Tas, E; Leinonen, P; Saano, A; Räsänen, L A; Kaijalainen, S; Piippola, S; Hakola, S; Lindström, K
Competition between effective and ineffective Rhizobium galegae strains nodulating Galega orientalis was examined on the basis of plant growth, nodulation, antibiotic resistance, and PCR results. In a preliminary experiment in Leonard's jars, ineffective R. galegae strains HAMBI 1207 and HAMBI 1209 competed in similar manners with the effective strain R. galegae HAMBI 1174. In a pot experiment, soil was inoculated with 0 to 10(5) HAMBI 1207 cells per g before G. orientalis was sown. Seeds of G. orientalis were surface inoculated with 2 x 10(4) and 2 x 10(5) cells of HAMBI 1174 per seed (which represent half and fivefold the commercially recommended amount of inoculant, respectively). Plant yield and nodulation by the effective strain were significantly reduced, with as few as 10(2) ineffective rhizobia per g of soil, and the inoculation response was not improved by the 10-fold greater dose of the inoculant. Bacteria occupying the nodules were identified by antibiotic resistance and PCR with primers specific for R. galegae HAMBI 1174, R. galegae, and genes coding for bacterial 16S rRNA (bacterial 16S rDNA). Sixty-two large nodules examined were occupied by the effective strain HAMBI 1174, as proven by antibiotic resistance and amplification of the strain-specific fragment. From 20 small nodules, only the species-specific fragment could be amplified, and isolated bacteria had the same antibiotic resistance and 16S PCR restriction pattern as strain HAMBI 1207. PCR with our strain-specific and species-specific primers provides a powerful tool for strain identification of R. galegae directly from nodules without genetic modification of the bacteria. PMID:8593053
Palit, P; Furman, B L; Gray, A I
Galega officinalis (galega, Goat's Rue, French Lilac) is well known for its hypoglycaemic action and has been used as part of a plant mixture in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. During pharmacological investigations of an ethanolic extract of a powdered mixture of equal proportions of G. officinalis, Cressa cretica, Mangifera indica and Syzygium jambolanum, a weight reducing effect of galega was discovered. In this study we have investigated the novel weight reducing effect of galega in mice. Galega herb (10% w/w in the diet) caused a significant reduction in body weight in both normal and genetically obese (ob/ob) animals treated for 28 days when compared with respective controls (P < 0.01). In normal mice, the weight loss was reversible and initially associated with a transient reduction in food intake but was then maintained even in the presence of increased eating above the control level. Pair-fed normal mice receiving galega for seven days also showed significant weight loss (P < 0.01, compared with the control) in the presence of increasing food intake. In sharp contrast, weight loss in galega-treated ob/ob mice was accompanied by a persistent reduction in food intake over the 28-day treatment period. Post-mortem examinations of all galega-treated mice revealed a striking absence of body fat. Serum glucose was significantly reduced in both strains of mice receiving galega for 28 days (P < 0.01), whereas serum insulin was significantly reduced only in obese mice (P < 0.01). In summary, together with its established hypoglycaemic effects, galega has a novel weight reducing action that, in normal mice, is largely independent of a reduction in food intake. The mechanism of the weight reducing action of galega is unclear but involves loss of body fat.
Chuhukova, O V; Postrigan, B N; Baimiev, A Kh; Chemeris, A V
Screening of nodule bacteria (rhizobia) forming symbiotic relationships with legumes has been performed in order to isolate strains resistant to cadmium ions in a wide range of concentrations (6-132 mg/kg). The effect ofcadmium salts (6, 12, 24 mg/kg) on the legume-rhizobium symbiosis ofthe pea Pisum sativum L. with Rhizobium leguminosarum and of the fodder galega Galega orientalis Lam. with Rhizobium galegae has been studied under experimental laboratory conditions. No statistically significant differences have been revealed in the growth and biomass of plants with regard to the control in the range of concentrations given above. However, it was found that cadmium inhibited nodulation in P. sativum and stimulated it in G. orientalis.
Khasanova, R. F.; Suyundukov, Ya. T.; Suyundukova, M. B.
The phytomeliorative efficiency of different groups of perennial herbs was studied. The agrophysical properties of soils under natural grasses (the feather grasses Stipa pennata, S. zalesskii, and S. Lessingiana; the fescue grass Festuca pseudovina; and quack grass), sawn herbs (awnless brome, crested wheat grass, purple alfalfa, the holy clover Onobrychis sibirica, the galega Galega orientalis, and yellow sweet clover), and cereal crops (winter rye and spring wheat) were compared. The formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass and the influence of phytomeliorative herbs on the aggregate state of leached, ordinary, and southern chernozems in the Transural part of Bashkortostan were analyzed.
Kumbhar, S.M.; Mamlavya, A.B.; Patil, S.J.; Bhawane, G.P.
This study, related to emergence of the cetoniid beetle, Chiloloba orientalis D and R (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae), was conducted annually from August to the middle of October from 2007 to 2010 in maize (Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae)), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), and grass (Hetropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. and Schult., Apluda mutica L.) cultivated fields in a selected plot of grassland in Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India. Adults of C. orientalis feed on the inflorescence of S. bicolor, Z. mays, H. contortus and A. mutica. The occurrence of adults in this study indicates that the emergence of beetles coincides with the flowering period of its host plants. The immature stages of this beetle feed on the decaying organic matter of crop residues in composting heaps, indicating these immature stages play a key role in the recycling of organic waste of plant and animal origin and help in the enrichment of soil nutrients, especially in the red brown soil where primary decomposers are scarce. This study provides detailed information on the morphological peculiarities of immature stages with the duration required for the completion of the life cycle. The average incubation period of eggs was 15.2 days. The first, second, and third instar lasted for 22.7, 54.3, and 46.6 days respectively. The mean pupal period was 14.7 days. The average adult longevity was 9.4 days. PMID:23448133
Jussila, Minna M; Zhao, Ji; Suominen, Leena; Lindström, Kristina
Molecular profiling methods for horizontal transfer of aromatics-degrading plasmids were developed and applied during rhizoremediation in vivo and conjugations in vitro. pWW0 was conjugated from Pseudomonas to Rhizobium. The xylE gene was detected both in Rhizobium galegae bv. officinalis and bv. orientalis, but it was neither stably maintained in orientalis nor functional in officinalis. TOL plasmids were a major group of catabolic plasmids among the bacterial strains isolated from the oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis. A new finding was that some Pseudomonas migulae and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans strains harbored a TOL plasmid with both pWW0- and pDK1-type xylE gene. P. oryzihabitans 29 had received the archetypal TOL plasmid pWW0 from Pseudomonas putida PaW85. As an application for environmental biotechnology, the biodegradation potential of oil-polluted soil and the success of bioremediation could be estimated by monitoring changes not only in the type and amount but also in transfer of degradation plasmids.
Tantry, Mudasir A; Akbar, Seema; Dar, Javid A; Irtiza, Syed; Galal, Ahmed; Khuroo, Mohammad A; Ghazanfar, Khalid
The ethylacetate and n-butanol fractions of ethanolic extract of Platanus orientalis leaves led to the isolation of new acylated flavonol glycoside as 3',5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavonol 3-[O-2-O-(2,4-Dihydroxy)-E-cinnamoyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside, along with seven known compounds. All the compounds were characterized by NMR including 2D NMR techniques. The isolates were evaluated for NF-κB, nitric oxide (NO), aromatase and QR2 chemoprevention activities and some of them appeared to be modestly active.
Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Dong; Zhao, Yun; Gao, Hong; Hu, Ying-He; Hu, Jin-Feng
Nine fructose-derived carbohydrates were obtained from the methanol extract from the rhizome of Alisma orientalis. On the basis of spectroscopic analysis, their structures were determined to be alpha-D-fructofuranose (1), beta-D-fructofuranose (2), ethyl alpha-D-fructofuranoside (3), ethyl beta-D-fructofuranoside (4), 5-hydroxymethyl-furaldehyde (5), sucrose (6), raffinose (7), stachyose (8) and verbascose (9), along with two oligosaccharides of manninotriose (10) and verbascotetraose (11). Compounds 3, 4 and 7-11 were isolated from this plant for the first time. A hypothetical biosynthesis pathway among these isolated carbohydrates (1-11) was briefly introduced.
Tas, E; Saano, A; Leinonen, P; Lindström, K
Procedures based on DNA hybridization and PCR were developed for quality control of Rhizobium inoculants. Inoculants for pea and goat's rue were produced by Elomestari Ltd., Juva, Finland, in sterile dry fine peat by the standard procedure used by the company. The inoculants contained Rhizobium galegae HAMBI 1174 and HAMBI 1207 and an R. leguminosarum biovar vicia strain, 16HSA, either solely or in combinations of two or three strains. DNA was isolated from 1-g samples of each peat inoculant and analyzed by nonradioactive DNA-DNA hybridization and by PCR. The hybridization probes were total DNAs from pure cultures of R. galegae HAMBI 1207 and R. leguminosarum biovar viciae 16HSA and a 264-bp strain-specific fragment from the genome of R. galegae HAMBI 1174. The total DNA probes distinguished inoculants containing R. galegae or R. leguminosarum, and the strain-specific probe distinguished inoculants containing R. galegae HAMBI 1174. The hybridization results for R. galegae were verified in a PCR experiment by amplifying an R. galegae species-specific fragment and an R. galegae HAMBI 1174 strain-specific fragment in the same reaction. When suitable probes and primers are available, the methods described here offer promising alternatives for the quality control of peat-based inoculants. PMID:7646020
Soto, Esteban; Halliday-Wimmonds, Iona; Francis , Stewart; Kearney, Michael T; Hansen, John D.
Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen in both marine and fresh water environments. The bacterium is suspected to persist in the environment even without the presence of a suitable fish host. In the present study, the influence of different abiotic factors such as salinity and temperature were used to study the biofilm formation of different isolates of Fno including intracellular growth loci C (iglC)and pathogenicity determinant protein A (pdpA) knockout strains. Finally, we compared the susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm to three disinfectants used in the aquaculture and ornamental fish industry, namely Virkon®, bleach and hydrogen peroxide. The data indicates that Fno is capable of producing biofilms within 24 h where both salinity as well as temperature plays a role in the growth and biofilm formation of Fno. Mutations in theiglC or pdpA, both known virulence factors, do not appear to affect the capacity of Fno to produce biofilms, and the minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum biocidal concentration for the three disinfectants were lower than the minimum biofilm eradication concentration values. This information needs to be taken into account if trying to eradicate the pathogen from aquaculture facilities or aquariums.
Madhavi, R; Dhanumkumari, C; Ratnakumari, T B
The life history of Pleurogenoides orientalis (Srivastava 1934), a lecithodendriid trematode of frogs in India is reported and stages in the life history are described. Natural infections with cercariae, which are virgulate xiphidiocercous type, were found in the prosobranch snail Alocinma travancorica. Metacercarial cysts were found in dragon-fly naiads (Tholymis tillarga and Tramea limbata) and aquatic bugs (Laccotrephes griseus and Ranatra elongata) collected from a stream. Adults occurred in the intestine of the pong frog, Rana cyanophlyctis. Laboratory reared A. travancorica fed with eggs of P. orientalis started shedding cercariae from 30 days post feeding. Development of cercariae into infective metacercariae in dragon-fly naiads took 18 days. Mature flukes were recovered from the intestine of experimentally infected R. cyanophlyctis. The entire life cycle from egg to egg producing adult takes 2 1/2 to 3 months.
Raghavamma, S. T. V.; Rao, N. Rama
Antianthelmintic activity of successive extracts (chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous) of Nauclea orientalis leaves were evaluated separately on adult Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma) and compared with that of albendazole. It was found that the extracts exhibited, respectively dose-dependent action and inhibition of spontaneous motility (paralysis) and death of earthworms. The results indicated that the chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts were more potent. PMID:21218070
Masatani, Tatsunori; Yoshihara, Shunpei; Matsubara, Atsuko; Gotoh, Takafumi; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Andoh, Masako; Endo, Yasuyuki; Matsuo, Tomohide
Theirelia orientalis is a tick-borne haemoprotozoan parasite, and infection with this parasite is one of the most important diseases for grazing cattle. Co-infection of cattle with different genotypes of T. orientalis often occurs. In this study, we investigated the temporal dynamics of genotypes in cattle in a year-round grazing system in Japan. Genotype-specific PCR assays to determine major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) genotypes (types 1 to 5) of T. orientalis were performed by using time-course blood samples collected from grazing cattle and ticks in a pasture. All 20 cattle investigated in this study were infected with T. orientalis. By using genotype-specific PCR, we detected the combination of genotypes of T. orientalis (types 1 to 5) from each cattle. These multiple genotypes of T. orientalis were also confirmed in ticks. Notably, each genotype of T. orientalis in cattle was temporally detected from cattle and more variable genotypes were found in summer. The observed temporal dynamics of the MPSP genotypes of T. orientalis in cattle could be explained by host immunity against the parasites or genetic recombination of parasite in ticks.
Liu, Qing-Xin; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jin-Song; Gao, Jun; Sun, Shou-Jia; Jia, Chang-Rong
In order to understand the accuracy of Granier' s thermal dissipation method in measuring tree water consumption, a comparative study was made from May to June, 2010. The sap flow density of potted Platycladus orientalis was measured with thermal dissipation probe, which was compared with the whole-plant gravimetric measurement. There were significant linear relationships (R2 > 0.825) between the sap flow velocity in both north and south directions of P. orientalis measured by thermal dissipation probe and the transpiration rate measured by gravimetric method. The average daily sap flux in the north and south directions of P. orientalis were 10.6% and 15.1% lower than the daily average transpiration of P. orientalis, respectively, but the differences were not significant. Therefore, Granier's method had high reliability in the measurement of P. orientalis transpiration at daily scale, though the large temperature fluctuation between day and night could result in a lower daily sap flux than daily transpiration.
Uphyrkina, O; Miquelle, D; Quigley, H; Driscoll, C; O'Brien, S J
The Far Eastern or Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) survives today as a tiny relict population of 25-40 individuals in the Russian Far East. The population descends from a 19th-century northeastern Asian subspecies whose range extended over southeastern Russia, the Korean peninsula, and northeastern China. A molecular genetic survey of nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation validates subspecies distinctiveness but also reveals a markedly reduced level of genetic variation. The amount of genetic diversity measured is the lowest among leopard subspecies and is comparable to the genetically depleted Florida panther and Asiatic lion populations. When considered in the context of nonphysiological perils that threaten small populations (e.g., chance mortality, poaching, climatic extremes, and infectious disease), the genetic and demographic data indicate a critically diminished wild population under severe threat of extinction. An established captive population of P. p. orientalis displays much higher diversity than the wild population sample, but nearly all captive individuals are derived from a history of genetic admixture with the adjacent Chinese subspecies, P. p. japonensis. The conservation management implications of potential restoration/augmentation of the wild population with immigrants from the captive population are discussed.
Andrews, Mitchell; Andrews, Morag E
Most species in the Leguminosae (legume family) can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N₂) via symbiotic bacteria (rhizobia) in root nodules. Here, the literature on legume-rhizobia symbioses in field soils was reviewed and genotypically characterised rhizobia related to the taxonomy of the legumes from which they were isolated. The Leguminosae was divided into three sub-families, the Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae. Bradyrhizobium spp. were the exclusive rhizobial symbionts of species in the Caesalpinioideae, but data are limited. Generally, a range of rhizobia genera nodulated legume species across the two Mimosoideae tribes Ingeae and Mimoseae, but Mimosa spp. show specificity towards Burkholderia in central and southern Brazil, Rhizobium/Ensifer in central Mexico and Cupriavidus in southern Uruguay. These specific symbioses are likely to be at least in part related to the relative occurrence of the potential symbionts in soils of the different regions. Generally, Papilionoideae species were promiscuous in relation to rhizobial symbionts, but specificity for rhizobial genus appears to hold at the tribe level for the Fabeae (Rhizobium), the genus level for Cytisus (Bradyrhizobium), Lupinus (Bradyrhizobium) and the New Zealand native Sophora spp. (Mesorhizobium) and species level for Cicer arietinum (Mesorhizobium), Listia bainesii (Methylobacterium) and Listia angolensis (Microvirga). Specificity for rhizobial species/symbiovar appears to hold for Galega officinalis (Neorhizobium galegeae sv. officinalis), Galega orientalis (Neorhizobium galegeae sv. orientalis), Hedysarum coronarium (Rhizobium sullae), Medicago laciniata (Ensifer meliloti sv. medicaginis), Medicago rigiduloides (Ensifer meliloti sv. rigiduloides) and Trifolium ambiguum (Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. trifolii). Lateral gene transfer of specific symbiosis genes within rhizobial genera is an important mechanism allowing legumes to form symbioses with rhizobia adapted to particular soils
Xie, Song; Tong, Zhi-Ping; Tan, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Zhen
In order to optimize extraction process conditions of tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2, the content of tannins was determined by phosphomolybdium tungsten acid-casein reaction, with extraction pressure, extraction temper- ature and extraction time as factors, the content of tannins from extract of G. orientali-tibeticum as index, technology conditions were optimized by orthogonal test. Optimum technology conditions were as follows: extraction pressure was 25 MPa, extraction temperature was 50 °C, extracted 1.5 h. The content of tannins in extract was 12.91 mg x g(-1), extract rate was 3.67%. The method established could be used for assay the contents of tannin in G. orientali-tibeticum. The circulated extraction was an effective extraction process that was stable and feasible, and that provides a way of the extraction process conditions of tannin from G. orientali-tibeticum.
Tagawa, Michihito; Ybañez, Adrian P; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Inokuma, Hisashi
Theileria orientalis and hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. (hemoplasmas) can cause anemia in cattle. Cattle infected with one of these two pathogens tend to resist infection by the other pathogen. This is called the "interference phenomenon". However, the detailed investigation of this phenomenon using molecular techniques has not been performed until now. We used PCR to analyze blood samples from cattle grazing in two pastures, and investigated interference between T. orientalis and hemoplasmas. Results indicate that single infection with T. orientalis or hemoplasmas was more common than co-infections. The degree of anemia observed in co-infected animals was significantly milder compared to those only infected with T. orientalis. These findings revealed that the interaction between these two pathogens in cattle demonstrated interference.
Henninger, W; Windisch, S
A new hitherto undescribed species of yeast of the genus Kluyveromyces has been isolated for the intestinal tract of the oriental cockroach (Blatta orientalis). A description of the new species including latin diagnosis is given.
Kiryu, Takaaki; Yamauchi, Kouhei; Masuyama, Araki; Ooe, Kenichi; Kimura, Takashi; Kiso, Taro; Nakano, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiromi
We have reported that lactobionic acid is produced from lactose by Acetobacter orientalis in traditional Caucasian fermented milk. To maximize the application of lactobionic acid, we investigated favorable conditions for the preparation of resting A. orientalis cells and lactose oxidation. The resting cells, prepared under the most favorable conditions, effectively oxidized 2-10% lactose at 97.2 to 99.7 mol % yield.
Singh, Arundhati; Singh, V K
The molluscicidal activity of bark powder of Saraca asoca, leaf powder of Thuja orientalis against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of all the plant products was found to be both time and concentration dependent. The 96 h LC(50) of T. orientalis leaf powder against L. acuminata was 250.5mg/l. Ethanol extracts were more toxic than other organic extracts. The ethanol extract of T. orientalis leaf (24h LC(50): 32.74 mg/l) was more effective than that of S. asoca bark (24h LC(50): 82.38 mg/l). The 24h LC(50) of column purified fraction of T. orientalis leaf and S. asoca bark powder was 29.25 and 64.89 mg/l, respectively. Saponin and thujone were identified as active molluscicide components in the bark of S. asoca and leaf of T. orientalis, respectively. The product of S. asoca and T. orientalis may be used as potent molluscicides.
Kitagawa, Takao; Tokuhiro, Kenro; Sugiyama, Hidehiko; Kohda, Katsuhiro; Isono, Naoto; Hisamatsu, Makoto; Takahashi, Haruo; Imaeda, Takao
We demonstrate the value of the thermotolerant yeast Issatchenkia orientalis as a candidate microorganism for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass with the goal of consolidated bioprocessing. The I. orientalis MF-121 strain is acid tolerant, ethanol tolerant, and thermotolerant, and is thus a multistress-tolerant yeast. To express heterologous proteins in I. orientalis, we constructed a transformation system for the MF-121 strain and then isolated the promoters of TDH1 and PGK1, two genes that were found to be strongly expressed during ethanol fermentation. As a result, expression of beta-glucosidase from Aspergillus aculeatus could be achieved with I. orientalis, demonstrating successful heterologous gene expression in I. orientalis for the first time. The transformant could convert cellobiose to ethanol under acidic conditions and at high temperature. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was performed with the transformant, which produced 29 g l(-1) of ethanol in 72 h at 40 degrees C even without addition of beta-glucosidase when SSF was carried out in medium containing 100 g l(-1) of microcrystalline cellulose and a commercial cellulase preparation. These results suggest that using a genetically engineered thermotolerant yeast such as I. orientalis in SSF could lead to cost reduction because less saccharification enzymes are required.
Yokoyama, Naoaki; Ueno, Akio; Mizuno, Daisuke; Kuboki, Noritaka; Khukhuu, Altangerel; Igarashi, Ikuo; Miyahara, Tokuji; Shiraishi, Takashi; Kudo, Ryuta; Oshiro, Mamoru; Zakimi, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi
Theileria orientalis is a benign protozoan species that is widely distributed in Japan, yet sometimes causes serious economic losses in the livestock industry. In this study, we conducted a molecular survey based on genes encoding the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) and p23 for T. orientalis detected in cattle grazing in southern areas of Japan, consisting of 2 farms in Kumamoto prefecture (Aso and Kuma districts) and 3 farms in Okinawa prefecture (Ishigaki, Iriomote, and Yonaguni Islands). High prevalence rates of T. orientalis infection were shown in all the cattle populations using the diagnostic MPSP- and p23-PCR assays. Phylogenetic analyses revealed 4 MPSP genotypes and 3 p23 genotypes. Furthermore, MPSP genotype-specific PCR methods were developed in this study and wide distributions of 5-district genotypes of T. orientalis were observed for the examined farms. Our results indicate that at least 5 types of T. orientalis exist in Kumamoto and Okinawa prefectures of Japan and that genotype-specific PCR assays are highly applicable for the quarantine of transported cattle and for epidemiological surveys of bovine theileriosis in Japan.
Ota, Naomi; Mizuno, Daisuke; Kuboki, Noritaka; Igarashi, Ikuo; Nakamura, Yukio; Yamashina, Hidenari; Hanzaike, Teruko; Fujii, Kei; Onoe, Sadao; Hata, Hiroshi; Kondo, Seiji; Matsui, Shirou; Koga, Masao; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Yokoyama, Naoaki
Theileria orientalis is one of the benign species of Theileria that is widely distributed in Japan and is sometimes responsible for serious economic losses in the livestock industry. In the present study, we surveyed the current status of T. orientalis infection in grazing cattle in the eastern areas of Hokkaido (Taiki, Otofuke, Shintoku, and Shin-Hidaka districts) using molecular methods, as well as traditional methods, of diagnosis. The genes encoding the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) and p23 of T. orientalis were identified using highly detectable polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results of the MPSP-PCR assay indicated that grazing cattle in these districts, after about 1.5 months pasturage, showed high rates of infection, ranging from 10.0-64.8%. Although the main MPSP and p23 genotypes detected were the Ikeda- or Chitose-types, an MPSP gene closely relating to that found in Okinawa prefecture, and a p23 gene closely relating to the Australian (Warwick) Buffeli-type gene, were found in the cattle in Shintoku and Shin-Hidaka districts. The present survey indicated that there were at least five types of T. orientalis classified by their MPSP genes in Hokkaido, Japan, and that T. orientalis infection rates are still high in this region.
Tjahjadarie, Tjitjik Srie; Saputri, Ratih Dewi; Tanjung, Mulyadi
Erythrina orientalis has local name "Dadap". This plant has known producing alkaloids, flavonoids, pterocarpans, stilbenes, and arylbenzofurans which are active compounds.Three prenylated flavonoids, 8-prenyl-daidzein (1), alpinumisoflavone (2) and 4'-O-methyl licoflavanone (3) had been isolated from the stem bark of Erythrina Orientalis. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data,which are IR, UV, MS, and NMR 1D (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR) and 2D (COSY, HMQC, and HMBC).
Alexander, J B; Newton, J; Crowe, G A
Results are presented of a survey carried out by Rentokil Ltd on the distribution of the Oriental cockroach Blatta orientalis L. and the German cockroach Blattella germanica L. in the United Kingdom. The known ranges of both species are increased considerably by the findings of the survey, with several new vice-county records for Scotland (including the Western Isles), England and Wales. The frequency at which Blatta orientalis was observed in outdoor habitats may indicate that this species sometimes spreads to new areas without human assistance.
Short, J E; Edwards, J P
Nymphs of the Oriental cockroach Blatta orientalis were exposed during the penultimate and final instars to vinyl tiles treated with the juvenile hormone analogue hydroprene. Adults moulting from these nymphs exhibited deformities such as twisted wings in both sexes and modified genitalia in females. Females with deformities were unable to produce viable oothecae. B.orientalis confined on tiles treated with hydroprene at rates of 25-100 mg/m2 did not reproduce. The treatment rate of 10 mg/m2 reduced fecundity and caused 47-57% of resultant adults to have deformities, but some adults reproduced successfully and population growth was not suppressed.
Runions, C J; Rensing, K H; Takaso, T; Owens, J N
Sacci of conifer pollen do not function primarily to increase the efficiency of wind pollination as is widely thought. Rather, they are bladders and cause pollen to float upwards in a liquid drop into the ovules. This observation is seemingly unsupported in the case of oriental spruce (Picea orientalis (L.) Link), which has saccate pollen. Ovulate cones are pendant at the time of pollination, which requires that pollen sink into the ovules. Pollen of oriental spruce floats at first but within 1-2 min sinks into the ovule. As sinking does not occur in saccate pollen of other Pinaceae, a variety of techniques was used to determine anatomical differences leading to this uncharacteristic tendency. Light, scanning electron, and confocal microscopy of the pollen surface yielded no significant appearing difference between pollen of oriental spruce and white spruce. However, transmission electron microscopy of freeze-fixed/freeze-substituted hydrated pollen revealed that the ektexine of oriental spruce pollen sacci is porous compared to that of white spruce. Confocal microscopy allowed examination of pollen hydration dynamics. Water enters pollen at the distal pole between sacci, and resulting rapid expansion of the tube cell forces air out of the saccate space. White spruce pollen remains buoyant because of enclosed air pockets in the saccus ektexine. Evolutionary change in pollen wall anatomy with resultant loss of saccus function is correlated with a change in ovulate strobilus orientation at pollination in oriental spruce. A suite of characters interact in the conifer pollination mechanism, and concerted change in these characters may lead to speciation.
Gannon, B; le Patourel, G; Young, R
Exposure to high concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) killed adult and nymphal stages of the oriental cockroach Blatta orientalis L. (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) with LT50 values of 11.5-16.2 h for 60% CO2 in air and 5.7-7.1 h for 100% CO2 at 20 degrees C; corresponding LT50s at 28 degrees C were 2.8-4.6 h for 60% CO2 in air and 2.3-3.6 h for 100% CO2. Complete kill of mobile stages was obtained within 24 h using 60% CO2 at 20 degrees C. Survivors of treatments with 100% CO2 at 28 degrees C remained completely paralysed for up to 3 days post-treatment and took up to 5 days to regain normal movement, but adult females then resumed production of oothecae with no significant loss in fecundity. Oothecae 5 or 30 days after deposition required 60-84 h exposure to 60% CO2 at 20 degrees C to prevent emergence of nymphs but less time using 100% CO2 at 28 degrees C. At 28 degrees C, when adult females were treated with 100% CO2 and 52% r.h. for 6 h (giving 100% mortality) loss of weight was significantly greater than that following treatment with air at 52% r.h. for 6 h (giving no mortality). However, significantly greater weight loss also occurred when they were treated with dried air (< 10% r.h.) for 6 h, also with no mortality. The toxicity of CO2 to mobile stages of the oriental cockroach appeared to result from irreversible effects on the nervous system, rather than from water loss during exposure.
Zav'yalova, N. E.
Heavy loamy soddy-podzolic soils (Eutric Albic Retisols (Abruptic, Loamic, Cutanic)) under a mixed forest, a grass-herb meadow, a perennial legume crop (fodder galega, Galéga orientalis), and an eightcourse crop rotation (treatment without fertilization) have been characterized by the main fertility parameters. Differences have been revealed in the contents of humus and essential nutrients in the 0- to 20- and 20- to 40-cm layers of soils of the studied agricultural lands. The medium acid reaction and the high content of ash elements and nitrogen in stubble-root residues of legume grasses favor the accumulation of humic acids in the humus of soil under fodder galega; the CHA/CFA ratio is 0.95 in the 0- to 20-cm layer and 0.81 in the 20- to 40-cm layer (under forest, 0.61 and 0.41, respectively). The nitrogen pool in the upper horizon of the studied soddy-podzolic soil includes 61-76% nonhydrolyzable nitrogen and 17-25% difficultly hydrolyzable nitrogen. The content of easily hydrolyzable nitrogen varies depending on the type of agricultural land from 6% in the soil under mixed forest to 10% under crop rotation; the content of mineral nitrogen varies from 0.9 to 1.9%, respectively. The long-term use of plowland in crop rotation and the cultivation of perennial legume crop have increased the content of hydrolyzable nitrogen forms but have not changed the proportions of nitrogen fractions characteristic of this soil type.
Lawrence, K E; Summers, S R; Heath, A C G; McFadden, A M J; Pulford, D J; Pomroy, W E
The tick-borne haemoparasite Theileria orientalis is the most important infectious cause of anaemia in New Zealand cattle. Since 2012 a previously unrecorded type, T. orientalis type 2 (Ikeda), has been associated with disease outbreaks of anaemia, lethargy, jaundice and deaths on over 1000 New Zealand cattle farms, with most of the affected farms found in the upper North Island. The aim of this study was to model the relative environmental suitability for T. orientalis transmission throughout New Zealand, to predict the proportion of cattle farms potentially suitable for active T. orientalis infection by region, island and the whole of New Zealand and to estimate the average relative environmental suitability per farm by region, island and the whole of New Zealand. The relative environmental suitability for T. orientalis transmission was estimated using the Maxent (maximum entropy) modelling program. The Maxent model predicted that 99% of North Island cattle farms (n=36,257), 64% South Island cattle farms (n=15,542) and 89% of New Zealand cattle farms overall (n=51,799) could potentially be suitable for T. orientalis transmission. The average relative environmental suitability of T. orientalis transmission at the farm level was 0.34 in the North Island, 0.02 in the South Island and 0.24 overall. The study showed that the potential spatial distribution of T. orientalis environmental suitability was much greater than presumed in the early part of the Theileria associated bovine anaemia (TABA) epidemic. Maximum entropy offers a computer efficient method of modelling the probability of habitat suitability for an arthropod vectored disease. This model could help estimate the boundaries of the endemically stable and endemically unstable areas for T. orientalis transmission within New Zealand and be of considerable value in informing practitioner and farmer biosecurity decisions in these respective areas.
Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Adjou Moumouni, Paul Franck; Cao, Shinuo; Iguchi, Aiko; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Zhou, Mo; Vudriko, Patrick; Changbunjong, Tanasak; Sungpradit, Sivapong; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Moonarmart, Walasinee; Sedwisai, Poonyapat; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Wongsawang, Witsanu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan
Beef cattle production represents the largest cattle population in Thailand. Their productivity is constrained by tick-borne diseases such as babesiosis and theileriosis. In this study, we determined the prevalence of Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Theileria orientalis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genetic markers that were used for detection of the above parasites were sequenced to determine identities and similarity for Babesia spp. and genetic diversity of T. orientalis. Furthermore the risk factors for the occurrence of the above protozoan parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern parts of Thailand were assessed. A total of 329 blood samples were collected from beef cattle in 6 provinces. The study revealed that T. orientalis was the most prevalent (30.1%) parasite in beef cattle followed by B. bigemina (13.1%) and B. bovis (5.5%). Overall, 78.7% of the cattle screened were infected with at least one of the above parasites. Co-infection with Babesia spp. and T. orientalis was 30.1%. B. bigemina and T. orientalis were the most prevalent (15.1%) co-infection although triple infection with the three parasites was observed in 3.0% of the samples. Sequencing analysis revealed that B. bigemina RAP1 gene and B. bovis SBP2 gene were conserved among the parasites from different cattle samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the T. orientalis MPSP gene from parasites isolated from cattle in north and northeast Thailand was classified into types 5 and 7 as reported previously. Lack of tick control program was the universal risk factor of the occurrence of Babesia spp. and T. orientalis infection in beef cattle in northern and northeastern Thailand. We therefore recommend training of farmers on appropriate tick control strategies and further research on potential vectors for T. orientalis and elucidate the effect of co-infection with Babesia spp. on the pathogenicity of T. orientalis infection on beef in northern and northeastern Thailand.
Bawm, Saw; Shimizu, Kohei; Hirota, Jun-Ichi; Tosa, Yusuke; Htun, Lat Lat; Maw, Ni Ni; Thein, Myint; Kato, Hirotomo; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Katakura, Ken
Theileria orientalis is a causative agent of benign theileriosis in cattle and distributed in mainly Asian countries. In the present study, we examined the prevalence of T. orientalis infection by PCR based on the major piroplasm surface protein gene (MPSP) sequences in cattle in Myanmar, followed by phylogenetic analysis of the MPSP genes. The MPSP gene was amplified in 258 of 713 (36.2%) cattle blood DNA samples collected from five cities in different geographical regions of Myanmar. Phylogenetic analysis of MPSP sequences from 54 T. orientalis-positive DNA samples revealed the presence of six allelic genotypes, including Types 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, and N-3. Types 5 and 7 were the predominant types detected. Sequences of the MPSP genes detected in Myanmar were closely related to those from Thailand, Vietnam or Mongolia. These findings suggest that movement of animals carrying T. orientalis parasites between Southeast Asian countries could be a reason for the similar genotype distribution of the parasites in Myanmar.
Altangerel, Khukhuu; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Inpankaew, Tawin; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Ueno, Akio; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki
Here we report on an epidemiological study regarding the molecular prevalence of different genotypes of Theileria orientalis present among domestic cattle and water buffalo populations bred in Thailand. A phylogenetic analysis based on the parasitic gene encoding a major piroplasm surface protein revealed the presence of 5 genotypes (Types 1, 3, 5, 7, and N-3) in cattle and 7 genotypes (Types 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, N-2, and N-3) in water buffaloes. Types 4, 7, and N-3 of T. orientalis were reported for the first time in water buffaloes. The previously reported C and Thai types from Thailand clustered as types 7 and 6, respectively, in the present analysis. Great similarities were observed among nucleotide sequences of isolates of the same genotype from cattle and water buffaloes, and, therefore, water buffaloes were considered to serve as a reservoir for these genotypes of T. orientalis in Thailand. In conclusion, T. orientalis parasites circulating in Thailand are more diverse in their genetic characters than previously anticipated.
Wang, Fengqin; Liu, Yaqiong; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xie, Hui; Song, Andong
Byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates, namely sodium formate (1 to 5 g/L), sodium acetic (2.5 to 8.0 g/L), furfural (0.2-2 g/L), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 1 to 1.0 g/L) or vanillin (0.5 to 2 g/L) were used to evaluate their effects on ethanol fermentation by Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1 using single factor test and the response surface central composite experiment. Results showed that most of the byproducts had no obvious inhibition on the production of ethanol, except for the addition of 2 g/L vanillin or 1 g/L of 5-HMF, which reduced the ethanol production by 20.38% and 11.2%, respectively. However, high concentration of some byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates, such as sodium formate (1 to 5 g/L), sodium acetic (2.5 to 8.0 g/L), furfural (0.2 to 2 g/L) and vanillin (0.5 to 2 g/L) inhibited the growth of I. orientalis HN-1 significantly. Compared with the control, the dry cell weight of I. orientalis HN-1 decreased by 25.04% to 37.02%, 28.83% to 43.82%, 20.06% to 37.60% and 26.39% to 52.64%, respectively, when the above components were added into the fermentation broth and the fermentation lasted for 36 h. No significant interaction effect of the various inhibitors (sodium formate, sodium acetic, furfural and vanillin) except for vanillin single factor on the ethanol production was observed based on the central composite experiments. The concentrations of byproducts in most lignocellulose hydrolysates were below the initial inhibition concentration on ethanol production by Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1, which indicated that Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1 can be used for ethanol production from lignocellulose hydrolysates.
Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Szoka, Łukasz; Karna, Ewa; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Monika
The increasing consumption of natural products lead us to discover and study new plant materials, such as conifer seeds and cones, which could be easily available from the forest industry as a waste material, for their potential uses. The chemical composition of the essential oils of Picea pungens and Picea orientalis was fully characterized by GC and GC/MS methods. Seed and cone oils of both tree species were composed mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons, among which limonene, α- and β-pinene were the major, but in different proportions in the examined conifer essential oils. The levorotary form of chiral monoterpene molecules was predominant over the dextrorotary form. The composition of oils from P. pungens seeds and cones was similar, while the hydrodistilled oils of P. orientalis seeds and cones differed from each other, mainly by a higher amount of oxygenated derivatives of monoterpenes and by other higher molar mass terpenes in seed oil. The essential oils showed mild antimicrobial action, however P. orientalis cone oil exhibited stronger antimicrobial properties against tested bacterial species than those of P. pungens. Effects of the tested cone essential oils on human skin fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were similar: in a concentration of 0 - 0.075 μl/ml the oils were rather safe for human skin fibroblasts and 0 - 0.005 μl/ml for HMEC-1 cells. IC50 value of Picea pungens oils was 0.115 μl/ml, while that of Picea orientalis was 0.105 μl/ml. The value of IC50 of both oils were 0.035 μl/ml for HMEC-1 cells. The strongest effect on cell viability had the oil from Picea orientalis cones, while on DNA synthesis the oil from Picea pungens cones.
Grzywacz, Andrzej; Pape, Thomas
Larval morphology is documented using both light and scanning electron microscopy for all three instars of the muscid fly Atherigona orientalis (Schiner), which is a species of known sanitary and forensic importance found in tropical and subtropical areas of all biogeographic regions. The unpaired sclerite in a form of a spicule is reported herein in the second and the third instar larvae. Occurrence of this sclerite was hitherto unknown in the second instar larvae of Muscidae and was only known from the third instar of several species, however not in a form of a spicule. Our study is the first report of the occurrence of the "sensory organ X" in all three larval instars of a species representing the family Muscidae. The bubble membrane, previously known only from third instar cyclorrhaphan larvae, is reported herein for the first time in the second instar. Characters allowing for discrimination of A. orientalis larvae from other forensically important Muscidae are summarised.
Jin, Jia-Min; Hou, Cong-Cong; Tan, Fu-Qing; Yang, Wan-Xi
Prohibitin proteins are multifunctional proteins located mainly at the inner membrane of mitochondria expressed in universal species. They play a vital role in mitochondria's function, cell proteolysis, senescence, apoptosis and as a substrate for ubiquitination. In this study, we used PCR cloning, protein and nucleotide acids alignment, protein structure prediction, western blot, in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence to study the characteristics of the prohibitin gene and the potential role of prohibitin in spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis processes in the Chinese fire-bellied newt Cynops orientalis. First, we cloned a 1452-bp full-length cDNA from the testis of Cynops orientalis. Second, we found that the 272 amino acids of prohibitin have a SPFH family domain. Thirdly, the western blots showed high expression of prohibitin in testis while the protein size was approximately 32 kDa. Fourthly, the results of in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence experiments showed that most of the prohibitins travelled with the mitochondria's migration in Cynops orientalis. The quantities of mRNA decreased as spermiogenesis proceeded, although the signals of prohibitins existed during the whole period of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. In the mature germ cells, the signals of prohibitins were weak and aggregated at the end of the cell. Finally, we discovered that the Sertoli cells had a large quantity of prohibitins and we made several assumptions of prohibitins' potential roles in those cells. This is the first time that the relationship between mitochondria and prohibitin in different stages of the sperm cells in Cynops orientalis has been examined, which also revealed that Sertoli cells have abundant prohibitins.
Douay, Guillaume; Drut, Amandine; Ribas, Thibault; Gomis, David; Graille, Mélanie; Lemberger, Karin; Bublot, Isabelle
A clinically healthy 16-yr-old female leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) was diagnosed with a patent ductus arteriosus on echocardiography and later confirmed on necropsy A murmur was heard on auscultation during a routine examination, and the congenital defect was an incidental finding. The animal had been asymptomatic its entire life. This deformity is rarely observed in nondomestic felids and may be asymptomatic, as has been described in domestic cats.
Tian, Ziqiang; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Meizhen; Zhang, Zhenyu
Two plant populations of Phragmites australis and Typha orientalis grown in gravel and sediment substrate were studied to assess their capabilities for purifying polluted water in Taihu Lake, China. The substrate displayed most significant effects on the suspended matter (P < 0.01), with the reduction of 76%-87% and 52%-63% for P. australis, and 83%-86% and 45%-62% for T. orientalis in gravel substrate and sediment substrate, respectively. Both species and substrates significantly decreased the N and P concentrations of water body (P < 0.01). P. australis showed higher total N and P concentrations in tissues than T. orientalis and had a greater potential to remove nutrients from the lake. Phosphate was easily to concentrate in the belowground tissues, while nitrate concentration was higher in leaf and stalk. Therefore, harvesting the aboveground tissues could take most of nitrate out of the sediment. The saturate photosynthetic rate (Asat) of P. australis was higher than that of T. orientalis when grown in sediment substrate. But instance water-use-efficiency (WUEi) (A/E) and intrinsic water use efficiency (A/gs) showed the maximum values of two species grown in river water. With significant difference in gs, however, intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) had no obvious difference in two species which indicated that high Asat value of P. australis might result from the increased carboxylation capacity of the mesophyll, because of the central role of N in photosynthetic enzymes. Our findings suggest that the plants could absorb most of nitrogen in polluted water, while gravel displayed a high capacity for absorbing the suspended matters and phosphate salts. Therefore, biological and physiological pathways for pollutant removal should be integrated.
Kiełtyk, Piotr; Mirek, Zbigniew
Small-scale soil disturbances by fossorial animals can change physical and biotic conditions in disturbed patches and influence spatial and temporal dynamics, and the composition of plant communities. They create regeneration niches and colonization openings for native plants and, according to the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, they are expected to increase plant community diversity. However, it also has been reported that increased disturbance resource availability and decreased competition with native species may result in the invasion of communities by alien plant species, as predicted by the fluctuating resources theory of invasibility. In this study, we investigated the importance of European mole disturbances for the invasion of semi-natural fresh meadows and pastures by the alien plant, Bunias orientalis, which has mainly spread throughout Central Europe on anthropogenically disturbed sites. We hypothesized that the invader, being particularly well adapted to anthropogenic disturbances, enters into dense vegetation of meadows and pastures mainly on mole mounds. To assess the seedling recruitment of B. orientalis in relation to disturbance, we counted the number of seedlings that emerged on molehills and control plots in meadows and pastures. The establishment of juvenile (0-1 year) rosette plants on and off molehills was surveyed on 5 × 5 m plots. In accordance with our hypothesis, mole disturbances were found to serve as a gateway for B. orientalis by which the invader may colonize semi-natural grasslands. The seedlings of the species emerged almost solely on molehills and the young rosettes were established predominantly on mole mounds. Although the seedling density did not differ significantly between the meadows and pastures, the number of established plants in the pastures was considerably higher. We suggest that the invasion by B. orientalis in pastures may be facilitated by vegetative regeneration following root fragmentation by sheep pasturing.
Chupani, Latifeh; Savari, Ahmad; Zolgharnein, Hossein; Rezaie, Anahita; Zeinali, Majid
Most of the chemicals in the petrochemical sewages cause oxidative stress in marine organisms. Antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) as biomarkers of oxidative stress and liver histopathological alterations were investigated in the current study to evaluate the toxic effects of petrochemical pollutions in flatfish, Euryglossa orientalis The enzymatic and histopathological changes were assessed in the liver of E. orientalis from Khowr-e Jafari (one of the creeks from Khowr-e Musa estuary) and Sajafi harbor as polluted and clean areas, respectively. A significant increase in the antioxidant enzyme activities was observed in response to aquatic pollutions of Khowr-e Jafari. Liver lesions were diagnosed and categorized using standard methods. The results of histopathological examinations showed more lesion scores in the fish from Khowr-e Jafari. Various histopathological changes including hepatocyte degeneration, inflammatory lesions, peliosis hepatis and pancreatic acinar cell adenoma, and increase in the number of pigmented macrophage aggregates were observed in the fish from polluted site. It is suggested that activities of CAT and SOD along with semi-quantitative histopathologic analysis of E. orientalis can be used for biomonitoring programs in Persian Gulf.
Paramonova, Tatiana; Komissarova, Olga; Turykin, Leonid; Kuzmenkova, Natalia; Belyaev, Vladimir
The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 had a large-scale action on more than 2.3 million hectares agricultural lands in Russia. The area of radioactively contaminated chernozems of semi-arid steppe zone with initial levels of Cs-137 185-555 kBq/m2 in Tula region received the name "Plavsky radioactive hotspot". Nowadays, after the first half-life period of Cs-137 arable chernozems of the region are still polluted with 3-6-fold excess above the radioactive safety standard (126-228 kBq/m2). Therefore, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of Cs-137 soil-to-plant transfer are currently a central problem for land use on the territory. The purpose of the present study was revealing the biological features of Cs-137 root uptake from contaminated arable chernozems by different agricultural crops. The components of a grass mixture growing at the central part of Plavsky radioactive hotspot with typical dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants - galega (Galega orientalis, Fabaceae family) and bromegrass (Bromus inermis, Gramineae family) respectively - were selected for the investigation, that was conducted during the period of harvesting in 2015. An important point was that the other factors influenced on Cs-137 soil-to-plant transfer - the level of soil pollution, soil properties, climatic conditions, vegetative phase, etc. - were equal. So, biological features of Cs-137 root uptake could be estimated the most credible manner. As a whole, general discrimination of Cs-137 root uptake was clearly shown for both agricultural crops. Whereas Cs-137 activity in rhizosphere 30-cm layer of arable chernozem was 371±74 Bq/kg (140±32 kBq/m2), Cs-137 activities in plant biomass were one-two orders of magnitude less, and transfer factor (TF) values (the ratio of the Cs-137 activities in vegetation and in soil) not exceeded 0.11. At the same time bioavailability of Cs-137 for bromegrass was significantly higher than for galega: TFs in total biomass of the
Novaković, Jelica; Rajčević, Nemanja; Milanovici, Sretco; Marin, Petar D; Janaćković, Pedja
The essential oil composition of Centaurea atropurpurea and Centaurea orientalis flowering heads (capitula) from Central Balkans have been determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 121 compounds were identified, representing on average 97.7% of the oil composition. In all samples, sesquiterpenes were most abundant group, representing 53.9 - 74.0% of the total oil. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons dominated in all studied populations of C. orientalis and C. atropurpurea, except C. atropurpurea f. flava in which essential oil was characterized with high level of oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The dominant components differed between species, and also between typical C. atropurpurea and C. atropurpurea f. flava. The most abundant compounds of essential oil of C. orientalis were germacrene D and α-cadinol. In C. atropuruprea, germacrene D and β-caryophyllene were the most abundant, while caryophyllene oxide and β-caryophyllene were dominant in C. atropurpurea f. flava oil. Taxonomical and ecological implications are further discussed.
Vlkova, Michaela; Sima, Michal; Rohousova, Iva; Kostalova, Tatiana; Sumova, Petra; Volfova, Vera; Jaske, Erin L.; Barbian, Kent D.; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Hailu, Asrat; Warburg, Alon; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Jochim, Ryan C.; Volf, Petr
Background In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis serves as the main vector of Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Phlebotomus orientalis is present at two distant localities in Ethiopia; Addis Zemen where VL is endemic and Melka Werer where transmission of VL does not occur. To find out whether the difference in epidemiology of VL is due to distant compositions of P. orientalis saliva we established colonies from Addis Zemen and Melka Werer, analyzed and compared the transcriptomes, proteomes and enzymatic activity of the salivary glands. Methodology/Principal Findings Two cDNA libraries were constructed from the female salivary glands of P. orientalis from Addis Zemen and Melka Werer. Clones of each P. orientalis library were randomly selected, sequenced and analyzed. In P. orientalis transcriptomes, we identified members of 13 main protein families. Phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignments were performed to evaluate differences between the P. orientalis colonies and to show the relationship with other sand fly species from the subgenus Larroussius. To further compare both colonies, we investigated the humoral antigenicity and cross-reactivity of the salivary proteins and the activity of salivary apyrase and hyaluronidase. Conclusions This is the first report of the salivary components of P. orientalis, an important vector sand fly. Our study expanded the knowledge of salivary gland compounds of sand fly species in the subgenus Larroussius. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, we showed that P. orientalis is closely related to Phlebotomus tobbi and Phlebotomus perniciosus, whereas Phlebotomus ariasi is evolutionarily more distinct species. We also demonstrated that there is no significant difference between the transcriptomes, proteomes or enzymatic properties of the salivary components of Addis Zemen (endemic area) and Melka Werer (non-endemic area) P. orientalis colonies. Thus, the different epidemiology of VL
Zhang, Yunchun; Zhang, Qiaoying; Sammul, Marek
Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to establish ramets in sites of contrasting resource status. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clones in heterogeneous environments can act as cooperative systems--effects of stress on one ramet can be ameliorated by another connected ramet inhabiting benign conditions. But little is known about the effects of patch contrast on physiological integration of clonal plants and no study has addressed its effects on physiological traits like osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates and antioxidant enzymes. We examined the effect of physiological integration on survival, growth and stress indicators such as osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and antioxidant enzymes in a clonal plant, Fragaria orientalis, growing in homogenous and heterogeneous environments differing in patch contrast of water availability (1 homogeneous (no contrast) group; 2 low contrast group; 3 high contrast group). Drought stress markedly reduced the survival and growth of the severed ramets of F. orientalis, especially in high contrast treatments. Support from a ramet growing in benign patch considerably reduced drought stress and enhanced growth of ramets in dry patches. The larger the contrast between water availability, the larger the amount of support the depending ramet received from the supporting one. This support strongly affected the growth of the supporting ramet, but not to an extent to cause increase in stress indicators. We also found indication of costs related to maintenance of physiological connection between ramets. Thus, the net benefit of physiological integration depends on the environment and integration between ramets of F. orientalis could be advantageous only in heterogeneous conditions with a high contrast.
Zhang, Yunchun; Zhang, Qiaoying
Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to experience different levels of resources. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clonal plants can reciprocally translocate resources between ramets in heterogeneous environments. But little is known about the interaction between benefits of clonal integration and patterns of resource heterogeneity in different patches, i.e., coincident patchiness or reciprocal patchiness. We hypothesized that clonal integration will show different effects on ramets in different patches and more benefit to ramets under reciprocal patchiness than to those under coincident patchiness, as well as that the benefit from clonal integration is affected by the position of proximal and distal ramets under reciprocal or coincident patchiness. A pot experiment was conducted with clonal fragments consisting of two interconnected ramets (proximal and distal ramet) of Fragaria orientalis. In the experiment, proximal and distal ramets were grown in high or low availability of resources, i.e., light and water. Resource limitation was applied either simultaneously to both ramets of a clonal fragment (coincident resource limitation) or separately to different ramets of the same clonal fragment (reciprocal resource limitation). Half of the clonal fragments were connected while the other half were severed. From the experiment, clonal fragments growing under coincident resource limitation accumulated more biomass than those under reciprocal resource limitation. Based on a cost-benefit analysis, the support from proximal ramets to distal ramets was stronger than that from distal ramets to proximal ramets. Through division of labour, clonal fragments of F. orientalis benefited more in reciprocal patchiness than in coincident patchiness. While considering biomass accumulation and ramets production, coincident patchiness were more favourable to clonal plant F. orientalis.
Sedghy, Farnaz; Sankian, Mojtaba; Moghadam, Maliheh; Ghasemi, Ziba; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Varasteh, Abdol-Reza
Air pollutants and their interaction with environmental allergens have been considered as an important reason for the recent increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the traffic pollution effect, as a stressor, on Platanus orientalis pollen allergens messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression. P. orientalis pollen grains were collected along main streets of heavy traffic and from unpolluted sites in Mashhad city, in northeast Iran. The pollen samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. To assess the abundance of pollen allergens (Pla or 1, Pla or 2, and Pla or 3) from polluted and unpolluted sites, immunoblotting was performed. Moreover, the sequences encoding P. orientalis allergens were amplified using real-time PCR. Scanning electron microscopy showed a number of particles of 150-550 nm on the surface of pollen from polluted sites. Also, protein and gene expression levels of Pla or 1 and Pla or 3 were considerably greater in pollen samples from highly polluted areas than in pollen from unpolluted areas ( p < 0.05). In contrast, no statically significant difference in Pla or 2 protein and mRNA expression level was found between samples from the two areas. We found greater expression of allergens involved in plant defense mechanisms (Pla or 1 and Pla or 3) in polluted sites than in unpolluted ones. The high expression of these proteins can lead to an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. These findings suggest the necessity of supporting public policies aimed at controlling traffic pollution to improve air quality and prevent the subsequent clinical outcomes and new cases of asthma.
Sedghy, Farnaz; Sankian, Mojtaba; Moghadam, Maliheh; Ghasemi, Ziba; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Varasteh, Abdol-Reza
Air pollutants and their interaction with environmental allergens have been considered as an important reason for the recent increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the traffic pollution effect, as a stressor, on Platanus orientalis pollen allergens messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression. P. orientalis pollen grains were collected along main streets of heavy traffic and from unpolluted sites in Mashhad city, in northeast Iran. The pollen samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. To assess the abundance of pollen allergens (Pla or 1, Pla or 2, and Pla or 3) from polluted and unpolluted sites, immunoblotting was performed. Moreover, the sequences encoding P. orientalis allergens were amplified using real-time PCR. Scanning electron microscopy showed a number of particles of 150-550 nm on the surface of pollen from polluted sites. Also, protein and gene expression levels of Pla or 1 and Pla or 3 were considerably greater in pollen samples from highly polluted areas than in pollen from unpolluted areas (p < 0.05). In contrast, no statically significant difference in Pla or 2 protein and mRNA expression level was found between samples from the two areas. We found greater expression of allergens involved in plant defense mechanisms (Pla or 1 and Pla or 3) in polluted sites than in unpolluted ones. The high expression of these proteins can lead to an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. These findings suggest the necessity of supporting public policies aimed at controlling traffic pollution to improve air quality and prevent the subsequent clinical outcomes and new cases of asthma.
Zhang, Yan; Han, Ling; Chen, Shan-Shan; Guan, Jian; Qu, Fan-Zhi; Zhao, Yu-Qing
Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco is traditionally known to potentiate hair growth promotion. However, there has been no report on its main active ingredient responsible for the hair growth activity. In the current work, cedrol as a major constituent from P. orientalis was evaluated for its potential on hair growth in vivo. Different concentrations of cedrol (10, 20 and 30mg/mL) were applied topically over the shaved skin of C57BL/6 mice and monitored for 21days. Results indicated that cedrol significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, particularly for the female mice. Both male and female mice groups treated with 30mg/mL cedrol required shorter time than the blank control and 2% minoxidil groups at different growth stages. Compared with the blank control (8.87mm) and 2% minoxidil (9.94mm) groups at 21days, the hair length of female mice treated with 30mg/mL cedrol showed a remarkable increase with the value of 11.07mm. Hair in male and female mice groups treated with 30mg/mL cedrol was heavier than the 2% minoxidil (38.2 and 35.9mg, respectively) groups with the weight of 42.6 and 45.2mg, respectively. Further observation of the hair follicle demonstrated that cedrol exerted a remarkable effect on the hair follicle length. These findings suggested that cedrol may be the main active ingredient of P. orientalis and have the potential of becoming a new hair growth promoter.
Mo, Hyoung-ho; Lee, Sung-Eun; Son, Jino; Hwang, Jeong Mi; Bae, Yeon Jae; Cho, Kijong
The objective of this study was to assess acute toxicity of heavy metals in eggs of mayfly Ephemera orientalis McLachlan, and to elucidate relationships between heavy metal toxicity and protein expression patterns determined using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Acute toxicity analysis was conducted using five heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and mercury), and the toxicity endpoint was established from the egg hatching rate during a 14-day exposure period. Median hatching toxicity (HC₅₀) values were determined for each heavy metal, and the most toxic heavy metal was found to be mercury (0.11 mg/L), followed by copper (0.32 mg/L) and lead (4.39 mg/L). E. orientalis eggs were highly tolerant to cadmium and chromium (>120 mg/L). Proteinchip array analysis using a strong anion exchange proteinchip (Q10) in conjunction with SELDI-TOF-MS was used to assess the protein expression patterns after exposure to heavy metals at the EHC10 (prohibiting hatching concentration to 10% eggs), except for cadmium and chromium, which were used at concentrations of 1, 10, and 100mg/L. Three novel biomarker candidate proteins, i.e., 4269, 4283, and 4623 m/z, were identified for the detection of heavy metal toxicity in aquatic ecosystems at the level of HC₁₀ in E. orientalis eggs. SELDI-TOF MS analysis for detecting differential expression of proteins was found to be more effective than Q10 proteinchip separation in the mayfly eggs.
Zhang, Yunchun; Zhang, Qiaoying; Sammul, Marek
Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to establish ramets in sites of contrasting resource status. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clones in heterogeneous environments can act as cooperative systems – effects of stress on one ramet can be ameliorated by another connected ramet inhabiting benign conditions. But little is known about the effects of patch contrast on physiological integration of clonal plants and no study has addressed its effects on physiological traits like osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates and antioxidant enzymes. We examined the effect of physiological integration on survival, growth and stress indicators such as osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and antioxidant enzymes in a clonal plant, Fragaria orientalis, growing in homogenous and heterogeneous environments differing in patch contrast of water availability (1 homogeneous (no contrast) group; 2 low contrast group; 3 high contrast group). Drought stress markedly reduced the survival and growth of the severed ramets of F. orientalis, especially in high contrast treatments. Support from a ramet growing in benign patch considerably reduced drought stress and enhanced growth of ramets in dry patches. The larger the contrast between water availability, the larger the amount of support the depending ramet received from the supporting one. This support strongly affected the growth of the supporting ramet, but not to an extent to cause increase in stress indicators. We also found indication of costs related to maintenance of physiological connection between ramets. Thus, the net benefit of physiological integration depends on the environment and integration between ramets of F. orientalis could be advantageous only in heterogeneous conditions with a high contrast. PMID:22957054
Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Rastin, Nayerah; Olbrich, Andrea; Langenfeld-Heyser, Rosemarie; Polle, Andrea
To investigate whether leaves of plane trees (Platanus orientalis) are damaged by traffic pollution, trees from a megacity (Mashhad, Iran) and a rural area were investigated. Soil and air from the urban centre showed enrichment of several toxic elements, but only lead was enriched in leaves. Leaf size and stomata density were lower at the urban site. At the urban site leaf surfaces were heavily loaded by dust particles but the stomata were not occluded; the cuticle was thinner; other anatomical properties were unaffected suggesting that plane trees can cope with traffic exhaust in megacities.
de Mendonça, M M
Bertiella deblocki n. sp. (Anoplocephalidae: Anoplocephalinae) from the intestine of a marsupial Phalanger orientalis Storr of East-Timor differs essentially from Bertiella trichosuri Khalil, 1970, the most similar species, in the greater number of the proglottides, in the greater diameter of the scolex, in having a strongly strobilar musculature, the muscular outer edge of the genital atrium, the distal portion of the vagina surrounded by a muscular thickness, the uterus always crossing the excretory canals and in having the egg with two horns.
LANGE, INGO; MOSCHNY, JULIA; TAMANYAN, KAMILLA; KHUTSISHVILI, MANANA; ATHA, DANIEL; BORRIS, ROBERT P.; KOOMOA, DANA-LYNN
Effective neuroblastoma (NB) treatments are still limited despite treatment options available today. Therefore, this study attempted to identify novel plant extracts that have anticancer effects. Cytotoxicity and increased intracellular calcium levels were determined using the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and Fluo4-AM (acetoxymethyl) staining and fluorescence microscopy in NB cells in order to screen a library of plant extracts. The current study examined the anticancer effects of a dichloromethane extract from Scrophularia orientalis L. (Scrophulariaceae), a plant that has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. This extract contained highly potent agents that significantly reduced cell survival and increased calcium levels in NB cells. Further analysis revealed that cell death induced by this extract was associated with intracellular calcium release, opening of the MPTP, caspase 3- and PARP-cleavage suggesting that this extract induced aberrant calcium signaling that resulted in apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. Therefore, agents from Scrophularia orientalis may have the potential to lead to new chemo therapeutic anticancer drugs. Furthermore, targeting intracellular calcium signaling may be a novel strategy to develop more effective treatments for NB. PMID:26848085
Moncaz, Aviad; Kirstein, Oscar; Gebresellassie, Araya; Lemma, Wossenseged; Yared, Solomon; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Hailu, Asrat; Shenker, Moshe; Warburg, Alon
We studied breeding sites of Phlebotomus orientalis (Diptera: Psychodidae) the vector of visceral leishmaniasis in northern Ethiopia. Although numbers were rather small, 165 sand flies were captured emerging from vertisol cracks. The most productive breeding sites were cracked vertisols, dry river banks and close to trees. No sand flies were caught emerging from sandy clay loam soils in peri-domestic habitats but a few were captured emerging from gaps in a stone wall. Abiotic parameters in vertisols close to trees and in open field from which P. orientalis had emerged, were compared. Soil pH was slightly alkaline and salinity was low. Organic matter contents were similar in both sites. Temperatures and RH remained relatively stable near trees from the end of the rainy season through mid dry season, yet fluctuated markedly at the shallower depth in the open field. During the rainy season, cracks in the soil were sealed resulting in significant lowering of the oxygen concentrations near the tree. Gravimetric water content of soil near trees was lower than open field at shallow depth but similar deeper down. We conclude that ambient conditions suitable for sand fly larvae at shallow depths (45cm) are restricted to areas close to trees. However, deeper in vertisols (90cm) suitable conditions are apparently maintained throughout the dry season even in open fallow fields.
Shen, Yang; Huang, He; Zhu, Li; Luo, Minyu; Chen, Daijie
ECO-0501 is a novel linear polyene antibiotic, which was discovered from Amycolatopsis orientalis. Recent study of ECO-0501 biosynthesis pathway revealed the presence of regulatory gene: ECO-orf4. The A. orientalis ECO-orf4 gene from the ECO-0501 biosynthesis cluster was analyzed, and its deduced protein (ECO-orf4) was found to have amino acid sequence homology with large ATP-binding regulators of the LuxR (LAL) family regulators. Database comparison revealed two hypothetical domains, a LuxR-type helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA binding motif near the C-terminal and an N-terminal nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) binding motif included. Deletion of the corresponding gene (ECO-orf4) resulted in complete loss of ECO-0501 production. Complementation by one copy of intact ECO-orf4 restored the polyene biosynthesis demonstrating that ECO-orf4 is required for ECO-0501 biosynthesis. The results of overexpression ECO-orf4 on ECO-0501 production indicated that it is a positive regulatory gene. Gene expression analysis by reverse transcription PCR of the ECO-0501 gene cluster showed that the transcription of ECO-orf4 correlates with that of genes involved in polyketide biosynthesis. These results demonstrated that ECO-orf4 is a pathway-specific positive regulatory gene that is essential for ECO-0501 biosynthesis.
Chang, Chi-Chang; Ling, Xue-Hua; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Wu, Jing-Mei; Wang, Chao-Ping; Yang, Jyh-Ferng; Fang, Li-Wen; Houng, Jer-Yiing
Type II endometrial carcinoma typically exhibits aggressive metastasis and results in a poor prognosis. Siegesbeckia orientalis Linne is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb with several medicinal benefits, including the cytotoxicity against various cancers. This study investigates the inhibitory effects of S. orientalis ethanol extract (SOE) on the migration and invasion of endometrial cancer cells, which were stimulated by transforming growth factor β (TGFβ). The inhibitory effects were evaluated by determining wound healing and performing the Boyden chamber assay. This study reveals that SOE can inhibit TGFβ1-induced cell wound healing, cell migration, and cell invasion in a dose-dependent manner in RL95-2 and HEC-1A endometrial cancer cells. SOE also reversed the TGFβ1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition, including the loss of the cell-cell junction and the lamellipodia-like structures. Western blot analysis revealed that SOE inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and Akt, as well as the expression of MMP-9, MMP-2, and u-PA in RL95-2 cells dose-dependently. The results of this investigation suggest that SOE is a potential anti-metastatic agent against human endometrial tumors.
Xu, Wen; Li, Ting; Qiu, Jian-Fang; Wu, Shui-Sheng; Huang, Ming-Qing; Lin, Li-Gen; Zhang, Qing-Wen; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Lu, Jin-Jian
This study aimed to isolate terpenoids from Alisma orientalis (Sam.) Juzep. and elucidate their antiproliferative activities, as well as structure-activity relationships. Fourteen protostane-type triterpenoids were isolated from the rhizome of A. orientalis. Among these triterpenoids, alisol A (1), alisol A 24-acetate (2), alisol B (3), alisol B 23-acetate (4), and alisol G (8) presented inhibitory effects on cancer cell lines tested. Compounds 3 and 4 showed the highest potential; IC50 values for HepG2, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7 cells were 16.28, 14.47, and 6.66 μM for 3 and 18.01, 15.97, and 13.56 μM for 4, respectively. Based on these results, we concluded that the degree of C-16 oxidation and the double bond between C-13 and C-17 may be significant in anti-proliferative activities. Further study showed that 3 and 4 effectively induced apoptosis, as confirmed by flow cytometry. Increased intracellular calcium concentration and endoplasmic reticulum stress were detected after treatment with 4 in HepG2 cells. Although compounds 1 and 2 induced minimal apoptosis, they evidently delayed the G2/M phase in HepG2 cells. Further study showed that 1-4 also enhanced LC3II expression, indicating autophagy is occured.
Evans, R G; Sunley, A; Bradford, C; Patmore, R I
In a laboratory study, groups of third-instar Blatta orientalis nymphs were reared to adulthood in arenas containing fenoxycarb (48 mg a.i./m2) treated ceramic or plywood tiles. The reproductive capacity of the emergent adults was assessed by pairing each individual with two untreated individuals of the opposite sex. Oothecal production, oothecal hatch and the numbers of nymphs emergent from each hatched ootheca were monitored. Exposure to 1-day-old deposits of fenoxycarb reduced adult emergence by 45-75% in comparison with an untreated control treatment. Substantial (> 40%) mortality also resulted when nymphs were exposed to deposits up to 3 months old on plywood and up to 6 months old on ceramic. Exposure to fenoxycarb significantly extended the time taken to reach adulthood of males contacting 6-month-old deposits on both surfaces, and of females contacting 1-year-old deposits on ceramic. Adult females exposed as nymphs to fenoxycarb were unable to produce oothecae, except one female laid a non-viable ootheca. Untreated females paired with treated males produced large numbers of oothecae of normal appearance but very low viability, with only 0-7.1% hatching. With marked effects on both development and reproduction in B.orientalis, fenoxycarb is a promising agent for control of this species.
Short, J E; Edwards, J P
At 27 degrees C and 45% r.h. in the laboratory, the oriental cockroach Blatta orientalis (L.) developed to adulthood in seven to nine instars for males (66% had eight instars) and eight to ten instars for females (67% had nine instars) in mixed groups, with up to twelve instars for isolated females. Nymphal development lasted 185 +/- 2 days for males, 216 +/- 4 days for females, with 89% survival to adulthood. Adult longevity was significantly more for males than females in mixed groups. Virgin females lived for 135 +/- 6 days compared with 87 +/- 9 days for females kept with males. After an initial maturation time of 12.2-13.5 +/- 0.4 days for mated and unmated females, oothecae were produced, on average, every 6-7 (range 2-29) days. Ootheca viability was 68% from females kept with males, 32% from females kept apart from males. Numbers of nymphs emerging were 14.1 +/- 0.26 after 45 days from mated female oothecae 8.2 +/- 0.3 after 49 days from unmated females. With sexual reproduction the sex ratio of progeny reaching adulthood was 1.1 males per female (n = 443), whereas unmated females produced only female progency, which is consistent with parthenogenetic reproduction. Drawings of the ventral aspect of the terminalia are given to show features useful for instar determination and for distinguishing between male and female nymphs and adults of B. orientalis.
Shan, Ming-Qiu; Shang, Jing; Ding, An-Wei
Platycladus orientalis leaves (Cebaiye) have been used for thousands of years as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). According to the theory of TCM, they are categorized as a blood-cooling and hematostatic herb. In clinical practice, they were usually prescribed with heat-clearing herbs to reinforce the efficacy of hemostasis. The review provides the up-to-date information from 1980 to present that is available on the botany, processing research, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of the leaves. The information is collected from scientific journals, books, theses and reports via library and electronic search (Google Scholar, Pubmed and CNKI). Through literature reports, we can find that the leaves show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, disinsection, anticancer, diuretic, hair growth-promoting, neuroprotective and antifibrotic activities. Diterpene and flavonoids would be active constituents in P. orientalis leaves. Many studies have provided evidence for various traditional uses. However, there is a great need for additional studies to elucidate the mechanism of blood-cooling and hematostatic activity of the leaves. Therefore, the present review on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and toxicity has provided preliminary information for further studies of this herb.
Nakae, Masanori; Sasaki, Kunio; Shinohara, Gento; Okada, Tokihiko; Matsuura, Keiichi
The muscular system in the Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis is studied in detail. For the first time, a complete description of the muscular anatomy of a thunnid is provided here. Eighty-two elements including subdivisions of components of the muscular system are identified. This is less than found in a basal perciform and two other investigated scombrid species, owing mainly to the absence or fusion of pectoral, pelvic and caudal fin muscles. The absence of elements of the basal perciform pattern was most prominent in the caudal fin, which includes only the flexor dorsalis, flexor ventralis, hypochordal longitudinalis, and interradialis. In the caudal fin, the medial fan-shaped ray was identified as the first dorsal ray, judging from myological and neuroanatomical characters. The highly developed gill filament muscles in Thunnus orientalis and sheet-like rectus communis control gill ventilation. Long body muscle tendons reduce the metabolic energy needed during rapid and continuous swimming. These characters are interpreted as adaptations in the context of the oceanic life style of the species.
Akat, E.; Arıkan, H.; Göçmen, B.
This study was carried out to assess the localization of hyaluronic acid (HA) and the distribution of glycoproteins in the gastrointestinal system of adult Hyla orientalis. Histochemical analysis of the gastrointestinal system in H. orientalis showed that mucous content included glycogene and/or oxidable dioles [periodic acid/Schiff (PAS)+], neutral or acid-rich (PAS/AB pH 2.5+), sialic acid residues (KOH/PAS+) and acid sulphate [Aldehyde fuchsin (AF)+] glycoproteins. However the mucus content was not the same in stomach, small and large intestine. The mucus content of stomach included only glycogene and/or oxidable dioles and sialic acid residues. Besides these histochemical methods, the localization of HA was detected using biotinylated hyaluronic acid binding protein labeled with streptavidin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). In the extracellular matrix of the submucosa, the reaction for HA was evident. Since HA was located in submucosa beneath the epithelial layer of gastrointestinal system, it has a significant role in hydric balance, and essential to provide the gastrointestinal system integrity and functionality. According to biometric results, there were statistical differences between small and large intestine in terms of the amount of material stained positive with PAS/AB, PAS, KOH/PAS and AF/AB. Additionally, number of goblet cells in the small and large intestine was significantly different. PMID:25578977
Akat, E; Arıkan, H; Göçmen, B
This study was carried out to assess the localization of hyaluronic acid (HA) and the distribution of glycoproteins in the gastrointestinal system of adult Hyla orientalis. Histochemical analysis of the gastrointestinal system in H. orientalis showed that mucous content included glycogene and/or oxidable dioles [periodic acid/Schiff (PAS)+], neutral or acid-rich (PAS/AB pH 2.5+), sialic acid residues (KOH/PAS+) and acid sulphate [Aldehyde fuchsin (AF)+] glycoproteins. However the mucus content was not the same in stomach, small and large intestine. The mucus content of stomach included only glycogene and/or oxidable dioles and sialic acid residues. Besides these histochemical methods, the localization of HA was detected using biotinylated hyaluronic acid binding protein labeled with streptavidin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). In the extracellular matrix of the submucosa, the reaction for HA was evident. Since HA was located in submucosa beneath the epithelial layer of gastrointestinal system, it has a significant role in hydric balance, and essential to provide the gastrointestinal system integrity and functionality. According to biometric results, there were statistical differences between small and large intestine in terms of the amount of material stained positive with PAS/AB, PAS, KOH/PAS and AF/AB. Additionally, number of goblet cells in the small and large intestine was significantly different.
Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia
Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species (Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from nativespecies.
Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia
Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species ( Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from native species.
Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Highland Ranch, CO; Pentilla, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI; Koivuranta, Kari [Vantaa, FI; Roberg-Perez, Kevin [Minneapolis, MN
Cells of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely related yeast species are transformed with a vector to introduce an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene. The cells produce lactic acid efficiently and are resistant at low pH, high lactate titer conditions.
Sima, Michal; Ferencova, Blanka; Warburg, Alon; Rohousova, Iva; Volf, Petr
Background Certain salivary proteins of phlebotomine sand flies injected into the host skin during blood-feeding are highly antigenic and elicit strong antibody-mediated immune responses in repeatedly-exposed hosts. These antibodies can be measured by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISAs) using salivary gland homogenates (SGHs) as the source of antigens and serve as a markers for exposure to biting sand flies. Large-scale screening for anti-sand fly saliva antibodies requires replacement of SGH with recombinant salivary proteins. In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis is the main vector of Leishmania donovani, a trypanosomatid parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis. We tested recombinant salivary proteins derived from Ph. orientalis saliva to study exposure of domestic animals to this sand fly species. Methodology/Principal Findings Antigenic salivary proteins from Ph. orientalis were identified by immunoblot and mass spectrometry. Recombinant apyrase rPorSP15, yellow-related protein rPorSP24, ParSP25-like protein rPorSP65, D7-related protein rPorSP67, and antigen 5-related protein rPorSP76 were tested using ELISA with sera of domestic animals from L. donovani foci in Ethiopia where Ph. orientalis is present. Our results highlighted recombinant yellow-related protein rPorSP24 as the most promising antigen, displaying a high positive correlation coefficient as well as good sensitivity and specificity when compared to SGH. This recombinant protein was the most suitable one for testing sera of dogs, sheep, and goats. In addition, a different antigen, rPorSP65 was found efficacious for testing canine sera. Conclusions/Significance Recombinant salivary proteins of Ph. orientalis, specifically rPorSP24, were shown to successfully substitute SGH in serological experiments to measure exposure of domestic animals to Ph. orientalis, the vector of L. donovani. The results suggest that rPorSP24 might be a suitable antigen for detecting anti-Ph. orientalis antibody
Zhang, A; Facundo, H T; Robbins, P S; Linn, C E; Hanula, J L; Villani, M G; Roelofs, W L
Females of the Oriental beetle,Anomala orientalis (Waterhouse), release a sex pheromone composed of a 9:1 blend of (Z)- and (E)-7-tetradecen-2-one. The double-bond position of the pheromone was determined by DMDS derivatization and interpretation of the fragmentation patterns produced by monounsaturated ketones. In a sustained-flight tunnel, males responded by flying toward female beetles and attempting to copulate with them. Both effluvium and whole-body extracts of OB females were analyzed, and the activity was found only in the airborne extracts. Flight-tunnel bioassays also showed that a synthetic 90:10Z/E blend on a rubber septum was attractive and that the responses of males to this blend were equivalent toZ isomer alone, but much better than to the singleE isomer.
Ozel, Halil Bariş
In the present study, the effect of some pre-treatments implemented on seeds of Oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis), which has wide geographical variation along Turkey on germination percentage values were investigated. For this purpose, 13 different pre-treatments were implemented to seeds obtained from 17 different populations. According to the obtained results (except control seeds), pre-treatments leading to lowest germination percentage value (8.1%) in Oriental hornbeam seeds was PT10: Keeping seeds for 90 min in sulfuric acid, while highest germination percentage (86.58%) has been obtained with pre-treatment PT13: Implementation of 40% dose of Baikal EM1 + Biohoumous mixture to the seeds, while lowest germination percentage (40.50%) was observed on seeds collected from P7 (Bartin-Kozcağiz) population, highest germination percentage was observed in seeds obtained from P17 (Artvin-Hopa) population.
Park, Chan Jin; Song, Sang Ha; Kim, Dae Han; Gye, Myung Chan
The developmental toxicity of nickel was examined in the embryos of Bombina orientalis, a common amphibian in Korea. Based on a standard frog embryo teratogenesis assay, the LC50 and EC50 for malformation of nickel after 168h of treatment were 33.8μM and 5.4μM, respectively. At a lethal concentration (100μM), nickel treatment decreased the space between gill filaments and caused epithelial swelling and abnormal fusion of gill filaments. These findings suggest that nickel affects the functional development of gills, leading to embryonic death. At sublethal concentrations (1-10μM), nickel produced multiple embryonic abnormalities, including bent tail and tail dysplasia. At 10μM, nickel significantly decreased tail length and tail muscle fiber density in tadpoles, indicating inhibition of myogenic differentiation. Before hatching, the pre-muscular response to muscular response stages (stages 26-31) were the most sensitive period to nickel with respect to tail muscle development. During these stages, MyoD mRNA was upregulated, whereas myogenic regulatory factor 4 mRNA was downregulated by 0.1μM nickel. Calcium-dependent kinase activities in muscular response stage embryos were significantly decreased by nickel, whereas these activities were restored by exogenous calcium. In tadpoles, 10μM nickel significantly decreased the expression of the myosin heavy chain and the 12/101 muscle marker protein in the tail. Expression was restored by exogenous calcium. Our results indicate that nickel affects muscle development by disrupting calcium-dependent myogenesis in developing B. orientalis embryos.
Hu, Xian-Ge; Liu, Hui; Jin, YuQing; Sun, Yan-Qiang; Li, Yue; Zhao, Wei; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Mao, Jian-Feng
Platycladus orientalis, of the family Cupressaceae, is a widespread conifer throughout China and is extensively used for ecological reforestation, horticulture, and in medicine. Transcriptome assemblies are required for this ecologically important conifer for understanding genes underpinning adaptation and complex traits for breeding programs. To enrich the species' genomic resources, a de novo transcriptome sequencing was performed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. In total, 104,073,506 high quality sequence reads (approximately 10.3 Gbp) were obtained, which were assembled into 228,948 transcripts and 148,867 unigenes that were longer than 200 nt. Quality assessment using CEGMA showed that the transcriptomes obtained were mostly complete for highly conserved core eukaryotic genes. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 62,938 (42.28% of all unigenes), 42,158 (28.32%), and 23,179 (15.57%) had homologs in the Nr, GO, and KOG databases, 25,625 (17.21%) unigenes were mapped to 322 pathways by BLASTX comparison against the KEGG database and 1,941 unigenes involved in environmental signaling and stress response were identified. We also identified 43 putative terpene synthase (TPS) functional genes loci and compared them with TPSs from other species. Additionally, 5,296 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified in 4,715 unigenes, which were assigned to 142 motif types. This is the first report of a complete transcriptome analysis of P. orientalis. These resources provide a foundation for further studies of adaptation mechanisms and molecular-based breeding programs.
Jin, YuQing; Sun, Yan-Qiang; Li, Yue; Zhao, Wei; El-Kassaby, Yousry A.; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Mao, Jian-Feng
Platycladus orientalis, of the family Cupressaceae, is a widespread conifer throughout China and is extensively used for ecological reforestation, horticulture, and in medicine. Transcriptome assemblies are required for this ecologically important conifer for understanding genes underpinning adaptation and complex traits for breeding programs. To enrich the species’ genomic resources, a de novo transcriptome sequencing was performed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. In total, 104,073,506 high quality sequence reads (approximately 10.3 Gbp) were obtained, which were assembled into 228,948 transcripts and 148,867 unigenes that were longer than 200 nt. Quality assessment using CEGMA showed that the transcriptomes obtained were mostly complete for highly conserved core eukaryotic genes. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 62,938 (42.28% of all unigenes), 42,158 (28.32%), and 23,179 (15.57%) had homologs in the Nr, GO, and KOG databases, 25,625 (17.21%) unigenes were mapped to 322 pathways by BLASTX comparison against the KEGG database and 1,941 unigenes involved in environmental signaling and stress response were identified. We also identified 43 putative terpene synthase (TPS) functional genes loci and compared them with TPSs from other species. Additionally, 5,296 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified in 4,715 unigenes, which were assigned to 142 motif types. This is the first report of a complete transcriptome analysis of P. orientalis. These resources provide a foundation for further studies of adaptation mechanisms and molecular-based breeding programs. PMID:26881995
An infection with Rickettsiella sp. was responsible for an illness causing heavy body swelling in the Oriental cockroach Blatta orientalis. Reproduction of the colony stagnated. Vacuoles with parasitic bacteria occurred mainly in the fat body, but also in nearly all other organs, such as gut epithelium, Malpighian tubules, blood cells, and ovarioles. The parasites clearly differed from the symbiotic bacteria of the genus Blattabacterium, which regularly occur in the mycetocytes of B. orientalis. The vacuoles contained four stages of Rickettsiella: (1) infectious, electron-dense, rod-like elementary bodies (mean size 300 x 145 nm); (2) an electron-dense, flat intermedium stage, called flat body (mean size 515 x 255 x 125 nm); (3) an electron-light, spherical intermedium stage, called condensing sphere (mean size 340 nm); portions of cytoplasm condensed crescent-like at the border or in the center of the cell; and (4) large, spherical, electron-light initial bodies that multiplied by binary fission (mean size 600 nm). The initial bodies had a three-layered cell boundary, but all other stages had a five-layered cell boundary. Elementary and flat bodies contained an electron-light, oblique lamella and an oval structure with an array of ribosome-like granules, respectively. In contrast to other species of Rickettsiella, crystal formation or multiple division did not occur. The described species of Rickettsiella is different from "R. blattae," which belongs to the R. popilliae group. Instead, it shares more similarities with the R. chironomi group. To avoid confusion, it was provisionally named "R. crassificans."
Cao, Chengquan; Liu, Xingyue
The giant dobsonfly species Acanthacorydalis orientalis (McLachlan, 1899) is endemic to China and is well-known because of its remarkable large adult body size and enlarged male mandibles. However, the immature stages of this species, as well as all other Acanthacorydalis species are poorly known. In this paper we describe the last-instar larvae and pupae of A. orientalis for the first time. Aspects of the bionomics of this species is also given.
Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Piozzi, Franco; Arnold, Nelly Apostolides
The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Scutellaria orientalis L. ssp. alpina (Boiss.) O. Schwarz and S. utriculata Labill. growing wild in Lebanon, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In S. orientalis ssp. alpina, strongly characterized by sesquiterpenes (41.2%) and particularly sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (31.7%), hexahydrofarnesylacetone (11.7%) was recognized as the main constituent, together with hexadecanoic acid (7.6%), caryophyllene (7.4%), caryophyllene oxide (6.8%), 4-vinylguaiacol (5.4%) and germacrene D (5.4%). S. utriculata oil was instead constituted above all by monoterpenes (42.2%), particularly oxygen containing monoterpenes (39.9%), and in this oil the main compounds were linalool (20.1%), 4-vinyl guaiacol (15.5%), alpha-terpineol (8.9%), (E)-nerolidol (8.9%) and geraniol (8.2%).
Mikkonen, Anu; Lappi, Kaisa; Wallenius, Kaisa; Lindström, Kristina; Suominen, Leena
Nucleic acid-based community fingerprinting methods are valuable tools in microbial ecology, as they offer rapid and robust means to compare large series of replicates and references. To avoid the time-consuming and potentially subjective procedures of peak-based examination, we assessed the possibility to apply direct curve-based data analysis on community fingerprints produced with bacterial length heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR). The dataset comprised 180 profiles from a 21-week rhizoremediation greenhouse experiment with three treatments and 10 sampling times. Curve-based analysis quantified the progressive effect of the plant (Galega orientalis) and the reversible effect of the contaminant (fuel oil) on bacterial succession. The major observed community shifts were assigned to changes in plant biomass and contamination level by canonical correlation analysis. A novel method to extract relative abundance data from the fingerprint curves for Shannon diversity index revealed contamination to reversibly decrease community complexity. By cloning and sequencing the fragment lengths, recognized to change in time in the averaged LH-PCR profiles, we identified Aquabacterium (Betaproteobacteria) as the putative r-strategic fuel oil degrader, and K-strategic Alphaproteobacteria growing in abundance later in succession. Curve-based community fingerprint analysis can be used for rapid data prescreening or as a robust alternative for the more heavily parameterized peak-based analysis.
Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne
Ensifer arboris LMG 14919(T) is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919(T) was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919(T) is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919(T) does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919(T), together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project.
Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne
Ensifer arboris LMG 14919T is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919T was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919T is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919T does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919T, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25197433
Mergaert, Peter; Nikovics, Krisztina; Kelemen, Zsolt; Maunoury, Nicolas; Vaubert, Danièle; Kondorosi, Adam; Kondorosi, Eva
Transcriptome analysis of Medicago truncatula nodules has led to the discovery of a gene family named NCR (nodule-specific cysteine rich) with more than 300 members. The encoded polypeptides were short (60–90 amino acids), carried a conserved signal peptide, and, except for a conserved cysteine motif, displayed otherwise extensive sequence divergence. Family members were found in pea (Pisum sativum), broad bean (Vicia faba), white clover (Trifolium repens), and Galega orientalis but not in other plants, including other legumes, suggesting that the family might be specific for galegoid legumes forming indeterminate nodules. Gene expression of all family members was restricted to nodules except for two, also expressed in mycorrhizal roots. NCR genes exhibited distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns in nodules and, thus, were coupled to different stages of development. The signal peptide targeted the polypeptides in the secretory pathway, as shown by green fluorescent protein fusions expressed in onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells. Coregulation of certain NCR genes with genes coding for a potentially secreted calmodulin-like protein and for a signal peptide peptidase suggests a concerted action in nodule development. Potential functions of the NCR polypeptides in cell-to-cell signaling and creation of a defense system are discussed. PMID:12746522
Rozhnov, V V; Sorokin, P A; Lukarevskiĭ, V S; Naĭdenko, S V; Ernandes-Blanko, Kh A; Lukarevskiĭ, S V
For the first time, the genetic structure of a population of Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) in southwest Primorie was analyzed in detail. In 2010-2012, 23 individuals were identified individually. It was shown that the studied microsatellite markers are suitable for individual identification of leopards, monitoring the population numbers, and creating a unified database of genetic profiles of this species to solve research and nature-preserving tasks.
Soto, Esteban; Abrams, Stephanie B; Revan, Floyd
Little is known about the environmental conditions that allow Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis, a worldwide emergent bacterial fish pathogen, to colonize and infect wild and cultured fish. We evaluated the effect of temperature and salinity on the infectivity of F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L). Immersion challenges of tilapia with F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis at water temperatures of 25 and 30°C in both sea and fresh water were conducted for 14 d. Morbidity and mortality were recorded daily, and at the completion of the study, a quantitative assessment of the splenic bacterial burden was performed in surviving fish. Fish maintained at 25°C developed francisellosis and had considerably higher mortality and splenic bacterial concentrations compared to control fish and fish maintained at 30°C. Moreover, increasing the water temperature from 25 to 30°C prevented the development of clinical signs and mortality in Francisella-challenged fish. In conclusion, temperature significantly influenced the development of francisellosis in tilapia, whereas salinity had no effect. Our findings may be useful in the establishment of improved prophylactic practices and in the management of outbreaks of francisellosis in the aquaculture industry.
Kiryu, T; Kiso, T; Nakano, H; Ooe, K; Kimura, T; Murakami, H
Lactobionic acid was first found in a Caucasian fermented milk product popularly known as "Caspian Sea yogurt" in Japan. The presence of lactobionic acid in the fermented milk was indicated by the results of both high-performance anion-exchange chromatographic analysis with pulsed amperometric detection and mass spectrometric analysis. Thereafter, the acid was purified from the yogurt and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. A substantial amount of lactobionic acid was found to be accumulated in the upper layer of the yogurt, especially within 10 mm from the surface. A total of 45 mg of lactobionic acid per 100 g of the upper yogurt layer was collected after 4 d of fermentation. The annual intake of lactobionic acid in individuals consuming 100 g of the yogurt every day would be 0.5 to 1.0 g. A lactose-oxidizing bacterium was isolated from the fermented milk and was identified as Acetobacter orientalis. Washed A. orientalis cells oxidized monosaccharides such as d-glucose at considerable rates, although their activities for substrates such as lactose, maltose, and cellobiose were much lower. When A. orientalis cells were cultivated in cow's milk, they exhibited lactose-oxidizing activity, suggesting that this bacterium was the main organism involved in the production of lactobionic acid in the yogurt.
Herrmann, Matthias; Mayer, Werner E; Hong, Ray L; Kienle, Simone; Minasaki, Ryuji; Sommer, Ralf J
Pristionchus pacificus has been developed as a nematode satellite organism in evolutionary developmental biology. Detailed studies of vulva development revealed multiple differences in genetic and molecular control in P. pacificus compared to the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. To place evolutionary developmental biology in a comprehensive evolutionary context, such studies have to be complemented with ecology. In recent field studies in western Europe and eastern North America we found 11 Pristionchus species that are closely associated with scarab beetles and the Colorado potato beetle. However, P. pacificus was not commonly found in association with scarab beetles in these studies. Here, we describe the results of a similar survey of scarab beetles in Japan. Pristionchus pacificus was the most common Pristionchus species on scarab beetles in Japan, with 40 out of 43 (93%) isolates. The other Pristionchus isolates represent three novel species, which we refer to as Pristionchus sp. 11, Pristionchus sp. 14, and Pristionchus sp. 15. Thirty-seven of the established P. pacificus strains were found on the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis. Laboratory studies with the sex pheromone (Z)-7-tetradecen-2-one of the oriental beetle revealed that P. pacificus shows strong olfactory attraction to the beetle's sex pheromone, which provides a potential mechanism for the recognition and interaction of P. pacificus and E. orientalis. Together, this study identifies P. pacificus as the most common Pristionchus nematode in field studies in Japan, identifies E. orientalis as an important host species, and provides the basis for the ecology of P. pacificus.
Yared, Solomon; Gebresilassie, Araya; Akililu, Essayas; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome
Visceral leishmaniasis is a significant public health problem in northwest Ethiopia, particularly in Kafta Humera district. The study was designed to determine the species composition and population dynamics of sand flies in five villages representing urban and semi-urban areas of Kafta Humera district namely, Setit Humera, Mykadra, Rawyan, Bereket and Adebay. Sand flies were collected for two to three nights monthly from May 2011 to April 2012 using CDC light-traps and sticky traps. Traps were placed in villages, at periphery of villages and farm fields. Sticky traps were also used for sampling indoor active sand flies. In total, 13,097 sand fly specimens of eight Phlebotomus species and 91,949 Sergentomyia specimens were collected. Among the Phlebotomus, P. orientalis was the predominant species (58.1%) followed by P. papatasi (29.6%), P. lesleyae (5.6%), P. bergeroti (3.8%), P. duboscqi (2.1%), P. alexandri (0.4%), P. heischi (0.2%) and P. rodhaini (0.2%). Significantly, higher number of P. orientalis was caught in Adebay village and the least in Setit Humera town. Seasonal abundance of P. orientalis increased during the dry season (January-May) and dropped drastically in the wet season (late June-September). Significant positive correlation was found between monthly abundance of P. orientalis and the monthly average air and surface soil temperature, while a negative correlation was found with monthly average rainfall and relative humidity. Higher number of P. orientalis was collected outdoors, especially in the farm fields followed by periphery of villages. Thus, various observations strongly suggested P. orientalis to be the principal vector in the study areas, where farm lands and periphery of villages were identified as the most risky habitats, whereas the indoors were the least ones. Appropriate control methods should be designed and implemented according to the knowledge of P. orientalis habitat preferences and seasonal dynamics in the district.
Weng, Li-Wen; Chang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Wang, Chao-Ping; Wang, Shih-Wei; Houng, Jer-Yiing
This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory responses and mechanisms of Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE). In cell culture experiments, RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with SOE and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for inflammatory mediators assay. In animal experiments, mice were tube-fed with SOE for 1 week, and s.c. injected with λ-carrageenan or i.p. injected with LPS to simulate inflammation. The degree of paw edema was assessed, and cytokine profile in sera and mouse survival were recorded. Data showed that SOE significantly reduced NO, IL-6, and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that mice supplemented with 32 mg SOE/kg BW/day significantly lowered sera IL-6 level and resulted a higher survival rate compared to the control group (P = 0.019). Furthermore, SOE inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation by blocking the degradation of IκB-α. The SOE also reduced significantly the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, the in vitro and in vivo evidence indicate that SOE can attenuate acute inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory mediators via suppression of MAPKs- and NF-κB-dependent pathways. PMID:25328884
Jin, Yuqing; Ma, Yongpeng; Wang, Shun; Hu, Xian-Ge; Huang, Li-Sha; Li, Yue; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Mao, Jian-Feng
Platycladus orientalis, a widespread conifer with long lifespan and significant adaptability. It is much used in reforestation in north China and commonly planted in central Asia. With the increasing demand for plantation forest in central to north China, breeding programs are progressively established for this species. Efficient use of breeding resources requires good understanding of the genetic value of the founder breeding materials. This study investigated the distribution of genetic variation in 192 elite trees collected for the breeding program for the central range of the species. We developed first set of 27 polymorphic EST-derived SSR loci for the species from transcriptome/genome data. After examination of amplification quality, 10 loci were used to evaluate the genetic variation in the breeding population. We found moderate genetic diversity (average He = 0.348) and low population differentiation (Fst = 0.011). Extensive admixture and no significant geographic population structure characterized this set of collections. Our analyses of the diversity and population structure are important steps toward a long-term sustainable deployment of the species and provide valuable genetic information for conservation and breeding applications. PMID:27721449
Ali, Abdul Hameed Mohamed Samsoor; Asokan, Subramanian
The diurnal time-activity patterns of the Small Bee-eater (Merops orientalis) were studied between 2005 and 2006 in the Nagapattinam District of Southern India. Bee-eaters were observed to spend an average of 52.5% of their day time scanning, 21.3% feeding, 13.3% flying, 8.8% resting and 4.1% engaging in preening activities. The time spent on scanning varied among seasons in 2005 (p<0.05) and among time blocks (p<0.05), but it did not vary among years or habitats (p>0.05). The feeding patterns differed among years, seasons within years, time blocks and habitats (p<0.05). The flying habits varied among years, time blocks and habitats (p<0.05) but did not change between seasons within years (p>0.05). The resting habits differed among years and habitats (p<0.05) but did not differ among seasons within years or time blocks (p>0.05). Preening differed among years and time blocks (p<0.05) but did not vary among seasons within years or habitats (p>0.05). We conclude that several factors, such as food availability, environmental factors and predation threats, may affect the diurnal activity patterns of Bee-eaters between habitats and seasons; a further study could clarify this conclusion. PMID:26868589
Jin, Yuqing; Ma, Yongpeng; Wang, Shun; Hu, Xian-Ge; Huang, Li-Sha; Li, Yue; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Mao, Jian-Feng
Platycladus orientalis, a widespread conifer with long lifespan and significant adaptability. It is much used in reforestation in north China and commonly planted in central Asia. With the increasing demand for plantation forest in central to north China, breeding programs are progressively established for this species. Efficient use of breeding resources requires good understanding of the genetic value of the founder breeding materials. This study investigated the distribution of genetic variation in 192 elite trees collected for the breeding program for the central range of the species. We developed first set of 27 polymorphic EST-derived SSR loci for the species from transcriptome/genome data. After examination of amplification quality, 10 loci were used to evaluate the genetic variation in the breeding population. We found moderate genetic diversity (average He = 0.348) and low population differentiation (Fst = 0.011). Extensive admixture and no significant geographic population structure characterized this set of collections. Our analyses of the diversity and population structure are important steps toward a long-term sustainable deployment of the species and provide valuable genetic information for conservation and breeding applications.
Zang, X Y; Guo, J L; Geng, X F; Li, P F; Sun, J Y; Wang, Q W; Xu, C S
The Chinese fire-bellied newt, Cynops orientalis, belonging to Amphibia, Caudata, Salamandridae is a species endemic to China. The liver, which is an important digestive gland and the largest amphibian organ, has various functions, including detoxification, glycogen storage, protein synthesis, and hormone production. However, the newt liver has rarely been studied at the molecular level. We performed histomorphology and high-throughput proteomic analysis of the Chinese fire-bellied newt liver, using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. The H&E staining showed that the newt liver nuclei are large and round, are located in the lateral cytoplasm, and contain a large quantity of lipid droplets. Melanins were abundantly present throughout the hepatic parenchyma. The proteome analysis showed a total of 545 proteins detected in the newt liver. Furthermore, a gene ontology analysis suggested that these proteins were associated with metabolism, immune response, cellular homeostasis, etc. Among these, proteins with metabolic functions were found to be the most abundant and highly expressed. This supports the role of the liver as the metabolic center. The proteomic results provide new insights into the aspects of the liver proteomes of the Chinese fire-bellied newt. The identification of a more global liver proteome in the newt may provide a basis for characterizing and comparing the liver proteomes from other amphibian species.
Negi, Bharti; Dey, Gargi
This work relates to the development of a co-fermented product of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis. Besides malic acid degradation, the parameters of present production technology were also standardized with emphasis on the retainability of total phenolic content (TPC) of sea buckthorn juice. The effect of co-fermentation on physico-chemical characteristics, organic acids, flavonoids, TPC and antioxidant activities was studied. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed 55% reduction in malic acid content after the co-fermentation of sea buckthorn juice. The TPC of sea buckthorn product was 2.18 g gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/l. The estimated scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals was 2.63 Trolox equivalent (TE) mmol/l. Ferric-reducing antioxidant power and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assays also showed that sea buckthorn product was on a par with commercial wines (Cabernet Shiraz and Beaujolais). We conclude that the process of co-fermentation resulted in a significant antioxidant potential of sea buckthorn product.
Zhang, Jian; Shi, Qianqian; Zhang, Chenglu; Xu, Jingtao; Zhai, Bing; Zhang, Bo
Activated carbon was prepared from an inexpensive and renewable carbon source, Typha orientalis, by H(3)PO(4) activation and then impregnated with different Mn salts and tested for its Neutral Red (NR) adsorption capacities. The amount of Mn impregnated in the activated carbon was influenced by the anion species. Impregnation with Mn decreased the surface area, changed the pore size and crystal structure, and introduced more acidic functional groups such as carboxyl, lactone and phenol groups. The optimum adsorption performance for all the activated carbons was obtained at pH 3.7, Mn-Carbon dose of 0.100g/100ml solution and contact time 4.5h. The adsorption isotherms fit the Langmuir isotherm equation. The kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order model. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the processes were spontaneous and endothermic. According to these results, the prepared Mn modified activated carbons are promising adsorbents for the removal of Neutral Red from wastewater.
Miquelle, Dale G; Rozhnov, Vyachaslav V; Ermoshin, Victor; Murzin, Andre A; Nikolaev, Igor G; Hernandez-Blanco, Jose A; Naidenko, Sergie V
The rapid explosion of human populations and the associated development of human-dominated landscapes have drastically reduced and fragmented habitat for tigers (Panthera tigris) and leopards (Panthera pardus) across Asia, resulting in multiple small populations. However, Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) habitat in Russia has remained largely interconnected, except for a break between tigers in southwest Primorye and the southern Sikhote-Alin Mountains. This habitat patch in southwest Primorye also retains the last population of Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis). Genetic differentiation of tigers in southwest Primorye and the Sikhote-Alin Mountains along with survey data suggest that habitat fragmentation is limiting movement of tigers and leopards across the Razdolnaya River basin. We looked at historical and recent survey data on tigers and leopards and mapped existing cover types to examine land-use patterns of both large felids and humans in the development strip along the Razdolnaya River. We then used least-cost distance analyses to identify the most effective potential corridor to retain connectivity for large felids between Land of the Leopard National Park and Ussuriskii Zapovednik (Reserve). We identified a single potential corridor that still exists with a total distance of 62.5 km from Land of the Leopard National Park to Ussuriskii Zapovednik, mostly (93%) through forested habitat. We recommend formal recognition of a Razdolnaya ecological corridor and provide specific recommendations for each of 3 proposed management sections.
d'Ovidio, D; Spadavecchia, C; Angeli, G; Adami, C
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of etomidate anaesthesia by immersion technique in Bombina orientalis. The study comprised two phases. The first phase was carried out to identify the etomidate concentration capable of producing anaesthetic induction, as well as surgical anaesthesia, in the toads. The second phase was aimed at testing that concentration in eight additional animals. Etomidate administered via immersion at a concentration of 37.5 mg/L produced effective anaesthesia in oriental fire-bellied toads. The average duration of surgical anaesthesia was 20 min. All the toads enrolled in the study survived the anaesthesia and long-term complications did not occur. However, undesired side-effects, namely itching, myoclonus and prolonged recovery, were noticed during the perianaesthetic period. The authors concluded that etomidate anaesthesia by immersion, at a concentration of 37.5 mg/L, is suitable in oriental fire-bellied toads and produces anaesthesia of a depth and duration that is sufficient to allow the completion of various experimental procedures, without resulting in lethal complications. However, the occurrence of undesired side-effects opens a debate on the safety of this anaesthetic technique, and imposes the need for further investigation prior to proposing the latter for routine laboratory practice.
Miyamoto, Kensuke; Kotake, Toshihisa; Boncela, Anna Jarecka; Saniewski, Marian; Ueda, Junichi
Hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis) bulbs infected by Fusarium oxysporum showed the symptoms of gummosis. The purpose of this study was to clarify the hormonal regulation of gummosis and composition of gums from hyacinth bulbs. The application of ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid), an ethylene-releasing compound, at 2% (w/w, in lanolin) induced gummosis in hyacinth bulbs. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) at 1.5% (w/w, in lanolin) induced gummosis as well. Simultaneous application of JA-Me and ethephon further enhanced gummosis. Molecular mass distribution of hyacinth gums analyzed by gel permeation chromatography indicated that the gums were mainly homogenous polysaccharides with an average molecular weight of ca. 30kDa. Analysis of the sugar composition of the gums after hydrolysis revealed that the majority were arabinose (ca. 35%) and galactose (ca. 40%) together with small amounts of fucose, rhamnose and uronic acids (ca. 5%, respectively), suggesting that the gums are pectic arabinogalactans. These results indicate that jasmonates (JAs) interact with ethylene to stimulate sugar metabolism, producing pectic arabinogalactans, and vice versa, leading to gummosis. These findings, together with those from our previous studies in tulips (Tulipa gesneriana) and grape hyacinth (Muscari armeniacum), revealed that sugar metabolism and hormonal regulation relating to gummosis are different among species of bulbous plants.
Ali, Abdul Hameed Mohamed Samsoor; Asokan, Subramanian
The diurnal time-activity patterns of the Small Bee-eater (Merops orientalis) were studied between 2005 and 2006 in the Nagapattinam District of Southern India. Bee-eaters were observed to spend an average of 52.5% of their day time scanning, 21.3% feeding, 13.3% flying, 8.8% resting and 4.1% engaging in preening activities. The time spent on scanning varied among seasons in 2005 (p<0.05) and among time blocks (p<0.05), but it did not vary among years or habitats (p>0.05). The feeding patterns differed among years, seasons within years, time blocks and habitats (p<0.05). The flying habits varied among years, time blocks and habitats (p<0.05) but did not change between seasons within years (p>0.05). The resting habits differed among years and habitats (p<0.05) but did not differ among seasons within years or time blocks (p>0.05). Preening differed among years and time blocks (p<0.05) but did not vary among seasons within years or habitats (p>0.05). We conclude that several factors, such as food availability, environmental factors and predation threats, may affect the diurnal activity patterns of Bee-eaters between habitats and seasons; a further study could clarify this conclusion.
Chang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Huang, Kuo-Hung; Wu, Jing-Mei; Kuo, Shyh-Ming; Ling, Xue-Hua; Houng, Jer-Yiing
Endometrial cancer is a common malignancy of the female genital tract. This study demonstrates that Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE) significantly inhibited the proliferation of RL95-2 human endometrial cancer cells. Treating RL95-2 cells with SOE caused cell arrest in the G2/M phase and induced apoptosis of RL95-2 cells by up-regulating Bad, Bak and Bax protein expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein expression. Treatment with SOE increased protein expression of caspase-3, -8 and -9 dose-dependently, indicating that apoptosis was through the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Moreover, SOE was also effective against A549 (lung cancer), Hep G2 (hepatoma), FaDu (pharynx squamous cancer), MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer), and especially on LNCaP (prostate cancer) cell lines. In total, 10 constituents of SOE were identified by Gas chromatography-mass analysis. Caryophyllene oxide and caryophyllene are largely responsible for most cytotoxic activity of SOE against RL95-2 cells. Overall, this study suggests that SOE is a promising anticancer agent for treating endometrial cancer.
Thomson, M C; Elnaiem, D A; Ashford, R W; Connor, S J
The need to define the geographical distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis results from its importance as the dominant vector of kala azar (visceral Iceishmaniasis) in Sudan. Recent epidermics of this disease in southern and eastern Sudan caused an estimated 100000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of the vector. This information is an essential prerequisite to the production of a risk map for kala azar. This study uses data on the presence and absence of P. orientalis from 44 collecting sites across the central belt of Sudan. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of P. orientalis at each collecting site as a function of climatic and environmental variables (rainfall; temperature; altitude; soil type and the satellite-derived environmental proxies - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Land Surface Temperature). The logistic regression model indicates mean annual maximum daily temperature and soil type as the most important ecological determinants of P. orientalis distribution. An initial risk map was created in a raster-based geographical information system which delineates the area where P. orientalis may occur. This map was then refined using a mask layer indicating the known rainfall-based boundaries of the distribution of Acacia-Balanites woodland - a woodland type known to be associated with the distribution of this vector. The predictive performance of the risk map is discussed.
Zhou, Mo; Cao, Shinuo; Sevinc, Ferda; Sevinc, Mutlu; Ceylan, Onur; Moumouni, Paul Franck Adjou; Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Iguchi, Aiko; Vudriko, Patrick; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan
Babesia spp., Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. are significant tick-borne pathogens of livestock globally. In this study, we investigated the presence and distribution of Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis and Anaplasma marginale in cattle from 6 provinces of Turkey using species-specific PCR assays. The PCR were conducted using the primers based on the B. bigemina rhoptry-associated protein 1a (BbiRAP-1a), T. annulata merozoite surface antigen-1 (Tams-1), T. orientalis major piroplasm surface protein (ToMPSP) and A. marginale major surface protein 4 (AmMSP4) genes, respectively. Fragments of B. bigemina internal transcribed spacer (BbiITS), T. annulata internal transcribed spacer (TaITS), ToMPSP and AmMSP4 genes were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. PCR results revealed that the overall infections of A. marginale, T. annulata, B. bigemina and T. orientalis were 29.1%, 18.9%, 11.2% and 5.6%, respectively. The co-infection of two or three pathogens was detected in 29/196 (15.1%) of the cattle samples. The results of sequence analysis indicated that BbiRAP-1a, BbiITS, Tams-1, ToMPSP and AmMSP4 were conserved among the Turkish samples, with 99.76%, 99-99.8%, 99.34-99.78%, 96.9-99.61% and 99.42-99.71% sequence identity values, respectively. In contrast, the Turkish TaITS gene sequences were relatively diverse with 92.3-96.63% identity values. B. bigemina isolates from Turkey were found in the same clade as the isolates from other countries in phylogenetic analysis. On the other hand, phylogenetic analysis based on T. annulata ITS sequences revealed significant differences in the genotypes of T. annulata isolates from Turkey. Additionally, the T. orientalis isolates from Turkish samples were classified as MPSP type 3 genotype. This is the first report of type 3 MPSP in Turkey. Moreover, AmMSP4 isolates from Turkey were found in the same clade as the isolates from other countries. This study provides important data for understanding the
Park, Chan Jin; Song, Sang Ha; Kim, Dae Han; Gye, Myung Chan
In an effort to evaluate the toxicity of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a cationic surfactant in amphibians, we examined the developmental and acute toxicity of CPC in Bombina orientalis embryos and tadpoles. Embryonic exposure to 2.0μM (0.72mg/l) CPC for 7 days significantly decreased the survival rates and increased DNA damage in the intestine of developed tadpoles. Exposure to 1.5μM (0.54mg/l) CPC significantly decreased the growth of embryos and increased developmental abnormalities. The 168-h LC50 and EC50 values of CPC were 1.95μM (0.697mg/l) and 1.48μM (0.531mg/l) in embryos, respectively. In an extended acute toxicity test using tadpoles, the 168-h LC50 value of CPC was 5.07μM (1.82mg/l). In terms of survival and growth rates, the lowest observed effective concentration of CPC was 1.5μM. At sub-lethal concentrations (1.0 and 2.0μM) CPC treatment to embryos increased lipid peroxidation in the intestine and gills of developed tadpoles, indicating that CPC can impose oxidative stress. At 2.0μM CPC, pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak mRNA levels were significantly increased together with DNA fragmentation, indicative of apoptotic cell death. CPC in freshwater system may threaten the normal development of amphibian embryos.
Soto, Esteban; Kidd, Scott; Mendez, Susan; Marancik, David; Revan, Floyd; Hiltchie, David; Camus, Alvin
Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) (syn. F. asiatica) is an emergent warmwater fish pathogen and the causative agent of francisellosis in tilapia (Oreochromis sp). To study the pathogenesis of this bacterium, tilapia fingerlings were experimentally infected by immersion challenge with wild type (WT) Fno and the distribution of bacteria to multiple organs, as well as associated lesion development, investigated after 3, 24, 48, 96, and 192h by real-time PCR and histopathological examination. Surface mucus collected 3h post-infection contained the highest number of Fno genome equivalents (GE). After 96h, marked increases of WT Fno GE were detected in spleen, anterior kidney, posterior kidney, gill, heart, liver, brain, gonad, and the gastrointestinal tract. Increases in bacterial GE also corresponded to the appearance, size and number of granulomas typical of francisellosis, predominantly in the spleen and anterior and posterior kidney segments. A simultaneous comparison was also made in tilapia challenged with an attenuated Fno strain containing a mutation in the intracellular growth locus C (iglC) gene, essential to intracellular survival. Compared to the WT, the mutant iglC strain was present in most tissues in similar numbers prior to 48h post-challenge. While the mutant did not replicate significantly or produce lesions in any tissue, it persisted for up to 192h. These findings provide insight into the pathophysiology of francisellosis in tilapia, which may also prove useful as a model for the study of mammalian tularemia, and advance our understanding of the utility of the ΔiglC mutant as a potential vaccine candidate.
Soto, Esteban; McGovern-Hopkins, Kathleen; Klinger-Bowen, Ruth; Fox, Bradley K; Brock, James; Antonio, Nathene; Waal, Zelda van der; Rushton, Stephen; Mill, Aileen; Tamaru, Clyde S
Francisellosis is an emergent disease in cultured and wild aquatic animals. The causative agent, Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno), is a gram-negative bacterium recognized as one of the most virulent pathogens of warmwater fish. The main objective of this project was to investigate the prevalence of Fno in cultured tilapia (specifically, Mozambique Tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus, Koilapia [also known as Wami Tilapia] O. hornorum, Blue Tilapia O. aureus, and Nile Tilapia O. niloticus hybrids) on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, using conventional and real-time PCR assays followed by statistical modeling to compare the different diagnostic methods and identify potential risk factors. During 2010 and 2012, 827 fish were collected from different geographical locations throughout the island of Oahu. Upon collection of fish, the water temperature in the rearing system and the length of individual fish were measured. Extraction of DNA from different tissues collected aseptically during necropsy served as a template for molecular diagnosis. High correlation between both molecular methods was observed. Moreover, the bacterium was isolated from infected tilapia on selective media and confirmed to be Fno utilizing a species-specific Taqman-based real-time PCR assay. Although a direct comparison of the prevalence of Fno between the different geographical areas was not possible, the results indicate a high prevalence of Fno DNA in cultured tilapia throughout the farm sites located on Oahu. Of the different tilapia species and hybrids currently cultured in Hawaii, Mozambique Tilapia were more susceptible to infection than Koilapia. Water temperature in the rearing systems and fish size also had a strong effect on the predicted level of infection, with fish held at lower temperatures and smaller fish being more susceptible to piscine francisellosis.
Colman, John A.; Nogueira, Jacob I.; Pancorbo, Oscar C.; Batdorf, Carol A.; Block, Barbara A.
Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) have the largest home range of any tuna species and are well known for the capacity to make transoceanic migrations. We report the measurement of mercury (Hg) concentrations in wild Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT), the first reported with known size-of-fish and capture location. The results indicate juvenile PBFT that are recently arrived in the California Current from the western Pacific Ocean have significantly higher Hg concentrations in white muscle (0.51 ug/g wet mass, wm) than PBFT of longer California Current residency (0.41 ug/g wm). These new arrivals are also higher in Hg concentration than PBFT in farm pens (0.43 ug/g wm) that were captured on arrival in the California Current and raised in pens on locally derived feed. Analysis by direct Hg analyzer and attention to Hg by tissue type and location on the fish allowed precise comparisons of mercury among wild and captive fish populations. Analysis of migration and nearshore residency, determined through extensive archival tagging, bioaccumulation models, trophic investigations, and potential coastal sources of methylmercury, indicates Hg bioaccumulation is likely greater for PBFT juvenile habitats in the western Pacific Ocean (East China Sea, Yellow Sea) than in the eastern Pacific Ocean (California Current). Differential bioaccumulation may be a trophic effect or reflect methylmercury availability, with potential sources for coastal China (large hypoxic continental shelf receiving discharge of three large rivers, and island-arc volcanism) different from those for coastal Baja California (small continental shelf, no large rivers, spreading-center volcanism).
Eslami, Ali; Meshgi, Behnam; Jalousian, Fatemeh; Rahmani, Shima; Salari, Mohammad Ali
The aim of the present study is to determine the characteristics of genotype and phenotype of Echinococcus granulosus derived from wild sheep and to compare them with the strains of E. granulosus sensu stricto (sheep-dog) and E. granulosus camel strain (camel-dog) in Iran. In Khojir National Park, near Tehran, Iran, a fertile hydatid cyst was recently found in the liver of a dead wild sheep (Ovis orientalis). The number of protoscolices (n=6,000) proved enough for an experimental infection in a dog. The characteristics of large and small hooks of metacestode were statistically determined as the sensu stricto strain but not the camel strain (P=0.5). To determine E. granulosus genotype, 20 adult worms of this type were collected from the infected dog. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase 1 subunit (COX1) of the mitochondrial DNA were amplified from individual adult worm by PCR. Subsequently, the PCR product was sequenced by Sanger method. The lengths of ITS2 and COX1 sequences were 378 and 857 bp, respectively, for all the sequenced samples. The amplified DNA sequences from both ribosomal and mitochondrial genes were highly similar (99% and 98%, respectively) to that of the ovine strain in the GenBank database. The results of the present study indicate that the morpho-molecular features and characteristics of E. granulosus in the Iranian wild sheep are the same as those of the sheep-dog E. granulosus sensu stricto strain.
Torisawa, S; Fukuda, H; Suzuki, K; Takagi, T
The effects of vision development and light intensity on schooling behaviour during growth in juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis were investigated using both behavioural and histological approaches. The schooling behaviour of three age groups [25, 40 and 55 days post hatching (dph)] of juvenile T. orinetalis were examined under various light intensities. Subsequently, schooling variables, such as the nearest neighbour distance (D(NN) ) and the separation swimming index (I(SS) ), were also measured under different light intensities. Furthermore, retinal indices of light adaptation in juvenile fish at each experimental light intensity and visual acuities in six stages (25-55 dph) of juveniles were examined histologically. During growth, the light intensity thresholds of I(SS) decreased from 5 to 0·05 lx, and D(NN) under light conditions (>300 lx) also decreased from 9·2 times the standard length (L(S) ) to 1·2 times L(S) . The thresholds of light intensities for the light adaptation of retinas in juveniles (25-55 dph) similarly decreased from 5 to 0·05 lx with growth. In addition, the visual acuities of juveniles developed from 0·04 to 0·17 with decreasing D(NN) . These data clearly indicate that the characteristics of schooling behaviour strongly correspond to the degree of vision development. Juvenile T. orinetalis also appear to be more dependent on cone rather than rod cells under low light intensity conditions, resulting in a relatively high light intensity threshold for schooling. These results suggest that juveniles can adapt to darker conditions during growth by developing improved visual capabilities.
Marrelli, Mariangela; Argentieri, Maria Pia; Avato, Pinarosa; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena
In continuation of our research program on Mediterranean dietary plants, a bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from several accessions of Capparis sicula subsp. sicula and Capparis orientalis aerial parts was carried out. Antilipidemic activity of samples was assayed using inhibition of pancreatic lipase. To study the metabolic variability in Capparis species, HPTLC analyses were performed in order to characterize the species through the detection, isolation, and quantitative evaluation of rutin taken as significant chemical marker. The best activity was exerted by C. orientalis accession no. C10 and C. sicula subsp. sicula accession no. C6. The bioactivity evaluation of specific chemical markers, rutin and glucocapparin, led to the identification of a potent antilipidemic compound rutin. The HPTLC analysis showed large variation among the different analyzed samples with respect to rutin concentration. The chemical investigation showed a different composition between the species and between the collection zones. The variations showed by the studied accessions of caper could be attributed to exogenous factors. Capparis species contained predominantly quercetin rutinoside (rutin), accompanied by other constituents such as the glucosinolate glucocapparin. These rutin-rich extracts exhibited pronounced dose-dependent enzyme inhibitory activities toward pancreatic lipase.
Adami, Chiara; d'Ovidio, Dario; Casoni, Daniela
Oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) are small semi-aquatic anuran species popular as both pets and laboratory animals. Although they are commonly anaesthetized to undergo clinical and experimental procedures, very little is known about their anaesthetic management. The aims of this prospective, randomized, cross-over experimental trial were to establish effective butorphanol and morphine concentrations to be added to alfaxalone for immersion anaesthesia (pilot study), and to compare the anaesthetic and antinociceptive effects of the two drug mixtures (alfaxalone-butorphanol and alfaxalone-morphine), in Bombina orientalis toads. For the actual trial, the toads were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: AB and AM, with seven animals in each group, which received alfaxalone-butorphanol and alfaxalone-morphine combinations, respectively, at the concentrations established during the pilot study. Heart rate, respiratory rate, von Frey filament threshold and response to nociceptive withdrawal (NWR), righting and myotactic reflexes were measured at 5 min intervals until return of righting reflex was observed. The investigator who carried out all the measurements was blinded to the treatment. Any undesired effect or complication was noted and recorded. The two treatments were found to be comparable in terms of onset and duration of anaesthesia, and occurrence of undesired effects. However, group AM resulted in lower NWR scores and higher von Frey filament thresholds than group AB. It is concluded that, at the investigated concentrations and in combination with alfaxalone by immersion, morphine provides better antinociception than butorphanol in oriental fire-bellied toads.
Fischer, O A; Matlova, L; Dvorska, L; Svastova, P; Pavlik, I
The potential transmission of the causal agent of paratuberculosis Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis and avian tuberculosis Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium (Actinomycetales: Mycobacteriaceae) by nymphs of the Oriental cockroach Blatta orientalis L. (Blattodea: Blattidae) was investigated by oral infection with mycobacterial suspensions and examination of their droppings and bodies. Both the subspecies of M. avium were isolated from droppings at 3 days post-infection and M. a. avium was found in homogenized bodies at 10 days post-infection. The identity of M. a. avium and M. a. paratuberculosis isolates was demonstrated by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The M. a. avium isolate used as the inoculum and the isolates from the bodies and droppings of the nymphs were shown to be virulent in chickens. The results show that orally infected nymphs of B. orientalis can harbour and shed viable and virulent mycobacteria. This hazard should be considered in the implementation of control measures against mycobacterial infections of animals and humans, which should include destruction of all developmental stages of cockroaches and prevention of their access to materials that can be contaminated by mycobacteria.
Hanamura, Yukio; Siow, Ryon; Chee, Phaik-Ean
A year-round survey of the tropical shallow-water mysid Mesopodopsis orientalis (Tattersall, 1908) (Crustacea, Mysidacea) was conducted in the Merbok mangrove estuary, northwestern Peninsular Malaysia. The mysid formed dense aggregations at the river's edge close to the mangrove forest during the daytime, but very few were captured elsewhere in the estuary system. The sampled population was found in a wide range of salinities from 16 to 32, demonstrating broad euryhalinity, and the number of the catch at the littoral zone ranged from 11.8 to 2273 ind m -2. The overall annual mean was 709.2 ind m -2. Females predominated over males in the entire population, and brooding females were present at every monthly sample, indicating that reproduction is continuous year round. The clutch size positively correlated with female body length. The diameter of eggs (Stage I embryos) was unaffected by the seasonality and independent of the maternal size within an observed size range. The life history pattern of the estuarine population of M. orientalis showed close similarity to that of the coastal counterpart. However, the former was found to produce fewer but larger eggs, and the specimens in this population were larger than those in the coastal population at the embryo, juvenile, and adult stages. This evidence indicates that the life history features of the estuarine population would differ to some degree from those of the coastal counterpart.
Larsson, Pär; Wehner, Stefanie; Bekaert, Michaël; Öhrman, Caroline; Metselaar, Matthijs; Thompson, Kimberly Dawn; Richards, Randolph Harvey; Penman, David James; Adams, Alexandra
ABSTRACT A highly virulent strain of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis, STIR-GUS-F2f7, was isolated from moribund red Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farmed in Europe. In this communication, the complete genome sequencing of this bacterium is reported. PMID:28302784
Development and Validation of a Quantitative PCR Assay Using Multiplexed Hydrolysis Probes for Detection and Quantification of Theileria orientalis Isolates and Differentiation of Clinically Relevant Subtypes
Bogema, D. R.; Deutscher, A. T.; Fell, S.; Collins, D.; Eamens, G. J.
Theileria orientalis is an emerging pathogen of cattle in Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. This organism is a vector-borne hemoprotozoan that causes clinical disease characterized by anemia, abortion, and death, as well as persistent subclinical infections. Molecular methods of diagnosis are preferred due to their sensitivity and utility in differentiating between pathogenic and apathogenic genotypes. Conventional PCR (cPCR) assays for T. orientalis detection and typing are laborious and do not provide an estimate of parasite load. Current real-time PCR assays cannot differentiate between clinically relevant and benign genotypes or are only semiquantitative without a defined clinical threshold. Here, we developed and validated a hydrolysis probe quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay which universally detects and quantifies T. orientalis and identifies the clinically associated Ikeda and Chitose genotypes (UIC assay). Comparison of the UIC assay results with previously validated universal and genotype-specific cPCR results demonstrated that qPCR detects and differentiates T. orientalis with high sensitivity and specificiy. Comparison of quantitative results based on percent parasitemia, determined via blood film analysis and packed cell volume (PCV) revealed significant positive and negative correlations, respectively. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that blood samples from animals with clinical signs of disease contained statistically higher concentrations of T. orientalis DNA than animals with subclinical infections. We propose clinical thresholds to assist in classifying high-, moderate-, and low-level infections and describe how parasite load and the presence of the Ikeda and Chitose genotypes relate to disease. PMID:25588653
Xu, Li; Han, Ting; Ge, Mei; Zhu, Li; Qian, XiuPing
Analysis of the Amycolatopsis orientalis HCCB10007 genome revealed new gene clusters involved in natural product biosynthesis that were not associated with the production of known compounds. Halogenases are a type of tailoring enzymes that are usually found within these secondary gene clusters. In this study, we identified an indole-type halometabolite 6-chrolo-1H-indole-3-carboxamide, named LYXLF2, by whole genome mining and metabolic profiling of a flavin-dependent halogenase mutant. LYXLF2 is a new plant growth-regulating compound that promotes root elongation. The results of this study demonstrated that the special gene knock-out/comparative metabolic profiling approach provides a powerful tool for the discovery of novel natural products by genome mining.
Walli, Andreas G.
To exploit the ocean's patchy resources, large open ocean fish species have evolved highly migratory foraging strategies. In this thesis, a synoptic study of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) and Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and their environment was conducted to identify feeding behavior and foraging related horizontal and vertical movements, and to elucidate foraging habitat. First, electronic archival tags (n=561) were used to examine seasonal movements (1996-2005), aggregations and diving behaviors of Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT) to better understand their migration ecology and oceanic habitat utilization. Throughout the North Atlantic mean diving depth was significantly correlated with thermocline depth and dive behavior changed in relation to the stratification of the water column. Distribution behavior was characterized by seasonal aggregations and rapid movement phases. Throughout the North Atlantic, high residence times (167 +/- 33 days) were identified in four spatially confined regions on a seasonal scale. In these regions, mean diving depths were significantly shallower and dive frequency and internal temperature variance were significantly higher than during transit movements between the regions, suggesting foraging behavior. Residence time in high-use areas was correlated to primary productivity in northern latitudes and these areas represent critical foraging habitats with seasonally abundant prey. To be able to study feeding in wild bluefin tunas, the heat increment of feeding (HIF) in response to known quantities and caloric value of food ingested by captive individuals was evaluated. Feeding experiments were conducted using stomach and peritoneal placed archival tags in captive Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT, n=31). Peritoneal temperature measurements indicate a significant correlation between food energy content and the duration from the start of post-grandial heat increment to the maximum thermal excess (TXmax ) in all ambient
Wang, Yan-Li; Xiao, Hua-Yun; Xiao, Hong-Wei
Leaves of Platanus orientalis were collected since Mar. 2009 till Apr. 2010, in an urban area at Guiyang. After mass of experiments and analysis, we carried out constructing the temporal variation of foliar N% and delta15 N: both higher in Spring/Summer, lower in Autumn, no data of Winter because of leaf abscission. Results showed that foliar N% varied from 1.48% to 5.27%, with an annual average of 3.36%, while the average concentration of total N in rhizospheric soil was 0.29%. The foliar N% rose and fell relative to DIN in rainwater (range from 0.57 mg x L(-1) to 6.74 mg x L(-1)), indicating that the N% content in foliar tissue of plant was approximately proportional to atmospheric N inputs. The range of foliar delta15N were from 4.48 per thousand to 8.39 per thousand, with the average of 6.33 per thousand, much higher than the delta15N-NH4+ of rain water (-19.76 per thousand(-) -10.41 per thousand) and delta15TN of rhizospheric soil (3.19 per thousand +/- 1.04 per thousand). Besides, a good uniform correlation between foliar delta15N and delta15N-NH4+ of rain water were found. As synthesis of two main N sources, the more positive delta15N values of Platanus orientalis can be explained by isotopic fractionation during N uptake and basipetal translocation. These responses of both foliar N% and delta15N to atmospheric nitrogen deposition, revealed the potential value in using vascular leaves as bio-monitors for assessment of N deposition, furthermore, for prevention and control of air pollution in urban ecosystem.
Liu, Fangchun; Xing, Shangjun; Ma, Hailin; Du, Zhenyu; Ma, Bingyao
One of the proposed mechanisms through which plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) enhance plant growth is the production of plant growth regulators, especially cytokinin. However, little information is available regarding cytokinin-producing PGPR inoculation on growth and water stress consistence of forest container seedlings under drought condition. This study determined the effects of Bacillus subtilis on hormone concentration, drought resistance, and plant growth under water-stressed conditions. Although no significant difference was observed under well-watered conditions, leaves of inoculated Platycladus orientalis (oriental thuja) seedlings under drought stress had higher relative water content and leaf water potential compared with those of noninoculated ones. Regardless of water supply levels, the root exudates, namely sugars, amino acids and organic acids, significantly increased because of B. subtilis inoculation. Water stress reduced shoot cytokinins by 39.14 %. However, inoculation decreased this deficit to only 10.22 %. The elevated levels of cytokinins in P. orientalis shoot were associated with higher concentration of abscisic acid (ABA). Stomatal conductance was significantly increased by B. subtilis inoculation in well-watered seedlings. However, the promoting effect of cytokinins on stomatal conductance was hampered, possibly by the combined action of elevated cytokinins and ABA. B. subtilis inoculation increased the shoot dry weight of well-watered and drought seedlings by 34.85 and 19.23 %, as well as the root by 15.445 and 13.99 %, respectively. Consequently, the root/shoot ratio significantly decreased, indicative of the greater benefits of PGPR on shoot growth than root. Thus, inoculation of cytokinin-producing PGPR in container seedlings can alleviate the drought stress and interfere with the suppression of shoot growth, showing a real potential to perform as a drought stress inhibitor in arid environments.
Eamens, Graeme J; Bailey, Graham; Jenkins, Cheryl; Gonsalves, Jocelyn R
Cattle within seven NSW herds with a history or risk of clinical Theileria orientalis disease associated with introductions of cattle were examined clinically and by haematological and PCR testing at sequential bleeds or at single sampling of different risk subgroups. The T. orientalis Ikeda type was detected in all herds and Chitose type was detected in six. Pale and jaundiced mucosal surfaces were associated with clinically affected groups of cattle, and herds containing cattle with ≥ 1% theilerias in erythrocytes were associated with high prevalence of Ikeda type, with or without Chitose type. In clinically normal cattle within these Ikeda-affected herds, over half of the smear negative animals were detected as infected with Ikeda type, while 90% of smear positive cases were positive for Ikeda type. Infection with Ikeda and Chitose organisms was detected in calves as young as 1-2 weeks, rapidly increased in prevalence within one month and was maintained until 4.5 months of age. In these calves Ikeda prevalence increased at a faster rate than the other MPSP types, particularly Buffeli which is generally considered to be avirulent, and suggests either an increased growth rate or rate of transmission of the Ikeda type or failure of the host immune system to clear this type. Particularly high T. orientalis prevalence rates were detected (in blood samples from a single time point) in adults that had been in direct contact with weaner cattle introduced from coastal areas; however, the lack of direct contact with affected cattle did not prevent infection with Ikeda type in some cases. Spread within previously naïve herds was variable, and results also depended on the sampling time point. In contrast, groups in which infection was already established gave repeatedly similar results at multiple samplings taken at one month intervals. Our results confirm that a large reservoir of infected but clinically normal animals exists within T. orientalis-affected cattle herds
Nematicidal activity of plant essential oils and components from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils against pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus).
Kim, Junheon; Seo, Sun-Mi; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon
Commercial essential oils from 28 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii). Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of 26, 11, and 4 major compounds from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) oils, respectively. Compounds from each plant essential oil were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode. Among the compounds, benzaldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, octanal, nonanal, decanal, trans-2-decenal, undecanal, dodecanal, decanol, and trans-2-decen-1-ol showed strong nematicidal activity. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pine wood nematode.
Shen, Yang; Huang, He; Zhu, Li; Luo, Minyu; Chen, Daijie
ECO-orf27 associated with the cluster of ECO-0501 (LW01) from Amycolatopsis orientalis is deduced to encode a type II thioesterase. Disruption of ECO-orf27 reduced LW01 production by 95 %. Complementation of the disrupted mutant with intact ECO-orf27 restored the production of LW01 suggesting that ECO-orf27 is crucial for LW01 biosynthesis. ECO-TE I, the gene encoding type I thioesterase from LW01 polyketide synthases, cannot complement ECO-orf27 deficient mutant distinguishing ECO-orf27 from type I thioesterase gene. Type II thioesterase gene pikAV from Streptomyces venezuelae could complement ECO-orf27 in A. orientalis indicating that the two genes are equivalent in their function. Overexpression of ECO-orf27 resulted in a 20 % increase in LW01 production providing an alternative approach for yield improvement.
Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Chae, Joon-Seok; Park, Bae-Keun; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Park, Jinho
In the current study, we compared seasonal changes in complete blood counts (CBCs) and rates of infection with a tick-borne pathogen between Holstein cattle housed indoors and those maintained outside on pasture. There were differences in white blood cell (WBC) parameters, but the changes were not associated with seasons or the housing type. Analysis of red blood cell (RBC) parameters showed lower values in August and November versus March, and in the cattle maintained on pasture versus the housed cattle. In comparison with the RBC count of the housed cattle in March (10.1M/μL), the RBC counts of the pastured cattle were significantly lower in August (7.8M/μL; p<0.01) and November (7.5M/μL; p<0.01). The hematocrit (HCT) also showed a decrease in March (33.5%), August (30.0%, p<0.01) and November (28.5%, p<0.01). According to PCR analysis, the Theileria infection rate among the pastured cattle in March was only 11%, but this rate increased to 22% and 60% in August and November, respectively. The RBC count (7.4M/μL) and HCT (27.7%) values in Theileria-positive pastured cattle in November showed a dramatic decrease compared to those of cattle examined in March. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these Theileria isolates correspond to T. orientalis. These results suggest that a remarkable increase in tick infestation in mountainous areas in the summer may cause increased rates of infection with T. orientalis, leading to significant changes in the RBC profile after grazing. Therefore, these hematological changes may be associated with T. orientalis infection caused by tick-biting; thus, additional studies on the pathogenicity of T. orientalis are needed.
Gallardo, J C M; Souza, C S; Cicarelli, R M B; Oliveira, K F; Morais, M R; Laluce, C
A fermentation system was continuously fed with sugar-cane syrup and operated with recycling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells at temperatures varying from 30 to 47 °C. The aim of the present work was to obtain and study the colonies of isolates showing elongated cells of yeasts which were sporadically observed at the end of this continuous process. Based on a sequence of assays involving methods of classical taxonomy and RAPD-PCR, two groups of isolates showing characteristics of non-Saccharomyces yeasts were identified in the yeast population where S. cerevisiae was the dominant yeast. The largest group of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, resulting from a slow proliferation over the 2 months, reached a final level of 29.6% at the end of the process. RAPD-PCR profiles obtained for the isolates of this dominant non-Saccharomyces yeast indicated that they were isolates of Issatchenkia orientalis. Pichia membranifaciens was the only species of non-Saccharomyces yeast detected together with I. orientalis but at a very low frequency. The optimum temperature for ethanol formation shown by the isolate 195B of I. orientalis was 42 °C. This strain also showed a faster ethanol formation and biomass accumulation than the thermotolerant strain of S. cerevisiae used as the starter of this fermentation process. Some isolates of I. orientalis were also able to grow better at 40 °C than at 30 °C on plates containing glycerol as carbon source. Yeasts able to grow and produce ethanol at high temperatures can extend the fermentation process beyond the temperature limits tolerated by S. cerevisiae.
Won, Ji-Na; Lee, Seo-Yong; Song, Dae-sub; Poo, Haryoung
Influenza viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans through epidemics or pandemics. Currently, two classes of anti-influenza virus drugs, M2 ion-channel inhibitors (amantadin and rimantadine) and neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir), have been used for the treatment of the influenza virus infection. Since the resistance to these drugs has been reported, the development of a new antiviral agent is necessary. In this study, we examined the antiviral efficacy of the plant extracts against the influenza A/PR/8/34 infection. In vitro, the antiviral activities of the plant extracts were investigated using the cell-based screening. Three plant extracts, Thuja orientalis, Aster spathulifolius, and Pinus thunbergii, were shown to induce a high cell viability rate after the infection with the influenza A/PR/8/34 virus. The antiviral activity of the plant extracts also increased as a function of the concentration of the extracts and these extracts significantly reduced the visible cytopathic effect caused by virus infections. Furthermore, the treatment with T. orientalis was shown to have a stronger inhibitory effect than that with A. spathulifolius or P. thunbergii. These results may suggest that T. orientalis has anti-influenza A/PR/8/34 activity.
Vinodkumar, Kulangara; Shyma, Varikkottil; Justin, Davis Kollannur; Ashok, Sivasailam; Anu, Joseph Parassery; Mini, Kattilveetil; Muhammedkutty, Varikkottil; Sasidharan, Suchithra; Chullipparambil, Sunanda
Fifteen dairy buffaloes of a farm in the state of Kerala, India developed fatal oriental theileriosis within 2 months of their procurement. Typical piroplasms of Theileria orientalis were observed in the erythrocytes of all affected animals by Giemsa-Leishman staining of blood smears. Case fatality rate was 87·5% (seven out of eight) in the clinically progressed cases. Therapeutic management with anti-theilerial drugs buparvaquone and oxytetracycline led to recovery of seven other animals in less advanced stages of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the reasons for increased virulence of this pathogen, hitherto considered to be benign. Acute haemolytic anaemia was the predominant haematological finding in the affected animals. Lymphocytic infiltration and degeneration of vital organs leading to functional derangement was the cause of the high mortality. Identification of T. orientalis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA sequencing of the PCR products revealed close identity with already reported sequences of T. orientalis/buffeli N2 genotype. The sequences were deposited in GenBank with accession number KM609973 and KM043772. Rhipicephalus ticks, previously not reported as vectors for oriental theileriosis, were identified as the potential vectors. This is the first report of fatal oriental theileriosis in Asian water buffaloes.
Fong, Jonathan J; Li, Pi-Peng; Yang, Bao-Tian; Zhou, Zheng-Yan; Leaché, Adam D; Min, Mi-Sook; Waldman, Bruce
The Oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) is a commonly used study organism, but knowledge of its evolutionary history is incomplete. We analyze sequence data from four genetic markers (mtDNA genes encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, cytochrome b, and 12S-16S rRNA; nuDNA gene encoding recombination activating gene 2) from 188 individuals across its range in Northeast Asia to elucidate phylogeographic patterns and to identify the historic events that shaped its evolutionary history. Although morphologically similar across its range, B. orientalis exhibits phylogeographic structure, which we infer was shaped by geologic, climatic, and anthropogenic events. Phylogenetic and divergence-dating analyses recover four genetically distinct groups of B. orientalis: Lineage 1-Shandong Province and Beijing (China); Lineage 2-Bukhan Mountain (Korea); Lineage 3-Russia, Northeast China, and northern South Korea; and Lineage 4-South Korea. Lineage 2 was previously unknown. Additionally, we discover an area of secondary contact on the Korean Peninsula, and infer a single dispersal event as the origin of the insular Jeju population. Skyline plots estimate different population histories for the four lineages: Lineages 1 and 2 experienced population decreases, Lineage 3 remained stable, while Lineage 4 experienced a sharp increase during the Holocene. The timing of the population expansion of Lineage 4 coincides with the advent of rice cultivation, which may have facilitated the increase in population size by providing additional breeding habitat.
Gebre-Michael, T; Malone, J B; Balkew, M; Ali, A; Berhe, N; Hailu, A; Herzi, A A
The distribution of two principal vectors of kala-azar in East Africa, Phlebotomus martini and Phlebotomus orientalis were analysed using geographic information system (GIS) based on (1) earth observing satellite sensor data: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and midday Land Surface Temperature (LST) derived from advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) of the global land 1km project of United States Geological Survey (USGS), (2) agroclimatic data from the FAO Crop Production System Zone (CPSZ) of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) sub-region, and (3) the FAO 1998 soils digital map for the IGAD sub-region. The aim was to produce a predictive risk model for the two vectors. Data used for the analysis were based on presence and absence of the two species from previous survey collections in the region (mainly Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia). Annual, wet season and dry season models were constructed. Although all models resulted in more than 85% positive predictive values for both species, the best fit for the distribution of P. martini was the dry season composite (NDVI 0.07-0.38 and LST 22-33 degrees C) with a predictive value of 93.8%, and the best fit for P. orientalis was the wet season composite (NDVI -0.01 to 0.34 and LST 23-34 degrees C) with a predictive value of 96.3%. The two seasonal composites models derived from satellite data were largely similar with best fit models developed based on the CPSZ climate data: average altitude (12-1900m), average annual mean temperature (15-30 degrees C), annual rainfall (274-1212mm), average annual potential evapotranspiration (1264-1938mm) and readily available soil moisture (62-113mm) for P. martini; and average altitude (200-2200m), annual rainfall (180-1050mm), annual mean temperature (16-36 degrees C) and readily available soil moisture (67-108mm) for P. orientalis. Logistic regression analysis indicated LST dry season composite of the satellite data, average altitude, mean annual
Li, Guoqing; Du, Sheng; Wen, Zhongming
Oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis) is an important afforestation and ornamental tree species, which is native in eastern Asian. Therefore, a global suitable habitat map for oriental arborvitae is urgently needed for global promotion and cultivation. Here, the potential habitat and climatic requirements of oriental arborvitae at global scale were simulated using herbariums data and 13 thermal-moisture variables as input data for maximum entropy model (MaxEnt). The simulation performance of MaxEnt is evaluated by ten-fold cross-validation and a jackknife procedure. Results show that the potential habitat and climate envelop of oriental arborvitae can be successfully simulated by MaxEnt at global scale, with a mean test AUC value of 0.93 and mean training AUC value of 0.95. Thermal factors play more important roles than moisture factors in controlling the distribution boundary of oriental arborvitae’s potential ranges. There are about 50 countries suitable for introduction and cultivation of oriental arborvitae with an area of 2.0 × 107 km2, which occupied 13.8% of land area on the earth. This unique study will provide valuable information and insights needed to identify new regions with climatically suitable habitats for cultivation and introduction of oriental arborvitae around the world. PMID:27443221
Dong, Ha T; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Nguyen, Vuong V; Nilsen, Pål; Pradeep, Padmaja J; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Senapin, Saengchan; Rodkhum, Channarong
Conventional isolation and identification based on phenotypic characteristics is challenging with the highly fastidious, intracellular bacterium Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno). Here, we developed a duplex PCR method for simultaneous detection of the Francisella genus and Fno in one PCR reaction and an in situ hybridization method for paraffin section based diagnosis of Fno. The PCR results showed genus- and species-specific bands (1140 and 203 bp) from Fno but only one genus-specific band (1140 bp) from F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis. Sensitivity of the duplex PCR assay revealed a detection limit of 20 to 200 fg genomic DNA (~10 to 100 genome equivalents) depending on DNA template extraction methods. The newly developed duplex PCR assay could be used to detect Fno from clinically sick fish exhibiting signs of visceral granulomas and would also be able to detect Fno infection in naturally diseased fish without symptoms of francisellosis, indicating potential application for diagnosis of field samples. The in situ hybridization assay using Fno species-specific probe revealed positive signals in multiple organs including the spleen, liver, kidney, gills and intestine of infected fish.
Leal, C A G; Tavares, G C; Figueiredo, H C P
Francisella noatunensis subsp orientalis (FNO) is an emerging pathogen of warm water tilapia in a number of different countries. The disease caused by this bacterium in fish is characterized by a systemic granulomatous infection that causes high mortality rates during outbreaks. FNO has been previously described in Asia, Europe, and Central and North America. Its occurrence in South America has never been described. Since 2012, outbreaks of a granulomatous disease have been recorded in cage farms of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) in Brazil. The current study aimed to identify the etiologic agent of recent francisellosis outbreaks at Brazilian tilapia farms, and to characterize the genetic diversity of the pathogen from farms with distinct geographic origins and without epidemiological connections. Bacteriological analysis of 44 diseased Nile tilapia collected from five cage farms in Brazil was performed during 2012 and 2013. The farms were in different locations and had no recent history of animal or biological material transport between each other. Sixty-two FNO isolates were identified on the basis of FNO-specific qPCR. The main predisposing factors for the occurrence of outbreaks on Brazilian farms were lower water temperature (<22°C) and life stage of fish, affecting mainly fry, fingerlings and young adults (live weight <100 g). The genetic diversity of the Brazilian FNO isolates was evaluated using repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR. The isolates from different origins were shown to be clonally related. This is the first report of the occurrence and genetic diversity of FNO in South America.
Li, Guoqing; Du, Sheng; Wen, Zhongming
Oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis) is an important afforestation and ornamental tree species, which is native in eastern Asian. Therefore, a global suitable habitat map for oriental arborvitae is urgently needed for global promotion and cultivation. Here, the potential habitat and climatic requirements of oriental arborvitae at global scale were simulated using herbariums data and 13 thermal-moisture variables as input data for maximum entropy model (MaxEnt). The simulation performance of MaxEnt is evaluated by ten-fold cross-validation and a jackknife procedure. Results show that the potential habitat and climate envelop of oriental arborvitae can be successfully simulated by MaxEnt at global scale, with a mean test AUC value of 0.93 and mean training AUC value of 0.95. Thermal factors play more important roles than moisture factors in controlling the distribution boundary of oriental arborvitae’s potential ranges. There are about 50 countries suitable for introduction and cultivation of oriental arborvitae with an area of 2.0 × 107 km2, which occupied 13.8% of land area on the earth. This unique study will provide valuable information and insights needed to identify new regions with climatically suitable habitats for cultivation and introduction of oriental arborvitae around the world.
Nakamura, Toru; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Nakano, Masaru; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Kameya, Toshiaki; Kanno, Akira
The class B genes, which belong to the MADS-box gene family, play important roles in regulating the development of petals and stamens in flowering plants. To understand the molecular mechanisms of floral development in Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis (Agapanthaceae), we isolated and characterized the homologs of the Antirrhinum majus genes GLOBOSA and DEFICIENS in this plant. These were designated as ApGLO and ApDEF, respectively. ApGLO and ApDEF contain open reading frames that encode deduced protein with 210 and 214 amino acid residues, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that ApGLO and ApDEF belong to the monocot class B gene family. In situ hybridization experiments revealed that hybridization signals of ApGLO and ApDEF were observed in whorl 1 as well as in whorls 2 and 3. Moreover, the flowers of transgenic Arabidopsis plants that ectopically expressed ApGLO formed petal-like organs in whorl 1. These observations indicate that the flower developmental mechanism of Agapanthus follows the modified ABC model.
Yang, Li; Huang, Mujiao; Zhang, Rui; Lv, Jiang; Ren, Yueheng; Jiang, Zhe; Zhang, Wei; Luan, Xiaofeng
The range of the Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) has decreased dramatically over the last 100 years. This species is still under extreme risk of extinction and conservation efforts are rigorous. Understanding the long-term dynamics of the population decline would be helpful to offer insight into the mechanism behind the decline and endangerment and improve conservation perspectives and strategies. Historical data collection has been the challenge for reconstructing the historical distribution. In China, new gazetteers having systematic compilation and considerable local ecological data can be considered as an important complementary for reconstruction. Therefore, we have set up a data set (mainly based on the new gazetteers) in order to identify the historical range of the Amur Leopard from the 1950s to 2014. The result shows that the Amur leopard was historically widely distributed with large populations in Northeastern China, but it presented a sharp decline after the 1970s. The decline appeared from the plains to the mountains and northeast to southwest since the 1950s. Long-term historical data, mainly from new gazetteers, demonstrates that such resources are capable of tracking species change through time and offers an opportunity to reduce data shortage and enhance understanding in conservation.
Ramsay, Zachary J; Ikura, Juntaro; Laberge, Frédéric
The present report investigated how fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) modified their response in a prey catching task in which the attribution of food reward was contingent on snapping toward a visual stimulus of moving prey displayed on a computer screen. Two experiments investigated modification of the snapping response, with different intervals between the opportunity to snap at the visual stimulus and reward administration. The snapping response of unpaired controls was decreased compared with the conditioned toads when hour or day intervals were used, but intervals of 5 min produced only minimal change in snapping. The determinants of extinction of the response toward the visual stimulus were then investigated in 3 experiments. The results of the first experiment suggested that increased resistance to extinction depended mostly on the number of training trials, not on partial reinforcement or the magnitude of reinforcement during training. This was confirmed in a second experiment showing that overtraining resulted in resistance to extinction, and that the pairing of the reward with a response toward the stimulus was necessary for that effect, as opposed to pairing reward solely with the experimental context. The last experiment showed that the time elapsed between training trials also influenced extinction, but only in toads that received few training trials. Overall, the results suggest that toads learning about a prey stimulus progress from an early flexible phase, when an action can be modified by its consequences, to an acquired habit characterized by an increasingly inflexible and automatic response.
Yang, Li; Huang, Mujiao; Zhang, Rui; Lv, Jiang; Ren, Yueheng; Jiang, Zhe; Zhang, Wei; Luan, Xiaofeng
Abstract The range of the Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) has decreased dramatically over the last 100 years. This species is still under extreme risk of extinction and conservation efforts are rigorous. Understanding the long-term dynamics of the population decline would be helpful to offer insight into the mechanism behind the decline and endangerment and improve conservation perspectives and strategies. Historical data collection has been the challenge for reconstructing the historical distribution. In China, new gazetteers having systematic compilation and considerable local ecological data can be considered as an important complementary for reconstruction. Therefore, we have set up a data set (mainly based on the new gazetteers) in order to identify the historical range of the Amur Leopard from the 1950s to 2014. The result shows that the Amur leopard was historically widely distributed with large populations in Northeastern China, but it presented a sharp decline after the 1970s. The decline appeared from the plains to the mountains and northeast to southwest since the 1950s. Long-term historical data, mainly from new gazetteers, demonstrates that such resources are capable of tracking species change through time and offers an opportunity to reduce data shortage and enhance understanding in conservation. PMID:27408548
Kozłowska, Marlena; Niedojadło, Katarzyna; Brzostek, Marta; Bednarska-Kozakiewicz, Elżbieta
During the sexual reproduction of flowering plants, epigenetic control of gene expression and genome integrity by DNA methylation and histone modifications plays an important role in male gametogenesis. In this study, we compared the chromatin modification patterns of the generative, sperm cells and vegetative nuclei during Hyacinthus orientalis male gametophyte development. Changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of 5-methylcytosine, acetylated histone H4 and histone deacetylase indicated potential differences in the specific epigenetic state of all analysed cells, in both the mature cellular pollen grains and the in vitro growing pollen tubes. Interestingly, we observed unique localization of chromatin modifications in the area of the generative and the vegetative nuclei located near each other in the male germ unit, indicating the precise mechanisms of gene expression regulation in this region. We discuss the differences in the patterns of the epigenetic marks along with our previous reports of nuclear metabolism and changes in chromatin organization and activity in hyacinth male gametophyte cells. We also propose that this epigenetic status of the analysed nuclei is related to the different acquired fates and biological functions of these cells.
Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Fernandes, D; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P
The glucosinolates content of brassica plants is a distinctive characteristic, representing a healthy advantage as many of these compounds are associated to antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. Brassica sprouts are still an underutilized source of these bioactive compounds. In this work, four varieties of brassica sprouts (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage), including two local varieties from the North of Portugal, were grown to evaluate the glucosinolate profile and myrosinase activity during the sprouting. Also the influence of light/darkness exposure during sprouting on the glucosinolate content was assessed. Glucosinolate content and myrosinase activity of the sprouts was evaluated by HPLC methods. All sprouts revealed a higher content of aliphatic glucosinolates than of indole glucosinolates, contrary to the profile described for most of brassica mature plants. Galega kale sprouts had the highest glucosinolate content, mainly sinigrin and glucoiberin, which are recognized for their beneficial health effects. Penca cabbage sprouts were particularly richer in glucoraphanin, who was also one of the major compounds in broccoli sprouts. Red cabbage showed a higher content of progoitrin. Regarding myrosinase activity, Galega kale sprouts showed the highest values, revealing that the use of light/dark cycles and a sprouting phase of 7-9 days could be beneficial to preserve the glucosinolate content of this variety.
Allen, B W
Adult Blatta orientalis were allowed to feed on heat-fixed tuberculous sputum smears and the faeces collected for examination by microscopy and culture. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was repeatedly isolated from homogenized faecal pellets using liquid and solid selective culture media. Faeces remained positive both microscopically and on culture even after storing for 8 weeks at room temperature. It is recommended that smears, prepared from clinical material which may contain M. tuberculosis or M. leprae, are stored in a closed container and not left exposed to nocturnal omnivorous insects which frequently infest hospitals and laboratories.
Pushchin, Igor I; Zyumchenko, Nataliya E
The vertebrate visual system is determined by two main factors, a species' lifestyle and phylogenetic legacy. Studying the visual system in outgroup lineages may shed some light on the balance of these factors within a certain radiation. We studied the topography of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the retina of the oriental fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis. These toads belong to the ancient superfamily Discoglossoidea, a sister group to all extant Anura except for two small families. RGCs were retrogradely labeled with tetramethylrhodamine- dextran amine (TMR-DA) and examined in retinal wholemounts. RGCs occurred all over the retina except for the far periphery. Their total number was [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). They comprised 73-77% of all cells in the ganglion cell layer. The spatial density of GCs increased gradually from the dorsal and ventral retinal periphery toward the equator to form a weak visual streak and a moderately pronounced area centralis. The minimum density was [Formula: see text], and the maximum, [Formula: see text]. The maximum density gradient was [Formula: see text]. The spatial resolution was minimum in the dorsal and ventral periphery ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] cycles per degree in water and air, respectively). Intermediate values of spatial resolving power were found within the visual streak ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] cycles per degree) and reached a peak in area centralis ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] cycles per degree). This is sufficient for efficient prey location and capture. The relatively high RGC density and the presence of specialized retinal regions in oriental fire-bellied toads are consistent with their highly visual behavior. A brief review comparing the phylogeny and ecology of this with other anuran species suggests that the main factor shaping the RGC distribution in Anura is phylogenetic legacy; the environmental pressure results
Lagos, Leidy; Tandberg, Julia I; Repnik, Urska; Boysen, Preben; Ropstad, Erik; Varkey, Deepa; Paulsen, Ian T; Winther-Larsen, Hanne C
Vaccine development against extracellular bacteria has been important for the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. In contrast, infections with intracellular pathogens remain largely an unresolved problem. Francisella noatunensis subspecies orientalis (Fno) are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria that cause the disease francisellosis in fish. Francisellosis is commonly characterized as a chronic granulomatous disease with high morbidity and can result in high mortality depending on the host. In this study, we explored the potential of bacterial membrane vesicles (MVs) as a vaccine agent against Fno Bacterial MVs are spherical structures naturally released from the membrane of bacteria and are often enriched with selected bacterial components such as toxins and signaling molecules. In the present work, MVs were isolated from broth-cultured Fno and proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry revealed that MVs contained a variety of immunogenic factors, including the intracellular growth proteins IglC and IglB, known to be part of a Francisella Pathogenicity Island (FPI), as well as outer membrane protein OmpA, chaperonin GroEL and chaperone ClpB. By using flow cytometry and electron microscopy, we observed that Fno mainly infect myelomonocytic cells, both in vivo and in vitro. Immunization with MVs isolated from Fno protect zebrafish from subsequent challenge with a lethal dose of Fno To determine if MVs induce a typical acute inflammatory response, mRNA expression level were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. The expression of tnfa, il1b, ifng, as well as mhcii, mpeg1.1 and ighm was upregulated, thus confirming the immunogenic properties of Fno derived MVs.
Hatipoğlu, Mükerrem; Sağlam, Mehmet; Köseoğlu, Serhat; Köksal, Ekrem; Keleş, Ali; Esen, Hacı Hasan
The purpose of this animal study was to evaluate the effects of hawthorn (Crataeus orientalis M Bieber.) extract on serum oxidative status and alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis. Twenty-seven Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following groups: non- ligated+placebo (saline) (NL, n = 9), ligature only+placebo (saline) (LO, n = 9), and ligature and treated with hawthorn extract in saline (H, n = 9) (100 mg/kg orogastrically, once a day for 11 days). Periodontitis was induced by submerging a 4/0 silk ligature in the sulcus of the mandibular right first molars of rats, and the animals were sacrificed after 11 days. Micro-CT examinations were performed for linear and volumetric parameter assessment of alveolar bone. Periodontal tissues were histopathologically examined to assess the differences among the study groups. Levels of serum total antioxidant status (TAS)/total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were also analyzed. Alveolar bone loss was significantly reduced by hawthorn administration compared to LO group (p<0.05). The number of inflammatory cells and osteoclasts in the LO group was significantly higher than that of the NL and H groups (p< 0.05). The number of osteoblasts in the LO and H groups was significantly higher than that of the NL group (p<0.05). TOS and OSI levels were significantly reduced in H group compared to LO group (P <0.05) and TAS levels were similar in H and NL group (p< 0.05). Hawthorn extract showed inhibitory effect on periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss by regulating TAS, TOS and OSI levels in periodontal disease in rats when administered systemically.
Barbanera, Filippo; Guerrini, Monica; Beccani, Caterina; Forcina, Giovanni; Anayiotos, Petros; Panayides, Panicos
Molecular DNA techniques in combination with appropriate reference population database and statistical methods are fundamental tools to forensic wildlife investigations. This is even more relevant when taxa with uncertain systematics are involved, as is the case of the genus Ovis (Bovidae), whose evolution has been influenced by multiple events of domestication. The Cypriot mouflon, Ovis orientalis ophion, a protected subspecies endemic to Cyprus, is threatened by poaching. This study deals with a case of alleged poaching that occurred in Cyprus (September, 2010). A car did not stop at a checkpoint and when finally blocked by the police, several bloodstained exhibits (n=12) were recovered. Three recently deceased mouflons were found by game wardens at the roadside. The Cyprus Veterinary Services established that these animals had been killed by gunshot. As part of the investigation, DNA testing was performed to establish if there was a link between the dead mouflons and the bloodstained exhibits. The mitochondrial Cytochrome-b gene (Cyt-b) and 12 loci of microsatellite DNA were used as markers. The Cyt-b sequences were obtained from 11 exhibits. They were the same as each other and the same as the single haplotype obtained from the three dead mouflons and all the investigated wild Cypriot mouflons (20 individuals). A database of wild mouflons (47 individuals) from which the unknown samples may have originated was generated. The probability of identity (P(ID)) of the microsatellite panel, computed by genotyping all 47 wild mouflons (10 selected loci, P(ID)=10(-5)), allowed us to assign nine exhibits to two out of the three carcasses (seven with very strong support: Likelihood Ratio, LR>3000 and Random Match Probability, RMP, <10(-3)). This study represents the first genetic reference for the Cypriot mouflon and the first published material of forensic wildlife investigations in Cyprus.
Helm, R M; Squillace, D L; Jones, R T; Brenner, R J
Whole-body extracts of the feral and peridomestic Asian cockroach (Blattella asahinai) and the three domestic cockroach species, German (Blattella germanica), American (Periplaneta americana), and Oriental (Blatta orientalis), were compared allergenically using an IgE serum pool from 4 German cockroach sensitive individuals. In crossover radioallergosorbent inhibition analysis, the Asian cockroach shared allergenic activity primarily with the German cockroach polymer and to a lesser extent with either the American or Oriental cockroach polymers. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and thin-layer isoelectric focusing analysis of the extracts showed similar although varying intensities of Coomassie blue stained banding patterns among five extracts analyzed. Electroblotting analysis with 12.5% SDS-PAGE of the whole-body German cockroach extract and IgE serum from individuals sensitive to German cockroach revealed eight allergenic components with apparent molecular weights of 92, 80, 67, 48, 36, 27, 25 and 18 kD. Five components could be identified in the whole-body extract of the Asian cockroach corresponding to apparent molecular weights of 92, 67, 48, 40, and 32 kD. Analysis of individual serum by immunoblot analysis with each of the cockroach extracts showed considerable heterogenicity in the IgE-binding pattern. Although the Asian cockroach demonstrated considerable cross-reacting allergenic components to German and relatively fewer cross-reacting allergenic components to either the Oriental or American, it is too early to establish genus- or species-specific cockroach allergens. It is important to point out that German cockroach sensitive individuals should be made aware of the potential exposure of Asian cockroach aeroallergens both indoors and outdoors in areas with high infestations of Asian cockroaches.
Kaya, Murat; Bağrıaçık, Nil; Seyyar, Osman; Baran, Talat
There has been no study on the chitin structure of wasp species. Here, we selected the three most common wasp species belonging to the family Vespidae for chitin extraction and characterization. Chitin was isolated from each wasp species and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), elemental analysis (EA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chitin contents of Vespa crabro, Vespa orientalis, and Vespula germanica were 8.3, 6.4, and 11.9%, respectively. The crystalline index (CrI) values for the chitin extracted from each species were 69.88, 53.92, and 50%, respectively. The most important finding of the study is that although the same method was used to extract chitin from each of the three wasp species, the degree of acetylation was different: for V. crabro and V. orientalis it was 96.85 and 99.82% (the chitin was extremely pure), respectively, whereas that for V. germanica the chitin was 79.83%.
Antioxidant Activity and Antibacterial Effects on Clinical Isolated Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius of Extracts from Several Parts of Cladogynos orientalis and Their Phytochemical Screenings.
Sithisarn, Pongtip; Rojsanga, Piyanuch; Sithisarn, Patchima; Kongkiatpaiboon, Sumet
The in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial assays against clinically isolated Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius of the extracts prepared by decoction and ethanolic reflux of different parts of Chettaphangki (Cladogynos orientalis Zipp. ex Span), including the leaves, roots, and stems, using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay and disc diffusion method were conducted. Quantitative analysis of total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in the extracts using spectrophotometric methods was also performed. Finally, phytochemical screening by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was conducted. Leaf ethanolic reflux extract (100 g) contained the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of 7.21 ± 0.28 μg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) and 11.51 ± 2.02 μg rutin equivalent (RE), respectively. Chettaphangki extracts promoted low antioxidant activity with EC50 values in the range of 0.27-0.48 mg/mL. Extracts and fractions from the roots and stems of this plant promoted low to intermediate antibacterial activity against S. intermedius with the inhibition zones between 7 and 14 mm. The chromatographic data suggested that the leaf extracts of C. orientalis contained rutin while the root and stem extracts contained scopoletin and chettaphanin I. Rutin promoted strong antioxidant activity while chettaphanin I showed low antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus intermedius.
Matsushika, Akinori; Negi, Kanako; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Goshima, Tetsuya; Hoshino, Tamotsu
The use of yeasts tolerant to acid (low pH) and salt stress is of industrial importance for several bioproduction processes. To identify new candidate genes having potential roles in low-pH tolerance, we screened an expression genomic DNA library of a multiple-stress-tolerant yeast, Issatchenkia orientalis (Pichia kudriavzevii), for clones that allowed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to grow under highly acidic conditions (pH 2.0). A genomic DNA clone containing two putative open reading frames was obtained, of which the putative protein-coding gene comprising 1629 bp was retransformed into the host. This transformant grew significantly at pH 2.0, and at pH 2.5 in the presence of 7.5% Na2SO4. The predicted amino acid sequence of this new gene, named I. orientalis GAS1 (IoGAS1), was 60% identical to the S. cerevisiae Gas1 protein, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein essential for maintaining cell wall integrity, and 58–59% identical to Candida albicans Phr1 and Phr2, pH-responsive proteins implicated in cell wall assembly and virulence. Northern hybridization analyses indicated that, as for the C. albicans homologs, IoGAS1 expression was pH-dependent, with expression increasing with decreasing pH (from 4.0 to 2.0) of the medium. These results suggest that IoGAS1 represents a novel pH-regulated system required for the adaptation of I. orientalis to environments of diverse pH. Heterologous expression of IoGAS1 complemented the growth and morphological defects of a S. cerevisiae gas1Δ mutant, demonstrating that IoGAS1 and the corresponding S. cerevisiae gene play similar roles in cell wall biosynthesis. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that two conserved glutamate residues (E161 and E262) in the IoGas1 protein play a crucial role in yeast morphogenesis and tolerance to low pH and salt stress. Furthermore, overexpression of IoGAS1 in S. cerevisiae remarkably improved the ethanol fermentation ability at pH 2.5, and at pH 2.0 in the presence of
Menasria, Taha; Tine, Samir; Mahcene, Djaouida; Benammar, Leyla; Megri, Rochdi; Boukoucha, Mourad; Debabza, Manel
A study was performed to estimate the prevalence of the external bacterial flora of two domestic cockroaches (Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis) collected from households in Tebessa (northeast Algeria). Three major bacterial groups were cultured (total aerobic, enterobacteria, and staphylococci) from 14 specimens of cockroaches, and antibiotic susceptibility was tested for both Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas isolates. Culturing showed that the total bacterial load of cockroaches from different households were comparable (P<0.001) and enterobacteria were the predominant colonizers of the insect surface, with a bacterial load of (2.1 × 10⁵ CFU/insect), whereas the staphylococci group was the minority. Twenty-eight bacterial species were isolated, and susceptibility patterns showed that most of the staphylococci isolates were highly susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamycin, pristinamycin, ofloxacin, clindamycin, and vancomycin; however, Pseudomonas strains exhibited resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, imipenem, and the second-generation antibiotic cephalosporin cefuroxime.
Lin, Qiang; Li, Ningqiu; Fu, Xiaozhe; Hu, Qiandong; Chang, Ouqin; Liu, Lihui; Zhang, Defeng; Wang, Guangjun; San, Guibao; Wu, Shuqin
In 2013, a novel disease was detected in tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus) in Guangzhou, South China. To identify the causative pathogen, we conducted histological examination, bacteria isolation, and purification, and sequenced the 16S rRNA gene of isolates. Infected fish had a large number of white granulomas in the kidney, liver, heart, and spleen. The head kidney and spleen were markedly swollen. A bacterium strain designated as gz201301 was recovered from the spleen of infected tilapia. The 16S rRNA sequence of gz201301 revealed that it was highly similar to F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis. This is the first report of a Francisella-like infection in farmed tilapia in China.
Le Patourel, G N
Activity and survival of adult female Blatta orientalis was investigated using tagged cockroaches in periodically illuminated arenas (LD 12:12 h) with a harbourage at one end. The arenas were rectangular with a width of 50 cm and lengths up to 480 cm. A cypermethrin-treated plywood plate (50 x 11 cm) substrate across the harbourage access points caused cockroaches to be exposed to the insecticide deposit by tarsal contact as they entered or left the harbourage. The effects of varying arena length and cypermethrin concentration were tested at 28 degrees C. The LC50 following 3 days exposure ranged from 5.7 to 11.8 mg/m2 on the plywood plate for arena lengths of 60 to 480 cm, respectively; cypermethrin at 30 mg/m2 produced 100% knockdown of B. orientalis within one 12 h dark period. During darkness, active cockroaches spent most time close to the harbourage or around food and water stations, at the far end of the arena, and made frequent returns into the harbourage. For arena length 120 cm, the mean duration of contact with treated plates during the first hour of the dark period was significantly less than contact time on untreated plates, but during 12 h the cumulative contact times were not significantly different between treated and untreated plates. During the first 4 h of the dark period, mean cockroach numbers on the treated plate declined as arena length increased, but not as rapidly as the mean number/unit area over the rest of the arena. The arena design is considered suitable for comparative testing of fast-acting neuroactive insecticide deposits against cockroaches.
Une, M; Inoue, A; Hoshita, T
Varanic acid (3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha, 24-tetrahydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid; 24-OH-THCA) is almost the sole component of bile acids in the bile of Bombina orientalis. To examine in the mechanism of the formation of 24-OH-THCA, radiolabeled (25R)- and (25S)-3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihdroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acids [(25R)- and (25S)-THCA] and (24E)-3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihdroxy-5 beta-cholest-24-enoic acid (delta 24-THCA) were administered intraperitoneally to B. orientalis, gallbladder bile was collected after 24 h, and bile acids were subsequently extracted. Then the bile acids were analyzed by means of radio thin-layer chromatography and radio high-performance liquid chromatography after conversion to p-bromophenacyl ester derivatives. Although delta 24-THCA was not converted to 24-OH-THCA, (25R)-THCA and (25S)-THCA were transformed to (24R,25R)-24-OH-THCA and (24R,25S)-24-OH-THCA, respectively. These results strongly suggest that 24-OH-THCA was transformed via direct hydroxylation of the saturated side chain of THCA, not via hydration to an alpha, beta-unsaturated acid, delta 24-THCA, in B. orientalis.
Zienkiewicz, K; Smoliński, D J; Bednarska, E
The localization of poly(A) mRNA and molecules participating in pre-mRNA splicing, i.e., small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and the SC35 protein, in mature Hyacinthus orientalis L. pollen grains before anthesis and pollen tubes germinating in vitro were analyzed. The observations indicated a pattern of poly(A) mRNA distribution in mature pollen grains before anthesis which differed from that in germinating pollen grains. Directly before anthesis, poly(A) mRNA was homogeneously distributed throughout the whole cytoplasm, whereas after rehydration, it accumulated at one of the pollen poles. In the pollen tube, poly(A) mRNA was present in the cytoplasm, mainly in the areas beneath the cell membrane and the apical zone. Both before anthesis and during growth of the pollen tube, splicing snRNPs and SC35 protein were localized mainly in the area of the pollen nuclei. During anthesis and just after rehydration of the pollen grains, the pattern of labeling and the levels of the investigated antigens in the areas of the vegetative and generative nuclei were similar. During growth of the pollen tube, a change was observed in the distribution and an increase in the levels of trimethylguanosine snRNA and SC35 protein in the vegetative nucleus. Such a pattern of localization of the splicing machinery suggests resumption of transcription and/or maturation of pre-mRNA in the growing pollen tube.
Loncaric, Igor; Beiglböck, Christoph; Feßler, Andrea T.; Posautz, Annika; Rosengarten, Renate; Walzer, Chris; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan; Schwarz, Stefan; Spergser, Joachim; Kübber-Heiss, Anna
The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of β-lactamase producing or fluoroquinolone-resistant members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in European mouflons (Ovis orientalis musimon). The mouflon samples originated from nasal and perineal swabs and/or organ samples in cases of a suspected infection. Only one of the 32 mouflons was tested positive for the presence of Enterobacteriaceae that displayed either an ESBL/AmpC phenotype or were resistant to ciprofloxacin. The positively tested swab originated from a sample of the jejunal mucosa of a four-year old female mouflon. Two different colony morphotypes were identified as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. These isolates were phenotypically and genotypically characterized in detail by a polyphasic approach. Both isolates were multi-drug resistant. The E. coli isolate belonged to the phylogenetic group B1 and sequence type (ST) 744 and harboured the β-lactamase genes blaCTX-M-15 and blaOXA-1. The K. pneumoniae, identified as ST11, harboured the β-lactamase genes blaSHV-11, blaOXA-1, and blaDHA-1 as well as the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) gene qnrB55. The present study demonstrates that wild animals can acquire human-derived resistance determinants and such findings may indicate environmental pollution with resistance determinants from other sources. PMID:27192164
Stölzl, Anna Maria; Lambertz, Christian; Gauly, Matthias
The aim of the present study was to assess the behaviour of llamas (Lama glama) and German blackhead mutton sheep (Ovis orientalis forma aries) when kept under Central European grazing conditions. In total, six adult female sheep and six adult female llamas were observed by direct observation during one week, in which each group was observed for a total time of 24 h. The animals were kept on the same pasture, but the species were raised in separate plots. Forage height before and after the experimental period were determined using a rising plate meter to calculate the average daily dry matter intake (DMI). Llamas had a daily DMI of 0.85%/BW and sheep of 1.04%/BW, respectively. The following behaviours were recorded by direct observation: grazing standing up, grazing lying down, ruminating standing up, ruminating lying down, lying down, lying down lateral and standing. Both species grazed for more than 50% of the time. Ruminating was predominantly performed while standing and lying by sheep (about 50% of the night and 12% of the day) and while lying by llamas (54% of the night and 10% of the day). In conclusion, sheep and llamas differed in grazing behaviour and daily biorhythm. These differences indicate that sheep and llamas may not synchronize their behaviour when co-grazed, though particularly in co-grazing studies the observation period should be extended.
Oh, Hyun-Woo; Heo, Sun-Yeon; Kim, Do Young; Park, Doo-Sang; Bae, Kyung Sook; Park, Ho-Yong
An exo-symbiotic bacterium capable of hydrolyzing xylan was isolated from the gut of the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis, and identified as Cellulosimicrobium sp. HY-12. The xylanase (XylA( CspHY-12)) of this organism bound tightly to both DEAE and mono Q resins, and its molecular mass (M(r)) was about 39.0 kDa. The highest xylanase activity was observed at pH 6.0 and 60 degrees C. The enzyme was greatly suppressed by Ca(2+), Cu(2+), Co(2+), and Fe(2+) ions but not by Mg(2+) and Mn(2+). Although XylA( CspHY-12) was capable of hydrolyzing various types of xylosic compounds, it could not decompose carboxymethyl cellulose or xylobiose. The xylA (CspHY-12 ) gene consisted of an 1,188 bp open reading frame that encoded a polypeptide of 395 amino acids with a deduced molecular mass of 42,925 Da. The domain structure of XylA( CspHY-12) was most similar to those of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 endoxylanases. However its sequence identity with any of the enzymes in this family was below 52%. The results of this study suggest that the XylA( CspHY-12) is a new cellulase-free endo-beta-1,4-xylanase with some properties that are distinct from those of GH family 10.
Toledano-Díaz, A; Santiago-Moreno, J; Gómez-Brunet, A; Pulido-Pastor, A; López-Sebastián, A
Seasonal variations in the horn development and testicular activity of the Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica) (n=6) and European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) (n=5) were monitored to determine the role of increasing testosterone concentration on the arrest of horn growth during the rutting season. Marked seasonal variations in the rate of horn growth (P<0.01) and testicular activity (P<0.001) were seen in both species, although the magnitude and timing of these changes were different (P<0.01). Horn growth rate was inversely correlated to seasonal levels in testosterone plasma concentration in both species (ibex: R=-0.45, P<0.01; mouflon R=-0.51, P<0.01). In the mouflon, the increase in plasma testosterone concentration recorded in September (P<0.05 compared with the lowest concentration) coincided with a significant reduction in horn growth (P<0.05). In the ibex, the increase in plasma testosterone concentration in October (P<0.05 compared with the lowest concentration) was associated with a significant arrest of horn growth in November (P<0.05). These results appear to support the hypothesis that high peripheral plasma levels of testosterone are linked with the seasonal arrest of horn growth during the rutting period.
Ang, Yuchen; Wong, Ling Jing; Meier, Rudolf
Abstract Many species descriptions, especially older ones, consist mostly of text and have few illustrations. Only the most conspicuous morphological features needed for species diagnosis and delimitation at the time of description are illustrated. Such descriptions can quickly become inadequate when new species or characters are discovered. We propose that descriptions should become more data-rich by presenting a large amount of images and illustrations to cover as much morphology as possible; these descriptions are more likely to remain adequate over time because their large amounts of visual data could capture character systems that may become important in the future. Such an approach can now be quickly and easily achieved given that high-quality digital photography is readily available. Here, we re-describe the sepsid fly Perochaeta orientalis (de Meijere 1913) (Diptera, Sepsidae) which has suffered from inadequate descriptions in the past, and use photomicrography, scanning electron microscopy and videography to document its external morphology and mating behaviour. All images and videos are embedded within the electronic publication. We discuss briefly benefits and problems with our approach. PMID:24363567
Billen, Bert; Vassilevski, Alexander; Nikolsky, Anton; Debaveye, Sarah; Tytgat, Jan; Grishin, Eugene
Spider venoms provide a highly valuable source of peptide toxins that act on a wide diversity of membrane-bound receptors and ion channels. In this work, we report isolation, biochemical analysis, and pharmacological characterization of a novel family of spider peptide toxins, designated β/δ-agatoxins. These toxins consist of 36–38 amino acid residues and originate from the venom of the agelenid funnel-web spider Agelena orientalis. The presented toxins show considerable amino acid sequence similarity to other known toxins such as μ-agatoxins, curtatoxins, and δ-palutoxins-IT from the related spiders Agelenopsis aperta, Hololena curta, and Paracoelotes luctuosus. β/δ-Agatoxins modulate the insect NaV channel (DmNaV1/tipE) in a unique manner, with both the activation and inactivation processes being affected. The voltage dependence of activation is shifted toward more hyperpolarized potentials (analogous to site 4 toxins) and a non-inactivating persistent Na+ current is induced (site 3-like action). Interestingly, both effects take place in a voltage-dependent manner, producing a bell-shaped curve between −80 and 0 mV, and they are absent in mammalian NaV channels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of peptide toxins with such a peculiar pharmacological behavior, clearly indicating that traditional classification of toxins according to their binding sites may not be as exclusive as previously assumed. PMID:20385552
Billen, Bert; Vassilevski, Alexander; Nikolsky, Anton; Debaveye, Sarah; Tytgat, Jan; Grishin, Eugene
Spider venoms provide a highly valuable source of peptide toxins that act on a wide diversity of membrane-bound receptors and ion channels. In this work, we report isolation, biochemical analysis, and pharmacological characterization of a novel family of spider peptide toxins, designated beta/delta-agatoxins. These toxins consist of 36-38 amino acid residues and originate from the venom of the agelenid funnel-web spider Agelena orientalis. The presented toxins show considerable amino acid sequence similarity to other known toxins such as mu-agatoxins, curtatoxins, and delta-palutoxins-IT from the related spiders Agelenopsis aperta, Hololena curta, and Paracoelotes luctuosus. beta/delta-Agatoxins modulate the insect Na(V) channel (DmNa(V)1/tipE) in a unique manner, with both the activation and inactivation processes being affected. The voltage dependence of activation is shifted toward more hyperpolarized potentials (analogous to site 4 toxins) and a non-inactivating persistent Na(+) current is induced (site 3-like action). Interestingly, both effects take place in a voltage-dependent manner, producing a bell-shaped curve between -80 and 0 mV, and they are absent in mammalian Na(V) channels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of peptide toxins with such a peculiar pharmacological behavior, clearly indicating that traditional classification of toxins according to their binding sites may not be as exclusive as previously assumed.
Kimes, Nikole E; López-Pérez, Mario; Flores-Félix, José David; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Igual, José M; Peix, Alvaro; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Velázquez, Encarna
Two novel Alphaproteobacteria strains, R1-200B4(T) and R2-400B4, were isolated from the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Alicante in Spain. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that they are related to members of Family Rhizobiaceae. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain R1-200B4(T) presents 97.0% and 95.6% similarity with respect to the type strains of the type species from genera Neorhizobium and Rhizobium, Neorhizobium galegae HAMBI 540(T) and Rhizobium leguminosarum USDA 2370(T), respectively. The remaining genera of family Rhizobiaceae showed similarities lower than 95%. The recA and atpD gene sequences of strain R1-200B4(T) showed, respectively, 90% and 88.6% similarity with respect to N. galegae HAMBI 540(T) and 87% and 86% with respect to R. leguminosarum USDA 2370(T). The calculated ANI values between the genomes of the strain R1-200B4(T) and those of N. galegae HAMBI 540(T) and R. leguminosarum 3841 are 75.9% and 74.0%, respectively. The major fatty acids are those from summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω6c/C18:1 ω7c) and the C16:0. Catalase and oxidase were positive. Nitrate reduction and aesculin hydrolysis were positive. Production of β-galactosidase and urease was positive. The production of indol, arginine dehydrolase or gelatinase was negative. Growth was observed in presence of 7% NaCl. Therefore, based on the phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data obtained in this study, we propose to classify the strains isolated in this study in a new genus named Pseudorhizobium gen. nov. and a new species named Pseudorhizobium pelagicum sp. nov. with the type strain R1-200B4(T) (=LMG 28314(T)=CECT 8629(T)).
Lapinskas, E. B.
The distribution and symbiotic efficiency of nodule bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum_bv. trifolii F., Sinorhizobium meliloti D., Rhizobium galegae L., and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae F. in Lithuanian soils as dependent on the soil acidity were studied in the long-term field, pot, and laboratory experiments. The critical and optimal pH values controlling the distribution of rhizobia and the symbiotic nitrogen fixation were determined for every bacterial species. The relationship was found between the soil pH and the nitrogen-fixing capacity of rhizobia. A positive effect of liming of acid soils in combination with inoculation of legumes on the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation was demonstrated.
Primary structures of hypertrehalosaemic neuropeptides isolated from the corpora cardiaca of the cockroaches Leucophaea maderae, Gromphadorhina portentosa, Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis and of the stick insect Extatosoma tiaratum assigned by tandem fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry.
Gäde, G; Rinehart, K L
Hypertrehalosaemic peptides were isolated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography from corpora cardiaca of four species of cockroaches (Leucophaea maderae, Gromphadorhina portentosa, Blattella germanica, and Blatta orientalis) and one stick insect species (Extatosoma tiaratum), and their primary sequences were assigned by collision-induced decomposition tandem fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS/CID/MS). The members of the cockroach families Blaberidae (L. maderae and G. portentosa) and Blattellidae (B. germanica) contained an identical decapeptide (Glu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Gly-Trp-Gly-ThrNH2), whereas the member of the cockroach family Blattidae (B. orientalis) had two octapeptides (Glu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Asn-TrpNH2 and Glu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-TrpNH2). The structure of the stick insect hypertrehalosaemic compound was assigned as a decapeptide (Glu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp-Gly-ThrNH2). The respective synthetic peptides elevated blood carbohydrates in their respective acceptor species. The results are discussed in the light of family-specificity of members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone family.
Engelbrecht, H; Buske, M
Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis occur in the district of Potsdam (German Democratic Republic). B. germanica is the real cause of plague. Up to now 2,734 building properties have been infested with cockroaches. B. germanica was found in 2,644 properties; B. orientalis was found in 20 properties and both were found in 70 properties. Infestation with cockroaches increases with urbanisation. Infestation is especially frequent in works canteens and similar rooms. Outdoor distribution of cockroaches takes place passively in food transports. Inside buildings cockroaches spread through cracks in walls, through pipings, lift shafts etc. 70 to 80% of the properties infested by cockroaches are works canteens, shops, restaurants, hotels and bakeries. B. germanica was found in 82% of the larger hospitals and outpatients' clinics, in about 72% of the works canteens, in about 26% of the restaurants and hotels, in about 20% of the bakeries and the enterprises manufacturing beverages, in 17% of the shops, in 8.8% of the nurseries and crèches and in a smaller percentage in flats and newlybuilt residential areas.
Ren, Da Wei; Chen, Wen Feng; Sui, Xin Hua; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin
A group of rhizobial strains isolated from nodules of multiple legume species grown in different geographical regions of China had identical 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the novel strains formed a subclade in the genus Rhizobium together with Rhizobium galegae, Rhizobium huautlense and Rhizobium alkalisoli, with 99.8 % gene sequence similarity between the strains. The DNA-DNA relatedness values between the representative strain CCBAU 05176(T) and R. galegae ATCC 43677(T), R. huautlense S02(T) and R. alkalisoli CCBAU 01393(T) were 22.6 %, 8.9 % and 15.9 %, respectively. The novel strains were distinguished from recognized species of the genus Rhizobium by using a polyphasic approach, including PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP) of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer (IGS), phenotypic and physiological tests, sequence comparisons of housekeeping genes and cellular fatty acid profiles. Therefore, it is suggested that this group of strains represents a novel species for which the name Rhizobium vignae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CCBAU 05176(T) (=HAMBI 3039(T)=LMG 25447(T)).
Li Lu, Yang; Chen, Wen Feng; Li Han, Li; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin
Three rhizobial strains (CCBAU 01393(T), CCBAU 01389 and CCBAU 03239) isolated from nodules of Caragana intermedia grown in saline-alkaline soils in the north of China had identical 16S rRNA genes that showed 99.7 and 99.5 % sequence similarities with those of Rhizobium huautlense SO2(T) and Rhizobium galegae USDA 4128(T), respectively. Phylogenies of the housekeeping genes atpD, recA and glnII confirmed their distinct position, differing from recognized Rhizobium species. SDS-PAGE of whole-cell soluble proteins and a series of phenotypic and physiological tests allowed us to differentiate the novel group from all closely related recognized Rhizobium species. The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain CCBAU 01393(T) and R. huautlense SO2(T) and R. galegae USDA 4128(T) were 34.9 and 20.5 %, respectively. Therefore, we propose that strains CCBAU 01393(T), CCBAU 01389 and CCBAU 03239 represent a novel species, Rhizobium alkalisoli sp. nov., with strain CCBAU 01393(T) (=LMG 24763(T)=HAMBI 3051(T)) as the type strain. This strain could form effective nodules on Caragana microphylla, Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna radiata.
A validated high-performance thin-layer chromatography method for the identification and simultaneous quantification of six markers from Platanus orientalis and their cytotoxic profiles against skin cancer cell lines.
Khan, Imran; Sangwan, Payare L; Dar, Alamgir A; Rafiq, Rather A; Farrukh, Mufti R; Dhar, Jagdish K; Tasduq, Sheikh A; Koul, Surrinder
Betulinic acid (1), betulinic acid-3-acetate (2), 3-acetylbetulinaldehyde (3), oleanolic acid-3-acetate (4), 3-β-hydroxy-28,19-β-olenolide (5), and β-sitosterol (6) were isolated from Platanus orientalis and a high-performance thin-layer chromatography method was developed for their simultaneous quantification. The markers were first derivatized on the chromatogram with ceric ammonium sulfate and then high-performance thin-layer chromatography densitometry was carried out. Chromatographic separation of these markers was carried out on silica gel 60 plates using a ternary solvent system n-hexane/toluene/acetone (6:3.5:1 v/v/v) as a mobile phase. For marker 1, a deuterium (D2) lamp and wavelength of 420 nm was used. A tungsten (W) lamp was used for markers 2 and 3 at 550 nm and for 4-6 at 500 nm. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, LOD, and LOQ. All calibration curves showed a good linear relationship (r > 0.9919). The precision evaluated by an intra- and interday study showed RSDs < 2.51% and accuracy validation recovery between 95.54 and 99.33% with RSDs < 1.55%. The successful application of the validated method showed 1 as the most abundant component (4.63%) and 5 (0.017%) the least. The markers displayed a significant cytotoxic effect against human keratinocyte, mouse melanoma, and human skin epithelial carcinoma cancer cells by using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay.
Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Peixoto, V; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P
Brassica sprouts are considered a healthy food product, whose nutritional quality can be influenced by several factors. The aim of this work was to monitor the nutritional composition changes promoted by different sprouting conditions of four varieties of Brassica oleracea (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage). Sprouts were grown under light/darkness cycles and complete darkness. Standard AOAC methods were applied for nutritional value evaluation, while chromatographic methods with UV-VIS and FID detection were used to determine the free amino acids and fatty acids, respectively. Mineral content was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Sprouts composition revealed them as an excellent source of protein and dietary fiber. Selenium content was one of the most distinctive feature of sprouts, being the sprouting conditions determinant for the free amino acid and fatty acids profile. The use of complete darkness was beneficial to the overall nutritional quality of the brassica sprouts studied.
Perla, Venu; Jayanty, Sastry S
Biguanides such as metformin are widely used worldwide for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The identification of guanidine and related compounds in French lilac plant (Galega officinalis L.) led to the development of biguanides. Despite of their plant origin, biguanides have not been reported in plants. The objective of this study was to quantify biguanide related compounds (BRCs) in experimentally or clinically substantiated antidiabetic functional plant foods and potatoes. The corrected results of the Voges-Proskauer (V-P) assay suggest that the highest amounts of BRCs are present in green curry leaves (Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel) followed by fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), green bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Descourt.), and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Whereas, garlic (Allium sativum L.), and sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.) contain negligible amounts of BRCs. In addition, the possible biosynthetic routes of biguanide in these plant foods are discussed.
Paramonova, Tatiana; Shamshurina, Eugenia; Komissarova, Olga; Belyaev, Vladimir
In spite of long term period after Chernobyl fallout (≈25 years after the accident) the level of Cs-137 in soils of contaminated landscapes remains several times more than radiation safety standard (= 37 kBq/m2). In particular, within the area of Plavsk radioactive hot spot (Tula region, Russia) current Cs-137 activities in soil are 460-500 Bq/kg (170-200 kBq/m2) on watershed, 580-680 Bq/kg (200-220 kBq/m2) in arable lower parts of slopes and 620-710 Bq/kg (210-280 kBq/m2) in untilled foots of slopes and river floodplains. To estimate the process of Cs-137 root uptake and incorporation of the radionuclide in plant tissues 6 agricultural crops of typical field rotation (spring barley, maize, summer rape, galega, potatoes, amaranth) as well as natural ecosystems of dry and wet meadows were selected for the detailed study. Total bioproductivity of agricultural crops varies between 1.7-3.9 kg/m2, natural grass ecosystems - 1.9-2.2 g/m2, and is obviously unaffected by radioactive land contamination. At the same time Cs-137 activity in total biomass slightly increases with Cs-137 activity in soil (correlation coefficient r=0.45) and with total biomass (correlation coefficient r=0.51) in the row: rape (5 Bq/kg) < amaranth, galega (17-19 Bq/kg) < barley, potatoes (31-37 Bq/kg) < maize (58 Bq/kg) < dry meadow (73 Bq/kg) < wet meadow (120 Bq/kg). Commonly, Cs-137 activity in vegetation of natural ecosystems with predominance of perennial grasses is significantly higher than in agrosystems with annual crops. But a substantial portion of Cs-137 in meadow vegetation is associated with belowground biomass, where the radionuclide's activity is 3-5 times greater than in the aboveground part. The distribution of Cs-137 activities between above- and belowground parts of agricultural crops greatly varies depending on the biological characteristics of plants: barley and maize (Gramíneae family) are also characterized by elevated Cs-137 concentrations in belowground parts (12
The taxonomic characteristics of two bacterial strains, FH5T and SS4, isolated from enrichment cultures obtained from two distinct marine environments, were determined. These bacteria were Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. The temperature range for growth was 20-40 °C and the pH for...
Burgess, N. R. H.; McDermott, S. N.; Whiting, J.
Methods of maintaining and feeding and of infecting cockroaches with pathogenic organisms were investigated. Cockroaches fed on known concentrations of Escherichia coli O119, Esch. coli O1, Alkalescens Dispar O group 2 and Shigella dysenteriae 1 (Shiga's Bacillus) were maintained in Petri dishes. The effect of various diets on the survival of these organisms within the hind-gut and faeces was observed. With a `normal' diet of gruel Esch. coli O119 was isolated for up to 20 days, Esch. coli O1 for 17 days and ADO 2 for 15 days. Sh. dysenteriae 1 was isolated only sporadically to the third day. PMID:4571613
Burgess, N R; McDermott, S N; Whiting, J
Methods of maintaining and feeding and of infecting cockroaches with pathogenic organisms were investigated.Cockroaches fed on known concentrations of Escherichia coli O119, Esch. coli O1, Alkalescens Dispar O group 2 and Shigella dysenteriae 1 (Shiga's Bacillus) were maintained in Petri dishes. The effect of various diets on the survival of these organisms within the hind-gut and faeces was observed. With a ;normal' diet of gruel Esch. coli O119 was isolated for up to 20 days, Esch. coli O1 for 17 days and ADO 2 for 15 days. Sh. dysenteriae 1 was isolated only sporadically to the third day.
Molecular systematics of rhizobia based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenies inferred from rrs, atpD, recA and nifH sequences, and their use in the classification of Sesbania microsymbionts from Venezuelan wetlands.
Vinuesa, Pablo; Silva, Claudia; Lorite, María José; Izaguirre-Mayoral, María Luisa; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza
A well-resolved rhizobial species phylogeny with 51 haplotypes was inferred from a combined atpD + recA data set using Bayesian inference with best-fit, gene-specific substitution models. Relatively dense taxon sampling for the genera Rhizobium and Mesorhizobium was achieved by generating atpD and recA sequences for six type and 24 reference strains not previously available in GenBank. This phylogeny was used to classify nine nodule isolates from Sesbania exasperata, S. punicea and S. sericea plants native to seasonally flooded areas of Venezuela, and compared with a PCR-RFLP analysis of rrs plus rrl genes and large maximum likelihood rrs and nifH phylogenies. We show that rrs phylogenies are particularly sensitive to strain choice due to the high levels of sequence mosaicism found at this locus. All analyses consistently identified the Sesbania isolates as Mesorhizobium plurifarium or Rhizobium huautlense. Host range experiments on ten legume species coupled with plasmid profiling uncovered potential novel biovarieties of both species. This study demonstrates the wide geographic and environmental distribution of M. plurifarium, that R. galegae and R. huautlense are sister lineages, and the synonymy of R. gallicum, R. mongolense and R. yanglingense. Complex and diverse phylogeographic, inheritance and host-association patterns were found for the symbiotic nifH locus. The results and the analytical approaches used herein are discussed in the context of rhizobial taxonomy and molecular systematics.
Vale, Ana Paula; Cidade, Honorina; Pinto, Madalena; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P
The antioxidant activity of sprouts from four Brassica oleracea varieties was evaluated using "in vitro" methods (total phenolic and flavonoid content; radical scavenging assays: DPPH, hydroxyl and peroxyl; and Ferrous Ion-chelating Ability Assay). Light cycles and sprouting influenced the potential antioxidant activity of sprouts and significant differences were observed between varieties. Generally, antioxidant activity decreased with sprouting and increased in the presence of light, whose discriminant effect was highly significant (P<0.001). Red cabbage sprouts produced under light cycles showed the highest antioxidant activity (57.11 μg mL(-1) Ferrous Ion-chelating Ability, 221.46 μg mL(-1) Hydroxyl radical scavenging, 279.02 μg mL(-1) Peroxyl radical scavenging). Among the traditional Portuguese brassica varieties, Penca cabbage sprouts produced under light presented higher antioxidant capacity, and also higher phenolic and flavonoid content (54.04 mg GAEg(-1) d.w. extract and 21.33 QEg(-1) d.w. extract, respectively) than Galega kale. The phenolic content of Brassica sprouts had a significant contribution to the antioxidant capacity.
Pérez-Creo, Ana; Díaz, Pablo; López, Ceferino; Béjar, Juan Pablo; Martínez-Sernández, Victoria; Panadero, Rosario; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Ubeira, Florencio M; Morrondo, Patrocinio
In order to study the seroprevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection in goats from north-western Spain, a total of 603 serum samples from 47 herds were tested using a capture ELISA (MM3-SERO). The identification of risk factors was assessed by a mixed-effects logistic regression analysis. The results showed that F. hepatica is widespread in this area with 57.4% of the herds and 22.7% of the animals testing positive. Breed and age were identified as determining factors for caprine F. hepatica infection. Seroprevalence in cross-bred animals was significantly higher than in the autochthonous Cabra Galega breed. A significantly higher seroprevalence was observed in older animals. The use of locally adapted breeds and the implementation of suitable management practices could provide a substantial improvement over the current F. hepatica control measures carried out in goat herds and should be considered when designing new F. hepatica control programs.
Cornara, Laura; Xiao, Jianbo; Burlando, Bruno
The discovery of bioactive molecules from botanical sources is an expanding field, preferentially oriented to plants having a tradition of use in medicine and providing high yields and availability. Temperate forage legumes are Fabaceae species that include worldwide-important crops. These plants possess therapeutic virtues that have not only been used in veterinary and folk medicine, but have also attracted the interest of official medicine. We have examined here Medicago sativa (alfalfa), Trifolium pratense and T. repens (clovers), Melilotus albus and M. officinalis (sweet clovers), Lotus corniculatus (birdsfoot trefoil), Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin), Lespedeza capitata (roundhead lespedeza), and Galega officinalis (goat's rue). The phytochemical complexes of these species contain secondary metabolites whose pharmacological potentials deserve investigation. Major classes of compounds include alkaloids and amines, cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoids, coumarins, condensed tannins, and saponins. Some of these phytochemicals have been related to antihypercholesterolemia, antidiabetic, antimenopause, anti-inflammatory, antiedema, anthelmintic, and kidney protective effects. Two widely prescribed drugs have been developed starting from temperate forage legumes, namely, the antithrombotic warfarin, inspired from sweet clover's coumarin, and the antidiabetic metformin, a derivative of sainfoin's guanidine. Available evidence suggests that temperate forage legumes are a potentially important resource for the extraction of active principles to be used as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.
Li, Li; Sinkko, Hanna; Montonen, Leone; Wei, Gehong; Lindström, Kristina; Räsänen, Leena A
A total of 159 endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized root nodules of wild perennial Glycyrrhiza legumes growing on 40 sites in central and northwestern China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genomic fingerprinting and sequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes revealed that the collection mainly consisted of Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium and Paenibacillus species. Based on symbiotic properties with the legume hosts Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Glycyrrhiza glabra, we divided the nodulating species into true and sporadic symbionts. Five distinct Mesorhizobium groups represented true symbionts of the host plants, the majority of strains inducing N2-fixing nodules. Sporadic symbionts consisted of either species with infrequent occurrence (Rhizobium galegae, Rhizobium leguminosarum) or species with weak (Sinorhizobium meliloti, Rhizobium gallicum) or no N2 fixation ability (Rhizobium giardinii, Rhizobium cellulosilyticum, Phyllobacterium sp.). Multivariate analyses revealed that the host plant species and geographic location explained only a small part (14.4%) of the total variation in bacterial AFLP patterns, with the host plant explaining slightly more (9.9%) than geography (6.9%). However, strains isolated from G. glabra were clearly separated from those from G. uralensis, and strains obtained from central China were well separated from those originating from Xinjiang in the northwest, indicating both host preference and regional endemism.
Ríos, José Luis; Francini, Flavio; Schinella, Guillermo R
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. High blood sugar can produce long-term complications such as cardiovascular and renal disorders, retinopathy, and poor blood flow. Its development can be prevented or delayed in people with impaired glucose tolerance by implementing lifestyle changes or the use of therapeutic agents. Some of these drugs have been obtained from plants or have a microbial origin, such as galegine isolated from Galega officinalis, which has a great similarity to the antidiabetic drug metformin. Picnogenol, acarbose, miglitol, and voglibose are other antidiabetic products of natural origin. This review compiles the principal articles on medicinal plants used for treating diabetes and its comorbidities, as well as mechanisms of natural products as antidiabetic agents. Inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, effects on glucose uptake and glucose transporters, modification of mechanisms mediated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B activity, modification of gene expression, and activities of hormones involved in glucose homeostasis such as adiponectin, resistin, and incretin, and reduction of oxidative stress are some of the mechanisms in which natural products are involved. We also review the most relevant clinical trials performed with medicinal plants and natural products such as aloe, banaba, bitter melon, caper, cinnamon, cocoa, coffee, fenugreek, garlic, guava, gymnema, nettle, sage, soybean, green and black tea, turmeric, walnut, and yerba mate. Compounds of high interest as potential antidiabetics are: fukugetin, palmatine, berberine, honokiol, amorfrutins, trigonelline, gymnemic acids, gurmarin, and phlorizin.
Dai, J; Liu, X; Wang, Y
Rhizobia are soil bacteria with the capacity to induce nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots or stems of legume plants. A total of 40 bacterial isolates from the root nodules of Caragana microphylla growing in desert soil in Ningxia, China, were analyzed for genetic diversity and phylogenetic position. These isolates were classified into 7 types of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. They were grouped into 4 clades, Rhizobium-Agrobacterium, Sinorhizobium, Phyllobacterium, and Bradyrhizobium, when the phylogenies of 16S rDNA, recA, and atpD genes were applied. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the tree generated from the 16S rDNA sequencing agreed with that produced from the recA and atpD genes. By analyzing phylogenetic relationship using the 3 loci, the isolates in the branches of Phyllobacterium and Sinorhizobium could be identified as P. brassicacearum and S. meliloti. The isolates in the branch of Rhizobium-Agrobacterium were the most abundant microsymbiont of C. microphylla and were designated R. leguminosarum, R. galegae, R. alamii, and A. tumefaciens. Two isolates with low sequence similarity to the known species of Bradyrhizobium might be novel species in this genus.
Christodoulou, Maria-Ioanna; Scorilas, Andreas
Metformin, a natural product from Galega officinalis, is an oral drug, now in the forefront of the therapeutic management of type-2 diabetes mellitus. A series of clinical observations of the last decades, support that metformin may contribute to lowering the risk of cancer development in diabetic patients, and also to improvement of response-to-therapy and survival in individuals with certain types of malignancies. Moreover, several preclinical in vitro and in vivo data indicate that metformin indeed exerts anti-proliferative capacities upon tumor cells mediated through a variety of mechanisms. Interestingly, metformin has been shown to act in synergy with certain anti-cancer agents and also to overcome chemo- and/or radio-resistance of various types of tumors, providing a hopeful rationale for novel therapeutic strategies against cancer development and progression. However, this remains an issue of controversy, since significant contradictions exist among the available data. Limitations of preclinical studies and caveats of epidemiological works, together with significant variances among the several types of cancer and the fact that the mode of metformin's action is largely unknown, make longitudinal surveys urgently needed. Now, a plethora of large clinical trials are active worldwide, aiming at determining the effect of metformin in the prevention or prognosis of a variety of human cancers. If encouraging results arise, metformin will be an attractive candidate adjuvant in the management of human neoplasias, due to its safety, tolerability and low-cost, expected to mitigate adverse effects and no-response parameters of current anti-cancer therapeutics, thus improving the quality of life and survival of cancer patients.
Gugole Ottaviano, María F; Cédola, Claudia V; Sánchez, Norma E; Greco, Nancy M
Wild vegetation surrounding crops may provide temporary habitat and potential food sources for phytoseiids in different seasons. Monthly vegetation samples of wild plants adjacent to strawberry plants and wild plants in a vegetation strip close to the crop were taken. The frequency of Neoseiulus californicus, Tetranychus urticae and other mites and insects was recorded. In addition, in a laboratory assay, the survival, developmental time and fecundity of females fed on pollen of strawberry and pollen of wild plants where N. californicus was recorded during their flowering, were estimated. Pollen from Urtica urens, Lamium amplexicaule, Convolvulus arvensis, Sonchus oleraceous, Galega officinalis, and Fragaria x ananassa (strawberry) allowed development of N. californicus to adult, but not reproduction. Survival was 70-80 % when fed on pollen from S. oleraceus, G. officinalis and C. arvensis, 80-90 % when fed on pollen from U. urens and F. x ananassa, and more than 90 % when fed on T. urticae and on pollen from L. amplexicaule. In autumn and winter, U. urens, L. amplexicaule and S. oleraceous could promote the persistence of N. californicus when prey density in strawberry is low, offering T. urticae, thrips and pollen. In summer, pollen of C. arvensis and G. officinalis would contribute to the persistence of N. californicus when the strawberry crop is ending and offers scarce food resources. Although the pollen of these plants would not enable the predator population to increase, the presence of these plants in the vicinity of strawberry could contribute to the persistence of N. californicus population and help to limit T. urticae growth when this pest begins to colonize the crop.
Plotkin, Marian; Hod, Idan; Zaban, Arie; Boden, Stuart A.; Bagnall, Darren M.; Galushko, Dmitry; Bergman, David J.
The Oriental hornet worker correlates its digging activity with solar insolation. Solar radiation passes through the epicuticle, which exhibits a grating-like structure, and continues to pass through layers of the exo-endocuticle until it is absorbed by the pigment melanin in the brown-colored cuticle or xanthopterin in the yellow-colored cuticle. The correlation between digging activity and the ability of the cuticle to absorb part of the solar radiation implies that the Oriental hornet may harvest parts of the solar radiation. In this study, we explore this intriguing possibility by analyzing the biophysical properties of the cuticle. We use rigorous coupled wave analysis simulations to show that the cuticle surfaces are structured to reduced reflectance and act as diffraction gratings to trap light and increase the amount absorbed in the cuticle. A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was constructed in order to show the ability of xanthopterin to serve as a light-harvesting molecule.
Elbeshehy, Esam K.F.; Metwali, Ehab M.R.; Almaghrabi, Omar A.
Watermelon mosaic potyvirus (WMV) is considered as an important virus infecting watermelon and causing adverse effects on crop productivity. To overcome this problem one of the main objectives of plant breeders is to make these strains less effective in the ability to infect plants by treatment with plant extracts. Due to the advantages of plant tissue culture, in vitro, in the process of the selection of different cultivars under biotic stress, this study was conducted to achieve this aim by evaluating the effect of three concentrations of Thuja extract on the multiplication of WMV in watermelon by measuring callus fresh weight and soluble proteins (mg g−1 fresh weight) of healthy and infected hypocotyl explants. Also, WMV was isolated from naturally infected watermelon and characterized as potyvirus by serological and molecular analyses. The isolated virus gave a positive reaction with WMV antiserum compared with other antibodies of CMV, ZYMV and SqMV using DAS-ELISA. RT-PCR, with the specific primer for WMV-cp. gene, yielded 825 base pair DNA fragments. The results that belong to soluble protein analysis indicated that infected hypocotyl explants treated with 6 g L−1 recorded the highest rate in the number of soluble protein bands compared with the rest of treatments. As a conclusion of these results, we can recommend to apply the Thuja extract at 6 g L−1 as a optimum dosage to decrease the infection caused by watermelon mosaic potyvirus. PMID:25737655
Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan
Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information) or non-baited cup (indirect information). Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food) in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food) to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep.
Sun, Xiuqin; Wang, Wenxin; Shao, Jijun; Zhang, Jinxin; Lu, Ying; Xue, Qinggang; Song, Qinyun
This paper describes a rapid procedure for diagnosis of penaeid viral disease using the immune serological method. The SPA (Staphylococcal Protein A) coagglutination test in early diagnosis of penaeid viral disease has yielded satisfactory results. This is the first time SPA is used in China for diagnoses of viral diseases of marine invertebrates, especially penaeid shrimp. The SPA early diagnostic method is characterized by accuracy, rapidity, simplicity and convenience, low cost, high specificity, strong sensitivity and micro-detectability, and easy dissemination and adaptability in prawn farms.
Arslan, Atilla; Zima, Jan
Thekaryotype, C-banding, and nucleoar organizer regions (NORs) of eight specimens ofKonya wild sheepfrom Turkey were examined. The complement included six large metacentric autosomes, 46 acrocentric autosomes of decreasing size, a medium-sized acrocentric X chromosome, and a small bi-armed Y chromosome (the diploid chromosome number 2n=54, the number of autosomal arms NFa=58, the number of chromosome arms NF=61). G-banding allowed reliable identification of all the chromosome pairs and the pairing of homologous elements. All the autosomes possessed distinct centromeric or pericentromeric C-positive bands. The X chromosome had a pericentromeric C-positive band, and the Y chromosome was entirely C-heterochromatic. The NORs were located in the terminal regions of the long arms of three metacentric and two acrocentric autosomes. The karyotype of the Konya wild sheep and its banding patterns are quite similar to chromosome complement reported in domestic sheep and European mouflon.
Elbeshehy, Esam K F; Metwali, Ehab M R; Almaghrabi, Omar A
Watermelon mosaic potyvirus (WMV) is considered as an important virus infecting watermelon and causing adverse effects on crop productivity. To overcome this problem one of the main objectives of plant breeders is to make these strains less effective in the ability to infect plants by treatment with plant extracts. Due to the advantages of plant tissue culture, in vitro, in the process of the selection of different cultivars under biotic stress, this study was conducted to achieve this aim by evaluating the effect of three concentrations of Thuja extract on the multiplication of WMV in watermelon by measuring callus fresh weight and soluble proteins (mg g(-1) fresh weight) of healthy and infected hypocotyl explants. Also, WMV was isolated from naturally infected watermelon and characterized as potyvirus by serological and molecular analyses. The isolated virus gave a positive reaction with WMV antiserum compared with other antibodies of CMV, ZYMV and SqMV using DAS-ELISA. RT-PCR, with the specific primer for WMV-cp. gene, yielded 825 base pair DNA fragments. The results that belong to soluble protein analysis indicated that infected hypocotyl explants treated with 6 g L(-1) recorded the highest rate in the number of soluble protein bands compared with the rest of treatments. As a conclusion of these results, we can recommend to apply the Thuja extract at 6 g L(-1) as a optimum dosage to decrease the infection caused by watermelon mosaic potyvirus.
Plotkin, Marian; Ermakov, Natalya Y; Volynchik, Stanislav; Bergman, David J; Ishay, Jacob S
Wasps apparently develop normally even under extreme thermal conditions, including deserts. We deemed it worthwhile to set up an experiment wherein wasp brood combs containing a full gamut of brood ranging from eggs up to pupae and a few adults were kept in an incubator whose temperature was gradually raised to 45 degrees C, and the response of the disparate brood to such warming was photographed via Infra Red camera. The finding of this experiment showed that for open brood (i.e., eggs, larvae at various instars, and empty cells) the temperature was close to the ambient temperature, but in the silk coated pupae, the temperature was lower than the ambient by up to 4 degrees C. This lower temperature was retained for at least 90 min of incubation. For comparison we evaluated the relative contribution of the pupae to the phenomenon, by warming also a vacant, (i.e., a broodless and silkless comb) in parallel to a comb from which the pupae had been extricated but the silk weave retained and left behind. We found that the totally empty comb heated up under these conditions to nearly 110 degrees C, whereas the silk-containing vacant cells only heated up to about 40 degrees C. These finding are discussed from two aspects, namely the importance for wasps to maintain a constant temperature throughout the pupating process, and the manner in which the silk weave contributes to such a goal.
Hernández, José Ángel; Arroyo, Fabián Leonardo; Suárez, José; Cazapal-Monteiro, Cristiana Filipa; Romasanta, Ángel; López-Arellano, María Eugenia; Pedreira, José; de Carvalho, Luis Manuel Madeira; Sánchez-Andrade, Rita; Arias, María Sol; de Gives, Pedro Mendoza; Paz-Silva, Adolfo
The usefulness of pellets industrially manufactured with spores of parasiticide fungi as a contribution to integrated nematode control was assessed in grazing horses throughout sixteen months. Two groups of 7 Pura Raza Galega autochthonous horses (G-T and G-P) were dewormed pour-on (1mg Ivermectin/kg bw) at the beginning of the trial, and other group (G-C) remained untreated. The G-P was provided daily with commercial pellets to which was added a mixture of fungal spores during the industrial manufacturing (2×10(6) spores of Mucor circinelloides and same dose of Duddingtonia flagrans/kg), and G-T and G-C received pellets without spores. The efficacy of the parasiticidal strategy was assessed by estimating the reduction in the faecal egg counts (FECR) and in the number of horses shedding eggs in the faeces (PHR), and also the egg reappearance periods (ERP). Blood analyses were performed to identify the changes in the red and white cell patterns. To ascertain if horses developed an IgG humoral response against the fungi, antigenic products collected from M. circinelloides and D. flagrans were exposed to the horse sera by using an ELISA. The faecal elimination of eggs of Parascaris equorum and strongyles ceased 2 weeks after treatment in G-T and G-P, thus the values of FECR and PHR were 100%. No P. equorum-eggs were detected later, and the strongyle egg reappearance period was 28 weeks in G-P, and 8 weeks in G-T. Strongyle egg-output values remained lower than 300 eggs per gram of faeces in the G-P, whereas numbers between 330 and 772 in G-C and G-T were recorded. Normal values for the erythrocytes, haemoglobin and haematocrit in horses consuming pellets with spores were recorded, and lower than normal in the other groups. Sensitization of horses to the fungal species was disproven. It is concluded that feeding horses with pellets industrially manufactured with fungal spores represents a very useful tool to implement an integrated control of helminths affecting
Günlü, Alkan; Baskent, Emin Zeki; Kadiogullari, Ali İhsan; Ercanli, İlker
Determining the productivity of forest sites through various classification techniques is important for making appropriate forest management decisions. Forest sites were classified using direct and indirect (site index) and remote sensing (Landsat 7 ETM and Quickbird satellite image) methods. In the direct method, forest site classifications were assigned according to edafic (soil properties), climate (precipitation and temperature) and topographic (altitude, slope, aspect and landform) factors. Five different forest site classes (dry, moderate fresh, fresh, moist and highly moist) were determined. In the indirect method, the guiding curve was used to generate anamorphic site index (SI) equations resulting in three classes; good (SI=I-II), medium (SI=III) and poor (SI=IV-V). Forest sites were also determined with a remote sensing method (RSM) using supervised classification of Landsat 7 ETM and Quickbird satellite images with a 0.67 kappa statistic value and 73.3% accuracy assessments; 0.88 kappa statistic value and 90.7% accuracy assessments, respectively. Forest sites polygon themes obtained from the three methods were overlaid and areas in the same classes were computed with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The results indicated that direct and SI methods were consistent as a 3% dry site (19.0 ha) was exactly determined by both the direct and SI methods as a site class IV. Comparison of SI and RMS methods indicated a small difference as the area was highly homogeneous and unmanaged. While 15.4 ha area (open and degraded areas) was not determined by SI but RSM. A 19.0 ha (100%) poor site was determined by the SI method, 14.9 ha (78%) poor site was in Landsat 7 ETM satellite image and 17.4 ha (92%) poor site in Quickbird satellite image. The relationship between direct and SI methods were statistically analyzed using chi-square test. The test indicated a statistically significant relationships between forest sites determined by direct method and Quicbird satellite image (χ2 = 36.794; df = 16; p = 0.002), but no significant relationships with Landsat 7 ETM satellite image (χ2 = 22.291; df = 16; p = 0.134). Moderate association was found between SI method and direct method (χ2 = 16.724; df = 8; p = 0.033). PMID:27879833
Taghiyari, H R; Layeghi, M; Aminzadeh Liyafooee, F
Effects of dry-ice treatment (frozen CO(2) at -78.5°C) on gas permeability of untreated and nano-silver-impregnated poplar and beech specimens were studied here on the basis of their biological structure and woody mass as well as their vessel element types. A 200 ppm aqueous dispersion of silver nano-particles was used for impregnation; the size range of silver nano-particles was 20-80 nm. Dry-ice treatment increased gas permeability by 87 and 45% in poplar and beech, respectively. Nano-silver impregnation also increased gas permeability by 190 and 89% in poplar and beech, respectively. Dry-ice treatment on nano-silver-impregnated specimens increased gas permeability even more (31% increase in poplar but only 0.96% in beech). It may be concluded that dry-ice treatment on solid woods may be used as a practical method to increase permeability in species that because of their biological structures are impermeable; since this method alters the biological structure slightly and consequently decreases mechanical strength of solid woods insignificantly, it may substitute methods such as incising to increase permeability.
Alici, Esma Hande; Arabaci, Gulnur
In this study a Polyphenol oxidase from borage plant was purified with 3.59-fold enrichment in the specific activity and 68.75% recovery of the total activity by using three-phase partitioning purification technique for the first time. Its molecular weight was found around 80kDa with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum pH and temperature values of the enzyme for the used four substrates ranged between the pH 5.0-7.5 and 5-30°C. The kcat/Km values showed that the enzyme has the greatest reactivity toward caffeic acid among the substrates used. Ascorbic acid, l-cysteine and sodium metabisulfite markedly inhibited borage polyphenol oxidase activity.
Martins, Virgínia; Abrantes, Isabel; Grangeia, Carlos; Martins, Paula; Nagai, Renata; Sousa, Sílvia H. M.; Laut, Lazaro L. M.; Dias, João M. Alveirinho; Dias, João M.; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira; Rocha, Fernando
with the overall small supply of organic matter to the oceanic bottom in the inner- and mid-shelf. However, the Ria de Aveiro outflow, which delivers organic matter to the shelf, leaves its imprint mainly on the mid-shelf, identifiable by the increase in foraminifera density and BFHP values in front of the lagoon mouth. The higher values of BFHP along the 100 m isobath trace the present position of an oceanic thermal front whose situation may have changed in the last 3/5 ka BP. This zone marks a clear difference in the density, diversity and composition of benthic foraminifera assemblages. Here, in addition, sediment composition changes significantly, giving rise to carbonate-rich fine to medium sand in the deeper sector. The low bottom energy and the small sedimentation rate of the outer-shelf contributed to the preservation of a discontinuous carbonate-rich gravel band, between the 100 m and 140 m isobaths, also related to paleo-littorals, following the transgression that has occurred since the Last Glacial Maximum. The winter oceanographic regime favours the transport of fine grained sediments to the outer-shelf and upper slope. The inner- and mid-shelf, however, have low amounts of this kind of sediment and the Cretacic carbonated complexes Pontal da Galega and Pontal da Cartola, rocky outcrops located at the mid- and outer-shelf, act as morphological barriers to the cross-shelf transport of sediments. Thus a reduced sedimentation rate occurs in these deeper sectors, as indicated by the lower abundance of detrital minerals, which is compensated for the high sedimentary content of biogenic carbonates. The relatively high BFHP and Shannon Index values indicate water column stratification, high supply of organic matter and environmental stability, which provide favourable conditions for a diversified benthic fauna to flourish. These conditions also encourage authigenic chemical changes, favourable to glauconite formation, as well as illite and kaolinite degradation
Dias, Pedro D.; Valente, Fernanda; Pereira, Fernando L.; Abreu, Francisco G.
Stemflow (Sf) is responsible for a localized water and solute input to soil around tree's trunks, playing an important eco-hydrological role in forest and agricultural ecosystems. Sf was monitored for seven months in 25 Olea europaea L. trees distributed in three orchards managed in two different ways, traditional low-density and super high density hedgerow. The orchards were located in central Portugal in the regions of Santarém (Várzea and Azóia) and Lisboa (Tapada). Seven olive varieties were analysed: Arbequina, Galega, Picual, Maçanilha, Cordovil, Azeiteira, Negrinha and Blanqueta. Measured Sf ranged from 7.5 to 87.2 mm (relative to crown-projected area), corresponding to 1.2 and 16.7% of gross rainfall (Pg). To understand better the variables that affect Sf and to be able to predict its value, linear regression models were fitted to these data. Whenever possible, the linear models were simplified using the backward stepwise algorithm based on the Akaike information criterion. For each tree, multiple linear regressions were adjusted between Sf and the duration, volume and intensity of rainfall episodes and maximum evaporation rate. In the low-density Várzea grove the more relevant explanatory variables were the three rainfall characteristics. In the super high density Azóia orchard only rainfall volume and intensity were considered relevant. In the low-density Tapada's grove all trees had a different sub-model with Pg being the only common variable. To try to explain differences between trees and to improve the quality of the modeling in each orchard, another set of explanatory variables was added: canopy volume, tree and trunk heights and trunk perimeter at the height of the first branches. The variables present in all sub-models were rainfall volume and intensity and the tree and trunk heights. Canopy volume and rainfall duration were also present in the sub-models of the two low-density groves (Tapada and Várzea). The determination coefficient (R2
Kelly, Paul; Stack, David; Harley, Jessica
The Amur leopard is at the point of extinction. At present there are fewer than 35 in the wild. Their natural habitat ranges from China to the North Korean peninsula to Primorsky Krai in Russia. A reintroduction plan has been proposed to increase the population in the wild; however, this proposed plan still has many questions to be answered as to how effective it will be. The main objective is to reintroduce animals from a select group within the Far Eastern leopard programme or the Species Survival programme, which consist of leopards from select populations in the Northern Hemisphere. Zoos are central to the success of this plan, providing suitable breeding pairs to breed animals for reintroduction and also raising much needed funds to finance the project. Zoos are also central in educating the public about the critical status of the Amur leopard and other endangered animals of the world. Veterinary surgeons, by the very nature of their professional skills, are at the forefront of this seemingly endless battle against extinction of thousands of species that are critical to maintaining the balance of our fragile ecosystem. Veterinarians can analyze the health risks and health implications of reintroduction on the animals to be reintroduced and also on the native population. A world without large cats is a world hard to imagine. If we look closer at the implications of extinction, we see the domino effect of their loss and an ecosystem out of control.
Sousa, Mónica; Sant'Ovaia, Helena; Noronha, Fernando
.3 x 10-6 SI in Groups 1 and 4, which indicates a paramagnetic behaviour of these lithologies due to the presence of minerals, such as biotite and ilmenite. In Groups 2, 3, 5 and 6, K present values > 10-3 SI which indicates the presence of magnetite (0.12 to 1.49 x 10-3 SI in Group 2 and averages of 0.58 x 10-3 SI in Group 3, 0.22 x 10-3 SI in Group 5 and 1.0 x10-3 SI in Group 6). The anisotropy and magnetic fabric of the FDMC formations and of the granitic rocks are clear indicators of different styles of deformation on these rocks. The results confirm the field observations pointing out that this area was affected by intense deformation probably subjected to deformation partioning. K values indicate distinct types of magmatism: a oxidized type (magnetite type) (Groups 2, 3, 5 and 6) and a reduced type (Groups 1 and 4). References  Chaminé et al. (2003) Cadernos Lab. Xeolóxicos de Laxe 28, 37-78.  Ribeiro et al. (2009) C. R. Geoscience 341, 127-139.  Noronha & Leterrier (2000) Revista Real Academia Galega de Ciências XIX, 21-42.  Martins et al. (2011) C. R. Geoscience 343, 387-396. Acknowledgements Research carried out at the "Centro de Geologia UP" an R&D unit from "Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia" (FCT). First author is being funded by a doctoral scholarship from FCT (Ref. SFRH/BD/47891/2008).
Jessen, Holly J.; Yi, Jian
The present application discloses the identification of novel I. orientalis ADH1, ADHa, and ADHb genes, and the production and characterization of genetically modified yeast cells in which these genes were altered. Provided herein are isolated I. orientalis ADH1, ADHa, and ADHb polynucleotides and polypeptides, genetically modified yeast cells that overexpress I. orientalis ADH1 and/or contain deletions or disruptions of ADHa and/or ADHb, and methods of using culturing these modified cells to produce ethanol.
The toxicity of eight commercially-available botanical formulations were evaluated against 3rd instars of the nursery-infesting white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Popillia japonica Newman, Exomala orientalis (Waterhouse), Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky), and Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. In vi...
Farhadi, Zeinab; Malek, Masoumeh; Elahi, Elahe
Earthworms were collected in forests, damp habitats, springs, orchards and agricultural fields of the Kohgiluyeh & Boyer Ahmad Province, Iran, from April 2009 to April 2010. Specimens were collected at 20 established stations by digging and by diluted formalin methods. Ten species belonging to family Lumbricidae were identified based on morphology: Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny, 1826), Ap. rosea (Savigny, 1826), Ap. jassyensis (Michaelsen, 1891), Dendrobaena veneta (Rosa, 1886), D. byblica (Rosa, 1893) complex, D. orientalis orientalis Cernosvitov 1940, Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826), Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826), Octolasion lacteum (Örley, 1881), Perelia kaznakovi (Michaelsen, 1910). Ap. caliginosa was the dominant species in this province and D. orientalis orientalis is a new record for Iran. A checklist of all earthworms species form Iran is presented, containing 19 species. Then, in order to show earthworm geographical affinities, hierarchical analysis were applied to available data on earthworm of Iran.
Cock, Matthew J W; Congdon, T Colin E
Partial life histories from Kenya or Tanzania are presented for Metisella midas midas (Butler), M. medea medea Evans, M. orientalis orientalis Aurivillius, M. quadrisignatus nanda Evans, M. congdoni De Jong & Kielland and M. willemi Wallengren. The ovum of Metisella formosus linda Evans is also illustrated from Zambia. All feed on species of grasses (Poaceae). The convergence of the biology of the grass-feeding skippers, particularly Heteropterinae and Hesperiinae, Baorini is discussed.
Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M; Fuzy, Eugene M
The pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar and Steinernema scarabaei Stock & Koppenhöfer against different developmental stages of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, and the oriental beetle, Anomala (=Exomala) orientalis Waterhouse, were studied under laboratory conditions. The efficacy of S. scarabaei did not differ between second and third instars in P. japonica or A. orientalis or between small (young) and large (older) third instars in A. orientalis. However, H. bacteriophora efficacy decreased from first over second to third instar and also from small third instars to large third instars in A. orientalis but did not differ significantly between P. japonica larval stages. Once A. orientalis third instars had purged their intestines in preparation for pupation, no significant mortality by S. scarabaei and H. bacteriophora was observed. In contrast, P. japonica susceptibility to both nematode species gradually decreased from stage to stage from actively feeding third instars to pupae. In two additional experiments, we found no difference in Steinernema glaseri (Steiner) susceptibility between second and third instars of A. orientalis but an increase in S. scarabaei susceptibility from the second to third instar of Asiatic garden beetle, Maladera castanea (Arrow). Our observations combined with those of previous studies with other nematode and white grub species show that nematode efficacy against white grub developmental stages varies with white grub and nematodes species, and no generalization can be made.
Hayashida, Kyoko; Hara, Yuichiro; Abe, Takashi; Yamasaki, Chisato; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kosuge, Takehide; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sato, Yoshiharu; Kawashima, Shuichi; Katayama, Toshiaki; Wakaguri, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Noboru; Homma, Keiichi; Tada-Umezaki, Masahito; Yagi, Yukio; Fujii, Yasuyuki; Habara, Takuya; Kanehisa, Minoru; Watanabe, Hidemi; Ito, Kimihito; Gojobori, Takashi; Sugawara, Hideaki; Imanishi, Tadashi; Weir, William; Gardner, Malcolm; Pain, Arnab; Shiels, Brian; Hattori, Masahira; Nene, Vishvanath; Sugimoto, Chihiro
ABSTRACT We sequenced the genome of Theileria orientalis, a tick-borne apicomplexan protozoan parasite of cattle. The focus of this study was a comparative genome analysis of T. orientalis relative to other highly pathogenic Theileria species, T. parva and T. annulata. T. parva and T. annulata induce transformation of infected cells of lymphocyte or macrophage/monocyte lineages; in contrast, T. orientalis does not induce uncontrolled proliferation of infected leukocytes and multiplies predominantly within infected erythrocytes. While synteny across homologous chromosomes of the three Theileria species was found to be well conserved overall, subtelomeric structures were found to differ substantially, as T. orientalis lacks the large tandemly arrayed subtelomere-encoded variable secreted protein-encoding gene family. Moreover, expansion of particular gene families by gene duplication was found in the genomes of the two transforming Theileria species, most notably, the TashAT/TpHN and Tar/Tpr gene families. Gene families that are present only in T. parva and T. annulata and not in T. orientalis, Babesia bovis, or Plasmodium were also identified. Identification of differences between the genome sequences of Theileria species with different abilities to transform and immortalize bovine leukocytes will provide insight into proteins and mechanisms that have evolved to induce and regulate this process. The T. orientalis genome database is available at http://totdb.czc.hokudai.ac.jp/. PMID:22951932
Kakati, Parikshit; Sarmah, Prabhat Chandra; Ray, Debdatta; Bhattacharjee, Kanta; Sharma, Rajeev Kumar; Barkalita, Luit Moni; Sarma, Dipak Kumar; Baishya, Bhaben Chandra; Borah, Pranjal; Stanley, Bobitha
Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Theileria in blood samples of crossbred and indigenous adult cows raised under unorganized small scale farming system in a Babesia and Anaplasma endemic geographical area from Assam, India and to see its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks. Materials and Methods: For the present study, 57 clinical cases of cattle suspected to be of hemoparasitic infections were taken into consideration. The parasites were identified based on morphology in giemsa stained blood smear followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sera samples were tested for T. annulata antibodies in plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR was also conducted in eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick collected from a Theileria orientalis positive animal. Results: PCR amplified 1124, 776, and 160 bp DNA fragments of B. bigemina (64.91%), T. orientalis (21.05%) and A. marginale (14.03%), respectively. This assay further conducted in 12 T. orientalis positive blood samples with primers of Buffeli, Chitose, and Ikeda variants of T. orientalis showed 3 samples positive to Ikeda type and none for Buffeli and Chitose. Babesia bovis and Theileria annulata specific primers also did not amplify any fragment during the PCR assay of the blood samples. Further, all sera samples tested negative to T. annulata antibodies in Plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR conducted in eggs of R (B).microplus tick collected from a T. orientalis positive animal revealed presence of the parasite DNA. Gradual improvement in physical condition leading to complete recovery in 10 out of 12 T. orientalis infected clinical cases treated with buparvaquone(at 2.5mg/kg.b.wt I/M) was the feedback obtained from field veterinarians and the cattle owners. Conclusion: The present investigation represents the first report of occurrence of T. orientalis in cattle of Assam with involvement of pathogenic Ikeda strain in clinical outbreaks and its possible natural
Guo, Yingwei; Lv, Jiale; Jiang, Xiaohuan; Wang, Boming; Gao, Yulin; Wang, Endong; Xu, Xuenong
Amblyseius swirskii, native to the east and southeast Mediterranean region, is a successful biological control agent of whiteflies. In this study, we investigated intraguild predations (IGP) between each stage of A. swirskii and each stage of two Phytoseiid species that occur in China, Amblyseius orientalis and Neoseiulus californicus. When there was no whitefly egg provided as the extraguild prey, IGP between A. swirskii and A. orientalis, and between A. swirskii and N. californicus, was observed in 10 and 20 out of 35 combinations, respectively. When IGP was observed, A. swirskii was the intraguild predator in 70% and 65% cases of A. orientalis and N. californicus predation, respectively. These results suggest that A. swirskii is a more aggressive intraguild predator compared to either A. orientalis or N. californicus. When whitefly eggs were provided as the extraguild prey, IGP between A. swirskii and N. californicus decreased greatly, but no significant decrease of IGP was observed between A. swirskii and A. orientalis. Amblyseius swirskii was able to complete development on both heterospecific predatory mites, and both heterospecific predatory mites completed their development on A. swirskii. Possible impacts that A. swirskii may have on local predatory mite populations in China are discussed.
Nemati, Farkhondeh; Dehpouri, Abbas Ali; Eslami, Bahman; Mahdavi, Vahid; Mirzanejad, Sepideh
Background It was shown that plants derived agents are being used for treatment of cancer. In this study, crude ethanolic extract of Consolida orientalis L., Ferula assa-foetida L., Coronilla varia L., Orobanche orientalis G. Beck were screened in vitro for cytotoxic activity on Hela (Human cervical carcinoma) cell line. Objectives We performed the present study to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of four plant extracts that we gathered from north of Iran, Mazandaran Materials and Methods Hela cells were treated with various concentrations of individual samples (0.0312, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 mg/ml) for 72 hours. Cell proliferation measured by MTT assay. Results Result from the performed assay showed that ethanolic extract of Consolida orientalis L., Ferula assa-foetida L., Coronilla varia L. has more significant cytotoxicity effect on Hela cell line than Orobanche orientalis G. Beck. Conclusions Extracts of the Consolida orientalis L., Ferula assa-foetida L., Coronilla varia L. could be considered as potential sources of anticancer compounds but further studies are necessary for isolation and identification of biologically active substances. PMID:24719689
Schullehner, Katrin; Dick, Regina; Vitzthum, Florian; Schwab, Wilfried; Brandt, Wolfgang; Frey, Monika; Gierl, Alfons
Benzoxazinoids are common defence compounds of the grasses and are sporadically found in single species of two unrelated orders of the dicots. In the three dicotyledonous species Aphelandra squarrosa, Consolida orientalis and Lamium galeobdolon the main benzoxazinoid aglucon is 2,4-dihydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIBOA). While benzoxazinoids in Aphelandra squarrosa are restricted to the root, in Consolida orientalis and Lamium galeobdolon DIBOA is found in all above ground organs of the adult plant in concentrations as high as in the seedling of maize. The initial biosynthetic steps in dicots and monocots seem to be identical. Indole is most probably the first specific intermediate that is oxygenated to indolin-2-one by a cytochrome P450 enzyme. C. orientalis has an active indole-3-glycerolphosphate lyase for indole formation that evolved independently from its orthologous function in maize. The properties and evolution of plant indole-3-glycerolphosphate lyases are discussed.
Venegas, Pablo J; Echevarría, Lourdes Y; García-Burneo, Karla; Koch, Claudia
We describe a new species of Stenocercus from the montane forest of the right margin of the Marañón river in the northern portion of the Central Andes in northern Peru (Amazonas and La Libertad departments), at elevations ranging from 2300 to 3035 m. Stenocercus omari sp. nov. differs from other Stenocercus species, with the exception of S. amydrorhytus, S. chrysopygus, S. cupreus, S. johaberfellneri, S. latebrosus, S. melanopygus, S. modestus, S. ornatissimus, S. orientalis, and S. stigmosus, by having granular scales on the posterior surfaces of thighs, a conspicuous antehumeral fold and by lacking a vertebral crest. However, Stenocercus omari sp. nov. is easily distinguished from the aforementioned species, except S. orientalis, by the presence of prominently keeled dorsal head scales. The new species differs from S. orientalis by lacking a prominent oblique neck fold and by having a distinct deep postfemoral mite pocket.
Abdolahpur Monikh, Fazel; Safahieh, Alireza; Savari, Ahmad; Doraghi, Abdolmajid
The concentration of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, and Pb was measured in sediment and three fish species collected from Musa Estuary, Persian Gulf. The concentration order of heavy metals in sediment were Ni > Co > Cu > Pb > Cd >. Concentrations of the heavy metals in the fish were apparently different among the three species. The concentrations of Cd and Ni in fish were Johnius belangerii > Euryglossa orientalis > Liza abu, while the Co and Cu levels were L. abu > E. orientalis > J. belangerii and E. orientalis > L. abu > J. belangerii, respectively. Result of regression analysis showed that there were no significant relationships between metal concentration in fish tissues and sediment, except for Ni concentration in the J. belangerii liver. The concentrations of studied metals in fish muscle were below the permissible limits proposed by FAO, WHO, and EC.
Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Fukushi, Shintaro; Hayashida, Kyoko; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Kanagaratnam, Ratnam; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Suthaharan, Kalpana; Puvirajan, Thamotharampillai; de Silva, Weligodage Kumarawansa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki
Water buffaloes are thought to be the reservoir hosts for several hemoprotozoan parasites that infect cattle. In the present study, we surveyed Sri Lankan bred water buffaloes for infections with Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis using parasite-specific PCR assays. When 320 blood-derived DNA samples from water buffaloes reared in three different districts (Polonnaruwa, Mannar, and Mullaitivu) of Sri Lanka were PCR screened, B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. orientalis were detected. While T. orientalis was the predominant parasite (82.5%), low PCR-positive rates were observed for B. bovis (1.9%) and B. bigemina (1.6%). Amplicons of the gene sequences of the Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 (RAP-1) of B. bovis, the Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA-1) of B. bigemina, and the Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) of T. orientalis were compared with those characterized previously in Sri Lankan cattle. While the B. bigemina AMA-1 sequences from water buffaloes shared high identity values with those from cattle, B. bovis RAP-1 sequences from water buffaloes diverged genetically from those of cattle. For T. orientalis, none of the MPSP sequence types reported previously in Sri Lankan cattle (types 1, 3, 5, and 7) were detected in the water buffaloes, and the MPSP sequences analyzed in the present study belonged to types N1 or N2. In summary, in addition to reporting the first PCR-based survey of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka, the present study found that the predominant variants of water buffalo-derived B. bovis RAP-1 and T. orientalis MPSP sequences were different from those previously described from cattle in this country.
Elsify, Ahmed; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Nayel, Mohammed; Salama, Akram; Elkhtam, Ahmed; Rizk, Mohamed; Mosaab, Omar; Sultan, Khaled; Elsayed, Shimaa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki
Cattle, buffaloes, and sheep are the main sources of meat and milk in Egypt, but their productivity is thought to be greatly reduced by hemoprotozoan parasitic diseases. In this study, we analyzed the infection rates of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis, using parasite-specific PCR assays in blood-DNA samples sourced from cattle (n=439), buffaloes (n=50), and sheep (n=105) reared in Menoufia, Behera, Giza, and Sohag provinces of Egypt. In cattle, the positive rates of B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. annulata, and T. orientalis were 3.18%, 7.97%, 9.56%, and 0.68%, respectively. On the other hand, B. bovis and T. orientalis were the only parasites detected in buffaloes and each of these parasites was only found in two individual DNA samples (both 2%), while one (0.95%) and two (1.90%) of the sheep samples were positive for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the B. bovis Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 and the B. bigemina Apical Membrane Antigen-1 genes were highly conserved among the samples, with 99.3-100% and 95.3-100% sequence identity values, respectively. In contrast, the Egyptian T. annulata merozoite surface antigen-1 gene sequences were relatively diverse (87.8-100% identity values), dispersing themselves across several clades in the phylogenetic tree containing sequences from other countries. Additionally, the T. orientalis Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) gene sequences were classified as types 1 and 2. This is the first report of T. orientalis in Egypt, and of type 2 MPSP in buffaloes. Detection of MPSP type 2, which is considered a relatively virulent genotype, suggests that T. orientalis infection may have veterinary and economic significance in Egypt. In conclusion, the present study, which analyzed multiple species of Babesia and Theileria parasites in different livestock animals, may shed an additional light on the epidemiology of hemoprotozoan parasites in Egypt.
Motin, Vladimir L; Georgescu, Anca M; Elliott, Jeffrey M; Hu, Ping; Worsham, Patricia L; Ott, Linda L; Slezak, Tomas R; Sokhansanj, Bahrad A; Regala, Warren M; Brubaker, Robert R; Garcia, Emilio
A PCR-based genotyping system that detects divergence of IS100 locations within the Yersinia pestis genome was used to characterize a large collection of isolates of different biovars and geographical origins. Using sequences derived from the glycerol-negative biovar orientalis strain CO92, a set of 27 locus-specific primers was designed to amplify fragments between the end of IS100 and its neighboring gene. Geographically diverse members of the orientalis biovar formed a homogeneous group with identical genotype with the exception of strains isolated in Indochina. In contrast, strains belonging to the glycerol-positive biovar antiqua showed a variety of fingerprinting profiles. Moreover, strains of the biovar medievalis (also glycerol positive) clustered together with the antiqua isolates originated from Southeast Asia, suggesting their close phylogenetic relationships. Interestingly, a Manchurian biovar antiqua strain Nicholisk 51 displayed a genotyping pattern typical of biovar orientalis isolates. Analysis of the glycerol pathway in Y. pestis suggested that a 93-bp deletion within the glpD gene encoding aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase might account for the glycerol-negative phenotype of the orientalis biovar. The glpD gene of strain Nicholisk 51 did not possess this deletion, although it contained two nucleotide substitutions characteristic of the glpD version found exclusively in biovar orientalis strains. To account for this close relationship between biovar orientalis strains and the antiqua Nicholisk 51 isolate, we postulate that the latter represents a variant of this biovar with restored ability to ferment glycerol. The fact that such a genetic lesion might be repaired as part of the natural evolutionary process suggests the existence of genetic exchange between different Yersinia strains in nature. The relevance of this observation on the emergence of epidemic Y. pestis strains is discussed.
Motin, Vladimir L.; Georgescu, Anca M.; Elliott, Jeffrey M.; Hu, Ping; Worsham, Patricia L.; Ott, Linda L.; Slezak, Tomas R.; Sokhansanj, Bahrad A.; Regala, Warren M.; Brubaker, Robert R.; Garcia, Emilio
A PCR-based genotyping system that detects divergence of IS100 locations within the Yersinia pestis genome was used to characterize a large collection of isolates of different biovars and geographical origins. Using sequences derived from the glycerol-negative biovar orientalis strain CO92, a set of 27 locus-specific primers was designed to amplify fragments between the end of IS100 and its neighboring gene. Geographically diverse members of the orientalis biovar formed a homogeneous group with identical genotype with the exception of strains isolated in Indochina. In contrast, strains belonging to the glycerol-positive biovar antiqua showed a variety of fingerprinting profiles. Moreover, strains of the biovar medievalis (also glycerol positive) clustered together with the antiqua isolates originated from Southeast Asia, suggesting their close phylogenetic relationships. Interestingly, a Manchurian biovar antiqua strain Nicholisk 51 displayed a genotyping pattern typical of biovar orientalis isolates. Analysis of the glycerol pathway in Y. pestis suggested that a 93-bp deletion within the glpD gene encoding aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase might account for the glycerol-negative phenotype of the orientalis biovar. The glpD gene of strain Nicholisk 51 did not possess this deletion, although it contained two nucleotide substitutions characteristic of the glpD version found exclusively in biovar orientalis strains. To account for this close relationship between biovar orientalis strains and the antiqua Nicholisk 51 isolate, we postulate that the latter represents a variant of this biovar with restored ability to ferment glycerol. The fact that such a genetic lesion might be repaired as part of the natural evolutionary process suggests the existence of genetic exchange between different Yersinia strains in nature. The relevance of this observation on the emergence of epidemic Y. pestis strains is discussed. PMID:11807062
Fang, James K H; Schönberg, Christine H L; Mello-Athayde, Matheus A; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Dove, Sophie
Recent research efforts have demonstrated increased bioerosion rates under experimentally elevated partial pressures of seawater carbon dioxide (pCO2 ) with or without increased temperatures, which may lead to net erosion on coral reefs in the future. However, this conclusion clearly depends on the ability of the investigated bioeroding organisms to survive and grow in the warmer and more acidic future environments, which remains unexplored. The excavating sponge Cliona orientalis Thiele, is a widely distributed bioeroding organism and symbiotic with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Using C. orientalis, an energy budget model was developed to calculate amounts of carbon directed into metabolic maintenance and growth. This model was tested under a range of CO2 emission scenarios (temperature + pCO2 ) appropriate to an Austral early summer. Under a pre-industrial scenario, present day (control) scenario, or B1 future scenario (associated with reducing the rate of CO2 emissions over the next few decades), C. orientalis maintained a positive energy budget, where metabolic demand was likely satisfied by autotrophic carbon provided by Symbiodinium and heterotrophic carbon via filter-feeding, suggesting sustainability. Under B1, C. orientalis likely benefited by a greater supply of photosynthetic products from its symbionts, which increased by up to 56% per unit area, and displayed an improved condition with up to 52% increased surplus carbon available for growth. Under an A1FI future scenario (associated with 'business-as-usual' CO2 emissions) bleached C. orientalis experienced the highest metabolic demand, but carbon acquired was insufficient to maintain the sponge, as indicated by a negative energy budget. These metabolic considerations suggest that previous observations of increased bioerosion under A1FI by C. orientalis may not last through the height of future A1FI summers, and survival of individual sponges may be dependent on the energy reserves
Ozdemir, M; Seven, S
The butterfly fauna in Ordu province (N-Turkey) was determined in this study. Their relations with the phytosociological associations found in the zone were evaluated and the Lepidoptera taxa in these units were presented. The numbers of determined taxa in each plant association are Castanea-Carpinus-Corylus (23), Fagus orientalis, Carpinus betulus and Picea orientalis Mixed Forest Zone (23), Subalpine Zone (Rhododendron luteum-Vaccinium myrtillus) (25), Lower Alpine Zone (Festuca lazistanica ssp. giresunica) (20), Mid-alpine Zone (Festuca lazistanica ssp. giresunica) (13). Fifteen taxa are new for Ordu province.
Three hawthorn and related rust diseases caused by Gymnosporangium confusum on Crataegus monogyna, G. clavariiforme on C. orientalis, and G. sabinae on Pyrus communis were detected in Hatay province, Turkey. Gymnosporangium confusum was also found causing telial galls on Juniperus communis. Gymnospo...
Wang, Yuhui; Wang, Junfeng; Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Song, Xinshan; Gong, Juan
Four plant species, Typha orientalis, Scirpus validus, Canna indica and Iris tectorum were selected to assess their physiological response and effects on nitrogen and COD removal to high total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) in constructed wetlands. Results showed that high TAN caused decreased relative growth rate, net photosynthetic rate, and leaf transpiration. C. indica and T. orientalis showed higher TAN adaptability than S. validus and I. tectorum. Below TAN of 200 mg L(-1), growth of C. indica and T. orientalis was less affected or even stimulated at TAN range 100-200 mg L(-1). However, S. validus and I. tectorum was obviously suppressed when TAN was above 100 mg L(-1). High TAN generated obvious oxidative stress showing increased proline and malondialdehyde contents, and superoxide dismutase was inhibited. It indicated that the threshold for plant self-bioremediation against high TAN was 200 mg L(-1). What's more, planted CWs showed higher nitrogen and COD removal. Removal rate of C. indica and T. orientalis was higher than S. validus and I. tectorum.
Han, Sang-Hyun; Oh, Hong-Shik
To reveal the dietary ecology of the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), we conducted a molecular analysis for mitochondrial genes (COI and CYTB) to identify the prey species collected from a feeding place found on Sasu Island, South Korea. The results from noninvasive genetic analysis showed that the sequences obtained came from nine species of birds (Cuculus canorus, Eurystomus orientalis, Limosa limosa, Microscelis amaurotis, Oriolus chinensis, Phasianus colchicus, Sterna hirundo, Streptopelia orientalis, and Turdus pallidus). Five of the species (C. canorus, M. amaurotis, S. hirundo, S. orientalis, and T. pallidus) had previously been observed on this island, but the other four species (E. orientalis, L. limosa, O. chinensis, and P. colchicus) were newly identified as present. No mtDNA sequences of land animals such as amphibians, reptiles, and mammals were found in the dietary remains, suggesting that the peregrine falcon preys mostly on other birds rather than on other animals inhabiting Sasu Island. This island has rich avian diversity and abundant animal populations and therefore supplies sufficient dietary resources for the peregrine falcon. Our findings suggested that a DNA-based molecular method may be useful to identify the prey species of these birds and may be valuable in future studies of the Endangered peregrine falcon.
The USDA-National Plant Germplasm System apple (Malus) collection has traditionally been conserved by maintaining orchards in Geneva, NY and cryopreserving dormant buds of clones. The orchard Malus collection includes hundreds of M. sieversii and M. orientalis individuals. The variation in these w...
Malek, M.A.; Hammani, A.; Beneldjouzi, A.; Bitam, I.
In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8%) rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague. PMID:25834736
... Orcynopsis unicolor (Geoffroy St. Hilaire, 1817)—Plain bonito Sarda australis (Macleay, 1880)—Australian bonito Sarda chiliensis (Cuvier, 1831)—Eastern Pacific bonito Sarda orientalis (Temminck and Schlegel, 1844)—Striped bonito Sarda sarda (Bloch, 1793)—Atlantic bonito...
Bitam, Idir; Baziz, Belkacem; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Belkaid, Miloud
After an outbreak of human plague, 95 Xenopsylla cheopis fleas from Algeria were tested for Yersinia pestis with PCR methods. Nine fleas were definitively confirmed to be infected with Y. pestis biovar orientalis. Our results demonstrate the persistence of a zoonotic focus of Y. pestis in Algeria. PMID:17326957
Ziam, H; Benaouf, H
Between June and September 2002, a preliminary study was conducted to assess the prevalence of blood parasites of cattle in eastern Algeria. Fifty-four bovines of different genotypes were submitted to clinical examination. From each animal, blood smears were made and stained by Giemsa. Four species of parasites, namely Theileria annulata, T. orientalis, Babesia bovis and Anaplasma marginale were encountered. Fifty animals carried single or multiple infections with blood parasites and four were found negative. The rate of single infections (72.3%, n = 39) was almost three times higher than multiple infections (20.3%, n = 11). The high percentage of single infections was recorded with T. annulata (53.7%). However single infection with Anaplasma marginale (7.4 %), B. bovis (5.6%) and T orientalis (5.6%) were very low compared to T. annulata infection. The rates of mixed infection were as follows: T. annulata/A. marginale 9.3%, T. annulata/T. orientalis 5.6%, A. marginale/T. orientalis 3.7% and B. bovis/A. marginale 1.9%.
Lentil (Lens culinaris spp. culinaris) has a long history associated with the early civilizations 11,000 BP in southwestern Asia. The progenitor taxon is Lens culinaris spp. orientalis. The primary source of germplasm for lentil crop improvement is from the International Center for Agricultural Rese...
Lu, Ling-Xiao; Song, Tong-Qing; Peng, Wan-Xia; Zeng, Fu-Ping; Wang, Ke-Lin; Xu, Yun-Lei; Yu, Zi; Liu, Yan
Soil profiles were collected from three primary forests (Itoa orientalis, Platycladus orientalis, and Radermachera sinica) in Karst cluster-peak depression region to study the composition of soil aggregates, their organic carbon contents, and the profile distribution of the organic carbon. In the three forests, >2 mm soil aggregates were dominant, occupying about 76% of the total. The content of soil total organic carbon ranged from 12.73 to 68.66 g x kg(-1), with a significant difference among the forests. The organic carbon content in <1 mm soil aggregates was slightly higher than that in >2 mm soil aggregates, but most of soil organic carbon was stored in the soil aggregates with greater particle sizes. About 70% of soil organic carbon came from >2 mm soil aggregates. There was a significant positive relationship between the contents of 2-5 and 5-8 mm soil aggregates and the content of soil organic carbon. To increase the contents of 2-8 mm soil aggregates could effectively improve the soil carbon sequestration in Karst region. In Itoa orientalis forest, 2-8 mm soil aggregates accounted for 46% of the total, and the content of soil total organic carbon reached to 37.62 g x kg(-1), which implied that Itoa orientalis could be the suitable tree species for the ecological restoration in Karst region.
The Lens genus includes the cultivated L. culinaris, and wild subspecies orientalis - the progenitor, tomentosus, and odemensis, are in the primary genepool, while L. ervoides, L. nigricans and L. lamottei are in the secondary – tertiary gene pool. The Middle East is the primary centre of diversity ...
Chu, Jinyu; Zhang, Jinping; Zhou, Xiaohong; Liu, Biao; Li, Yimin
Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were used to document the abundance, diversity and community structure of anaerobic ammonia-oxidising (anammox) bacteria in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere sediments of three emergent macrophyte species (Iris pseudacorus, Thalia dealbata and Typha orientalis). The qPCR results confirmed the existence of anammox bacteria (AMX) with observed log number of gene copies per dry gram sediment ranging from 5.00 to 6.78. AMX was more abundant in T. orientalis-associated sediments than in the other two plant species. The I. pseudacorus- and T. orientalis-associated sediments had higher Shannon diversity values, indicating higher AMX diversity in these sediments. Based on the 16S rRNA gene, Candidatus 'Brocadia', Candidatus 'Kuenenia', Candidatus 'Jettenia' and new clusters were observed with the predominant Candidatus 'Kuenenia' cluster. The I. pseudacorus-associated sediments contained all the sequences of the C. 'Jettenia' cluster. Sequences obtained from T. orientalis-associated sediments contributed more than 90 % sequences in the new cluster, whereas none was found from I. pseudacorus. The new cluster was distantly related to known sequences; thus, this cluster was grouped outside the known clusters, indicating that the new cluster may be a new Planctomycetales genus. Further studies should be undertaken to confirm this finding.
Erickson, Gregory M.; Ebersole, Jun A.
The cranial and postcranial anatomy of the basal hadrosaurid dinosaur Eotrachodon orientalis, from the uppermost Santonian of southern Appalachia (southeastern U.S.A.), is described in detail. This animal is the only known pre-Campanian non-lambeosaurine hadrosaurid, and the most complete hadrosauroid known from Appalachia. E. orientalis possesses a mosaic of plesiomorphic and derived characters in the context of Hadrosauroidea. Characters shared with basal hadrosauroids include a short and sloping maxillary ectopterygoid shelf, caudally prominent maxillary jugal process, one functional tooth per alveolus on the maxillary occlusal plane, a jugal rostral process with a shallow caudodorsal margin and medioventrally facing articular facet, a vertical dentary coronoid process with a poorly expanded apex, and tooth crowns with accessory ridges. Derived characters shared with other hadrosaurids include a circumnarial depression compartmented into three fossae (as in brachylophosaurins and Edmontosaurus), a thin everted premaxillary oral margin (as in Gryposaurus, Prosaurolophus, and Saurolophus), and a maxilla with a deep and rostrocaudally extensive rostrodorsal region with a steeply sloping premaxillary margin (as in Gryposaurus). Eotrachodon orientalis differs primarily from the other hadrosauroid from the Mooreville Chalk of Alabama, Lophorhothon atopus, in having a slender and crestless nasal whose caudodorsal margin is not invaded by the circumnarial depression. Hadrosaurus foulkii, the only other known hadrosaurid from Appalachia, is distinct from E. orientalis in having dentary teeth lacking accessory ridges and a dorsally curved shaft of the ischium. A histological section of the tibia of the E. orientalis holotype (MSC 7949) suggests that this individual was actively growing at the time of death and, thus, had the potential to become a larger animal later in development. PMID:27114863
Xinmin, Liu; Ning, Wu
The study showed that in the Stipa grandis steppe of Inner Mongolia, there were 4 families and 9 species of Scarabaeoidea larvae, among which, the numbers of species and individuals of Melolonthidae were more than those of other families. The important value of the dominant species in Scarabaeoidea larvae community were Trematodes tenebrioides > Serica orientalis > Amphimallon solstitialis > Cyriopertha arcuata. Based on the features of their seasonal dynamics, they could be classified into three kinds. The first kind was that their density peak occurred in spring and autumn, such as Serica orientalis. Cyriopertha arcuata belonged to the second kind, and its density had no obvious fluctuation through all the year. Trematodes tenebrioides and Amphimallon solstitialis could be classified into the third kind, and their density peak all occurred in autumn. The biodiversity index of Scarabaeoidea larvae community was relatively higher in autumn than in spring and summer. Although the richness of Scarabaeoidea larvae populations was not lower in spring, their composition was very simple.
Lee, Yong-Bo; Na, Young-Hee; Kim, Sung-Jun; Lim, Chae-Kyu
Four species of Laboulbeniales collected from Java Island, Indonesia between August and September in 2006 are described. These species, which belong to the genus Coreomyces and were found on the family Corixidae of the order Hemiptera, were as follows; Coreomycus corixae Thaxter, Coreomyces micronectae Thaxter and Coreomyces orientalis Thaxter, which were found on Micronecta sedula Horvath, and Coreomyces recurvatus Thaxter, which was found on Micronecta sedula Horvath and Xenocorixa sp. C. corixae Thaxter and C. orientalis Thaxter were originally found on Micronecta, whereas C. recurvatus Thaxter was originally found on Xenocorixa. All species described herein are new to Java Island. The specimens were deposited in the Biological Herbarium, Division of Science Education, College of Education, Chosun University.
Özgenç, Özlem; Durmaz, Sefa; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki; Eksi-Kocak, Haslet
In this study, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Fourier-transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy techniques were used to determine changes in the chemical structure of heat-treated woods. For this purpose, scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L.), and oriental spruce (Picea orientalis L.) wood species were heat-treated at different temperatures. The effect of chemical changes on the FT-Raman and ATR-FTIR bands or ratios of heat-treated wood was related with the OH association of cellulose, functional groups, and the aromatic system of lignin. The effects of heat treatment on the carbohydrate and lignin peaks varied depending on the wood species. The spectral changes that occurred after heat treatment reflected the progress of the condensation reaction of lignin. Degradation of hemicelluloses led to a decrease in free hydroxyl groups. High temperature caused crystalline cellulose to increase due to the degradation of amorphous cellulose.
Yilmaz, Kadir Ugurtan; Yanar, Makbule; Ercisli, Sezai; Sahiner, Hatice; Taskin, Tuncer; Zengin, Yasar
The genus Crataegus is well distributed in Turkey as a wild plant, with numerous, inherently variable species and genotypes. RAPD markers were used to study 17 hawthorn genotypes belonging to Crataegus monogyna ssp. monogyna Jacq (2 genotypes), C. monogyna ssp. azarella Jacq (1), Crataegus pontica K.Koch (3), Crataegus orientalis var. orientalis Pallas Ex Bieb (3), Crataegus pseudoheterophylla Pojark (1), Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz (1), C. aronia var. aronia Browicz (4), and Crateagus x bornmuelleri Zabel (2). The 10 RAPD primers produced 72 polymorphic bands (88% polymorphism). A dendrogram based on Jaccard's index included four major groups and one outgroup according to taxa. The lowest genetic variability was observed within C. aronia var. aronia genotypes. The study demonstrated that RAPD analysis is efficient for genotyping wild-grown hawthorns.
Ohmura, Yoshihito; Matsukura, Kimiyo; Abe, Jun-ichi P; Hosaka, Kentaro; Tamaoki, Masanori; Dohi, Terumi; Kakishima, Makoto; Seaward, Mark R D
(137)Cs concentrations in ten species of foliose lichens collected within Tsukuba-city in August 2013 ranged from 1.7 to 35 kBq/kg. The relationships between (137)Cs in two dominant species, Dirinaria applanata and Physcia orientalis, and the air dose rate (μSv/h) at the sampling sites were investigated. (137)Cs in P. orientalis measured about 1 year after the Fukushima nuclear accident was correlated (r(2) = 0.80) more closely with the air dose rate than those measured after about 2 years (r(2) = 0.65), possibly demonstrating its continued value as a biomonitor to reflect ambient fall-out levels. In contrast, those of Dirinaria applanata were not correlated with the air dose rate in either year.
Heredia-Olea, Erick; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O.
Second-generation bioethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse first extruded at different conditions and then treated with cell wall degrading enzymes and fermented with I. orientalis was determined. The twin extruder parameters tested were barrel temperature, screws speed, and feedstock moisture content using surface response methodology. The best extrusion conditions were 100°C, 200 rpm, and 30% conditioning moisture content. This nonchemical and continuous pretreatment did not generate inhibitory compounds. The extruded feedstocks were saccharified varying the biocatalysis time and solids loading. The best conditions were 20% solids loading and 72 h of enzymatic treatment. These particular conditions converted 70% of the total fibrous carbohydrates into total fermentable C5 and C6 sugars. The extruded enzymatically hydrolyzed sweet sorghum bagasse was fermented with the strain I. orientalis at 12% solids obtaining a yield of 198.1 mL of ethanol per kilogram of bagasse (dw). PMID:25866776
Özgenç, Özlem; Durmaz, Sefa; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki; Eksi-Kocak, Haslet
In this study, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Fourier-transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy techniques were used to determine changes in the chemical structure of heat-treated woods. For this purpose, scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L.), and oriental spruce (Picea orientalis L.) wood species were heat-treated at different temperatures. The effect of chemical changes on the FT-Raman and ATR-FTIR bands or ratios of heat-treated wood was related with the OH association of cellulose, functional groups, and the aromatic system of lignin. The effects of heat treatment on the carbohydrate and lignin peaks varied depending on the wood species. The spectral changes that occurred after heat treatment reflected the progress of the condensation reaction of lignin. Degradation of hemicelluloses led to a decrease in free hydroxyl groups. High temperature caused crystalline cellulose to increase due to the degradation of amorphous cellulose.
Demir, Murat; Makineci, Ender; Gungor, Beyza Sat
This study was executed to determine the plant species of herbaceous cover in a skid road subjected to soil compaction due to timber skidding in a beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) stand. Our previous studies have shown that ground based timber skidding destroys the soils extremely, and degradations on ecosystem because of the timber skidding limit recovery and growth of plant cover on skid roads. However, some plant species show healthy habitat, recovery and they can survive after the extreme degradation in study area. We evaluated composition of these plant species and their cover-abundance scales in 100 m x 3 m transect. 15 plant species were determined belongs to 12 plant families and Liliaceae was the highest representative plant family. Smilax aspera L., Epimedium pubigerum (DC.) Moren et Decaisne, Carex distachya Desf. var. distachya Desf., Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn., Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. Don, Hedera helix L. have the highest coverabundance scale overall of determined species on compacted skid road.
Soh, Ho Young; Moon, Seong Yong; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Pae, Se Jin; Jeong, Hyeon Gyeong
A new species of the genus Sarsarietellus from Korean waters, S. orientalis n. sp. is described based on both sexes. This is very closely related to S. suluensis Ohtsuka, Nishida and Machida, 2005 , but is readily distinguished by the following characteristics: in the female (1) narrow head; (2) nearly symmetrical posterior corners of last pedigerous somite, not extending beyond the genital double-somite; (3) antennary endopod slightly longer than the exopod; (4) nearly equal length of three outer spines and the terminal spine of the exopod of the fifth leg, except for the proximal third outer spine; and in the male the left fifth leg with two whip-like setae on the tip of the second exopodal segment not being rotated outside. Sarsarietellus orientalis is the fourth species of the genus Sarsarietellus, while the male of Sarsarietellus species is the first reported. The habitat colonization of arietellids is reconsidered.
Bai, Hai-Feng; Jin, Xiang-Xiang; Li, Cheng-De
Abstract Five species of Ooctonus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae) from Heilongjiang Province, China, are reviewed. One species, Ooctonus huberi sp. n., is described as new, and four species, Ooctonus orientalis Doutt, Ooctonus saturn Triapitsyn, Ooctonus sublaevis Förster and Ooctonus vulgatus Haliday are reported as new to China. A key to the females of the 10 described Chinese species is given. All the specimens are deposited in the insect collections of Northeast Forestry University, China. PMID:25685015
Fang, James K H; Mello-Athayde, Matheus A; Schönberg, Christine H L; Kline, David I; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Dove, Sophie
The combination of ocean warming and acidification as a result of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is considered to be a significant threat to calcifying organisms and their activities on coral reefs. How these global changes impact the important roles of decalcifying organisms (bioeroders) in the regulation of carbonate budgets, however, is less understood. To address this important question, the effects of a range of past, present and future CO2 emission scenarios (temperature + acidification) on the excavating sponge Cliona orientalis Thiele, 1900 were explored over 12 weeks in early summer on the southern Great Barrier Reef. C. orientalis is a widely distributed bioeroder on many reefs, and hosts symbiotic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Our results showed that biomass production and bioerosion rates of C. orientalis were similar under a pre-industrial scenario and a present day (control) scenario. Symbiodinium population density in the sponge tissue was the highest under the pre-industrial scenario, and decreased towards the two future scenarios with sponge replicates under the 'business-as-usual' CO2 emission scenario exhibiting strong bleaching. Despite these changes, biomass production and the ability of the sponge to erode coral carbonate materials both increased under the future scenarios. Our study suggests that C. orientalis will likely grow faster and have higher bioerosion rates in a high CO2 future than at present, even with significant bleaching. Assuming that our findings hold for excavating sponges in general, increased sponge biomass coupled with accelerated bioerosion may push coral reefs towards net erosion and negative carbonate budgets in the future.
White, Johanna M.; Labeda, David P.; Lechevalier, Mary P.; Owens, James R.; Jones, Daniel D.; Gauthier, Joseph J.
A novel actinomycete was the predominant filamentous microorganism in bulking activated sludge in a bench-scale reactor treating coke plant wastewater. The bacterium was isolated and identified as an actinomycete that is biochemically and morphologically similar to Amycolatopsis orientalis; however, a lack of DNA homology excludes true relatedness. At present, the isolate (NRRL B 16216) cannot be assigned to the recognized taxa of actinomycetes. Images PMID:16347238
Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru
Species composition and the seasonal prevalence of natural enemies on the mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan were investigated by monitoring methods using yellow sticky traps hung on the branches under leaf layers. The species captured by the sticky traps were as follows: 5 species of parasitic wasps,Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica Hayat (this species was identified as Thomsonisca amathus in Japan), and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren; 1 species of hyperparasites, Marietta carnesi (Howard); and 3 species of coleopteran predators, Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 Cecidomyiidae species (predatory gall midge), namely,Dentifibula sp., was captured by sticky traps. Among the parasitoids captured, A. albitibiae was the most abundant species, followed by P. orientalis. Among the predacious beetles captured, P. hareja was the dominant species. A. albitibiae demonstrated 5 or 6 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year, and P. orientalis and T. indica exhibited 3 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. P. hareja and Dentifibula sp. demonstrated 3 indistinct peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. The peak dates of A. albitibiae, P. orientalis, T. indica, and Dentifibula sp. were compared with those of the first instar larvae and adult males of the hosts, P. pentagona, which were captured by sticky traps. The relationships between the total numbers of each generation captured by sticky traps of the parasitoids A. albitibiae and the host P. pentagona over a period of 2 years revealed similar changes in the dynamics of the host-parasitoid models of Nicholson and Bailey (1935).This suggested that A. albitibiae was one of the most important natural enemies against P.pentagona in tea fields.
Wu, Qun; Kong, Yu; Xu, Yan
The flavor profile of Chinese liquor is the result of the metabolic activity of its microbial community. Given the importance of the microbial interaction, a novel way to control the liquor's flavor is by regulating the composition of the community. In this study, we efficiently improved the liquor's flavor by perturbing the intrinsic microbial metabolism with extrinsic microbes. We first constructed a basic microbial group (intrinsic) containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Issatchenkia orientalis and added special flavor producers (extrinsic), Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces servazzii, to this intrinsic group. Upon the addition of the extrinsic microbes, the maximum specific growth rates of S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis increased from 6.19 to 43.28/day and from 1.15 to 14.32/day, respectively, but that of W. anomalus changed from 1.00 to 0.96/day. In addition, most volatile compounds known to be produced by the extrinsic strains were not produced. However, more esters, alcohols, and acids were produced by S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis. Six compounds were significantly different by random forest analysis after perturbation. Among them, increases in ethyl hexanoate, isobutanol, and 3-methylbutyric acid were correlated with S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis, and a decrease in geranyl acetone was correlated with W. anomalus. Variations in ethyl acetate and 2-phenylethanol might be due to the varied activity of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae. This work showed the effect of the interaction between the intrinsic and extrinsic microbes on liquor flavor, which would be beneficial for improving the quality of Chinese liquor.
Omar, Hussein M.; Omer, Osama H.; Al-Dhubaibi, Mohammed S.
Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer’s itch) is a worldwide, often neglected parasitic skin disease characterized by strong maculopapular skin eruption accompanied by intensive itching. A fisherman suffered from forearm dermatitis. Clinical history associated with the recovery of the avian schistosome; Gigantobilharzia from little green bee-eater (Merops orientalis najdanus) and collected Lymnaea snails supported the authors’ opinion that patient clinical signs are most likely due to the invasion of avian schistosome cercariae. PMID:27004065
The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is the prevalent species in the district of Rostock. There was also an occurrence of Blatta orientalis and, in one case, of Periplaneta australasiae. Periplaneta americana is occasionally introduced from warmer regions of the globe via containers. Extent and intensity of infestation of many buildings has increased making large-scale control measures necessary. Most control measures have been taken in food industry enterprises. The quantity of cockroach control increases with growing population density.
Wu, Qun; Kong, Yu
The flavor profile of Chinese liquor is the result of the metabolic activity of its microbial community. Given the importance of the microbial interaction, a novel way to control the liquor's flavor is by regulating the composition of the community. In this study, we efficiently improved the liquor's flavor by perturbing the intrinsic microbial metabolism with extrinsic microbes. We first constructed a basic microbial group (intrinsic) containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Issatchenkia orientalis and added special flavor producers (extrinsic), Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces servazzii, to this intrinsic group. Upon the addition of the extrinsic microbes, the maximum specific growth rates of S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis increased from 6.19 to 43.28/day and from 1.15 to 14.32/day, respectively, but that of W. anomalus changed from 1.00 to 0.96/day. In addition, most volatile compounds known to be produced by the extrinsic strains were not produced. However, more esters, alcohols, and acids were produced by S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis. Six compounds were significantly different by random forest analysis after perturbation. Among them, increases in ethyl hexanoate, isobutanol, and 3-methylbutyric acid were correlated with S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis, and a decrease in geranyl acetone was correlated with W. anomalus. Variations in ethyl acetate and 2-phenylethanol might be due to the varied activity of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae. This work showed the effect of the interaction between the intrinsic and extrinsic microbes on liquor flavor, which would be beneficial for improving the quality of Chinese liquor. PMID:26475111
The paper presents the description of Seminavis atlantica Garcia, a psammic marine diatom from dissipative sandy beaches from southern Brazil. It is characterized by its convex linear dorsal margin (37 to 50% of its length is in a straight line), linear ventral margin and raphe located very close to the ventral margin. Its morphology is compared to similar species such as Amphora clevei Grunow, Amphora angusta (Greg.) Cleve var. orientalis Allem, Amphora ventricosa Gregory and Amphora eulesteinii Grunow.
Lee, Sae-Byuk; Choi, Won-Seok; Jo, Hyun-Jung; Yeo, Soo-Hwan; Park, Heui-Dong
Wine yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae D8) and non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts (Hanseniaspora uvarum S6 and Issatchenkia orientalis KMBL5774) were studied using air-blast drying instead of the conventional drying methods (such as freeze and spray drying). Skim milk-a widely used protective agent-was used and in all strains, the highest viabilities following air-blast drying were obtained using 10% skim milk. Four excipients (wheat flour, nuruk, artichoke powder, and lactomil) were evaluated as protective agents for yeast strains during air-blast drying. Our results showed that 7 g lactomil was the best excipient in terms of drying time, powder form, and the survival rate of the yeast in the final product. Finally, 7 types of sugars were investigated to improve the survival rate of air-blast dried yeast cells: 10% trehalose, 10% sucrose, and 10% glucose had the highest survival rate of 97.54, 92.59, and 79.49% for S. cerevisiae D8, H. uvarum S6, and I. orientalis KMBL5774, respectively. After 3 months of storage, S. cerevisiae D8 and H. uvarum S6 demonstrated good survival rates (making them suitable for use as starters), whereas the survival rate of I. orientalis KMBL5774 decreased considerably compared to the other strains. Air-blast dried S. cerevisiae D8 and H. uvarum S6 showed metabolic activities similar to those of non-dried yeast cells, regardless of the storage period. Air-blast dried I. orientalis KMBL5774 showed a noticeable decrease in its ability to decompose malic acid after 3 months of storage at 4 °C.
Maxia, L; Reale, S; Loria, G R; Greco, A; Vitale, F; Glorioso, N S; Sparagano, O
Theileriosis is an infectious disease in tropical countries and in the Mediterranean area. It is caused by Theileria, a haemoprotozoan, transmitted by vectors belonging to the Ixodidae. In Southern Italy and in Sicily the infection is due mainly to T. annulata, but in some cases other species are involved in the disease. The authors describe a method to identify theileriosis in cattle blood samples, using PCR and hybridization techniques. Different primer sets were used to amplify different DNA target sequences, both genus and species specific. Blood samples from cattle were collected in Sicily. The DNA extracted from blood samples was employed first to detect the presence of the 18S ribosomal subunit gene specific for Theileria genus. Successively the positive samples were analysed to identify the species, T. annulata or T. buffeli/orientalis, using as target sequences for amplification respectively a fragment of the TAMS-1 and p33/34 antigens gene. Here the authors describe for the first time the presence of T. buffeli/orientalis infection in Sicilian herds. In fact 66% of positive blood samples were T. buffeli/orientalis infected.
Brudal, Espen; Ulanova, Lilia S.; O. Lampe, Elisabeth; Rishovd, Anne-Lise; Winther-Larsen, Hanne C.
Francisella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens identified in increasingly diverse hosts, including mammals. F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis and F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis infect fish inhabiting warm and cold waters, respectively, while F. tularensis subsp. novicida is highly infectious for mice and has been widely used as a model for the human pathogen F. tularensis. Here, we established zebrafish embryo infection models of fluorescently labeled F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis, F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis, and F. tularensis subsp. novicida at 22, 28, and 32°C, respectively. All infections led to significant bacterial growth, as shown by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), and to a robust proinflammatory immune response, dominated by increased transcription of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis was the most virulent, F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis caused chronic infection, and F. tularensis subsp. novicida showed moderate virulence and led to formation of relatively small granuloma-like structures. The use of transgenic zebrafish strains with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-labeled immune cells revealed their detailed interactions with Francisella species. All three strains entered preferentially into macrophages, which eventually assembled into granuloma-like structures. Entry into neutrophils was also observed, though the efficiency of this event depended on the route of infection. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the zebrafish embryo model for studying infections caused by different Francisella species at a wide range of temperatures and highlight their interactions with immune cells. PMID:24614659
Fortuna, Taiadjana M; Eckert, Silvia; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Vet, Louise E M; Müller, Caroline; Gols, Rieta
Although plant-herbivore-enemy interactions have been studied extensively in cross-continental plant invasions, little is known about intra-continental range expanders, despite their rapid spread globally. Using an ecological and metabolomics approach, we compared the insect performance of a generalist and specialist herbivore and a parasitoid, as well as plant defence traits, among native, exotic invasive and exotic non-invasive populations of the Turkish rocket, Bunias orientalis, a range-expanding species across parts of Eurasia. In the glasshouse, the generalist herbivore, Mamestra brassicae, and its parasitoid, Microplitis mediator, performed better on non-native than on native plant populations. Insect performance did not differ between the two non-native origins. By contrast, the specialist herbivore, Pieris brassicae, developed poorly on all populations. Differences in trichome densities and in the metabolome, particularly in the family-specific secondary metabolites (i.e. glucosinolates), may explain population-related variation in the performance of the generalist herbivore and its parasitoid. Total glucosinolate concentrations were significantly induced by herbivory, particularly in native populations. Native populations of B. orientalis are generally better defended than non-native populations. The role of insect herbivores and dietary specialization as a selection force on defence traits in the range-expanding B. orientalis is discussed.
Friedel, T; Nentwig, W
Immobilizing and lethal effects of the venoms obtained from six spider species (Brachypelma albopilosum, Atrax robustus, Cupiennius salei, Selenops mexicanus, Tegenaria atrica, Argiope bruennichi) were tested on Blatta orientalis (cockroach) and Tenebrio molitor (common mealbeetle). The immobilizing effects were quantified by measuring insect locomotor activity in circle arenas observed over 72 hr after venom injection. Both insect species showed cramps, quivering and jerking of the limbs as well as flaccid paralysis after venom injection. Through relative toxicity of the venoms tested is the same in T. molitor and B. orientalis, T. molitor is absolutely less sensitive to spider venoms. The effects on locomotor activity show time characteristics specific for each venom. A dependence of the venom paralyzing effects on insect locomotor activity, low intensity of the initial excitatory phase of the venom effects and partial recovery of the insects was found with A. bruennichi and T. atrica venom. The maximal venom yields of A. bruennichi and S. mexicanus are not lethal to B. orientalis, indicating that the mere immobilizing effects of spider venoms are far more crucial to prey capture than their lethal effects. The contribution of a variety of differently acting neurotoxic components in spider venoms to the observed venom effects on insects and the significance of the venoms in spider nutrition, hunting behaviour and ecology are discussed.
Yang, Nan; Zhou, Fu-Rong; Wang, Jin-Xin
In order to compare the different eco-toxicological effects of lead nitrate and lead acetate on forest tree seed, a biological incubation experiment was conducted to testify the inhibition effects of two lead compounds on rates of seed germination, root and stem elongation, and seedling fresh weight for six plants (Amaorpha fruticosa L., Robinia psedoacacia L., Pinus tabuliformis Carr., Platycladus orientalis L., Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm., Hippophae rhamnoides L.) in soil. The results indicate that the inhibition effects of the two lead compounds on the rates of root elongation of plants were greater than other indices; root elongation can possibly be used as indices to investigate the relationship between lead toxicity and plant response. The response of trees to lead toxicity varied significantly, and the order of tolerance to lead pollution was as follows: Amaorpha fruticosa L. > Platycladus orientalis L. > Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. > Robinia psedoacacia L. > Pinus tabuliformis Carr. > Hippophae rhamnoides L. Therefore, we suggest that Amaorpha fruticosa L. and Platycladus orientalis L. be used as tolerant plants for soil phytoremediation and Hippophae rhamnoides L. as an indicative plant to diagnose the toxicity of lead pollution on soil quality. Lead nitrate and lead acetate differentially restrain seeds, with seeds being more sensitive to lead nitrate than lead acetate in the soil. Thus, the characteristics of lead compounds should be taken into full consideration to appraise its impact on the environment.
Yuan, He Zhong; Pan, Wei; Ren, Li Jun; Liu, Eeng Feng; Shen, Ji; Geng, Qi Fang; An, Shu Qing
The results of phosphorus fractionation in the sediments from a contaminated river containing different aquatic plants, analyzed by solution 31P-NMR for Organic Phosphorus, showed that the concentration of Inorganic Phosphorus dominated in all species and Organic Phosphorus accounted for over 20% of Total Phosphorus. In general, orthophosphate was dominant in all the sampling sites. The proportion of Organic Phosphorus accounting for the Total Phosphorus in the sediments with different plant decreased in the following order: Paspalum distichum>Typha orientalis>Hydrilla verticillata. Phosphorus-accumulation ability of Paspalum distichum was obviously stronger than Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata. The Organic Phosphorus was in aquatic plants dominated by humic-associated P (Hu-P), which converted to Inorganic Ohosphorus more significantly in submerged plants than in emerged plants. The sediment dominated by Paspalum distichum abundantly accumulated Organic Phosphorus in the orthophosphate monoester fraction. The degradation and mineralization of orthophosphate monoester was the important source of high Inorganic Phosphorus concentration and net primary productivity in Suoxu River. The Organic Phosphorus derived from Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata was dramatically converted to Inorganic Phosphorus when the environmental factors varied.
Valles, S M; Koehler, P G; Brenner, R J
Topical bioassays using propoxur, chlorpyrifos, and lambda-cyhalothrin were conducted on eight cockroach species. Based on lethal dose values, the relative toxicities of the insecticide classes were generally pyrethroid > carbamate > organophosphorous. Lambda-Cyhalothrin and propoxur were more toxic toward the Blattidae as compared with the Blattellidae. The order of lambda-cyhalothrin toxicity was Periplaneta americana > Periplaneta brunnea = Periplaneta australasiae = Periplaneta fuliginosa = Blatta orientalis > Blattella asahinai = Blattella germanica > Blattella vaga. The order of propoxur toxicity was B. orientalis > P. americana > P. brunnea = P. australasiae > B. asahinai > P. fuliginosa = B. germanica > B. vaga. The order of chlorpyrifos toxicity was P. americana > B. asahinai = B. vaga > B. orientalis = P. australasiae = P. brunnea > B. germanica = P. fuliginosa. Detoxification enzyme activities for each species also were measured and compared with insecticide toxicity. Propoxur LD50 was significantly (P = 0.01; r = 0.81) correlated with glutathione S-transferase activity. Lambda-Cyhalothrin LD50 correlated with methoxyresorufin O-demethylase activity (P = 0.01; r = 0.81), carboxylesterase activity (P = 0.03; r = - 0.75), general esterase activity (P = 0.02; r = - 0.79), and cockroach weight (P = 0.01; r = -0.95).
Gutierrez, Alejandra C; Gołębiowski, Marek; Pennisi, Mariana; Peterson, Graciela; García, Juan J; Manfrino, Romina G; López Lastra, Claudia C
Differences in free fatty acids (FFAs) chemical composition of insects may be responsible for susceptibility or resistance to fungal infection. Determination of FFAs found in cuticular lipids can effectively contribute to the knowledge concerning insect defense mechanisms. In this study, we have evaluated the susceptibility of three species of cockroaches to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin by topical application. Mortality due to M. anisopliae was highly significant on adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica L. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). However, mortality was faster in adults than in nymphs. Adults of Blatta orientalis L. (Blattodea: Blattidae) were not susceptible to the fungus, and nymphs of Blaptica dubia Serville (Blattodea: Blaberidae) were more susceptible to the fungus than adults. The composition of cuticular FFAs in the three species of cockroaches was also studied. The analysis indicated that all of the fatty acids were mostly straight-chain, long-chain, saturated or unsaturated. Cuticular lipids of three species of cockroaches contained 19 FFAs, ranging from C14:0 to C24:0. The predominant fatty acids found in the three studied species of cockroaches were oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. Only in adults of Bl. orientalis, myristoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidic acid, dihomolinoleic acid, and behenic acid were identified. Lignoceric acid was detected only in nymphs of Bl. orientalis. Heneicosylic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were identified in adults of Ba. dubia.
Gvoždík, Václav; Canestrelli, Daniele; García-París, Mario; Moravec, Jiří; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Recuero, Ernesto; Teixeira, José; Kotlík, Petr
European tree frogs (Hyla) characterized by short temporal parameters of the advertisement call form six genetically differentiated but morphologically cryptic taxa, H. arborea sensu stricto, H. orientalis and H. molleri from across Europe to western Asia (together referred to as H. arborea sensu lato), two putative taxa within H. intermedia (Northern and Southern) from the Italian Peninsula and Sicily, and H. sarda from Sardinia and Corsica. Here, we assess species limits and phylogenetic relationships within these 'short-call tree frogs' based on mitochondrial DNA and nuclear protein-coding markers. The mitochondrial and nuclear genes show partly incongruent phylogeographic patterns, which point to a complex history of gene flow across taxa, particularly in the Balkans. To test the species limits in the short-call tree frogs and to infer the species tree, we used coalescent-based approaches. The monophyly of H. arborea sensu lato is supported by the mtDNA as well as by the all-gene species tree. The Northern and Southern lineages of H. intermedia have been connected by nuclear gene flow (despite their deep mtDNA divergence) and should be treated as conspecific. On the contrary, the parapatric taxa within H. arborea sensu lato should be considered distinct species (H. arborea, H. orientalis, H. molleri) based on the coalescent analysis, although signs of hybridization were detected between them (H. arborea×H. orientalis; H. arborea×H. molleri). A mitochondrial capture upon secondary contact appears to explain the close mtDNA relationship between the geographically remote Iberian H. molleri and H. orientalis from around the Black Sea. Introgressive hybridization occurred also between the Balkan H. arborea and northern Italian H. intermedia, and between the Minor Asiatic H. orientalis and Arabian H. felix arabica (the latter belonging to a different acoustic group/clade). Our results shed light on the species limits in the European short-call tree frogs and show
Lo Gullo, Maria A; Nardini, Andrea; Trifilò, Patrizia; Salleo, Sebastiano
We studied changes in the hydraulic conductance of leaves (K(leaf)) between dawn and dusk during the growth period (July) and at midday at the beginning of autumn in four tree species. The main objectives of the study were to check the extent of diurnal and seasonal changes in K(leaf) and the relationships between K(leaf), irradiance and leaf gas exchange. Two evergreen (Aleurites moluccana and Persea americana) and two deciduous trees (Platanus orientalis and Quercus rubra) were studied. Leaf hydraulic conductance was measured every 2 h between 0700 and 1900 h in July and compared with values measured between 0900 and 1300 h in October. Other variables measured were photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), leaf conductance to water vapor (gL) and water potential (psiL). In July, K(leaf) varied by up to 75% in Pe. americana on a diurnal basis and by at least 44% in Q. rubra. The diurnal time course of K(leaf) showed a distinct increase between dawn and late morning (1100 h) and a subsequent decrease in the evening in A. moluccana and Pl. orientalis, whereas in the other two species, K(leaf) was highest just after dawn and lowest in the evening. In October, K(leaf) of all the species studied was lower than in July, with differences of 20 to 28% for A. moluccana and Pl. orientalis and of 66 to over 70% in Pe. americana and Q. rubra, respectively. Significant correlations were found between PAR and K(leaf) (in all species) as well as between gL and K(leaf) (in three out of four species). Leaf habit (evergreen or deciduous) did not influence absolute values of K(leaf) or its diurnal variation.
Background Six plants from Thailand were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction in human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) as compared to normal African green monkey kidney epithelial cell lines. Methods Ethanol-water crude extracts of the six plants were tested with neutral red assay for their cytotoxicity after 24 hours of exposure to the cells. Apoptotic induction was tested in the HepG2 cells with diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. DNA fragmentation, indicative of apoptosis, was analyzed with agarose gel electrophoresis. Alkylation, indicative of DNA damage, was also evaluated in vitro by 4-(4'-nitrobenzyl) pyridine assay. Results The extract of Pinus kesiya showed the highest selectivity (selectivity index = 9.6) and potent cytotoxicity in the HepG2 cell line, with an IC50 value of 52.0 ± 5.8 μg/ml (mean ± standard deviation). Extract of Catimbium speciosum exerted cytotoxicity with an IC50 value of 55.7 ± 8.1 μg/ml. Crude extracts from Glochidion daltonii, Cladogynos orientalis, Acorus tatarinowii and Amomum villosum exhibited cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging 100-500 μg/ml. All crude extracts showed different alkylating abilities in vitro. Extracts of P. kesiya, C. speciosum and C. orientalis caused nuclei morphological changes and DNA laddering. Conclusion The extracts of C. speciosum, C. orientalis and P. kesiya induced apoptosis. Among the three plants, P. kesiya possessed the most robust anticancer activity, with specific selectivity against HepG2 cells. PMID:22041055
With plague being not only a subject of interest for historians, but still a disease of public health concern in several countries, mainly in Africa, there were hopes that analyses of the Yersinia pestis genomes would put an end to this deadly epidemic pathogen. Genomics revealed that Y. pestis isolates evolved from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Central Asia some millennia ago, after the acquisition of two Y. pestis-specific plasmids balanced genomic reduction parallel with the expansion of insertion sequences, illustrating the modern concept that, except for the acquisition of plasmid-borne toxin-encoding genes, the increased virulence of Y. pestis resulted from gene loss rather than gene acquisition. The telluric persistence of Y. pestis reminds us of this close relationship, and matters in terms of plague epidemiology. Whereas biotype Orientalis isolates spread worldwide, the Antiqua and Medievalis isolates showed more limited expansion. In addition to animal ectoparasites, human ectoparasites such as the body louse may have participated in this expansion and in devastating historical epidemics. The recent analysis of a Black Death genome indicated that it was more closely related to the Orientalis branch than to the Medievalis branch. Modern Y. pestis isolates grossly exhibit the same gene content, but still undergo micro-evolution in geographically limited areas by differing in the genome architecture, owing to inversions near insertion sequences and the stabilization of the YpfPhi prophage in Orientalis biotype isolates. Genomics have provided several new molecular tools for the genotyping and phylogeographical tracing of isolates and description of plague foci. However, genomics and post-genomics approaches have not yet provided new tools for the prevention, diagnosis and management of plague patients and the plague epidemics still raging in some sub-Saharan countries.
Yao, Yuan; Li, Feng-Min; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Shan, Shi; Li, Jie; Wang, Zhen-Yu
In order to reveal the preliminary inhibition mechanisms of aquatic plants bio-oils on Skeletonema costatum, effects of Arundo donax L. 300 degees C, Ph. australis Trin. 400 degrees C and Typha orientalis Pres1 400 degrees C bio-oils on the concentration change of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, POD and CAT) were evaluated. The results showed that the higher Ihe Bio-oil concentrations, the higher the MDA contents in Skeletonema costatum was, and when the Bio-oil concentration was 10 mg.L-1 the MDA concentration increased with the reaction time. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity also increased with the increase of bio-oil concentration. For Arundo donax L 300 degrees C and Typha orientalis Presl 400 degrees C bio-oil, when the reaction time was longer, the S0D activity of Skeletonema costatum first increased and then decreased, and in both cases the maximum SOD activity was measured at 24 h. reaching 93.6 U (10(7) cells)-1 and 8.23 U (10(7) cells)-1, respectively. For Ph. australis Trin 400 degrees C bio-oil, the SOD activity kept increasing within 72 h. The peroxidase ( POD) activity of Skeletonema costatum also increased with the increase of bio-il concentrations. In the presence of Arundo donax L. 300 degrees C and Ph. australis Trin 400 degrees C bio-oil, the POD activity of Skeletonma, costatum first increased and then decreased, while with Typha orientalis Presl 400 degrees C bio-oil the POD activity increased with fluctuations. For all the three bio-oils, the catalase (CAT) activities increased first and then decreased when the reaction time was prolonged, and the higher the bio-oils concentration, the greater the CAT activity was. Pyrolysis bio-oils enhance the activity of antioxidant enzymes, leading to intracellular oxidative stress in the algae, which seems to be the main inhibitory mechanism for algae
Hassan, Mo'awia M; Osman, Omran F; El-Raba'a, Fathi MA; Schallig, Henk DFH; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A
Background The study aims to determine the role of domestic dogs in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 villages along the River Rahad in eastern Sudan to elucidate the role of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758) as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani. In this study, 87 dogs were screened for infection by Leishmania donovani. Blood and lymph node samples were taken from 87 and 33 dogs respectively and subsequently screened by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) test. Additional lymph node smears were processed for microscopy and parasite culture. Host preference of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) vector in the area, Phlebotomus orientalis, and other sandflies for the Nile rat (Arvicanthis niloticus, É. Geoffrey, 1803), the genet (Genetta genetta, Linnaeus, 1758), the mongoose (Herpeistes ichneumon, Linnaeus, 1758), and the domestic dog were determined by counting numbers of sand flies attracted to CDC traps that were baited by these animals. Results DAT on blood samples detected anti-Leishmania antibodies in 6 samples (6.9%). Two out of 87 (2.3%) blood samples tested were PCR positive, giving an amplification product of 560 bp. The two positive samples by PCR were also positive by DAT. However, none of the 33 lymph nodes aspirates were Leishmania positive when screened by microscopy, culture and genus-specific PCR. The dog-baited trap significantly attracted the highest number of P. orientalis and sand fly species (P < 0.001). This was followed by the Egyptian mongoose baited trap and less frequently by the genet baited trap. Conclusion It is concluded that the results obtained from host attraction studies indicate that dog is more attractive for P. orientalis than Egyptian mongoose, common genet and Nile rat. PMID:19534802
Lee, Dae-Hyun; Ahn, Kee-Jeong
Abstract A taxonomic review of Korean Gyrinidae is presented. Seven species [Dineutus orientalis (Modeer, 1776), Gyrinus gestroi Régimbart, 1883, Gyrinus japonicus Sharp, 1873, Gyrinus pullatus Zaitzev, 1908, Orectochilus punctipennis Sharp, 1884, Orectochilus Regimbarti Sharp, 1884 and Orectochilus villosus (Müller, 1776)] in three genera are recognized, one of which (Orectochilus punctipennis Sharp, 1884) is reported for the first time in Korea. We also found that Gyrinus curtus Motschulsky, 1866 previously recorded in Korea was an incorrect identification of Gyrinus pullatus Zaitzev, 1908. Habitus and SEM photographs, distribution maps, keys, and diagnoses of genera and species are provided. PMID:26175604
Temperton, B.; Thomas, S.; Tait, K.; Parry, H.; Emery, M.; Allen, M.; Quinn, J.; McGrath, J.; Gilbert, J.
Vibrio tubiashii NCIMB 1337 is a major and increasingly prevalent pathogen of bivalve mollusks, and shares a close phylogenetic relationship with both V. orientalis and V. coralliilyticus. It is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped bacterium, originally isolated from a moribund juvenile oyster, and is both oxidase and catalase positive. It is capable of growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome and annotation. The genome is 5,353,266 bp long, consisting of two chromosomes, and contains 4,864 protein-coding and 86 RNA genes.
Pham, Hong-Thai; Lee, Young June; Constant, Jerome
The genus Pomponia Stål, 1866 from Vietnam and Cambodia is reviewed . Pomponia brevialata Lee & Pham, sp. nov. is described from Vietnam. Pomponia backanensis Pham & Yang, 2009 is added to the Cambodian cicada fauna. A key to the seven Vietnamese and Cambodian species of the genus Pomponia Stål, 1866 is provided: P. linearis (Walker, 1850), P. backanensis Pham & Yang, 2009, P. brevialata Lee & Pham, sp. nov., P. subtilita Lee, 2009, P. piceata Distant, 1905, P. daklakensis Sanborn, 2009, and P. orientalis (Distant, 1912). Synonymic lists, information on geographical distributions, and material examined for the Vietnamese and Cambodian species of Pomponia are provided.
Das, Biswanath; Shinde, Digambar Balaji; Kanth, Boddu Shashi; Kamle, Avijeet; Kumar, C Ganesh
The total synthesis of 4-methoxydecanoic acid and 4-methoxyundecanoic acid in racemic and stereoselective [(R) and (S)] forms has been accomplished. For stereoselective synthesis of the compounds (S) and (R)-BINOL complexes have been used to generate the required chiral centres. The antifungal activity of these compounds has been studied against different organisms and the results were found to be impressive. The activity of the compounds in racemic and in stereoselective forms was compared. (R)-4-Methoxydecanoic acid was found to be most potent (MIC: 0.019 mg/mL against Candida albicans MTCC 227, C. albicans MTCC 4748, Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) MTCC 281 and Issatchenkia orientalis MTCC 3020).
This study examined some physical characteristics of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) obtained in different compositions from cut veneers of Oriental beech (Fagus Orientalis Lipsky) and Lombardy poplar (Populus nigra) with thicknesses of 4 mm and 5 mm. Five each beech and poplar trees were felled with this objective. The PVAc (Kleiberit 303) and PU (Bizon Timber PU-Max Express) types of adhesive were used in lamination. The air-dry and oven dry densities, cell wall density and porosity, the value of volume density, shrinkage in a tangential and radial direction and volume swelling amounts were determined by preparing the specimens in accordance with the standards.
Navid, Ali; Almaas, Eivind
The gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of bubonic plague. Using publicly available genomic, biochemical and physiological data, we have developed a constraint-based flux balance model of metabolism in the CO92 strain (biovar Orientalis) of this organism. The metabolic reactions were appropriately compartmentalized, and the model accounts for the exchange of metabolites, as well as the import of nutrients and export of waste products. We have characterized the metabolic capabilities and phenotypes of this organism, after comparing the model predictions with available experimental observations to evaluate accuracy and completeness. We have also begun preliminary studies into how cellular metabolism affects virulence.
Lastras, M E; Pastor, J; Viñas, L; Marco, I; Lavin, S
Seven species of Spanish ungulates were tested for the presence of homologous immunoglobulin G (IgG) with a gel-diffusion test using bovine, ovine, caprine and porcine IgG antisera. Homologous ovine and caprine IgG were detected in sera from chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica), Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica), mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon), red deer (Cervus elaphus), fallow deer (Dama dama) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Homologous porcine IgG was detected in wild boar (Sus scrofa) serum. Immunoelectrophoretic assays were performed to compare the electrophoretic mobility of IgG from domestic and wild species.
Bernard, E. C.
A new species of Trichodoridae, Trichodorus elefjohnsoni, is described from undisturbed regions of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, United States. It resembles T. orientalis De Waele &Hashim, 1984, T. persicus De Waele &Sturhan, 1987, and T. taylori De Waele, Mancini, Roca, ' Lamberti, 1982 in arrangement of ventromedian cervical papillae and posterior preanal supplements, but differs by combinations of the following characteristics: body length 516-731 μm; spicule length 33-50 μm, spicules densely striated, constricted medially; vaginal sclerotizations ovate; one pair of lateral body pores near vulva. PMID:19283205
Moreno, V; Pérez, J M; Moreno, P A; Granados, J E; Ruiz-Martinez, I; Soriguer, R C; de Simon, M A
From February 1992 to March 1997, 245 European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) from Sierras de Cazorla, Segura y Las Villas Natural Park (southern Spain) were surveyed for oestrid larvae in order to estimate prevalence and mean intensity of parasitism by Oestrus ovis. Over 46 percent of the animals surveyed were infected, with a mean intensity of 9.6 larvae/host parasitized. No significant differences in prevalence rates between host sexes were observed, but older mouflons were infected with more larvae than younger ones.
Reshchikov, Alexey; Xu, Zai-fu; Pang, Hong
Abstract A new species of the genus Lethades Davis, 1897 (Ctenopelmatinae: Pionini), Lethades orientalis Reshchikov & Xu, sp. n., collected in Heishiding Nature Reserve in Guangdong Province, China, is described. This is new record of the genus from China and for the Oriental region also. The species can be distinguished from all other species of the genus by its black metasoma, the presence of an areolet on the fore wing, distinctly pectinate claws with teeth of the hind claw as high as the claw itself, and a complete longitudinal propodeal carina. A key to the world species of the genus is provided. PMID:28144184
Romański, B; Dziedziczko, A; Pawlik-Miskiewicz, K; Wilewska-Klubo, T; Zbikowska-Gotz, M
Cockroach allergy was investigated in a group of 56 patients with atopic bronchial asthma (37 men and 19 women with ages ranging from 16 to 65) all allergic to house dust antigen. In all patients, both intracutaneous tests and bronchial provocation tests were performed with cockroach antigen prepared from the species most common in Poland, Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis. Positive skin reactions to cockroach antigen were found in 17 patients while an immediate bronchoconstrictive response was noted in 11. In the authors opinion, cockroach antigens may be partly responsible for the antigenic properties of house dust and may play a causative role in some cases of atopic asthma.
Al-Sadoon, Mohammed K; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Al-Otaibi, Hamad S
Turaif area located in the Northern border region of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important regions of the Kingdom. This work was proposed to throw light on the diversity of lizard fauna investigated through the collection and subsequent identification of specimens from different localities of Turaif region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Sixteen species of lizards belonging to 5 families (Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, Scincidae and Varanidae) were recorded. Lacertidae was the most common family. Three species of lizards namely Acanthodactylus orientalis, Acanthodactylus scutellatus and Acanthodactylus grandis were reported for the first time in the Turaif region of Saudi Arabia. The geographical distribution of the collected species within this province was mapped.
Dion, Carine; Haug, Christian; Guan, Haifeng; Ripoll, Christophe; Spiteller, Peter; Coussaert, Aurelie; Boulet, Elodie; Schmidt, Daniel; Wei, Jianbing; Zhou, Yijun; Lamottke, Kai
Inflammation plays a major role in many diseases, for instance in arteriosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune disorders and cancer. Since many plants contain compounds with anti-inflammatory activity, their consumption may be able to prevent the development of inflammatory-based diseases. Edible ferns are some of the most important wild vegetables in China and have traditionally been used both for dietary and therapeutic purposes. In this study we investigated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of fern extracts from Matteuccia struthiopteris, Osmundajaponica, Matteuccia orientalis and Pteridium aquilinum intended for use as nutraceuticals. Two modes of action were investigated: the inhibition of the pro-inflammatory gene expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL1-β) and interleukin-6 (IL6), and the gene expression of iNOS by LPS-elicited macrophages. The results showed a decrease of IL1-β gene expression for the five fern extracts. This effect was more pronounced for the extracts prepared from the roots of O. japonica (IC50 of 17.8 µg/mL) and the young fronds of M orientalis (50.0 µg/mL). Regarding the indirect measurement of NO, via iNOS gene expression, an interesting decrease of 50% was obtained with the extract of M. orientalis fronds at a low concentration (20 µg/mL) compared with P. aquilinum fronds (160 µg/mL) and leaves of O. japonica. The latter showed a higher decrease but at a high concentration of extract (160 µg/mL). The five fern extracts were also evaluated for their ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). All fern extracts exhibited antioxidant effects but the roots of O. japonica and the fronds of M orientalis were most efficient. The HPLC-MS analysis of the constituents of the fern extracts confirmed the presence of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, kaempferol and apigenin, molecules known to exhibit
Pineda, Mari-Carmen; Strehlow, Brian; Duckworth, Alan; Doyle, Jason; Jones, Ross; Webster, Nicole S.
Dredging and natural sediment resuspension events can cause high levels of turbidity, reducing the amount of light available for photosynthetic benthic biota. To determine how marine sponges respond to light attenuation, five species were experimentally exposed to a range of light treatments. Tolerance thresholds and capacity for recovery varied markedly amongst species. Whilst light attenuation had no effect on the heterotrophic species Stylissa flabelliformis and Ianthella basta, the phototrophic species Cliona orientalis and Carteriospongia foliascens discoloured (bleached) over a 28 day exposure period to very low light (<0.8 mol photons m‑2 d‑1). In darkness, both species discoloured within a few days, concomitant with reduced fluorescence yields, chlorophyll concentrations and shifts in their associated microbiomes. The phototrophic species Cymbastela coralliophila was less impacted by light reduction. C. orientalis and C. coralliophila exhibited full recovery under normal light conditions, whilst C. foliascens did not recover and showed high levels of mortality. The light treatments used in the study are directly relevant to conditions that can occur in situ during dredging projects, indicating that light attenuation poses a risk to photosynthetic marine sponges. Examining benthic light levels over temporal scales would enable dredging proponents to be aware of conditions that could impact on sponge physiology.
Muñoz, David; Aguilar, Bertha; Fuentealba, Raúl; Préndez, Margarita
Emissions from motor vehicles are considered to be one of the main sources of airborne particulate matter in Santiago. International researchers have shown that particulate matter contains metal oxides and magnetic particles, both of which are emitted mainly from vehicles exhaust pipes. On the other hand, trees are effective in reducing such contamination, so that they act as passive collectors of particulate matter. This work presents the results obtained from the first magnetic study of the particulate matter collected in two areas of the city of Santiago de Chile. Magnetic susceptibility and Saturation Isothermic Remanent Magnetization (SIRM) were determined in leaves from abundant urban trees and from urban dust samples. Results indicate that most of the samples contain ferromagnetic minerals with magnetite (Fe3O4) as the main carrier. Values of magnetic susceptibility (SI ×10-6 m3/kg) in the range 0.04-0.24 for leaves and in the range 10-45 for urban dust were determinated. In one of the city areas studied, significant correlation between the particulate matter deposited on leaves of Platanus orientalis and measured traffic flows was obtained. In addition, it was possible to estimate that the species Platanus orientalis and Acer negundo have a better ability to capture particulate matter than the species Robinia pseudoacacia.
Malek, Maliya Alia; Bitam, Idir; Levasseur, Anthony; Terras, Jérôme; Gaudart, Jean; Azza, Said; Flaudrops, Christophe; Robert, Catherine; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel
The plague agent Yersinia pestis persists for years in the soil. Two millennia after swiping over Europe and North Africa, plague established permanent foci in North Africa but not in neighboring Europe. Mapping human plague foci reported in North Africa for 70 years indicated a significant location at <3 kilometers from the Mediterranean seashore or the edge of salted lakes named chotts. In Algeria, culturing 352 environmental specimens naturally containing 0.5 to 70 g/L NaCl yielded one Y. pestis Orientalis biotype isolate in a 40 g/L NaCl chott soil specimen. Core genome SNP analysis placed this isolate within the Y. pestis branch 1, Orientalis biovar. Culturing Y. pestis in broth steadily enriched in NaCl indicated survival up to 150 g/L NaCl as L-form variants exhibiting a distinctive matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry peptide profile. Further transcriptomic analyses found the upregulation of several outer-membrane proteins including TolC efflux pump and OmpF porin implied in osmotic pressure regulation. Salt tolerance of Y. pestis L-form may play a role in the maintenance of natural plague foci in North Africa and beyond, as these geographical correlations could be extended to 31 plague foci in the northern hemisphere (from 15°N to 50°N). PMID:28054667
Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena
Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described. PMID:26919540
Delplancke, Malou; Alvarez, Nadir; Espíndola, Anahí; Joly, Hélène; Benoit, Laure; Brouck, Elise; Arrigo, Nils
Hybridization has played a central role in the evolutionary history of domesticated plants. Notably, several breeding programs relying on gene introgression from the wild compartment have been performed in fruit tree species within the genus Prunus but few studies investigated spontaneous gene flow among wild and domesticated Prunus species. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of genetic relationships and levels of gene flow between domesticated and wild Prunus species is needed. Combining nuclear and chloroplastic microsatellites, we investigated the gene flow and hybridization among two key almond tree species, the cultivated Prunus dulcis and one of the most widespread wild relative Prunus orientalis in the Fertile Crescent. We detected high genetic diversity levels in both species along with substantial and symmetric gene flow between the domesticated P. dulcis and the wild P. orientalis. These results were discussed in light of the cultivated species diversity, by outlining the frequent spontaneous genetic contributions of wild species to the domesticated compartment. In addition, crop-to-wild gene flow suggests that ad hoc transgene containment strategies would be required if genetically modified cultivars were introduced in the northwestern Mediterranean. PMID:25568053
Developmental stages of fish blood flukes, Cardicola forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae), in their polychaete intermediate hosts collected at Pacific bluefin tuna culture sites in Japan.
Ogawa, Kazuo; Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Shin, Sang Phil; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Honryo, Tomoki; Sugihara, Yukitaka; Uchida, Hiro'omi
Farming of Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, is a rapidly growing industry in Japan. Aporocotylid blood flukes of the genus Cardicola comprising C. orientalis, C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri are parasites of economic importance for PBT farming. Recently, terebellid polychaetes have been identified as the intermediate hosts for all these parasites. We collected infected polychaetes, Terebella sp., the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis, from ropes and floats attached to tuna cages in Tsushima, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Also, Neoamphitrite vigintipes (formerly as Amphitrite sp. sensu Shirakashi et al., 2016), the intermediate host of C. forsteri, were collected from culture cages in Kushimoto, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. The terebellid intermediate hosts harbored the sporocysts and cercariae in their body cavity. Developmental stages of these blood flukes were molecularly identified using species specific PCR primers. In this paper, we describe the cercaria and sporocyst stages of C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri and compare their morphological characteristics among three Cardicola blood flukes infecting PBT. We also discuss phylogenetic relations of the six genera of the terebellid intermediate hosts (Artacama, Lanassa, Longicarpus, Terebella, Nicolea and Neoamphitrite) of blood flukes infecting marine fishes, based on their morphological characters.
Greene, John M; Plunkett, Guy; Burland, Valerie; Glasner, Jeremy; Cabot, Eric; Anderson, Brad; Neeno-Eckwall, Eric; Qiu, Yu; Mau, Bob; Rusch, Michael; Liss, Paul; Hampton, Thomas; Pot, David; Shaker, Matthew; Shaull, Lorie; Shetty, Panna; Shi, Chuan; Whitmore, Jon; Wong, Mary; Zaremba, Sam; Blattner, Frederick R; Perna, Nicole T
ERIC (Enteropathogen Resource Information Center) is one of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Bioinformatics Resource Centers for Biodefense and Emerging/Re-emerging Infectious Disease. ERIC serves as a comprehensive information resource for five related pathogens: Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pestis, diarrheagenic E. coli, Shigella spp., and Salmonella spp. ERIC integrates genomics, proteomics, biochemical and microbiological information to facilitate the interpretation and understanding of ERIC pathogens and select related non-pathogens for the advancement of diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. ERIC (www.ericbrc.org) is evolving to provide state-of-the-art analysis tools and data types, such as genome sequencing, comparative genomics, genome polymorphisms, gene expression, proteomics, and pathways as well as expertly curated community genome annotation. Genome sequence and genome annotation data and a variety of analysis and tools for eight strains of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pestis pathogens (Yersinia pestis biovars Mediaevalis KIM, Mediaevalis 91001, Orientalis CO92, Orientalis IP275, Antiqua Angola, Antiqua Antiqua, Antiqua Nepal516, and Yersinia enterocolitica 8081) and two strains of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP32953 and IP31758) are currently available through the ERIC portal. ERIC seeks to maintain a strong collaboration with the scientific community so that we can continue to identify and incorporate the latest research data, tools, and training to best meet the current and future needs of the enteropathogen research community. All tools and data developed under this NIAID contract will be freely available. Please contact firstname.lastname@example.org for more information.
Santos, M C; Golt, C; Joerger, R D; Mechor, G D; Mourão, Gerson B; Kung, L
The objective of this study was to identify species of yeasts in samples of high moisture corn (HMC) and corn silage (CS) collected from farms throughout the United States. Samples were plated and colonies were isolated for identification using DNA analysis. Randomly selected colonies were also identified by fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and by physiological substrate profiling (ID 32C). For CS, Candida ethanolica, Saccharomyces bulderi, Pichia anomala, Kazachstania unispora, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the predominant yeasts. Pichia anomala, Issatchenkia orientalis, S. cerevisiae, and Pichia fermentans were the prevalent species in HMC. The 3 identification methods were in agreement at the species level for 16.6% of the isolates and showed no agreement for 25.7%. Agreement in species identification between ID 32C and DNA analysis, FAME and ID 32C, and FAME and DNA analysis was 41.1, 14.4, and 2.2%, respectively. Pichia anomala and I. orientalis were able to grow on lactic acid, whereas S. cerevisiae metabolized sugars (galactose, sucrose, and glucose) but failed to use lactic acid. The yeast diversity in CS and HMC varied due to type of feed and location. Differences in species assignments were seen among methods, but identification using substrate profiling generally corresponded with that based on DNA analysis. These findings provide information about the species that may be expected in silages, and this knowledge may lead to interventions that control unwanted yeasts.
Jha, Timir Baran; Halder, Mihir
Lentil is one of the oldest protein-rich food crop with only one cultivated and six wild species. India is one important cultivator, producer and consumer of lentils and possesses a large number of germplasms. All species of lentil show 2n = 14 chromosomes. The primary objective of the present paper is to search chromosomal landmarks through enzymatic maceration and air drying (EMA)-based Giemsa staining method in five Indian lentil species not reported elsewhere at a time. Additionally, gametic chromosome analysis, tendril formation and seed morphology have been studied to ascertain interspecific relationships in lentils. Chromosome analysis in Lens culinaris, Lens orientalis and Lens odemensis revealed that they contain intercalary sat chromosome and similar karyotypic formula, while Lens nigricans and Lens lamottei showed presence of terminal sat chromosomes not reported earlier. This distinct morphological feature in L. nigricans and L. lamottei may be considered as chromosomal landmark. Meiotic analysis showed n = 7 bivalents in L. culinaris, L. nigricans and L. lamottei. No tendril formation was observed in L. culinaris, L. orientalis and L. odemensis while L. nigricans and L. lamottei developed very prominent tendrils. Based on chromosomal analysis, tendril formation and seed morphology, the five lentil species can be separated into two distinct groups. The outcome of this research may enrich conventional and biotechnological breeding programmes in lentil and may facilitate an easy and alternative method for identification of interspecific hybrids.
Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea.
Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329
Liu, Xiaohai; Gao, Yuntao; Khan, Sardar; Duan, Gang; Chen, Aikui; Ling, Li; Zhao, Leil; Liu, Zhonghan; Wu, Xuecan
Phytoremediation is one of the cost-effective and environmental friendly technologies used to remove contaminants from contaminated soils, which has been intensively studied during the last decade. Presently, few economical and effective remediation methods are available for the remediation of Pb contaminated sites. This study was conducted to assess the potential of 19 plants growing on contaminated sites in Pb mine area. Plants and associated soil samples were collected and analyzed for total metal concentrations. While total soil Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations varied from 1,239 to 4,311, 36 to 1,020 and 240 to 2,380 mg/kg, those in the plant shoots ranged from 6.3 to 2,029, 20 to 570, and 36 to 690 mg/kg, respectively. Among the plants, we found that one cultivated crop (Ricinus communis L.) and two native species (Tephrosia candida and Debregeasia orientalis) have a great potential for phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soils, the Pb hyperaccumulation capacity of the 3 plants was found as the order: R. communis > D. orientalis > T. candida in the investigated area.
Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Wang, Xiaochang; Zheng, Yucong; Ge, Yuan; Xiong, Jiaqing; Zhao, Yaqian
The characteristics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal were studied during the 2-year operation of a free water surface flow wetland of 900 m² with hydraulic loading of 0.1 m/d to evaluate its potential to treat water from an urban stream polluted with municipal and industrial wastewater. Attention was focused on the removal of dissolved N and P by harvesting plants (local Phragmites australis and Typha orientalis) at the end of each growing season. According to findings, the removals of N and P increased from 47.1% and 17.6%, respectively, in the 1st year to 52.3% and 32.4%, respectively, in the 2nd year. Increments of N and P removal were largely attributable to plant biomass, which increased from an average dry weight of 1.77 kg/m² in the 1st year to 3.41 kg/m² in the 2nd year. The amount of nutrients assimilated by plants in the 2nd year was almost double that of the 1st year. Increasing biomass in the 2nd year also improved redox conditions in the substrate layer, which contributed to increasing the efficiency of N removal. Compared with T. orientalis, P. australis was more competitive and adapted to conditions in the wetland better; it regenerated more vigorously and contributed more to nutrient removal.
Pineda, Mari-Carmen; Strehlow, Brian; Duckworth, Alan; Doyle, Jason; Jones, Ross; Webster, Nicole S.
Dredging and natural sediment resuspension events can cause high levels of turbidity, reducing the amount of light available for photosynthetic benthic biota. To determine how marine sponges respond to light attenuation, five species were experimentally exposed to a range of light treatments. Tolerance thresholds and capacity for recovery varied markedly amongst species. Whilst light attenuation had no effect on the heterotrophic species Stylissa flabelliformis and Ianthella basta, the phototrophic species Cliona orientalis and Carteriospongia foliascens discoloured (bleached) over a 28 day exposure period to very low light (<0.8 mol photons m−2 d−1). In darkness, both species discoloured within a few days, concomitant with reduced fluorescence yields, chlorophyll concentrations and shifts in their associated microbiomes. The phototrophic species Cymbastela coralliophila was less impacted by light reduction. C. orientalis and C. coralliophila exhibited full recovery under normal light conditions, whilst C. foliascens did not recover and showed high levels of mortality. The light treatments used in the study are directly relevant to conditions that can occur in situ during dredging projects, indicating that light attenuation poses a risk to photosynthetic marine sponges. Examining benthic light levels over temporal scales would enable dredging proponents to be aware of conditions that could impact on sponge physiology. PMID:27958345
Sentoku, Asuka; Tokuda, Yuki; Ezaki, Yoichi
We describe a previously unknown niche for hard corals in the small, bowl-shaped, solitary scleractinian, Deltocyathoides orientalis (Family Turbinoliidae), on soft-bottom substrates. Observational experiments were used to clarify how the sea floor niche is exploited by turbinoliids. Deltocyathoides orientalis is adapted to an infaunal mode of life and exhibits behaviours associated with automobility that include burrowing into sediments, vertical movement through sediments to escape burial, and recovery of an upright position after being overturned. These behaviours were achieved through repeated expansion and contraction of their peripheral soft tissues, which constitute a unique muscle-membrane system. Histological analysis showed that these muscle arrangements were associated with deeply incised inter-costal spaces characteristic of turbinoliid corals. The oldest known turbinoliid, Bothrophoria ornata, which occurred in the Cretaceous (Campanian), also possessed a small, conical skeleton with highly developed costae. An infaunal mode of life became available to turbinoliids due to the acquisition of automobility through the muscle-membrane system at least 80 million years ago. The newly discovered active burrowing strategies described herein provide new insights into the use of an unattached mode of life by corals inhabiting soft-bottom substrates throughout the Phanerozoic.
Koremiak, D A; Govardovskiĭ, V I
Photoreceptor complement and retinal visual pigments in three newt (Caudata, Salamandridae, Pleurodelinae) species (Pleurodeles waltl, Lissotriton (Triturus) vulgaris and Cynops orientalis) were studied by light mucroscopy and microspectrophotometry. Retinas of all three species contain "red" (rhodopsin/porphyropsin) rods, large and small single cones, and double cones. Large single cones and both components of double cones contain red-sensitive (presumably LWS) visual pigment whose absorbance spectrum peaks between 593 and 611 nm. Small single cones are either blue- (SWS2, maximum absorbance between 470 and 489 nm) or UV-sensitive (SWS1, maximum absorbance between 340 and 359 nm). Chromophore composition of visual pigments (A1 vs. A2) was assessed both from template fitting of absorption spectra and by the method of selective bleaching. All pigments contained a mixture of A1 (11-cis retinal) and A2 (11-cis-3,4-dehydroretinal) chromophore in the proportion depending on the species and cell type. In all cases, A2 was dominant. However, in C. orientalis rods the fraction of A1 could reach 45%, while in P. waltl and L. vulgaris cones it did not exceed 5%. Remarkably, the absorbance of the newt blue-sensitive visual pigment was shifted by up to 45 nm toward the longer wavelength, as compared with all other amphibian SWS2-pigments. We found no "green" rods typical of retinas of Anura and some Caudata (ambystomas) in the three newt species studied.
Hosseini, Mehdi; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Nabavi, Seyedeh Narges; Pour, Nasrin Adami
In this study, concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, and Hg were determined in commercially valuable fish from Khuzestan shore, northwest of the Persian Gulf. It was also our intention to evaluate potential risks to human health associated with seafood consumption. The liver and skin showed higher metal concentrations than the muscle. The results showed that heavy metal concentrations in different food habitats increase in the following order: benthic omnivorous fish < zooplanktivore fish < phytoplanktivore fish < piscivore fish. Also, the comparison indicated that benthic species (Euryglossa orientalis, Otolithes ruber) were more contaminated than pelagic species (Liza abu and Psettodes erumei). Therefore, the concentration of heavy metals in edible part of fish species did not exceed the permissible limits proposed by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (1983), WHO (1996), Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (ROPME) (1999), and FAD (2001) which are suitable for human consumption, except for Ni and Cd in E. orientalis and Pb in O. ruber.
Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; de Miranda, Gustavo Silva
Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 are described for the Brazilian Amazon, from the states of Pará (C. bichuetteae sp. n., C. bonaldoi sp. n., C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n., C. guto sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n.) and Amazonas (Charinus brescoviti sp. n. and C. ricardoi sp. n.). All new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the number of pseudo-articles in basitibia IV, the presence/absence of median eyes, and the shape of the female gonopod. Brazil now becomes the country with the largest diversity of Amblypygi in the world, with 25 known species. Half of the new species described here have a high degree of endangerment: C. bichuetteae sp. n. is threatened by the flood caused by the hydroelectric dam of Belo Monte, and C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n. are endangered by the iron mining in Carajás municipality and surroundings. The Charinus species here described are endemic to the Amazon Region, so in order to assure their preservation, it is strongly recommended a special care with their habitats (type localities) which are facing increasing rates of destruction and deforestation. PMID:26885641
Koh, J H; Suh, H J
To evaluate the commercial potential of new microbial feed additive, Issatchenkia orientalis Y266 and Bacillus subtilis B266 from commercial fermented rice bran were tested for their tolerance or resistance to pH, bile, oxgall, and temperature. It was found that the strains grew very well up to pH 3.0 and resistant to relatively high concentrations of bile salt and oxgall. I. orientalis and B. subtilis are extremely tolerant in range of 70-90 degrees C in solid medium. B. subtilis B266 also has excellent tolerant property up to 90 degrees C in liquid medium. The health indexes (the microflora in the small intestines and the antibody titer to Newcastle disease virus) of chicks were significantly improved in the fermented rice bran with these strains (0.25% addition to diet) in comparison with the Avilamycin (20 mg/kg diet)-fed group (p < 0.05). The fermented rice bran-fed group showed a better microbial flora in the small intestines. Accordingly, it would appear that the fermented rice bran with these strains may be a potential candidate for an alternative microbial feed additive.
Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie
Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientalis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The metabolic activity of each species in mixed and inoculated fermentations of liquor was investigated in 14 different cocultures that used different combinations of these species. The relationships between the microbial species and volatile metabolites were analyzed by partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. We found that S. cerevisiae was positively correlated to nonanal, and B. licheniformis was positively associated with 2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, guaiacol, and 4-vinyl guaiacol, while I. orientalis was positively correlated to butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, and 2,3-butanediol. These three species are excellent flavor producers for Chinese liquor. Although P. membranaefaciens and B. amyloliquefaciens were not efficient flavor producers, the addition of them alleviated competition among the other three species and altered their growth rates and flavor production. As a result, the coculture of all five dominant species produced the largest amount of flavor compounds. The result indicates that flavor producers and microbial interaction regulators are important for inoculated fermentation of Chinese sesame-flavored liquor. PMID:24814798
Campbell, Christopher S; Wright, Wesley A; Cox, Margaret; Vining, Thomas F; Major, C Smoot; Arsenault, Matthew P
The nrDNA ITS1 of Picea is 2747-3271 bp, the longest known of all plants. We obtained 24 cloned ITS1 sequences from six individuals of Picea glehnii, Picea mariana, Picea orientalis, and Picea rubens. Mean sequence divergence within these individuals (0.018+/-0.009) is more than half that between the species (0.031+/-0.011) and may be maintained against concerted evolution by separation of Picea 18S-26S rDNA repeats on multiple chromosomes. Picea ITS1 contains three subrepeats with a motif (5'-GGCCACCCTAGTC) that is conserved across Pinaceae. Two subrepeats are tandem, remote from the third, and more closely related and significantly more similar to one another than either is to the third subrepeat. This correlation between similarity and proximity may be the result of subrepeat duplication or concerted evolution within rDNA repeats. In inferred secondary structures, subrepeats generally form long hairpins, with a portion of the Pinaceae conserved motif in the terminal loop, and tandem subrepeats pair with one another over most of their length. Coalescence of ITS1 sequences occurs in P. orientalis but not in the other species.
Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena
Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described.
Sentoku, Asuka; Tokuda, Yuki; Ezaki, Yoichi
We describe a previously unknown niche for hard corals in the small, bowl-shaped, solitary scleractinian, Deltocyathoides orientalis (Family Turbinoliidae), on soft-bottom substrates. Observational experiments were used to clarify how the sea floor niche is exploited by turbinoliids. Deltocyathoides orientalis is adapted to an infaunal mode of life and exhibits behaviours associated with automobility that include burrowing into sediments, vertical movement through sediments to escape burial, and recovery of an upright position after being overturned. These behaviours were achieved through repeated expansion and contraction of their peripheral soft tissues, which constitute a unique muscle-membrane system. Histological analysis showed that these muscle arrangements were associated with deeply incised inter-costal spaces characteristic of turbinoliid corals. The oldest known turbinoliid, Bothrophoria ornata, which occurred in the Cretaceous (Campanian), also possessed a small, conical skeleton with highly developed costae. An infaunal mode of life became available to turbinoliids due to the acquisition of automobility through the muscle-membrane system at least 80 million years ago. The newly discovered active burrowing strategies described herein provide new insights into the use of an unattached mode of life by corals inhabiting soft-bottom substrates throughout the Phanerozoic. PMID:27074813
Komatsu, Noriyuki; Kishimoto, Toshio; Uchida, Akihiko; Ooi, Hong-Kean
A survey of cockroach fauna was carried out on the 3 inhabited islands of the Ogasawara chain island of Japan, namely, Chichijima island, Hahajima island and Iwo island. Seven species, namely, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758), Periplaneta australasiae (Fabricius, 1775), Blattella lituricollis (Walker, 1868), Onychostylus vilis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1865), Supella longipalpa (Fabricius, 1798), Pycnoscelus surinamensis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Opisthoplatia orientalis (Burmeister, 1838), were collected on Chichijima island. Four species, namely, P. americana, P. australasiae, O. vilis and P. surinamensis were collected on Hahajima island and 6 species, namely, P. americana, P. australasiae, B. lituricollis, O. vilis, P. surinamensis and Neostylopyga rhombifolia were collected on Iwo island. This is the first record of N. rhombifolia and Onychostylus orientalis on the Ogasawara chain islands. Our study increases the recorded taxon of cockroaches on the Ogasawara from 3 families, 5 genera 10 species to 4 families, 7 genera, 12 species. A list of the cockroach species on Ogasawara islands reported to date as well as a key for their identification is also presented. Periplaneta americana and P. australasiae, being the dominant species, together with S. longipalpa, were collected mostly in the indoor environment, indicating their preference for this habitat. Pycnoscelus surinamensis, which is considered as an outdoor insect has been found in semi-household environments such as greenhouse and shed, indicating their new adaptation to the changing environment.
The host specificity of Gregarina blattarum was evaluated among five species of domiciliary cockroaches: Blatella germanica, Supella longipalpa, Blatta orientalis, Periplaneta americana, and Periplaneta fuliginosa. Third- and fourth-instar nymphs were allowed to feed on crushed dog kibble contaminated with G. blattarum oocysts. Cockroaches were killed 8 days postinfection and examined for parasites. Gregarina blattarum infections were observed in all experimentally infected replications of B. germanica. No infection was observed in an experimentally infected replication of S. longipalpa, B. orientalis, P. americana, or P. fuliginosa, nor was an infection observed in a time zero or ending time control group. In vitro excystation assays using extracts of host gut homogenates demonstrate that G. blattarum sporozoites successfully excyst and begin the life cycle in all five cockroach species tested. No excystation was observed in neutral buffered saline controls. These data suggest that G. blattarum comprises a complex of cryptic species marked by narrow host utilization rather than a single species parasitizing a broad array of cockroach taxa.
López-Sánchez, María José; Neef, Alexander; Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Navarro, Lara; Jiménez, Ricardo; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés
Blattabacteria are intracellular endosymbionts of cockroaches and primitive termites that belong to the class Flavobacteria and live only in specialized cells in the abdominal fat body of their hosts. In the present study we determined genome sizes as well as genome copy numbers for the endosymbionts of three cockroach species, Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana and Blatta orientalis. The sole presence of blattabacteria in the fat body was demonstrated by rRNA-targeting techniques. The genome sizes of the three blattabacteria were determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The resulting total genome sizes for the three symbionts were all approximately 650 +/- 15 kb. Comparison of the genome sizes with those of free-living Bacteroidetes shows extended reduction, as occurs in other obligatory insect endosymbionts. Genome copy numbers were determined based on cell counts and determination of DNA amounts via quantitative PCR. Values between 10.2 and 18.3 and between 323 and 353 were found for the symbionts of P. americana and B. orientalis respectively. Polyploidy in intracellular bacteria may play a significant role in the genome reduction process.
Bao, N G; Robinson, W H
Hydroprene had a considerable effect on the morphogenesis of external genitalia of the oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis L. Exposure of nymphs to hydroprene resulted in abnormal adultoids with structural and positional distortions, and reduced or absent cuticular sclerotizations of the external genitalia. Late nymphal instars were significantly more sensitive to hydroprene than were early instars. In males, the epithelial cells of wings, serrata of the right phallomere, titillator and other lobes of the left phallomere were sensitive to hydroprene. The left phallomere was often prolapsed, distorted, and reduced in sclerotization. The right phallomere, particularly the serrata, was extremely malformed. In severe cases, phallomeres were entirely distorted or fused to each other. In females, the overall structure of the ovipositor appeared flaccid, less sclerotized, and misshapen. The first and second pairs of valvulae were often misshapen and reduced in sclerotization and length, or even fused with the third valvulae. This study provides morphological evidence that B. orientalis with malformed genitalia after treatment with hydroprene would be unsuccessful in copulation and fertilization. A high correlation between wrinkled wings and malformed male genitalia can be an important criterion to evaluate the effects of hydroprene on this species.
Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; de Miranda, Gustavo Silva
Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 are described for the Brazilian Amazon, from the states of Pará (C. bichuetteae sp. n., C. bonaldoi sp. n., C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n., C. guto sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n.) and Amazonas (Charinus brescoviti sp. n. and C. ricardoi sp. n.). All new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the number of pseudo-articles in basitibia IV, the presence/absence of median eyes, and the shape of the female gonopod. Brazil now becomes the country with the largest diversity of Amblypygi in the world, with 25 known species. Half of the new species described here have a high degree of endangerment: C. bichuetteae sp. n. is threatened by the flood caused by the hydroelectric dam of Belo Monte, and C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n. are endangered by the iron mining in Carajás municipality and surroundings. The Charinus species here described are endemic to the Amazon Region, so in order to assure their preservation, it is strongly recommended a special care with their habitats (type localities) which are facing increasing rates of destruction and deforestation.
Mutlu, Salih; Atici, Ökkes; Gülen, Yasir
In the present study, it was aimed to determine the effects of cement dust pollution on contents of some significant essential elements (P, S, K, Ca, Fe and Cl) in wild plants (Medigago varia, Anchusa leptophylla, Euphorbia orientalis, Lactuca serriola, Artemisia spicigera, Crambe orientalis, Convolvulus sepium and Senecio vernalis) using wavelength-dispersive spectrometer X-ray fluorescence technique. Plant samples were collected from different locations around a cement factory which is located at Askale about 50 km from Erzurum (Turkey). The element contents in the plant specimens that existed in both 0-100 m (dense dusted) and 2000 m (undusted) areas were compared. P, S, K and Cl contents were found to be high in the plants growing in areas 0-100 m from the cement factory, compared to same plants at 2000 m far from the factory. However, Ca and Fe contents were determined to be low in plants growing in 0-100 m area from the factory. Results of the study can contribute to understand how mineral deficiency and toxicity lead to detrimental effects on plant growth and development in the fields contaminated by cement dust.
Achtman, M; Zurth, K; Morelli, G; Torrea, G; Guiyoule, A; Carniel, E
Plague, one of the most devastating diseases of human history, is caused by Yersinia pestis. In this study, we analyzed the population genetic structure of Y. pestis and the two other pathogenic Yersinia species, Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica. Fragments of five housekeeping genes and a gene involved in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharide were sequenced from 36 strains representing the global diversity of Y. pestis and from 12-13 strains from each of the other species. No sequence diversity was found in any Y. pestis gene, and these alleles were identical or nearly identical to alleles from Y. pseudotuberculosis. Thus, Y. pestis is a clone that evolved from Y. pseudotuberculosis 1,500-20,000 years ago, shortly before the first known pandemics of human plague. Three biovars (Antiqua, Medievalis, and Orientalis) have been distinguished by microbiologists within the Y. pestis clone. These biovars form distinct branches of a phylogenetic tree based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the locations of the IS100 insertion element. These data are consistent with previous inferences that Antiqua caused a plague pandemic in the sixth century, Medievalis caused the Black Death and subsequent epidemics during the second pandemic wave, and Orientalis caused the current plague pandemic.
Demir, Murat; Makineci, Ender; Gungor, Beyza Sat
This study was executed to determine the plant species of herbaceous cover in a skid road subjected to soil compaction due to timber skidding in a beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) stand. Our previous studies have shown that ground based timber skidding destroys the soils extremely, and degradations on ecosystem because of the timber skidding limit recovery and growth of plant cover on skid roads. However, some plant species show healthy habitat, recovery and they can survive after the extreme degradation in study area. We evaluated composition of these plant species and their cover-abundance scales in 100 m x 3 m transect. 15 plant species were determined belongs to 12 plant families and Liliaceae was the highest representative plant family. Smilax aspera L., Epimedium pubigerum (DC.) Moren et Decaisne, Carex distachya Desf. var. distachya Desf., Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn., Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. Don, Hedera helix L. have the highest cover-abundance scale overall of determined species on compacted skid road. PMID:27879869
Hiendleder, Stefan; Kaupe, Bernhard; Wassmuth, Rudolf; Janke, Axel
Complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control regions (CR) were sequenced and analysed in order to investigate wild sheep taxonomy and the origin of domestic sheep (Ovis aries). The dataset for phylogenetic analyses includes 63 unique CR sequences from wild sheep of the mouflon (O. musimon, O. orientalis), urial (O. vignei), argali (O. ammon) and bighorn (O. canadensis) groups, and from domestic sheep of Asia, Europe and New Zealand. Domestic sheep occurred in two clearly separated branches with mouflon (O. musimon) mixed into one of the domestic sheep clusters. Genetic distances and molecular datings based on O. canadensis CR and mtDNA protein-coding sequences provide strong evidence for domestications from two mouflon subspecies. Other wild sheep sequences are in two additional well-separated branches. Ovis ammon collium and O. ammon nigrimontana are joined with a specimen from the transkaspian Ust-Urt plateau currently named O. vignei arkal. Ovis ammon ammon, O. ammon darwini and O. vignei bochariensis represent a separate clade and the earliest divergence from the mouflon group. Therefore, O. musimon, O. vignei bochariensis and Ust-Urt sheep are not members of a 'moufloniform' or O. orientalis species, but belong to different clades. Furthermore, Ust-Urt sheep could be a hybrid population or an O. ammon subspecies closely related to O. ammon nigrimontana.
Xiaoshan, Zhang; Yujing, Mu; Wenzhi, Song; Yahui, Zhuang
Isoprene emission fluxes were investigated for 12 tree species in and around Beijing city. Bag-enclosure method was used to collect the air sample and GC-PID was used to directly analyze isoprene. Ginkgo and Magnolia denudata had negligible isoprene emissions, while significant emissions were observed for Platanus orientalis, Pendula loud, Populus simonii, and Salix matsudana koidz, and other remaining trees showed no sign of isoprene emission. Variations in isoprene emission with changes in light, temperature and season were investigated for Platanus orientalis and Pendula loud. Isoprene emission rates strongly depended on light, temperature and leaf age. The maximum emission rates for the two trees were observed in summer with values of about 232 and 213 μg g -1 dw h -1, respectively. The measured emission fluxes were used to evaluate "Guenther" emission algorithm. The emission fluxes predicted by the algorithm were in relatively good agreement with field measurements. However, there were large differences for the calculated median emission factors during spring, summer and fall. The 25-75 percentiles span of the emission factor data sets ranged from -33 to +15% of the median values.
Roskens, Violet A; Carpenter, James M; Pickett, Kurt M; Ballif, Bryan A
Proteomics is fast becoming one of the most interdisciplinary fields, bridging many chemical and biological disciplines. Major challenges, however, can limit the reach of proteomics to studies of model organisms. Challenges include the adequate preservation of field samples and the reliance of in-depth proteomics on sequenced genomes. Seeking to better establish the evolutionary relationships of hornets and yellowjackets comprising the subfamily Vespinae, we are combining classical morphological and genomic information with a functional genomics trait using proteomics. Vespine species form highly social colonies and exhibit division of labor in almost all aspects of colony life. An extreme digestive division of labor has been reported in Vespa orientalis, in which larvae but not adult workers exhibit the capacity to digest proteins fully. This makes the colony dependent upon the amino acid-rich trophallactic fluid released to adults by larvae and implies that the V. orientalis superorganism possesses larval-specific proteases. Identifying the proteases and the species exhibiting such extreme partitioning of digestive labor will allow for tracing the phylogenetic origins and elaboration of that digestive partitioning in the Vespinae. Herein we describe methods, generally applicable to field samples, showing the preservation of proteins and proteolytic activity from adult and larval vespine trophallactic fluid.
Papachristoforou, Alexandros; Rortais, Agnès; Sueur, Jérôme; Arnold, Gérard
This study describes the tactics used by Cyprian honeybees (Apis mellifera cypria) to defend their colonies against hornet (Vespa orientalis orientalis) attacks. We use simulated hornet attacks and a combination of video recordings and image analysis to reveal, for the first time, contrasted intra-subspecies defensive tactics that operate at the colony level during predation. In some colonies, when attacked, the numbers of guards at the hive entrance increases rapidly to attack, engulf, and kill invading hornets. In other colonies, guards avoid conflicts with hornets by retreating gradually and by forming a defensive line of honeybees at the hive entrance. Retreater colonies have propolis walls at the hive entrances with small apertures that are too narrow to allow the hornet to access the hive and that therefore reinforces entrance protection. On the contrary, attacker colonies have propolis walls with large openings through which the hornet can pass; these bees block the hornet's access by intensively guarding the hive entrance. We experimentally destroy propolis walls to test whether colonies consistently rebuild walls with the same intrinsic characteristics and we also monitor the survival rate of each anti-predator tactic after massive natural predation by hornets.
Sentoku, Asuka; Tokuda, Yuki; Ezaki, Yoichi
We describe a previously unknown niche for hard corals in the small, bowl-shaped, solitary scleractinian, Deltocyathoides orientalis (Family Turbinoliidae), on soft-bottom substrates. Observational experiments were used to clarify how the sea floor niche is exploited by turbinoliids. Deltocyathoides orientalis is adapted to an infaunal mode of life and exhibits behaviours associated with automobility that include burrowing into sediments, vertical movement through sediments to escape burial, and recovery of an upright position after being overturned. These behaviours were achieved through repeated expansion and contraction of their peripheral soft tissues, which constitute a unique muscle-membrane system. Histological analysis showed that these muscle arrangements were associated with deeply incised inter-costal spaces characteristic of turbinoliid corals. The oldest known turbinoliid, Bothrophoria ornata, which occurred in the Cretaceous (Campanian), also possessed a small, conical skeleton with highly developed costae. An infaunal mode of life became available to turbinoliids due to the acquisition of automobility through the muscle-membrane system at least 80 million years ago. The newly discovered active burrowing strategies described herein provide new insights into the use of an unattached mode of life by corals inhabiting soft-bottom substrates throughout the Phanerozoic.
Dikshit, Harsh Kumar; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Dharmendra; Aski, Muraleedhar Sidaram; Prakash, Prapti; Jain, Neelu; Meena, Suresh; Kumar, Shiv; Sarker, Ashutosh
Low productivity of pilosae type lentils grown in South Asia is attributed to narrow genetic base of the released cultivars which results in susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses. For enhancement of productivity and production, broadening of genetic base is essentially required. The genetic base of released cultivars can be broadened by using diverse types including bold seeded and early maturing lentils from Mediterranean region and related wild species. Genetic diversity in eighty six accessions of three species of genus Lens was assessed based on twelve genomic and thirty one EST-SSR markers. The evaluated set of genotypes included diverse lentil varieties and advanced breeding lines from Indian programme, two early maturing ICARDA lines and five related wild subspecies/species endemic to the Mediterranean region. Genomic SSRs exhibited higher polymorphism in comparison to EST SSRs. GLLC 598 produced 5 alleles with highest gene diversity value of 0.80. Among the studied subspecies/species 43 SSRs detected maximum number of alleles in L. orientalis. Based on Nei's genetic distance cultivated lentil L. culinaris subsp. culinaris was found to be close to its wild progenitor L. culinaris subsp. orientalis. The Prichard's structure of 86 genotypes distinguished different subspecies/species. Higher variability was recorded among individuals within population than among populations.
Sasaki, Eita; Zhang, Xuan; Sun, He G; Lu, Mei-yeh Jade; Liu, Tsung-lin; Ou, Albert; Li, Jeng-yi; Chen, Yu-hsiang; Ealick, Steven E; Liu, Hung-wen
Sulphur is an essential element for life and is ubiquitous in living systems. Yet how the sulphur atom is incorporated into many sulphur-containing secondary metabolites is poorly understood. For bond formation between carbon and sulphur in primary metabolites, the major ionic sulphur sources are the persulphide and thiocarboxylate groups on sulphur-carrier (donor) proteins. Each group is post-translationally generated through the action of a specific activating enzyme. In all reported bacterial cases, the gene encoding the enzyme that catalyses the carbon-sulphur bond formation reaction and that encoding the cognate sulphur-carrier protein exist in the same gene cluster. To study the production of the 2-thiosugar moiety in BE-7585A, an antibiotic from Amycolatopsis orientalis, we identified a putative 2-thioglucose synthase, BexX, whose protein sequence and mode of action seem similar to those of ThiG, the enzyme that catalyses thiazole formation in thiamine biosynthesis. However, no gene encoding a sulphur-carrier protein could be located in the BE-7585A cluster. Subsequent genome sequencing uncovered a few genes encoding sulphur-carrier proteins that are probably involved in the biosynthesis of primary metabolites but only one activating enzyme gene in the A. orientalis genome. Further experiments showed that this activating enzyme can adenylate each of these sulphur-carrier proteins and probably also catalyses the subsequent thiolation, through its rhodanese domain. A proper combination of these sulphur-delivery systems is effective for BexX-catalysed 2-thioglucose production. The ability of BexX to selectively distinguish sulphur-carrier proteins is given a structural basis using X-ray crystallography. This study is, to our knowledge, the first complete characterization of thiosugar formation in nature and also demonstrates the receptor promiscuity of the A. orientalis sulphur-delivery system. Our results also show that co-opting the sulphur-delivery machinery
Jorgensen, Damien; Webster, Nicole S.; Pineda, Mari-Carmen; Duckworth, Alan
A digital, four-channel thermistor flowmeter integrated with time-lapse cameras was developed as an experimental tool for measuring pumping rates in marine sponges, particularly those with small excurrent openings (oscula). Combining flowmeters with time-lapse imagery yielded valuable insights into the contractile behaviour of oscula in Cliona orientalis. Osculum cross-sectional area (OSA) was positively correlated to measured excurrent speeds (ES), indicating that sponge pumping and osculum contraction are coordinated behaviours. Both OSA and ES were positively correlated to pumping rate (Q). Diel trends in pumping activity and osculum contraction were also observed, with sponges increasing their pumping activity to peak at midday and decreasing pumping and contracting oscula at night. Short-term elevation of the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) within the seawater initially decreased pumping rates by up to 90%, ultimately resulting in closure of the oscula and cessation of pumping. PMID:27994973
Georges, K; Loria, G R; Riili, S; Greco, A; Caracappa, S; Jongejan, F; Sparagano, O
A reverse line blot hybridisation (RLB) of 21 oligonucleotides with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified regions of 16S rRNA (Ehrlichia/Anaplasma group) or 18S rRNA (Babesia/Theileria group) genes of haemoparasites detected Theileria annulata, T. buffeli/orientalis, Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, B. divergens, Ehrlichia bovis, Anaplasma marginale, A. centrale and unknown species within the Rickettsia tribe.A very high prevalence of mixed infections was detected, which indicated that animals infected with Babesia spp. were also infected with Theileria spp. and/or Anaplasma spp. The tick distribution appeared to be seasonal with Hyalomma marginatum as the most frequently observed tick and Boophilus annulatus and Ixodes ricinus as the least frequently observed ticks. Other species identified in the 818 ticks collected during the five sampling periods between April 1998 and November 1999 included H. lusitanicum, Rhipicephalus sanguineus group, R. bursa, Dermacentor marginatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, B. annulatus and I. ricinus.
Watanabe, S; Melzer, M J
The coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros (L.), is a major pest of coconut and other palm trees. An incipient coconut rhinoceros beetle population was recently discovered on the island of Oahu, Hawaii and is currently the target of a large, mutiagency eradication program. Confounding this program is the widespread presence of another scarab beetle on Oahu, the oriental flower beetle, Protaetia orientalis (Gory and Percheron 1833). Eggs, early life stages, and fecal excrement of coconut rhinoceros beetle and oriental flower beetle are morphologically indistinguishable, thereby creating uncertainty when such specimens are discovered in the field. Here, we report the development of a multiplex PCR assay targeting cytochrome oxidase I of coconut rhinoceros beetle and oriental flower beetle that can rapidly detect and distinguish between these insects. This assay also features an internal positive control to ensure DNA of sufficient quantity and quality is used in the assay, increasing its reliability and reducing the chances of false negative results.
Tadmor, Y; Zamir, D; Ladizinsky, G
Segregation of 18 marker genes was monitored in selfed progeny of a Lens culinaris × L. ervoides hybrid; five linkage groups were mapped, one of which contained a reciprocal translocation break-point that differentiates between the parents. Four markers were found to be linked to the translocation break-point: Aco-1 and Pgm-2 on one side and Gs and Got-2 on the other. The gene pairs on both sides of the translocation are not linked in L. culinaris or in L. orientalis. The L. ervoides gene order was also found in L. odemensis but with significantly reduced map distances. Analysis of monogenic segregations in a number of Lens inter-specific crosses revealed some consistent patterns of deviations from the expected Mendelian ratios. The factors responsible for these unequal segregations, genotypic effects on recombination frequencies, negative interference, and the possible ancient origin of the translocation are discussed.
Abstract Tasmanian Iulomorphidae are here assigned to the genera Amastigogonus Brölemann, 1913, Atelomastix Attems, 1911 and Equestrigonus gen. n. Descriptions or redescriptions are given for Amastigogonus danpicola sp. n., Amastigogonus elephas sp. n., Amastigogonus fossuliger Verhoeff, 1944, Amastigogonus hardyi (Chamberlin, 1920), Amastigogonus hellyeri sp. n., Amastigogonus michaelsae sp. n., Amastigogonus orientalis sp. n., Amastigogonus peninsulensis sp. n., Amastigogonus tasmanianus Brölemann, 1913 (type species of Amastigogonus), Amastigogonus verreauxii (Gervais, 1847), Atelomastix bonhami sp. n., Atelomastix smithi sp. n. and Equestrigonus tasmaniensis gen. n., sp. n. The synonymy of Amastigogonus nichollsii Verhoeff, 1944 with Amastigogonus hardyi is accepted, and lectotypes are designated for Amastigogonus nichollsii and Amastigogonus tasmanianus. PMID:28331389
Zott, K; Claisse, O; Lucas, P; Coulon, J; Lonvaud-Funel, A; Masneuf-Pomarede, I
The complex microbial ecosystem of grape must and wine harbours a wide diversity of yeast species. Specific oligonucleotide primers for real-time quantitative PCR(QPCR) were designed to analyse several important non-Saccharomyces yeasts (Issatchenkia orientalis, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Candida zemplinina and Hanseniaspora spp.) and Saccharomyces spp. in fresh wine must, during fermentation and in the finished wine. The specificity of all primer couples for their target yeast species were validated and the QPCR methods developed were compared with a classic approach of colony identification by RFLP-ITS-PCR on cultured samples. Once the methods had been developed and validated, they were used to study these non-Saccharomyces yeasts in wine samples and to monitor their dynamics throughout the fermentation process. This study confirms the usefulness and the relevance of QPCR for studying non-Saccharomyces yeasts in the complex yeast ecosystem of grape must and wine.
Scott, J A; Ewaze, J O; Summerbell, R C; Arocha-Rosete, Y; Maharaj, A; Guardiola, Y; Saleh, M; Wong, B; Bogale, M; O'Hara, M J; Untereiner, W A
Baudoinia was described to accommodate a single species, B. compniacensis. Known as the 'whiskey fungus', this species is the predominant member of a ubiquitous microbial community known colloquially as 'warehouse staining' that develops on outdoor surfaces subject to periodic exposure to ethanolic vapours near distilleries and bakeries. Here we examine 19 strains recovered from environmental samples near industrial settings in North America, South America, the Caribbean, Europe and the Far East. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of a portion of the nucLSU rRNA gene confirms that Baudoinia is a monophyletic lineage within the Teratosphaeriaceae (Capnodiales). Multilocus phylogenetic analysis of nucITS rRNA (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and partial nucLSU rRNA, beta-tubulin (TUB) and elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1) gene sequences further indicates that Baudoinia consists of five strongly supported, geographically patterned lineages representing four new species (viz. Baudoinia antilliensis, B. caledoniensis, B. orientalis and B. panamericana).
Barros, Maria Paloma S; França, Camila T; Lins, Rosanny Holanda F B; Santos, Milena Danda V; Silva, Ednaldo J; Oliveira, Maria Betânia M; Silveira-Filho, Vladimir M; Rezende, Antônio M; Balbino, Valdir Q; Leal-Balbino, Tereza Cristina
The potential use of CRISPR loci genotyping to elucidate population dynamics and microevolution of 146 Yersinia pestis strains from different biovars and locations was investigated in this work. The majority of strains from the Orientalis biovar presented specific spacer arrays, allowing for the establishment of a CRISPR signature for their respective isolates. Twenty-one new spacers were found in the Y. pestis strains from plague foci in Brazil. Ninety-three (64%) strains were grouped in the G1 genotype, whereas the others were distributed in 35 genotypes. This study allowed observing a microevolutionary process in a group of Y. pestis isolated from Brazil. We also identified specific genotypes of Y. pestis that were important for the establishment of the bacteria in plague foci in Brazil. The data have provided supporting evidence for the diversity and dynamics of CRISPR loci present in the genome of Y. pestis strains from plague foci in Brazil.
Vendl, Tomáš; Šípek, Petr
Abstract The third larval instar of Goliathus goliatus (Drury, 1770), Goliathus orientalis Moser, 1909 and Goliathus albosignatus Boheman, 1857 are described and illustrated for the first time and compared with the immature stages of other Cetoniinae. Larval development of Goliathus goliatus is investigated under laboratory conditions, with particular emphasis on food requirements. These results support the obligatory requirement of proteins in the larval diet. The association between larval morphological traits (e. g., the shape of the mandibles and pretarsus, presence of well-developed stemmata) and larval biology is discussed. Based on observations and the data from captive breeds it is concluded that a possible shift from pure saprophagy to an obligatory predaceous way of larval life occurred within the larvae of this genus, which may explain why these beetles achieve such an enormous size. PMID:27829788
Mei, Maurizio; Whitmore, Daniel; Giudice, Giuseppe Lo; Cerretti, Pierfilippo
Abstract The European bone-skippers (Diptera: Piophilidae: Thyreophorina), long considered extinct, have recently been the object of much interest by dipterists after their unexpected rediscovery. Considerable faunistic work has been done on these flies in recent years. However, some nomenclatural and taxonomic issues still require attention. A neotype is designated for Thyreophora anthropophaga Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (now in the genus Centrophlebomyia Hendel, 1903) to fix the identity of this nominal species. Centrophlebomyia anthropophaga is recognized as a valid species. It is described and illustrated in detail, and information on its preimaginal instars is provided for the first time. Four Palaearctic species of Centrophlebomyia are recognized and reviewed and a key is provided for their identification. Centrophlebomyia orientalis Hendel, 1907 from northern India, is removed from synonymy with Centrophlebomyia anthropophaga and recognized as a valid species of Centrophlebomyia, stat. r. The nominal genus Protothyreophora Ozerov, 1984 is considered a junior synonym of Centrophlebomyia, syn. n. PMID:23798899
Dai, Wu; Viraktamath, Chandra A; Zhang, Yalin
Here, we review the species of the Old World leafhopper genus Hishimonoides lshihara. Twelve species, including two new species, are recognized in the genus: H. arbudae Viraktamath et al. (India), H. aurifascialis Kuoh (China), H. bougainvilleae Viraktamath et al. (India, China), H. chinensis Anufriev (China), H. curvatus sp. nov. (China: Guangxi), H. dentimarginus Li and Zhang (China), H. miaolingensis Li and Zhang (China), H. orientalis Mahmood (Bangladesh, India), H. recurvatis Li (China), H. sellatiformis lshihara (China, Japan), H. spinosus Viraktamath et al. (India) and H. similis sp. nov. (China: Zhejiang, Gansu, Hunan). The type species and all known species from China are redescribed. One new synonym is revealed, Hishimonoides laterosporeus Li and Zhang, 2005 , a junior synonym of Hishimonoides chinensis Anufriev, 1970 . A key to the species in this genus is given, and their genital structures are illustrated.
Dufresnes, Christophe; Majtyka, Tomasz; Baird, Stuart J. E.; Gerchen, Jörn F.; Borzée, Amaël; Savary, Romain; Ogielska, Maria; Perrin, Nicolas; Stöck, Matthias
Reproductive isolation is crucial for the process of speciation to progress. Sex chromosomes have been assigned a key role in driving reproductive isolation but empirical evidence from natural population processes has been restricted to organisms with degenerated sex chromosomes such as mammals and birds. Here we report restricted introgression at sex-linked compared to autosomal markers in a hybrid zone between two incipient species of European tree frog, Hyla arborea and H. orientalis, whose homologous X and Y sex chromosomes are undifferentiated. This large X-effect cannot result from the dominance or faster-X aspects of Haldane’s rule, which are specific to degenerated sex chromosomes, but rather supports a role for faster-heterogametic-sex or faster-male evolutionary processes. Our data suggest a prominent contribution of undifferentiated sex chromosomes to speciation. PMID:26868373
Tran, Thi-Nguyen-Ny; Signoli, Michel; Fozzati, Luigi; Aboudharam, Gérard; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel
Background Historical records suggest that multiple burial sites from the 14th–16th centuries in Venice, Italy, were used during the Black Death and subsequent plague epidemics. Methodology/Principal Findings High throughput, multiplexed real-time PCR detected DNA of seven highly transmissible pathogens in 173 dental pulp specimens collected from 46 graves. Bartonella quintana DNA was identified in five (2.9%) samples, including three from the 16th century and two from the 15th century, and Yersinia pestis DNA was detected in three (1.7%) samples, including two from the 14th century and one from the 16th century. Partial glpD gene sequencing indicated that the detected Y. pestis was the Orientalis biotype. Conclusions These data document for the first time successive plague epidemics in the medieval European city where quarantine was first instituted in the 14th century. PMID:21423736
Kim, Il-Hoi; Moon, Seong Yong
Ten new species of cyclopoid copepods are described as parasites of marine fishes from Korea. Three new species of the family Bomolochidae are described as gill parasites: Orbitacolax pteragogi n. sp. from Pteragogus flagellifer (Valenciennes), Orbitacolax trichiuri n. sp. from Trichurus lepturus Linnaeus, and Orbitacolax unguifer n. sp. from Evynnis japonica Tanaka. Four species of the genus Colobomatus Hesse, 1873 of the family Philichthyidae are described as internal parasites: Colobomatus unimanus n. sp. from Pseudolabrus eoethinus (Richardson), Colobomatus recticaudatus n. sp. from Halichoeres poecilopterus (Temminck and Schlegel), Colobomatus floridus n. sp. from Hapalogenys mucronatus (Eydoux and Souleyet), and Colobomatus orientalis n. sp. from Johnius grypotus (Richardson). Three new species of the family Taeniacanthidae, including a new species belonging to a new genus, are described as gill parasites: Taeniacanthus singularis n. sp. from Halieutaea fumosa Alcock, Triacanthus luteus n. gen. n. sp. from Odontamblyopus lacepedii (Temminck and Schlegel), and Umazuracola geminus n. sp. from Stephonolepis cirrhifer (Temminck and Schlegel).
Whitlock, Rebecca E; Hazen, Elliott L; Walli, Andreas; Farwell, Charles; Bograd, Steven J; Foley, David G; Castleton, Michael; Block, Barbara A
Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) are highly migratory apex marine predators that inhabit a broad thermal niche. The energy needed for migration must be garnered by foraging, but measuring energy intake in the marine environment is challenging. We quantified the energy intake of Pacific bluefin tuna in the California Current using a laboratory-validated model, the first such measurement in a wild marine predator. Mean daily energy intake was highest off the coast of Baja California, Mexico in summer (mean ± SD, 1034 ± 669 kcal), followed by autumn when Pacific bluefin achieve their northernmost range in waters off northern California (944 ± 579 kcal). Movements were not always consistent with maximizing energy intake: the Pacific bluefin move out of energy rich waters both in late summer and winter, coincident with rising and falling water temperatures, respectively. We hypothesize that temperature-related physiological constraints drive migration and that Pacific bluefin tuna optimize energy intake within a range of optimal aerobic performance.
Arrizon, Javier; Morel, Sandrine; Gschaedler, Anne; Monsan, Pierre
Fructanase and fructosyltransferase are interesting for the tequila process and prebiotics production (functional food industry). In this study, one hundred thirty non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from "Mezcal de Oaxaca" were screened for fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity. On solid medium, fifty isolates grew on Agave tequilana fructans (ATF), inulin or levan. In liquid media, inulin and ATF induced fructanase activities of between 0.02 and 0.27U/ml depending of yeast isolate. High fructanase activity on sucrose was observed for Kluyveromyces marxianus and Torulaspora delbrueckii, while the highest fructanase activity on inulin and ATF was observed for Issatchenkia orientalis, Cryptococcus albidus, and Candida apicola. Zygosaccharomyces bisporus and Candida boidinii had a high hydrolytic activity on levan. Sixteen yeasts belonging to K. marxianus, T. delbrueckii and C. apicola species were positive for fructosyltransferase activity. Mezcal microbiota proved to showed to be a source for new fructanase and fructosyltransferases with potential application in the tequila and food industry.
Gameil, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.
The gastropod fauna of the Upper Cretaceous Aruma Formation in central Saudi Arabia comprises fifteen species belonging to fifteen genera, fourteen families, and five clades. The species are not abundant at any individual stratigraphic level but are equally and irregularly scattered in the formation. The studied species come mainly from the Hajajah Member of Upper Cretaceous Aruma Formation in central Saudi Arabia. Calliomphalus orientalis (Douvillé, 1916); Coelobolma corbarica Cossmann, 1918; Turritella (Torquesia) figarii Quaas, 1902; Neoptyxis olisiponensis (Sharpe, 1850) and Otostoma (Otostoma) divaricatum (d'Orbigny, 1847) are recorded from the Upper Cretaceous of central Arabia for the first time. The identified species have a close affinity to the Tethyan fauna known from other parts in Asia, Africa and Europe. Herbivores and predators are the dominant trophic groups which may indicate shallow marine lagoonal and relatively open marine environment.
Agostini, Cecilia; Agudelo, P A; Bâ, K; Barber, P A; Bisol, Paolo Maria; Brouat, C; Burgess, Treena I; Calves, I; Carrillo Avila, Mauricio; Chow, S; Cordes, Lisa; Da Silva, D; Dalecky, A; De Meester, L; Doadrio, Ignacio; Dobigny, G; Duplantier, J M; Evison, Sophie E F; Ford, Rebecca; Fresneau, Dominique; Galetti, Pedro M; Gauthier, P; Geldof, S; Granjon, L; Guérin, F; St J Hardy, Giles E; Hernandez Escobar, Carlos; Hima, K; Hu, Juan; Huang, Luqi; Humeau, L; Jansen, B; Jaquemet, S; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Jung, Sung-Ju; Kim, Bong-Seok; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Jong-Oh; Lai, Choay-Hoong; Laroche, J; Lavergne, E; Lawton-Rauh, A; Le Corre, M; Leach, M M; Lee, Jehee; Leo, Audrey E; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Lin, Lin; Linde, Celeste C; Liu, Shu-Fang; Marino, Ilaria A M; McKeown, Niall J; Nohara, K; Oh, Myung-Joo; Okamoto, H; Oliver, Richard; Olivera Angel, Martha; Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Orsini, L; Ostos Alfonso, Henry; Othman, A S; Papetti, Chiara; Patarnello, Tomaso; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Piller, Kyle R; Poteaux, Chantal; Requier, J-B; Roziana, M K; Semba, Y; Sembene, M; Shah, Ramisah M; Shahril, A R; Shao, Aijuan; Shaw, Paul W; Song, Liangke; Souza Ferreira, Ronara; Su, Yong-Quan; Suzuki, N; Tatard, C; Taylor, Katherine M; Taylor, Paul W J; Thiam, M; Valbuena, Ruben; Wang, He; Yang, Byung-Gyoo; Yuan, Qingjun; Zajonz, U; Zane, Lorenzo; Zhu, Ling; Zhuang, Zhi-Meng; Zulaiha, A R
This article documents the addition of 277 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Ascochyta rabiei, Cambarellus chapalanus, Chionodraco hamatus, Coptis omeiensis, Cynoscion nebulosus, Daphnia magna, Gerbillus nigeriae, Isurus oxyrinchus, Lates calcarifer, Metacarcinus magister, Oplegnathus fasciatus, Pachycondyla verenae, Phaethon lepturus, Pimelodus grosskopfii, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Scomberomorus niphonius, Sepia esculenta, Terapon jarbua, Teratosphaeria cryptica and Thunnus obesus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Austropotamobius italicus, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus puer, Cambarellus shufeldtii, Cambarellus texanus, Chionodraco myersi, Chionodraco rastrospinosus, Coptis chinensis, Coptis chinensis var. brevisepala, Coptis deltoidea, Coptis teeta, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Pimelodus bochii, Procambarus clarkii, Pseudopimelodus bufonius, Rhamdia quelen, Sepia andreana, Sepiella maindroni, Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus albacares, Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus orientalis, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus tonggol.
Dick, Regina; Rattei, Thomas; Haslbeck, Martin; Schwab, Wilfried; Gierl, Alfons; Frey, Monika
Benzoxazinoids represent preformed protective and allelophatic compounds that are found in a multitude of species of the family Poaceae (Gramineae) and occur sporadically in single species of phylogenetically unrelated dicots. Stabilization by glucosylation and activation by hydrolysis is essential for the function of these plant defense compounds. We isolated and functionally characterized from the dicot larkspur (Consolida orientalis) the benzoxazinoid-specific UDP-glucosyltransferase and β-glucosidase that catalyze the enzymatic functions required to avoid autotoxicity and allow activation upon challenge by herbivore and pathogen attack. A phylogenetic comparison of these enzymes with their counterparts in the grasses indicates convergent evolution by repeated recruitment from homologous but not orthologous genes. The data reveal a great evolutionary flexibility in recruitment of these essential functions of secondary plant metabolism. PMID:22415274
del Hierro, Andrés Miguel; Kronberger, Winfried; Hietz, Peter; Offenthaler, Ivo; Richter, Hanno
Research into the short-term fluctuations of oxygen concentrations in tree stems has been hampered by the difficulty of measuring oxygen inside tissues. A new method, which is based on fluorescence quenching of a ruthenium complex in the presence of oxygen, has been applied to measure changes of oxygen concentration in the sapwood of trees. During a field day-course oxygen increased with the radiation load and fell during the night (in Fagus orientalis from 20.3% in the afternoon to 17.5% in the morning next day). In a greenhouse experiment the sapwood oxygen concentration of Laurus nobilis could be influenced by flooding the root system. The very fast response, high resolution (better than 0.1%), easy calibration, and dependence only on oxygen and temperature make the technique well suited for measurements of oxygen concentrations in the sapwood.
Sahin, Saliha; Demir, Cevdet; Malyer, Hulusi
Four species of Prunella L. (Prunella vulgaris L., Prunella laciniata L., Prunella grandiflora L. and Prunella orientalis Bornm.) belong to the family of Lamiaceae and representing popular Western and Chinese herbal medicine were examined for the content of phenolic compounds. Phenolic acids (rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid), flavonoids (rutin, quercetin) in different quantitative proportions depending on extracts were determined by the rapid, selective and accurate method combining solvent/acid hydrolysis extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Water, methanol, butanol, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, hexane and their acidic solutions were used to examine the efficiency of different solvent systems for the extraction of phenolic compounds. Acid hydrolysis extraction was established as the most suitable extraction method for phenolic compounds.
Dufresnes, Christophe; Majtyka, Tomasz; Baird, Stuart J E; Gerchen, Jörn F; Borzée, Amaël; Savary, Romain; Ogielska, Maria; Perrin, Nicolas; Stöck, Matthias
Reproductive isolation is crucial for the process of speciation to progress. Sex chromosomes have been assigned a key role in driving reproductive isolation but empirical evidence from natural population processes has been restricted to organisms with degenerated sex chromosomes such as mammals and birds. Here we report restricted introgression at sex-linked compared to autosomal markers in a hybrid zone between two incipient species of European tree frog, Hyla arborea and H. orientalis, whose homologous X and Y sex chromosomes are undifferentiated. This large X-effect cannot result from the dominance or faster-X aspects of Haldane's rule, which are specific to degenerated sex chromosomes, but rather supports a role for faster-heterogametic-sex or faster-male evolutionary processes. Our data suggest a prominent contribution of undifferentiated sex chromosomes to speciation.
de Boer, Hugo J; Thulin, Mats
The snake gourd genus, Trichosanthes, is the largest genus in the Cucurbitaceae family, with over 90 species. Recent molecular phylogenetic data have indicated that the genus Gymnopetalum is to be merged with Trichosanthes to maintain monophyly. A revised infrageneric classification of Trichosanthes including Gymnopetalum is proposed with two subgenera, (I) subg. Scotanthus comb. nov. and (II) subg. Trichosanthes, eleven sections, (i) sect. Asterospermae, (ii) sect. Cucumeroides, (iii) sect. Edulis, (iv) sect. Foliobracteola, (v) sect. Gymnopetalum, (vi) sect. Involucraria, (vii) sect. Pseudovariifera sect. nov., (viii) sect. Villosae stat. nov., (ix) sect. Trichosanthes, (x) sect. Tripodanthera, and (xi) sect. Truncata. A synopsis of Trichosanthes with the 91 species recognized here is presented, including four new combinations, Trichosanthes orientalis, Trichosanthes tubiflora, Trichosanthes scabra var. pectinata, Trichosanthes scabra var. penicaudii, and a clarified nomenclature of Trichosanthes costata and Trichosanthes scabra.
Platt, T R; Blair, D
Hapalotrema mistroides (Monticelli, 1896) Stiles and Hassall, 1908 and Hapalotrema synorchis Luhman, 1935 are redescribed using specimens from the loggerhead turtle. Caretta caretta (L.). The redescription of H. mistroides is based on specimens collected by Looss and described as Hapalotrema constrictum Leared, 1862 and renamed Hapalotrema loossi Price, 1934, which is now considered a junior synonym of H. mistroides. Hapalotrema orientalis Takeuti, 1942 is considered a junior synonym of Hapalotrema synorchis. The redescriptions are consistent with the originals but provide an unreported range of variation while adding new information about the reproductive systems. Reexamination of Hapalotrema dorsopora Dailey, Fast, and Balazs, 1993 confirms the presence of a reproductive system typical for the genus and the absence of a dorsal genital pore; therefore, H. dorsopora is reduced to a junior synonym of Hapalotrema mehrai Rao, 1976. Four valid species of Hapalotrema are recognized: H. mistroides. H. synorchis, H. postorchis, and H. mehrai, and a key to the species is provided.
Ptak, Grazyna; Clinton, Michael; Barboni, Barbara; Muzzeddu, Marco; Cappai, Pietro; Tischner, Marian; Loi, Pasqualino
Although the potential use of reproductive biotechnologies for safeguarding endangered wildlife species is undoubted, practical efforts have met with limited success to date. In those instances in which modern technologies have been adapted to rescuing rare or endangered species, procedures have been applied piecemeal, and no consistent breeding program based on reproductive biotechnologies has been undertaken. Here we describe for the first time the rescue of an endangered species, the European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon), by the application of an integrated package of reproductive biotechnologies. This genetic management extended from the initial collection of gametes, through the in vitro production of embryos and interspecific transfer, to the birth of healthy mouflon offspring. In addition, a genetic resource bank for the European mouflon was established, with cryopreserved sperm, embryos, and somatic cells.
Ceci, L; Carelli, G
This paper reviews basic information on the knowledge of tick-borne diseases, babesiosis, anaplasmosis and theileriosis, in horses, cattle, sheep and goats in Italy with particular reference to the southern part of the country. It is stressed that there is limited knowledge about the parasite species present, their vectors, distribution, prevalence and impact on livestock production and there is the need to assess their epidemiology. A study carried out in the Apulia region to assess the prevalence of Anaplasma marginale infection in 1,648 cattle showed a seroprevalence of 17% using the Card Agglutination Test. In another study in the same region a microscopic prevalence of 78% for Theileria spp. was found in 60 cows. Afterwards using the IFAT test the Theileria sp. was identified as Theileria buffeli/orientalis.
Ozdal, Murat; Ozdal, Ozlem Gur; Alguri, Omer Faruk
Extensive applications of organochlorine pesticides like endosulfan have led to the contamination of soil and environments. Five different bacteria were isolated from cockroaches living in pesticide contaminated environments. According to morphological, physiological, biochemical properties, and total cellular fatty acid profile by Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs), the isolates were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa G1, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia G2, Bacillus atrophaeus G3, Citrobacter amolonaticus G4 and Acinetobacter lwoffii G5. This is the first study on the bacterial flora of Blatta orientalis evaluated for the biodegradation of α-endosulfan. After 10 days of incubation, the biodegradation yields obtained from P. aeruginosa G1, S. maltophilia G2, B. atrophaeus G3, C. amolonaticus G4 and A. lwoffii G5 were 88.5% , 85.5%, 64.4%, 56.7% and 80.2%, respectively. As a result, these bacterial strains may be utilized for biodegradation of endosulfan polluted soil and environments.
Krzemińska, A; Sawicka, B; Gliniewicz, A; Kanclerski, K
The evaluation of the infestation and methods of insect disease vectors control in 748 hospitals in Poland in the period of 1990 to 1995 were done. The insect species, places of their occurrence and control agents were analysed. Blattella germanica L. occurred most frequently (71% hospitals). Blatta orientalis and Monomorium pharaonis were found in 40% and 17% hospitals respectively. Kitchens, laundries and baths were most infested. Sometimes insects were found also in central sterilization units and operating theaters. Controls of insects in hospitals were performed one to four times a year mostly by spraying with residual formulation. The control agents contained pyrethroids (mostly permethrin, but also deltamethrin and cypermethrin) and carbamates (bendiocarb, propoxur). Baits with hydramethylnon, boric acid, methoprene and chlorpyrifos were used not very often. The authors suggest reduction in using the spraying agents. The baits are recommended because they delay the development of the resistance to pesticides in controlling insect populations and are safer.
Oldenburg, Marcus; Baur, Xaver
Cockroaches are detected ashore worldwide. At present, little is known about cockroach infestation on ships. The authors' objective in this study was to assess the current prevalence of cockroach infestation on seagoing vessels. In August 2005, port officials investigated cockroach infestation on 59 ships in Hamburg's port via standardized procedures (ie, illuminating hiding places and using pyrethrum spray). About 3 minutes after illumination or chemical provocation, the inspectors counted the number of insects escaping from their hiding places. The examination revealed cockroach presence in the galley or mess room of 6 ships (10.2%). These ships were bigger than 10,000 gross register tons (GRT) and older than 7 years. Inspectors detected the cockroach species Blattella germanica on 5 ships and Blatta orientalis on 1 ship. The standardized use of pyrethrum spray more frequently detected cockroaches than did inspection or illumination of their hiding places.
Barnes, K C; Brenner, R J
Fifty-one atopic asthmatic and/or allergic rhinitic children and 23 nonatopic control from Santo Domingo, the Dominican Republic, were skin tested with an extract mix of three cockroach species (Blattella germanica, Blatta orientalis, and Periplaneta americana). Sixteen percent of the atopics and none of the nonatopics demonstrated positive immediate skin reactions to the cockroach mix (chi 2 = 4.05, p = 0.04). Hypersensitivity was correlated with the quality of the homes; 22% (8/36) of the atopics who lived in a concrete home were skin test positive to the cockroach mix, while none (0/15) of the atopics who lived in a wood home were skin test positive (chi 2 = 4.86, p = 0.03). Although the incidence of cockroach allergy in this study is lower than that found elsewhere, these data support the notion that, in this tropical environment, sensitization to cockroaches is associated with housing quality.
Umunnabuike, A C; Irokanulo, E A
A total of 690 adult cockroaches (Periplaneta americana (L.), the American cockroach, and Blatta orientalis (L.), the oriental cockroach) were captured alive within domestic kitchens and near poultry houses in Vom. Using selective media, their external surfaces and internal (gut) contents, after adequate decontamination of the external surfaces, were culturally examined for the presence of campylobacters. 4 isolates of Campylobacter subsp jejuni were made (0.5%); 3 from the gut contents and 1 from the external surface. Nocardia asteroides was isolated from the gut contents of a batch of ten cockroaches. The low isolation rate notwithstanding, our results suggest that cockroaches may be a potential vector of campylobacters from other sources to human food. The somewhat fortuitous isolation of Nocardia asteroides and its significance are discussed.
Sezer, Y; Altay, V; Ozyigit, I I; Yarci, C
The woody vegetation of Sile district (Istanbul/Turkey), and its characteristics in conjunction with its environs are presented in this study. The field studies were performed using classic Braun-Blanquet method during 2003-2010 periods. In the present study three associations, two from forest vegetation and one from maquis vegetation, were characterized in the field. One of these associations is new and its description, typification and syntaxonomy was proposed. Phytosociological and phytoecological features of all three associations were compared with their relatives and related discussion was done accordingly. The associations described in the present study were as follows: Phillyreo-Lauretum nobilis, Smilaco-Castanetum sativae, Fago orientalis-Quercetum ibericae ass. nova. Furthermore, some soil properties such as saturation, organic matter, pH, CaCO, K2O and P2O5 were analyzed. Relationship between vegetations, their ecological characteristics and protection of these vegetations against biotic pressures are outlined in the present work.
Angulo, Arturo; López, Myrna I; Bussing, William A; Murase, Atsunobu
A new species of Chimaera Linnaeus 1758 is described from three specimens collected from off the Pacific coasts of Costa Rica and Peru. Chimaera orientalis n. sp., the first species of the genus described from the eastern Pacific Ocean, is distinguished from its other congeners by a combination of coloration and morphology. Additionally, new records of occurrence for another four species of chimaeroid fishes (Harriotta raleighana (Goode & Bean 1895), Rhinochimaera africana Compagno, Stehmann & Ebert 1990, Hydrolagus colliei Lay & Bennett 1839, and H. macrophthalmus de Buen 1959) previously unknown for the continental shelf of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Central America are reported. A key to the eastern Pacific species of the order Chimaeriformes is also presented.
Afsharzadeh, Maryam; Naderinasab, Mahboobe; Tayarani Najaran, Zahra; Barzin, Mohammad; Emami, Seyed Ahmad
Male and female leaves and fruits of eleven different taxons of Iranian conifers (Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis, C. sempervirens var. sempervirens, C. sempervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, J. excelsa subsp. excelsa, J. excelsa subsp. polycarpos, J. foetidissima, J. oblonga, J. sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata) were collected from different localities of Iran, dried and extracted with methanol. The extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The extracts were screened qualitatively using four different methods, the disc diffusion, hole plate, cylinder agar diffusion and agar dilution methods, whereas the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of each extract were determined by the agar dilution method. The best result was obtained by means of hole plate method in qualitative determination of antimicrobial activities of extracts and the greatest activity was found against S. aureus in all tested methods. PMID:24250573
Afsharzadeh, Maryam; Naderinasab, Mahboobe; Tayarani Najaran, Zahra; Barzin, Mohammad; Emami, Seyed Ahmad
Male and female leaves and fruits of eleven different taxons of Iranian conifers (Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis, C. sempervirens var. sempervirens, C. sempervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, J. excelsa subsp. excelsa, J. excelsa subsp. polycarpos, J. foetidissima, J. oblonga, J. sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata) were collected from different localities of Iran, dried and extracted with methanol. The extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The extracts were screened qualitatively using four different methods, the disc diffusion, hole plate, cylinder agar diffusion and agar dilution methods, whereas the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of each extract were determined by the agar dilution method. The best result was obtained by means of hole plate method in qualitative determination of antimicrobial activities of extracts and the greatest activity was found against S. aureus in all tested methods.
Abstract A series of brief notes on distribution of vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan is presented. A further expansion of Anthemis ruthenica (Asteraceae), Crambe orientalis (Brassicaceae) and Salvia aethiopis (Lamiaceae) in northern and northwestern Kyrgyzstan is recorded. The first record of Chenopodium vulvaria (Amaranthaceae) from the northern side of Kyrgyz Range is confirmed, and the species was found for the second time in Alay Range. The ephemerous occurrence of Hirschfeldia incana (Brassicaceae) in Central Asia is recorded for the first time from Fergana Range. Tragus racemosus (Poaceae) is first recorded from the Chüy Depression as an ephemerous alien. Arrhenatherum elatius, escaped from cultivation and locally established, is new to the country. The second record of established occurrence of Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae) and an ephemerous occurrence of Glaucium corniculatum (Papaveraceae) are presented. Complete information is collected about the occurrence of every mentioned species in Kyrgyzstan. PMID:24855435
Aquila, Isabella; Ausania, Francesco; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Serra, Arianna; Boca, Silvia; Capelli, Arnaldo; Magni, Paola; Ricci, Pietrantonio
Management of a crime is the process of ensuring accurate and effective collection and preservation of physical evidence. Forensic botany can provide significant supporting evidences during criminal investigations. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the importance of forensic botany in the crime scene. We reported a case of a woman affected by dementia who had disappeared from nursing care and was found dead near the banks of a river that flowed under a railroad. Two possible ways of access to crime scene were identified and denominated "Path A" and "Path B." Both types of soil and plants were identified. Botanical survey was performed. Some samples of Xanthium Orientalis subsp. Italicum were identified. The fall of woman resulted in external injuries and vertebral fracture at autopsy. The botanical evidence is important when crime scene and autopsy findings are not sufficient to define the dynamics and the modality of death.
Shi, Qianqian; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Chenglu; Nie, Wei; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Huayong
In this paper, an activated carbon was prepared from Typha orientalis and then treated with KMnO(4) and used for the removal of Basic Violet 14 from aqueous solutions. KMnO(4) treatment influenced the physicochemical properties of the carbon and improved its adsorption capacity. Adsorption experiments were then conducted with KMnO(4)-modified activated carbon to study the effects of carbon dosage (250-1500 mg/L), pH (2-10), ion strength (0-0.5 mol/L), temperature, and contact time on the adsorption of Basic Violet 14 from aqueous solutions. The equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and fitted well with the Langmuir model. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models were used to evaluate the kinetic data and the pseudo-second-order kinetics was the best with good correlation.
Description of Lentistivalius philippinensis, a new species of flea (Siphonaptera, Pygiosyllomorpha, Stivaliidae), and new records of Ascodipterinae (Streblidae) on bats and other small mammals from Luzon, The Philippines.
Hastriter, Michael W; Bush, Sarah E
During May 2009 and July 2011, we collected 357 mammals and examined each for ectoparasites. Among the ectoparasites collected, a new species of flea was discovered. This new species, Lentistivalius philippinensis, is described from the male sex only. Two males were recovered from two specimens of the soricid Crocidura grayi Dobson in Municipality Maria Aurora, Aurora Province, Luzon, Philippines. Additional fleas included Thaumapsylla breviceps orientalis Smit, Thaumapsylla longiforceps Traub, and Ischnopsyllus indicus Jordan. Although the latter species is common in Japan and documented in Guam (as well as mainland Southeast Asia) also on Pipistrellus javanicus (Gray), Ischnopsyllus indicus represents a new record in the Philippine Islands. The ascodipterinae (Streblidae) Maabella stomalata and Ascodipteron speiserianum Muir collected from Rhinolophus inops K. Andersen and Rhinolophus subrufus K. Andersen, respectively, also represent new host records. A key to the species of the flea genus Lentistivalius Traub is provided.
Sawidis, T; Breuste, J; Mitrovic, M; Pavlovic, P; Tsigaridas, K
Concentrations of four heavy metals were determined in tree leaves and bark collected from polluted and non-polluted areas of three European cities (Salzburg, Belgrade and Thessaloniki) for a comparative study. Platanus orientalis L. and Pinus nigra Arn., widespread in urban northern and southern Europe, were tested for their suitability for air quality biomonitoring. Leaves and barks were collected uniformly of an initial quantity of about 30 g of each sample. Analysis was accomplished by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after total digestion. Site-dependent variations were found with the highest concentration level measured in Belgrade, followed by Thessaloniki and Salzburg. A higher accumulation of heavy metals was found in bark compared to leaves. Pine tree bark, accumulating higher concentrations of trace metals compared to plane tree bark, shows a higher efficiency as bioindicator for urban pollution. Both indicator species are suitable for comparative studies on bioindication of urban air pollution.
Ishay, Jacob S.; Rosenzweig, Eyal; Rosenzweig, Ofer; Berke, Samuel
Oriental Hornet workers, Vespa orientalis (Hymenoptera: Vespinae) were measured for their responses to changes in the direction of the gravitational field and this under both static and kinetic (centrifugal) conditions. The hornets can build a comb (oriented towards the gravitational force) when their multifaceted eyes are covered. Building activity is undertaken in the dark as well as by hornets that had been blinded or had eclosed in the dark and had never seen any light. If the frons plate of hornets is damaged, there is no or little building, and the comb direction is distorted. Hornets eclosing from and developing in combs subjected to centrifugal spinning build combs whose direction is affected both by rotation and by the resultant of the gravitational and centrifugal forces.
Biswas, Sudeepta; Prabhu, R Krishna; Hussain, K Jahir; Selvanayagam, M; Satpathy, Kamala Kanta
Concentrations of Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cr, and Pb were estimated using ICP-MS in nine commercially important and locally consumed fish species (Sarda orientalis, Scomberomorus commerson, Rastrelliger kanagurta, Sardinella longiceps, Paraplagusia bilineata, Cynoglossus lida, Cynoglossus macrostomus, Lepturacanthus savala, and Siganus javus) collected from coastal waters of Kalpakkam, eastern part of India. Their concentration (μg g(-1)) in the examined fish species ranged as follows: Cu (0.8-6.5), Zn (14.3-27.9), Mn (0.5-8.8), Fe (17.6-117.0), Cr (0.24-1.78), and Pb (0.18-2.29). Concentrations of most of the metals in the fish species studied were found to be safe for human consumption barring Mn.
Kim, Dong-Hwan; Lee, Sae-Byuk; Park, Heui-Dong
Five yeast strains, Saccharomyces cerevisiae D8, M12, and S13; Hanseniaspora uvarum S6; and Issatchenkia orientalis KMBL5774, isolated from Korean grapes, were entrapped in Ca-alginate beads, which are non-toxic, simple to use, and economical. Ca-alginate beads containing yeast cells were soaked in protective solutions, such as skim milk, saccharides, polyols, and nitrogen compounds, before air-blast drying to improve the yeast survival rate and storage ability. The results showed that both entrapment in Ca-alginate beads and soaking in protective agents favorably affected the survival of all strains. The microenvironment formed by the beads and protective agents can protect the yeast cells from harsh environmental conditions, such as low water (below 10 %). All the yeast strains entrapped in Ca-alginate beads showed greater than 80 % survival and less than 11 % water content after air-blast drying at 37 °C for 5 h. In addition, air-blast dried cells of S. cerevisiae D8, M12, S13; H. uvarum S6; and I. orientalis KMBL5774 entrapped in 2 % Ca-alginate beads and soaked in protective agents (10 % skim milk containing 10 % sucrose, 10 % raffinose, 10 % trehalose, 10 % trehalose, and 10 % glucose, respectively) after air-blast drying at 37 °C for 5 h showed 90, 87, 92, 90, and 87 % viability, respectively. All dried entrapped yeast cells showed survival rates of at least 51 % after storage at 4 °C for 3 months.
Yu, Xuan; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Zhong; Liu, Jinliang; Zhang, Shunxiang
This study aims to evaluate the effect of different afforestation models on soil microbial composition in the Loess Plateau in China. In particular, we determined soil physicochemical properties, enzyme activities, and microbial community structures in the top 0 cm to 10 cm soil underneath a pure Hippophae rhamnoides (SS) stand and three mixed stands, namely, H. rhamnoides and Robinia pseucdoacacia (SC), H. rhamnoides and Pinus tabulaeformis (SY), and H. rhamnoides and Platycladus orientalis (SB). Results showed that total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen, and ammonium (NH4(+)) contents were higher in SY and SB than in SS. The total microbial biomass, bacterial biomass, and Gram+ biomass of the three mixed stands were significantly higher than those of the pure stand. However, no significant difference was found in fungal biomass. Correlation analysis suggested that soil microbial communities are significantly and positively correlated with some chemical parameters of soil, such as TOC, total phosphorus, total potassium, available phosphorus, NH4(+) content, nitrate content (NH3(-)), and the enzyme activities of urease, peroxidase, and phosphatase. Principal component analysis showed that the microbial community structures of SB and SS could clearly be discriminated from each other and from the others, whereas SY and SC were similar. In conclusion, tree species indirectly but significantly affect soil microbial communities and enzyme activities through soil physicochemical properties. In addition, mixing P. tabulaeformis or P. orientalis in H. rhamnoides plantations is a suitable afforestation model in the Loess Plateau, because of significant positive effects on soil nutrient conditions, microbial community, and enzyme activities over pure plantations.
Inglis, G D; Yanke, L J; Kawchuk, L M; McAllister, T A
The aerobic decomposition of barley silage treated with two inoculants (LacA and LacB) containing mixtures of Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium was investigated over a 28-day period. Initially, yeast and bacterial populations were larger in silage inoculated with LacA than in silage treated with LacB or water alone (control). Differences in the succession of yeasts in silage treated with LacA were observed relative to the other two treatments. From silage treatment with LacA, Issatchenkia orientalis was the most prevalent yeast taxon over all of the sample times, and the filamentous fungus Microascus brevicaulis was also frequently isolated at later sample dates (> or = 14 days). In contrast, Saccharomyces exiguus was the most prominent yeast recovered from silage treated with LacB and water alone on days 2 and 4, although it was supplanted by I. orientalis at later sample times. Successional trends of bacteria were similar for all three treatments. Lactobacillus spp. were initially the most prevalent bacteria isolated, followed by Bacillus spp. (primarily Bacillus pumilus). However, the onset of Bacillus spp. prominence was faster in LacA silage, and Klebsiella planticola was frequently recovered at later sample times (> or = 14 days). More filamentous fungi were recovered from LacA silage on media containing carboxylmethylcellulose, pectin, or xylan. The most commonly isolated taxa were Absidia sp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Byssochlamys nivea, Monascus ruber, Penicillium brevicompactum, Pseudoallescheria boydii, and M. brevicaulis. The results of this study indicated that the two bacterial inoculants incorporated into barley at the time of ensilage affected the microbial ecology of silage decomposition following exposure to air. However, neither of the microbial inoculants effectively delayed aerobic spoilage of barley silage, and the rate of decomposition of silage treated with one of the inoculants (LacA) was actually enhanced.
Rawani, Anjali; Ghosh, Anupam; Chandra, Goutam
Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human health diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Plants may be sources of alternative mosquito control agents. The present study was carried out to assess the role of larvicidal activities of the crude extracts of four plants viz. Alternanthera sessilis L. (Amaranthaceae), Trema orientalis L. (Cannabaceae), Gardenia carinata Smith. (Rubiaceae) and Ruellia tuberosa L. (Acanthaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say in laboratory bioassay. Methods: Selective concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) of crude extract of all four plant leaves were tested against Ist to IVth instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Log probit analysis (at 95% confidence level) revealed the LC50 values. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical analyses of crude extracts were also done. The lethal concentrations (%) of crude extracts at 24 h against IIIrd instar larvae were also studied on non-target organisms. Result: In a 72 h bioassay experiment with crude extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 1.5 per cent extract. A. sessilis showed the highest mortality (76.7 %) at 1.5 per cent crude extract against IInd instar larvae having LC50 value of 0.35 per cent, followed by R. tuberosa (LC50 =1.84%), G. carinata (LC50 = 2.11) and T. orientalis (LC50 = 2.95%). The regression equation showed a dose-dependent mortality, as the rate of mortality (Y) was positively correlated with the concentration (X). Phytochemical analysis of the crude extract showed the presence of many bioactive phytochemicals such as steroids, alkaloids, terpenes, saponins, etc. No changes in the swimming behaviour and survivality of non-target organism were noticed at the studied concentrations. Interpretation & conclusions: Crude extract of the four selected plants showed larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The extracts at the studied concentrations did not produce any harmful effect on non-target organisms. PMID:25222784
Côté, Nathalie; Fleury, Alain; Dumont-Blanchette, Émilie; Fukamizo, Tamo; Mitsutomi, Masaru; Brzezinski, Ryszard
A GlcNase (exo-β-D-glucosaminidase) was purified from culture supernatant of Amycolatopsis orientalis subsp. orientalis grown in medium with chitosan. The enzyme hydrolysed the terminal GlcN (glucosamine) residues in oligomers of GlcN with transglycosylation observed at late reaction stages. 1H-NMR spectroscopy revealed that the enzyme is a retaining glycoside hydrolase. The GlcNase also behaved as an exochitosanase against high-molecular-mass chitosan with Km and kcat values of 0.16 mg/ml and 2832 min−1. On the basis of partial amino acid sequences, PCR primers were designed and used to amplify a DNA fragment which then allowed the cloning of the GlcNase gene (csxA) associated with an open reading frame of 1032 residues. The GlcNase has been classified as a member of glycoside hydrolase family 2 (GH2). Sequence alignments identified a group of CsxA-related protein sequences forming a distinct GH2 subfamily. Most of them have been annotated in databases as putative β-mannosidases. Among these, the SAV1223 protein from Streptomyces avermitilis has been purified following gene cloning and expression in a heterologous host and shown to be a GlcNase with no detectable β-mannosidase activity. In CsxA and all relatives, a serine-aspartate doublet replaces an asparagine residue and a glutamate residue, which were strictly conserved in previously studied GH2 members with β-galactosidase, β-glucuronidase or β-mannosidase activity and shown to be directly involved in various steps of the catalytic mechanism. Alignments of several other GH2 members allowed the identification of yet another putative subfamily, characterized by a novel, serine-glutamate doublet at these positions. PMID:16316314
Feki, M; Châari, M; Neifar, L; Boudaya, L
Nine helminth parasites were used as biological tags to discriminate diverse areas of Scomber colias Gmelin, 1789. During three seasons, a total of 369 fish were examined in four zones off the Tunisian coast, including Bizerte in the north, Kelibia and Mahdia in the centre and Zarzis in the south. Discriminant analyses were used to identify distinct areas of S. colias. Fish from Bizerte were grouped as one area and were correlated negatively with the monogenean Grubea cochlear and the digenean Lecithocladium excisum. Specimens from Kelibia and Mahdia were grouped together and were characterized by the ectoparasite Pseudokuhnia minor and by endoparasites Prodistomum orientalis, Monascus filiformis and anisakid larvae. Fish from Zarzis were grouped as one area and were positively correlated with the monogenean G. cochlear and the digenean L. excisum. These results were corroborated by comparing the prevalence and mean abundance of parasites among zones. Results of other discriminant analyses used for the classification of S. colias between localities after pooling specimens from the central areas of Kelibia and Mahdia also allowed the identification of three distinct areas: one in the north, correlated negatively with G. cochlear and L. excisum; one in the centre, characterized by P. minor, P. orientalis, M. filiformis and anisakid larvae; and one in the south, from Zarzis, characterized by G. cochlear and L. excisum. Results of comparisons of infection parameters between seasons and those of seasonal discrminant analyses showed a seasonal stability of communities from the northern and the southern areas. Specimens from the central regions showed variability between seasons, suggesting migratory movements.
Bansal, Pooja; Verma, Sonam; Srivastava, Alka
Bryophyte particularly mosses, have been found to serve as reliable indicators of air pollution and can serve as bryometers-biological instruments for measuring air pollution. They are remarkable colonizers, as they have the ability to survive in adverse environments and are also particular in their requirement of environmental conditions, which makes them appropriate ecological indicators. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidative enzymes in two mosses viz., Hyophila rosea R.S. Williams and Semibarbula orientalis (Web.) Wijk. & Marg. and assess their suitability as biomonitors. Three different locations viz., Lucknow University, Residency (contaminated sites) and Dilkusha Garden (reference site) within Lucknow city with different levels of air pollutants were used for comparison. Our results indicate that air pollution caused marked enhancement in activity of antioxidative enzymes viz., catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. All the three are capable of scavenging reactive oxygen species. In the genus S. orientalis, catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity was minimum at the reference site Dilkusha Garden and was significantly higher at the two contaminated sites for catalase and peroxidase, whereas the difference was non significant for superoxide dismutase. In H. rosea the activity of catalase and peroxidase at the three locations was almost similar, however superoxide dismutase activity showed a significant increase in the two contaminated sites when compared to the reference site, the value being highest for Lucknow University site. It was thus observed that the two genera, from the same location, showed difference in the activity of the antioxidative enzymes. Based on our results, we recommend bryophytes as good monitors of air pollution.
Kasseney, Boris Dodji; Deng, Tianfu; Mo, Jianchu
Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) (Isoptera: Termitidae) is one of the most destructive plant pests in China, which control relies mainly on baits strategies. Baits made from the wood of eight different tree species were used to study the feeding preference of this termite, and conversely wood protection strategies of the tree species. Three bait types were used to identify wood protection strategies: solid wood (physical and chemical protection), crude flour (chemical protection) made from ground wood, and extracted flour (no protection) made by extracting crude flour with ethanol and toluene. Feeding preference was influenced by wood species and bait type. For solid wood, Magnolia denudata Desr (75%) and Elaeocarpus glabripetalus Merr (41%) were most preferred; for crude flour, E. glabripetalus (97%) and Quercus variabilis Blume (92%) were most preferred; and for extracted flour, there were no significant differences between wood species, demonstrating the influence of chemical defense. The greatest contrast between bait types was for Platanus orientalis L, the least preferred as solid wood and crude flour, suggesting that chemical defense compounds are particularly important in this species. Solid wood consumption was inversely correlated with wood density. Extracted flour consumption was positively correlated with glucose concentration. There was no direct effect of holocellulose and other components tested. O. formosanus preferred to fed on soft wood with low chemical protection (M. denudata); conversely trees protected their wood either physically [e.g., E. glabripetalus, Q. variabilis, Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl, and Ligustrum lucidum Aiton] or chemically (Populus bonati Levl) or a combination of both strategies (Liquidamba formosana Hance and P. orientalis).
Kuchta, Roman; Vlcková, Romana; Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Gustinelli, Andrea; Dzika, Ewa; Scholz, Tomaś
A comparative study of the scolex hook morphology of five species of tapeworms of the genus Triaenophorus Rudolphi, 1793 (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea), parasites of pikes (Esox lucius L. and E. reichertii Dybowski) in the Palaearctic Region, was carried out. Measurements of scolex hooks of 81 plerocercoids and 492 adults from different hosts and regions were compared using basic statistics and forward stepwise linear discriminant analysis. The shape of the scolex and that of tridental hooks were found to be suitable only for differentiation of the taxa with a similar shape of hooks, i.e. Triaenophorus nodulosus (Pallas, 1781) from T. amurensis Kuperman, 1968, and T. crassus Forel, 1868 from T. meridionalis Kuperman, 1968 and T. orientalis Kuperman, 1968, respectively. In contrast, discriminant analysis did not enable reliable separation of specimens of individual taxa of these two morphological groups due to high intraspecific variability and overlaps between species. This was reflected in low classification efficiencies (average 83%) of all species of the T. crassus group, whereas all T. amurensis specimens were misidentified as T. nodulosus. The new data also considerably enlarge (up to twofold) the size range of the species described by Kuperman in 1968, which invalidates suitability of the most important discriminant characteristic, the width of the basal plate, for delimitation of Triaenophorus species. Based on the present data, all Kuperman's taxa are considered to represent only distinct geographical populations of T. nodulosus and T. crassus. As a result, T. anmurensis is synonymized with T. nodulosus, whereas T. orientalis is considered to be a synonym of T. crassus. Previous synonymisation of T. ineridionalis with T. crassus, first proposed by Dubinina (1987), is also accepted.
Lu, Senlin; Ren, Jingjin; Hao, Xiaojie; Liu, Dingyu; Zhang, Rongci; Wu, Minghong; Yi, Fei; Lin, Jun; Shinich, Yonemochi; Wang, Qingyue
Being major ornamental street trees, species of Platanus are widely planted in the Shanghai urban area. A great deal of allergenic Platanus pollen is released from the trees and suspended in the atmosphere during its flowering season, ultimately causing allergic respiratory diseases. Few papers have focused on the distribution of this type of pollen and its expression of allergenic proteins. In order to investigate any differences in protein expression in Platanus pollen following exposure to gaseous and particulate pollutants, a special apparatus was designed. Exposure condition (such as temperature, humidity, and exposure time) of Platanus pollen and gaseous pollutants can be simulated using of this apparatus. Fresh Platanus orientalis pollen, pollutant gases (NO2, SO2, NH3), and typical urban ambient particles (vehicle exhaust particles, VEPs) were mixed in this device to examine possible changes that might occur in ambient airborne urban pollen following exposure to such pollutants. Our results showed that the fresh P. orientalis pollen became swollen, and new kinds of particles could be found on the surface of the pollen grains after exposure to the pollutants. The results of SDS-PAGE showed that five protein bands with molecular weights of 17-19, 34, 61, 82, and 144 kDa, respectively, were detected and gray scale of these brands increased after the pollen exposure to gaseous pollutants. The two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that a Platanus pollen allergenic protein (Pla a1, with a molecular weight of 18 kDa) increased in abundance following exposure to pollutant gases and VEPs, implying that air pollutants may exacerbate the allergenicity of pollen.
Duhamel, R C; Kunkel, J G
Larval-specific protein (LSP) is the most abundant protein in the hemolymph of cockroaches shortly before molting, but is rapidly cleared from the hemolymph during the molt (Kunkel, J. G., and Lawler, D. M. (1974) Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 47B, 697-710). Blatta orientalis LSP was purified by sedimentation in preparative sucrose gradients followed by 2-hydroxypropylamino-cellulose anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration on a column of Bio-Gel A-1.5m. The amino acid composition of LSP includes 16.3 mol % tyrosine and 4.9 mol % phenylalanine, but virtually no cysteine and little methionine. The following physical properties were determined for LSP: R8 = 68.3 A, 8(20),w = 17.8, and V = 0.723. From these values an Mr = 507,900 was calculated. In electron micrographs, LSP appears as rectangular particles of 121 by 134 A. In disc polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, native LSP exhibits a single band, but in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, LSP is resolved into a doublet of closely spaced bands of Mr = 88,100 and 84,400 present in a ratio of 1.38:1. These data indicate that native B. orientalis LSP is a hexamer of subunits averaging approximately Mr = 86,000. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis of Blattella germanica larval serum indicates that LSP in that species is a hexamer composed of a random assortment of two subunits of different charge in the ratio 1.25:1. The amino acid composition and physical properties of LSP suggest that LSP may be the hemimetabolous analogue of the tyrosine- and phenylalanine-rich storage proteins of holometabolous insects.
Kelehear, Crystal; Spratt, David M.; O’Meally, Denis; Shine, Richard
Pentastomids are endoparasites of the respiratory system of vertebrates, maturing primarily in carnivorous reptiles. Adult and larval pentastomids can cause severe pathology resulting in the death of their intermediate and definitive hosts. The study of pentastomids is a neglected field, impaired by risk of zoonoses, difficulties in species identification, and life cycle complexities. We surveyed wild snakes in the tropics of Australia to clarify which host species possess these parasites, and then sought to identify these pentastomids using a combination of morphological and molecular techniques. We detected pentastomid infections in 59% of the 81 snakes surveyed. The ubiquity of pentastomid infections in snakes of the Australian tropics sampled in this study is alarmingly high considering the often-adverse consequences of infection and the recognized zoonotic potential of these parasites. The pentastomids were of the genera Raillietiella and Waddycephalus and infected a range of host taxa, encompassing seven snake species from three snake families. All seven snake species represent new host records for pentastomids of the genera Raillietiella and/or Waddycephalus. The arboreal colubrid Dendrelaphis punctulatus and the terrestrial elapid Demansia vestigiata had particularly high infection prevalences (79% and 100% infected, respectively). Raillietiella orientalis infected 38% of the snakes surveyed, especially frog-eating species, implying a frog intermediate host for this parasite. Raillietiella orientalis was previously known only from Asian snakes and has invaded Australia via an unknown pathway. Our molecular data indicated that five species of Waddycephalus infect 28% of snakes in the surveyed area. Our morphological data indicate that features of pentastomid anatomy previously utilised to identify species of the genus Waddycephalus are unreliable for distinguishing species, highlighting the need for additional taxonomic work on this genus. PMID:24918074
Elsner, Nikolaus O.; Jacobsen, Sabine; Thieltges, David W.; Reise, Karsten
Molluscan intestinal parasites of the genus Mytilicola, specifically M. intestinalis, were initially introduced into bivalves in the North Sea in the 1930s. It was presumably introduced from the Mediterranean with ship-fouling mussels, then attained epidemic proportions in Mytilus edulis in the 1950s and is now widely established in the North Sea region. Mytilicola orientalis was co-introduced with Pacific oysters to France in the 1970s and in the southern North Sea in the early 1990s. Its main host Crassostrea gigas has massively invaded the Wadden Sea with a concomitant decline in mussels. To explore whether introduced mytilicolid parasites could play a role in the shifting dominance from native mussels to invasive oysters, we analysed 390 mussels and 174 oysters collected around the island of Sylt in the northern Wadden Sea. We show that M. intestinalis has a prevalence >90% and a mean intensity of 4 adult copepods in individual mussels with >50 mm shell length at all sheltered sites. By contrast, none were found in the oysters. However, at one site, we found M. orientalis in C. gigas with a prevalence of 10% and an intensity of 2 per host individual (August 2008). This constitutes the most northern record in Europe for this Pacific parasite until now. Alignments of partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene and the nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and 18S rDNA sequences each show a distinct difference between the two species, which confirms our morphological identification. We suggest that the high parasite load in mussels compared to oysters may benefit the continued expansion of C. gigas in the Wadden Sea.
Kelehear, Crystal; Spratt, David M; O'Meally, Denis; Shine, Richard
Pentastomids are endoparasites of the respiratory system of vertebrates, maturing primarily in carnivorous reptiles. Adult and larval pentastomids can cause severe pathology resulting in the death of their intermediate and definitive hosts. The study of pentastomids is a neglected field, impaired by risk of zoonoses, difficulties in species identification, and life cycle complexities. We surveyed wild snakes in the tropics of Australia to clarify which host species possess these parasites, and then sought to identify these pentastomids using a combination of morphological and molecular techniques. We detected pentastomid infections in 59% of the 81 snakes surveyed. The ubiquity of pentastomid infections in snakes of the Australian tropics sampled in this study is alarmingly high considering the often-adverse consequences of infection and the recognized zoonotic potential of these parasites. The pentastomids were of the genera Raillietiella and Waddycephalus and infected a range of host taxa, encompassing seven snake species from three snake families. All seven snake species represent new host records for pentastomids of the genera Raillietiella and/or Waddycephalus. The arboreal colubrid Dendrelaphis punctulatus and the terrestrial elapid Demansia vestigiata had particularly high infection prevalences (79% and 100% infected, respectively). Raillietiella orientalis infected 38% of the snakes surveyed, especially frog-eating species, implying a frog intermediate host for this parasite. Raillietiella orientalis was previously known only from Asian snakes and has invaded Australia via an unknown pathway. Our molecular data indicated that five species of Waddycephalus infect 28% of snakes in the surveyed area. Our morphological data indicate that features of pentastomid anatomy previously utilised to identify species of the genus Waddycephalus are unreliable for distinguishing species, highlighting the need for additional taxonomic work on this genus.
Abiodun, Oyindamola O; Gbotosho, Grace O; Ajaiyeoba, Edith O; Brun, Reto; Oduola, Ayoade M
Human African trypanosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease with complex clinical presentation, diagnosis, and difficult treatment. The available drugs for the treatment of trypanosomiasis are old, expensive, and less effective, associated with severe adverse reactions and face the problem of drug resistance. This situation underlines the urgent need for the development of new, effective, cheap, and safe drugs for the treatment of trypanosomiasis. The search for new antitrypanosomal agents in this study is based on ethnomedicine. In vitro antitrypanosomal activity of 36 plant extracts from 10 plant species from Nigerian ethnomedicine was evaluated against bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB 900. Cytotoxic activity was determined against mammalian L6 cells. Alamar blue assay was used to measure the endpoint of both antitrypanosomal and toxicity assays. The ethyl acetate extract of leaves of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (Labiatae) showed the highest antitrypanosomal activity (IC(50) of 2.08 ± 0.01 μg/ml) and a high selective index of 29. Furthermore, the hexane, ethyl acetate, or methanol extracts of Trema orientalis (L.) Blume (Ulmaceae), Pericopsis laxiflora (Benth. ex Baker) Meeuwen, Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), Terminalia catappa Linn. (Combretaceae), and Vitex doniana Sweet (Verbenaceae) displayed remarkable antitrypanosomal activity (IC(50) 2.1-17.2 μg/ml) with high selectivity indices (20-80) for trypanosomes. The antitrypanosomal activity of T. catappa and T. orientalis against T. brucei rhodesiense (STIB 900) is being reported for the first time in Nigerian ethnomedicine, and these plants could be a potential source of antitrypanosomal agents.
Sharaby, Aziza; Abdel-Rahman, H.; Moawad, S.
The olfactory reaction of larvae and moths was investigated towards 18 oils (6 natural oils and 12 commercial chemical oils). Some of these oils such as peppermint and camphor (natural oils) and eugenol and camphene (commercial oils) were repellent to both larvae and moths. Other oils such as strawberry and d-limonene were attractive to both larvae and moths. Some of the repellent oils were, therefore, tested for their effect on certain biological aspects of the insects. Eugenol and peppermint oils, each at the 0.01% conc., caused a significant depression in the fecundity of moth and decreased the percentage of egg hatchability. Eugenol oil was much more effective than peppermint oil at 1%. Dried (leaves, fruits or seeds) powder of 14 different plants species were tested in different concentrations with talcum powder (carrier material) against egg deposition. The results indicated that dried powders of Allium cepa, Curcuma longa, Colocasia antiqurum, Ocimum basilicum. Dodonaea viscose and Thuja orientalis played a highly significant role in reducing egg deposition. The most impressive effect was displayed by powders of D. viscose and A. cepa, which caused the highest depression in egg deposition as well as in the emerging offsprings. Ethanolic extracts of 11 plants indicated that extracts of Pithuranthos tortosus and Iphiona scabra caused the maximum inhibition of egg hatchability, followed by C. longa, Citrullus colocynthia and T. orientalis. Ethanolic extracts of Schinus terebenthiflius (leaves) and I. scabra caused the highest depression in the deposited eggs, as they played a remarkable role as ovipositor deterrents. The majority of the plant extracts at 1% conc. could protect potato tubers at different intervals according to the calculated tuber damage index as follows: Iphiopna > Pithuranthos > Curcuma > Schinus (fruits) Thuja > Schinus (leaves) > Dodonaea > Citrullus. PMID:23961036
Usman, Adel R A; Lee, Sang Soo; Awad, Yasser M; Lim, Kyoung Jae; Yang, Jae E; Ok, Yong Sik
In recent decades, heavy metal contamination in soil adjacent to chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood has received increasing attention. This study was conducted to determine the pollution level (PL) based on the concentrations of Cr, Cu and As in soils and to evaluate the remediative capacity of native plant species grown in the CCA contaminated site, Gangwon Province, Korea. The pollution index (PI), integrated pollution index (IPI), bioaccumulation factors (BAF(shoots) and BAF(roots)) and translocation factor (TF) were determined to ensure soil contamination and phytoremediation availability. The 19 soil samples from 10 locations possibly contaminated with Cr, Cu and As were collected. The concentrations of Cr, Cu and As in the soil samples ranged from 50.56-94.13 mg kg(-1), 27.78-120.83 mg kg(-1), and 0.13-9.43 mg kg(-1), respectively. Generally, the metal concentrations decreased as the distance between the CCA-treated wood structure and sampling point increased. For investigating phytoremediative capacity, the 19 native plant species were also collected in the same area with soil samples. Our results showed that only one plant species of Iris ensata, which presented the highest accumulations of Cr (1120 mg kg(-1)) in its shoot, was identified as a hyperaccumulator. Moreover, the relatively higher values of BAF(shoot) (3.23-22.10) were observed for Typha orientalis, Iris ensata and Scirpus radicans Schk, suggesting that these plant species might be applicable for selective metal extraction from the soils. For phytostabilization, the 15 plant species with BAF(root) values>1 and TF values<1 were suitable; however, Typha orientalis was the best for Cr.
Gebrekidan, Hagos; Hailu, Asrat; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Rohoušová, Iva; Maia, Carla; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Warburg, Alon; Baneth, Gad
Piroplasmosis caused by different tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia is among the most economically important infections of domestic ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. A survey for piroplasm infection was conducted in three locations in Northern Ethiopia. Of 525 domestic ruminants surveyed, 80% of the cattle, 94% of the sheep and 2% of the goats were positive for different Theileria spp. based on PCR of blood followed by DNA sequencing. Sheep had a significantly higher rate of infection compared with cattle (P<0.0003) and both sheep and cattle had higher rates of infection compared to goats (P<0.0001). Four species of Theileria were detected in cattle: T. velifera, T. mutans, T. orientalis complex and T. annulata with infection rates of 66, 8, 4, and 2%, respectively. This is the first report of T. annulata, the cause of Tropical Theileriosis in Ethiopia. Of the two Theileria spp. detected in small ruminants, T. ovis was highly prevalent (92%) in sheep and rare in goats (1.5%) whereas T. seperata was infrequent in sheep (2%) and rare in goats (0.4%). None of the animals were positive for Babesia spp.; however, Sarcocystis capracanis and S. tenella were detected in one goat and a sheep, respectively. The widespread distribution of Theileria spp. among cattle in northern Ethiopia including the virulent T. annulata and more mildly pathogenic T. mutans and T. orientalis, and the high infection rate in sheep with the usually sub-clinical T. ovis indicate extensive exposure to ticks and transmission of piroplasms with an important economic impact.
Background Oriental theileriosis is a tick-borne, protozoan disease of cattle caused by members of the Theileria orientalis-complex. Recent outbreaks of this disease in eastern Australia have caused major concerns to the dairy and beef farming communities, but there are no published studies of the economic impact of this disease. On a farm in Victoria, Australia, we assessed whether oriental theileriosis has an impact on milk production and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Methods Blood samples collected from all 662 cows on the farm were tested using an established molecular test. For individual cows, milk production and reproductive performance data were collected. A clinical assessment of individual cows was performed. Based on clinical findings and molecular test results, the following groups of cows were classified: group 1, with cardinal clinical signs of oriental theileriosis and molecular test-positive for T. orientalis; group 2, with mild or suspected signs of theileriosis and test-positive; group 3, with no clinical signs and test-positive; and group 4, with no clinical signs and test-negative. Milk production and reproductive performance data for groups 1, 2 and 3 were each compared with those for group 4 using linear and logistic regression analyses, respectively. Results At 100 days of lactation, group 1 cows produced significantly less milk (288 l; P = 0.001), milk fat (16.8 kg; P < 0.001) and milk protein (12.6 kg; P < 0.001) compared with group 4. At this lactation point, group 2 also produced significantly less milk fat (13.6 kg; P = 0.002) and milk protein (8.6 kg; P = 0.005) than group 4. At 305 days of lactation, group 1 cows produced significantly less milk (624 l; P = 0.004), milk fat (42.9 kg; P < 0.001) and milk protein (26.0 kg; P < 0.001) compared with group 4 cows. Group 2 cows also produced significantly less milk fat (21.2 kg; P = 0.033) at this lactation point. No statistically significant difference in reproductive performance
Background Environmental temperature has profound consequences for early amphibian development and many field and laboratory studies have examined this. Most laboratory studies that have characterized the influence of temperature on development in amphibians have failed to incorporate the realities of diel temperature fluctuations (DTF), which can be considerable for pond-breeding amphibians. Results We evaluated the effects of different ecologically relevant ranges of DTF compared with effects of constant temperatures on development of embryos and larvae of the Korean fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis). We constructed thermal reaction norms for developmental stage, snout- vent length, and tail length by fitting a Gompertz-Gaussian function to measurements taken from embryos after 66 hours of development in 12 different constant temperature environments between 14°C and 36°C. We used these reaction norms as null models to test the hypothesis that developmental effects of DTF are more than the sum of average constant temperature effects over the distribution of temperatures experienced. We predicted from these models that growth and differentiation would be positively correlated with average temperature at low levels of DTF but not at higher levels of DTF. We tested our prediction in the laboratory by rearing B. orientalis embryos at three average temperatures (20°C, 24°C, and 28°C) and four levels of thermal variation (0°C, 6°C, 13°C, and 20°C). Several of the observed responses to DTF were significantly different from both predictions of the model and from responses in constant temperature treatments at the same average temperatures. At an average temperature of 24°C, only the highest level of DTF affected differentiation and growth rates, but at both cooler and warmer average temperatures, moderate DTF was enough to slow developmental and tail growth rates. Conclusions These results demonstrate that both the magnitude of DTF range and thermal
Rodríguez, Ariel; Poth, Dennis; Schulz, Stefan; Gehara, Marcelo; Vences, Miguel
The miniaturized frogs of the Eleutherodactylus limbatus group, endemic to Cuba, have recently been shown to contain alkaloids in their skin, representing the fifth independent evolutionary origin of alkaloid sequestering in anurans. Based on a comprehensive sampling of all known species of the group we here assess their range-wide phylogeography using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b and the nuclear Rag-1 gene. We found E. etheridgei, E. cubanus, and E. orientalis to be genetically highly distinct, with uncorrected pair-wise distances >12% in the cytochrome b gene and >5% in the 16S rRNA gene, and without haplotype sharing in the Rag-1 gene. On the contrary, E. iberia, E. jaumei, E. limbatus, and one unnamed lineage from Gran Piedra mountains had lower mitochondrial divergences to each other (<6% in cytochrome b; <3% in 16S) and extensive Rag-1 haplotype sharing, suggesting that their species status requires careful revision. All species and lineages of the group occur in the mountain areas of eastern Cuba and only one of them, E. limbatus, colonized central and western Cuba. Populations of this latter lineage are only weakly genetically differentiated, and its range expansion to western Cuba is probably Pleistocenic, demonstrating that also miniaturized frog species are able of considerable range expansions (over hundreds of kilometers) in short time spans. A phylogeny based on about 5 kb of mitochondrial and nuclear genes places, with maximum support, E. etheridgei basalmost in the group, followed by E. cubanus, E. orientalis, and the E. iberia-jaumei-limbatus clade. The screening of skin alkaloids revealed the presence of alkaloids in all lineages of the group, but alkaloids known to be sequestered by other anurans were not found in the basalmost E. etheridgei. Furthermore, individuals of the derived lineages of the E. iberia-jaumei-limbatus clade had a much larger variety of different alkaloid compounds (3-18) than the other three species (0
Larsen, J. B.; Larsen, A.; Bratbak, G.; Sandaa, R.-A.
Algal viruses are considered ecologically important by affecting host population dynamics and nutrient flow in aquatic food webs. Members of the family Phycodnaviridae are also interesting due to their extraordinary genome size. Few algal viruses in the Phycodnaviridae family have been sequenced, and those that have been have few genes in common and low gene homology. It has hence been difficult to design general PCR primers that allow further studies of their ecology and diversity. In this study, we screened the nine type I core genes of the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses for sequences suitable for designing a general set of primers. Sequence comparison between members of the Phycodnaviridae family, including three partly sequenced viruses infecting the prymnesiophyte Pyramimonas orientalis and the haptophytes Phaeocystis pouchetii and Chrysochromulina ericina (Pyramimonas orientalis virus 01B [PoV-01B], Phaeocystis pouchetii virus 01 [PpV-01], and Chrysochromulina ericina virus 01B [CeV-01B], respectively), revealed eight conserved regions in the major capsid protein (MCP). Two of these regions also showed conservation at the nucleotide level, and this allowed us to design degenerate PCR primers. The primers produced 347- to 518-bp amplicons when applied to lysates from algal viruses kept in culture and from natural viral communities. The aim of this work was to use the MCP as a proxy to infer phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity among members of the Phycodnaviridae family and to determine the occurrence and diversity of this gene in natural viral communities. The results support the current legitimate genera in the Phycodnaviridae based on alga host species. However, while placing the mimivirus in close proximity to the type species, PBCV-1, of Phycodnaviridae along with the three new viruses assigned to the family (PoV-01B, PpV-01, and CeV-01B), the results also indicate that the coccolithoviruses and phaeoviruses are more diverged from this
Trifilò, Patrizia; Lo Gullo, Maria A; Salleo, Sebastiano; Callea, Katia; Nardini, Andrea
Recent studies have shown that, in some species, xylem hydraulic conductivity (K(h)) increases with increasing cation concentration of xylem sap. Evidence indicates that K(h) increases as a result of the de-swelling of pit membrane pectins caused by cation neutralization of polygalacturonanes. We tested whether this ionic effect partly compensates for the embolism-induced loss of stem hydraulic conductivity (PLC) by increasing K(h) of functioning conduits. We report changes in PLC, leaf water status and potassium concentration ([K(+)]) of xylem sap measured in April and July in two evergreens (Ceratonia siliqua L. and Phytolacca dioica L.) and one deciduous tree (Platanus orientalis L.) growing in the field in Sicily. In summer, Ceratonia siliqua and Phytolacca dioica showed similar native embolism (PLC = 30-40%) and [K(+)] of xylem sap (14 to 17 mM), and K(h) of stems perfused with 10 to 25 mM KCl increased by 15 to 18% compared with K(h) of stems perfused with a low concentration of a multi-ionic solution. In contrast, native [K(+)] of sap of Platanus orientalis was 50% of that in the two evergreens in summer, with a parallel lack of detectable changes in PLC that was below 10% in both spring and summer. The ionic effect was PLC-dependent: the enhancement of K(h) induced by 10 to 25 mM KCl changed from 15% for fully hydrated stems to 50-75% for stems with PLC = 50%. In Ceratonia siliqua, PLC was less than 10% in spring and about 40% in summer; concurrently, xylem sap [K(+)] increased from 3 to about 15 mM. This [K(+)] at the recorded PLC would cause an increase in residual K(h) of about 30%. Hence, the actual reduction in water transport capacity of Ceratonia siliqua stems in summer is about 20%. Similar calculations for Phytolacca dioica suggest that the actual loss of hydraulic conductivity in stems of this species in summer would be only about 10%, and not 30% as suggested by hydraulic measurements performed in the laboratory. We conclude that an increase in
Ding, Mingyan; Meng, Kaikai; Fan, Qiang; Tan, Weizheng; Liao, Wenbo; Chen, Sufang
Premise of the study: Fokienia hodginsii (Cupressaceae) is a Tertiary relict evergreen conifer of the monotypic genus Fokienia. Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed to investigate its genetic diversity and population structure. Methods and Results: RNA transcripts of F. hodginsii were sequenced and de novo assembled into 85,818 unigenes, and 1892 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were detected from the unigenes. A total of 273 expressed sequence tag–SSR primer pairs were designed and tested, and 129 successfully amplified. Eleven displayed clear polymorphisms in F. hodginsii. Amplification of these polymorphic primers across three populations of F. hodginsii showed the number of alleles per locus ranged from two to seven, and the expected heterozygosity per locus varied from 0.067 to 0.847. All 11 polymorphic primers amplified in Thuja occidentalis, while 10 amplified in T. standishii, Platycladus orientalis, and Chamaecyparis obtusa. Conclusions: These microsatellite markers will be useful in exploring genetic diversity of F. hodginsii and other conifer trees. PMID:28337393
Drori, Elyashiv; Rahimi, Oshrit; Marrano, Annarita; Henig, Yakov; Brauner, Hodaya; Salmon-Divon, Mali; Netzer, Yishay; Prazzoli, Maria Lucia; Stanevsky, Maria; Failla, Osvaldo; Weiss, Ehud; Grando, Maria Stella
The importance and extent of wine consumption in all life aspects at the Holy Land is well documented. The Muslim influence in this region led to the abandonment of winemaking practices, and possible loss of indigenous wine varieties. Here we present a country wide collection of the local grapevine population including wild and cultivated forms, and its characterization by genetic, ampelographic and enological methods. The ampelographic analysis shows clear differences between Sativa and Sylvestris groups in flower, leaf and cluster parameters, and that most Sativa belong to proles orientalis. Genetic population analysis was conducted by analyzing 22 common SSR markers, determining first the unique genotypes, and internally assessing the population's structure, showing the existence of two distinct Sativa and Sylvestris populations, and a third mixed one. Likewise, the relationship between the Israeli grapevine population and grapevine populations in Europe and parts of Asia was investigated, showing that the Israeli Sativa and Sylvestris populations cluster closely together, suggesting a common genetic source. Lastly, the enological characteristics of selected Sativa and Sylvestris genotypes are presented, demonstrating their potential for quality wine production. This research significantly contributes toward the re-establishment of indigenous and traditional local grapevine varieties into the modern international wine industry.
Soltani, Jalal; Moghaddam, Mahdieh S Hosseyni
Aspergilli are filamentous, cosmopolitan and ubiquitous fungi which have significant impact on human, animal and plant welfare worldwide. Due to their extraordinary metabolic diversity, Aspergillus species are used in biotechnology for the production of a vast array of biomolecules. However, little is known about Aspergillus species that are able to adapt an endophytic lifestyle in Cupressaceae plant family and are capable of producing cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial metabolites. In this work, we report a possible ecological niche for pathogenic fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Indeed, our findings indicate that A. fumigatus, A. flavus, Aspergillus niger var. niger and A. niger var. awamori adapt an endophytic lifestyle inside the Cupressaceous plants including Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. fastigiata, Cupressus semipervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis. In addition, we found that extracts of endophytic Aspergilli showed significant growth inhibition and cytotoxicity against the model fungus Pyricularia oryzae and bacteria such as Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora and Pseudomonas syringae. These endophytic Aspergilli also showed in vitro antifungal effects on the cypress fungal phytopathogens including Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, our findings clearly support the endophytic association of Aspergilli with Cupressaceae plants and their possible role in protection of host plants against biotic stresses. Observed bioactivities of such endophytic Aspergilli may represent a significant potential for bioindustry and biocontrol applications.
McLean, Kirsty J; Hans, Marcus; Meijrink, Ben; van Scheppingen, Wibo B; Vollebregt, Aad; Tee, Kang Lan; van der Laan, Jan-Metske; Leys, David; Munro, Andrew W; van den Berg, Marco A
The cholesterol-lowering blockbuster drug pravastatin can be produced by stereoselective hydroxylation of the natural product compactin. We report here the metabolic reprogramming of the antibiotics producer Penicillium chrysogenum toward an industrial pravastatin production process. Following the successful introduction of the compactin pathway into the β-lactam-negative P. chrysogenum DS50662, a new cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) from Amycolatopsis orientalis (CYP105AS1) was isolated to catalyze the final compactin hydroxylation step. Structural and biochemical characterization of the WT CYP105AS1 reveals that this CYP is an efficient compactin hydroxylase, but that predominant compactin binding modes lead mainly to the ineffective epimer 6-epi-pravastatin. To avoid costly fractionation of the epimer, the enzyme was evolved to invert stereoselectivity, producing the pharmacologically active pravastatin form. Crystal structures of the optimized mutant P450(Prava) bound to compactin demonstrate how the selected combination of mutations enhance compactin binding and enable positioning of the substrate for stereo-specific oxidation. Expression of P450(Prava) fused to a redox partner in compactin-producing P. chrysogenum yielded more than 6 g/L pravastatin at a pilot production scale, providing an effective new route to industrial scale production of an important drug.
Poon, Terry Yam Chuen; Ong, Kwok Leung; Cheung, Bernard Man Yung
Rehmannia Six Formula (RF) is a formula that is commonly used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat patients with diabetes. A literature search was performed in PubMed for the years 2000-2009 using the key words RF, Rehmannia glutinosa, Fructus Corni, Dioscorea sp. (D. alata, D. opposita, D. batatas), Poria cocos, Alisma sp. (A. orientalis, A. plantago aquatica), and Paeonia suffruticosa/Cortex Moutan. On the basis of the publications found, RF appears to have beneficial effects on blood glucose, neuropathy, and nephropathy. There is also evidence of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Although there are many studies on compounds extracted from individual herbs, there are not many studies on RF as a whole. Because there is preliminary evidence that RF may be a useful supplement for the prevention of diabetic complications, clinical studies are warranted. For future clinical studies, it is recommended that details are provided regarding the preparation of RF and that the ratio of the individual components in RF is standardized so that results across studies can be compared.
Sun, Yue; Liu, Yanlin
The objective of this study was to examine the potential of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) in monitoring yeast communities during wine fermentation and to reveal new information on yeast community of Chinese enology. Firstly, terminal restriction fragment (TRF) lengths database was constructed using 32 pure yeast species. Ten of these species were firstly documented. The species except for Candida vini, Issatchenkia orientalis/Candida krusei, Saccharomyces bayanus, Saccharomyces pastorianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces kudriarzevii and Zygosaccharomyces bisporus could be distinguished by the T-RFLP targeting 5.8S-ITS rDNA. Moreover, the yeast communities in spontaneous fermentation of Chardonnay and Riesling were identified by T-RFLP and traditional methods, including colony morphology on Wallerstein Nutrient (WLN) medium and 5.8S-ITS-RFLP analysis. The result showed that T-RFLP profiles of the yeast community correlated well with that of the results identified by the traditional methods. The TRFs with the highest intensity and present in all the samples corresponded to Saccharomyces sp. Other species detected by both approaches were Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia minuta var. minuta, Saccharomycodes ludwigii/Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida zemplinina. This study revealed that T-RFLP technique is a rapid and useful tool for monitoring the composition of yeast species during wine fermentation.
He, Qiang; Cui, Bao-Shan; Zhao, Xin-Sheng; Fu, Hua-Ling
Ordination methods were used to arrange in turn the 19 plant species in wetlands of the Yellow River Delta under gradients of water table depth and soil salinity, and to classify them into three ecological species groups, i. e. low, medium, and high water table depth/soil salinity ecological species groups. Their niche breadths and niche overlaps under the two gradients were also analyzed. The results indicated that for the gradient of water table depth, the species in medium water table depth ecological species group, such as Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa, occupied a broad niche breadth, and those in high water table depth ecological species group, such as Typha orientalis and Myriophyllum spicatum, occupied the narrowest niche breadth. For the gradient of soil salinity, the species in high soil salinity ecological species group, such as Suaeda salsa and Tamarix chinensis, occupied a broad niche breadth, while those belonging to the medium and low soil salinity ecological species groups occupied a narrow niche breadth. The niche overlaps changed regularly along the gradients of water table depth and soil salinity. In general, the niche overlaps between the plant species of the same ecological species groups were large, whilst those between the plant species of different ecological species groups were small. Niche differentiations of the plant species under the gradients of water table depth and soil salinity might promote species coexistence, and contribute to the explanation of plant zonation mechanisms in this Delta.
Lin, Ying-Feng; Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lee, Der-Yuan; Chang, Yih-Feng; Shih, Kai-Chung
Several small-scale surface flow constructed wetlands unplanted and planted (monoculture) with various macrophytes (Phragmites australis, Typha orientalis, Pennisetum purpureum, Ipomoea aquatica, and Pistia stratiotes) were established to continuously receive nitrate-contaminated groundwater. Soil characteristics and their effects on nitrate removal and soil denitrification were investigated. The results showed that planted wetland cells exhibited significantly higher (P < 0.05) nitrate removal efficiencies (70-99%) and soil denitrification rates (3.78-15.02 microg N2O-N/g dry soil/h) than an unplanted covered wetland cell (1%, 0.11 microg N2O-N/g/h). However, the unplanted uncovered wetland cell showed a nitrate removal efficiency (55%) lower than but a soil denitrification rate (9.12 microg N2O-N/g/h) comparable to the planted cells. The nitrate removal rate correlated closely and positively with the soil denitrification rate for the planted cells, indicating that soil denitrification is an important process for removing nitrate in constructed wetlands. The results of nitrogen budget revealed that around 68.9-90.7% of the overall nitrogen removal could be attributed to the total denitrification. The soil denitrification rate was found to correlate significantly (P < 0.01) with the extractable organic carbon, organic matter, and in situ-measured redox potential of wetland soil, which accordingly were concluded as suitable indicators of soil denitrification rate and nitrate removal rate in nitrate treatment wetlands.
Knoetze, Rinus; Swart, Antoinette
A survey was performed to detect the presence of cyst nematodes in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. Soil was collected in the rhizosphere of the dominant plant species within blocks of indigenous vegetation and cysts were extracted from them. A total of 81 blocks of indigenous vegetation were sampled as described. Cysts were detected in 7 of these samples, representing 6 different vegetation types. One set of primers was used to amplify the ITS regions from these cysts, including the 5.8S ribosomal gene, as well as short parts of the 18S and 28S ribosomal genes. ITS-rDNA sequences from the indigenous isolates were aligned with selected sequences of other species from the Heteroderidae. Phylogenetic analyses to resolve the relationships between indigenous isolates and selected representatives of the Heteroderidae were conducted using the Maximum Parsimony method. The consensus tree resulting from alignment of the circumfenestrate cysts revealed that isolates SK18, WK1 and WK26 are included in a clade of Globodera species that parasitise non-solanaceous plants, forming a monophyletic group with G. millefolii, G. artemisiae, and an unidentified Globodera sp. from Portugal. In a tree resulting from the alignment of the Heterodera spp., isolates OK14 and WK2 are included in the Afenestrata group, forming a monophyletic group with H. orientalis.This survey unearthed at least four potentially new species of cyst nematodes, which may prove invaluable for the study of the evolution and biogeography of the group.
Singh, Purnima; Singh, Shiv Mohan; Roy, Utpal
Glacier ice and firn cores have ecological and biotechnological importance. The present study is aimed at characterizing bacteria in crustal ice cores from Svalbard, the Arctic. Counts of viable isolates ranged from 10 to 7000 CFU/ml (mean 803 CFU/ml) while the total bacterial numbers ranged from 7.20 × 10(4) to 2.59 × 10(7) cells ml(-1) (mean 3.12 × 10(6) cells ml(-1) ). Based on 16S rDNA sequence data, the identified species belonged to seven species, namely Bacillus barbaricus, Pseudomonas orientalis, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas syncyanea, Sphingomonas dokdonensis, and Sphingomonas phyllosphaerae, with a sequence similarity ranging between 93.5 and 99.9% with taxa present in the database. The isolates exhibited unique phenotypic properties, and three isolates (MLB-2, MLB-5, and MLB-9) are novel species, yet to be described. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on characterization of cultured bacterial communities from Svalbard ice cores. We conclude that high lipase, protease, cellulase, amylase, and urease activities expressed by most of the isolates provide a clue to the potential industrial applications of these organisms. These microbes, producing cold-adapted enzymes may provide an opportunity for biotechnological research.
Background Accurate identification is necessary to discriminate harmless environmental Yersinia species from the food-borne pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and from the group A bioterrorism plague agent Yersinia pestis. In order to circumvent the limitations of current phenotypic and PCR-based identification methods, we aimed to assess the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) protein profiling for accurate and rapid identification of Yersinia species. As a first step, we built a database of 39 different Yersinia strains representing 12 different Yersinia species, including 13 Y. pestis isolates representative of the Antiqua, Medievalis and Orientalis biotypes. The organisms were deposited on the MALDI-TOF plate after appropriate ethanol-based inactivation, and a protein profile was obtained within 6 minutes for each of the Yersinia species. Results When compared with a 3,025-profile database, every Yersinia species yielded a unique protein profile and was unambiguously identified. In the second step of analysis, environmental and clinical isolates of Y. pestis (n = 2) and Y. enterocolitica (n = 11) were compared to the database and correctly identified. In particular, Y. pestis was unambiguously identified at the species level, and MALDI-TOF was able to successfully differentiate the three biotypes. Conclusion These data indicate that MALDI-TOF can be used as a rapid and accurate first-line method for the identification of Yersinia isolates. PMID:21073689
Suraprasit, Kantapon; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Chavasseau, Olivier; Yamee, Chotima; Tian, Pannipa; Panha, Somsak
Abstract The fluviatile terrace deposits of Khok Sung, Nakhon Ratchasima province, have yielded more than one thousand fossils, making this the richest Pleistocene vertebrate fauna of Thailand. The excellent preservation of the specimens allows precise characterization of the faunal composition. The mammalian fauna consists of fifteen species in thirteen genera, including a primate, a canid, a hyaenid, proboscideans, rhinoceroses, a suid, cervids, and bovids. Most species correspond to living taxa but globally (Stegodon cf. orientalis) and locally (Crocuta crocuta ultima, Rhinoceros unicornis, Sus barbatus, and Axis axis) extinct taxa were also present. The identification of Axis axis in Khok Sung, a chital currently restricted to the Indian Subcontinent, represents the first record of the species in Southeast Asia. Three reptilian taxa: Crocodylus cf. siamensis, Python sp., and Varanus sp., are also identified. Faunal correlations with other Southeast Asian sites suggest a late Middle to early Late Pleistocene age for the Khok Sung assemblage. However, the Khok Sung mammalian fauna is most similar to that of Thum Wiman Nakin, dated to older than 169 ka. The Khok Sung large mammal assemblage mostly comprises mainland Southeast Asian taxa that migrated to Java during the latest Middle Pleistocene, supporting the hypothesis that Thailand was a biogeographic pathway for the Sino-Malayan migration event from South China to Java. PMID:27667928
Assis, G B N; de Oliveira, T F; Gardner, I A; Figueiredo, H C P; Leal, C A G
Despite the worldwide occurrence of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) infection in farmed tilapia, sensitivity and specificity estimates of commonly used diagnostic tests have not been reported. This study aimed to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of bacteriological culture and qPCR to detect Fno infection. We tested 559 fish, sampled from four farms with different epidemiological scenarios: (i) healthy fish in a hatchery free of Fno; (ii) targeted sampling of diseased fish with suggestive external clinical signs of francisellosis during an outbreak; (iii) convenience sampling of diseased and clinically healthy fish during an outbreak; and (iv) sampling of healthy fish in a cage farm without a history of outbreaks, but with francisellosis reported in other farms in the same reservoir. The qPCR had higher median sensitivity (range, 48.8-99.5%) than culture (range, 1.6-74.4%). Culture had a substantially lower median sensitivity (1.6%) than qPCR (48.8%) to detect Fno in carrier tilapia (farm 4). Median specificity estimates for both tests were >99.2%. The qPCR is the superior test for use in surveillance and monitoring programmes for francisellosis in farmed Nile tilapia, but both tests have high sensitivity and specificity which make them fit for use in the diagnosis of Fno outbreaks.
Mu, Weijie; Wen, Haishen; He, Feng; Li, Jifang; Liu, Miao; Ma, Ruiqin; Zhang, Yuanqing; Hu, Jian; Qi, Baoxia
Vasa, which is a conserved member of the DEAD-box protein family, plays an indispensable role in primordial germ cell proliferation. However, the expression of vasa gene during the reproductive cycle in ovoviviparous fish has not been documented. In this study, the full-length sequence of vasa was obtained from the ovary of Korean rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli) using reverse transcription-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The Vasa with a mature protein of 650 amino acids showed greatest homology (84%) with giant gourami ( Osphronemus goramy) and Pacific bluefin tuna ( Thunnus orientalis). The expression of vasa mRNA in Korean rockfish was detected in gonads only, suggesting its specific role in gonadal development. In addition, seasonal changes in the vasa expression levels were examined in gonads by quantitative real-time PCR. The vasa transcript levels in adult testis were found higher during spermatogenesis than during spermiation. The vasa transcript levels remained relatively high at the early ovary stage but declined during ovary maturation in adult female fish. These results suggest that the vasa gene play an important role in spermatogenesis and early oogenesis during the reproductive cycle of Korean rockfish.
Xie, Hui; Wang, Fengqin; Yin, Shuangyao; Ren, Tianbao; Song, Andong
In the field of biofuel ethanol, high-concentration- reducing sugars made from cellulosic materials lay the foundation for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. In this study, corn stover was pre-treated in a process combining chemical methods and steam explosion; the cellulosic hydrolyzed sugars obtained by fed-batch saccharification were then used as the carbon source for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1308, Angel yeast, and Issatchenkia orientalis were shake-cultured with Pachysolen tannophilus P-01 for fermentation. Results implied that the ethanol yields from the three types of mixed strains were 4.85 g/100 mL, 4.57 g/100 mL, and 5.02 g/100 mL (separately) at yield rates of 91.6, 89.3, and 92.2%, respectively. Therefore, it was inferred that shock-fermentation using mixed strains achieved a higher ethanol yield at a greater rate in a shorter fermentation period. This study provided a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the fermentation of industrial high-concentrated cellulosic ethanol.
Wang, Hongwei; Luan, Rixiao
Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. is a new species described from Lingshui, Hainan Province, South China Sea. Based on the external form and internal structure, combined with rbcL gene sequence analysis, Grateloupia tenuis is distinct from other Grateloupia species as follows: (1) thalli is slippery and cartilaginous in texture; possess fewer branches, relatively slight main axes, and two or three dichotomous branches; (2) cortex is 5-6 layers; medulla is solid when young, but hollow in old branches; reproductive structures are dispersed in main axes of thalli and lower portions of branchlets; exhibits Grateloupia-type auxiliary cell ampullae; (3) the four studied G. tenuis sequences were positioned in a large Grateloupia clade of Halymeniaceae, which included sister group generitype G. filicina with 68 bp differences; G. tenuis was determined to be a sister taxon to the G. catenata, G. ramosissima, G. orientalis, and G. filiformis subclade. The pairwise distances between G. tenuis and these species were 39 to 50 bp. The sequences of G. tenuis differed by 81–108 bp from the sequences of other samples in Grateloupia; there are 114–133 bp changes between G. tenuis and other genera of Halymeniaceae. In final analysis, we considered Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. to be a new species of genus Grateloupia. PMID:24455703
Zerbe, Katja; Pylypenko, Olena; Vitali, Francesca; Zhang, Weiwen; Rouset, Severine; Heck, Markus; Vrijbloed, Jan W; Bischoff, Daniel; Bister, Bojan; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Pelzer, Stefan; Wohlleben, Wolfgang; Robinson, John A; Schlichting, Ilme
Gene-inactivation studies point to the involvement of OxyB in catalyzing the first oxidative phenol coupling reaction during glycopeptide antibiotic biosynthesis. The oxyB gene has been cloned and sequenced from the vancomycin producer Amycolatopsis orientalis, and the hemoprotein has been produced in Escherichia coli, crystallized, and its structure determined to 1.7-A resolution. OxyB gave UV-visible spectra characteristic of a P450-like hemoprotein in the low spin ferric state. After reduction to the ferrous state by dithionite or by spinach ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase, the CO-ligated form gave a 450-nm peak in a UV-difference spectrum. Addition of putative heptapeptide substrates to resting OxyB produced type I changes to the UV spectrum, but no turnover was observed in the presence of ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase, showing that either the peptides or the reduction system, or both, are insufficient to support a full catalytic cycle. OxyB exhibits the typical P450-fold, with helix L containing the signature sequence FGHGXHXCLG and Cys(347) being the proximal axial thiolate ligand of the heme iron. The structural similarity of OxyB is highest to P450nor, P450terp, CYP119, and P450eryF. In OxyB, the F and G helices are rotated out of the active site compared with P450nor, resulting in a much more open active site, consistent with the larger size of the presumed heptapeptide substrate.
Pylypenko, Olena; Vitali, Francesca; Zerbe, Katja; Robinson, John A; Schlichting, Ilme
Gene inactivation studies point to the involvement of OxyC in catalyzing the last oxidative phenol coupling reaction during glycopeptide antibiotic biosynthesis. Presently, the substrate and exact timing of the OxyC reaction are unknown. The substrate might be the bicyclic heptapeptide or a thioester derivative bound to a protein carrier domain. OxyC from the vancomycin producer Amycolatopsis orientalis was produced in Escherichia coli and crystallized, and its structure was determined to 1.9 A resolution. OxyC gave UV-visible spectra characteristic of a P450-like hemoprotein in the low spin ferric state. After reduction to the ferrous state by dithionite the CO-ligated form gave a 450-nm peak in a UV-difference spectrum. The addition of vancomycin aglycone to OxyC produced type I changes to the UV spectrum. OxyC exhibits the typical P450-fold, with the Cys ligand loop containing the signature sequence FGHGX-HXCLG and Cys-356 being the proximal axial thiolate ligand of the heme iron. The observation of a water molecule bound to the heme iron is consistent with the UV-visible spectra of OxyC indicating a low spin heme. A polyethylene glycol molecule occupying the active site might mimic the bicyclic heptapeptide substrate. Analysis of the structure of Oxy-proteins and other P450s indicates regions that might be involved in binding of the redox partner and possibly the protein carrier domain.
Jantrakajorn, Sasibha; Wongtavatchai, Janenuj
Francisella infections developed in freshwater Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and red tilapia Oreochromis spp. farms in Thailand during 2012-2014. The diseased fish were lethargic and pale in color and showed numerous white nodules in their enlarged spleens. Histopathological examination and electron microscopy suggested that the white nodules were multifocal granulomas consisting of coccobacilli within vacuolated cells. Isolation of Francisella-like bacteria was achieved from 42 of 100 samples, while polymerase chain reaction confirmed Francisella infections in all samples. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from samples obtained from three different geographical culture areas revealed more than 99% similarity with F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis. The influence of Francisella infection on inflammatory cytokines was determined on splenic cells of fish intraperitoneally injected with the bacteria (0.8 × 10(5) colony-forming units per fish). Infected tilapia showed significantly greater expression of the pro-inflammatory genes interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrotic factor-α (TNF-α) within 24 h postinjection (hpi) and for up to 96 hpi. However, down-regulation of an anti-inflammatory gene, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was observed as early as 24 hpi. This investigation demonstrates that an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in response to the infection may account for the substantial number of granulomas in fish hematopoietic tissues that was found in the later stage of the disease. Received September 9, 2015; accepted December 13, 2015.
Koehbach, Johannes; Gruber, Christian W; Becker, Christian; Kreil, David P; Jilek, Alexander
Several biologically active peptides contain a d- amino acid in a well-defined position, which is position 2 in all peptide epimers isolated to date from vertebrates and also some from invertebrates. The detection of such D- residues by standard analytical techniques is challenging. In tandem mass spectrometric (MS) analysis, although fragment masses are the same for all stereoisomers, peak intensities are known to depend on chirality. Here, we observe that the effect of a d- amino acid in the second N-terminal position on the fragmentation pattern in matrix assisted laser desorption time-of-flight spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) strongly depends on the peptide sequence. Stereosensitive fragmentation (SF) is correlated to a neighborhood effect, but the d- residue also exerts an overall effect influencing distant bonds. In a fingerprint analysis, multiple peaks can thus serve to identify the chirality of a sample in short time and potentially high throughput. Problematic variations between individual spots could be successfully suppressed by cospotting deuterated analogues of the epimers. By identifying the [d-Leu2] isomer of the predicted peptide GH-2 (gene derived bombininH) in skin secretions of the toad Bombina orientalis, we demonstrated the analytical power of SF-MALDI-TOF/TOF measurements. In conclusion, SF-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS combines high sensitivity, versatility, and the ability to complement other methods.
Aichi-Yousfi, Haifa; Bahri, Bochra Amina; Medini, Maher; Rouz, Slim; Nejib Rejeb, Mohamed; Ghrabi-Gammar, Zeineb
In order to study the genetic diversity, the phylogeographic pattern and hybridization between six Tunisian Capparis species, 213 accessions of Caper were genotyped with three primer combinations of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Out of 750 fragments generated, 636 were polymorphic and 407 of them were restricted to a single species. STRUCTURE and PCoA analyses clearly separated morphologically different populations into six distinct genetic ones. The UPGMA analysis grouped the species into three main clusters: G1 grouped C. spinosa subsp. spinosa var. spinosa and C. sicula subsp. sicula; G2 grouped C. ovata subsp. ovata and C. orientalis and G3 clustered C. zoharyi and C. aegyptia. Populations from G1, G2 and G3 were mainly distributed in arid, subhumid, and semi-arid bioclimates, respectively. Additional genetic studies on Capparis could help to identify genes underlying speciation events and local adaptation to geographic areas leading to the development of breeding programs.
Garofalo, Cristiana; Osimani, Andrea; Milanović, Vesna; Aquilanti, Lucia; De Filippis, Francesca; Stellato, Giuseppina; Di Mauro, Simone; Turchetti, Benedetta; Buzzini, Pietro; Ercolini, Danilo; Clementi, Francesca
Kefir grains are a unique symbiotic association of different microrganisms, mainly lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and occasionally acetic acid bacteria, cohabiting in a natural polysaccharide and a protein matrix. The microbial composition of kefir grains can be considered as extremely variable since it is strongly influenced by the geographical origin of the grains and by the sub-culturing method used. The aim of this study was to elucidate the bacteria and yeast species occurring in milk kefir grains collected in some Italian regions by combining the results of scanning electron microscopy analysis, viable counts on selective culture media, PCR-DGGE and pyrosequencing. The main bacterial species found was Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens while Dekkera anomala was the predominant yeast. The presence of sub-dominant species ascribed to Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcus lactis and Acetobacter genera was also highlighted. In addition, Lc. lactis, Enterococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Acetobacter fabarum, Acetobacter lovaniensis and Acetobacter orientalis were identified as part of the cultivable community. This work further confirms both the importance of combining culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches to study microbial diversity in food and how the combination of multiple 16S rRNA gene targets strengthens taxonomic identification using sequence-based identification approaches.
Huang, Tian; Wu, Kun; Yuan, Xiaoli; Shao, Shuai; Wang, WenYuan; Wei, Si; Cao, Gengsheng
Immunoglobulins play an important role in adaptive immune system as defense molecules against pathogens. However, our knowledge on avian immunoglobulin genes has been limited to a few species. In this study, we analyzed goose (Anser cygnoides orientalis) immunoglobulin genes. Three IgH classes including IgM, IgA, IgY and λ light chain were identified. The IgM and IgA heavy chain constant regions are characteristically similar to their counterparts described in other vertebrates. In addition to the classic Ig isotypes, we also detected a transcript that encoded a truncated form of IgY (IgY(ΔFc)) in goose. Similar to duck, the IgY(ΔFc) in goose was generated by using different transcriptional termination signal of the same υ gene. Limited variability and only one leader peptide were observed in VH and VL domains, which suggested that gene conversion was the primary mechanism involved in goose antibody diversity. Our study provides more insights into the immunoglobulin genes in goose that had not been fully explored before.
Kiss, Tivadar; Orvos, Péter; Bánsághi, Száva; Forgo, Peter; Jedlinszki, Nikoletta; Tálosi, László; Hohmann, Judit; Csupor, Dezső
Diterpene alkaloids neoline (1), napelline (2), isotalatizidine (3), karakoline (4), senbusine A (5), senbusine C (6), aconitine (7) and taurenine (8) were identified from Aconitum napellus L. subsp. firmum, four (2-4, 6) of which are reported for the first time from this plant. The structures were determined by means of LC-MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, including (1)H-(1)H COSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC experiments. Electrophysiological effects of the isolated compounds, together with nine diterpene alkaloids previously obtained from Aconitum toxicum and Consolida orientalis were investigated on stable transfected HEK-hERG (Kv11.1) and HEK-GIRK1/4 (Kir3.1 and Kir3.4) cell lines using automated patch clamp equipment. Significant blocking activity on GIRK channel was exerted by aconitine (7) (45% at 10 μM), but no blocking activities of the other investigated compounds were detected. The tested compounds were inactive on hERG channel in the tested concentration. The comparison of the previously reported metabolites of A. napellus subsp. firmum and compounds identified in our experiment reveals substantial variability of the alkaloid profile of this taxon.
Elahi, Mehdi; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas; Bahramifar, Nader
Much of the variation in trace metal tissue concentrations in marine invertebrates has been attributed to the variety in individual organism size, age and sex. This study assessed the relationship between total mercury (Hg) concentrations in edible tissue, exoskeleton and viscera with length, weight and gender for 69 samples of crustaceans, Penaeus semisulcatus (n = 30), Thenus orientalis (n = 21) and Portunus pelagicus (n = 18) from the northern part of the Persian Gulf. Significant increase in the Hg level in muscle and viscera (r > 0.65, p < 0.01) with an increase in length and weight for all three species. No relationship was found between the Hg level in exoskeleton and length or weight. Significantly higher Hg levels (p < 0.01) were found in female P. semisulcatus than in males (muscle and viscera), but no gender differences were found for the other two species.
Turvey, Samuel T.; Tong, Haowen; Stuart, Anthony J.; Lister, Adrian M.
Late Quaternary megafaunal extinction chronologies are poorly understood across eastern and south-east Asia. Previous radiometric studies suggested that surprisingly many extinct Late Pleistocene large mammal species survived into the Holocene in northern China (Bos primigenius, Coelodonta antiquitatis, Mammuthus primigenius) and southern China (Ailuropoda baconi, Crocuta [crocuta] ultima, Megatapirus augustus, Stegodon orientalis, Sus cf. xiaozhu), indicating that Chinese megafaunal extinctions may have been “staggered” across the Late Quaternary. We critically re-examined all radiometric evidence suggesting Holocene survival of Chinese Late Quaternary megafauna, and conducted new dating of mammal material from reportedly Holocene sites containing characteristically Late Pleistocene faunas. Evidence for Holocene survival of any Chinese Late Pleistocene megafaunal species is weak or untenable. No previous radiometric dates used to support Holocene megafaunal survival represent direct bone dates for species of interest, and stratigraphic association between material yielding Holocene dates and megafaunal remains is dubious at most sites. Concerns over accurate identification of faunal material further confuse claims for Holocene survival of many species. Robust radiometric last-occurrence dates for extinct Chinese megafauna are all restricted to the Late Pleistocene, similar to the timing of many other Late Quaternary megafaunal species extinctions elsewhere in Eurasia and the Americas.
Mugula, J K; Nnko, S A M; Narvhus, J A; Sørhaug, T
Selected microbiological and metabolic characteristics of sorghum, maize, millet and maize-sorghum togwa were investigated during natural fermentation for 24 h. The process was predominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts. The mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts increased and the Enterobacteriaceae decreased to undetectable levels within 24 h. The isolated microorganisms were tentatively identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella confusa, Issatchenkia orientalis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida pelliculosa and Candida tropicalis. The pH decreased from 5.24-5.52 to 3.10-3.34. Maltose increased initially and then decreased, fructose decreased and glucose levels increased during the first 12 h of fermentation. The organic acids detected during fermentation included DL-lactic, succinic, formic, pyruvic, citric, pyroglutamic and uric acid. Lactate was the predominant acid and increased significantly with time. The volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected included acetaldehyde, 2-methyl-propanal, 2-methyl-butanal, 3-methyl-butanal, ethanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, diacetyl and acetoin. Ethanol was the predominant VOC and it increased significantly with time.
Wang, Guo-Ping; Fan, Cong-Zhao; Zhu, Jun; Li, Xiao-Jin
Morphology and molecular identification technology were used to identify 3 original plants of Fructus Elaeagni which was commonly used in Uygur medicine. Leaves, flowers and fruits from different areas were selected randomly for morphology research. ITS2 sequence as DNA barcode was used to identify 17 samples of Fructus Elaeagni. The genetic distances were computed by kimura 2-parameter (K2P) model, and the Neighbor-Joining (NJ) and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed using MEGA5.0. The results showed that Elaeagnus angustifolia, E. oxycarpa and E. angustifolia var. orientalis cannot be distinguished by morphological characteristics of leaves, flowers and fruits. The sequence length of ITS2 ranged from 220 to 223 bp, the average GC content was 61.9%. The haplotype numbers of E. angustifolia, E. oxycarpa and E. angustifolia var. orientals were 4, 3, 3, respectively. The results from the NJ tree and ML tree showed that the 3 original species of Fructus Elaeagni cannot be distinguished obviously. Therefore, 3 species maybe have the same origin, and can be used as the original plant of Uygur medicineal material Fructus Elaeagni. However, further evidence of chemical components and pharmacological effect were needed.
El-Sharoud, W M; Belloch, C; Peris, D; Querol, A
This study aimed to examine the diversity and ecology of yeasts associated with traditional Egyptian dairy products employing molecular techniques in yeast identification. A total of 120 samples of fresh and stored Domiati cheese, kariesh cheese, and "Matared" cream were collected from local markets and examined. Forty yeast isolates were cultured from these samples and identified using the restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLPs) of 5.8S-ITS rDNA region and sequencing of the domains D1 and D2 of the 26S rRNA gene. Yeasts were identified as Issatchenkia orientalis (13 isolates), Candida albicans (4 isolates), Clavispora lusitaniae (Candida lusitaniae) (9 isolates), Kodamaea ohmeri (Pichia ohmeri) (1 isolate), Kluyveromyces marxianus (6 isolates), and Candida catenulata (7 isolates). With the exception of C. lusitaniae, the D1/D2 26S rRNA gene sequences were 100% identical for the yeast isolates within the same species. Phylogenetic reconstruction of C. lusitaniae isolates grouped them into 3 distinguished clusters. Kariesh cheese was found to be the most diverse in its yeast floras and contained the highest total yeast count compared with other examined dairy products. This was linked to the acidic pH and lower salt content of this cheese, which favor the growth and survival of yeasts in foodstuffs. Stored Domiati cheese also contained diverse yeast species involving isolates of the pathogenic yeast C. albicans. This raises the possibility of dairy products being vehicles of transmission of pathogenic yeasts.
Hirakawa, Hideki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Kosugi, Shunichi; Tashiro, Kosuke; Nakayama, Shinobu; Yamada, Manabu; Kohara, Mistuyo; Watanabe, Akiko; Kishida, Yoshie; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Minami, Chiharu; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Kato, Midori; Nanri, Keiko; Komaki, Akiko; Yanagi, Tomohiro; Guoxin, Qin; Maeda, Fumi; Ishikawa, Masami; Kuhara, Satoru; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Isobe, Sachiko N.
Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is octoploid and shows allogamous behaviour. The present study aims at dissecting this octoploid genome through comparison with its wild relatives, F. iinumae, F. nipponica, F. nubicola, and F. orientalis by de novo whole-genome sequencing on an Illumina and Roche 454 platforms. The total length of the assembled Illumina genome sequences obtained was 698 Mb for F. x ananassa, and ∼200 Mb each for the four wild species. Subsequently, a virtual reference genome termed FANhybrid_r1.2 was constructed by integrating the sequences of the four homoeologous subgenomes of F. x ananassa, from which heterozygous regions in the Roche 454 and Illumina genome sequences were eliminated. The total length of FANhybrid_r1.2 thus created was 173.2 Mb with the N50 length of 5137 bp. The Illumina-assembled genome sequences of F. x ananassa and the four wild species were then mapped onto the reference genome, along with the previously published F. vesca genome sequence to establish the subgenomic structure of F. x ananassa. The strategy adopted in this study has turned out to be successful in dissecting the genome of octoploid F. x ananassa and appears promising when applied to the analysis of other polyploid plant species. PMID:24282021
Sabino-Pinto, Joana; Bletz, Molly Catherine; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Shimizu, Norio; Bhuju, Sabin; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Vences, Miguel
The cutaneous microbiota plays a significant role in the biology of their vertebrate hosts, and its composition is known to be influenced both by host and environment, with captive conditions often altering alpha diversity. Here, we compare the cutaneous bacterial communities of 61 amphibians (both wild and captive) from Hiroshima, Japan, using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of a segment of the 16S rRNA gene. The majority of these samples came from a captive breeding facility at Hiroshima University where specimens from six species are maintained under highly standardized conditions for several generations. This allowed to identify host effects on the bacterial communities under near identical environmental conditions in captivity. We found the structure of the cutaneous bacterial community significantly differing between wild and captive individuals of newts, Cynops pyrrhogaster, with a higher alpha diversity found in the wild individuals. Community structure also showed distinct patterns when comparing different species of amphibians kept under highly similar conditions, revealing an intrinsic host effect. Bacterial communities of dorsal vs. ventral skin surfaces did not significantly differ in most species, but a trend of higher alpha diversity on the ventral surface was found in Oriental fire-bellied toads, Bombina orientalis. This study confirms the cutaneous microbiota of amphibians as a highly dynamic system influenced by a complex interplay of numerous factors.
Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Hayashida, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Yokoyama, Naoaki
Theileria parasites infect a wide range of domestic and wild ruminants worldwide, causing diseases with varying degrees of severity. A broad classification, based on the parasite's ability to transform the leukocytes of host animals, divides Theileria into two groups, consisting of transforming and non-transforming species. The evolution of transforming Theileria has been accompanied by drastic changes in its genetic makeup, such as acquisition or expansion of gene families, which are thought to play critical roles in the transformation of host cells. Genetic variation among Theileria parasites is sometimes linked with host specificity and virulence in the parasites. Immunity against Theileria parasites primarily involves cell-mediated immune responses in the host. Immunodominance and major histocompatibility complex class I phenotype-specificity result in a host immunity that is tightly focused and strain-specific. Immune escape in Theileria is facilitated by genetic diversity in its antigenic determinants, which potentially results in a loss of T cell receptor recognition in its host. In the recent past, several reviews have focused on genetic diversity in the transforming species, Theileriaparva and Theileriaannulata. In contrast, genetic diversity in Theileriaorientalis, a benign non-transforming parasite, which occasionally causes disease outbreaks in cattle, has not been extensively examined. In this review, therefore, we provide an outline of the evolution of Theileria, which includes T. orientalis, and discuss the possible mechanisms generating genetic diversity among parasite populations. Additionally, we discuss the potential implications of a genetically diverse parasite population in the context of Theileria vaccine development.
Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R; Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R
The objective of this research was to evaluate artificial diets that can be used to successfully culture the atlas silk moth, Attacus atlas L. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) indoors. Four plant species were evaluated as the basic component of each diet, barringtonia (Barringtonia asiatica), cheesewood (Nauclea orientalis), soursop (Annona muricata), and mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni). Evaluation of the nutritional value of each diet was determined by an analysis of the hemolymph proteins of sixth instars using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Survivorship, cocoon quality, and hemolymph protein content of larvae fed the barringtonia diet were higher than those of larvae fed mahogany-, cheesewood-, and soursop-based artificial diets. The average adult emergence of those fed the barringtonia-based diet was 74.5%. The weights of the cocoon in this treatment with the pupa and the empty cocoons were 7.0 and 1.1 g, respectively. Hemolymph of the larvae fed the barringtonia-based artificial diet had the highest concentration of protein with an average of 28.06 mg/ml. The atlas moth reared on the barringtonia-based artificial diet was comparable with those reared only on barringtonia leaves. However, the weight of empty cocoons, adult wingspan, and amount of hemolymph protein were lower than in those reared on barringtonia leaves only. This may suggest that the artificial barringtonia-based diet requires additional protein for maximum efficiency.
Tumen, Ibrahim; Hafizoglu, Harzemsah; Kilic, Ayben; Dönmez, Ilhami Emrah; Sivrikaya, Huseyin; Reunanen, Markku
In this study, the yields and composition of essential oils obtained from the cones of Pinaceae family species natively grown in Turkey were investigated. Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation. Oil yields were 0.13-0.48 mL/100 g in pine cones, 0.42-0.59 mL/100g in fir, 0.36 mL/100g in spruce and 0.37 mL/100g in cedar. While alpha-pinene (47.1-14.8%) was the main constituent of P. slyvestris, P. nigra and P. halepensis, limonene (62.8%) in P. pinea and beta-pinene (39.6%) in P. brutia were found in higher amounts. Like in P. pinea, limonene was the main compound in Cedrus libani (22.7%). In fir species the major compounds were alpha-pinene (70.6-53.0%) and beta-pinene (10.9-8.2%). Contrary to other species beta-pinene (32.7%) was found as a major compound in Picea orientalis.
Garofalo, Carmela; Tristezza, Mariana; Grieco, Francesco; Spano, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio
The aim of this work was to study the biodiversity of yeasts isolated from the autochthonous grape variety called "Uva di Troia", monitoring the natural diversity from the grape berries to wine during a vintage. Grapes were collected in vineyards from two different geographical areas and spontaneous alcoholic fermentations (AFs) were performed. Different restriction profiles of ITS-5.8S rDNA region, corresponding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida zemplinina, Issatchenkia terricola, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia chrysoperlae, Pichia fermentans, Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, were observed. The yeast occurrences varied significantly from both grape berries and grape juices, depending on the sampling location. Furthermore, samples collected at the end of AF revealed the great predominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a high intraspecific biodiversity. This is the first report on the population dynamics of 'cultivable' microbiota diversity of "Uva di Troia" cultivar from the grape to the corresponding wine ("Nero di Troia"), and more general for Southern Italian oenological productions, allowing us to provide the basis for an improved management of wine yeasts (with both non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces) for the production of typical wines with desired unique traits. A certain geographical-dependent variability has been reported, suggesting the need of local based formulation for autochthonous starter cultures, especially in the proportion of the different species/strains in the design of mixed microbial preparations.
Kam, J; Waron, M; Barishak, Y R; Schachner, E; Ishay, J S
1. Nine cats were given an intravenous injection of the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis, Vespinae; Hymenoptera) venom sac extract (VSE) and seven cats had the same VSE administered as eye drops. 2. When injected intravenously, the hornet VSE decreased the intraocular pressure in both eyes sharply during the first 20 min and with a slower rate later on until the end of the 3 hr experiment. The intraocular pressure dropped to zero in some cases. 3. VSE eye drops decreased the intraocular pressure only in the treated eye, while in the second eye (left as a control) the intraocular pressure remained the same throughout the experiment. 4. The decrease in the intraocular pressure was sharp during the first 20 min and slowed down afterwards until the end of the experiment. 5. The intraocular pressure did not reduce to zero. 6. This study shows that the active components of the hornet venom which caused a decrease in the intraocular pressure can cross the cornea and exert a hypotensive effect in the eye.
Arif, Abdi; Schulz, Julia; Thiaucourt, François; Taha, Abid; Hammer, Sven
Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae is a highly contagious and serious respiratory disease of domestic goats, characterized by coughing, severe respiratory distress, and high mortality rates. The lesions at necropsy are mainly a fibrinous pleuropneumonia with increased straw-colored pleural fluid. An outbreak of CCPP in wild goat (Capra aegagrus), Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana), Laristan mouflon (Ovis orientalis laristanica), and gerenuk (Litocranius walleri) occurred at Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation in the State of Qatar. The disease was suspected because of the clinical symptoms and the necropsy findings and was confirmed by the isolation and identification of the causative organism. This new finding indicates that CCPP should be considered a potential threat to wildlife and the conservation of endangered ruminant species, especially in the Middle East, where it is enzootic because of its presence in chronic carriers. Susceptible imported animals should be quarantined and vaccinated. The preferred samples for diagnosis are the pleural fluid, which contains high numbers of Mycoplasma, and sections of hepatized lung, preferably at the interface of normal and diseased tissues. Samples must be shipped to diagnostic laboratories rapidly, and appropriate cool conditions must be maintained during shipping.
Burkett, Douglas A.; Lee, Kwan-Woo; Kim, Heung-Chul; Lee, Hee-Il; Lee, Jong-Soo; Shin, E-Hyun; Wirtz, Robert A.; Cho, Hae-Wol; Claborn, David M.; Coleman, Russel E.; Kim, Wan Y; Klein, Terry A.
Field trials evaluating selected commercially available mosquito traps variously baited with light, carbon dioxide, and/or octenol were conducted from 18-27 September 2000 in a malarious area near Paekyeon-ri (Tongil-Chon ) and Camp Greaves in Paju County, Kyonggi Province, Republic of Korea. The host-seeking activity for common mosquito species, including the primary vector of Japanese encephalitis, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, was determined using hourly aspirator collections from a human and propane lantern-baited Shannon trap during hours when temperatures exceeded 15℃. The total number of mosquitoes and number of each species captured during the test was compared using a block design. Significant differences were observed for the total number of mosquitoes collected, such that, the Mosquito MagnetTM with octenol > Shannon trap > ABC light trap with light and dry ice > Miniature Black Light trap (manufactured by John W. Hock) ≥ New Jersey Trap > ABC light trap with light only. Significant differences in numbers collected among traps were noted for several species including: Aedes vexans (Meigen), Anopheles lesteri Baisas and Hu, An. sinensis Weidemann, An. sineroides Yamada, An. yatsushiroensis Miyazaki, Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett L., Cx. orientalis Edwards and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Host-seeking activity for most common species showed a similar bimodal pattern. Results from these field trap evaluations can significantly enhance current vector and disease surveillance efforts especially for the primary vector of Japanese encephalitis, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. PMID:11949213
Fadeeva, Natalia; Mordukhovich, Vladimir; Zograf, Julia
Four new Campylaimus species are described from the deep-sea sediments of the Sea of Japan at depths of about 500‒3400 m. Campylaimus orientalis sp. nov. is characterized by having a body of moderate length, clearly annulated cuticle, a small rhomboid mouth opening which is displaced on the dorsal side of body, a gap between the unequal limbs of the amphid, prominent narrow longitudinal alae and cephalated spicules. Campylaimus minutus sp. nov. is characterized by having a cylindrical body, very weak annulations, amphids with a short dorsal limb (25-44% of pharynx length) and a ventral limb completely fused with lateral alae of equal width; and lateral alae extending from the base of the amphid to the tail tip. Campylaimus amphidialis sp. nov. is characterized by having the combination of a very long amphidial fovea occupying nearly the entire length of the pharynx; and a well defined boundary between the ventral amphid limb and lateral alae. The distinctive feature of Campylaimus pulcher sp. nov. is the elongated loop-shaped amphid with nearly equal parallel limbs and prominent narrow longitudinal alae; and cephalated spicules without a gubernaculum. The diagnosis of the genus Campylaimus is emended and an identification key to species, based mainly on form and length of amphidial fovea, width of lateral alae, and copulatory apparatus is given. The genus Campylaimus now includes nineteen valid species. Two species are considered as species inquirendae, mainly because of incomplete descriptions.
Haensch, Stephanie; Bianucci, Raffaella; Signoli, Michel; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Schultz, Michael; Kacki, Sacha; Vermunt, Marco; Weston, Darlene A; Hurst, Derek; Achtman, Mark; Carniel, Elisabeth; Bramanti, Barbara
From AD 1347 to AD 1353, the Black Death killed tens of millions of people in Europe, leaving misery and devastation in its wake, with successive epidemics ravaging the continent until the 18(th) century. The etiology of this disease has remained highly controversial, ranging from claims based on genetics and the historical descriptions of symptoms that it was caused by Yersinia pestis to conclusions that it must have been caused by other pathogens. It has also been disputed whether plague had the same etiology in northern and southern Europe. Here we identified DNA and protein signatures specific for Y. pestis in human skeletons from mass graves in northern, central and southern Europe that were associated archaeologically with the Black Death and subsequent resurgences. We confirm that Y. pestis caused the Black Death and later epidemics on the entire European continent over the course of four centuries. Furthermore, on the basis of 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms plus the absence of a deletion in glpD gene, our aDNA results identified two previously unknown but related clades of Y. pestis associated with distinct medieval mass graves. These findings suggest that plague was imported to Europe on two or more occasions, each following a distinct route. These two clades are ancestral to modern isolates of Y. pestis biovars Orientalis and Medievalis. Our results clarify the etiology of the Black Death and provide a paradigm for a detailed historical reconstruction of the infection routes followed by this disease.
Bai, Feirong; Liu, Yang; Li, Ni; Yao, Su; Li, Nannan; Wang, Weiping; Cheng, Chi
A total of five strains were isolated from two different hybrid rice seeds samples (Oryza sativa L. Shenliangyou 5814 and Yliangyou 900) in Sanya city, Hainan province, China. Sequence analysis and physiological characteristics indicated that these strains were identical and represented a novel species. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer regions revealed that this new species is located in the Microsporomyces clade, with four closely related species, namely, M. magnisporus, M. orientalis, M. bloemfonteinensis, and M. pini. The novel species differed from these four described species in ability to assimilate sorbose, cellobiose, lactose, D-arabinose, and maltose. Based on these results, the following novel yeast species is proposed: Microsporomyces hainanensis sp. nov. with the type strain of Z8(T) (CICC 33066(T) = CBS 14092(T)) belongs to phylum Basidiomycota, subphylum Pucciniomycotina, class Cystobasidiomycetes, family Microsporomycetaceae. The new species were registered in MycoBank under MB 815471.
Chehregani, Abdolkarim; Noori, Mitra; Yazdi, Hossein Lari
Heavy metal pollution is a worldwide problem. Phytoremediation is an effective and low-cost interesting technology. This study was conducted in a dried waste pool of a lead and zinc mine in Angouran (Iran) to find accumulator plant(s). Concentrations of heavy metals were determined both in the soil and the plants that were grown in the mine and out of mine. The concentration of total Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb and Ni in the mine area were higher than the control soil. The results showed that five dominant vegetations namely Amaranthus retroflexus, Polygonum aviculare, Gundelia tournefortii, Noea mucronata and Scariola orientalis accumulated heavy metals. Based on the results, it was concluded that N. mucronata is the best accumulator for Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd and Ni, but the best Fe accumulator is A. retroflexus. Phytoremediation ability of N. mucronata was evaluated in experimental pots. The study showed that the amounts of heavy metals were decreased in polluted soils during experiments. The accumulation of metals in the root, leave and shoot portions of N. mucronata varied significantly but all the concentrations were more than natural soils. The results indicated that N. mucronata is an effective accumulator plant for phytoremediation of heavy-metals-polluted soils.
Archana, K M; Ravi, R; Anu-Appaiah, K A
Wine production is a complex process both from biochemical and microbiological point of view in which yeast plays a central role. The use of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non- Saccharomyces yeasts as mixed starter cultures for wine fermentations is of increasing interest to enhance the quality of wine.The most common stress, yeast cells encounter during wine fermentation is the increase in ethanol concentration.To enhance ethanol tolerance, alteration in the cellular lipid composition is one of its defence mechanism. Ethanol tolerance and cellular fatty acid composition of alcohol producing non Saccharomyces forms were compared with enological strains of Sacccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae used for the study, tolerated 15 % of ethanol and the non Saccharomyces strains such as, Issatchenkia occidentalis and Issatchenkia orientalis tolerated 10 % of ethanol. On exposure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ethanol stress, the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids increased with concomitant decrease in saturated fatty acids. Decrease in monounsaturated fatty acids, exhibited by non-Saccharomyces yeasts when exposed to ethanol stress, could be one of the reasons for their inability to withstand more than 10 % of alcohol. Multivariate techniques of data analysis - principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were employed in order to establish differentiation criteria as function of yeast strains, alcohol stress and their fatty acid profile. Based on the data, Chemometrics, such as principal component analysis and discriminant function analysis, can be successfully applied to fatty acid data to categorize the yeast.
Gerngross, Peter; Lemeris Jr., Joseph R.; Schoonover, Rebecca F.; Anco, Corey; Breitenmoser-Würsten, Christine; Durant, Sarah M.; Farhadinia, Mohammad S.; Henschel, Philipp; Kamler, Jan F.; Laguardia, Alice; Rostro-García, Susana; Stein, Andrew B.; Dollar, Luke
The leopard’s (Panthera pardus) broad geographic range, remarkable adaptability, and secretive nature have contributed to a misconception that this species might not be severely threatened across its range. We find that not only are several subspecies and regional populations critically endangered but also the overall range loss is greater than the average for terrestrial large carnivores. To assess the leopard’s status, we compile 6,000 records at 2,500 locations from over 1,300 sources on its historic (post 1750) and current distribution. We map the species across Africa and Asia, delineating areas where the species is confirmed present, is possibly present, is possibly extinct or is almost certainly extinct. The leopard now occupies 25–37% of its historic range, but this obscures important differences between subspecies. Of the nine recognized subspecies, three (P. p. pardus, fusca, and saxicolor) account for 97% of the leopard’s extant range while another three (P. p. orientalis, nimr, and japonensis) have each lost as much as 98% of their historic range. Isolation, small patch sizes, and few remaining patches further threaten the six subspecies that each have less than 100,000 km2 of extant range. Approximately 17% of extant leopard range is protected, although some endangered subspecies have far less. We found that while leopard research was increasing, research effort was primarily on the subspecies with the most remaining range whereas subspecies that are most in need of urgent attention were neglected. PMID:27168983
Wisshak, Max; Schönberg, Christine H L; Form, Armin; Freiwald, André
In the recent discussion how biotic systems may react to ocean acidification caused by the rapid rise in carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO(2)) in the marine realm, substantial research is devoted to calcifiers such as stony corals. The antagonistic process - biologically induced carbonate dissolution via bioerosion - has largely been neglected. Unlike skeletal growth, we expect bioerosion by chemical means to be facilitated in a high-CO(2) world. This study focuses on one of the most detrimental bioeroders, the sponge Cliona orientalis, which attacks and kills live corals on Australia's Great Barrier Reef. Experimental exposure to lowered and elevated levels of pCO(2) confirms a significant enforcement of the sponges' bioerosion capacity with increasing pCO(2) under more acidic conditions. Considering the substantial contribution of sponges to carbonate bioerosion, this finding implies that tropical reef ecosystems are facing the combined effects of weakened coral calcification and accelerated bioerosion, resulting in critical pressure on the dynamic balance between biogenic carbonate build-up and degradation.
Wisshak, Max; Schönberg, Christine H. L.; Form, Armin; Freiwald, André
In the recent discussion how biotic systems may react to ocean acidification caused by the rapid rise in carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) in the marine realm, substantial research is devoted to calcifiers such as stony corals. The antagonistic process – biologically induced carbonate dissolution via bioerosion – has largely been neglected. Unlike skeletal growth, we expect bioerosion by chemical means to be facilitated in a high-CO2 world. This study focuses on one of the most detrimental bioeroders, the sponge Cliona orientalis, which attacks and kills live corals on Australia’s Great Barrier Reef. Experimental exposure to lowered and elevated levels of pCO2 confirms a significant enforcement of the sponges’ bioerosion capacity with increasing pCO2 under more acidic conditions. Considering the substantial contribution of sponges to carbonate bioerosion, this finding implies that tropical reef ecosystems are facing the combined effects of weakened coral calcification and accelerated bioerosion, resulting in critical pressure on the dynamic balance between biogenic carbonate build-up and degradation. PMID:23028797
Ogawa, Takahiro; Kato, Hiromi; Higashide, Mitsuru; Nishimiya, Mami; Katayama, Yoko
Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is an atmospheric trace gas and one of the sources of stratospheric aerosol contributing to climate change. Although one of the major sinks of COS is soil, the distribution of COS degradation ability among bacteria remains unclear. Seventeen out of 20 named bacteria belonging to Actinomycetales had COS degradation activity at mole fractions of 30 parts per million by volume (ppmv) COS. Dietzia maris NBRC 15801(T) and Mycobacterium sp. THI405 had the activity comparable to a chemolithoautotroph Thiobacillus thioparus THI115 that degrade COS by COS hydrolase for energy production. Among 12 bacteria manifesting rapid degradation at 30 ppmv COS, Dietzia maris NBRC 15801(T) and Streptomyces ambofaciens NBRC 12836(T) degraded ambient COS (∼500 parts per trillion by volume). Geodermatophilus obscurus NBRC 13315(T) and Amycolatopsis orientalis NBRC 12806(T) increased COS concentrations. Moreover, six of eight COS degrading bacteria isolated from soils had partial nucleotide sequences similar to that of the gene encoding clade D of β-class carbonic anhydrase, which included COS hydrolase. These results indicate the potential importance of Actinomycetes in the role of soils as sinks of atmospheric COS.
The availability of high-quality annotations of sequenced genomes has made it possible to generate organism-specific comprehensive maps of cellular metabolism. Currently, more than twenty such metabolic reconstructions are publicly available, with the majority focused on bacteria. A typical metabolic reconstruction for a bacterium results in a complex network containing hundreds of metabolites (nodes) and reactions (links), while some even contain more than a thousand. The constrain-based optimization approach of flux-balance analysis (FBA) is used to investigate the functional characteristics of such large-scale metabolic networks, making it possible to estimate an organism's growth behavior in a wide variety of nutrient environments, as well as its robustness to gene loss. We have recently completed the genome-level metabolic reconstruction of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, as well as the three Yersinia pestis biovars Antiqua, Mediaevalis, and Orientalis. While Y. pseudotuberculosis typically only causes fever and abdominal pain that can mimic appendicitis, the evolutionary closely related Y. pestis strains are the aetiological agents of the bubonic plague. In this presentation, I will discuss our results and conclusions from a comparative study on the evolution of metabolic function in the four Yersiniae networks using FBA and related techniques, and I will give particular focus to the interplay between metabolic network topology and evolutionary flexibility.
Elnaiem, D A; Hassan, M M; Maingon, R; Nureldin, G H; Mekawi, A M; Miles, M; Ward, R D
Investigations were made on possible reservoir hosts of Leishmania donovani in 2 zoonotic foci of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Dinder National Park (DNP) and the peri-domestic habitats of adjacent villages of eastern Sudan. Animals were captured, in November 1997-1998 and April-May 1999 and examined for L. donovani infection using light microscopy and 2 sensitive Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) systems. Microscopy and PCR investigations were also used to determine the infection rates of L. donovani in Phlebotomus orientalis captured from the uninhabited site of DNP. Infections of L. donovani were detected in 2 out of 14 Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), 1 out of 168 Arviconthus niloticus and 1 out of 8 Mastomys natalensis. Samples from 68 other animals captured from the study area were all negative for the infection. Active zoonotic transmission of L. donovani at the time of animal sampling in the uninhabited site of DNP was demonstrated by finding the parasite in 3.4% (7 out of 184) and 3.2% (5 out of 157) of flies collected in March 1998 and May 1999, respectively. We suggest that the Egyptian mongoose is a possible reservoir host of L. donovani. The importance of other animals in maintaining the infection is also discussed.
Sepahi, S; Ghorani-Azam, A; Sepahi, S; Asoodeh, A; Rostami, S
Objective: Aqueous extracts of four medicinal plants including Ferula gummosa, Echinophora orientalis, Nasturtium microphyllum and Verbascum thapsus were used to determine their antibacterial activities and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The aim of this study was to assess antibacterial activity of extracts of four medicinal plants against a Gram-positive and a Gram-negative bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus PTCC1431, and Escherichia coli HP101BA 7601c). Methods: Radial diffusion assay was used to assess the antibacterial activity of extracted samples. Haemolysis assay was also used to examine their nontoxic effects on human red blood cells. Results: This study showed that all the mentioned plants have satisfactory antibacterial effects against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration values of these samples were less than 750 μg/mL. In addition, no significant haemolytic activity was observed at their MIC values. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that all these studied plants have good potential for further studies for drug discovery. PMID:25429470
Carrillo, Daniel; Peña, Jorge E; Hoy, Marjorie A; Frank, J Howard
The red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an important pest of palms (Arecaceae) and other species within the Zingiberaceae, Musaceae and Strelitziaceae families. Raoiella indica was discovered in the USA (Palm Beach and Broward counties, Florida) late in 2007, and it subsequently spread to other Florida counties. The predatory mite Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) has been found associated with R. indica in Florida. In order to verify whether A. largoensis can develop and reproduce when feeding exclusively on R. indica, the biology of this predator was evaluated on various food sources, including R. indica. Five diets [R. indica, Tetranychus gloveri Aonidiella orientalis, Nipaecocus nipae, oak (Quercus virginiana) pollen] and a no-food control were tested to determine the predators' development, survivorship, oviposition rate, sex ratio and longevity at 26.5 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 5% RH and a 12:12 L:D photophase. Amblyseius largoensis was able to complete its life cycle and reproduce when fed exclusively on R. indica. The development of immature stages of A. largoensis was faster and fecundity and survivorship were higher when fed on R. indica or T. gloveri compared to the other food sources. The intrinsic rate of natural increase of A. largoensis was significantly higher when fed on R. indica than on other diets. These results suggest that, despite earlier assessments, A. largoensis can play a role in controlling R. indica.
Mollaei Darabi, Sakineh; Kooch, Yahya; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen
The effects of soil pedoturbation (i.e., pit and mound microtopography, PM) on development of herbaceous plant species and woody species regeneration were examined in a temperate beech forest (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) in northern Iran. We recorded the vegetation in 20 pairs of disturbed and adjacent undisturbed plots and established a chronosequence of PM ages to study the effect of time since microsite formation on cover percent of herbaceous plants and woody regeneration status. According to our findings, Carex acutiformis L., Sambucus ebulus L., Brachypodium pinnatum L., and Cyclamen coum L. are found only in the PM microsites, whereas the Equisetum ramosissimum L. is recorded only under closed canopy. The coverage percent of Rubus caesius L. increased in PM microsites compared to closed canopy intensively. In addition, Albizia julibrissin Durazz. is detected in PM microsite, whereas the Acer cappadocicum B. and Prunus persica L. species were recorded only under closed canopy. We found significant differences in understory species diversity between different ages of PM, and disturbed and adjacent undisturbed plots. Our study supports that the PM complex will create a mosaic of environmental conditions. This environmental heterogeneity could be responsible for the diversity of herbaceous plant species and regeneration of woody species.
Shen, Fanyi; Cheng, Yanxia; Zhang, Li; Gao, Rongfu; Shao, Xuemeng
Recently, three types of cavitation: (i) expanding gradually; (ii) expanding-exploding, becoming a long-shaped bubble-lengthening by degrees; (iii) suddenly exploding and fully filling the conduit instantly, were proposed. Directed by this theory, experiments were performed using light microscopy to study the natural drying processes of xylem sections of Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco. Three different phenomena of gas filling process in conduits were captured by replaying recorded videos. The first phenomenon is that a bubble emerging in a conduit expands and elongates gradually to fill the conduit. The second phenomenon is that a bubble emerging in a conduit expands gradually, and then suddenly becomes long-shaped, and extends continuously. The third phenomenon is that a bubble instantly fully fills a conduit. This paper suggests in these experiments that after losing the bulk water of a section, as the water stress of that section became more severe, the water pressures of different conduits of the section were not necessarily the same, and as time went on, the water pressures decreased constantly. Considering some practical factors, the three phenomena captured in our experiment are explained by our theory.
Aisyah, S.; Pringgenies, D.; Hartoko, A.; Sumantyo, J. T. S.; Matsuzaki, H.
Mollusc phylum is one of the most adaptive animal groups on Earth. They occupy and thrive in incredibly diverse habitats. Their distribution in the fossil record is equally diverse. Indonesia is one of the country with marine mollusc fossil variety, such as in the archaeological site of Sangiran, Patiayam (Ancient Muria Strait) and Grobogan – Central Java. Radiocarbon Dating is the method for dating analysis using 14C. By measuring 14C content, we can estimate how long ago the fossils died. Radiocarbon dating is an extremely useful technique for determining the ages of geological materials (that have some organic-derived carbon in them). Field sampling had found variety of marine mollusc fossils such us 1) Sangiran: Dosinia sp., Telescopium telescopium, Anadara sp., and Dosinia insularum; 2) Patiayam (Ancient Muria Strait): Pseudodon vondenbuschianus, Elongaria orientalis, Conus (Pionoconus) sp., Ampullina bandongensis, Anadara pilula and Filopaludina javanica; 3) Grobogan: Antigona chemnitzii, Cultelus dilatatus, Plotia scabra and Tibia modesta. Mollusc fossils sample was analysed using Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon system. It is a good method for dating specific samples. The result showed that Sangiran as an ancient deepsea has fossils age 38710 – 31947 years, then Patiayam (Ancient Muria Strait) with fossils age 26248 – 11994. Mollusc fossils from Grobogan was the youngest area has fossils age 25692 – 6479 years.
Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Singh, Hukam; Gunkel, Simon; Rust, Jes
India’s unique and highly diverse biota combined with its unique geodynamical history has generated significant interest in the patterns and processes that have shaped the current distribution of India’s flora and fauna and their biogeographical relationships. Fifty four million year old Cambay amber from northwestern India provides the opportunity to address questions relating to endemism and biogeographic history by studying fossil insects. Within the present study seven extant and three fossil genera of biting midges are recorded from Cambay amber and five new species are described: Eohelea indica Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., Gedanohelea gerdesorum Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., Meunierohelea cambayana Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., Meunierohelea borkenti Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., and Meunierohelea orientalis Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp. Fossils of species in the genera Leptoconops Skuse, 1889, Forcipomyia Meigen, 1818, Brachypogon Kieffer, 1899, Stilobezzia Kieffer, 1911, Serromyia Meigen, 1818, and Mantohelea Szadziewski, 1988 are recorded without formal description. Furthermore, one fossil belonging to the genus Camptopterohelea Wirth & Hubert, 1960 is included in the present study. Our study reveals faunal links among Ceratopogonidae from Cambay amber and contemporaneous amber from Fushun, China, Eocene Baltic amber from Europe, as well as the modern Australasian and the Oriental regions. These findings imply that faunal exchange between Europe, Asia and India took place before the formation of Cambay amber in the early Eocene. PMID:28076427
Jusup, Marko; Klanjscek, Tin; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Kooijman, S. A. L. M.
We formulated a full lifecycle bioenergetic model for bluefin tuna relying on the principles of Dynamic Energy Budget theory. Traditional bioenergetic models in fish research deduce energy input and utilization from observed growth and reproduction. In contrast, our model predicts growth and reproduction from food availability and temperature in the environment. We calibrated the model to emulate physiological characteristics of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis, hereafter PBT), a species which has received considerable scientific attention due to its high economic value. Computer simulations suggest that (i) the main cause of different growth rates between cultivated and wild PBT is the difference in average body temperature of approximately 6.5°C, (ii) a well-fed PBT individual can spawn an average number of 9 batches per spawning season, (iii) food abundance experienced by wild PBT is rather constant and sufficiently high to provide energy for yearly reproductive cycle, (iv) energy in reserve is exceptionally small, causing the weight-length relationship of cultivated and wild PBT to be practically indistinguishable and suggesting that these fish are poorly equipped to deal with starvation, (v) accelerated growth rate of PBT larvae is connected to morphological changes prior to metamorphosis, while (vi) deceleration of growth rate in the early juvenile stage is related to efficiency of internal heat production. Based on these results, we discuss a number of physiological and ecological traits of PBT, including the reasons for high Feed Conversion Ratio recorded in bluefin tuna aquaculture. PMID:21779352
Daniel, Heide-Marie; Vrancken, Gino; Takrama, Jemmy F; Camu, Nicholas; De Vos, Paul; De Vuyst, Luc
The fermentation of the Theobroma cacao beans, involving yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and acetic acid bacteria, has a major influence on the quality of the resulting cocoa. An assessment of the microbial community of cocoa bean heap fermentations in Ghana resulted in 91 yeast isolates. These were grouped by PCR-fingerprinting with the primer M13. Representative isolates were identified using the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer sequences and partial actin gene sequences leading to the detection of 15 species. Properties of importance for cocoa bean fermentation, namely sucrose, glucose, and citrate assimilation capacity, pH-, ethanol-, and heat-tolerance, were examined for selected isolates. Pichia kudriavzevii (Issatchenkia orientalis), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Hanseniaspora opuntiae formed the major components of the yeast community. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was identified conclusively for the first time from cocoa fermentations. Among the less frequently encountered species, Candida carpophila, Candida orthopsilosis, Kodamaea ohmeri, Meyerozyma (Pichia) caribbica, Pichia manshurica, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, and Yamadazyma (Pichia) mexicana were not yet documented from this substrate. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was preferably growing during the earlier phase of fermentation, reflecting its tolerance to low pH and its citrate-negative phenotype, while no specific temporal distribution was recognized for P. kudriavzevii and S. cerevisiae.
El Sawaf, Bahira M; Kassem, Hala A; Mogalli, Nabil M; El Hossary, Shabaan S; Ramadan, Nadia F
This report presents the results of the first entomological survey of the sand fly fauna in northwestern Yemen. Sand flies were collected using sticky paper traps and CDC light traps from Hajjah governorate, a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus due to Leishmania tropica. Six Phlebotomus species: P. alexandri, P. arabicus. P. bergeroti, P. orientalis, P. papatasi, P. sergenti and ten Sergentomyia species: S. africana, S. antennata, S. christophersi, S. dolichopa, S. dreyfussi, S. fallax, S. multidens, S. taizi, S. tiberiadis, S. yusafi were identified. P. alexandri was the most predominant Phlebotomus species and P. papatasi was a scarce species. S. fallax was the principal Sergentomyia species and S. dolichopa was the least species encountered. The diversity of the sand fly fauna within and among three altitudinal ranges using Simpson index and Jaccard's diversity coefficient respectively were measured. High species diversity was found in all altitude ranges. There seemed to be more association between sand fly fauna in higher altitudes with fauna from moderate altitudes. Sand fly seasonal activity showed a mono-modal trend in the lowland and a confluent bimodal trend in the highlands. Leishmania DNA could not be detected from 150 Phlebotomus females using PCR-RFLP. A possible zoonotic cutaneous transmission cycle due to Leishmania tropica in northwestern Yemen would involve P. arabicus as the sand fly vector and the rock hyrax as the reservoir host. The vector competence for P. alexandri as a vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Hajjah governorate is discussed.
Nürnberger, Beate; Lohse, Konrad; Fijarczyk, Anna; Szymura, Jacek M.; Blaxter, Mark L.
Ancient origins, profound ecological divergence, and extensive hybridization make the fire‐bellied toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata (Anura: Bombinatoridae) an intriguing test case of ecological speciation. Previous modeling has proposed that the narrow Bombina hybrid zones represent strong barriers to neutral introgression. We test this prediction by inferring the rate of gene exchange between pure populations on either side of the intensively studied Kraków transect. We developed a method to extract high confidence sets of orthologous genes from de novo transcriptome assemblies, fitted a range of divergence models to these data and assessed their relative support with analytic likelihood calculations. There was clear evidence for postdivergence gene flow, but, as expected, no perceptible signal of recent introgression via the nearby hybrid zone. The analysis of two additional Bombina taxa (B. v. scabra and B. orientalis) validated our parameter estimates against a larger set of prior expectations. Despite substantial cumulative introgression over millions of years, adaptive divergence of the hybridizing taxa is essentially unaffected by their lack of reproductive isolation. Extended distribution ranges also buffer them against small‐scale environmental perturbations that have been shown to reverse the speciation process in other, more recent ecotypes. PMID:27282112
Xiao, Ning; Liu, Ruiyu; Yuan, Shuai; Sha, Zhongli
Luidia Forbes (Paxillosida: Luidiidae) are common soft bottom sea stars with 49 described species. Because of substantial morphological diversity, the taxonomy of the genus is complex and hasn't been resolved definitely. In order to resolve general taxonomic issues, and determine species boundaries and phylogenetic relationships within the genus Luidia, the sequences of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from 24 specimens of Luidia, belonging to eight taxa in Chinese waters, were studied. Three sequences of two species in genus Luidia from GenBank were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationships. The molecular phylogeny exhibited three main clades, each with strong bootstrap support: Clade A including Luidia quinaria from the Sea of Japan; Clade B including seven nominal species ( L. quinaria von Martens, L. yesoensis Goto, L. changi Liu, Liao and Li, L. orientalis Fisher, L. avicularia Fisher, L. longispina Sladen and L. hardwicki Gray) from Chinese waters; and Clade C including L. maculata Müller & Troschel from Chinese waters. Our molecular phylogeny results support the morphological Quinaria-Group and Alternata-Group assigned by Döderlein. Seven nominal species we sampled do not exhibit genetic distances that are large enough to recognize them as separate species. Cryptic species may exist in' Luidia quinaria' from the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan. Meaningful morphological characters need further investigation in Luidia.
Gal-Hemed, Inbal; Atanasova, Lea; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S; Viterbo, Ada; Yarden, Oded
The scarcity of fresh water in the Mediterranean region necessitates the search for halotolerant agents of biological control of plant diseases that can be applied in arid-zone agriculture irrigated with saline water. Among 29 Trichoderma strains previously isolated from Mediterranean Psammocinia sp. sponges, the greatest number of isolates belong to the Trichoderma longibrachiatum-Hypocrea orientalis species pair (9), H. atroviridis/T. atroviride (9), and T. harzianum species complex (7), all of which are known for high mycoparasitic potential. In addition, one isolate of T. asperelloides and two putative new species, Trichoderma sp. O.Y. 14707 and O.Y. 2407, from Longibrachiatum and Strictipilosa clades, respectively, have been identified. In vitro salinity assays showed that the ability to tolerate increasing osmotic pressure (halotolerance) is a strain- or clade-specific property rather than a feature of a species. Only a few isolates were found to be sensitive to increased salinity, while others either were halotolerant or even demonstrated improved growth in increasingly saline conditions. In vitro antibiosis assays revealed strong antagonistic activity toward phytopathogens due to the production of both soluble and volatile metabolites. Two marine-derived Trichoderma isolates, identified as T. atroviride and T. asperelloides, respectively, effectively reduced Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease on beans and also induced defense responses in cucumber seedlings against Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrimans. This is the first inclusive evaluation of marine fungi as potential biocontrol agents.
Crissey, S D; Slifka, K A; Jacobsen, K L; Shumway, P J; Mathews, R; Harper, J
Two frozen, raw horse meat-based diets fed to captive exotic felids at Brookfield Zoo were irradiated to determine the extent of microbial destruction and whether radiation treatment would affect consumption and/or fecal consistency in exotic cats. Fifteen cats, two African lions (Panthera leo), two Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), one Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), two clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), two caracals (Felis caracal), one bobcat (Felis rufus), and five fishing cats (Felis viverrinus), housed at Brookfield Zoo were fed nonirradiated and irradiated raw diets containing horse meat with cereal products and fortified with nutrients: Nebraska Brand Feline and/or Canine Diet (Animal Spectrum, North Platte, Nebraska 69103, USA). Baseline data were obtained during a 2-wk control period (nonirradiated diets), which was followed by a 4-wk period of feeding comparable irradiated diets. Feed intake and fecal consistency data were collected. An estimated radiation dose range of 0.5-3.9 kilograys reduced most microbial populations, depending on specific diet and microbe type. Irradiation had no overall effect on either feed consumption or fecal consistency in captive exotic cats, regardless of species, age, sex, or body mass. Data indicate that irradiation of frozen horse meat-based diets (packaged in 2.2-kg portions) result in microbial destruction in these products but that product storage time between irradiation and sampling may also affect microbial reduction. However, irradiation would be an appropriate method for reducing potentially pathologic bacteria in raw meat fed to exotic cats.
Wang, Penghe; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Zhao, Dehua; Zou, Xiangxu; Zhu, Zhengjie; Jeelani, Nasreen; Leng, Xin; An, Shuqing
The plants effect in subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF-CWs) is controversial, especially at low temperatures. Consequently, several SSF-CWs planted with Iris pseudacorus (CWI) or Typha orientalis Presl. (CWT) and several unplanted ones (CWC) were set up and fed with secondary effluent of sewage treatment plant during the winter in Eastern China. The 16S rDNA Illumina Miseq sequencing analysis indicated the positive effects of I. pseudacorus on the bacterial community richness and diversity in the substrate. Moreover, the community compositions of the bacteria involved with denitrification presented a significant difference in the three systems. Additionally, higher relative abundances of nitrifying bacteria (0.4140%, 0.2402% and 0.4318% for Nitrosomonas, Nitrosospira and Nitrospira, respectively) were recorded in CWI compared with CWT (0.2074%, 0.0648% and 0.0181%, respectively) and CWC (0.3013%, 0.1107% and 0.1185%, respectively). Meanwhile, the average removal rates of NH4+-N and TN in CWI showed a prominent advantage compared to CWC, but no distinct advantage was found in CWT. The hardy plant I. pseudacorus, which still had active root oxygen release in cold temperatures, positively affected the abundance of nitrifying bacteria in the substrate, and accordingly was supposed to contribute to a comparatively high nitrogen removal efficiency of the system during the winter.
Cheng, Lili; Luo, Jianfei; Li, Pan; Yu, Hang; Huang, Jianfei; Luo, Lixin
Fermented onion products are popular in many countries. We conducted fermentation with and without salt to identify the microorganisms responsible for onion fermentation and the unique taste of fermented onion. The results of PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) revealed that lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus zymae, L. malefermentans, L. plantarum), acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter pasteurianus, A. orientalis), citric acid bacteria (Citrobacter sp., C. freundii), and yeasts (Candida humilis, Kazachstania exigua, Saccharomyces boulardii) were the dominant microorganisms involved in onion fermentation. Organic acid analysis indicated that lactic acid and acetic acid significantly increased after fermentation. There were no significant changes in the types of amino acids after fermentation, but the total concentration of amino acids significantly decreased after fermentation with salt. The increase in esters, alcohols, and aldehydes after fermentation was responsible for the unique flavor of fermented onion. Fermentation with salt inhibited the accumulation of organic acids and limited the conversion of proteins into amino acids but maintained the unique odor of onion by limiting the degradation of sulfur-containing compounds.
Weng, K C; Stokesbury, M J W; Boustany, A M; Seitz, A C; Teo, S L H; Miller, S K; Block, B A
This study presents the first data on movement, habitat use and behaviour for yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares in the Atlantic Basin. Six individuals were tracked in the Gulf of Mexico using pop-up satellite archival tags. Records up to 80 days in length were obtained, providing information on depth and temperature preferences as well as horizontal movements. Thunnus albacares in the Gulf of Mexico showed a strong preference for the mixed layer and thermocline, consistent with findings for this species in other ocean basins. Fish showed a diel pattern in depth distribution, remaining in surface and mixed layer waters at night and diving to deeper waters during the day. The vertical extent of T. albacares habitat appeared to be temperature limited, with fish generally avoiding waters that were >6 degrees C cooler than surface waters. The vertical and thermal habitat usage of T. albacares differs from that of bigeye Thunnus obesus and bluefin Thunnus thynnus, Thunnus orientalis and Thunnus maccoyii tunas. These results are consistent with the results of earlier studies conducted on T. albacares in other oceans.
Yang, Can-Chao; Li, Dong-Lai; Wang, Long-Wu; Liang, Guo-Xian; Zhang, Zheng-Wang; Liang, Wei
Rates of brood parasitism vary extensively among host species and populations of a single host species. In this study, we documented and compared parasitism rates of two sympatric hosts, the Oriental Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus orientalis) and the Reed Parrotbill (Paradoxornis heudei), in three populations in China. We found that the Common Cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) is the only parasite using both the Oriental Reed Warbler and Reed Parrotbill as hosts, with a parasitism rate of 22.4%-34.3% and 0%-4.6%, respectively. The multiple parasitism rates were positively correlated with local parasitism rates across three geographic populations of Oriental Reed Warbler, which implies that higher pressure of parasitism lead to higher multiple parasitism rate. Furthermore, only one phenotype of cuckoo eggs was found in the nests of these two host species. Our results lead to two conclusions: (1) The Oriental Reed Warbler should be considered the major host of Common Cuckoo in our study sites; and (2) obligate parasitism on Oriental Reed Warbler by Common Cuckoo is specialized but flexible to some extent, i.e., using Reed Parrotbill as a secondary host. Further studies focusing on egg recognition and rejection behaviour of these two host species should be conducted to test our predictions.
Shieh, Bao-Sen; Liang, Shih-Hsiung; Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Lin, Szu-Ying
Most previous studies concerning avian adaptation to anthropogenic noise have focused on songbirds, but few have focused on non-songbirds commonly found in urban environments such as doves. We conducted field playback-recording experiments on the perch-coos of five dove species, including four native Taiwan species (the spotted dove, Spilopelia chinensis, the oriental turtle-dove, Streptopelia orientalis, the red collared-dove, Streptopelia tranquebarica, and the emerald dove, Chalcophaps indica) and one species not native to Taiwan (the zebra dove, Geopelia striata) to evaluate the detection and recognition of dove coos in habitats with differing levels of traffic noise. Our results suggest that traffic noise has selected dominant urban species such as the spotted dove to temporally and spatially adjust cooing to reduce the masking effects of traffic noise and rare urban species such as the emerald dove to avoid areas of high traffic noise. Additionally, although the zebra dove had the highest coo frequency among the study species, its coos showed the highest detection value but not the highest recognition value. We conclude that traffic noise is an important factor in shaping the distribution of rare and dominant dove species in urban environments through its significant effects on coo transmission. PMID:27578359
Galli, Gina L. J.; Lipnick, Michael S.; Shiels, Holly A.; Block, Barbara A.
Specialisations in excitation–contraction coupling may have played an important role in the evolution of endothermy and high cardiac performance in scombrid fishes. We examined aspects of Ca2+ handling in cardiomyocytes from Pacific bonito (Sarda chiliensis), Pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis). The whole-cell voltage-clamp technique was used to measure the temperature sensitivity of the L-type Ca2+ channel current (ICa), density, and steady-state and maximal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content (ssSRload and maxSRload). Current–voltage relations, peak ICa density and charge density of ICa were greatest in mackerel and yellowfin at all temperatures tested. ICa density and kinetics were temperature sensitive in all species studied, and the magnitude of this response was not related to the thermal preference of the species. SRload was greater in atrial than in ventricular myocytes in the Pacific bluefin tuna, and in species that are more cold tolerant (bluefin tuna and mackerel). ICa and SRload were particularly small in bonito, suggesting the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger plays a more pivotal role in Ca2+ entry into cardiomyocytes of this species. Our comparative approach reveals that the SR of cold-tolerant scombrid fishes has a greater capacity for Ca2+ storage. This specialisation may contribute to the temperature tolerance and thermal niche expansion of the bluefin tuna and mackerel. PMID:21389190
Perveen, Anjum; Khan, Muneeba; Zeb, Shaista; Imam, Asif Ali
A quantitative and qualitative survey of airborne pollen was performed in the city of Karachi, and the pollen counts were correlated with different climatic conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the possible effect of meteorological factors on airborne pollen distribution in the atmosphere of Karachi city. Pollen sampling was carried out by using Burkard spore Trap for the period of August 2009 to July 2010, and a total of 2,922 pollen grains/m(3) were recorded. In this survey, 22 pollen types were recognized. The highest pollen count was contributed by Poaceae pollen type (1,242 pollen grains/m(3)) followed by Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae (948 pollen grains/m(3)), Cyperus rotundus (195 pollen grains/m(3)) and Prosopis juliflora (169 pollen grains/m(3)). Peak pollen season was in August showing a total of 709 pollen grains/m(3) and lowest pollen count was observed in January-2010. Pearson's chi-square test was performed for the possible correlation of pollen counts and climatic factors. The test revealed significant positive correlation of wind speed with pollen types of Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae; Brassica campestris; Asteraceae; and Thuja orientalis. While the correlation of "average temperature" showed significant positive value with Asteraceae and Tamarix indica pollen types. Negative correlation was observed between humidity/ precipitation and pollen types of Brassica campestris; Daucus carota; Ephedra sp.; and Tamarix indica. In the light of above updated data one could identify various aeroallergens present in the air of Karachi city.
Zheng, Yucong; Wang, Xiaochang; Xiong, Jiaqing; Liu, Yongjun; Zhao, Yaqian
A series of large pilot constructed wetland (CW) systems were constructed near the confluence of an urban stream to a larger river in Xi'an, a northwestern megacity in China, for treating polluted stream water before it entered the receiving water body. Each CW system is a combination of surface-and subsurface-flow cells with local gravel, sand or slag as substrates and Phragmites australis and Typha orientalis as plants. During a one-year operation with an average surface loading of 0.053 m(3)/(m(2)·day), the overall COD, BOD, NH3-N, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removals were 72.7% ± 4.5%, 93.4% ± 2.1%, 54.0% ± 6.3%, 53.9% ± 6.0% and 69.4% ± 4.6%, respectively, which brought about an effective improvement of the river water quality. Surface-flow cells showed better NH3-N removal than their TN removal while subsurface-flow cells showed better TN removal than their NH3-N removal. Using local slag as the substrate, the organic and phosphorus removal could be much improved. Seasonal variation was also found in the removal of all the pollutants and autumn seemed to be the best season for pollutant removal due to the moderate water temperature and well grown plants in the CWs.
Shi, Rong; Lamb, Sherry S.; Zakeri, Bijan; Proteau, Ariane; Cui, Qizhi; Sulea, Traian; Matte, Allan; Wright, Gerard D.; Cygler, Miroslaw
There is a considerable interest in the modification of existing antibiotics to generate new antimicrobials. Glycopeptide antibiotics (GPAs) are effective against serious Gram-positive bacterial pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. However, resistance to these antibiotics is becoming a serious problem requiring new strategies. We show that the Amycolatopsis orientalis (S)-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferase MtfA, from the vancomycin-class GPA chloroeremomycin biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes in vivo and in vitro methyl transfer to generate methylated GPA derivatives of the teicoplanin class. The crystal structure of MtfA complexed with (S)-adenosyl-L-methionine, (S)-adenosylhomocysteine, or sinefungin inhibitor, coupled with mutagenesis, identified His228 as a likely general base required for methyl transfer to the N terminus of the glycopeptide. Computational docking and molecular dynamics simulations were used to model binding of demethyl-vancomycin aglycone to MtfA. These results demonstrate its utility as a tool for engineering methylated analogs of GPAs.
Haygood, M G
Flashlight fishes (family Anomalopidae) have light organs that contain luminous bacterial symbionts. Although the symbionts have not yet been successfully cultured, the luciferase genes have been cloned directly from the light organ of the Caribbean species, Kryptophanaron alfredi. The goal of this project was to evaluate the relationship of the symbiont to free-living luminous bacteria by comparison of genes coding for bacterial luciferase (lux genes). Hybridization of a lux AB probe from the Kryptophanaron alfredi symbiont to DNAs from 9 strains (8 species) of luminous bacteria showed that none of the strains tested had lux genes highly similar to the symbiont. The most similar were a group consisting of Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio splendidus and Vibrio orientalis. The nucleotide sequence of the luciferase alpha subunit gene luxA) of the Kryptophanaron alfredi symbiont was determined in order to do a more detailed comparison with published luxA sequences from Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio fischeri and Photobacterium leiognathi. The hybridization results, sequence comparisons and the mol% G + C of the Kryptophanaron alfredi symbiont luxA gene suggest that the symbiont may be considered as a new species of luminous Vibrio related to Vibrio harveyi.
Wang, Penghe; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Zhao, Dehua; Zou, Xiangxu; Zhu, Zhengjie; Jeelani, Nasreen; Leng, Xin; An, Shuqing
The plants effect in subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF-CWs) is controversial, especially at low temperatures. Consequently, several SSF-CWs planted with Iris pseudacorus (CWI) or Typha orientalis Presl. (CWT) and several unplanted ones (CWC) were set up and fed with secondary effluent of sewage treatment plant during the winter in Eastern China. The 16S rDNA Illumina Miseq sequencing analysis indicated the positive effects of I. pseudacorus on the bacterial community richness and diversity in the substrate. Moreover, the community compositions of the bacteria involved with denitrification presented a significant difference in the three systems. Additionally, higher relative abundances of nitrifying bacteria (0.4140%, 0.2402% and 0.4318% for Nitrosomonas, Nitrosospira and Nitrospira, respectively) were recorded in CWI compared with CWT (0.2074%, 0.0648% and 0.0181%, respectively) and CWC (0.3013%, 0.1107% and 0.1185%, respectively). Meanwhile, the average removal rates of NH4+-N and TN in CWI showed a prominent advantage compared to CWC, but no distinct advantage was found in CWT. The hardy plant I. pseudacorus, which still had active root oxygen release in cold temperatures, positively affected the abundance of nitrifying bacteria in the substrate, and accordingly was supposed to contribute to a comparatively high nitrogen removal efficiency of the system during the winter. PMID:27646687
From the Oligocene Los Ahuehuetes locality, near Tepexi de Rodríguez, Puebla, Mexico, five new plant species are described based on their leaf architecture. The presence of brochidodromous or acrodromous venation, and secondary veins forming angular (versus rounded) arcs, are well defined characters in the fossil material that relate it to Berberidaceae. Comparison with the leaves and leaflets of extant and fossil plants allow the recognition of one Mahonia and four Berberis new species. The lack of detailed information on leaf architecture in Berberidaceae limits the evaluation of the taxonomic relationships that can be suggested between fossil and extant plants. However, from a biogeographic point of view the presence of these new fossil plants supports the hypothesis of a North American origin of the Orientalis Groups of Mahonia, to which a lineage of Berberis may be added. Furthermore, two of the new species suggest the dispersal, some time during the Tertiary, of a lineage that today forms the Australis Group of Berberis from low latitude North America to South America. The movement of the Chortis Block is proposed as an alternative to explain the dispersal of a growing list of plants from north to south in the Americas. Only through future geological and palaeobotanical work can this hypothesis be corroborated.
Hirakawa, Hideki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Kosugi, Shunichi; Tashiro, Kosuke; Nakayama, Shinobu; Yamada, Manabu; Kohara, Mistuyo; Watanabe, Akiko; Kishida, Yoshie; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Minami, Chiharu; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Kato, Midori; Nanri, Keiko; Komaki, Akiko; Yanagi, Tomohiro; Guoxin, Qin; Maeda, Fumi; Ishikawa, Masami; Kuhara, Satoru; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Isobe, Sachiko N
Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is octoploid and shows allogamous behaviour. The present study aims at dissecting this octoploid genome through comparison with its wild relatives, F. iinumae, F. nipponica, F. nubicola, and F. orientalis by de novo whole-genome sequencing on an Illumina and Roche 454 platforms. The total length of the assembled Illumina genome sequences obtained was 698 Mb for F. x ananassa, and ∼200 Mb each for the four wild species. Subsequently, a virtual reference genome termed FANhybrid_r1.2 was constructed by integrating the sequences of the four homoeologous subgenomes of F. x ananassa, from which heterozygous regions in the Roche 454 and Illumina genome sequences were eliminated. The total length of FANhybrid_r1.2 thus created was 173.2 Mb with the N50 length of 5137 bp. The Illumina-assembled genome sequences of F. x ananassa and the four wild species were then mapped onto the reference genome, along with the previously published F. vesca genome sequence to establish the subgenomic structure of F. x ananassa. The strategy adopted in this study has turned out to be successful in dissecting the genome of octoploid F. x ananassa and appears promising when applied to the analysis of other polyploid plant species.
Drori, Elyashiv; Rahimi, Oshrit; Marrano, Annarita; Henig, Yakov; Brauner, Hodaya; Salmon-Divon, Mali; Netzer, Yishay; Prazzoli, Maria Lucia; Stanevsky, Maria; Failla, Osvaldo; Weiss, Ehud; Grando, Maria Stella
The importance and extent of wine consumption in all life aspects at the Holy Land is well documented. The Muslim influence in this region led to the abandonment of winemaking practices, and possible loss of indigenous wine varieties. Here we present a country wide collection of the local grapevine population including wild and cultivated forms, and its characterization by genetic, ampelographic and enological methods. The ampelographic analysis shows clear differences between Sativa and Sylvestris groups in flower, leaf and cluster parameters, and that most Sativa belong to proles orientalis. Genetic population analysis was conducted by analyzing 22 common SSR markers, determining first the unique genotypes, and internally assessing the population’s structure, showing the existence of two distinct Sativa and Sylvestris populations, and a third mixed one. Likewise, the relationship between the Israeli grapevine population and grapevine populations in Europe and parts of Asia was investigated, showing that the Israeli Sativa and Sylvestris populations cluster closely together, suggesting a common genetic source. Lastly, the enological characteristics of selected Sativa and Sylvestris genotypes are presented, demonstrating their potential for quality wine production. This research significantly contributes toward the re-establishment of indigenous and traditional local grapevine varieties into the modern international wine industry. PMID:28303928
Kim, Tina; Rust, Michael K
The Turkestan cockroach, Blatta lateralis (Walker), has become an important invasive species throughout the southwestern United States and has been reported in the southern United States. It is rapidly replacing the oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis (L.), in urban areas of the southwestern United States as the most important peri-domestic species. They typically inhabit in-ground containers such as water meter, irrigation, and electrical boxes, raises of concrete, cracks and crevices, and hollow block walls. On occasion, they will invade dwellings. At 26.7 degrees C, male and female nymphs developed into adults in an average of 222 and 224 d, respectively. Both males and females had five nymphal instars. Adult females deposited up to 25 oothecae. The oothecae averaged 16.8 eggs and 13.9 nymphs emerged per egg capsule, resulting in an 82.7% hatch rate. Adults lived for at least 612 d. Two parameters that might contribute to the success of Turkestan cockroaches compared with oriental cockroaches are that the developmental period of the nymphs of Turkestan cockroaches are shorter and adult female Turkestan cockroaches produce considerably more oothecae than do oriental cockroaches. These may explain the observations by Pest Management Professionals that Turkestan cockroaches are displacing oriental cockroaches in outdoor habitats throughout the southwestern United States.
Wang, San; Niu, Shu-Kui; Li, De; Wang, Jing-Hua; Chen, Feng; Sun, Wu
In order to understand the effects of fuel loadings spatial distribution on forest fire kinds and behaviors, the canopy fuels and floor fuels of Pinus yunnanensis forests with different canopy density, diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height, and stand age and at different altitude, slope grade, position, and aspect in Southwest China were taken as test objects, with the fuel loadings and their spatial distribution characteristics at different vertical layers compared and the fire behaviors in different stands analyzed. The relationships between the fuel loadings and the environmental factors were also analyzed by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). In different stands, there existed significant differences in the vertical distribution of fuels. Pinus yunnanensis-Qak-Syzygium aromaticum, Pinus yunnanensis-oak, and Pinus yunnanensis forests were likely to occur floor fire but not crown fire, while Pinus yunnanensis-Platycladus orientalis, Pinus yunnanensis-Keteleeria fortune, and Keteleeria fortune-Pinus yunnanensis were not only inclined to occur floor fire, but also, the floor fire could be easily transformed into crown fire. The crown fuels were mainly affected by the stand age, altitude, DBH, and tree height, while the floor fuels were mainly by the canopy density, slope grade, altitude, and stand age.
Hwang, Jung Moon; Chung, Eu Jin; Park, Jeong Ae; Jeong, Jae Heon; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun
A novel bacterial strain, YC6899(T), was isolated from the root of Suaedae maritima growing on a tidal flat of Namhae Island, Korea. Cells were Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, slightly halophilic and heterotrophic. Strain YC6899(T) grew optimally at a salinity of 2-4 %, at 25-37 °C and at pH 6.5-8.0. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that strain YC6899(T) was closely related to Amorphus orientalis YIM D10(T) (96.1 % similarity) and Amorphus coralli RS.Sph.026(T) (95.9 %). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminolipids, an unknown aminophospholipid, an unknown aminoglycolipid, unknown glycolipids and unknown lipids. The major fatty acids of strain YC6899(T) were C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c and C18 : 1ω7c. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 61.3 mol%. Strain YC6899(T) contained ubiquinone-10 (Q-10) as the major respiratory quinone system. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain YC6899(T) represents a novel species within the genus Amorphus, for which the name Amorphus suaedae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC6899(T) ( = KACC 14912(T) = NBRC 107845(T)).
Peterson, Osler L.; Fox, John P.
Methylene blue (MB) and toluidine blue (TB) when administered in maximum tolerated oral doses to mice and to cotton rats are highly effective in preventing the usual lethal outcome of intraperitoneally induced infections with R. orientalis. This activity is manifest even when dye administration is delayed until a systemic infection has been well established. Methylene blue is also effective in cerebral infections in mice. The toxicity of MB, however, limits parenteral (subcutaneous) administration of the dye to dosage levels which are much less effective than the maximum tolerated oral levels. The inability of mice to tolerate an adequately effective parenteral dose of MB suggests that the properties of the dye responsible for its toxicity may be separated from those upon which its antirickettsial effect depends. The relationship between the response of mice to oral treatment with MB and such factors as the size of the infecting dose and the times of initiation and of withdrawal of treatment may be summarized as follows: 1. With a constant infecting dose, the time of initiation of treatment largely determines the degree of therapeutic effect. 2. The interval after infection beyond which further treatment does not increase the survival rate depends not upon the previous duration of treatment but upon the size of the infecting dose. Paradoxically, treatment can be discontinued sooner after a massive infecting dose than after a smaller one. PMID:19871635
Fu, Xin; Wang, QiuHong; Wang, ZhiBin; Kuang, HaiXue; Jiang, Pinghui
Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS), also called Toki-shakuyaku-san (TJ-23) or Dangguijakyak-san (DJS), is a well-known herbal formula (Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels., Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., Paeonia lactiflora pall., Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf, Alisma orientalis (Sam.) Juzep., Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz.), which has been widely used in oriental countries for the treatment of various gynecological diseases. Recent studies show that DSS has an effect on free radical-mediated neurological diseases and exhibits anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and reduces cell apoptosis in the hippocampus. In addition, DSS mediates the modulation of central monoamine neurotransmitter systems and ameliorates dysfunction of the central cholinergic nervous system and scopolamine-induced decrease in ACh levels. DSS improves the function of the dopaminergic, adrenergic, and serotonergic nervous systems. Interestingly, DSS can alleviate cognitive dysfunction of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, suggesting that it is a useful therapeutic agent for AD. This paper reviews the mechanism of DSS for the treatment of AD. PMID:27493835
Sawa, Teiji; Hamaoka, Saeko; Kinoshita, Mao; Kainuma, Atsushi; Naito, Yoshifumi; Akiyama, Koichi; Kato, Hideya
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoU, a type III secretory toxin and major virulence factor with patatin-like phospholipase activity, is responsible for acute lung injury and sepsis in immunocompromised patients. Through use of a recently updated bacterial genome database, protein sequences predicted to be homologous to Ps. aeruginosa ExoU were identified in 17 other Pseudomonas species (Ps. fluorescens, Ps. lundensis, Ps. weihenstephanensis, Ps. marginalis, Ps. rhodesiae, Ps. synxantha, Ps. libanensis, Ps. extremaustralis, Ps. veronii, Ps. simiae, Ps. trivialis, Ps. tolaasii, Ps. orientalis, Ps. taetrolens, Ps. syringae, Ps. viridiflava, and Ps. cannabina) and 8 Gram-negative bacteria from three other genera (Photorhabdus, Aeromonas, and Paludibacterium). In the alignment of the predicted primary amino acid sequences used for the phylogenetic analyses, both highly conserved and nonconserved parts of the toxin were discovered among the various species. Further comparative studies of the predicted ExoU homologs should provide us with more detailed information about the unique characteristics of the Ps. aeruginosa ExoU toxin. PMID:27792159
Gagarin, Vladimir G
Specimens of four new nematode species of the family Comesomatidae were isolated from the sediments of littoral zone of South China Sea at the coast of Vietnam and described and illustrated. Sabatieria curvispiculata sp. n. is characterized by the long and slender tail, short cephalic setae and strongly curved spicules in males. Setosabatiera orientalis sp. n. is close to S. australis Riera, Nunez, Brito, 2006, but differs from it in the comparatively shorter and more slender tail, small-er number of amphidial fovea turns, greater number of precloacal supplements in males and shape and structure of spic-ules. Dorylaimopsis intermedia sp. n. is morphologically closest to D. mediterranea Grimaldi-de Zio, 1968 and D. magellanense Chen, Vincx, 1968, but differs from both species in the longer outer labial setae and absence of precloacal supplements in males. D. brevispiculata sp. n. is similar to D. turneri Zhang, 1992 and D. coomansi Muthumbi, Soetaert, Vincx, 1977, but differs from both species in the shape of outer labial sensillae and absence of precloacal supplements in males. A pictorial key for determination of valid species in the genus Setosabatieria Rouville, 1903 is given.
Thanh, Vu Nguyen; Mai, Le Thuy; Tuan, Duong Anh
The diversity of fungi and bacteria associated with traditional Vietnamese alcohol fermentation starters (banh men) was investigated by PCR-mediated DGGE. From 52 starter samples, 13 species of fungi (including yeasts) and 23 species of bacteria were identified. The fungal composition of the starters was consistent with little variation among samples. It consisted of amylase producers (Rhizopus oryzae, R. microsporus, Absidia corymbifera, Amylomyces sp., Saccharomycopsis fibuligera), ethanol producers (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia sp., Pichia anomala, Candida tropicalis, P. ranongensis, Clavispora lusitaniae), and (opportunistic) contaminants (Xeromyces bisporus, Botryobasidium subcoronatum). The bacterial microflora of starters was highly variable in species composition and dominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The most frequent LAB were Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, Weissella confusa, and W. paramesenteroides. Species of amylase-producing Bacillus (Bacillus subtilis, B. circulans, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. sporothermodurans), acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter orientalis, A. pasteurianus), and plant pathogens/environment contaminants (Burkholderia ubonensis, Ralstonia solanacearum, Pelomonas puraquae) were also detected. Fungal DGGE was found to be useful for evaluating starter type and starter quality. Moreover, in view of the high biological diversity of these substrates, bacterial DGGE may be useful in determining the identity of a starter. The constant occurrence of opportunistic contaminants highlights the need for careful examination of the role of individual components in starters.
Ionita, Mariana; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Pfister, Kurt; Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia
The aim of the present study was to provide a preliminary insight into the diversity of tick-borne pathogens circulating at the domestic host-tick interface in Romania. For this, feeding and questing ticks were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu, and by PCR and subsequent sequencing for Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. A total of 382 ticks, encompassing 5 species from 4 genera, were collected in April-July 2010 from different areas of Romania; of them, 40 were questing ticks and the remainder was collected from naturally infested cattle, sheep, goats, horses or dogs. Tick species analyzed included Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Rhipicephalus bursa, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Four rickettsiae of the spotted fever group of zoonotic concern were identified for the first time in Romania: Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia helvetica in I. ricinus, and Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii in D. marginatus. Other zoonotic pathogens such as A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia afzelii, and Babesia microti were found in I. ricinus. Pathogens of veterinary importance were also identified, including Theileria equi in H. marginatum, Babesia occultans in D. marginatus and H. marginatum, Theileria orientalis/sergenti/buffeli-group in I. ricinus and in H. marginatum and E. canis in R. sanguineus. These findings show a wide distribution of very diverse bacterial and protozoan pathogens at the domestic host-tick interface in Romania, with the potential of causing both animal and human diseases.
Ip, Hon S; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Blehert, David S
Global translocation of plants and animals is a well-recognized mechanism for introduction of pathogens into new regions. To mitigate this risk, various tools such as preshipment health certificates, quarantines, screening for specific disease agents and outright bans have been implemented. However, such measures only target known infectious agents and their hosts and may fail to prevent translocation of even well-recognized pathogens if they are carried by novel host species. In a recent example, we screened an imported shipment of Chinese firebelly newts (Cynops orientalis) for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, an emergent fungal pathogen of salamanders. All animals tested negative for the fungus. However, a virus was cultured from internal organs from 7 of the 11 individual dead salamanders and from two pools of tissues from four additional dead animals. Sequencing of a portion of the glycoprotein gene from all viral isolates indicated 100% identity and that they were most closely related to spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). Subsequently, SVCV-specific PCR testing indicated the presence of virus in internal organs from each of the four animals previously pooled, and whole-genome sequencing of one of the viral isolates confirmed genomic arrangement characteristic of SVCV. SVCV is a rhabdovirus pathogen of cyprinid fish that is listed as notifiable to the Office International des Epizooties. This discovery reveals a novel route for potential spillover of this economically important pathogen as rhabdovirus has not previously been documented in amphibians. PMID:27599472
Parre, Elodie; Geitmann, Anja
While callose is a well-known permeability barrier and leak sealant in plant cells, it is largely unknown whether this cell wall polymer can also serve as a load-bearing structure. Since callose occurs in exceptionally large amounts in pollen, we assessed its role for resisting tension and compression stress in this cell. The effect of callose digestion in Solanum chacoense and Lilium orientalis pollen grains demonstrated that, depending on the species, this cell wall polymer represents a major stress-bearing structure at the aperture area of germinating grains. In the pollen tube, it is involved in cell wall resistance to circumferential tension stress, and despite its absence at the growing apex, callose is indirectly involved in the establishment of tension stress resistance in this area. To investigate whether or not callose is able to provide mechanical resistance against compression stress, we subjected pollen tubes to local deformation by microindentation. The data revealed that lowering the amount of callose resulted in reduced cellular stiffness and increased viscoelasticity, thus indicating clearly that callose is able to resist compression stress. Whether this function is relevant for pollen tube mechanics, however, is unclear, as stiffened growth medium caused a decrease in callose deposition. Together, our data provide clear evidence for the capacity of cell wall callose to resist tension and compression stress, thus demonstrating that this amorphous cell wall substance can have a mechanical role in growing plant cells. PMID:15618431
Jewell, Chris P; Brown, Richard G
Predicting the spread of vector-borne diseases in response to incursions requires knowledge of both host and vector demographics in advance of an outbreak. Although host population data are typically available, for novel disease introductions there is a high chance of the pathogen using a vector for which data are unavailable. This presents a barrier to estimating the parameters of dynamical models representing host-vector-pathogen interaction, and hence limits their ability to provide quantitative risk forecasts. The Theileria orientalis (Ikeda) outbreak in New Zealand cattle demonstrates this problem: even though the vector has received extensive laboratory study, a high degree of uncertainty persists over its national demographic distribution. Addressing this, we develop a Bayesian data assimilation approach whereby indirect observations of vector activity inform a seasonal spatio-temporal risk surface within a stochastic epidemic model. We provide quantitative predictions for the future spread of the epidemic, quantifying uncertainty in the model parameters, case infection times and the disease status of undetected infections. Importantly, we demonstrate how our model learns sequentially as the epidemic unfolds and provide evidence for changing epidemic dynamics through time. Our approach therefore provides a significant advance in rapid decision support for novel vector-borne disease outbreaks.
Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H
The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two low-cost, low technology traditional methods for drying starter cultures with standard lyophilisation. Lyophilised yeast cultures and yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes and dry plant fibre strands were examined for viable cell counts during 6 months storage at 4 and 25 °C. None of the yeast cultures showed a significant loss in viable cell count during 6 months of storage at 4 °C upon lyophilisation and preservation in dry rice cakes. During storage at 25 °C in the dark, yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes, and lyophilised cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 4 months of storage. Yeast cultures preserved in dry plant fibre strands had the greatest loss of viable count during the 6 months of storage at 25 °C. Preservation of yeasts cultures in dry rice cakes provided better survival during storage at 4 °C than lyophilisation. The current study demonstrated that traditional methods can be useful and effective for starter culture preservation in small-scale, low-tech applications.
Honda, Masanao; Kurita, Takaki; Toda, Mamoru; Ota, Hidetoshi
The Kuroiwa's eyelid gecko Goniurosaurus kuroiwae is an endangered species in a state of relict endemism in the Central Ryukyus, Japan, and is divided into five subspecies. We analyzed variations in sequence data for approximately 1900 base positions of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA, and cytochrome b genes from samples representing all recognized subspecies of G. kuroiwae together with those from congeneric species in order to test the relevant previous phylogenetic hypotheses and discuss biogeographical implications in the degree and pattern of genetic divergence within G. kuroiwae. Our results, while confirming a previous molecular phylogenetic hypothesis proposed on the basis of much smaller data set, negate the relationships hypothesized on morphological grounds by explicitly supporting: 1) the primary dichotomy, with substantial genetic divergence, between G. k. splendens from the Amami Island Group and the remaining subspecies all from the Okinawa Island Group; and 2) the presence of at least six independent lineages within the latter, indicating non-monophyly for two of the subspecies, G. k. kuroiwae and G. k. orientalis, in the current taxonomic definitions. The marked genetic divergence between populations of the two island groups seems to have initiated in the middle Miocene, i.e., prior to formation of straits that have consistently been separating these two island groups since the early Pleistocene. All populations of G. kuroiwae are regarded as endangered from the viewpoint of conservation genetics.
Yang, Xitian; Yan, Dongfeng; Liu, Canran
Natural regeneration is the natural process by which plants replace themselves. It is a cost-effective way to re-establish vegetation, and it helps to preserve genetic identity and diversity. In this study, we investigated the natural regeneration of trees in three types of afforested stands in the Taihang Mountains, China, which were dominated by Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust), Quercus variabilis (Chinese cork oak) and Platycladus orientalis (Chinese arborvitae) respectively. A consistent pattern was found among the three types of stands, being that the density of seedlings was positively correlated with the overstory canopy cover and negatively correlated with the covers of shrub, herb and litter layers. While a positive correlation between the density of seedlings and stand age was found for the conifer stands, negative correlations were found for the two types of broadleaf stands. Correlations between the density of saplings and the stand attributes were not consistent among the three types of stands. The two types of broadleaf stands had higher densities of seedlings and saplings than the conifer stands. While the broadleaf stands had adequate recruits for regeneration, the conifer stands did not have enough recruits. Our findings suggest that the overstory canopy should be prevented from being disturbed, any reduction of the canopy cover will decrease the recruits and affect the regeneration. PMID:25268793
Hoang, Nhung Thi My; Phuong, Thuong Thien; Nguyen, Trang Thi Nhu; Tran, Yen Thi Hai; Nguyen, Anh Thi Ngoc; Nguyen, Thanh Lai; Bui, Khanh Thi Van
Among mitotic kinases, Aurora kinases are the most widely studied, since their expression is restricted to mitosis. They play a key role in chromosome segregation and cell polyploidy. Aurora kinases are important therapeutic targets, and several research groups have directed their efforts toward the identification of kinase inhibitors. The aim of this study is to screen and characterize Aurora kinase inhibitors from natural substances extracted from plants that are used in the Vietnamese pharmacopoeia. We have characterized in vitro Derrone, extracted from Erythrina orientalis L. MURR, as a novel Aurora kinase inhibitor. This compound exhibited an ability to inhibit the phosphorylation of histone H3 at ser10 both in kinase assay and at the cellular level. The compound was more effective against Aurora kinase B, with a lower IC50 value as compared to Aurora A. Moreover, it impaired the mitotic spindle checkpoint and led to endoreduplication in cancer cells, a phenomenon caused by an Aurora B inhibitor. Interestingly, using the xCelligence system and real-time cell analysis (RTCA) software, we set up a comparison of cell proliferation profiles between cancer cells treated with Derrone and VX680-a well-known Aurora kinase inhibitor-and we found that these profiles exhibited considerable similarity in cell morphology, growth, and death. Additionally, Derrone significantly inhibited the formation and growth of MCF7 tumor spheroids.
Jusup, Marko; Klanjšček, Tin; Matsuda, Hiroyuki
We present a numerical approach that, in conjunction with a fully set up Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model, aims at consistently approximating the feeding history of cultivated fish from the commonly measured aquaculture data (body length, body mass, or the condition factor). We demonstrate the usefulness of the approach by performing validation of a DEB-based model for Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) on an independent dataset and exploring the implied bioenergetics of this species in captivity. In the context of validation, the results indicate that the model successfully accounts for more than 75% of the variance in actual fish feed. At the 5% significance level, predictions do not underestimate nor overestimate observations and there is no bias. The overall model accuracy of 87.6% is satisfactory. In the context of tuna bioenergetics, we offer an explanation as to why the first reproduction in the examined case occurred only after the fish reached seven years of age, whereas it takes five years in the wild and sometimes as little as three years in captivity. Finally, we calculate energy conversion efficiencies and the supply stress throughout the entire lifetime to theoretically underpin the relatively low contribution of growth to aerobic metabolism implied by respirometry and high feed conversion ratio observed in bluefin tuna aquaculture.
Monroe, Burt L.; Banks, Richard C.; Fitzpatrick, John W.; Howell, Thomas R.; Johnson, Ned K.; Ouellet, Henri; Remsen, J.V.; Storer, Robert W.
This fourth supplement after the 6th edition (1983) of the AOU "Check-list of North American Birds" consists of changes adopted by the Committee on Classification and Nomenclature between 1 March 1989 and 1 March 1991. The changes fall into eight categories: (1) five species (Ixobrychus sinensis, Porphyrula flavirostris, Sterna bergii, Streptopelia orientalis, and Ficedula narcissina) are added to the main list because of new distributional information; (2) six species (Pterodroma cervicalis, Ortalis wagleri, Lophornis brachylopha, Corvus sinaloae, Cinclocerthia gutturalis, and Loxops caeruleirostris) are added to the list because of the splitting of species previously in the list; (3) one extinct species (Dysmorodrepanis munroi) is added to the list because of re-identification of the unique type; (4) one scientific name (Speotyto cunicularia) is changed because of generic splitting; (5) one scientific name (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) is changed for nomenclature reasons, accompanied by a change in English name; (6) the spelling of one scientific name (Neocrex colombianus) is corrected; (7) to other English names are changed or corrected; and (8) one sequencing change is made. No new distributional information is included except as noted above (i.e. minor changes of distribution of distributional records within North America are not included). The twelve additions bring the number of species recognized as occurring within the Check-list area (main list) to 1957.
Lee, A Yeong; Park, Jun Yeon; Chun, Jin Mi; Moon, Byeong Cheol; Kang, Byoung Kab; Seo, Young Bae; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Kim, Ho Kyoung
Alismatis Rhizoma is a perennial herb originating from the rhizomes of Alisma orientalis (Sam) Juzep and the same species which have been used to treat seborrheic dermatitis, eczema, polydipsia, and pedal edema. We aimed to determine the concentrations of the compounds alisol B and alisol B acetate present in a sample of the herb using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector. We selected methanol as the optimal solvent considering the structures of alisol B and alisol B acetate. We estimated the proportion of alisol B and alisol B acetate in a standard extract to be 0.0434% and 0.2365% in methanol, respectively. To optimize extraction, we employed response surface methodology to determine the yields of alisol B and alisol B acetate, which mapped out a central composite design consisting of 15 experimental points. The extraction parameters were time, concentration, and sample weight. The predicted concentration of alisol B derivatives was estimated to be 0.2388% under the following conditions: 81 min of extraction time, 76% of methanol concentration, and 1.52g of sample weight. PMID:23335845
Zarchi, Ali Akbar Karimi; Vatani, Hadi
The presence of cockroaches has health implications, such as nosocomial infection, as the insects move freely from areas within and around hospitals that may harbor pathogenic organisms. The goals of the present study were to determine species of bacteria isolated from cockroaches found in three Tehran hospitals, and to determine distribution of potential vectors by species and sex. The study is descriptive laboratory research. A total of 305 cockroaches from three species were trapped and identified: Periplaneta americana (65.6%), Blatella germanica (12.1%), and Blatta orientalis (22.3%). From these potential vectors, 19 species of bacteria were isolated and identified. After transportation of cockroaches to the laboratory, separation of the whole-homogenized suspension of each species was carried out. Identification of the isolated bacteria was performed according to Burgey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th Edition. The most common species of bacteria isolated from cockroaches were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus Group D, Bacillus spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus vulgaris. No statistical significance was found between sex and species of cockroach carrying bacteria (p > 0.05), but significance was found for sex in Citrobacter freundii, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus non-group A&B (p < 0.05).
Ip, Hon S.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Blehert, David
Global translocation of plants and animals is a well-recognized mechanism for introduction of pathogens into new regions. To mitigate this risk, various tools such as preshipment health certificates, quarantines, screening for specific disease agents and outright bans have been implemented. However, such measures only target known infectious agents and their hosts and may fail to prevent translocation of even well-recognized pathogens if they are carried by novel host species. In a recent example, we screened an imported shipment of Chinese firebelly newts (Cynops orientalis) for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, an emergent fungal pathogen of salamanders. All animals tested negative for the fungus. However, a virus was cultured from internal organs from 7 of the 11 individual dead salamanders and from two pools of tissues from four additional dead animals. Sequencing of a portion of the glycoprotein gene from all viral isolates indicated 100% identity and that they were most closely related to spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). Subsequently, SVCV-specific PCR testing indicated the presence of virus in internal organs from each of the four animals previously pooled, and whole-genome sequencing of one of the viral isolates confirmed genomic arrangement characteristic of SVCV. SVCV is a rhabdovirus pathogen of cyprinid fish that is listed as notifiable to the Office International des Epizooties. This discovery reveals a novel route for potential spillover of this economically important pathogen as rhabdovirus has not previously been documented in amphibians.
Jacobson, Andrew P; Gerngross, Peter; Lemeris, Joseph R; Schoonover, Rebecca F; Anco, Corey; Breitenmoser-Würsten, Christine; Durant, Sarah M; Farhadinia, Mohammad S; Henschel, Philipp; Kamler, Jan F; Laguardia, Alice; Rostro-García, Susana; Stein, Andrew B; Dollar, Luke
The leopard's (Panthera pardus) broad geographic range, remarkable adaptability, and secretive nature have contributed to a misconception that this species might not be severely threatened across its range. We find that not only are several subspecies and regional populations critically endangered but also the overall range loss is greater than the average for terrestrial large carnivores. To assess the leopard's status, we compile 6,000 records at 2,500 locations from over 1,300 sources on its historic (post 1750) and current distribution. We map the species across Africa and Asia, delineating areas where the species is confirmed present, is possibly present, is possibly extinct or is almost certainly extinct. The leopard now occupies 25-37% of its historic range, but this obscures important differences between subspecies. Of the nine recognized subspecies, three (P. p. pardus, fusca, and saxicolor) account for 97% of the leopard's extant range while another three (P. p. orientalis, nimr, and japonensis) have each lost as much as 98% of their historic range. Isolation, small patch sizes, and few remaining patches further threaten the six subspecies that each have less than 100,000 km(2) of extant range. Approximately 17% of extant leopard range is protected, although some endangered subspecies have far less. We found that while leopard research was increasing, research effort was primarily on the subspecies with the most remaining range whereas subspecies that are most in need of urgent attention were neglected.
Shieh, Bao-Sen; Liang, Shih-Hsiung; Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Lin, Szu-Ying
Most previous studies concerning avian adaptation to anthropogenic noise have focused on songbirds, but few have focused on non-songbirds commonly found in urban environments such as doves. We conducted field playback-recording experiments on the perch-coos of five dove species, including four native Taiwan species (the spotted dove, Spilopelia chinensis, the oriental turtle-dove, Streptopelia orientalis, the red collared-dove, Streptopelia tranquebarica, and the emerald dove, Chalcophaps indica) and one species not native to Taiwan (the zebra dove, Geopelia striata) to evaluate the detection and recognition of dove coos in habitats with differing levels of traffic noise. Our results suggest that traffic noise has selected dominant urban species such as the spotted dove to temporally and spatially adjust cooing to reduce the masking effects of traffic noise and rare urban species such as the emerald dove to avoid areas of high traffic noise. Additionally, although the zebra dove had the highest coo frequency among the study species, its coos showed the highest detection value but not the highest recognition value. We conclude that traffic noise is an important factor in shaping the distribution of rare and dominant dove species in urban environments through its significant effects on coo transmission.
Gile, Gillian H; Slamovits, Claudio H
Lophomonas striata is a multiflagellate parabasalid commensal in the hindgut of the omnivorous cockroaches Blatta orientalis and Periplaneta americana. Its closest relatives were traditionally thought to include similar multiflagellate parabasalids with a single flagellar area that degenerates during mitosis, such as Joenia and Kofoidia. However, molecular phylogenetic analyses have shown that "lophomonads" are not monophyletic. We have determined the SSU rRNA sequence of L. striata and we find that it branches sister to the Trichonymphida with strong support. This is surprising because all other lophomonads sampled to date branch within the Cristamonadida, and the order Trichonymphida (e.g. Trichonympha, Pseudotrichonympha, and Hoplonympha) is both morphologically coherent and monophyletic in SSU rRNA phylogenies. Trichonymphida, unlike the lophomonads, share a bilateral symmetry, in which their multiple flagella occur in two (or sometimes four) regions, and instead of degenerating upon mitosis, half of the flagella are passed to each daughter cell. The single apical flagellar region characteristic of lophomonads is therefore either plesiomorphic or it has arisen multiple times in parabasalids; our phylogenetic analyses and available ultrastructural evidence suggest the latter. Our results also suggest that parabasalid gut symbionts may have been vertically transmitted in cockroaches before the common ancestor of Cryptocercus and termites.
Bellés, X; Graham, L A; Bendena, W G; Ding, Q I; Edwards, J P; Weaver, R J; Tobe, S S
Allatostatins (ASTs) of the Tyr/Phe-Xaa-Phe-Gly Leu/Ile-NH2 family are a group of insect neuropeptides that inhibit juvenile hormone biosynthesis by the corpora allata. We have obtained genomic DNA sequences that specify the preproallatostatin precursor for the cockroaches, Blatta orientalis, Blattella germanica, Blaberus (cranufer and Supella longipalpa. The sequences obtained are similar to those of Diploptera punctata and Periplaneta americana reported previously. The precursors of all these cockroach species are similar in size, and the organization of the ASTs that they contain (there are 13 or 14, depending on the species) have been conserved. With the sequences of these precursors, and using the homologous sequence in the orthopteran Schistocera gregari as an outgroup, a phylogenetic analysis using parsimony was carried out. The dendrograms obtained from these analyses. using the amino acid as well as the nucleotide sequences, are comparable with current models for cockroach phylogeny. Parsimony analysis was also used to study the genealogy of the different ASTs within the same precursor. Results suggest that the AST sequences were generated through a process of internal gene duplication which occurred before these species diverged from each other in evolutionary time.
Development of a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism protocol for rapid detection and differentiation of four cockroach vectors (group I "Dirty 22" species) responsible for food contamination and spreading of foodborne pathogens: public health importance.
Sulaiman, Irshad M; Anderson, Mickey; Khristova, Marina; Tang, Kevin; Sulaiman, Nikhat; Phifer, Edwin; Simpson, Steven; Kerdahi, Khalil
Assessing the adulteration of food products and the presence of filth and extraneous materials is one of the measures that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) utilizes in implementing regulatory actions of public health importance. To date, 22 common pest species (also known as the "Dirty 22" species) have been regarded by this agency as the spreaders of foodborne diseases. We have further categorized the Dirty 22 species into four groups: I has four cockroach species, II has two ant species, III has 12 fly species, and IV has four rodent species. The presence of any Dirty 22 species is also considered an indicator of unsanitary conditions in food processing and storage facilities. In this study, we describe the development of a two-step nested PCR protocol to amplify the small subunit ribosomal gene of group I Dirty 22 species that include four cockroach species: Blattella germanica, Blatta orientalis, Periplaneta americana, and Supella longipalpa, along with the development of a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method for rapid detection and differentiation of these violative species. This method will be utilized when the specimen cannot be identified with conventional microscopic taxonomic methods, especially when only small body parts are separated and recovered from food samples for analysis or when these body parts are in a decomposed state. This new PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism will provide correct identification of group I Dirty 22 species; this information can then be used in regulation and prevention of foodborne pathogens.
Koehler, P G; Patterson, R S; Martin, W R
The susceptibility of American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.); smoky brown cockroaches, P. fuliginosa (Serville); oriental cockroaches, Blatta orientalis L.; German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.); and brownbanded cockroaches, Supella longipalpa (F.), to Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser (All strain) was evaluated under laboratory conditions. A 1-ml water suspension containing 500,000 nematodes was placed on filter paper in a petri dish or the pad of a bait station. German, brown-banded, oriental, and smoky-brown cockroaches died within 1 d after placement in the petri dishes. The relative order for the LT50s were American greater than oriental greater than smoky-brown greater than brown-banded = German. All cockroaches actively groomed nematodes from legs and antennae of forced (petri dish) exposure. The LT50s for S. carpocapsae for nonforced (bait station) exposure were significantly greater than those for forced exposure. The LT50s were 3.25, 4.13, 9.86, and 11.38 d for brown-banded, German, oriental, and smoky-brown cockroaches, respectively. The relative order of the LT50s after forced (American greater than oriental greater than smoky-brown greater than German = brown-banded) and nonforced (American greater than smoky-brown greater than oriental greater than German greater than brown-banded) exposure to S. carpocapsae was inversely related to the moisture of their preferred habitats.
García, F; Notario, M J; Cabanás, J M; Jordano, R; Medina, L M
The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of bacteria of public health interest transmitted by cockroaches in different food-related environments. From April to November, cockroaches were trapped in 11 buildings in different urban areas of Western Andalusia (Spain): three hotels, four grocery stores, a catering establishment, a food-industry plant, a health center, and a care home. The presence of a number of bacterial species, including Salmonella, in these food-related environments was confirmed; these species included microorganisms listed in European Union regulations, such as Salmonella spp., Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.), and Escherichia coli. A wide variety of species were isolated, some belonging to different genera that have a significant impact on public health and hygiene, such as Enterobacter and Klebsiella. To ensure adequate elimination of these microorganisms in food-related environments, the control of vectors such as Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and Blatta orientalis, together with a thorough review of hygiene strategies, appears to be fundamental. It is clearly essential to compare the results of hygiene regulations implemented in food-related environments.
Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo; Peretó, Juli
Many insect species have established long-term symbiotic relationships with intracellular bacteria. Symbiosis with bacteria has provided insects with novel ecological capabilities, which have allowed them colonize previously unexplored niches. Despite its importance to the understanding of the emergence of biological complexity, the evolution of symbiotic relationships remains hitherto a mystery in evolutionary biology. In this study, we contribute to the investigation of the evolutionary leaps enabled by mutualistic symbioses by sequencing the genome of Blattabacterium cuenoti, primary endosymbiont of the omnivorous cockroach Blatta orientalis, and one of the most ancient symbiotic associations. We perform comparative analyses between the Blattabacterium cuenoti genome and that of previously sequenced endosymbionts, namely those from the omnivorous hosts the Blattella germanica (Blattelidae) and Periplaneta americana (Blattidae), and the endosymbionts harbored by two wood-feeding hosts, the subsocial cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus (Cryptocercidae) and the termite Mastotermes darwiniensis (Termitidae). Our study shows a remarkable evolutionary stasis of this symbiotic system throughout the evolutionary history of cockroaches and the deepest branching termite M. darwiniensis, in terms of not only chromosome architecture but also gene content, as revealed by the striking conservation of the Blattabacterium core genome. Importantly, the architecture of central metabolic network inferred from the endosymbiont genomes was established very early in Blattabacterium evolutionary history and could be an outcome of the essential role played by this endosymbiont in the host's nitrogen economy.
Liccardi, G; Noschese, P; Salzillo, A; Morandi, M; Calderaro, F; D'Amato, M; D'Amato, G
The aim of our study was the evaluation of the role of these insects as causative agents of perennial rhinitis. We studied 317 subjects of both sexes (175 F and 142 M) living in Naples area and examined consecutively in our Centre for perennial nasal symptoms of suspected IgE mediated aetiology. All patients underwent the following diagnostic procedures: anamnestic procedures by using an internal questionnaire, clinical examination, skin prick test by using commercially available allergenic extracts and an allergenic extract containing the whole bodies of Blattella germanica and orientalis, Periplaneta americana. Blood samples for specific IgE determinations and a rhinologic visit were also carried out in patients with cockroach skin Prick test positivity. 14 of 317 subjects, prevalently young males, presented a skin positivity to cockroach allergens. All patients showed a moderate low degree of cutaneous and a low degree of serologic sensitization to allergens of these insects. Our preliminary data seem to demonstrate a mild role of cockroaches as causative agents of perennial rhinitis in Naples area. Further studies are necessary for a more appropriate knowledge of this allergy.
Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo; Peretó, Juli
Many insect species have established long-term symbiotic relationships with intracellular bacteria. Symbiosis with bacteria has provided insects with novel ecological capabilities, which have allowed them colonize previously unexplored niches. Despite its importance to the understanding of the emergence of biological complexity, the evolution of symbiotic relationships remains hitherto a mystery in evolutionary biology. In this study, we contribute to the investigation of the evolutionary leaps enabled by mutualistic symbioses by sequencing the genome of Blattabacterium cuenoti, primary endosymbiont of the omnivorous cockroach Blatta orientalis, and one of the most ancient symbiotic associations. We perform comparative analyses between the Blattabacterium cuenoti genome and that of previously sequenced endosymbionts, namely those from the omnivorous hosts the Blattella germanica (Blattelidae) and Periplaneta americana (Blattidae), and the endosymbionts harbored by two wood-feeding hosts, the subsocial cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus (Cryptocercidae) and the termite Mastotermes darwiniensis (Termitidae). Our study shows a remarkable evolutionary stasis of this symbiotic system throughout the evolutionary history of cockroaches and the deepest branching termite M. darwiniensis, in terms of not only chromosome architecture but also gene content, as revealed by the striking conservation of the Blattabacterium core genome. Importantly, the architecture of central metabolic network inferred from the endosymbiont genomes was established very early in Blattabacterium evolutionary history and could be an outcome of the essential role played by this endosymbiont in the host’s nitrogen economy. PMID:23355305
Kleespies; Tidona; Darai
Typical signs of an iridovirus infection were observed in two species of fatally diseased crickets, Gryllus campestris L. and Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera, Gryllidae). The infection was manifested by hypertrophy and bluish iridescence of the affected fat body cells. Electron microscope investigations led to the identification of a new iridovirus, which was termed cricket iridovirus (CrIV). In negatively stained preparations the size of the icosahedral virus particles ranged from 151 nm (side-side) to 167 nm (apex-apex). Assembly of virions occurred in the cytoplasm of hypertrophied fat body cells, where they often accumulated in paracrystalline arrays. Genetic analyses of purified viral DNA using a variety of restriction enzymes revealed that CrIV is distinct from all other known iridoviruses that have been isolated from insects and reported so far. In host range studies it was shown that CrIV can be transmitted perorally to other orthopteran species, causing characteristic symptoms and fatal disease. These species include Gryllus bimaculatus L. (Orthoptera, Gryllidae) and the African migratory locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides (R. & F.) (Orthoptera, Acrididae), which represents one of the most important pest insects in developing countries, as well as the cockroaches Blattella germanica L. and Blatta orientalis L. (both Orthoptera, Blattidae). Consequently, the isolation and characterization of this new cricket iridovirus is of particular interest in view of its possible use in biological or integrated control. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
Marco, Ignasi; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Ballesteros, Cristina; Bischof, Daniela F; Lavín, Santiago; Vilei, Edy M
Frequent outbreaks of infectious keratoconjunctivitis have been reported in wild Caprinae in Europe. While etiologic studies in the Alps indicate that the main etiologic agent is Mycoplasma conjunctivae, there are few reports from other mountain areas, such as the Pyrenees, where M. conjunctivae has never been reported. In 2006 and 2007, five adult Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica; two males and three females) and one adult male European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) were studied; they exhibited clinical symptoms of infectious keratoconjunctivitis such as blindness, corneal opacity, and ulceration. In three of the five chamois tested, and in the mouflon, Mycoplasma conjunctivae was identified from conjunctival swabs by means of a TaqMan(R) polymerase chain reaction based on the lipoprotein gene lppS. Cluster analysis indicated that the three southern chamois isolates form a cluster that is distinct from the mouflon isolate. This is the first report of M. conjunctivae in Pyrenean chamois, and it supports the hypothesis that M. conjunctivae also could be the main cause of infectious keratoconjunctivitis in areas other than the Alps, such as the Pyrenees.
Zea, Sven; López-Victoria, Mateo
Several groups of sponges are able to excavate galleries and tunnels in calcareous substrata such as limestone rock, shells, calcareous algae and coral skeletons. Within the genus Cliona, some species share the common traits of being brown to olive-green in color, and harboring photosynthetic, unicellular dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae). These Cliona spp. have been grouped as the Cliona viridis species complex. Several species of this complex completely encrust the excavated substratum with a thin veneer of tissue and, when colonizing dead exposed parts of live coral colonies, they are able to undermine or overgrow and thus kill live coral tissue as they advance predominantly laterally. In the course of our taxonomic and ecological studies of Caribbean brown to brown-black encrusting Cliona, we found an as yet undescribed species that stands out by having tylostyle megasclere spicules with narrow heads and lacking the usual microsclere spicule complement of spirasters. This species, named and described here Cliona acephala n. sp., has so far been found exclusively in the Santa Marta area, Caribbean coast of Colombia. Previous studies with ITS2 ribosomal DNA showed it to be genetically distinct from other Caribbean encrusting species belonging to the Cliona viridis species complex, vis. Cliona aprica, Cliona caribbaea, Cliona tenuis and Cliona varians, but making it genetically closer to Indo-Pacific Cliona orientalis. An intriguing possibility, to be addressed with further studies, is that C. acephala n. sp. may have been introduced to the Caribbean. However, until proved otherwise, we regard the material presently described as distinct.
Prado, Susana; Dubert, Javier; Barja, Juan L
The taxonomic position of the bivalve pathogen PP-638 was studied together with five similar isolates. The strains were isolated from flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) and Manila clam (Venerupis philippinarum) cultures during outbreaks of disease in two shellfish hatcheries (Galicia, NW Spain). The pathogenicity, previously established for PP-638, was demonstrated with all isolates and for several bivalve species, including the original hosts. On the basis of phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequences, a tight group was defined within the genus Vibrio. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on concatenated sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and the five housekeeping genes recA, rpoA, pyrH, gyrB and ftsZ revealed that these strains form a cluster within the Orientalis clade, close to the species Vibrio tubiashii. The results of MLSA, the DDH rate and the phenotypic differences with the type strain of V. tubiashii supported the differentiation of the Galician isolates as a new subspecies within V. tubiashii, for which the name V. tubiashii subsp. europaeus [corrected] subsp. nov. is proposed (type strain PP-638(T)=CECT 8136(T)=DSM 7349(T)) The emended description of V. tubiashii is included. The pathogenicity assays widen the host range of V. tubiashii to add two unreported species, Venerupis decussata and Donax trunculus, and the described as relatively resistant species V. philippinarum.
Aruchunnan, Ganaswary; Foo, Ng Yong; Ling, Wee Suk; Hazmi, Izfa Riza
The attractiveness of cow dung of different ages towards dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) was studied in Tasik Chini Biosphere Reserve from February to April 2014. A total of 1,371 individuals belonging to 29 species and 11 genera had successfully collected in traps baited with cow dung aged at 1, 3 and 5 days. Cow dung was highly attractive at first 24 hours, and its attractiveness greatly reduced at Day 3 and Day 5. The result shows significant differences in the means of abundance (F = 4.60, d f= 2 & 24, P = 0.02) and species richness (F = 15.13, df = 2 & 24, P = 5.6 × 10-5). Bray Curtis similarity index indicated high community similarity between trap captures on Day 3 and Day 5 (59.7 %) compare to Day 1 (15.1 %) that leads to an assumption that some species preferentially colonized fresh dung while some species prefer aged dung. Species Copris agnus, Onthophagus aphodiodes, O. rorarius, O. orientalis, O. rutilans, O. vulpes, Oniticellus tessellatus and Paragymnopleurus maurus were captured on Day-1, while O. peninsularis and O. sumaveiensis captured on Day-3 and Day-5. Among the 11 genera, Onthophagus species was found to be most abundant with 762 individuals representing 55.6 % of the total captures. The most abundant species was Sisyphus thoracicus with 524 individuals (38.2 %). The dung beetle fauna's species accumulation curve in Tasik Chini did not reach to an asymptote suggesting more sampling effort is needed.
Haensch, Stephanie; Bianucci, Raffaella; Signoli, Michel; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Schultz, Michael; Kacki, Sacha; Vermunt, Marco; Weston, Darlene A.; Hurst, Derek; Achtman, Mark; Carniel, Elisabeth; Bramanti, Barbara
From AD 1347 to AD 1353, the Black Death killed tens of millions of people in Europe, leaving misery and devastation in its wake, with successive epidemics ravaging the continent until the 18th century. The etiology of this disease has remained highly controversial, ranging from claims based on genetics and the historical descriptions of symptoms that it was caused by Yersinia pestis to conclusions that it must have been caused by other pathogens. It has also been disputed whether plague had the same etiology in northern and southern Europe. Here we identified DNA and protein signatures specific for Y. pestis in human skeletons from mass graves in northern, central and southern Europe that were associated archaeologically with the Black Death and subsequent resurgences. We confirm that Y. pestis caused the Black Death and later epidemics on the entire European continent over the course of four centuries. Furthermore, on the basis of 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms plus the absence of a deletion in glpD gene, our aDNA results identified two previously unknown but related clades of Y. pestis associated with distinct medieval mass graves. These findings suggest that plague was imported to Europe on two or more occasions, each following a distinct route. These two clades are ancestral to modern isolates of Y. pestis biovars Orientalis and Medievalis. Our results clarify the etiology of the Black Death and provide a paradigm for a detailed historical reconstruction of the infection routes followed by this disease. PMID:20949072
Lammerts van Bueren, A.; Ghinet, M; Gregg, K; Fleury, A; Brzezinski, R; Boraston, A
Family 2 of the glycoside hydrolase classification is one of the largest families. Structurally characterized members of this family include enzymes with beta-galactosidase activity (Escherichia coli LacZ), beta-glucuronidase activity (Homo sapiens GusB), and beta-mannosidase activity (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron BtMan2A). Here, we describe the structure of a family 2 glycoside hydrolase, CsxA, from Amycolatopsis orientalis that has exo-beta-D-glucosaminidase (exo-chitosanase) activity. Analysis of a product complex (1.85 A resolution) reveals a unique negatively charged pocket that specifically accommodates the nitrogen of nonreducing end glucosamine residues, allowing this enzyme to discriminate between glucose and glucosamine. This also provides structural evidence for the role of E541 as the catalytic nucleophile and D469 as the catalytic acid/base. The structures of an E541A mutant in complex with a natural beta-1,4-D-glucosamine tetrasaccharide substrate and both E541A and D469A mutants in complex with a pNP-beta-D-glucosaminide synthetic substrate provide insight into interactions in the +1 subsite of this enzyme. Overall, a comparison with the active sites of other GH2 enzymes highlights the unique architecture of the CsxA active site, which imparts specificity for its cationic substrate.
Van Bueren, A.; Ghinet, M; Gregg, K; Fleury, A; Brzezinski, R; Boraston, A
Family 2 of the glycoside hydrolase classification is one of the largest families. Structurally characterized members of this family include enzymes with ?-galactosidase activity (Escherichia coli LacZ), ?-glucuronidase activity (Homo sapiens GusB), and ?-mannosidase activity (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron BtMan2A). Here, we describe the structure of a family 2 glycoside hydrolase, CsxA, from Amycolatopsis orientalis that has exo-?-d-glucosaminidase (exo-chitosanase) activity. Analysis of a product complex (1.85 A resolution) reveals a unique negatively charged pocket that specifically accommodates the nitrogen of nonreducing end glucosamine residues, allowing this enzyme to discriminate between glucose and glucosamine. This also provides structural evidence for the role of E541 as the catalytic nucleophile and D469 as the catalytic acid/base. The structures of an E541A mutant in complex with a natural ?-1,4-d-glucosamine tetrasaccharide substrate and both E541A and D469A mutants in complex with a pNP-?-d-glucosaminide synthetic substrate provide insight into interactions in the + 1 subsite of this enzyme. Overall, a comparison with the active sites of other GH2 enzymes highlights the unique architecture of the CsxA active site, which imparts specificity for its cationic substrate.
Over the last 10 years or so, infections caused by bacteria belonging to a particular branch of the genus Francisella have become increasingly recognised in farmed fish and molluscs worldwide. While the increasing incidence of diagnoses may in part be due to the development and widespread availability of molecular detection techniques, the domestication of new organisms has undoubtedly instigated emergence of clinical disease in some species. Francisellosis in fish develops in a similar fashion independent of host species and is commonly characterised by the presence of multi-organ granuloma and high morbidity, with varying associated mortality levels. A number of fish species are affected including Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua; tilapia, Oreochromis sp.; Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar; hybrid striped bass, Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis and three-lined grunt, Parapristipoma trilinineatum. The disease is highly infectious and often prevalent in affected stocks. Most, if not all strains isolated from teleost fish belong to either F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis in warm water fish species or Francisella noa