor; Galyuon, Isaac K; Asamoah, Nicholas Oteng

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of the toad-headed lizard subspecies, Phrynocephalus theobaldi orientalis (Reptilia, Squamata, Agamidae).

    PubMed

    Liao, Pinghu; Jin, Yuanting

    2016-01-01

    The first complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Phrynocephalus viviparity was determined for the toad-headed lizard Phrynocephalus theobaldi orientalis. The 16,608 bp mitogenome contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 2 control regions (CRs). The overall base composition of H-strand is T: 26.7%, C: 24.5%, A: 37.6%, G: 11.2%. The gene arrangement and composition of P. theobaldi orientalis was similar to other published mitochondrial genomes of Phrynocephalus oviparity, except that tRNA-Phe and tRNA-Pro were exchanged. The control region comprised two parts, one between tRNA-Thr and tRNA-Phe and another between tRNA-Pro and 12S RNA. The complete mitogenome sequence of P. theobaldi orientalis provided fundamental data for resolving phylogenetic and genetic problems related to Phrynocephalus viviparity.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Salivary Gland Transcriptomes of Phlebotomus orientalis Sand Flies from Endemic and Non-endemic Foci of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Vlkova, Michaela; Sima, Michal; Rohousova, Iva; Kostalova, Tatiana; Sumova, Petra; Volfova, Vera; Jaske, Erin L.; Barbian, Kent D.; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Hailu, Asrat; Warburg, Alon; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Jochim, Ryan C.; Volf, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Background In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis serves as the main vector of Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Phlebotomus orientalis is present at two distant localities in Ethiopia; Addis Zemen where VL is endemic and Melka Werer where transmission of VL does not occur. To find out whether the difference in epidemiology of VL is due to distant compositions of P. orientalis saliva we established colonies from Addis Zemen and Melka Werer, analyzed and compared the transcriptomes, proteomes and enzymatic activity of the salivary glands. Methodology/Principal Findings Two cDNA libraries were constructed from the female salivary glands of P. orientalis from Addis Zemen and Melka Werer. Clones of each P. orientalis library were randomly selected, sequenced and analyzed. In P. orientalis transcriptomes, we identified members of 13 main protein families. Phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignments were performed to evaluate differences between the P. orientalis colonies and to show the relationship with other sand fly species from the subgenus Larroussius. To further compare both colonies, we investigated the humoral antigenicity and cross-reactivity of the salivary proteins and the activity of salivary apyrase and hyaluronidase. Conclusions This is the first report of the salivary components of P. orientalis, an important vector sand fly. Our study expanded the knowledge of salivary gland compounds of sand fly species in the subgenus Larroussius. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, we showed that P. orientalis is closely related to Phlebotomus tobbi and Phlebotomus perniciosus, whereas Phlebotomus ariasi is evolutionarily more distinct species. We also demonstrated that there is no significant difference between the transcriptomes, proteomes or enzymatic properties of the salivary components of Addis Zemen (endemic area) and Melka Werer (non-endemic area) P. orientalis colonies. Thus, the different epidemiology of VL

  1. Physiological Integration Ameliorates Negative Effects of Drought Stress in the Clonal Herb Fragaria orientalis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunchun; Zhang, Qiaoying; Sammul, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to establish ramets in sites of contrasting resource status. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clones in heterogeneous environments can act as cooperative systems – effects of stress on one ramet can be ameliorated by another connected ramet inhabiting benign conditions. But little is known about the effects of patch contrast on physiological integration of clonal plants and no study has addressed its effects on physiological traits like osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates and antioxidant enzymes. We examined the effect of physiological integration on survival, growth and stress indicators such as osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and antioxidant enzymes in a clonal plant, Fragaria orientalis, growing in homogenous and heterogeneous environments differing in patch contrast of water availability (1 homogeneous (no contrast) group; 2 low contrast group; 3 high contrast group). Drought stress markedly reduced the survival and growth of the severed ramets of F. orientalis, especially in high contrast treatments. Support from a ramet growing in benign patch considerably reduced drought stress and enhanced growth of ramets in dry patches. The larger the contrast between water availability, the larger the amount of support the depending ramet received from the supporting one. This support strongly affected the growth of the supporting ramet, but not to an extent to cause increase in stress indicators. We also found indication of costs related to maintenance of physiological connection between ramets. Thus, the net benefit of physiological integration depends on the environment and integration between ramets of F. orientalis could be advantageous only in heterogeneous conditions with a high contrast. PMID:22957054

  2. Clonal integration of Fragaria orientalis in reciprocal and coincident patchiness resources: cost-benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunchun; Zhang, Qiaoying

    2013-01-01

    Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to experience different levels of resources. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clonal plants can reciprocally translocate resources between ramets in heterogeneous environments. But little is known about the interaction between benefits of clonal integration and patterns of resource heterogeneity in different patches, i.e., coincident patchiness or reciprocal patchiness. We hypothesized that clonal integration will show different effects on ramets in different patches and more benefit to ramets under reciprocal patchiness than to those under coincident patchiness, as well as that the benefit from clonal integration is affected by the position of proximal and distal ramets under reciprocal or coincident patchiness. A pot experiment was conducted with clonal fragments consisting of two interconnected ramets (proximal and distal ramet) of Fragaria orientalis. In the experiment, proximal and distal ramets were grown in high or low availability of resources, i.e., light and water. Resource limitation was applied either simultaneously to both ramets of a clonal fragment (coincident resource limitation) or separately to different ramets of the same clonal fragment (reciprocal resource limitation). Half of the clonal fragments were connected while the other half were severed. From the experiment, clonal fragments growing under coincident resource limitation accumulated more biomass than those under reciprocal resource limitation. Based on a cost-benefit analysis, the support from proximal ramets to distal ramets was stronger than that from distal ramets to proximal ramets. Through division of labour, clonal fragments of F. orientalis benefited more in reciprocal patchiness than in coincident patchiness. While considering biomass accumulation and ramets production, coincident patchiness were more favourable to clonal plant F. orientalis. PMID:24265832

  3. Physiological integration ameliorates negative effects of drought stress in the clonal herb Fragaria orientalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunchun; Zhang, Qiaoying; Sammul, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to establish ramets in sites of contrasting resource status. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clones in heterogeneous environments can act as cooperative systems--effects of stress on one ramet can be ameliorated by another connected ramet inhabiting benign conditions. But little is known about the effects of patch contrast on physiological integration of clonal plants and no study has addressed its effects on physiological traits like osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates and antioxidant enzymes. We examined the effect of physiological integration on survival, growth and stress indicators such as osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and antioxidant enzymes in a clonal plant, Fragaria orientalis, growing in homogenous and heterogeneous environments differing in patch contrast of water availability (1 homogeneous (no contrast) group; 2 low contrast group; 3 high contrast group). Drought stress markedly reduced the survival and growth of the severed ramets of F. orientalis, especially in high contrast treatments. Support from a ramet growing in benign patch considerably reduced drought stress and enhanced growth of ramets in dry patches. The larger the contrast between water availability, the larger the amount of support the depending ramet received from the supporting one. This support strongly affected the growth of the supporting ramet, but not to an extent to cause increase in stress indicators. We also found indication of costs related to maintenance of physiological connection between ramets. Thus, the net benefit of physiological integration depends on the environment and integration between ramets of F. orientalis could be advantageous only in heterogeneous conditions with a high contrast. PMID:22957054

  4. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on the expression of Platanus orientalis pollen allergens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedghy, Farnaz; Sankian, Mojtaba; Moghadam, Maliheh; Ghasemi, Ziba; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Varasteh, Abdol-Reza

    2016-06-01

    Air pollutants and their interaction with environmental allergens have been considered as an important reason for the recent increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the traffic pollution effect, as a stressor, on Platanus orientalis pollen allergens messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression. P. orientalis pollen grains were collected along main streets of heavy traffic and from unpolluted sites in Mashhad city, in northeast Iran. The pollen samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. To assess the abundance of pollen allergens (Pla or 1, Pla or 2, and Pla or 3) from polluted and unpolluted sites, immunoblotting was performed. Moreover, the sequences encoding P. orientalis allergens were amplified using real-time PCR. Scanning electron microscopy showed a number of particles of 150-550 nm on the surface of pollen from polluted sites. Also, protein and gene expression levels of Pla or 1 and Pla or 3 were considerably greater in pollen samples from highly polluted areas than in pollen from unpolluted areas (p < 0.05). In contrast, no statically significant difference in Pla or 2 protein and mRNA expression level was found between samples from the two areas. We found greater expression of allergens involved in plant defense mechanisms (Pla or 1 and Pla or 3) in polluted sites than in unpolluted ones. The high expression of these proteins can lead to an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. These findings suggest the necessity of supporting public policies aimed at controlling traffic pollution to improve air quality and prevent the subsequent clinical outcomes and new cases of asthma.

  5. Influence of environmental pollution on leaf properties of urban plane trees, Platanus orientalis L.

    PubMed

    Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Rastin, Nayerah; Olbrich, Andrea; Langenfeld-Heyser, Rosemarie; Polle, Andrea

    2010-09-01

    To investigate whether leaves of plane trees (Platanus orientalis) are damaged by traffic pollution, trees from a megacity (Mashhad, Iran) and a rural area were investigated. Soil and air from the urban centre showed enrichment of several toxic elements, but only lead was enriched in leaves. Leaf size and stomata density were lower at the urban site. At the urban site leaf surfaces were heavily loaded by dust particles but the stomata were not occluded; the cuticle was thinner; other anatomical properties were unaffected suggesting that plane trees can cope with traffic exhaust in megacities.

  6. Influence of Environmental Pollution on Leaf Properties of Urban Plane Trees, Platanus orientalis L.

    PubMed Central

    Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Rastin, Nayerah; Olbrich, Andrea; Langenfeld-Heyser, Rosemarie

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether leaves of plane trees (Platanus orientalis) are damaged by traffic pollution, trees from a megacity (Mashhad, Iran) and a rural area were investigated. Soil and air from the urban centre showed enrichment of several toxic elements, but only lead was enriched in leaves. Leaf size and stomata density were lower at the urban site. At the urban site leaf surfaces were heavily loaded by dust particles but the stomata were not occluded; the cuticle was thinner; other anatomical properties were unaffected suggesting that plane trees can cope with traffic exhaust in megacities. PMID:20577871

  7. Muscular system in the pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Teleostei: Scombridae).

    PubMed

    Nakae, Masanori; Sasaki, Kunio; Shinohara, Gento; Okada, Tokihiko; Matsuura, Keiichi

    2014-02-01

    The muscular system in the Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis is studied in detail. For the first time, a complete description of the muscular anatomy of a thunnid is provided here. Eighty-two elements including subdivisions of components of the muscular system are identified. This is less than found in a basal perciform and two other investigated scombrid species, owing mainly to the absence or fusion of pectoral, pelvic and caudal fin muscles. The absence of elements of the basal perciform pattern was most prominent in the caudal fin, which includes only the flexor dorsalis, flexor ventralis, hypochordal longitudinalis, and interradialis. In the caudal fin, the medial fan-shaped ray was identified as the first dorsal ray, judging from myological and neuroanatomical characters. The highly developed gill filament muscles in Thunnus orientalis and sheet-like rectus communis control gill ventilation. Long body muscle tendons reduce the metabolic energy needed during rapid and continuous swimming. These characters are interpreted as adaptations in the context of the oceanic life style of the species.

  8. Platycladus orientalis leaves: a systemic review on botany, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Shan, Ming-Qiu; Shang, Jing; Ding, An-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Platycladus orientalis leaves (Cebaiye) have been used for thousands of years as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). According to the theory of TCM, they are categorized as a blood-cooling and hematostatic herb. In clinical practice, they were usually prescribed with heat-clearing herbs to reinforce the efficacy of hemostasis. The review provides the up-to-date information from 1980 to present that is available on the botany, processing research, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of the leaves. The information is collected from scientific journals, books, theses and reports via library and electronic search (Google Scholar, Pubmed and CNKI). Through literature reports, we can find that the leaves show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, disinsection, anticancer, diuretic, hair growth-promoting, neuroprotective and antifibrotic activities. Diterpene and flavonoids would be active constituents in P. orientalis leaves. Many studies have provided evidence for various traditional uses. However, there is a great need for additional studies to elucidate the mechanism of blood-cooling and hematostatic activity of the leaves. Therefore, the present review on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and toxicity has provided preliminary information for further studies of this herb. PMID:24871649

  9. Histochemical and Biometric Study of the Gastrointestinal System of Hyla Orientalis (Bedriaga, 1890) (Anura, Hylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Akat, E.; Arıkan, H.; Göçmen, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the localization of hyaluronic acid (HA) and the distribution of glycoproteins in the gastrointestinal system of adult Hyla orientalis. Histochemical analysis of the gastrointestinal system in H. orientalis showed that mucous content included glycogene and/or oxidable dioles [periodic acid/Schiff (PAS)+], neutral or acid-rich (PAS/AB pH 2.5+), sialic acid residues (KOH/PAS+) and acid sulphate [Aldehyde fuchsin (AF)+] glycoproteins. However the mucus content was not the same in stomach, small and large intestine. The mucus content of stomach included only glycogene and/or oxidable dioles and sialic acid residues. Besides these histochemical methods, the localization of HA was detected using biotinylated hyaluronic acid binding protein labeled with streptavidin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). In the extracellular matrix of the submucosa, the reaction for HA was evident. Since HA was located in submucosa beneath the epithelial layer of gastrointestinal system, it has a significant role in hydric balance, and essential to provide the gastrointestinal system integrity and functionality. According to biometric results, there were statistical differences between small and large intestine in terms of the amount of material stained positive with PAS/AB, PAS, KOH/PAS and AF/AB. Additionally, number of goblet cells in the small and large intestine was significantly different. PMID:25578977

  10. Platycladus orientalis leaves: a systemic review on botany, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Shan, Ming-Qiu; Shang, Jing; Ding, An-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Platycladus orientalis leaves (Cebaiye) have been used for thousands of years as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). According to the theory of TCM, they are categorized as a blood-cooling and hematostatic herb. In clinical practice, they were usually prescribed with heat-clearing herbs to reinforce the efficacy of hemostasis. The review provides the up-to-date information from 1980 to present that is available on the botany, processing research, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of the leaves. The information is collected from scientific journals, books, theses and reports via library and electronic search (Google Scholar, Pubmed and CNKI). Through literature reports, we can find that the leaves show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, disinsection, anticancer, diuretic, hair growth-promoting, neuroprotective and antifibrotic activities. Diterpene and flavonoids would be active constituents in P. orientalis leaves. Many studies have provided evidence for various traditional uses. However, there is a great need for additional studies to elucidate the mechanism of blood-cooling and hematostatic activity of the leaves. Therefore, the present review on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and toxicity has provided preliminary information for further studies of this herb.

  11. Scrophularia orientalis extract induces calcium signaling and apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    LANGE, INGO; MOSCHNY, JULIA; TAMANYAN, KAMILLA; KHUTSISHVILI, MANANA; ATHA, DANIEL; BORRIS, ROBERT P.; KOOMOA, DANA-LYNN

    2016-01-01

    Effective neuroblastoma (NB) treatments are still limited despite treatment options available today. Therefore, this study attempted to identify novel plant extracts that have anticancer effects. Cytotoxicity and increased intracellular calcium levels were determined using the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and Fluo4-AM (acetoxymethyl) staining and fluorescence microscopy in NB cells in order to screen a library of plant extracts. The current study examined the anticancer effects of a dichloromethane extract from Scrophularia orientalis L. (Scrophulariaceae), a plant that has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. This extract contained highly potent agents that significantly reduced cell survival and increased calcium levels in NB cells. Further analysis revealed that cell death induced by this extract was associated with intracellular calcium release, opening of the MPTP, caspase 3- and PARP-cleavage suggesting that this extract induced aberrant calcium signaling that resulted in apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. Therefore, agents from Scrophularia orientalis may have the potential to lead to new chemo therapeutic anticancer drugs. Furthermore, targeting intracellular calcium signaling may be a novel strategy to develop more effective treatments for NB. PMID:26848085

  12. The memory-ameliorating effects of Artemisia princeps var. orientalis against cholinergic dysfunction in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaotong; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jong Min; Park, Se Jin; Cai, Mudan; Jang, Dae Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Artemisia princeps var. orientalis (Compositae) is widely distributed in China, Japan and Korea and is known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. The ethyl acetate fraction of ethanolic extract of A. princeps var. orientalis (AEA) was found to inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity in a dose-dependent manner in vitro (IC(50) value: 541.4 ± 67.5 μg/ml). Therefore, we investigated the effects of AEA on scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment using the passive avoidance, the Y-maze, and the Morris water maze tasks in mice. AEA (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments in the passive avoidance and Y-maze tasks (p < 0.05). In the Morris water maze task, AEA (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly shortened escape latencies in training trials and increased both swimming time spent in the target zone and probe crossing numbers during the probe trial as compared with scopolamine-treated mice (p < 0.05). Additionally, the ameliorating effect of AEA on scopolamine-induced memory impairment was antagonized by a subeffective dose of MK-801. These results suggest that AEA could be an effective treatment against cholinergic dysfunction and its effect is mediated by the enhancement of the cholinergic neurotransmitter system via NMDA receptor signaling or acetylcholinesterase inhibition.

  13. Genetically modified yeast of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely relates species, and fermentation processes using same

    SciTech Connect

    Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Pentilla, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Ruohonen, Laura; Koivuranta, Kari; Roberg-Perez, Kevin

    2012-01-17

    Cells of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely related yeast species are transformed with a vector to introduce an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene. The cells produce lactic acid efficiently and are resistant at low pH, high lactate titer conditions.

  14. Efficacy of florfenicol for control of mortality with Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in Nile tilapia, oreochromis niloticus (L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) (syn. F. asiatica) is an emergent Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium. Although it is considered one of the most pathogenic bacteria in fish, there are no commercially available treatments of vaccines. The objective of this project was ...

  15. Conspecific flowers of Sinapis arvensis are stronger competitors for pollinators than those of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis.

    PubMed

    Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia

    2012-03-01

    Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species (Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from nativespecies.

  16. Characterization of plasmid pXL100 from Amycolatopsis orientalis HCCB10007 and construction of a shuttle vector.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Li, Yanmei; Zhu, Li; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Daijie; Huang, Weiyi; Yang, Sheng

    2015-02-01

    Many strains of Amycolatopsis, such as Amycolatopsis orientalis, A. balhimycina, and A. mediterranei, are important antibiotic producers. Three indigenous plasmids, pMEA100, pMEA300, and pA387, found in this genus have been sequenced. However, only some vectors based on pA387 have been widely applied in Amycolatopsis research. An indigenous plasmid, pXL100, was isolated from the vancomycin producer A. orientalis HCCB10007. Sequence analysis of pXL100 revealed its total length to be 33,499 bp and GC content to be 68.9%. A 2830-bp fragment containing three ORFs has been identified as essential for replication in A. orientalis, but it has no significant similarity to any known replicons. A vector, pLYZW7-3, was constructed based on the pXL100 replicon and could be transferred into A. mediterranei and A. orientalis by electroporation or conjugation with high frequency. A mutant with a disrupted gene was successfully complemented with the pLYZW7-3 vector, indicating that the vector is potentially useful in Amycolatopsis research.

  17. Conspecific flowers of Sinapis arvensis are stronger competitors for pollinators than those of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia

    2012-03-01

    Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species ( Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from native species.

  18. Ecology and control of the sand fly vectors of Leishmania donovani in East Africa, with special emphasis on Phlebotomus orientalis.

    PubMed

    Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A

    2011-03-01

    A literature review is provided on the state of knowledge of the ecology and control of the sand fly vectors of Leishmania donovani in East Africa, with a special emphasis on Phlebotomus orientalis. Visceral leishmaniasis caused by L. donovani is a major health problem in several areas in East Africa. Studies conducted in the past 70 years identified P. orientalis Parrot and P. martini Parrot as the principal vectors of L. donovani in Sudan, Ethiopia and Kenya and P. celiae Minter as the secondary vector of the parasite in one focus in Ethiopia. Findings on sand fly fauna and other circumstantial evidence indicate that P. martini is also responsible for transmission of L. donovani in VL endemic foci of Somalia and Uganda. Several studies showed that P. orientalis occupy distinct habitat characterized by black cotton soil and Acacia seyal-Balanites aegyptiaca vegetation, whereas P. martini and P. celiae are associated with termite mounds. Little knowledge exists on effective control measures of sand fly vectors of L. donovani in East Africa. However, recent evidence showed that use of insecticide impregnated bednets and insect repellents may reduce exposure to the bites of P. orientalis. PMID:21366778

  19. Recombinant Salivary Proteins of Phlebotomus orientalis are Suitable Antigens to Measure Exposure of Domestic Animals to Sand Fly Bites

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Michal; Ferencova, Blanka; Warburg, Alon; Rohousova, Iva; Volf, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Background Certain salivary proteins of phlebotomine sand flies injected into the host skin during blood-feeding are highly antigenic and elicit strong antibody-mediated immune responses in repeatedly-exposed hosts. These antibodies can be measured by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISAs) using salivary gland homogenates (SGHs) as the source of antigens and serve as a markers for exposure to biting sand flies. Large-scale screening for anti-sand fly saliva antibodies requires replacement of SGH with recombinant salivary proteins. In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis is the main vector of Leishmania donovani, a trypanosomatid parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis. We tested recombinant salivary proteins derived from Ph. orientalis saliva to study exposure of domestic animals to this sand fly species. Methodology/Principal Findings Antigenic salivary proteins from Ph. orientalis were identified by immunoblot and mass spectrometry. Recombinant apyrase rPorSP15, yellow-related protein rPorSP24, ParSP25-like protein rPorSP65, D7-related protein rPorSP67, and antigen 5-related protein rPorSP76 were tested using ELISA with sera of domestic animals from L. donovani foci in Ethiopia where Ph. orientalis is present. Our results highlighted recombinant yellow-related protein rPorSP24 as the most promising antigen, displaying a high positive correlation coefficient as well as good sensitivity and specificity when compared to SGH. This recombinant protein was the most suitable one for testing sera of dogs, sheep, and goats. In addition, a different antigen, rPorSP65 was found efficacious for testing canine sera. Conclusions/Significance Recombinant salivary proteins of Ph. orientalis, specifically rPorSP24, were shown to successfully substitute SGH in serological experiments to measure exposure of domestic animals to Ph. orientalis, the vector of L. donovani. The results suggest that rPorSP24 might be a suitable antigen for detecting anti-Ph. orientalis antibody

  20. Perennial crop growth in oil-contaminated soil in a boreal climate.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lijuan; Penttinen, Petri; Simojoki, Asko; Stoddard, Frederick L; Lindström, Kristina

    2015-11-01

    Soil contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is a global problem. Phytoremediation by plants and their associated microorganisms is a cost-effective strategy to degrade soil contaminants. In boreal regions the cool climate limits the efficiency of phytoremediation. The planting of oil-tolerant perennial crops, especially legumes, in oil-contaminated soil holds promise for great economic benefits for bioenergy and bio-fertilizer production while accelerating the oil degradation process. We established a multi-year field experiment to study the ecological and agronomic feasibility of phytoremediation by a legume (fodder galega) and a grass (smooth brome) in a boreal climate. In 40 months, soil oil content decreased by 73%-92%, depending on the crop type. The oil degradation followed first-order kinetics with the reduction rates decreasing as follows: bare fallow > galega-brome grass mixture > brome grass > galega. Surprisingly, the presence of oil enhanced crop dry matter and nitrogen yield, particularly in the fourth year. The unfertilized galega-brome grass mixture out-yielded the N-fertilized pure grass swards over years by an average of 33%. Thus, a perennial legume-grass mixture is both ecologically and agronomically sustainable as a cropping system to alleviate soil contamination in the boreal zone, with considerable potential for bioenergy and bio-fertilizer production.

  1. Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919(T); a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne

    2014-06-15

    Ensifer arboris LMG 14919(T) is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919(T) was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919(T) is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919(T) does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919(T), together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project.

  2. Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919T; a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Ensifer arboris LMG 14919T is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919T was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919T is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919T does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919T, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25197433

  3. Description of the final-instarlarva and pupa of Acanthacorydalis orientalis (McLachlan, 1899) (Megaloptera: Corydalidae) with some life history notes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chengquan; Liu, Xingyue

    2013-01-01

    The giant dobsonfly species Acanthacorydalis orientalis (McLachlan, 1899) is endemic to China and is well-known because of its remarkable large adult body size and enlarged male mandibles. However, the immature stages of this species, as well as all other Acanthacorydalis species are poorly known. In this paper we describe the last-instar larvae and pupae of A. orientalis for the first time. Aspects of the bionomics of this species is also given.

  4. The effects of selected pre-treatments on germination of seeds of Oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Ozel, Halil Bariş

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the effect of some pre-treatments implemented on seeds of Oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis), which has wide geographical variation along Turkey on germination percentage values were investigated. For this purpose, 13 different pre-treatments were implemented to seeds obtained from 17 different populations. According to the obtained results (except control seeds), pre-treatments leading to lowest germination percentage value (8.1%) in Oriental hornbeam seeds was PT10: Keeping seeds for 90 min in sulfuric acid, while highest germination percentage (86.58%) has been obtained with pre-treatment PT13: Implementation of 40% dose of Baikal EM1 + Biohoumous mixture to the seeds, while lowest germination percentage (40.50%) was observed on seeds collected from P7 (Bartin-Kozcağiz) population, highest germination percentage was observed in seeds obtained from P17 (Artvin-Hopa) population.

  5. The effects of selected pre-treatments on germination of seeds of Oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Ozel, Halil Bariş

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the effect of some pre-treatments implemented on seeds of Oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis), which has wide geographical variation along Turkey on germination percentage values were investigated. For this purpose, 13 different pre-treatments were implemented to seeds obtained from 17 different populations. According to the obtained results (except control seeds), pre-treatments leading to lowest germination percentage value (8.1%) in Oriental hornbeam seeds was PT10: Keeping seeds for 90 min in sulfuric acid, while highest germination percentage (86.58%) has been obtained with pre-treatment PT13: Implementation of 40% dose of Baikal EM1 + Biohoumous mixture to the seeds, while lowest germination percentage (40.50%) was observed on seeds collected from P7 (Bartin-Kozcağiz) population, highest germination percentage was observed in seeds obtained from P17 (Artvin-Hopa) population. PMID:27498493

  6. Phytochemical screening studies on Melia orientalis by GC-MS analysis

    PubMed Central

    Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Padmaja, Balakrishnan; Nair, Sudarsan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Melia orientalis (MO) is an important Ayurvedic medicinal plants. The plant part such as leaves and roots are traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes, edema, traumatic swelling, skin diseases, oligospermia and bleeding disorders. Objective: To investigate the phytochemical identification of ethanol leaf extract of MO. Materials and Methods: The fresh leaves of MO (1000g) were collected and shade dried at room temperature for 30 days and the dried leaves were made into a fine powder. The ethanol leaf extract obtained was dried and used for phytochemical identification by GC-MS analysis. Results: The phytochemical screening studies have been carried out and identified ten chemical constituents present in the leaf extract of MO. Conclusion: Thus, our results show that MO possess important phytocomponents such as phytol, squalene and stigmasterol. PMID:23901217

  7. Allelopathic effects of water extracts ofArtemisia princeps var.orientalis on selected plant species.

    PubMed

    Kil, B S; Yun, K W

    1992-01-01

    The allelopathic effects of wormwood plants (Artemisia princeps var.orientalis) and their possible phytotoxicity on receptor species were investigated. The aqueous extracts of mature leaf, stem, and root of wormwood plants caused significant inhibition in germination and decreased seedling elongation of receptor plants, whereas germination of some species was not inhibited by extracts of stems and roots. Dry weight growth was slightly increased at lower concentrations of the extract, whereas it was proportionally inhibited at higher concentrations. The calorie value of the organic matter in receptor plants measured by bomb calorimeter was reduced proportionally to the extract concentration. However, results with extracts of juvenile leaf did not correlate with inhibition or promotion of elongation and dry weight. PMID:24254631

  8. Electroretinographic analysis of night vision in juvenile pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Taro; Ihara, Hiroshi; Ishida, Yoshinari; Okada, Tokihiko; Kurata, Michio; Sawada, Yoshifumi; Ishibashi, Yasunori

    2009-10-01

    We used electroretinogram recordings to investigate visual function in the dark-adapted eyes of the juvenile scombrid fishes Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and the carangid fish striped jack (Pseudocaranx dentex). Despite the fast swimming speed of the Pacific bluefin tuna, analysis of flicker electroretinograms showed that visual temporal resolution in this species was inferior to that in chub mackerel. Peak wavelengths of spectral sensitivity in Pacific bluefin tuna and striped jack were 479 and 512 nm, respectively. The light sensitivity of Pacific bluefin tuna was comparable to that of chub mackerel but lower than that of striped jack. The Pacific bluefin tuna may not need high-level visual function under dim light conditions in natural habitat because it is a diurnal fish. However, this low temporal resolution and light sensitivity probably explain the mass deaths from contact or collisions with net walls in cultured Pacific bluefin tuna. PMID:19875819

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of Abramis brama orientalis Berg (cypriniformes, Cyprinidae, Leuciscinae).

    PubMed

    Qi, Pengzhi; Guo, Baoying; Zhang, Zhiming; Xie, Congxin; Wu, C W

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we cloned and sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Abramis brama orientalis Berg. The genome was 16,610 bp (LR) in length and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 main non-coding regions [the control region (CR) and the origin of the light strand replication], the gene composition and order of which was similar to those reported from other fish mitochondrial genomes. The overall base composition of the heavy strand was T 26.7%, C 26.5 %, A 30.0% and G 16.8%, with a slight A+T bias of 56.7%. This mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in population genetics and phylogenetic analysis of the Leuciscinae.

  10. Mutation scanning-based analysis of Theileria orientalis populations in cattle following an outbreak.

    PubMed

    Cufos, Nadia; Jabbar, Abdul; de Carvalho, Luís M; Gasser, Robin B

    2012-07-01

    Bovine theileriosis is a tick-borne disease caused by one or more hemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Theileria. In the past, Theileria infection in cattle in Australia was largely asymptomatic and recognized to be associated with Theileria buffeli. However, outbreaks of theileriosis have occurred in beef and dairy cattle in subtropical climatic regions (New South Wales) of Australia. There is also one published report of a recent theileriosis outbreak in a beef farm near Seymour in the southeastern state of Victoria. In order to gain an improved insight into the genetic composition of Theileria populations following this outbreak, we undertook herein an integrated PCR-coupled mutation scanning-sequencing-phylogenetic analysis of sequence variation in part of the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene within and among samples from cattle involved in the outbreak. Theileria DNA was detected in 89.4% of 94 cattle in the Seymour farm; the genetic analysis showed that the ikeda and chitose genotypes representing the Theileria orientalis complex were detected in 75 and 4.8% of 84 infected cattle, respectively, and that mixed populations of these two genotypes were found in 20.2% of infected cattle. Given unpublished reports of a significant increase in the number of outbreaks in Victoria, future investigations should focus sharply on elucidating the epidemiology of Theileria to subvert the economic impact on the cattle industry in this state. Although used here to explore genetic variation within the T. orientalis complex in Australia, a mutation scanning-based approach has broad applicability to other species of Theileria in other countries.

  11. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Characterization for the Widespread and Stress-Tolerant Conifer Platycladus orientalis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xian-Ge; Liu, Hui; Jin, YuQing; Sun, Yan-Qiang; Li, Yue; Zhao, Wei; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Mao, Jian-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Platycladus orientalis, of the family Cupressaceae, is a widespread conifer throughout China and is extensively used for ecological reforestation, horticulture, and in medicine. Transcriptome assemblies are required for this ecologically important conifer for understanding genes underpinning adaptation and complex traits for breeding programs. To enrich the species' genomic resources, a de novo transcriptome sequencing was performed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. In total, 104,073,506 high quality sequence reads (approximately 10.3 Gbp) were obtained, which were assembled into 228,948 transcripts and 148,867 unigenes that were longer than 200 nt. Quality assessment using CEGMA showed that the transcriptomes obtained were mostly complete for highly conserved core eukaryotic genes. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 62,938 (42.28% of all unigenes), 42,158 (28.32%), and 23,179 (15.57%) had homologs in the Nr, GO, and KOG databases, 25,625 (17.21%) unigenes were mapped to 322 pathways by BLASTX comparison against the KEGG database and 1,941 unigenes involved in environmental signaling and stress response were identified. We also identified 43 putative terpene synthase (TPS) functional genes loci and compared them with TPSs from other species. Additionally, 5,296 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified in 4,715 unigenes, which were assigned to 142 motif types. This is the first report of a complete transcriptome analysis of P. orientalis. These resources provide a foundation for further studies of adaptation mechanisms and molecular-based breeding programs. PMID:26881995

  12. Enzymatic saccharification of cassava residues and glucose inhibitory kinetics on β-glucosidase from Hypocrea orientalis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Qi; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Cui, Yi; Cai, Yi-Xiang; Liu, Rui-Wen; Long, Min-Nan; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2014-11-26

    Cassava residues are byproducts of the starch industry containing abundant cellulose for bioproduction of green fuel. To obtain maximum sugar yields from cassava residues, the optimal conditions for hydrolyzing the residues were determined using cellulase prepared from a novel Hypocrea orientalis strain. The optimal pH value and optimal temperature for the cellulase hydrolysis were 5.0 and 50 °C, respectively. The concentration of NaOH was determined to be 1% for pretreatment of cassava residues to gain enough soluble sugars suitably. The yield of released sugars was 10 mg/mL in the optimal conditions after 24 h of reaction, which was similar to that of bagasse and wheat grass. Inhibition kinetics of H. orientalis β-glucosidase (BG) by glucose was first studied using the progress-of-substrate-reaction method as described by Tsou (Tsou, C. L. Adv. Enzymol. Related Areas Mol. Biol. 1988, 61, 381-436), and the microscopic inhibition rate constants of glucose were determined. The results showed that glucose could inhibit BG reversibly and competitively. The rate constants of forward (k(+0)) and reverse (k(-0)) reaction were measured to be 4.88 × 10(-4) (mM·s)(-1) and 2.7 × 10(-4) s(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, the inhibition was more significant than that of L-glucose, D-mannose, D-galactose, D-aminoglucose, acetyl-D-glucose, and D-fructose. This work reveals how to increase sugar yields and reduce product inhibition during enzymatic saccharification of cellulose.

  13. Morphological variation in males of Dendrocephalus orientalis (Anostraca: Thamnocephalidae): Implications for species identification.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Gustavo Luis; Barros-Alves, Samara De Paiva; Alves, Douglas Fernandes Rodrigues; Silva, Izabel Regina Soares Da; Bezerra, Maria Angélica De Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    The genus Dendrocephalus Daday, 1908 consists of 17 described species. The morphology of the frontal appendage and the first pairs of thoracopods of males are the main characteristics used for species identification. The objectives of this study were to increase knowledge of the morphology of Dendrocephalus orientalis and to propose a new identification key for the species occurring in Brazil. Specimens were collected in temporary ponds within the conservation unit Monument Natural Grota do Angico (MNGA), which straddles the borders of the municipalities of Poço Redondo and Canindé de São Francisco, State of Sergipe, Brazil. During the study period, 560 male individuals of D. orientalis were sampled. The specimens showed variations in the number of spines on the eyes and the proximal surface of the male frontal appendage. On the eye, the number of spines ranged from 0 to 2; morphotypes with 1 and 2 spines predominated in the samples, with 50.5% and 46.2%, respectively. The number of spines on each eye was the same within each individual. On the proximal surface of the males frontal appendage the following numbers of spines on each arm were recorded: 1 and 1 (57.86%); 2 and 1 (30.89%); 2 and 2 (9.46%); 1 and 0 (1.25%); 3 and 2 (0.36%); 2 and 0 (0.18%). Based on these variations, we conclude that the number of spines on the eyes and the frontal appendage arms cannot be used as a diagnostic character for species identification. On the other hand, the first pairs of thoracopods and sub-branches 1V and 2A of the frontal appendage should be included in keys, since these structures did not show significant intraspecific morphological variation.  PMID:25662144

  14. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Characterization for the Widespread and Stress-Tolerant Conifer Platycladus orientalis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, YuQing; Sun, Yan-Qiang; Li, Yue; Zhao, Wei; El-Kassaby, Yousry A.; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Mao, Jian-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Platycladus orientalis, of the family Cupressaceae, is a widespread conifer throughout China and is extensively used for ecological reforestation, horticulture, and in medicine. Transcriptome assemblies are required for this ecologically important conifer for understanding genes underpinning adaptation and complex traits for breeding programs. To enrich the species’ genomic resources, a de novo transcriptome sequencing was performed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. In total, 104,073,506 high quality sequence reads (approximately 10.3 Gbp) were obtained, which were assembled into 228,948 transcripts and 148,867 unigenes that were longer than 200 nt. Quality assessment using CEGMA showed that the transcriptomes obtained were mostly complete for highly conserved core eukaryotic genes. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 62,938 (42.28% of all unigenes), 42,158 (28.32%), and 23,179 (15.57%) had homologs in the Nr, GO, and KOG databases, 25,625 (17.21%) unigenes were mapped to 322 pathways by BLASTX comparison against the KEGG database and 1,941 unigenes involved in environmental signaling and stress response were identified. We also identified 43 putative terpene synthase (TPS) functional genes loci and compared them with TPSs from other species. Additionally, 5,296 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified in 4,715 unigenes, which were assigned to 142 motif types. This is the first report of a complete transcriptome analysis of P. orientalis. These resources provide a foundation for further studies of adaptation mechanisms and molecular-based breeding programs. PMID:26881995

  15. Morphological variation in males of Dendrocephalus orientalis (Anostraca: Thamnocephalidae): Implications for species identification.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Gustavo Luis; Barros-Alves, Samara De Paiva; Alves, Douglas Fernandes Rodrigues; Silva, Izabel Regina Soares Da; Bezerra, Maria Angélica De Oliveira

    2015-02-05

    The genus Dendrocephalus Daday, 1908 consists of 17 described species. The morphology of the frontal appendage and the first pairs of thoracopods of males are the main characteristics used for species identification. The objectives of this study were to increase knowledge of the morphology of Dendrocephalus orientalis and to propose a new identification key for the species occurring in Brazil. Specimens were collected in temporary ponds within the conservation unit Monument Natural Grota do Angico (MNGA), which straddles the borders of the municipalities of Poço Redondo and Canindé de São Francisco, State of Sergipe, Brazil. During the study period, 560 male individuals of D. orientalis were sampled. The specimens showed variations in the number of spines on the eyes and the proximal surface of the male frontal appendage. On the eye, the number of spines ranged from 0 to 2; morphotypes with 1 and 2 spines predominated in the samples, with 50.5% and 46.2%, respectively. The number of spines on each eye was the same within each individual. On the proximal surface of the males frontal appendage the following numbers of spines on each arm were recorded: 1 and 1 (57.86%); 2 and 1 (30.89%); 2 and 2 (9.46%); 1 and 0 (1.25%); 3 and 2 (0.36%); 2 and 0 (0.18%). Based on these variations, we conclude that the number of spines on the eyes and the frontal appendage arms cannot be used as a diagnostic character for species identification. On the other hand, the first pairs of thoracopods and sub-branches 1V and 2A of the frontal appendage should be included in keys, since these structures did not show significant intraspecific morphological variation. 

  16. [Individual identification of Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) using molecular-genetic methods and estimation of the population].

    PubMed

    Rozhnov, V V; Sorokin, P A; Lukarevskiĭ, V S; Naĭdenko, S V; Ernandes-Blanko, Kh A; Lukarevskiĭ, S V

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, the genetic structure of a population of Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) in southwest Primorie was analyzed in detail. In 2010-2012, 23 individuals were identified individually. It was shown that the studied microsatellite markers are suitable for individual identification of leopards, monitoring the population numbers, and creating a unified database of genetic profiles of this species to solve research and nature-preserving tasks.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genomes of Umalia orientalis and Lyreidus brevifrons: The phylogenetic position of the family Raninidae within Brachyuran crabs.

    PubMed

    Shi, Guohui; Cui, Zhaoxia; Hui, Min; Liu, Yuan; Chan, Tin-Yam; Song, Chengwen

    2015-06-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences of two primitive crabs, Umalia orientalis and Lyreidus brevifrons (Decapoda: Brachyura: Raninidae) were determined. The mitogenomes of the two species are 15,466 and 16,112bp in length with AT content of 68.0% and 70.6%, respectively. Each genome contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes. The gene arrangement of U. orientalis is the same with those reported for most brachyuran species. Nevertheless, the gene arrangement of L. brevifrons differs from that of U. orientalis in having an additional non-coding region. The newly found non-coding region is located between nad3 and trnA with 641bp in length. Its nucleotide composition and secondary structure are similar to the typical control region. In L. brevifrons, the secondary structures of trnS-AGN and trnI are significantly different from those in U. orientalis and other brachyuran species. The start codon for cox1 is ATG in all reported Eubrachyura mitogenomes, while a common start codon ACG is found in the Podotremata. Phylogenetic analyses for crustacean decapods based on the nucleotide and amino acid of 13 PCGs indicate that Homolidae is more primitive in Brachyura, and Raninidae is a sister group to Eubrachyura. This implies that Raninidae is closer to Eubrachyura than to Homolidae, and Podotremata may be a paraphyletic assemblage. The results also indicate that the subfamily Lyreidinae is closer to Notopodinae than to Ranininae within Raninidae. The novel mitogenome data provides useful information for refining the phylogenetic relationships within Brachyura.

  18. [Transpiration water consumption of young Platycladus orientalis and Robinia pseudoacacia trees and their correction functions under different water supply].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinxin; Huang, Baolong; Wang, Mingchun; Wang, Dihai

    2005-03-01

    Through artificial water control in the shed of rain-free, this paper studied the physiological water requirement patterns of 2-3 years old Platycladus orientalis and Robinia pseudoacacia trees during their growth period, and the relationships between their transpiration water consumption and soil water supply. The results showed that the transpiration water consumption of Robinia pseudoacacia was increased with increasing soil water supply within the range of 40%-100% of field water-holding capacity. Its maximum transpiration water consumption was at the early and accelerating growth stages, accounted for 80.5% of total annual water consumption. The transpiration water consumption of Robinia pseudoacacia was 5.13 times as much as that of Platycladus orientalis. Platycladus orientalis had a peak value of transpiration water consumption when the soil moisture content was 40%-100% of field water-holding capacity. Its transpiration water consumption was the maximum at accelerating growth stage, accounted for 46.27% of total annual water consumption, next at later growth stage, and relatively small at early growth stage. The correction functions of transpiration water consumption to soil water supply and the time-soil moisture functions of practical transpiration water consumption under insufficient water supply for two test species were put forward for the first time.

  19. Development and validation of a quantitative PCR assay using multiplexed hydrolysis probes for detection and quantification of Theileria orientalis isolates and differentiation of clinically relevant subtypes.

    PubMed

    Bogema, D R; Deutscher, A T; Fell, S; Collins, D; Eamens, G J; Jenkins, C

    2015-03-01

    Theileria orientalis is an emerging pathogen of cattle in Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. This organism is a vector-borne hemoprotozoan that causes clinical disease characterized by anemia, abortion, and death, as well as persistent subclinical infections. Molecular methods of diagnosis are preferred due to their sensitivity and utility in differentiating between pathogenic and apathogenic genotypes. Conventional PCR (cPCR) assays for T. orientalis detection and typing are laborious and do not provide an estimate of parasite load. Current real-time PCR assays cannot differentiate between clinically relevant and benign genotypes or are only semiquantitative without a defined clinical threshold. Here, we developed and validated a hydrolysis probe quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay which universally detects and quantifies T. orientalis and identifies the clinically associated Ikeda and Chitose genotypes (UIC assay). Comparison of the UIC assay results with previously validated universal and genotype-specific cPCR results demonstrated that qPCR detects and differentiates T. orientalis with high sensitivity and specificiy. Comparison of quantitative results based on percent parasitemia, determined via blood film analysis and packed cell volume (PCV) revealed significant positive and negative correlations, respectively. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that blood samples from animals with clinical signs of disease contained statistically higher concentrations of T. orientalis DNA than animals with subclinical infections. We propose clinical thresholds to assist in classifying high-, moderate-, and low-level infections and describe how parasite load and the presence of the Ikeda and Chitose genotypes relate to disease.

  20. Identification and gene expression analyses of ghrelin in the stomach of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Suda, Atsushi; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Nikaido, Hideki; Shiozawa, Satoshi; Mishiro, Kenzo; Ando, Hironori

    2012-08-01

    Full length cDNA and gene encoding ghrelin precursor and mature ghrelin peptide were identified from the stomach of Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis, which has unique metabolic physiology and high commercial value at fishery markets. Quantitative expression analysis was conducted for the gastric ghrelin and pepsinogen 2 genes during the early stage of somatic growth from the underyearling to yearling fish. The full length cDNA of bluefin tuna ghrelin precursor has a length of 470bp and the deduced precursor is composed of 107 amino acids. The ghrelin gene is 1.9kbp in length and has a 4 exon-3 intron structure. The major form of mature ghrelin in the stomach was an octanoylated 20-amino acid peptide with C-terminal amidation, while overall 12 different forms of ghrelin peptides, including short form of 18-amino acid peptide and seven kinds of acyl modifications were identified. The expression profiles of the gastric ghrelin and pepsinogen 2 genes showed no significant changes related to the early growth stages. The present results suggest that digestive physiology has already been functional in this growth stage of the juvenile bluefin tuna and ghrelin may have a role in the sustained digestive and metabolic activities.

  1. Effects of co-fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis on sea buckthorn juice.

    PubMed

    Negi, Bharti; Dey, Gargi

    2013-06-01

    This work relates to the development of a co-fermented product of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis. Besides malic acid degradation, the parameters of present production technology were also standardized with emphasis on the retainability of total phenolic content (TPC) of sea buckthorn juice. The effect of co-fermentation on physico-chemical characteristics, organic acids, flavonoids, TPC and antioxidant activities was studied. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed 55% reduction in malic acid content after the co-fermentation of sea buckthorn juice. The TPC of sea buckthorn product was 2.18 g gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/l. The estimated scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals was 2.63 Trolox equivalent (TE) mmol/l. Ferric-reducing antioxidant power and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assays also showed that sea buckthorn product was on a par with commercial wines (Cabernet Shiraz and Beaujolais). We conclude that the process of co-fermentation resulted in a significant antioxidant potential of sea buckthorn product. PMID:23301774

  2. Proteome analysis of the liver in the Chinese fire-bellied newt Cynops orientalis.

    PubMed

    Zang, X Y; Guo, J L; Geng, X F; Li, P F; Sun, J Y; Wang, Q W; Xu, C S

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese fire-bellied newt, Cynops orientalis, belonging to Amphibia, Caudata, Salamandridae is a species endemic to China. The liver, which is an important digestive gland and the largest amphibian organ, has various functions, including detoxification, glycogen storage, protein synthesis, and hormone production. However, the newt liver has rarely been studied at the molecular level. We performed histomorphology and high-throughput proteomic analysis of the Chinese fire-bellied newt liver, using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. The H&E staining showed that the newt liver nuclei are large and round, are located in the lateral cytoplasm, and contain a large quantity of lipid droplets. Melanins were abundantly present throughout the hepatic parenchyma. The proteome analysis showed a total of 545 proteins detected in the newt liver. Furthermore, a gene ontology analysis suggested that these proteins were associated with metabolism, immune response, cellular homeostasis, etc. Among these, proteins with metabolic functions were found to be the most abundant and highly expressed. This supports the role of the liver as the metabolic center. The proteomic results provide new insights into the aspects of the liver proteomes of the Chinese fire-bellied newt. The identification of a more global liver proteome in the newt may provide a basis for characterizing and comparing the liver proteomes from other amphibian species. PMID:27525932

  3. Effects of co-fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis on sea buckthorn juice.

    PubMed

    Negi, Bharti; Dey, Gargi

    2013-06-01

    This work relates to the development of a co-fermented product of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis. Besides malic acid degradation, the parameters of present production technology were also standardized with emphasis on the retainability of total phenolic content (TPC) of sea buckthorn juice. The effect of co-fermentation on physico-chemical characteristics, organic acids, flavonoids, TPC and antioxidant activities was studied. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed 55% reduction in malic acid content after the co-fermentation of sea buckthorn juice. The TPC of sea buckthorn product was 2.18 g gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/l. The estimated scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals was 2.63 Trolox equivalent (TE) mmol/l. Ferric-reducing antioxidant power and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assays also showed that sea buckthorn product was on a par with commercial wines (Cabernet Shiraz and Beaujolais). We conclude that the process of co-fermentation resulted in a significant antioxidant potential of sea buckthorn product.

  4. Overwinter body temperature patterns in captive jerboas (Jaculus orientalis): influence of sex and group.

    PubMed

    El Ouezzani, S; Janati, I A; Magoul, R; Pévet, P; Saboureau, M

    2011-02-01

    The jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) has been described in the past as a hibernator, but no reliable data exist on the daily and seasonal rhythmicity of body temperature (T (b)). In this study, T (b) patterns were determined in different groups of jerboas (isolated males and females, castrated males and grouped animals) maintained in captivity during autumn and winter, and submitted to natural variations of light and ambient temperature (T (a)). T (b) and T (a) variations were recorded with surgically implanted iButton temperature loggers at 30-min intervals for two consecutive years. About half (6/13) of isolated female jerboas hibernated with a T (b) < 33°C, with hibernation bouts interspersed with short periods of normothermy from November to February. Hibernation bout durations were longer (4-5 days) than those of normothermia phases (1-4 days). During hibernation, the minimum T (b) was low (T (b)min ~10.7°C). In contrast, one of the 12 isolated males showed short hibernation bouts of ca. 2 days late in the hibernation season, February-March. The males had T (b)min values of 15.1°C. In contrast to predictions, no castrated males hibernated. When jerboas were grouped, females and males exhibited concomitant torpor bouts. In males, the longest bouts were observed during the late hibernation season. These data suggest complex regulation of hibernation in jerboas.

  5. Hormonal regulation of gummosis and composition of gums from bulbs of hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kensuke; Kotake, Toshihisa; Boncela, Anna Jarecka; Saniewski, Marian; Ueda, Junichi

    2015-02-01

    Hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis) bulbs infected by Fusarium oxysporum showed the symptoms of gummosis. The purpose of this study was to clarify the hormonal regulation of gummosis and composition of gums from hyacinth bulbs. The application of ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid), an ethylene-releasing compound, at 2% (w/w, in lanolin) induced gummosis in hyacinth bulbs. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) at 1.5% (w/w, in lanolin) induced gummosis as well. Simultaneous application of JA-Me and ethephon further enhanced gummosis. Molecular mass distribution of hyacinth gums analyzed by gel permeation chromatography indicated that the gums were mainly homogenous polysaccharides with an average molecular weight of ca. 30kDa. Analysis of the sugar composition of the gums after hydrolysis revealed that the majority were arabinose (ca. 35%) and galactose (ca. 40%) together with small amounts of fucose, rhamnose and uronic acids (ca. 5%, respectively), suggesting that the gums are pectic arabinogalactans. These results indicate that jasmonates (JAs) interact with ethylene to stimulate sugar metabolism, producing pectic arabinogalactans, and vice versa, leading to gummosis. These findings, together with those from our previous studies in tulips (Tulipa gesneriana) and grape hyacinth (Muscari armeniacum), revealed that sugar metabolism and hormonal regulation relating to gummosis are different among species of bulbous plants.

  6. Hormonal regulation of gummosis and composition of gums from bulbs of hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kensuke; Kotake, Toshihisa; Boncela, Anna Jarecka; Saniewski, Marian; Ueda, Junichi

    2015-02-01

    Hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis) bulbs infected by Fusarium oxysporum showed the symptoms of gummosis. The purpose of this study was to clarify the hormonal regulation of gummosis and composition of gums from hyacinth bulbs. The application of ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid), an ethylene-releasing compound, at 2% (w/w, in lanolin) induced gummosis in hyacinth bulbs. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) at 1.5% (w/w, in lanolin) induced gummosis as well. Simultaneous application of JA-Me and ethephon further enhanced gummosis. Molecular mass distribution of hyacinth gums analyzed by gel permeation chromatography indicated that the gums were mainly homogenous polysaccharides with an average molecular weight of ca. 30kDa. Analysis of the sugar composition of the gums after hydrolysis revealed that the majority were arabinose (ca. 35%) and galactose (ca. 40%) together with small amounts of fucose, rhamnose and uronic acids (ca. 5%, respectively), suggesting that the gums are pectic arabinogalactans. These results indicate that jasmonates (JAs) interact with ethylene to stimulate sugar metabolism, producing pectic arabinogalactans, and vice versa, leading to gummosis. These findings, together with those from our previous studies in tulips (Tulipa gesneriana) and grape hyacinth (Muscari armeniacum), revealed that sugar metabolism and hormonal regulation relating to gummosis are different among species of bulbous plants. PMID:25462960

  7. Identifying ecological corridors for Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Miquelle, Dale G; Rozhnov, Vyachaslav V; Ermoshin, Victor; Murzin, Andre A; Nikolaev, Igor G; Hernandez-Blanco, Jose A; Naidenko, Sergie V

    2015-07-01

    The rapid explosion of human populations and the associated development of human-dominated landscapes have drastically reduced and fragmented habitat for tigers (Panthera tigris) and leopards (Panthera pardus) across Asia, resulting in multiple small populations. However, Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) habitat in Russia has remained largely interconnected, except for a break between tigers in southwest Primorye and the southern Sikhote-Alin Mountains. This habitat patch in southwest Primorye also retains the last population of Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis). Genetic differentiation of tigers in southwest Primorye and the Sikhote-Alin Mountains along with survey data suggest that habitat fragmentation is limiting movement of tigers and leopards across the Razdolnaya River basin. We looked at historical and recent survey data on tigers and leopards and mapped existing cover types to examine land-use patterns of both large felids and humans in the development strip along the Razdolnaya River. We then used least-cost distance analyses to identify the most effective potential corridor to retain connectivity for large felids between Land of the Leopard National Park and Ussuriskii Zapovednik (Reserve). We identified a single potential corridor that still exists with a total distance of 62.5 km from Land of the Leopard National Park to Ussuriskii Zapovednik, mostly (93%) through forested habitat. We recommend formal recognition of a Razdolnaya ecological corridor and provide specific recommendations for each of 3 proposed management sections.

  8. Organization of the sensory input to the telencephalon in the fire-bellied toad, Bombina orientalis.

    PubMed

    Laberge, Frédéric; Roth, Gerhard

    2007-05-01

    The functional organization of sensory activity in the amphibian telencephalon is poorly understood. We used an in vitro brain preparation to compare the anatomy of afferent pathways with the localization of electrically evoked sensory potentials and single neuron intracellular responses in the telencephalon of the toad Bombina orientalis. Anatomical tracing showed that the anterior thalamic nucleus innervates the anterior parts of the medial, dorsal, and lateral pallia and the rostralmost part of the pallium in addition to the subpallial amygdala/ventral pallidum region. Additional afferents to the medial telencephalon originate from the thalamic eminence. Electrical stimulation of diverse sensory nerves and brain regions generated evoked potentials with distinct characteristics in the pallium, subpallial amygdala/ventral pallidum, and dorsal striatopallidum. In the pallium, this sensory activity is generated in the anterior medial region. In the case of olfaction, evoked potentials were recorded at all sites, but displayed different characteristics across telencephalic regions. Stimulation of the anterior dorsal thalamus generated a pattern of activity comparable to olfactory evoked potentials, but it became similar to stimulation of the optic nerve or brainstem after bilateral lesion of the lateral olfactory tract, which interrupted the antidromic activation of the olfactohabenular tract. Intracellular bimodal sensory responses were obtained in the anterior pallium, medial amygdala, ventral pallidum, and dorsal striatopallidum. Our results demonstrate that the amphibian anterior pallium, medial amygdala/ventral pallidum, and dorsal striatopallidum are multimodal sensory centers. The organization of the amphibian telencephalon displays striking similarities with the brain pathways recently implicated in mammalian goal-directed behavior.

  9. Visual discrimination learning in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis.

    PubMed

    Jenkin, Sarah E M; Laberge, Frédéric

    2010-11-01

    This study explored the visual discrimination learning ability of fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis). Two groups of toads were trained in a simultaneous visual discrimination task involving video footage of either black crickets on a white background (black-cricket toads) or white crickets on a black background (white-cricket toads). Fifteen widely spaced acquisition trials were followed by 12 reversal trials. Successful learning was observed by decreased incorrect snapping and reduced latency to snap at the correct stimulus (S+) during acquisition; however, white-cricket toads executed significantly more incorrect snaps than did black-cricket toads. Both groups of toads could master the reversal task as measured by latency to snap at S+, but not as measured by the proportion of incorrect snaps. Despite the stronger potency of the black-cricket stimulus, the results showed that toads can learn a simultaneous discrimination task and a reversal of its contingency. This elaborate form of learning appears to be conserved among vertebrates.

  10. Organization of afferents to the striatopallidal systems in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Zachary J; Laberge, Frédéric

    2014-11-01

    The cerebral hemispheres of amphibians display paired dorsal and ventral striatum (commonly referred to as striatum proper and nucleus accumbens, respectively). Each striatal region is proposed to be closely associated with a pallidal structure located caudal to it to form a striatopallidal system. In the present study, afferents to the dorsal and ventral striatopallidal systems of the fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) were investigated using the neuronal tracer biocytin. A quantitative analysis of the topographical distribution of afferent neurons from the thalamus and posterior tubercle/ventral tegmentum was emphasised. The main results show that inputs to the two striatopallidal systems originate from distinct dorsal thalamic nuclei, with dorsal and ventral striatopallidal afferent neurons favouring strongly the lateral/central and anterior thalamic nuclei, respectively. However, afferent neuron distribution in the dorsal thalamus does not differ in the rostrocaudal axis of the brain. Afferent neurons from the posterior tubercle and ventral tegmentum, on the other hand, are organised topographically along the rostrocaudal axis. About 85 % of afferent neurons to the dorsal striatopallidal system are located rostrally in the posterior tubercle, while 75 % of afferent neurons to the ventral striatopallidal system are found more caudally in the ventral tegmentum. This difference is statistically significant and confirms the presence of distinct mesostriatal pathways in an amphibian. These findings demonstrate that an amphibian brain displays striatopallidal systems integrating parallel streams of sensory information potentially under the influence of distinct ascending mesostriatal pathways.

  11. Thalamo-telencephalic pathways in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis.

    PubMed

    Laberge, Frédéric; Mühlenbrock-Lenter, Sabine; Dicke, Ursula; Roth, Gerhard

    2008-06-10

    It was suggested that among extant vertebrates, anuran amphibians display a brain organization closest to the ancestral tetrapod condition, and recent research suggests that anuran brains share important similarities with the brains of amniotes. The thalamus is the major source of sensory input to the telencephalon in both amphibians and amniote vertebrates, and this sensory input is critical for higher brain functions. The present study investigated the thalamo-telencephalic pathways in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis, a basal anuran, by using a combination of retrograde tract tracing and intracellular injections with the tracer biocytin. Intracellular labeling revealed that the majority of neurons in the anterior and central thalamic nuclei project to multiple brain targets involved in behavioral modulation either through axon collaterals or en passant varicosities. Single anterior thalamic neurons target multiple regions in the forebrain and midbrain. Of note, these neurons display abundant projections to the medial amygdala and a variety of pallial areas, predominantly the anterior medial pallium. In Bombina, telencephalic projections of central thalamic neurons are restricted to the dorsal striato-pallidum. The bed nucleus of the pallial commissure/thalamic eminence similarly targets multiple brain regions including the ventral medial pallium, but this is accomplished through a higher variety of distinct neuron types. We propose that the amphibian diencephalon exerts widespread influence in brain regions involved in behavioral modulation and that a single dorsal thalamic neuron is in a position to integrate different sensory channels and distribute the resulting information to multiple brain regions.

  12. Connectivity and cytoarchitecture of telencephalic centers in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis.

    PubMed

    Mühlenbrock-Lenter, Sabine; Roth, Gerhard; Grunwald, Wolfgang

    2005-09-15

    In the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis, the connectivity and cytoarchitecture of telencephalic structures were studied by intracellular, anterograde and retrograde biocytin labelling in order to elucidate the neuronal basis of fear conditioning and context learning in amphibians. Our findings suggest the existence of a central amygdala-bed nucleus of the stria terminalis complex in the caudal mid-ventral telencephalon, a vomeronasal amygdala in the caudolateral ventral telencephalon, an olfactory amygdala in the caudal pole of the telencephalon lateral of the vomeronasal amygdala, and a ventromedially situated "medial" amygdala, which is assumed to be functionally equivalent to the basolateral amygdala of mammals. A ventromedial cellular column forms a nucleus accumbens rostrally and continues caudally into a shell-like ventral pallidum. A lateral column constitutes a dorsal striatum proper rostrally, a dorsal pallidum caudally, and a mixed striato-pallidum at intermediate levels. We conclude that the caudal mediolateral complex consisting of an extended central, vomeronasal and olfactory amygdala of anurans represents the ancestral equivalent of the amygdaloid complex of tetrapods. During the evolution of the mammalian telencephalon, this complex apparently was shifted medially and involuted.

  13. 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia crassificans', an intracellular bacterial pathogen of the cockroach Blatta orientalis (Insecta: Blattodea).

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Daniele; Thomas, Vincent; Goy, Genevieve; Venditti, Danielle; Radek, Renate; Greub, Gilbert

    2007-04-01

    The genus Rickettsiella comprises various intracellular bacterial pathogens of arthropods, exhibiting a chlamydia-like developmental cycle. Species may be divided into two main groups, the R. popilliae-R. grylli group and the R. chironomi group. Previous phylogenetic studies based on the 16S ribosomal RNA encoding gene showed that two Rickettsiella species, one from each group, belong in reality to two distantly related lineages, the gamma-Proteobacteria (R. grylli) and the Chlamydiales ('Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis', a pathogen of terrestrial isopods). In the present work, the 16S rDNA sequence of another Rickettsiella-like species, causing abdominal swelling to its cockroach host Blatta orientalis, was determined and phylogenetic analysis performed. Identical 16S rDNA sequences of 1495 nucleotides were obtained from fat body and ovary tissues of both healthy and diseased cockroach individuals. The sequence shared only 73% of similarity with R. grylli, but 82-87% with most Chlamydiales, and even 96.3% with 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis'. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the affiliation of the cockroach pathogen within the order Chlamydiales, and based on ultrastructural characteristics and genetic analyses, we propose its inclusion in the 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia' as a distinct taxon, 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia crassificans'. These results extend our knowledge of the phylogenetic diversity of the Chlamydiales.

  14. Analysis of release cutting effects on increment and growth in Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stand.

    PubMed

    Yücesan, Zafer; Ozçelik, Sevilay; Oktan, Ercan

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the effects of release cuttings on stand structures and increment and growth relations were investigated in afforested oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stands. To maximize spatial variation in dataset, stratified random sampling was used to layout transects. 24 sampling plots were determined which reflects average characteristics of actual stand structure. 8 sampling plots were selected from unthinned stands, 8 sampling plots were selected from lightly thinned (19% of the total basal area removed) stand and 8 sampling plots were selected from heavily thinned (40% of the total basal area removed) stand. Light thinning was done in the year 2008 and heavy thinning in 2009. Stem analyses were carried out and pre- and post-treatment height, diameter, basal area and volume increments were examined according to thinning intensities. Obtained results showed that removal of 40% of the basal area does not contribute to stand increment and growth more positively than those in stands treated by removal of 19% of the basal area. Expected increase in height and diameter increment did not occurr post-treatment in 2008 and 2009. However, in only lightly thinned stands mean basal area increment increased after treatment. Release cuttings in beech stand needs to be practiced at least twice every 5 to 6 years, provided that peculiar characteristics of every habitat are considered.

  15. Genetic evaluation of the breeding population of a valuable reforestation conifer Platycladus orientalis (Cupressaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yuqing; Ma, Yongpeng; Wang, Shun; Hu, Xian-Ge; Huang, Li-Sha; Li, Yue; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Mao, Jian-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Platycladus orientalis, a widespread conifer with long lifespan and significant adaptability. It is much used in reforestation in north China and commonly planted in central Asia. With the increasing demand for plantation forest in central to north China, breeding programs are progressively established for this species. Efficient use of breeding resources requires good understanding of the genetic value of the founder breeding materials. This study investigated the distribution of genetic variation in 192 elite trees collected for the breeding program for the central range of the species. We developed first set of 27 polymorphic EST-derived SSR loci for the species from transcriptome/genome data. After examination of amplification quality, 10 loci were used to evaluate the genetic variation in the breeding population. We found moderate genetic diversity (average He = 0.348) and low population differentiation (Fst = 0.011). Extensive admixture and no significant geographic population structure characterized this set of collections. Our analyses of the diversity and population structure are important steps toward a long-term sustainable deployment of the species and provide valuable genetic information for conservation and breeding applications.

  16. Genetic evaluation of the breeding population of a valuable reforestation conifer Platycladus orientalis (Cupressaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yuqing; Ma, Yongpeng; Wang, Shun; Hu, Xian-Ge; Huang, Li-Sha; Li, Yue; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Mao, Jian-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Platycladus orientalis, a widespread conifer with long lifespan and significant adaptability. It is much used in reforestation in north China and commonly planted in central Asia. With the increasing demand for plantation forest in central to north China, breeding programs are progressively established for this species. Efficient use of breeding resources requires good understanding of the genetic value of the founder breeding materials. This study investigated the distribution of genetic variation in 192 elite trees collected for the breeding program for the central range of the species. We developed first set of 27 polymorphic EST-derived SSR loci for the species from transcriptome/genome data. After examination of amplification quality, 10 loci were used to evaluate the genetic variation in the breeding population. We found moderate genetic diversity (average He = 0.348) and low population differentiation (Fst = 0.011). Extensive admixture and no significant geographic population structure characterized this set of collections. Our analyses of the diversity and population structure are important steps toward a long-term sustainable deployment of the species and provide valuable genetic information for conservation and breeding applications. PMID:27721449

  17. Diurnal-activity Patterns of the Small Bee-eater (Merops orientalis) in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Abdul Hameed Mohamed Samsoor; Asokan, Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    The diurnal time-activity patterns of the Small Bee-eater (Merops orientalis) were studied between 2005 and 2006 in the Nagapattinam District of Southern India. Bee-eaters were observed to spend an average of 52.5% of their day time scanning, 21.3% feeding, 13.3% flying, 8.8% resting and 4.1% engaging in preening activities. The time spent on scanning varied among seasons in 2005 (p<0.05) and among time blocks (p<0.05), but it did not vary among years or habitats (p>0.05). The feeding patterns differed among years, seasons within years, time blocks and habitats (p<0.05). The flying habits varied among years, time blocks and habitats (p<0.05) but did not change between seasons within years (p>0.05). The resting habits differed among years and habitats (p<0.05) but did not differ among seasons within years or time blocks (p>0.05). Preening differed among years and time blocks (p<0.05) but did not vary among seasons within years or habitats (p>0.05). We conclude that several factors, such as food availability, environmental factors and predation threats, may affect the diurnal activity patterns of Bee-eaters between habitats and seasons; a further study could clarify this conclusion. PMID:26868589

  18. Etomidate anaesthesia by immersion in oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis).

    PubMed

    d'Ovidio, D; Spadavecchia, C; Angeli, G; Adami, C

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of etomidate anaesthesia by immersion technique in Bombina orientalis. The study comprised two phases. The first phase was carried out to identify the etomidate concentration capable of producing anaesthetic induction, as well as surgical anaesthesia, in the toads. The second phase was aimed at testing that concentration in eight additional animals. Etomidate administered via immersion at a concentration of 37.5 mg/L produced effective anaesthesia in oriental fire-bellied toads. The average duration of surgical anaesthesia was 20 min. All the toads enrolled in the study survived the anaesthesia and long-term complications did not occur. However, undesired side-effects, namely itching, myoclonus and prolonged recovery, were noticed during the perianaesthetic period. The authors concluded that etomidate anaesthesia by immersion, at a concentration of 37.5 mg/L, is suitable in oriental fire-bellied toads and produces anaesthesia of a depth and duration that is sufficient to allow the completion of various experimental procedures, without resulting in lethal complications. However, the occurrence of undesired side-effects opens a debate on the safety of this anaesthetic technique, and imposes the need for further investigation prior to proposing the latter for routine laboratory practice.

  19. Developmental toxicity of treated municipal wastewater effluent on Bombina orientalis (Amphibia: Anura) embryos.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Jin; Ahn, Hyo Min; Cho, Seong Chan; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Oh, Jong-Min; Ahn, Hong Kyu; Chun, Seung-Hoon; Gye, Myung Chan

    2014-04-01

    Amphibian populations have been decreasing in urban freshwater systems in Korea. To elucidate the biological safety of treated wastewater effluent (TWE) in the Tancheon basin, the capital area of Korea, a 7-d-exposure Bombina orientalis embryo developmental toxicity assay was examined during the breeding season. In March, there were no significant differences in embryonic survival or malformation among the water samples. In July, following monsoon precipitation, embryonic lethality in TWE was significantly higher than in the upstream water sample. Malformation in TWE and TWE-mixed waters was significantly higher than in the control and upstream water samples. Tail muscle height of tadpoles also significantly decreased in TWE and TWE-mixed waters. Heavy metals were not detected in any samples. Total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and chemical oxygen demand in TWE markedly increased together with a decrease in dissolved oxygen in July. The increase in organic and inorganic loading following precipitation could have made TWE and TWE-mixed water not suitable for embryonic development. Though being managed based on physicochemical criteria, the water quality of TWE may not be sufficient to assure normal development of amphibian embryos. An amphibian developmental toxicity assay would be helpful for the water-quality management of TWE and urban freshwater systems in Korea.

  20. Heat inactivation kinetics of Hypocrea orientalis β-glucosidase with enhanced thermal stability by glucose.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Qi; Shi, Yan; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Zhan, Xi-Lan; Zhou, Han-Tao; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2015-11-01

    Thermal inactivation kinetics of Hypocrea orientalis β-glucosidase and effect of glucose on thermostability of the enzyme have been determined in this paper. Kinetic studies showed that the thermal inactivation was irreversible and first-order reaction. The microscopic rate constants for inactivation of free enzyme and substrate-enzyme complex were both determined, which suggested that substrates can protect β-glucosidase against thermal deactivation effectively. On the other hand, glucose was found to protect β-glucosidase from heat inactivation to remain almost whole activity below 70°C at 20mM concentration, whereas the apparent inactivation rate of BG decreased to be 0.3×10(-3)s(-1) in the presence of 5mM glucose, smaller than that of sugar-free enzyme (1.91×10(-3)s(-1)). The intrinsic fluorescence spectra results showed that glucose also had stabilizing effect on the conformation of BG against thermal denaturation. Docking simulation depicted the interaction mode between glucose and active residues of the enzyme to produce stabilizing effect.

  1. Identifying ecological corridors for Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Miquelle, Dale G; Rozhnov, Vyachaslav V; Ermoshin, Victor; Murzin, Andre A; Nikolaev, Igor G; Hernandez-Blanco, Jose A; Naidenko, Sergie V

    2015-07-01

    The rapid explosion of human populations and the associated development of human-dominated landscapes have drastically reduced and fragmented habitat for tigers (Panthera tigris) and leopards (Panthera pardus) across Asia, resulting in multiple small populations. However, Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) habitat in Russia has remained largely interconnected, except for a break between tigers in southwest Primorye and the southern Sikhote-Alin Mountains. This habitat patch in southwest Primorye also retains the last population of Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis). Genetic differentiation of tigers in southwest Primorye and the Sikhote-Alin Mountains along with survey data suggest that habitat fragmentation is limiting movement of tigers and leopards across the Razdolnaya River basin. We looked at historical and recent survey data on tigers and leopards and mapped existing cover types to examine land-use patterns of both large felids and humans in the development strip along the Razdolnaya River. We then used least-cost distance analyses to identify the most effective potential corridor to retain connectivity for large felids between Land of the Leopard National Park and Ussuriskii Zapovednik (Reserve). We identified a single potential corridor that still exists with a total distance of 62.5 km from Land of the Leopard National Park to Ussuriskii Zapovednik, mostly (93%) through forested habitat. We recommend formal recognition of a Razdolnaya ecological corridor and provide specific recommendations for each of 3 proposed management sections. PMID:26096589

  2. The complete mitogenome of the Morton Bay bug Thenus orientalis (Lund, 1793) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Scyllaridae) from a cooked sample and a new mitogenome order for the Decapoda.

    PubMed

    Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequence of the Morton Bay bug, Thenus orientalis, is documented, which makes it the second mitogenome for species of the family Scyllaridae and the ninth for members of the superfamily Palinuroidae. Thenus orientalis has a mitogenome of 16,826 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 23 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of the T. orientalis mitogenome is 31.31% for T, 23.77% for C, 31.05% for A, and 13.87% for G, with an AT bias of 62.36%. In addition to a duplicated trnS1 and several other tRNA gene rearrangements, the mitogenome gene order has novel protein coding gene order with the nad6 and cob genes translocated as a block to a location downstream of the nad3 gene. PMID:25103440

  3. Laboratory and field evaluation of Korean entomopathogenic nematode isolates against the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Woon; Choo, Ho Yul; Kaya, Harry K; Lee, Sang Myeong; Smitley, David R; Shin, Hong Kyun; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2002-10-01

    The oriental beetle Exomala (Anomala) orientalis (Waterhouse) is an important pest of turfgrass in Korean golf courses, and although a few chemical insecticides are registered for insect pest control, they are not very effective against scarab larvae. There is also a growing concern in Korea about the run-off of insecticides into sensitive habitats and the potential for groundwater contamination. A safe and environmentally sound alternative is needed to conventional insecticides. We therefore evaluated six Korean entomopathogenic nematode isolates: S. carpocapsae Pocheon, S. glaseri Dongrae, S. glaseri Mungyeong, S. longicaudum Gongju, S. longicaudum Nonsan, and Heterorhabditis sp. Gyeongsan for their potential as bioinsecticides for control of E. orientalis. In addition, we evaluated a reduced chemical insecticide approach that combined chlorpyrifos-methyl with nematodes. In laboratory tests Heterorhabditis sp. Gyeongsan was the most efficacious, causing 100% mortality of the second and 38% of the third instars. All other nematode isolates caused 50-80% mortality of the second and 15-30% of the third instars. E. orientalis pupae were highly susceptible to all the Korean entomopathogenic nematode isolates except S. carpocapsae. In artificially infested field plots, all Korean nematode isolates cause 50-70% mortality of the third instar. A combination of a one-half rate of Heterorhabditis sp. and a one-half rate chlorpyrifos-methyl was synergistic, causing 91% mortality compared with 69% for the full rate of Heterorhabditis sp. or 22% for the full rate of chlorpyrifos-methyl. In a second field trial, a natural infestation of preoverwintering third instar was treated. In this trial a one-half rate of S. longicaudum Nonsan plus a one-half rate of chlorpyrifos-methyl caused 96.8% mortality, much more than a full rate of S. longicaudum Nonsan (45.9% mortality) or a full rate of chlorpyrifos-methyl (28.7% mortality). The interactions of Heterorhabditis sp. and S

  4. Chemical composition, allelopatic and cytotoxic effects of essential oils of flowering tops and leaves of Crambe orientalis L. from Iran.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Seyed Mehdi; Nejad-Ebrahimi, Samad

    2009-01-01

    Crambe orientalis L. (Brassicaceae), a perennial herb, is indigenous to Iran. The essential oils of flowering tops and leaves of the plant were evaluated by GC-MS. Our results showed that while 2-methyl-5-hexenitrile (19.5%) and benzyl cyanide (16.9%) were the major components of flowering tops oil, the oil of the leaves was dominated by octyl-acetate (54.3%) and butenyl-4-isothiocyanates (22.6%). The oils exhibited modest allelopatic effects on lettuce. The leaf oil showed high-cytotoxic effects against Mc-Coy cell lines, with an RC(50) value of 16 microg mL(-1).

  5. Molecular detection and genetic identification of Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis and Anaplasma marginale in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mo; Cao, Shinuo; Sevinc, Ferda; Sevinc, Mutlu; Ceylan, Onur; Moumouni, Paul Franck Adjou; Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Iguchi, Aiko; Vudriko, Patrick; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2016-02-01

    Babesia spp., Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. are significant tick-borne pathogens of livestock globally. In this study, we investigated the presence and distribution of Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis and Anaplasma marginale in cattle from 6 provinces of Turkey using species-specific PCR assays. The PCR were conducted using the primers based on the B. bigemina rhoptry-associated protein 1a (BbiRAP-1a), T. annulata merozoite surface antigen-1 (Tams-1), T. orientalis major piroplasm surface protein (ToMPSP) and A. marginale major surface protein 4 (AmMSP4) genes, respectively. Fragments of B. bigemina internal transcribed spacer (BbiITS), T. annulata internal transcribed spacer (TaITS), ToMPSP and AmMSP4 genes were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. PCR results revealed that the overall infections of A. marginale, T. annulata, B. bigemina and T. orientalis were 29.1%, 18.9%, 11.2% and 5.6%, respectively. The co-infection of two or three pathogens was detected in 29/196 (15.1%) of the cattle samples. The results of sequence analysis indicated that BbiRAP-1a, BbiITS, Tams-1, ToMPSP and AmMSP4 were conserved among the Turkish samples, with 99.76%, 99-99.8%, 99.34-99.78%, 96.9-99.61% and 99.42-99.71% sequence identity values, respectively. In contrast, the Turkish TaITS gene sequences were relatively diverse with 92.3-96.63% identity values. B. bigemina isolates from Turkey were found in the same clade as the isolates from other countries in phylogenetic analysis. On the other hand, phylogenetic analysis based on T. annulata ITS sequences revealed significant differences in the genotypes of T. annulata isolates from Turkey. Additionally, the T. orientalis isolates from Turkish samples were classified as MPSP type 3 genotype. This is the first report of type 3 MPSP in Turkey. Moreover, AmMSP4 isolates from Turkey were found in the same clade as the isolates from other countries. This study provides important data for understanding the

  6. Amino acid isotope incorporation and enrichment factors in Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Christina J; Madigan, Daniel J; Block, Barbara A; Popp, Brian N

    2014-01-01

    Compound specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) of amino acids has received increasing attention in ecological studies in recent years due to its ability to evaluate trophic positions and elucidate baseline nutrient sources. However, the incorporation rates of individual amino acids into protein and specific trophic discrimination factors (TDFs) are largely unknown, limiting the application of CSIA to trophic studies. We determined nitrogen turnover rates of individual amino acids from a long-term (up to 1054 days) laboratory experiment using captive Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis (PBFT), a large endothermic pelagic fish fed a controlled diet. Small PBFT (white muscle δ(15)N∼11.5‰) were collected in San Diego, CA and transported to the Tuna Research and Conservation Center (TRCC) where they were fed a controlled diet with high δ(15)N values relative to PBFT white muscle (diet δ(15)N∼13.9‰). Half-lives of trophic and source amino acids ranged from 28.6 to 305.4 days and 67.5 to 136.2 days, respectively. The TDF for the weighted mean values of amino acids was 3.0 ‰, ranging from 2.2 to 15.8 ‰ for individual combinations of 6 trophic and 5 source amino acids. Changes in the δ(15)N values of amino acids across trophic levels are the underlying drivers of the trophic (15)N enrichment. Nearly all amino acid δ(15)N values in this experiment changed exponentially and could be described by a single compartment model. Significant differences in the rate of (15)N incorporation were found for source and trophic amino acids both within and between these groups. Varying half-lives of individual amino acids can be applied to migratory organisms as isotopic clocks, determining the length of time an individual has spent in a new environment. These results greatly enhance the ability to interpret compound specific isotope analyses in trophic studies.

  7. Heart rate responses to temperature in free-swimming Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Clark, T D; Farwell, C J; Rodriguez, L E; Brandt, W T; Block, B A

    2013-09-01

    The bluefin tuna heart remains at ambient water temperature (Ta) but must supply blood to warm regions of the body served by countercurrent vascular heat exchangers. Despite this unusual physiology, inherent difficulties have precluded an understanding of the cardiovascular responses to Ta in free-swimming bluefin tunas. We measured the heart rate (f(H)) responses of two captive Pacific bluefin tunas (Thunnus orientalis; 9.7 and 13.3 kg) over a cumulative period of 40 days. Routine f(H) during fasting in the holding tank at a Ta of 20°C was 45.1±8.0 and 40.7±6.5 beats min(-1) for Tuna 1 and Tuna 2, respectively. f(H) decreased in each fish with a Q10 temperature coefficient of 2.6 (Tuna 1) and 3.1 (Tuna 2) as Ta in the tank was slowly decreased to 15°C (~0.4°C h(-1)), despite a gradual increase in swimming speed. The same thermal challenge during digestion revealed similar thermal dependence of f(H) and indicated that the rate of visceral cooling is not buffered by the heat increment of feeding. Acutely decreasing Ta from 20 to 10°C while Tuna 1 swam in a tunnel respirometer caused a progressive increase in tail-beat frequency and oxygen consumption rate (M(O2)). f(H) of this fish decreased with a Q10 of 2.7 as Ta decreased between 20 and 15°C, while further cooling to 10°C saw a general plateau in f(H) around 35 beats min(-1) with a Q10 of 1.3. A discussion of the relationships between f(H), and haemoglobin-oxygen binding sheds further light on how bluefin cardiorespiratory systems function in a changing thermal environment.

  8. Characterization and ontogenetic development of digestive enzymes in Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis larvae.

    PubMed

    Murashita, Koji; Matsunari, Hiroyuki; Kumon, Kazunori; Tanaka, Yosuke; Shiozawa, Satoshi; Furuita, Hirofumi; Oku, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Takeshi

    2014-12-01

    The major digestive enzymes in Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis larvae were characterized, and the physiological characteristics of the enzymes during early ontogeny were clarified using biochemical and molecular approaches. The maximum activity of trypsin (Try), chymotrypsin (Ct) and amylase (Amy) was observed at pH 6-11, 8-11 and 6-9, respectively. Maximum activity of Try, Ct and Amy occurred at 50 °C, that of lipase (Lip) was at 60 °C and that of pepsin (Pep) was at 40-50 °C. These pH and thermal profiles were similar to those for other fish species but differed from those previously reported for adult bluefin tuna. Enzyme activity for all enzymes assayed was found to decrease at high temperatures (Try, Ct, Amy and Pep: 50 °C; Lip: 40 °C), which is similar to findings for other fish species with one marked exception-increased Try activity was observed at 40 °C. Lip activity appeared to be dependent on bile salts under our assay conditions, resulting in a significant increase in activity in the presence of bile salts. Ontogenetic changes in pancreatic digestive enzymes showed similar gene expression patterns to those of other fish species, whereas marked temporal increases in enzyme activities were observed at 10-12 days post hatching (dph), coinciding with previously reported timing of the development of the pyloric caeca in bluefin tuna larvae. However, complete development of digestive function was indicated by the high pep gene expression from 19 dph, which contradicts the profile of Pep activity and previously reported development timing of the gastric gland. These findings contribute to the general knowledge of bluefin tuna larval digestive system development.

  9. The septal complex of the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis: chemoarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Endepols, Heike; Mühlenbrock-Lenter, Sabine; Roth, Gerhard; Walkowiak, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate whether chemoarchitecture would support the subdivision of the anuran septum based on cytoarchitectonic and hodological studies, we performed enzyme-histochemical detection of NADPH-diaphorase and immunohistological demonstration of choline-acetyl transferase (ChAT), aspartate, calretinin, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 5-hydroxy-tryptamine, tyrosine hydroxylase, neuropeptide Y (NPY), somatostatin, Leu- and Leu + Met-enkephalin, and substance P in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis. Labeling of cell bodies matched well the previously defined subnuclei: The dorsolateral septal nucleus contains enkephalin-immunoreactive (-ir) and weakly stained GABA-ir neurons; calretinin-ir and weakly labeled GABA-ir neurons are found in the ventrolateral septal nucleus. The medial septal nucleus is characterized by the presence of numerous ChAT-ir and some tyrosine hydroxylase-ir neurons, while the dorsal septal nucleus is outlined by its NPY-ir neurons. Many ChAT-ir and some aspartate-ir and somatostatin-ir neurons are found in the diagonal band of Broca, and the central septal nucleus contains some GABA-ir and ChAT-ir neurons. In contrast, labeled fibers form a pattern which does not match the boundaries of septal subnuclei. Comparing the anuran septal complex with that of other vertebrates reveals that the complexity of the lateral septum has increased during the evolution from anamniote to amniote vertebrates. In spite of this fact, many similarities in chemoarchitecture between anurans and other vertebrates are evident. Some basal septal functions such as involvement in learning and memory formation or inhibition of sexual behavior appear to have persisted during vertebrate evolution.

  10. Heart rate responses to temperature in free-swimming Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Clark, T D; Farwell, C J; Rodriguez, L E; Brandt, W T; Block, B A

    2013-09-01

    The bluefin tuna heart remains at ambient water temperature (Ta) but must supply blood to warm regions of the body served by countercurrent vascular heat exchangers. Despite this unusual physiology, inherent difficulties have precluded an understanding of the cardiovascular responses to Ta in free-swimming bluefin tunas. We measured the heart rate (f(H)) responses of two captive Pacific bluefin tunas (Thunnus orientalis; 9.7 and 13.3 kg) over a cumulative period of 40 days. Routine f(H) during fasting in the holding tank at a Ta of 20°C was 45.1±8.0 and 40.7±6.5 beats min(-1) for Tuna 1 and Tuna 2, respectively. f(H) decreased in each fish with a Q10 temperature coefficient of 2.6 (Tuna 1) and 3.1 (Tuna 2) as Ta in the tank was slowly decreased to 15°C (~0.4°C h(-1)), despite a gradual increase in swimming speed. The same thermal challenge during digestion revealed similar thermal dependence of f(H) and indicated that the rate of visceral cooling is not buffered by the heat increment of feeding. Acutely decreasing Ta from 20 to 10°C while Tuna 1 swam in a tunnel respirometer caused a progressive increase in tail-beat frequency and oxygen consumption rate (M(O2)). f(H) of this fish decreased with a Q10 of 2.7 as Ta decreased between 20 and 15°C, while further cooling to 10°C saw a general plateau in f(H) around 35 beats min(-1) with a Q10 of 1.3. A discussion of the relationships between f(H), and haemoglobin-oxygen binding sheds further light on how bluefin cardiorespiratory systems function in a changing thermal environment. PMID:23661777

  11. Developmental and acute toxicity of cetylpyridinium chloride in Bombina orientalis (Amphibia: Anura).

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Jin; Song, Sang Ha; Kim, Dae Han; Gye, Myung Chan

    2016-08-01

    In an effort to evaluate the toxicity of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a cationic surfactant in amphibians, we examined the developmental and acute toxicity of CPC in Bombina orientalis embryos and tadpoles. Embryonic exposure to 2.0μM (0.72mg/l) CPC for 7 days significantly decreased the survival rates and increased DNA damage in the intestine of developed tadpoles. Exposure to 1.5μM (0.54mg/l) CPC significantly decreased the growth of embryos and increased developmental abnormalities. The 168-h LC50 and EC50 values of CPC were 1.95μM (0.697mg/l) and 1.48μM (0.531mg/l) in embryos, respectively. In an extended acute toxicity test using tadpoles, the 168-h LC50 value of CPC was 5.07μM (1.82mg/l). In terms of survival and growth rates, the lowest observed effective concentration of CPC was 1.5μM. At sub-lethal concentrations (1.0 and 2.0μM) CPC treatment to embryos increased lipid peroxidation in the intestine and gills of developed tadpoles, indicating that CPC can impose oxidative stress. At 2.0μM CPC, pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak mRNA levels were significantly increased together with DNA fragmentation, indicative of apoptotic cell death. CPC in freshwater system may threaten the normal development of amphibian embryos. PMID:27399156

  12. Mercury in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis):bioaccumulation and trans-Pacific Ocean migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, John A.; Nogueira, Jacob I.; Pancorbo, Oscar C.; Batdorf, Carol A.; Block, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) have the largest home range of any tuna species and are well known for the capacity to make transoceanic migrations. We report the measurement of mercury (Hg) concentrations in wild Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT), the first reported with known size-of-fish and capture location. The results indicate juvenile PBFT that are recently arrived in the California Current from the western Pacific Ocean have significantly higher Hg concentrations in white muscle (0.51 ug/g wet mass, wm) than PBFT of longer California Current residency (0.41 ug/g wm). These new arrivals are also higher in Hg concentration than PBFT in farm pens (0.43 ug/g wm) that were captured on arrival in the California Current and raised in pens on locally derived feed. Analysis by direct Hg analyzer and attention to Hg by tissue type and location on the fish allowed precise comparisons of mercury among wild and captive fish populations. Analysis of migration and nearshore residency, determined through extensive archival tagging, bioaccumulation models, trophic investigations, and potential coastal sources of methylmercury, indicates Hg bioaccumulation is likely greater for PBFT juvenile habitats in the western Pacific Ocean (East China Sea, Yellow Sea) than in the eastern Pacific Ocean (California Current). Differential bioaccumulation may be a trophic effect or reflect methylmercury availability, with potential sources for coastal China (large hypoxic continental shelf receiving discharge of three large rivers, and island-arc volcanism) different from those for coastal Baja California (small continental shelf, no large rivers, spreading-center volcanism).

  13. Germination and Initial Growth of Fagus orientalis Seedling under Different Stand Canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabari, Masoud

    Germination and early growth of Fagus orientalis seedling were studied in four stands with different canopy closures (closed, semi-closed, relatively-opened and opened stands) under a dominant beech forest, located in north of Iran. For this purpose, 196 beech seed-sown plastic pots (in four plots of 49 units) were set up under each canopy closure. In the beginning of the first growing season germination rate ranged between 78.1 and 84.7% in different stands but there was no statistically significant difference of this term in the stands. In the end of the first growing season survival rate of seedlings was 73.9-76.1% under closed and semi-closed stands. It decreased significantly to 31.7 and 18.0% under relatively-opened and opened stands, respectively. Shoot length was, in the order 70 and 90 mm in closed and semi-closed stands. It decreased to 40 and 30 mm in relatively-opened and opened stands, respectively. Vitality appeared mostly with high quality in closed and semi-closed stands and with low quality in relatively-opened and opened stands. Leaf biomass reduced in closed stand. There was an increase for leaf area in semi-closed stand and for Specific Leaf Weight (SLW) in relatively-opened and opened stands. Generally, the investigation shows that in the first growing season most characteristics of beech seedling were benefited from more favorable conditions in the denser stands (closed and semi-closed canopies).

  14. Genotype and Phenotype of Echinococcus granulosus Derived from Wild Sheep (Ovis orientalis) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Ali; Meshgi, Behnam; Jalousian, Fatemeh; Rahmani, Shima; Salari, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the characteristics of genotype and phenotype of Echinococcus granulosus derived from wild sheep and to compare them with the strains of E. granulosus sensu stricto (sheep-dog) and E. granulosus camel strain (camel-dog) in Iran. In Khojir National Park, near Tehran, Iran, a fertile hydatid cyst was recently found in the liver of a dead wild sheep (Ovis orientalis). The number of protoscolices (n=6,000) proved enough for an experimental infection in a dog. The characteristics of large and small hooks of metacestode were statistically determined as the sensu stricto strain but not the camel strain (P=0.5). To determine E. granulosus genotype, 20 adult worms of this type were collected from the infected dog. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase 1 subunit (COX1) of the mitochondrial DNA were amplified from individual adult worm by PCR. Subsequently, the PCR product was sequenced by Sanger method. The lengths of ITS2 and COX1 sequences were 378 and 857 bp, respectively, for all the sequenced samples. The amplified DNA sequences from both ribosomal and mitochondrial genes were highly similar (99% and 98%, respectively) to that of the ovine strain in the GenBank database. The results of the present study indicate that the morpho-molecular features and characteristics of E. granulosus in the Iranian wild sheep are the same as those of the sheep-dog E. granulosus sensu stricto strain. PMID:26951979

  15. Reproductive biology and seasonality of the Indo-Australasian mysid Mesopodopsis orientalis (Crustacea: Mysida) in a tropical mangrove estuary, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanamura, Yukio; Siow, Ryon; Chee, Phaik-Ean

    2008-04-01

    A year-round survey of the tropical shallow-water mysid Mesopodopsis orientalis (Tattersall, 1908) (Crustacea, Mysidacea) was conducted in the Merbok mangrove estuary, northwestern Peninsular Malaysia. The mysid formed dense aggregations at the river's edge close to the mangrove forest during the daytime, but very few were captured elsewhere in the estuary system. The sampled population was found in a wide range of salinities from 16 to 32, demonstrating broad euryhalinity, and the number of the catch at the littoral zone ranged from 11.8 to 2273 ind m -2. The overall annual mean was 709.2 ind m -2. Females predominated over males in the entire population, and brooding females were present at every monthly sample, indicating that reproduction is continuous year round. The clutch size positively correlated with female body length. The diameter of eggs (Stage I embryos) was unaffected by the seasonality and independent of the maternal size within an observed size range. The life history pattern of the estuarine population of M. orientalis showed close similarity to that of the coastal counterpart. However, the former was found to produce fewer but larger eggs, and the specimens in this population were larger than those in the coastal population at the embryo, juvenile, and adult stages. This evidence indicates that the life history features of the estuarine population would differ to some degree from those of the coastal counterpart.

  16. Efficacy of florfenicol for control of mortality associated with Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.).

    PubMed

    Soto, E; Kidd, S; Gaunt, P S; Endris, R

    2013-04-01

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) (syn. F. asiatica) is an emergent Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium. Although it is considered one of the most pathogenic bacteria in fish, there are no commercially available treatments or vaccines. The objective of this project was to determine the most efficacious concentration of florfenicol (FFC) [10, 15 or 20 mg FFC kg(-1) body weight (bw) per days for 10 days] administered in feed to control experimentally induced infections of Fno in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), reared in a recirculating aquaculture system. The cumulative mortality of fish that received 0, 10, 15 or 20 mg FFC kg(-1)  bw per day was 60, 37, 14 and 16%, respectively. Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis genome equivalents were detected in water from all challenged groups with slight reduction in the concentration in the florfenicol-treated groups 4 days after treatment. The mean LOG of CFU Fno mg(-1) spleen was 3-5 and was present in all challenged groups at necropsy 11 days after treatment (21 days after challenge). Results show that florfenicol administered at doses of 15 and 20 mg FFC kg(-1)  bw per days for 10 days significantly reduced mortality associated with francisellosis in Nile tilapia. PMID:23134104

  17. Phylogenetic status of insect parasitism in the subfamily Entaphelenchinae Nickle with description of Peraphelenchus orientalis n. sp. (Tylenchomorpha: Aphelenchoididae).

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, Natsumi; Tanaka, Ryusei; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Taki, Hisatomo; Sugiura, Shinji; Matsumoto, Kazuma

    2013-08-01

    The nematode family Aphelenchoididae is a highly divergent group that contains plant parasites, predators, fungal feeders, and insect parasites. It is taxonomically separated into 7 subfamilies. Although molecular phylogenetic relationships among 6 of the subfamilies have been clarified, the phylogenetic position of the subfamily Entaphelenchinae, which is composed of endoparasites of insects, remains unclear. Here, a new entaphelenchid species, Peraphelenchus orientalis n. sp., was isolated from the body cavities of burying beetles, Nicrophorus quadripunctatus, with a 14% prevalence (5 out of 36). The phylogenetic position of the subfamily within the family Aphelenchoididae was determined using morphological and molecular data for the new species. The rRNA sequences suggested that the new species belongs to Clade 3 of Aphelenchoididae, which mostly consists of predators and insect parasites. Although molecular sequences from other entaphelenchid species were not available, the subfamily appears to be monophyletic. The new species is characterized by the absence of a functional rectum and anus and by the presence of 3 pairs of male genital papillae, a loosely coiled male body, and a W-shaped male spicule. Compared with the original description of Peraphelenchus necrophori, P. orientalis n. sp. has significant typological differences, possibly because of misinterpretations during the original description of P. necrophori. Excluding these questionable characters, i.e., presence-absence of functional rectum and anus and number of male genital papillae, the new species is distinguished from P. necrophori by minor morphological characters and morphometric values.

  18. Inhibitory Effect on Lipid Absorption and Variability of Chemical Constituents from Capparis sicula subsp. sicula and Capparis orientalis.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Mariangela; Argentieri, Maria Pia; Avato, Pinarosa; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

    2016-06-01

    In continuation of our research program on Mediterranean dietary plants, a bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from several accessions of Capparis sicula subsp. sicula and Capparis orientalis aerial parts was carried out. Antilipidemic activity of samples was assayed using inhibition of pancreatic lipase. To study the metabolic variability in Capparis species, HPTLC analyses were performed in order to characterize the species through the detection, isolation, and quantitative evaluation of rutin taken as significant chemical marker. The best activity was exerted by C. orientalis accession no. C10 and C. sicula subsp. sicula accession no. C6. The bioactivity evaluation of specific chemical markers, rutin and glucocapparin, led to the identification of a potent antilipidemic compound rutin. The HPTLC analysis showed large variation among the different analyzed samples with respect to rutin concentration. The chemical investigation showed a different composition between the species and between the collection zones. The variations showed by the studied accessions of caper could be attributed to exogenous factors. Capparis species contained predominantly quercetin rutinoside (rutin), accompanied by other constituents such as the glucosinolate glucocapparin. These rutin-rich extracts exhibited pronounced dose-dependent enzyme inhibitory activities toward pancreatic lipase.

  19. Alfaxalone-butorphanol versus alfaxalone-morphine combination for immersion anaesthesia in oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis).

    PubMed

    Adami, Chiara; d'Ovidio, Dario; Casoni, Daniela

    2016-06-01

    Oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) are small semi-aquatic anuran species popular as both pets and laboratory animals. Although they are commonly anaesthetized to undergo clinical and experimental procedures, very little is known about their anaesthetic management. The aims of this prospective, randomized, cross-over experimental trial were to establish effective butorphanol and morphine concentrations to be added to alfaxalone for immersion anaesthesia (pilot study), and to compare the anaesthetic and antinociceptive effects of the two drug mixtures (alfaxalone-butorphanol and alfaxalone-morphine), in Bombina orientalis toads. For the actual trial, the toads were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: AB and AM, with seven animals in each group, which received alfaxalone-butorphanol and alfaxalone-morphine combinations, respectively, at the concentrations established during the pilot study. Heart rate, respiratory rate, von Frey filament threshold and response to nociceptive withdrawal (NWR), righting and myotactic reflexes were measured at 5 min intervals until return of righting reflex was observed. The investigator who carried out all the measurements was blinded to the treatment. Any undesired effect or complication was noted and recorded. The two treatments were found to be comparable in terms of onset and duration of anaesthesia, and occurrence of undesired effects. However, group AM resulted in lower NWR scores and higher von Frey filament thresholds than group AB. It is concluded that, at the investigated concentrations and in combination with alfaxalone by immersion, morphine provides better antinociception than butorphanol in oriental fire-bellied toads.

  20. Spatial distribution of Dactylogyrus wunderi Bychowsky on gills of Abramis brama orientalis Berg (Leuciscinae) in Irtysh River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Cuilan; Yue, Cheng; Yao, Weijian; Yin, Jianguo; Jiao, Li; Zhu, Mengying; Jia, Shu'an; Wang, Na; Wang, Xin

    2013-09-01

    The spatial distribution of the monogenean Dactylogyrus wunderi Bychowsky, 1931 on the gill filaments of the bream Abramis brama orientalis Berg (Leuciscinae) inhabiting the Irtysh River of Xinjiang, China was investigated from June to July 2012. D. wunderi was identified by sequencing a fragment of its ITS rDNA region. Sixty-five fish were examined, with 55% testing positive for monogenean infection. The prevalence of the parasite in the left and right gill arches was 46% and 48%, respectively. In fish with a large body length, the prevalence of the parasite and the infection intensity did not significantly differ between the right and left gill arches but both were slightly higher in the former. Among the three size groups of fish (small, medium and large) the prevalence and the intensity of infection were lowest in fish with small body lengths. The distribution of the monogenean population in the host gills showed an aggregate distribution, with little change in the degree of aggregation, suggesting that most hosts were either not or only slightly infected by D. wunderi and that the parasite infected only a few hosts. In addition, differences in D. wunderi infections between gill arches of A. brama orientalis were not significant ( P>0.05).

  1. GA4 and IAA were involved in the morphogenesis and development of flowers in Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Ren, Li; Yue, Jian-hua; Wang, Ling; Zhuo, Li-huan; Shen, Xiao-hui

    2014-07-01

    The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth represents a major phase change in angiosperms. Hormones play important roles in this process. In this study, gibberellic acid (GA), cytokinins (CKs), indoleacetic acid (IAA), and abscisic acid (ABA) were analyzed during the flowering in Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis. Eleven types of endogenous gibberellins in addition to GA1 were detected in various organs. GA9 was detected with the highest concentrations, followed by GA5, GA8, and GA19. However, GA4 was the main bioactive GA that was involved in the regulation of flowering. Eight types of endogenous cytokinins were detected in A. praecox ssp. orientalis, and zeatin, zeatin riboside, zeatin-O-glucoside, and N(6)-isopentenyladenosine-5-monophosphate were present at higher levels throughout the study, of which zeatin plays an important role in the development of various organs. IAA increased by 581% in the shoot tips from the vegetative to inflorescence bud stages and had the most significant changes during flowering. Phytohormone immunolocalization analysis suggested that IAA involved in differentiation and development of each floral organs, GA and zeatin play important roles in floret primordia differentiation and ovule development. Using exogenous plant growth regulators proved that GA signaling regulate the scape elongation and stimulate early-flowering, and IAA signaling is involved in the pedicel and corolla elongation and delay flowering slightly. PMID:24913054

  2. Assessment of sequence variability in a p23 gene region within and among three genotypes of the Theileria orientalis complex from south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Perera, Piyumali K; Gasser, Robin B; Jabbar, Abdul

    2015-03-01

    Oriental theileriosis is a tick-borne, protozoan disease of cattle caused by one or more genotypes of Theileria orientalis complex. In this study, we assessed sequence variability in a region of the 23kDa piroplasm membrane protein (p23) gene within and among three T. orientalis genotypes (designated buffeli, chitose and ikeda) in south-eastern Australia. Genomic DNA (n=100) was extracted from blood of infected cattle from various locations endemic for oriental theileriosis and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-coupled mutation scanning (single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP)) and targeted sequencing analysis. Eight distinct sequences represented all DNA samples, and three genotypes were found: buffeli (n=3), chitose (3) and ikeda (2). Nucleotide pairwise comparisons among these eight sequences revealed considerably higher variability among the genotypes (6.6-11.7%) than within them (0-1.9%), indicating that the p23 gene region allows the accurate identification of T. orientalis genotypes. In the future, we will combine this gene with other molecular markers to study the genetic structure of T. orientalis populations in Australasia, which will pave the way to establish a highly sensitive and specific PCR-based assay for genotypic diagnosis of infection and for assessing levels of parasitaemia in cattle.

  3. Unexpected presence of Fagus orientalis complex in Italy as inferred from 45,000-year-old DNA pollen samples from Venice lagoon

    PubMed Central

    Paffetti, Donatella; Vettori, Cristina; Caramelli, David; Vernesi, Cristiano; Lari, Martina; Paganelli, Arturo; Paule, Ladislav; Giannini, Raffaello

    2007-01-01

    Background Phylogeographic analyses on the Western Euroasiatic Fagus taxa (F. orientalis, F. sylvatica, F. taurica and F. moesiaca) is available, however, the subdivision of Fagus spp. is unresolved and there is no consensus on the phylogeny and on the identification (both with morphological than molecular markers) of Fagus Eurasiatic taxa. For the first time molecular analyses of ancient pollen, dated at least 45,000 years ago, were used in combination with the phylogeny analysis on current species, to identify the Fagus spp. present during the Last Interglacial period in Italy. In this work we aim at testing if the trnL-trnF chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) region, that has been previously proved efficient in discriminating different Quercus taxa, can be employed in distinguishing the Fagus species and in identifying the ancient pollen. Results 86 populations from 4 Western Euroasistic taxa were sampled, and sequenced for the trnL-trnF region to verify the efficiency of this cpDNA region in identifying the Fagus spp.. Furthermore, Fagus crenata (2 populations), Fagus grandifolia (2 populations), Fagus japonica, Fagus hayatae, Quercus species and Castanea species were analysed to better resolve the phylogenetic inference. Our results show that this cpDNA region harbour some informative sites that allow to infer relationships among the species within the Fagaceae family. In particular, few specific and fixed mutations were able to discriminate and identify all the different Fagus species. Considering a short fragment of 176 base pairs within the trnL intron, 2 transversions were found able in distinguishing the F. orientalis complex taxa (F. orientalis, F. taurica and F. moesiaca) from the remaining Fagus spp. (F. sylvatica, F. japonica, F. hayataea, F. crenata and F. grandifolia). This permits to analyse this fragment also in ancient samples, where DNA is usually highly degraded. The sequences data indicate that the DNA recovered from ancient pollen belongs to the F

  4. Bradykinins and their precursor cDNAs from the skin of the fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis).

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianbao; Orr, David F; Bjourson, Anthony J; McClean, Stephen; O'Rourke, Martin; Hirst, David G; Rao, Pingfan; Shaw, Chris

    2002-09-01

    Bradykinin and (Thr(6))-bradykinin have been identified in the defensive skin secretion of the fire-bellied toad, Bombina orientalis. The homologous cDNAs for both peptides were cloned from a skin library using a 3'- and 5'-RACE strategy. Kininogen-1 (BOK-1) contained an open-reading frame of 167 amino acid residues encoding four repeats of bradykinin, and kininogen-2 (BOK-2) contained an open-reading frame of 161 amino acid residues encoding two repeats of (Thr(6))-bradykinin. Alignment of both precursor nucleotide and amino acid sequences revealed a high degree of structural similarity. These amphibian skin kininogens/preprobradykinins are not biologically analogous to mammalian kininogens.

  5. Immune-complex-trapping cells in the spleen of the oriental fire-bellied toad, Bombina orientalis.

    PubMed

    Dulak, J; Bauer, J; Döpp, E A; Van Rooijen, N

    1993-01-01

    The spleen of the oriental fire-bellied toad, Bombina orientalis, consists of well-developed white pulp, separated from the lymphocytic marginal zone by the connective tissue boundary layer. Injection of peroxidase-conjugated rabbit anti-peroxidase revealed that these immune complexes were localized on the surface of acid-phosphatase-positive and non-specific-esterase-positive cells in the white pulp. The majority of immune-complex-trapping cells were present around the blood vessels. Cell processes of some of these cells penetrated into the wall of blood vessels. The significance of the present findings is discussed with respect to the evolution of immune-complex-trapping cells in the spleen.

  6. Use of Ornamental Trees in Dating of Abandoned Cemeteries on the Example of Thuja Occidentalis and Thuja Orientalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opała, Magdalena; Majgier, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    Due to the lack of maintenance, abandoned cemeteries are often incorporated into the landscape. In many cases the information about the age of the cemetery is unavailable. To find out the approximate time of the formation of the cemetery the information recorded in the annual tree and shrub rings can be used. One of the most common tree species, planted for ornamental and symbolic purposes on the cemeteries, are Thuja orientalis and Thuja occidentalis. Alien to the Polish flora, these species adapted well to the local habitat and climatic conditions. The paper presents an attempt to apply dendrochronological dating to determine the age of the abandoned cemeteries in the region of the Great Masurian Lakes, part of the Masurian Lake District (north-eastern Poland). The study included five abandoned cemeteries. In total, 15 cores were taken from the trees. After applying the standard dendrochronological method, local chronologies for the studied species were established. The research indicated that the oldest found specimens - over 70 yrs old - are Thuja occidentalis individuals growing at the Słabowo cemetery. At the other sites the specimens of both Thuja species date back to the 1960s and early 1970s. Compared to the historical information regarding the age and origin of the studied objects, thujas growing there are much younger than the age of the cemeteries foundation. The presented method proved to be very helpful in understanding the time of Thuja occidentalis and Thuja orientalis introduction at the investigated cemeteries. Porzucone cmentarze w związku z brakiem pielęgnacji często wkomponowują się w krajobraz. Niejednokrotnie brak jest zachowanych informacji o wieku cmentarza. Aby poznać przybliżony wiek powstania cmentarza można posłużyć się informacji zapisanymi w przyrostach rocznych drzew i krzewów. Jednymi z najczęściej występujących drzewiastych gatunków sadzonych w celach ozdobnych i symbolicznych na cmentarzach są Thuja orientalis

  7. Alfaxalone-butorphanol versus alfaxalone-morphine combination for immersion anaesthesia in oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis).

    PubMed

    Adami, Chiara; d'Ovidio, Dario; Casoni, Daniela

    2016-06-01

    Oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) are small semi-aquatic anuran species popular as both pets and laboratory animals. Although they are commonly anaesthetized to undergo clinical and experimental procedures, very little is known about their anaesthetic management. The aims of this prospective, randomized, cross-over experimental trial were to establish effective butorphanol and morphine concentrations to be added to alfaxalone for immersion anaesthesia (pilot study), and to compare the anaesthetic and antinociceptive effects of the two drug mixtures (alfaxalone-butorphanol and alfaxalone-morphine), in Bombina orientalis toads. For the actual trial, the toads were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: AB and AM, with seven animals in each group, which received alfaxalone-butorphanol and alfaxalone-morphine combinations, respectively, at the concentrations established during the pilot study. Heart rate, respiratory rate, von Frey filament threshold and response to nociceptive withdrawal (NWR), righting and myotactic reflexes were measured at 5 min intervals until return of righting reflex was observed. The investigator who carried out all the measurements was blinded to the treatment. Any undesired effect or complication was noted and recorded. The two treatments were found to be comparable in terms of onset and duration of anaesthesia, and occurrence of undesired effects. However, group AM resulted in lower NWR scores and higher von Frey filament thresholds than group AB. It is concluded that, at the investigated concentrations and in combination with alfaxalone by immersion, morphine provides better antinociception than butorphanol in oriental fire-bellied toads. PMID:26306614

  8. Proteins and peptides of the salivary gland secretion of medicinal leeches Hirudo verbana, H. medicinalis, and H. orientalis.

    PubMed

    Baskova, I P; Kostrjukova, E S; Vlasova, M A; Kharitonova, O V; Levitskiy, S A; Zavalova, L L; Moshkovskii, S A; Lazarev, V N

    2008-03-01

    The protein and peptide composition of medicinal leech salivary gland secretion (SGS) was analyzed in preparations obtained in July from three species--Hirudo verbana, H. medicinalis, and H. orientalis. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (molecular mass 10-150 kD and pI 3-10) revealed no distinctions in the distribution of over 100 silver-stained proteins. Differences were noted only in intensity of 10 protein spots at 30-90 kD and pI 4.7-7.5. Mass spectrometric profiling of SGS of the three leech species using the Zip-Tip/golden chip scheme and cation-exchanging chips CM-10 revealed over 50 components in SGS of each of the three leech species. It was noted that 30-40% of the individual masses of the SGS of each leech species fall within the masses present in SGS of at least one of the two other species. This rather small part of the total mass may be indicative of a high polymorphism of amino acid sequences or a high frequency of posttranslational modifications of the SGS proteins and peptides. Calculation of Jacquard's coefficient showed that H. medicinalis and H. orientalis are closest to each other in SGS composition, which is consistent with data in the literature on the phylogenetic relationship between these two species of medicinal leech. Comparison of detected molecular masses with those of six known biologically active compounds produced by medicinal leeches revealed their uneven distribution in SGS of each of the three medicinal leech species. This opens prospects for using certain species of medicinal leech for targeted therapy of various pathologies.

  9. Cytokinin-producing, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria that confer resistance to drought stress in Platycladus orientalis container seedlings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangchun; Xing, Shangjun; Ma, Hailin; Du, Zhenyu; Ma, Bingyao

    2013-10-01

    One of the proposed mechanisms through which plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) enhance plant growth is the production of plant growth regulators, especially cytokinin. However, little information is available regarding cytokinin-producing PGPR inoculation on growth and water stress consistence of forest container seedlings under drought condition. This study determined the effects of Bacillus subtilis on hormone concentration, drought resistance, and plant growth under water-stressed conditions. Although no significant difference was observed under well-watered conditions, leaves of inoculated Platycladus orientalis (oriental thuja) seedlings under drought stress had higher relative water content and leaf water potential compared with those of noninoculated ones. Regardless of water supply levels, the root exudates, namely sugars, amino acids and organic acids, significantly increased because of B. subtilis inoculation. Water stress reduced shoot cytokinins by 39.14 %. However, inoculation decreased this deficit to only 10.22 %. The elevated levels of cytokinins in P. orientalis shoot were associated with higher concentration of abscisic acid (ABA). Stomatal conductance was significantly increased by B. subtilis inoculation in well-watered seedlings. However, the promoting effect of cytokinins on stomatal conductance was hampered, possibly by the combined action of elevated cytokinins and ABA. B. subtilis inoculation increased the shoot dry weight of well-watered and drought seedlings by 34.85 and 19.23 %, as well as the root by 15.445 and 13.99 %, respectively. Consequently, the root/shoot ratio significantly decreased, indicative of the greater benefits of PGPR on shoot growth than root. Thus, inoculation of cytokinin-producing PGPR in container seedlings can alleviate the drought stress and interfere with the suppression of shoot growth, showing a real potential to perform as a drought stress inhibitor in arid environments.

  10. On the movements, aggregations and the foraging habitat of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus orientalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walli, Andreas G.

    To exploit the ocean's patchy resources, large open ocean fish species have evolved highly migratory foraging strategies. In this thesis, a synoptic study of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) and Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and their environment was conducted to identify feeding behavior and foraging related horizontal and vertical movements, and to elucidate foraging habitat. First, electronic archival tags (n=561) were used to examine seasonal movements (1996-2005), aggregations and diving behaviors of Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT) to better understand their migration ecology and oceanic habitat utilization. Throughout the North Atlantic mean diving depth was significantly correlated with thermocline depth and dive behavior changed in relation to the stratification of the water column. Distribution behavior was characterized by seasonal aggregations and rapid movement phases. Throughout the North Atlantic, high residence times (167 +/- 33 days) were identified in four spatially confined regions on a seasonal scale. In these regions, mean diving depths were significantly shallower and dive frequency and internal temperature variance were significantly higher than during transit movements between the regions, suggesting foraging behavior. Residence time in high-use areas was correlated to primary productivity in northern latitudes and these areas represent critical foraging habitats with seasonally abundant prey. To be able to study feeding in wild bluefin tunas, the heat increment of feeding (HIF) in response to known quantities and caloric value of food ingested by captive individuals was evaluated. Feeding experiments were conducted using stomach and peritoneal placed archival tags in captive Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT, n=31). Peritoneal temperature measurements indicate a significant correlation between food energy content and the duration from the start of post-grandial heat increment to the maximum thermal excess (TXmax ) in all ambient

  11. Effect of Silitidil, a standardized extract of milk thistle, on the serum prolactin levels in female rats.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Raffaele

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Silitidil, a standardized extract of milk thistle, on the serum levels of prolactin in female rats. A 14-day treatment with Silitidil (25-200 mg/kg, per os), a standardized extract of Silybum marianum fruits (milk thistle), increased, in a dose dependent manner, the serum prolactin levels in female rats. Galega (200 mg/kg, per os) given alone neither modified the basal levels of prolactin nor increased further serum prolactin levels when associated with Silitidil. Bromocriptine (1 mg/kg, per os) significantly reduced the high serum prolactin levels induced by Silitidil (200 mg/kg, per os). The results show that the extract of S. marianum fruits significantly increases prolactin levels in female rats; this effect is not potentiated by galega and seems to involve, at least in part, dopamine D2 receptors.

  12. Isolation and bioactivities of the flavonoids morin and morin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside from Acridocarpus orientalis-A wild Arabian medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Abdul Latif; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Jabeen, Farah; Kim, Jong-Sang; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    2014-10-31

    Acridocarpus orientalis is an important medicinal plant for some of the locals of Arabian region. Very little is known about its phytochemical constituents. In the present study, we aimed to isolate bioactive chemicals from the crude methanolic extract of the aerial parts of A. orientalis. The extraction and isolation resulted in the purification of two flavonoids: morin (1) and morin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2). The structure elucidation was carried out by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with the reported data for the known constituents. The pure isolates were subjected to various biological assays for their bioactivities. The compounds 1 and 2 were significantly active against the growth of various pathogenic fungi and phytotoxic against lettuce seed at higher concentrations. Furthermore, the free radical scavenging activities, anti-lipid peroxidation, and cytotoxic effects against HepG2, HT29, and HCT116 cancer cell lines were also assayed and the results are presented in this paper.

  13. Nematicidal activity of plant essential oils and components from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils against pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Junheon; Seo, Sun-Mi; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon

    2008-08-27

    Commercial essential oils from 28 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii). Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of 26, 11, and 4 major compounds from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) oils, respectively. Compounds from each plant essential oil were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode. Among the compounds, benzaldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, octanal, nonanal, decanal, trans-2-decenal, undecanal, dodecanal, decanol, and trans-2-decen-1-ol showed strong nematicidal activity. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pine wood nematode.

  14. Isolation and bioactivities of the flavonoids morin and morin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside from Acridocarpus orientalis-A wild Arabian medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Abdul Latif; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Jabeen, Farah; Kim, Jong-Sang; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Acridocarpus orientalis is an important medicinal plant for some of the locals of Arabian region. Very little is known about its phytochemical constituents. In the present study, we aimed to isolate bioactive chemicals from the crude methanolic extract of the aerial parts of A. orientalis. The extraction and isolation resulted in the purification of two flavonoids: morin (1) and morin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2). The structure elucidation was carried out by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with the reported data for the known constituents. The pure isolates were subjected to various biological assays for their bioactivities. The compounds 1 and 2 were significantly active against the growth of various pathogenic fungi and phytotoxic against lettuce seed at higher concentrations. Furthermore, the free radical scavenging activities, anti-lipid peroxidation, and cytotoxic effects against HepG2, HT29, and HCT116 cancer cell lines were also assayed and the results are presented in this paper. PMID:25421414

  15. Enrichment of a continuous culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the yeast Issatchenkia orientalis in the production of ethanol at increasing temperatures.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, J C M; Souza, C S; Cicarelli, R M B; Oliveira, K F; Morais, M R; Laluce, C

    2011-03-01

    A fermentation system was continuously fed with sugar-cane syrup and operated with recycling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells at temperatures varying from 30 to 47 °C. The aim of the present work was to obtain and study the colonies of isolates showing elongated cells of yeasts which were sporadically observed at the end of this continuous process. Based on a sequence of assays involving methods of classical taxonomy and RAPD-PCR, two groups of isolates showing characteristics of non-Saccharomyces yeasts were identified in the yeast population where S. cerevisiae was the dominant yeast. The largest group of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, resulting from a slow proliferation over the 2 months, reached a final level of 29.6% at the end of the process. RAPD-PCR profiles obtained for the isolates of this dominant non-Saccharomyces yeast indicated that they were isolates of Issatchenkia orientalis. Pichia membranifaciens was the only species of non-Saccharomyces yeast detected together with I. orientalis but at a very low frequency. The optimum temperature for ethanol formation shown by the isolate 195B of I. orientalis was 42 °C. This strain also showed a faster ethanol formation and biomass accumulation than the thermotolerant strain of S. cerevisiae used as the starter of this fermentation process. Some isolates of I. orientalis were also able to grow better at 40 °C than at 30 °C on plates containing glycerol as carbon source. Yeasts able to grow and produce ethanol at high temperatures can extend the fermentation process beyond the temperature limits tolerated by S. cerevisiae.

  16. Seasonal changes in hemograms and Theileria orientalis infection rates among Holstein cattle pastured in the mountains in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Chae, Joon-Seok; Park, Bae-Keun; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Park, Jinho

    2016-05-01

    In the current study, we compared seasonal changes in complete blood counts (CBCs) and rates of infection with a tick-borne pathogen between Holstein cattle housed indoors and those maintained outside on pasture. There were differences in white blood cell (WBC) parameters, but the changes were not associated with seasons or the housing type. Analysis of red blood cell (RBC) parameters showed lower values in August and November versus March, and in the cattle maintained on pasture versus the housed cattle. In comparison with the RBC count of the housed cattle in March (10.1M/μL), the RBC counts of the pastured cattle were significantly lower in August (7.8M/μL; p<0.01) and November (7.5M/μL; p<0.01). The hematocrit (HCT) also showed a decrease in March (33.5%), August (30.0%, p<0.01) and November (28.5%, p<0.01). According to PCR analysis, the Theileria infection rate among the pastured cattle in March was only 11%, but this rate increased to 22% and 60% in August and November, respectively. The RBC count (7.4M/μL) and HCT (27.7%) values in Theileria-positive pastured cattle in November showed a dramatic decrease compared to those of cattle examined in March. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these Theileria isolates correspond to T. orientalis. These results suggest that a remarkable increase in tick infestation in mountainous areas in the summer may cause increased rates of infection with T. orientalis, leading to significant changes in the RBC profile after grazing. Therefore, these hematological changes may be associated with T. orientalis infection caused by tick-biting; thus, additional studies on the pathogenicity of T. orientalis are needed. PMID:27094144

  17. Kudoa hexapunctata n. sp. (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) from the somatic muscle of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis and re-description of K. neothunni in yellowfin tuna T. albacares.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Jun; Shirakashi, Sho

    2014-08-01

    Since Kudoa septempunctata in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was indicated to cause food poisoning in humans, other Kudoa species are suspected to have pathogenic potential. Recently, a myxosporean possibly associated with food poisoning in humans consuming raw Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis, was identified as Kudoa neothunni. This is a known causative myxosporean of post-harvest myoliquefaction in yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares. Regardless of the significant differences in the 28S rDNA sequence and the pathological character (with/without myoliquefaction) between the two T. orientalis and T. albacares isolates, they were considered intraspecific variants of K. neothunni. However, the light and low-vacuum electron microscopic observations in the present study revealed that there were two morphotypes; pointed- and round-type spores, which were significantly differentiated by the ratio of suture width to spore width. Furthermore, the two morphotypes were genetically distinguishable by the 28S rDNA sequence analysis. This morphological and molecular evidence validates that the two Kudoa types are separate species, and thus the pointed- and round-types are referred to as K. neothunni and Kudoa hexapunctata n. sp., respectively. K. neothunni was detected solely from T. albacares, whereas K. hexapunctata n. sp. was found not only from T. orientalis but also from T. albacares.

  18. Fatal Theileria orientalis N2 genotype infection among Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in a commercial dairy farm in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Vinodkumar, Kulangara; Shyma, Varikkottil; Justin, Davis Kollannur; Ashok, Sivasailam; Anu, Joseph Parassery; Mini, Kattilveetil; Muhammedkutty, Varikkottil; Sasidharan, Suchithra; Chullipparambil, Sunanda

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen dairy buffaloes of a farm in the state of Kerala, India developed fatal oriental theileriosis within 2 months of their procurement. Typical piroplasms of Theileria orientalis were observed in the erythrocytes of all affected animals by Giemsa-Leishman staining of blood smears. Case fatality rate was 87·5% (seven out of eight) in the clinically progressed cases. Therapeutic management with anti-theilerial drugs buparvaquone and oxytetracycline led to recovery of seven other animals in less advanced stages of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the reasons for increased virulence of this pathogen, hitherto considered to be benign. Acute haemolytic anaemia was the predominant haematological finding in the affected animals. Lymphocytic infiltration and degeneration of vital organs leading to functional derangement was the cause of the high mortality. Identification of T. orientalis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA sequencing of the PCR products revealed close identity with already reported sequences of T. orientalis/buffeli N2 genotype. The sequences were deposited in GenBank with accession number KM609973 and KM043772. Rhipicephalus ticks, previously not reported as vectors for oriental theileriosis, were identified as the potential vectors. This is the first report of fatal oriental theileriosis in Asian water buffaloes. PMID:26522773

  19. Fatal Theileria orientalis N2 genotype infection among Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in a commercial dairy farm in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Vinodkumar, Kulangara; Shyma, Varikkottil; Justin, Davis Kollannur; Ashok, Sivasailam; Anu, Joseph Parassery; Mini, Kattilveetil; Muhammedkutty, Varikkottil; Sasidharan, Suchithra; Chullipparambil, Sunanda

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen dairy buffaloes of a farm in the state of Kerala, India developed fatal oriental theileriosis within 2 months of their procurement. Typical piroplasms of Theileria orientalis were observed in the erythrocytes of all affected animals by Giemsa-Leishman staining of blood smears. Case fatality rate was 87·5% (seven out of eight) in the clinically progressed cases. Therapeutic management with anti-theilerial drugs buparvaquone and oxytetracycline led to recovery of seven other animals in less advanced stages of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the reasons for increased virulence of this pathogen, hitherto considered to be benign. Acute haemolytic anaemia was the predominant haematological finding in the affected animals. Lymphocytic infiltration and degeneration of vital organs leading to functional derangement was the cause of the high mortality. Identification of T. orientalis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA sequencing of the PCR products revealed close identity with already reported sequences of T. orientalis/buffeli N2 genotype. The sequences were deposited in GenBank with accession number KM609973 and KM043772. Rhipicephalus ticks, previously not reported as vectors for oriental theileriosis, were identified as the potential vectors. This is the first report of fatal oriental theileriosis in Asian water buffaloes.

  20. Influence of geology and human activity on the genetic structure and demography of the Oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis).

    PubMed

    Fong, Jonathan J; Li, Pi-Peng; Yang, Bao-Tian; Zhou, Zheng-Yan; Leaché, Adam D; Min, Mi-Sook; Waldman, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    The Oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) is a commonly used study organism, but knowledge of its evolutionary history is incomplete. We analyze sequence data from four genetic markers (mtDNA genes encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, cytochrome b, and 12S-16S rRNA; nuDNA gene encoding recombination activating gene 2) from 188 individuals across its range in Northeast Asia to elucidate phylogeographic patterns and to identify the historic events that shaped its evolutionary history. Although morphologically similar across its range, B. orientalis exhibits phylogeographic structure, which we infer was shaped by geologic, climatic, and anthropogenic events. Phylogenetic and divergence-dating analyses recover four genetically distinct groups of B. orientalis: Lineage 1-Shandong Province and Beijing (China); Lineage 2-Bukhan Mountain (Korea); Lineage 3-Russia, Northeast China, and northern South Korea; and Lineage 4-South Korea. Lineage 2 was previously unknown. Additionally, we discover an area of secondary contact on the Korean Peninsula, and infer a single dispersal event as the origin of the insular Jeju population. Skyline plots estimate different population histories for the four lineages: Lineages 1 and 2 experienced population decreases, Lineage 3 remained stable, while Lineage 4 experienced a sharp increase during the Holocene. The timing of the population expansion of Lineage 4 coincides with the advent of rice cultivation, which may have facilitated the increase in population size by providing additional breeding habitat.

  1. Kudoa hexapunctata n. sp. (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) from the somatic muscle of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis and re-description of K. neothunni in yellowfin tuna T. albacares.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Jun; Shirakashi, Sho

    2014-08-01

    Since Kudoa septempunctata in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was indicated to cause food poisoning in humans, other Kudoa species are suspected to have pathogenic potential. Recently, a myxosporean possibly associated with food poisoning in humans consuming raw Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis, was identified as Kudoa neothunni. This is a known causative myxosporean of post-harvest myoliquefaction in yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares. Regardless of the significant differences in the 28S rDNA sequence and the pathological character (with/without myoliquefaction) between the two T. orientalis and T. albacares isolates, they were considered intraspecific variants of K. neothunni. However, the light and low-vacuum electron microscopic observations in the present study revealed that there were two morphotypes; pointed- and round-type spores, which were significantly differentiated by the ratio of suture width to spore width. Furthermore, the two morphotypes were genetically distinguishable by the 28S rDNA sequence analysis. This morphological and molecular evidence validates that the two Kudoa types are separate species, and thus the pointed- and round-types are referred to as K. neothunni and Kudoa hexapunctata n. sp., respectively. K. neothunni was detected solely from T. albacares, whereas K. hexapunctata n. sp. was found not only from T. orientalis but also from T. albacares. PMID:24709084

  2. Discovery of intermediate hosts for two species of blood flukes Cardicola orientalis and Cardicola forsteri (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) infecting Pacific bluefin tuna in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Shin, Sang Phil; Honryo, Tomoki; Uchida, Hiro'omi; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Fish blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) are important pathogens of farmed finfish around the world. Among them, Cardicola spp. infecting farmed tuna are considered to be serious threats to tuna farming and have received tremendous attention. We conducted periodical samplings at a tuna farming site in Japan between January and May, 2015 to determine the life cycle of Cardicola spp. We collected over 4700 terebellid polychaetes from ropes, floats and frames of tuna culture cages and found nearly 400 infected worms. Sporocysts and cercariae found in Nicolea gracilibranchis were genetically identified as Cardicola orientalis by 28S and ITS2 ribosomal DNA sequences. This was the first discovery of the intermediate host for this parasite species. Infection prevalence and the abundance of N. gracilibranchis significantly varied between sampling points and the highest number of infected terebellids were collected from ropes. We also demonstrated morphologically and molecularly that asexual stages found in a single Amphitrite sp. (Terebellidae) and adult worms isolated from farmed juvenile tuna were Cardicola forsteri. This is the first report of C. forsteri in Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT) Thunnus orientalis in Japan. Our results demonstrated that all three species of Cardicola orientalis, C. forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis exist in Japanese farmed PBTs and that they all use terebellid polychaetes as the intermediate hosts.

  3. Development and evaluation of real-time PCR assay for the detection of Babesia orientalis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    He, Lan; Feng, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Qin-Li; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Khan, Muhanmad Kasib; Hu, Min; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Zhao, Jun-Long

    2011-12-01

    Babesia orientalis is the causative agent of babesiosis in water buffalo (Bubalus babalis, Linnaeus, 1758). In this study, a TaqMan real-time PCR assay was developed for quantitative detection of B. orientalis in water buffalo. Hybridization probe and oligonucleotide primers were designed based on the v4 region of 18S rRNA gene. Detection limit was determined at 2 parasites. Blood samples were collected from experimentally infected water buffalo, as well as from 180 field samples, which were collected from 4 different geographical locations to the north and south of the Yangtse River. The parasite was detected by real-time PCR on day 2 until day 39 post-infection, while reverse line blot (RLB) was on day 6 until day 36 in experimentally infected water buffalo. For the results of 180 field samples, statistical analysis showed no significant difference in relative effectiveness of real-time PCR and RLB. The analysis also indicated that there was no difference in the prevalence of B. orientalis between the regions of south and north of the Yangtse River by both the real-time PCR assay and RLB detection. These results indicated that the parasite infection has spread to the north of the Yangtse River.

  4. Characterization of successional changes in bacterial community composition during bioremediation of used motor oil-contaminated soil in a boreal climate.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lijuan; Sinkko, Hanna; Penttinen, Petri; Lindström, Kristina

    2016-01-15

    The widespread use of motor oil makes it a notable risk factor to cause scattered contamination in soil. The monitoring of microbial community dynamics can serve as a comprehensive tool to assess the ecological impact of contaminants and their disappearance in the ecosystem. Hence, a field study was conducted to monitor the ecological impact of used motor oil under different perennial cropping systems (fodder galega, brome grass, galega-brome grass mixture and bare fallow) in a boreal climate zone. Length heterogeneity PCR characterized a successional pattern in bacterial community following oil contamination over a four-year bioremediation period. Soil pH and electrical conductivity were associated with the shifts in bacterial community composition. Crops had no detectable effect on bacterial community composition or complexity. However, the legume fodder galega increased soil microbial biomass, expressed as soil total DNA. Oil contamination induced an abrupt change in bacterial community composition at the early stage, yet the effect did not last as long as the oil in soil. The successional variation in bacterial community composition can serve as a sensitive ecological indicator of oil contamination and remediation in situ. PMID:26556745

  5. Characterization of successional changes in bacterial community composition during bioremediation of used motor oil-contaminated soil in a boreal climate.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lijuan; Sinkko, Hanna; Penttinen, Petri; Lindström, Kristina

    2016-01-15

    The widespread use of motor oil makes it a notable risk factor to cause scattered contamination in soil. The monitoring of microbial community dynamics can serve as a comprehensive tool to assess the ecological impact of contaminants and their disappearance in the ecosystem. Hence, a field study was conducted to monitor the ecological impact of used motor oil under different perennial cropping systems (fodder galega, brome grass, galega-brome grass mixture and bare fallow) in a boreal climate zone. Length heterogeneity PCR characterized a successional pattern in bacterial community following oil contamination over a four-year bioremediation period. Soil pH and electrical conductivity were associated with the shifts in bacterial community composition. Crops had no detectable effect on bacterial community composition or complexity. However, the legume fodder galega increased soil microbial biomass, expressed as soil total DNA. Oil contamination induced an abrupt change in bacterial community composition at the early stage, yet the effect did not last as long as the oil in soil. The successional variation in bacterial community composition can serve as a sensitive ecological indicator of oil contamination and remediation in situ.

  6. Evaluating the impact of sprouting conditions on the glucosinolate content of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    PubMed

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Fernandes, D; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    The glucosinolates content of brassica plants is a distinctive characteristic, representing a healthy advantage as many of these compounds are associated to antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. Brassica sprouts are still an underutilized source of these bioactive compounds. In this work, four varieties of brassica sprouts (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage), including two local varieties from the North of Portugal, were grown to evaluate the glucosinolate profile and myrosinase activity during the sprouting. Also the influence of light/darkness exposure during sprouting on the glucosinolate content was assessed. Glucosinolate content and myrosinase activity of the sprouts was evaluated by HPLC methods. All sprouts revealed a higher content of aliphatic glucosinolates than of indole glucosinolates, contrary to the profile described for most of brassica mature plants. Galega kale sprouts had the highest glucosinolate content, mainly sinigrin and glucoiberin, which are recognized for their beneficial health effects. Penca cabbage sprouts were particularly richer in glucoraphanin, who was also one of the major compounds in broccoli sprouts. Red cabbage showed a higher content of progoitrin. Regarding myrosinase activity, Galega kale sprouts showed the highest values, revealing that the use of light/dark cycles and a sprouting phase of 7-9 days could be beneficial to preserve the glucosinolate content of this variety.

  7. The Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) dead end gene is suitable as a specific molecular marker of type A spermatogonia.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, Ryosuke; Takeuchi, Yutaka; Morita, Tetsuro; Ishida, Masashi; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2013-10-01

    We developed a spermatogonial transplantation technique to produce donor-derived gametes in surrogate fish. Our ultimate aim is to establish surrogate broodstock that can produce bluefin tuna. We previously determined that only type A spermatogonia (ASG) could colonize recipient gonads in salmonids. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a precise molecular marker that can distinguish ASG in order to develop efficient spermatogonial transplantation methods. In this study, the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) dead end (BFTdnd) gene was identified as a specific marker for ASG. In situ hybridization and RT-PCR analysis with various types of spermatogenic cell populations captured by laser microdissection revealed that localization of BFTdnd mRNA was restricted to ASG, and not detected in other differentiated spermatogenic cells. In order to determine if BFTdnd can be used as a molecular marker to identify germ cells with high transplantability, transplantation of dissociated testicular cells isolated from juvenile, immature, and mature Pacific bluefin tuna, which have different proportions of dnd-positive ASG, were performed using chub mackerel as the surrogate recipient species. Colonization of transplanted donor germ cells was only successful with testicular cells from immature Pacific Bluefin tuna, which contained higher proportions of dnd-positive ASG than juvenile and mature fish. Thus, BFTdnd is a useful tool for identifying highly transplantable ASG for spermatogonial transplantation.

  8. Duplex PCR assay and in situ hybridization for detection of Francisella spp. and Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in red tilapia.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ha T; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Nguyen, Vuong V; Nilsen, Pål; Pradeep, Padmaja J; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Senapin, Saengchan; Rodkhum, Channarong

    2016-06-15

    Conventional isolation and identification based on phenotypic characteristics is challenging with the highly fastidious, intracellular bacterium Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno). Here, we developed a duplex PCR method for simultaneous detection of the Francisella genus and Fno in one PCR reaction and an in situ hybridization method for paraffin section based diagnosis of Fno. The PCR results showed genus- and species-specific bands (1140 and 203 bp) from Fno but only one genus-specific band (1140 bp) from F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis. Sensitivity of the duplex PCR assay revealed a detection limit of 20 to 200 fg genomic DNA (~10 to 100 genome equivalents) depending on DNA template extraction methods. The newly developed duplex PCR assay could be used to detect Fno from clinically sick fish exhibiting signs of visceral granulomas and would also be able to detect Fno infection in naturally diseased fish without symptoms of francisellosis, indicating potential application for diagnosis of field samples. The in situ hybridization assay using Fno species-specific probe revealed positive signals in multiple organs including the spleen, liver, kidney, gills and intestine of infected fish. PMID:27304869

  9. Mapping the climatic suitable habitat of oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis) for introduction and cultivation at a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guoqing; Du, Sheng; Wen, Zhongming

    2016-07-01

    Oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis) is an important afforestation and ornamental tree species, which is native in eastern Asian. Therefore, a global suitable habitat map for oriental arborvitae is urgently needed for global promotion and cultivation. Here, the potential habitat and climatic requirements of oriental arborvitae at global scale were simulated using herbariums data and 13 thermal-moisture variables as input data for maximum entropy model (MaxEnt). The simulation performance of MaxEnt is evaluated by ten-fold cross-validation and a jackknife procedure. Results show that the potential habitat and climate envelop of oriental arborvitae can be successfully simulated by MaxEnt at global scale, with a mean test AUC value of 0.93 and mean training AUC value of 0.95. Thermal factors play more important roles than moisture factors in controlling the distribution boundary of oriental arborvitae’s potential ranges. There are about 50 countries suitable for introduction and cultivation of oriental arborvitae with an area of 2.0 × 107 km2, which occupied 13.8% of land area on the earth. This unique study will provide valuable information and insights needed to identify new regions with climatically suitable habitats for cultivation and introduction of oriental arborvitae around the world.

  10. Multisensory signals trigger approach behaviour in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis: sex differences and call specificity.

    PubMed

    Zeyl, Jeffrey N; Laberge, Frédéric

    2011-12-01

    Animal communication often involves multimodal signals, and interactions between sensory modalities can trigger unique responses in receivers. Response to social signals was investigated in fire-bellied toads by exposing them to playback of male calls (advertisement and release calls) and a video clip of a male conspecific in the laboratory. The cues were presented in isolation and as a combined bimodal stimulus, and approach frequency, latency to approach and time spent around the stimulus source were measured. No positive phonotaxis was observed toward the advertisement call, both during the day and during a phonotaxis trial performed at night. However, females, but not males, approached with greater frequency, lower latency, and spent more time near the source of the bimodal stimulus in an experiment involving the advertisement call. Female response was specific to the advertisement call, as approach was not increased when the release call was used. Males, on the other hand, did not show increased approach in the advertisement call experiment, but approached with greater frequency the bimodal stimulus involving the release call within the first minute of stimulus presentation. The findings suggest that females orient toward calling males and that males eavesdrop on release calls, but in both cases a visual stimulus is also needed to trigger a response. Social approach in Bombina orientalis is thus dependent on multisensory cues, and the nature of the interaction between sensory modalities depends on receiver sex and call type. PMID:21993061

  11. Modification of a prey catching response and the development of behavioral persistence in the fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis).

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Zachary J; Ikura, Juntaro; Laberge, Frédéric

    2013-11-01

    The present report investigated how fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) modified their response in a prey catching task in which the attribution of food reward was contingent on snapping toward a visual stimulus of moving prey displayed on a computer screen. Two experiments investigated modification of the snapping response, with different intervals between the opportunity to snap at the visual stimulus and reward administration. The snapping response of unpaired controls was decreased compared with the conditioned toads when hour or day intervals were used, but intervals of 5 min produced only minimal change in snapping. The determinants of extinction of the response toward the visual stimulus were then investigated in 3 experiments. The results of the first experiment suggested that increased resistance to extinction depended mostly on the number of training trials, not on partial reinforcement or the magnitude of reinforcement during training. This was confirmed in a second experiment showing that overtraining resulted in resistance to extinction, and that the pairing of the reward with a response toward the stimulus was necessary for that effect, as opposed to pairing reward solely with the experimental context. The last experiment showed that the time elapsed between training trials also influenced extinction, but only in toads that received few training trials. Overall, the results suggest that toads learning about a prey stimulus progress from an early flexible phase, when an action can be modified by its consequences, to an acquired habit characterized by an increasingly inflexible and automatic response.

  12. Multisensory signals trigger approach behaviour in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis: sex differences and call specificity.

    PubMed

    Zeyl, Jeffrey N; Laberge, Frédéric

    2011-12-01

    Animal communication often involves multimodal signals, and interactions between sensory modalities can trigger unique responses in receivers. Response to social signals was investigated in fire-bellied toads by exposing them to playback of male calls (advertisement and release calls) and a video clip of a male conspecific in the laboratory. The cues were presented in isolation and as a combined bimodal stimulus, and approach frequency, latency to approach and time spent around the stimulus source were measured. No positive phonotaxis was observed toward the advertisement call, both during the day and during a phonotaxis trial performed at night. However, females, but not males, approached with greater frequency, lower latency, and spent more time near the source of the bimodal stimulus in an experiment involving the advertisement call. Female response was specific to the advertisement call, as approach was not increased when the release call was used. Males, on the other hand, did not show increased approach in the advertisement call experiment, but approached with greater frequency the bimodal stimulus involving the release call within the first minute of stimulus presentation. The findings suggest that females orient toward calling males and that males eavesdrop on release calls, but in both cases a visual stimulus is also needed to trigger a response. Social approach in Bombina orientalis is thus dependent on multisensory cues, and the nature of the interaction between sensory modalities depends on receiver sex and call type.

  13. Reconstructing the historical distribution of the Amur Leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) in Northeast China based on historical records.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Huang, Mujiao; Zhang, Rui; Lv, Jiang; Ren, Yueheng; Jiang, Zhe; Zhang, Wei; Luan, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    The range of the Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) has decreased dramatically over the last 100 years. This species is still under extreme risk of extinction and conservation efforts are rigorous. Understanding the long-term dynamics of the population decline would be helpful to offer insight into the mechanism behind the decline and endangerment and improve conservation perspectives and strategies. Historical data collection has been the challenge for reconstructing the historical distribution. In China, new gazetteers having systematic compilation and considerable local ecological data can be considered as an important complementary for reconstruction. Therefore, we have set up a data set (mainly based on the new gazetteers) in order to identify the historical range of the Amur Leopard from the 1950s to 2014. The result shows that the Amur leopard was historically widely distributed with large populations in Northeastern China, but it presented a sharp decline after the 1970s. The decline appeared from the plains to the mountains and northeast to southwest since the 1950s. Long-term historical data, mainly from new gazetteers, demonstrates that such resources are capable of tracking species change through time and offers an opportunity to reduce data shortage and enhance understanding in conservation.

  14. Mapping the climatic suitable habitat of oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis) for introduction and cultivation at a global scale

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoqing; Du, Sheng; Wen, Zhongming

    2016-01-01

    Oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis) is an important afforestation and ornamental tree species, which is native in eastern Asian. Therefore, a global suitable habitat map for oriental arborvitae is urgently needed for global promotion and cultivation. Here, the potential habitat and climatic requirements of oriental arborvitae at global scale were simulated using herbariums data and 13 thermal-moisture variables as input data for maximum entropy model (MaxEnt). The simulation performance of MaxEnt is evaluated by ten-fold cross-validation and a jackknife procedure. Results show that the potential habitat and climate envelop of oriental arborvitae can be successfully simulated by MaxEnt at global scale, with a mean test AUC value of 0.93 and mean training AUC value of 0.95. Thermal factors play more important roles than moisture factors in controlling the distribution boundary of oriental arborvitae’s potential ranges. There are about 50 countries suitable for introduction and cultivation of oriental arborvitae with an area of 2.0 × 107 km2, which occupied 13.8% of land area on the earth. This unique study will provide valuable information and insights needed to identify new regions with climatically suitable habitats for cultivation and introduction of oriental arborvitae around the world. PMID:27443221

  15. Use of multiplexed tandem PCR to estimate the prevalence and intensity of Theileria orientalis infections in cattle.

    PubMed

    Perera, Piyumali K; Gasser, Robin B; Read, Elizabeth; Malmo, Jakob; Nguyen, Hanh; Nyein, Simon; Cheng, Allan; Jex, Aaron R; Rawlin, Grant; Spithill, Terence W; Jabbar, Abdul

    2015-06-01

    This study employed a semi-quantitative, multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) to assess the prevalence and infection intensity of four genotypes (buffeli, chitose, ikeda and type 5) of Theileria orientalis in cattle in Australia. Genomic DNA samples from blood samples (n=448) collected from 27 to 32 dairy cows from each of 15 dairy herds with a history of recent theileriosis outbreaks (Group 1), and from blood samples available from 24 cows with or without oriental theileriosis (Group 2) were tested using MT-PCR. Results revealed that all four genotypes were present in Group 1 cattle; genotype buffeli had the highest prevalence (80.5%), followed by genotypes ikeda (71.4%), chitose (38.6%) and type 5 (20.3%). Genotype ikeda had the highest average infection intensity in the cattle (relating to 55,277 DNA copies), followed by buffeli, chitose and type 5 (6354-51,648 copies). For Group 2, results indicated that genotype ikeda had a significantly higher average intensity of infection than buffeli in symptomatic cattle (P<0.001), and symptomatic cattle had a higher intensity of ikeda than asymptomatic cattle (P=0.004). Future studies should assess the utility of the present MT-PCR assay as a diagnostic and epidemiological tool in other parts of Australasia and the world.

  16. Reconstructing the historical distribution of the Amur Leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) in Northeast China based on historical records.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Huang, Mujiao; Zhang, Rui; Lv, Jiang; Ren, Yueheng; Jiang, Zhe; Zhang, Wei; Luan, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    The range of the Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) has decreased dramatically over the last 100 years. This species is still under extreme risk of extinction and conservation efforts are rigorous. Understanding the long-term dynamics of the population decline would be helpful to offer insight into the mechanism behind the decline and endangerment and improve conservation perspectives and strategies. Historical data collection has been the challenge for reconstructing the historical distribution. In China, new gazetteers having systematic compilation and considerable local ecological data can be considered as an important complementary for reconstruction. Therefore, we have set up a data set (mainly based on the new gazetteers) in order to identify the historical range of the Amur Leopard from the 1950s to 2014. The result shows that the Amur leopard was historically widely distributed with large populations in Northeastern China, but it presented a sharp decline after the 1970s. The decline appeared from the plains to the mountains and northeast to southwest since the 1950s. Long-term historical data, mainly from new gazetteers, demonstrates that such resources are capable of tracking species change through time and offers an opportunity to reduce data shortage and enhance understanding in conservation. PMID:27408548

  17. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis of adaptive response in the regenerating limb of the Cynops orientalis newt.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xiao-Fang; Guo, Jian-Lin; Zang, Xia-Yan; Sun, Jing-Yan; Li, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Fu-Chun; Xu, Cun-Shuan

    2015-01-01

    The newt has the powerful capacity to regenerate lost limbs following amputation, and represents an excellent model organism to study regenerative processes. However, the molecular basis of the adaptive response in the regenerating limb of the Chinese fire-bellied newt Cynops orientalis immediately after amputation remains unclear. To better understand the adaptive response immediately after limb amputation at the protein level, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with LC-MS/MS methods to analyze changes in the proteome of the regenerating newt limb that occurred 2 h and 8 h after amputation. We identified 152 proteins with more than 1.5-fold change in expression compared to control. GO annotation analysis classified these proteins into several categories such as signaling, Ca(2+) binding and translocation, transcription and translation, immune response, cell death, cytoskeleton, metabolism, etc. Further ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) showed that several signaling pathways were significantly changed at 2 h and 8 h after amputation, including EIF2 signaling, acute phase response signaling, tight junction signaling and calcium signaling, suggesting these pathways may be closely related to the adaptive response immediately after limb amputation. This work provides novel insights into understanding the molecular processes related to newt limb regeneration immediately after amputation, and a basis for further study of regenerative medicine. PMID:26864489

  18. Epigenetic marks in the Hyacinthus orientalis L. mature pollen grain and during in vitro pollen tube growth.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, Marlena; Niedojadło, Katarzyna; Brzostek, Marta; Bednarska-Kozakiewicz, Elżbieta

    2016-09-01

    During the sexual reproduction of flowering plants, epigenetic control of gene expression and genome integrity by DNA methylation and histone modifications plays an important role in male gametogenesis. In this study, we compared the chromatin modification patterns of the generative, sperm cells and vegetative nuclei during Hyacinthus orientalis male gametophyte development. Changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of 5-methylcytosine, acetylated histone H4 and histone deacetylase indicated potential differences in the specific epigenetic state of all analysed cells, in both the mature cellular pollen grains and the in vitro growing pollen tubes. Interestingly, we observed unique localization of chromatin modifications in the area of the generative and the vegetative nuclei located near each other in the male germ unit, indicating the precise mechanisms of gene expression regulation in this region. We discuss the differences in the patterns of the epigenetic marks along with our previous reports of nuclear metabolism and changes in chromatin organization and activity in hyacinth male gametophyte cells. We also propose that this epigenetic status of the analysed nuclei is related to the different acquired fates and biological functions of these cells. PMID:27422435

  19. Reconstructing the historical distribution of the Amur Leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) in Northeast China based on historical records

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Huang, Mujiao; Zhang, Rui; Lv, Jiang; Ren, Yueheng; Jiang, Zhe; Zhang, Wei; Luan, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The range of the Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) has decreased dramatically over the last 100 years. This species is still under extreme risk of extinction and conservation efforts are rigorous. Understanding the long-term dynamics of the population decline would be helpful to offer insight into the mechanism behind the decline and endangerment and improve conservation perspectives and strategies. Historical data collection has been the challenge for reconstructing the historical distribution. In China, new gazetteers having systematic compilation and considerable local ecological data can be considered as an important complementary for reconstruction. Therefore, we have set up a data set (mainly based on the new gazetteers) in order to identify the historical range of the Amur Leopard from the 1950s to 2014. The result shows that the Amur leopard was historically widely distributed with large populations in Northeastern China, but it presented a sharp decline after the 1970s. The decline appeared from the plains to the mountains and northeast to southwest since the 1950s. Long-term historical data, mainly from new gazetteers, demonstrates that such resources are capable of tracking species change through time and offers an opportunity to reduce data shortage and enhance understanding in conservation. PMID:27408548

  20. Mapping the climatic suitable habitat of oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis) for introduction and cultivation at a global scale.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqing; Du, Sheng; Wen, Zhongming

    2016-01-01

    Oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis) is an important afforestation and ornamental tree species, which is native in eastern Asian. Therefore, a global suitable habitat map for oriental arborvitae is urgently needed for global promotion and cultivation. Here, the potential habitat and climatic requirements of oriental arborvitae at global scale were simulated using herbariums data and 13 thermal-moisture variables as input data for maximum entropy model (MaxEnt). The simulation performance of MaxEnt is evaluated by ten-fold cross-validation and a jackknife procedure. Results show that the potential habitat and climate envelop of oriental arborvitae can be successfully simulated by MaxEnt at global scale, with a mean test AUC value of 0.93 and mean training AUC value of 0.95. Thermal factors play more important roles than moisture factors in controlling the distribution boundary of oriental arborvitae's potential ranges. There are about 50 countries suitable for introduction and cultivation of oriental arborvitae with an area of 2.0 × 10(7) km(2), which occupied 13.8% of land area on the earth. This unique study will provide valuable information and insights needed to identify new regions with climatically suitable habitats for cultivation and introduction of oriental arborvitae around the world. PMID:27443221

  1. A comprehensive analysis of flowering transition in Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis (Leighton) Leighton by using transcriptomic and proteomic techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Ren, Li; Yue, Jian-Hua; Wang, Ling; Zhuo, Li-Huan; Shen, Xiao-Hui

    2013-03-27

    Comprehensive transcriptomic and proteomic analyses were performed to gain further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of floral initiation in Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis. Samples of stem apexes were collected at three different time points including the vegetative, induced, and reproductive period. A total of 374 transcript-derived fragments and 72 proteins showed significant differential expression between the samples. The largest proportion of the identified genes and proteins are involved in metabolism, followed by signal transduction, protein fate, cellular transport, and biogenesis of cellular components. A large number of these genes and proteins were upregulated during the induced and reproductive stages. Their expression profiles demonstrate that carbohydrate metabolism provides nutrients foundation for floral initiation in Agapanthus. Furthermore, a transcription factors GAI (GA insensitive protein) that negatively regulates gibberellin signaling, auxin receptor protein TIR1 (Transport inhibitor response 1), a key enzyme of ethylene biosynthesis SAMS (S-adenosylmethionine synthase), and ethylene receptor protein ETR were isolated and identified. Expression patterns of these proteins, in combination with the results of quantitative phytohormone and immunolocalization analyses, indicated that GA, indole-acetic acid (IAA), and ethylene regulate floral morphogenesis and flowering. In conclusion, these data provide novel insight into the early regulatory steps of flowering in Agapanthus. PMID:23333928

  2. Ontogenic profiling of glucosinolates, flavonoids, and other secondary metabolites in Eruca sativa (salad rocket), Diplotaxis erucoides (wall rocket), Diplotaxis tenuifolia (wild rocket), and Bunias orientalis (Turkish rocket).

    PubMed

    Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Mellon, Fred A; Kroon, Paul A

    2006-05-31

    As an influence of the Mediterranean diet, rocket species such as Eruca sativa L., Diplotaxis species, and Bunias orientalis L. are eaten all over the world at different ontogenic stages in salads and soups. They are all species within the plant order Capparales (glucosinolate-containing species), and all are from the family Brassicaceae. Predominantly, the leaves of these species are eaten raw or cooked, although Eruca flowers are also consumed. There is considerable potential with raw plant material for a higher exposure to bioactive phytochemicals such as glucosinolates, their hydrolysis products, and also phenolics, flavonoids, and vitamins such as vitamin C. These compounds are susceptible to ontogenic variation, and the few published studies that have addressed this topic have been inconsistent. Thus, an ontogenic study was performed and all samples were analyzed using a previously developed robust liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method for the identification and quantification of the major phytochemicals in all tissues of the rocket species. Seeds and roots of both Eruca and Diplotaxis contained predominantly 4-methylthiobutylglucosinolate. Leaves of Eruca and Diplotaxis contained high amounts of 4-mercaptobutylglucosinolate with lower levels of 4-methylthiobutlyglucosinolate and 4-methylsulfinylbutylglucosinolate. Flowers of Eruca and Diplotaxiscontained predominantly 4-methylsulfinylbutyl-glucosinolate. In addition, roots of both Diplotaxisspecies contained 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate but 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate was absent from roots of Eruca. Seeds and seedlings of all Eruca contained N-heterocyclic compounds but no sinapine, whereas Diplotaxis contained sinapine but not the N-heterocycles. In all tissues of B. orientalis, 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate and 4-methylsulfinyl-3-butenylglucosinolate were predominant. All rocket tissues, except roots, contained significant levels of polyglycosylated flavonoids, with/without hydroxycinnamoyl

  3. Synthesis of δ-lactonic pheromones ofXylocopa hirsutissima andVespa orientalis and an allomone of some ants of genusCamponotus.

    PubMed

    Bacardit, R; Moreno-Mañas, M

    1983-06-01

    Simple preparations ofcis-3,6-dimethyltetrahydro-2-pyrone, VII,6-n-undecyltetrahydro-2-pyrone, XVIIb, and 6-n-pentyl-5,6-dihydro-2-pyrone, XVIa, have been achieved. Products VII and XVIIb, respectively, are the major constituent of the pheromonal blend of a carpenter bee (Xylocopa hirsutissima) and the pheromone of the queens of the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis). The lactone XVIa is a suspected defensive allomone in two species of formicine ants of the genusCamponotus. All three compounds have been prepared from dehydroacetic acid, I, a cheap and industrially available starting material.

  4. Detection rate of diarrhoea-causing Kudoa hexapunctata in Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis from Japanese waters.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Jun; Murata, Rie; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kai, Akemi

    2015-02-01

    Diffuse outbreaks of food poisoning with unknown aetiologies leading to diarrhoea and vomiting within a short time after ingesting flatfish (Paralichthys olivaceus), tuna (Thunnus spp.), or amberjack (Seriola dumerili) have occurred nationwide in Japan, including the Tokyo metropolitan area. In this study, we surveyed the detection rates of kudoid parasites in 12 tuna samples that caused clinical diarrhoea from 2009 to 2012; we assessed 104 samples of whole juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT, Thunnus orientalis) and 153 block samples of other tuna distributed in the Tokyo Metropolitan Central Wholesale Market. The survey revealed that more than 70% of clinical diarrhoea cases due to tuna ingestion occurred between June and September, and Kudoa hexapunctata were detected in 9 of 12 tuna samples associated with clinical diarrhoea cases. The numbers of spores and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) copies per gram of fish in 8 of 9 samples were more than 1×10(6) spores and 1×10(9) copies, respectively. Market research revealed that the K. hexapunctata-positive rate in juvenile PBT from Japanese waters was 64.4% (67/104) but that in adult PBT was 10.4% (7/67). The numbers of K. hexapunctata 18S rDNA copies in 64.5% (20/31) samples and 72.7% (16/22) of <5kg fish samples collected between May and July were more than 1×10(9)copies/g. On the other hand, kudoid parasites were not detected from 73 tuna samples except for a single sample of Thunnus albacares. Cell monolayer permeability assays performed to examine the toxicity of K. hexapunctata against Caco-2 cells revealed that the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in 5×10(7)K. hexapunctata spores decreased by 80% within 2-4h. In conclusion, K. hexapunctata was commonly detected in juvenile PBT from Japanese waters and are a likely cause of the diarrhoea outbreaks.

  5. Immunohistological characterization of striatal and amygdalar structures in the telencephalon of the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis.

    PubMed

    Mühlenbrock-Lenter, S; Endepols, H; Roth, G; Walkowiak, W

    2005-01-01

    The subpallium of the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis was studied by means of enzyme-histological detection of NADPH-diaphorase and immunohistological demonstration of aspartate, GABA, calretinin, choline-acetyl transferase, Leu-and Met-enkephalin, neuropeptide Y, 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (serotonin), somatostatin, substance P and tyrosine-hydroxylase. As in other vertebrates, the striato-pallidum is characterized by GABA-, substance P- and enkephalin-immunoreactivity. Neurons and fibers differing in immunoreactivity are arranged in layers. Choline-acetyl transferase-immunoreactive neurons were found in a position corresponding to the mammalian cholinergic cell-group (Ch4-group), which therefore may be homologous to the nucleus basalis of Meynert. Within the amygdaloid complex, the cortical and lateral (vomeronasal) nuclei are similar in calretinin-, GABA-, NADPH-diaphorase-, enkephalin, substance P- and neuropeptide Y-(immuno)histology. The medial and central amygdaloid nuclei reveal a dense peptidergic innervation, and the medial amygdala additionally exhibits serotonergic fibers and cell bodies staining for neuropeptides and tyrosine-hydroxylase. Differences between Bombina and other anuran species exist, such as the absence of cholinergic neurons in the striatum. Our findings corroborate the view based on recent studies on the hodology and cytoarchitecture of the anuran telencephalon that the anuran ventral telencephalon contains most of the structures found in the mammalian brain. This concerns a septal region, a dorsal and ventral striato-pallidum including a nucleus accumbens and an amygdaloid complex consisting of a central, cortical and vomeronasal amygdala. The only major difference appears to concern the lack of a basolateral amygdala.

  6. The Effectiveness of Crataegus orientalis M Bieber. (Hawthorn) Extract Administration in Preventing Alveolar Bone Loss in Rats with Experimental Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Hatipoğlu, Mükerrem; Sağlam, Mehmet; Köseoğlu, Serhat; Köksal, Ekrem; Keleş, Ali; Esen, Hacı Hasan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this animal study was to evaluate the effects of hawthorn (Crataeus orientalis M Bieber.) extract on serum oxidative status and alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis. Twenty-seven Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following groups: non- ligated+placebo (saline) (NL, n = 9), ligature only+placebo (saline) (LO, n = 9), and ligature and treated with hawthorn extract in saline (H, n = 9) (100 mg/kg orogastrically, once a day for 11 days). Periodontitis was induced by submerging a 4/0 silk ligature in the sulcus of the mandibular right first molars of rats, and the animals were sacrificed after 11 days. Micro-CT examinations were performed for linear and volumetric parameter assessment of alveolar bone. Periodontal tissues were histopathologically examined to assess the differences among the study groups. Levels of serum total antioxidant status (TAS)/total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were also analyzed. Alveolar bone loss was significantly reduced by hawthorn administration compared to LO group (p<0.05). The number of inflammatory cells and osteoclasts in the LO group was significantly higher than that of the NL and H groups (p< 0.05). The number of osteoblasts in the LO and H groups was significantly higher than that of the NL group (p<0.05). TOS and OSI levels were significantly reduced in H group compared to LO group (P <0.05) and TAS levels were similar in H and NL group (p< 0.05). Hawthorn extract showed inhibitory effect on periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss by regulating TAS, TOS and OSI levels in periodontal disease in rats when administered systemically. PMID:26030160

  7. Impacts of environmental variability and global warming scenario on Pacific bluefin tuna ( Thunnus orientalis) spawning grounds and recruitment habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Shingo; Kato, Yoshiki; Kitagawa, Takashi; Yamaoka, Naoki

    2010-07-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna ( Thunnus orientalis) have spawning grounds in waters stretching from south of Okinawa to east of Taiwan. This species is typical of fishes that spawn seasonally in small, limited areas. Any marked change in the marine environment of the spawning grounds is likely to have a direct impact on larval survival and growth. We conducted rearing experiments on larvae to investigate these impacts and found that a reduction in temperature resulted in poor growth during the juvenile stage, even if larval survival rates did not change. In the wild, this reduced growth rate is likely to reduce survival rates because smaller juveniles have poorer swimming ability and their ability to avoid predators is also reduced. This is especially important since the Kuroshio current, which connects the spawning grounds to the nursery grounds, transports larvae rapidly because of its faster surface current (the western boundary current), thus larvae arriving too quickly in coastal waters can be exposed to very cold temperatures. An ocean model (MIROC) simulation under a climate warming scenario ( IPCC, 2007) predicted that the temperature in the spawning ground would be 3 °C higher in 2100 than in present time, while the transport to nursery grounds would also be faster. In this case, the combination of several mechanisms would control the recruitment of juvenile bluefin. On the spawning grounds, high temperatures exceeding the optimal range would increase larvae mortality and any surviving larvae would reach the nursery grounds more quickly, but warmer coastal waters would have less negative impact on their growth. We forced a model of larval drift with MIROC output fields to study the complex response of bluefin tuna recruitment. As a result, the predicted survival rates of larvae arriving in Japanese coastal waters in 2100 would decline to 36% of present recruitment levels.

  8. Detection rate of diarrhoea-causing Kudoa hexapunctata in Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis from Japanese waters.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Jun; Murata, Rie; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kai, Akemi

    2015-02-01

    Diffuse outbreaks of food poisoning with unknown aetiologies leading to diarrhoea and vomiting within a short time after ingesting flatfish (Paralichthys olivaceus), tuna (Thunnus spp.), or amberjack (Seriola dumerili) have occurred nationwide in Japan, including the Tokyo metropolitan area. In this study, we surveyed the detection rates of kudoid parasites in 12 tuna samples that caused clinical diarrhoea from 2009 to 2012; we assessed 104 samples of whole juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT, Thunnus orientalis) and 153 block samples of other tuna distributed in the Tokyo Metropolitan Central Wholesale Market. The survey revealed that more than 70% of clinical diarrhoea cases due to tuna ingestion occurred between June and September, and Kudoa hexapunctata were detected in 9 of 12 tuna samples associated with clinical diarrhoea cases. The numbers of spores and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) copies per gram of fish in 8 of 9 samples were more than 1×10(6) spores and 1×10(9) copies, respectively. Market research revealed that the K. hexapunctata-positive rate in juvenile PBT from Japanese waters was 64.4% (67/104) but that in adult PBT was 10.4% (7/67). The numbers of K. hexapunctata 18S rDNA copies in 64.5% (20/31) samples and 72.7% (16/22) of <5kg fish samples collected between May and July were more than 1×10(9)copies/g. On the other hand, kudoid parasites were not detected from 73 tuna samples except for a single sample of Thunnus albacares. Cell monolayer permeability assays performed to examine the toxicity of K. hexapunctata against Caco-2 cells revealed that the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in 5×10(7)K. hexapunctata spores decreased by 80% within 2-4h. In conclusion, K. hexapunctata was commonly detected in juvenile PBT from Japanese waters and are a likely cause of the diarrhoea outbreaks. PMID:25461601

  9. Tissue Turnover Rates and Isotopic Trophic Discrimination Factors in the Endothermic Teleost, Pacific Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus orientalis)

    PubMed Central

    Madigan, Daniel J.; Litvin, Steven Y.; Popp, Brian N.; Carlisle, Aaron B.; Farwell, Charles J.; Block, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis (SIA) of highly migratory marine pelagic animals can improve understanding of their migratory patterns and trophic ecology. However, accurate interpretation of isotopic analyses relies on knowledge of isotope turnover rates and tissue-diet isotope discrimination factors. Laboratory-derived turnover rates and discrimination factors have been difficult to obtain due to the challenges of maintaining these species in captivity. We conducted a study to determine tissue- (white muscle and liver) and isotope- (nitrogen and carbon) specific turnover rates and trophic discrimination factors (TDFs) using archived tissues from captive Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT), Thunnus orientalis, 1–2914 days after a diet shift in captivity. Half-life values for 15N turnover in white muscle and liver were 167 and 86 days, and for 13C were 255 and 162 days, respectively. TDFs for white muscle and liver were 1.9 and 1.1‰ for δ15N and 1.8 and 1.2‰ for δ13C, respectively. Our results demonstrate that turnover of 15N and 13C in bluefin tuna tissues is well described by a single compartment first-order kinetics model. We report variability in turnover rates between tissue types and their isotope dynamics, and hypothesize that metabolic processes play a large role in turnover of nitrogen and carbon in PBFT white muscle and liver tissues. 15N in white muscle tissue showed the most predictable change with diet over time, suggesting that white muscle δ15N data may provide the most reliable inferences for diet and migration studies using stable isotopes in wild fish. These results allow more accurate interpretation of field data and dramatically improve our ability to use stable isotope data from wild tunas to better understand their migration patterns and trophic ecology. PMID:23145128

  10. GC analysis of essential oils in the rumen fluid after incubation of Thuja orientalis twigs in the Rusitec system.

    PubMed

    Chizzola, R; Hochsteiner, W; Hajek, S

    2004-02-01

    Methods for the chemical analysis of toxic plant substances in the rumen of ruminants are of importance for the diagnosis of intoxications with poisonous plants. The present work establishes a method to estimate monoterpene components of the essential oil of thuja (Thuja orientalis, Cupressaceae) in these types of samples. Alpha-thujone, which is regarded as the toxic principle, is present at a concentration of 50-60% in the essential oil. The rumen simulation technique (Rusitec) was used to simulate natural digestion. Chopped twigs of thuja were subjected to rumen content in a closed container with an overflow device. The flow of saliva was simulated by the continuous addition of a buffer solution. Samples for analysis were taken from the overflow at 24 and 48 h. A further sample was taken from the remaining liquid fraction of the rumen content in the container at 48 h. The essential oils were extracted with hexane and concentrated. A quantitative determination was done by capillary gas chromatography. Together in the three fractions analysed this resulted in total mean recoveries of 6.8% for alpha-thujone, 5.3% for beta-thujone, 18.9% for fenchone and 27.8% for camphor. The observation that the thujones were recovered to a lesser extent than other oil components is evidence of their fast decomposition in the rumen medium. Under these circumstances the calculated detection limit is 100-200 g thuja twigs in cows with rumen volumes of 60-100 litres. The main essential oil degradation products found in the rumen fluid of all three fractions in the Rusitec system were discovered to be iso-3-thujanol, neo-3-thujanol, carvomenthol and carvomenthone.

  11. Antioxidant Activity and Antibacterial Effects on Clinical Isolated Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius of Extracts from Several Parts of Cladogynos orientalis and Their Phytochemical Screenings.

    PubMed

    Sithisarn, Pongtip; Rojsanga, Piyanuch; Sithisarn, Patchima; Kongkiatpaiboon, Sumet

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial assays against clinically isolated Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius of the extracts prepared by decoction and ethanolic reflux of different parts of Chettaphangki (Cladogynos orientalis Zipp. ex Span), including the leaves, roots, and stems, using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay and disc diffusion method were conducted. Quantitative analysis of total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in the extracts using spectrophotometric methods was also performed. Finally, phytochemical screening by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was conducted. Leaf ethanolic reflux extract (100 g) contained the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of 7.21 ± 0.28 μg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) and 11.51 ± 2.02 μg rutin equivalent (RE), respectively. Chettaphangki extracts promoted low antioxidant activity with EC50 values in the range of 0.27-0.48 mg/mL. Extracts and fractions from the roots and stems of this plant promoted low to intermediate antibacterial activity against S. intermedius with the inhibition zones between 7 and 14 mm. The chromatographic data suggested that the leaf extracts of C. orientalis contained rutin while the root and stem extracts contained scopoletin and chettaphanin I. Rutin promoted strong antioxidant activity while chettaphanin I showed low antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus intermedius.

  12. Antioxidant Activity and Antibacterial Effects on Clinical Isolated Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius of Extracts from Several Parts of Cladogynos orientalis and Their Phytochemical Screenings

    PubMed Central

    Sithisarn, Pongtip; Rojsanga, Piyanuch; Sithisarn, Patchima; Kongkiatpaiboon, Sumet

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial assays against clinically isolated Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius of the extracts prepared by decoction and ethanolic reflux of different parts of Chettaphangki (Cladogynos orientalis Zipp. ex Span), including the leaves, roots, and stems, using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay and disc diffusion method were conducted. Quantitative analysis of total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in the extracts using spectrophotometric methods was also performed. Finally, phytochemical screening by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was conducted. Leaf ethanolic reflux extract (100 g) contained the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of 7.21 ± 0.28 μg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) and 11.51 ± 2.02 μg rutin equivalent (RE), respectively. Chettaphangki extracts promoted low antioxidant activity with EC50 values in the range of 0.27–0.48 mg/mL. Extracts and fractions from the roots and stems of this plant promoted low to intermediate antibacterial activity against S. intermedius with the inhibition zones between 7 and 14 mm. The chromatographic data suggested that the leaf extracts of C. orientalis contained rutin while the root and stem extracts contained scopoletin and chettaphanin I. Rutin promoted strong antioxidant activity while chettaphanin I showed low antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus intermedius. PMID:26347795

  13. Laboratory and field evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.) oils as repellents against Phlebotomus orientalis and P. bergeroti (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Yosef; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Balkew, Meshesha

    2010-02-01

    The study evaluated the efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.) seed oils as repellents against laboratory and field populations of some sandflies in Ethiopia. In the laboratory, concentrations of 2% and 5% neem oil in coconut oil tested against Phlebotomus orientalis (vector of visceral leishmaniasis) provided 96.28% (95% CI=95.60-96.97) protection up to a mean time of 7h and 20 min and 98.26% (95% CI=93.46-104. 07) protection up to 9h, respectively. Similarly, M. azedarach oil at 2% concentration produced 95.13% (95% CI=90.74-99.52) protection for the same duration (7h and 20 min), while the 5% oil gave 96.20 (95% CI=86.98-105.41) protection for 8h and 20 min against the same species with no significant difference in percentage protection between the two oils at 2% and 5% concentrations. In the field tests with only neem oil (A. indica) against field populations of P. orientalis and P. bergeroti, similar high level of repellencies were recorded with about the same duration of protection. Application of both neem and Chinaberry oils can be safe and low-cost means of personal protection against sandfly bites in endemic areas of Ethiopia, if the community is advised and encouraged to grow the plants abundantly. PMID:19854142

  14. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Issatchenkia orientalis GPI-Anchored Protein, IoGas1, Required for Resistance to Low pH and Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Matsushika, Akinori; Negi, Kanako; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Goshima, Tetsuya; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2016-01-01

    The use of yeasts tolerant to acid (low pH) and salt stress is of industrial importance for several bioproduction processes. To identify new candidate genes having potential roles in low-pH tolerance, we screened an expression genomic DNA library of a multiple-stress-tolerant yeast, Issatchenkia orientalis (Pichia kudriavzevii), for clones that allowed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to grow under highly acidic conditions (pH 2.0). A genomic DNA clone containing two putative open reading frames was obtained, of which the putative protein-coding gene comprising 1629 bp was retransformed into the host. This transformant grew significantly at pH 2.0, and at pH 2.5 in the presence of 7.5% Na2SO4. The predicted amino acid sequence of this new gene, named I. orientalis GAS1 (IoGAS1), was 60% identical to the S. cerevisiae Gas1 protein, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein essential for maintaining cell wall integrity, and 58–59% identical to Candida albicans Phr1 and Phr2, pH-responsive proteins implicated in cell wall assembly and virulence. Northern hybridization analyses indicated that, as for the C. albicans homologs, IoGAS1 expression was pH-dependent, with expression increasing with decreasing pH (from 4.0 to 2.0) of the medium. These results suggest that IoGAS1 represents a novel pH-regulated system required for the adaptation of I. orientalis to environments of diverse pH. Heterologous expression of IoGAS1 complemented the growth and morphological defects of a S. cerevisiae gas1Δ mutant, demonstrating that IoGAS1 and the corresponding S. cerevisiae gene play similar roles in cell wall biosynthesis. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that two conserved glutamate residues (E161 and E262) in the IoGas1 protein play a crucial role in yeast morphogenesis and tolerance to low pH and salt stress. Furthermore, overexpression of IoGAS1 in S. cerevisiae remarkably improved the ethanol fermentation ability at pH 2.5, and at pH 2.0 in the presence of

  15. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Issatchenkia orientalis GPI-Anchored Protein, IoGas1, Required for Resistance to Low pH and Salt Stress.

    PubMed

    Matsushika, Akinori; Negi, Kanako; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Goshima, Tetsuya; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2016-01-01

    The use of yeasts tolerant to acid (low pH) and salt stress is of industrial importance for several bioproduction processes. To identify new candidate genes having potential roles in low-pH tolerance, we screened an expression genomic DNA library of a multiple-stress-tolerant yeast, Issatchenkia orientalis (Pichia kudriavzevii), for clones that allowed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to grow under highly acidic conditions (pH 2.0). A genomic DNA clone containing two putative open reading frames was obtained, of which the putative protein-coding gene comprising 1629 bp was retransformed into the host. This transformant grew significantly at pH 2.0, and at pH 2.5 in the presence of 7.5% Na2SO4. The predicted amino acid sequence of this new gene, named I. orientalis GAS1 (IoGAS1), was 60% identical to the S. cerevisiae Gas1 protein, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein essential for maintaining cell wall integrity, and 58-59% identical to Candida albicans Phr1 and Phr2, pH-responsive proteins implicated in cell wall assembly and virulence. Northern hybridization analyses indicated that, as for the C. albicans homologs, IoGAS1 expression was pH-dependent, with expression increasing with decreasing pH (from 4.0 to 2.0) of the medium. These results suggest that IoGAS1 represents a novel pH-regulated system required for the adaptation of I. orientalis to environments of diverse pH. Heterologous expression of IoGAS1 complemented the growth and morphological defects of a S. cerevisiae gas1Δ mutant, demonstrating that IoGAS1 and the corresponding S. cerevisiae gene play similar roles in cell wall biosynthesis. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that two conserved glutamate residues (E161 and E262) in the IoGas1 protein play a crucial role in yeast morphogenesis and tolerance to low pH and salt stress. Furthermore, overexpression of IoGAS1 in S. cerevisiae remarkably improved the ethanol fermentation ability at pH 2.5, and at pH 2.0 in the presence of

  16. An outbreak of granulomatous inflammation associated with Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in farmed tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus) in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qiang; Li, Ningqiu; Fu, Xiaozhe; Hu, Qiandong; Chang, Ouqin; Liu, Lihui; Zhang, Defeng; Wang, Guangjun; San, Guibao; Wu, Shuqin

    2016-05-01

    In 2013, a novel disease was detected in tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus) in Guangzhou, South China. To identify the causative pathogen, we conducted histological examination, bacteria isolation, and purification, and sequenced the 16S rRNA gene of isolates. Infected fish had a large number of white granulomas in the kidney, liver, heart, and spleen. The head kidney and spleen were markedly swollen. A bacterium strain designated as gz201301 was recovered from the spleen of infected tilapia. The 16S rRNA sequence of gz201301 revealed that it was highly similar to F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis. This is the first report of a Francisella-like infection in farmed tilapia in China.

  17. External Bacterial Flora and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Staphylococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Isolated from Two Household Cockroaches, Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis.

    PubMed

    Menasria, Taha; Tine, Samir; Mahcene, Djaouida; Benammar, Leyla; Megri, Rochdi; Boukoucha, Mourad; Debabza, Manel

    2015-04-01

    A study was performed to estimate the prevalence of the external bacterial flora of two domestic cockroaches (Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis) collected from households in Tebessa (northeast Algeria). Three major bacterial groups were cultured (total aerobic, enterobacteria, and staphylococci) from 14 specimens of cockroaches, and antibiotic susceptibility was tested for both Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas isolates. Culturing showed that the total bacterial load of cockroaches from different households were comparable (P<0.001) and enterobacteria were the predominant colonizers of the insect surface, with a bacterial load of (2.1 × 10⁵ CFU/insect), whereas the staphylococci group was the minority. Twenty-eight bacterial species were isolated, and susceptibility patterns showed that most of the staphylococci isolates were highly susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamycin, pristinamycin, ofloxacin, clindamycin, and vancomycin; however, Pseudomonas strains exhibited resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, imipenem, and the second-generation antibiotic cephalosporin cefuroxime.

  18. Effects of Biota orientalis extract and its flavonoid constituents, quercetin and rutin on serum uric acid levels in oxonate-induced mice and xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase activities in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ji Xiao; Wang, Ying; Kong, Ling Dong; Yang, Cheng; Zhang, Xin

    2004-07-01

    The hypouricemic actions of Biota orientalis (BO) extract and its flavonoid constituents quercetin and rutin, were in vivo examined using oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice. Quercetin and rutin, when administered three times orally to the oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice, were able to elicit dose-dependent hypouricemic effects. The effects of quercetin and rutin were more potent than that of Biota orientalis extract at the same dose of 100 mg/kg. At doses of 50 mg/kg of quercetin or above, or at doses of 100 mg/kg of rutin or above, the serum urate levels of the oxonate-pretreated mice were not different from normal mice. In addition, Biota orientalis extract, quercetin and rutin, when tested in vivo on mouse liver homogenates, elicited significant inhibitory actions on the xanthine dehydrogenase/xanthine oxidase (XDH/XO) activities. The effects of quercetin and rutin resulted less potent than that of allopurinol. However, intraperitoneal administration at the same scheme did not produce any observable hypouricemic effect. These hypouricemic effects are partly due to the inhibition of XDH/XO activities in mouse liver. The pharmacological profile of the flavonoids is partly different from that of allopurinol. Such hypouricemic action and inhibition of the enzyme activity of quercetin and rutin may be responsible for a part of the beneficial effects of Biota orientalis extract on hyperuricemia and gout. The effects of quercetin and rutin on serum urate levels in hyperuricemic mice induced by oxonate and the inhibition of enzyme activities in mouse liver are discussed in relation to their absorption and metabolism, and their potential application to treat gout and hyperuricemia.

  19. The Apoptotic Function Analysis of p53, Apaf1, Caspase3 and Caspase7 during the Spermatogenesis of the Chinese Fire-Bellied Newt Cynops orientalis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Ya; Hu, Yan-Jun; Tan, Fu-Qing; Zhou, Hong; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2012-01-01

    Background Spontaneous and stress-induced germ cell apoptosis during spermatogenesis of multicellular organisms have been investigated broadly in mammals. Spermatogenetic process in urodele amphibians was essentially like that in mammals in spite of morphological differences; however, the mechanism of germ cell apoptosis in urodele amphibians remains unknown. The Chinese fire-belly newt, Cynops orientalis, was an excellent organism for studying germ cell apoptosis due to its sensitiveness to temperature, strong endurance of starvation, and sensitive skin to heavy metal exposure. Methodology/Principal Findings TUNEL result showed that spontaneous germ cell apoptosis took place in normal newt, and severe stress-induced apoptosis occurred to spermatids and sperm in response to heat shock (40°C 2 h), cold exposure(4°C 12 h), cadmium exposure(Cd 36 h), and starvation stress. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCR) showed that gene expression of Caspase3 or Caspase7 was obviously elevated after stress treatment. Apaf1 was not altered at its gene expression level, and p53 was significantly decreased after various stress treatment. Caspase assay demonstrated that Caspase-3, -8,-9 enzyme activities in newt testis were significantly elevated after heat shock (40°C 2 h), cold exposure(4°C 12 h), and cadmium exposure(Cd 36 h), while Caspase3 and Caspase8 activities were increased with Caspase9 significantly decreased after starvation treatment. Conclusions/Significance Severe germ cell apoptosis triggered by heat shock, cold exposure, and cadmium exposure was Caspase3 dependent, which probably involved both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Apaf1 may be involved in this process without elevating its gene expression. But starvation-induced germ cell apoptosis was likely mainly through extrinsic pathway. p53 was probably not responsible for stress-induced germ cell apoptosis in newt testis. The intriguing high occurrence of spermatid and sperm

  20. Pseudorhizobium pelagicum gen. nov., sp. nov. isolated from a pelagic Mediterranean zone.

    PubMed

    Kimes, Nikole E; López-Pérez, Mario; Flores-Félix, José David; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Igual, José M; Peix, Alvaro; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Velázquez, Encarna

    2015-07-01

    Two novel Alphaproteobacteria strains, R1-200B4(T) and R2-400B4, were isolated from the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Alicante in Spain. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that they are related to members of Family Rhizobiaceae. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain R1-200B4(T) presents 97.0% and 95.6% similarity with respect to the type strains of the type species from genera Neorhizobium and Rhizobium, Neorhizobium galegae HAMBI 540(T) and Rhizobium leguminosarum USDA 2370(T), respectively. The remaining genera of family Rhizobiaceae showed similarities lower than 95%. The recA and atpD gene sequences of strain R1-200B4(T) showed, respectively, 90% and 88.6% similarity with respect to N. galegae HAMBI 540(T) and 87% and 86% with respect to R. leguminosarum USDA 2370(T). The calculated ANI values between the genomes of the strain R1-200B4(T) and those of N. galegae HAMBI 540(T) and R. leguminosarum 3841 are 75.9% and 74.0%, respectively. The major fatty acids are those from summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω6c/C18:1 ω7c) and the C16:0. Catalase and oxidase were positive. Nitrate reduction and aesculin hydrolysis were positive. Production of β-galactosidase and urease was positive. The production of indol, arginine dehydrolase or gelatinase was negative. Growth was observed in presence of 7% NaCl. Therefore, based on the phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data obtained in this study, we propose to classify the strains isolated in this study in a new genus named Pseudorhizobium gen. nov. and a new species named Pseudorhizobium pelagicum sp. nov. with the type strain R1-200B4(T) (=LMG 28314(T)=CECT 8629(T)).

  1. The effect of acidity on the distribution and symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia in Lithuanian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapinskas, E. B.

    2007-04-01

    The distribution and symbiotic efficiency of nodule bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum_bv. trifolii F., Sinorhizobium meliloti D., Rhizobium galegae L., and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae F. in Lithuanian soils as dependent on the soil acidity were studied in the long-term field, pot, and laboratory experiments. The critical and optimal pH values controlling the distribution of rhizobia and the symbiotic nitrogen fixation were determined for every bacterial species. The relationship was found between the soil pH and the nitrogen-fixing capacity of rhizobia. A positive effect of liming of acid soils in combination with inoculation of legumes on the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation was demonstrated.

  2. Doppel gene polymorphisms in Portuguese sheep breeds: insights on ram fertility.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R M; Mesquita, P; Batista, M; Baptista, M C; Barbas, J P; Pimenta, J; Santos, I C; Marques, M R; Vasques, M I; Silva Pereira, M; Santos Silva, F; Oliveira Sousa, M C; Fontes, C M G; Horta, A E M; Prates, J A M; Marques, C C

    2009-08-01

    Transgenic knockout of the gene encoding the prion-like protein Doppel leads to male infertility in mice. The precise role of Doppel in male fertility is still unclear, but sperm from Doppel-deficient mice appear to be unable to undergo the normal acrosome reaction necessary to penetrate the zona pellucida of the oocyte. The objective of this study was to characterize Doppel (Prnd) gene polymorphisms in eight Portuguese sheep breeds and to determine a possible relationship between these polymorphisms and ram fertility. Ovine genomic DNA of 364 animals of different breeds (Bordaleira entre Douro e Minho, Churra Badana, Churra Galega Mirandesa, Churra Mondegueira, Merino da Beira Baixa, Merino Branco, Saloia and Serra da Estrela) were analysed by multiple restriction fragment-single-strand conformation polymorphism (MRF-SSCP). This analysis revealed a synonymous substitution G-->A in codon 26 of Prnd gene. Churra Galega Mirandesa and Saloia breeds were more polymorphic (P=0.005 and P=0.04, respectively) than the overall population, while Serra da Estrela and Merino Branco animals were less polymorphic (P=0.007 and P=0.04). No polymorphism was found in Churra Mondegueira breed. Semen from 11 rams of Churra Galega Mirandesa breed (7 homozygous wildtype GG and 4 heterozygous GA) routinely used in the Portuguese Animal Germoplasm Bank was collected and frozen for fertility tests. A classification function was estimated, using data from post-swim-up semen motility and concentration and Day 6 embryo production rate, allowing the identification of the Doppel homozygous GG genotype with 86.7% of accuracy. This preliminary study detected the presence of only one polymorphism in codon 26 of Prnd gene in the Portuguese sheep breeds. In the polymorphic Churra Galega Mirandesa breed, GG genotype could be characterized through a model using three fertility traits, suggesting a relationship with male reproduction. Any future research should investigate not only AA genotype and its

  3. Intestinal absorption of amino acids in the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis): in vitro lysine-arginine interaction using the everted intestine system.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Montaño, Emmanuel; Peña, Emyr; Viana, María Teresa

    2013-04-01

    The interaction between lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg) in the proximal intestinal region of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) was evaluated using the everted intestine method. This in vitro intestinal system has been shown to be an effective tool for studying the nutrient absorption without the need to handle the tuna fish in marine cages as needed for digestibility and amino acid (AA) absorption. We used a factorial design with two sets of variables: low and high Lys concentration (10 and 75 mM) and four different Arg concentrations (3, 10, 20, and 30 mM). Both amino acids were dissolved in marine Ringer solution with a basal amino acidic composition consisting of a tryptone solution (9 mg mL(-1)). No interaction was observed between the absorption of Lys and Arg during the first 10 min of the experiment when low concentration of Lys and Arg was used in the hydrolyzate solution. However, there seemed to be a positive effect on Lys absorption when both amino acids were at high concentrations (30 and 75 mM, respectively). This type of studies will led us to test different formulations and/or additives to better understand the efficiency of AA supplementation as an alternative to in situ studies that are difficult to follow to design with the Pacific Bluefin Tuna.

  4. Grazing behaviour and dry matter intake of llamas (Lama glama) and German black- head mutton sheep (Ovis orientalis forma aries) under Central European conditions.

    PubMed

    Stölzl, Anna Maria; Lambertz, Christian; Gauly, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the behaviour of llamas (Lama glama) and German blackhead mutton sheep (Ovis orientalis forma aries) when kept under Central European grazing conditions. In total, six adult female sheep and six adult female llamas were observed by direct observation during one week, in which each group was observed for a total time of 24 h. The animals were kept on the same pasture, but the species were raised in separate plots. Forage height before and after the experimental period were determined using a rising plate meter to calculate the average daily dry matter intake (DMI). Llamas had a daily DMI of 0.85%/BW and sheep of 1.04%/BW, respectively. The following behaviours were recorded by direct observation: grazing standing up, grazing lying down, ruminating standing up, ruminating lying down, lying down, lying down lateral and standing. Both species grazed for more than 50% of the time. Ruminating was predominantly performed while standing and lying by sheep (about 50% of the night and 12% of the day) and while lying by llamas (54% of the night and 10% of the day). In conclusion, sheep and llamas differed in grazing behaviour and daily biorhythm. These differences indicate that sheep and llamas may not synchronize their behaviour when co-grazed, though particularly in co-grazing studies the observation period should be extended.

  5. Using seemingly unnecessary illustrations to improve the diagnostic usefulness of descriptions in taxonomy–a case study on Perochaeta orientalis (Diptera, Sepsidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Yuchen; Wong, Ling Jing; Meier, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Many species descriptions, especially older ones, consist mostly of text and have few illustrations. Only the most conspicuous morphological features needed for species diagnosis and delimitation at the time of description are illustrated. Such descriptions can quickly become inadequate when new species or characters are discovered. We propose that descriptions should become more data-rich by presenting a large amount of images and illustrations to cover as much morphology as possible; these descriptions are more likely to remain adequate over time because their large amounts of visual data could capture character systems that may become important in the future. Such an approach can now be quickly and easily achieved given that high-quality digital photography is readily available. Here, we re-describe the sepsid fly Perochaeta orientalis (de Meijere 1913) (Diptera, Sepsidae) which has suffered from inadequate descriptions in the past, and use photomicrography, scanning electron microscopy and videography to document its external morphology and mating behaviour. All images and videos are embedded within the electronic publication. We discuss briefly benefits and problems with our approach. PMID:24363567

  6. Fumigant toxicity of Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components, including their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, against Japanese termites (Reticulitermes speratus).

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus). The fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum and valerian oil differed significantly according to exposure time. Oriental sweetgum showed toxicity at short exposure times (2 days), and the toxicity of valerian oil was high 7 days after treatment. The main constituents of oriental sweetgum and valerian oils were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone, 1-phenyl-1-ethanol, hydrocinnamyl alcohol, trans-cinnamyl aldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, styrene, and cis-ocimene showed toxicity against Japanese termites 7 days after treatment. Hydrocinnamyl alcohol and trans-cinnamyl alcohol were found to be the major contributors to the fumigant antitermitic toxicity of oriental sweetgum oil. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of two oils and their constituents was tested to determine their mode of action. Only cis-ocimene showed strong AChE inhibition activity with an IC50 value of 0.131 mg/mL. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control. PMID:25153870

  7. Fumigant toxicity of Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components, including their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, against Japanese termites (Reticulitermes speratus).

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-08-19

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus). The fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum and valerian oil differed significantly according to exposure time. Oriental sweetgum showed toxicity at short exposure times (2 days), and the toxicity of valerian oil was high 7 days after treatment. The main constituents of oriental sweetgum and valerian oils were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone, 1-phenyl-1-ethanol, hydrocinnamyl alcohol, trans-cinnamyl aldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, styrene, and cis-ocimene showed toxicity against Japanese termites 7 days after treatment. Hydrocinnamyl alcohol and trans-cinnamyl alcohol were found to be the major contributors to the fumigant antitermitic toxicity of oriental sweetgum oil. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of two oils and their constituents was tested to determine their mode of action. Only cis-ocimene showed strong AChE inhibition activity with an IC50 value of 0.131 mg/mL. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control.

  8. Organization of the pallium in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis. I: Morphology and axonal projection pattern of neurons revealed by intracellular biocytin labeling.

    PubMed

    Roth, Gerhard; Laberge, Frédéric; Mühlenbrock-Lenter, Sabine; Grunwald, Wolfgang

    2007-03-20

    The cytoarchitecture and axonal projection pattern of pallial areas was studied in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis by intracellular injection of biocytin into a total of 326 neurons forming 204 clusters. Five pallial regions were identified, differing in morphology and projection pattern of neurons. The rostral pallium receiving the bulk of dorsal thalamic afferents has reciprocal connections with all other pallial areas and projects to the septum, nucleus accumbens, and anterior dorsal striatum. The medial pallium projects bilaterally to the medial pallium, septum, nucleus accumbens, mediocentral amygdala, and hypothalamus and ipsilaterally to the rostral, dorsal, and lateral pallium. The ventral part of the medial pallium is distinguished by efferents to the eminentia thalami and the absence of contralateral projections. The dorsal pallium has only ipsilateral projections running to the rostral, medial, and lateral pallium; septum; nucleus accumbens; and eminentia thalami. The lateral pallium has ipsilateral projections to the olfactory bulbs and to the rostral, medial, dorsal, and ventral pallium. The ventral pallium including the striatopallial transition area (SPTA) has ipsilateral projections to the olfactory bulbs, rostral and lateral pallium, dorsal striatopallidum, vomeronasal amygdala, and hypothalamus. The medial pallium can be tentatively homologized with the mammalian hippocampal formation, the dorsal pallium with allocortical areas, the lateral pallium rostrally with the piriform and caudally with the entorhinal cortex, the ventral pallium with the accessory olfactory amygdala. The rostral pallium, with its projections to the dorsal and ventral striatopallidum, resembles the mammalian frontal cortex.

  9. Molecular cloning of mRNA from toad granular gland secretion and lyophilized skin: identification of Bo8--a novel prokineticin from Bombina orientalis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianbao; Xue, Yuanzhen; Zhou, Mei; Shaw, Chris

    2005-03-01

    Prokineticins are small (approximately 8 kDa), biologically active secretory proteins whose primary structures have been highly conserved throughout the Animal Kingdom. Representatives have been identified in the defensive skin secretions of several amphibians reflecting the immense structural/functional diversity of polypeptides in such. Here we describe the identification of a prokineticin homolog (designated Bo8) from the skin secretion of the Oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis). Full primary structural characterization was achieved using a combination of direct Edman microsequencing, mass spectrometry and cloning of encoding skin cDNA. The latter approach employed a recently described technique that we developed for the cloning of secretory peptide cDNAs from lyophilized skin secretion, and this was further extended to employ lyophilized skin as the starting material for cDNA library construction. The Bo8 precursor was found to consist of an open-reading frame of 96 amino acid residues consisting of a putative 19-residue signal peptide followed by a single 77-residue prokineticin (Mr=7990 Da). Amino acid substitutions in skin prokineticins from the skin secretions of bombinid toads are confined to discrete sites affording the necessary information for structure/activity studies and analog design.

  10. Characterization of ESBL- and AmpC-Producing and Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Mouflons (Ovis orientalis musimon) in Austria and Germany

    PubMed Central

    Loncaric, Igor; Beiglböck, Christoph; Feßler, Andrea T.; Posautz, Annika; Rosengarten, Renate; Walzer, Chris; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan; Schwarz, Stefan; Spergser, Joachim; Kübber-Heiss, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of β-lactamase producing or fluoroquinolone-resistant members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in European mouflons (Ovis orientalis musimon). The mouflon samples originated from nasal and perineal swabs and/or organ samples in cases of a suspected infection. Only one of the 32 mouflons was tested positive for the presence of Enterobacteriaceae that displayed either an ESBL/AmpC phenotype or were resistant to ciprofloxacin. The positively tested swab originated from a sample of the jejunal mucosa of a four-year old female mouflon. Two different colony morphotypes were identified as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. These isolates were phenotypically and genotypically characterized in detail by a polyphasic approach. Both isolates were multi-drug resistant. The E. coli isolate belonged to the phylogenetic group B1 and sequence type (ST) 744 and harboured the β-lactamase genes blaCTX-M-15 and blaOXA-1. The K. pneumoniae, identified as ST11, harboured the β-lactamase genes blaSHV-11, blaOXA-1, and blaDHA-1 as well as the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) gene qnrB55. The present study demonstrates that wild animals can acquire human-derived resistance determinants and such findings may indicate environmental pollution with resistance determinants from other sources. PMID:27192164

  11. Some liver functions in the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis) are performed in its cuticle: exposure to UV light influences these activities.

    PubMed

    Plotkin, Marian; Volynchik, Stanislav; Itzhaky, Dganit; Lis, Monica; Bergman, David J; Ishay, Jacob S

    2009-06-01

    The Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis (Hymenoptera, Vespinae) coordinates its daily activities (e.g. flights out of the nest associated with digging activities and removal of the dug soil from the nest) with the amount of insolation. Thus, the stronger the insolation, the more intense the flight activity and vise versa. The hornet's cuticle bears a few yellow stripes interposed among brown parts of the gastral cuticle. These yellow stripes are composed of two elements, namely, a transparent cuticle and underneath it a layer of yellow granules. When the hornets are exposed to UV light, the layer containing the yellow granules is less active than in hornets kept in the dark. This diminished activity entails a lower production of glucose as well as of several enzymes prevalent also in the liver of mammals, like creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase. Thus solar irradiation stimulates and produces a change in the metabolic activities of the hornet. The fact that hornets link their flight activity with the insolation leads us to speculate that the sun contributes energetically to the hornet's activity.

  12. Harvesting impact on herbaceous understory, forest floor and top soil properties on skid road in a beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stand.

    PubMed

    Demir, Murat; Makineci, E; Yilmaz, E

    2007-04-01

    In this study the impact of production work on the skid roads that have been carried out for many years by manpower animal power or machinery in a beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stand have been examined. For this purpose, herbaceous understory, forest floor and soil samples were collected from the undisturbed area and the skid road. Weight per unit area (kg ha(-1)), organic matter ratio and moisture of forest floor and herbaceous understory were measured in undisturbed area and the skid road. Soil characteristics were examined at two different depths (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm). Percentages of sand, silt and clay electrical conductivity, weight of fine soil (<2 mm), soil fraction (>2 mm), root mass, organic carbon, moisture equivalent, total porosity, bulk density, moisture, compaction and pH values in the soil were determined. It has been determined that the amount of herbaceous understory and forest floor on the skid road decreased considerably compared to those of the undisturbed area. Parallel to this, the amount of organic matter in the herbaceous understory and the forest floor on the skid road decreased as well. It has been concluded that there are crucial differences between the values of compaction, bulk density fine soil weight, total porosity and moisture equivalent of the soil samples collected from both the skid road and the undisturbed area at both depth levels, as a result of compaction of the soil caused by harvesting works. PMID:17929761

  13. Identification and molecular cloning of novel trypsin inhibitor analogs from the dermal venom of the Oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) and the European yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata).

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2003-06-01

    The structural diversity of polypeptides in amphibian skin secretion probably reflects different roles in dermal regulation or in defense against predators. Here we report the structures of two novel trypsin inhibitor analogs, BOTI and BVTI, from the dermal venom of the toads, Bombina orientalis and Bombina variegata. Cloning of their respective precursors was achieved from lyophilized venom cDNA libraries for the first time. Amino acid alignment revealed that both deduced peptides, consisting of 60 amino acid residues, including 10 cysteines and the reactive center motif, -CDKKC-, can be affirmed as structural homologs of the trypsin inhibitor from Bombina bombina skin.

  14. Effect of temperature acclimation on red blood cell oxygen affinity in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares).

    PubMed

    Lilly, Laura E; Bonaventura, Joseph; Lipnick, Michael S; Block, Barbara A

    2015-03-01

    Hemoglobin-oxygen (Hb-O2) binding properties are central to aerobic physiology, and must be optimized for an animal's aerobic requirements and environmental conditions, both of which can vary widely with seasonal changes or acutely with diving. In the case of tunas, the matter is further complicated by large regional temperature differences between tissues within the same animal. This study investigates the effects of thermal acclimation on red blood cell Hb-O2 binding in Pacific bluefin tuna (T. orientalis) and yellowfin tuna (T. albacares) maintained in captive tanks at acclimation temperatures of 17°, 20° and 24 °C. Oxygen binding properties of acclimated tuna isolated red blood cells were examined under varying experimental temperatures (15°-35 °C) and CO2 levels (0%, 0.5% and 1.5%). Results for Pacific bluefin tuna produced temperature-independence at 17 °C- and 20 °C-acclimation temperatures and significant reverse temperature-dependence at 24 °C-acclimation in the absence of CO2, with instances of reverse temperature-dependence in 17 °C- and 24 °C-acclimations at 0.5% and 1.5% CO2. In contrast, yellowfin tuna produced normal temperature-dependence at each acclimation temperature at 0% CO2, temperature-independence at 0.5% and 1.5% CO2, and significant reverse temperature-dependence at 17 °C-acclimation and 0.5% CO2. Thermal acclimation of Pacific bluefin tuna increased O2 binding affinity of the 17 °C-acclimation group, and produced a significantly steeper oxygen equilibrium curve slope (nH) at 24 °C-acclimation compared to the other acclimation temperatures. We discuss the potential implications of these findings below.

  15. Evolutionary melting pots: a biodiversity hotspot shaped by ring diversifications around the Black Sea in the Eastern tree frog (Hyla orientalis).

    PubMed

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Leuenberger, Julien; Ghali, Karim; Zinenko, Oleksandr; Stöck, Matthias; Perrin, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Hotspots of intraspecific genetic diversity, which are of primary importance for the conservation of species, have been associated with glacial refugia, that is areas where species survived the Quaternary climatic oscillations. However, the proximate mechanisms generating these hotspots remain an open issue. Hotspots may reflect the long-term persistence of large refugial populations; alternatively, they may result from allopatric differentiation between small and isolated populations, that later admixed. Here, we test these two scenarios in a widely distributed species of tree frog, Hyla orientalis, which inhabits Asia Minor and southeastern Europe. We apply a fine-scale phylogeographic survey, combining fast-evolving mitochondrial and nuclear markers, with a dense sampling throughout the range, as well as ecological niche modelling, to understand what shaped the genetic variation of this species. We documented an important diversity centre around the Black Sea, composed of multiple allopatric and/or parapatric diversifications, likely driven by a combination of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and complex regional topography. Remarkably, this diversification forms a ring around the Black Sea, from the Caucasus through Anatolia and eastern Europe, with terminal forms coming into contact and partially admixing in Crimea. Our results support the view that glacial refugia generate rather than host genetic diversity and can also function as evolutionary melting pots of biodiversity. Moreover, we report a new case of ring diversification, triggered by a large, yet cohesive dispersal barrier, a very rare situation in nature. Finally, we emphasize the Black Sea region as an important centre of intraspecific diversity in the Palearctic with implications for conservation. PMID:27220555

  16. Mercury and cadmium concentrations in farmed bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and the suitability of using the caudal peduncle muscle tissue as a monitoring tool.

    PubMed

    Lares, M L; Huerta-Diaz, M A; Marinone, S G; Valdez-Márquez, M

    2012-04-01

    Three regions (cephalic, central, and caudal) of the dorsal and ventral muscle tissue (R1 through R6) and the caudal peduncle muscle tissue (CPMT) of 20 farmed bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) were analyzed for mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations. Region 1 (cephalic-ventral) had significantly lower concentrations of Hg but significantly higher concentrations of Cd than did the other regions. However, average metal concentrations of all regions (R1 through R6) were only 6% lower for Hg and were not significantly different for Cd from those in the CPMT. Therefore, the CPMT was used to monitor the concentrations of these two metals in more than 100 farmed tuna collected from July 2004 to January 2009 under the assumption that the Cd concentrations in the CPMT would be representative of the Cd concentration in the whole body and that the Hg concentrations would be, in the worst case, overestimated by approximately 6%. The Hg and Cd concentrations in these tuna were inversely related to the condition index, i.e., the tuna in better condition had the lowest concentrations of these metals. The mean concentrations in the CPMT of all fish analyzed were 0.31 ± 0.17 μg/g wet weight for Hg and 0.007 ± 0.006 μg/g wet weight for Cd. These concentrations were below the limits established by Mexican regulations for seafood (1.0 and 0.5 μg/g for Hg and Cd, respectively) and Japan (0.4 μg/g for Hg). PMID:22488061

  17. Identification of Acetobacter strains isolated from Indonesian sources, and proposals of Acetobacter syzygii sp. nov., Acetobacter cibinongensis sp. nov., and Acetobacter orientalis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Lisdiyanti, Puspita; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Seki, Tatsuji; Yamada, Yuzo; Uchimura, Tai; Komagata, Kazuo

    2001-06-01

    Forty-six strains of acetic acid bacteria newly isolated from flowers, fruits, and fermented foods collected in Indonesia were taxonomically studied. They were Gram-negative rods, produced acetic acid from ethanol, oxidized acetate and lactate to CO(2) and H(2)O, and had Q-9 as the major ubiquinone system. On the basis of DNA-DNA similarity, all strains studied, including type strains and reference strains of the genus Acetobacter, were separated into eleven groups (Groups I to XI). Of the 46 isolates, two isolates were included in Group II and identified as Acetobacter pasteurianus, five in Group IV as A. orleanensis, 16 in Group V as A. lovaniensis, five in Group VII as A. indonesiensis, and three in Group VIII as A. tropicalis. The remaining 15 isolates constituted three new groups based on DNA-DNA similarity; four isolates were included in Group IX, two in Group X, and nine in Group XI. No isolates were identified as A. aceti (Group I), A. peroxydans (Group III), and A. estunensis (Group VI). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences of representative strains of the Groups indicated belonging to the strains of the genus Acetobacter. On the basis of DNA base composition, DNA-DNA similarity, and 16S rDNA sequences, three new species of the genus Acetobacter are proposed: Acetobacter syzygii sp. nov. for Group IX, Acetobacter cibinongensis sp. nov. for Group X, and Acetobacter orientalis sp. nov. for Group XI. The distribution of Acetobacter strains in Indonesia is discussed in light of isolation sources.

  18. Morphology, axonal projection pattern, and responses to optic nerve stimulation of thalamic neurons in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis.

    PubMed

    Roth, Gerhard; Grunwald, Wolfgang; Dicke, Ursula

    2003-06-16

    Intracellular recording and biocytin labeling were carried out in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis to study the morphology and axonal projections of thalamic (TH) neurons and their responses to electrical optic nerve stimulation. Labeled neurons (n = 142) were divided into the following groups: TH1 neurons projecting to the dorsal striatum; TH2 neurons projecting to the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and septal nuclei; TH3 neurons projecting to the medial or dorsal pallium; TH4 neurons with projections ascending to the dorsal striatum or ventral striatum/amygdala and descending to the optic tectum, tegmentum, and rostral medulla oblongata; TH5 neurons with projections to the tegmentum, rostral medulla oblongata, prectectum, or tectum; and TH6 neurons projecting to the hypothalamus. TH1 neurons are found in the central, TH2 neurons in the anterior and central, TH3 neurons in the anterior dorsal nucleus, and TH4 and TH5 neurons in the posterior dorsal or ventral nucleus. Neurons with descending projections arborize in restricted parts of retinal afferents; neurons with ascending projections do not substantially arborize within retinal afferents. At electrical optic nerve stimulation, neurons in the ventral thalamus respond with excitation at latencies of 10.8 msec; one-third of them follow repetitive stimulation and possibly are monosynaptically driven. Neurons in the dorsal thalamus respond mostly with inhibition at latencies of 42.3 msec and are polysynaptically driven. This corroborates the view that neurons in the dorsal thalamus projecting to the telencephalon receive no substantial direct retinal input and that the thalamopallial pathway of amphibians is not homologous to the mammalian retinogeniculocortical pathway.

  19. Histological examination of the effects of corticosterone in larvae of the western toad, Bufo boreas (Anura: Bufonidae), and the Oriental fire-bellied toad, Bombina orientalis (Anura: Discoglossidae).

    PubMed

    Hayes, T B

    1995-12-01

    The effects of corticosterone (CORT)-treatment on various tissues were examined in two species of anuran larvae, the discoglossid Bombina orientalis, and the bufonid Bufo boreas. Corticosterone was administered directly into aquarium water for 15 days. After treatment, histological analyses were conducted on skin, gut, spleen, thymus, and neural and muscle tissue. Corticosterone treatment prevented sloughing of the skin, which resulted in a build-up of stratum corneum, and inhibited the development of gland nests and the subsequent formation of dermal granular and mucous glands in both species. Corticosterone treatment also decreased epithelial folding in the gut and caused vesiculation of the gut epithelial cells. The thymus of CORT-treated animals was significantly reduced in size (P < .05) and cell density (P < .05), and the spleen of CORT-treated animals was completely involuted. The brain and pituitary of CORT-treated animals had a decreased cell density (P < .05) and many pyknotic cells. An examination of muscle revealed that muscle fibers of CORT-treated animals had a decreased cross-sectional area (P < .05). The dose of CORT used (1.1 microM) was within the range used in other studies in the literature and resulted in tissue levels within the range experienced by larvae at metamorphic climax. Thus, this study is appropriate to address the histological effects of CORT in experimental manipulations and the role of increasing CORT at metamorphic climax. The data suggest that increasing endogenous CORT at metamorphosis may be involved in degeneration of larval tissue, prior to regeneration, which is stimulated by thyroid hormones.

  20. Morphology and axonal projection pattern of neurons in the telencephalon of the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis: an anterograde, retrograde, and intracellular biocytin labeling study.

    PubMed

    Roth, Gerhard; Mühlenbrock-Lenter, Sabine; Grunwald, Wolfgang; Laberge, Frédéric

    2004-10-01

    The connectivity and cytoarchitecture of telencephalic centers except dorsal and medial pallium were studied in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis by anterograde and retrograde biocytin labeling and intracellular biocytin injection (total of 148 intracellularly labeled neurons or neuron clusters). Our findings suggest the following telencephalic divisions: (1) a central amygdala-bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the caudal midventral telencephalon, connected to visceral-autonomic centers; (2) a vomeronasal amygdala in the caudolateral ventral telencephalon receiving input from the accessory olfactory bulb and projecting mainly to the preoptic region/hypothalamus; (3) an olfactory amygdala in the caudal pole of the telencephalon lateral to the vomeronasal amygdala receiving input from the main olfactory bulb and projecting to the hypothalamus; (4) a medial amygdala receiving input from the anterior dorsal thalamus and projecting to the medial pallium, septum, and hypothalamus; (5) a ventromedial column formed by a nucleus accumbens and a ventral pallidum projecting to the central amygdala, hypothalamus, and posterior tubercle; (6) a lateral column constituting the dorsal striatum proper rostrally and the dorsal pallidum caudally, and a ventrolateral column constituting the ventral striatum. We conclude that the caudal mediolateral complex consisting of the extended central, vomeronasal, and olfactory amygdala of anurans represents the ancestral condition of the amygdaloid complex. During the evolution of the mammalian telencephalon this complex was shifted medially and involuted. The mammalian basolateral amygdala apparently is an evolutionary new structure, but the medial portion of the amygdalar complex of anurans reveals similarities in input and output with this structure and may serve similar functions.

  1. Effect of temperature acclimation on red blood cell oxygen affinity in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares).

    PubMed

    Lilly, Laura E; Bonaventura, Joseph; Lipnick, Michael S; Block, Barbara A

    2015-03-01

    Hemoglobin-oxygen (Hb-O2) binding properties are central to aerobic physiology, and must be optimized for an animal's aerobic requirements and environmental conditions, both of which can vary widely with seasonal changes or acutely with diving. In the case of tunas, the matter is further complicated by large regional temperature differences between tissues within the same animal. This study investigates the effects of thermal acclimation on red blood cell Hb-O2 binding in Pacific bluefin tuna (T. orientalis) and yellowfin tuna (T. albacares) maintained in captive tanks at acclimation temperatures of 17°, 20° and 24 °C. Oxygen binding properties of acclimated tuna isolated red blood cells were examined under varying experimental temperatures (15°-35 °C) and CO2 levels (0%, 0.5% and 1.5%). Results for Pacific bluefin tuna produced temperature-independence at 17 °C- and 20 °C-acclimation temperatures and significant reverse temperature-dependence at 24 °C-acclimation in the absence of CO2, with instances of reverse temperature-dependence in 17 °C- and 24 °C-acclimations at 0.5% and 1.5% CO2. In contrast, yellowfin tuna produced normal temperature-dependence at each acclimation temperature at 0% CO2, temperature-independence at 0.5% and 1.5% CO2, and significant reverse temperature-dependence at 17 °C-acclimation and 0.5% CO2. Thermal acclimation of Pacific bluefin tuna increased O2 binding affinity of the 17 °C-acclimation group, and produced a significantly steeper oxygen equilibrium curve slope (nH) at 24 °C-acclimation compared to the other acclimation temperatures. We discuss the potential implications of these findings below. PMID:25434601

  2. Hibernation impact on the catalytic activities of the mitochondrial D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase in liver and brain tissues of jerboa (Jaculus orientalis)

    PubMed Central

    Kabine, Mostafa; El Kebbaj, M'hammed Saïd; Hafiani, Assia; Latruffe, Norbert; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha

    2003-01-01

    Background Jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) is a deep hibernating rodent native to subdesert highlands. During hibernation, a high level of ketone bodies i.e. acetoacetate (AcAc) and D-3-hydroxybutyrate (BOH) are produced in liver, which are used in brain as energetic fuel. These compounds are bioconverted by mitochondrial D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH) E.C. 1.1.1.30. Here we report, the function and the expression of BDH in terms of catalytic activities, kinetic parameters, levels of protein and mRNA in both tissues i.e brain and liver, in relation to the hibernating process. Results We found that: 1/ In euthemic jerboa the specific activity in liver is 2.4- and 6.4- fold higher than in brain, respectively for AcAc reduction and for BOH oxidation. The same differences were found in the hibernation state. 2/ In euthermic jerboa, the Michaelis constants, KM BOH and KM NAD+ are different in liver and in brain while KM AcAc, KM NADH and the dissociation constants, KD NAD+and KD NADH are similar. 3/ During prehibernating state, as compared to euthermic state, the liver BDH activity is reduced by half, while kinetic constants are strongly increased except KD NAD+. 4/ During hibernating state, BDH activity is significantly enhanced, moreover, kinetic constants (KM and KD) are strongly modified as compared to the euthermic state; i.e. KD NAD+ in liver and KM AcAc in brain decrease 5 and 3 times respectively, while KD NADH in brain strongly increases up to 5.6 fold. 5/ Both protein content and mRNA level of BDH remain unchanged during the cold adaptation process. Conclusions These results cumulatively explained and are consistent with the existence of two BDH enzymatic forms in the liver and the brain. The apoenzyme would be subjected to differential conformational folding depending on the hibernation state. This regulation could be a result of either post-translational modifications and/or a modification of the mitochondrial membrane state, taking into account that

  3. Impacts of repeated timber skidding on the chemical properties of topsoil, herbaceous cover and forest floor in an eastern beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stand.

    PubMed

    Demir, Murat; Makineci, Ender; Comez, Aydin; Yilmaz, Ersel

    2010-07-01

    In this study, long-term timber skidding effects on herbaceous understory forest floor and soil were investigated on a skid road in a stand of the eastern beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky). For this purpose, herbaceous understory forest floor and soil samples were collected from the skid road and from an undisturbed area used as a control plot. The mass (kg ha(-1)) of herbaceous and forest floor samples was determined, and soil characteristics were examined at two depths (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm). We quantified sand, silt and clay content, as well as bulk density compaction, pH, and organic carbon content in soil samples. The quantities of N, K, P, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were determined in all herbaceous cover forest floor and soil samples. The quantities of Na, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn in herbaceous understory samples from the skid road were considerably higher than those in the undisturbed area, while the quantity of Mg was considerably lower. These differences could have been caused by decreased herbaceous cover in addition to variations in the properties of the forest floor and soil after skidding. A lower amount of forest floor on the skid road was the result of skidding and harvesting activities. Mg and Zn contents in forest floor samples were found to be considerably lower for the skid road than for the undisturbed area. No significant differences were found in soil chemical properties (quantities of N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn) at the 0-5 cm soil depth. Important differences exist between soil quantities of Mg at a 5-10 cm depth on the skid road and in undisturbed areas. Both 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm soil depths, the average penetrometer resistance values for the skid road was higher than for the undisturbed area. This result shows that the compaction caused by skidding is maintained to depth of 10 cm. Skid road soil showed higher bulk density values than undisturbed areas because of compaction. PMID:21186723

  4. Maribacter gen. nov., a new member of the family Flavobacteriaceae, isolated from marine habitats, containing the species Maribacter sedimenticola sp. nov., Maribacter aquivivus sp. nov., Maribacter orientalis sp. nov. and Maribacter ulvicola sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Kim, Seung Bum; Han, Suk Kyun; Lysenko, Anatoly M; Rohde, Manfred; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Frolova, Galina M; Falsen, Enevold; Mikhailov, Valery V; Bae, Kyung Sook

    2004-07-01

    Six novel gliding, heterotrophic, Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented, aerobic, oxidase- and catalase-positive bacteria were isolated from the green alga Ulva fenestrata, sea water and a bottom sediment sample collected in the Gulf of Peter the Great, Sea of Japan. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strains studied were members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. On the basis of their phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, the novel bacteria have been assigned to the new genus Maribacter gen. nov., as Maribacter sedimenticola sp. nov., Maribacter orientalis sp. nov., Maribacter aquivivus sp. nov. and Maribacter ulvicola sp. nov., with the type strains KMM 3903T (=KCTC 12966T=CCUG 47098T), KMM 3947T (=KCTC 12967T=CCUG 48008T), KMM 3949T (=KCTC 12968T=CCUG 48009T) and KMM 3951T (=KCTC 12969T=DSM 15366T), respectively.

  5. Separation and purification of bovine serum albumin binders from Fructus polygoni orientalis using off-line two-dimensional complexation high-speed counter-current chromatography target-guided by ligand fishing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Shi, Shuyun; Liu, Liangliang; Yang, Hua; Su, Wen; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2013-08-23

    In this study, off-line two-dimensional (2D) complexation high speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was developed for the separation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) binders from the ethyl acetate extract of Fructus polygoni orientalis. Target-guided strategy of BSA functionalized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry ((BSA-Fe3O4 MNPs)-HPLC-MS/MS) experiment was proposed. In the orthogonal separation system, a Normal-Phase HSCCC with 0.01mol/L copper ion as complexation agent in the aqueous phase was employed for the first dimension and Recycling HSCCC, Reverse-Phase HSCCC with 0.1mol/L copper ion were used for the second dimension in parallel. Including two pairs of cis-trans isomers, seven BSA binders including 3,5,7-Trihydroxychromone (1), taxifolin (2), N-cis-paprazine (3), N-cis-feruloyltyramine (4), N-trans-paprazine (5), N-trans-feruloyltyramine (6) and an unidentified compound (7) were obtained. The purities of these seven compounds were all over 95.0% as determined by HPLC. The complexation HSCCC behaviors of seven compounds were also investigated by studying their relationship with copper ion. Results showed that the combinative method using (BSA-Fe3O4 MNPs)-HPLC and HSCCC is a quick, efficient, and reproductive technique to isolate potentially bioactive compounds from the complex mixture system of natural products. And the usage of off-line 2D-HSCCC and introduction of chelating metal ion into solvent system are effective ways to implement HSCCC separations in complex samples.

  6. Biguanide related compounds in traditional antidiabetic functional foods.

    PubMed

    Perla, Venu; Jayanty, Sastry S

    2013-06-01

    Biguanides such as metformin are widely used worldwide for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The identification of guanidine and related compounds in French lilac plant (Galega officinalis L.) led to the development of biguanides. Despite of their plant origin, biguanides have not been reported in plants. The objective of this study was to quantify biguanide related compounds (BRCs) in experimentally or clinically substantiated antidiabetic functional plant foods and potatoes. The corrected results of the Voges-Proskauer (V-P) assay suggest that the highest amounts of BRCs are present in green curry leaves (Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel) followed by fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), green bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Descourt.), and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Whereas, garlic (Allium sativum L.), and sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.) contain negligible amounts of BRCs. In addition, the possible biosynthetic routes of biguanide in these plant foods are discussed.

  7. Biguanide related compounds in traditional antidiabetic functional foods.

    PubMed

    Perla, Venu; Jayanty, Sastry S

    2013-06-01

    Biguanides such as metformin are widely used worldwide for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The identification of guanidine and related compounds in French lilac plant (Galega officinalis L.) led to the development of biguanides. Despite of their plant origin, biguanides have not been reported in plants. The objective of this study was to quantify biguanide related compounds (BRCs) in experimentally or clinically substantiated antidiabetic functional plant foods and potatoes. The corrected results of the Voges-Proskauer (V-P) assay suggest that the highest amounts of BRCs are present in green curry leaves (Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel) followed by fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), green bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Descourt.), and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Whereas, garlic (Allium sativum L.), and sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.) contain negligible amounts of BRCs. In addition, the possible biosynthetic routes of biguanide in these plant foods are discussed. PMID:23411283

  8. Light influence in the nutritional composition of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    PubMed

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Peixoto, V; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    Brassica sprouts are considered a healthy food product, whose nutritional quality can be influenced by several factors. The aim of this work was to monitor the nutritional composition changes promoted by different sprouting conditions of four varieties of Brassica oleracea (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage). Sprouts were grown under light/darkness cycles and complete darkness. Standard AOAC methods were applied for nutritional value evaluation, while chromatographic methods with UV-VIS and FID detection were used to determine the free amino acids and fatty acids, respectively. Mineral content was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Sprouts composition revealed them as an excellent source of protein and dietary fiber. Selenium content was one of the most distinctive feature of sprouts, being the sprouting conditions determinant for the free amino acid and fatty acids profile. The use of complete darkness was beneficial to the overall nutritional quality of the brassica sprouts studied.

  9. Caesium-137 root uptake by agricultural and wild crops in post-Chernobyl landscape: the possibilities for phytoremediation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramonova, Tatiana; Shamshurina, Eugenia; Komissarova, Olga; Belyaev, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    In spite of long term period after Chernobyl fallout (≈25 years after the accident) the level of Cs-137 in soils of contaminated landscapes remains several times more than radiation safety standard (= 37 kBq/m2). In particular, within the area of Plavsk radioactive hot spot (Tula region, Russia) current Cs-137 activities in soil are 460-500 Bq/kg (170-200 kBq/m2) on watershed, 580-680 Bq/kg (200-220 kBq/m2) in arable lower parts of slopes and 620-710 Bq/kg (210-280 kBq/m2) in untilled foots of slopes and river floodplains. To estimate the process of Cs-137 root uptake and incorporation of the radionuclide in plant tissues 6 agricultural crops of typical field rotation (spring barley, maize, summer rape, galega, potatoes, amaranth) as well as natural ecosystems of dry and wet meadows were selected for the detailed study. Total bioproductivity of agricultural crops varies between 1.7-3.9 kg/m2, natural grass ecosystems - 1.9-2.2 g/m2, and is obviously unaffected by radioactive land contamination. At the same time Cs-137 activity in total biomass slightly increases with Cs-137 activity in soil (correlation coefficient r=0.45) and with total biomass (correlation coefficient r=0.51) in the row: rape (5 Bq/kg) < amaranth, galega (17-19 Bq/kg) < barley, potatoes (31-37 Bq/kg) < maize (58 Bq/kg) < dry meadow (73 Bq/kg) < wet meadow (120 Bq/kg). Commonly, Cs-137 activity in vegetation of natural ecosystems with predominance of perennial grasses is significantly higher than in agrosystems with annual crops. But a substantial portion of Cs-137 in meadow vegetation is associated with belowground biomass, where the radionuclide's activity is 3-5 times greater than in the aboveground part. The distribution of Cs-137 activities between above- and belowground parts of agricultural crops greatly varies depending on the biological characteristics of plants: barley and maize (Gramíneae family) are also characterized by elevated Cs-137 concentrations in belowground parts (12

  10. Silvopastoralism and autochthonous equine livestock: analysis of the infection by endoparasites.

    PubMed

    Francisco, I; Arias, M; Cortiñas, F J; Francisco, R; Mochales, E; Sánchez, J A; Uriarte, J; Suárez, J L; Morrondo, P; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Díez-Baños, P; Paz-Silva, A

    2009-10-14

    Two groups of autochthonous Pura Raza Galega (PRG) horses, one comprising 483 animals under a silvopasturing regime, and the other comprising 72 PRG horses managed in farms, were used to analyse the effect of silvopasture on infection by endoparasites. Results were considered according to the age and the sex of the horses. Faecal samples were individually collected from each animal and analysed by the coprological flotation, sedimentation and migration techniques. Coprocultures were also done to identify the main strongylid genera affecting the horses. Eggs from the gastrointestinal nematoda Parascaris equorum, strongyles and Oxyuris equi were the only endoparasites observed in the faeces of the horses. Larvae of Trichonema and Cyalocephalus spp. (small strongyles) and Strongylus and Triodontophorus (large strongyles) were identified in the coprocultures. The silvopasturing horses had the highest prevalence of the helminth parasites. The percentage of horses passing ascarid eggs was significantly higher in pasturing horses younger than 3 years. The prevalence of strongyles was statistically greater in the oldest grazing equines. Mares reached the highest prevalence of helminth egg output. Our results showed that native horses kept under silvopasture had the highest prevalence of the ascarids, strongyles and oxyurids, possibly due to their exposure to contaminated grazing areas, lack of appropriate feeding and control of their health status. We conclude that silvopasture increases the presence of infection by gastrointestinal nematoda in wild horses, especially by strongyles. Suitable measures to control parasitic diseases affecting horses in silvopasture should be considered in those systems. PMID:19632049

  11. Natural Products for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ríos, José Luis; Francini, Flavio; Schinella, Guillermo R

    2015-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. High blood sugar can produce long-term complications such as cardiovascular and renal disorders, retinopathy, and poor blood flow. Its development can be prevented or delayed in people with impaired glucose tolerance by implementing lifestyle changes or the use of therapeutic agents. Some of these drugs have been obtained from plants or have a microbial origin, such as galegine isolated from Galega officinalis, which has a great similarity to the antidiabetic drug metformin. Picnogenol, acarbose, miglitol, and voglibose are other antidiabetic products of natural origin. This review compiles the principal articles on medicinal plants used for treating diabetes and its comorbidities, as well as mechanisms of natural products as antidiabetic agents. Inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, effects on glucose uptake and glucose transporters, modification of mechanisms mediated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B activity, modification of gene expression, and activities of hormones involved in glucose homeostasis such as adiponectin, resistin, and incretin, and reduction of oxidative stress are some of the mechanisms in which natural products are involved. We also review the most relevant clinical trials performed with medicinal plants and natural products such as aloe, banaba, bitter melon, caper, cinnamon, cocoa, coffee, fenugreek, garlic, guava, gymnema, nettle, sage, soybean, green and black tea, turmeric, walnut, and yerba mate. Compounds of high interest as potential antidiabetics are: fukugetin, palmatine, berberine, honokiol, amorfrutins, trigonelline, gymnemic acids, gurmarin, and phlorizin. PMID:26132858

  12. Ability of the fungus Duddingtonia flagrans to adapt to the cyathostomin egg-output by spreading chlamydospores.

    PubMed

    Paz-Silva, A; Francisco, I; Valero-Coss, R O; Cortiñas, F J; Sánchez, J A; Francisco, R; Arias, M; Suárez, J L; López-Arellano, M E; Sánchez-Andrade, R; de Gives, P Mendoza

    2011-06-30

    The analysis of the capability of the nematode trapping-fungus Duddingtonia flagrans to adapt to the cyathostomin egg-output in horses was evaluated. Fecal samples from 196 pasturing autochthonous Pura Raza Galega horses were collected from the rectum and then divided according to the egg-output into three groups: ≤ 300, 310-800 and >800 eggs per gram feces. Four doses of chlamydospores (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 × 10(6)/100g feces) were directly spread onto fecal pats on the ground, remaining one without treatment as control. Fecal pats confirmed the presence of gastrointestinal nematode larvae belonging to strongylid cyathostomins (Cyathostomum and Gyalocephalus spp). An overall 94% (95% CI 91, 97) percentage of reduction was obtained, and an increase in the activity of the trapping-fungi simultaneously to the rising in the number of cyathostomin eggs and larvae in the coprocultures was detected. A significantly highest reduction of the cyathostomin L3 in the coprocultures with more than 800 EPG was found, which indicates that Df trapping activity is larvae nematode density-dependant. The present research showed the high biological activity of D. flagrans against nematode larvae can adjust to the cyathostomin egg-output, and underlines its efficacy as a practical method for the control of these parasites in grazing horses.

  13. Fasciola hepatica in goats from north-western Spain: Risk factor analysis using a capture ELISA.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Creo, Ana; Díaz, Pablo; López, Ceferino; Béjar, Juan Pablo; Martínez-Sernández, Victoria; Panadero, Rosario; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Ubeira, Florencio M; Morrondo, Patrocinio

    2016-02-01

    In order to study the seroprevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection in goats from north-western Spain, a total of 603 serum samples from 47 herds were tested using a capture ELISA (MM3-SERO). The identification of risk factors was assessed by a mixed-effects logistic regression analysis. The results showed that F. hepatica is widespread in this area with 57.4% of the herds and 22.7% of the animals testing positive. Breed and age were identified as determining factors for caprine F. hepatica infection. Seroprevalence in cross-bred animals was significantly higher than in the autochthonous Cabra Galega breed. A significantly higher seroprevalence was observed in older animals. The use of locally adapted breeds and the implementation of suitable management practices could provide a substantial improvement over the current F. hepatica control measures carried out in goat herds and should be considered when designing new F. hepatica control programs.

  14. Effect of sprouting and light cycle on antioxidant activity of Brassica oleracea varieties.

    PubMed

    Vale, Ana Paula; Cidade, Honorina; Pinto, Madalena; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2014-12-15

    The antioxidant activity of sprouts from four Brassica oleracea varieties was evaluated using "in vitro" methods (total phenolic and flavonoid content; radical scavenging assays: DPPH, hydroxyl and peroxyl; and Ferrous Ion-chelating Ability Assay). Light cycles and sprouting influenced the potential antioxidant activity of sprouts and significant differences were observed between varieties. Generally, antioxidant activity decreased with sprouting and increased in the presence of light, whose discriminant effect was highly significant (P<0.001). Red cabbage sprouts produced under light cycles showed the highest antioxidant activity (57.11 μg mL(-1) Ferrous Ion-chelating Ability, 221.46 μg mL(-1) Hydroxyl radical scavenging, 279.02 μg mL(-1) Peroxyl radical scavenging). Among the traditional Portuguese brassica varieties, Penca cabbage sprouts produced under light presented higher antioxidant capacity, and also higher phenolic and flavonoid content (54.04 mg GAEg(-1) d.w. extract and 21.33 QEg(-1) d.w. extract, respectively) than Galega kale. The phenolic content of Brassica sprouts had a significant contribution to the antioxidant capacity.

  15. Occurrence of Choline and Glycine Betaine Uptake and Metabolism in the Family Rhizobiaceae and Their Roles in Osmoprotection

    PubMed Central

    Boncompagni, Eric; Østerås, Magne; Poggi, Marie-Christine; le Rudulier, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    The role of glycine betaine and choline in osmoprotection of various Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Agrobacterium, and Bradyrhizobium reference strains which display a large variation in salt tolerance was investigated. When externally provided, both compounds enhanced the growth of Rhizobium tropici, Sinorhizobium meliloti, Sinorhizobium fredii, Rhizobium galegae, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Mesorhizobium loti, and Mesorhizobium huakuii, demonstrating their utilization as osmoprotectants. However, both compounds were inefficient for the most salt-sensitive strains, such as Rhizobium leguminosarum (all biovars), Agrobacterium rhizogenes, Rhizobium etli, and Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Except for B. japonicum, all strains exhibit transport activity for glycine betaine and choline. When the medium osmolarity was raised, choline uptake activity was inhibited, whereas glycine betaine uptake was either increased in R. leguminosarum and S. meliloti or, more surprisingly, reduced in R. tropici, S. fredii, and M. loti. The transport of glycine betaine was increased by growing the cells in the presence of the substrate. With the exception of B. japonicum, all strains were able to use glycine betaine and choline as sole carbon and nitrogen sources. This catabolic function, reported for only a few soil bacteria, could increase competitiveness of rhizobial species in the rhizosphere. Choline dehydrogenase and betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase activities were present in the cells of all strains with the exception of M. huakuii and B. japonicum. The main physiological role of glycine betaine in the family Rhizobiaceae seems to be as an energy source, while its contribution to osmoprotection is restricted to certain strains. PMID:10224003

  16. The single evolutionary origin of chlorinated auxin provides a phylogenetically informative trait in the Fabaceae.

    PubMed

    Lam, Hong Kiat; Ross, John J; McAdam, Erin L; McAdam, Scott A M

    2016-07-01

    Chlorinated auxin (4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid, 4-Cl-IAA), a highly potent plant hormone, was once thought to be restricted to species of the tribe Fabeae within the Fabaceae, until we recently detected this hormone in the seeds of Medicago, Melilotus and Trifolium species. The absence of 4-Cl-IAA in the seeds of the cultivated species Cicer aeritinum from the Cicerae tribe, immediately basal to the Fabeae and Trifolieae tribes, suggested a single evolutionary origin of 4-Cl-IAA. Here, we provide a more robust phylogenetic placement of the ability to produce chlorinated auxin by screening key species spanning this evolutionary transition. We report no detectable level of 4-Cl-IAA in Cicer echinospermum (a wild relative of C. aeritinum) and 4 species (Galega officinalis, Parochetus communis, Astragalus propinquus and A. sinicus) from tribes or clades more basal or sister to the Cicerae tribe. We did detect 4-Cl-IAA in the dry seeds of 4 species from the genus Ononis that are either basal to the genera Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella or basal to, but still within, the Fabeae and Trifolieae (ex. Parochetus) clades. We conclude that the single evolutionary origin of this hormone in seeds can be used as a phylogenetically informative trait within the Fabaceae. PMID:27302610

  17. The single evolutionary origin of chlorinated auxin provides a phylogenetically informative trait in the Fabaceae.

    PubMed

    Lam, Hong Kiat; Ross, John J; McAdam, Erin L; McAdam, Scott A M

    2016-07-01

    Chlorinated auxin (4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid, 4-Cl-IAA), a highly potent plant hormone, was once thought to be restricted to species of the tribe Fabeae within the Fabaceae, until we recently detected this hormone in the seeds of Medicago, Melilotus and Trifolium species. The absence of 4-Cl-IAA in the seeds of the cultivated species Cicer aeritinum from the Cicerae tribe, immediately basal to the Fabeae and Trifolieae tribes, suggested a single evolutionary origin of 4-Cl-IAA. Here, we provide a more robust phylogenetic placement of the ability to produce chlorinated auxin by screening key species spanning this evolutionary transition. We report no detectable level of 4-Cl-IAA in Cicer echinospermum (a wild relative of C. aeritinum) and 4 species (Galega officinalis, Parochetus communis, Astragalus propinquus and A. sinicus) from tribes or clades more basal or sister to the Cicerae tribe. We did detect 4-Cl-IAA in the dry seeds of 4 species from the genus Ononis that are either basal to the genera Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella or basal to, but still within, the Fabeae and Trifolieae (ex. Parochetus) clades. We conclude that the single evolutionary origin of this hormone in seeds can be used as a phylogenetically informative trait within the Fabaceae.

  18. Proposal for rejection of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and revised descriptions for the genus Agrobacterium and for Agrobacterium radiobacter and Agrobacterium rhizogenes.

    PubMed

    Sawada, H; Ieki, H; Oyaizu, H; Matsumoto, S

    1993-10-01

    The 16S rRNA sequences of seven representative Agrobacterium strains, eight representative Rhizobium strains, and the type strains of Azorhizobium caulinodans and Bradyrhizobium japonicum were determined. These strains included the type strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Agrobacterium rhizogenes, Agrobacterium radiobacter, Agrobacterium vitis, Agrobacterium rubi, Rhizobium fredii, Rhizobium galegae, Rhizobium huakuii, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Rhizobium loti, Rhizobium meliloti, and Rhizobium tropici. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the 15 strains of Agrobacterium and Rhizobium species formed a compact phylogenetic cluster clearly separated from the other members of the alpha subclass of the Proteobacteria. However, Agrobacterium species and Rhizobium species are phylogenetically entwined with one another, and the two genera cannot be separated. In the Agrobacterium species, the strains of biovar 1, biovar 2, Agrobacterium rubi, and Agrobacterium vitis were clearly separated. The two biovars exhibited homogeneity in their phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic characteristics, and two species should be established for the two biovars. We considered the nomenclature of the two biovars, and revised descriptions of Agrobacterium radiobacter (for the biovar 1 strains) and Agrobacterium rhizogenes (for the biovar 2 strains) are proposed. The name Agrobacterium tumefaciens is rejected because the type strain of this species was assigned to Agrobacterium radiobacter, and consequently the description of the genus Agrobacterium is revised.

  19. Conservation biological control in strawberry: effect of different pollen on development, survival, and reproduction of Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Gugole Ottaviano, María F; Cédola, Claudia V; Sánchez, Norma E; Greco, Nancy M

    2015-12-01

    Wild vegetation surrounding crops may provide temporary habitat and potential food sources for phytoseiids in different seasons. Monthly vegetation samples of wild plants adjacent to strawberry plants and wild plants in a vegetation strip close to the crop were taken. The frequency of Neoseiulus californicus, Tetranychus urticae and other mites and insects was recorded. In addition, in a laboratory assay, the survival, developmental time and fecundity of females fed on pollen of strawberry and pollen of wild plants where N. californicus was recorded during their flowering, were estimated. Pollen from Urtica urens, Lamium amplexicaule, Convolvulus arvensis, Sonchus oleraceous, Galega officinalis, and Fragaria x ananassa (strawberry) allowed development of N. californicus to adult, but not reproduction. Survival was 70-80 % when fed on pollen from S. oleraceus, G. officinalis and C. arvensis, 80-90 % when fed on pollen from U. urens and F. x ananassa, and more than 90 % when fed on T. urticae and on pollen from L. amplexicaule. In autumn and winter, U. urens, L. amplexicaule and S. oleraceous could promote the persistence of N. californicus when prey density in strawberry is low, offering T. urticae, thrips and pollen. In summer, pollen of C. arvensis and G. officinalis would contribute to the persistence of N. californicus when the strawberry crop is ending and offers scarce food resources. Although the pollen of these plants would not enable the predator population to increase, the presence of these plants in the vicinity of strawberry could contribute to the persistence of N. californicus population and help to limit T. urticae growth when this pest begins to colonize the crop.

  20. Conservation biological control in strawberry: effect of different pollen on development, survival, and reproduction of Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Gugole Ottaviano, María F; Cédola, Claudia V; Sánchez, Norma E; Greco, Nancy M

    2015-12-01

    Wild vegetation surrounding crops may provide temporary habitat and potential food sources for phytoseiids in different seasons. Monthly vegetation samples of wild plants adjacent to strawberry plants and wild plants in a vegetation strip close to the crop were taken. The frequency of Neoseiulus californicus, Tetranychus urticae and other mites and insects was recorded. In addition, in a laboratory assay, the survival, developmental time and fecundity of females fed on pollen of strawberry and pollen of wild plants where N. californicus was recorded during their flowering, were estimated. Pollen from Urtica urens, Lamium amplexicaule, Convolvulus arvensis, Sonchus oleraceous, Galega officinalis, and Fragaria x ananassa (strawberry) allowed development of N. californicus to adult, but not reproduction. Survival was 70-80 % when fed on pollen from S. oleraceus, G. officinalis and C. arvensis, 80-90 % when fed on pollen from U. urens and F. x ananassa, and more than 90 % when fed on T. urticae and on pollen from L. amplexicaule. In autumn and winter, U. urens, L. amplexicaule and S. oleraceous could promote the persistence of N. californicus when prey density in strawberry is low, offering T. urticae, thrips and pollen. In summer, pollen of C. arvensis and G. officinalis would contribute to the persistence of N. californicus when the strawberry crop is ending and offers scarce food resources. Although the pollen of these plants would not enable the predator population to increase, the presence of these plants in the vicinity of strawberry could contribute to the persistence of N. californicus population and help to limit T. urticae growth when this pest begins to colonize the crop. PMID:26459375

  1. Characterization, distribution, and localization of ISRl2, and insertion sequence element isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae.

    PubMed Central

    Mazurier, S I; Rigottier-Gois, L; Amarger, N

    1996-01-01

    An insertion sequence (IS) element, ISR12, from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain MSDJ4184 was isolated by insertional inactivation of the sacRB gene of pSUP104-sac, which allows positive selection. ISRl2 is 932 bp long, is flanked by 17-bp imperfect terminal inverted repeats, and generated a 3-bp target site duplication. ISRl2 was found to be 63 to 77% homologous to insertion elements of the IS5 group of the IS4 superfamily. A probe incorporating a full-length copy of ISRl2 was used to screen genomic DNAs from a collection of strains and from two field populations of R. leguminosarum to detect and estimate the copy numbers of homologous sequences. Among the collection of 63 strains representing the different species and genera of members of the family Rhizobiaceae, homology to ISRl2 was found within strains belonging to Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. fredii; within four of the six recognized Rhizobium species. R. leguminosarum, R. tropici, R. etli, and R. galegae; and within Rhizobium sp. (Phaseolus) genomic species 2. The apparent copy numbers of ISRl2 varied from one to eight. Among 139 isolates of R. leguminosarum from two field populations, homology to ISRl2 was detected in 91% of the isolates from one site and in 17% from the other. Analysis of the 95 isolates that hybridize to ISRl2 revealed a total of 20 distinct hybridization patterns composed of one to three bands. Probing blots of Eckhardt gels showed that sequences with homology to ISRl2 may be found on plasmids or the chromosome. Analysis of their genomic distribution demonstrated relationships and diversity among the R. leguminosarum isolates tested. PMID:8593071

  2. Effects of temperature acclimation on Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) cardiac transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Jayasundara, Nishad; Gardner, Luke D; Block, Barbara A

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms underpinning thermal plasticity of vertebrate hearts. Bluefin tuna hearts offer a unique model to investigate processes underlying thermal acclimation. Their hearts, while supporting an endothermic physiology, operate at ambient temperature, and are presented with a thermal challenge when migrating to different thermal regimes. Here, we examined the molecular responses in atrial and ventricular tissues of Pacific bluefin tuna acclimated to 14°C, 20°C, and 25°C. Quantitative PCR studies showed an increase in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase gene expression with cold acclimation and an induction of Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger gene at both cold and warm temperatures. These data provide evidence for thermal plasticity of excitation-contraction coupling gene expression in bluefin tunas and indicate an increased capacity for internal Ca(2+) storage in cardiac myocytes at 14°C. Transcriptomic analysis showed profound changes in cardiac tissues with acclimation. A principal component analysis revealed that temperature effect was greatest on gene expression in warm-acclimated atrium. Overall data showed an increase in cardiac energy metabolism at 14°C, potentially compensating for cold temperature to optimize bluefin tuna performance in colder oceans. In contrast, metabolic enzyme activity and gene expression data suggest a decrease in ATP production at 25°C. Expression of genes involved in protein turnover and molecular chaperones was also decreased at 25°C. Expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response and programmed cell death suggest an increase in oxidative damage and apoptosis at 25°C, particularly in the atrium. These findings provide insights into molecular processes that may characterize cardiac phenotypes at upper thermal limits of teleosts.

  3. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurosecretory system of the jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) and its seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    El Ouezzani, S; Tramu, G; Magoul, R

    2000-12-01

    The distribution of cells expressing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) immunoreactivity was examined in the brain of adult jerboa during two distinct periods of the reproductive cycle. During spring-summer, when the jerboa is sexually active, a high density of cell bodies and fibres immunoreactive (IR) for GnRH was observed at the level of separation of the frontal lobes, in the medial septal nucleus (MS) and in the diagonal band of Broca (DBB), in the preoptic area (POA), in the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT), in the retrochiasmatic area and hypothalamus. In autumn, when the jerboa is sexually inactive, GnRH-immunoreactivity was less intense than during spring-summer. In the POA, we noted a 55% decrease in the number of GnRH containing cells with no change in cell numbers in the MS-DBB. Furthermore, a lower density of GnRH immunopositive axon fibres is observed in all the previously mentioned structures and the immunoreaction intensity was very weak particularly within the median eminence and OVLT. Independently of the season, the GnRH immunoreactivity within neurones and fibres was similar in jerboas living in captivity and in jerboas living in their natural biotope. The effects of photoperiod on the density of POA-GnRH and arcuate nucleus beta-endorphin-containing cells were studied in jerboas maintained in long day [(LD) 16-h light, 8-h dark] and short day [(SD) 8-h light, 16-h dark] for 8 weeks. In the POA, the GnRH-IR cell number was not significantly altered by the photoperiod. Similarly, in the mediobasal hypothalamus, the number of beta-endorphin-IR neurones was not affected by such a parameter. Consequently, the GnRH seasonal variations cannot be correlated to changes in the photoperiod alone. PMID:11106979

  4. Quantification of percutaneous absorption of metronidazole and levamisole in the fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis).

    PubMed

    Mombarg, M; Claessen, H; Lambrechts, L; Zwart, P

    1992-12-01

    Spot-on application has proved to be an effective way to reach therapeutic doses of metronidazole and levamisole in fire-bellied toads. The percutaneous absorption of metronidazole and levamisole was quantified, using an aqueous solution of 1.008 mg/ml of metronidazole and an aqueous solution of 3.767 mg/ml of levamisole. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the percutaneous absorption revealed that of the amount applied, 75% of metronidazole and 90% of levamisole was absorbed. This resulted during 3 days of application in dosages of 23 mg/kg BW of metronidazole and 94 mg/kg BW of levamisole. Of the absorbed substances, 48% of metronidazole and 9% of levamisole were excreted in urine and faeces as unmetabolised substances.

  5. Temperature effects on metabolic rate of juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis.

    PubMed

    Blank, Jason M; Morrissette, Jeffery M; Farwell, Charles J; Price, Matthew; Schallert, Robert J; Block, Barbara A

    2007-12-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna inhabit a wide range of thermal environments across the Pacific ocean. To examine how metabolism varies across this thermal range, we studied the effect of ambient water temperature on metabolic rate of juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, swimming in a swim tunnel. Rate of oxygen consumption (MO2) was measured at ambient temperatures of 8-25 degrees C and swimming speeds of 0.75-1.75 body lengths (BL) s(-1). Pacific bluefin swimming at 1 BL s(-1) per second exhibited a U-shaped curve of metabolic rate vs ambient temperature, with a thermal minimum zone between 15 degrees C to 20 degrees C. Minimum MO2 of 175+/-29 mg kg(-1) h(-1) was recorded at 15 degrees C, while both cold and warm temperatures resulted in increased metabolic rates of 331+/-62 mg kg(-1) h(-1) at 8 degrees C and 256+/-19 mg kg(-1) h(-1) at 25 degrees C. Tailbeat frequencies were negatively correlated with ambient temperature. Additional experiments indicated that the increase in MO2 at low temperature occurred only at low swimming speeds. Ambient water temperature data from electronic tags implanted in wild fish indicate that Pacific bluefin of similar size to the experimental fish used in the swim tunnel spend most of their time in ambient temperatures in the metabolic thermal minimum zone.

  6. Radiocesium in Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis in 2012 validates new tracer technique.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Daniel J; Baumann, Zofia; Snodgrass, Owyn E; Ergül, Halim A; Dewar, Heidi; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2013-03-01

    The detection of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT) that crossed the Pacific Ocean to the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) in 2011 presented the potential to use radiocesium as a tracer in highly migratory species. This tracer requires that all western Pacific Ocean emigrants acquire the (134)Cs signal, a radioisotope undetectable in Pacific biota prior to the Fukushima accident in 2011. We tested the efficacy of the radiocesium tracer by measuring (134)Cs and (137)Cs in PBFT (n = 50) caught in the CCLME in 2012, more than a year after the Fukushima accident. All small PBFT (n = 28; recent migrants from Japan) had (134)Cs (0.7 ± 0.2 Bq kg(-1)) and elevated (137)Cs (2.0 ± 0.5 Bq kg(-1)) in their white muscle tissue. Most larger, older fish (n = 22) had no (134)Cs and only background levels of (137)Cs, showing that one year in the CCLME is sufficient for (134)Cs and (137)Cs values in PBFT to reach pre-Fukushima levels. Radiocesium concentrations in 2012 PBFT were less than half those from 2011 and well below safety guidelines for public health. Detection of (134)Cs in all recent migrant PBFT supports the use of radiocesium as a tracer in migratory animals in 2012.

  7. Antiviral activity of Thuja orientalis extracts against watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) on Citrullus lanatus

    PubMed Central

    Elbeshehy, Esam K.F.; Metwali, Ehab M.R.; Almaghrabi, Omar A.

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon mosaic potyvirus (WMV) is considered as an important virus infecting watermelon and causing adverse effects on crop productivity. To overcome this problem one of the main objectives of plant breeders is to make these strains less effective in the ability to infect plants by treatment with plant extracts. Due to the advantages of plant tissue culture, in vitro, in the process of the selection of different cultivars under biotic stress, this study was conducted to achieve this aim by evaluating the effect of three concentrations of Thuja extract on the multiplication of WMV in watermelon by measuring callus fresh weight and soluble proteins (mg g−1 fresh weight) of healthy and infected hypocotyl explants. Also, WMV was isolated from naturally infected watermelon and characterized as potyvirus by serological and molecular analyses. The isolated virus gave a positive reaction with WMV antiserum compared with other antibodies of CMV, ZYMV and SqMV using DAS-ELISA. RT-PCR, with the specific primer for WMV-cp. gene, yielded 825 base pair DNA fragments. The results that belong to soluble protein analysis indicated that infected hypocotyl explants treated with 6 g L−1 recorded the highest rate in the number of soluble protein bands compared with the rest of treatments. As a conclusion of these results, we can recommend to apply the Thuja extract at 6 g L−1 as a optimum dosage to decrease the infection caused by watermelon mosaic potyvirus. PMID:25737655

  8. Isolation and primary structure of proteinase inhibitors from Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. Orientalis seeds.

    PubMed

    Kouzuma, Y; Suetake, M; Kimura, M; Yamasaki, N

    1992-11-01

    The Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors, ETIa and ETIb, and chymotrypsin inhibitor ECI were isolated from the seeds of Erythrina variegata. The proteins were extracted from a defatted meal of seeds with 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, containing 0.15 M NaCl, and purified by DEAE-cellulose and Q-Sepharose column chromatographies. The stoichiometry of trypsin inhibitors with trypsin was estimated to be 1:1, while that of chymotrypsin inhibitor with chymotrypsin was 1:2, judging from the titration patterns of their inhibitory activities. The complete amino acids of the two trypsin inhibitors were sequenced by protein chemical methods. The proteins ETIa and ETIb consist of 172 and 176 amino acid residues and have M(r) 19,242 and M(r) 19,783, respectively, and share 112 identical amino acid residues, which is 65% identity. They show structural features characteristic of the Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (i.e., identical residues at about 45% with soybean trypsin inhibitor STI). Furthermore, the trypsin inhibitors show a significant homology to the storage proteins, sporamin, in sweet potato and the taste-modifying protein, miraculin, in miracle fruit, having about 30% identical residues. PMID:1369077

  9. Antiviral activity of Thuja orientalis extracts against watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) on Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Elbeshehy, Esam K F; Metwali, Ehab M R; Almaghrabi, Omar A

    2015-03-01

    Watermelon mosaic potyvirus (WMV) is considered as an important virus infecting watermelon and causing adverse effects on crop productivity. To overcome this problem one of the main objectives of plant breeders is to make these strains less effective in the ability to infect plants by treatment with plant extracts. Due to the advantages of plant tissue culture, in vitro, in the process of the selection of different cultivars under biotic stress, this study was conducted to achieve this aim by evaluating the effect of three concentrations of Thuja extract on the multiplication of WMV in watermelon by measuring callus fresh weight and soluble proteins (mg g(-1) fresh weight) of healthy and infected hypocotyl explants. Also, WMV was isolated from naturally infected watermelon and characterized as potyvirus by serological and molecular analyses. The isolated virus gave a positive reaction with WMV antiserum compared with other antibodies of CMV, ZYMV and SqMV using DAS-ELISA. RT-PCR, with the specific primer for WMV-cp. gene, yielded 825 base pair DNA fragments. The results that belong to soluble protein analysis indicated that infected hypocotyl explants treated with 6 g L(-1) recorded the highest rate in the number of soluble protein bands compared with the rest of treatments. As a conclusion of these results, we can recommend to apply the Thuja extract at 6 g L(-1) as a optimum dosage to decrease the infection caused by watermelon mosaic potyvirus. PMID:25737655

  10. Antiviral activity of Thuja orientalis extracts against watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) on Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Elbeshehy, Esam K F; Metwali, Ehab M R; Almaghrabi, Omar A

    2015-03-01

    Watermelon mosaic potyvirus (WMV) is considered as an important virus infecting watermelon and causing adverse effects on crop productivity. To overcome this problem one of the main objectives of plant breeders is to make these strains less effective in the ability to infect plants by treatment with plant extracts. Due to the advantages of plant tissue culture, in vitro, in the process of the selection of different cultivars under biotic stress, this study was conducted to achieve this aim by evaluating the effect of three concentrations of Thuja extract on the multiplication of WMV in watermelon by measuring callus fresh weight and soluble proteins (mg g(-1) fresh weight) of healthy and infected hypocotyl explants. Also, WMV was isolated from naturally infected watermelon and characterized as potyvirus by serological and molecular analyses. The isolated virus gave a positive reaction with WMV antiserum compared with other antibodies of CMV, ZYMV and SqMV using DAS-ELISA. RT-PCR, with the specific primer for WMV-cp. gene, yielded 825 base pair DNA fragments. The results that belong to soluble protein analysis indicated that infected hypocotyl explants treated with 6 g L(-1) recorded the highest rate in the number of soluble protein bands compared with the rest of treatments. As a conclusion of these results, we can recommend to apply the Thuja extract at 6 g L(-1) as a optimum dosage to decrease the infection caused by watermelon mosaic potyvirus.

  11. Solar energy harvesting in the epicuticle of the oriental hornet ( Vespa orientalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin, Marian; Hod, Idan; Zaban, Arie; Boden, Stuart A.; Bagnall, Darren M.; Galushko, Dmitry; Bergman, David J.

    2010-12-01

    The Oriental hornet worker correlates its digging activity with solar insolation. Solar radiation passes through the epicuticle, which exhibits a grating-like structure, and continues to pass through layers of the exo-endocuticle until it is absorbed by the pigment melanin in the brown-colored cuticle or xanthopterin in the yellow-colored cuticle. The correlation between digging activity and the ability of the cuticle to absorb part of the solar radiation implies that the Oriental hornet may harvest parts of the solar radiation. In this study, we explore this intriguing possibility by analyzing the biophysical properties of the cuticle. We use rigorous coupled wave analysis simulations to show that the cuticle surfaces are structured to reduced reflectance and act as diffraction gratings to trap light and increase the amount absorbed in the cuticle. A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was constructed in order to show the ability of xanthopterin to serve as a light-harvesting molecule.

  12. Molecular characterization of kudoid parasites (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) from somatic muscles of Pacific bluefin (Thunnus orientalis) and yellowfin (T. albacores) tuna.

    PubMed

    Abe, Niichiro; Maehara, Tomofumi

    2013-06-01

    The public health importance of Kudoa infection in fish remains unclear. Recently in Japan a Kudoa species, K. septempunctata, was newly implicated as a causative agent of unidentified food poisoning related to the consumption of raw olive flounder. Other marine fishery products are also suspected as causative raw foods of unidentified food poisoning. For this study, we detected kudoid parasites from sliced raw muscle tissues of a young Pacific bluefin and an adult yellowfin tuna. No cyst or pseudocyst was evident in muscles macroscopically, but pseudocysts were detected in both samples histologically. One substitution (within 1100 bp overlap) and ten substitutions (within 753 bp overlap) were found respectively between the partial sequences of 18S and 28S rDNAs from both isolates. Nucleotide sequence similarity searching of 18S and 28S rDNAs from both isolates showed the highest identity with those of K. neothunni from tuna. Based on the spore morphology, the mode of parasitism, and the nucleotide sequence similarity, these isolates from a Pacific bluefin and a yellowfin tuna were identified as K. neothunni. Phylogenetic analysis of the 28S rDNA sequence revealed that K. neothunni is classifiable into two genotypes: one from Pacific bluefin and the other from yellowfin tuna. Recently, an unidentified kudoid parasite morphologically and genetically similar K. neothunni were detected from stocked tuna samples in unidentified food poisoning cases in Japan. The possibility exists that K. neothunni, especially from the Pacific bluefin tuna, causes food poisoning, as does K. septempunctata.

  13. Levels of mercury and organohalogen compounds in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) cultured in different regions of Japan.

    PubMed

    Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Haraguchi, Koichi; Endo, Tetsuya

    2012-02-01

    Contamination levels of total mercury (T-Hg), p,p'-DDE, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in akami (leaner meat) and toro (fatty meat) samples from Pacific bluefin tuna cultured in the southern (four locations) and central (three locations) regions of Japan were analyzed. The contamination level of T-Hg in the akami and toro samples from the southern region tended to decrease with an increase in latitude, whereas those of p,p'-DDE and PCBs tended to increase. These spatial trends in contaminants were similar to those reported previously in wild tuna caught off the coast of Japan (Hisamichi et al., in Environ Sci Technol 44:5971-5978, 2010). However, the contamination level of T-Hg in akami and toro samples from one location in the central region was the highest among all seven locations, whereas the contamination level of p,p'-DDE was lower than that from any location studied in the southern region. Thus, contamination levels of T-Hg, p,p'-DDE, and PCBs in the cultured tuna may reflect contamination levels not only in the marine environment but also in prey fish used as bait. PMID:21766244

  14. Molecular characterization of kudoid parasites (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) from somatic muscles of Pacific bluefin (Thunnus orientalis) and yellowfin (T. albacores) tuna.

    PubMed

    Abe, Niichiro; Maehara, Tomofumi

    2013-06-01

    The public health importance of Kudoa infection in fish remains unclear. Recently in Japan a Kudoa species, K. septempunctata, was newly implicated as a causative agent of unidentified food poisoning related to the consumption of raw olive flounder. Other marine fishery products are also suspected as causative raw foods of unidentified food poisoning. For this study, we detected kudoid parasites from sliced raw muscle tissues of a young Pacific bluefin and an adult yellowfin tuna. No cyst or pseudocyst was evident in muscles macroscopically, but pseudocysts were detected in both samples histologically. One substitution (within 1100 bp overlap) and ten substitutions (within 753 bp overlap) were found respectively between the partial sequences of 18S and 28S rDNAs from both isolates. Nucleotide sequence similarity searching of 18S and 28S rDNAs from both isolates showed the highest identity with those of K. neothunni from tuna. Based on the spore morphology, the mode of parasitism, and the nucleotide sequence similarity, these isolates from a Pacific bluefin and a yellowfin tuna were identified as K. neothunni. Phylogenetic analysis of the 28S rDNA sequence revealed that K. neothunni is classifiable into two genotypes: one from Pacific bluefin and the other from yellowfin tuna. Recently, an unidentified kudoid parasite morphologically and genetically similar K. neothunni were detected from stocked tuna samples in unidentified food poisoning cases in Japan. The possibility exists that K. neothunni, especially from the Pacific bluefin tuna, causes food poisoning, as does K. septempunctata. PMID:23666661

  15. RNA-Seq-based transcriptome analysis of stem development and dwarfing regulation in Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis (Leighton) Leighton.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Ren, Li; Yue, Jian-Hua; Shi, Yu-Bo; Zhuo, Li-Huan; Wang, Ling; Shen, Xiao-Hui

    2015-07-10

    Agapanthus praecox is a monocotyledonous ornamental bulb plant. Generally, the scape (inflorescence stem) length can develop more than 1m, however application 400 mg·L(-1) paclobutrazol can shorten the length beyond 70%. To get a deeper insight into its dwarfism mechanism, de novo RNA-Seq technology has been employed, for the first time, to describe the scape transcriptome of A. praecox. We got 71,258 assembled unigenes, and 45,597 unigenes obtained protein functional annotation. Take the above sequencing results as a reference gene set, using RNA-seq (quantification) technology analyzed gene expression profiles between the control and paclobutrazol-treated samples, and screened 2838 differentially expressed genes. GO, KEGG and MapMan pathway analyses indicated that these differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched in response to stimulus, hormonal signaling, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall, cell size, and cell cycle related biological process. To validate the expression profiles obtained by RNA-Seq, real-time qPCR was performed on 24 genes selected from key significantly enriched pathways. Comprehensive analysis suggested that paclobutrazol blocks GA signal that can effectively inhibit scape elongation; the GA signal interact with other hormonal signals including auxin, ethylene, brassinosteroid and cytokinins, and trigger downstream signaling cascades leading to metabolism, cell wall biosynthesis, cell division and the cycle decreased obviously, and finally induced dwarfism trait. Furthermore, AP2/EREBP, bHLH, C2H2, ARR, WRKY and ARF family's transcription factors were involved in the regulation of scape development in A. praecox. This transcriptome dataset will serve as an important public information platform to accelerate research on the gene expression and functional genomics of Agapanthus.

  16. [Lysozyme activity of the salivary gland secretion of the medicinal leech H. verbana, H. medicinalis and H. orientalis].

    PubMed

    Baskova, I P; Kharitonova, O V; Zavalova, L L

    2011-01-01

    Salivary gland secretions of three species of the medicinal leech differ in the level of lysozyme peptidoglycan-lysing activity. Using the synthetic fluorogenic substrate, 4-methyl-umbelliferyl tetra N-acetyl-beta-chitotetraosid, the glycosidase activity (as one of peptidoglycan-lysing activities) of salivary gland secretion of three species of the medicinal leech was quantitatively evaluated in comparison with egg lysozyme. It is supposed, that lysozyme activity of the leech secretions is determined not only by 5 isoforms of destabilase-lysozyme, but by some other enzymes which can utilize this substrate. These may be lysozymes other than i- (invertebrate) lysozymes (such as destabilase-lysozyme, or related enzymes).

  17. RNA-Seq-based transcriptome analysis of stem development and dwarfing regulation in Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis (Leighton) Leighton.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Ren, Li; Yue, Jian-Hua; Shi, Yu-Bo; Zhuo, Li-Huan; Wang, Ling; Shen, Xiao-Hui

    2015-07-10

    Agapanthus praecox is a monocotyledonous ornamental bulb plant. Generally, the scape (inflorescence stem) length can develop more than 1m, however application 400 mg·L(-1) paclobutrazol can shorten the length beyond 70%. To get a deeper insight into its dwarfism mechanism, de novo RNA-Seq technology has been employed, for the first time, to describe the scape transcriptome of A. praecox. We got 71,258 assembled unigenes, and 45,597 unigenes obtained protein functional annotation. Take the above sequencing results as a reference gene set, using RNA-seq (quantification) technology analyzed gene expression profiles between the control and paclobutrazol-treated samples, and screened 2838 differentially expressed genes. GO, KEGG and MapMan pathway analyses indicated that these differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched in response to stimulus, hormonal signaling, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall, cell size, and cell cycle related biological process. To validate the expression profiles obtained by RNA-Seq, real-time qPCR was performed on 24 genes selected from key significantly enriched pathways. Comprehensive analysis suggested that paclobutrazol blocks GA signal that can effectively inhibit scape elongation; the GA signal interact with other hormonal signals including auxin, ethylene, brassinosteroid and cytokinins, and trigger downstream signaling cascades leading to metabolism, cell wall biosynthesis, cell division and the cycle decreased obviously, and finally induced dwarfism trait. Furthermore, AP2/EREBP, bHLH, C2H2, ARR, WRKY and ARF family's transcription factors were involved in the regulation of scape development in A. praecox. This transcriptome dataset will serve as an important public information platform to accelerate research on the gene expression and functional genomics of Agapanthus. PMID:25865295

  18. 78 FR 26540 - Importation of Jackfruit, Pineapple, and Starfruit From Malaysia Into the Continental United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    .... neobrevipes Beardsley, gray pineapple mealybug. Eutetranychus orientalis, red spider mite. Gliomastix luzulae...: Achatina fulica, giant African land snail. Eutetranychus orientalis, red spider mite. Gliomastix luzulae,...

  19. Expression of cytokines IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in tissues and cysts surrounding Didymocystis wedli (Digenea, Didymozoidae) in the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Mladineo, Ivona; Block, Barbara A

    2010-09-01

    Tuna long distance migrations and exposure to wide range of ambient water temperatures facilitate infections with several parasitic groups. This is reflected in the remarkable diversity of tuna parasite communities, especially members of Didymozoidae superfamily (Poche, 1907) (Trematoda, Digenea). Didymocystis wedli is the most frequent species encountered in bluefin tuna parasitizing gill filaments, therefore suggested as a biological marker to differentiate between discrete tuna Atlantic stocks. Because of its high occurrence in gill tissue and inflammatory reaction as the consequence, the aim of our study was to asses if inflammatory madiation through expression of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha is present locally at the site of D. wedli encystment, as well as if the systematic expression of cytokines can be detected in different tissues of infected versus uninfected fish. Quantification of localized cytokine expression was done on paraffine embedded gill sections by in situ hybridization, while quantitative PCR was used to mesured cytokine transcripts in skin mucus, kidney, spleen, gills and liver. Our results suggest that tuna constitutive expression of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in gills and skin implies a well-adapted innate immunity present at the barrier between the organism and environment. Upregulation of both cytokines in Didymocystis-infected gills not followed by a systematic response evidences the ongoing of an inflammatory process specific for the parasitation site. However, the lack of intensive cytokines response to D. wedli observed by molecular and histological data that fails to eliminate the parasite, could be related to the "old" age of the parasitic process.

  20. A review of the proposed reintroduction program for the Far Eastern leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) and the role of conservation organizations, veterinarians, and zoos.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Paul; Stack, David; Harley, Jessica

    2013-11-01

    The Amur leopard is at the point of extinction. At present there are fewer than 35 in the wild. Their natural habitat ranges from China to the North Korean peninsula to Primorsky Krai in Russia. A reintroduction plan has been proposed to increase the population in the wild; however, this proposed plan still has many questions to be answered as to how effective it will be. The main objective is to reintroduce animals from a select group within the Far Eastern leopard programme or the Species Survival programme, which consist of leopards from select populations in the Northern Hemisphere. Zoos are central to the success of this plan, providing suitable breeding pairs to breed animals for reintroduction and also raising much needed funds to finance the project. Zoos are also central in educating the public about the critical status of the Amur leopard and other endangered animals of the world. Veterinary surgeons, by the very nature of their professional skills, are at the forefront of this seemingly endless battle against extinction of thousands of species that are critical to maintaining the balance of our fragile ecosystem. Veterinarians can analyze the health risks and health implications of reintroduction on the animals to be reintroduced and also on the native population. A world without large cats is a world hard to imagine. If we look closer at the implications of extinction, we see the domino effect of their loss and an ecosystem out of control. PMID:24331556

  1. Neuropeptide Y suppresses glucose utilization in the dorsal optic tectum towards visual stimulation in the toad Bombina orientalis: a [14C]2DG study.

    PubMed

    Funke, Simone; Ewert, Jörg-Peter

    2006-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) experimentally administered to the surface of the optic tectum in visually stimulated fire bellied toads diminishes local glucose utilization in the retinorecipient tectal laminae. Strong NPY-induced suppression of tectal glucose utilization was found even when visual retinal input to the tectum was boosted pharmacologically under systemic apomorphine treatment. These novel results on the local cerebral energy metabolism contribute to the concept that NPY controls retinotectal visual processing via an inhibitory mechanism.

  2. A review of the proposed reintroduction program for the Far Eastern leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) and the role of conservation organizations, veterinarians, and zoos.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Paul; Stack, David; Harley, Jessica

    2013-11-01

    The Amur leopard is at the point of extinction. At present there are fewer than 35 in the wild. Their natural habitat ranges from China to the North Korean peninsula to Primorsky Krai in Russia. A reintroduction plan has been proposed to increase the population in the wild; however, this proposed plan still has many questions to be answered as to how effective it will be. The main objective is to reintroduce animals from a select group within the Far Eastern leopard programme or the Species Survival programme, which consist of leopards from select populations in the Northern Hemisphere. Zoos are central to the success of this plan, providing suitable breeding pairs to breed animals for reintroduction and also raising much needed funds to finance the project. Zoos are also central in educating the public about the critical status of the Amur leopard and other endangered animals of the world. Veterinary surgeons, by the very nature of their professional skills, are at the forefront of this seemingly endless battle against extinction of thousands of species that are critical to maintaining the balance of our fragile ecosystem. Veterinarians can analyze the health risks and health implications of reintroduction on the animals to be reintroduced and also on the native population. A world without large cats is a world hard to imagine. If we look closer at the implications of extinction, we see the domino effect of their loss and an ecosystem out of control.

  3. Characterization of magmatism and deformation in "Foz do Douro Metamorphic Complex" (N Portugal): insights from AMS studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Mónica; Sant'Ovaia, Helena; Noronha, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    .3 x 10-6 SI in Groups 1 and 4, which indicates a paramagnetic behaviour of these lithologies due to the presence of minerals, such as biotite and ilmenite. In Groups 2, 3, 5 and 6, K present values > 10-3 SI which indicates the presence of magnetite (0.12 to 1.49 x 10-3 SI in Group 2 and averages of 0.58 x 10-3 SI in Group 3, 0.22 x 10-3 SI in Group 5 and 1.0 x10-3 SI in Group 6). The anisotropy and magnetic fabric of the FDMC formations and of the granitic rocks are clear indicators of different styles of deformation on these rocks. The results confirm the field observations pointing out that this area was affected by intense deformation probably subjected to deformation partioning. K values indicate distinct types of magmatism: a oxidized type (magnetite type) (Groups 2, 3, 5 and 6) and a reduced type (Groups 1 and 4). References [1] Chaminé et al. (2003) Cadernos Lab. Xeolóxicos de Laxe 28, 37-78. [2] Ribeiro et al. (2009) C. R. Geoscience 341, 127-139. [3] Noronha & Leterrier (2000) Revista Real Academia Galega de Ciências XIX, 21-42. [4] Martins et al. (2011) C. R. Geoscience 343, 387-396. Acknowledgements Research carried out at the "Centro de Geologia UP" an R&D unit from "Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia" (FCT). First author is being funded by a doctoral scholarship from FCT (Ref. SFRH/BD/47891/2008).

  4. Records of sedimentary dynamics in the continental shelf and upper slope between Aveiro-Espinho (N Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Virgínia; Abrantes, Isabel; Grangeia, Carlos; Martins, Paula; Nagai, Renata; Sousa, Sílvia H. M.; Laut, Lazaro L. M.; Dias, João M. Alveirinho; Dias, João M.; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira; Rocha, Fernando

    2012-08-01

    with the overall small supply of organic matter to the oceanic bottom in the inner- and mid-shelf. However, the Ria de Aveiro outflow, which delivers organic matter to the shelf, leaves its imprint mainly on the mid-shelf, identifiable by the increase in foraminifera density and BFHP values in front of the lagoon mouth. The higher values of BFHP along the 100 m isobath trace the present position of an oceanic thermal front whose situation may have changed in the last 3/5 ka BP. This zone marks a clear difference in the density, diversity and composition of benthic foraminifera assemblages. Here, in addition, sediment composition changes significantly, giving rise to carbonate-rich fine to medium sand in the deeper sector. The low bottom energy and the small sedimentation rate of the outer-shelf contributed to the preservation of a discontinuous carbonate-rich gravel band, between the 100 m and 140 m isobaths, also related to paleo-littorals, following the transgression that has occurred since the Last Glacial Maximum. The winter oceanographic regime favours the transport of fine grained sediments to the outer-shelf and upper slope. The inner- and mid-shelf, however, have low amounts of this kind of sediment and the Cretacic carbonated complexes Pontal da Galega and Pontal da Cartola, rocky outcrops located at the mid- and outer-shelf, act as morphological barriers to the cross-shelf transport of sediments. Thus a reduced sedimentation rate occurs in these deeper sectors, as indicated by the lower abundance of detrital minerals, which is compensated for the high sedimentary content of biogenic carbonates. The relatively high BFHP and Shannon Index values indicate water column stratification, high supply of organic matter and environmental stability, which provide favourable conditions for a diversified benthic fauna to flourish. These conditions also encourage authigenic chemical changes, favourable to glauconite formation, as well as illite and kaolinite degradation

  5. 50 CFR 216.15 - Depleted species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS... U.S. mid-Atlantic coast. (e) Eastern spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris orientalis)....

  6. A new species of Lysiphlebus Förster 1862 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae) attacking soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hem., Aphididae) from China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    LYSIPHLEBUS ORIENTALIS sp. n. is described from China. The new species was reared from the APHIS GLYCINES Matsumura/ GLYCINE MAX association. On the basis of the forewing venation pattern (short R1 vein) and the number of maxillary and labial palpomeres we can preliminarily classify L. ORIENTALIS sp...

  7. 75 FR 69701 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... orientalis), bred in captivity for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species through... requests a permit to import one captive-born mandrill (Mandrillus leucophaeus), from the Toronto...

  8. The first mitochondrial genome from Mysida (Crustacea: Malacostraca) reveals an unusual gene arrangement.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Sun, Ming An; Tian, Mei; Zhao, Fang Qing; Chu, Ka Hou

    2015-04-01

    This is the first report to present the Neomysis orientalis mitochondrial genome as a representative from the order Mysida. While mitochondrial protein-coding genes (PCGs) commonly use several alternatives to ATN as start codons, all 13 PCGs in N. orientalis mitochondrial genome initiate with ATG or ATA. Five PCGs (atp6. atp8. cob. nad4 and nad4L) start with ATG, while the other genes (cox1-3. nad1-3. nad5 and nad6) start with ATA. Only two PCGs (cox2 and nad2) in the N. orientalis mitochondrial genome end with incomplete stop codons (T- or TA-), and all the remaining ones have TAA or TAG stop codon. Only one PCG (nad4L) is encoded on the light strand and all other 12 PCGs are located at the heavy strand. Both rRNAs (srRNA and lrRNA) are encoded on the light strand. In common with 15 of the other 18 mitochondrial genomes from Peracarida, the major gene arrangement in the N. orientalis mitochondrial genome is different from the pancrustacean ground pattern. The largest conserved gene block in N. orientalis only contains two genes but those in the other 18 peracarid mitochondrial genomes contain more than five genes. Thus, the N. orientalis mitochondrial genome, as the first mitochondrial genome from the order Mysida, reveals an unusual gene arrangement that is unique compared with the other malacostracan mitochondrial genomes.

  9. Comparative genome analysis of three eukaryotic parasites with differing abilities to transform leukocytes reveals key mediators of Theileria-induced leukocyte transformation.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Kyoko; Hara, Yuichiro; Abe, Takashi; Yamasaki, Chisato; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kosuge, Takehide; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sato, Yoshiharu; Kawashima, Shuichi; Katayama, Toshiaki; Wakaguri, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Noboru; Homma, Keiichi; Tada-Umezaki, Masahito; Yagi, Yukio; Fujii, Yasuyuki; Habara, Takuya; Kanehisa, Minoru; Watanabe, Hidemi; Ito, Kimihito; Gojobori, Takashi; Sugawara, Hideaki; Imanishi, Tadashi; Weir, William; Gardner, Malcolm; Pain, Arnab; Shiels, Brian; Hattori, Masahira; Nene, Vishvanath; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2012-01-01

    We sequenced the genome of Theileria orientalis, a tick-borne apicomplexan protozoan parasite of cattle. The focus of this study was a comparative genome analysis of T. orientalis relative to other highly pathogenic Theileria species, T. parva and T. annulata. T. parva and T. annulata induce transformation of infected cells of lymphocyte or macrophage/monocyte lineages; in contrast, T. orientalis does not induce uncontrolled proliferation of infected leukocytes and multiplies predominantly within infected erythrocytes. While synteny across homologous chromosomes of the three Theileria species was found to be well conserved overall, subtelomeric structures were found to differ substantially, as T. orientalis lacks the large tandemly arrayed subtelomere-encoded variable secreted protein-encoding gene family. Moreover, expansion of particular gene families by gene duplication was found in the genomes of the two transforming Theileria species, most notably, the TashAT/TpHN and Tar/Tpr gene families. Gene families that are present only in T. parva and T. annulata and not in T. orientalis, Babesia bovis, or Plasmodium were also identified. Identification of differences between the genome sequences of Theileria species with different abilities to transform and immortalize bovine leukocytes will provide insight into proteins and mechanisms that have evolved to induce and regulate this process. The T. orientalis genome database is available at http://totdb.czc.hokudai.ac.jp/.

  10. Effect of white grub developmental stage on susceptibility to entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M; Fuzy, Eugene M

    2004-12-01

    The pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar and Steinernema scarabaei Stock & Koppenhöfer against different developmental stages of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, and the oriental beetle, Anomala (=Exomala) orientalis Waterhouse, were studied under laboratory conditions. The efficacy of S. scarabaei did not differ between second and third instars in P. japonica or A. orientalis or between small (young) and large (older) third instars in A. orientalis. However, H. bacteriophora efficacy decreased from first over second to third instar and also from small third instars to large third instars in A. orientalis but did not differ significantly between P. japonica larval stages. Once A. orientalis third instars had purged their intestines in preparation for pupation, no significant mortality by S. scarabaei and H. bacteriophora was observed. In contrast, P. japonica susceptibility to both nematode species gradually decreased from stage to stage from actively feeding third instars to pupae. In two additional experiments, we found no difference in Steinernema glaseri (Steiner) susceptibility between second and third instars of A. orientalis but an increase in S. scarabaei susceptibility from the second to third instar of Asiatic garden beetle, Maladera castanea (Arrow). Our observations combined with those of previous studies with other nematode and white grub species show that nematode efficacy against white grub developmental stages varies with white grub and nematodes species, and no generalization can be made. PMID:15666735

  11. Effect of white grub developmental stage on susceptibility to entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M; Fuzy, Eugene M

    2004-12-01

    The pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar and Steinernema scarabaei Stock & Koppenhöfer against different developmental stages of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, and the oriental beetle, Anomala (=Exomala) orientalis Waterhouse, were studied under laboratory conditions. The efficacy of S. scarabaei did not differ between second and third instars in P. japonica or A. orientalis or between small (young) and large (older) third instars in A. orientalis. However, H. bacteriophora efficacy decreased from first over second to third instar and also from small third instars to large third instars in A. orientalis but did not differ significantly between P. japonica larval stages. Once A. orientalis third instars had purged their intestines in preparation for pupation, no significant mortality by S. scarabaei and H. bacteriophora was observed. In contrast, P. japonica susceptibility to both nematode species gradually decreased from stage to stage from actively feeding third instars to pupae. In two additional experiments, we found no difference in Steinernema glaseri (Steiner) susceptibility between second and third instars of A. orientalis but an increase in S. scarabaei susceptibility from the second to third instar of Asiatic garden beetle, Maladera castanea (Arrow). Our observations combined with those of previous studies with other nematode and white grub species show that nematode efficacy against white grub developmental stages varies with white grub and nematodes species, and no generalization can be made.

  12. Intraguild predation between Amblyseius swirskii and two native Chinese predatory mite species and their development on intraguild prey

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yingwei; Lv, Jiale; Jiang, Xiaohuan; Wang, Boming; Gao, Yulin; Wang, Endong; Xu, Xuenong

    2016-01-01

    Amblyseius swirskii, native to the east and southeast Mediterranean region, is a successful biological control agent of whiteflies. In this study, we investigated intraguild predations (IGP) between each stage of A. swirskii and each stage of two Phytoseiid species that occur in China, Amblyseius orientalis and Neoseiulus californicus. When there was no whitefly egg provided as the extraguild prey, IGP between A. swirskii and A. orientalis, and between A. swirskii and N. californicus, was observed in 10 and 20 out of 35 combinations, respectively. When IGP was observed, A. swirskii was the intraguild predator in 70% and 65% cases of A. orientalis and N. californicus predation, respectively. These results suggest that A. swirskii is a more aggressive intraguild predator compared to either A. orientalis or N. californicus. When whitefly eggs were provided as the extraguild prey, IGP between A. swirskii and N. californicus decreased greatly, but no significant decrease of IGP was observed between A. swirskii and A. orientalis. Amblyseius swirskii was able to complete development on both heterospecific predatory mites, and both heterospecific predatory mites completed their development on A. swirskii. Possible impacts that A. swirskii may have on local predatory mite populations in China are discussed. PMID:26972164

  13. Epidemiology of bovine hemoprotozoa parasites in cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    WEERASOORIYA, Gayani; SIVAKUMAR, Thillaiampalam; LAN, Dinh Thi Bich; LONG, Phung Thang; TAKEMAE, Hitoshi; IGARASHI, Ikuo; INOUE, Noboru; YOKOYAMA, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    A PCR-based survey of hemoprotozoa parasites detected Babesia bigemina, Theileria orientalis and Trypanosoma theileri among cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam, and a new Babesia sp. closely related to Babesia ovata was detected in cattle only. In addition, Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi were not detected in both cattle and water buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis detected T. orientalis MPSP genotypes 3, 5, 7 and N3 in cattle and 5, 7, N1 and N2 in water buffalo. Additionally, water buffalo-derived T. theileri CATL sequences clustered together with a previously reported cattle-derived sequence from Vietnam. This is the first report of a new Babesia sp. in cattle, and T. orientalis MPSP genotype 7 and T. theileri in water buffalo in Vietnam. PMID:27149894

  14. A new species of the medicinal leech (Oligochaeta, Hirudinida, Hirudo) from Transcaucasia and an identification key for the genus Hirudo.

    PubMed

    Utevsky, Serge Y; Trontelj, Peter

    2005-12-01

    A recent molecular phylogenetic study has suggested that the genus Hirudo contains a neglected species previously known as the orientalis coloration type of the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis. In this paper, the new species is formally described as Hirudo orientalis sp. n. It can most readily be identified by the grass green coloration of the dorsum, segmentally arranged pairs of black quadrangular or rounded dots on its paramarginal dorsal stripes and similarly arranged, but less regular light-colored markings on the predominantly black venter. It has medium-sized epididymes and an evenly coiled vagina. H. orientalis is known from Transcaucasia, Iran, and Uzbekistan. It is widely used in medicine as the "medicinal leech." Very little is known about its exact distribution, specific habitat, and conservation status. The paper contains an identification key to all species of the genus Hirudo.

  15. Epidemiology of bovine hemoprotozoa parasites in cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Weerasooriya, Gayani; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich; Long, Phung Thang; Takemae, Hitoshi; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2016-09-01

    A PCR-based survey of hemoprotozoa parasites detected Babesia bigemina, Theileria orientalis and Trypanosoma theileri among cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam, and a new Babesia sp. closely related to Babesia ovata was detected in cattle only. In addition, Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi were not detected in both cattle and water buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis detected T. orientalis MPSP genotypes 3, 5, 7 and N3 in cattle and 5, 7, N1 and N2 in water buffalo. Additionally, water buffalo-derived T. theileri CATL sequences clustered together with a previously reported cattle-derived sequence from Vietnam. This is the first report of a new Babesia sp. in cattle, and T. orientalis MPSP genotype 7 and T. theileri in water buffalo in Vietnam.

  16. Epidemiology of bovine hemoprotozoa parasites in cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Weerasooriya, Gayani; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich; Long, Phung Thang; Takemae, Hitoshi; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2016-09-01

    A PCR-based survey of hemoprotozoa parasites detected Babesia bigemina, Theileria orientalis and Trypanosoma theileri among cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam, and a new Babesia sp. closely related to Babesia ovata was detected in cattle only. In addition, Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi were not detected in both cattle and water buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis detected T. orientalis MPSP genotypes 3, 5, 7 and N3 in cattle and 5, 7, N1 and N2 in water buffalo. Additionally, water buffalo-derived T. theileri CATL sequences clustered together with a previously reported cattle-derived sequence from Vietnam. This is the first report of a new Babesia sp. in cattle, and T. orientalis MPSP genotype 7 and T. theileri in water buffalo in Vietnam. PMID:27149894

  17. Genetic characterization of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Fukushi, Shintaro; Hayashida, Kyoko; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Kanagaratnam, Ratnam; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Suthaharan, Kalpana; Puvirajan, Thamotharampillai; de Silva, Weligodage Kumarawansa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2014-02-24

    Water buffaloes are thought to be the reservoir hosts for several hemoprotozoan parasites that infect cattle. In the present study, we surveyed Sri Lankan bred water buffaloes for infections with Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis using parasite-specific PCR assays. When 320 blood-derived DNA samples from water buffaloes reared in three different districts (Polonnaruwa, Mannar, and Mullaitivu) of Sri Lanka were PCR screened, B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. orientalis were detected. While T. orientalis was the predominant parasite (82.5%), low PCR-positive rates were observed for B. bovis (1.9%) and B. bigemina (1.6%). Amplicons of the gene sequences of the Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 (RAP-1) of B. bovis, the Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA-1) of B. bigemina, and the Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) of T. orientalis were compared with those characterized previously in Sri Lankan cattle. While the B. bigemina AMA-1 sequences from water buffaloes shared high identity values with those from cattle, B. bovis RAP-1 sequences from water buffaloes diverged genetically from those of cattle. For T. orientalis, none of the MPSP sequence types reported previously in Sri Lankan cattle (types 1, 3, 5, and 7) were detected in the water buffaloes, and the MPSP sequences analyzed in the present study belonged to types N1 or N2. In summary, in addition to reporting the first PCR-based survey of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka, the present study found that the predominant variants of water buffalo-derived B. bovis RAP-1 and T. orientalis MPSP sequences were different from those previously described from cattle in this country.

  18. Effects of ocean warming and acidification on the energy budget of an excavating sponge.

    PubMed

    Fang, James K H; Schönberg, Christine H L; Mello-Athayde, Matheus A; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Dove, Sophie

    2014-04-01

    Recent research efforts have demonstrated increased bioerosion rates under experimentally elevated partial pressures of seawater carbon dioxide (pCO2 ) with or without increased temperatures, which may lead to net erosion on coral reefs in the future. However, this conclusion clearly depends on the ability of the investigated bioeroding organisms to survive and grow in the warmer and more acidic future environments, which remains unexplored. The excavating sponge Cliona orientalis Thiele, is a widely distributed bioeroding organism and symbiotic with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Using C. orientalis, an energy budget model was developed to calculate amounts of carbon directed into metabolic maintenance and growth. This model was tested under a range of CO2 emission scenarios (temperature + pCO2 ) appropriate to an Austral early summer. Under a pre-industrial scenario, present day (control) scenario, or B1 future scenario (associated with reducing the rate of CO2 emissions over the next few decades), C. orientalis maintained a positive energy budget, where metabolic demand was likely satisfied by autotrophic carbon provided by Symbiodinium and heterotrophic carbon via filter-feeding, suggesting sustainability. Under B1, C. orientalis likely benefited by a greater supply of photosynthetic products from its symbionts, which increased by up to 56% per unit area, and displayed an improved condition with up to 52% increased surplus carbon available for growth. Under an A1FI future scenario (associated with 'business-as-usual' CO2 emissions) bleached C. orientalis experienced the highest metabolic demand, but carbon acquired was insufficient to maintain the sponge, as indicated by a negative energy budget. These metabolic considerations suggest that previous observations of increased bioerosion under A1FI by C. orientalis may not last through the height of future A1FI summers, and survival of individual sponges may be dependent on the energy reserves

  19. An epidemiological survey of bovine Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle, buffaloes, and sheep in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elsify, Ahmed; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Nayel, Mohammed; Salama, Akram; Elkhtam, Ahmed; Rizk, Mohamed; Mosaab, Omar; Sultan, Khaled; Elsayed, Shimaa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2015-02-01

    Cattle, buffaloes, and sheep are the main sources of meat and milk in Egypt, but their productivity is thought to be greatly reduced by hemoprotozoan parasitic diseases. In this study, we analyzed the infection rates of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis, using parasite-specific PCR assays in blood-DNA samples sourced from cattle (n=439), buffaloes (n=50), and sheep (n=105) reared in Menoufia, Behera, Giza, and Sohag provinces of Egypt. In cattle, the positive rates of B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. annulata, and T. orientalis were 3.18%, 7.97%, 9.56%, and 0.68%, respectively. On the other hand, B. bovis and T. orientalis were the only parasites detected in buffaloes and each of these parasites was only found in two individual DNA samples (both 2%), while one (0.95%) and two (1.90%) of the sheep samples were positive for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the B. bovis Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 and the B. bigemina Apical Membrane Antigen-1 genes were highly conserved among the samples, with 99.3-100% and 95.3-100% sequence identity values, respectively. In contrast, the Egyptian T. annulata merozoite surface antigen-1 gene sequences were relatively diverse (87.8-100% identity values), dispersing themselves across several clades in the phylogenetic tree containing sequences from other countries. Additionally, the T. orientalis Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) gene sequences were classified as types 1 and 2. This is the first report of T. orientalis in Egypt, and of type 2 MPSP in buffaloes. Detection of MPSP type 2, which is considered a relatively virulent genotype, suggests that T. orientalis infection may have veterinary and economic significance in Egypt. In conclusion, the present study, which analyzed multiple species of Babesia and Theileria parasites in different livestock animals, may shed an additional light on the epidemiology of hemoprotozoan parasites in Egypt.

  20. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Malek, M.A.; Hammani, A.; Beneldjouzi, A.; Bitam, I.

    2014-01-01

    In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8%) rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague. PMID:25834736

  1. Cryptic diversity among Western Palearctic tree frogs: postglacial range expansion, range limits, and secondary contacts of three European tree frog lineages (Hyla arborea group).

    PubMed

    Stöck, Matthias; Dufresnes, Christophe; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Lymberakis, Petros; Biollay, Sébastien; Berroneau, Matthieu; Borzée, Amaël; Ghali, Karim; Ogielska, Maria; Perrin, Nicolas

    2012-10-01

    We characterize divergence times, intraspecific diversity and distributions for recently recognized lineages within the Hyla arborea species group, based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequences from 160 localities spanning its whole distribution. Lineages of H. arborea, H. orientalis, H. molleri have at least Pliocene age, supporting species level divergence. The genetically uniform Iberian H. molleri, although largely isolated by the Pyrenees, is parapatric to H. arborea, with evidence for successful hybridization in a small Aquitanian corridor (southwestern France), where the distribution also overlaps with H. meridionalis. The genetically uniform H. arborea, spread from Crete to Brittany, exhibits molecular signatures of a postglacial range expansion. It meets different mtDNA clades of H. orientalis in NE-Greece, along the Carpathians, and in Poland along the Vistula River (there including hybridization). The East-European H. orientalis is strongly structured genetically. Five geographic mitochondrial clades are recognized, with a molecular signature of postglacial range expansions for the clade that reached the most northern latitudes. Hybridization with H. savignyi is suggested in southwestern Turkey. Thus, cryptic diversity in these Pliocene Hyla lineages covers three extremes: a genetically poor, quasi-Iberian endemic (H. molleri), a more uniform species distributed from the Balkans to Western Europe (H. arborea), and a well-structured Asia Minor-Eastern European species (H. orientalis). PMID:22652054

  2. Molecular detection and characterization of Theileria infection in cattle and yaks from Tibet Plateau Region, China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Gege; Li, Youquan; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Jifei; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Guangyuan; Guan, Guiquan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2016-07-01

    Theileriosis continues to threaten the livestock industry worldwide, but comprehensive epidemiological surveys for this disease have not been conducted in the Tibet Plateau Region, China. In this study, we screened 154 cattle blood samples from the Tibet Plateau Region (Lhasa, Lhoka, and Tianzhu), China, for detection of Theileria pathogens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with species-specific primers. The results revealed that the prevalence was 6.9 % (2/29) for Theileria orientalis and 27.6 % (8/29) for Theileria sinensis in Lhasa, 0 % (0/30) for T. orientalis and 26.7 % (8/30) for T. sinensis in Lhoka, and 0 % (0/95) for T. orientalis and 30.5 % (29/95) for T. sinensis in Tianzhu. Interestingly, Theileria luwenshuni, which was a previously reported pathogenic Theileria sp. in sheep and goats, was detected in blood samples from cattle and yaks for the first time, with a prevalence of 10 % (3/30) in Lhoka and 1.1 % (1/95) in Tianzhu. No other Theileria sp. was detected in these samples. T. sinensis and T. orientalis infections were detected in cattle and yaks, and T. luwenshuni was discovered for the first time in cattle and yaks in the Tibet Plateau Region, China. PMID:27000088

  3. [Profile distribution of soil aggregates organic carbon in primary forests in Karst cluster-peak depression region].

    PubMed

    Lu, Ling-Xiao; Song, Tong-Qing; Peng, Wan-Xia; Zeng, Fu-Ping; Wang, Ke-Lin; Xu, Yun-Lei; Yu, Zi; Liu, Yan

    2012-05-01

    Soil profiles were collected from three primary forests (Itoa orientalis, Platycladus orientalis, and Radermachera sinica) in Karst cluster-peak depression region to study the composition of soil aggregates, their organic carbon contents, and the profile distribution of the organic carbon. In the three forests, >2 mm soil aggregates were dominant, occupying about 76% of the total. The content of soil total organic carbon ranged from 12.73 to 68.66 g x kg(-1), with a significant difference among the forests. The organic carbon content in <1 mm soil aggregates was slightly higher than that in >2 mm soil aggregates, but most of soil organic carbon was stored in the soil aggregates with greater particle sizes. About 70% of soil organic carbon came from >2 mm soil aggregates. There was a significant positive relationship between the contents of 2-5 and 5-8 mm soil aggregates and the content of soil organic carbon. To increase the contents of 2-8 mm soil aggregates could effectively improve the soil carbon sequestration in Karst region. In Itoa orientalis forest, 2-8 mm soil aggregates accounted for 46% of the total, and the content of soil total organic carbon reached to 37.62 g x kg(-1), which implied that Itoa orientalis could be the suitable tree species for the ecological restoration in Karst region.

  4. A Comparison of Anammox Bacterial Abundance and Community Structures in Three Different Emerged Plants-Related Sediments.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jinyu; Zhang, Jinping; Zhou, Xiaohong; Liu, Biao; Li, Yimin

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were used to document the abundance, diversity and community structure of anaerobic ammonia-oxidising (anammox) bacteria in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere sediments of three emergent macrophyte species (Iris pseudacorus, Thalia dealbata and Typha orientalis). The qPCR results confirmed the existence of anammox bacteria (AMX) with observed log number of gene copies per dry gram sediment ranging from 5.00 to 6.78. AMX was more abundant in T. orientalis-associated sediments than in the other two plant species. The I. pseudacorus- and T. orientalis-associated sediments had higher Shannon diversity values, indicating higher AMX diversity in these sediments. Based on the 16S rRNA gene, Candidatus 'Brocadia', Candidatus 'Kuenenia', Candidatus 'Jettenia' and new clusters were observed with the predominant Candidatus 'Kuenenia' cluster. The I. pseudacorus-associated sediments contained all the sequences of the C. 'Jettenia' cluster. Sequences obtained from T. orientalis-associated sediments contributed more than 90 % sequences in the new cluster, whereas none was found from I. pseudacorus. The new cluster was distantly related to known sequences; thus, this cluster was grouped outside the known clusters, indicating that the new cluster may be a new Planctomycetales genus. Further studies should be undertaken to confirm this finding. PMID:26077223

  5. Flexitibia, a new genus of Harpactorinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae), with a discussion on the functional morphology of forelegs of the related genera.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ping; Pham, Minhlan; Truong, Xuan Lam; Cai, Wanzhi

    2014-01-01

    Flexitibia, a new genus, in the division Euagorasaria of the assassin bug subfamily Harpactorinae from Yunnan Province of China is described. The type species, Flexitibia orientalis sp. nov., is described and illustrated. A key to the closely related genera is provided. The type specimens are kept in the Entomological Museum of China Agricultural University, Beijing. PMID:24870499

  6. Zoonotic Focus of Plague, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Bitam, Idir; Baziz, Belkacem; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Belkaid, Miloud

    2006-01-01

    After an outbreak of human plague, 95 Xenopsylla cheopis fleas from Algeria were tested for Yersinia pestis with PCR methods. Nine fleas were definitively confirmed to be infected with Y. pestis biovar orientalis. Our results demonstrate the persistence of a zoonotic focus of Y. pestis in Algeria. PMID:17326957

  7. A Comparison of Anammox Bacterial Abundance and Community Structures in Three Different Emerged Plants-Related Sediments.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jinyu; Zhang, Jinping; Zhou, Xiaohong; Liu, Biao; Li, Yimin

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were used to document the abundance, diversity and community structure of anaerobic ammonia-oxidising (anammox) bacteria in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere sediments of three emergent macrophyte species (Iris pseudacorus, Thalia dealbata and Typha orientalis). The qPCR results confirmed the existence of anammox bacteria (AMX) with observed log number of gene copies per dry gram sediment ranging from 5.00 to 6.78. AMX was more abundant in T. orientalis-associated sediments than in the other two plant species. The I. pseudacorus- and T. orientalis-associated sediments had higher Shannon diversity values, indicating higher AMX diversity in these sediments. Based on the 16S rRNA gene, Candidatus 'Brocadia', Candidatus 'Kuenenia', Candidatus 'Jettenia' and new clusters were observed with the predominant Candidatus 'Kuenenia' cluster. The I. pseudacorus-associated sediments contained all the sequences of the C. 'Jettenia' cluster. Sequences obtained from T. orientalis-associated sediments contributed more than 90 % sequences in the new cluster, whereas none was found from I. pseudacorus. The new cluster was distantly related to known sequences; thus, this cluster was grouped outside the known clusters, indicating that the new cluster may be a new Planctomycetales genus. Further studies should be undertaken to confirm this finding.

  8. Lentil genetic and genomic resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lentil (Lens culinaris spp. culinaris) has a long history associated with the early civilizations 11,000 BP in southwestern Asia. The progenitor taxon is Lens culinaris spp. orientalis. The primary source of germplasm for lentil crop improvement is from the International Center for Agricultural Rese...

  9. The inhibition and adaptability of four wetland plant species to high concentration of ammonia wastewater and nitrogen removal efficiency in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuhui; Wang, Junfeng; Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Song, Xinshan; Gong, Juan

    2016-02-01

    Four plant species, Typha orientalis, Scirpus validus, Canna indica and Iris tectorum were selected to assess their physiological response and effects on nitrogen and COD removal to high total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) in constructed wetlands. Results showed that high TAN caused decreased relative growth rate, net photosynthetic rate, and leaf transpiration. C. indica and T. orientalis showed higher TAN adaptability than S. validus and I. tectorum. Below TAN of 200 mg L(-1), growth of C. indica and T. orientalis was less affected or even stimulated at TAN range 100-200 mg L(-1). However, S. validus and I. tectorum was obviously suppressed when TAN was above 100 mg L(-1). High TAN generated obvious oxidative stress showing increased proline and malondialdehyde contents, and superoxide dismutase was inhibited. It indicated that the threshold for plant self-bioremediation against high TAN was 200 mg L(-1). What's more, planted CWs showed higher nitrogen and COD removal. Removal rate of C. indica and T. orientalis was higher than S. validus and I. tectorum.

  10. Anatomy and osteohistology of the basal hadrosaurid dinosaur Eotrachodon from the uppermost Santonian (Cretaceous) of southern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Márquez, Albert; Erickson, Gregory M; Ebersole, Jun A

    2016-01-01

    The cranial and postcranial anatomy of the basal hadrosaurid dinosaur Eotrachodon orientalis, from the uppermost Santonian of southern Appalachia (southeastern U.S.A.), is described in detail. This animal is the only known pre-Campanian non-lambeosaurine hadrosaurid, and the most complete hadrosauroid known from Appalachia. E. orientalis possesses a mosaic of plesiomorphic and derived characters in the context of Hadrosauroidea. Characters shared with basal hadrosauroids include a short and sloping maxillary ectopterygoid shelf, caudally prominent maxillary jugal process, one functional tooth per alveolus on the maxillary occlusal plane, a jugal rostral process with a shallow caudodorsal margin and medioventrally facing articular facet, a vertical dentary coronoid process with a poorly expanded apex, and tooth crowns with accessory ridges. Derived characters shared with other hadrosaurids include a circumnarial depression compartmented into three fossae (as in brachylophosaurins and Edmontosaurus), a thin everted premaxillary oral margin (as in Gryposaurus, Prosaurolophus, and Saurolophus), and a maxilla with a deep and rostrocaudally extensive rostrodorsal region with a steeply sloping premaxillary margin (as in Gryposaurus). Eotrachodon orientalis differs primarily from the other hadrosauroid from the Mooreville Chalk of Alabama, Lophorhothon atopus, in having a slender and crestless nasal whose caudodorsal margin is not invaded by the circumnarial depression. Hadrosaurus foulkii, the only other known hadrosaurid from Appalachia, is distinct from E. orientalis in having dentary teeth lacking accessory ridges and a dorsally curved shaft of the ischium. A histological section of the tibia of the E. orientalis holotype (MSC 7949) suggests that this individual was actively growing at the time of death and, thus, had the potential to become a larger animal later in development. PMID:27114863

  11. Anatomy and osteohistology of the basal hadrosaurid dinosaur Eotrachodon from the uppermost Santonian (Cretaceous) of southern Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Gregory M.; Ebersole, Jun A.

    2016-01-01

    The cranial and postcranial anatomy of the basal hadrosaurid dinosaur Eotrachodon orientalis, from the uppermost Santonian of southern Appalachia (southeastern U.S.A.), is described in detail. This animal is the only known pre-Campanian non-lambeosaurine hadrosaurid, and the most complete hadrosauroid known from Appalachia. E. orientalis possesses a mosaic of plesiomorphic and derived characters in the context of Hadrosauroidea. Characters shared with basal hadrosauroids include a short and sloping maxillary ectopterygoid shelf, caudally prominent maxillary jugal process, one functional tooth per alveolus on the maxillary occlusal plane, a jugal rostral process with a shallow caudodorsal margin and medioventrally facing articular facet, a vertical dentary coronoid process with a poorly expanded apex, and tooth crowns with accessory ridges. Derived characters shared with other hadrosaurids include a circumnarial depression compartmented into three fossae (as in brachylophosaurins and Edmontosaurus), a thin everted premaxillary oral margin (as in Gryposaurus, Prosaurolophus, and Saurolophus), and a maxilla with a deep and rostrocaudally extensive rostrodorsal region with a steeply sloping premaxillary margin (as in Gryposaurus). Eotrachodon orientalis differs primarily from the other hadrosauroid from the Mooreville Chalk of Alabama, Lophorhothon atopus, in having a slender and crestless nasal whose caudodorsal margin is not invaded by the circumnarial depression. Hadrosaurus foulkii, the only other known hadrosaurid from Appalachia, is distinct from E. orientalis in having dentary teeth lacking accessory ridges and a dorsally curved shaft of the ischium. A histological section of the tibia of the E. orientalis holotype (MSC 7949) suggests that this individual was actively growing at the time of death and, thus, had the potential to become a larger animal later in development. PMID:27114863

  12. Bovine theileriosis--an emerging problem in south-eastern Australia?

    PubMed

    Islam, M Khyrul; Jabbar, Abdul; Campbell, Bronwyn E; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Gasser, Robin B

    2011-12-01

    Bovine theileriosis is an arthropod-borne disease caused by one or more haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Theileria. Traditionally, Theileria infection in cattle in Australia was largely asymptomatic and recognized to be associated with Theileria buffeli, now assigned to the Theileria orientalis-group. There have been some recent outbreaks of theileriosis in dairy and beef cattle, mainly in subtropical climatic zone (New South Wales) of Australia. Here, we provide the first published evidence of an outbreak of bovine theileriosis in the south-eastern Australia (state of Victoria) linked to the ikeda and chitose genotypes of T. orientalis. Future investigations should focus sharply on the elucidating the epidemiology and ecology of Theileria in this region to subvert the possible impact on the cattle industry.

  13. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Theileria spp. parasites in autochthonous bovines (Mirandesa breed) in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Brígido, Clarisse; da Fonseca, Isabel Pereira; Parreira, Ricardo; Fazendeiro, Isabel; do Rosário, Virgílio E; Centeno-Lima, Sónia

    2004-08-13

    A survey was conducted during the months of April-June 2003 in the northeast Portugal (Bragança district) in order to characterize the hemoparasite population of an autochthonous Mirandesa breed of Bos taurus. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the bovine blood revealed that 3 out of 116 animals were infected with Theileria and/or Babesia parasites, while reverse line blot hybridisation (RLB) analysis showed that these animals were infected with Theileria buffeli/orientalis. Cloning and sequencing confirmed the RLB results. Database sequence searches combined with phylogenetic analysis of the partial 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences obtained enabled us to place the parasites in question as members of the T. buffeli/orientalis group, confirming the PCR/RLB diagnosis.

  14. Phlebotomine sandflies of Kenya (Diptera: Psychodidae). IV. The armature in the genital atrium of female Larroussius as a means of identification.

    PubMed

    Killick-Kendrick, R; Tang, Y; Killick-Kendrick, M

    1994-08-01

    Descriptions are given of armatures in the genital atria of the six known Kenyan species of phlebotomine sandflies of the subgenus, Larroussius, namely Phlebotomus aculeatus, P. elgonensis, P. guggisbergi, P. longipes, P. orientalis and P. pedifer. Phlebotomus aculeatus, P. longipes and P. pedifer can be recognized by the shapes of their armatures. Differences in the length and arrangement of the spines in the armature of P. elgonensis and P. longipes are diagnostic features. The distinguishing feature of P. guggisbergi is a wide variation in spine thickness. The most notable feature of P. orientalis is the angle at which the spines lie. The appearance of the base of the spermathecal duct remains the method of choice for the identification of all six but, if this feature is not well displayed in dissected females, they can be distinguished by the armature. It is suggested that descriptions of new species should include an illustration of the armature in the genital atrium.

  15. Food sources and carbon dudget of chinese prawn Penaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shuang-Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Fang

    2002-03-01

    This study deals with contribution of artificial food pellet and natural food to Chinese prawn ( Penaeus orientalis) growth in a semi-intensive culture pond. The prawn carbon consumption, budget, and the effects of some factors on the budget were investigated. The results showed that 26.2% of P. orientalis growth carbon came from formulated feed at the initial culture stage (when the prawns were 0.06±0.01 g in wet weight), and was 62.5% when the prawns were 9.56±1.04 g. The remaining part of the growth carbon was derived from organic fertilizer and natural food. The highest growth rate occurred at 20×10-3 salinity. Suitable salinity for culturing Chinese prawn was (20 28)×10-3.

  16. Microbes promote amino acid harvest to rescue undernutrition in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Ryuichi; Deshpande, Sonali A.; Bruce, Kimberley D.; Mak, Elizabeth M.; Ja, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of nutritional disorders such as protein-specific malnutrition. However, the precise contribution of microbes to host energy balance during undernutrition is unclear. Here, we show that Issatchenkia orientalis, a fungal microbe isolated from field-caught Drosophila melanogaster, promotes amino acid harvest to rescue the lifespan of undernourished flies. Using radioisotope-labeled dietary components (amino acids, nucleotides, and sucrose) to quantify nutrient transfer from food to microbe to fly, we demonstrate that I. orientalis extracts amino acids directly from nutrient-poor diets and increases protein flux to the fly. This microbial association restores body mass, protein, glycerol, and ATP levels and phenocopies the metabolic profile of adequately fed flies. Our study uncovers amino acid harvest as a fundamental mechanism linking microbial and host metabolism, and highlights Drosophila as a platform for quantitative studies of host-microbe relationships. PMID:25683709

  17. ¹³⁷Cs concentrations in foliose lichens within Tsukuba-city as a reflection of radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Ohmura, Yoshihito; Matsukura, Kimiyo; Abe, Jun-ichi P; Hosaka, Kentaro; Tamaoki, Masanori; Dohi, Terumi; Kakishima, Makoto; Seaward, Mark R D

    2015-03-01

    (137)Cs concentrations in ten species of foliose lichens collected within Tsukuba-city in August 2013 ranged from 1.7 to 35 kBq/kg. The relationships between (137)Cs in two dominant species, Dirinaria applanata and Physcia orientalis, and the air dose rate (μSv/h) at the sampling sites were investigated. (137)Cs in P. orientalis measured about 1 year after the Fukushima nuclear accident was correlated (r(2) = 0.80) more closely with the air dose rate than those measured after about 2 years (r(2) = 0.65), possibly demonstrating its continued value as a biomonitor to reflect ambient fall-out levels. In contrast, those of Dirinaria applanata were not correlated with the air dose rate in either year.

  18. Chromosome numbers for three species of medicinal leeches (Hirudo spp.).

    PubMed

    Utevsky, Serge; Kovalenko, Nataliya; Doroshenko, Karyna; Petrauskiene, Laima; Klymenko, Vyacheslav

    2009-10-01

    Karyological preparations were made from the testisacs of three medicinal leech species Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus, 1758, H. verbana Carena, 1820 and H. orientalis Utevsky & Trontelj, 2005 . The samples originated from different populations in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. The chromosome numbers were determined both from mitotic and meiotic stages of spermatogenesis using the propionic haematoxylin staining technique. All three species were found to have different haploid chromosome numbers: H. medicinalis 14, H. verbana 13 and H. orientalis 12, thus corroborating the validity of these taxa. The chromosomes can be classified as meta-, submetacentric and acrocentric. The chromosome numbers obtained are similar to that of the related species Haemopis sanguisuga (Linnaeus, 1758), which has 13 pairs.

  19. Plant Species Recovery on a Compacted Skid Road

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Murat; Makineci, Ender; Gungor, Beyza Sat

    2008-01-01

    This study was executed to determine the plant species of herbaceous cover in a skid road subjected to soil compaction due to timber skidding in a beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) stand. Our previous studies have shown that ground based timber skidding destroys the soils extremely, and degradations on ecosystem because of the timber skidding limit recovery and growth of plant cover on skid roads. However, some plant species show healthy habitat, recovery and they can survive after the extreme degradation in study area. We evaluated composition of these plant species and their cover-abundance scales in 100 m x 3 m transect. 15 plant species were determined belongs to 12 plant families and Liliaceae was the highest representative plant family. Smilax aspera L., Epimedium pubigerum (DC.) Moren et Decaisne, Carex distachya Desf. var. distachya Desf., Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn., Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. Don, Hedera helix L. have the highest cover-abundance scale overall of determined species on compacted skid road.

  20. Effects of Extrusion Pretreatment Parameters on Sweet Sorghum Bagasse Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Its Subsequent Conversion into Bioethanol

    PubMed Central

    Heredia-Olea, Erick; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O.

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation bioethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse first extruded at different conditions and then treated with cell wall degrading enzymes and fermented with I. orientalis was determined. The twin extruder parameters tested were barrel temperature, screws speed, and feedstock moisture content using surface response methodology. The best extrusion conditions were 100°C, 200 rpm, and 30% conditioning moisture content. This nonchemical and continuous pretreatment did not generate inhibitory compounds. The extruded feedstocks were saccharified varying the biocatalysis time and solids loading. The best conditions were 20% solids loading and 72 h of enzymatic treatment. These particular conditions converted 70% of the total fibrous carbohydrates into total fermentable C5 and C6 sugars. The extruded enzymatically hydrolyzed sweet sorghum bagasse was fermented with the strain I. orientalis at 12% solids obtaining a yield of 198.1 mL of ethanol per kilogram of bagasse (dw). PMID:25866776

  1. Flavor Profile of Chinese Liquor Is Altered by Interactions of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Microbes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qun; Kong, Yu; Xu, Yan

    2015-10-16

    The flavor profile of Chinese liquor is the result of the metabolic activity of its microbial community. Given the importance of the microbial interaction, a novel way to control the liquor's flavor is by regulating the composition of the community. In this study, we efficiently improved the liquor's flavor by perturbing the intrinsic microbial metabolism with extrinsic microbes. We first constructed a basic microbial group (intrinsic) containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Issatchenkia orientalis and added special flavor producers (extrinsic), Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces servazzii, to this intrinsic group. Upon the addition of the extrinsic microbes, the maximum specific growth rates of S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis increased from 6.19 to 43.28/day and from 1.15 to 14.32/day, respectively, but that of W. anomalus changed from 1.00 to 0.96/day. In addition, most volatile compounds known to be produced by the extrinsic strains were not produced. However, more esters, alcohols, and acids were produced by S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis. Six compounds were significantly different by random forest analysis after perturbation. Among them, increases in ethyl hexanoate, isobutanol, and 3-methylbutyric acid were correlated with S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis, and a decrease in geranyl acetone was correlated with W. anomalus. Variations in ethyl acetate and 2-phenylethanol might be due to the varied activity of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae. This work showed the effect of the interaction between the intrinsic and extrinsic microbes on liquor flavor, which would be beneficial for improving the quality of Chinese liquor.

  2. Sponge biomass and bioerosion rates increase under ocean warming and acidification.

    PubMed

    Fang, James K H; Mello-Athayde, Matheus A; Schönberg, Christine H L; Kline, David I; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Dove, Sophie

    2013-12-01

    The combination of ocean warming and acidification as a result of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is considered to be a significant threat to calcifying organisms and their activities on coral reefs. How these global changes impact the important roles of decalcifying organisms (bioeroders) in the regulation of carbonate budgets, however, is less understood. To address this important question, the effects of a range of past, present and future CO2 emission scenarios (temperature + acidification) on the excavating sponge Cliona orientalis Thiele, 1900 were explored over 12 weeks in early summer on the southern Great Barrier Reef. C. orientalis is a widely distributed bioeroder on many reefs, and hosts symbiotic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Our results showed that biomass production and bioerosion rates of C. orientalis were similar under a pre-industrial scenario and a present day (control) scenario. Symbiodinium population density in the sponge tissue was the highest under the pre-industrial scenario, and decreased towards the two future scenarios with sponge replicates under the 'business-as-usual' CO2 emission scenario exhibiting strong bleaching. Despite these changes, biomass production and the ability of the sponge to erode coral carbonate materials both increased under the future scenarios. Our study suggests that C. orientalis will likely grow faster and have higher bioerosion rates in a high CO2 future than at present, even with significant bleaching. Assuming that our findings hold for excavating sponges in general, increased sponge biomass coupled with accelerated bioerosion may push coral reefs towards net erosion and negative carbonate budgets in the future.

  3. Toxicity of botanical formulations to nursery-infesting white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Moyseenko, James J; Youssef, Nadeer N

    2009-02-01

    The toxicity of eight botanically based biopesticides was evaluated against third instars of the scarab larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Popillia japonica Newman, Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky), Anomala orientalis Waterhouse, and Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. Soil dip bioassays were used to obtain concentration-mortality data 7 d after treatment of larvae, leading to the calculation of LC50 and LC90 values. A wide range in LC50 and LC90 values were exhibited among the formulations. The product Armorex was one of the most active formulations against P. japonica (LC50 = 0.42 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 0.48 ml/liter), A. orientalis (LC50 = 0.39 ml/liter), and C. borealis (LC50 = 0.49 ml/liter). Armorex is composed of extracts from diverse botanical sources, including 84.5% sesame oil, 2.0% garlic oil, 2.0% clove oil, 1.0% rosemary oil, and 0.5% white pepper extracts. The product Azatin, composed of 3% azadirachtin, also exhibited high toxicity to P. japonica (LC50 = 1.13 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 0.81 ml/liter), and A. orientalis (LC50 = 1.87 ml/liter). Veggie Pharm is composed of extracts from diverse sources, but this product showed the lowest toxicity to P. japonica (LC50 = 35.19 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 62.10 ml/liter), A. orientalis (LC50 = 43.76 ml/liter), and C. borealis (LC50 = 50.24 ml/liter). These results document the potential for botanical formulations to control white grubs, but blending extracts from diverse botanical sources does not ensure enhanced biological activity. PMID:19253649

  4. A taxonomic study of Ooctonus (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae) from Heilongjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Hai-Feng; Jin, Xiang-Xiang; Li, Cheng-De

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five species of Ooctonus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae) from Heilongjiang Province, China, are reviewed. One species, Ooctonus huberi sp. n., is described as new, and four species, Ooctonus orientalis Doutt, Ooctonus saturn Triapitsyn, Ooctonus sublaevis Förster and Ooctonus vulgatus Haliday are reported as new to China. A key to the females of the 10 described Chinese species is given. All the specimens are deposited in the insect collections of Northeast Forestry University, China. PMID:25685015

  5. Research on the Natural Enemies of the Mulberry Scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), in Tea Fields in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru

    Species composition and the seasonal prevalence of natural enemies on the mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan were investigated by monitoring methods using yellow sticky traps hung on the branches under leaf layers. The species captured by the sticky traps were as follows: 5 species of parasitic wasps,Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica Hayat (this species was identified as Thomsonisca amathus in Japan), and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren; 1 species of hyperparasites, Marietta carnesi (Howard); and 3 species of coleopteran predators, Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 Cecidomyiidae species (predatory gall midge), namely,Dentifibula sp., was captured by sticky traps. Among the parasitoids captured, A. albitibiae was the most abundant species, followed by P. orientalis. Among the predacious beetles captured, P. hareja was the dominant species. A. albitibiae demonstrated 5 or 6 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year, and P. orientalis and T. indica exhibited 3 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. P. hareja and Dentifibula sp. demonstrated 3 indistinct peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. The peak dates of A. albitibiae, P. orientalis, T. indica, and Dentifibula sp. were compared with those of the first instar larvae and adult males of the hosts, P. pentagona, which were captured by sticky traps. The relationships between the total numbers of each generation captured by sticky traps of the parasitoids A. albitibiae and the host P. pentagona over a period of 2 years revealed similar changes in the dynamics of the host-parasitoid models of Nicholson and Bailey (1935).This suggested that A. albitibiae was one of the most important natural enemies against P.pentagona in tea fields.

  6. Gigantobilharzia, possible cause of cercarial dermatitis: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Hussein M.; Omer, Osama H.; Al-Dhubaibi, Mohammed S.

    2016-01-01

    Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer’s itch) is a worldwide, often neglected parasitic skin disease characterized by strong maculopapular skin eruption accompanied by intensive itching. A fisherman suffered from forearm dermatitis. Clinical history associated with the recovery of the avian schistosome; Gigantobilharzia from little green bee-eater (Merops orientalis najdanus) and collected Lymnaea snails supported the authors’ opinion that patient clinical signs are most likely due to the invasion of avian schistosome cercariae. PMID:27004065

  7. Relationship between the successful infection by entomopathogenic nematodes and the host immune response.

    PubMed

    Li, X-Y; Cowles, R S; Cowles, E A; Gaugler, R; Cox-Foster, D L

    2007-03-01

    Reproduction of entomopathogenic nematodes requires that they escape recognition by a host's immune system or that they have mechanisms to escape encapsulation and melanization. We investigated the immune responses of larvae for the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella), tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta), Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica), northern masked chafer (Cyclocephala borealis), oriental beetle (Exomala orientalis) and adult house crickets (Acheta domesticus), challenged with infective juveniles from different species and strains of entomopathogenic nematodes. The in vivo immune responses of hosts were correlated with nematode specificity and survival found by infection assays. In P. japonica, 45% of injected infective juveniles from Steinernema glaseri NC strain survived; whereas the hemocytes from the beetle strongly encapsulated and melanized the Heterorhabditis bacteriophora HP88 strain, S. glaseri FL strain, Steinernema scarabaei and Steinernema feltiae. Overall, H. bacteriophora was intensively melanized in resistant insect species (E. orientalis, P. japonica and C. borealis) and had the least ability to escape the host immune response. Steinernema glaseri NC strain suppressed the immune responses in susceptible hosts (M. sexta, E. orientalis and P. japonica), whereas S. glaseri FL strain was less successful. Using an in vitro assay, we found that hemocytes from G. mellonella, P. japonica, M. sexta and A. domestica recognized both nematode species quickly. However, many S. glaseri in M. sexta and H. bacteriophora in G. mellonella escaped from hemocyte encapsulation by 24h. These data indicate that, while host recognition underlies some of the differences between resistant and susceptible host species, escape from encapsulation following recognition can also allow successful infection. Co-injected surface-coat proteins from S. glaseri did not protect H. bacteriophora in M. sexta but did protect H. bacteriophora in E. orientalis larva; therefore

  8. Flavor Profile of Chinese Liquor Is Altered by Interactions of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qun; Kong, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The flavor profile of Chinese liquor is the result of the metabolic activity of its microbial community. Given the importance of the microbial interaction, a novel way to control the liquor's flavor is by regulating the composition of the community. In this study, we efficiently improved the liquor's flavor by perturbing the intrinsic microbial metabolism with extrinsic microbes. We first constructed a basic microbial group (intrinsic) containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Issatchenkia orientalis and added special flavor producers (extrinsic), Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces servazzii, to this intrinsic group. Upon the addition of the extrinsic microbes, the maximum specific growth rates of S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis increased from 6.19 to 43.28/day and from 1.15 to 14.32/day, respectively, but that of W. anomalus changed from 1.00 to 0.96/day. In addition, most volatile compounds known to be produced by the extrinsic strains were not produced. However, more esters, alcohols, and acids were produced by S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis. Six compounds were significantly different by random forest analysis after perturbation. Among them, increases in ethyl hexanoate, isobutanol, and 3-methylbutyric acid were correlated with S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis, and a decrease in geranyl acetone was correlated with W. anomalus. Variations in ethyl acetate and 2-phenylethanol might be due to the varied activity of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae. This work showed the effect of the interaction between the intrinsic and extrinsic microbes on liquor flavor, which would be beneficial for improving the quality of Chinese liquor. PMID:26475111

  9. Cuticle Fatty Acid Composition and Differential Susceptibility of Three Species of Cockroaches to the Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota, Hypocreales).

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Alejandra C; Gołębiowski, Marek; Pennisi, Mariana; Peterson, Graciela; García, Juan J; Manfrino, Romina G; López Lastra, Claudia C

    2015-04-01

    Differences in free fatty acids (FFAs) chemical composition of insects may be responsible for susceptibility or resistance to fungal infection. Determination of FFAs found in cuticular lipids can effectively contribute to the knowledge concerning insect defense mechanisms. In this study, we have evaluated the susceptibility of three species of cockroaches to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin by topical application. Mortality due to M. anisopliae was highly significant on adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica L. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). However, mortality was faster in adults than in nymphs. Adults of Blatta orientalis L. (Blattodea: Blattidae) were not susceptible to the fungus, and nymphs of Blaptica dubia Serville (Blattodea: Blaberidae) were more susceptible to the fungus than adults. The composition of cuticular FFAs in the three species of cockroaches was also studied. The analysis indicated that all of the fatty acids were mostly straight-chain, long-chain, saturated or unsaturated. Cuticular lipids of three species of cockroaches contained 19 FFAs, ranging from C14:0 to C24:0. The predominant fatty acids found in the three studied species of cockroaches were oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. Only in adults of Bl. orientalis, myristoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidic acid, dihomolinoleic acid, and behenic acid were identified. Lignoceric acid was detected only in nymphs of Bl. orientalis. Heneicosylic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were identified in adults of Ba. dubia. PMID:26470187

  10. Eco-toxicological effects of two kinds of lead compounds on forest tree seed in alkaline soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan; Zhou, Fu-Rong; Wang, Jin-Xin

    2016-03-01

    In order to compare the different eco-toxicological effects of lead nitrate and lead acetate on forest tree seed, a biological incubation experiment was conducted to testify the inhibition effects of two lead compounds on rates of seed germination, root and stem elongation, and seedling fresh weight for six plants (Amaorpha fruticosa L., Robinia psedoacacia L., Pinus tabuliformis Carr., Platycladus orientalis L., Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm., Hippophae rhamnoides L.) in soil. The results indicate that the inhibition effects of the two lead compounds on the rates of root elongation of plants were greater than other indices; root elongation can possibly be used as indices to investigate the relationship between lead toxicity and plant response. The response of trees to lead toxicity varied significantly, and the order of tolerance to lead pollution was as follows: Amaorpha fruticosa L. > Platycladus orientalis L. > Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. > Robinia psedoacacia L. > Pinus tabuliformis Carr. > Hippophae rhamnoides L. Therefore, we suggest that Amaorpha fruticosa L. and Platycladus orientalis L. be used as tolerant plants for soil phytoremediation and Hippophae rhamnoides L. as an indicative plant to diagnose the toxicity of lead pollution on soil quality. Lead nitrate and lead acetate differentially restrain seeds, with seeds being more sensitive to lead nitrate than lead acetate in the soil. Thus, the characteristics of lead compounds should be taken into full consideration to appraise its impact on the environment.

  11. Cuticle Fatty Acid Composition and Differential Susceptibility of Three Species of Cockroaches to the Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota, Hypocreales).

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Alejandra C; Gołębiowski, Marek; Pennisi, Mariana; Peterson, Graciela; García, Juan J; Manfrino, Romina G; López Lastra, Claudia C

    2015-04-01

    Differences in free fatty acids (FFAs) chemical composition of insects may be responsible for susceptibility or resistance to fungal infection. Determination of FFAs found in cuticular lipids can effectively contribute to the knowledge concerning insect defense mechanisms. In this study, we have evaluated the susceptibility of three species of cockroaches to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin by topical application. Mortality due to M. anisopliae was highly significant on adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica L. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). However, mortality was faster in adults than in nymphs. Adults of Blatta orientalis L. (Blattodea: Blattidae) were not susceptible to the fungus, and nymphs of Blaptica dubia Serville (Blattodea: Blaberidae) were more susceptible to the fungus than adults. The composition of cuticular FFAs in the three species of cockroaches was also studied. The analysis indicated that all of the fatty acids were mostly straight-chain, long-chain, saturated or unsaturated. Cuticular lipids of three species of cockroaches contained 19 FFAs, ranging from C14:0 to C24:0. The predominant fatty acids found in the three studied species of cockroaches were oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. Only in adults of Bl. orientalis, myristoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidic acid, dihomolinoleic acid, and behenic acid were identified. Lignoceric acid was detected only in nymphs of Bl. orientalis. Heneicosylic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were identified in adults of Ba. dubia.

  12. A PCR-based survey of selected Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Kothalawala, Hemal; Abeyratne, Sembukutti Arachchige Eranga; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Hadirampela, Dilhani Thilanka; Puvirajan, Thamotharampillai; Sukumar, Subramaniyam; Kuleswarakumar, Kulanayagam; Chandrasiri, Alawattage Don Nimal; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2012-11-23

    Hemoprotozoan parasites are responsible for significant economic losses in cattle. We screened Sri Lankan cattle populations for the presence of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis, using species-specific PCR assays. Out of 316 samples collected from animals in four different districts of Sri Lanka (Nuwara Eliya, Polonnaruwa, Ampara, and Jaffna), 231 (73.1%) were positive for at least one parasite species. All four parasite species were detected among the study groups from all of the districts surveyed. The first and second commonest hemoprotozoan parasites identified were T. orientalis (53.5%) and B. bigemina (30.1%), respectively. We found that the dry zones (Polonnaruwa, Ampara, and Jaffna) had more Babesia-positive animals than the hill country wet zone (Nuwara Eliya). In contrast, T. orientalis was the predominant species detected in Nuwara Eliya, while infection with T. annulata was more common in the dry zones. In addition, 81 (35.1%) of the 231 positive samples were infected with more than one parasite species. The presence of multiple parasite species among the different cattle populations is of clinical and economic significance. Therefore, island-wide control and prevention programs against bovine babesiosis and theileriosis are needed to minimize the financial burden caused by these parasites.

  13. Eco-toxicological effects of two kinds of lead compounds on forest tree seed in alkaline soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan; Zhou, Fu-Rong; Wang, Jin-Xin

    2016-03-01

    In order to compare the different eco-toxicological effects of lead nitrate and lead acetate on forest tree seed, a biological incubation experiment was conducted to testify the inhibition effects of two lead compounds on rates of seed germination, root and stem elongation, and seedling fresh weight for six plants (Amaorpha fruticosa L., Robinia psedoacacia L., Pinus tabuliformis Carr., Platycladus orientalis L., Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm., Hippophae rhamnoides L.) in soil. The results indicate that the inhibition effects of the two lead compounds on the rates of root elongation of plants were greater than other indices; root elongation can possibly be used as indices to investigate the relationship between lead toxicity and plant response. The response of trees to lead toxicity varied significantly, and the order of tolerance to lead pollution was as follows: Amaorpha fruticosa L. > Platycladus orientalis L. > Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. > Robinia psedoacacia L. > Pinus tabuliformis Carr. > Hippophae rhamnoides L. Therefore, we suggest that Amaorpha fruticosa L. and Platycladus orientalis L. be used as tolerant plants for soil phytoremediation and Hippophae rhamnoides L. as an indicative plant to diagnose the toxicity of lead pollution on soil quality. Lead nitrate and lead acetate differentially restrain seeds, with seeds being more sensitive to lead nitrate than lead acetate in the soil. Thus, the characteristics of lead compounds should be taken into full consideration to appraise its impact on the environment. PMID:26927657

  14. Genetics of metabolic variations between Yersinia pestis biovars and the proposal of a new biovar, microtus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dongsheng; Tong, Zongzhong; Song, Yajun; Han, Yanping; Pei, Decui; Pang, Xin; Zhai, Junhui; Li, Min; Cui, Baizhong; Qi, Zhizhen; Jin, Lixia; Dai, Ruixia; Du, Zongmin; Wang, Jin; Guo, Zhaobiao; Wang, Jian; Huang, Peitang; Yang, Ruifu

    2004-08-01

    Yersinia pestis has been historically divided into three biovars: antiqua, mediaevalis, and orientalis. On the basis of this study, strains from Microtus-related plague foci are proposed to constitute a new biovar, microtus. Based on the ability to ferment glycerol and arabinose and to reduce nitrate, Y. pestis strains can be assigned to one of four biovars: antiqua (glycerol positive, arabinose positive, and nitrate positive), mediaevalis (glycerol positive, arabinose positive, and nitrate negative), orientalis (glycerol negative, arabinose positive, and nitrate positive), and microtus (glycerol positive, arabinose negative, and nitrate negative). A 93-bp in-frame deletion in glpD gene results in the glycerol-negative characteristic of biovar orientalis strains. Two kinds of point mutations in the napA gene may cause the nitrate reduction-negative characteristic in biovars mediaevalis and microtus, respectively. A 122-bp frameshift deletion in the araC gene may lead to the arabinose-negative phenotype of biovar microtus strains. Biovar microtus strains have a unique genomic profile of gene loss and pseudogene distribution, which most likely accounts for the human attenuation of this new biovar. Focused, hypothesis-based investigations on these specific genes will help delineate the determinants that enable this deadly pathogen to be virulent to humans and give insight into the evolution of Y. pestis and plague pathogenesis. Moreover, there may be the implications for development of biovar microtus strains as a potential vaccine.

  15. Immobilizing and lethal effects of spider venoms on the cockroach and the common mealbeetle.

    PubMed

    Friedel, T; Nentwig, W

    1989-01-01

    Immobilizing and lethal effects of the venoms obtained from six spider species (Brachypelma albopilosum, Atrax robustus, Cupiennius salei, Selenops mexicanus, Tegenaria atrica, Argiope bruennichi) were tested on Blatta orientalis (cockroach) and Tenebrio molitor (common mealbeetle). The immobilizing effects were quantified by measuring insect locomotor activity in circle arenas observed over 72 hr after venom injection. Both insect species showed cramps, quivering and jerking of the limbs as well as flaccid paralysis after venom injection. Through relative toxicity of the venoms tested is the same in T. molitor and B. orientalis, T. molitor is absolutely less sensitive to spider venoms. The effects on locomotor activity show time characteristics specific for each venom. A dependence of the venom paralyzing effects on insect locomotor activity, low intensity of the initial excitatory phase of the venom effects and partial recovery of the insects was found with A. bruennichi and T. atrica venom. The maximal venom yields of A. bruennichi and S. mexicanus are not lethal to B. orientalis, indicating that the mere immobilizing effects of spider venoms are far more crucial to prey capture than their lethal effects. The contribution of a variety of differently acting neurotoxic components in spider venoms to the observed venom effects on insects and the significance of the venoms in spider nutrition, hunting behaviour and ecology are discussed. PMID:2728023

  16. Species and biogeochemical cycles of organic phosphorus in sediments from a river with different aquatic plants located in Huaihe River Watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, He Zhong; Pan, Wei; Ren, Li Jun; Liu, Eeng Feng; Shen, Ji; Geng, Qi Fang; An, Shu Qing

    2015-01-01

    The results of phosphorus fractionation in the sediments from a contaminated river containing different aquatic plants, analyzed by solution 31P-NMR for Organic Phosphorus, showed that the concentration of Inorganic Phosphorus dominated in all species and Organic Phosphorus accounted for over 20% of Total Phosphorus. In general, orthophosphate was dominant in all the sampling sites. The proportion of Organic Phosphorus accounting for the Total Phosphorus in the sediments with different plant decreased in the following order: Paspalum distichum>Typha orientalis>Hydrilla verticillata. Phosphorus-accumulation ability of Paspalum distichum was obviously stronger than Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata. The Organic Phosphorus was in aquatic plants dominated by humic-associated P (Hu-P), which converted to Inorganic Ohosphorus more significantly in submerged plants than in emerged plants. The sediment dominated by Paspalum distichum abundantly accumulated Organic Phosphorus in the orthophosphate monoester fraction. The degradation and mineralization of orthophosphate monoester was the important source of high Inorganic Phosphorus concentration and net primary productivity in Suoxu River. The Organic Phosphorus derived from Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata was dramatically converted to Inorganic Phosphorus when the environmental factors varied.

  17. Occurrence of Theileria and Babesia species in water buffalo (Bubalus babalis, Linnaeus, 1758) in the Hubei province, South China.

    PubMed

    He, Lan; Feng, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Qing-Li; Fang, Rui; Wang, Li-Xia; Tu, Pan; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Zhao, Jun-Long; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2012-05-25

    The presence and prevalence of tick-borne haemoparasites in water buffalo from the Hubei province, south China was investigated using the reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay and phylogenetic analysis of the parasite 18S rRNA gene. Theileria buffeli (19.1%) was the most frequently found species in all of the locations, followed by Babesia orientalis (8.9%), Babesia bovis (1.0%) and Babesia bigemina (0.7%). Only 12 (3.9%) of the samples had mixed infections. Eleven samples with single infections were selected for further characterization using 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the eight T. buffeli 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained grouped into four clusters, of which three grouped with the known T. buffeli types B and D. The remaining five grouped separately from the previously describe T. buffeli types, constituting new T. buffeli types. The two B. bigemina 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained grouped closely with B. bigemina Kunming; this serves as the first report of B. bigemina in the Hubei province. The B. orientalis Daye 18S rRNA gene sequence obtained grouped closely with the previously reported B. orientalis Wuhan strain and with Babesia sp. Kashi 1 and Kashi 2.

  18. Speciation history and widespread introgression in the European short-call tree frogs (Hyla arborea sensu lato, H. intermedia and H. sarda).

    PubMed

    Gvoždík, Václav; Canestrelli, Daniele; García-París, Mario; Moravec, Jiří; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Recuero, Ernesto; Teixeira, José; Kotlík, Petr

    2015-02-01

    European tree frogs (Hyla) characterized by short temporal parameters of the advertisement call form six genetically differentiated but morphologically cryptic taxa, H. arborea sensu stricto, H. orientalis and H. molleri from across Europe to western Asia (together referred to as H. arborea sensu lato), two putative taxa within H. intermedia (Northern and Southern) from the Italian Peninsula and Sicily, and H. sarda from Sardinia and Corsica. Here, we assess species limits and phylogenetic relationships within these 'short-call tree frogs' based on mitochondrial DNA and nuclear protein-coding markers. The mitochondrial and nuclear genes show partly incongruent phylogeographic patterns, which point to a complex history of gene flow across taxa, particularly in the Balkans. To test the species limits in the short-call tree frogs and to infer the species tree, we used coalescent-based approaches. The monophyly of H. arborea sensu lato is supported by the mtDNA as well as by the all-gene species tree. The Northern and Southern lineages of H. intermedia have been connected by nuclear gene flow (despite their deep mtDNA divergence) and should be treated as conspecific. On the contrary, the parapatric taxa within H. arborea sensu lato should be considered distinct species (H. arborea, H. orientalis, H. molleri) based on the coalescent analysis, although signs of hybridization were detected between them (H. arborea×H. orientalis; H. arborea×H. molleri). A mitochondrial capture upon secondary contact appears to explain the close mtDNA relationship between the geographically remote Iberian H. molleri and H. orientalis from around the Black Sea. Introgressive hybridization occurred also between the Balkan H. arborea and northern Italian H. intermedia, and between the Minor Asiatic H. orientalis and Arabian H. felix arabica (the latter belonging to a different acoustic group/clade). Our results shed light on the species limits in the European short-call tree frogs and show

  19. Comparison of Bloodmeal Digestion and the Peritrophic Matrix in Four Sand Fly Species Differing in Susceptibility to Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Pruzinova, Katerina; Sadlova, Jovana; Seblova, Veronika; Homola, Miroslav; Votypka, Jan; Volf, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The early stage of Leishmania development in sand flies is closely connected with bloodmeal digestion. Here we compared various parameters of bloodmeal digestion in sand flies that are either susceptible (Phlebotomus argentipes and P. orientalis) or refractory (P. papatasi and Sergentomyia schwetzi) to Leishmania donovani, to study the effects on vector competence. The volume of the bloodmeal ingested, time of defecation of bloodmeal remnants, timing of formation and degradation of the peritrophic matrix (PM) and dynamics of proteolytic activities were compared in four sand fly species. Both proven vectors of L. donovani showed lower trypsin activity and slower PM formation than refractory species. Interestingly, the two natural L. donovani vectors strikingly differed from each other in secretion of the PM and midgut proteases, with P. argentipes possessing fast bloodmeal digestion with a very high peak of chymotrypsin activity and rapid degradation of the PM. Experimental infections of P. argentipes did not reveal any differences in vector competence in comparison with previously studied P. orientalis; even the very low initial dose (2×103 promastigotes/ml) led to fully developed late-stage infections with colonization of the stomodeal valve in about 40% of females. We hypothesise that the period between the breakdown of the PM and defecation of the bloodmeal remnants, i.e. the time frame when Leishmania attach to the midgut in order to prevent defecation, could be one of crucial parameters responsible for the establishment of Leishmania in the sand fly midgut. In both natural L. donovani vectors this period was significantly longer than in S. schwetzi. Both vectors are equally susceptible to L. donovani; as average bloodmeal volumes taken by females of P. argentipes and P. orientalis were 0.63 μl and 0.59 μl, respectively, an infective dose corresponding to 1–2 parasites was enough to initiate mature infections. PMID:26030610

  20. [Effects of mixed decomposition of Populus simonii and other tree species leaf litters on soil properties in Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Liu, Zeng-Wen; Du, Liang-Zhen

    2012-03-01

    In this study, the leaf litters of Populus simonii and other 11 tree species were put into soil separately or in mixture after grinding, and incubated in laboratory to analyze the effects of their decomposition on soil properties and the interactions between the litters decomposition. The decomposition of each kind of the leaf litters in soil increased the soil urease, dehydrogenase, and phosphatase activities and the soil organic matter and available N contents markedly, but had greater differences in the effects on the soil available P content and CEC. The decomposition of the leaf litters of Caragana microphylla and of Amorpha fruticosa showed obvious effects in improving soil properties. The decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and Pinus tabulaeformis, Platycladus orientalis, Robinia pseudoacacia, or Ulmus pumila showed interactive promotion effects on the abundance of soil microbes, and that of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. orientalis or C. microphylla showed interactive promotion effects on the soil organic matter, available P, and available K contents and soil CEC but interactive inhibition effects on the activities of most of the soil enzymes tested. The decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and Larix principis-rupprechtii showed interactive promotion effects on the activities of most of the soil enzymes and soil nutrient contents, while that of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. sylvestris var. mongolica showed interactive inhibition effects. Overall, the decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simo- nii and U. pumila, P. tabulaeformis, L. principis-rupprechtii, or R. pseudoacacia could improve soil quality, but the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. orientalis, C. microphylla, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, Hippophae rhamnoides, or A. fruticosa showed an interactive inhibition effect during their decomposition.

  1. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of six herbal plants against the human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cell line

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Six plants from Thailand were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction in human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) as compared to normal African green monkey kidney epithelial cell lines. Methods Ethanol-water crude extracts of the six plants were tested with neutral red assay for their cytotoxicity after 24 hours of exposure to the cells. Apoptotic induction was tested in the HepG2 cells with diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. DNA fragmentation, indicative of apoptosis, was analyzed with agarose gel electrophoresis. Alkylation, indicative of DNA damage, was also evaluated in vitro by 4-(4'-nitrobenzyl) pyridine assay. Results The extract of Pinus kesiya showed the highest selectivity (selectivity index = 9.6) and potent cytotoxicity in the HepG2 cell line, with an IC50 value of 52.0 ± 5.8 μg/ml (mean ± standard deviation). Extract of Catimbium speciosum exerted cytotoxicity with an IC50 value of 55.7 ± 8.1 μg/ml. Crude extracts from Glochidion daltonii, Cladogynos orientalis, Acorus tatarinowii and Amomum villosum exhibited cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging 100-500 μg/ml. All crude extracts showed different alkylating abilities in vitro. Extracts of P. kesiya, C. speciosum and C. orientalis caused nuclei morphological changes and DNA laddering. Conclusion The extracts of C. speciosum, C. orientalis and P. kesiya induced apoptosis. Among the three plants, P. kesiya possessed the most robust anticancer activity, with specific selectivity against HepG2 cells. PMID:22041055

  2. Permanent draft genome sequence of Vibrio tubiashii strain NCIMB 1337 (ATCC19106).

    SciTech Connect

    Temperton, B.; Thomas, S.; Tait, K.; Parry, H.; Emery, M.; Allen, M.; Quinn, J.; McGrath, J.; Gilbert, J.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio tubiashii NCIMB 1337 is a major and increasingly prevalent pathogen of bivalve mollusks, and shares a close phylogenetic relationship with both V. orientalis and V. coralliilyticus. It is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped bacterium, originally isolated from a moribund juvenile oyster, and is both oxidase and catalase positive. It is capable of growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome and annotation. The genome is 5,353,266 bp long, consisting of two chromosomes, and contains 4,864 protein-coding and 86 RNA genes.

  3. [Plague in Algeria: about five strains of Yersinia pestis isolated during the outbreak of June 2003].

    PubMed

    Lounici, M; Lazri, M; Rahal, K

    2005-02-01

    In this study, we isolated and identified five strains of Yersinia pestis during an epidemic occurred in west of Algeria in June 2003. The bacteriological identification was confirmed by bacteriophage susceptibility. All these strains belonged to the biovar Orientalis (they did not ferment glycerol but did reduce nitrate to nitrite) which caused the current pandemic. The in vitro activities of antimicrobial agents used to treat plague and recommended for prophylaxis, showed that they are active against all strains. The comparison of these strains by plasmid profile analyse demonstrated that all isolates had three plasmids: 110, 70 and 9.5 kb, which are present in Y. pestis strains.

  4. DNA barcodes reveal species-specific mercury levels in tuna sushi that pose a health risk to consumers.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, Jacob H; Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian W; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-10-23

    Excessive ingestion of mercury--a health hazard associated with consuming predatory fishes--damages neurological, sensory-motor and cardiovascular functioning. The mercury levels found in Bigeye Tuna (Thunnus obesus) and bluefin tuna species (Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus orientalis, and Thunnus thynnus), exceed or approach levels permissible by Canada, the European Union, Japan, the US, and the World Health Organization. We used DNA barcodes to identify tuna sushi samples analysed for mercury and demonstrate that the ability to identify cryptic samples in the market place allows regulatory agencies to more accurately measure the risk faced by fish consumers and enact policies that better safeguard their health. PMID:20410032

  5. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative potential of four fern species from China intended for use as food supplements.

    PubMed

    Dion, Carine; Haug, Christian; Guan, Haifeng; Ripoll, Christophe; Spiteller, Peter; Coussaert, Aurelie; Boulet, Elodie; Schmidt, Daniel; Wei, Jianbing; Zhou, Yijun; Lamottke, Kai

    2015-04-01

    Inflammation plays a major role in many diseases, for instance in arteriosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune disorders and cancer. Since many plants contain compounds with anti-inflammatory activity, their consumption may be able to prevent the development of inflammatory-based diseases. Edible ferns are some of the most important wild vegetables in China and have traditionally been used both for dietary and therapeutic purposes. In this study we investigated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of fern extracts from Matteuccia struthiopteris, Osmundajaponica, Matteuccia orientalis and Pteridium aquilinum intended for use as nutraceuticals. Two modes of action were investigated: the inhibition of the pro-inflammatory gene expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL1-β) and interleukin-6 (IL6), and the gene expression of iNOS by LPS-elicited macrophages. The results showed a decrease of IL1-β gene expression for the five fern extracts. This effect was more pronounced for the extracts prepared from the roots of O. japonica (IC50 of 17.8 µg/mL) and the young fronds of M orientalis (50.0 µg/mL). Regarding the indirect measurement of NO, via iNOS gene expression, an interesting decrease of 50% was obtained with the extract of M. orientalis fronds at a low concentration (20 µg/mL) compared with P. aquilinum fronds (160 µg/mL) and leaves of O. japonica. The latter showed a higher decrease but at a high concentration of extract (160 µg/mL). The five fern extracts were also evaluated for their ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). All fern extracts exhibited antioxidant effects but the roots of O. japonica and the fronds of M orientalis were most efficient. The HPLC-MS analysis of the constituents of the fern extracts confirmed the presence of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, kaempferol and apigenin, molecules known to exhibit

  6. Survey of the reptilian fauna of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. V. The lizard fauna of Turaif region.

    PubMed

    Al-Sadoon, Mohammed K; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Al-Otaibi, Hamad S

    2016-09-01

    Turaif area located in the Northern border region of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important regions of the Kingdom. This work was proposed to throw light on the diversity of lizard fauna investigated through the collection and subsequent identification of specimens from different localities of Turaif region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Sixteen species of lizards belonging to 5 families (Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, Scincidae and Varanidae) were recorded. Lacertidae was the most common family. Three species of lizards namely Acanthodactylus orientalis, Acanthodactylus scutellatus and Acanthodactylus grandis were reported for the first time in the Turaif region of Saudi Arabia. The geographical distribution of the collected species within this province was mapped.

  7. Some important physical properties of laminated veneer lumber (Lvl) made from oriental beech and Lombardy poplar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılıç, Murat

    2012-09-01

    This study examined some physical characteristics of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) obtained in different compositions from cut veneers of Oriental beech (Fagus Orientalis Lipsky) and Lombardy poplar (Populus nigra) with thicknesses of 4 mm and 5 mm. Five each beech and poplar trees were felled with this objective. The PVAc (Kleiberit 303) and PU (Bizon Timber PU-Max Express) types of adhesive were used in lamination. The air-dry and oven dry densities, cell wall density and porosity, the value of volume density, shrinkage in a tangential and radial direction and volume swelling amounts were determined by preparing the specimens in accordance with the standards.

  8. Cytotoxic activity of kaempferol glycosides against human leukaemic cell lines in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dimas, K; Demetzos, C; Mitaku, S; Marselos, M; Tzavaras, T; Kokkinopoulos, D

    2000-01-01

    Two kaempferol coumaroyl glycosides (i.e. platanoside and tiliroside) isolated from the methanolic extract of Platanus orientalis L. buds, were examined for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against a panel of human leukaemic cell lines. Platanoside (1) exhibited cytotoxic activity against most of the cell lines tested, while tiliroside (2) was active against two of the nine tested cell lines. Compound 1, was examined for its effect on the uptake of [(3)H]thymidine as a marker of DNA synthesis. Kaempferol was used as a control.

  9. Immunoglobulin G class identification from wild ungulates by cross-reactivity with antisera to domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Lastras, M E; Pastor, J; Viñas, L; Marco, I; Lavin, S

    2000-08-01

    Seven species of Spanish ungulates were tested for the presence of homologous immunoglobulin G (IgG) with a gel-diffusion test using bovine, ovine, caprine and porcine IgG antisera. Homologous ovine and caprine IgG were detected in sera from chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica), Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica), mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon), red deer (Cervus elaphus), fallow deer (Dama dama) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Homologous porcine IgG was detected in wild boar (Sus scrofa) serum. Immunoelectrophoretic assays were performed to compare the electrophoretic mobility of IgG from domestic and wild species.

  10. The brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) as encapsulation organism for prophylactic chemotherapy of fish and prawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ji-Xiang; Bian, Bo-Zhong; Li, Ming-Ren

    1996-06-01

    Brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) which had ingested three water-insoluble antibacterial drugs i.e. sulfadiazine(SD), oxytetracycline (OTC) and erythromycin estolate (ERY-Es) were fed to Tilapia and Mysis III of Penaeus orientalis K. The drug contents in the predators were then determined. After administration of drugs to Tilapia and Mysis III, through the bio-encapsulation of the brine shrimp, efficacious therapeutical concentration of OTC and ERY-Es (but not SD) in the predators could be reached and maintained for more than 8 hours.

  11. Genome-scale reconstruction of the metabolic network in Yersinia pestis CO92

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navid, Ali; Almaas, Eivind

    2007-03-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of bubonic plague. Using publicly available genomic, biochemical and physiological data, we have developed a constraint-based flux balance model of metabolism in the CO92 strain (biovar Orientalis) of this organism. The metabolic reactions were appropriately compartmentalized, and the model accounts for the exchange of metabolites, as well as the import of nutrients and export of waste products. We have characterized the metabolic capabilities and phenotypes of this organism, after comparing the model predictions with available experimental observations to evaluate accuracy and completeness. We have also begun preliminary studies into how cellular metabolism affects virulence.

  12. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative potential of four fern species from China intended for use as food supplements.

    PubMed

    Dion, Carine; Haug, Christian; Guan, Haifeng; Ripoll, Christophe; Spiteller, Peter; Coussaert, Aurelie; Boulet, Elodie; Schmidt, Daniel; Wei, Jianbing; Zhou, Yijun; Lamottke, Kai

    2015-04-01

    Inflammation plays a major role in many diseases, for instance in arteriosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune disorders and cancer. Since many plants contain compounds with anti-inflammatory activity, their consumption may be able to prevent the development of inflammatory-based diseases. Edible ferns are some of the most important wild vegetables in China and have traditionally been used both for dietary and therapeutic purposes. In this study we investigated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of fern extracts from Matteuccia struthiopteris, Osmundajaponica, Matteuccia orientalis and Pteridium aquilinum intended for use as nutraceuticals. Two modes of action were investigated: the inhibition of the pro-inflammatory gene expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL1-β) and interleukin-6 (IL6), and the gene expression of iNOS by LPS-elicited macrophages. The results showed a decrease of IL1-β gene expression for the five fern extracts. This effect was more pronounced for the extracts prepared from the roots of O. japonica (IC50 of 17.8 µg/mL) and the young fronds of M orientalis (50.0 µg/mL). Regarding the indirect measurement of NO, via iNOS gene expression, an interesting decrease of 50% was obtained with the extract of M. orientalis fronds at a low concentration (20 µg/mL) compared with P. aquilinum fronds (160 µg/mL) and leaves of O. japonica. The latter showed a higher decrease but at a high concentration of extract (160 µg/mL). The five fern extracts were also evaluated for their ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). All fern extracts exhibited antioxidant effects but the roots of O. japonica and the fronds of M orientalis were most efficient. The HPLC-MS analysis of the constituents of the fern extracts confirmed the presence of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, kaempferol and apigenin, molecules known to exhibit

  13. Further studies on water mites from Korea, with description of two new species (Acari, Hydrachnidia)

    PubMed Central

    Pešić, Vladimir; Semenchenko, Ksenia A.; Lee, Wonchoel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from streams in South Korea are presented. Two species are described as new to science: Torrenticola neodentifera sp. n. (Torrenticolidae) and Atractides ermilovi sp. n. (Hygrobatidae). Five species are reported as first records for Korea: Wandesia (Wandesia) reducta Tuzovskij, 1987, Wandesia (Wandesia) cf. rara Tuzovskij, 1990, Sperchon (Sperchon) orientalis Tuzovskij, 1990, Feltria (Feltria) kuluensis Tuzovskij, 1988 and Atractides (Atractides) constrictus (Sokolow, 1934). The latter species is redescribed and elevated to species rank based on new material from the Russian Far East. PMID:26155068

  14. Pharmacological effects of various venoms on cutaneous capillary leakage.

    PubMed

    Burnett, J W; Calton, G J

    1986-01-01

    Studies to counteract the cutaneous vasopermeability actions of a wasp (Vespa orientalis), an anemone (Bolocera tuediae) and three jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri, Chrysaora quinquecirrha and Physalia physalis) venoms were conducted by using various pharmacological antagonists. Piripost (a leukotriene inhibitor) reduced vasopermeability if administered 5 min prior to challenge with the jellyfish venoms. Methysergide counteracted the vasopermeability of three of four coelenterate venoms, whereas indomethacin was effective against capillary leakage induced by Chironex venom. These studies indicate that anti-dermonecrotic therapy against various venoms will have to be species-specific. PMID:2875548

  15. DNA barcodes reveal species-specific mercury levels in tuna sushi that pose a health risk to consumers.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, Jacob H; Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian W; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-10-23

    Excessive ingestion of mercury--a health hazard associated with consuming predatory fishes--damages neurological, sensory-motor and cardiovascular functioning. The mercury levels found in Bigeye Tuna (Thunnus obesus) and bluefin tuna species (Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus orientalis, and Thunnus thynnus), exceed or approach levels permissible by Canada, the European Union, Japan, the US, and the World Health Organization. We used DNA barcodes to identify tuna sushi samples analysed for mercury and demonstrate that the ability to identify cryptic samples in the market place allows regulatory agencies to more accurately measure the risk faced by fish consumers and enact policies that better safeguard their health.

  16. The stinging Apidae and Vespidae (Hymenoptera: Apocrita) in Iranian islands, Qeshm, Abu-Musa, Great Tunb and Lesser Tunb on the Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Khoobdel, Mehdi; Tavassoli, Maryam; Salari, Mehdi; Firozi, Fateme

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the stinging flying Hymenoptera (Apidae and Vespidae) fauna in four Iranian Islands, Qeshm, Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb and Abu-Musa on the Persian Gulf. Methods The flies were captured by used of Malaise trap, fly trap, bottle trap and insect net-hashing from March 2011 to July 2012. Results In this study, 11 species of stinging Hymenoptera were reported for the first time in Persian Gulf region. Conclusions Some of this species such as Vespa orientalis and Polistes olivaceus are more common in the Persian Gulf islands and can cause clinical problem to islands resident and travelers. PMID:25183092

  17. Functional characterization of Yersinia pestis aerobic glycerol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Willias, Stephan P; Chauhan, Sadhana; Motin, Vladimir L

    2014-11-01

    Yersinia pestis biovar Orientalis isolates have lost the capacity to ferment glycerol. Herein we provide experimental validation that a 93 bp in-frame deletion within the glpD gene encoding the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase present in all biovar Orientalis strains is sufficient to disrupt aerobic glycerol fermentation. Furthermore, the inability to ferment glycerol is often insured by a variety of additional mutations within the glpFKX operon which prevents glycerol internalization and conversion to glycerol-3-phosphate. The physiological impact of functional glpFKX in the presence of dysfunctional glpD was assessed. Results demonstrate no change in growth kinetics at 26 °C and 37 °C. Mutants deficient in glpD displayed decreased intracellular accumulation of glycerol-3-phosphate, a characterized inhibitor of cAMP receptor protein (CRP) activation. Since CRP is rigorously involved in global regulation Y. pestis virulence, we tested a possible influence of a single glpD mutation on virulence. Nonetheless, subcutaneous and intranasal murine challenge was not impacted by glycerol metabolism. As quantified by crystal violet assay, biofilm formation of the glpD-deficient KIM6+ mutant was mildly repressed; whereas, chromosomal restoration of glpD in CO92 resulted in a significant increase in biofilm formation. PMID:25220241

  18. Site properties for Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa) in semi-natural forests of south western Anatolia, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Kürsad; Gulsoy, Serkan; Aerts, Raf; Muys, Bart

    2010-01-01

    We explored the semi-natural forests in south western Anatolia along a gradient between Mediterranean and continental climates to determine the site requirements of Juniperus excelsa in Turkey. We hypothesized that environmental variables and indicator species can be used to predict differences in occurrence and cover of J. excelsa and can therefore support decision making in reforestation management planning. Plant species composition and environmental variables were assessed in 153 plots. Association between J. excelsa and other plant species and environmental variables were analyzed using Fisher exact probability tests and stepwise discriminant analysis. High altitude (> 1000 m) as a proxy for an Oromediterranean climate, and high surface stoniness as a proxy for low competition by other tree species, are positive site properties for J. excelsa. The tree species avoids Eumediterranean and Supramediterranean plant communities. Twelve plant species, including the herbs Dianthus zonatus, Ajuga chamaepitys and Paronchia carica and the shrub Cotoneaster nummularia may be used as site indicators for J. excelsa restoration. Platanus orientalis, with similar site requirements but at present negatively associated to J. excelsa due to competitive effects, may be considered an additional indicator if stand conversion (harvesting and replacing P. orientalis) is part of the management plan.

  19. Starter Culture Selection for Making Chinese Sesame-Flavored Liquor Based on Microbial Metabolic Activity in Mixed-Culture Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientalis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The metabolic activity of each species in mixed and inoculated fermentations of liquor was investigated in 14 different cocultures that used different combinations of these species. The relationships between the microbial species and volatile metabolites were analyzed by partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. We found that S. cerevisiae was positively correlated to nonanal, and B. licheniformis was positively associated with 2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, guaiacol, and 4-vinyl guaiacol, while I. orientalis was positively correlated to butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, and 2,3-butanediol. These three species are excellent flavor producers for Chinese liquor. Although P. membranaefaciens and B. amyloliquefaciens were not efficient flavor producers, the addition of them alleviated competition among the other three species and altered their growth rates and flavor production. As a result, the coculture of all five dominant species produced the largest amount of flavor compounds. The result indicates that flavor producers and microbial interaction regulators are important for inoculated fermentation of Chinese sesame-flavored liquor. PMID:24814798

  20. Cement dust pollution induces toxicity or deficiency of some essential elements in wild plants growing around a cement factory.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Salih; Atici, Ökkes; Gülen, Yasir

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, it was aimed to determine the effects of cement dust pollution on contents of some significant essential elements (P, S, K, Ca, Fe and Cl) in wild plants (Medigago varia, Anchusa leptophylla, Euphorbia orientalis, Lactuca serriola, Artemisia spicigera, Crambe orientalis, Convolvulus sepium and Senecio vernalis) using wavelength-dispersive spectrometer X-ray fluorescence technique. Plant samples were collected from different locations around a cement factory which is located at Askale about 50 km from Erzurum (Turkey). The element contents in the plant specimens that existed in both 0-100 m (dense dusted) and 2000 m (undusted) areas were compared. P, S, K and Cl contents were found to be high in the plants growing in areas 0-100 m from the cement factory, compared to same plants at 2000 m far from the factory. However, Ca and Fe contents were determined to be low in plants growing in 0-100 m area from the factory. Results of the study can contribute to understand how mineral deficiency and toxicity lead to detrimental effects on plant growth and development in the fields contaminated by cement dust.

  1. Molecular analysis of wild and domestic sheep questions current nomenclature and provides evidence for domestication from two different subspecies.

    PubMed Central

    Hiendleder, Stefan; Kaupe, Bernhard; Wassmuth, Rudolf; Janke, Axel

    2002-01-01

    Complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control regions (CR) were sequenced and analysed in order to investigate wild sheep taxonomy and the origin of domestic sheep (Ovis aries). The dataset for phylogenetic analyses includes 63 unique CR sequences from wild sheep of the mouflon (O. musimon, O. orientalis), urial (O. vignei), argali (O. ammon) and bighorn (O. canadensis) groups, and from domestic sheep of Asia, Europe and New Zealand. Domestic sheep occurred in two clearly separated branches with mouflon (O. musimon) mixed into one of the domestic sheep clusters. Genetic distances and molecular datings based on O. canadensis CR and mtDNA protein-coding sequences provide strong evidence for domestications from two mouflon subspecies. Other wild sheep sequences are in two additional well-separated branches. Ovis ammon collium and O. ammon nigrimontana are joined with a specimen from the transkaspian Ust-Urt plateau currently named O. vignei arkal. Ovis ammon ammon, O. ammon darwini and O. vignei bochariensis represent a separate clade and the earliest divergence from the mouflon group. Therefore, O. musimon, O. vignei bochariensis and Ust-Urt sheep are not members of a 'moufloniform' or O. orientalis species, but belong to different clades. Furthermore, Ust-Urt sheep could be a hybrid population or an O. ammon subspecies closely related to O. ammon nigrimontana. PMID:12028771

  2. New Pseudomonas spp. Are Pathogenic to Citrus.

    PubMed

    Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described.

  3. [Effect of afforestation modes on soil microbial community and nitrogen functional genes in Hippophae rhamnoides plantation].

    PubMed

    Yang, Dan; Yu, Xuan; Liu, Xu; Liu, Jin-liana; Zhang, Shun-xiang; Yu, Ze-qun

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the effect of different afforestation modes on microbial composition and nitrogen functional genes in soil. Soil samples from a pure Hippophae rhamnoides stand (SS) and three mixed stands, namely, H. rhamnoides and Pinus tabuliformis (SY), H. rhamnoides and Platycladus orientalis (SB), H. rhamnoides and Robinia pseucdoacacia (SC) were selected. The results showed that the total PLFA (TPLFA), bacterial PLFA, gram positive bacterial PLFA (G⁺PLFA) were significantly higher in soil samples from other three stands than those of the pure one. However, no significant difference was found for fungal PLFA among them. The abundance of nifH, amoA, nirK and narG genes were higher in SY and SC than in SS. The TPLFA, G⁺PLFA, gram negative bacterial PLFA (G⁻PLFA), and all of the detected gene abundance were significantly and positively correlated with soil pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and available potassium. Afforestation modes affected indirectly soil microbial composition and functional genes through soil properties. Mixing P. tabuliformis or P. orientalis with H. rhamnoides might be suitable afforestation modes, which might improve soil quality. PMID:27111999

  4. Review of zoonotic parasites in medical and veterinary fields in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Youn, Heejeong

    2009-10-01

    Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329

  5. [Photoreceptors and visual pigments in three species of newts].

    PubMed

    Koremiak, D A; Govardovskiĭ, V I

    2013-01-01

    Photoreceptor complement and retinal visual pigments in three newt (Caudata, Salamandridae, Pleurodelinae) species (Pleurodeles waltl, Lissotriton (Triturus) vulgaris and Cynops orientalis) were studied by light mucroscopy and microspectrophotometry. Retinas of all three species contain "red" (rhodopsin/porphyropsin) rods, large and small single cones, and double cones. Large single cones and both components of double cones contain red-sensitive (presumably LWS) visual pigment whose absorbance spectrum peaks between 593 and 611 nm. Small single cones are either blue- (SWS2, maximum absorbance between 470 and 489 nm) or UV-sensitive (SWS1, maximum absorbance between 340 and 359 nm). Chromophore composition of visual pigments (A1 vs. A2) was assessed both from template fitting of absorption spectra and by the method of selective bleaching. All pigments contained a mixture of A1 (11-cis retinal) and A2 (11-cis-3,4-dehydroretinal) chromophore in the proportion depending on the species and cell type. In all cases, A2 was dominant. However, in C. orientalis rods the fraction of A1 could reach 45%, while in P. waltl and L. vulgaris cones it did not exceed 5%. Remarkably, the absorbance of the newt blue-sensitive visual pigment was shifted by up to 45 nm toward the longer wavelength, as compared with all other amphibian SWS2-pigments. We found no "green" rods typical of retinas of Anura and some Caudata (ambystomas) in the three newt species studied. PMID:24459859

  6. Fungal treatment followed by FeCl3 treatment to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of poplar wood for high sugar yields.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Yuan, Tong Qi; Cui, Bao Kai

    2013-12-01

    Fungal treatment followed by FeCl3 treatment was used to improve saccharification of wood from Populus tomentosa. Combined treatments accumulated lignin and slightly degraded cellulose, whereas almost all hemicelluloses were removed. The white rot fungus, Trametes orientalis, and the brown rot fungus, Fomitopsis palustris, both accompanied by FeCl3 post-treatment resulted in 98.8 and 99.7 % of hemicelluloses loss at 180 °C, respectively, which were over twice than that of hot water pretreatment at the same level. In addition, the solid residue from the T. orientalis-assisted and F. palustris-assisted FeCl3 treatment at 180 °C released 84.5 and 95.4 % of reducing sugars, respectively: 1.4- and 1.6-fold higher than that of FeCl3 treatment alone at the same temperature. Combined treatments disrupted the intact cell structure and increased accessible surface area of cellulose therefore enhancing the enzymatic digestibility, as evidenced by XRD and SEM analysis data.

  7. Seasonal variations of isoprene emissions from deciduous trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoshan, Zhang; Yujing, Mu; Wenzhi, Song; Yahui, Zhuang

    Isoprene emission fluxes were investigated for 12 tree species in and around Beijing city. Bag-enclosure method was used to collect the air sample and GC-PID was used to directly analyze isoprene. Ginkgo and Magnolia denudata had negligible isoprene emissions, while significant emissions were observed for Platanus orientalis, Pendula loud, Populus simonii, and Salix matsudana koidz, and other remaining trees showed no sign of isoprene emission. Variations in isoprene emission with changes in light, temperature and season were investigated for Platanus orientalis and Pendula loud. Isoprene emission rates strongly depended on light, temperature and leaf age. The maximum emission rates for the two trees were observed in summer with values of about 232 and 213 μg g -1 dw h -1, respectively. The measured emission fluxes were used to evaluate "Guenther" emission algorithm. The emission fluxes predicted by the algorithm were in relatively good agreement with field measurements. However, there were large differences for the calculated median emission factors during spring, summer and fall. The 25-75 percentiles span of the emission factor data sets ranged from -33 to +15% of the median values.

  8. Genetic Diversity in Lens Species Revealed by EST and Genomic Simple Sequence Repeat Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dikshit, Harsh Kumar; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Dharmendra; Aski, Muraleedhar Sidaram; Prakash, Prapti; Jain, Neelu; Meena, Suresh; Kumar, Shiv; Sarker, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Low productivity of pilosae type lentils grown in South Asia is attributed to narrow genetic base of the released cultivars which results in susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses. For enhancement of productivity and production, broadening of genetic base is essentially required. The genetic base of released cultivars can be broadened by using diverse types including bold seeded and early maturing lentils from Mediterranean region and related wild species. Genetic diversity in eighty six accessions of three species of genus Lens was assessed based on twelve genomic and thirty one EST-SSR markers. The evaluated set of genotypes included diverse lentil varieties and advanced breeding lines from Indian programme, two early maturing ICARDA lines and five related wild subspecies/species endemic to the Mediterranean region. Genomic SSRs exhibited higher polymorphism in comparison to EST SSRs. GLLC 598 produced 5 alleles with highest gene diversity value of 0.80. Among the studied subspecies/species 43 SSRs detected maximum number of alleles in L. orientalis. Based on Nei’s genetic distance cultivated lentil L. culinaris subsp. culinaris was found to be close to its wild progenitor L. culinaris subsp. orientalis. The Prichard’s structure of 86 genotypes distinguished different subspecies/species. Higher variability was recorded among individuals within population than among populations. PMID:26381889

  9. Molecular analysis of wild and domestic sheep questions current nomenclature and provides evidence for domestication from two different subspecies.

    PubMed

    Hiendleder, Stefan; Kaupe, Bernhard; Wassmuth, Rudolf; Janke, Axel

    2002-05-01

    Complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control regions (CR) were sequenced and analysed in order to investigate wild sheep taxonomy and the origin of domestic sheep (Ovis aries). The dataset for phylogenetic analyses includes 63 unique CR sequences from wild sheep of the mouflon (O. musimon, O. orientalis), urial (O. vignei), argali (O. ammon) and bighorn (O. canadensis) groups, and from domestic sheep of Asia, Europe and New Zealand. Domestic sheep occurred in two clearly separated branches with mouflon (O. musimon) mixed into one of the domestic sheep clusters. Genetic distances and molecular datings based on O. canadensis CR and mtDNA protein-coding sequences provide strong evidence for domestications from two mouflon subspecies. Other wild sheep sequences are in two additional well-separated branches. Ovis ammon collium and O. ammon nigrimontana are joined with a specimen from the transkaspian Ust-Urt plateau currently named O. vignei arkal. Ovis ammon ammon, O. ammon darwini and O. vignei bochariensis represent a separate clade and the earliest divergence from the mouflon group. Therefore, O. musimon, O. vignei bochariensis and Ust-Urt sheep are not members of a 'moufloniform' or O. orientalis species, but belong to different clades. Furthermore, Ust-Urt sheep could be a hybrid population or an O. ammon subspecies closely related to O. ammon nigrimontana.

  10. Pichia cecembensis sp. nov. isolated from a papaya fruit (Carica papaya L., Caricaceae).

    PubMed

    Bhadra, Bhaskar; Sreenivas Rao, R; Naveen Kumar, N; Chaturvedi, Preeti; Sarkar, Partha K; Shivaji, S

    2007-06-01

    The ascogenous yeast YS16T was isolated from a decaying papaya fruit. Phenotypic traits such as multilateral budding, spheroidal or elongate shape, pseudohyphae formation, asci with one or more ascospores, ability to ferment d-glucose, inability to assimilate nitrate and the presence of Q7 ubiquinone suggest its affiliation to the genus Pichia. The nearest phylogenetic neighbor, based on D1/D2 domain sequence of the 26S rRNA gene and ITS region sequence, was identified as Issatchenkia orientalis (NRRL Y-5396T, a synonym of Pichia kudriavzevii) with similarities of 98.2% and 97% respectively. In addition to the difference in the D1/D2 and ITS region sequence, YS16T differs from I. orientalis with respect to a number of phenotypic traits. However, in the phylogenetic analysis, YS16T showed close relatedness to the P. membranifaciens clade. Thus, it is proposed to assign the status of a new species to YS16T, for which the name P. cecembensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of P. cecembensis sp. nov. is YS16T (=NRRL Y-27985T=JCM 13873T=CBS 10445T). PMID:17316366

  11. Eight New Species of Charinus Simon, 1892 (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae) Endemic for the Brazilian Amazon, with Notes on Their Conservational Status

    PubMed Central

    Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; de Miranda, Gustavo Silva

    2016-01-01

    Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 are described for the Brazilian Amazon, from the states of Pará (C. bichuetteae sp. n., C. bonaldoi sp. n., C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n., C. guto sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n.) and Amazonas (Charinus brescoviti sp. n. and C. ricardoi sp. n.). All new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the number of pseudo-articles in basitibia IV, the presence/absence of median eyes, and the shape of the female gonopod. Brazil now becomes the country with the largest diversity of Amblypygi in the world, with 25 known species. Half of the new species described here have a high degree of endangerment: C. bichuetteae sp. n. is threatened by the flood caused by the hydroelectric dam of Belo Monte, and C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n. are endangered by the iron mining in Carajás municipality and surroundings. The Charinus species here described are endemic to the Amazon Region, so in order to assure their preservation, it is strongly recommended a special care with their habitats (type localities) which are facing increasing rates of destruction and deforestation. PMID:26885641

  12. Preservation of Field Samples for Enzymatic and Proteomic Characterization: Analysis of Proteins from the Trophallactic Fluid of Hornets and Yellowjackets

    PubMed Central

    Roskens, Violet A.; Carpenter, James M.; Pickett, Kurt M.; Ballif, Bryan A.

    2010-01-01

    Proteomics is fast becoming one of the most interdisciplinary fields, bridging many chemical and biological disciplines. Major challenges, however, can limit the reach of proteomics to studies of model organisms. Challenges include the adequate preservation of field samples, and the reliance of in-depth proteomics on sequenced genomes. Seeking to better establish the evolutionary relationships of hornets and yellowjackets comprising the subfamily Vespinae, we are combining classical morphological and genomic information with a functional genomics trait using proteomics. Vespine species form highly social colonies and exhibit division of labor in almost all aspects of colony life. An extreme digestive division of labor has been reported in Vespa orientalis, in which larvae but not adult workers exhibit the capacity to digest proteins fully. This makes the colony dependent upon the amino acid-rich trophallactic fluid released to adults by larvae, and implies that the V. orientalis superorganism possesses larval-specific proteases. Identifying the proteases and the species exhibiting such extreme partitioning of digestive labor will allow for tracing the phylogenetic origins and elaboration of that digestive partitioning in the Vespinae. Herein we describe methods, generally applicable to field samples, showing the preservation of proteins and proteolytic activity from adult and larval vespine trophallactic fluid. PMID:20718491

  13. [Photoreceptors and visual pigments in three species of newts].

    PubMed

    Koremiak, D A; Govardovskiĭ, V I

    2013-01-01

    Photoreceptor complement and retinal visual pigments in three newt (Caudata, Salamandridae, Pleurodelinae) species (Pleurodeles waltl, Lissotriton (Triturus) vulgaris and Cynops orientalis) were studied by light mucroscopy and microspectrophotometry. Retinas of all three species contain "red" (rhodopsin/porphyropsin) rods, large and small single cones, and double cones. Large single cones and both components of double cones contain red-sensitive (presumably LWS) visual pigment whose absorbance spectrum peaks between 593 and 611 nm. Small single cones are either blue- (SWS2, maximum absorbance between 470 and 489 nm) or UV-sensitive (SWS1, maximum absorbance between 340 and 359 nm). Chromophore composition of visual pigments (A1 vs. A2) was assessed both from template fitting of absorption spectra and by the method of selective bleaching. All pigments contained a mixture of A1 (11-cis retinal) and A2 (11-cis-3,4-dehydroretinal) chromophore in the proportion depending on the species and cell type. In all cases, A2 was dominant. However, in C. orientalis rods the fraction of A1 could reach 45%, while in P. waltl and L. vulgaris cones it did not exceed 5%. Remarkably, the absorbance of the newt blue-sensitive visual pigment was shifted by up to 45 nm toward the longer wavelength, as compared with all other amphibian SWS2-pigments. We found no "green" rods typical of retinas of Anura and some Caudata (ambystomas) in the three newt species studied.

  14. Cockroach fauna in the Ogasawara Chain Islands of Japan and analysis of their habitats.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Noriyuki; Kishimoto, Toshio; Uchida, Akihiko; Ooi, Hong-Kean

    2013-03-01

    A survey of cockroach fauna was carried out on the 3 inhabited islands of the Ogasawara chain island of Japan, namely, Chichijima island, Hahajima island and Iwo island. Seven species, namely, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758), Periplaneta australasiae (Fabricius, 1775), Blattella lituricollis (Walker, 1868), Onychostylus vilis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1865), Supella longipalpa (Fabricius, 1798), Pycnoscelus surinamensis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Opisthoplatia orientalis (Burmeister, 1838), were collected on Chichijima island. Four species, namely, P. americana, P. australasiae, O. vilis and P. surinamensis were collected on Hahajima island and 6 species, namely, P. americana, P. australasiae, B. lituricollis, O. vilis, P. surinamensis and Neostylopyga rhombifolia were collected on Iwo island. This is the first record of N. rhombifolia and Onychostylus orientalis on the Ogasawara chain islands. Our study increases the recorded taxon of cockroaches on the Ogasawara from 3 families, 5 genera 10 species to 4 families, 7 genera, 12 species. A list of the cockroach species on Ogasawara islands reported to date as well as a key for their identification is also presented. Periplaneta americana and P. australasiae, being the dominant species, together with S. longipalpa, were collected mostly in the indoor environment, indicating their preference for this habitat. Pycnoscelus surinamensis, which is considered as an outdoor insect has been found in semi-household environments such as greenhouse and shed, indicating their new adaptation to the changing environment.

  15. Eight New Species of Charinus Simon, 1892 (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae) Endemic for the Brazilian Amazon, with Notes on Their Conservational Status.

    PubMed

    Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; de Miranda, Gustavo Silva

    2016-01-01

    Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 are described for the Brazilian Amazon, from the states of Pará (C. bichuetteae sp. n., C. bonaldoi sp. n., C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n., C. guto sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n.) and Amazonas (Charinus brescoviti sp. n. and C. ricardoi sp. n.). All new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the number of pseudo-articles in basitibia IV, the presence/absence of median eyes, and the shape of the female gonopod. Brazil now becomes the country with the largest diversity of Amblypygi in the world, with 25 known species. Half of the new species described here have a high degree of endangerment: C. bichuetteae sp. n. is threatened by the flood caused by the hydroelectric dam of Belo Monte, and C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n. are endangered by the iron mining in Carajás municipality and surroundings. The Charinus species here described are endemic to the Amazon Region, so in order to assure their preservation, it is strongly recommended a special care with their habitats (type localities) which are facing increasing rates of destruction and deforestation.

  16. Carbonyl sulfide and dimethyl sulfide exchange between trees and the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Chunmei; Mu, Yujing

    The exchange rates of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) between 19 tree species and the atmosphere were investigated under natural field conditions using a static enclosure. Most of the investigated trees acted as sinks for atmospheric COS and a few trees, such as Salix matsudana Koidz. and Ulmus pumila L. could emit COS. The distinct diurnal variations of COS uptake for the investigated trees indicated that COS uptake strongly depended on photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The average COS uptake rates for most species were much higher in summer than in autumn, indicating leaf age and temperature also might be the important influencing factors for COS uptake. Platanus orientalis L., Sophara japonica var. P. loud., Magnolia denudata Desr. and Sophora japonica L. were capable of continuously absorbing COS in daytime as well as in nighttime. For Platanus orientalis L., the maximal COS uptake rate and DMS emission rate on a single leaf area basis were -15.29 and 0.42 pmol m -2 s -1, respectively. The COS exchange fluxes for the investigated tree species depended strongly on the ambient COS mixing ratios. Significant correlation between DMS emissions and temperature was observed in summer.

  17. Determination of antioxidant effects of some plant species wild growing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Serteser, Ahmet; Kargioğlu, Mustafa; Gök, Veli; Bağci, Yavuz; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Arslan, Derya

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity of 50% aqueous methanol extracts of Crataegus tanacetifolia (Lam.) Pers, Crataegus bornmuelleri Zaberi, Crataegus orientalis Pall. ex M.Bieb. var. orientalis, Crataegus szovitsii Pojark, Crataegus curvisepala Lindm., Crataegus monogyna Jacq. subsp. monogyna, Crataegus monogyna Jacq.subsp. azarella (Gris.) Franco, Crataegus micophylla C.Koch, Rosa foetida Herrm., Rosa hemisphaerica J.Herrm., Rosa pulverulenta M.Bieb., Rosa canina L., Rubus discolor Weihe & Nees, Rubus canescens DC. var. canescens, Rubus sanctus Screber, Rubus caesius L., Sorbus umbellata (Desf.) Fritsch var. umbellata, Prunus avium L. (Moench.) and Prunus cerasus L. Mespilus germenica was evaluated by various antioxidant assays, including free radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and metal-chelating activities. The extracts of R. hemisphaerica J.Herrm., P. cerasus L. and R. canina L. showed more stronger free radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities, and the extracts of R. foetida Herrm. (62.54%) and P. cerasus L. showed stronger metal-chelating activity. The results obtained in the present study indicated that the R. hemisphaerica J.Herrm., P. cerasus L. and R. canina are potential sources of natural antioxidant. These antioxidant properties depend on the concentration of the sample. PMID:19382350

  18. Eight New Species of Charinus Simon, 1892 (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae) Endemic for the Brazilian Amazon, with Notes on Their Conservational Status.

    PubMed

    Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; de Miranda, Gustavo Silva

    2016-01-01

    Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 are described for the Brazilian Amazon, from the states of Pará (C. bichuetteae sp. n., C. bonaldoi sp. n., C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n., C. guto sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n.) and Amazonas (Charinus brescoviti sp. n. and C. ricardoi sp. n.). All new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the number of pseudo-articles in basitibia IV, the presence/absence of median eyes, and the shape of the female gonopod. Brazil now becomes the country with the largest diversity of Amblypygi in the world, with 25 known species. Half of the new species described here have a high degree of endangerment: C. bichuetteae sp. n. is threatened by the flood caused by the hydroelectric dam of Belo Monte, and C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n. are endangered by the iron mining in Carajás municipality and surroundings. The Charinus species here described are endemic to the Amazon Region, so in order to assure their preservation, it is strongly recommended a special care with their habitats (type localities) which are facing increasing rates of destruction and deforestation. PMID:26885641

  19. Burrowing hard corals occurring on the sea floor since 80 million years ago.

    PubMed

    Sentoku, Asuka; Tokuda, Yuki; Ezaki, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    We describe a previously unknown niche for hard corals in the small, bowl-shaped, solitary scleractinian, Deltocyathoides orientalis (Family Turbinoliidae), on soft-bottom substrates. Observational experiments were used to clarify how the sea floor niche is exploited by turbinoliids. Deltocyathoides orientalis is adapted to an infaunal mode of life and exhibits behaviours associated with automobility that include burrowing into sediments, vertical movement through sediments to escape burial, and recovery of an upright position after being overturned. These behaviours were achieved through repeated expansion and contraction of their peripheral soft tissues, which constitute a unique muscle-membrane system. Histological analysis showed that these muscle arrangements were associated with deeply incised inter-costal spaces characteristic of turbinoliid corals. The oldest known turbinoliid, Bothrophoria ornata, which occurred in the Cretaceous (Campanian), also possessed a small, conical skeleton with highly developed costae. An infaunal mode of life became available to turbinoliids due to the acquisition of automobility through the muscle-membrane system at least 80 million years ago. The newly discovered active burrowing strategies described herein provide new insights into the use of an unattached mode of life by corals inhabiting soft-bottom substrates throughout the Phanerozoic. PMID:27074813

  20. Five Ovine Mitochondrial Lineages Identified From Sheep Breeds of the Near East

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, Jennifer R. S.; Cemal, Ibrahim; Karaca, Orhan; Gootwine, Elisha; Kijas, James W.

    2007-01-01

    Archaeozoological evidence indicates that sheep were first domesticated in the Fertile Crescent. To search for DNA sequence diversity arising from previously undetected domestication events, this survey examined nine breeds of sheep from modern-day Turkey and Israel. A total of 2027 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence from 197 sheep revealed a total of 85 haplotypes and a high level of genetic diversity. Six individuals carried three haplotypes, which clustered separately from the known ovine mtDNA lineages A, B, and C. Analysis of genetic distance, mismatch distribution, and comparisons with wild sheep confirmed that these represent two additional mtDNA lineages denoted D and E. The two haplogroup E sequences were found to link the previously identified groups A and C. The single haplogroup D sequence branched with the eastern mouflon (Ovis orientalis), urial (O. vignei), and argali (O. ammon) sheep. High sequence diversity (K = 1.86%, haplogroup D and O. orientalis) indicates that the wild progenitor of this domestic lineage remains unresolved. The identification in this study of evidence for additional domestication events adds to the emerging view that sheep were recruited from wild populations multiple times in the same way as for other livestock species such as goat, cattle, and pig. PMID:17194773

  1. Searching chromosomal landmarks in Indian lentils through EMA-based Giemsa staining method.

    PubMed

    Jha, Timir Baran; Halder, Mihir

    2016-09-01

    Lentil is one of the oldest protein-rich food crop with only one cultivated and six wild species. India is one important cultivator, producer and consumer of lentils and possesses a large number of germplasms. All species of lentil show 2n = 14 chromosomes. The primary objective of the present paper is to search chromosomal landmarks through enzymatic maceration and air drying (EMA)-based Giemsa staining method in five Indian lentil species not reported elsewhere at a time. Additionally, gametic chromosome analysis, tendril formation and seed morphology have been studied to ascertain interspecific relationships in lentils. Chromosome analysis in Lens culinaris, Lens orientalis and Lens odemensis revealed that they contain intercalary sat chromosome and similar karyotypic formula, while Lens nigricans and Lens lamottei showed presence of terminal sat chromosomes not reported earlier. This distinct morphological feature in L. nigricans and L. lamottei may be considered as chromosomal landmark. Meiotic analysis showed n = 7 bivalents in L. culinaris, L. nigricans and L. lamottei. No tendril formation was observed in L. culinaris, L. orientalis and L. odemensis while L. nigricans and L. lamottei developed very prominent tendrils. Based on chromosomal analysis, tendril formation and seed morphology, the five lentil species can be separated into two distinct groups. The outcome of this research may enrich conventional and biotechnological breeding programmes in lentil and may facilitate an easy and alternative method for identification of interspecific hybrids.

  2. Genetic Diversity in Lens Species Revealed by EST and Genomic Simple Sequence Repeat Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dikshit, Harsh Kumar; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Dharmendra; Aski, Muraleedhar Sidaram; Prakash, Prapti; Jain, Neelu; Meena, Suresh; Kumar, Shiv; Sarker, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Low productivity of pilosae type lentils grown in South Asia is attributed to narrow genetic base of the released cultivars which results in susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses. For enhancement of productivity and production, broadening of genetic base is essentially required. The genetic base of released cultivars can be broadened by using diverse types including bold seeded and early maturing lentils from Mediterranean region and related wild species. Genetic diversity in eighty six accessions of three species of genus Lens was assessed based on twelve genomic and thirty one EST-SSR markers. The evaluated set of genotypes included diverse lentil varieties and advanced breeding lines from Indian programme, two early maturing ICARDA lines and five related wild subspecies/species endemic to the Mediterranean region. Genomic SSRs exhibited higher polymorphism in comparison to EST SSRs. GLLC 598 produced 5 alleles with highest gene diversity value of 0.80. Among the studied subspecies/species 43 SSRs detected maximum number of alleles in L. orientalis. Based on Nei's genetic distance cultivated lentil L. culinaris subsp. culinaris was found to be close to its wild progenitor L. culinaris subsp. orientalis. The Prichard's structure of 86 genotypes distinguished different subspecies/species. Higher variability was recorded among individuals within population than among populations.

  3. A new asset for pathogen informatics--the Enteropathogen Resource Integration Center (ERIC), an NIAID Bioinformatics Resource Center for Biodefense and Emerging/Re-emerging Infectious Disease.

    PubMed

    Greene, John M; Plunkett, Guy; Burland, Valerie; Glasner, Jeremy; Cabot, Eric; Anderson, Brad; Neeno-Eckwall, Eric; Qiu, Yu; Mau, Bob; Rusch, Michael; Liss, Paul; Hampton, Thomas; Pot, David; Shaker, Matthew; Shaull, Lorie; Shetty, Panna; Shi, Chuan; Whitmore, Jon; Wong, Mary; Zaremba, Sam; Blattner, Frederick R; Perna, Nicole T

    2007-01-01

    ERIC (Enteropathogen Resource Information Center) is one of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Bioinformatics Resource Centers for Biodefense and Emerging/Re-emerging Infectious Disease. ERIC serves as a comprehensive information resource for five related pathogens: Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pestis, diarrheagenic E. coli, Shigella spp., and Salmonella spp. ERIC integrates genomics, proteomics, biochemical and microbiological information to facilitate the interpretation and understanding of ERIC pathogens and select related non-pathogens for the advancement of diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. ERIC (www.ericbrc.org) is evolving to provide state-of-the-art analysis tools and data types, such as genome sequencing, comparative genomics, genome polymorphisms, gene expression, proteomics, and pathways as well as expertly curated community genome annotation. Genome sequence and genome annotation data and a variety of analysis and tools for eight strains of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pestis pathogens (Yersinia pestis biovars Mediaevalis KIM, Mediaevalis 91001, Orientalis CO92, Orientalis IP275, Antiqua Angola, Antiqua Antiqua, Antiqua Nepal516, and Yersinia enterocolitica 8081) and two strains of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP32953 and IP31758) are currently available through the ERIC portal. ERIC seeks to maintain a strong collaboration with the scientific community so that we can continue to identify and incorporate the latest research data, tools, and training to best meet the current and future needs of the enteropathogen research community. All tools and data developed under this NIAID contract will be freely available. Please contact info@ericbrc.org for more information.

  4. Gene flow among wild and domesticated almond species: insights from chloroplast and nuclear markers

    PubMed Central

    Delplancke, Malou; Alvarez, Nadir; Espíndola, Anahí; Joly, Hélène; Benoit, Laure; Brouck, Elise; Arrigo, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization has played a central role in the evolutionary history of domesticated plants. Notably, several breeding programs relying on gene introgression from the wild compartment have been performed in fruit tree species within the genus Prunus but few studies investigated spontaneous gene flow among wild and domesticated Prunus species. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of genetic relationships and levels of gene flow between domesticated and wild Prunus species is needed. Combining nuclear and chloroplastic microsatellites, we investigated the gene flow and hybridization among two key almond tree species, the cultivated Prunus dulcis and one of the most widespread wild relative Prunus orientalis in the Fertile Crescent. We detected high genetic diversity levels in both species along with substantial and symmetric gene flow between the domesticated P. dulcis and the wild P. orientalis. These results were discussed in light of the cultivated species diversity, by outlining the frequent spontaneous genetic contributions of wild species to the domesticated compartment. In addition, crop-to-wild gene flow suggests that ad hoc transgene containment strategies would be required if genetically modified cultivars were introduced in the northwestern Mediterranean. PMID:25568053

  5. Genetic Diversity in Lens Species Revealed by EST and Genomic Simple Sequence Repeat Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dikshit, Harsh Kumar; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Dharmendra; Aski, Muraleedhar Sidaram; Prakash, Prapti; Jain, Neelu; Meena, Suresh; Kumar, Shiv; Sarker, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Low productivity of pilosae type lentils grown in South Asia is attributed to narrow genetic base of the released cultivars which results in susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses. For enhancement of productivity and production, broadening of genetic base is essentially required. The genetic base of released cultivars can be broadened by using diverse types including bold seeded and early maturing lentils from Mediterranean region and related wild species. Genetic diversity in eighty six accessions of three species of genus Lens was assessed based on twelve genomic and thirty one EST-SSR markers. The evaluated set of genotypes included diverse lentil varieties and advanced breeding lines from Indian programme, two early maturing ICARDA lines and five related wild subspecies/species endemic to the Mediterranean region. Genomic SSRs exhibited higher polymorphism in comparison to EST SSRs. GLLC 598 produced 5 alleles with highest gene diversity value of 0.80. Among the studied subspecies/species 43 SSRs detected maximum number of alleles in L. orientalis. Based on Nei's genetic distance cultivated lentil L. culinaris subsp. culinaris was found to be close to its wild progenitor L. culinaris subsp. orientalis. The Prichard's structure of 86 genotypes distinguished different subspecies/species. Higher variability was recorded among individuals within population than among populations. PMID:26381889

  6. Searching chromosomal landmarks in Indian lentils through EMA-based Giemsa staining method.

    PubMed

    Jha, Timir Baran; Halder, Mihir

    2016-09-01

    Lentil is one of the oldest protein-rich food crop with only one cultivated and six wild species. India is one important cultivator, producer and consumer of lentils and possesses a large number of germplasms. All species of lentil show 2n = 14 chromosomes. The primary objective of the present paper is to search chromosomal landmarks through enzymatic maceration and air drying (EMA)-based Giemsa staining method in five Indian lentil species not reported elsewhere at a time. Additionally, gametic chromosome analysis, tendril formation and seed morphology have been studied to ascertain interspecific relationships in lentils. Chromosome analysis in Lens culinaris, Lens orientalis and Lens odemensis revealed that they contain intercalary sat chromosome and similar karyotypic formula, while Lens nigricans and Lens lamottei showed presence of terminal sat chromosomes not reported earlier. This distinct morphological feature in L. nigricans and L. lamottei may be considered as chromosomal landmark. Meiotic analysis showed n = 7 bivalents in L. culinaris, L. nigricans and L. lamottei. No tendril formation was observed in L. culinaris, L. orientalis and L. odemensis while L. nigricans and L. lamottei developed very prominent tendrils. Based on chromosomal analysis, tendril formation and seed morphology, the five lentil species can be separated into two distinct groups. The outcome of this research may enrich conventional and biotechnological breeding programmes in lentil and may facilitate an easy and alternative method for identification of interspecific hybrids. PMID:26342302

  7. Review of Zoonotic Parasites in Medical and Veterinary Fields in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329

  8. New Pseudomonas spp. Are Pathogenic to Citrus.

    PubMed

    Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described. PMID:26919540

  9. New Pseudomonas spp. Are Pathogenic to Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described. PMID:26919540

  10. [Effect of afforestation modes on soil microbial community and nitrogen functional genes in Hippophae rhamnoides plantation].

    PubMed

    Yang, Dan; Yu, Xuan; Liu, Xu; Liu, Jin-liana; Zhang, Shun-xiang; Yu, Ze-qun

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the effect of different afforestation modes on microbial composition and nitrogen functional genes in soil. Soil samples from a pure Hippophae rhamnoides stand (SS) and three mixed stands, namely, H. rhamnoides and Pinus tabuliformis (SY), H. rhamnoides and Platycladus orientalis (SB), H. rhamnoides and Robinia pseucdoacacia (SC) were selected. The results showed that the total PLFA (TPLFA), bacterial PLFA, gram positive bacterial PLFA (G⁺PLFA) were significantly higher in soil samples from other three stands than those of the pure one. However, no significant difference was found for fungal PLFA among them. The abundance of nifH, amoA, nirK and narG genes were higher in SY and SC than in SS. The TPLFA, G⁺PLFA, gram negative bacterial PLFA (G⁻PLFA), and all of the detected gene abundance were significantly and positively correlated with soil pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and available potassium. Afforestation modes affected indirectly soil microbial composition and functional genes through soil properties. Mixing P. tabuliformis or P. orientalis with H. rhamnoides might be suitable afforestation modes, which might improve soil quality.

  11. PCR detection and genetic diversity of bovine hemoprotozoan parasites in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich; Long, Phung Thang; Yoshinari, Takeshi; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Guswanto, Azirwan; Okubo, Kazuhiro; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru; Xuan, Xuenan; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2013-11-01

    Hemoprotozoan infections often cause serious production losses in livestock. In the present study, we conducted a PCR-based survey of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis, Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma theileri, using 423 DNA samples extracted from blood samples of cattle (n=202), water buffaloes (n=43), sheep (n=51) and goats (n=127) bred in the Hue and Hanoi provinces of Vietnam. With the exception of T. annulata and T. evansi, all other parasite species (B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. orientalis and T. theileri) were detected in the cattle populations with B. bovis being the most common among them. Additionally, four water buffaloes and a single goat were infected with B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. The Hue province had more hemoprotozoan-positive animals than those from the Hanoi region. In the phylogenetic analyses, B. bovis-MSA-2b, B. bigemina-AMA-1 and T. theileri-CATL gene sequences were dispersed across four, one and three different clades in the respective phylograms. This is the first study in which the presence of Babesia, Theileria and Trypanosoma parasites was simultaneously investigated by PCR in Vietnam. The findings suggest that hemoprotozoan parasites, some of which are genetically diverse, continue to be a threat to the livestock industry in this country.

  12. Survey of benign Theileria parasites of cattle and buffaloes in Thailand using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction of major piroplasm surface protein gene.

    PubMed

    Sarataphan, Nopporn; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Chansiri, Kosum; Onuma, Misao

    2003-01-01

    During a year from 1999 to 2000, a total of 247 blood samples were collected from 214 cattle and 33 water buffaloes in 16 distinct geographical locations of Thailand and analyzed by allele-specific PCR amplification of major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) genes of benign Theileria parasites. Four allelic MPSP gene types were determined namely C-type, I-type, B-type and Thai-type, which were originally designated from Japanese Theileria orientalis (Chitose, Ikeda), Australian T. buffeli (Warwick) and Thai T. sp. (Kamphaeng Saen), respectively. Only two allelic MPSP gene types were successively amplified from 204 (82.6%) blood samples. Among positive cases, 138 (67.6%) and 17 (8.3%) samples contained either Thai-type or C-type parasites, respectively, while 49 (24%) samples contained both types. However, nucleotide sequences of MPSP genes of Thai T. sp. amplified by C-type specific primers revealed higher (96.3%) similarity to Indonesian T. sp. rather than (87.8% similarity) to Japanese T. orientalis (Chitose) designated as C-type.

  13. Attack or retreat: contrasted defensive tactics used by Cyprian honeybee colonies under attack from hornets.

    PubMed

    Papachristoforou, Alexandros; Rortais, Agnès; Sueur, Jérôme; Arnold, Gérard

    2011-02-01

    This study describes the tactics used by Cyprian honeybees (Apis mellifera cypria) to defend their colonies against hornet (Vespa orientalis orientalis) attacks. We use simulated hornet attacks and a combination of video recordings and image analysis to reveal, for the first time, contrasted intra-subspecies defensive tactics that operate at the colony level during predation. In some colonies, when attacked, the numbers of guards at the hive entrance increases rapidly to attack, engulf, and kill invading hornets. In other colonies, guards avoid conflicts with hornets by retreating gradually and by forming a defensive line of honeybees at the hive entrance. Retreater colonies have propolis walls at the hive entrances with small apertures that are too narrow to allow the hornet to access the hive and that therefore reinforces entrance protection. On the contrary, attacker colonies have propolis walls with large openings through which the hornet can pass; these bees block the hornet's access by intensively guarding the hive entrance. We experimentally destroy propolis walls to test whether colonies consistently rebuild walls with the same intrinsic characteristics and we also monitor the survival rate of each anti-predator tactic after massive natural predation by hornets.

  14. Description of a new species of Microhyla from Bali, Indonesia (Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi; Hamidy, Amir; Eto, Koshiro

    2013-01-01

    We describe a microhylid frog from Bali, Indonesia as a new species, Microhyla orientalis sp. nov. It belongs to the M. achatina group and is close to M. mantheyi, M. malang, and M. borneensis. It is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: small size (adult males about 16-17 mm in SVL); a faint vertebral stripe present; a black lateral stripe from behind eye to half length of trunk; snout rounded in profile; eyelid without supraciliary spines; first finger less than one-fifth of third; tips of three outer fingers weakly dilated, forming weak disks, dorsally with median longitudinal groove; outer palmar tubercle single; tibiotarsal articulation reaching up to center of eye; tips of toes distinctly dilated into disks, dorsally with median longitudinal groove; inner and outer metatarsal tubercles present; four or more phalanges on inner and outer sides of fourth toe, and three phalanges on inner side of fifth toe free of web; and tail of larva with a black marking at middle. The male advertisement call of the new species consists of a series of notes each lasts for 0.01-0.08 s and composed of 3-5 pulses with a dominant frequency of 3.2-3.6 kHz. Uncorrected sequence divergences between M. orientalis and all homologous 16S rRNA sequences available were > 6.6%. At present, the new species is known from rice fields between 435-815 m elevation in Wongaya Gede and Batukaru.

  15. Heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, and Hg) content in four fish commonly consumed in Iran: risk assessment for the consumers.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mehdi; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Nabavi, Seyedeh Narges; Pour, Nasrin Adami

    2015-05-01

    In this study, concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, and Hg were determined in commercially valuable fish from Khuzestan shore, northwest of the Persian Gulf. It was also our intention to evaluate potential risks to human health associated with seafood consumption. The liver and skin showed higher metal concentrations than the muscle. The results showed that heavy metal concentrations in different food habitats increase in the following order: benthic omnivorous fish < zooplanktivore fish < phytoplanktivore fish < piscivore fish. Also, the comparison indicated that benthic species (Euryglossa orientalis, Otolithes ruber) were more contaminated than pelagic species (Liza abu and Psettodes erumei). Therefore, the concentration of heavy metals in edible part of fish species did not exceed the permissible limits proposed by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (1983), WHO (1996), Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (ROPME) (1999), and FAD (2001) which are suitable for human consumption, except for Ni and Cd in E. orientalis and Pb in O. ruber.

  16. Evolution and taxonomy of the wild species of the genus Ovis (Mammalia, Artiodactyla, Bovidae).

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Hamid Reza; Naderi, Saeid; Chintauan-Marquier, Ioana Cristina; Taberlet, Pierre; Virk, Amjad Tahir; Naghash, Hamid Reza; Rioux, Delphine; Kaboli, Mohammad; Pompanon, François

    2010-02-01

    New insights for the systematic and evolution of the wild sheep are provided by molecular phylogenies inferred from Maximum parsimony, Bayesian, Maximum likelihood, and Neighbor-Joining methods. The phylogeny of the wild sheep was based on cytochrome b sequences of 290 samples representative of most of the sub-species described in the genus Ovis. The result was confirmed by a combined tree based on cytochrome b and nuclear sequences for 79 Ovis samples representative of the robust clades established with mitochondrial data. Urial and mouflon, which are either considered as a single or two separate species, form two monophyletic groups (O. orientalis and O. vignei). Their hybrids appear in one or the other group, independently from their geographic origin. The European mouflon O. musimon is clearly in the O. orientalis clade. The others species, O. dalli, O. canadensis, O. nivicola, and O. ammon are monophyletic. The results support an Asiatic origin of the genus Ovis, followed by a migration to North America through North-Eastern Asia and the Bering Strait and a diversification of the genus in Eurasia less than 3 million years ago. Our results show that the evolution of the genus Ovis is a striking example of successive speciation events occurring along the migration routes propagating from the ancestral area. PMID:19897045

  17. Description of a new cryptic, shallow-water tonguefish (Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae: Symphurus) from the western North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Lee, M-Y; Munroe, T A; Shao, K-T

    2014-09-01

    Combined results based on morphological characters and analyses of partial sequences of the 16s rRNA and coI genes confirm the validity of a new, cryptic, symphurine tonguefish from the western North Pacific Ocean. Symphurus leucochilus n. sp., a diminutive species reaching sizes to c. 67 mm standard length, is described from nine specimens that were collected from fish-landing ports and from trawls made at c. 150 m off Taiwan and Japan. Symphurus leucochilus shares many similar features with those of Symphurus microrhynchus and that of several undescribed species that are morphologically similar to S. microrhynchus. Symphurus leucochilus has also been misidentified as Symphurus orientalis in fish collections because of shared similarities in some aspects of their morphology. The new species differs from all congeners by the following combination of meristic, morphological and pigmentation features: a predominant 1-2-2-2-2 pattern of interdigitation of proximal dorsal-fin pterygiophores and neural spines; 12 caudal-fin rays; 89-92 dorsal-fin rays; 76-80 anal-fin rays; 49-51 total vertebrae; four hypurals; 75-83 longitudinal scale rows; 32-35 transverse scales; 15-17 scale rows on the head posterior to the lower orbit; absence of a fleshy ridge on the ocular-side lower jaw and a membranous connection between the anterior nostril and lower part of the eye; a narrow interorbital space and dorsal-fin origin anterior to the vertical through the anterior margin of the upper eye; absence of both dermal spots at bases of anterior dorsal-fin rays and melanophores on the isthmus; uniformly yellow to light-brown ocular-side colouration without bands; dorsal and anal fins with alternating series of dark rectangular blotches and unpigmented areas; a uniform white blind side and a bluish-black peritoneum. Despite overall similarities in morphology between S. leucochilus and S. orientalis, as well as between two of the nominal species morphologically similar to S. microrhynchus

  18. [Effects of macrophytes pyrolysis bio-oil on Skeletonema costatum antioxidant enzyme activities].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Li, Feng-Min; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Shan, Shi; Li, Jie; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2013-02-01

    In order to reveal the preliminary inhibition mechanisms of aquatic plants bio-oils on Skeletonema costatum, effects of Arundo donax L. 300 degees C, Ph. australis Trin. 400 degrees C and Typha orientalis Pres1 400 degrees C bio-oils on the concentration change of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, POD and CAT) were evaluated. The results showed that the higher Ihe Bio-oil concentrations, the higher the MDA contents in Skeletonema costatum was, and when the Bio-oil concentration was 10 mg.L-1 the MDA concentration increased with the reaction time. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity also increased with the increase of bio-oil concentration. For Arundo donax L 300 degrees C and Typha orientalis Presl 400 degrees C bio-oil, when the reaction time was longer, the S0D activity of Skeletonema costatum first increased and then decreased, and in both cases the maximum SOD activity was measured at 24 h. reaching 93.6 U (10(7) cells)-1 and 8.23 U (10(7) cells)-1, respectively. For Ph. australis Trin 400 degrees C bio-oil, the SOD activity kept increasing within 72 h. The peroxidase ( POD) activity of Skeletonema costatum also increased with the increase of bio-il concentrations. In the presence of Arundo donax L. 300 degrees C and Ph. australis Trin 400 degrees C bio-oil, the POD activity of Skeletonma, costatum first increased and then decreased, while with Typha orientalis Presl 400 degrees C bio-oil the POD activity increased with fluctuations. For all the three bio-oils, the catalase (CAT) activities increased first and then decreased when the reaction time was prolonged, and the higher the bio-oils concentration, the greater the CAT activity was. Pyrolysis bio-oils enhance the activity of antioxidant enzymes, leading to intracellular oxidative stress in the algae, which seems to be the main inhibitory mechanism for algae PMID:23668127

  19. Exploiting sulphur-carrier proteins from primary metabolism for 2-thiosugar biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Eita; Zhang, Xuan; Sun, He G.; Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Liu, Tsung-lin; Ou, Albert; Li, Jeng-yi; Chen, Yu-hsiang; Ealick, Steven E.; Liu, Hung-wen

    2014-01-01

    Sulphur is an essential element for life and exists ubiquitously in living systems1,2. Yet, how the sulphur atom is incorporated in many sulphur-containing secondary metabolites remains poorly understood. For C-S bond formation in primary metabolites, the major ionic sulphur sources are the protein-persulphide and protein-thiocarboxylate3,4. In each case, the persulphide and thiocarboxylate group on these sulphur-carrier (donor) proteins are post-translationally generated through the action of a specific activating enzyme. In all bacterial cases reported thus far, the genes encoding the enzyme that catalyzes the actual C-S bond formation reaction and its cognate sulphur-carrier protein co-exist in the same gene cluster5. To study 2-thiosugar production in BE-7585A, an antibiotic from Amycolatopsis orientalis, we identified a putative 2-thioglucose synthase, BexX, whose protein sequence and mode of action appear similar to those of ThiG, the enzyme catalyzing thiazole formation in thiamin biosynthesis6,7. However, no sulphur-carrier protein gene could be located in the BE-7585A cluster. Subsequent genome sequencing revealed the presence of a few sulphur-carrier proteins likely involved in the biosynthesis of primary metabolites, but surprisingly only a single activating enzyme gene in the entire genome of A. orientalis. Further experiments showed that this activating enzyme is capable of adenylating each of these sulphur-carrier proteins, and likely also catalyzing the subsequent thiolation taking advantage of its rhodanese activity. A proper combination of these sulphur delivery systems is effective for BexX-catalyzed 2-thioglucose production. The ability of BexX to selectively distinguish sulphur-carrier proteins is given a structural basis using X-ray crystallography. These studies represent the first complete characterization of a thiosugar formation in nature and also demonstrate the receptor promiscuity of the sulphur-delivery system in A. orientalis. Our

  20. Co-opting sulphur-carrier proteins from primary metabolic pathways for 2-thiosugar biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Eita; Zhang, Xuan; Sun, He G; Lu, Mei-yeh Jade; Liu, Tsung-lin; Ou, Albert; Li, Jeng-yi; Chen, Yu-hsiang; Ealick, Steven E; Liu, Hung-wen

    2014-06-19

    Sulphur is an essential element for life and is ubiquitous in living systems. Yet how the sulphur atom is incorporated into many sulphur-containing secondary metabolites is poorly understood. For bond formation between carbon and sulphur in primary metabolites, the major ionic sulphur sources are the persulphide and thiocarboxylate groups on sulphur-carrier (donor) proteins. Each group is post-translationally generated through the action of a specific activating enzyme. In all reported bacterial cases, the gene encoding the enzyme that catalyses the carbon-sulphur bond formation reaction and that encoding the cognate sulphur-carrier protein exist in the same gene cluster. To study the production of the 2-thiosugar moiety in BE-7585A, an antibiotic from Amycolatopsis orientalis, we identified a putative 2-thioglucose synthase, BexX, whose protein sequence and mode of action seem similar to those of ThiG, the enzyme that catalyses thiazole formation in thiamine biosynthesis. However, no gene encoding a sulphur-carrier protein could be located in the BE-7585A cluster. Subsequent genome sequencing uncovered a few genes encoding sulphur-carrier proteins that are probably involved in the biosynthesis of primary metabolites but only one activating enzyme gene in the A. orientalis genome. Further experiments showed that this activating enzyme can adenylate each of these sulphur-carrier proteins and probably also catalyses the subsequent thiolation, through its rhodanese domain. A proper combination of these sulphur-delivery systems is effective for BexX-catalysed 2-thioglucose production. The ability of BexX to selectively distinguish sulphur-carrier proteins is given a structural basis using X-ray crystallography. This study is, to our knowledge, the first complete characterization of thiosugar formation in nature and also demonstrates the receptor promiscuity of the A. orientalis sulphur-delivery system. Our results also show that co-opting the sulphur-delivery machinery

  1. Larval stages of the bluefin tuna blood fluke Cardicola opisthorchis (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) found from Terebella sp. (Polychaeta: Terebellidae).

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Yukitaka; Yamada, Toshiyuki; Tamaki, Akio; Yamanishi, Ryohei; Kanai, Kinya

    2014-04-01

    We found aporocotylid larval stages (sporocysts and cercariae) from five individuals of terebellid polychaete Terebella sp., which were collected from seabed substrate and ropes and floats attached to tuna cages in a tuna farm on the coast of Tsushima Island, Nagasaki, Japan. Nucleotide sequences of the regions of internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA and 28S ribosomal DNA from these larval stages were 100% identical to those of Cardicola opisthorchis registered in GenBank. C. opisthorchis is a pathogen causing blood fluke infection of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis, which is considered to have a significant impact on the Japanese Pacific bluefin tuna aquaculture industry. This is the first description of the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis. This indicates that the life cycle of C. opisthorchis is completed within tuna farms in this area.

  2. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis in a captive Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) with chronic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Helmick, Kelly E; Koplos, Peter; Raymond, James

    2006-12-01

    A 19-yr-old, 78.2-kg captive female Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) from the El Paso Zoo (El Paso, Texas, USA) with chronic renal disease was euthanized after a 10-day course of anorexia, depression, progressive rear limb weakness, muscle fasciculations, and head tremors. Postmortem findings included pericardial effusion, generalized lymphadenopathy, glomerulosclerosis, glomerular atrophy with membranous glomerulonephropathy, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Pyogranulomatous pneumonia, pericarditis, and lymphadenitis were associated with fungal spherules histomorphologically consistent with Coccidioides immitis. Rising antibodies to C. immitis were detected on samples obtained perimortem and 2 mo before euthanasia. Retrospective serology was negative for two additional Indochinese tigers, two Iranian leopards (Panthera pardus saxicolor), two jaguars (Panthera onca), two bobcats (Lynx rufus texensis), two ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), and three Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) housed at the zoo over an 8-yr period. Despite being located within the endemic region for C. immitis, this is only the second case of coccidioidomycosis reported from this institution.

  3. Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis leading to acute renal failure following multiple hornet stings

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Aman; Wanchu, Ajay; Mahesha, V; Sakhuja, V; Bambery, Pradeep; Singh, Surjit

    2006-01-01

    Background Hornet stings are generally associated with local and occasionally anaphylactic reactions. Rarely systemic complications like acute renal failure can occur following multiple stings. Renal failure is usually due to development of acute tubular necrosis as a result of intravascular haemolysis, rhabdomyolysis or shock. Rarely it can be following development of acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis. Case presentation We describe a young male, who was stung on face, head, shoulders and upper limbs by multiple hornets (Vespa orientalis). He developed acute renal failure as a result of acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis and responded to steroids. Conclusion Rare causes of acute renal failure like tubulo-interstitial nephritis should be considered in a patient with persistent oliguria and azotemia following multiple hornet stings. Renal biopsy should be undertaken early, as institution of steroid therapy may help in recovery of renal function PMID:17118188

  4. Survey of Turkey's endemic amphibians for chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Erismis, Ugur Cengiz; Konuk, Muhsin; Yoldas, Taner; Agyar, Pinar; Yumuk, Dilay; Korcan, Safiye Elif

    2014-09-30

    We report a new survey for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in Turkey. We swabbed 228 individuals of 7 amphibian species (from 5 families) living in 2 locations (26-August National Park and the Turkish Lakes District) in the southwestern Anatolian region. The infection intensity of all the samples was determined using quantitative PCR. All 4 amphibian breeding sites and 4 amphibian species in 26-August National Park were infected by Bd, with the prevalence at each site ranging from 8 to 29%. Only 1 species was sampled from Beysehir Lake near the conservation area Beysehir Natural Park, but these samples were notable for their high detection rates (prevalence of 32.11%). This study reports the first records of Bd infecting wild Pelophylax ridibundus, Hyla orientalis, Pseudepidalea variabilis, and endemic Beysehir frogs Pelophylax caralitanus.

  5. Knemidocoptes sp. on wild passerines at the Mai Po Nature Reserve, Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Mainka, S A; Melville, D S; Galsworthy, A; Black, S R

    1994-04-01

    Free-ranging passerine birds banded at the Mai Po Nature Reserve, Hong Kong, were affected with a skin disease characterized by crusty, proliferative lesions on legs, feet and beaks. Based on retrospective examination of 1990 to 1992 banding records, 83 of 16,353 birds and 5 of 161 species banded at Mai Po were identified as having these lesions. Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) were most commonly affected (58 of 411 birds) although 19 of 428 black-faced buntings (Emberiza pusilla), 3 of 92 spotted doves (Streptopelia chinensis), and 2 of 616 eastern great reed warblers (Acrocephalus orientalis) also had clinical signs of infestation. Adult Eurasian tree sparrows were affected more often than juveniles and males were affected more often than females. Lesions on juveniles usually were on the feet while on adults lesions also were found on legs and beak. The effects of this parasitic infestation on body weight of wild Eurasian tree sparrows was not significant.

  6. Investigation of two Flacourtiaceae plants: Bennettiodendron leprosipes and Flacourtia ramontchi.

    PubMed

    Chai, Xing-Yun; Ren, Hong-Yan; Xu, Zheng-Ren; Bai, Chang-Cai; Zhou, Fei-Ran; Ling, Si-Kai; Pu, Xiao-Ping; Li, Fei-Fei; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2009-09-01

    Investigations of two Flacourtiaceae plants, Bennettiodendron leprosipes and Flacourtia ramontchi, resulted in the isolation and structural elucidation of six new constituents including two phenolic glycosides ( 1 and 2), one lignan ( 3), two lignan glycosides ( 4 and 5), and a monoterpene glycoside ( 6), together with 22 known compounds ( 7- 28). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. The selected isolates 1, 2, 8- 10, 22- 26, and some phenolic glycosides 29- 42 previously isolated from another Flacourtiaceae plant, Itoa orientalis, were tested against snake venom phosphodiesterase I (PDE I) activity. The result indicated that 22, 30, 32, 34, and 40 exhibited moderate inhibitory activities against PDE I with the values ranging from 13.15 to 20.86 %, and 1, 8, 10, 25, 31, 33, 35, 38, 39, and 41 showed weak inhibitory activity.

  7. The role of forensic botany in crime scene investigation: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Aquila, Isabella; Ausania, Francesco; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Serra, Arianna; Boca, Silvia; Capelli, Arnaldo; Magni, Paola; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2014-05-01

    Management of a crime is the process of ensuring accurate and effective collection and preservation of physical evidence. Forensic botany can provide significant supporting evidences during criminal investigations. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the importance of forensic botany in the crime scene. We reported a case of a woman affected by dementia who had disappeared from nursing care and was found dead near the banks of a river that flowed under a railroad. Two possible ways of access to crime scene were identified and denominated "Path A" and "Path B." Both types of soil and plants were identified. Botanical survey was performed. Some samples of Xanthium Orientalis subsp. Italicum were identified. The fall of woman resulted in external injuries and vertebral fracture at autopsy. The botanical evidence is important when crime scene and autopsy findings are not sufficient to define the dynamics and the modality of death.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of α-Endosulfan Degrading Bacteria from the Microflora of Cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Ozdal, Murat; Ozdal, Ozlem Gur; Alguri, Omer Faruk

    2016-01-01

    Extensive applications of organochlorine pesticides like endosulfan have led to the contamination of soil and environments. Five different bacteria were isolated from cockroaches living in pesticide contaminated environments. According to morphological, physiological, biochemical properties, and total cellular fatty acid profile by Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs), the isolates were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa G1, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia G2, Bacillus atrophaeus G3, Citrobacter amolonaticus G4 and Acinetobacter lwoffii G5. This is the first study on the bacterial flora of Blatta orientalis evaluated for the biodegradation of α-endosulfan. After 10 days of incubation, the biodegradation yields obtained from P. aeruginosa G1, S. maltophilia G2, B. atrophaeus G3, C. amolonaticus G4 and A. lwoffii G5 were 88.5% , 85.5%, 64.4%, 56.7% and 80.2%, respectively. As a result, these bacterial strains may be utilized for biodegradation of endosulfan polluted soil and environments.

  9. Adsorption of Basic Violet 14 in aqueous solutions using KMnO4-modified activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qianqian; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Chenglu; Nie, Wei; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Huayong

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, an activated carbon was prepared from Typha orientalis and then treated with KMnO(4) and used for the removal of Basic Violet 14 from aqueous solutions. KMnO(4) treatment influenced the physicochemical properties of the carbon and improved its adsorption capacity. Adsorption experiments were then conducted with KMnO(4)-modified activated carbon to study the effects of carbon dosage (250-1500 mg/L), pH (2-10), ion strength (0-0.5 mol/L), temperature, and contact time on the adsorption of Basic Violet 14 from aqueous solutions. The equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and fitted well with the Langmuir model. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models were used to evaluate the kinetic data and the pseudo-second-order kinetics was the best with good correlation.

  10. Gastropods from the Campanian-Maastrichtian Aruma Formation, Central Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gameil, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.

    2015-03-01

    The gastropod fauna of the Upper Cretaceous Aruma Formation in central Saudi Arabia comprises fifteen species belonging to fifteen genera, fourteen families, and five clades. The species are not abundant at any individual stratigraphic level but are equally and irregularly scattered in the formation. The studied species come mainly from the Hajajah Member of Upper Cretaceous Aruma Formation in central Saudi Arabia. Calliomphalus orientalis (Douvillé, 1916); Coelobolma corbarica Cossmann, 1918; Turritella (Torquesia) figarii Quaas, 1902; Neoptyxis olisiponensis (Sharpe, 1850) and Otostoma (Otostoma) divaricatum (d'Orbigny, 1847) are recorded from the Upper Cretaceous of central Arabia for the first time. The identified species have a close affinity to the Tethyan fauna known from other parts in Asia, Africa and Europe. Herbivores and predators are the dominant trophic groups which may indicate shallow marine lagoonal and relatively open marine environment.

  11. Larger foraminifer biostratigraphy of PEACE boreholes, Enewetak Atoll, Western Pacific Ocean. Geologic and geophysical investigations of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, T.G.; Margerum, R.

    1991-01-01

    Larger foraminiferal assemblages, including Lepidocyclina orientalis, Miogypsina thecideaeformis, Miogypsinoides dehaartii, etc., and a smaller foraminifer, Austrotrillina striata, are used to correlate upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata in the Pacific Atoll Exploration Program (PEACE) boreholes at Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, western Pacific Ocean, with the Te and Tf zones of the previously established Tertiary Far East Letter Zonation. Correlation using these two benthic groups is critical because calcareous nannofossils and planktic foraminifers are absent in the lower Miocene strata. Biostratigraphic data from these boreholes delineate a thick (greater than 700 feet) sequence of upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata corresponding to lower and upper Te zone. These strata document a major period of carbonate accumulation at Enewetak during the Late Oligocene and early Miocene (26 to 18 million years ago).

  12. New records in vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A series of brief notes on distribution of vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan is presented. A further expansion of Anthemis ruthenica (Asteraceae), Crambe orientalis (Brassicaceae) and Salvia aethiopis (Lamiaceae) in northern and northwestern Kyrgyzstan is recorded. The first record of Chenopodium vulvaria (Amaranthaceae) from the northern side of Kyrgyz Range is confirmed, and the species was found for the second time in Alay Range. The ephemerous occurrence of Hirschfeldia incana (Brassicaceae) in Central Asia is recorded for the first time from Fergana Range. Tragus racemosus (Poaceae) is first recorded from the Chüy Depression as an ephemerous alien. Arrhenatherum elatius, escaped from cultivation and locally established, is new to the country. The second record of established occurrence of Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae) and an ephemerous occurrence of Glaucium corniculatum (Papaveraceae) are presented. Complete information is collected about the occurrence of every mentioned species in Kyrgyzstan. PMID:24855435

  13. Empirical evidence for large X-effects in animals with undifferentiated sex chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Majtyka, Tomasz; Baird, Stuart J. E.; Gerchen, Jörn F.; Borzée, Amaël; Savary, Romain; Ogielska, Maria; Perrin, Nicolas; Stöck, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive isolation is crucial for the process of speciation to progress. Sex chromosomes have been assigned a key role in driving reproductive isolation but empirical evidence from natural population processes has been restricted to organisms with degenerated sex chromosomes such as mammals and birds. Here we report restricted introgression at sex-linked compared to autosomal markers in a hybrid zone between two incipient species of European tree frog, Hyla arborea and H. orientalis, whose homologous X and Y sex chromosomes are undifferentiated. This large X-effect cannot result from the dominance or faster-X aspects of Haldane’s rule, which are specific to degenerated sex chromosomes, but rather supports a role for faster-heterogametic-sex or faster-male evolutionary processes. Our data suggest a prominent contribution of undifferentiated sex chromosomes to speciation. PMID:26868373

  14. A neotype designation for the bone-skipper Centrophlebomyia anthropophaga (Diptera, Piophilidae, Thyreophorina), with a review of the Palaearctic species of Centrophlebomyia.

    PubMed

    Mei, Maurizio; Whitmore, Daniel; Giudice, Giuseppe Lo; Cerretti, Pierfilippo

    2013-01-01

    The European bone-skippers (Diptera: Piophilidae: Thyreophorina), long considered extinct, have recently been the object of much interest by dipterists after their unexpected rediscovery. Considerable faunistic work has been done on these flies in recent years. However, some nomenclatural and taxonomic issues still require attention. A neotype is designated for Thyreophora anthropophaga Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (now in the genus Centrophlebomyia Hendel, 1903) to fix the identity of this nominal species. Centrophlebomyia anthropophaga is recognized as a valid species. It is described and illustrated in detail, and information on its preimaginal instars is provided for the first time. Four Palaearctic species of Centrophlebomyia are recognized and reviewed and a key is provided for their identification. Centrophlebomyia orientalis Hendel, 1907 from northern India, is removed from synonymy with Centrophlebomyia anthropophaga and recognized as a valid species of Centrophlebomyia, stat. r. The nominal genus Protothyreophora Ozerov, 1984 is considered a junior synonym of Centrophlebomyia, syn. n. PMID:23798899

  15. Discovery of skin alkaloids in a miniaturized eleutherodactylid frog from Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Ariel; Poth, Dennis; Schulz, Stefan; Vences, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Four phylogenetically independent lineages of frogs are currently known to sequester lipid-soluble skin alkaloids for which a dietary source has been demonstrated. We report here a remarkable fifth such instance, in Eleutherodactylus iberia and Eleutherodactylus orientalis, two species of miniaturized frogs of the family Eleutherodactylidae from Cuba. Six pumiliotoxins and two indolizidines were found in E. iberia, one of the smallest frogs in the world and characterized by a contrasting colour pattern for which we hypothesize an aposematic function. Analyses of stomach content indicated a numerical prevalence of mites with an important proportion of oribatids—a group of arthropods known to contain one of the pumiliotoxins detected in E. iberia. This suggests that miniaturization and specialization to small prey may have favoured the acquisition of dietary skin alkaloids in these amphibians. PMID:21047848

  16. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2010-30 November 2010.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Cecilia; Agudelo, P A; Bâ, K; Barber, P A; Bisol, Paolo Maria; Brouat, C; Burgess, Treena I; Calves, I; Carrillo Avila, Mauricio; Chow, S; Cordes, Lisa; Da Silva, D; Dalecky, A; De Meester, L; Doadrio, Ignacio; Dobigny, G; Duplantier, J M; Evison, Sophie E F; Ford, Rebecca; Fresneau, Dominique; Galetti, Pedro M; Gauthier, P; Geldof, S; Granjon, L; Guérin, F; St J Hardy, Giles E; Hernandez Escobar, Carlos; Hima, K; Hu, Juan; Huang, Luqi; Humeau, L; Jansen, B; Jaquemet, S; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Jung, Sung-Ju; Kim, Bong-Seok; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Jong-Oh; Lai, Choay-Hoong; Laroche, J; Lavergne, E; Lawton-Rauh, A; Le Corre, M; Leach, M M; Lee, Jehee; Leo, Audrey E; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Lin, Lin; Linde, Celeste C; Liu, Shu-Fang; Marino, Ilaria A M; McKeown, Niall J; Nohara, K; Oh, Myung-Joo; Okamoto, H; Oliver, Richard; Olivera Angel, Martha; Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Orsini, L; Ostos Alfonso, Henry; Othman, A S; Papetti, Chiara; Patarnello, Tomaso; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Piller, Kyle R; Poteaux, Chantal; Requier, J-B; Roziana, M K; Semba, Y; Sembene, M; Shah, Ramisah M; Shahril, A R; Shao, Aijuan; Shaw, Paul W; Song, Liangke; Souza Ferreira, Ronara; Su, Yong-Quan; Suzuki, N; Tatard, C; Taylor, Katherine M; Taylor, Paul W J; Thiam, M; Valbuena, Ruben; Wang, He; Yang, Byung-Gyoo; Yuan, Qingjun; Zajonz, U; Zane, Lorenzo; Zhu, Ling; Zhuang, Zhi-Meng; Zulaiha, A R

    2011-03-01

    This article documents the addition of 277 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Ascochyta rabiei, Cambarellus chapalanus, Chionodraco hamatus, Coptis omeiensis, Cynoscion nebulosus, Daphnia magna, Gerbillus nigeriae, Isurus oxyrinchus, Lates calcarifer, Metacarcinus magister, Oplegnathus fasciatus, Pachycondyla verenae, Phaethon lepturus, Pimelodus grosskopfii, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Scomberomorus niphonius, Sepia esculenta, Terapon jarbua, Teratosphaeria cryptica and Thunnus obesus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Austropotamobius italicus, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus puer, Cambarellus shufeldtii, Cambarellus texanus, Chionodraco myersi, Chionodraco rastrospinosus, Coptis chinensis, Coptis chinensis var. brevisepala, Coptis deltoidea, Coptis teeta, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Pimelodus bochii, Procambarus clarkii, Pseudopimelodus bufonius, Rhamdia quelen, Sepia andreana, Sepiella maindroni, Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus albacares, Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus orientalis, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus tonggol. PMID:21429157

  17. Presence of vibrios in seawater and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.) from the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea).

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Rosa Anna; Stabili, Loredana

    2002-09-01

    During the spring-summer period, vibrios were detected in water and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected in 30 sampling sites located in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Italy). In order to evaluate the degree of microbial pollution of the investigated area, fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli densities were also determined. Vibrio alginolyticus constituted the predominant component of the total culturable vibrios. Some Vibrio species such as V. mediterranei, V. parahaemolyticus, V. diazotrophicus, V. nereis, and V. splendidus were present in water as well as in mussel samples; selective retention in mussels, however, was demonstrated for other vibrios (V. vulnificus, V. cincinnatiensis, V. orientalis, V. anguillarum, V. marinus, V. hollisae). The isolation of some potential pathogenic vibrio species shows the importance of Vibrio research to estimate water quality and to avoid transmission of infection to man and to other marine organisms.

  18. Molecular detection of Theileria species in sheep from northern China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shinuo; Zhang, Shoufa; Jia, Lijun; Xue, Shujiang; Yu, Longzheng; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Moumouni, Paul Franck Adjou; Moussa, Ahmed Abd El Moniem; Zhou, Mo; Zhang, Yuanming; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Masatani, Tatsunori; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2013-01-01

    Ovine theileriosis is a tick-borne disease that restricts the development of small ruminant husbandry in northern China. In this study, we report on a molecular epidemiological survey of ovine Theileria spp. in 198 blood samples taken from sheep in northern China. The DNA samples were screened by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 18S rRNA gene of ovine Theileria spp. The prevalence of ovine Theileria spp. in Yanji, Nongan, Longjing, Toudao and Jinchang was 80%, 40%, 37%, 24% and 32%, respectively. The sequencing analyses approved the present of the T. orientalis and/or T. luwenshuni in these regions. Taken together, we have demonstrated a high incidence of Theileria spp. in northern China that calls for the need to design effective control programs for ovine theileriosis.

  19. Immature stages and ecology of two species of the South African genus Stripsipher Gory & Percheron, 1833 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae, Trichiini)

    PubMed Central

    Šípek, Petr; Ricchiardi, Enrico; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Based on the study of newly accessible type material, Stripsipher drakensbergi Ricchiardi, 1998, is demoted to a junior synonym of Stripsipher jansoni Péringuey, 1908. The genus Stripsipher Gory & Percheron, 1833, thus, currently includes 12 species, but for none of these are larval stages and/or pupae currently known. The immature stages of Stripsipher orientalis Ricchiardi, 2008 and Stripsipher jansoni are described here for the first time and updated observations on distribution and ecology of both species are provided. Morphological affinities of Stripsipher with other Trichiini larvae are presented and the main diagnostic differences discussed. The larvae of both species are very similar to those of other representatives of the tribe Trichiini, with key differences found on the epipharynx. Based on the morphology of larvae and adults, it is suggested that Stripsipher is a member of the clade composed of Valgini, Trichiini and Cryptodontini. PMID:22539904

  20. In-vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Some Iranian Conifers

    PubMed Central

    Afsharzadeh, Maryam; Naderinasab, Mahboobe; Tayarani Najaran, Zahra; Barzin, Mohammad; Emami, Seyed Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Male and female leaves and fruits of eleven different taxons of Iranian conifers (Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis, C. sempervirens var. sempervirens, C. sempervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, J. excelsa subsp. excelsa, J. excelsa subsp. polycarpos, J. foetidissima, J. oblonga, J. sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata) were collected from different localities of Iran, dried and extracted with methanol. The extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The extracts were screened qualitatively using four different methods, the disc diffusion, hole plate, cylinder agar diffusion and agar dilution methods, whereas the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of each extract were determined by the agar dilution method. The best result was obtained by means of hole plate method in qualitative determination of antimicrobial activities of extracts and the greatest activity was found against S. aureus in all tested methods. PMID:24250573

  1. The Hirudo medicinalis species complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutschera, U.

    2012-05-01

    Recently, Hildebrandt and Lemke (Naturwissenschaften 98:995-1008, 2011) argued that the taxonomic status of the three European medicinal leeches, Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus 1758, Hirudo verbana Carena 1820, and Hirudo orientalis Utevsky and Trontelj (Parasitol Res 98:61-66, 2005) is "questionable" since "all three species interbreed in the laboratory". This statement is in conflict with data published by Elliott and Kutschera (Freshwater Reviews 4:21-41, 2011), indicating that these leeches, which are reciprocally copulating hermaphrodites, represent reproductively isolated biospecies. Here, I summarize evidence indicating that these three European taxa, plus the North African "dragon leech" ( Hirudo troctina Johnson 1816), must be interpreted as a complex of closely related species, and that the economically most important taxon H. verbana is polymorphic.

  2. Fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from fermenting musts of Mezcal.

    PubMed

    Arrizon, Javier; Morel, Sandrine; Gschaedler, Anne; Monsan, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    Fructanase and fructosyltransferase are interesting for the tequila process and prebiotics production (functional food industry). In this study, one hundred thirty non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from "Mezcal de Oaxaca" were screened for fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity. On solid medium, fifty isolates grew on Agave tequilana fructans (ATF), inulin or levan. In liquid media, inulin and ATF induced fructanase activities of between 0.02 and 0.27U/ml depending of yeast isolate. High fructanase activity on sucrose was observed for Kluyveromyces marxianus and Torulaspora delbrueckii, while the highest fructanase activity on inulin and ATF was observed for Issatchenkia orientalis, Cryptococcus albidus, and Candida apicola. Zygosaccharomyces bisporus and Candida boidinii had a high hydrolytic activity on levan. Sixteen yeasts belonging to K. marxianus, T. delbrueckii and C. apicola species were positive for fructosyltransferase activity. Mezcal microbiota proved to showed to be a source for new fructanase and fructosyltransferases with potential application in the tequila and food industry.

  3. The life history of Pleurogenoides malampuzhensis sp. nov. (Digenea: Pleurogenidae) from amphibious and aquatic hosts in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Brinesh, R; Janardanan, K P

    2014-06-01

    The life-cycle stages of Pleurogenoides malampuzhensis sp. nov. infecting the Indian bullfrog Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Daudin) and the skipper frog Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Schneider) occurring in irrigation canals and paddy fields in Malampuzha, which forms part of the district of Palakkad, Kerala, are described. The species is described, its systematic position discussed and compared with the related species, P. gastroporus (Luhe, 1901) and P. orientalis (Srivastava, 1934). The life-cycle stages, from cercaria to egg-producing adult, were successfully established in the laboratory. Virgulate xiphidiocercariae emerged from the snail Digoniostoma pulchella (Benson). Metacercariae are found in muscle tissues of dragonfly nymphs and become infective to the frogs within 22 days. The pre-patent period is 20 days. Growth and development of both metacercariae and adults are described.

  4. Screening of Taiwanese crude drugs for antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Chen, C P; Lin, C C; Namba, T

    1989-12-01

    Preliminary antibacterial screening of local crude drugs was carried out using the cariogenic bacterium, Streptococcus mutans. Of 79 aqueous extracts tested, 6 crude drugs were shown to have significant antibacterial activity with minimal inhibitory concentration equal to or lower than 7.8 mg/ml (expressed in terms of dry starting material). Of these effective crude drugs, Morus australis, Ludwigia octovalvis and Thuja orientalis were very effective in inhibiting the growth of serotypes c and d of S. mutans (MIC less than or equal to 2.0-7.8 mg/ml). Elephantopus scaber, Artemisia vulgaris, Mosla chinensis and Orthosiphon aristatus also exhibited considerable antibacterial activity (MIC = 7.8-23.4 mg/ml) against both serotypes. In the presence of 5% sucrose, the antibacterial potency of the majority of the extracts did not change for type c, while the potency decreased about one-half for type d.

  5. Woody vegetation of Sile and its environs (Istanbul Turkey) and destruction of the area.

    PubMed

    Sezer, Y; Altay, V; Ozyigit, I I; Yarci, C

    2015-01-01

    The woody vegetation of Sile district (Istanbul/Turkey), and its characteristics in conjunction with its environs are presented in this study. The field studies were performed using classic Braun-Blanquet method during 2003-2010 periods. In the present study three associations, two from forest vegetation and one from maquis vegetation, were characterized in the field. One of these associations is new and its description, typification and syntaxonomy was proposed. Phytosociological and phytoecological features of all three associations were compared with their relatives and related discussion was done accordingly. The associations described in the present study were as follows: Phillyreo-Lauretum nobilis, Smilaco-Castanetum sativae, Fago orientalis-Quercetum ibericae ass. nova. Furthermore, some soil properties such as saturation, organic matter, pH, CaCO, K2O and P2O5 were analyzed. Relationship between vegetations, their ecological characteristics and protection of these vegetations against biotic pressures are outlined in the present work. PMID:26591896

  6. High Throughput, Multiplexed Pathogen Detection Authenticates Plague Waves in Medieval Venice, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thi-Nguyen-Ny; Signoli, Michel; Fozzati, Luigi; Aboudharam, Gérard; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Background Historical records suggest that multiple burial sites from the 14th–16th centuries in Venice, Italy, were used during the Black Death and subsequent plague epidemics. Methodology/Principal Findings High throughput, multiplexed real-time PCR detected DNA of seven highly transmissible pathogens in 173 dental pulp specimens collected from 46 graves. Bartonella quintana DNA was identified in five (2.9%) samples, including three from the 16th century and two from the 15th century, and Yersinia pestis DNA was detected in three (1.7%) samples, including two from the 14th century and one from the 16th century. Partial glpD gene sequencing indicated that the detected Y. pestis was the Orientalis biotype. Conclusions These data document for the first time successive plague epidemics in the medieval European city where quarantine was first instituted in the 14th century. PMID:21423736

  7. Synopsis of Trichosanthes (Cucurbitaceae) based on recent molecular phylogenetic data

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Hugo J.; Thulin, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The snake gourd genus, Trichosanthes, is the largest genus in the Cucurbitaceae family, with over 90 species. Recent molecular phylogenetic data have indicated that the genus Gymnopetalum is to be merged with Trichosanthes to maintain monophyly. A revised infrageneric classification of Trichosanthes including Gymnopetalum is proposed with two subgenera, (I) subg. Scotanthus comb. nov. and (II) subg. Trichosanthes, eleven sections, (i) sect. Asterospermae, (ii) sect. Cucumeroides, (iii) sect. Edulis, (iv) sect. Foliobracteola, (v) sect. Gymnopetalum, (vi) sect. Involucraria, (vii) sect. Pseudovariifera sect. nov., (viii) sect. Villosae stat. nov., (ix) sect. Trichosanthes, (x) sect. Tripodanthera, and (xi) sect. Truncata. A synopsis of Trichosanthes with the 91 species recognized here is presented, including four new combinations, Trichosanthes orientalis, Trichosanthes tubiflora, Trichosanthes scabra var. pectinata, Trichosanthes scabra var. penicaudii, and a clarified nomenclature of Trichosanthes costata and Trichosanthes scabra. PMID:22645411

  8. A neotype designation for the bone-skipper Centrophlebomyia anthropophaga (Diptera, Piophilidae, Thyreophorina), with a review of the Palaearctic species of Centrophlebomyia.

    PubMed

    Mei, Maurizio; Whitmore, Daniel; Giudice, Giuseppe Lo; Cerretti, Pierfilippo

    2013-01-01

    The European bone-skippers (Diptera: Piophilidae: Thyreophorina), long considered extinct, have recently been the object of much interest by dipterists after their unexpected rediscovery. Considerable faunistic work has been done on these flies in recent years. However, some nomenclatural and taxonomic issues still require attention. A neotype is designated for Thyreophora anthropophaga Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (now in the genus Centrophlebomyia Hendel, 1903) to fix the identity of this nominal species. Centrophlebomyia anthropophaga is recognized as a valid species. It is described and illustrated in detail, and information on its preimaginal instars is provided for the first time. Four Palaearctic species of Centrophlebomyia are recognized and reviewed and a key is provided for their identification. Centrophlebomyia orientalis Hendel, 1907 from northern India, is removed from synonymy with Centrophlebomyia anthropophaga and recognized as a valid species of Centrophlebomyia, stat. r. The nominal genus Protothyreophora Ozerov, 1984 is considered a junior synonym of Centrophlebomyia, syn. n.

  9. Development of an automated microbial sensor system.

    PubMed

    Heim, S; Schnieder, I; Binz, D; Vogel, A; Bilitewski, U

    1999-02-01

    An automated whole cell biosensor system was developed by integration of immobilized microbial cells in a flow-through system with screen-printed flow-through electrodes as detectors. The detectors used were thick-film Pt-electrodes in a 3-electrode configuration constructed as sandwich flow-through cells with a volume of about 36 microliters polarized at -900 mV. The measuring principle was the determination of oxygen consumption due to the microbial metabolism. Fructose was used as model analyte. The microorganisms were immobilized on cellulose-acetate membranes and integrated into a newly created reaction chamber (membrane reactor). The microbial cells used were Rhodococcus erythropolis and Issatchenkia orientalis known to be suitable for the determination of biological oxygen demand.

  10. Survey of the reptilian fauna of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. V. The lizard fauna of Turaif region.

    PubMed

    Al-Sadoon, Mohammed K; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Al-Otaibi, Hamad S

    2016-09-01

    Turaif area located in the Northern border region of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important regions of the Kingdom. This work was proposed to throw light on the diversity of lizard fauna investigated through the collection and subsequent identification of specimens from different localities of Turaif region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Sixteen species of lizards belonging to 5 families (Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, Scincidae and Varanidae) were recorded. Lacertidae was the most common family. Three species of lizards namely Acanthodactylus orientalis, Acanthodactylus scutellatus and Acanthodactylus grandis were reported for the first time in the Turaif region of Saudi Arabia. The geographical distribution of the collected species within this province was mapped. PMID:27579015

  11. Fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from fermenting musts of Mezcal.

    PubMed

    Arrizon, Javier; Morel, Sandrine; Gschaedler, Anne; Monsan, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    Fructanase and fructosyltransferase are interesting for the tequila process and prebiotics production (functional food industry). In this study, one hundred thirty non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from "Mezcal de Oaxaca" were screened for fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity. On solid medium, fifty isolates grew on Agave tequilana fructans (ATF), inulin or levan. In liquid media, inulin and ATF induced fructanase activities of between 0.02 and 0.27U/ml depending of yeast isolate. High fructanase activity on sucrose was observed for Kluyveromyces marxianus and Torulaspora delbrueckii, while the highest fructanase activity on inulin and ATF was observed for Issatchenkia orientalis, Cryptococcus albidus, and Candida apicola. Zygosaccharomyces bisporus and Candida boidinii had a high hydrolytic activity on levan. Sixteen yeasts belonging to K. marxianus, T. delbrueckii and C. apicola species were positive for fructosyltransferase activity. Mezcal microbiota proved to showed to be a source for new fructanase and fructosyltransferases with potential application in the tequila and food industry. PMID:22336744

  12. Isolation and Characterization of α-Endosulfan Degrading Bacteria from the Microflora of Cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Ozdal, Murat; Ozdal, Ozlem Gur; Alguri, Omer Faruk

    2016-01-01

    Extensive applications of organochlorine pesticides like endosulfan have led to the contamination of soil and environments. Five different bacteria were isolated from cockroaches living in pesticide contaminated environments. According to morphological, physiological, biochemical properties, and total cellular fatty acid profile by Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs), the isolates were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa G1, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia G2, Bacillus atrophaeus G3, Citrobacter amolonaticus G4 and Acinetobacter lwoffii G5. This is the first study on the bacterial flora of Blatta orientalis evaluated for the biodegradation of α-endosulfan. After 10 days of incubation, the biodegradation yields obtained from P. aeruginosa G1, S. maltophilia G2, B. atrophaeus G3, C. amolonaticus G4 and A. lwoffii G5 were 88.5% , 85.5%, 64.4%, 56.7% and 80.2%, respectively. As a result, these bacterial strains may be utilized for biodegradation of endosulfan polluted soil and environments. PMID:27281995

  13. Contributions to the study of the genus Hephathus Ribaut, 1952 (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae) of Russia and adjacent countries.

    PubMed

    Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu

    2015-08-12

    In Russia and the adjacent territories, the genus Hephathus includes three species, H. nanus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1835), H. freyi (Fieber, 1868) = H. tshakaranus Dlabola, 1957, syn. n., and H. achilleae Mityaev, 1967. They are indistinguishable in genitalia shape, but differ in male calling signal structure and black pattern of face. Photos of habitus and face, drawings of genitalia and male 2(nd) abdominal apodemes, signal oscillograms, and distribution maps for all species are provided. H. orientalis Linnavuori, 1953 is indistinguishable from H. freyi in coloration and genitalia shape; therefore, investigation of male calling signals is necessary for elucidation of its status. Macropsis fergusoni Evans, 1942 from Tasmania and Asmaropsis troilos Linnavuori, 1978 from Eritrea differ from Palaearctic Hephathus in the shape of head, pro-, and mesonotum and apparently belong to other genera.

  14. Records of chimaeroid fishes (Holocephali: Chimaeriformes) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, with the description of a new species of Chimera (Chimaeridae) from the eastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Arturo; López, Myrna I; Bussing, William A; Murase, Atsunobu

    2014-09-18

    A new species of Chimaera Linnaeus 1758 is described from three specimens collected from off the Pacific coasts of Costa Rica and Peru. Chimaera orientalis n. sp., the first species of the genus described from the eastern Pacific Ocean, is distinguished from its other congeners by a combination of coloration and morphology. Additionally, new records of occurrence for another four species of chimaeroid fishes (Harriotta raleighana (Goode & Bean 1895), Rhinochimaera africana Compagno, Stehmann & Ebert 1990, Hydrolagus colliei Lay & Bennett 1839, and H. macrophthalmus de Buen 1959) previously unknown for the continental shelf of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Central America are reported. A key to the eastern Pacific species of the order Chimaeriformes is also presented.

  15. Two exo-β-D-glucosaminidases/exochitosanases from actinomycetes define a new subfamily within family 2 of glycoside hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Nathalie; Fleury, Alain; Dumont-Blanchette, Émilie; Fukamizo, Tamo; Mitsutomi, Masaru; Brzezinski, Ryszard

    2005-01-01

    A GlcNase (exo-β-D-glucosaminidase) was purified from culture supernatant of Amycolatopsis orientalis subsp. orientalis grown in medium with chitosan. The enzyme hydrolysed the terminal GlcN (glucosamine) residues in oligomers of GlcN with transglycosylation observed at late reaction stages. 1H-NMR spectroscopy revealed that the enzyme is a retaining glycoside hydrolase. The GlcNase also behaved as an exochitosanase against high-molecular-mass chitosan with Km and kcat values of 0.16 mg/ml and 2832 min−1. On the basis of partial amino acid sequences, PCR primers were designed and used to amplify a DNA fragment which then allowed the cloning of the GlcNase gene (csxA) associated with an open reading frame of 1032 residues. The GlcNase has been classified as a member of glycoside hydrolase family 2 (GH2). Sequence alignments identified a group of CsxA-related protein sequences forming a distinct GH2 subfamily. Most of them have been annotated in databases as putative β-mannosidases. Among these, the SAV1223 protein from Streptomyces avermitilis has been purified following gene cloning and expression in a heterologous host and shown to be a GlcNase with no detectable β-mannosidase activity. In CsxA and all relatives, a serine-aspartate doublet replaces an asparagine residue and a glutamate residue, which were strictly conserved in previously studied GH2 members with β-galactosidase, β-glucuronidase or β-mannosidase activity and shown to be directly involved in various steps of the catalytic mechanism. Alignments of several other GH2 members allowed the identification of yet another putative subfamily, characterized by a novel, serine-glutamate doublet at these positions. PMID:16316314

  16. Effect of monospecific and mixed sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) plantations on the structure and activity of soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuan; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Zhong; Liu, Jinliang; Zhang, Shunxiang

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of different afforestation models on soil microbial composition in the Loess Plateau in China. In particular, we determined soil physicochemical properties, enzyme activities, and microbial community structures in the top 0 cm to 10 cm soil underneath a pure Hippophae rhamnoides (SS) stand and three mixed stands, namely, H. rhamnoides and Robinia pseucdoacacia (SC), H. rhamnoides and Pinus tabulaeformis (SY), and H. rhamnoides and Platycladus orientalis (SB). Results showed that total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen, and ammonium (NH4(+)) contents were higher in SY and SB than in SS. The total microbial biomass, bacterial biomass, and Gram+ biomass of the three mixed stands were significantly higher than those of the pure stand. However, no significant difference was found in fungal biomass. Correlation analysis suggested that soil microbial communities are significantly and positively correlated with some chemical parameters of soil, such as TOC, total phosphorus, total potassium, available phosphorus, NH4(+) content, nitrate content (NH3(-)), and the enzyme activities of urease, peroxidase, and phosphatase. Principal component analysis showed that the microbial community structures of SB and SS could clearly be discriminated from each other and from the others, whereas SY and SC were similar. In conclusion, tree species indirectly but significantly affect soil microbial communities and enzyme activities through soil physicochemical properties. In addition, mixing P. tabulaeformis or P. orientalis in H. rhamnoides plantations is a suitable afforestation model in the Loess Plateau, because of significant positive effects on soil nutrient conditions, microbial community, and enzyme activities over pure plantations.

  17. Convective gas flow development and the maximum depths achieved by helophyte vegetation in lakes

    PubMed Central

    Sorrell, Brian K.; Hawes, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Convective gas flow in helophytes (emergent aquatic plants) is thought to be an important adaptation for the ability to colonize deep water. In this study, the maximum depths achieved by seven helophytes were compared in 17 lakes differing in nutrient enrichment, light attenuation, shoreline exposure and sediment characteristics to establish the importance of convective flow for their ability to form the deepest helophyte vegetation in different environments. Methods Convective gas flow development was compared amongst the seven species, and species were allocated to ‘flow absent’, ‘low flow’ and ‘high flow’ categories. Regression tree analysis and quantile regression analysis were used to determine the roles of flow category, lake water quality, light attenuation and shoreline exposure on maximum helophyte depths. Key Results Two ‘flow absent’ species were restricted to very shallow water in all lakes and their depths were not affected by any environmental parameters. Three ‘low flow’ and two ‘high flow’ species had wide depth ranges, but ‘high flow’ species formed the deepest vegetation far more frequently than ‘low flow’ species. The ‘low flow’ species formed the deepest vegetation most commonly in oligotrophic lakes where oxygen demands in sediments were low, especially on exposed shorelines. The ‘high flow’ species were almost always those forming the deepest vegetation in eutrophic lakes, with Eleocharis sphacelata predominant when light attenuation was low, and Typha orientalis when light attenuation was high. Depths achieved by all five species with convective flow were limited by shoreline exposure, but T. orientalis was the least exposure-sensitive species. Conclusions Development of convective flow appears to be essential for dominance of helophyte species in >0·5 m depth, especially under eutrophic conditions. Exposure, sediment characteristics and light attenuation frequently constrain them

  18. Regression analysis of growth responses to water depth in three wetland plant species

    PubMed Central

    Sorrell, Brian K.; Tanner, Chris C.; Brix, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Plant species composition in wetlands and on lakeshores often shows dramatic zonation, which is frequently ascribed to differences in flooding tolerance. This study compared the growth responses to water depth of three species (Phormium tenax, Carex secta and Typha orientalis) differing in depth preferences in wetlands, using non-linear and quantile regression analyses to establish how flooding tolerance can explain field zonation. Methodology Plants were established for 8 months in outdoor cultures in waterlogged soil without standing water, and then randomly allocated to water depths from 0 to 0.5 m. Morphological and growth responses to depth were followed for 54 days before harvest, and then analysed by repeated-measures analysis of covariance, and non-linear and quantile regression analysis (QRA), to compare flooding tolerances. Principal results Growth responses to depth differed between the three species, and were non-linear. Phormium tenax growth decreased rapidly in standing water >0.25 m depth, C. secta growth increased initially with depth but then decreased at depths >0.30 m, accompanied by increased shoot height and decreased shoot density, and T. orientalis was unaffected by the 0- to 0.50-m depth range. In P. tenax the decrease in growth was associated with a decrease in the number of leaves produced per ramet and in C. secta the effect of water depth was greatest for the tallest shoots. Allocation patterns were unaffected by depth. Conclusions The responses are consistent with the principle that zonation in the field is primarily structured by competition in shallow water and by physiological flooding tolerance in deep water. Regression analyses, especially QRA, proved to be powerful tools in distinguishing genuine phenotypic responses to water depth from non-phenotypic variation due to size and developmental differences. PMID:23259044

  19. Biomonitoring of air pollution using antioxidative enzyme system in two genera of family Pottiaceae (Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Bansal, Pooja; Verma, Sonam; Srivastava, Alka

    2016-09-01

    Bryophyte particularly mosses, have been found to serve as reliable indicators of air pollution and can serve as bryometers-biological instruments for measuring air pollution. They are remarkable colonizers, as they have the ability to survive in adverse environments and are also particular in their requirement of environmental conditions, which makes them appropriate ecological indicators. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidative enzymes in two mosses viz., Hyophila rosea R.S. Williams and Semibarbula orientalis (Web.) Wijk. & Marg. and assess their suitability as biomonitors. Three different locations viz., Lucknow University, Residency (contaminated sites) and Dilkusha Garden (reference site) within Lucknow city with different levels of air pollutants were used for comparison. Our results indicate that air pollution caused marked enhancement in activity of antioxidative enzymes viz., catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. All the three are capable of scavenging reactive oxygen species. In the genus S. orientalis, catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity was minimum at the reference site Dilkusha Garden and was significantly higher at the two contaminated sites for catalase and peroxidase, whereas the difference was non significant for superoxide dismutase. In H. rosea the activity of catalase and peroxidase at the three locations was almost similar, however superoxide dismutase activity showed a significant increase in the two contaminated sites when compared to the reference site, the value being highest for Lucknow University site. It was thus observed that the two genera, from the same location, showed difference in the activity of the antioxidative enzymes. Based on our results, we recommend bryophytes as good monitors of air pollution. PMID:27321879

  20. Antitrypanosomal activity of some medicinal plants from Nigerian ethnomedicine.

    PubMed

    Abiodun, Oyindamola O; Gbotosho, Grace O; Ajaiyeoba, Edith O; Brun, Reto; Oduola, Ayoade M

    2012-02-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease with complex clinical presentation, diagnosis, and difficult treatment. The available drugs for the treatment of trypanosomiasis are old, expensive, and less effective, associated with severe adverse reactions and face the problem of drug resistance. This situation underlines the urgent need for the development of new, effective, cheap, and safe drugs for the treatment of trypanosomiasis. The search for new antitrypanosomal agents in this study is based on ethnomedicine. In vitro antitrypanosomal activity of 36 plant extracts from 10 plant species from Nigerian ethnomedicine was evaluated against bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB 900. Cytotoxic activity was determined against mammalian L6 cells. Alamar blue assay was used to measure the endpoint of both antitrypanosomal and toxicity assays. The ethyl acetate extract of leaves of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (Labiatae) showed the highest antitrypanosomal activity (IC(50) of 2.08 ± 0.01 μg/ml) and a high selective index of 29. Furthermore, the hexane, ethyl acetate, or methanol extracts of Trema orientalis (L.) Blume (Ulmaceae), Pericopsis laxiflora (Benth. ex Baker) Meeuwen, Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), Terminalia catappa Linn. (Combretaceae), and Vitex doniana Sweet (Verbenaceae) displayed remarkable antitrypanosomal activity (IC(50) 2.1-17.2 μg/ml) with high selectivity indices (20-80) for trypanosomes. The antitrypanosomal activity of T. catappa and T. orientalis against T. brucei rhodesiense (STIB 900) is being reported for the first time in Nigerian ethnomedicine, and these plants could be a potential source of antitrypanosomal agents. PMID:21789586

  1. Biological effects of some natural and chemical compounds on the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zell. (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sharaby, Aziza; Abdel-Rahman, H.; Moawad, S.

    2009-01-01

    The olfactory reaction of larvae and moths was investigated towards 18 oils (6 natural oils and 12 commercial chemical oils). Some of these oils such as peppermint and camphor (natural oils) and eugenol and camphene (commercial oils) were repellent to both larvae and moths. Other oils such as strawberry and d-limonene were attractive to both larvae and moths. Some of the repellent oils were, therefore, tested for their effect on certain biological aspects of the insects. Eugenol and peppermint oils, each at the 0.01% conc., caused a significant depression in the fecundity of moth and decreased the percentage of egg hatchability. Eugenol oil was much more effective than peppermint oil at 1%. Dried (leaves, fruits or seeds) powder of 14 different plants species were tested in different concentrations with talcum powder (carrier material) against egg deposition. The results indicated that dried powders of Allium cepa, Curcuma longa, Colocasia antiqurum, Ocimum basilicum. Dodonaea viscose and Thuja orientalis played a highly significant role in reducing egg deposition. The most impressive effect was displayed by powders of D. viscose and A. cepa, which caused the highest depression in egg deposition as well as in the emerging offsprings. Ethanolic extracts of 11 plants indicated that extracts of Pithuranthos tortosus and Iphiona scabra caused the maximum inhibition of egg hatchability, followed by C. longa, Citrullus colocynthia and T. orientalis. Ethanolic extracts of Schinus terebenthiflius (leaves) and I. scabra caused the highest depression in the deposited eggs, as they played a remarkable role as ovipositor deterrents. The majority of the plant extracts at 1% conc. could protect potato tubers at different intervals according to the calculated tuber damage index as follows: Iphiopna > Pithuranthos > Curcuma > Schinus (fruits) Thuja > Schinus (leaves) > Dodonaea > Citrullus. PMID:23961036

  2. Occupational allergic disease in cereal workers by stored grain pests.

    PubMed

    Armentia, A; Martinez, A; Castrodeza, R; Martínez, J; Jimeno, A; Méndez, J; Stolle, R

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that workers occupationally exposed to grain dust have a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms, but their pathogenesis remains obscure when sensitization to cereal flour cannot be demonstrated. Storage mites, tenebroids, and cockroaches are stored-grain pests found in grain and cereal products frequently in our area, where the cereal industry is the most important industry. An epidemiological analysis of sensitization of these stored-grain pests was performed on 4379 patients residing in an area of cereal industries. Fifty grain workers were selected for in vivo diagnostic tests with nine genera of mites, Tenebrio molitor and Blatta orientalis. Specific IgE antibodies to the extracts were demonstrated by prick tests and RAST. Association between respiratory symptoms and occupational exposure was confirmed by challenge tests (specific and methacholine). The prevalence of mite sensitization in the total sample studied (4379) was 18.96% (SEM 0.58, 95% CI 16.93-19.19). The prevalence of sensitization to storage mites among mite-sensitive patients was 11.88% (SEM 1.15, 95% CI 9.63-14.3). Among the 50 selected patients the most frequent sensitization was that to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (58%), followed by Dermatophagoides frinae (48%), Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (38%), Blomia kulagini (34%), and Acarus siro and Chortoglyphus arcuatus (24%). In addition, 22% of the patients presented negative prick tests and RAST for Dermatophagoides species with positive test to storage mites. Fifty percent of the 50 patients were sensitizated to Tenebrio molitor (SEM 0.7, CI 95% 36-64), and 36% to Blatta orientalis (SEM 0.67, CI 95% 23-49). The identification of mites, tenebroids, and cockroaches in dust samples yields useful data for the diagnosis of our patients.

  3. Biomonitoring of air pollution using antioxidative enzyme system in two genera of family Pottiaceae (Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Bansal, Pooja; Verma, Sonam; Srivastava, Alka

    2016-09-01

    Bryophyte particularly mosses, have been found to serve as reliable indicators of air pollution and can serve as bryometers-biological instruments for measuring air pollution. They are remarkable colonizers, as they have the ability to survive in adverse environments and are also particular in their requirement of environmental conditions, which makes them appropriate ecological indicators. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidative enzymes in two mosses viz., Hyophila rosea R.S. Williams and Semibarbula orientalis (Web.) Wijk. & Marg. and assess their suitability as biomonitors. Three different locations viz., Lucknow University, Residency (contaminated sites) and Dilkusha Garden (reference site) within Lucknow city with different levels of air pollutants were used for comparison. Our results indicate that air pollution caused marked enhancement in activity of antioxidative enzymes viz., catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. All the three are capable of scavenging reactive oxygen species. In the genus S. orientalis, catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity was minimum at the reference site Dilkusha Garden and was significantly higher at the two contaminated sites for catalase and peroxidase, whereas the difference was non significant for superoxide dismutase. In H. rosea the activity of catalase and peroxidase at the three locations was almost similar, however superoxide dismutase activity showed a significant increase in the two contaminated sites when compared to the reference site, the value being highest for Lucknow University site. It was thus observed that the two genera, from the same location, showed difference in the activity of the antioxidative enzymes. Based on our results, we recommend bryophytes as good monitors of air pollution.

  4. Pentastomids of wild snakes in the Australian tropics☆

    PubMed Central

    Kelehear, Crystal; Spratt, David M.; O’Meally, Denis; Shine, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Pentastomids are endoparasites of the respiratory system of vertebrates, maturing primarily in carnivorous reptiles. Adult and larval pentastomids can cause severe pathology resulting in the death of their intermediate and definitive hosts. The study of pentastomids is a neglected field, impaired by risk of zoonoses, difficulties in species identification, and life cycle complexities. We surveyed wild snakes in the tropics of Australia to clarify which host species possess these parasites, and then sought to identify these pentastomids using a combination of morphological and molecular techniques. We detected pentastomid infections in 59% of the 81 snakes surveyed. The ubiquity of pentastomid infections in snakes of the Australian tropics sampled in this study is alarmingly high considering the often-adverse consequences of infection and the recognized zoonotic potential of these parasites. The pentastomids were of the genera Raillietiella and Waddycephalus and infected a range of host taxa, encompassing seven snake species from three snake families. All seven snake species represent new host records for pentastomids of the genera Raillietiella and/or Waddycephalus. The arboreal colubrid Dendrelaphis punctulatus and the terrestrial elapid Demansia vestigiata had particularly high infection prevalences (79% and 100% infected, respectively). Raillietiella orientalis infected 38% of the snakes surveyed, especially frog-eating species, implying a frog intermediate host for this parasite. Raillietiella orientalis was previously known only from Asian snakes and has invaded Australia via an unknown pathway. Our molecular data indicated that five species of Waddycephalus infect 28% of snakes in the surveyed area. Our morphological data indicate that features of pentastomid anatomy previously utilised to identify species of the genus Waddycephalus are unreliable for distinguishing species, highlighting the need for additional taxonomic work on this genus. PMID:24918074

  5. Theileria infection in domestic ruminants in northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Hailu, Asrat; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Rohoušová, Iva; Maia, Carla; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Warburg, Alon; Baneth, Gad

    2014-02-24

    Piroplasmosis caused by different tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia is among the most economically important infections of domestic ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. A survey for piroplasm infection was conducted in three locations in Northern Ethiopia. Of 525 domestic ruminants surveyed, 80% of the cattle, 94% of the sheep and 2% of the goats were positive for different Theileria spp. based on PCR of blood followed by DNA sequencing. Sheep had a significantly higher rate of infection compared with cattle (P<0.0003) and both sheep and cattle had higher rates of infection compared to goats (P<0.0001). Four species of Theileria were detected in cattle: T. velifera, T. mutans, T. orientalis complex and T. annulata with infection rates of 66, 8, 4, and 2%, respectively. This is the first report of T. annulata, the cause of Tropical Theileriosis in Ethiopia. Of the two Theileria spp. detected in small ruminants, T. ovis was highly prevalent (92%) in sheep and rare in goats (1.5%) whereas T. seperata was infrequent in sheep (2%) and rare in goats (0.4%). None of the animals were positive for Babesia spp.; however, Sarcocystis capracanis and S. tenella were detected in one goat and a sheep, respectively. The widespread distribution of Theileria spp. among cattle in northern Ethiopia including the virulent T. annulata and more mildly pathogenic T. mutans and T. orientalis, and the high infection rate in sheep with the usually sub-clinical T. ovis indicate extensive exposure to ticks and transmission of piroplasms with an important economic impact.

  6. Soil pollution assessment and identification of hyperaccumulating plants in chromated copper arsenate (CCA) contaminated sites, Korea.

    PubMed

    Usman, Adel R A; Lee, Sang Soo; Awad, Yasser M; Lim, Kyoung Jae; Yang, Jae E; Ok, Yong Sik

    2012-05-01

    In recent decades, heavy metal contamination in soil adjacent to chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood has received increasing attention. This study was conducted to determine the pollution level (PL) based on the concentrations of Cr, Cu and As in soils and to evaluate the remediative capacity of native plant species grown in the CCA contaminated site, Gangwon Province, Korea. The pollution index (PI), integrated pollution index (IPI), bioaccumulation factors (BAF(shoots) and BAF(roots)) and translocation factor (TF) were determined to ensure soil contamination and phytoremediation availability. The 19 soil samples from 10 locations possibly contaminated with Cr, Cu and As were collected. The concentrations of Cr, Cu and As in the soil samples ranged from 50.56-94.13 mg kg(-1), 27.78-120.83 mg kg(-1), and 0.13-9.43 mg kg(-1), respectively. Generally, the metal concentrations decreased as the distance between the CCA-treated wood structure and sampling point increased. For investigating phytoremediative capacity, the 19 native plant species were also collected in the same area with soil samples. Our results showed that only one plant species of Iris ensata, which presented the highest accumulations of Cr (1120 mg kg(-1)) in its shoot, was identified as a hyperaccumulator. Moreover, the relatively higher values of BAF(shoot) (3.23-22.10) were observed for Typha orientalis, Iris ensata and Scirpus radicans Schk, suggesting that these plant species might be applicable for selective metal extraction from the soils. For phytostabilization, the 15 plant species with BAF(root) values>1 and TF values<1 were suitable; however, Typha orientalis was the best for Cr.

  7. Phylogeny and phylogeography of medicinal leeches (genus Hirudo): fast dispersal and shallow genetic structure.

    PubMed

    Trontelj, Peter; Utevsky, Serge Y

    2012-05-01

    Medicinal leeches (Hirudo spp.) are among the best-studied invertebrates in many aspects of their biology. Yet, relatively little is known about their biogeography, ecology and evolution. Previous studies found vast ranges but suggested low genetic diversity for some species. To examine this apparent contradiction, the phylogeny and phylogeography of the widespread Hirudo verbana, Hirudo medicinalis and Hirudo orientalis were investigated in a comparative manner. Populations from across their ranges in Europe, Asia Minor, the Caucasus and Central Asia, were analyzed by various phylogenetic and population genetic approaches using both mitochondrial (COI and 12S) and nuclear DNA sequences (ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2). The populations showed surprisingly little genetic differentiation despite vast ranges. The only clear structure was observed in H. verbana. This species is subdivided into an Eastern (southern Ukraine, North Caucasus, Turkey and Uzbekistan) and a Western phylogroup (Balkans and Italy). The two phylogroups do not overlap, suggesting distinct postglacial colonization from separate refugia. Leeches supplied by commercial facilities belong to the Eastern phylogroup of H. verbana; they originate from Turkey and the Krasnodar Territory in Russia, two leading areas of leech export. H. verbana and H. medicinalis have experienced recent rapid population growth and range expansion, while isolation by distance has shaped the genetic setup of H. orientalis. The habitat of the latter is patchy and scattered about inhospitable arid and alpine areas of Central Asia and Transcaucasia. Centuries of leech collecting and transport across Europe seem not to have affected the natural distribution of genetic diversity, as the observed patterns can be explained by a combination of historical factors and present day climatic influences.

  8. 5S rDNA genome regions of Lens species.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M; Ruiz, M L; Linares, C; Fominaya, A; Pérez de la Vega, M

    2005-10-01

    The length variability of the nontranscribed spacer (NTS) of the 5S rDNA repeats was analyzed in species of the genus Lens by means of PCR amplification. The NTS ranged from approximately 227 to approximately 952 bp. The polymorphism detected was higher than previous NTS polymorphisms described in this genus. Three NTS length variants from Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris and 2 from Lens culinaris subsp. orientalis were sequenced. The culinaris NTS fragment lengths were 239, 371, and 838 bp, whereas the orientalis ones were 472 bp and 506 bp, respectively. As a result of sequence similarities, 2 families of sequences were distinguished, 1 including the sequences of 838 and 506 bp, and others with the sequences of 239, 371, and 472 bp. The 1st family was characterized by the presence of a repeated sequence designated A, whereas the 2nd family showed a single A sequence and other repeated sequences designated B, C, and D. The presence of an (AT)n microsatellite was also observed in the 2nd family of sequences. The fragments, which included the 239-bp and 838-bp NTS sequences, as well as the intergenic spacer (IGS) of the 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal DNA also from L. culinaris subsp. culinaris, were used to localize the nucleolar organizer region (NOR) and the 5S rDNA loci in the chromosomes of several species of the genus Lens by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The selective hybridization of the 2 NTS probes allowed us to distinguish between different 5S rDNA chromosomal loci.

  9. Mosquito larvicidal potential of four common medicinal plants of India

    PubMed Central

    Rawani, Anjali; Ghosh, Anupam; Chandra, Goutam

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human health diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Plants may be sources of alternative mosquito control agents. The present study was carried out to assess the role of larvicidal activities of the crude extracts of four plants viz. Alternanthera sessilis L. (Amaranthaceae), Trema orientalis L. (Cannabaceae), Gardenia carinata Smith. (Rubiaceae) and Ruellia tuberosa L. (Acanthaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say in laboratory bioassay. Methods: Selective concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) of crude extract of all four plant leaves were tested against Ist to IVth instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Log probit analysis (at 95% confidence level) revealed the LC50 values. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical analyses of crude extracts were also done. The lethal concentrations (%) of crude extracts at 24 h against IIIrd instar larvae were also studied on non-target organisms. Result: In a 72 h bioassay experiment with crude extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 1.5 per cent extract. A. sessilis showed the highest mortality (76.7 %) at 1.5 per cent crude extract against IInd instar larvae having LC50 value of 0.35 per cent, followed by R. tuberosa (LC50 =1.84%), G. carinata (LC50 = 2.11) and T. orientalis (LC50 = 2.95%). The regression equation showed a dose-dependent mortality, as the rate of mortality (Y) was positively correlated with the concentration (X). Phytochemical analysis of the crude extract showed the presence of many bioactive phytochemicals such as steroids, alkaloids, terpenes, saponins, etc. No changes in the swimming behaviour and survivality of non-target organism were noticed at the studied concentrations. Interpretation & conclusions: Crude extract of the four selected plants showed larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The extracts at the studied concentrations did not produce any harmful effect on non-target organisms. PMID:25222784

  10. Alien parasitic copepods in mussels and oysters of the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Nikolaus O.; Jacobsen, Sabine; Thieltges, David W.; Reise, Karsten

    2011-09-01

    Molluscan intestinal parasites of the genus Mytilicola, specifically M. intestinalis, were initially introduced into bivalves in the North Sea in the 1930s. It was presumably introduced from the Mediterranean with ship-fouling mussels, then attained epidemic proportions in Mytilus edulis in the 1950s and is now widely established in the North Sea region. Mytilicola orientalis was co-introduced with Pacific oysters to France in the 1970s and in the southern North Sea in the early 1990s. Its main host Crassostrea gigas has massively invaded the Wadden Sea with a concomitant decline in mussels. To explore whether introduced mytilicolid parasites could play a role in the shifting dominance from native mussels to invasive oysters, we analysed 390 mussels and 174 oysters collected around the island of Sylt in the northern Wadden Sea. We show that M. intestinalis has a prevalence >90% and a mean intensity of 4 adult copepods in individual mussels with >50 mm shell length at all sheltered sites. By contrast, none were found in the oysters. However, at one site, we found M. orientalis in C. gigas with a prevalence of 10% and an intensity of 2 per host individual (August 2008). This constitutes the most northern record in Europe for this Pacific parasite until now. Alignments of partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene and the nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and 18S rDNA sequences each show a distinct difference between the two species, which confirms our morphological identification. We suggest that the high parasite load in mussels compared to oysters may benefit the continued expansion of C. gigas in the Wadden Sea.

  11. Pentastomids of wild snakes in the Australian tropics.

    PubMed

    Kelehear, Crystal; Spratt, David M; O'Meally, Denis; Shine, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Pentastomids are endoparasites of the respiratory system of vertebrates, maturing primarily in carnivorous reptiles. Adult and larval pentastomids can cause severe pathology resulting in the death of their intermediate and definitive hosts. The study of pentastomids is a neglected field, impaired by risk of zoonoses, difficulties in species identification, and life cycle complexities. We surveyed wild snakes in the tropics of Australia to clarify which host species possess these parasites, and then sought to identify these pentastomids using a combination of morphological and molecular techniques. We detected pentastomid infections in 59% of the 81 snakes surveyed. The ubiquity of pentastomid infections in snakes of the Australian tropics sampled in this study is alarmingly high considering the often-adverse consequences of infection and the recognized zoonotic potential of these parasites. The pentastomids were of the genera Raillietiella and Waddycephalus and infected a range of host taxa, encompassing seven snake species from three snake families. All seven snake species represent new host records for pentastomids of the genera Raillietiella and/or Waddycephalus. The arboreal colubrid Dendrelaphis punctulatus and the terrestrial elapid Demansia vestigiata had particularly high infection prevalences (79% and 100% infected, respectively). Raillietiella orientalis infected 38% of the snakes surveyed, especially frog-eating species, implying a frog intermediate host for this parasite. Raillietiella orientalis was previously known only from Asian snakes and has invaded Australia via an unknown pathway. Our molecular data indicated that five species of Waddycephalus infect 28% of snakes in the surveyed area. Our morphological data indicate that features of pentastomid anatomy previously utilised to identify species of the genus Waddycephalus are unreliable for distinguishing species, highlighting the need for additional taxonomic work on this genus. PMID:24918074

  12. Biological effects of some natural and chemical compounds on the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zell. (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Sharaby, Aziza; Abdel-Rahman, H; Moawad, S

    2009-07-01

    The olfactory reaction of larvae and moths was investigated towards 18 oils (6 natural oils and 12 commercial chemical oils). Some of these oils such as peppermint and camphor (natural oils) and eugenol and camphene (commercial oils) were repellent to both larvae and moths. Other oils such as strawberry and d-limonene were attractive to both larvae and moths. Some of the repellent oils were, therefore, tested for their effect on certain biological aspects of the insects. Eugenol and peppermint oils, each at the 0.01% conc., caused a significant depression in the fecundity of moth and decreased the percentage of egg hatchability. Eugenol oil was much more effective than peppermint oil at 1%. Dried (leaves, fruits or seeds) powder of 14 different plants species were tested in different concentrations with talcum powder (carrier material) against egg deposition. The results indicated that dried powders of Allium cepa, Curcuma longa, Colocasia antiqurum, Ocimum basilicum. Dodonaea viscose and Thuja orientalis played a highly significant role in reducing egg deposition. The most impressive effect was displayed by powders of D. viscose and A. cepa, which caused the highest depression in egg deposition as well as in the emerging offsprings. Ethanolic extracts of 11 plants indicated that extracts of Pithuranthos tortosus and Iphiona scabra caused the maximum inhibition of egg hatchability, followed by C. longa, Citrullus colocynthia and T. orientalis. Ethanolic extracts of Schinus terebenthiflius (leaves) and I. scabra caused the highest depression in the deposited eggs, as they played a remarkable role as ovipositor deterrents. The majority of the plant extracts at 1% conc. could protect potato tubers at different intervals according to the calculated tuber damage index as follows: Iphiopna > Pithuranthos > Curcuma > Schinus (fruits) Thuja > Schinus (leaves) > Dodonaea > Citrullus. PMID:23961036

  13. A possible role for Phlebotomus (Anaphlebotomus) rodhaini (Parrot, 1930) in transmission of Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, kala azar), caused by Leishmania donovani is a major health problem in Sudan and other East African countries. In this region the only proven vectors of L. donovani are Phlebotomus orientalis in eastern Sudan, Ethiopia and Upper Nile areas of Southern Sudan and Phlebotomus martini in Ethiopia, Kenya and Southern Sudan. In this report, we present the first evidence that Phlebotomus rodhaini may also play a role in maintaining transmission of L. donovani between animal reservoir hosts in eastern Sudan. The study was conducted in a zoonotic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Dinder National Park, eastern Sudan, where previous work showed high infection rates of L. donovani in P. orientalis. Sand flies, captured by CDC traps were dissected and examined for infection with Leishmania parasites. Parasite isolates were subjected to L. donovani specific PCR. Field experiments were also carried out to compare efficiency of rodent baited and un-baited CDC traps in collection of P. rodhaini and determine its man-biting rate. Results Three female P. rodhaini were found infected with Leishmania parasites in an astonishingly small number of flies captured in three separate field trips. Two of these isolates were typed by molecular methods as L. donovani, while the third isolate was inoculated into a hamster that was subsequently lost. Although P. rodhaini is generally considered a rare species, results obtained in this study indicate that it can readily be captured by rodent-baited traps. Results of human landing collection showed that it rarely bites humans in the area. Conclusion It is concluded that P. rodhaini is a possible vector of L. donovani between animal reservoir hosts but is not responsible for infecting humans. It is suggested that the role of P. rodhaini in transmission of L. donovani in other zoonotic foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Africa should be re-examined. PMID:22188864

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of members of the Phycodnaviridae virus family, using amplified fragments of the major capsid protein gene.

    PubMed

    Larsen, J B; Larsen, A; Bratbak, G; Sandaa, R-A

    2008-05-01

    Algal viruses are considered ecologically important by affecting host population dynamics and nutrient flow in aquatic food webs. Members of the family Phycodnaviridae are also interesting due to their extraordinary genome size. Few algal viruses in the Phycodnaviridae family have been sequenced, and those that have been have few genes in common and low gene homology. It has hence been difficult to design general PCR primers that allow further studies of their ecology and diversity. In this study, we screened the nine type I core genes of the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses for sequences suitable for designing a general set of primers. Sequence comparison between members of the Phycodnaviridae family, including three partly sequenced viruses infecting the prymnesiophyte Pyramimonas orientalis and the haptophytes Phaeocystis pouchetii and Chrysochromulina ericina (Pyramimonas orientalis virus 01B [PoV-01B], Phaeocystis pouchetii virus 01 [PpV-01], and Chrysochromulina ericina virus 01B [CeV-01B], respectively), revealed eight conserved regions in the major capsid protein (MCP). Two of these regions also showed conservation at the nucleotide level, and this allowed us to design degenerate PCR primers. The primers produced 347- to 518-bp amplicons when applied to lysates from algal viruses kept in culture and from natural viral communities. The aim of this work was to use the MCP as a proxy to infer phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity among members of the Phycodnaviridae family and to determine the occurrence and diversity of this gene in natural viral communities. The results support the current legitimate genera in the Phycodnaviridae based on alga host species. However, while placing the mimivirus in close proximity to the type species, PBCV-1, of Phycodnaviridae along with the three new viruses assigned to the family (PoV-01B, PpV-01, and CeV-01B), the results also indicate that the coccolithoviruses and phaeoviruses are more diverged from this

  15. A review of Adelphocoris-Creontiades-Megacoelum complex (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Mirini), with descriptions of two new genera and four new species.

    PubMed

    Chérot, F; Malipatil, M B

    2016-01-01

    The Adelphocoris-Creontiades-Megacoelum complex of genera is reviewed. Diagnostic characters for each included genus and species are provided. Two new genera, Poppiomegacoelum n. gen. and Pseudomegacoelum n. gen., are proposed to accommodate Poppiomegacoelum gearyi n. sp. from Australia and four species from west Palearctic previously classified under Megacoelum Fieber, 1858 respectively. Three new species from Australia, Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands are described: Adelphocorisella rubricornis n. sp., Waucoris solomonensis n. sp. and Waucoris tricolor n. sp. The following new combinations are made: Adelphocorisella brunnescens (Poppius, 1915) [for Adelphocoris brunnescens Poppius, 1915], A. relatum (Distant, 1904) [for Megacoelum relatum Distant, 1904], Macrolygus rubrus (Carvalho, 1987) [for Waucoris rubrus Carvalho, 1987], Miyamotoa mussooriensis (Distant, 1909) [for Megacoelum mussooriense Distant, 1909], Orientomiris ater (Poppius, 1915) [for Creontiades ater Poppius, 1915], O. brunneus (Poppius, 1914) [for Creontiades brunneus Poppius, 1914], O. furhstorferi (Poppius, 1915) [for C. furhstorferi Poppius, 1915], O. maculicollis (Poppius, 1915) [for C. maculicollis Poppius, 1915], O. marginatus (Poppius, 1915) [for C. marginatus Poppius, 1915], O. montanus (Poppius, 1915) [for C. montanus Poppius, 1915], O. monticola (Poppius, 1914) [for Megacoelum monticola Poppius, 1914], O. orientalis (Poppius, 1915) [for Creontiades orientalis Poppius, 1915], O. pallidicornis (Poppius, 1915) [for Megacoelum pallidicorne Poppius, 1915], O. ravana (Kirkaldy, 1909) [for Kangra ravana Kirkaldy, 1909], O. sumatranus (Poppius, 1915) [for Adelphocoris sumatranus Poppius, 1915], O. uzeli (Poppius, 1910) [for Creontiades uzeli Poppius, 1910), Poppiocapsidea tagalica (Poppius, 1915) [for Megacoelum tagalicum Poppius, 1915], Pseudomegacoelum angustum (Wagner, 1965) [for Megacoelum angustum Wagner, 1965], P. beckeri (Fieber, 1870) [for M. beckeri (Fieber, 1870)], P. irbilanum

  16. Daily temperature fluctuations unpredictably influence developmental rate and morphology at a critical early larval stage in a frog

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Environmental temperature has profound consequences for early amphibian development and many field and laboratory studies have examined this. Most laboratory studies that have characterized the influence of temperature on development in amphibians have failed to incorporate the realities of diel temperature fluctuations (DTF), which can be considerable for pond-breeding amphibians. Results We evaluated the effects of different ecologically relevant ranges of DTF compared with effects of constant temperatures on development of embryos and larvae of the Korean fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis). We constructed thermal reaction norms for developmental stage, snout- vent length, and tail length by fitting a Gompertz-Gaussian function to measurements taken from embryos after 66 hours of development in 12 different constant temperature environments between 14°C and 36°C. We used these reaction norms as null models to test the hypothesis that developmental effects of DTF are more than the sum of average constant temperature effects over the distribution of temperatures experienced. We predicted from these models that growth and differentiation would be positively correlated with average temperature at low levels of DTF but not at higher levels of DTF. We tested our prediction in the laboratory by rearing B. orientalis embryos at three average temperatures (20°C, 24°C, and 28°C) and four levels of thermal variation (0°C, 6°C, 13°C, and 20°C). Several of the observed responses to DTF were significantly different from both predictions of the model and from responses in constant temperature treatments at the same average temperatures. At an average temperature of 24°C, only the highest level of DTF affected differentiation and growth rates, but at both cooler and warmer average temperatures, moderate DTF was enough to slow developmental and tail growth rates. Conclusions These results demonstrate that both the magnitude of DTF range and thermal

  17. Short communication: Evaluation of the microbiota of kefir samples using metagenetic analysis targeting the 16S and 26S ribosomal DNA fragments.

    PubMed

    Korsak, N; Taminiau, B; Leclercq, M; Nezer, C; Crevecoeur, S; Ferauche, C; Detry, E; Delcenserie, V; Daube, G

    2015-06-01

    Milk kefir is produced by fermenting milk in the presence of kefir grains. This beverage has several benefits for human health. The aim of this experiment was to analyze 5 kefir grains (and their products) using a targeted metagenetic approach. Of the 5 kefir grains analyzed, 1 was purchased in a supermarket, 2 were provided by the Ministry of Agriculture (Namur, Belgium), and 2 were provided by individuals. The metagenetic approach targeted the V1-V3 fragment of the 16S ribosomal (r)DNA for the grains and the resulting beverages at 2 levels of grain incorporation (5 and 10%) to identify the bacterial species population. In contrast, the 26S rDNA pyrosequencing was performed only on kefir grains with the aim of assessing the yeast populations. In parallel, pH measurements were performed on the kefir obtained from the kefir grains using 2 incorporation rates. Regarding the bacterial population, 16S pyrosequencing revealed the presence of 20 main bacterial species, with a dominance of the following: Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Gluconobacter frateurii, Lactobacillus kefiri, Acetobacter orientalis, and Acetobacter lovaniensis. An important difference was noticed between the kefir samples: kefir grain purchased from a supermarket (sample E) harbored a much higher proportion of several operational taxonomic units of Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. This sample of grain was macroscopically different from the others in terms of size, apparent cohesion of the grains, structure, and texture, probably associated with a lower level of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens. The kefir (at an incorporation rate of 5%) produced from this sample of grain was characterized by a lower pH value (4.5) than the others. The other 4 samples of kefir (5%) had pH values above 5. Comparing the kefir grain and the kefir, an increase in the population of Gluconobacter in grain sample B was observed. This was also the case for Acetobacter orientalis

  18. The Middle Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Khok Sung (Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand): biochronological and paleobiogeographical implications.

    PubMed

    Suraprasit, Kantapon; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Chavasseau, Olivier; Yamee, Chotima; Tian, Pannipa; Panha, Somsak

    2016-01-01

    The fluviatile terrace deposits of Khok Sung, Nakhon Ratchasima province, have yielded more than one thousand fossils, making this the richest Pleistocene vertebrate fauna of Thailand. The excellent preservation of the specimens allows precise characterization of the faunal composition. The mammalian fauna consists of fifteen species in thirteen genera, including a primate, a canid, a hyaenid, proboscideans, rhinoceroses, a suid, cervids, and bovids. Most species correspond to living taxa but globally (Stegodon cf. orientalis) and locally (Crocuta crocuta ultima, Rhinoceros unicornis, Sus barbatus, and Axis axis) extinct taxa were also present. The identification of Axis axis in Khok Sung, a chital currently restricted to the Indian Subcontinent, represents the first record of the species in Southeast Asia. Three reptilian taxa: Crocodylus cf. siamensis, Python sp., and Varanus sp., are also identified. Faunal correlations with other Southeast Asian sites suggest a late Middle to early Late Pleistocene age for the Khok Sung assemblage. However, the Khok Sung mammalian fauna is most similar to that of Thum Wiman Nakin, dated to older than 169 ka. The Khok Sung large mammal assemblage mostly comprises mainland Southeast Asian taxa that migrated to Java during the latest Middle Pleistocene, supporting the hypothesis that Thailand was a biogeographic pathway for the Sino-Malayan migration event from South China to Java. PMID:27667928

  19. Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus in imported amphibians reveals an unanticipated foreign animal disease threat.

    PubMed

    Ip, Hon S; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Blehert, David S

    2016-09-07

    Global translocation of plants and animals is a well-recognized mechanism for introduction of pathogens into new regions. To mitigate this risk, various tools such as preshipment health certificates, quarantines, screening for specific disease agents and outright bans have been implemented. However, such measures only target known infectious agents and their hosts and may fail to prevent translocation of even well-recognized pathogens if they are carried by novel host species. In a recent example, we screened an imported shipment of Chinese firebelly newts (Cynops orientalis) for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, an emergent fungal pathogen of salamanders. All animals tested negative for the fungus. However, a virus was cultured from internal organs from 7 of the 11 individual dead salamanders and from two pools of tissues from four additional dead animals. Sequencing of a portion of the glycoprotein gene from all viral isolates indicated 100% identity and that they were most closely related to spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). Subsequently, SVCV-specific PCR testing indicated the presence of virus in internal organs from each of the four animals previously pooled, and whole-genome sequencing of one of the viral isolates confirmed genomic arrangement characteristic of SVCV. SVCV is a rhabdovirus pathogen of cyprinid fish that is listed as notifiable to the Office International des Epizooties. This discovery reveals a novel route for potential spillover of this economically important pathogen as rhabdovirus has not previously been documented in amphibians.

  20. A possible explanation for the population size discrepancy in tuna (genus Thunnus) estimated from mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite data.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Fan; Kitchen, Andrew; Beerli, Peter; Miyamoto, Michael M

    2013-02-01

    A recent study using both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite data reported on a population size discrepancy in the eastern tiger salamander where the effective population size (N(e)) estimate of the former exceeded that of the latter. That study suggested, among other hypotheses, that homoplasy of microsatellite alleles is responsible for the discrepancy. In this investigation, we report 10 new cases of a similar discrepancy in five species of tuna. These cases derive from our Bayesian inferences using data from Pacific Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus albacares), as well as from published estimates of genetic diversity for additional populations of Yellowfin Tuna and three other tuna species. Phylogenetic character analyses of inferred genealogies of Pacific Bluefin and Yellowfin Tuna reveal similar reduced levels of mtDNA and microsatellite homoplasy. Thus, the discrepancy between inferred population sizes from mtDNA and microsatellite data in tuna is most likely not an artifact of the chosen mutation models used in the microsatellite analyses, but may reflect behavioral differences between the sexes such as female-biased philopatry and male-biased dispersal. This explanation now warrants critical testing with more local populations of tuna and with other animal and plant groups that have different life histories.

  1. Single-step fermentative production of the cholesterol-lowering drug pravastatin via reprogramming of Penicillium chrysogenum

    PubMed Central

    Hans, Marcus; Meijrink, Ben; van Scheppingen, Wibo B.; Vollebregt, Aad; Tee, Kang Lan; van der Laan, Jan-Metske; Leys, David; Munro, Andrew W.; van den Berg, Marco A.

    2015-01-01

    The cholesterol-lowering blockbuster drug pravastatin can be produced by stereoselective hydroxylation of the natural product compactin. We report here the metabolic reprogramming of the antibiotics producer Penicillium chrysogenum toward an industrial pravastatin production process. Following the successful introduction of the compactin pathway into the β-lactam–negative P. chrysogenum DS50662, a new cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) from Amycolatopsis orientalis (CYP105AS1) was isolated to catalyze the final compactin hydroxylation step. Structural and biochemical characterization of the WT CYP105AS1 reveals that this CYP is an efficient compactin hydroxylase, but that predominant compactin binding modes lead mainly to the ineffective epimer 6-epi-pravastatin. To avoid costly fractionation of the epimer, the enzyme was evolved to invert stereoselectivity, producing the pharmacologically active pravastatin form. Crystal structures of the optimized mutant P450Prava bound to compactin demonstrate how the selected combination of mutations enhance compactin binding and enable positioning of the substrate for stereo-specific oxidation. Expression of P450Prava fused to a redox partner in compactin-producing P. chrysogenum yielded more than 6 g/L pravastatin at a pilot production scale, providing an effective new route to industrial scale production of an important drug. PMID:25691737

  2. Species relationships and divergence times in beeches: new insights from the inclusion of 53 young and old fossils in a birth-death clock model.

    PubMed

    Renner, S S; Grimm, Guido W; Kapli, Paschalia; Denk, Thomas

    2016-07-19

    The fossilized birth-death (FBD) model can make use of information contained in multiple fossils representing the same clade, and we here apply this model to infer divergence times in beeches (genus Fagus), using 53 fossils and nuclear sequences for all nine species. We also apply FBD dating to the fern clade Osmundaceae, with about 12 living species and 36 fossils. Fagus nuclear sequences cannot be aligned with those of other Fagaceae, and we therefore use Bayes factors to choose among alternative root positions. The crown group of Fagus is dated to 53 (62-43) Ma; divergence of the sole American species to 44 (51-39) Ma and divergence between Central European F. sylvatica and Eastern Mediterranean F. orientalis to 8.7 (20-1.8) Ma, unexpectedly old. The FBD model can accommodate fossils as sampled ancestors or as extinct or unobserved lineages; however, this makes its raw output, which shows all fossils on short or long branches, problematic to interpret. We use hand-drawn depictions and a bipartition network to illustrate the uncertain placements of fossils. Inferred speciation and extinction rates imply approximately 5× higher evolutionary turnover in Fagus than in Osmundaceae, fitting a hypothesized low turnover in plants adapted to low-nutrient conditions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'.

  3. Subterranean, Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatile Increases Biological Control Activity of Multiple Beneficial Nematode Species in Distinct Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Jared G.; Alborn, Hans T.; Campos-Herrera, Raquel; Kaplan, Fatma; Duncan, Larry W.; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M.; Stelinski, Lukasz L.

    2012-01-01

    While the role of herbivore-induced volatiles in plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions is well documented aboveground, new evidence suggests that belowground volatile emissions can protect plants by attracting entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). However, due to methodological limitations, no study has previously detected belowground herbivore-induced volatiles in the field or quantified their impact on attraction of diverse EPN species. Here we show how a belowground herbivore-induced volatile can enhance mortality of agriculturally significant root pests. First, in real time, we identified pregeijerene (1,5-dimethylcyclodeca-1,5,7-triene) from citrus roots 9–12 hours after initiation of larval Diaprepes abbreviatus feeding. This compound was also detected in the root zone of mature citrus trees in the field. Application of collected volatiles from weevil-damaged citrus roots attracted native EPNs and increased mortality of beetle larvae (D. abbreviatus) compared to controls in a citrus orchard. In addition, field applications of isolated pregeijerene caused similar results. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that pregeijerene increased pest mortality by attracting four species of naturally occurring EPNs in the field. Finally, we tested the generality of this root-zone signal by application of pregeijerene in blueberry fields; mortality of larvae (Galleria mellonella and Anomala orientalis) again increased by attracting naturally occurring populations of an EPN. Thus, this specific belowground signal attracts natural enemies of widespread root pests in distinct agricultural systems and may have broad potential in biological control of root pests. PMID:22761668

  4. Characterization of pathogenic vibrios isolated from bivalve hatcheries in Galicia, NW Atlantic coast of Spain. Description of Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaeus [corrected] subsp. nov.

    PubMed

    Prado, Susana; Dubert, Javier; Barja, Juan L

    2015-02-01

    The taxonomic position of the bivalve pathogen PP-638 was studied together with five similar isolates. The strains were isolated from flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) and Manila clam (Venerupis philippinarum) cultures during outbreaks of disease in two shellfish hatcheries (Galicia, NW Spain). The pathogenicity, previously established for PP-638, was demonstrated with all isolates and for several bivalve species, including the original hosts. On the basis of phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequences, a tight group was defined within the genus Vibrio. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on concatenated sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and the five housekeeping genes recA, rpoA, pyrH, gyrB and ftsZ revealed that these strains form a cluster within the Orientalis clade, close to the species Vibrio tubiashii. The results of MLSA, the DDH rate and the phenotypic differences with the type strain of V. tubiashii supported the differentiation of the Galician isolates as a new subspecies within V. tubiashii, for which the name V. tubiashii subsp. europaeus [corrected] subsp. nov. is proposed (type strain PP-638(T)=CECT 8136(T)=DSM 7349(T)) The emended description of V. tubiashii is included. The pathogenicity assays widen the host range of V. tubiashii to add two unreported species, Venerupis decussata and Donax trunculus, and the described as relatively resistant species V. philippinarum.

  5. The preparation and ethanol fermentation of high-concentration sugars from steam-explosion corn stover.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; Wang, Fengqin; Yin, Shuangyao; Ren, Tianbao; Song, Andong

    2015-05-01

    In the field of biofuel ethanol, high-concentration- reducing sugars made from cellulosic materials lay the foundation for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. In this study, corn stover was pre-treated in a process combining chemical methods and steam explosion; the cellulosic hydrolyzed sugars obtained by fed-batch saccharification were then used as the carbon source for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1308, Angel yeast, and Issatchenkia orientalis were shake-cultured with Pachysolen tannophilus P-01 for fermentation. Results implied that the ethanol yields from the three types of mixed strains were 4.85 g/100 mL, 4.57 g/100 mL, and 5.02 g/100 mL (separately) at yield rates of 91.6, 89.3, and 92.2%, respectively. Therefore, it was inferred that shock-fermentation using mixed strains achieved a higher ethanol yield at a greater rate in a shorter fermentation period. This study provided a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the fermentation of industrial high-concentrated cellulosic ethanol.

  6. Reconstructing transoceanic migration patterns of Pacific bluefin tuna using a chemical tracer toolbox.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Daniel J; Baumann, Zofia; Carlisle, Aaron B; Hoen, Danielle K; Popp, Brian N; Dewar, Heidi; Snodgrass, Owyn E; Block, Barbara A; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2014-06-01

    Large pelagic predators play important roles in oceanic ecosystems, and may migrate vast distances to utilize resources in different marine ecoregions. Understanding movement patterns of migratory marine animals is critical for effective management, but often challenging, due to the cryptic habitat of pelagic migrators and the difficulty of assessing past movements. Chemical tracers can partially circumvent these challenges by reconstructing recent migration patterns. Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis; PBFT) inhabit the western and eastern Pacific Ocean, and are in steep decline due to overfishing. Understanding age-specific eastward transpacific migration patterns can improve management practices, but these migratory dynamics remain largely unquantified. Here, we combine a Fukushima-derived radiotracer (134Cs) with bulk tissue and amino acid stable isotope analyses of PBFT to distinguish recent migrants from residents of the eastern Pacific Ocean. The proportion of recent migrants to residents decreased in older year classes, though the proportion of older PBFT that recently migrated across the Pacific was greater than previous estimates. This novel toolbox of biogeochemical tracers can be applied to any species that crosses the North Pacific Ocean. PMID:25039231

  7. MALDI TOF/TOF-Based Approach for the Identification of d- Amino Acids in Biologically Active Peptides and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Several biologically active peptides contain a d- amino acid in a well-defined position, which is position 2 in all peptide epimers isolated to date from vertebrates and also some from invertebrates. The detection of such D- residues by standard analytical techniques is challenging. In tandem mass spectrometric (MS) analysis, although fragment masses are the same for all stereoisomers, peak intensities are known to depend on chirality. Here, we observe that the effect of a d- amino acid in the second N-terminal position on the fragmentation pattern in matrix assisted laser desorption time-of-flight spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) strongly depends on the peptide sequence. Stereosensitive fragmentation (SF) is correlated to a neighborhood effect, but the d- residue also exerts an overall effect influencing distant bonds. In a fingerprint analysis, multiple peaks can thus serve to identify the chirality of a sample in short time and potentially high throughput. Problematic variations between individual spots could be successfully suppressed by cospotting deuterated analogues of the epimers. By identifying the [d-Leu2] isomer of the predicted peptide GH-2 (gene derived bombininH) in skin secretions of the toad Bombina orientalis, we demonstrated the analytical power of SF-MALDI-TOF/TOF measurements. In conclusion, SF-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS combines high sensitivity, versatility, and the ability to complement other methods. PMID:26985971

  8. Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus in imported amphibians reveals an unanticipated foreign animal disease threat.

    PubMed

    Ip, Hon S; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Blehert, David S

    2016-01-01

    Global translocation of plants and animals is a well-recognized mechanism for introduction of pathogens into new regions. To mitigate this risk, various tools such as preshipment health certificates, quarantines, screening for specific disease agents and outright bans have been implemented. However, such measures only target known infectious agents and their hosts and may fail to prevent translocation of even well-recognized pathogens if they are carried by novel host species. In a recent example, we screened an imported shipment of Chinese firebelly newts (Cynops orientalis) for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, an emergent fungal pathogen of salamanders. All animals tested negative for the fungus. However, a virus was cultured from internal organs from 7 of the 11 individual dead salamanders and from two pools of tissues from four additional dead animals. Sequencing of a portion of the glycoprotein gene from all viral isolates indicated 100% identity and that they were most closely related to spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). Subsequently, SVCV-specific PCR testing indicated the presence of virus in internal organs from each of the four animals previously pooled, and whole-genome sequencing of one of the viral isolates confirmed genomic arrangement characteristic of SVCV. SVCV is a rhabdovirus pathogen of cyprinid fish that is listed as notifiable to the Office International des Epizooties. This discovery reveals a novel route for potential spillover of this economically important pathogen as rhabdovirus has not previously been documented in amphibians. PMID:27599472

  9. A Hardy Plant Facilitates Nitrogen Removal via Microbial Communities in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands in Winter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Penghe; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Zhao, Dehua; Zou, Xiangxu; Zhu, Zhengjie; Jeelani, Nasreen; Leng, Xin; An, Shuqing

    2016-01-01

    The plants effect in subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF-CWs) is controversial, especially at low temperatures. Consequently, several SSF-CWs planted with Iris pseudacorus (CWI) or Typha orientalis Presl. (CWT) and several unplanted ones (CWC) were set up and fed with secondary effluent of sewage treatment plant during the winter in Eastern China. The 16S rDNA Illumina Miseq sequencing analysis indicated the positive effects of I. pseudacorus on the bacterial community richness and diversity in the substrate. Moreover, the community compositions of the bacteria involved with denitrification presented a significant difference in the three systems. Additionally, higher relative abundances of nitrifying bacteria (0.4140%, 0.2402% and 0.4318% for Nitrosomonas, Nitrosospira and Nitrospira, respectively) were recorded in CWI compared with CWT (0.2074%, 0.0648% and 0.0181%, respectively) and CWC (0.3013%, 0.1107% and 0.1185%, respectively). Meanwhile, the average removal rates of NH4(+)-N and TN in CWI showed a prominent advantage compared to CWC, but no distinct advantage was found in CWT. The hardy plant I. pseudacorus, which still had active root oxygen release in cold temperatures, positively affected the abundance of nitrifying bacteria in the substrate, and accordingly was supposed to contribute to a comparatively high nitrogen removal efficiency of the system during the winter. PMID:27646687

  10. A full lifecycle bioenergetic model for bluefin tuna.

    PubMed

    Jusup, Marko; Klanjscek, Tin; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Kooijman, S A L M

    2011-01-01

    We formulated a full lifecycle bioenergetic model for bluefin tuna relying on the principles of Dynamic Energy Budget theory. Traditional bioenergetic models in fish research deduce energy input and utilization from observed growth and reproduction. In contrast, our model predicts growth and reproduction from food availability and temperature in the environment. We calibrated the model to emulate physiological characteristics of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis, hereafter PBT), a species which has received considerable scientific attention due to its high economic value. Computer simulations suggest that (i) the main cause of different growth rates between cultivated and wild PBT is the difference in average body temperature of approximately 6.5°C, (ii) a well-fed PBT individual can spawn an average number of 9 batches per spawning season, (iii) food abundance experienced by wild PBT is rather constant and sufficiently high to provide energy for yearly reproductive cycle, (iv) energy in reserve is exceptionally small, causing the weight-length relationship of cultivated and wild PBT to be practically indistinguishable and suggesting that these fish are poorly equipped to deal with starvation, (v) accelerated growth rate of PBT larvae is connected to morphological changes prior to metamorphosis, while (vi) deceleration of growth rate in the early juvenile stage is related to efficiency of internal heat production. Based on these results, we discuss a number of physiological and ecological traits of PBT, including the reasons for high Feed Conversion Ratio recorded in bluefin tuna aquaculture. PMID:21779352

  11. Four new species of free-living marine nematodes of the family Comesomatidae (Nematoda: Araeolaimida) from coast of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Gagarin, Vladimir G

    2013-01-24

    Specimens of four new nematode species of the family Comesomatidae were isolated from the sediments of littoral zone of South China Sea at the coast of Vietnam and described and illustrated. Sabatieria curvispiculata sp. n. is characterized by the long and slender tail, short cephalic setae and strongly curved spicules in males. Setosabatiera orientalis sp. n. is close to S. australis Riera, Nunez, Brito, 2006, but differs from it in the comparatively shorter and more slender tail, small-er number of amphidial fovea turns, greater number of precloacal supplements in males and shape and structure of spic-ules. Dorylaimopsis intermedia sp. n. is morphologically closest to D. mediterranea Grimaldi-de Zio, 1968 and D. magellanense Chen, Vincx, 1968, but differs from both species in the longer outer labial setae and absence of precloacal supplements in males. D. brevispiculata sp. n. is similar to D. turneri Zhang, 1992 and D. coomansi Muthumbi, Soetaert, Vincx, 1977, but differs from both species in the shape of outer labial sensillae and absence of precloacal supplements in males. A pictorial key for determination of valid species in the genus Setosabatieria Rouville, 1903 is given.

  12. A survey of the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa for the presence of cyst nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderidae).

    PubMed

    Knoetze, Rinus; Swart, Antoinette

    2014-12-09

    A survey was performed to detect the presence of cyst nematodes in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. Soil was collected in the rhizosphere of the dominant plant species within blocks of indigenous vegetation and cysts were extracted from them. A total of 81 blocks of indigenous vegetation were sampled as described. Cysts were detected in 7 of these samples, representing 6 different vegetation types. One set of primers was used to amplify the ITS regions from these cysts, including the 5.8S ribosomal gene, as well as short parts of the 18S and 28S ribosomal genes. ITS-rDNA sequences from the indigenous isolates were aligned with selected sequences of other species from the Heteroderidae. Phylogenetic analyses to resolve the relationships between indigenous isolates and selected representatives of the Heteroderidae were conducted using the Maximum Parsimony method. The consensus tree resulting from alignment of the circumfenestrate cysts revealed that isolates SK18, WK1 and WK26 are included in a clade of Globodera species that parasitise non-solanaceous plants, forming a monophyletic group with G. millefolii, G. artemisiae, and an unidentified Globodera sp. from Portugal. In a tree resulting from the alignment of the Heterodera spp., isolates OK14 and WK2 are included in the Afenestrata group, forming a monophyletic group with H. orientalis.This survey unearthed at least four potentially new species of cyst nematodes, which may prove invaluable for the study of the evolution and biogeography of the group.

  13. Antiproliferative, antifungal, and antibacterial activities of endophytic alternaria species from cupressaceae.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Jalal; Hosseyni Moghaddam, Mahdieh S

    2014-09-01

    Recent research has shown the bioprospecting of endophytic fungi from Cupressaceae. Here, we further uncover that the healthy cypress plants such as Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis host highly bioactive endophytic Alternaria fungal species. Indeed, endophytic Alternaria alternata, Alternaria pellucida, and Alternaria tangelonis were recovered from healthy Cupressaceous trees. Biodiversity and bioactivity of recovered endophytic Alternaria species were a matter of biogeography and host identity. We further extracted such Alternaria's metabolites and highlighted their significant antiproliferative, growth inhibitory, and antibacterial activities against the model target fungus Pyricularia oryzae and the model pathogenic bacteria Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora, and Pseudomonas syringae. In vitro assays also indicated that endophytic Alternaria species significantly inhibited the growth of cypress fungal phytopathogens Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi, and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, since the recovered Alternaria species were originally reported as pathogenic and allergenic fungi, our findings suggest a possible ecological niche for them inside the foliar tissues of Cupressaceous trees. Moreover, in this study, the significant bioactivities of endophytic Alternaria species in association with Cupressaceae plant family are reported.

  14. Constructed wetlands for sewage effluent treatment and mosquito larvae at two sites in subtropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Dale, Pat E R; Greenway, Margaret; Chapman, Heather; Breitfuss, Mark J

    2007-06-01

    This study of 2 wetlands in subtropical Australia, constructed to treat sewage effluent, examined the relationships between dips positive for mosquito larvae and water quality, operational status of the system, vegetation, and nontarget macroinvertebrates. One site is inland and the other is close to the coast. Larvae of disease vector mosquitoes were present at various times in the wetlands, especially in summer and autumn. The proportion of early instars (1st and 2nd) was greater than that of later ones (3rd and 4th). Dissolved oxygen was negatively, and temperature was positively, associated with the proportion of dips containing larvae. For the coastal site we noted that larvae were more common during draw-down of water for maintenance and also as the system started to come online. Vegetation associated with larvae included dense Typha orientalis and algae. Where there were several types of plants, such as at the coastal site, plant density and water depth were not significantly related to larval presence. Where there were several types of macroinvertebrates there were fewer dips positive for larvae. To provide water treatment capacity and minimal mosquito production we concluded that design should include a variety of plant types, discouraging low dissolved oxygen (for example, by aeration) and ongoing maintenance should be carried out in winter or spring, when mosquitoes are fewer than in summer.

  15. Species-specific identification of Candida krusei by hybridization with the CkF1,2 DNA probe.

    PubMed Central

    Carlotti, A; Couble, A; Domingo, J; Miroy, K; Villard, J

    1996-01-01

    The species specificity of the Candida krusei DNA fingerprinting probe CkF1,2 has been investigated. A total of 149 pathogenic and nonpathogenic fungal and bacterial DNAs were screened with CkF1,2. The probe was cold labeled with peroxidase, and its specificity was assessed by using Southern blot, dot blot, and colony blot hybridization. Its sensitivity was determined by dot blot hybridization. The CkF1,2 probe proved to be species specific. It hybridized with DNA for the 112 C. krusei strains studied, whereas it failed to hybridize under low-stringency conditions to 37 DNAs from 27 different yeast species, including Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida norvegensis, Candida inconspicua, Candida tropicalis, Candida valida, Candida zeylanoides, and Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as DNAs from the filamentous fungi and bacteria tested. However, CkF1,2 hybridized strongly with DNA of the yeast species Issatchenkia orientalis, the putative ascogenous perfect state of C. krusei. Amounts as small as 60 to 120 ng of C. krusei target DNA were detected by dot blot hybridization with CkF1,2. It permitted the direct screening of colony blots for early identification. The CkF1,2 probe has potential value as a diagnostic reagent for identifying C. krusei. PMID:8784578

  16. Aerobic decolorization and detoxification of a disperse dye in textile effluent by a new isolate of Bacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Pourbabaee, A A; Malekzadeh, F; Sarbolouki, M N; Najafi, F

    2006-03-01

    A number of aerobic species capable of decolorizing some of the dyes in a textile mill effluent were isolated. One of the isolates was able to decolorize Terasil black dye under aerobic conditions in the presence of an exogenous carbon source after 5 days. Glucose or starch (%1 ea) are essential for decolorization but the process proceeds faster in the presence of 0.5% yeast extract. Results of the BOD(5) show that the untreated effluent samples have a low BOD value, whereas treated samples show an initial increase in BOD up to 15 days followed by a decrease after 20 days. FT-IR and GC-MS data also reveal that the initial components in the untreated effluent disappear after 20 days of treatment, confirming biodegradation of the dye. Phytotoxicity tests on the untreated effluent samples using the seeds of Lens orientalis, Triticum aestivum, and Triticum boeoticum indicate that the first one is the most sensitive while the last one is the most resistant. On the other hand the treated effluent allows 90% germination in Triticum boeoticum seeds and 100% germination in the other two.

  17. Dynamic study of yeast species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during the spontaneous fermentations of Muscat blanc in Jingyang, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunxiao; Liu, Yanlin

    2013-04-01

    The evolution of yeast species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae genotypes during spontaneous fermentations of Muscat blanc planted in 1957 in Jingyang region of China was followed in this study. Using a combination of colony morphology on Wallerstein Nutrient (WLN) medium, sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain and 5.8S-ITS-RFLP analysis, a total of 686 isolates were identified at the species level. The six species identified were S. cerevisiae, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Issatchenkia terricola, Pichia kudriavzevii (Issatchenkia orientalis) and Trichosporon coremiiforme. This is the first report of T. coremiiforme as an inhabitant of grape must. Three new colony morphologies on WLN medium and one new 5.8S-ITS-RFLP profile are described. Species of non-Saccharomyces, predominantly H. opuntiae, were found in early stages of fermentation. Subsequently, S. cerevisiae prevailed followed by large numbers of P. kudriavzevii that dominated at the end of fermentations. Six native genotypes of S. cerevisiae were determined by interdelta sequence analysis. Genotypes III and IV were predominant. As a first step in exploring untapped yeast resources of the region, this study is important for monitoring the yeast ecology in native fermentations and screening indigenous yeasts that will produce wines with regional characteristics.

  18. Composition of the Cutaneous Bacterial Community in Japanese Amphibians: Effects of Captivity, Host Species, and Body Region.

    PubMed

    Sabino-Pinto, Joana; Bletz, Molly Catherine; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Shimizu, Norio; Bhuju, Sabin; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Vences, Miguel

    2016-08-01

    The cutaneous microbiota plays a significant role in the biology of their vertebrate hosts, and its composition is known to be influenced both by host and environment, with captive conditions often altering alpha diversity. Here, we compare the cutaneous bacterial communities of 61 amphibians (both wild and captive) from Hiroshima, Japan, using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of a segment of the 16S rRNA gene. The majority of these samples came from a captive breeding facility at Hiroshima University where specimens from six species are maintained under highly standardized conditions for several generations. This allowed to identify host effects on the bacterial communities under near identical environmental conditions in captivity. We found the structure of the cutaneous bacterial community significantly differing between wild and captive individuals of newts, Cynops pyrrhogaster, with a higher alpha diversity found in the wild individuals. Community structure also showed distinct patterns when comparing different species of amphibians kept under highly similar conditions, revealing an intrinsic host effect. Bacterial communities of dorsal vs. ventral skin surfaces did not significantly differ in most species, but a trend of higher alpha diversity on the ventral surface was found in Oriental fire-bellied toads, Bombina orientalis. This study confirms the cutaneous microbiota of amphibians as a highly dynamic system influenced by a complex interplay of numerous factors.

  19. Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus in imported amphibians reveals an unanticipated foreign animal disease threat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ip, Hon S.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Blehert, David

    2016-01-01

    Global translocation of plants and animals is a well-recognized mechanism for introduction of pathogens into new regions. To mitigate this risk, various tools such as preshipment health certificates, quarantines, screening for specific disease agents and outright bans have been implemented. However, such measures only target known infectious agents and their hosts and may fail to prevent translocation of even well-recognized pathogens if they are carried by novel host species. In a recent example, we screened an imported shipment of Chinese firebelly newts (Cynops orientalis) for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, an emergent fungal pathogen of salamanders. All animals tested negative for the fungus. However, a virus was cultured from internal organs from 7 of the 11 individual dead salamanders and from two pools of tissues from four additional dead animals. Sequencing of a portion of the glycoprotein gene from all viral isolates indicated 100% identity and that they were most closely related to spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). Subsequently, SVCV-specific PCR testing indicated the presence of virus in internal organs from each of the four animals previously pooled, and whole-genome sequencing of one of the viral isolates confirmed genomic arrangement characteristic of SVCV. SVCV is a rhabdovirus pathogen of cyprinid fish that is listed as notifiable to the Office International des Epizooties. This discovery reveals a novel route for potential spillover of this economically important pathogen as rhabdovirus has not previously been documented in amphibians.

  20. Morphometric relationships of take-off speed in anuran amphibians.

    PubMed

    Choi, Inho; Shim, Jae Han; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2003-10-01

    Locomotory speed correlates with muscle mass (determining force and stride rate), limb length (stride rate and distance), and laterally compressed body trunk (force and stride distance). To delineate generalization of the locomotory-morphometric relationships specifically in anuran amphibians, we investigated take-off speed and the three morphological variables from seven species, Rana nigromaculata, R. rugosa, and Bombina orientalis, Eleuthrodectilus fitzingeri, E. diastema, Bufo typhonius, Colostethus flotator and Physalaemus pustulosus. The fastest jumper E. fitzingeri (3.41 m s(-1)) showed 2.49-fold greater speed than the slowest B. typhonius. Take-off speed correlated well with both thigh muscle mass relative to body mass and hindlimb length relative to snout-vent length (HL/SVL), but poorly correlated with the inter-ilial width relative to SVL. The best morphological predictor was HL/SVL (speed=-3.28+3.916 HL/SVL, r=0.968, P<0.0001), suggesting that anuran take-off speed is portrayed well with high gear and acceleration distance characterized by hindlimbs.

  1. Dissection of the octoploid strawberry genome by deep sequencing of the genomes of Fragaria species.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Kosugi, Shunichi; Tashiro, Kosuke; Nakayama, Shinobu; Yamada, Manabu; Kohara, Mistuyo; Watanabe, Akiko; Kishida, Yoshie; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Minami, Chiharu; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Kato, Midori; Nanri, Keiko; Komaki, Akiko; Yanagi, Tomohiro; Guoxin, Qin; Maeda, Fumi; Ishikawa, Masami; Kuhara, Satoru; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Isobe, Sachiko N

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is octoploid and shows allogamous behaviour. The present study aims at dissecting this octoploid genome through comparison with its wild relatives, F. iinumae, F. nipponica, F. nubicola, and F. orientalis by de novo whole-genome sequencing on an Illumina and Roche 454 platforms. The total length of the assembled Illumina genome sequences obtained was 698 Mb for F. x ananassa, and ∼200 Mb each for the four wild species. Subsequently, a virtual reference genome termed FANhybrid_r1.2 was constructed by integrating the sequences of the four homoeologous subgenomes of F. x ananassa, from which heterozygous regions in the Roche 454 and Illumina genome sequences were eliminated. The total length of FANhybrid_r1.2 thus created was 173.2 Mb with the N50 length of 5137 bp. The Illumina-assembled genome sequences of F. x ananassa and the four wild species were then mapped onto the reference genome, along with the previously published F. vesca genome sequence to establish the subgenomic structure of F. x ananassa. The strategy adopted in this study has turned out to be successful in dissecting the genome of octoploid F. x ananassa and appears promising when applied to the analysis of other polyploid plant species. PMID:24282021

  2. Francisella infections in farmed and wild aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Colquhoun, Duncan J; Duodu, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Over the last 10 years or so, infections caused by bacteria belonging to a particular branch of the genus Francisella have become increasingly recognised in farmed fish and molluscs worldwide. While the increasing incidence of diagnoses may in part be due to the development and widespread availability of molecular detection techniques, the domestication of new organisms has undoubtedly instigated emergence of clinical disease in some species. Francisellosis in fish develops in a similar fashion independent of host species and is commonly characterised by the presence of multi-organ granuloma and high morbidity, with varying associated mortality levels. A number of fish species are affected including Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua; tilapia, Oreochromis sp.; Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar; hybrid striped bass, Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis and three-lined grunt, Parapristipoma trilinineatum. The disease is highly infectious and often prevalent in affected stocks. Most, if not all strains isolated from teleost fish belong to either F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis in warm water fish species or Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis in coldwater fish species. The disease is quite readily diagnosed following histological examination and identification of the aetiological bacterium by culture on cysteine rich media or PCR. The available evidence may indicate a degree of host specificity for the various Francisella strains, although this area requires further study. No effective vaccine is currently available. Investigation of the virulence mechanisms and host response shows similarity to those known from Francisella tularensis infection in mammals. However, no evidence exists for zoonotic potential amongst the fish pathogenic Francisella. PMID:21385413

  3. Para-allopatry in hybridizing fire-bellied toads (Bombina bombina and B. variegata): Inference from transcriptome-wide coalescence analyses.

    PubMed

    Nürnberger, Beate; Lohse, Konrad; Fijarczyk, Anna; Szymura, Jacek M; Blaxter, Mark L

    2016-08-01

    Ancient origins, profound ecological divergence, and extensive hybridization make the fire-bellied toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata (Anura: Bombinatoridae) an intriguing test case of ecological speciation. Previous modeling has proposed that the narrow Bombina hybrid zones represent strong barriers to neutral introgression. We test this prediction by inferring the rate of gene exchange between pure populations on either side of the intensively studied Kraków transect. We developed a method to extract high confidence sets of orthologous genes from de novo transcriptome assemblies, fitted a range of divergence models to these data and assessed their relative support with analytic likelihood calculations. There was clear evidence for postdivergence gene flow, but, as expected, no perceptible signal of recent introgression via the nearby hybrid zone. The analysis of two additional Bombina taxa (B. v. scabra and B. orientalis) validated our parameter estimates against a larger set of prior expectations. Despite substantial cumulative introgression over millions of years, adaptive divergence of the hybridizing taxa is essentially unaffected by their lack of reproductive isolation. Extended distribution ranges also buffer them against small-scale environmental perturbations that have been shown to reverse the speciation process in other, more recent ecotypes. PMID:27282112

  4. A Hardy Plant Facilitates Nitrogen Removal via Microbial Communities in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands in Winter

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Penghe; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Zhao, Dehua; Zou, Xiangxu; Zhu, Zhengjie; Jeelani, Nasreen; Leng, Xin; An, Shuqing

    2016-01-01

    The plants effect in subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF-CWs) is controversial, especially at low temperatures. Consequently, several SSF-CWs planted with Iris pseudacorus (CWI) or Typha orientalis Presl. (CWT) and several unplanted ones (CWC) were set up and fed with secondary effluent of sewage treatment plant during the winter in Eastern China. The 16S rDNA Illumina Miseq sequencing analysis indicated the positive effects of I. pseudacorus on the bacterial community richness and diversity in the substrate. Moreover, the community compositions of the bacteria involved with denitrification presented a significant difference in the three systems. Additionally, higher relative abundances of nitrifying bacteria (0.4140%, 0.2402% and 0.4318% for Nitrosomonas, Nitrosospira and Nitrospira, respectively) were recorded in CWI compared with CWT (0.2074%, 0.0648% and 0.0181%, respectively) and CWC (0.3013%, 0.1107% and 0.1185%, respectively). Meanwhile, the average removal rates of NH4+-N and TN in CWI showed a prominent advantage compared to CWC, but no distinct advantage was found in CWT. The hardy plant I. pseudacorus, which still had active root oxygen release in cold temperatures, positively affected the abundance of nitrifying bacteria in the substrate, and accordingly was supposed to contribute to a comparatively high nitrogen removal efficiency of the system during the winter. PMID:27646687

  5. Thirty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-List of North American Birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monroe, Burt L.; Banks, Richard C.; Fitzpatrick, John W.; Howell, Thomas R.; Johnson, Ned K.; Ouellet, Henri; Remsen, J.V.; Storer, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    This fourth supplement after the 6th edition (1983) of the AOU "Check-list of North American Birds" consists of changes adopted by the Committee on Classification and Nomenclature between 1 March 1989 and 1 March 1991. The changes fall into eight categories: (1) five species (Ixobrychus sinensis, Porphyrula flavirostris, Sterna bergii, Streptopelia orientalis, and Ficedula narcissina) are added to the main list because of new distributional information; (2) six species (Pterodroma cervicalis, Ortalis wagleri, Lophornis brachylopha, Corvus sinaloae, Cinclocerthia gutturalis, and Loxops caeruleirostris) are added to the list because of the splitting of species previously in the list; (3) one extinct species (Dysmorodrepanis munroi) is added to the list because of re-identification of the unique type; (4) one scientific name (Speotyto cunicularia) is changed because of generic splitting; (5) one scientific name (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) is changed for nomenclature reasons, accompanied by a change in English name; (6) the spelling of one scientific name (Neocrex colombianus) is corrected; (7) to other English names are changed or corrected; and (8) one sequencing change is made. No new distributional information is included except as noted above (i.e. minor changes of distribution of distributional records within North America are not included). The twelve additions bring the number of species recognized as occurring within the Check-list area (main list) to 1957.

  6. Evaluation of artificial diets for Attacus atlas (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R; Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate artificial diets that can be used to successfully culture the atlas silk moth, Attacus atlas L. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) indoors. Four plant species were evaluated as the basic component of each diet, barringtonia (Barringtonia asiatica), cheesewood (Nauclea orientalis), soursop (Annona muricata), and mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni). Evaluation of the nutritional value of each diet was determined by an analysis of the hemolymph proteins of sixth instars using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Survivorship, cocoon quality, and hemolymph protein content of larvae fed the barringtonia diet were higher than those of larvae fed mahogany-, cheesewood-, and soursop-based artificial diets. The average adult emergence of those fed the barringtonia-based diet was 74.5%. The weights of the cocoon in this treatment with the pupa and the empty cocoons were 7.0 and 1.1 g, respectively. Hemolymph of the larvae fed the barringtonia-based artificial diet had the highest concentration of protein with an average of 28.06 mg/ml. The atlas moth reared on the barringtonia-based artificial diet was comparable with those reared only on barringtonia leaves. However, the weight of empty cocoons, adult wingspan, and amount of hemolymph protein were lower than in those reared on barringtonia leaves only. This may suggest that the artificial barringtonia-based diet requires additional protein for maximum efficiency.

  7. Diversity and abundance of dung beetles attracted to different ages of cow dung at Tasik Chini Biosphere Reserve, Pahang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruchunnan, Ganaswary; Foo, Ng Yong; Ling, Wee Suk; Hazmi, Izfa Riza

    2015-09-01

    The attractiveness of cow dung of different ages towards dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) was studied in Tasik Chini Biosphere Reserve from February to April 2014. A total of 1,371 individuals belonging to 29 species and 11 genera had successfully collected in traps baited with cow dung aged at 1, 3 and 5 days. Cow dung was highly attractive at first 24 hours, and its attractiveness greatly reduced at Day 3 and Day 5. The result shows significant differences in the means of abundance (F = 4.60, d f= 2 & 24, P = 0.02) and species richness (F = 15.13, df = 2 & 24, P = 5.6 × 10-5). Bray Curtis similarity index indicated high community similarity between trap captures on Day 3 and Day 5 (59.7 %) compare to Day 1 (15.1 %) that leads to an assumption that some species preferentially colonized fresh dung while some species prefer aged dung. Species Copris agnus, Onthophagus aphodiodes, O. rorarius, O. orientalis, O. rutilans, O. vulpes, Oniticellus tessellatus and Paragymnopleurus maurus were captured on Day-1, while O. peninsularis and O. sumaveiensis captured on Day-3 and Day-5. Among the 11 genera, Onthophagus species was found to be most abundant with 762 individuals representing 55.6 % of the total captures. The most abundant species was Sisyphus thoracicus with 524 individuals (38.2 %). The dung beetle fauna's species accumulation curve in Tasik Chini did not reach to an asymptote suggesting more sampling effort is needed.

  8. Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated grape, Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K; Dangl, Gerald S; Prins, Bernard H; Boursiquot, Jean-Michel; Walker, M Andrew; Meredith, Carole P; Simon, Charles J

    2003-06-01

    222 cultivated (Vitis vinifera) and 22 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grape accessions were analysed for genetic diversity and differentiation at eight microsatellite loci. A total of 94 alleles were detected, with extensive polymorphism among the accessions. Multivariate relationships among accessions revealed 16 genetic groups structured into three clusters, supporting the classical eco-geographic grouping of grape cultivars: occidentalis, pontica and orientalis. French cultivars appeared to be distinct and showed close affinity to the wild progenitor, ssp. sylvestris from south-western France (Pyrenees) and Tunisia, probably reflecting the origin and domestication history of many of the old wine cultivars from France. There was appreciable level of differentiation between table and wine grape cultivars, and the Muscat types were somewhat distinct within the wine grapes. Contingency chi2 analysis indicated significant heterogeneity in allele frequencies among groups at all loci. The observed heterozygosities for different groups ranged from 0.625 to 0.9 with an overall average of 0.771. Genetic relationships among groups suggested hierarchical differentiation within cultivated grape. The gene diversity analysis indicated narrow divergence among groups and that most variation was found within groups (approximately 85%). Partitioning of diversity suggested that the remaining variation is somewhat structured hierarchically at different levels of differentiation. The overall organization of genetic diversity suggests that the germplasm of cultivated grape represents a single complex gene pool and that its structure is determined by strong artificial selection and a vegetative mode of reproduction.

  9. Direct quantification of energy intake in an apex marine predator suggests physiology is a key driver of migrations

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, Rebecca E.; Hazen, Elliott L.; Walli, Andreas; Farwell, Charles; Bograd, Steven J.; Foley, David G.; Castleton, Michael; Block, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) are highly migratory apex marine predators that inhabit a broad thermal niche. The energy needed for migration must be garnered by foraging, but measuring energy intake in the marine environment is challenging. We quantified the energy intake of Pacific bluefin tuna in the California Current using a laboratory-validated model, the first such measurement in a wild marine predator. Mean daily energy intake was highest off the coast of Baja California, Mexico in summer (mean ± SD, 1034 ± 669 kcal), followed by autumn when Pacific bluefin achieve their northernmost range in waters off northern California (944 ± 579 kcal). Movements were not always consistent with maximizing energy intake: the Pacific bluefin move out of energy rich waters both in late summer and winter, coincident with rising and falling water temperatures, respectively. We hypothesize that temperature-related physiological constraints drive migration and that Pacific bluefin tuna optimize energy intake within a range of optimal aerobic performance. PMID:26601248

  10. Philinidae, Laonidae and Philinorbidae (Gastropoda: Cephalaspidea: Philinoidea) from the northeastern Pacific Ocean and the Beaufort Sea (Arctic Ocean).

    PubMed

    Valdés, Ángel; Cadien, Donald B; Gosliner, Terrence M

    2016-01-01

    Based on morphological data a total of nine native species of Philinidae are recognized from the northeastern Pacific including the Bering Sea and the adjacent Arctic Ocean (Beaufort Sea). Four of them have been previously described: Philine ornatissima Yokoyama, 1927, Philine bakeri Dall, 1919, Philine polystrigma (Dall, 1908), and Philine hemphilli Dall, 1919. Five of them are new and described herein: Philine mcleani sp. nov., Philine baxteri sp. nov., Philine malaquiasi sp. nov., Philine wareni sp. nov., and Philine harrisae sp. nov. These species display a substantial degree of variation in internal and external morphological traits (i.e., presence/absence of gizzard plates, different radular structure and tooth morphology, various reproductive anatomical features) and it is likely that they belong to different clades (genera). However, in the absence of a comprehensive phylogeny for Philine, they are here provisionally regarded as Philine sensu lato. In addition to the nine native species, two introduced species: Philine orientalis A. Adams, 1854 and Philine auriformis Suter, 1909 are here illustrated and compared to the native species to facilitate identification. Finally, two species previously considered members of Philinidae are examined anatomically and confirmed as members of Laonidae, Laona californica (Willett, 1944) and Philinorbidae, Philinorbis albus (Mattox, 1958), based on morphological data. PMID:27515632

  11. Review of the effects of the traditional Chinese medicine Rehmannia Six Formula on diabetes mellitus and its complications.

    PubMed

    Poon, Terry Yam Chuen; Ong, Kwok Leung; Cheung, Bernard Man Yung

    2011-09-01

    Rehmannia Six Formula (RF) is a formula that is commonly used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat patients with diabetes. A literature search was performed in PubMed for the years 2000-2009 using the key words RF, Rehmannia glutinosa, Fructus Corni, Dioscorea sp. (D. alata, D. opposita, D. batatas), Poria cocos, Alisma sp. (A. orientalis, A. plantago aquatica), and Paeonia suffruticosa/Cortex Moutan. On the basis of the publications found, RF appears to have beneficial effects on blood glucose, neuropathy, and nephropathy. There is also evidence of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Although there are many studies on compounds extracted from individual herbs, there are not many studies on RF as a whole. Because there is preliminary evidence that RF may be a useful supplement for the prevention of diabetic complications, clinical studies are warranted. For future clinical studies, it is recommended that details are provided regarding the preparation of RF and that the ratio of the individual components in RF is standardized so that results across studies can be compared. PMID:21631896

  12. Taxonomic characterization and the bio-potential of bacteria isolated from glacier ice cores in the High Arctic.

    PubMed

    Singh, Purnima; Singh, Shiv Mohan; Roy, Utpal

    2016-03-01

    Glacier ice and firn cores have ecological and biotechnological importance. The present study is aimed at characterizing bacteria in crustal ice cores from Svalbard, the Arctic. Counts of viable isolates ranged from 10 to 7000 CFU/ml (mean 803 CFU/ml) while the total bacterial numbers ranged from 7.20 × 10(4) to 2.59 × 10(7)  cells ml(-1) (mean 3.12 × 10(6)  cells ml(-1) ). Based on 16S rDNA sequence data, the identified species belonged to seven species, namely Bacillus barbaricus, Pseudomonas orientalis, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas syncyanea, Sphingomonas dokdonensis, and Sphingomonas phyllosphaerae, with a sequence similarity ranging between 93.5 and 99.9% with taxa present in the database. The isolates exhibited unique phenotypic properties, and three isolates (MLB-2, MLB-5, and MLB-9) are novel species, yet to be described. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on characterization of cultured bacterial communities from Svalbard ice cores. We conclude that high lipase, protease, cellulase, amylase, and urease activities expressed by most of the isolates provide a clue to the potential industrial applications of these organisms. These microbes, producing cold-adapted enzymes may provide an opportunity for biotechnological research.

  13. Australian Marsh Beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae). 8. The new genera
    Cygnocyphon, Eximiocyphon, Paracyphon, Leptocyphon, Tectocyphon,
    and additions to Contacyphon de Gozis, Nanocyphon Zwick and Eurycyphon Watts.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Peter

    2015-07-07

    New monotypic genera proposed are: Cygnocyphon ibex n. gen., n. sp., Eximiocyphon excisus n. gen., n. sp., and Paracyphon avicularis n. gen., n. sp. Also proposed are the new genera Leptocyphon n. gen., with L. furcalonga, n. sp. and L. quadricornutus, n. sp., Tectocyphon n. gen., with T. microphallus n. sp., T. hirsutus n. sp., and T. victoriae n. sp. The diagnosis of genus Eurycyphon Watts is amended, E. fulvus Watts and E. aquilus Watts are partly redescribed. New species are: Eurycyphon barringtoni n. sp., E. castaneus n. sp., E. falcatus n. sp., E. parvus n. sp., E. perlatus n. sp., E. thunguttii, n. sp., E. tomweiri n. sp., and E. tricornis n. sp. Species of Nanocyphon are discussed and N. tasmanicus n. sp. is described. Contacyphon forcipatus n. sp. is described and an apparently introduced population of the European Contacyphon putonii Gozis is reported from West Australia. For comparison with some of the new taxa the redescription of Pseudomicrocara orientalis Armstrong, type species of the genus, is supplemented.

  14. The Middle Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Khok Sung (Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand): biochronological and paleobiogeographical implications.

    PubMed

    Suraprasit, Kantapon; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Chavasseau, Olivier; Yamee, Chotima; Tian, Pannipa; Panha, Somsak

    2016-01-01

    The fluviatile terrace deposits of Khok Sung, Nakhon Ratchasima province, have yielded more than one thousand fossils, making this the richest Pleistocene vertebrate fauna of Thailand. The excellent preservation of the specimens allows precise characterization of the faunal composition. The mammalian fauna consists of fifteen species in thirteen genera, including a primate, a canid, a hyaenid, proboscideans, rhinoceroses, a suid, cervids, and bovids. Most species correspond to living taxa but globally (Stegodon cf. orientalis) and locally (Crocuta crocuta ultima, Rhinoceros unicornis, Sus barbatus, and Axis axis) extinct taxa were also present. The identification of Axis axis in Khok Sung, a chital currently restricted to the Indian Subcontinent, represents the first record of the species in Southeast Asia. Three reptilian taxa: Crocodylus cf. siamensis, Python sp., and Varanus sp., are also identified. Faunal correlations with other Southeast Asian sites suggest a late Middle to early Late Pleistocene age for the Khok Sung assemblage. However, the Khok Sung mammalian fauna is most similar to that of Thum Wiman Nakin, dated to older than 169 ka. The Khok Sung large mammal assemblage mostly comprises mainland Southeast Asian taxa that migrated to Java during the latest Middle Pleistocene, supporting the hypothesis that Thailand was a biogeographic pathway for the Sino-Malayan migration event from South China to Java.

  15. Molecular characterization of southern bluefin tuna myoglobin (Thunnus maccoyii).

    PubMed

    Nurilmala, Mala; Ochiai, Yoshihiro

    2016-10-01

    The primary structure of southern bluefin tuna Thunnus maccoyii Mb has been elucidated by molecular cloning techniques. The cDNA of this tuna encoding Mb contained 776 nucleotides, with an open reading frame of 444 nucleotides encoding 147 amino acids. The nucleotide sequence of the coding region was identical to those of other bluefin tunas (T. thynnus and T. orientalis), thus giving the same amino acid sequences. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, bioinformatic analysis was performed including phylogenic tree, hydropathy plot and homology modeling. In order to investigate the autoxidation profiles, the isolation of Mb was performed from the dark muscle. The water soluble fraction was subjected to ammonium sulfate fractionation (60-90 % saturation) followed by preparative gel electrophoresis. Autoxidation pr