Science.gov

Sample records for galfa-hi survey techniques

  1. The GALFA-HI Survey: Transition from HI to H2 Caught in Action in the Perseus Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min-Young; Stanimirovic, S.; Leroy, A.; Douglas, K.; Di Francesco, J.; Gibson, S.; Knee, L.; Plume, R.; Begum, A.; Grcevich, J.; Heiles, C.; Korpela, E.; Peek, J.; Pingel, N.; Putman, M.; Saul, D.

    2011-01-01

    The conversion of atomic gas into molecular gas is a critical process for star formation. Yet, a deep understanding of fundamental agents that control the ratio of atomic to molecular gas in molecular clouds has not been achieved. Recently, Krumholz et al. (2009) provided theoretical predictions for the ratio of atomic to molecular gas in galaxies as a function of galactic properties (total gas column density and metallicity). We test the Krumholz's predictions on sub-parsec scales by investigating the ratio of atomic to molecular gas across the Perseus molecular cloud. We estimate the dust column density using the IRIS 60 and 100 micron maps and derive the H2 column density from the excess of infrared emission relative to the HI column density. Using the HI data from the GALFA-HI Survey, we derive the map of RH2 (H2 surface density / HI surface density) for Perseus. Our comparison of observational data with the Krumholz's predictions shows that the model reasonably well describes RH2 as a function of total gas column density even at sub-parsec scales. We compare RH2 for several star-forming and dark clouds in Perseus to investigate the role of interstellar radiation field in molecule formation. This research was partially funded by the NSF grant AST-0707679 and the Research Corporation for Science Advancement.

  2. GALFA-HI: A Targeted Search For Star Formation on the Far Side of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stantzos, Nicholas; Gostisha, M.; Benjamin, R.; Gibson, S.; Koo, B.; Douglas, K. A.; Kang, J.; Park, G.; Peek, J. E. G.; Korpela, E. J.; Heiles, C.; Newton, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    The I-GALFA Survey provides a unique window on the spiral structure of the Milky Way as it contains three coherent 21 cm features that have been identified as spiral arms: the Perseus Arm, the Outer Arm, and the recently discovered Outer Scutum-Centaurus Arm. Moreover, all three of these arms lie beyond the solar circle (although the Perseus arm is thought to cross interior to the solar circle for l< 50 degrees), so this gas does not suffer the kinematic distance ambiguity encountered in the inner Galaxy. We use this data and the CO surveys compiled by Dame et al (2001) to target a search for distant star formation regions seen in the Spitzer Space Telescope/GLIMPSE and WISE mid-infrared all-sky surveys. We characterize the HI arms, and present the star formation regions that may be potentially associated with these three arms. Many of these objects will need spectroscopic follow-up, but some have been previously identified in the Green Bank Telescope HII Region Discovery Survey of Anderson et al (2011). The Inner Galaxy ALFA (I-GALFA) survey is part of the Galactic ALFA HI data set obtained with the Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) on the Arecibo 305m telescope. Arecibo Observatory is part of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, operated sequentially by Cornell University and Stanford Research Institute under Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. National Science Foundation.

  3. A Survey of Shape Parameterization Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of shape parameterization techniques for multidisciplinary optimization and highlights some emerging ideas. The survey focuses on the suitability of available techniques for complex configurations, with suitability criteria based on the efficiency, effectiveness, ease of implementation, and availability of analytical sensitivities for geometry and grids. The paper also contains a section on field grid regeneration, grid deformation, and sensitivity analysis techniques.

  4. Survey of Biochemical Separation Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Melanie R.

    2007-01-01

    A simple laboratory exercise is illustrated that exposes students to wide range of separation techniques in one laboratory program and provides a nice complement to a project-oriented program. Students have learned the basic principles of syringe filtration, centricon, dialysis, gel filtration and solid-phase extraction methodologies and have got…

  5. Survey of Header Compression Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishac, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This report provides a summary of several different header compression techniques. The different techniques included are: (1) Van Jacobson's header compression (RFC 1144); (2) SCPS (Space Communications Protocol Standards) header compression (SCPS-TP, SCPS-NP); (3) Robust header compression (ROHC); and (4) The header compression techniques in RFC2507 and RFC2508. The methodology for compression and error correction for these schemes are described in the remainder of this document. All of the header compression schemes support compression over simplex links, provided that the end receiver has some means of sending data back to the sender. However, if that return path does not exist, then neither Van Jacobson's nor SCPS can be used, since both rely on TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). In addition, under link conditions of low delay and low error, all of the schemes perform as expected. However, based on the methodology of the schemes, each scheme is likely to behave differently as conditions degrade. Van Jacobson's header compression relies heavily on the TCP retransmission timer and would suffer an increase in loss propagation should the link possess a high delay and/or bit error rate (BER). The SCPS header compression scheme protects against high delay environments by avoiding delta encoding between packets. Thus, loss propagation is avoided. However, SCPS is still affected by an increased BER (bit-error-rate) since the lack of delta encoding results in larger header sizes. Next, the schemes found in RFC2507 and RFC2508 perform well for non-TCP connections in poor conditions. RFC2507 performance with TCP connections is improved by various techniques over Van Jacobson's, but still suffers a performance hit with poor link properties. Also, RFC2507 offers the ability to send TCP data without delta encoding, similar to what SCPS offers. ROHC is similar to the previous two schemes, but adds additional CRCs (cyclic redundancy check) into headers and improves

  6. Survey of data compression techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Gryder, R.; Hake, K.

    1991-09-01

    PM-AIM must provide to customers in a timely fashion information about Army acquisitions. This paper discusses ways that PM-AIM can reduce the volume of data that must be transmitted between sites. Although this paper primarily discusses techniques of data compression, it also briefly discusses other options for meeting the PM-AIM requirements. The options available to PM-AIM, in addition to hardware and software data compression, include less-frequent updates, distribution of partial updates, distributed data base design, and intelligent network design. Any option that enhances the performance of the PM-AIM network is worthy of consideration. The recommendations of this paper apply to the PM-AIM project in three phases: the current phase, the target phase, and the objective phase. Each recommendation will be identified as (1) appropriate for the current phase, (2) considered for implementation during the target phase, or (3) a feature that should be part of the objective phase of PM-AIM`s design. The current phase includes only those measures that can be taken with the installed leased lines. The target phase includes those measures that can be taken in transferring the traffic from the leased lines to the DSNET environment with minimal changes in the current design. The objective phase includes all the things that should be done as a matter of course. The objective phase for PM-AIM appears to be a distributed data base with data for each site stored locally and all sites having access to all data.

  7. Survey of data compression techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Gryder, R.; Hake, K.

    1991-09-01

    PM-AIM must provide to customers in a timely fashion information about Army acquisitions. This paper discusses ways that PM-AIM can reduce the volume of data that must be transmitted between sites. Although this paper primarily discusses techniques of data compression, it also briefly discusses other options for meeting the PM-AIM requirements. The options available to PM-AIM, in addition to hardware and software data compression, include less-frequent updates, distribution of partial updates, distributed data base design, and intelligent network design. Any option that enhances the performance of the PM-AIM network is worthy of consideration. The recommendations of this paper apply to the PM-AIM project in three phases: the current phase, the target phase, and the objective phase. Each recommendation will be identified as (1) appropriate for the current phase, (2) considered for implementation during the target phase, or (3) a feature that should be part of the objective phase of PM-AIM's design. The current phase includes only those measures that can be taken with the installed leased lines. The target phase includes those measures that can be taken in transferring the traffic from the leased lines to the DSNET environment with minimal changes in the current design. The objective phase includes all the things that should be done as a matter of course. The objective phase for PM-AIM appears to be a distributed data base with data for each site stored locally and all sites having access to all data.

  8. A Survey of Techniques for Approximate Computing

    DOE PAGES

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2016-03-18

    Approximate computing trades off computation quality with the effort expended and as rising performance demands confront with plateauing resource budgets, approximate computing has become, not merely attractive, but even imperative. Here, we present a survey of techniques for approximate computing (AC). We discuss strategies for finding approximable program portions and monitoring output quality, techniques for using AC in different processing units (e.g., CPU, GPU and FPGA), processor components, memory technologies etc., and programming frameworks for AC. Moreover, we classify these techniques based on several key characteristics to emphasize their similarities and differences. Finally, the aim of this paper is tomore » provide insights to researchers into working of AC techniques and inspire more efforts in this area to make AC the mainstream computing approach in future systems.« less

  9. A Survey of Techniques for Approximate Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2016-03-18

    Approximate computing trades off computation quality with the effort expended and as rising performance demands confront with plateauing resource budgets, approximate computing has become, not merely attractive, but even imperative. Here, we present a survey of techniques for approximate computing (AC). We discuss strategies for finding approximable program portions and monitoring output quality, techniques for using AC in different processing units (e.g., CPU, GPU and FPGA), processor components, memory technologies etc., and programming frameworks for AC. Moreover, we classify these techniques based on several key characteristics to emphasize their similarities and differences. Finally, the aim of this paper is to provide insights to researchers into working of AC techniques and inspire more efforts in this area to make AC the mainstream computing approach in future systems.

  10. Properties of Cold HI Emission Clouds in the Inner-Galaxy ALFA Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, James Marcus; Gibson, Steven J.; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Newton, Jonathan; Koo, Bon-Chul; Douglas, Kevin A.; Peek, Joshua Eli Goldston; Park, Geumsook; Kang, Ji-hyun; Korpela, Eric J.; Heiles, Carl E.; Dame, Thomas M.

    2017-01-01

    Star formation, a critical process within galaxies, occurs in the coldest, densest interstellar clouds, whose gas and dust content are observed primarily at radio and infrared wavelengths. The formation of molecular hydrogen (H2) from neutral atomic hydrogen (HI) is an essential early step in the condensation of these clouds from the ambient interstellar medium, but it is not yet completely understood, e.g., what is the predominant trigger? Even more troubling, the abundance of H2 may be severely underestimated by standard tracers like CO, implying significant "dark" H2, and the quantity of HI may also be in error if opacity effects are neglected. We have developed an automated method to account for both HI and H2 in cold, diffuse clouds traced by narrow-line HI 21-cm emission in the Arecibo Inner-Galaxy ALFA (I-GALFA) survey. Our algorithm fits narrow (2-5 km/s), isolated HI line profiles to determine their spin temperature, optical depth, and true column density. We then estimate the "visible" H2 column in the same clouds with CfA and Planck CO data and the total gas column from dust emission measured by Planck, IRAS, and other surveys. Together, these provide constraints on the dark H2 abundance, which we examine in relation to other cloud properties and stages of development. Our aim is to build a database of H2-forming regions with significant dark gas to aid future analyses of coalescing interstellar clouds. We acknowledge support from NSF, NASA, Western Kentucky University, and Williams College. I-GALFA is a GALFA-HI survey observed with the 7-beam ALFA receiver on the 305-meter William E. Gordon Telescope. The Arecibo Observatory is a U.S. National Science Foundation facility operated under sequential cooperative agreements with Cornell University and SRI International, the latter in alliance with the Ana G. Mendez-Universidad Metropolitana and the Universities Space Research Association.

  11. Survey of Radiographic Requirements and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farman, Allan G.; Shawkat, Abdul H.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of dental schools revealed little standardization of student requirements for dental radiography in the United States. There was a high degree of variability as to what constituted a full radiographic survey, which has implications concerning the maximum limits to patient exposure to radiation. (Author/MLW)

  12. Survey Of Present Lens Molding Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollicove, Harvey M.

    1988-07-01

    This survey will provide an overview of glass molding technologies, with a concentration in the newest of the technologies - Precision Glass Molding (PGM). A brief description of various forms of glass molding, including an historical review of patents associated with precision molding, is given. A worldwide survey of known commercial availability and recent innovations in PGM at Kodak are presented as examples of the potential of the precision molding technology.

  13. A survey of underwater-acoustic ray tracing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. M.

    1983-06-01

    A survey of techniques and features available in underwater acoustic ray tracing computer programs is presented. The survey includes methods for constructing raypath trajectories, construction eigenrays, ray-intensity calculations, and ray theory corrections. The survey also includes models for sound speed (including interpolation methods), ocean bottom (including both bathymetry and reflection coefficient), ocean surface reflection coefficient, dissipation, temperature, salinity, and ocean current. In addition, methods for displaying models and methods for presenting ray tracing results are surveyed.

  14. Survey of Software Assurance Techniques for Highly Reliable Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Stacy

    2004-01-01

    This document provides a survey of software assurance techniques for highly reliable systems including a discussion of relevant safety standards for various industries in the United States and Europe, as well as examples of methods used during software development projects. It contains one section for each industry surveyed: Aerospace, Defense, Nuclear Power, Medical Devices and Transportation. Each section provides an overview of applicable standards and examples of a mission or software development project, software assurance techniques used and reliability achieved.

  15. Survey of air cargo forecasting techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthan, A. R.; Vermuri, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    Forecasting techniques currently in use in estimating or predicting the demand for air cargo in various markets are discussed with emphasis on the fundamentals of the different forecasting approaches. References to specific studies are cited when appropriate. The effectiveness of current methods is evaluated and several prospects for future activities or approaches are suggested. Appendices contain summary type analyses of about 50 specific publications on forecasting, and selected bibliographies on air cargo forecasting, air passenger demand forecasting, and general demand and modalsplit modeling.

  16. Superresolution imaging: a survey of current techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristóbal, G.; Gil, E.; Šroubek, F.; Flusser, J.; Miravet, C.; Rodríguez, F. B.

    2008-08-01

    Imaging plays a key role in many diverse areas of application, such as astronomy, remote sensing, microscopy, and tomography. Owing to imperfections of measuring devices (e.g., optical degradations, limited size of sensors) and instability of the observed scene (e.g., object motion, media turbulence), acquired images can be indistinct, noisy, and may exhibit insuffcient spatial and temporal resolution. In particular, several external effects blur images. Techniques for recovering the original image include blind deconvolution (to remove blur) and superresolution (SR). The stability of these methods depends on having more than one image of the same frame. Differences between images are necessary to provide new information, but they can be almost unperceivable. State-of-the-art SR techniques achieve remarkable results in resolution enhancement by estimating the subpixel shifts between images, but they lack any apparatus for calculating the blurs. In this paper, after introducing a review of current SR techniques we describe two recently developed SR methods by the authors. First, we introduce a variational method that minimizes a regularized energy function with respect to the high resolution image and blurs. In this way we establish a unifying way to simultaneously estimate the blurs and the high resolution image. By estimating blurs we automatically estimate shifts with subpixel accuracy, which is inherent for good SR performance. Second, an innovative learning-based algorithm using a neural architecture for SR is described. Comparative experiments on real data illustrate the robustness and utilization of both methods.

  17. A survey of compiler optimization techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneck, P. B.

    1972-01-01

    Major optimization techniques of compilers are described and grouped into three categories: machine dependent, architecture dependent, and architecture independent. Machine-dependent optimizations tend to be local and are performed upon short spans of generated code by using particular properties of an instruction set to reduce the time or space required by a program. Architecture-dependent optimizations are global and are performed while generating code. These optimizations consider the structure of a computer, but not its detailed instruction set. Architecture independent optimizations are also global but are based on analysis of the program flow graph and the dependencies among statements of source program. A conceptual review of a universal optimizer that performs architecture-independent optimizations at source-code level is also presented.

  18. Several flow visualization and survey techniques developed recently in HARI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jiechuan; Zhang, Xiaodi; Helian, Huizheng; Zhao, Dong

    1992-12-01

    This paper depicts three flow visualization and survey techniques developed recently at Harbin Aerodynamics Research Institute (HARI), i.e., color helium bubble flow visualization, combined light-sheet flow visualization, and computerized color graphic flow visualization. The principle, performance, and application of them are given in this paper.

  19. The 6-GHz multibeam maser survey - I. Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J. A.; Caswell, J. L.; Fuller, G. A.; Avison, A.; Breen, S. L.; Brooks, K.; Burton, M. G.; Chrysostomou, A.; Cox, J.; Diamond, P. J.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Gray, M. D.; Hoare, M. G.; Masheder, M. R. W.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Pestalozzi, M.; Phillips, C.; Quinn, L.; Thompson, M. A.; Voronkov, M. A.; Walsh, A.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Wong-McSweeney, D.; Yates, J. A.; Cohen, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    A new seven-beam 6-7GHz receiver has been built to survey the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds for newly forming high-mass stars that are pinpointed by strong methanol maser emission at 6668MHz. The receiver was jointly constructed by Jodrell Bank Observatory (JBO) and the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) and allows simultaneous coverage at 6668 and 6035MHz. It was successfully commissioned at Parkes in 2006 January and is now being used to conduct the Parkes-Jodrell multibeam maser survey of the Milky Way. This will be the first systematic survey of the entire Galactic plane for masers of not only 6668-MHz methanol, but also 6035-MHz excited-state hydroxyl. The survey is two orders of magnitude faster than most previous systematic surveys and has an rms noise level of ~0.17Jy. This paper describes the observational strategy, techniques and reduction procedures of the Galactic and Magellanic Cloud surveys, together with deeper, pointed, follow-up observations and complementary observations with other instruments. It also includes an estimate of the survey detection efficiency. The 111d of observations with the Parkes telescope have so far yielded >800 methanol sources, of which ~350 are new discoveries. The whole project will provide the first comprehensive Galaxy-wide catalogue of 6668-MHz and 6035-MHz masers.

  20. Nondestructive Technique Survey for Assessing Integrity of Composite Firing Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, A.

    2000-08-01

    The repeated use and limited lifetime of a composite tiring vessel compel a need to survey techniques for monitoring the structural integrity of the vessel in order to determine when it should be retired. Various nondestructive techniques were researched and evaluated based on their applicability to the vessel. The methods were visual inspection, liquid penetrant testing, magnetic particle testing, surface mounted strain gauges, thermal inspection, acoustic emission, ultrasonic testing, radiography, eddy current testing, and embedded fiber optic sensors. It was determined that embedded fiber optic sensor is the most promising technique due to their ability to be embedded within layers of composites and their immunity to electromagnetic interference.

  1. A survey of visual preprocessing and shape representation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olshausen, Bruno A.

    1988-01-01

    Many recent theories and methods proposed for visual preprocessing and shape representation are summarized. The survey brings together research from the fields of biology, psychology, computer science, electrical engineering, and most recently, neural networks. It was motivated by the need to preprocess images for a sparse distributed memory (SDM), but the techniques presented may also prove useful for applying other associative memories to visual pattern recognition. The material of this survey is divided into three sections: an overview of biological visual processing; methods of preprocessing (extracting parts of shape, texture, motion, and depth); and shape representation and recognition (form invariance, primitives and structural descriptions, and theories of attention).

  2. Reef Fish Survey Techniques: Assessing the Potential for Standardizing Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Zachary R.; Zgliczynski, Brian J.; Williams, Gareth J.; Sandin, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Dramatic changes in populations of fishes living on coral reefs have been documented globally and, in response, the research community has initiated efforts to assess and monitor reef fish assemblages. A variety of visual census techniques are employed, however results are often incomparable due to differential methodological performance. Although comparability of data may promote improved assessment of fish populations, and thus management of often critically important nearshore fisheries, to date no standardized and agreed-upon survey method has emerged. This study describes the use of methods across the research community and identifies potential drivers of method selection. An online survey was distributed to researchers from academic, governmental, and non-governmental organizations internationally. Although many methods were identified, 89% of survey-based projects employed one of three methods–belt transect, stationary point count, and some variation of the timed swim method. The selection of survey method was independent of the research design (i.e., assessment goal) and region of study, but was related to the researcher’s home institution. While some researchers expressed willingness to modify their current survey protocols to more standardized protocols (76%), their willingness decreased when methodologies were tied to long-term datasets spanning five or more years. Willingness to modify current methodologies was also less common among academic researchers than resource managers. By understanding both the current application of methods and the reported motivations for method selection, we hope to focus discussions towards increasing the comparability of quantitative reef fish survey data. PMID:27111085

  3. Integrated Surveying Techniques for Sensitive Areas: San Felice Sul Panaro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarin, M.; Buttolo, V.; Guerra, F.; Vernier, P.

    2013-07-01

    The last few years have marked an exponential growth in the use of electronic and computing technologies that opened new possibilities and new scenarios in the Geomatic field. This evolution of tools and methods has led to new ways of approaching survey. For what concerns architecture, the new tools for survey acquisition and 3D modelling allow the representation of an object through a digital model, combining the visual potentials of images, normally used for documentation, with the precision of a metric survey. This research focuses on the application of these new technologies and methodologies on sensitive areas, such as portions of the cities affected by earthquakes. In this field the survey is intended to provide a useful support for other structural analysis, in conservation as well as for restoration studies. However, survey in architecture is still a very complex operation both from a methodological and a practical point of view: it requires a critical interpretation of the artefacts and a deep knowledge of the existing techniques and technologies, which often are very different but need to be integrated within a single general framework. This paper describes the first results of the survey conducted on the church of San Geminiano in San Felice sul Panaro (Modena). Here, different tools and methods were used, in order to create a new system that integrates the most recent and cutting-edge technologies in the Geomatic field. The methodologies used were laser scanning, UAV photogrammetry and topography for the definition of the reference system. The present work will focus on the data acquisition and processing whit these techniques and their integration.

  4. Surveying co-located space geodesy techniques for ITRF computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarti, P.; Sillard, P.; Vittuari, L.

    2003-04-01

    We present a comprehensive operational methodology, based on classical geodesy triangulation and trilateration, that allows the determination of reference points of the five space geodesy techniques used in ITRF computation (i.e.: DORIS, GPS, LLR, SLR, VLBI). Most of the times, for a single technique, the reference point is not accessible and measurable directly. Likewise, no mechanically determined ex-center with respect to an external and measurable point is usually given. In these cases, it is not possible to directly measure the sought reference points and it is even less straightforward to obtain the statistical information relating these points for different techniques. We outline the most general practical surveying methodology that permits to recover the reference points of the different techniques regardless of their physical materialization. We also give a detailed analytical approach for less straightforward cases (e.g.: non geodetic VLBI antennae and SLR/LLR systems). We stress the importance of surveying instrumentation and procedure in achieving the best possible results and outline the impact of the information retrieved with our method in ITRF computation. In particular, we will give numerical examples of computation of the reference point of VLBI antennae (Ny Aalesund and Medicina) and the ex-centre vector computation linking co-located VLBI and GPS techniques in Medicina (Italy). A special attention was paid to the rigorous derivation of statistical elements. They will be presented in an other presentation.

  5. Digital Survey Techniques for the Documentation of Wooden Shipwrecks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, E.; Balletti, C.; Beltrame, C.; Guerra, F.; Vernier, P.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, researchers widely employ the acquisition of point clouds as one of the principal type of documentation for cultural heritage. In this paper, different digital survey techniques are employed to document a wooden ancient shipwreck, a particular and difficult kind of archaeological finding due to its material characteristics. The instability of wood and the high costs of restoration do not always offer the opportunity of recovering and showing the hull to researchers and public and three-dimensional surveys are fundamental to document the original conditions of the wood. The precarious conditions of this material in contact with air could modify the structure and the size of the boat, requiring a fast and accurate recording technique. The collaboration between Ca' Foscari University and the Laboratory of Photogrammetry of Iuav University of Venice has given the possibility to demonstrate the utility of these technology. We have surveyed a sewn boat of Roman age through multi-image photogrammetry and laser scanner. Point clouds were compared and a residual analysis was done, to verify the characteristics and the opportunity of the two techniques, both of them have allowed obtaining a very precise documentation from a metrical point of view.

  6. Power Management Techniques for Data Centers: A Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2014-07-01

    With growing use of internet and exponential growth in amount of data to be stored and processed (known as ``big data''), the size of data centers has greatly increased. This, however, has resulted in significant increase in the power consumption of the data centers. For this reason, managing power consumption of data centers has become essential. In this paper, we highlight the need of achieving energy efficiency in data centers and survey several recent architectural techniques designed for power management of data centers. We also present a classification of these techniques based on their characteristics. This paper aims to provide insights into the techniques for improving energy efficiency of data centers and encourage the designers to invent novel solutions for managing the large power dissipation of data centers.

  7. A Survey of Architectural Techniques for Near-Threshold Computing

    DOE PAGES

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2015-12-28

    Energy efficiency has now become the primary obstacle in scaling the performance of all classes of computing systems. In low-voltage computing and specifically, near-threshold voltage computing (NTC), which involves operating the transistor very close to and yet above its threshold voltage, holds the promise of providing many-fold improvement in energy efficiency. However, use of NTC also presents several challenges such as increased parametric variation, failure rate and performance loss etc. Our paper surveys several re- cent techniques which aim to offset these challenges for fully leveraging the potential of NTC. By classifying these techniques along several dimensions, we also highlightmore » their similarities and differences. Ultimately, we hope that this paper will provide insights into state-of-art NTC techniques to researchers and system-designers and inspire further research in this field.« less

  8. A Survey of Architectural Techniques for Near-Threshold Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2015-12-28

    Energy efficiency has now become the primary obstacle in scaling the performance of all classes of computing systems. In low-voltage computing and specifically, near-threshold voltage computing (NTC), which involves operating the transistor very close to and yet above its threshold voltage, holds the promise of providing many-fold improvement in energy efficiency. However, use of NTC also presents several challenges such as increased parametric variation, failure rate and performance loss etc. Our paper surveys several re- cent techniques which aim to offset these challenges for fully leveraging the potential of NTC. By classifying these techniques along several dimensions, we also highlight their similarities and differences. Ultimately, we hope that this paper will provide insights into state-of-art NTC techniques to researchers and system-designers and inspire further research in this field.

  9. Literature survey of heat transfer enhancement techniques in refrigeration applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, M.K.; Shome, B.

    1994-05-01

    A survey has been performed of the technical and patent literature on enhanced heat transfer of refrigerants in pool boiling, forced convection evaporation, and condensation. Extensive bibliographies of the technical literature and patents are given. Many passive and active techniques were examined for pure refrigerants, refrigerant-oil mixtures, and refrigerant mixtures. The citations were categorized according to enhancement technique, heat transfer mode, and tube or shell side focus. The effects of the enhancement techniques relative to smooth and/or pure refrigerants were illustrated through the discussion of selected papers. Patented enhancement techniques also are discussed. Enhanced heat transfer has demonstrated significant improvements in performance in many refrigerant applications. However, refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil mixtures have not been studied extensively; no research has been performed with enhanced refrigerant mixtures with oil. Most studies have been of the parametric type; there has been inadequate examination of the fundamental processes governing enhanced refrigerant heat transfer, but some modeling is being done and correlations developed. It is clear that an enhancement technique must be optimized for the refrigerant and operating condition. Fundamental processes governing the heat transfer must be examined if models for enhancement techniques are to be developed; these models could provide the method to optimize a surface. Refrigerant mixtures, with and without oil present, must be studied with enhancement devices; there is too little known to be able to estimate the effects of mixtures (particularly NARMs) with enhanced heat transfer. Other conclusions and recommendations are offered.

  10. Using machine learning techniques to automate sky survey catalog generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fayyad, Usama M.; Roden, J. C.; Doyle, R. J.; Weir, Nicholas; Djorgovski, S. G.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the application of machine classification techniques to the development of an automated tool for the reduction of a large scientific data set. The 2nd Palomar Observatory Sky Survey provides comprehensive photographic coverage of the northern celestial hemisphere. The photographic plates are being digitized into images containing on the order of 10(exp 7) galaxies and 10(exp 8) stars. Since the size of this data set precludes manual analysis and classification of objects, our approach is to develop a software system which integrates independently developed techniques for image processing and data classification. Image processing routines are applied to identify and measure features of sky objects. Selected features are used to determine the classification of each object. GID3* and O-BTree, two inductive learning techniques, are used to automatically learn classification decision trees from examples. We describe the techniques used, the details of our specific application, and the initial encouraging results which indicate that our approach is well-suited to the problem. The benefits of the approach are increased data reduction throughput, consistency of classification, and the automated derivation of classification rules that will form an objective, examinable basis for classifying sky objects. Furthermore, astronomers will be freed from the tedium of an intensely visual task to pursue more challenging analysis and interpretation problems given automatically cataloged data.

  11. Survey of Experts on Current Endothelial Keratoplasty Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Winston; Austin, Ariana; Terry, Mark; Jeng, Bennie H; Rose-Nussbaumer, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Objective To survey cornea specialists’ opinions on different endothelial keratoplasty techniques and to gauge the perceived need for and utility of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing them. Methods A short survey was distributed to a group of cornea specialists at the Endothelial Keratoplasty Group meeting at the American Academy of Ophthalmology meeting in November 2015. Results Thirty-three of 80 practicing surgeons present at the EKG meeting participated in the survey, yielding a response rate of 41%. Ninety-seven percent (n=32) of our respondents reported performing Descemet’s Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty (DSEK) regularly, and 70% reported having performed Descemet’s Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty (DMEK) at least once (n=23). While most respondents (n=26, 79%) thought there was at least some evidence that DMEK is superior to DSEK in terms of visual acuity, there was less certainty about comparing ultrathin-DSEK (UT-DSEK) to DMEK with 48% (n=16) thinking there was at least some evidence of DMEK’s superiority, 6% (n=2) thinking there was at least some evidence of UT-DSEK’s superiority, and 30% (n=10) unsure. Seventy-two percent (n=23) of respondents thought an RCT comparing visual acuity outcomes in UT-DSEK versus DMEK would be at least moderately beneficial, and 82% (n=27) reported they were at least moderately likely to change their EK technique based on the results of said RCT. Conclusion There is substantial interest in an RCT comparing visual acuity outcomes in UT-DSEK versus DMEK. PMID:28149669

  12. Integration of Geomatic Techniques for the Urban Cavity Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidda, M.; Sanna, G.

    2013-07-01

    Cagliari, county seat of Sardinia Region (Italy), situated in the southern part of the island, is characterized by a subsoil full of cavities. The excavations in fact, which lasted more than 4000 years, had a great development due also to the special geological characteristics of the city subsoil. The underground voids, which the city is rich in, belong to different classes such as hydraulic structures (aqueducts, cisterns, wells, etc.), settlement works (tunnels, bomb shelters, tombs etc.) and various works (quarries, natural caves, etc.). This paper describes the phases of the survey of a large cavity below a high-traffic square near the Faculty of Engineering in the city of Cagliari, where the research team works. The cave, which is part of a larger complex, is important because it was used in the thirteenth century (known as the Pisan age) as a stone quarry. There are traces of this activity that have to be protected. Moreover, during the last forty years the continuous crossover of vehicles cracked the roof of the cave compromising the stability of the entire area. Consequently a plan was developed to make the whole cavity safe and usable for visits. The study of the safety of the cave has involved different professionals among which geologists, engineers, constructors. The goal of the University of Cagliari geomatic team was to solve two problems: to obtain geometrical information about the void and correctly place the cave in the context of existing maps. The survey and the products, useful for the investigation of the technicians involved, had to comply with tolerances of 3 cm in the horizontal and 5 cm in the vertical component. The approach chosen for this purpose was to integrate different geomatic techniques. The cave was surveyed using a laser scanner (Faro Photon 80) in order to obtain a 3D model of the cave from which all the geometrical information was derived, while both classic topography and GPS techniques were used to include the cave in the

  13. Quantitative optical techniques for dense sprays investigation: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coghe, A.; Cossali, G. E.

    2012-01-01

    The experimental study of dense sprays by optical techniques poses many challenges and no methods have proven to be completely reliable when accurate quantitative data are required, for example to validate breakup models and CFD simulations. The present survey is aimed to a critical analysis of optical techniques capable to provide quantitative and reliable data in dense sprays and to point out the conditions necessary to safely obtain such measurements. A single parameter, the optical depth, is proposed to quantify the concept of dense spray and to indicate when multiple scattering becomes predominant and could make the experimental results questionable. Many available optical techniques are divided into two categories: the "classical" ones, like PDA, LDV, PIV, etc., that work well in dilute sprays but show many limitations in dense sprays, and the "emerging" ones more suitable for dense sprays. Among the last ones, those considered more promising are discussed in detail. A number of significant applications are also presented and discussed to better clarify the nature of such complex problem and the feasibility of the new proposed approaches.

  14. Stabilizing the Carbon Marker During Surveying: An Innovative Technique.

    PubMed

    Pande, Neelam Abhay; Kulkarni, Sayali; Radke, Usha; Rathi, Akhil

    2014-12-01

    Dental surveyor has been defined as an instrument used to determine the relative parallelism of two or more surfaces of the teeth or other parts of the cast of a dental arch. Therefore the primary purpose of surveying is to identify the modifications of oral structures that are necessary to fabricate a removable partial denture that will have a successful prognosis. It is the modification of tooth surfaces to accommodate placement of the component parts of the partial denture in their designated ideal position on abutment teeth that facilitates this prognosis. Routinely, during marking the survey line, the carbon marker breaks many a times, as it is somehow brittle in structure, even after holding it in the metal sheath. This unnecessarily lengthens the working time of the operator as well as laboratory personnel. In the above mentioned new technique, the plastic refill sheath holds the carbon marker easily and securely. This serves the marking on the cast without breakage of carbon marker, thus saves the operator's time. The plastic refill sheath is easily available and economical.

  15. A survey of CPU-GPU heterogeneous computing techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2015-07-04

    As both CPU and GPU become employed in a wide range of applications, it has been acknowledged that both of these processing units (PUs) have their unique features and strengths and hence, CPU-GPU collaboration is inevitable to achieve high-performance computing. This has motivated significant amount of research on heterogeneous computing techniques, along with the design of CPU-GPU fused chips and petascale heterogeneous supercomputers. In this paper, we survey heterogeneous computing techniques (HCTs) such as workload-partitioning which enable utilizing both CPU and GPU to improve performance and/or energy efficiency. We review heterogeneous computing approaches at runtime, algorithm, programming, compiler and application level. Further, we review both discrete and fused CPU-GPU systems; and discuss benchmark suites designed for evaluating heterogeneous computing systems (HCSs). Furthermore, we believe that this paper will provide insights into working and scope of applications of HCTs to researchers and motivate them to further harness the computational powers of CPUs and GPUs to achieve the goal of exascale performance.

  16. A survey of CPU-GPU heterogeneous computing techniques

    DOE PAGES

    Mittal, Sparsh; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2015-07-04

    As both CPU and GPU become employed in a wide range of applications, it has been acknowledged that both of these processing units (PUs) have their unique features and strengths and hence, CPU-GPU collaboration is inevitable to achieve high-performance computing. This has motivated significant amount of research on heterogeneous computing techniques, along with the design of CPU-GPU fused chips and petascale heterogeneous supercomputers. In this paper, we survey heterogeneous computing techniques (HCTs) such as workload-partitioning which enable utilizing both CPU and GPU to improve performance and/or energy efficiency. We review heterogeneous computing approaches at runtime, algorithm, programming, compiler and applicationmore » level. Further, we review both discrete and fused CPU-GPU systems; and discuss benchmark suites designed for evaluating heterogeneous computing systems (HCSs). Furthermore, we believe that this paper will provide insights into working and scope of applications of HCTs to researchers and motivate them to further harness the computational powers of CPUs and GPUs to achieve the goal of exascale performance.« less

  17. Surveying and benchmarking techniques to analyse DNA gel fingerprint images.

    PubMed

    Heras, Jónathan; Domínguez, César; Mata, Eloy; Pascual, Vico

    2016-11-01

    DNA fingerprinting is a genetic typing technique that allows the analysis of the genomic relatedness between samples, and the comparison of DNA patterns. The analysis of DNA gel fingerprint images usually consists of five consecutive steps: image pre-processing, lane segmentation, band detection, normalization and fingerprint comparison. In this article, we firstly survey the main methods that have been applied in the literature in each of these stages. Secondly, we focus on lane-segmentation and band-detection algorithms-as they are the steps that usually require user-intervention-and detect the seven core algorithms used for both tasks. Subsequently, we present a benchmark that includes a data set of images, the gold standards associated with those images and the tools to measure the performance of lane-segmentation and band-detection algorithms. Finally, we implement the core algorithms used both for lane segmentation and band detection, and evaluate their performance using our benchmark. As a conclusion of that study, we obtain that the average profile algorithm is the best starting point for lane segmentation and band detection.

  18. Superconducting techniques for gravity survey and inertial navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, H.A.; Moody, M.V.; Paik, H.J.; Parke, J.W.

    1985-03-01

    Major improvements in sensitivity and drift can be made in inertial instruments by utilizing benign properties of materials available at liquid helium temperatures. We are developing a three-axis gravity gradiometer in which magnetic fields produced by persistent currents are modulated by motions of superconducting proof masses. Signals arising from both differential and common mode motions of the proof masses are detected by SQUIDs. The present design parameters give an intrinsic gravity gradient noise of 2 X 10/sup -12/ s/sup -2/ Hz /SUP -1/2/ , subject to improvements with new superconducting techniques under tests. A demonstration of such high sensitivity requires a very strict control of all error sources. The performance of our prototype gravity gradiometer when tested in a noisy terrestrial environment with its sensitive axis tilted at an angle of tan/sup -1/ 2 /SUP 1/2/ with respect to Earth's gravity is degraded to an error level of 7 X 10/sup -10/ s/sup -2/ Hz /SUP -1/2/ . In order to compensate for commonacceleration induced errors, we are also developing a six-axis superconducting accelerometer, based on a similar principle, which can detect the linear and angular acceleration vectors of the gradiometer platform simultaneously. Motion of a single, magnetically levitated, proof mass is monitored to resolve linear acceleration components to 4 X 10/sup -12/ m s/sup -2/ Hz /SUP -1/2/ and angular acceleration components to 3 X 10/sup -11/ rad s/sup -2/ Hz /SUP -1/2/ . This accelerometer, combined with the gradiometer, represents a gradiometer-aided inertial navigation/survey system.

  19. Survey techniques developed to align stacked beamlines at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.J.; Oren, W.; Tremblay, K.J.

    1994-04-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) in Newport News, Virginia is a new accelerator designed to produce 4 GeV 200 micro-amp continuous wave beams for nuclear physics research. It consists of two superconducting linacs each accelerating electrons by 400 MeV and linked by arcs allowing five pass recirculation. These linacs form the straight sections in a racetrack shaped accelerator contained in over 1.3 km of tunnel. The beam lines will consist of 42 superconducting accelerating cryomodules (in the linacs only), over 400 dipoles, 650 quadrupoles, and 100 sextupoles, most of the which are concentrated in the two arc sections of the machine. It is here that the single beam fine from the linacs is split into five beams of offering energy and transported to the opposite linac where it is recombined into a single beam to again pass through a linac and receive additional acceleration. These recirculation arcs are designed to maintain beam quality through a lattice which is achromatic, isochronous and whose length is equal to a multiple number of RF wavelengths. The short term relative alignment tolerances coupled with the beam fine design reflect the beam quality issues while absolute positioning determines the range of adjustment needed to match the RF phase in the linac segments. The alignment techniques which use a monumented control network as a reference, are designed to position stacked magnets and their support systems to these tolerances. Specialized procedures were tailored from existing hardware and software systems to address each phase or step of the alignment process. This allowed a relatively rapid expansion of alignment services at a new laboratory where surveying support was not seriously addressed until more then one third of the enclosure had been built.

  20. Surveying techniques with a solid-state magnetic multishot device

    SciTech Connect

    Thorogood, J.L. ); Knott, D.R. )

    1990-09-01

    An electronic magnetic multishot instrument was introduced in 1985 to overcome accuracy and reliability limitations associated with conventional photomechanical multishot systems. This paper describes the survey system and the instrument's performance capabilities. Our aim is to develop a tool-performance model for general application to the management of surveying operations. Accuracy is considered in two parts: sensor errors are considered in detail, and external effects on accuracy- e.g., axial misalignment, bottom-hole-assembly (BHA) deflection, geomagnetic influences, and drillstring-induced interference- are analyzed and quantified. The authors found that geomagnetic influences and drillstring-induced interference dominate the ultimate performance of all magnetic tools, particularly this electronic multishot instrument. This paper also describes in-hole referencing, a method of eliminating these errors that involves surveying the first part of an openhole section with a high-accuracy gyroscope and aligning data derived from subsequent magnetic surveys with it.

  1. AIRBORNE INERTIAL SURVEYING USING LASER TRACKING AND PROFILING TECHNIQUES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cyran, Edward J.; ,

    1986-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey through a contract with the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory has developed the Aerial Profiling of Terrain System. This is an airborne inertial surveying system designed to use a laser tracker to provide position and velocity updates, and a laser profiler to measure terrain elevations. The performance characteristics of the system are discussed with emphasis placed on the performance of the laser devices. The results of testing the system are summarized for both performance evaluation and applications.

  2. Survey of techniques used to preserve biological materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinler, E. J.; Hubbard, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The techniques used to preserve biological materials are documented and summarized. The report is presented in a handbook format that categorizes the most important preservation techniques available, and includes a representative sampling of the thousands of applications of these techniques to biological materials and organisms. Details of the information coverage and method of approach are outlined. Data are given in tabular form, and an index and extensive bibliography are included.

  3. Sampling for Telephone Surveys: Do the Results Depend on Technique?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Jennifer D.

    Two basic methods exist for drawing probability samples to be used in telephone surveys: directory sampling (from alphabetical or street directories) and random digit dialing (RDD). RDD includes unlisted numbers, whereas directory sampling includes only listed numbers. The goal of this paper is to estimate the effect of failure to include…

  4. The Future of Institutional Surveys: New Concepts, Techniques, and Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, J. Bruce

    1979-01-01

    The survey holds an increasingly important place in institutional advancement. As college and university decision makers turn more and more to their constituencies for support and assistance, a competent information-gathering and processing network becomes crucial. Heuristic v algorithmic designs, Attitude Information System, and the microcomputer…

  5. A Survey of Librarian Perceptions of Information Literacy Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yearwood, Simone L.; Foasberg, Nancy M.; Rosenberg, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching research competencies and information literacy is an integral part of the academic librarian's role. There has long been debate among librarians over what are the most effective methods of instruction for college students. Library Faculty members at a large urban university system were surveyed to determine their perceptions of the…

  6. Guidelines for a Training Course in Noise Survey Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadley, John; And Others

    The course is designed to train noise survey technicians during a 3-5 day period to make reliable measurements of 75 percent of the noise problems encountered in the community. The more complex noise problems remaining will continue to be handled by experienced specialists. These technicians will be trained to assist State and local governments in…

  7. Survey of Techniques for Clearing Military Smoke Clouds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    rearrange them, and thus achieve, in the author’s opinion, the mission of any literary survey: to inform the reader about the potential importance of...localities and under different meteorological conditions have different microstructures (e.g., Mason, 1957 or Podzimek, 1959) according to collected...This type of distribution seems to be very suitable for screening-smoke particle distribution in spite of the fact that during the screening smoke

  8. A survey of GPU-based medical image computing techniques.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lin; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Heye; Xie, Yongming; Wang, Defeng

    2012-09-01

    Medical imaging currently plays a crucial role throughout the entire clinical applications from medical scientific research to diagnostics and treatment planning. However, medical imaging procedures are often computationally demanding due to the large three-dimensional (3D) medical datasets to process in practical clinical applications. With the rapidly enhancing performances of graphics processors, improved programming support, and excellent price-to-performance ratio, the graphics processing unit (GPU) has emerged as a competitive parallel computing platform for computationally expensive and demanding tasks in a wide range of medical image applications. The major purpose of this survey is to provide a comprehensive reference source for the starters or researchers involved in GPU-based medical image processing. Within this survey, the continuous advancement of GPU computing is reviewed and the existing traditional applications in three areas of medical image processing, namely, segmentation, registration and visualization, are surveyed. The potential advantages and associated challenges of current GPU-based medical imaging are also discussed to inspire future applications in medicine.

  9. Survey of Temperature Measurement Techniques For Studying Underwater Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Alderfer, David W.

    2004-01-01

    Several optical methods for measuring temperature near underwater shock waves are reviewed and compared. The relative merits of the different techniques are compared, considering accuracy, precision, ease of use, applicable temperature range, maturity, spatial resolution, and whether or not special additives are required.

  10. USES OF MARKETING TECHNIQUES THE U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDermott, Michael P.

    1983-01-01

    The use of marketing techniques by government agencies to provide more efficient and effective dissemination of their information is a fairly recent development. A recessive economy, and increased scrutiny of operations have become a powerful incentive to maximize revenues and minimize expenses wherever possible as long as the primary mission of public service is satisfactorily met.

  11. A Survey of Terrain Modeling Technologies and Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    the Government with the abil- ity to contract for LIDAR data collection while ensuring accuracy and con- sistency of DTMs and geospatial models derived...techniques and methods for processing LIDAR and color imagery data to construct a high-fidelity DTM , 3-D geospatial model, and attributed geospatial...team also delivered a LIDAR intensity image of the terrain with same resolution as DTM and vegetation models in two forms: pixel level and geometrical

  12. A survey of reflectometry techniques with applications to TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Collazo, I.; Stacey, W.M.; Wilgen, J.; Hanson, G.; Bigelow, T.; Thomas, C.E.; Bretz, N.

    1993-12-01

    This report presents a review of reflectometry with particular attention to eXtraordinary mode (X-mode) reflectometry using the novel technique of dual frequency differential phase. The advantage of using an X-mode wave is that it can probe the edge of the plasma with much higher resolution and using a much smaller frequency range than with the Ordinary mode (O-Mode). The general problem with previous full phase reflectometry techniques is that of keeping track of the phase (on the order of 1000 fringes) as the frequency is swept over the band. The dual frequency phase difference technique has the advantage that since it is keeping track of the phase difference of two frequencies with a constant frequency separation, the fringe counting is on the order of only 3 to 5 fringes. This fringe count, combined with the high resolution of the X-mode wave and the small plasma access requirements of reflectometry, make X-mode reflectometry a very attractive diagnostic for today`s experiments and future fusion devices.

  13. A survey of computational intelligence techniques in protein function prediction.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Arvind Kumar; Srivastava, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    During the past, there was a massive growth of knowledge of unknown proteins with the advancement of high throughput microarray technologies. Protein function prediction is the most challenging problem in bioinformatics. In the past, the homology based approaches were used to predict the protein function, but they failed when a new protein was different from the previous one. Therefore, to alleviate the problems associated with homology based traditional approaches, numerous computational intelligence techniques have been proposed in the recent past. This paper presents a state-of-the-art comprehensive review of various computational intelligence techniques for protein function predictions using sequence, structure, protein-protein interaction network, and gene expression data used in wide areas of applications such as prediction of DNA and RNA binding sites, subcellular localization, enzyme functions, signal peptides, catalytic residues, nuclear/G-protein coupled receptors, membrane proteins, and pathway analysis from gene expression datasets. This paper also summarizes the result obtained by many researchers to solve these problems by using computational intelligence techniques with appropriate datasets to improve the prediction performance. The summary shows that ensemble classifiers and integration of multiple heterogeneous data are useful for protein function prediction.

  14. GPR as a Low Impact Paleontogical Survey Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturdevant, G. C.; Leverence, R.; Stewart, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Deweyville Formation, a Pleistocene fluvial sandstone, is a prolific source of megafaunal fossils from periods of low stand environmental conditions. GPR was employed in an environmentally sensitive area in close proximity to a salt dome in Northwest Harris County, Texas as a method of evaluating the probable paleo-depositional environment and to prospect for potential further site development of two distinct fossiliferous zones. The primary zone of interest is a lag gravel bounded sand responsible for producing a regionally unique fossil assemblage including South American megafauna (Lundelius et al, 2013). The secondary zone of interest contains undisturbed mammoth remains housed in coarse white sand emplaced on top of a clay drape which has been hypothesized to represent an oxbow lake formed by the meandering paleo-Brazos river. With an accurate map of the paleo-channel planning future activity can focus on maximizing fossil recovery and minimizing site impact. Pulse EKKO 250 MHz, 400MHz, and 1GHz system was employed in a prospect area proximal to the secondary site to calibrate and evaluate these systems for their resolution and penetration depth in the modern sediments. The data was processed using EKKO Mapper and EKKO View Deluxe software packages, 3d volumes were produced and sliced. Preliminary results from the 250 MHz demonstrate successful imaging of the sand-clay interface. After these surveys were run a small portion of the site was excavated to confirm the estimated velocities, the observed anomalies, and refine our modeling and interpretation, and improve grid design for further surveys. It was confirmed that the sand-clay interface was easily observable using GPR, however the grid spacing proved to be too wide, leading to artifacts in the 3d volume produced.

  15. Data indexing techniques for the EUVE all-sky survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J.; Saba, V.; Dobson, C.

    1992-01-01

    This poster describes techniques developed for manipulating large full-sky data sets for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer project. The authors have adapted the quatrilateralized cubic sphere indexing algorithm to allow us to efficiently store and process several types of large data sets, such as full-sky maps of photon counts, exposure time, and count rates. A variation of this scheme is used to index sparser data such as individual photon events and viewing times for selected areas of the sky, which are eventually used to create EUVE source catalogs.

  16. Use of GPR technique in surveying gravel road wearing course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarenketo, Timo; Vesa, Heikki

    2000-04-01

    During summer 1998 a series of tests were conducted in Finland in order to find out how Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technology can be utilized at both the project and network level, when surveying the wearing course thickness of gravel roads. The second objective was to investigate the possibilities of applying dielectricity information obtained using the GPR surface reflection method when determining the quality of the gravel road wearing course. In this study GPR was tested at the project level on highway 9241 Simo in Northern Finland, where the information provided by the GPR and laboratory research was used in designing and proportioning a new wearing course. In the network level studies, performed in the maintenance areas of Kemi and Karstula in Northern and Central Finland the goal for using GPR was to inspect the condition and thickness of the wearing course and evaluate the need for additional wearing course material. The total length of the roads under survey was approximately 200 km and both a 1.5 GHz ground-coupled antenna and a 1.0 GHz horn antenna were tested in this study. The research results show that GPR can be used to measure the thickness of the wearing course, the average measuring error against reference drilling measurements being 25 mm, which is considerably larger than the error of radar measurements in paved roads. To a great extent this is due to the fact that the thickness of the wearing course varies greatly even in the road's cross-section and thus a single reference thickness does not represent the actual thickness of the area measured with the GPR. The wearing course can often get mixed up with lower layers, which makes it difficult to determine the exact layer interfaces. For this reason reference information must always be used along with the GPR measurement results. Of the two GPR antennae tested, the horn antenna proved to be the more effective in measurements. The dielectric value of the wearing course, measured using the horn

  17. Some fuzzy techniques for staff selection process: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Md Saad, R.; Ahmad, M. Z.; Abu, M. S.; Jusoh, M. S.

    2013-04-01

    With high level of business competition, it is vital to have flexible staff that are able to adapt themselves with work circumstances. However, staff selection process is not an easy task to be solved, even when it is tackled in a simplified version containing only a single criterion and a homogeneous skill. When multiple criteria and various skills are involved, the problem becomes much more complicated. In adddition, there are some information that could not be measured precisely. This is patently obvious when dealing with opinions, thoughts, feelings, believes, etc. One possible tool to handle this issue is by using fuzzy set theory. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to review the existing fuzzy techniques for solving staff selection process. It classifies several existing research methods and identifies areas where there is a gap and need further research. Finally, this paper concludes by suggesting new ideas for future research based on the gaps identified.

  18. Survey of Natural Language Processing Techniques in Bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhiqiang; Shi, Hua; Wu, Yun; Hong, Zhiling

    2015-01-01

    Informatics methods, such as text mining and natural language processing, are always involved in bioinformatics research. In this study, we discuss text mining and natural language processing methods in bioinformatics from two perspectives. First, we aim to search for knowledge on biology, retrieve references using text mining methods, and reconstruct databases. For example, protein-protein interactions and gene-disease relationship can be mined from PubMed. Then, we analyze the applications of text mining and natural language processing techniques in bioinformatics, including predicting protein structure and function, detecting noncoding RNA. Finally, numerous methods and applications, as well as their contributions to bioinformatics, are discussed for future use by text mining and natural language processing researchers.

  19. Survey of Natural Language Processing Techniques in Bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zhiqiang; Shi, Hua; Wu, Yun; Hong, Zhiling

    2015-01-01

    Informatics methods, such as text mining and natural language processing, are always involved in bioinformatics research. In this study, we discuss text mining and natural language processing methods in bioinformatics from two perspectives. First, we aim to search for knowledge on biology, retrieve references using text mining methods, and reconstruct databases. For example, protein-protein interactions and gene-disease relationship can be mined from PubMed. Then, we analyze the applications of text mining and natural language processing techniques in bioinformatics, including predicting protein structure and function, detecting noncoding RNA. Finally, numerous methods and applications, as well as their contributions to bioinformatics, are discussed for future use by text mining and natural language processing researchers. PMID:26525745

  20. A survey of techniques for refrigeration, reliquefaction, and production of slush for hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overcash, Dan R.

    1990-01-01

    Several techniques were surveyed for the refrigeration, reliquefaction and production of slush from hydrogen. The techniques included auger; bubbling helium gas; Simon desorption; the Petlier effect; Joule-Kelvin expansion using Stirling, Brayton, and Viulleumirer approaches; rotary reciprocating; a dilution refrigerator; adiabatic demagnetization of a paramagnetic salt; and adiabatic magnetization of a superconductor.

  1. Complete denture impression techniques practiced by private dental practitioners: a survey.

    PubMed

    Kakatkar, Vinay R

    2013-09-01

    Impression making is an important step in fabricating complete dentures. A survey to know the materials used and techniques practiced while recording complete denture impressions was conducted. It is disheartening to know that 33 % practitioners still use base plate custom trays to record final impressions. 8 % still use alginate for making final impressions. An acceptable technique for recording CD impressions is suggested.

  2. A Survey of Techniques for Modeling and Improving Reliability of Computing Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Mittal, Sparsh; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2015-04-24

    Recent trends of aggressive technology scaling have greatly exacerbated the occurrences and impact of faults in computing systems. This has made `reliability' a first-order design constraint. To address the challenges of reliability, several techniques have been proposed. In this study, we provide a survey of architectural techniques for improving resilience of computing systems. We especially focus on techniques proposed for microarchitectural components, such as processor registers, functional units, cache and main memory etc. In addition, we discuss techniques proposed for non-volatile memory, GPUs and 3D-stacked processors. To underscore the similarities and differences of the techniques, we classify them based onmore » their key characteristics. We also review the metrics proposed to quantify vulnerability of processor structures. Finally, we believe that this survey will help researchers, system-architects and processor designers in gaining insights into the techniques for improving reliability of computing systems.« less

  3. A Survey of Techniques for Modeling and Improving Reliability of Computing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2015-04-24

    Recent trends of aggressive technology scaling have greatly exacerbated the occurrences and impact of faults in computing systems. This has made `reliability' a first-order design constraint. To address the challenges of reliability, several techniques have been proposed. In this study, we provide a survey of architectural techniques for improving resilience of computing systems. We especially focus on techniques proposed for microarchitectural components, such as processor registers, functional units, cache and main memory etc. In addition, we discuss techniques proposed for non-volatile memory, GPUs and 3D-stacked processors. To underscore the similarities and differences of the techniques, we classify them based on their key characteristics. We also review the metrics proposed to quantify vulnerability of processor structures. Finally, we believe that this survey will help researchers, system-architects and processor designers in gaining insights into the techniques for improving reliability of computing systems.

  4. A rapid survey technique for Tropilaelaps mite (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) detection.

    PubMed

    Pettis, Jeffery S; Rose, Robyn; Lichtenberg, Elinor M; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Buawangpong, Ninat; Somana, Weeraya; Sukumalanand, Prachaval; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis

    2013-08-01

    Parasitic Tropilaelaps (Delfinado and Baker) mites are a damaging pest of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in Asia. These mites represent a significant threat if introduced to other regions of the world, warranting implementation of Tropilaelaps mite surveillance in uninfested regions. Current Tropilaelaps mite-detection methods are unsuitable for efficient large scale screening. We developed and tested a new bump technique that consists of firmly rapping a honey bee brood frame over a collecting pan. Our method was easier to implement than current detection tests, reduced time spent in each apiary, and minimized brood destruction. This feasibility increase overcomes the test's decreased rate of detecting infested colonies (sensitivity; 36.3% for the bump test, 54.2% and 56.7% for the two most sensitive methods currently used in Asia). Considering this sensitivity, we suggest that screening programs sample seven colonies per apiary (independent of apiary size) and 312 randomly selected apiaries in a region to be 95% sure of detecting an incipient Tropilaelaps mite invasion. Further analyses counter the currently held view that Tropilaelaps mites prefer drone bee brood cells. Tropilaelaps mite infestation rate was 3.5 +/- 0.9% in drone brood and 5.7 +/- 0.6% in worker brood. We propose the bump test as a standard tool for monitoring of Tropilaelaps mite presence in regions thought to be free from infestation. However, regulators may favor the sensitivity of the Drop test (collecting mites that fall to the bottom of a hive on sticky boards) over the less time-intensive Bump test.

  5. Use of structured personality survey techniques to indicate operator response to stressful situations

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Under given circumstances, a person will tend to operate in one of four dominant orientations: (1) to perform tasks; (2) to achieve consensus; (3) to achieve understanding, or (4) to maintain structure. Historically, personality survey techniques, such as the Myers-Briggs type indicator, have been used to determine these tendencies. While these techniques can accurately reflect a person's orientation under normal social situations, under different sets of conditions, the same person may exhibit other tendencies, displaying a similar or entirely different orientation. While most do not exhibit extreme tendencies or changes of orientation, the shift in personality from normal to stressful conditions can be rather dramatic, depending on the individual. Structured personality survey techniques have been used to indicate operator response to stressful situations. These techniques have been extended to indicate the balance between orientations that the control room team has through the various levels of cognizance.

  6. A Survey of the Practices, Procedures, and Techniques in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Teaching Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Christopher B.; Schmidt, Monica; Soniat, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted of four-year institutions that teach undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories in the United States. The data include results from over 130 schools, describes the current practices at these institutions, and discusses the statistical results such as the scale of the laboratories performed, the chemical techniques applied,…

  7. Objective measures, sensors and computational techniques for stress recognition and classification: a survey.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nandita; Gedeon, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Stress is a major growing concern in our day and age adversely impacting both individuals and society. Stress research has a wide range of benefits from improving personal operations, learning, and increasing work productivity to benefiting society - making it an interesting and socially beneficial area of research. This survey reviews sensors that have been used to measure stress and investigates techniques for modelling stress. It discusses non-invasive and unobtrusive sensors for measuring computed stress, a term we coin in the paper. Sensors that do not impede everyday activities that could be used by those who would like to monitor stress levels on a regular basis (e.g. vehicle drivers, patients with illnesses linked to stress) is the focus of the discussion. Computational techniques have the capacity to determine optimal sensor fusion and automate data analysis for stress recognition and classification. Several computational techniques have been developed to model stress based on techniques such as Bayesian networks, artificial neural networks, and support vector machines, which this survey investigates. The survey concludes with a summary and provides possible directions for further computational stress research.

  8. A Survey Of Techniques for Managing and Leveraging Caches in GPUs

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2014-09-01

    Initially introduced as special-purpose accelerators for graphics applications, graphics processing units (GPUs) have now emerged as general purpose computing platforms for a wide range of applications. To address the requirements of these applications, modern GPUs include sizable hardware-managed caches. However, several factors, such as unique architecture of GPU, rise of CPU–GPU heterogeneous computing, etc., demand effective management of caches to achieve high performance and energy efficiency. Recently, several techniques have been proposed for this purpose. In this paper, we survey several architectural and system-level techniques proposed for managing and leveraging GPU caches. We also discuss the importance and challenges of cache management in GPUs. The aim of this paper is to provide the readers insights into cache management techniques for GPUs and motivate them to propose even better techniques for leveraging the full potential of caches in the GPUs of tomorrow.

  9. A survey of techniques for architecting and managing GPU register file

    DOE PAGES

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2016-04-07

    To support their massively-multithreaded architecture, GPUs use very large register file (RF) which has a capacity higher than even L1 and L2 caches. In total contrast, traditional CPUs use tiny RF and much larger caches to optimize latency. Due to these differences, along with the crucial impact of RF in determining GPU performance, novel and intelligent techniques are required for managing GPU RF. In this paper, we survey the techniques for designing and managing GPU RF. We discuss techniques related to performance, energy and reliability aspects of RF. To emphasize the similarities and differences between the techniques, we classify themmore » along several parameters. Lastly, the aim of this paper is to synthesize the state-of-art developments in RF management and also stimulate further research in this area.« less

  10. A survey of techniques for architecting and managing GPU register file

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2016-04-07

    To support their massively-multithreaded architecture, GPUs use very large register file (RF) which has a capacity higher than even L1 and L2 caches. In total contrast, traditional CPUs use tiny RF and much larger caches to optimize latency. Due to these differences, along with the crucial impact of RF in determining GPU performance, novel and intelligent techniques are required for managing GPU RF. In this paper, we survey the techniques for designing and managing GPU RF. We discuss techniques related to performance, energy and reliability aspects of RF. To emphasize the similarities and differences between the techniques, we classify them along several parameters. Lastly, the aim of this paper is to synthesize the state-of-art developments in RF management and also stimulate further research in this area.

  11. A survey of mass analyzers. [characteristics and features of various instruments and techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, W. W., Jr.; Tashbar, P. W.

    1973-01-01

    With the increasing applications of mass spectrometry technology to diverse services areas, a need has developed for a consolidated survey of the essential characteristics and features of the various instruments and techniques. This report is one approach to satisfying this need. Information has been collected and consolidated into a format which includes for each approach: (1) a general technique description, (2) instrument features information, and (3) a summary of pertinent advantages and disadvantages. With this information, the potential mass spectrometer user should be able to more efficiently select the most appropriate instrument.

  12. A survey of light-scattering techniques used in the remote monitoring of atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deirmendjian, D.

    1980-01-01

    A critical survey of the literature on the use of light-scattering mechanisms in the remote monitoring of atmospheric aerosols, their geographical and spatial distribution, and temporal variations was undertaken to aid in the choice of future operational systems, both ground based and air or space borne. An evaluation, mainly qualitative and subjective, of various techniques and systems is carried out. No single system is found to be adequate for operational purposes. A combination of earth surface and space-borne systems based mainly on passive techniques involving solar radiation with active (lidar) systems to provide auxiliary or backup information is tentatively recommended.

  13. A Survey of Partition-Based Techniques for Copy-Move Forgery Detection

    PubMed Central

    Nathalie Diane, Wandji Nanda; Xingming, Sun; Moise, Fah Kue

    2014-01-01

    A copy-move forged image results from a specific type of image tampering procedure carried out by copying a part of an image and pasting it on one or more parts of the same image generally to maliciously hide unwanted objects/regions or clone an object. Therefore, detecting such forgeries mainly consists in devising ways of exposing identical or relatively similar areas in images. This survey attempts to cover existing partition-based copy-move forgery detection techniques. PMID:25152931

  14. A survey of partition-based techniques for copy-move forgery detection.

    PubMed

    Diane, Wandji Nanda Nathalie; Xingming, Sun; Moise, Fah Kue

    2014-01-01

    A copy-move forged image results from a specific type of image tampering procedure carried out by copying a part of an image and pasting it on one or more parts of the same image generally to maliciously hide unwanted objects/regions or clone an object. Therefore, detecting such forgeries mainly consists in devising ways of exposing identical or relatively similar areas in images. This survey attempts to cover existing partition-based copy-move forgery detection techniques.

  15. Survey of Impression Materials and Techniques in Fixed Partial Dentures among the Practitioners in India.

    PubMed

    Moldi, Arvind; Gala, Vimal; Puranik, Shivakumar; Karan, Smita; Deshpande, Sumit; Neela, Neelima

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Anecdotal evidence suggests that impression materials and techniques used in general dental practice for fixed partial dentures vary from those taught in dental schools. The aim of this survey was to integrate impression techniques evolved all over the years for fixed partial dentures and to know the techniques and materials which are used in the present day by the practitioners. Materials and Methods. A total of 1000 questionnaires were sent to various practitioners in India, out of which 807 questionnaires were filled. Results. The results showed that 84.8% of prosthodontists (65.56%, urban areas) use elastomeric impression materials as well as irreversible hydrocolloids and 15.2% use irreversible hydrocolloid only. Amongst other practitioners, 55.46% use irreversible hydrocolloid (45%, rural and semiurban areas) and 44.54% use elastomeric impression materials. Elastomeric impression technique practiced most commonly is putty reline with/without spacer (77.2%); other techniques are multiple-mix and monophase techniques. Conclusion. The ideal materials, technique, and armamentarium are required for the long-term success of the treatment for fixed partial denture. Also, if the ideal procedure is not followed, it will lead to a compromised fit of the final prosthesis and failure of the treatment.

  16. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA HANFORD WASHINGTON

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN SW

    2010-12-02

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m [328 ft] and 200 m [656 ft]) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground

  17. Emerging Technologies and Techniques for Wide Area Radiological Survey and Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, M.; Zhao, P.

    2016-03-24

    Technologies to survey and decontaminate wide-area contamination and process the subsequent radioactive waste have been developed and implemented following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant release and the breach of a radiological source resulting in contamination in Goiania, Brazil. These civilian examples of radioactive material releases provided some of the first examples of urban radiological remediation. Many emerging technologies have recently been developed and demonstrated in Japan following the release of radioactive cesium isotopes (Cs-134 and Cs-137) from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in 2011. Information on technologies reported by several Japanese government agencies, such as the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and the National Institute for Environmental Science (NIES), together with academic institutions and industry are summarized and compared to recently developed, deployed and available technologies in the United States. The technologies and techniques presented in this report may be deployed in response to a wide area contamination event in the United States. In some cases, additional research and testing is needed to adequately validate the technology effectiveness over wide areas. Survey techniques can be deployed on the ground or from the air, allowing a range of coverage rates and sensitivities. Survey technologies also include those useful in measuring decontamination progress and mapping contamination. Decontamination technologies and techniques range from non-destructive (e.g., high pressure washing) and minimally destructive (plowing), to fully destructive (surface removal or demolition). Waste minimization techniques can greatly impact the long-term environmental consequences and cost following remediation efforts. Recommendations on technical improvements to address technology gaps are presented together with observations on remediation in Japan.

  18. The Randomized Response Technique Application in the Survey of Homosexual Commercial Sex among Men in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, Xiangyu; DU, Qiaoqiao; JIN, Zongda; XU, Tian; SHI, Jiachen; GAO, Ge

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Traditional survey methods may cause refusals to respond or untruthful replies when encounter the sensitive questions. The Randomized Response Technique (RRT) is designed to decrease social desirability bias and obtain reliable estimates. This study aimed to apply these new methods on the sensitive questions survey. Methods Simmons model was applied in the survey of issues relevant to commercial sex among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing, China. Stratified two-stage sampling and stratified random sampling were applied. Results During July to December 2010 in Beijing, the commercial sex proportion among MSM was 0.051(95% CI: 0.017, 0.085), its estimated variance was 3.01×10-4. The last male condom use rate during commercial sex was 0.778(95% CI: 0.746, 0.810), its estimated variance was 2.6×10-4. Conclusion We have introduced new approaches for the sensitive question survey among MSM. The new approaches are proved to be reliable and valid. PMID:26005651

  19. [Abortion in Brazil: a household survey using the ballot box technique].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Medeiros, Marcelo

    2010-06-01

    This study presents the first results of the National Abortion Survey (PNA, Pesquisa Nacional de Aborto), a household random sample survey fielded in 2010 covering urban women in Brazil aged 18 to 39 years. The PNA combined two techniques, interviewer-administered questionnaires and self-administered ballot box questionnaires. The results of PNA show that at the end of their reproductive health one in five women has performed an abortion, with abortions being more frequent in the main reproductive ages, that is, from 18 to 29 years old. No relevant differentiation was observed in the practice of abortion among religious groups, but abortion was found to be more common among people with lower education. The use of medical drugs to induce abortion occurred in half of the abortions, and post-abortion hospitalization was observed among approximately half of the women who aborted. Such results lead to conclude that abortion is a priority in the Brazilian public health agenda.

  20. Test description and preliminary pitot-pressure surveys for Langley Test Technique Demonstrator at Mach 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, Joel L.; Ashby, George C., Jr.; Monta, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A propulsion/airframe integration experiment conducted in the NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel using a 16.8-in.-long version of the Langley Test Technique Demonstrator configuration with simulated scramjet propulsion is described. Schlieren and vapor screen visualization of the nozzle flow field is presented and correlated with pitot-pressure flow-field surveys. The data were obtained at nominal free-stream conditions of Re = 2.8 x 10 exp 6 and a nominal engine total pressure of 100 psia. It is concluded that pitot-pressure surveys coupled to schlieren and vapor-screen photographs, and oil flows have revealed flow features including vortices, free shear layers, and shock waves occurring in the model flow field.

  1. Nurse Practitioners' Use of Communication Techniques: Results of a Maryland Oral Health Literacy Survey

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Laura W.; Horowitz, Alice M.; Radice, Sarah D.; Wang, Min Q.; Kleinman, Dushanka V.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We examined nurse practitioners’ use and opinions of recommended communication techniques for the promotion of oral health as part of a Maryland state-wide oral health literacy assessment. Use of recommended health-literate and patient-centered communication techniques have demonstrated improved health outcomes. Methods A 27-item self-report survey, containing 17 communication technique items, across 5 domains, was mailed to 1,410 licensed nurse practitioners (NPs) in Maryland in 2010. Use of communication techniques and opinions about their effectiveness were analyzed using descriptive statistics. General linear models explored provider and practice characteristics to predict differences in the total number and the mean number of communication techniques routinely used in a week. Results More than 80% of NPs (N = 194) routinely used 3 of the 7 basic communication techniques: simple language, limiting teaching to 2–3 concepts, and speaking slowly. More than 75% of respondents believed that 6 of the 7 basic communication techniques are effective. Sociodemographic provider characteristics and practice characteristics were not significant predictors of the mean number or the total number of communication techniques routinely used by NPs in a week. Potential predictors for using more of the 7 basic communication techniques, demonstrating significance in one general linear model each, were: assessing the office for user-friendliness and ever taking a communication course in addition to nursing school. Conclusions NPs in Maryland self-reported routinely using some recommended health-literate communication techniques, with belief in their effectiveness. Our findings suggest that NPs who had assessed the office for patient-friendliness or who had taken a communication course beyond their initial education may be predictors for using more of the 7 basic communication techniques. These self-reported findings should be validated with observational studies

  2. Survey of radiographic requirements and techniques in United States dental assisting programs, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Farman, A.G.; Grammer, S.; Hunter, N.; Baker, C.

    1983-10-01

    A survey of dental assisting programs revealed little standardization of student requirements for dental radiography in the United States. Areas for concern were: the high proportion of programs in which classmates exposed one another to ionizing radiation for training purposes; and the continued use of closed cones in some cases. Preclinical laboratories in radiography were, on average, of considerably longer duration than those previously reported for dental students. Conversely, clinical requirements in intraoral techniques were less for dental assisting students than is the case for dental students. Available methods of reducing patient exposure to ionizing radiation are not being fully implemented.

  3. Techniques used for the isolation and characterization of extracellular vesicles: results of a worldwide survey

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Chris; Vizio, Dolores Di; Sahoo, Susmita; Théry, Clotilde; Witwer, Kenneth W.; Wauben, Marca; Hill, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent an important mode of intercellular communication. Research in this field has grown rapidly in the last few years, and there is a plethora of techniques for the isolation and characterization of EVs, many of which are poorly standardized. EVs are heterogeneous in size, origin and molecular constituents, with considerable overlap in size and phenotype between different populations of EVs. Little is known about current practices for the isolation, purification and characterization of EVs. We report here the first large, detailed survey of current worldwide practices for the isolation and characterization of EVs. Conditioned cell culture media was the most widely used material (83%). Ultracentrifugation remains the most commonly used isolation method (81%) with 59% of respondents use a combination of methods. Only 9% of respondents used only 1 characterization method, with others using 2 or more methods. Sample volume, sample type and downstream application all influenced the isolation and characterization techniques employed. PMID:27802845

  4. Use of remote-sensing techniques to survey the physical habitat of large rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Behrendt, Thomas E.; Cholwek, Gary; Frey, Jeffery W.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Smith, Stephen B.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Behrendt, Thomas E.; Cholwek, Gary; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Smith, Stephen B.

    1997-01-01

    Remote-sensing techniques that can be used to quantitatively characterize the physical habitat in large rivers in the United States where traditional survey approaches typically used in small- and medium-sized streams and rivers would be ineffective or impossible to apply. The state-of-the-art remote-sensing technologies that we discuss here include side-scan sonar, RoxAnn, acoustic Doppler current profiler, remotely operated vehicles and camera systems, global positioning systems, and laser level survey systems. The use of these technologies will permit the collection of information needed to create computer visualizations and hard copy maps and generate quantitative databases that can be used in real-time mode in the field to characterize the physical habitat at a study location of interest and to guide the distribution of sampling effort needed to address other habitat-related study objectives. This report augments habitat sampling and characterization guidance provided by Meador et al. (1993) and is intended for use primarily by U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment program managers and scientists who are documenting water quality in streams and rivers of the United States.

  5. Use of image guided radiation therapy techniques and imaging dose measurement at Indian hospitals: A survey

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Sudesh; Dhote, D. S.; Kumar, Rajesh; Naidu, Suresh; Sutar, A.; Kannan, V.

    2015-01-01

    A national survey was conducted to obtain information about the use of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) techniques and IGRT dose measurement methods being followed at Indian radiotherapy centers. A questionnaire containing parameters relevant to use of IGRT was prepared to collect the information pertaining to (i) availability and type of IGRT delivery system, (ii) frequency of image acquisition protocol and utilization of these images for different purpose, and (iii) imaging dose measurement. The questionnaire was circulated to 75 hospitals in the country having IGRT facility, and responses of 51 centers were received. Survey results showed that among surveyed hospitals, 86% centers have IGRT facility, 78% centers have kilo voltage three-dimensional volumetric imaging. 75% of hospitals in our study do not perform computed tomography dose index measurements and 89% of centers do not perform patient dose measurements. Moreover, only 29% physicists believe IGRT dose is additional radiation burden to patient. This study has brought into focus the need to design a national protocol for IGRT dose measurement and development of indigenous tools to perform IGRT dose measurements. PMID:26865758

  6. Survey of agents and techniques applicable to the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhrmann, M.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1981-12-01

    A review of the various solidification agents and techniques that are currently available or potentially applicable for the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes is presented. An overview of the types and quantities of low-level wastes produced is presented. Descriptions of waste form matrix materials, the wastes types for which they have been or may be applied and available information concerning relevant waste form properties and characteristics follow. Also included are descriptions of the processing techniques themselves with an emphasis on those operating parameters which impact upon waste form properties. The solidification agents considered in this survey include: hydraulic cements, thermoplastic materials, thermosetting polymers, glasses, synthetic minerals and composite materials. This survey is part of a program supported by the United States Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program (LLWMP). This work provides input into LLWMP efforts to develop and compile information relevant to the treatment and processing of low-level wastes and their disposal by shallow land burial.

  7. Telephone survey to investigate relationships between onychectomy or onychectomy technique and house soiling in cats.

    PubMed

    Gerard, Amanda F; Larson, Mandy; Baldwin, Claudia J; Petersen, Christine

    2016-09-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether associations existed between onychectomy or onychectomy technique and house soiling in cats. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE 281 owners of 455 cats in Polk County, Iowa, identified via a list of randomly selected residential phone numbers of cat owners in that region. PROCEDURES A telephone survey was conducted to collect information from cat owners on factors hypothesized a priori to be associated with house soiling, including cat sex, reproductive status, medical history, and onychectomy history. When cats that had undergone onychectomy were identified, data were collected regarding the cat's age at the time of the procedure and whether a carbon dioxide laser (CDL) had been used. Information on history of house soiling behavior (urinating or defecating outside the litter box) was also collected. RESULTS Onychectomy technique was identified as a risk factor for house soiling. Cats for which a non-CDL technique was used had a higher risk of house soiling than cats for which the CDL technique was used. Cats that had undergone onychectomy and that lived in a multicat (3 to 5 cats) household were more than 3 times as likely to have house soiled as were single-housed cats with intact claws. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this cross-sectional study suggested that use of the CDL technique for onychectomy could decrease the risk of house soiling by cats relative to the risk associated with other techniques. This and other findings can be used to inform the decisions of owners and veterinarians when considering elective onychectomy for cats.

  8. A survey on acoustic signature recognition and classification techniques for persistent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir; Alkilani, Amjad

    2012-06-01

    Application of acoustic sensors in Persistent Surveillance Systems (PSS) has received considerable attention over the last two decades because they can be rapidly deployed and have low cost. Conventional utilization of acoustic sensors in PSS spans a wide range of applications including: vehicle classification, target tracking, activity understanding, speech recognition, shooter detection, etc. This paper presents a current survey of physics-based acoustic signature classification techniques for outdoor sounds recognition and understanding. Particularly, this paper focuses on taxonomy and ontology of acoustic signatures resulted from group activities. The taxonomy and supportive ontology considered include: humanvehicle, human-objects, and human-human interactions. This paper, in particular, exploits applicability of several spectral analysis techniques as a means to maximize likelihood of correct acoustic source detection, recognition, and discrimination. Spectral analysis techniques based on Fast Fourier Transform, Discrete Wavelet Transform, and Short Time Fourier Transform are considered for extraction of features from acoustic sources. In addition, comprehensive overviews of most current research activities related to scope of this work are presented with their applications. Furthermore, future potential direction of research in this area is discussed for improvement of acoustic signature recognition and classification technology suitable for PSS applications.

  9. Knowledge based systems: A preliminary survey of selected issues and techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kavi, Srinu

    1984-01-01

    It is only recently that research in Artificial Intelligence (AI) is accomplishing practical results. Most of these results can be attributed to the design and use of expert systems (or Knowledge-Based Systems, KBS) - problem-solving computer programs that can reach a level of performance comparable to that of a human expert in some specialized problem domain. But many computer systems designed to see images, hear sounds, and recognize speech are still in a fairly early stage of development. In this report, a preliminary survey of recent work in the KBS is reported, explaining KBS concepts and issues and techniques used to construct them. Application considerations to construct the KBS and potential KBS research areas are identified. A case study (MYCIN) of a KBS is also provided.

  10. A Survey on Terrain Assessment Techniques for Autonomous Operation of Planetary Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancho-Pradel, D. L.; Gao, Y.

    A key challenge in autonomous planetary surface exploration is the extraction of meaningful information from sensor data, which would allow a good interpretation of the nearby terrain, and a reasonable assessment of more distant areas. In the last decade, the desire to increase the autonomy of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs), particularly in terms of off-road navigation, has significantly increased the interest in the field of automated terrain classification. Although the field is relatively new, its advances and goals are scattered across different robotic platforms and applications. The objective of this paper is to present a survey of the field from a planetary exploration perspective, bringing together the underlying techniques, existing approaches and relevant applications under a common framework. The aim is to provide a comprehensive overview to the newcomer in the field, and a structured reference for the practitioners.

  11. Environmental monitoring using autonomous vehicles: a survey of recent searching techniques.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Behzad; Crasta, Naveena; Crespi, Alessandro; Pascoal, António M; Ijspeert, Auke

    2017-02-27

    Autonomous vehicles are becoming an essential tool in a wide range of environmental applications that include ambient data acquisition, remote sensing, and mapping of the spatial extent of pollutant spills. Among these applications, pollution source localization has drawn increasing interest due to its scientific and commercial interest and the emergence of a new breed of robotic vehicles capable of operating in harsh environments without human supervision. The aim is to find the location of a region that is the source of a given substance of interest (e.g. a chemical pollutant at sea or a gas leakage in air) using a group of cooperative autonomous vehicles. Motivated by fast paced advances in this challenging area, this paper surveys recent advances in searching techniques that are at the core of environmental monitoring strategies using autonomous vehicles.

  12. Survey of computed tomography technique and radiation dose in Sudanese hospitals.

    PubMed

    Suliman, I I; Abdalla, S E; Ahmed, Nada A; Galal, M A; Salih, Isam

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey technique and radiation absorbed dose in CT examinations of adult in Sudan and to compare the results with the reference dose levels. Questionnaire forms were completed in nine hospitals and a sample of 445 CT examinations in patients. Information on patient, procedure, scanner, and technique for common CT examinations were collected. For each facility, the radiation absorbed dose was measured on CT dose phantom measuring 16 cm (head) and 32 cm (body) in diameter and was used to calculate the normalized CT air kerma index. Volume CT air kerma index (CVOL), CT air kerma-length product (PKL,CT) values were calculated using the measured normalized CT air kerma index and questionnaire information. The effective dose, E estimates was determined by using PKL,CT measurements and appropriate normalized coefficients. Assuming the sample to offer a fair representative picture of CT practice patterns in Sudan, the mean CVOL and PKL,CT values were comparable or below the reference doses: 65 mGy and 758 mGy cm, respectively at head CT; 11.5 mGy and 327 mGy cm, respectively at chest CT; 11.6 mGy and 437 mGy cm, respectively at abdominal CT; and 11.0 mGy and 264 mGy cm, respectively at pelvis CT. Estimated effective doses were 1.6, 4.6, 6.6 and 4.0 mSv, respectively. The study offered a first national dose survey and provided a mean for quality control and optimization of CT practice within the country.

  13. Shape Sensing Techniques for Continuum Robots in Minimally Invasive Surgery: A Survey.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chaoyang; Luo, Xiongbiao; Qi, Peng; Li, Tianliang; Song, Shuang; Najdovski, Zoran; Ren, Hongliang; Fukuda, Toshio

    2016-10-27

    Continuum robots provide inherent structural compliance with high dexterity to access the surgical target sites along tortuous anatomical paths under constrained environments, and enable to perform complex and delicate operations through small incisions in minimally invasive surgery. These advantages enable their broad applications with minimal trauma, and make challenging clinical procedures possible with miniaturized instrumentation and high curvilinear access capabilities. However, their inherent deformable designs make it difficult to realize three-dimensional (3D) intraoperative real-time shape sensing to accurately model their shape. Solutions to this limitation can lead themselves to further develop closely associated techniques of closed-loop control, path planning, human-robot interaction and surgical manipulation safety concerns in minimally invasive surgery. Although extensive model-based research that relies on kinematics and mechanics has been performed, accurate shape sensing of continuum robots remains challenging, particularly in cases of unknown and dynamic payloads. This survey investigates the recent advances in alternative emerging techniques for 3D shape sensing in this field, and focuses on the following categories: fiber optic sensors based, electromagnetic tracking based and intraoperative imaging modalities based shape reconstruction methods. The limitations of existing technologies and prospects of new technologies are also discussed.

  14. Search Techniques for the Web of Things: A Taxonomy and Survey

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuchao; De, Suparna; Wang, Wei; Moessner, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The Web of Things aims to make physical world objects and their data accessible through standard Web technologies to enable intelligent applications and sophisticated data analytics. Due to the amount and heterogeneity of the data, it is challenging to perform data analysis directly; especially when the data is captured from a large number of distributed sources. However, the size and scope of the data can be reduced and narrowed down with search techniques, so that only the most relevant and useful data items are selected according to the application requirements. Search is fundamental to the Web of Things while challenging by nature in this context, e.g., mobility of the objects, opportunistic presence and sensing, continuous data streams with changing spatial and temporal properties, efficient indexing for historical and real time data. The research community has developed numerous techniques and methods to tackle these problems as reported by a large body of literature in the last few years. A comprehensive investigation of the current and past studies is necessary to gain a clear view of the research landscape and to identify promising future directions. This survey reviews the state-of-the-art search methods for the Web of Things, which are classified according to three different viewpoints: basic principles, data/knowledge representation, and contents being searched. Experiences and lessons learned from the existing work and some EU research projects related to Web of Things are discussed, and an outlook to the future research is presented. PMID:27128918

  15. Recent mycotoxin survey data and advanced mycotoxin detection techniques reported from China: a review.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Lu; Zhao, Yueju; Xing, Fuguo; Dai, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxin contamination in agro-food systems has been a serious concern over the last few decades in China, where the Ministry of Health has set maximum limits for mycotoxins in different agro-products. Overall survey data show that aflatoxin contamination in infant cereals, edible oils, raw milk, ginger and its related products are far below Chinese regulatory limits. The absence of aflatoxin M1 contamination in infant milk powders indicates a high standard of control. Aflatoxins in liquorice roots and lotus seeds have been reported for the first time. For deoxynivalenol, high levels were found in wheat grown in the Yangtze Delta region, which is more prone to rainfall, supporting Fusarium infection. The emerging mycotoxins beauvericins and enniatins have been reported in the medicinal herbs in China. Ochratoxin A in wine was below the European Union regulatory limits, but fumonisins in maize need to be monitored and future regulatory control considered. Overall from all the survey data analysed in this review, it can be concluded that 92% of the samples analysed had mycotoxin levels below the Chinese regulatory limits. In terms of detection techniques in recent years, immuno-based assays have been developed largely due to their excellent sensitivity and ease of use. Assays targeting multiple mycotoxins like aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol have been reported using microarrays and suspension arrays targeting in particular maize, rice and peanuts. Aptamer-based assays against ochratoxin A and aflatoxins B1 and B2 have been developed involving fluorescence detection; and surface plasmon resonance immunosensors have been developed targeting wine, maize, wheat, wild rye, hay and peanut oil with high sensitivity (> 0.025 ng l(-1)). Commercialisation of these technologies is much needed for wider usage in the coming years.

  16. Survey on Ranging Sensors and Cooperative Techniques for Relative Positioning of Vehicles.

    PubMed

    de Ponte Müller, Fabian

    2017-01-31

    Future driver assistance systems will rely on accurate, reliable and continuous knowledge on the position of other road participants, including pedestrians, bicycles and other vehicles. The usual approach to tackle this requirement is to use on-board ranging sensors inside the vehicle. Radar, laser scanners or vision-based systems are able to detect objects in their line-of-sight. In contrast to these non-cooperative ranging sensors, cooperative approaches follow a strategy in which other road participants actively support the estimation of the relative position. The limitations of on-board ranging sensors regarding their detection range and angle of view and the facility of blockage can be approached by using a cooperative approach based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication. The fusion of both, cooperative and non-cooperative strategies, seems to offer the largest benefits regarding accuracy, availability and robustness. This survey offers the reader a comprehensive review on different techniques for vehicle relative positioning. The reader will learn the important performance indicators when it comes to relative positioning of vehicles, the different technologies that are both commercially available and currently under research, their expected performance and their intrinsic limitations. Moreover, the latest research in the area of vision-based systems for vehicle detection, as well as the latest work on GNSS-based vehicle localization and vehicular communication for relative positioning of vehicles, are reviewed. The survey also includes the research work on the fusion of cooperative and non-cooperative approaches to increase the reliability and the availability.

  17. Survey on Ranging Sensors and Cooperative Techniques for Relative Positioning of Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    de Ponte Müller, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    Future driver assistance systems will rely on accurate, reliable and continuous knowledge on the position of other road participants, including pedestrians, bicycles and other vehicles. The usual approach to tackle this requirement is to use on-board ranging sensors inside the vehicle. Radar, laser scanners or vision-based systems are able to detect objects in their line-of-sight. In contrast to these non-cooperative ranging sensors, cooperative approaches follow a strategy in which other road participants actively support the estimation of the relative position. The limitations of on-board ranging sensors regarding their detection range and angle of view and the facility of blockage can be approached by using a cooperative approach based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication. The fusion of both, cooperative and non-cooperative strategies, seems to offer the largest benefits regarding accuracy, availability and robustness. This survey offers the reader a comprehensive review on different techniques for vehicle relative positioning. The reader will learn the important performance indicators when it comes to relative positioning of vehicles, the different technologies that are both commercially available and currently under research, their expected performance and their intrinsic limitations. Moreover, the latest research in the area of vision-based systems for vehicle detection, as well as the latest work on GNSS-based vehicle localization and vehicular communication for relative positioning of vehicles, are reviewed. The survey also includes the research work on the fusion of cooperative and non-cooperative approaches to increase the reliability and the availability. PMID:28146129

  18. Aplication of Phase Shift Projection Moire Technique in Solid Surfaces Topographic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lino, A. C. L.; Dal Fabbro, I. M.; Enes, A. M.

    2008-04-01

    The application of projection moiré with phase shift techniques in vegetable organs surface topography survey had to step up basic procedures before reaching significant conclusions. As recommended by [1], the proposed method should be tested on virtual surfaces [1] before being carried on solid symmetric surfaces [2], followed by tests on asymmetric surfaces as fruits [3] and finally a generation of a 3D digital models of solid figures as well as of fruits [4]. In this research, identified as the step [2], tested objects included cylinders, cubes and spheres. In this sense a Ronchi grid named G1 was generated in a PC, from which other grids referred as G2, G3, and G4 were set out of phase by 1/4, 1/2 and 3/4 of period from G1. Grid G1 was then projected onto the samples surface instead of being virtually distorted, receiving the name of Gd. The difference between Gd and G1, G2, G3, and G4 followed by filtration generated the moiré fringes M1, M2, M3 and M4 respectively. Fringes are out of phase one from each other by 1/4 of period, which were processed by the Rising Sun Moiré software to produce packed phase and further on, the unpacked fringes. Final representations in gray levels as well as in contour lines showed the topography of the deformed grid Gd. Parallel line segments were projected onto moiré generated surface images to evaluate the approximation to the real surface. Line segments images were then captured by means of the ImageJ software and the corresponding curve fitting obtained. The work conclusions included the reliability of the proposed method in surveying solid figures shape.

  19. Human-computer dialogue: Interaction tasks and techniques. Survey and categorization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    Interaction techniques are described. Six basic interaction tasks, requirements for each task, requirements related to interaction techniques, and a technique's hardware prerequisites affective device selection are discussed.

  20. NOS/NGS activities to support development of radio interferometric surveying techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, W. E.; Dracup, J. F.; Hothem, L. D.; Robertson, D. S.; Strange, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    National Geodetic Survey activities towards the development of operational geodetic survey systems based on radio interferometry are reviewed. Information about the field procedures, data reduction and analysis, and the results obtained to date is presented.

  1. Protecting multimedia data in storage: a survey of techniques emphasizing encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Paul; Yurcik, William; Brumbaugh, Larry

    2004-12-01

    Protecting multimedia data from malicious computer users continues to grow in importance. Whether preventing unauthorized access to digital photographs, ensuring compliance with copyright regulations, or guaranteeing the integrity of a video teleconference, all multimedia applications require increased security in the presence of talented intruders. Specifically, as more and more files are preserved on disk the requirement to provide secure storage has become more important. This paper presents a survey of techniques for securely storing multimedia data, including theoretical approaches, prototype systems, and existing systems ready for employment. Due to the wide variety of potential solutions available, a prospective customer can easily become overwhelmed while researching an appropriate system for multimedia requirements. Since added security measures inevitably result in slower system performance, certain storage solutions provide a better fit for particular applications along a security/performance continuum. This paper provides an overview of the prominent characteristics of several systems to provide a foundation for selecting the most appropriate solution. Initially, the paper establishes a set of criteria for evaluating a storage solution based on confidentiality, integrity, availability, and performance. Then, using these criteria, the paper explains the relevant characteristics of select storage systems providing a comparison of the major differences. Finally, the paper examines specific applications of storage devices in the multimedia environment.

  2. Protecting multimedia data in storage: a survey of techniques emphasizing encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Paul; Yurcik, William; Brumbaugh, Larry

    2005-01-01

    Protecting multimedia data from malicious computer users continues to grow in importance. Whether preventing unauthorized access to digital photographs, ensuring compliance with copyright regulations, or guaranteeing the integrity of a video teleconference, all multimedia applications require increased security in the presence of talented intruders. Specifically, as more and more files are preserved on disk the requirement to provide secure storage has become more important. This paper presents a survey of techniques for securely storing multimedia data, including theoretical approaches, prototype systems, and existing systems ready for employment. Due to the wide variety of potential solutions available, a prospective customer can easily become overwhelmed while researching an appropriate system for multimedia requirements. Since added security measures inevitably result in slower system performance, certain storage solutions provide a better fit for particular applications along a security/performance continuum. This paper provides an overview of the prominent characteristics of several systems to provide a foundation for selecting the most appropriate solution. Initially, the paper establishes a set of criteria for evaluating a storage solution based on confidentiality, integrity, availability, and performance. Then, using these criteria, the paper explains the relevant characteristics of select storage systems providing a comparison of the major differences. Finally, the paper examines specific applications of storage devices in the multimedia environment.

  3. Automated bare earth extraction technique for complex topography in light detection and ranging surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Terry H.; Magruder, Lori A.; Neuenschwander, Amy L.; Bradford, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Bare earth extraction is an important component to light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data analysis in terms of terrain classification. The challenge in providing accurate digital surface models is augmented when there is diverse topography within the data set or complex combinations of vegetation and built structures. Few existing algorithms can handle substantial terrain diversity without significant editing or user interaction. This effort presents a newly developed methodology that provides a flexible, adaptable tool capable of integrating multiple LiDAR data attributes for an accurate terrain assessment. The terrain extraction and segmentation (TEXAS) approach uses a third-order spatial derivative for each point in the digital surface model to determine the curvature of the terrain rather than rely solely on the slope. The utilization of the curvature has shown to successfully preserve ground points in areas of steep terrain as they typically exhibit low curvature. Within the framework of TEXAS, the contiguous sets of points with low curvatures are grouped into regions using an edge-based segmentation method. The process does not require any user inputs and is completely data driven. This technique was tested on a variety of existing LiDAR surveys, each with varying levels of topographic complexity.

  4. A comparison of survey techniques on sensitive sexual behavior in Italy.

    PubMed

    Caltabiano, Marcantonio; Dalla-Zuanna, Gianpiero

    2013-01-01

    This article compares two national surveys carried out through the most commonly used procedures in Italy: CATI (computer-assisted telephone interviews) and SAQ-FI (self-answered questionnaires following interviews). Both surveys ask two identical questions concerning sensitive sexual behavior: early age at first intercourse and same-sex attraction. The SAQ-FI survey had both unit non-response and item non-response rates much lower than the CATI survey. Moreover, in the CATI survey, the groups with highest item non-response rates were also the groups with the lowest proportions of early intercourse and homosexual attraction. In addition, a differential analysis of the respondents produced diverse results for the two surveys. This is especially true of results by gender for same-sex attraction: Such behavior is more common among men (3.1%) than women (2.9%), according to the CATI survey, whereas the opposite is true of the SAQ-FI survey (6.1% of men vs. 7.7% women). In Italy at the beginning of the 21st century, CATI surveys reveal a lower level of early intercourse and same-sex attraction than SAQ-FI surveys. This article argues that the CATI survey underestimates the true level of these sensitive sexual behaviors in the Italian population.

  5. Preferred tools and techniques for implantation of cardiac electronic devices in Europe: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association survey.

    PubMed

    Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Proclemer, Alessandro; Dobreanu, Dan; Marinskis, Germanas; Pison, Laurent; Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Carina

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) survey was to assess clinical practice in relation to the tools and techniques used for cardiac implantable electronic devices procedures in the European countries. Responses to the questionnaire were received from 62 members of the EHRA research network. The survey involved high-, medium-, and low-volume implanting centres, performing, respectively, more than 200, 100-199 and under 100 implants per year. The following topics were explored: the side approach for implantation, surgical techniques for pocket incision, first venous access for lead implantation, preference of lead fixation, preferred coil number for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads, right ventricular pacing site, generator placement site, subcutaneous ICD implantation, specific tools and techniques for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), lead implantation sequence in CRT, coronary sinus cannulation technique, target site for left ventricular lead placement, strategy in left ventricular lead implant failure, mean CRT implantation time, optimization of the atrioventricular (AV) and ventriculo-ventricular intervals, CRT implants in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation, AV node ablation in patients with permanent AF. This panoramic view allows us to find out the operator preferences regarding the techniques and tools for device implantation in Europe. The results showed different practices in all the fields we investigated, nevertheless the survey also outlines a good adherence to the common standards and recommendations.

  6. Relationships between autofocus methods for SAR and self-survey techniques for SONAR. [Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, D.E.; Jakowatz, C.V. Jr.; Ghiglia, D.C.; Eichel, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    Autofocus methods in SAR and self-survey techniques in SONAR have a common mathematical basis in that they both involve estimation and correction of phase errors introduced by sensor position uncertainties. Time delay estimation and correlation methods have been shown to be effective in solving the self-survey problem for towed SONAR arrays. Since it can be shown that platform motion errors introduce similar time-delay estimation problems in SAR imaging, the question arises as to whether such techniques could be effectively employed for autofocus of SAR imagery. With a simple mathematical model for motion errors in SAR, we will show why such correlation/time-delay techniques are not nearly as effective as established SAR autofocus algorithms such as phase gradient autofocus or sub-aperture based methods. This analysis forms an important bridge between signal processing methodologies for SAR and SONAR. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  7. RESOLVE Survey Photometry and Volume-limited Calibration of the Photometric Gas Fractions Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Kathleen D.; Kannappan, Sheila J.; Stark, David V.; Moffett, Amanda J.; Norris, Mark A.; Snyder, Elaine M.; Hoversten, Erik A.

    2015-09-01

    We present custom-processed ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared photometry for the REsolved Spectroscopy of a Local VolumE (RESOLVE) survey, a volume-limited census of stellar, gas, and dynamical mass within two subvolumes of the nearby universe (RESOLVE-A and RESOLVE-B). RESOLVE is complete down to baryonic mass ˜ {10}9.1-9.3 {M}⊙ , probing the upper end of the dwarf galaxy regime. In contrast to standard pipeline photometry (e.g., SDSS), our photometry uses optimal background subtraction, avoids suppressing color gradients, and employs multiple flux extrapolation routines to estimate systematic errors. With these improvements, we measure brighter magnitudes, larger radii, bluer colors, and a real increase in scatter around the red sequence. Combining stellar mass estimates based on our optimized photometry with the nearly complete H i mass census for RESOLVE-A, we create new z = 0 volume-limited calibrations of the photometric gas fractions (PGF) technique, which predicts gas-to-stellar mass ratios (G/S) from galaxy colors and optional additional parameters. We analyze G/S-color residuals versus potential third parameters, finding that axial ratio is the best independent and physically meaningful third parameter. We define a “modified color” from planar fits to G/S as a function of both color and axial ratio. In the complete galaxy population, upper limits on G/S bias linear and planar fits. We therefore model the entire PGF probability density field, enabling iterative statistical modeling of upper limits and prediction of full G/S probability distributions for individual galaxies. These distributions have two-component structure in the red color regime. Finally, we use the RESOLVE-B 21 cm census to test several PGF calibrations, finding that most systematically under- or overestimate gas masses, but the full probability density method performs well.

  8. Status of soil transmitted helminthic infections in India--observations on sample surveys using Kato-Katz technique.

    PubMed

    Bora, D; Singh, S K; Bhagat, H; Sharma, R C; Datta, K K

    2001-06-01

    Results of surveys conducted in eight different ecologically homogenous zones in the country, using WHO sampling design methodologies and Kato-Katz technique are presented in this communication. Hilly and coastal areas had high STH prevalence ranging from 34%-36% with total epg ranging from 53,952-4,67,976. Apart from this, Chitradurga urban area had STH prevalence of 39.6% with epg of 81,792. However, except in few cases, in all these surveyed areas, intensity of STH infection was found to be light. A national programme for control of soil transmitted helminthic infections is advocated.

  9. Land-based lidar mapping: a new surveying technique to shed light on rapid topographic change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Brian D.; Kayen, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The rate of natural change in such dynamic environments as rivers and coastlines can sometimes overwhelm the monitoring capacity of conventional surveying methods. In response to this limitation, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are pioneering new applications of light detection and ranging (lidar), a laser-based scanning technology that promises to greatly increase our ability to track rapid topographic changes and manage their impact on affected communities.

  10. Indigo snake capture methods: effectiveness of two survey techniques for Drymarchon couperi in Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyslop, N.L.; Meyers, J.M.; Cooper, R.J.; Stevenson, J.

    2009-01-01

    Drymarchon couperi (Eastern Indigo Snake), a federally threatened species of the southeastern Coastal Plain, has presented challenges for surveyors, with few reliable methods developed for its detection or monitoring. Surveys for D. couperi at potential underground shelters conducted in late fall through early spring have been relatively successful when conducted by experienced surveyors, especially in the northern portions of the range. However, trapping efforts for D. couperi conducted throughout the range have met with limited success. To further evaluate detection methods, we conducted trapping and surveying from December 2002 to April 2004 in areas known to support D. couperi in southeastern Georgia. We captured 18 D. couperi through surveys of potential underground shelters from December 2002 to March 2003 (14 person-hours per capture) and six individuals through trapping (141 trap days or 27 in-field person-hours per capture). Trapping was most successful during early fall, a period when surveys are often less effective compared to those conducted in late fall through early spring. We recommend a combination of surveys from mid-fall through March in conjunction with trapping, especially from late-summer through fall in the northern portions of the snake?s range. We also recommend further experimentation with alternative trap designs and survey methods for D. couperi.

  11. Use of cognitive interview techniques in the development of nutrition surveys and interactive nutrition messages for low-income populations.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Elena T; Campbell, Marci K; Honess-Morreale, Lauren

    2002-05-01

    The effectiveness of dietary surveys and educational messages is dependent in part on how well the target audience's information processing needs and abilities are addressed. Use of pilot testing is helpful; however, problems with wording and language are often not revealed. Cognitive interview techniques offer 1 approach to assist dietitians in understanding how audiences process information. With this method, respondents are led through a survey or message and asked to paraphrase items; discuss thoughts, feelings, and ideas that come to mind; and suggest alternative wording. As part of a US Department of Agriculture-funded nutrition education project, 23 cognitive interviews were conducted among technical community college students in North Carolina. Interview findings informed the development of tailored computer messages and survey questions. Better understanding of respondents' cognitive processes significantly improved the language and approach used in this intervention. Interview data indicated 4 problem areas: vague or ineffective instructions, confusing questions and response options, variable interpretation of terms, and misinterpretation of dietary recommendations. Interviews also provided insight into the meaning of diet-related stages of change. These findings concur with previous research suggesting that cognitive interview techniques are a valuable tool in the formative evaluation and development of nutrition surveys and materials.

  12. Using economic valuation techniques to inform water resources management: a survey and critical appraisal of available techniques and an application.

    PubMed

    Birol, Ekin; Karousakis, Katia; Koundouri, Phoebe

    2006-07-15

    The need for economic analysis for the design and implementation of efficient water resources management policies is well documented in the economics literature. This need is also emphasised in the European Union's recent Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), and is relevant to the objectives of Euro-limpacs, an EU funded project which inter alia, aims to provide a decision-support system for valuing the effects of future global change on Europe's freshwater ecosystems. The purpose of this paper is to define the role of economic valuation techniques in assisting in the design of efficient, equitable and sustainable policies for water resources management in the face of environmental problems such as pollution, intensive land use in agriculture and climate change. The paper begins with a discussion of the conceptual economic framework that can be used to inform water policy-making. An inventory of the available economic valuation methods is presented and the scope and suitability of each for studying various aspects of water resources are critically discussed. Recent studies that apply these methods to water resources are reviewed. Finally, an application of one of the economic valuation methods, namely the contingent valuation method, is presented using a case study of the Cheimaditida wetland in Greece.

  13. A survey of nested grid techniques and their potential for use within the MASS weather prediction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Steven E.; Mcqueen, Jeffery T.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of various one- and two-way interactive nested grid techniques used in hydrostatic numerical weather prediction models is presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. The techniques for specifying the lateral boundary conditions for each nested grid scheme are described in detail. Averaging and interpolation techniques used when applying the coarse mesh grid (CMG) and fine mesh grid (FMG) interface conditions during two-way nesting are discussed separately. The survey shows that errors are commonly generated at the boundary between the CMG and FMG due to boundary formulation or specification discrepancies. Methods used to control this noise include application of smoothers, enhanced diffusion, or damping-type time integration schemes to model variables. The results from this survey provide the information needed to decide which one-way and two-way nested grid schemes merit future testing with the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) model. An analytically specified baroclinic wave will be used to conduct systematic tests of the chosen schemes since this will allow for objective determination of the interfacial noise in the kind of meteorological setting for which MASS is designed. Sample diagnostic plots from initial tests using the analytic wave are presented to illustrate how the model-generated noise is ascertained. These plots will be used to compare the accuracy of the various nesting schemes when incorporated into the MASS model.

  14. Anaesthesia Techniques for Maxillary Molars – A Questionnaire-Based Retrospective Field Survey of Dentist in Western India

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Priya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Clinicians use various anaesthesia techniques like Posterior Superior Alveolar (PSA) nerve block, buccal infiltration with or without supplemental anaesthesia like palatal and intraligamentary infiltrations for root canal treatment in maxillary molars. However there is no general consensus regarding which technique is enough for performing endodontic treatment in maxillary molars. Aim The aim of this questionnaire-based survey is to compare and evaluate the various techniques used to anaesthetize the maxillary molars and its effect on postoperative pain. Materials and Methods The data were obtained from 290 dental practitioners using a specially prepared questionnaire survey conducted anonymously. The questionnaire contained questions covering data such as years in dentistry, acquired specialty, techniques used for anaesthetizing maxillary molars, success of anaesthesia, and postoperative pain, etc. Results Buccal infilteration with supplemental anaesthesia in the form of palatal (82%) and intra-ligamentary infilteration (88%) show higher success rate compared to only buccal infilteration (69%). However, intra-ligamentary infilteration group showed highest rate (75%) of postoperative pain. General practitioners (62% of clinicians) prefer to give both buccal and palatal infilterations and specialists opt for only buccal infilteration (66-74% of specialists). Conclusion Only buccal infilteration is sufficient during root canal treatment of maxillary molars. Routine use of supplemental anaesthesia in the form of palatal and intra-ligamentary infilteration is not necessary unless patient experiences discomfort during endodontic treatment. However, intra-ligamentary infilteration may lead to postoperative discomfort in the form of pain. PMID:27134993

  15. Mammalian Survey Techniques for Level II Natural Resource Inventories on Corps of Engineers Projects (Part 1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    ungulates (hoofed mammals), carnivores , lagomorphs (rabbits and hares), squirrels, large aquatic rodents (beavers, muskrats, nutria), ground-dwelling...on Corps projects. Emphasis is placed on small mammal and carnivore surveys because inventory methods used for game species are generally conducted...current list includes six shrews and moles (Order Soricimorpha), 23 bats (Order Chiroptera), 21 carnivores (Order Carnivora), four hares and rabbits

  16. Bathymetric evolution of Tasman Glacier terminal lake, New Zealand, as determined by remote surveying techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purdie, Heather; Bealing, Paul; Tidey, Emily; Gomez, Christopher; Harrison, Justin

    2016-12-01

    Processes that drive iceberg calving at the margins of freshwater terminating glaciers are still poorly understood. This knowledge-gap is in part due to the challenge of obtaining good in situ data in a highly dynamic and dangerous environment. We are using emerging remote technologies, in the form of a remote controlled jet boat to survey bathymetry, and Structure from Motion (SfM) to characterize terminus morphology, to better understand relationships between lake growth and terminus evolution. Comparison of results between the jet boat mounted dual-frequency Garmin fish-finder with an Odom Echotrac DF3200 MKII with 200/38 kHz dual-frequency transducer, showed that after a sound velocity adjustment, the remote survey obtained depth data within ± 1 m of the higher grade survey equipment. Water depths of up to 240 m were recorded only 100 m away from the terminus, and subaerial cliff height ranged from around 6 to 33 m, with the central region of the terminus more likely to experience buoyancy. Subaqueous ice ramps are ephemeral features, and in 2015 multiple ice ramps extended out into the lake from the terminus by 100-200 m. The consistent location of some of the subaqueous ramps between surveys may indicate that other processes, for example, subglacial hydrology, also influence evolving terminus morphology.

  17. Main principles and technique of electronystagmography (a brief survey of the literature)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanchev, K. S.

    1980-01-01

    Electronystagmography (ENG) is one of the modern methods for objective recording of nystagmus, its quantitative and qualitative assessment. It is used more and more often in clinical practice. A brief review of the history of recording of nystagmus and a survey of the relevant literature is presented.

  18. Raising Money Through Gift Clubs: A Survey of Techniques at 42 Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Robert D., Comp.

    The way that 42 private schools, colleges, and universities use gift clubs to motivate donors is examined. Based on a nationwide survey, information is presented on the clubs' origins, requirements for membership, methods of enlisting new members, and ways of encouraging current members to increase gifts. Attention is also directed to the clubs'…

  19. The Noggin Factor in Survey Research: Developing New Techniques for Assessing Nonresponse Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sheldon B.

    The primary objective of this paper is to encourage survey researchers not to become overly reliant on the literature for generic solutions to non-response bias problems. In addition, the paper recounts an example of how a non-traditional approach was used to maximize the usefulness of data collected under unusual constraints and with an a priori…

  20. A Survey of Use of Behavior Modification Techniques by Special Education Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheady, Larry; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Of 673 special education teachers responding to the survey, over 55 percent reported that behavior modification was not their major system of classroom management. Responses are broken down by categorical title of classroom for experiences with positive reinforcement, time out, negative reinforcement, contingency contracting, response cost,…

  1. MALT-45: a 7 mm survey of the southern Galaxy - I. Techniques and spectral line data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Christopher H.; Walsh, Andrew J.; Lowe, Vicki; Voronkov, Maxim A.; Ellingsen, Simon P.; Breen, Shari L.; Purcell, Cormac R.; Barnes, Peter J.; Burton, Michael G.; Cunningham, Maria R.; Hill, Tracey; Jackson, James M.; Longmore, Steven N.; Peretto, Nicolas; Urquhart, James S.

    2015-04-01

    We present the first results from the MALT-45 (Millimetre Astronomer's Legacy Team-45 GHz) Galactic Plane survey. We have observed 5 square degrees (l = 330°-335°, b = ±0.5°) for spectral lines in the 7 mm band (42-44 and 48-49 GHz), including CS (1-0), class I CH3OH masers in the 7(0,7)-6(1,6) A+ transition and SiO (1-0) v = 0, 1, 2, 3. MALT-45 is the first unbiased, large-scale, sensitive spectral line survey in this frequency range. In this paper, we present data from the survey as well as a few intriguing results; rigorous analyses of these science cases are reserved for future publications. Across the survey region, we detected 77 class I CH3OH masers, of which 58 are new detections, along with many sites of thermal and maser SiO emission and thermal CS. We found that 35 class I CH3OH masers were associated with the published locations of class II CH3OH, H2O and OH masers but 42 have no known masers within 60 arcsec. We compared the MALT-45 CS with NH3 (1,1) to reveal regions of CS depletion and high opacity, as well as evolved star-forming regions with a high ratio of CS to NH3. All SiO masers are new detections, and appear to be associated with evolved stars from the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE). Generally, within SiO regions of multiple vibrational modes, the intensity decreases as v = 1, 2, 3, but there are a few exceptions where v = 2 is stronger than v = 1.

  2. A survey of imagery techniques for semantic labeling of human-vehicle interactions in persistent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Vinayak; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2011-06-01

    Understanding and semantic annotation of Human-Vehicle Interactions (HVI) facilitate fusion of Hard sensor (HS) and Human Intelligence (HUMINT) in a cohesive way. By characterization, classification, and discrimination of HVI patterns pertinent threats may be realized. Various Persistent Surveillance System (PSS) imagery techniques have been proposed in the past decade for identifying human interactions with various objects in the environment. Understanding of such interactions facilitates to discover human intentions and motives. However, without consideration of incidental context, reasoning and analysis of such behavioral activities is a very challenging and difficult task. This paper presents a current survey of related publications in the area of context-based Imagery techniques applied for HVI recognition, in particular, it discusses taxonomy and ontology of HVI and presents a summary of reported robust image processing techniques for spatiotemporal characterization and tracking of human targets in urban environments. The discussed techniques include model-based, shape-based and appearance-based techniques employed for identification and classification of objects. A detailed overview of major past research activities related to HVI in PSS with exploitation of spatiotemporal reasoning techniques applied to semantic labeling of the HVI is also presented.

  3. Monitoring Fine-Sediment Volume in the Colorado River Ecosystem, Arizona; Bathymetric Survey Techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaplinski, Matt; Hazel, Joseph E.; Parnell, Rod; Breedlove, Mike; Kohl, Keith; Gonzales, Mark

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, a fine-grained sediment (sand, silt, and clay) monitoring effort was initiated in the Colorado River ecosystem, the river corridor downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, to directly survey channel topography at scales previously unobtainable in this canyon setting. This report presents an overview of the equipment and the methods used to collect and process the high-resolution bathymetric data required for this monitoring effort. The survey methods were employed in up to 11 discrete reaches during various time intervals. The reaches varied in length from 1.3 to 6.4 km. An assessment of depth-measurement uncertainty is presented that shows the surveys meet or exceed the requirement needed to detect changes at the 0.25-m level with 95 percent confidence. These data, in the form of high-resolution digital elevation models, will be integrated in a geographic information system and used to compare maps of topography, grain size, and other information to study the spatial distribution of fine sediment in this system.

  4. Test techniques: A survey paper on cryogenic tunnels, adaptive wall test sections, and magnetic suspension and balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, Robert A.; Dress, David A.; Wolf, Stephen W. D.; Britcher, Colin P.

    1989-01-01

    The ability to get good experimental data in wind tunnels is often compromised by things seemingly beyond our control. Inadequate Reynolds number, wall interference, and support interference are three of the major problems in wind tunnel testing. Techniques for solving these problems are available. Cryogenic wind tunnels solve the problem of low Reynolds number. Adaptive wall test sections can go a long way toward eliminating wall interference. A magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) completely eliminates support interference. Cryogenic tunnels, adaptive wall test sections, and MSBS are surveyed. A brief historical overview is given and the present state of development and application in each area is described.

  5. Non-conventional measurement techniques for the determination of some long-lived radionuclides produced ion nuclear fuel: Literature survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, R. J.

    1992-04-01

    The results of a literature survey of nonradiometric analytical techniques for the determination of long lived radionuclides are described. The methods which were considered are accelerator mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, thermal ionization mass spectrometry, resonance ionization spectrometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry, and neutron activation analysis. Neutron activation analysis was commonly used for the determination of I-129 and Np-237 in environmental samples. Inductively coupled mass spectrometry seems likely to become the method of choice for the determination of Tc-99, Np-237, and Pu isotopes. The methods are discussed and the chemical separation methods are described.

  6. A survey of image processing techniques and statistics for ballistic specimens in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Gerules, George; Bhatia, Sanjiv K; Jackson, Daniel E

    2013-06-01

    This paper provides a review of recent investigations on the image processing techniques used to match spent bullets and cartridge cases. It is also, to a lesser extent, a review of the statistical methods that are used to judge the uniqueness of fired bullets and spent cartridge cases. We review 2D and 3D imaging techniques as well as many of the algorithms used to match these images. We also provide a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of these methods for both image matching and statistical uniqueness. The goal of this paper is to be a reference for investigators and scientists working in this field.

  7. Multispectral techniques for general geological surveys evaluation of a four-band photographic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowder, D., F.

    1969-01-01

    A general geological survey at 1:62,500 scale of the well exposed rocks of the White Mountains and the adjacent volcanic desert plateau is reported. The tuffs, granites, sedimentary rocks and metavolcanic rocks in this arid region are varicolored and conventional black and white aerial photographs have been a useful mapping aid. A large number of true color and false color aerial photographs and multispectral viewer screen images of the study area are evaluated in order to consider what imagery is the most useful for distinguishing rock types. Photographs of true color film are judged the most useful for recognizing geographic locations.

  8. A deep survey for Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars. I - Motivation, search technique, and first results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shara, Michael M.; Smith, Lindsey F.; Potter, Michael; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented from a survey of large areas of the southern Milky Way for Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars to 17-18th magnitude, carried out using direct narrowband and broadband Schmidt plates. Thirteen new WR stars were detected in an about 40-deg-sq region in Carina, where 24 WR stars were already known; the new stars were found to be significantly redder, fainter, and farther away than the known stars. Of the new WR stars, 11 are of subtype WN, and two are WC, compared to the 17 WN and seven WC stars among the previously known WR stars in the same area.

  9. A survey of provably correct fault-tolerant clock synchronization techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.

    1988-01-01

    Six provably correct fault-tolerant clock synchronization algorithms are examined. These algorithms are all presented in the same notation to permit easier comprehension and comparison. The advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques are examined and issues related to the implementation of these algorithms are discussed. The paper argues for the use of such algorithms in life-critical applications.

  10. A survey and taxonomy on energy efficient resource allocation techniques for cloud computing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hameed, Abdul; Khoshkbarforoushha, Alireza; Ranjan, Rajiv; Jayaraman, Prem Prakash; Kolodziej, Joanna; Balaji, Pavan; Zeadally, Sherali; Malluhi, Qutaibah Marwan; Tziritas, Nikos; Vishnu, Abhinav; Khan, Samee U.; Zomaya, Albert

    2014-06-06

    In a cloud computing paradigm, energy efficient allocation of different virtualized ICT resources (servers, storage disks, and networks, and the like) is a complex problem due to the presence of heterogeneous application (e.g., content delivery networks, MapReduce, web applications, and the like) workloads having contentious allocation requirements in terms of ICT resource capacities (e.g., network bandwidth, processing speed, response time, etc.). Several recent papers have tried to address the issue of improving energy efficiency in allocating cloud resources to applications with varying degree of success. However, to the best of our knowledge there is no published literature on this subject that clearly articulates the research problem and provides research taxonomy for succinct classification of existing techniques. Hence, the main aim of this paper is to identify open challenges associated with energy efficient resource allocation. In this regard, the study, first, outlines the problem and existing hardware and software-based techniques available for this purpose. Furthermore, available techniques already presented in the literature are summarized based on the energy-efficient research dimension taxonomy. The advantages and disadvantages of the existing techniques are comprehensively analyzed against the proposed research dimension taxonomy namely: resource adaption policy, objective function, allocation method, allocation operation, and interoperability.

  11. Minimum detectable concentration as a function of gamma walkover survey technique.

    PubMed

    King, David A; Altic, Nickolas; Greer, Colt

    2012-02-01

    Gamma walkover surveys are often performed by swinging the radiation detector (e.g., a 2-inch by 2-inch sodium iodide) in a serpentine pattern at a near constant height above the ground surface. The objective is to survey an approximate 1-m swath with 100% coverage producing an equal probability of detecting contamination at any point along the swing. In reality, however, the detector height will vary slightly along the swing path, and in some cases the detector may follow a pendulum-like motion significantly reducing the detector response and increasing the minimum detectable concentration. This paper quantifies relative detector responses for fixed and variable height swing patterns and demonstrates negative impacts on the minimum detectable concentration. Minimum detectable concentrations are calculated for multiple contaminated surface areas (0.1, 1.0, 3, 10, and 30 m2), multiple contaminants (60Co, 137Cs, 241Am, and 226Ra), and two minimum heights (5 and 10 cm). Exposure rate estimates used in minimum detectable concentration calculations are produced using MicroShield™ v.7.02 (Grove Software, Inc., 4925 Boonsboro Road #257, Lynchberg, VA 24503) and MDCs are calculated as outlined in NUREG-1575. Results confirm a pendulum-like detector motion can significantly increase MDCs relative to a low flat trajectory, especially for small areas of elevated activity--up to a 47% difference is observed under worst-modeled conditions.

  12. Different types of maximum power point tracking techniques for renewable energy systems: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mohammad Junaid; Shukla, Praveen; Mustafa, Rashid; Chatterji, S.; Mathew, Lini

    2016-03-01

    Global demand for electricity is increasing while production of energy from fossil fuels is declining and therefore the obvious choice of the clean energy source that is abundant and could provide security for development future is energy from the sun. In this paper, the characteristic of the supply voltage of the photovoltaic generator is nonlinear and exhibits multiple peaks, including many local peaks and a global peak in non-uniform irradiance. To keep global peak, MPPT is the important component of photovoltaic systems. Although many review articles discussed conventional techniques such as P & O, incremental conductance, the correlation ripple control and very few attempts have been made with intelligent MPPT techniques. This document also discusses different algorithms based on fuzzy logic, Ant Colony Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, artificial neural networks, Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Firefly, Extremum seeking control method and hybrid methods applied to the monitoring of maximum value of power at point in systems of photovoltaic under changing conditions of irradiance.

  13. Survey of adult liver transplantation techniques (SALT): an international study of current practices in deceased donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kluger, Michael D; Memeo, Riccardo; Laurent, Alexis; Tayar, Claude; Cherqui, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been little focus lately on operative techniques for full graft liver transplantation, and the standard technique is unclear. Methods An internet survey addressing the key technical issues was e-mailed to programme directors. Results Responses were obtained from 93 out of 128 (73%) directors contacted. Programmes performed a median of 60 (8–240) transplants per year. Maximum mean cold time of 13 ± 3 h and maximum median steatosis of 40% (15–90%) were tolerated. The inferior vena cava was preserved by 48% of centres all the time and 43% selectively. European centres used temporary portacaval shunting (42%) four times more often than USA programmes. Venous bypass was always used when not preserving the inferior vena cava by less than 25%, and used selectively by approximately 40% of centres. Portal vein anastomosis with room for expansion (88%), graft hepatic artery to native gastroduodenal/common hepatic artery bifurcation (57%) and bile duct-to-duct (47%) were the favoured techniques. Discussion A standard international operative technique for deceased donor liver transplantation does not exist, although there is a trend towards inferior vena cava preservation. Donor selection criteria were more homogenous across programmes. As suggested by the high response rate, there likely exists interest to investigate technical variations on an international scale. PMID:21929669

  14. A HISTORICAL SURVEY OF PATTERNS AND TECHNIQUES OF INSURGENCY CONFLICTS IN POST-1900 LATIN AMERICA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The purpose of this report is to identify patterns and techniques of national and lower-scale insurgency conflicts in Latin America since 1900 in...order to derive data of assistance to U.S. planning for R+D requirements of military counterinsurgency operations in Latin America. Specific features of...insurgency in Latin America make it desirable that the report utilize the term insurgency in a broad sense and as inclusive of all types of violent

  15. Survey of techniques for reduction of wind turbine blade trailing edge noise.

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Matthew Franklin

    2011-08-01

    Aerodynamic noise from wind turbine rotors leads to constraints in both rotor design and turbine siting. The primary source of aerodynamic noise on wind turbine rotors is the interaction of turbulent boundary layers on the blades with the blade trailing edges. This report surveys concepts that have been proposed for trailing edge noise reduction, with emphasis on concepts that have been tested at either sub-scale or full-scale. These concepts include trailing edge serrations, low-noise airfoil designs, trailing edge brushes, and porous trailing edges. The demonstrated noise reductions of these concepts are cited, along with their impacts on aerodynamic performance. An assessment is made of future research opportunities in trailing edge noise reduction for wind turbine rotors.

  16. A Survey on Large High-Resolution Display Technologies, Techniques, and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Tao; Schmidt, Greg S.; Staadt, Oliver G.; Livingston, Mark A.; Ball, Robert; May, Richard A.

    2006-03-27

    Continued advances in display hardware, computing power, networking, and rendering algorithms have all converged to dramatically improve large high-resolution display capabilities. We present a survey on prior research with large high-resolution displays. In the hardware configurations section we examine systems including multi-monitor workstations, recon*gurable projector arrays, and others. Rendering and the data pipeline are addressed with an overview of current technologies. We discuss many applications for large high-resolution displays such as automotive design, scientific visualization, control centers, and others. Quantifying the effect of large high-resolution displays on human performance and other aspects is important as we look toward future advances in display technology and how it is applied in different situations. Interacting with these displays brings a different set of challenges for HCI professionals, so an overview of some of this work is provided. Finally, we present our view of the top ten greatest challenges in large high-resolution displays.

  17. I Environmental DNA sampling is more sensitive than a traditional survey technique for detecting an aquatic invader.

    PubMed

    Smart, Adam S; Tingley, Reid; Weeks, Andrew R; van Rooyen, Anthony R; McCarthy, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    Effective management of alien species requires detecting populations in the early stages of invasion. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling can detect aquatic species at relatively low densities, but few studies have directly compared detection probabilities of eDNA sampling with those of traditional sampling methods. We compare the ability of a traditional sampling technique (bottle trapping) and eDNA to detect a recently established invader, the smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris vulgaris, at seven field sites in Melbourne, Australia. Over a four-month period, per-trap detection probabilities ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 among sites where L. v. vulgaris was detected, whereas per-sample eDNA estimates were much higher (0.29-1.0). Detection probabilities of both methods varied temporally (across days and months), but temporal variation appeared to be uncorrelated between methods. Only estimates of spatial variation were strongly correlated across the two sampling techniques. Environmental variables (water depth, rainfall, ambient temperature) were not clearly correlated with detection probabilities estimated via trapping, whereas eDNA detection probabilities were negatively correlated with water depth, possibly reflecting higher eDNA concentrations at lower water levels. Our findings demonstrate that eDNA sampling can be an order of magnitude more sensitive than traditional methods, and illustrate that traditional- and eDNA-based surveys can provide independent information on species distributions when occupancy surveys are conducted over short timescales.

  18. Contextualising Water Use in Residential Settings: A Survey of Non-Intrusive Techniques and Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Carboni, Davide; Gluhak, Alex; McCann, Julie A.; Beach, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    Water monitoring in households is important to ensure the sustainability of fresh water reserves on our planet. It provides stakeholders with the statistics required to formulate optimal strategies in residential water management. However, this should not be prohibitive and appliance-level water monitoring cannot practically be achieved by deploying sensors on every faucet or water-consuming device of interest due to the higher hardware costs and complexity, not to mention the risk of accidental leakages that can derive from the extra plumbing needed. Machine learning and data mining techniques are promising techniques to analyse monitored data to obtain non-intrusive water usage disaggregation. This is because they can discern water usage from the aggregated data acquired from a single point of observation. This paper provides an overview of water usage disaggregation systems and related techniques adopted for water event classification. The state-of-the art of algorithms and testbeds used for fixture recognition are reviewed and a discussion on the prominent challenges and future research are also included. PMID:27213397

  19. Application of spectroscopic techniques for the study of paper documents: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manso, M.; Carvalho, M. L.

    2009-06-01

    For many centuries paper was the main material for recording cultural achievements all over the world. Paper is mostly made from cellulose with small amounts of organic and inorganic additives, which allow its identification and characterization and may also contribute to its degradation. Prior to 1850, paper was made entirely from rags, using hemp, flax and cotton fibres. After this period, due to the enormous increase in demand, wood pulp began to be commonly used as raw material, resulting in rapid degradation of paper. Spectroscopic techniques represent one of the most powerful tools to investigate the constituents of paper documents in order to establish its identification and its state of degradation. This review describes the application of selected spectroscopic techniques used for paper characterization and conservation. The spectroscopic techniques that have been used and will be reviewed include: Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, X-Ray spectroscopy, Laser-based Spectroscopy, Inductively Coupled Mass Spectroscopy, Laser ablation, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

  20. Contextualising Water Use in Residential Settings: A Survey of Non-Intrusive Techniques and Approaches.

    PubMed

    Carboni, Davide; Gluhak, Alex; McCann, Julie A; Beach, Thomas H

    2016-05-20

    Water monitoring in households is important to ensure the sustainability of fresh water reserves on our planet. It provides stakeholders with the statistics required to formulate optimal strategies in residential water management. However, this should not be prohibitive and appliance-level water monitoring cannot practically be achieved by deploying sensors on every faucet or water-consuming device of interest due to the higher hardware costs and complexity, not to mention the risk of accidental leakages that can derive from the extra plumbing needed. Machine learning and data mining techniques are promising techniques to analyse monitored data to obtain non-intrusive water usage disaggregation. This is because they can discern water usage from the aggregated data acquired from a single point of observation. This paper provides an overview of water usage disaggregation systems and related techniques adopted for water event classification. The state-of-the art of algorithms and testbeds used for fixture recognition are reviewed and a discussion on the prominent challenges and future research are also included.

  1. Development of predictive mapping techniques for soil survey and salinity mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elnaggar, Abdelhamid A.

    Conventional soil maps represent a valuable source of information about soil characteristics, however they are subjective, very expensive, and time-consuming to prepare. Also, they do not include explicit information about the conceptual mental model used in developing them nor information about their accuracy, in addition to the error associated with them. Decision tree analysis (DTA) was successfully used in retrieving the expert knowledge embedded in old soil survey data. This knowledge was efficiently used in developing predictive soil maps for the study areas in Benton and Malheur Counties, Oregon and accessing their consistency. A retrieved soil-landscape model from a reference area in Harney County was extrapolated to develop a preliminary soil map for the neighboring unmapped part of Malheur County. The developed map had a low prediction accuracy and only a few soil map units (SMUs) were predicted with significant accuracy, mostly those shallow SMUs that have either a lithic contact with the bedrock or developed on a duripan. On the other hand, the developed soil map based on field data was predicted with very high accuracy (overall was about 97%). Salt-affected areas of the Malheur County study area are indicated by their high spectral reflectance and they are easily discriminated from the remote sensing data. However, remote sensing data fails to distinguish between the different classes of soil salinity. Using the DTA method, five classes of soil salinity were successfully predicted with an overall accuracy of about 99%. Moreover, the calculated area of salt-affected soil was overestimated when mapped using remote sensing data compared to that predicted by using DTA. Hence, DTA could be a very helpful approach in developing soil survey and soil salinity maps in more objective, effective, less-expensive and quicker ways based on field data.

  2. Monitoring Fine-Grained Sediment in the Colorado River Ecosystem, Arizona - Control Network and Conventional Survey Techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hazel, Joseph E.; Kaplinski, Matt; Parnell, Roderic A.; Kohl, Keith; Schmidt, John C.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, fine-grained sediment (sand, silt, and clay) monitoring in the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam was initiated to survey channel topography at scales previously unobtainable in this canyon setting. This report presents the methods used to establish the high-resolution global positioning system (GPS) control network required for this effort as well as the conventional surveying techniques used in the study. Using simultaneous, dual-frequency GPS vector-based methods, the network points were determined to have positioning accuracies of less than 0.03 meters (m) and ellipsoidal height accuracies of between 0.01 and 0.10 m at a 95-percent degree of confidence. We also assessed network point quality with repeated, electronic (optical) total-station observations at 39 points for a total of 362 measurements; the mean range was 0.022 m in horizontal and 0.13 in vertical at a 95-percent confidence interval. These results indicate that the control network is of sufficient spatial and vertical accuracy for collection of airborne and subaerial remote-sensing technologies and integration of these data in a geographic information system on a repeatable basis without anomalies. The monitoring methods were employed in up to 11 discrete reaches over various time intervals. The reaches varied from 1.3 to 6.4 kilometers in length. Field results from surveys in 2000, 2002, and 2004 are described, during which conventional surveying was used to collect more than 3000 points per day. Ground points were used as checkpoints and to supplement areas just below or above the water surface, where remote-sensing data are not collected or are subject to greater error. An accuracy of +or- 0.05 m was identified as the minimum precision of individual ground points. These results are important for assessing digital elevation model (DEM) quality and identifying detection limits of significant change among surfaces generated from remote-sensing technologies.

  3. Pilot workload and fatigue: A critical survey of concepts and assessment techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gartner, W. B.; Murphy, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    The principal unresolved issues in conceptualizing and measuring pilot workload and fatigue are discussed. These issues are seen as limiting the development of more useful working concepts and techniques and their application to systems engineering and management activities. A conceptual analysis of pilot workload and fatigue, an overview and critique of approaches to the assessment of these phenomena, and a discussion of current trends in the management of unwanted workload and fatigue effects are presented. Refinements and innovations in assessment methods are recommended for enhancing the practical significance of workload and fatigue studies.

  4. New sensor and non-contact geometrical survey for the vibrating wire technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldes, Renan; Junqueira Leão, Rodrigo; Cernicchiaro, Geraldo; Terenzi Neuenschwander, Regis; Citadini, James Francisco; Droher Rodrigues, Antônio Ricardo

    2016-03-01

    The tolerances for the alignment of the magnets in the girders of the next machine of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Sirius, are as small as 40 μm for translations and 0.2 mrad for rotations. Therefore, a novel approach to the well-known vibrating wire technique has been developed and tested for the precise fiducialization of magnets. The alignment bench consists of four commercial linear stages, a stretched wire, a commercial lock-in amplifier working with phase-locked loop (PLL), a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and a vibration sensor for the wire. This novel sensor has been designed for a larger linear region of operation. For the mechanical metrology step of the fiducialization of quadrupoles an innovative technique, using the vision system of the CMM, is presented. While the work with pitch and yaw orientations is still ongoing with promising partial results, the system already presents an uncertainty level below 10 μm for translational alignment.

  5. Can juvenile corals be surveyed effectively using digital photography?: implications for rapid assessment techniques.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Scott C; Osborne, Kate; Sfiligoj, Bianca; Sweatman, Hugh

    2010-12-01

    The widespread decline of coral reefs requires integrated management measures across whole regions. Knowledge of demographic processes of reef organisms is important for informed management, yet current techniques for assessing such processes are time consuming, making it impractical to gather relevant information over large scales. We tested the usefulness of digital still photography as a rapid assessment technique to estimate coral recruitment--an important process in coral reef recovery. Estimates of the density and diversity of juvenile hard corals from digital images were compared with direct visual estimates from the same plots made in the field. Multiple plots were sampled on four reefs from a range of locations on Australia's Great Barrier Reef. On average, estimates of juvenile densities from photographic images were lower, in both absolute and relative terms, than that estimated from images. This was the case whether colonies <20 mm or <50 mm in diameter were considered. Overall differences between methods were generally greater at reefs where recruitment was higher, though proportional differences (density from images/density from direct visual census) still varied among reefs. Although the ranking of taxa, in terms of their densities, from the two methods were similar, the density of common genera was generally underestimated in images, and the occurrence of 'unknown' taxa was higher. We conclude that photographic images do not constitute a reliable rapid assessment method for estimating the spatial patterns in the density or diversity of juvenile hard corals.

  6. Survey of Verification and Validation Techniques for Small Satellite Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current trends and practices in small-satellite software verification and validation. This document is not intended to promote a specific software assurance method. Rather, it seeks to present an unbiased survey of software assurance methods used to verify and validate small satellite software and to make mention of the benefits and value of each approach. These methods include simulation and testing, verification and validation with model-based design, formal methods, and fault-tolerant software design with run-time monitoring. Although the literature reveals that simulation and testing has by far the longest legacy, model-based design methods are proving to be useful for software verification and validation. Some work in formal methods, though not widely used for any satellites, may offer new ways to improve small satellite software verification and validation. These methods need to be further advanced to deal with the state explosion problem and to make them more usable by small-satellite software engineers to be regularly applied to software verification. Last, it is explained how run-time monitoring, combined with fault-tolerant software design methods, provides an important means to detect and correct software errors that escape the verification process or those errors that are produced after launch through the effects of ionizing radiation.

  7. A Survey of Measurements and Measuring Techniques in Rapidly Distorted Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernholz, H. H.; Finley, P. J.; Dussauge, J. P.; Smits, A. J.; Reshotko, E. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A wide range of recent work on compressible turbulent boundary layers is described. Special attention was paid to flows with rapid changes in pressure including flows with shock waves, curved walls, and expansions. The application of rapid distortion theory to flows transversing expansion and shock waves is reviewed. This is followed by an account of experiments aimed at elucidating the large scale structures present in supersonic boundary layers. The current status of laser-Doppler and hot-wire anemometry in supersonic flow is discussed, and a new interferometric technique for the determination of wall-stress is described. The use of small pressure transducers to deduce information about the structure of zero pressure-gradient and severely perturbed boundary layers is investigated. Finally, there is an extension of the data presentation of AGARDographs 223, 253 and 263 to cover rapidly distorted boundary layers.

  8. A survey of routing techniques in store-and-forward and wormhole interconnects.

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, David Michael; Lee, David S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of algorithms for directing messages through networks of varying topology. These are commonly referred to as routing algorithms in the literature that is presented. In addition to providing background on networking terminology and router basics, the paper explains the issues of deadlock and livelock as they apply to routing. After this, there is a discussion of routing algorithms for both store-and-forward and wormhole-switched networks. The paper covers both algorithms that do and do not adapt to conditions in the network. Techniques targeting structured as well as irregular topologies are discussed. Following this, strategies for routing in the presence of faulty nodes and links in the network are described.

  9. Electrospinning as a powerful technique for biomedical applications: a critically selected survey.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Gómez, Luis Jesús; Cornejo-Bravo, José Manuel; Vera-Graziano, Ricardo; Grande, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, electrospinning has become one of the most versatile, easy, and cost-effective techniques to engineer advanced materials used for many applications, especially in the biomedical and environmental areas. Like the numerous patents around the world, the increasing number of papers witnesses the huge potential of this simple process, and many companies have been emerged during the last years to exploit its innumerable applications. This article presents a critically selected overview of polymers that can be used to produce nanofibers, along with the biomedical applications of the resulting electrospun scaffolds. We have focused on about seven natural and synthetic polymers, but many more can be found in the literature, either as their pristine state or as composites with ceramics, metals, and other polymers. The description of some strategies for nanofiber production, and the characterization used to evaluate their optimization, has been discussed. Finally, several polymers have been recognized as highlights for future work.

  10. Digital 3D Borobudur - Integration of 3D surveying and modeling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwardhi, D.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Hanke, K.; Akmalia, R.

    2015-08-01

    The Borobudur temple (Indonesia) is one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world, now listed as an UNESCO World Heritage Site. The present state of the temple is the result of restorations after being exposed to natural disasters several times. Today there is still a growing rate of deterioration of the building stones whose causes need further researches. Monitoring programs, supported at institutional level, have been effectively executed to observe the problem. The paper presents the latest efforts to digitally document the Borobudur Temple and its surrounding area in 3D with photogrammetric techniques. UAV and terrestrial images were acquired to completely digitize the temple, produce DEM, orthoimages and maps at 1:100 and 1:1000 scale. The results of the project are now employed by the local government organizations to manage the heritage area and plan new policies for the conservation and preservation of the UNESCO site. In order to help data management and policy makers, a web-based information system of the heritage area was also built to visualize and easily access all the data and achieved 3D results.

  11. Research priorities in occupational medicine: a survey of United Kingdom medical opinion by the Delphi technique.

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, J M

    1994-01-01

    An attempt to achieve an agreed set of priorities for research in occupational medicine was undertaken by the Delphi technique. Fifty three senior practitioners of occupational medicine in academe (25) and industry or government (28) were canvassed about their views and choices for priority activity. Forty six (86%) responded to the initial enquiry and 48 (91%) provided rank order choices from a second, more detailed questionnaire. The first priority for more research on the natural history of work related ill health identified musculoskeletal disorders of the back and upper limbs followed by asthma, accidents, skin disorders, vibration induced disease, suicide and depression, and finally hearing loss. The second priority area was audit and particularly the need for its use in occupational health screening procedures. Environmental impact of industrial activity was third with the community health effects being more important than individual health effects. Stress related disease was fourth with emphasis on risk factors. The fifth area was neuropsychological effects of work exposures particularly the need for more research on diagnostic tests. Other assorted areas of concern were the cost effectiveness of occupational health, risk assessment, reproductive hazards, the effects of pharmacological agents, and the development of biomarkers as early evidence of an exposure effect. The remarkable degree of unanimity on the issues and choices and the general agreement between physicians from academe and industry on what constitute the priorities warrants further discussion and positive action. PMID:8199676

  12. Survey on uterine closure and other techniques for Caesarean section among Quebec's obstetrician-gynaecologists.

    PubMed

    Demers, Suzanne; Roberge, Stéphanie; Afiuni, Yamal A; Chaillet, Nils; Girard, Isabelle; Bujold, Emmanuel

    2013-04-01

    Objectif : Évaluer les types privilégiés de fermeture utérine au moment de la césarienne chez les obstétriciens-gynécologues du Québec. Méthodes : Un sondage anonyme comptant des questions ouvertes et à choix multiples a été transmis par courriel à tous les membres de l’Association des obstétriciens-gynécologues du Québec en pratique clinique. La question qui nous intéressait principalement concernait le type de fermeture utérine qui serait privilégié dans le cas d’une primigravide subissant une césarienne planifiée à terme en raison d’un fœtus en présentation du siège. Parmi les questions suscitant un intérêt secondaire de notre part, on trouvait celles qui s’intéressaient au type de fermeture utérine pour ce qui est des césariennes menées en raison d’autres indications et celles qui traitaient des méthodes de fermeture de la jonction avec la vessie, du péritoine pariétal, du muscle grand droit de l’abdomen, du tissu sous-cutané et de la peau. Les résultats ont été stratifiés en fonction du nombre d’années de pratique. Résultats : Parmi les 454 personnes ciblées, 176 (39 %) ont rempli le sondage. Les répondants étaient plus susceptibles de compter moins d’années de pratique que la population ciblée en général. Les types de fermeture utérine privilégiés dans le cas d’une primigravide subissant une césarienne planifiée à terme en raison d’un fœtus en présentation du siège ont été, en ordre de préférence : (1) une fermeture en deux plans combinant un premier plan fermé au moyen d’un surjet passé et un deuxième plan imbriqué (61 %), (2) une fermeture en deux plans combinant un premier plan fermé au moyen d’un surjet non passé et un deuxième plan imbriqué (28 %), (3) une fermeture en un plan au moyen d’un surjet passé (5 %), (4) une fermeture en un plan au moyen d’un surjet non passé (5 %), et (5) d’autres techniques (1%). La fermeture en un plan au moyen d

  13. Illumination Sufficiency Survey Techniques: In-situ Measurements of Lighting System Performance and a User Preference Survey for Illuminance in an Off-Grid, African Setting

    SciTech Connect

    Alstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-08-26

    Efforts to promote rechargeable electric lighting as a replacement for fuel-based light sources in developing countries are typically predicated on the notion that lighting service levels can be maintained or improved while reducing the costs and environmental impacts of existing practices. However, the extremely low incomes of those who depend on fuel-based lighting create a need to balance the hypothetically possible or desirable levels of light with those that are sufficient and affordable. In a pilot study of four night vendors in Kenya, we document a field technique we developed to simultaneously measure the effectiveness of lighting service provided by a lighting system and conduct a survey of lighting service demand by end-users. We took gridded illuminance measurements across each vendor's working and selling area, with users indicating the sufficiency of light at each point. User light sources included a mix of kerosene-fueled hurricane lanterns, pressure lamps, and LED lanterns.We observed illuminance levels ranging from just above zero to 150 lux. The LED systems markedly improved the lighting service levels over those provided by kerosene-fueled hurricane lanterns. Users reported that the minimum acceptable threshold was about 2 lux. The results also indicated that the LED lamps in use by the subjects did not always provide sufficient illumination over the desired retail areas. Our sample size is much too small, however, to reach any conclusions about requirements in the broader population. Given the small number of subjects and very specific type of user, our results should be regarded as indicative rather than conclusive. We recommend replicating the method at larger scales and across a variety of user types and contexts. Policymakers should revisit the subject of recommended illuminance levels regularly as LED technology advances and the price/service balance point evolves.

  14. A study of methods to predict and measure the transmission of sound through the walls of light aircraft. A survey of techniques for visualization of noise fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, S. E.; Bernhard, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of the most widely used methods for visualizing acoustic phenomena is presented. Emphasis is placed on acoustic processes in the audible frequencies. Many visual problems are analyzed on computer graphic systems. A brief description of the current technology in computer graphics is included. The visualization technique survey will serve as basis for recommending an optimum scheme for displaying acoustic fields on computer graphic systems.

  15. Brain tumors in eloquent areas: A European multicenter survey of intraoperative mapping techniques, intraoperative seizures occurrence, and antiepileptic drug prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Spena, Giannantonio; Schucht, Philippe; Seidel, Kathleen; Rutten, Geert-Jan; Freyschlag, Christian Franz; D'Agata, Federico; Costi, Emanule; Zappa, Francesca; Fontanella, Marco; Fontaine, Denys; Almairac, Fabien; Cavallo, Michele; De Bonis, Pasquale; Conesa, Gerardo; Foroglou, Nicholas; Gil-Robles, Santiago; Mandonnet, Emanuel; Martino, Juan; Picht, Thomas; Viegas, Catarina; Wager, Michel; Pallud, Johan

    2017-04-01

    Intraoperative mapping and monitoring techniques for eloquent area tumors are routinely used world wide. Very few data are available regarding mapping and monitoring methods and preferences, intraoperative seizures occurrence and perioperative antiepileptic drug management. A questionnaire was sent to 20 European centers with experience in intraoperative mapping or neurophysiological monitoring for the treatment of eloquent area tumors. Fifteen centers returned the completed questionnaires. Data was available on 2098 patients. 863 patients (41.1%) were operated on through awake surgery and intraoperative mapping, while 1235 patients (58.8%) received asleep surgery and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring or mapping. There was great heterogeneity between centers with some totally AW oriented (up to 100%) and other almost totally ASL oriented (up to 92%) (31% SD). For awake surgery, 79.9% centers preferred an asleep-awake-asleep anesthesia protocol. Only 53.3% of the centers used ECoG or transcutaneous EEG. The incidence of intraoperative seizures varied significantly between centers, ranging from 2.5% to 54% (p < 0.001). It there appears to be a statistically significant link between the mastery of mapping technique and the risk of intraoperative seizures. Moreover, history of preoperative seizures can significantly increase the risk of intraoperative seizures (p < 0.001). Intraoperative seizures occurrence was similar in patients with or without perioperative drugs (12% vs. 12%, p = 0.2). This is the first European survey to assess intraoperative functional mapping and monitoring protocols and the management of peri- and intraoperative seizures. This data can help identify specific aspects that need to be investigated in prospective and controlled studies.

  16. Results of a Survey Software Development Project Management in the U.S. Aerospace Industry. Volume II. Project Management Techniques, Procedures and Tools.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-18

    PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN THE U.S. AEROSPACE INDUSTRY Volume I1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES, PROCEDURES AND TOOLS RICHARD Hf. THAYER SACRAMENTO AIR...MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES USED IN SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS BY THE US AEROSPACE INDUSTRY BY Richard H. Thayer and John H. Lehman This report...contains the results of a survey conducted in 1977 and 1978 on how the US Aerospace Industry manages its software development projects. The sample of

  17. Simulation survey techniques to assess consumer travel behavior under conditions of energy constraint: a phenomenological model of decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, K.M.

    1983-01-01

    This study involves the use of questionnaire items designed to assess attitudes held toward the gasoline shortages. It also includes the development of a carefully constructed and real world gasoline-rationing simulation. It is believed that the methodological flexibility of computer simulation techniques used in combination with an attitude survey permits a more adequate analysis of the multiplicity of attitudinal and situational factors that work together to produce behavior. The focus is on describing the degree to which certain travel-decision patterns occur. Presimulation and postsimulation frequency distributions are examined which suggest the knowledge and experience presented by SHORTAGE, a gasoline rationing simulation, lead to a significant change in attitude toward the gasoline shortages. It is demonstrated that no statistically significant relationships exist between attitude toward the gasoline shortages and actual decisions made during participation in SHORTAGE. Insights are, however, gained, into the types of decisions consumers might make relative to their attitudes toward the gasoline shortages. Often, those decisions made which are the most acceptable, yield consequences that are as constraining as those that might encourage breaking the law in order to continue freedom in transportation mobility.

  18. A survey of clearing techniques for 3D imaging of tissues with special reference to connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Azaripour, Adriano; Lagerweij, Tonny; Scharfbillig, Christina; Jadczak, Anna Elisabeth; Willershausen, Brita; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F

    2016-08-01

    For 3-dimensional (3D) imaging of a tissue, 3 methodological steps are essential and their successful application depends on specific characteristics of the type of tissue. The steps are 1° clearing of the opaque tissue to render it transparent for microscopy, 2° fluorescence labeling of the tissues and 3° 3D imaging. In the past decades, new methodologies were introduced for the clearing steps with their specific advantages and disadvantages. Most clearing techniques have been applied to the central nervous system and other organs that contain relatively low amounts of connective tissue including extracellular matrix. However, tissues that contain large amounts of extracellular matrix such as dermis in skin or gingiva are difficult to clear. The present survey lists methodologies that are available for clearing of tissues for 3D imaging. We report here that the BABB method using a mixture of benzyl alcohol and benzyl benzoate and iDISCO using dibenzylether (DBE) are the most successful methods for clearing connective tissue-rich gingiva and dermis of skin for 3D histochemistry and imaging of fluorescence using light-sheet microscopy.

  19. [Induced abortion among prostitutes: a survey using the ballot-box technique in Teresina-Piauí].

    PubMed

    Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Rufino, Andréa Cronemberger

    2012-07-01

    This study assesses the prevalence of induced abortion among prostitutes and lists the most common abortion practices. A survey was conducted with 310 prostitutes between 18 and 39 years of age, by sampling age quotas in the 5 territorial areas of Teresina in the state of Piauí. Data collection was conducted through the use of 2 questionnaires: the first, by the ballot-box technique, with questions about abortion; the second, completed by the researcher, with socio-demographic information. The practice of abortion was reported by 163 (52.6%) women. Most prostitutes performed 1 abortion (50.3%), but 16.5% of them reported carrying out 3 or more. Misoprostol was used alone in 68.1% of the reports and associated with tea and/or probes in 9.2%, followed by tea in 13.4%, probes in 3.7%, and uterine curettage in unregulated clinics in 3.7%. There was post-abortion hospitalization in 47.8% of the cases. After adjustment of the multiple logistic regression model, the variable that remained significantly associated with abortion was to have had 3 or more pregnancies. These results revealed that induced abortion is an event of great prevalence among prostitutes in Teresina. Misoprostol is the most common method to abort and hospitalization was necessary in almost half of cases.

  20. Recent calving dynamics of Glaciar Jorge Montt (Southern Patagonia Icefield) based on feature tracking techniques and oceanographic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bown, F.; Moffat, C. F.; Rivera, A.; Cisternas, S.; Kohoutek, T.

    2013-12-01

    Glaciers in the Southern Patagonia Icefield (SPI) have been retreating, thinning and accelerating in recent decades. Most of the SPI is comprised of temperate ice, therefore melting is the dominant wasting factor, however, calving is also playing a very important role, especially because calving is enhancing ice dynamic responses, mainly when glaciers calve into deep waters. Some of the most exacerbated responses are connected to the well documented and long-term tidewater calving cycle (TCC) overlapped by recent climate-related glacier responses. Glaciar Jorge Montt (48S/73W), is a tidewater glacier (~500 km2) which has experienced the maximum frontal retreat of the whole SPI (near 20 km in 112 years) while retreating up to 400 m water depth. Dead trees found in areas recently open by the glacier's retreat prove a date for the previous advancing cycle which took place during the Little Ice Age (250-400 years BP). This result indicates that the glacier is experiencing the retreating phase of the TCC in centennial time-scales. However, very little is known if this phase will stop or will continue, or how do climate change dynamcis will affect it. In order to understand the present behaviour of the glacier, several surveys have recently been conducted in the area, including airborne lidar and radar surveys, water depth measurements and ice dynamic studies. In order to survey the ice dynamic of the glacier front in connection with tides at the inner fjord, a camera pointing to the glacier terminus and collecting up to 8 photographs per day was installed in April 2012. The camera was continuously working for 60 days, allowing to study in detail the ice velocities, calving fluxes and tides near the ice. Thanks to the geo-location of the oblique photographs, feature tracking techniques were applied to the series in order to determine ice velocities and frontal retreat during the operational period. The resulting average velocities are lower than 10 m d-1, which are

  1. Busy Signal: Techniques and Methods Used for Planning and Executing the 1980 Community Telephone Survey. Coast Community Colleges Community Telephone Survey, 1980: Report Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Dennis G.

    Information is provided on the procedures and instruments used to conduct the Coast Community Colleges 1980 Telephone Survey as an aid for those planning to undertake a similar study. After an introductory section, Section II discusses study planning, outlining the roles of an executive steering committee made up of key administrators, a technical…

  2. Conceptual model for the use of aerial color infrared photography by mosquito control districts as a survey technique for Psorophora columbiae oviposition habitats in Texas ricelands.

    PubMed

    Welch, J B; Olson, J K; Yates, M M; Benton, A R; Baker, R D

    1989-09-01

    Two photographic missions per year are recommended to provide information on land-use and mosquito oviposition habitats. A winter mission, following a rain, will-provide a view of low areas within fields which may be obscured by summer vegetation. A summer mission will provide current land-use and crop distribution information and may show plant stress conditions due to excessive soil moisture. An aerial color infrared photographic survey with directed ground verification should result in a substantial savings in cost and increased efficiency in surveillance of mosquito producing habitats over ground survey techniques currently employed by mosquito control districts.

  3. Sound source localization technique using a seismic streamer and its extension for whale localization during seismic surveys.

    PubMed

    Abadi, Shima H; Wilcock, William S D; Tolstoy, Maya; Crone, Timothy J; Carbotte, Suzanne M

    2015-12-01

    Marine seismic surveys are under increasing scrutiny because of concern that they may disturb or otherwise harm marine mammals and impede their communications. Most of the energy from seismic surveys is low frequency, so concerns are particularly focused on baleen whales. Extensive mitigation efforts accompany seismic surveys, including visual and acoustic monitoring, but the possibility remains that not all animals in an area can be observed and located. One potential way to improve mitigation efforts is to utilize the seismic hydrophone streamer to detect and locate calling baleen whales. This study describes a method to localize low frequency sound sources with data recoded by a streamer. Beamforming is used to estimate the angle of arriving energy relative to sub-arrays of the streamer which constrains the horizontal propagation velocity to each sub-array for a given trial location. A grid search method is then used to minimize the time residual for relative arrival times along the streamer estimated by cross correlation. Results from both simulation and experiment are shown and data from the marine mammal observers and the passive acoustic monitoring conducted simultaneously with the seismic survey are used to verify the analysis.

  4. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Never mind the gaps: comparing techniques to restore homogeneous sky coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucciati, O.; Granett, B. R.; Branchini, E.; Marulli, F.; Iovino, A.; Moscardini, L.; Bel, J.; Cappi, A.; Peacock, J. A.; de la Torre, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Guzzo, L.; Polletta, M.; Fritz, A.; Adami, C.; Bottini, D.; Coupon, J.; Davidzon, I.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Krywult, J.; Małek, K.; Paioro, L.; Pollo, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Di Porto, C.; Zamorani, G.

    2014-05-01

    Aims: Non-uniform sampling and gaps in sky coverage are common in galaxy redshift surveys, but these effects can degrade galaxy counts-in-cells measurements and density estimates. We carry out a comparative study of methods that aim to fill the gaps to correct for the systematic effects. Our study is motivated by the analysis of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), a flux-limited survey at iAB < 22.5 consisting of single-pass observations with the VLT Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) with gaps representing 25% of the surveyed area and an averagesampling rate of 35%. However, our findings are generally applicable to other redshift surveys with similar observing strategies. Methods: We applied two algorithms that use photometric redshift information and assign redshifts to galaxies based upon the spectroscopic redshifts of the nearest neighbours. We compared these methods with two Bayesian methods, the Wiener filter and the Poisson-Lognormal filter. Using galaxy mock catalogues we quantified the accuracy and precision of the counts-in-cells measurements on scales of R = 5 h-1 Mpc and 8 h-1 Mpc after applying each of these methods. We further investigated how these methods perform to account for other sources of uncertainty typical of spectroscopic surveys, such as the spectroscopic redshift error and the sparse, inhomogeneous sampling rate. We analysed each of these sources separately, then all together in a mock catalogue that mimicks the full observational strategy of a VIPERS-like survey. Results: In a survey such as VIPERS, the errors in counts-in-cells measurements on R < 10 h-1 Mpc scales are dominated by the sparseness of the sample due to the single-pass observing strategy. All methods under-predict the counts in high-density regions by 20-35%, depending on the cell size, method, and underlying overdensity. This systematic bias is similar to random errors. No method outperforms the others: differences are not large, and methods

  5. Assessing Caribbean Shallow and Mesophotic Reef Fish Communities Using Baited-Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) and Diver-Operated Video (DOV) Survey Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Macaya-Solis, Consuelo; Exton, Dan A.; Gress, Erika; Wright, Georgina; Rogers, Alex D.

    2016-01-01

    Fish surveys form the backbone of reef monitoring and management initiatives throughout the tropics, and understanding patterns in biases between techniques is crucial if outputs are to address key objectives optimally. Often biases are not consistent across natural environmental gradients such as depth, leading to uncertainty in interpretation of results. Recently there has been much interest in mesophotic reefs (reefs from 30–150 m depth) as refuge habitats from fishing pressure, leading to many comparisons of reef fish communities over depth gradients. Here we compare fish communities using stereo-video footage recorded via baited remote underwater video (BRUV) and diver-operated video (DOV) systems on shallow and mesophotic reefs in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef, Caribbean. We show inconsistent responses across families, species and trophic groups between methods across the depth gradient. Fish species and family richness were higher using BRUV at both depth ranges, suggesting that BRUV is more appropriate for recording all components of the fish community. Fish length distributions were not different between methods on shallow reefs, yet BRUV recorded more small fish on mesophotic reefs. However, DOV consistently recorded greater relative fish community biomass of herbivores, suggesting that studies focusing on herbivores should consider using DOV. Our results highlight the importance of considering what component of reef fish community researchers and managers are most interested in surveying when deciding which survey technique to use across natural gradients such as depth. PMID:27959907

  6. Modulation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilling, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Bandwidth efficient digital modulation techniques, proposed for use on and/or applied to satellite channels, are reviewed. In a survey of recent works on digital modulation techniques, the performance of several schemes operating in various environments are compared. Topics covered include: (1) quadrature phase shift keying; (2) offset - QPSK and MSK; (3) combined modulation and coding; and (4) spectrally efficient modulation techniques.

  7. Survey of WBSNs for Pre-Hospital Assistance: Trends to Maximize the Network Lifetime and Video Transmission Techniques.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Enrique; Peña, Raul; Vargas-Rosales, Cesar; Avila, Alfonso; de Cerio, David Perez-Diaz

    2015-05-22

    This survey aims to encourage the multidisciplinary communities to join forces for innovation in the mobile health monitoring area. Specifically, multidisciplinary innovations in medical emergency scenarios can have a significant impact on the effectiveness and quality of the procedures and practices in the delivery of medical care. Wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) are a promising technology capable of improving the existing practices in condition assessment and care delivery for a patient in a medical emergency. This technology can also facilitate the early interventions of a specialist physician during the pre-hospital period. WBSNs make possible these early interventions by establishing remote communication links with video/audio support and by providing medical information such as vital signs, electrocardiograms, etc. in real time. This survey focuses on relevant issues needed to understand how to setup a WBSN for medical emergencies. These issues are: monitoring vital signs and video transmission, energy efficient protocols, scheduling, optimization and energy consumption on a WBSN.

  8. Survey of WBSNs for Pre-Hospital Assistance: Trends to Maximize the Network Lifetime and Video Transmission Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Enrique; Peña, Raul; Vargas-Rosales, Cesar; Avila, Alfonso; Perez-Diaz de Cerio, David

    2015-01-01

    This survey aims to encourage the multidisciplinary communities to join forces for innovation in the mobile health monitoring area. Specifically, multidisciplinary innovations in medical emergency scenarios can have a significant impact on the effectiveness and quality of the procedures and practices in the delivery of medical care. Wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) are a promising technology capable of improving the existing practices in condition assessment and care delivery for a patient in a medical emergency. This technology can also facilitate the early interventions of a specialist physician during the pre-hospital period. WBSNs make possible these early interventions by establishing remote communication links with video/audio support and by providing medical information such as vital signs, electrocardiograms, etc. in real time. This survey focuses on relevant issues needed to understand how to setup a WBSN for medical emergencies. These issues are: monitoring vital signs and video transmission, energy efficient protocols, scheduling, optimization and energy consumption on a WBSN. PMID:26007741

  9. Amazonas project: Application of remote sensing techniques for the integrated survey of natural resources in Amazonas. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT multispectral scanner and return beam vidicon imagery for surveying the natural resources of the Brazilian Amazonas is described. Purposes of the Amazonas development project are summarized. The application of LANDSAT imagery to identification of vegetation coverage and soil use, identification of soil types, geomorphology, and geology and highway planning is discussed. An evaluation of the worth of LANDSAT imagery in mapping the region is presented. Maps generated by the project are included.

  10. Web-based, mobile-device friendly, self-report survey system incorporating avatars and gaming console techniques.

    PubMed

    Savel, Craig; Mierzwa, Stan; Gorbach, Pamina; Lally, Michelle; Zimet, Gregory; Meyer, Kristin; Souidi, Samir; Interventions, Aids

    2014-01-01

    We describe building an avatar-based self-report data collection tool to be used for a specific HIV prevention research project that is evaluating the feasibility and acceptability of this novel approach to collect self-reported data among youth. We discuss the gathering of requirements, the process of building a prototype of the envisioned system, and the lessons learned during the development of the solution. Specific knowledge is shared regarding technical experience with software development technologies and possible avenues for changes that could be considered if such a self-report survey system is used again. Examples of other gaming and avatar technology systems are included to provide further background.

  11. Is video-assisted thoracoscopic diaphragmatic plication a widespread technique for diaphragmatic hernia in adults? Review of the literature and results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Rombolá, Carlos A; Genovés Crespo, Marta; Tárraga López, Pedro J; García Jiménez, María Dolores; Honguero Martínez, Antonio F; León Atance, Pablo; Rodríguez Ortega, Claudia R; Triviño Ramírez, Ana; Rodríguez Montes, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Diaphragmatic plication is the most accepted treatment for symptomatic diaphragmatic hernia in adults. The fact that this pathology is infrequent and this procedure not been widespread means that this is an exceptional technique in our field. To estimate its use in the literature, we carried out a review in English and Spanish, to which we added our series. We found only six series that contribute 59 video-assisted mini-thoractomy for diaphragmatic plications in adults, and none in Spanish. Our series will be the second largest with 18 cases. Finally, we conducted a survey in all the Spanish Thoracic Surgery units in Spain: none reported more than 10 cases operated by thoracoscopy in the last 8 years (except our series) and most continue employing thoracotomy as the main approach. We believe that many patients with symptomatic diaphragmatic hernia could benefit from the use of such techniques.

  12. Web-based, mobile-device friendly, self-report survey system incorporating avatars and gaming console techniques

    PubMed Central

    Savel, Craig; Mierzwa, Stan; Gorbach, Pamina; Lally, Michelle; Zimet, Gregory; Meyer, Kristin; Souidi, Samir; Interventions, AIDS

    2014-01-01

    We describe building an avatar-based self-report data collection tool to be used for a specific HIV prevention research project that is evaluating the feasibility and acceptability of this novel approach to collect self-reported data among youth. We discuss the gathering of requirements, the process of building a prototype of the envisioned system, and the lessons learned during the development of the solution. Specific knowledge is shared regarding technical experience with software development technologies and possible avenues for changes that could be considered if such a self-report survey system is used again. Examples of other gaming and avatar technology systems are included to provide further background. PMID:25422726

  13. Surveying your internal customers.

    PubMed

    Weir, V L

    1998-06-01

    Internal customers often are overlooked when business techniques are applied. By applying common external customer satisfaction survey techniques to internal business functions, one hospital identified areas for improvement.

  14. Improving the sampling strategy of the Joint Danube Survey 3 (2013) by means of multivariate statistical techniques applied on selected physico-chemical and biological data.

    PubMed

    Hamchevici, Carmen; Udrea, Ion

    2013-11-01

    The concept of basin-wide Joint Danube Survey (JDS) was launched by the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR) as a tool for investigative monitoring under the Water Framework Directive (WFD), with a frequency of 6 years. The first JDS was carried out in 2001 and its success in providing key information for characterisation of the Danube River Basin District as required by WFD lead to the organisation of the second JDS in 2007, which was the world's biggest river research expedition in that year. The present paper presents an approach for improving the survey strategy for the next planned survey JDS3 (2013) by means of several multivariate statistical techniques. In order to design the optimum structure in terms of parameters and sampling sites, principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA) and cluster analysis were applied on JDS2 data for 13 selected physico-chemical and one biological element measured in 78 sampling sites located on the main course of the Danube. Results from PCA/FA showed that most of the dataset variance (above 75%) was explained by five varifactors loaded with 8 out of 14 variables: physical (transparency and total suspended solids), relevant nutrients (N-nitrates and P-orthophosphates), feedback effects of primary production (pH, alkalinity and dissolved oxygen) and algal biomass. Taking into account the representation of the factor scores given by FA versus sampling sites and the major groups generated by the clustering procedure, the spatial network of the next survey could be carefully tailored, leading to a decreasing of sampling sites by more than 30%. The approach of target oriented sampling strategy based on the selected multivariate statistics can provide a strong reduction in dimensionality of the original data and corresponding costs as well, without any loss of information.

  15. Application of capillary gas chromatography mass spectrometry/computer techniques to synoptic survey of organic material in bed sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinheimer, T.R.; Pereira, W.E.; Johnson, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    A bed sediment sample taken from an area impacted by heavy industrial activity was analyzed for organic compounds of environmental significance. Extraction was effected on a Soxhlet apparatus using a freeze-dried sample. The Soxhlet extract was fractionated by silica gel micro-column adsorption chromatography. Separation and identification of the organic compounds was accomplished by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques. More than 50 compounds were identified; these include saturated hydrocarbons, olefins, aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and oxygenated compounds such as aldehydes and ketones. The role of bed sediments as a source or sink for organic pollutants is discussed. ?? 1981.

  16. Directional-cosine and related pre-processing techniques - Possibilities and problems in earth-resources surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiel, F.

    1975-01-01

    The possibilities of using various pre-processing techniques (directional-cosine, ratios and ratio/sum) have been investigated in relation to an urban land-use problem in Marion County, Indiana (USA) and for geologic applications in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado. For Marion County, it proved possible to classify directional-cosine data from September 1972 into different land uses by applying statistics developed with data from a May 1973 ERTS frame, thereby demonstrating the possibilities of using this type of data for signature-extension purposes. In the Silverton (Colorado) area pre-processed data proved superior to original data when extracting useful information in mountainous areas without corresponding ground observations. This approach allowed meaningful classification and interpretation of the data. The main problems encountered as a result of atmospheric effects, mixing of different surface materials, and the performance characteristics of ERTS are elucidated.

  17. A survey and proposed framework on the soft biometrics technique for human identification in intelligent video surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Gu; Moon, Hae-Min; Chung, Yongwha; Pan, Sung Bum

    2012-01-01

    Biometrics verification can be efficiently used for intrusion detection and intruder identification in video surveillance systems. Biometrics techniques can be largely divided into traditional and the so-called soft biometrics. Whereas traditional biometrics deals with physical characteristics such as face features, eye iris, and fingerprints, soft biometrics is concerned with such information as gender, national origin, and height. Traditional biometrics is versatile and highly accurate. But it is very difficult to get traditional biometric data from a distance and without personal cooperation. Soft biometrics, although featuring less accuracy, can be used much more freely though. Recently, many researchers have been made on human identification using soft biometrics data collected from a distance. In this paper, we use both traditional and soft biometrics for human identification and propose a framework for solving such problems as lighting, occlusion, and shadowing.

  18. A Survey and Proposed Framework on the Soft Biometrics Technique for Human Identification in Intelligent Video Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gu; Moon, Hae-Min; Chung, Yongwha; Pan, Sung Bum

    2012-01-01

    Biometrics verification can be efficiently used for intrusion detection and intruder identification in video surveillance systems. Biometrics techniques can be largely divided into traditional and the so-called soft biometrics. Whereas traditional biometrics deals with physical characteristics such as face features, eye iris, and fingerprints, soft biometrics is concerned with such information as gender, national origin, and height. Traditional biometrics is versatile and highly accurate. But it is very difficult to get traditional biometric data from a distance and without personal cooperation. Soft biometrics, although featuring less accuracy, can be used much more freely though. Recently, many researchers have been made on human identification using soft biometrics data collected from a distance. In this paper, we use both traditional and soft biometrics for human identification and propose a framework for solving such problems as lighting, occlusion, and shadowing. PMID:22919273

  19. Residents' concerns and attitudes toward a municipal solid waste landfill: integrating a questionnaire survey and GIS techniques.

    PubMed

    Che, Yue; Yang, Kai; Jin, Yan; Zhang, Weiqian; Shang, Zhaoyi; Tai, Jun

    2013-12-01

    The ever-growing industry of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal appeals to the growing need for disposal facilities, and MSW treatment facilities are increasingly an environmental and public health concern. Residents living near MSW management facilities are confronted with various risk perceptions, especially odour. In this study, in an effort to assist responsible decision-makers in better planning and managing such a project, a structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to assess the nearby residents' concerns and attitudes surrounding the Laogang Landfill in Shanghai. Geographic information system techniques and relevance analysis were employed to conduct the spatial analysis of physical perceptions, especially odour annoyance. The findings of the research indicate that a significant percentage of the responding sample was aware of the negative impacts of landfills on the environment and public health, and residents in close proximity preferred to live farther from the landfill. The results from the spatial analysis demonstrated a definite degree of correlation between odour annoyance and distance to the facility and proved that the benefits of the socially disadvantaged have been neglected. The research findings also direct attention to the important role of public participation, information disclosure, transparency in management, and mutual communication to avoid conflicts and build social trust.

  20. Direct, immunological and molecular techniques for a fasciolosis survey in a rural area of San Luis, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, Silvana; Cabrera, Marta Graciela; Cucher, Marcela Alejandra; di Risio, Cecilia Alicia; Malandrini, Jorge Bruno; Kamenetzky, Laura; Alazraqui, Marcio; Etchart, Cristina Beatriz; Pantano, María Laura; Velásquez, Jorge Néstor

    2013-10-01

    Fasciolosis is a zoonosis caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica, prevalent in cattle, that is actually emerging as a cause of disease in humans. The goal of this work was to describe the characteristics of fasciolosis in arroyo El Juncal region, La Toma, San Luis province, Argentina. In order to get this objective, a transversal, quantitative study was carried out by a fieldwork that allowed the collection of data, human, animal, and environmental samples. The materials were processed by direct, immunological and/or molecular diagnostic techniques. According to the geographical characteristics and in presence of all the definitive and intermediate hosts, reservoirs, and sources of infection, it was possible to describe the persistence of fasciolosis in the area. The prevalence was 11.90 % in humans (by serology), 5.26 % in cattle (by coprological analysis) and 61.76 % in snails (by PCR). The situation that was found for this area indicates that any measure of intervention for the control of this zoonosis should be adopted by multidisciplinary teams.

  1. Advances in bio-tactile sensors for minimally invasive surgery using the fibre Bragg grating force sensor technique: a survey.

    PubMed

    Abushagur, Abdulfatah A G; Arsad, Norhana; Reaz, Mamun Ibne; Bakar, A Ashrif A

    2014-04-09

    The large interest in utilising fibre Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) applications to replace conventional electrical tactile sensors has grown in the past few years. FBG strain sensors offer the advantages of optical fibre sensors, such as high sensitivity, immunity to electromagnetic noise, electrical passivity and chemical inertness, but are not limited by phase discontinuity or intensity fluctuations. FBG sensors feature a wavelength-encoding sensing signal that enables distributed sensing that utilises fewer connections. In addition, their flexibility and lightness allow easy insertion into needles and catheters, thus enabling localised measurements inside tissues and blood. Two types of FBG tactile sensors have been emphasised in the literature: single-point and array FBG tactile sensors. This paper describes the current design, development and research of the optical fibre tactile techniques that are based on FBGs to enhance the performance of MIS procedures in general. Providing MIS or microsurgery surgeons with accurate and precise measurements and control of the contact forces during tissues manipulation will benefit both surgeons and patients.

  2. Trends in non-stationary signal processing techniques applied to vibration analysis of wind turbine drive train - A contemporary survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uma Maheswari, R.; Umamaheswari, R.

    2017-02-01

    Condition Monitoring System (CMS) substantiates potential economic benefits and enables prognostic maintenance in wind turbine-generator failure prevention. Vibration Monitoring and Analysis is a powerful tool in drive train CMS, which enables the early detection of impending failure/damage. In variable speed drives such as wind turbine-generator drive trains, the vibration signal acquired is of non-stationary and non-linear. The traditional stationary signal processing techniques are inefficient to diagnose the machine faults in time varying conditions. The current research trend in CMS for drive-train focuses on developing/improving non-linear, non-stationary feature extraction and fault classification algorithms to improve fault detection/prediction sensitivity and selectivity and thereby reducing the misdetection and false alarm rates. In literature, review of stationary signal processing algorithms employed in vibration analysis is done at great extent. In this paper, an attempt is made to review the recent research advances in non-linear non-stationary signal processing algorithms particularly suited for variable speed wind turbines.

  3. Distant Cluster Hunting. II; A Comparison of X-Ray and Optical Cluster Detection Techniques and Catalogs from the ROSAT Optical X-Ray Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Megan; Scharf, Caleb A.; Mack, Jennifer; Lee, Y. Paul; Postman, Marc; Rosait, Piero; Dickinson, Mark; Voit, G. Mark; Stocke, John T.

    2002-01-01

    We present and analyze the optical and X-ray catalogs of moderate-redshift cluster candidates from the ROSA TOptical X-Ray Survey, or ROXS. The survey covers the sky area contained in the fields of view of 23 deep archival ROSA T PSPC pointings, 4.8 square degrees. The cross-correlated cluster catalogs were con- structed by comparing two independent catalogs extracted from the optical and X-ray bandpasses, using a matched-filter technique for the optical data and a wavelet technique for the X-ray data. We cross-identified cluster candidates in each catalog. As reported in Paper 1, the matched-filter technique found optical counter- parts for at least 60% (26 out of 43) of the X-ray cluster candidates; the estimated redshifts from the matched filter algorithm agree with at least 7 of 1 1 spectroscopic confirmations (Az 5 0.10). The matched filter technique. with an imaging sensitivity of ml N 23, identified approximately 3 times the number of candidates (155 candidates, 142 with a detection confidence >3 u) found in the X-ray survey of nearly the same area. There are 57 X-ray candidates, 43 of which are unobscured by scattered light or bright stars in the optical images. Twenty-six of these have fairly secure optical counterparts. We find that the matched filter algorithm, when applied to images with galaxy flux sensitivities of mI N 23, is fairly well-matched to discovering z 5 1 clusters detected by wavelets in ROSAT PSPC exposures of 8000-60,000 s. The difference in the spurious fractions between the optical and X-ray (30%) and IO%, respectively) cannot account for the difference in source number. In Paper I, we compared the optical and X-ray cluster luminosity functions and we found that the luminosity functions are consistent if the relationship between X-ray and optical luminosities is steep (Lx o( L&f). Here, in Paper 11, we present the cluster catalogs and a numerical simulation of the ROXS. We also present color-magnitude plots for several of the cluster

  4. Behavioral Risk Profile of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China: Results from a Cross-sectional Survey with Randomized Response Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Guo-Zhu; Gao, Ge; Ruan, Yu-Hua; Yu, Ming-Run; Zhou, Yun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is spreading rapidly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Anonymous questionnaires or direct interviews have been frequently used to study their behavior. The aim of the study was to describe the behavioral risk profile of the MSM in Beijing using the randomized response techniques (RRTs). Methods: A cross-sectional survey of sexual behavior among a sample of MSM was conducted in two HIV counseling and testing clinics in Beijing. The survey was carried out with an anonymous questionnaire containing sensitive questions on sexual behavior. To obtain the honest responses to the sensitive questions, three distinctive RRTs were used in the questionnaire: (1) Additive randomized response model for quantitative questions, (2) randomized response model for multiple choice questions, and (3) Simmons randomized response model for binomial questions. Formulae for the point estimate, variance, and confidence interval (CI) were provided for each specific model. Results: Using RRTs in a sample of 659 participants, the mean age at first homosexual encounter was estimated to be 21.7 years (95% CI: 21.2–22.2), and each had sex with about three (2.9, 95% CI: 2.4–3.4) male partners on average in the past month. The estimated rate for consistent condom use was 56.4% (95% CI: 50.1–62.8%). In addition, condom was estimated to be used among 80.0% (95% CI: 74.1–85.9%) of the population during last anal sex with a male partner. Conclusions: Our study employed RRTs in a survey containing questions on sexual behavior among MSM, and the results showed that RRT might be a useful tool to obtain truthful feedback on sensitive information such as sexual behavior from the respondents, especially in traditional Chinese cultural settings. PMID:26904985

  5. GLACE survey: OSIRIS/GTC tuneable filter Hα imaging of the rich galaxy cluster ZwCl 0024.0+1652 at z = 0.395. I. Survey presentation, TF data reduction techniques, and catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Portal, M.; Pintos-Castro, I.; Pérez-Martínez, R.; Cepa, , J.; Pérez García, A. M.; Domínguez-Sánchez, H.; Bongiovanni, A.; Serra, A. L.; Alfaro, E.; Altieri, B.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; Balkowski, C.; Biviano, A.; Bremer, M.; Castander, F.; Castañeda, H.; Castro-Rodríguez, N.; Chies-Santos, A. L.; Coia, D.; Diaferio, A.; Duc, P. A.; Ederoclite, A.; Geach, J.; González-Serrano, I.; Haines, C. P.; McBreen, B.; Metcalfe, L.; Oteo, I.; Pérez-Fournón, I.; Poggianti, B.; Polednikova, J.; Ramón-Pérez, M.; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Santos, J. S.; Smail, I.; Smith, G. P.; Temporin, S.; Valtchanov, I.

    2015-06-01

    The cores of clusters at 0 ≲ z ≲ 1 are dominated by quiescent early-type galaxies, whereas the field is dominated by star-forming late-type galaxies. Clusters grow through the accretion of galaxies and groups from the surrounding field, which implies that galaxy properties, notably the star formation ability, are altered as they fall into overdense regions. The critical issues for understanding this evolution are how the truncation of star formation is connected to the morphological transformation and what physical mechanism is responsible for these changes. The GaLAxy Cluster Evolution Survey (GLACE) is conducting a thorough study of the variations in galaxy properties (star formation, AGN activity, and morphology) as a function of environment in a representative and well-studied sample of clusters. To address these questions, the GLACE survey is making a deep panoramic survey of emission line galaxies (ELG), mapping a set of optical lines ([O ii], [O iii], Hβ andHα/[N ii] when possible) in several galaxy clusters at z ~ 0.40, 0.63, and 0.86. Using the tunable filters (TF) of the OSIRIS instrument at the 10.4 m GTC telescope, the GLACE survey applies the technique of TF tomography: for each line, a set of images are taken through the OSIRIS TF, each image tuned at a different wavelength (equally spaced), to cover a rest frame velocity range of several thousand km s-1 centred on the mean cluster redshift, and scanned for the full TF field of view of an 8 arcmin diameter. Here we present the first results of the GLACE project, targeting the Hα/[N ii] lines in the intermediate-redshift cluster ZwCl 0024.0+1652 at z = 0.395. Two pointings have been performed that cover ~2 × rvir. We discuss the specific techniques devised to process the TF tomography observations in order to generate the catalogue of cluster Hα emitters, which contains more than 200 sources down to a star formation rate (SFR) ≲1 M⊙/yr. An ancillary broadband catalogue is constructed

  6. The Use of 3d Scanning and Photogrammetry Techniques in the Case Study of the Roman Theatre of Nikopolis. Surveying, Virtual Reconstruction and Restoration Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilis, T.; Kouimtzoglou, T.; Magnisali, M.; Tokmakidis, P.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the specific methods by which 3D scanning and photogrammetric techniques were incorporated into the architectural study, the documentation and the graphic restoration study of the monument of the ancient theatre of Nikopolis. Traditional methods of surveying were enhanced by the use of 3D scanning and image-based 3D reconstruction and 3D remodelling and renderings. For this reason, a team of specialists from different scientific fields has been organized. This presented the opportunity to observe every change of the restoration design process, not only by the use of common elevations and ground plans, but also in 3D space. It has been also very liberating to know how the monument will look like in this unique site after the restoration, so as to obtain at the study stage the best intervention decisions possible. Moreover, these modern work tools helped of course to convince the authorities for the accuracy of the restoration actions and finally to make the proposal clear to the public.

  7. Dutch Young Adults Ratings of Behavior Change Techniques Applied in Mobile Phone Apps to Promote Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Belmon, Laura S; te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background Interventions delivered through new device technology, including mobile phone apps, appear to be an effective method to reach young adults. Previous research indicates that self-efficacy and social support for physical activity and self-regulation behavior change techniques (BCT), such as goal setting, feedback, and self-monitoring, are important for promoting physical activity; however, little is known about evaluations by the target population of BCTs applied to physical activity apps and whether these preferences are associated with individual personality characteristics. Objective This study aimed to explore young adults’ opinions regarding BCTs (including self-regulation techniques) applied in mobile phone physical activity apps, and to examine associations between personality characteristics and ratings of BCTs applied in physical activity apps. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among healthy 18 to 30-year-old adults (N=179). Data on participants’ gender, age, height, weight, current education level, living situation, mobile phone use, personality traits, exercise self-efficacy, exercise self-identity, total physical activity level, and whether participants met Dutch physical activity guidelines were collected. Items for rating BCTs applied in physical activity apps were selected from a hierarchical taxonomy for BCTs, and were clustered into three BCT categories according to factor analysis: “goal setting and goal reviewing,” “feedback and self-monitoring,” and “social support and social comparison.” Results Most participants were female (n=146), highly educated (n=169), physically active, and had high levels of self-efficacy. In general, we observed high ratings of BCTs aimed to increase “goal setting and goal reviewing” and “feedback and self-monitoring,” but not for BCTs addressing “social support and social comparison.” Only 3 (out of 16 tested) significant associations between personality

  8. Faculty perspectives of the undergraduate laboratory: A survey of faculty goals for the laboratory and comparative analysis of responses using statistical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruck, Aaron D.

    Qualitative research methods were used in a previous study to discover the goals of faculty members teaching undergraduate laboratories. Assertions about the goals and the unique characteristics of innovative lab programs were developed from categories that emerged from the interviews. The purpose of the present research was to create a survey instrument to measure the prevalence of these themes and faculty goals for undergraduate laboratories with a national sample. This was achieved through a two-stage process that utilized a pilot survey to determine the factor structure and reduce the number of survey items to a manageable size. Once the number of survey questions was reduced, the full survey was given to a national sample of undergraduate laboratory faculty. The 312 responses to the survey were then analyzed using factor analysis. Comparative analyses were conducted using analysis of variance (ANOVA). This dissertation focuses on the processes involved in the creation of this survey and the subsequent analyses of the data the survey produced. The results of these analyses and the implications of this research will also be discussed.

  9. A survey of surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, S.M.

    1994-11-01

    A new era for the field of Galactic structure is about to be opened with the advent of wide-area digital sky surveys. In this article, the author reviews the status and prospects for research for 3 new ground-based surveys: the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Deep Near-Infrared Survey of the Southern Sky (DENIS) and the Two Micron AU Sky Survey (2MASS). These surveys will permit detailed studies of Galactic structure and stellar populations in the Galaxy with unprecedented detail. Extracting the information, however, will be challenging.

  10. Integrated Technologies for Surveying Artefacts Damaged by Earthquakes. Application of All-In LIDAR Techniques in the City of L'AQUILA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clini, P.; Quattrini, R.; Fiori, F.; Nespeca, R.

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to demonstrate how, in post-earthquake intervention scenarios, the latest "all-in-one" laser technologies employed beyond their usual applications and integrated in more traditional survey methods, can define a comprehensive and original approach method in response to surveying issues, safety of the artefacts, speed and low cost of surveys, quality of data and of the models provided for damage assessments and any required action. The case study of L'Aquila is therefore significant. The red area has essentially two types of buildings: monuments and historical buildings characterised by compact urban centres. Here we document the convent of the Blessed Antonia and the Antenucci Block, as case studies and synthesis of the two types and ideal laboratories to test the chosen method. In the first case, we document the project on a building that is yet to be secured and that therefore presents delicate issues in terms of survey speed and completeness, also in relation to the precious decorations that it holds. In the other case, we document the survey of the typical block in Aquila, already secured which, given the size and complexity, requires an integrated approach, more complex and more time-consuming of methods of analysis.

  11. Surveying Future Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlstrom, John E.

    2016-06-01

    The now standard model of cosmology has been tested and refined by the analysis of increasingly sensitive, large astronomical surveys, especially with statistically significant millimeter-wave surveys of the cosmic microwave background and optical surveys of the distribution of galaxies. This talk will offer a glimpse of the future, which promises an acceleration of this trend with cosmological information coming from new surveys across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as particles and even gravitational waves.

  12. Improving the Response Rate to a Street Survey: An Evaluation of the "But You Are Free to Accept or to Refuse" Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gueguen, Nicolas; Pascual, Alexandre

    2005-01-01

    The "but you are free to accept or to refuse" technique is a compliance procedure in which someone is approached with a request by simply telling him/her that he/she is free to accept or to refuse the request. This semantic evocation leads to increased compliance with the request. Furthermore, in most of the studies in which this technique was…

  13. Results of preconstruction surveys used as a management technique for conserving endangered species and their habitats on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, T.T.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Johnson, J.W.

    1985-08-01

    In 1976 an intensive program of petroleum production at maximum efficient rate was initiated on the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills) in western Kern County, California. In a Biological Opinion required by the Endangered Species Act, the US Fish and Wildlife Service concluded that proposed construction and production activities may jeopardize the continued existence of the endangered San Joaquin kit fox, Vulpes macrotis mutica, and the blunt-nosed leopard lizard, Gambelia silus, inhabiting the Reserve. DOE committed itself to carrying out a compensation/mitigation plan to offset impacts of program activities on endangered species and their habitats. One compensation/mitigation strategy was to develop and implement preconstruction surveys to assess potential conflicts between proposed construction activities, and endangered species and their critical habitats, and to propose reasonable and prudent alternatives to avoid conflicts. Between 1980 and 1984, preconstruction surveys were completed for 296 of a total of 387 major construction projects encompassing 3590 acres. Fewer than 22% of the projects potentially conflicted with conservation of endangered species, and most conflicts were easily resolved by identifying sensitive areas that required protection. Only 8% of the projects received minor modification in their design or locations to satisfy conservation needs, and only three projects had to be completely relocated. No projects were cancelled or delayed because of conflicts with endangered species, and costs to conduct preconstruction surveys were minimal. 27 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Optimizing end-to-end system performance for millimeter and submillimeter spectroscopy of protostars : wideband heterodyne receivers and sideband-deconvolution techniques for rapid molecular-line surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumner, Matthew Casey

    This thesis describes the construction, integration, and use of a new 230-GHz ultra-wideband heterodyne receiver, as well as the development and testing of a new sideband-deconvolution algorithm, both designed to enable rapid, sensitive molecular-line surveys. The 230-GHz receiver, known as Z-Rex, is the first of a new generation of wideband receivers to be installed at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). Intended as a proof-of-concept device, it boasts an ultra-wide IF output range of sim 6 - 18 GHz, offering as much as a twelvefold increase in the spectral coverage that can be achieved with a single LO setting. A similarly wideband IF system has been designed to couple this receiver to an array of WASP2 spectrometers, allowing the full bandwidth of the receiver to be observed at low resolution, ideal for extra-galactic redshift surveys. A separate IF system feeds a high-resolution 4-GHz AOS array frequently used for performing unbiased line surveys of galactic objects, particularly star-forming regions. The design and construction of the wideband IF system are presented, as is the work done to integrate the receiver and the high-resolution spectrometers into a working system. The receiver is currently installed at the CSO where it is available for astronomers' use. In addition to demonstrating wideband design principles, the receiver also serves as a testbed for a synthesizer-driven, active LO chain that is under consideration for future receiver designs. Several lessons have been learned, including the importance of driving the final amplifier of the LO chain into saturation and the absolute necessity of including a high-Q filter to remove spurious signals from the synthesizer output. The on-telescope performance of the synthesizer-driven LO chain is compared to that of the Gunn-oscillator units currently in use at the CSO. Although the frequency agility of the synthesized LO chain gives it a significant advantage for unbiased line surveys, the cleaner

  15. Survey and evaluation of instream habitat and stock restoration techniques for wild pink and chum salmon. Restoration study number 105-1 (restoration project 93063). Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Willette, T.M.; Dudiak, N.C.; Honnold, S.G.; Carpenter, G.; Dickson, M.

    1995-08-01

    This project is the result of a three-year survey of the Exxon Valdez oil spill impact area to identify appropriate and cost-effective instream habitat restoration techniques for salmon, including spawning channels and improvement of fish passage through fish ladders or step-pool structures to overcome physical or hydrological barriers. Additional wild salmon stock rehabilitation measures include stream-side incubation boxes, remote egg-taking, incubation at existing hatcheries for fry stocking in oil-impacted streams, and fry rearing. Study results include the identification of the most promising instream habitat restoration projects in each of the spill-impacted areas.

  16. Neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation devices, techniques and team roles: 2011 survey results of the United States' Extracorporeal Life Support Organization centers.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Scott; Ellis, Cory; Butler, Katie; McRobb, Craig; Mejak, Brian

    2011-12-01

    In early 2011, surveys of active Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) centers within the United States were conducted by electronic mail regarding neonatal Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) equipment and professional staff. Seventy-four of 111 (67%) U.S. centers listed in the ELSO directory as neonatal centers responded to the survey. Of the responding centers, 53% routinely used roller pumps for neonatal ECMO, 15% reported using centrifugal pumps and 32% reported using a combination of both. Of the centers using centrifugal pumps, 51% reported that they do not use a compliance bladder in the circuit. The majority (95%) of roller pump users reported using a compliance bladder and 97% reported using Tygon" S-97-E tubing in the raceway of their ECMO circuits. Silicone membrane oxygenators were reportedly used by 25% of the respondents, 5% reported using micro-porous hollow fiber oxygenators (MPHF), 70% reported using polymethylpentene (PMP) hollow fiber oxygenators and 5% reported using a combination of the different types. Some form of in-line blood monitoring was used by 88% of the responding centers and 63% of responding centers reported using a circuit surface coating. Anticoagulation monitoring via the activated clotting time (ACT) was reported by 100% of the reporting centers. The use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) was reported by 53% of the responding centers with 82% of those centers using a crystalloid primed circuit to initiate ECPR. A cooling protocol was used by 77% of the centers which have an ECPR program. When these data are compared with surveys from 2002 and 2008 it shows that the use of silicone membrane oxygenators continues to decline, the use of centrifugal pumps continues to increase and ECMO personnel continues to be comprised of multidisciplinary groups of dedicated allied health care professionals.

  17. Aspects of High-Resolution Gas Chromatography as Applied to the Analysis of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Other Complex Organic Mixtures. Volume 2. Survey of Sample Insertion Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    AD-A158 772 ASPECTS OF HIGH-RESOL.UTION GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY S 1ll APPLIED0 TO THE ANALYSIS 0..(U)1 DAYTON UNIV ON RESEARCH INST W A RUSEY ET AL. JUN...RESOLUTION GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY AS APPLIED TO THE ANALYSIS OF HYDROCARBON FUELS AND OTHER COMPLEX ORGANIC MIXTURES Volume II - Survey of Sample Insertion...NO. NO. 45433-6563 62203F 3048 05 91 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) (cont’ d on reverse) ASPECTS OF HIGH-RESOLUTION GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY T

  18. Which is the easiest and safest technique for central venous access? A retrospective survey of more than 5,400 cases.

    PubMed

    Pittiruti, M; Malerba, M; Carriero, C; Tazza, L; Gui, D

    2000-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate on the technique for central venous catheterization associated with the lowest complication rate and the highest success rate. In an attempt to better define the easiest and safest venous approach, we have reviewed our 7-year experience with 5479 central venous percutaneous punctures (by Seldinger's technique) for the insertion of short-term (n=2109), medium/long-term (n=2627) catheters, as well as double-lumen, large-bore catheters for hemodialysis and/or hemapheresis (n=743). We have analyzed the incidence of the most frequent in-sertion-related complications by comparing seven different venous approaches: jugular vein, low lateral approach; jugular vein, high lateral approach; jugular vein, low axial approach; subclavian vein, infraclavicular approach; subclavian vein, supraclavicular approach; external jugular vein; femoral vein. The results of our retrospective study suggest that the 'low lateral' approach to the internal jugular vein, as described by Jernigan and modified according to our protocol, appears to be the easiest and safest technique for percutaneous insertion of central venous access, being characterized by the lowest incidence of accidental arte-rial puncture (1.2%) and malposition (0.8%), no pneumothorax, and an extremely low rate of repeated attempts (i.e. more than two punctures before successful cannulation) (3.3%). We advocate the 'low lateral' approach to the internal jugular vein as first-choice technique for venipuncture in both adults and children, for both short-term and long-term central venous percutaneous cannulation.

  19. Knowledge Based Systems: A Critical Survey of Major Concepts, Issues, and Techniques. M.S. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kavi, Srinu

    1984-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry presents a detailed survey of knowledge based systems. After being in a relatively dormant state for many years, only recently is Artificial Intelligence (AI) - that branch of computer science that attempts to have machines emulate intelligent behavior - accomplishing practical results. Most of these results can be attributed to the design and use of Knowledge-Based Systems, KBSs (or ecpert systems) - problem solving computer programs that can reach a level of performance comparable to that of a human expert in some specialized problem domain. These systems can act as a consultant for various requirements like medical diagnosis, military threat analysis, project risk assessment, etc. These systems possess knowledge to enable them to make intelligent desisions. They are, however, not meant to replace the human specialists in any particular domain. A critical survey of recent work in interactive KBSs is reported. A case study (MYCIN) of a KBS, a list of existing KBSs, and an introduction to the Japanese Fifth Generation Computer Project are provided as appendices. Finally, an extensive set of KBS-related references is provided at the end of the report.

  20. National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to provide the information and understanding needed for wise management of the Nation's water resources. Inherent in this mission is the responsibility to collect data that accurately describe the physical, chemical, and biological attributes of water systems. These data are used for environmental and resource assessments by the USGS, other government agenices and scientific organizations, and the general public. Reliable and quality-assured data are essential to the credibility and impartiality of the water-resources appraisals carried out by the USGS. The development and use of a National Field Manual is necessary to achieve consistency in the scientific methods and procedures used, to document those methods and procedures, and to maintain technical expertise. USGS field personnel use this manual to ensure that the data collected are of the quality required to fulfill our mission.

  1. Ye Olde Maile Surveye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berty, Ernest

    This publication is primarily designed for educational practitioners who possess little or no training in conducting mail surveys or have not kept current on the present state of the art of survey methods and techniques. It is also intended to be a checking and comparing aid to ensure that important research considerations are taken into account.…

  2. Repeated stool sampling and use of multiple techniques enhance the sensitivity of helminth diagnosis: a cross-sectional survey in southern Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Sayasone, Somphou; Utzinger, Jürg; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are common in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). We investigated the accuracy of the Kato-Katz (KK) technique in relation to varying stool sampling efforts, and determined the effect of the concurrent use of a quantitative formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique (FECT) for helminth diagnosis and appraisal of concomitant infections. The study was carried out between March and May 2006 in Champasack province, southern Lao PDR. Overall, 485 individuals aged ≥6 months who provided three stool samples were included in the final analysis. All stool samples were subjected to the KK technique. Additionally, one stool sample per individual was processed by FECT. Diagnosis was done under a light microscope by experienced laboratory technicians. Analysis of three stool samples with KK plus a single FECT was considered as diagnostic 'gold' standard and resulted in prevalence estimates of hookworm, Opisthorchis viverrini, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Schistosoma mekongi infection of 77.9%, 65.0%, 33.4%, 26.2% and 24.3%, respectively. As expected, a single KK and a single FECT missed a considerable number of infections. While our diagnostic 'gold' standard produced similar results than those obtained by a mathematical model for most helminth infections, the 'true' prevalence predicted by the model for S. mekongi (28.1%) was somewhat higher than after multiple KK plus a single FECT (24.3%). In the current setting, triplicate KK plus a single FECT diagnosed helminth infections with high sensitivity. Hence, such a diagnostic approach might be utilised for generating high-quality baseline data, assessing anthelminthic drug efficacy and rigorous monitoring of community interventions.

  3. Investigating a damaging buried sinkhole cluster in an urban area (Zaragoza city, NE Spain) integrating multiple techniques: Geomorphological surveys, DInSAR, DEMs, GPR, ERT, and trenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonel, Domingo; Rodríguez-Tribaldos, Verónica; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Galve, Jorge Pedro; Guerrero, Jesús; Zarroca, Mario; Roqué, Carles; Linares, Rogelio; McCalpin, James P.; Acosta, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    This contribution analyses a complex sinkhole cluster buried by urban elements in the mantled evaporite karst of Zaragoza city, NE Spain, where active subsidence has caused significant economic losses (~ 0.3 million Euro). The investigation, conducted after the development of the area, has involved the application of multiple surface and subsurface techniques. A detailed map of modern surface deformation indicates two active coalescing sinkholes, whereas the interpretation of old aerial photographs reveals the presence of two additional dormant sinkholes beneath human structures that might reactivate in the near future. DInSAR (Differential Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar) displacement data have limited spatial coverage mainly due to high subsidence rates and surface changes (re-pavement), and the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and trenching investigations were severely restricted by the presence of urban elements. Nonetheless, the three techniques consistently indicate that the area affected by subsidence is larger than that defined by surface deformation features. The performance of the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique was adversely affected by the presence of highly conductive and massive anthropogenic deposits, but some profiles reveal that subsidence in the central sector of one of the sinkholes is mainly accommodated by sagging. The stratigraphic and structural relationships observed in a trench dug across the topographic margin of one of the sinkholes may be alternatively interpreted by three collapse events of around 0.6 m that occurred after 290 yr BP, or by progressive fault displacement combined with episodic anthropogenic excavation and fill. Average subsidence rates of > 6.6 mm/yr and 40 mm/yr have been calculated using stratigraphic markers dated by the radiocarbon method and historical information, respectively. This case study illustrates the need of conducting thorough investigations in sinkhole areas during the pre

  4. The OPD photometric survey of open clusters I. Techniques, program details and first results of robust determination of the fundamental parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caetano, T. C.; Dias, W. S.; Lépine, J. R. D.; Monteiro, H. S.; Moitinho, A.; Hickel, G. R.; Oliveira, A. F.

    2015-07-01

    Open clusters are considered valuable objects for the investigation of galactic structure and dynamics since their distances, ages and velocities can be determined with good precision. According to the New Catalog of Optically Visible Open Clusters and Candidates (Dias et al., 2002) about 10% of the optically revealed open clusters remain unstudied. However, previous analysis (Moitinho, 2010) has indicated that not considering this unstudied population introduces significant biases in the study of the structure and evolution of the Milky Way. In addition, a systematic revision of the data contained in the catalog, collected from the literature, is needed, due to its inhomogeneity. In this first paper of a series, we present the observational strategy, data reduction and analysis procedures of a UBRVI photometric survey of southern open star clusters carried out at Pico dos Dias Observatory (Brazil). The aim of the program is to contribute to an unbiased, homogenous collection of cluster fundamental parameters. We show that the implementation of a sequence of systematic procedures considerably improves the quality of the results. To illustrate the methods we present the first results based on one night of observations. The parameters, reddening, distance, age and metallicity, were obtained by fitting theoretical isochrones to cluster color-color and multidimensional color-magnitude diagrams, applying a cross-entropy optimization algorithm developed by our group, which takes into account UBVRI photometric data weighted using a membership-likelihood estimation.

  5. Application of electromagnetic techniques in survey of contaminated groundwater at an abandoned mine complex in southwestern Indiana, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, G.A.; Olyphant, G.A.; Harper, D.

    1991-01-01

    In part of a large abandoned mining complex, electromagnetic geophysical surveys were used along with data derived from cores and monitoring wells to infer sources of contamination and subsurface hydrologic connections between acidic refuse deposits and adjacent undisturbed geologic materials. Electrical resistivity increases sharply along the boundary of an elevated deposit of pyritic coarse refuse, which is highly contaminated and electrically conductive, indicating poor subsurface hydrologic connections with surrounding deposits of fine refuse and undisturbed glacial material. Groundwater chemistry, as reflected in values of specific conductance, also differs markedly across the deposit's boundary, indicating that a widespread contaminant plume has not developed around the coarse refuse in more than 40 yr since the deposit was created. Most acidic drainage from the coarse refuse is by surface runoff and is concentrated around stream channels. Although most of the contaminated groundwater within the study area is concentrated within the surficial refuse deposits, transects of apparent resistivity and phase angle indicate the existence of an anomalous conductive layer at depth (>4 m) in thick alluvial sediments along the northern boundary of the mining complex. Based on knowledge of local geology, the anomaly is interpreted to represent a subsurface connection between the alluvium and a flooded abandoned underground mine. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  6. Digital image processing techniques for detecting surface alteration - An application on the Alaska Peninsula: A section in The United States Geological Survey in Alaska: Accomplishments during 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    York, James; Wilson, Frederic H.; Gamble, Bruce M.

    1985-01-01

    The tectonic evolution of the Alaska Peninsula makes it a likely area for the discovery of significant mineral deposits. However, because of problems associated with remoteness and poor weather, little detailed mineral exploration work has been carried on there. This study focuses on using Landsat multispectral scanner data for the Port Moller, Stepovak Bay, and Simeon of Island Quadrangles to detect surface alteration, probably limonitic (iron oxide staining) and(or) argillic (secondary clay minerals) in character, that could be indicative of mineral deposits. The techniques used here are useful for mapping deposits that have exposed surface alteration of at least an hectare, the approximate spatial resolution of the Landsat data. Virtually cloud-free Landsat coverage was used, but to be detected, the alteration area must also be unobscured by vegetation. Not all mineral deposits will be associated with surface alteration, and not all areas of surface alteration will have valuable mineral deposits.

  7. Development of sensors for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems: Survey and evaluation of measurement techniques for temperature, strain and heat flux for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1988-01-01

    The report presents the final results of Tasks 1 and 2, Development of Sensors for Ceramic Components in Advanced Propulsion Systems (NASA program NAS3-25141). During Task 1, an extensive survey was conducted of sensor concepts which have the potential for measuring surface temperature, strain and heat flux on ceramic components for advanced propulsion systems. Each sensor concept was analyzed and evaluated under Task 2; sensor concepts were then recommended for further development. For temperature measurement, both pyrometry and thermographic phosphors are recommended for measurements up to and beyond the melting point of ceramic materials. For lower temperature test programs, the thin-film techniques offer advantages in the installation of temperature sensors. Optical strain measurement techniques are recommended because they offer the possibility of being useful at very high temperature levels. Techniques for the measurement of heat flux are recommended for development based on both a surface mounted sensor and the measurement of the temperature differential across a portion of a ceramic component or metallic substrate.

  8. Characterization of HI Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubar, Emily; Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    2017-01-01

    We characterized the properties of dramatic interstellar HI filaments to learn more about the dynamics and structure of such features. Using Gauss fitting software, we searched the Effelsburg-Bonn HI Survey data for indications of a simple twisting (toroidal) motion across these filaments. Instead, we found that the structure was more complicated than expected. Apparent angular widths of several filaments were measured using the Galactic Arecibo L-band Feed Array HI (GALFA-HI), Bonn, and Leident/Argentine/Bonn (LAB) surveys. Based on filament widths and other parameters, we conclude that magnetism is the dominant force opposing internal motion and maintaining the structure of these filaments. The apparent width as a function of beam width closely follows a relationship reported in 1993 for HI features in general. They tend to subtend an angle two times the beam width, suggesting that the features remain unresolved.The Arecibo Observatory is operated by SRI International under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (AST-1100968), and in alliance with Ana G. Méndez-Universidad Metropolitana, and the Universities Space Research Association. The Arecibo Observatory REU is funded under grant AST-1559849 to Universidad Metropolitana.

  9. Advances in Bio-Tactile Sensors for Minimally Invasive Surgery Using the Fibre Bragg Grating Force Sensor Technique:A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Abushagur, Abdulfatah A.G.; Arsad, Norhana; Ibne Reaz, Mamun; Ashrif, A.; Bakar, A.

    2014-01-01

    The large interest in utilising fibre Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) applications to replace conventional electrical tactile sensors has grown in the past few years. FBG strain sensors offer the advantages of optical fibre sensors, such as high sensitivity, immunity to electromagnetic noise, electrical passivity and chemical inertness, but are not limited by phase discontinuity or intensity fluctuations. FBG sensors feature a wavelength-encoding sensing signal that enables distributed sensing that utilises fewer connections. In addition, their flexibility and lightness allow easy insertion into needles and catheters, thus enabling localised measurements inside tissues and blood. Two types of FBG tactile sensors have been emphasised in the literature: single-point and array FBG tactile sensors. This paper describes the current design, development and research of the optical fibre tactile techniques that are based on FBGs to enhance the performance of MIS procedures in general. Providing MIS or microsurgery surgeons with accurate and precise measurements and control of the contact forces during tissues manipulation will benefit both surgeons and patients. PMID:24721774

  10. Resolving the Tip of the Red Giant Branch of Two New Candidate Local Group Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollerud, Erik

    2014-10-01

    We propose to use ACS/WFC to observe two faint dwarf galaxies recently discovered via their HI emission. Based on a blind HI search of 40 HI clumps from 7500 square degrees of the GALFA-HI survey, these two candidates are the only objects with optical counterparts. They show HI and Halpha emission consistent with nearby galaxies, and have blue stars that are barely resolved in ground-based optical imaging with good seeing. These resolved stars are consistent with the galaxies being at Local Group distances. If they are in the Local Group, these galaxies are both less luminous and more compact than the recently-discovered Leo P, also found first with HI observations. They may then also be the faintest known star-forming galaxies. The ground-based imaging leaves large distance uncertainty, however, because the tip of the red giant branch cannot be resolved. We propose one orbit per galaxy of ACS/WFC imaging in F606W and F814W to measure accurate TRGB distances and determine if they truly are Local Group galaxies. If so, these galaxies provide tests on both the efficacy of Lambda CDM in predicting the properties of dwarf galaxies in low density environments, and the lowest-luminosity data points on models of galaxy star formation.

  11. Cosmic Microwave Background Small-Scale Structure: I. Observations of the Foreground Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelz, Joan T.; Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    2017-01-01

    The derivation of the small-scale structure in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) relies on an accurate subtraction of foreground signals from the Milky Way Galaxy. Known sources include thermal emission from interstellar cirrus, galactic synchrotron emission resulting from interactions between cosmic ray electrons and magnetic fields, and electron-ion free-free emission from interstellar H II regions. Additional sources include spinning and spinning-wobbling dust grains, and emission from rotational transitions of carbon monoxide. Verschuur (2015 and references therein) showed many examples of connections, associations, and overlaps of galactic HI and CMB structure. Clark et al. (2014) showed that the long, thin filamentary features seen in the high sensitivity, high dynamic range Galactic Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (GALFA) HI survey appear to be aligned along magnetic field directions, which are inferred from the optical polarization of star light. Clark et al. (2015) took this important discovery a step further, relating those magnetic field orientations to the polarized PLANCK 353 GHz dust emission. These results imply that the neutral hydrogen in the interstellar medium is tightly coupled to the galactic magnetic field, which requires a population of electrons. Taken together, these HI results suggest a candidate for a previously unidentified foreground component that may need to be understood in order to improve our ability to measure and interpret the CMB small-scale structure. This work is supported by NASA and NSF.

  12. Remote Raman measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications is surveyed. A feasibility index is defined as a means to characterize the practicality of a given remote Raman measurement application. Specific applications of Raman scattering to the measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles, methane plumes from liquid natural gas spills, and subsurface ocean temperature profiles are described. This paper will survey the use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications using as examples specific systems that the Computer Genetics Corporation (CGC) group has developed and engineered.

  13. A Survey of Dimension Reduction Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Fodor, I K

    2002-05-09

    Advances in data collection and storage capabilities during the past decades have led to an information overload in most sciences. Researchers working in domains as diverse as engineering, astronomy, biology, remote sensing, economics, and consumer transactions, face larger and larger observations and simulations on a daily basis. Such datasets, in contrast with smaller, more traditional datasets that have been studied extensively in the past, present new challenges in data analysis. Traditional statistical methods break down partly because of the increase in the number of observations, but mostly because of the increase in the number of variables associated with each observation. The dimension of the data, is the number of variables that are measured on each observation. High-dimensional datasets present many mathematical challenges as well as some opportunities, and are bound to give rise to new theoretical developments. One of the problems with high-dimensional datasets is that, in many cases, not all the measured variables are ''important'' for understanding the underlying phenomena of interest. While certain computationally expensive novel methods can construct predictive models with high accuracy from high-dimensional data, it is still of interest in many applications to reduce the dimension of the original data prior to any modeling of the data. In this paper, we described several dimension reduction methods.

  14. A Survey of Fastening Techniques for Shipbuilding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-09-01

    low -strength steel could be used. Obviously, in situations where the same alloys, loading...THEMSELVESa Ferrous metals Low -catbon steels 1004-1020 Stainless sti.el 17-7PH Medium-carbon steel ASTM A-285 Stainles steel type 301 Medium-carbon steel AS-M A...201 Stainless steel type 304 Medium-carbon steel ASTM A-212 Stainless steel type 321 Low -alloy steel ASTM A-204 Stainless steel type 347 Low

  15. A Survey of Image Registration Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-06

    Bohm 83] C . Bohm, T. Greitz, D. Kingsley, B. M. Berggren and L. Olsson, "Adjustable Computerized Stereotaxic Brain Atlas for Transmission and Emission...Generalized Hough Transform and Line Segment Based Generalized Hough Transforms," Pattern Recognition 15, 1982, p27 7-2 8 5 . [De Castro 87] E. De Castro and C ...Sensed Data, 1977, pp 12 -2 3 . [Na.hmias 94] C . Nahmias, E.S. Garnett, "Correlation between CT, NMR and PT Findings in the Brain ," NATO ASI Series

  16. A survey of laser lightning rod techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Arnold A., Jr.; Berthel, Robert O.

    1991-01-01

    The work done to create a laser lightning rod (LLR) is discussed. Some ongoing research which has the potential for achieving an operational laser lightning rod for use in the protection of missile launch sites, launch vehicles, and other property is discussed. Because of the ease with which a laser beam can be steered into any cloud overhead, an LLR could be used to ascertain if there exists enough charge in the clouds to discharge to the ground as triggered lightning. This leads to the possibility of using LLRs to test clouds prior to launching missiles through the clouds or prior to flying aircraft through the clouds. LLRs could also be used to probe and discharge clouds before or during any hazardous ground operations. Thus, an operational LLR may be able to both detect such sub-critical electrical fields and effectively neutralize them.

  17. Survey of Cyber Moving Target Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-25

    importantly, the actual capability of ROP attacks is unknown at this point. More research is required to understand the full power of ROP attacks. Funding...if the sender is correct, the message is delivered. The next protocol is echo broadcast. It is a more efficient and less powerful version of the...graceful shutdown, they do not accept new request and finish processing any existing requests. In the offline mode, they are powered off. When a system

  18. Survey of Diagnostic Techniques for Dynamic Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Bearing Condition. Applied Acoustics 1998, 53 (1–3), 221–226. 10. Randall, R. B. Cepstrum Analysis and Gearbox Fault Diagnosis . B&K Instruments...with gearbox faults ) 4. It is non-dimensional in a way that makes it relatively insensitive to load changes, but not speed. 5. It is also fairly...traditional methods for fault diagnosis are categorized as pattern classification, knowledge- based inference, and numerical modeling. Pattern

  19. Sanitary Surveys

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sanitary survey is on-site review of a public water system’s water source, facilities, equipment, operation, and maintenance. Surveys point out sanitary deficiencies and assess a system’s capability to supply safe drinking water.

  20. "Suntelligence" Survey

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...

  1. Helium II level measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, D.; Hilton, D. K.; Zhang, T.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a survey of cryogenic liquid level measurement techniques applicable to superfluid helium (He II) is given. The survey includes both continuous and discrete measurement techniques. A number of different probes and controlling circuits for this purpose have been described in the literature. They fall into one of the following categories: capacitive liquid level gauges, superconducting wire liquid level gauges, thermodynamic (heat transfer-based) liquid level gauges, resistive gauges, ultrasound and transmission line-based level detectors. The present paper reviews these techniques and their suitability for He II service. In addition to these methods, techniques for measuring the total liquid volume and mass gauging are also discussed.

  2. Theory Survey or Survey Theory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Jodi

    2010-01-01

    Matthew Moore's survey of political theorists in U.S. American colleges and universities is an impressive contribution to political science (Moore 2010). It is the first such survey of political theory as a subfield, the response rate is very high, and the answers to the survey questions provide new information about how political theorists look…

  3. Risk analysis methodology survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    NASA regulations require that formal risk analysis be performed on a program at each of several milestones as it moves toward full-scale development. Program risk analysis is discussed as a systems analysis approach, an iterative process (identification, assessment, management), and a collection of techniques. These techniques, which range from simple to complex network-based simulation were surveyed. A Program Risk Analysis Handbook was prepared in order to provide both analyst and manager with a guide for selection of the most appropriate technique.

  4. SURVEY INSTRUMENT

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, C J

    1954-01-19

    This pulse-type survey instrument is suitable for readily detecting {alpha} particles in the presence of high {beta} and {gamma} backgrounds. The instruments may also be used to survey for neutrons, {beta} particles and {gamma} rays by employing suitably designed interchangeable probes and selecting an operating potential to correspond to the particular probe.

  5. The Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Flaugher, Brenna; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    Dark Energy is the dominant constituent of the universe and they have little understanding of it. They describe a new project aimed at measuring the dark energy equation of state parameter, w, to a statistical precision of {approx} 5%, with four separate techniques. The survey will image 5000 deg{sup 2} in the southern sky and collect 300 million galaxies, 30,000 galaxy clusters, and 2000 Type Ia supernovae. The survey will be carried out using a new 3 deg{sup 2} mosaic camera mounted at the prime focus of the 4m Blanco telescope at CTIO.

  6. Sterile technique

    MedlinePlus

    ... technique. In: Perry AG, Potter PA, eds. Clinical Nursing Skills and Techniques . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2014:chap 8. Read More Stress urinary incontinence Urge incontinence Urinary incontinence Patient Instructions ...

  7. Terminating Sequential Delphi Survey Data Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalaian, Sema A.; Kasim, Rafa M.

    2012-01-01

    The Delphi survey technique is an iterative mail or electronic (e-mail or web-based) survey method used to obtain agreement or consensus among a group of experts in a specific field on a particular issue through a well-designed and systematic multiple sequential rounds of survey administrations. Each of the multiple rounds of the Delphi survey…

  8. Casting the Net: Surveying an Internet Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christine Biship

    1997-01-01

    Presents a summary review of the comparative literature on e-mail and "snail mail" surveys and a more extensive research review involving Web-based methods. Contrasts e-mail and Web-based survey techniques used in an ongoing study of the Web presence provider industry. Highlights practical issues of Web-surveying methods, such as programming…

  9. Euclid Space Mission: building the sky survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tereno, I.; Carvalho, C. S.; Dinis, J.; Scaramella, R.; Amiaux, J.; Burigana, C.; Cuillandre, J. C.; da Silva, A.; Derosa, A.; Maiorano, E.; Maris, M.; Oliveira, D.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Gomez-Alvarez, P.; Meneghetti, M.; Wachter, S.; Wachter

    2014-05-01

    The Euclid space mission proposes to survey 15000 square degrees of the extragalactic sky during 6 years, with a step-and-stare technique. The scheduling of observation sequences is driven by the primary scientific objectives, spacecraft constraints, calibration requirements and physical properties of the sky. We present the current reference implementation of the Euclid survey and on-going work on survey optimization.

  10. Dismantling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Wiese, E.

    1998-03-13

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule.

  11. Surveying System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Sunrise Geodetic Surveys are setting up their equipment for a town survey. Their equipment differs from conventional surveying systems that employ transit rod and chain to measure angles and distances. They are using ISTAC Inc.'s Model 2002 positioning system, which offers fast accurate surveying with exceptional signals from orbiting satellites. The special utility of the ISTAC Model 2002 is that it can provide positioning of the highest accuracy from Navstar PPS signals because it requires no knowledge of secret codes. It operates by comparing the frequency and time phase of a Navstar signal arriving at one ISTAC receiver with the reception of the same set of signals by another receiver. Data is computer processed and translated into three dimensional position data - latitude, longitude and elevation.

  12. Survey of digital filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagle, H. T., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A three part survey is made of the state-of-the-art in digital filtering. Part one presents background material including sampled data transformations and the discrete Fourier transform. Part two, digital filter theory, gives an in-depth coverage of filter categories, transfer function synthesis, quantization and other nonlinear errors, filter structures and computer aided design. Part three presents hardware mechanization techniques. Implementations by general purpose, mini-, and special-purpose computers are presented.

  13. Mass spectrometry. [review of techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Kimble, B. J.; Derrick, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    Advances in mass spectrometry (MS) and its applications over the past decade are reviewed in depth, with annotated literature references. New instrumentation and techniques surveyed include: modulated-beam MS, chromatographic MS on-line computer techniques, digital computer-compatible quadrupole MS, selected ion monitoring (mass fragmentography), and computer-aided management of MS data and interpretation. Areas of application surveyed include: organic MS and electron impact MS, field ionization kinetics, appearance potentials, translational energy release, studies of metastable species, photoionization, calculations of molecular orbitals, chemical kinetics, field desorption MS, high pressure MS, ion cyclotron resonance, biochemistry, medical/clinical chemistry, pharmacology, and environmental chemistry and pollution studies.

  14. What Are Probability Surveys?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) use probability-survey designs to assess the condition of the nation’s waters. In probability surveys (also known as sample-surveys or statistical surveys), sampling sites are selected randomly.

  15. Survey Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollick, Anne M.

    1995-01-01

    This article provides advice on how to plan and conduct an alumni census through the mail, drawing on the experiences of Stonehill College in North Easton, Massachusetts, which undertook such a survey in 1992. It focuses on costs, information needs, questionnaire design, mailing considerations, reporting the results, and expected response rates.…

  16. Complexity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

    To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

  17. Fiber Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalle, Leona

    1976-01-01

    Describes a course in fiber techniques, which covers design methods involving fibers and fabric, that students in the Art Department at Sleeping Giant Junior High School had the opportunity to learn. (Author/RK)

  18. Review of Projective Personality Assessment Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obrzut, John E.

    This paper reviews the literatuare on projective techniques of personality assessment and their use by school psychologists. Following a brief survey of the development of projective techniques, several of the most widely used techniques are briefly discussed, i.e., the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), the Childrens Apperception Test (CAT), the…

  19. Decomposition techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  20. Extragalactic counterparts to Einstein slew survey sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schachter, Jonathan F.; Elvis, Martin; Plummer, David; Remillard, Ron

    1992-01-01

    The Einstein slew survey consists of 819 bright X-ray sources, of which 636 (or 78 percent) are identified with counterparts in standard catalogs. The importance of bright X-ray surveys is stressed, and the slew survey is compared to the Rosat all sky survey. Statistical techniques for minimizing confusion in arcminute error circles in digitized data are discussed. The 238 slew survey active galactic nuclei, clusters, and BL Lacertae objects identified to date and their implications for logN-logS and source evolution studies are described.

  1. Multiple Surveys of Students and Survey Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.; Weitzer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on survey fatigue and summarizes a research project that indicates that administering multiple surveys in one academic year can significantly suppress response rates in later surveys. (Contains 4 tables.)

  2. Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the United States Geological Survey. Book 3, Applications of Hydraulics. Chapter B2, Introduction to Ground-Water Hydraulics: Programed Text for Self-Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gordon D.

    This programmed text of self-instruction is one of a series of manuals on techniques describing procedures for planning and executing specialized work in water-resources investigations. It has been prepared on the assumption that the reader has completed standard courses in calculus and college physics and is presented in eight parts. Part I…

  3. Aseptic technique.

    PubMed

    Bykowski, Tomasz; Stevenson, Brian

    2008-11-01

    This chapter describes common laboratory procedures that can reduce the risk of culture contaminations (sepsis), collectively referred as "aseptic technique." Two major strategies of aseptic work are described: using a Bunsen burner and a laminar flow hood. Both methods are presented in the form of general protocols applicable to a variety of laboratory tasks such as pipetting and dispensing aliquots, preparing growth media, and inoculating, passaging, and spreading microorganisms on petri dishes.

  4. Electrochemical Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-07-20

    Sensitive and selective detection techniques are of crucial importance for capillary electrophoresis (CE), microfluidic chips, and other microfluidic systems. Electrochemical detectors have attracted considerable interest for microfluidic systems with features that include high sensitivity, inherent miniaturization of both the detection and control instrumentation, low cost and power demands, and high compatibility with microfabrication technology. The commonly used electrochemical detectors can be classified into three general modes: conductimetry, potentiometry, and amperometry.

  5. Proceedings of a workshop concerning walrus survey methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garlich-Miller, Joel L.; Jay, Chadwick V.

    2000-01-01

    In March 2000, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and U.S. Geological Survey hosted a workshop to evaluate various techniques and approaches to estimate the size and trend of the Pacific walrus population. Workshop participants included American and Russian experts in walrus biology and survey design, subsistence hunters, and resource managers. Workshop participants reviewed previous efforts to survey the Pacific walrus population and identified problems that were encountered in designing and conducting those surveys. The group also summarized survey conditions by season and evaluated potential tools and techniques for surveying walrus populations.

  6. Laser Surveying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA technology has produced a laser-aided system for surveying land boundaries in difficult terrain. It does the job more accurately than conventional methods, takes only one-third the time normally required, and is considerably less expensive. In surveying to mark property boundaries, the objective is to establish an accurate heading between two "corner" points. This is conventionally accomplished by erecting a "range pole" at one point and sighting it from the other point through an instrument called a theodolite. But how do you take a heading between two points which are not visible to each other, for instance, when tall trees, hills or other obstacles obstruct the line of sight? That was the problem confronting the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service. The Forest Service manages 187 million acres of land in 44 states and Puerto Rico. Unfortunately, National Forest System lands are not contiguous but intermingled in complex patterns with privately-owned land. In recent years much of the private land has been undergoing development for purposes ranging from timber harvesting to vacation resorts. There is a need for precise boundary definition so that both private owners and the Forest Service can manage their properties with confidence that they are not trespassing on the other's land.

  7. Farmland Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A 1981 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) study estimated that the nation is converting farmland to non-agricultural uses at the rate of 3 million acres a year. Seeking information on farmland loss in Florida, the state legislature, in 1984, directed establishment of a program for development of accurate data to enable intelligent legislation of state growth management. Thus was born Florida's massive Mapping and Monitoring of Agricultural Lands Project (MMALP). It employs data from the NASA-developed Landsat Earth resources survey satellite system as a quicker, less expensive alternative to ground surveying. The 3 year project involved inventory of Florida's 36 million acres classifying such as cropland, pastureland, citrus, woodlands, wetland, water and populated areas. Direction was assigned to Florida Department of Community Affairs (DCA) with assistance from the DOT. With the cooperation of the USDA, Soil Conservation Service, DCA decided that combining soil data with the Landsat land cover data would make available to land use planners a more comprehensive view of a county's land potential.

  8. The Next Generation of the Montage Image Mopsaic Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriman, G. Bruce; Good, John; Rusholme, Ben; Robitaille, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We have released a major upgrade of the Montage image mosaic engine (http://montage.ipac.caltech.edu) , as part of a program to develop the next generation of the engine in response to the rapid changes in the data processing landscape in Astronomy, which is generating ever larger data sets in ever more complex formats . The new release (version 4) contains modules dedicated to creating and managing mosaics of data stored as multi-dimensional arrays ("data cubes"). The new release inherits the architectural benefits of portability and scalability of the original design. The code is publicly available on Git Hub and the Montage web page. The release includes a command line tool that supports visualization of large images, and the beta-release of a Python interface to the visualization tool. We will provide examples on how to use these these features. We are generating a mosaic of the Galactic Arecibo L-band Feed Array HI (GALFA-HI) Survey maps of neutral hydrogen in and around our Milky Way Galaxy, to assess the performance at scale and to develop tools and methodologies that will enable scientists inexpert in cloud processing to exploit could platforms for data processing and product generation at scale. Future releases include support for an R-tree based mechanism for fast discovery of and access to large data sets and on-demand access to calibrated SDSS DR9 data that exploits it; support for the Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelization (HEALPix) scheme, now standard for projects investigating cosmic background radiation (Gorski et al 2005); support fort the Tessellated Octahedral Adaptive Subdivision Transform (TOAST), the sky partitioning sky used by the WorldWide Telescope (WWT); and a public applications programming interface (API) in C that can be called from other languages, especially Python.

  9. Galaxies as Standard Crayons: Measuring Galactic Reddening with Background Passive Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldston Peek, Joshua; Graves, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the true colors of extra-Galactic sources, we require an accurate map of the extinction generated by the foreground dust in the Milky Way. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), among many others, relies on the maps provided by Schlegel, Finkbeiner and Davis (1998; SFD98). These are derived from maps of infrared dust emission and dust temperature, based on the assumption that dust absorption can be uniquely determined from its infrared emission properties.  We check these maps using the colors of passively evolving galaxies from the SDSS. Passive galaxies populate a tight, well-defined 'red sequence' in the color-magnitude diagram.  This sequence can be used as a 'standard crayon': an object of known true color.  We search for deviations in the colors of red sequence galaxies as a function of position on the SDSS sky, taking into account small systematic variations with redshift and local galaxy environment. We present a corrected map of Galactic reddening, with very significant differences from SFD98. These maps will be made available to the public to use for more precise Galactic reddening. We also compare our reddening results to an alternative method, using neutral hydrogen (HI) column as a proxy for galactic reddening. We employ new HI maps from GALFA-HI, which has comparable resolution to the SFD98 maps. Additionally, we use the standard crayon method to put constraints on the presence of cold dust in high-velocity clouds, which have been shown to lack dust emission but whose reddening properties have not been accurately measured.

  10. FORCE Sectoral Survey on European Retail Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertzeletou, Tina

    1993-01-01

    A sectoral survey focused on ways in which vocational training plans are formulated and analysis of the cost effectiveness of continuing vocational training at the company level. It examined techniques applied to developing continuing vocational training and improving access. National surveys carried out for the retail trade sector revealed…

  11. The SOAR Gravitational Arc Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makler, M.; Furlanetto, C.; Santiago, B. X.; Caminha, G. B.; Cypriano, E.; Cibirka, N.; Pereira, M. E. S.; Bom, C. R. D.; Lima, M. P.; Brandt, C. H.; Neto, A. F.; Estrada, J.; Lin, H.; Hao, J.; McKay, T. M.; da Costa, L. N.; Maia, M. A. G.

    2014-10-01

    We present the first results of the SOAR Gravitational Arc Survey (SOGRAS). The survey imaged 47 clusters in two redshift intervals centered at z=0.27 and z=0.55, targeting the richest clusters in each interval. Images were obtained in the g', r' and i' bands with a median seeing of 0.83, 0.76 and 0.71 arcsec, respectively, in these filters. Most of the survey clusters are located within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe-82 region and all of them are in the SDSS footprint. We present the first results of the survey, including the 6 best strong lensing systems, photometric and morphometric catalogs of the galaxy sample, and cross matches of the clusters and galaxies with complementary samples (spectroscopic redshifts, photometry in several bands, X-ray and Sunyaev Zel'dovich clusters, etc.), exploiting the synergy with other surveys in Stripe-82. We apply several methods to characterize the gravitational arc candidates, including the Mediatrix method (Bom et al. 2012) and ArcFitting (Furlanetto et al. 2012), and for the subtraction of galaxy cluster light. Finally, we apply strong lensing inversion techniques to the best systems, providing constraints on their mass distribution. The analyses of a spectral follow-up with Gemini and the derived dynamical masses are presented in a poster submitted to this same meeting (Cibirka et al.). Deeper follow-up images with Gemini strengthen the case for the strong lensing nature of the candidates found in this survey.

  12. Infrastructure Survey 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the Group of Eight (Go8) conducted a survey on the state of its buildings and infrastructure. The survey is the third Go8 Infrastructure survey, with previous surveys being conducted in 2007 and 2009. The current survey updated some of the information collected in the previous surveys. It also collated data related to aspects of the…

  13. Photogrammetric techniques for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Burner, Alpheus W.; Jones, Thomas W.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2012-10-01

    Photogrammetric techniques have been used for measuring the important physical quantities in both ground and flight testing including aeroelastic deformation, attitude, position, shape and dynamics of objects such as wind tunnel models, flight vehicles, rotating blades and large space structures. The distinct advantage of photogrammetric measurement is that it is a non-contact, global measurement technique. Although the general principles of photogrammetry are well known particularly in topographic and aerial survey, photogrammetric techniques require special adaptation for aerospace applications. This review provides a comprehensive and systematic summary of photogrammetric techniques for aerospace applications based on diverse sources. It is useful mainly for aerospace engineers who want to use photogrammetric techniques, but it also gives a general introduction for photogrammetrists and computer vision scientists to new applications.

  14. Momentum--"Evaluating Your Marketing Program: Measuring and Tracking Techniques."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meservey, Lynne D.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests 10 tracking techniques for evaluating marketing performance. Techniques involve utilization rate, inquiry and source of inquiry tracking, appointment and interview tracking, enrollment conversion, cost per inquiry and per enrollment, retention rate, survey results, and "mystery shopper." (RJC)

  15. Comparison of Satellite Surveying to Traditional Surveying Methods for the Resources Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, B. P.; Osborne, V. J.; Kruger, M. L.

    Modern ground-based survey methods involve detailed survey, which provides three-space co-ordinates for surveyed points, to a high level of accuracy. The instruments are operated by surveyors, who process the raw results to create survey location maps for the subject of the survey. Such surveys are conducted for a location or region and referenced to the earth global co- ordinate system with global positioning system (GPS) positioning. Due to this referencing the survey is only as accurate as the GPS reference system. Satellite survey remote sensing utilise satellite imagery which have been processed using commercial geographic information system software. Three-space co-ordinate maps are generated, with an accuracy determined by the datum position accuracy and optical resolution of the satellite platform.This paper presents a case study, which compares topographic surveying undertaken by traditional survey methods with satellite surveying, for the same location. The purpose of this study is to assess the viability of satellite remote sensing for surveying in the resources industry. The case study involves a topographic survey of a dune field for a prospective mining project area in Pakistan. This site has been surveyed using modern surveying techniques and the results are compared to a satellite survey performed on the same area.Analysis of the results from traditional survey and from the satellite survey involved a comparison of the derived spatial co- ordinates from each method. In addition, comparisons have been made of costs and turnaround time for both methods.The results of this application of remote sensing is of particular interest for survey in areas with remote and extreme environments, weather extremes, political unrest, poor travel links, which are commonly associated with mining projects. Such areas frequently suffer language barriers, poor onsite technical support and resources.

  16. Archeological Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA remote sensing technology is being employed in archeological studies of the Anasazi Indians, who lived in New Mexico one thousand years ago. Under contract with the National Park Service, NASA's Technology Applications Center at the University of New Mexico is interpreting multispectral scanner data and demonstrating how aerospace scanning techniques can uncover features of prehistoric ruins not visible in conventional aerial photographs. The Center's initial study focused on Chaco Canyon, a pre-Columbia Anasazi site in northeastern New Mexico. Chaco Canyon is a national monument and it has been well explored on the ground and by aerial photography. But the National Park Service was interested in the potential of multispectral scanning for producing evidence of prehistoric roads, field patterns and dwelling areas not discernible in aerial photographs. The multispectral scanner produces imaging data in the invisible as well as the visible portions of the spectrum. This data is converted to pictures which bring out features not visible to the naked eye or to cameras. The Technology Applications Center joined forces with Bendix Aerospace Systems Division, Ann Arbor, Michigan, which provided a scanner-equipped airplane for mapping the Chaco Canyon area. The NASA group processed the scanner images and employed computerized image enhancement techniques to bring out additional detail.

  17. Dark energy survey and camera

    SciTech Connect

    William Wester

    2004-08-16

    The authors describe the Dark Energy Survey and Camera. The survey will image 5000 sq. deg. in the southern sky to collect 300 million galaxies, 30,000 galaxy clusters and 2000 Type Ia supernovae. They expect to derive a value for the dark energy equation of state parameters, w, to a precision of 5% by combining four distinct measurement techniques. They describe the mosaic camera that will consist of CCDs with enhanced sensitivity in the near infrared. The camera will be mounted at the prime focus of the 4m Blanco telescope.

  18. Classroom Management Techniques and Student Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Walter

    This paper reviews concepts and research findings on classroom management techniques and explores how these techniques are related to student discipline strategies. The first section surveys descriptive and experimental research recently accumulated on classroom management practice, concentrating on strategies for monitoring and guiding classroom…

  19. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results.

  20. The CFHT (MOS/PUMA) faint quasar survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schade, David

    A multi-aperture spectroscopic survey for faint quasars has been carried out at Canada-France-Hawaii telescope. The survey is capable of reaching two magnitudes deeper into the luminosity function at redshifts greater than 3 than the deepest existing surveys. The technique is discussed and preliminary results are presented.

  1. Surface Characterization Techniques: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2002-01-01

    To understand the benefits that surface modifications provide, and ultimately to devise better ones, it is necessary to study the physical, mechanical, and chemical changes they cause. This chapter surveys classical and leading-edge developments in surface structure and property characterization methodologies. The primary emphases are on the use of these techniques as they relate to surface modifications, thin films and coatings, and tribological engineering surfaces and on the implications rather than the instrumentation.

  2. Robotic Surveying

    SciTech Connect

    Suzy Cantor-McKinney; Michael Kruzic

    2007-03-01

    -actuated functions to be controlled by an onboard computer. The computer-controlled Speedrower was developed at Carnegie Mellon University to automate agricultural harvesting. Harvesting tasks require the vehicle to cover a field using minimally overlapping rows at slow speeds in a similar manner to geophysical data acquisition. The Speedrower had demonstrated its ability to perform as it had already logged hundreds of acres of autonomous harvesting. This project is the first use of autonomous robotic technology on a large-scale for geophysical surveying.

  3. Alumni Perspectives Survey, 2010. Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheikh, Sabeen

    2010-01-01

    During the months of April and September of 2009, the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) conducted the Alumni Perspectives Survey, a longitudinal study of prior respondents to the Global Management Education Graduate Survey of management students nearing graduation. A total of 3,708 alumni responded to the April 2009 survey,…

  4. 2012 Alumni Perspectives Survey. Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Conducted in September 2011, this Alumni Perspectives Survey by the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC) is a longitudinal study of respondents to the Global Management Education Graduate Survey, the annual GMAC[R] exit survey of graduate management students in their final year of business school. This 12th annual report includes responses…

  5. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Muzakkir, Amir; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr-1). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr-1 determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  6. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee; Muzakkir, Amir

    2016-01-22

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr{sup −1}). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr{sup −1} determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  7. Prenotification, Incentives, and Survey Modality: An Experimental Test of Methods to Increase Survey Response Rates of School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Robin Tepper; Jacob, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Teacher and principal surveys are among the most common data collection techniques employed in education research. Yet there is remarkably little research on survey methods in education, or about the most cost-effective way to raise response rates among teachers and principals. In an effort to explore various methods for increasing survey response…

  8. Book review: Bird census techniques, Second edition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, John R.

    2002-01-01

    Conservation concerns, federal mandates to monitor birds, and citizen science programs have spawned a variety of surveys that collect information on bird populations. Unfortunately, all too frequently these surveys are poorly designed and use inappropriate counting methods. Some of the flawed approaches reflect a lack of understanding of statistical design; many ornithologists simply are not aware that many of our most entrenched counting methods (such as point counts) cannot appropriately be used in studies that compare densities of birds over space and time. It is likely that most of the readers of The Condor have participated in a bird population survey that has been criticized for poor sampling methods. For example, North American readers may be surprised to read in Bird Census Techniques that the North American Breeding Bird Survey 'is seriously flawed in its design,' and that 'Analysis of trends is impossible from points that are positioned along roads' (p. 109). Our conservation efforts are at risk if we do not acknowledge these concerns and improve our survey designs. Other surveys suffer from a lack of focus. In Bird Census Techniques, the authors emphasize that all surveys require clear statements of objectives and an understanding of appropriate survey designs to meet their objectives. Too often, we view survey design as the realm of ornithologists who know the life histories and logistical issues relevant to counting birds. This view reflects pure hubris: survey design is a collaboration between ornithologists, statisticians, and managers, in which goals based on management needs are met by applying statistical principles for design to the biological context of the species of interest. Poor survey design is often due to exclusion of some of these partners from survey development. Because ornithologists are too frequently unaware of these issues, books such as Bird Census Techniques take on added importance as manuals for educating ornithologists about

  9. Optical surveys for space debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildknecht, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Space debris—man-made non-functional objects of all sizes in near-Earth space—has been recognized as an increasing threat for current and future space operations. The debris population in near-Earth space has therefore been extensively studied during the last decade. Information on objects at altitudes higher than about 2,000 km is, however, still comparatively sparse. Debris in this region is best detected by surveys utilizing optical telescopes. Moreover, the instruments and the applied observation techniques, as well as the processing methods, have many similarities with those used in optical surveys for ‘astronomical’ objects like near-Earth objects (NEOs). The present article gives a general introduction to the problem of space debris, presents the used observation and processing techniques emphasizing the similarities and differences compared to optical surveys for NEOs, and reviews the results from optical surveys for space debris in high-altitude Earth orbits. Predictions on the influence of space debris on the future of space research and space astronomy in particular are reported as well.

  10. Community Perception Survey, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Patricia; Silverman, Barbara

    This document is a report on the 2001 Community Perception Survey administered by Mt. San Antonio College (SAC) (California). The survey gathered public perception data of SAC services and programs. The survey was mailed to 773 service area community leaders; 160 (21%) responded. Survey results showed that: (1) 70% had knowledge of SAC programs…

  11. The AAS Workforce Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postman, Marc; Norman, D. J.; Evans, N. R.; Ivie, R.

    2014-01-01

    The AAS Demographics Committee, on behalf of the AAS, was tasked with initiating a biennial survey to improve the Society's ability to serve its members and to inform the community about changes in the community's demographics. A survey, based in part on similar surveys for other scientific societies, was developed in the summer of 2012 and was publicly launched in January 2013. The survey randomly targeted 2500 astronomers who are members of the AAS. The survey was closed 4 months later (April 2013). The response rate was excellent - 63% (1583 people) completed the survey. I will summarize the results from this survey, highlighting key results and plans for their broad dissemination.

  12. The influence of curricular and extracurricular learning activities on students' choice of chiropractic technique

    PubMed Central

    Sikorski, David M.; KizhakkeVeettil, Anupama; Tobias, Gene S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Surveys for the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners indicate that diversified chiropractic technique is the most commonly used chiropractic manipulation method. The study objective was to investigate the influences of our diversified core technique curriculum, a technique survey course, and extracurricular technique activities on students' future practice technique preferences. Methods: We conducted an anonymous, voluntary survey of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd year chiropractic students at our institution. Surveys were pretested for face validity, and data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: We had 164 students (78% response rate) participate in the survey. Diversified was the most preferred technique for future practice by students, and more than half who completed the chiropractic technique survey course reported changing their future practice technique choice as a result. The students surveyed agreed that the chiropractic technique curriculum and their experiences with chiropractic practitioners were the two greatest bases for their current practice technique preference, and that their participation in extracurricular technique clubs and seminars was less influential. Conclusions: Students appear to have the same practice technique preferences as practicing chiropractors. The chiropractic technique curriculum and the students' experience with chiropractic practitioners seem to have the greatest influence on their choice of chiropractic technique for future practice. Extracurricular activities, including technique clubs and seminars, although well attended, showed a lesser influence on students' practice technique preferences. PMID:26655282

  13. Resolution enhancement techniques in microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Christoph; Masters, Barry R.

    2013-05-01

    We survey the history of resolution enhancement techniques in microscopy and their impact on current research in biomedicine. Often these techniques are labeled superresolution, or enhanced resolution microscopy, or light-optical nanoscopy. First, we introduce the development of diffraction theory in its relation to enhanced resolution; then we explore the foundations of resolution as expounded by the astronomers and the physicists and describe the conditions for which they apply. Then we elucidate Ernst Abbe's theory of optical formation in the microscope, and its experimental verification and dissemination to the world wide microscope communities. Second, we describe and compare the early techniques that can enhance the resolution of the microscope. Third, we present the historical development of various techniques that substantially enhance the optical resolution of the light microscope. These enhanced resolution techniques in their modern form constitute an active area of research with seminal applications in biology and medicine. Our historical survey of the field of resolution enhancement uncovers many examples of reinvention, rediscovery, and independent invention and development of similar proposals, concepts, techniques, and instruments. Attribution of credit is therefore confounded by the fact that for understandable reasons authors stress the achievements from their own research groups and sometimes obfuscate their contributions and the prior art of others. In some cases, attribution of credit is also made more complex by the fact that long term developments are difficult to allocate to a specific individual because of the many mutual connections often existing between sometimes fiercely competing, sometimes strongly collaborating groups. Since applications in biology and medicine have been a major driving force in the development of resolution enhancing approaches, we focus on the contribution of enhanced resolution to these fields.

  14. Simulation verification techniques study: Simulation self test hardware design and techniques report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The final results are presented of the hardware verification task. The basic objectives of the various subtasks are reviewed along with the ground rules under which the overall task was conducted and which impacted the approach taken in deriving techniques for hardware self test. The results of the first subtask and the definition of simulation hardware are presented. The hardware definition is based primarily on a brief review of the simulator configurations anticipated for the shuttle training program. The results of the survey of current self test techniques are presented. The data sources that were considered in the search for current techniques are reviewed, and results of the survey are presented in terms of the specific types of tests that are of interest for training simulator applications. Specifically, these types of tests are readiness tests, fault isolation tests and incipient fault detection techniques. The most applicable techniques were structured into software flows that are then referenced in discussions of techniques for specific subsystems.

  15. Analytical techniques: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation, containing articles on a number of analytical techniques for quality control engineers and laboratory workers, is presented. Data cover techniques for testing electronic, mechanical, and optical systems, nondestructive testing techniques, and gas analysis techniques.

  16. High resolution survey for topographic surveying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luh, L. C.; Setan, H.; Majid, Z.; Chong, A. K.; Tan, Z.

    2014-02-01

    In this decade, terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) is getting popular in many fields such as reconstruction, monitoring, surveying, as-built of facilities, archaeology, and topographic surveying. This is due the high speed in data collection which is about 50,000 to 1,000,000 three-dimensional (3D) points per second at high accuracy. The main advantage of 3D representation for the data is that it is more approximate to the real world. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to show the use of High-Definition Surveying (HDS), also known as 3D laser scanning for topographic survey. This research investigates the effectiveness of using terrestrial laser scanning system for topographic survey by carrying out field test in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor. The 3D laser scanner used in this study is a Leica ScanStation C10. Data acquisition was carried out by applying the traversing method. In this study, the result for the topographic survey is under 1st class survey. At the completion of this study, a standard of procedure was proposed for topographic data acquisition using laser scanning systems. This proposed procedure serves as a guideline for users who wish to utilize laser scanning system in topographic survey fully.

  17. 2012 Corporate Recruiters Survey. Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results from the 2012 Corporate Recruiters Survey conducted by the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]). Conducted annually since 2001, this survey examines the job outlook for recent graduate business students as well as employer needs and expectations. The objectives of this study are to obtain a picture of…

  18. Construction Surveying, 3-27. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This short course on construction surveying was developed from military curriculum materials for use in technical and vocational education programs. Students completing the course should be able to perform engineering surveys related to area and route surveying (knowledge of basic survey techniques is a prerequisite). The course is divided into…

  19. A Survey of Spatio-Temporal Grouping Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    gz�,&vwX’a+XZraA.&X’^ � ^sX’.j`.sZrga| Ff+X’^&Xwzg^&X�,X’*Y[XeaA.j`.sZrga Y[Xe.sf+ gHb +,k^sX’drp g aIvwg a-vw^sXe.sXk`a�bRY[X` ,/)+^j`i...drXk,/X’* Y[X’aH.E`.&Zcg a�vw^sZr.sX’^&Z�`�.&f-`. bAXw§-a+Xka+g a+ ,X’Y�`aA.&Z�v�X’aH.sZr.sZcX�,w|kF¥Fg�Y�`Zra .p � X, gz¡Y[X’.&f+ gHb +,k...X])-,Xb ¥Zr.sf {HZ�bHX’g,�q`drga+X�g^[Zra vwg Y�i+Zra-`.&Zcg a¤[Y[g.&Zcg a+�i�`,/X�b Y[X’.&f+ gHb +,�q`a-b v�gdcg ^e.sX’�H.s)+^&X’i

  20. Neuro-evolutionary event detection technique for downhole microseismic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Debotyam; Salehi, Iraj

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen a significant increase in borehole microseismic data acquisition programs associated with unconventional reservoir developments such as hydraulic fracturing programs for shale oil and gas. The data so acquired is used for hydraulic fracture monitoring and diagnostics and therefore, the quality of the data in terms of resolution and accuracy has a significant impact on its value to the industry. Borehole microseismic data acquired in such environments typically suffer from propagation effects due to the presence of thin interbedded shale layers as well as noise and interference effects. Moreover, acquisition geometry has significant impact on detectability across portions of the sensor array. Our work focuses on developing robust first arrival detection and pick selection workflow for both P and S waves specifically designed for such environments. We introduce a novel workflow for refinement of picks with immunity towards significant noise artifacts and applicability over data with very low signal-to-noise ratio provided some accurate picks have already been made. This workflow utilizes multi-step hybrid detection and classification routine which makes use of a neural network based autopicker for initial picking and an evolutionary algorithm for pick refinement. We highlight the results from an actual field case study including multiple examples demonstrating immunity towards noise and compare the effectiveness of the workflow with two contemporary autopicking routines without the application of the shared detection/refinement procedure. Finally, we use a windowed waveform cross-correlation based uncertainty estimation method for potential quality control purposes. While the workflow was developed to work with the neural network based autopicker, it can be used with any other traditional autopicker and provides significant improvements in pick detection across seismic gathers.

  1. Photography equipment and techniques. A survey of NASA developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derr, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo program has been the most complex exploration ever attempted by man, requiring extensive research, development, and engineering in most of the sciences before the leap through space could begin. Photography has been used at each step of the way to document the efforts and activities, isolate mistakes, reveal new phenomena, and to record much that cannot be seen by the human eye. At the same time, the capabilities of photography were extended because of the need of meeting space requirements. The results of this work have been applied to community planning and ecology, for example, as well as to space and engineering. Special uses of standard equipment, modifications and new designs, as well as film combinations that indicate actual or potential ecological problems are described.

  2. Decision Making in the Acquisition Community: Survey and Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    20510-3602 992 CONG COM ON ARMED SERVICES NUNN-- SAM CHAIRNMAN 303 DIRKkNI SENATE: OFFI~CE BLDC (; WASHINGTON~, DC 205:1.0-*1.001. .1524 LCd’NGWOFl’ Ii1...MANAGE’R TANK MAIN ARMAMENT SYSTEM DRCPM-TMA DOVER, NJ 07801 17 PM PROJECT MANAGER, SANG MODERNIZATION PROGRAM AMCPM-NGA -A APO NEW YORK, NY 09030 24 p H...MO 631.01 85 r-’ N US GEN ACCT OrFF-ICE: SUITE 300/L.EVEE HIOUSE: BLDGr 800 N 3D SrTREEl ST LOUIS, MO 631.02 86 F’ N F’ROJEI.TT MANAGER, MODERNIZATION

  3. Finding Waves: Techniques for a Successful Wireless Site Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanafelt, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Wireless Local Area Networks are the most widely adopted networking technology to hit the market in the last three years. They have the potential to make network applications and the Internet available anywhere on a campus so that students and faculty are no longer tethered to their offices or shared computer laboratories in order to connect to a…

  4. Infrared Survey Techniques For An Electricity Supply Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funnell, Ian R.

    1988-10-01

    The use of thermal imagers within the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) to monitor plant performance is described. Helicopter-borne high resolution thermal imagers are used to monitor the transmission system and the range of defects that can be detected has been extended in recent years. Similar equipment is used to monitor cooling water discharge behaviour over a tidal cycle while satellite imagery is employed to analyse general warming of the water near a power station. The applications of fault detection and plant monitoring to electrical plant and heated surfaces within substations and power stations is described for several plant items.

  5. Aerial radiation surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist.

  6. A study of methods for lowering aerial environmental survey cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of methods for lowering the cost of environmental aerial surveys. A wide range of low cost techniques were investigated for possible application to current pressing urban and rural problems. The objective of the study is to establish a definition of the technical problems associated with conducting aerial surveys using various low cost techniques, to conduct a survey of equipment which may be used in low cost systems, and to establish preliminary estimates of cost. A set of candidate systems were selected and described for the environmental survey tasks.

  7. The MWA Transients Survey (MWATS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, M.; Murphy, T.; Kaplan, D. L.; Croft, S. D.; Hancock, P.; Rowlinson, A.; Wayth, R.; Gaensler, B.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Offringa, A.; Loi, C.; Bannister, K.; Trott, C.; Marquart, J.

    2017-01-01

    We propose the continuation of the MWA transients survey to search for and monitor low frequency transient and variable radio sources in the southern sky. This proposal is aimed at commensally utilising data from the GLEAM-X (G0008) project in semester 2017-A. The aim of this commensal data acquisition is to commission long baseline observations for transient science. In particular this will involve studying the impact of the ionosphere on calibration and imaging, and developing the techniques needed to produce science quality data products. The proposed drift scans with LST locking (see G0008 proposal) are particularly exciting as we can test image subtraction for transient and variable identification. This survey is targeted at studying objects such as AGN (intrinsic and extrinsic variability), long duration synchrotron emitters, pulsars and transients of unknown origin. The maps generated from this survey will be analysed with the Variables and Slow Transients (VAST) detection pipeline. The motivation for this survey is as follows: (i) To obtain temporal data on an extremely large and robust sample of low frequency sources to explore and quantify both intrinsic and extrinsic variability; (ii) To search and find new classes of low frequency radio transients that previously remained undetected and obscured from multi-wavelength discovery; (iii) To place rigorous statistics on the occurrence of both transients and variables prior to the Australian SKA era.

  8. Improved Search Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albornoz, Caleb Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of millions of documents are stored and updated daily in the World Wide Web. Most of the information is not efficiently organized to build knowledge from the stored data. Nowadays, search engines are mainly used by users who rely on their skills to look for the information needed. This paper presents different techniques search engine users can apply in Google Search to improve the relevancy of search results. According to the Pew Research Center, the average person spends eight hours a month searching for the right information. For instance, a company that employs 1000 employees wastes $2.5 million dollars on looking for nonexistent and/or not found information. The cost is very high because decisions are made based on the information that is readily available to use. Whenever the information necessary to formulate an argument is not available or found, poor decisions may be made and mistakes will be more likely to occur. Also, the survey indicates that only 56% of Google users feel confident with their current search skills. Moreover, just 76% of the information that is available on the Internet is accurate.

  9. Surveys: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Rubenfeld, Gordon D

    2004-10-01

    Surveys are a valuable research tool for studying the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of a study population. This article explores quantitative analyses of written questionnaires as instruments for survey research. Obtaining accurate and precise information from a survey requires minimizing the possibility of bias from inappropriate sampling or a flawed survey instrument, and this article describes strategies to minimize sampling bias by increasing response rates, comparing responders to nonresponders, and identifying the appropriate sampling population. It is crucial that the survey instrument be valid, meaning that it actually measures what the investigator intends it to measure. In developing a valid survey instrument, it can be useful to adapt survey instruments that were developed by other researchers and to conduct extensive pilot-testing of your survey instrument.

  10. National Health Care Survey

    Cancer.gov

    This survey encompasses a family of health care provider surveys, including information about the facilities that supply health care, the services rendered, and the characteristics of the patients served.

  11. Water Use: A Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Rose Glee; Warden, Jessie

    1976-01-01

    A survey of Florida State University students showed that their current laundry practices generate energy and water over-consumption. The survey also resulted in some concrete suggestions to the students that would improve their conservation practices. (Author/BP)

  12. Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS): Survey strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morokuma, Tomoki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tanaka, Masaomi; Mori, Kensho; Matsumoto, Emiko; Kikuchi, Yuki; Shibata, Takumi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Aoki, Tsutomu; Doi, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Naoto; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Mito, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Nakada, Yoshikazu; Soyano, Takao; Tarusawa, Ken'ichi; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nakata, Fumiaki; Okada, Norio; Sarugaku, Yuki; Richmond, Michael W.; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Aldering, Greg; Arimatsu, Ko; Contreras, Carlos; Horiuchi, Takashi; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Itoh, Ryosuke; Iwata, Ikuru; Kawabata, Koji S.; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Kokubo, Mitsuru; Kuroda, Daisuke; Mazzali, Paolo; Misawa, Toru; Moritani, Yuki; Morrell, Nidia; Okamoto, Rina; Pavlyuk, Nikolay; Phillips, Mark M.; Pian, Elena; Sahu, Devendra; Saito, Yoshihiko; Sano, Kei; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Tachibana, Yutaro; Taddia, Francesco; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Tateuchi, Ken; Tomita, Akihiko; Tsvetkov, Dmitry; Ui, Takahiro; Ukita, Nobuharu; Urata, Yuji; Walker, Emma S.; Yoshii, Taketoshi

    2014-12-01

    The Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS) is a high-cadence optical wide-field supernova (SN) survey. The primary goal of the survey is to catch the very early light of a SN, during the shock breakout phase. Detection of SN shock breakouts combined with multi-band photometry obtained with other facilities would provide detailed physical information on the progenitor stars of SNe. The survey is performed using a 2.2° × 2.2° field-of-view instrument on the 1.05-m Kiso Schmidt telescope, the Kiso Wide Field Camera (KWFC). We take a 3-min exposure in g-band once every hour in our survey, reaching magnitude g ˜ 20-21. About 100 nights of telescope time per year have been spent on the survey since 2012 April. The number of the shock breakout detections is estimated to be of the order of 1 during our three-year project. This paper summarizes the KISS project including the KWFC observing setup, the survey strategy, the data reduction system, and CBET-reported SNe discovered so far by KISS.

  13. WIPP Subsidence Monument Leveling Survey - 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-12-21

    Sections 2 through 7 of this report define the result of the 2004 leveling survey through the subsidence monuments at the WIPP site. Approximately 15 miles of leveling was completed through nine vertical control loops. The 2004 survey includes the determination of elevation on each of the 48 existing subsidence monuments and the WIPP baseline survey, and 14 of the National Geodetic Survey's (NGS) vertical control points. The field observations were completed during August through November of 2004 by personnel from the WashingtonTRU Solutions (WTS) Surveying Group, Mine Engineering Department. Additional rod personnel were provided by the Geotechnical Engineering department. Digital leveling techniques were utilized to achieve better than Second Order Class II loop closures as outlined by the Federal Geodetic Control Subcommittee (FGCS). Because it is important to perform the subsidence survey in exactly the same manner each year, WIPP procedure (WP 09-ES4001) details each step of the survey. Starting with the 2002 survey this procedure has been used to perform the subsidence survey. Starting with the survey of the year 2001, Loop 1 and redundant survey connections among the various loops were removed from the survey and report. This resulted in a reduction of fieldwork with no loss of accuracy or precision. The redundant connections caused multiple elevations for the same stations. The differences were so slight that they were not used in elevation adjustments for the loops. The redundancy was used to spot gross errors in the field. After several years of surveying these loops it is evident that no gross errors occur that are not also evident in the loop closures. Finally, Section 8 contains Table F, which summarizes the elevations for all surveys from 1987 through 2004, inclusive. A detailed listing of the 1986 through 1997 surveys is contained in the report, WIPP Subsidence Monument Leveling Surveys 1986-1997, DOE/WIPP 98-2293. A reference to the summary reports

  14. AACC CEO Survey: Compensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillippe, Kent A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) conducted a survey of community college chief executive officers (CEOs) to collect their opinions on current issues, and gather information on their compensation. This report provides the results from this survey. The AACC CEO Survey was sent to 960 public community college presidents.…

  15. ACSI Survey 2014

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-08-26

    ... EOSDIS Survey   Dear Colleagues,   In the next few days, you will receive an email from CFI Group on behalf of NASA. ... a few minutes to complete the survey.   If you did not receive a survey and wish to complete one, or know of someone who uses ...

  16. Sensitive Questions in Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tourangeau, Roger; Yan, Ting

    2007-01-01

    Psychologists have worried about the distortions introduced into standardized personality measures by social desirability bias. Survey researchers have had similar concerns about the accuracy of survey reports about such topics as illicit drug use, abortion, and sexual behavior. The article reviews the research done by survey methodologists on…

  17. Urban School Board Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of the Great City Schools, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Council of the Great City Schools surveyed its member districts in the fall of 2004 to determine the characteristics of school boards and board members in U.S. urban schools. This was the first survey of its school boards and this report contains the results of that survey. Respondents were asked to provide information on a range of topics…

  18. Generic Survey Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matross, Ron; Roesler, Jon

    Hints on conducting surveys appropriate for university use are outlined, and sample checklists and forms are provided. The following research elements concerning generic surveys are covered: sequences of events for surveys conducted by mail (15 weeks) and telephone (11 weeks); algorithms for estimating materials costs and quantities; a catalog of…

  19. AECT Needs Survey, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Theodore W.; Richter, Kurt; Kim, Minhee; Yang, Jessica Chao-I; Duvenci, Abdullah

    The purpose of this study was to determine the needs of AECT (Association for Educational Communications and Technology) members. A total of 590 individuals completed a Web-based 16-question survey after receiving an e-mail invitation from AECT. This survey was active between October 30 and November 10, 2000. The survey was categorized into three…

  20. A survey of fault diagnosis technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedesel, Joel

    1989-01-01

    Existing techniques and methodologies for fault diagnosis are surveyed. The techniques run the gamut from theoretical artificial intelligence work to conventional software engineering applications. They are shown to define a spectrum of implementation alternatives where tradeoffs determine their position on the spectrum. Various tradeoffs include execution time limitations and memory requirements of the algorithms as well as their effectiveness in addressing the fault diagnosis problem.

  1. Surveying the earth's resources from space

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pecora, William T.

    1967-01-01

    Two developments, aerial photography and airborne geophysical surveying techniques, have already increased the rate at which new knowledge of the world's resources can be acquired. But even with far wider use of the tools and techniques already available, the problems that face us are greater than our current ability to solve them. Fortunately, some of the further acceleration required can be obtained through use of remote-sensing devices mounted in high-flying aircraft and earth-orbiting satellites.

  2. A review on creatinine measurement techniques.

    PubMed

    Mohabbati-Kalejahi, Elham; Azimirad, Vahid; Bahrami, Manouchehr; Ganbari, Ahmad

    2012-08-15

    This paper reviews the entire recent global tendency for creatinine measurement. Creatinine biosensors involve complex relationships between biology and micro-mechatronics to which the blood is subjected. Comparison between new and old methods shows that new techniques (e.g. Molecular Imprinted Polymers based algorithms) are better than old methods (e.g. Elisa) in terms of stability and linear range. All methods and their details for serum, plasma, urine and blood samples are surveyed. They are categorized into five main algorithms: optical, electrochemical, impedometrical, Ion Selective Field-Effect Transistor (ISFET) based technique and chromatography. Response time, detection limit, linear range and selectivity of reported sensors are discussed. Potentiometric measurement technique has the lowest response time of 4-10 s and the lowest detection limit of 0.28 nmol L(-1) belongs to chromatographic technique. Comparison between various techniques of measurements indicates that the best selectivity belongs to MIP based and chromatographic techniques.

  3. Development Paths in Archaeological Surveying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabbagh, A.

    2005-05-01

    Geophysical surveys of archaeological sites began in 1938, when an electrical survey was performed at the historical site of Williamsburg (Virginia, USA). Its full development, however, has been achieved by several European teams, which have continuously worked on it since the fifties. Geophysical survey is one step of archaeological site reconnaissance, which comprises many other non-invasive techniques such as document studies, field walking, air photo interpretation...Nevertheless solely geophysical techniques allow a direct exploration of the underground itself over a significant depth of investigation. Several physical properties can be measured to detect and map archaeological features and/or remains but electrical resistivity and magnetisation has been commonly used for fifty years and dielectric permittivity more recently. The major path of the technical evolution was to increase both the speed of the survey and the size of the area by using short measurement duration (less than 0.1 s) and to incorporate mechanical systems that allow the continuous pulling of the sensors on the field. Magnetic measurements are thus achieved either by fluxgate or optically pumped sensors, while electrical measurements are achieved by mobile multi-pole systems simultaneously over two or three different depths. In such surveys the mesh grid is 1 x 1 m or 0.5 x 0.5 m. Another aim is to limit the size of the surveyed area but to increase the geometrical resolution by using ground penetrating radars (GPR) with a very fine mesh (0.2 x 0.2 m) and by processing the data by `time slices' which allow to follow precisely the extension in depth of the different features. In addition for magnetic features, the simultaneous inversion of magnetic field and susceptibility (and soon viscosity) measurements using linear filtering allows the differentiation among the types of magnetization and allows for an improved determination of the depths of magnetic property contrasts. By considering the

  4. Applying Nonverbal Techniques to Organizational Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubbs, Stewart L.; Koske, W. Cary

    Ongoing research programs conducted at General Motors Institute are motivated by the practical objective of improving the company's organizational effectiveness. Computer technology is being used whenever possible; for example, a technique developed by Herman Chernoff was used to process data from a survey of employee attitudes into 18 different…

  5. Power and bandwidth efficient modulation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le-Ngoc, T.; Feher, K.

    In this invited paper, a literature survey of power and bandwidth efficient modulation techniques is presented in historical progression from the widely known QPSK, OQPSK, and MSK to recently developed digital 4-phase modulation schemes. This historical review provides some insight into understanding the motivation, evolution and results of the development of new digital 4-phase modulation schemes applied to nonlinear channels.

  6. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  7. Developing the online survey.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Jeffry S; McNew, Ryan

    2008-12-01

    Institutions of higher education are now using Internet-based technology tools to conduct surveys for data collection. Research shows that the type and quality of responses one receives with online surveys are comparable with what one receives in paper-based surveys. Data collection can take place on Web-based surveys, e-mail-based surveys, and personal digital assistants/Smartphone devices. Web surveys can be subscription templates, software packages installed on one's own server, or created from scratch using Web programming development tools. All of these approaches have their advantages and disadvantages. The survey owner must make informed decisions as to the right technology to implement. The correct choice can save hours of work in sorting, organizing, and analyzing data.

  8. WIPP Subsidence Monument Leveling Survey - 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-12-01

    Sections 2 through 7 of this report define the result of the 2005 leveling survey through the subsidence monuments at the WIPP site. Approximately 15 miles of leveling was completed through nine vertical control loops. The 2005 survey includes the determination of elevation on each of the 48 existing subsidence monuments and the WIPP baseline survey, and 14 of the National Geodetic Survey’s (NGS) vertical control points. The field observations were completed during September through November of 2005 by personnel from the Washington TRU Solutions (WTS) Surveying Group, Mine Engineering Department. Additional rod personnel were provided by the Geotechnical Engineering Department. Digital leveling techniques were utilized to achieve better than Second Order Class II loop closures as outlined by the Federal Geodetic Control Subcommittee (FGCS). Because it is important to perform the subsidence survey in exactly the same manner each year, WIPP procedure (WP 09-ES4001) details each step of the survey. Starting with the 2002 survey this procedure has been used to perform the subsidence survey. Starting with the survey of the year 2001, Loop 1 and redundant survey connections among the various loops were removed from the survey and report. This resulted in a reduction of fieldwork with no loss of accuracy or precision. The redundant connections caused multiple elevations for the same stations. The differences were so slight that they were not used in elevation adjustments for the loops. The redundancy was used to spot gross errors in the field. After several years of surveying these loops it is evident that no gross errors occur that are not also evident in the loop closures. Finally, Section 8 contains Table F, which summarizes the elevations for all surveys from 1987 through 2005, inclusive. A detailed listing of the 1986 through 1997 surveys is contained in the report, WIPP Subsidence Monument Leveling Surveys 1986-1997, DOE/WIPP 98-2293. A reference to the summary

  9. Photometric Redshift Techniques in Big-data Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Xia; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    Photometric data increase with large survey projects running. The huge volume of data influences the means and methods to deal with them. As such, the techniques of photometric redshift estimation based on photometric data must be developed and improved.

  10. Robust Statistics: A Survey and Some Prescriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard

    1976-01-01

    Estimators which are optimal under assumptions of normality are shown to be vulnerable to the effects of outliers. A survey of robust alternatives is presented. Included are alternatives to the mean, standard deviation, product-moment correlation, t-test, analysis of variance, multivariate techniques, and schemes for outlier detection. (Author/JKS)

  11. Magnification with wide-field photometric surveys.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Fernandez, M.; Sánchez, E.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.

    2017-03-01

    A methodology to detect and measure magnification using the galaxy number count technique designed to be used at present and future photometric galaxy surveys is described. The method is tested with the N-body simulation MICE-GC showing that it allows to clearly detect magnification and showing agreement with the theory for sky areas of at least 110°^2.

  12. DoD Survey of Officers and Enlisted Personnel: Survey Design and Administrative Procedures (1978).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    installation specific quota samples, withI definite rules for substitution of respondents. Sample selection, notification, and all record keeping is at the...considcration of rc.,pondent atention span, proced,.:rs to raxfjijae rerpo)1, rates, and costs of administration. Since both of thae rurveys are Ipotast data...this particular survey, the following technique for administration is being offered to commanders Army-wide: a. Administer the survey through your

  13. Survey of holographic security systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontnik, Lewis T.; Lancaster, Ian M.

    1990-04-01

    The counterfeiting of products and financial instruments is a major problem throughout the world today. The dimensions of the problem are growing, accelerated by the expanding availability of production technologies to sophisticated counterfeiters and the increasing capabilities of these technologies. Various optical techniques, including holography, are beingused in efforts to mark authentic products and to distinguish them from copies. Industry is recognizing that the effectiveness of these techniques depends on such factors as the economics of the counterfeiting process and the distribution channels for the products involved, in addition to the performance of the particular optical security technologies used. This paper surveys the nature of the growing counterfeit market place and reviews the utility of holographic optical security systems. In particular, we review the use of holograms on credit cards and other products; and outline certain steps the holography industry should take to promote these application.

  14. Medical Simulation Practices 2010 Survey Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCrindle, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Medical Simulation Centers are an essential component of our learning infrastructure to prepare doctors and nurses for their careers. Unlike the military and aerospace simulation industry, very little has been published regarding the best practices currently in use within medical simulation centers. This survey attempts to provide insight into the current simulation practices at medical schools, hospitals, university nursing programs and community college nursing programs. Students within the MBA program at Saint Joseph's University conducted a survey of medical simulation practices during the summer 2010 semester. A total of 115 institutions responded to the survey. The survey resus discuss overall effectiveness of current simulation centers as well as the tools and techniques used to conduct the simulation activity

  15. Aerodynamic measurement techniques. [laser based diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, W. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Laser characteristics of intensity, monochromatic, spatial coherence, and temporal coherence were developed to advance laser based diagnostic techniques for aerodynamic related research. Two broad categories of visualization and optical measurements were considered, and three techniques received significant attention. These are holography, laser velocimetry, and Raman scattering. Examples of the quantitative laser velocimeter and Raman scattering measurements of velocity, temperature, and density indicated the potential of these nonintrusive techniques.

  16. Investigation of background acoustical effect on online surveys: A case study of a farmers' market customer survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xingdi

    Since the middle of 1990s, internet has become a new platform for surveys. Previous studies have discussed the visual design features of internet surveys. However, the application of acoustics as a design characteristic of online surveys has been rarely investigated. The present study aimed to fill that research gap. The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of background sound on respondents' engagement and satisfaction with online surveys. Two forms of background sound were evaluated; audio recorded in studios and audio edited with convolution reverb technique. The author recruited 80 undergraduate students for the experiment. These students were assigned to one of three groups. Each of the three groups was asked to evaluate their engagement and satisfaction with a specific online survey. The content of the online survey was the same. However, the three groups was exposed to the online survey with no background sound, with background sound recorded in studios; and with background sound edited with convolution reverb technique. The results showed no significant difference in engagement and satisfaction in the three groups of online surveys; without background sound, background sound recorded in studios, and background sound edited with convolution reverb technique. The author suggests that background sound does not contribute to online surveys in all the contexts. The industry practitioners should be careful to evaluate the survey context to decide whether the background sound should be added. Particularly, ear-piercing noise or acoustics which may link to respondents' unpleasant experience should be avoided. Moreover, although the results did not support the advantage of the revolution reverb technique in improving respondents' engagement and satisfaction, the author suggests that the potential of the revolution reverb technique in the applications of online surveys can't be totally denied, since it may be useful for some contexts which need further

  17. A Survey of Colormaps in Visualization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Hansen, Charles D

    2016-08-01

    Colormaps are a vital method for users to gain insights into data in a visualization. With a good choice of colormaps, users are able to acquire information in the data more effectively and efficiently. In this survey, we attempt to provide readers with a comprehensive review of colormap generation techniques and provide readers a taxonomy which is helpful for finding appropriate techniques to use for their data and applications. Specifically, we first briefly introduce the basics of color spaces including color appearance models. In the core of our paper, we survey colormap generation techniques, including the latest advances in the field by grouping these techniques into four classes: procedural methods, user-study based methods, rule-based methods, and data-driven methods; we also include a section on methods that are beyond pure data comprehension purposes. We then classify colormapping techniques into a taxonomy for readers to quickly identify the appropriate techniques they might use. Furthermore, a representative set of visualization techniques that explicitly discuss the use of colormaps is reviewed and classified based on the nature of the data in these applications. Our paper is also intended to be a reference of colormap choices for readers when they are faced with similar data and/or tasks.

  18. Atmospheric prediction model survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellck, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    As part of the SEASAT Satellite program of NASA, a survey of representative primitive equation atmospheric prediction models that exist in the world today was written for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Seventeen models developed by eleven different operational and research centers throughout the world are included in the survey. The surveys are tutorial in nature describing the features of the various models in a systematic manner.

  19. Data analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Steve

    1990-01-01

    A large and diverse number of computational techniques are routinely used to process and analyze remotely sensed data. These techniques include: univariate statistics; multivariate statistics; principal component analysis; pattern recognition and classification; other multivariate techniques; geometric correction; registration and resampling; radiometric correction; enhancement; restoration; Fourier analysis; and filtering. Each of these techniques will be considered, in order.

  20. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for Hydrothermal Deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have, however, also confirmed that the uncertainty in the locations of the source and of the hydrophones could lower the quality of subsurface image. It is, therefore, strongly necessary to develop a total survey system that assures a accurate positioning and a deployment techniques

  1. Tls Models Generation Assisted by Uav Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiabrando, F.; Di Pietra, V.; Lingua, A.; Maschio, P.; Noardo, F.; Sammartano, G.; Spanò, A.

    2016-06-01

    (TLS, Terrestrial Laser Scanning), and large scale mapping derived by UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) survey. This paper refers an example of 3D survey and reality based modelling applied on landscape and architectural assets. The choice of methods for documentation, in terms of survey techniques, depends primarily on issues and features of the area. The achieved experience, allow to consider that the easy handling of TLS has enabled the use in limited spaces among buildings and collapsed roofs, but the topographic measure of GCPs (Ground Control Points), neither by total station nor by GPS/RTK technique, was easily feasible. Even more than proving the ability of the integration of TLS and UAV photogrammetry to achieve a multi-source and multi-scale whole model of a village, the experience has been a test to experiment the registration of terrestrial clouds with the support of control points derived by UAV survey and finally, a comparison among different strategies of clouds registration is reported. Analysing for each approach a number of parameters (number of clouds registration, number of needed points, processing time, overall accuracy) the further comparisons have been achieved. The test revealed that it is possible to decrease the large number of terrestrial control points when their determination by topographical measures is difficult, and it is possible to combine the techniques not only for the integration of the final 3Dmodel, but also to solve and make the initial stage of the drafting process more effective.

  2. Alumni Perspectives Survey, 2011. Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheikh, Sabeen

    2011-01-01

    Since the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) first began conducting its Alumni Perspectives Surveys 11 years ago, several "truths" about graduate business school alumni have consistently stood the test of time: They are and remain eminently employable. They constantly rate the value of the degree highly. This year's results are…

  3. Alumni Perspectives Survey. 2014 Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    Alumni are a powerful force in building a business school's brand. They recommend programs to prospective students, they connect current students to job opportunities, and they contribute significantly to building a school's legacy. The findings in the 2014 Alumni Perspectives Survey Report provide a current snapshot of nearly 21,000 business…

  4. Application Trends Survey. 2014 Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Rebecca; Bruggeman, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Now in its 15th year, the Graduate Management Admission Council's assessment of application volume trends for graduate management programs offers timely insights into demographic shifts and other factors defining the candidate pools for the 2014 application cycle. Responses collected in the 2014 survey represent a record-breaking total of 748 MBA,…

  5. Corporate Recruiters Survey: 2014 Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada Worthington, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Corporate Recruiters Survey Report examines the current hiring outlook for graduate business students and analyzes demand by industry and world region, salaries, job functions, and mobility in regional job placement. It also explores recruiter behavior, including recruitment practices and school and candidate selection criteria, and…

  6. Application Trends Survey, 2011. Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Application Trends Survey conducted by the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC) is the industry source for comprehensive statistics and timely and reliable insights into the demand for graduate management education around the world. A total of 649 programs from 331 business schools and faculties worldwide representing 45 countries…

  7. Anomaly Detection for Discrete Sequences: A Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Chandola, Varun; Banerjee, Arindam; Kumar, Vipin

    2012-01-01

    This survey attempts to provide a comprehensive and structured overview of the existing research for the problem of detecting anomalies in discrete/symbolic sequences. The objective is to provide a global understanding of the sequence anomaly detection problem and how existing techniques relate to each other. The key contribution of this survey is the classification of the existing research into three distinct categories, based on the problem formulation that they are trying to solve. These problem formulations are: 1) identifying anomalous sequences with respect to a database of normal sequences; 2) identifying an anomalous subsequence within a long sequence; and 3) identifying a pattern in a sequence whose frequency of occurrence is anomalous. We show how each of these problem formulations is characteristically distinct from each other and discuss their relevance in various application domains. We review techniques from many disparate and disconnected application domains that address each of these formulations. Within each problem formulation, we group techniques into categories based on the nature of the underlying algorithm. For each category, we provide a basic anomaly detection technique, and show how the existing techniques are variants of the basic technique. This approach shows how different techniques within a category are related or different from each other. Our categorization reveals new variants and combinations that have not been investigated before for anomaly detection. We also provide a discussion of relative strengths and weaknesses of different techniques. We show how techniques developed for one problem formulation can be adapted to solve a different formulation, thereby providing several novel adaptations to solve the different problem formulations. We also highlight the applicability of the techniques that handle discrete sequences to other related areas such as online anomaly detection and time series anomaly detection.

  8. Digital Mapping Techniques '07 - Workshop Proceedings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soller, David R.

    2008-01-01

    The Digital Mapping Techniques '07 (DMT'07) workshop was attended by 85 technical experts from 49 agencies, universities, and private companies, including representatives from 27 state geological surveys. This year's meeting, the tenth in the annual series, was hosted by the South Carolina Geological Survey, from May 20-23, 2007, on the University of South Carolina campus in Columbia, South Carolina. Each DMT workshop has been coordinated by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Geologic Map Database Project and the Association of American State Geologists (AASG). As in previous year's meetings, the objective was to foster informal discussion and exchange of technical information, principally in order to develop more efficient methods for digital mapping, cartography, GIS analysis, and information management. At this meeting, oral and poster presentations and special discussion sessions emphasized: 1) methods for creating and publishing map products (here, 'publishing' includes Web-based release); 2) field data capture software and techniques, including the use of LIDAR; 3) digital cartographic techniques; 4) migration of digital maps into ArcGIS Geodatabase format; 5) analytical GIS techniques; and 6) continued development of the National Geologic Map Database.

  9. Westchester County Employers Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Marcia M.

    The Westchester County Employers Survey was done in May 2003 in order learn more about employee training needs, how they accomplished these needs, and how it would be possible for the Westchester Community College to fulfill these needs. Out of the 639 surveys sent, 145 were returned in a satisfactory format, which produces a 22.6% return rate.…

  10. The OCCASO survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casamiquela, L.; Carrera, R.; Jordi, C.; Balaguer-Núnez, L.; Pancino, E.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.

    2017-03-01

    Open clusters (OCs) are crucial for studying the formation and evolution of the Galactic disc. The lack of a large number of OCs analysed homogeneously hampers the investigations. The OCCASO survey provides homogeneous radial velocities, physical parameters and individual chemical abundances from high-resolution spectroscopy. We present the motivation, current status and first results of the survey for 114 stars in 18 OCs

  11. Employer Satisfaction Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, William A.

    A three-part, state-wide survey was conducted in Spring 1979, to determine employer satisfaction with the vocational programs offered at Hawaii's high schools and community colleges. Three populations were involved in the survey: (1) the personnel directors of 29 firms representing approximately 25% of the businesses in Hawaii with 250 or more…

  12. Readership Surveys Build Confidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohle, Bob

    1980-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of students' opinions of their school newspaper. Lists four changes that were based on the survey results: (1) added emphasis on meeting students' personal interest needs, (2) increase in short feature and humorous stories, (3) more persuasive editorial and opinion pieces, and (4) increase in advertising benefits for…

  13. And the Survey Says...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Last month we highlighted our Quadrennial Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Using data from the survey, we have looked at the availability of high school physics. We report that about 95% of high school seniors attend a high school where physics is offered regularly--either every year or every other year. A U.S. Department of Education…

  14. Technology & Distance Learning Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Human Resources Development, Inc., Gainesville.

    A survey was conducted to assess the current state of technology and distance learning awareness and usage in Florida's adult education and community-based programs. Data were gathered through a survey of 350 adult practitioners, literacy providers, community-based organizations and libraries throughout the state (125 responses [36 percent return…

  15. Attitude Surveys Document Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Albert, Comp.

    This packet presents results of a series of attitude surveys representing a variety of purposes, methods and defined publics. They range from a simple questionnaire prepared and mailed to a small group of key individuals by a public relations staff to scientifically derived surveys purchased from Louis Harris and Associates and other research…

  16. Graduate Assessment Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    Determines the degree to which Santa Fe Community College (Florida) is providing quality educational programs and services to its students. Surveys outgoing students to gather their opinions and perceptions of the educational experiences and services they received while attending the college. The survey instrument is divided into three sections:…

  17. Infrastructure Survey 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 the Group of Eight (Go8) released a first report on the state of its buildings and infrastructure, based on a survey undertaken in 2007. A further survey was undertaken in 2009, updating some information about the assessed quality, value and condition of buildings and use of space. It also collated data related to aspects of the estate not…

  18. Submarine cable route survey

    SciTech Connect

    Herrouin, G.; Scuiller, T.

    1995-12-31

    The growth of telecommunication market is very significant. From the beginning of the nineties, more and more the use of optical fiber submarine cables is privileged to that of satellites. These submarine telecommunication highways require accurate surveys in order to select the optimum route and determine the cable characteristics. Advanced technology tools used for these surveys are presented along with their implementation.

  19. 2007 Maryland Adolescent Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Periodically, Maryland's sixth, eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders are surveyed to determine the nature, extent, and trend of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use among adolescents. The "2007 Maryland Adolescent Survey (MAS)" presents the latest findings regarding ATOD use by Maryland's adolescents and compares State and local…

  20. Seven Survey Sins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehlbach, Hunter

    2015-01-01

    As pressure builds to assess students, teachers, and schools, educational practitioners and policy makers are increasingly looking toward student perception surveys as a promising means to collect high-quality, useful data. For instance, the widely cited Measures of Effective Teaching study lists student perception surveys as one of the three key…

  1. Basic Surveying Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, David A.; Kellum, Mary, Ed.

    This document is intended to help teachers prepare students to perform the duties of any member of a surveying party, including those of party chief, in the field and in the office. It contains instructional units on introduction to surveying, safety, horizontal measurements, vertical measurements, angles and directions, angular measurements,…

  2. Tools & techniques--statistics: propensity score techniques.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Bruno R; Gahl, Brigitta; Jüni, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Propensity score (PS) techniques are useful if the number of potential confounding pretreatment variables is large and the number of analysed outcome events is rather small so that conventional multivariable adjustment is hardly feasible. Only pretreatment characteristics should be chosen to derive PS, and only when they are probably associated with outcome. A careful visual inspection of PS will help to identify areas of no or minimal overlap, which suggests residual confounding, and trimming of the data according to the distribution of PS will help to minimise residual confounding. Standardised differences in pretreatment characteristics provide a useful check of the success of the PS technique employed. As with conventional multivariable adjustment, PS techniques cannot account for confounding variables that are not or are only imperfectly measured, and no PS technique is a substitute for an adequately designed randomised trial.

  3. Web-Based Surveys: Not Your Basic Survey Anymore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertot, John Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Web-based surveys are not new to the library environment. Although such surveys began as extensions of print surveys, the Web-based environment offers a number of approaches to conducting a survey that the print environment cannot duplicate easily. Since 1994, the author and others have conducted national surveys of public library Internet…

  4. How To Sample in Surveys. The Survey Kit, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Arlene

    The nine-volume Survey Kit is designed to help readers prepare and conduct surveys and become better users of survey results. All the books in the series contain instructional objectives, exercises and answers, examples of surveys in use, illustrations of survey questions, guidelines for action, checklists of "dos and don'ts," and…

  5. Hazards and Future Improvements to HI Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. Richard

    1997-04-01

    Most radio astronomical observations are affected to some degree by man-made and natural interference. There are a few avoidance techniques that can reduce the impact of interference on the survey, but we must make quite significant advances in the understanding of our antennas and receivers and the interference itself before a substantial improvement can be expected. A major increase in the efficiency of future surveys will likely come from phased-array feeds, which have the potential for much closer beam spacings, greater antenna efficiency, and wider fields of view than current independent-feed arrays.

  6. Radiolocation Techniques (Les Techniques de Radiolocalisation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    importants sont occasionnds par Ia rifraction atmosphdnque. Sur route la bande de fr~quences radio. Ic bruit, aussi bien naturel qu’artificieljoue souvent...rdscau, techniques multi- capteurs ; aspects brouillage. - Uimpact de la propagation sur la gomornidmie et la tdlddetection: Les grandesi ondes, HF, VHF...par 36 Capteur At Analyse Sliquentielle en Balayage Rapide par D.Josset Radio Location through High Resolution Eigenstructure Processing Techniques 37

  7. Public surveys at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaboldi, Magda; Delmotte, Nausicaa; Hilker, Michael; Hussain, Gaitee; Mascetti, Laura; Micol, Alberto; Petr-Gotzens, Monika; Rejkuba, Marina; Retzlaff, Jörg; Mieske, Steffen; Szeifert, Thomas; Ivison, Rob; Leibundgut, Bruno; Romaniello, Martino

    2016-07-01

    ESO has a strong mandate to survey the Southern Sky. In this article, we describe the ESO telescopes and instruments that are currently used for ESO Public Surveys, and the future plans of the community with the new wide-field-spectroscopic instruments. We summarize the ESO policies governing the management of these projects on behalf of the community. The on-going ESO Public Surveys and their science goals, their status of completion, and the new projects selected during the second ESO VISTA call in 2015/2016 are discussed. We then present the impact of these projects in terms of current numbers of refereed publications and the scientific data products published through the ESO Science Archive Facility by the survey teams, including the independent access and scientific use of the published survey data products by the astronomical community.

  8. The Methanol Multibeam Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, James A.; Cohen, R. J.; Caswell, J. L.; Fuller, G. A.; Brooks, K.; Burton, M. G.; Chrysostomou, A.; Diamond, P. J.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Gray, M. D.; Hoare, M. G.; Masheder, M. R. W.; McClure-Griffiths, N.; Pestalozzi, M.; Phillips, C.; Quinn, L.; Thompson, M. A.; Voronkov, M.; Walsh, A.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Wong-McSweeney, D.; Yates, J. A.; Cox, J.

    2007-03-01

    A new 7-beam methanol multibeam receiver is being used to survey the Galaxy for newly forming massive stars, that are pinpointed by strong methanol maser emission at 6.668 GHz. The receiver, jointly constructed by Jodrell Bank Observatory (JBO) and the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF), was successfully commissioned at Parkes in January 2006. The Parkes-Jodrell survey of the Milky Way for methanol masers is two orders of magnitude faster than previous systematic surveys using 30-m class dishes, and is the first systematic survey of the entire Galactic plane. The first 53 days of observations with the Parkes telescope have yielded 518 methanol sources, of which 218 are new discoveries. We present the survey methodology as well as preliminary results and analysis.

  9. Building Technologies Residential Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Secrest, Thomas J.

    2005-11-07

    Introduction A telephone survey of 1,025 residential occupants was administered in late October for the Building Technologies Program (BT) to gather information on residential occupant attitudes, behaviors, knowledge, and perceptions. The next section, Survey Results, provides an overview of the responses, with major implications and caveats. Additional information is provided in three appendices as follows: - Appendix A -- Summary Response: Provides summary tabular data for the 13 questions that, with subparts, comprise a total of 25 questions. - Appendix B -- Benchmark Data: Provides a benchmark by six categories to the 2001 Residential Energy Consumption Survey administered by EIA. These were ownership, heating fuel, geographic location, race, household size and income. - Appendix C -- Background on Survey Method: Provides the reader with an understanding of the survey process and interpretation of the results.

  10. Radio perspectives on the Monoceros SNR G205.5+0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, L.; Zhu, M.

    2012-09-01

    Context. The Monoceros supernova remnant (SNR G205.5+0.5) is a large shell-type SNR located in the Rosette molecular complex and thought to be interacting with the Rosette Nebula. Aims: We aim to re-examine the radio spectral index and its spatial variation over the Monoceros SNR as well as study its properties of evolution within the complex interstellar medium. Methods: We extracted radio continuum data for the Monoceros complex region from the Effelsberg 21 cm and 11 cm surveys and the Urumqi 6 cm polarization survey. We used the new Arecibo GALFA-HI survey data with much higher resolution and sensitivity than that previously available to identify the HI shell related with the SNR. Multi-wavelengths data are included to investigate the properties of the SNR. Results: The spectral index α (Sν ∝ να) averaged over the SNR is -0.41 ± 0.16. The TT-plots and the distribution of α over the SNR show spatial variations that steepen toward the inner western filamentary shell. Polarized emission is prominent on the western filamentary shell region. The RM there is estimated to be about 30 ± 77n rad m-2, where the n = 1 solution is preferred, and the magnetic field has a strength of about 9.5 μG. From the HI channel maps, further evidence is provided for an interaction between the Monoceros SNR and the Rosette Nebula. We identify partial neutral hydrogen shell structures in the northwestern region at velocities of +15 km s-1 circumscribing the continuum emission. The HI shell has swept up a mass of about 4000 M⊙ for a distance of 1.6 kpc. The western HI shell, well associated with the dust emission, is found to lie outside of the radio shell. We suggest that the Monoceros SNR is evolving within a cavity blown out by the progenitor and has triggered part of the star formation in the Rosette Nebula. Conclusions: The Monoceros SNR is interacting with the ambient interstellar medium with ultra-high energy emission detected. Its interaction with the Rosette Nebula is

  11. 3D extinction maps, Dust-to-gas ratio, XCO factor and CO-dark gas in the Galactic anti centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bingqiu; Liu, Xiaowei

    2015-08-01

    We present a three dimensional extinction map in r band. The map has a spatial angular resolution, depending on latitude, between 3 - 9 arcmin and covers the entire XSTPS-GAC survey area of over 6,000 deg2 for Galactic longitude 140 < l <220 deg and latitude -40 < b < 40 deg. By cross-matching the photometric catalog of Schmidt Telescope Photometric Survey of the Galactic Anticentre (XSTPS-GAC) with those of 2MASS and WISE, we have built a multi-band photometric stellar sample of about 30 million stars and applied spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting to the sample. This has allowed us to derive the best-fit extinction and distance information of more than 13 million stars, which are used to construct the three dimensional extinction map. The extinction map is combined with data from gas tracers, including HI data from the GALFA-HI survey and CO data from the Planck mission, to constrain the values of dust-to-gas ratio DGR=AV/N(H) and CO-to-H2 conversion factor XCO = N(H2)/WCO for the entire GAC footprint excluding the Galactic plane, as well as for selected star-forming regions (such as the Orion, Taurus and Perseus clouds) and a region of diffuse gas in the northern Galactic hemisphere. For the whole GAC footprint, we find DGR= 4.15 x 1022 magcm2 and XCO=1.72 x 1020 cm2 (Kkms-1). We have also investigated the distribution of “CO-dark” gas (DG) within the footprint of GAC. The mass fraction of DG is found to be fDG = 0.55 toward the Galactic anticentre, which is respectively about 23 and 124 per cent of the atomic and CO-traced molecular gas in the same region. This result is consistent with the theoretical work of Papadopoulos et al. but much larger than that expected in the H2 cloud models by Wolfire et al.

  12. Classroom Management Through the Application of Behavior Modification Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferinden, William E., Jr.

    The primary aim of this book is to bring to the grade school teacher a survey of the most recent techniques and ideas of behavior modification which are applicable to good classroom management. All of the approaches and techniques presented could be of interest to teachers working at all grade levels. Since research has shown that the systematic…

  13. Effective Techniques for the Promotion of Library Services and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Zhixian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines how Australian academic librarians perceive techniques for promoting services and resources, and the factors affecting the perceptions regarding effectiveness of techniques used. Method: Data were collected from an online survey that was sent to 400 academic librarians in thirty-seven Australian universities. The…

  14. Optimizing cosmological surveys in a crowded market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Bruce A.

    2005-04-01

    Optimizing the major next-generation cosmological surveys (such as SNAP, KAOS, etc.) is a key problem given our ignorance of the physics underlying cosmic acceleration and the plethora of surveys planned. We propose a Bayesian design framework which (1) maximizes the discrimination power of a survey without assuming any underlying dark-energy model, (2) finds the best niche survey geometry given current data and future competing experiments, (3) maximizes the cross section for serendipitous discoveries and (4) can be adapted to answer specific questions (such as “is dark energy dynamical?”). Integrated parameter-space optimization (IPSO) is a design framework that integrates projected parameter errors over an entire dark energy parameter space and then extremizes a figure of merit (such as Shannon entropy gain which we show is stable to off-diagonal covariance matrix perturbations) as a function of survey parameters using analytical, grid or MCMC techniques. We discuss examples where the optimization can be performed analytically. IPSO is thus a general, model-independent and scalable framework that allows us to appropriately use prior information to design the best possible surveys.

  15. A complete southern sky redshift survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Da Costa, L. Nicolaci; Geller, M. J.; Pellegrini, P. S.; Latham, D. W.; Fairall, A. P.; Marzke, R. O.; Willmer, C. N. A.; Huchra, J. P.; Calderon, J. H.; Ramella, M.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss a magnitude-limited redshift survey covering a region around the south Galactic pole (SSRS2). The survey includes 3592 galaxies and covers a region of 1.13 sr to a limiting m(sub B(0)) = 15.5, directly comparable to CfA2. Together, CfA2 and SSR2 cover more than a third of the sky. The northern and southern surveys are remarkably similar. Both contain voids with diameters as large as 5000 km/s. The southern survey contains the Southern Wall, similar to the northern Great Wall. The distributions of velocity dispersions for systems extracted from the SSRS2 and CfA2 surveys are also remarkably similar. For the SSRS2, an inhomogeneity-independent technique yields Schechter luminosity function parameters M(sup *) = -19.50 and alpha = -1.20 (H(sub O) = 100 h km/s/Mpc, h = 1 unless otherwise specified). The steep faint-end slope is probably attributable to bluer galaxies. By examining the normalized density fluctuations in the SSRS2 and CfA2 surveys, we suggest that the combined sample is not yet large enough to be 'fair.' There are large fluctuations in shells at 10,000 km/s.

  16. Cluster cosmology with next-generation surveys.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascaso, B.

    2017-03-01

    The advent of next-generation surveys will provide a large number of cluster detections that will serve the basis for constraining cos mological parameters using cluster counts. The main two observational ingredients needed are the cluster selection function and the calibration of the mass-observable relation. In this talk, we present the methodology designed to obtain robust predictions of both ingredients based on realistic cosmological simulations mimicking the following next-generation surveys: J-PAS, LSST and Euclid. We display recent results on the selection functions for these mentioned surveys together with others coming from other next-generation surveys such as eROSITA, ACTpol and SPTpol. We notice that the optical and IR surveys will reach the lowest masses between 0.3technique that we are developing to perform a Fisher Matrix analysis to provide cosmological constraints for the considered next-generation surveys and introduce very preliminary results.

  17. Seals and Sealing Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Developments by the aerospace industry in seals and sealing techniques are announced for possible use in other areas. The announcements presented are grouped as: sealing techniques for cryogenic fluids, high pressure applications, and modification for improved performance.

  18. Nondestructive evaluation technique guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1973-01-01

    A total of 70 individual nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are described. Information is presented that permits ease of comparison of the merits and limitations of each technique with respect to various NDE problems. An NDE technique classification system is presented. It is based on the system that was adopted by the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB). The classification system presented follows the NMAB system closely with the exception of additional categories that have been added to cover more advanced techniques presently in use. The rationale of the technique is explained. The format provides for a concise description of each technique, the physical principles involved, objectives of interrogation, example applications, limitations of each technique, a schematic illustration, and key reference material. Cross-index tabulations are also provided so that particular NDE problems can be referred to appropriate techniques.

  19. The radiocarbon hydroxyl technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Malcolm J.; Sheppard, John C.

    1994-01-01

    The Radiocarbon Technique depends upon measuring the rate of oxidation of CO in an essentially unperturbed sample of air. The airborne technique is slightly different. Hydroxyl concentrations can be calculated directly; peroxyl concentrations can be obtained by NO doping.

  20. "Techniques for Teachers" Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manchester, P., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Presented are two science demonstration projects: (1) the simulation of a magnetic survey utilizing a bar magnet buried in a sand box and (2) an investigation of the reaction between lead nitrate and sodium hydroxide. (SL)

  1. Drilling technique for crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, T.; Miyagawa, I.

    1977-01-01

    Hole-drilling technique uses special crystal driller in which drill bit rotates at fixed position at speed of 30 rpm while crystal slowly advances toward drill. Technique has been successfully applied to crystal of Rochell salt, Triglycine sulfate, and N-acetyglycine. Technique limits heat buildup and reduces strain on crystal.

  2. Endoscopic septoplasty: technique and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Durr, Dory G

    2003-02-01

    Recent literature has already embraced the topic of endoscopic septoplasty, with several published articles on the subject. This approach provides a direct-targeted route to the anatomic deformity, improved visualization, and magnification of the surgical field. It allows improved evaluation of the posterior nasal septal deformities, identification of the degree of mucosal involvement of the posterior ends of the inferior turbinates, and concomitant assessment of the middle meatus. It permits objective documentation of the cause of nasal obstruction with possible use in outcome assessment. It is also an effective teaching method and a motivating approach for the nursing team. We present our experience in a series of 47 patients performed during a 1 1/2-year period and discuss the surgical technique and patients' outcomes. We systematically used the endoscope for all septal and turbinate surgery. We evaluated outcomes using a telephone survey along with a validated disease-specific health status measure and a global rating questionnaire.

  3. Techniques of magna-field irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shank, B.

    1983-12-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) techniques have evolved over the years, with the basic goals remaining adequate immunosuppression and/or tumor eradication. TBI technique variables include: machine type and energy, prescription parameters (dose, number of fractions, dose/fraction, dose rate), patient position, therapy room and machine constraints (field size, distance) and beam modifiers (bolus, compensators, shields). Related variables include chemotherapy agents and schedules, and 'boost' radiotherapy. Seven representative institutions that treat a large number of TBI patients were surveyed for these variables. Homogeneity has been achieved generally within +/-10% with the use of these techniques. One 'sentinel' effect is discussed, namely interstitial pneumonitis, as a measure of normal tissue effects with varying techniques. There is an indication that more fractionated methods, used either daily or in a hyperfractionated fashion, are leading to a decreased incidence of pneumonitis.

  4. Techniques for preventing accidental damage to pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Lothon, A.; Akel, S.

    1996-12-31

    Following a survey of all of the techniques capable of preventing third-party damage to its gas transmission pipelines, Gaz de France has selected two of them, Electromagnetic Detection and Positioning by Satellite. The first technique is based on detection of the magnetic field existing around transmission pipes excited by a driving current. A receiver is mounted on the excavation equipment to detect the magnetic field, thereby preventing any risk of hitting the pipe. The second technique consists in locating excavators by satellite. Each excavator needs to be equipped with a GPS beacon to know its position. Using the map of the transmission network stored in data-base form, i.e., digitized, the system calculates the position of the excavator relative to the pipes buried in its vicinity so as to avoid any accidental contact. The main features, advantages and drawbacks of the two techniques are presented in this paper.

  5. Geological Survey research 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1978-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of 1978 fiscal year scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic and hydrologic investigations in progress and a report on the status of topographic mapping. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral and water resources, (2) Engineering geology and hydrology, (3) Regional geology, (4) Principles and processes, (5) Laboratory and field methods, (6) Topographic surveys and mapping, (7) Management of resources on public lands, (8) Land information and analysis, and (9) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of cooperating agencies and Geological Survey offices. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Geological Survey research 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1976-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of recent (1976 fiscal year) scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic and hydrologic investigations in progress and a report on the status of topographic mapping. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral resources, Water resources, (2) Engineering geology and hydrology, (3) Regional geology, (4) Principles and processes, (5) Laboratory and field methods, (6) Topographic surveys and mapping, (7) Management of resources on public lands, (8) Land information and analysis, and (9) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of cooperating agencies and Geological Survey offices. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. FLEXI Project Management Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohunen, Anna; Krzanik, Lech; Kuvaja, Pasi; Similä, Jouni; Rodriguez, Pilar; Hyysalo, Jarkko; Linna, Tommi

    FLEXI Project Management Survey (FLEXI PMS) has been established to gain detailed knowledge on how the software industry - in particular successful companies - manages agile software development. FLEXI PMS investigates the actual agile values, principles, practices and contexts. The survey is supported by a careful literature review and analysis of existing studies. Special attention is attached to large, multi-site, multi-company and distributed projects - the target area of FLEXI project. The survey is intended to provide solid data for further knowledge acquisition and project/company positioning with regard to feasible agile management practices.

  8. Astronomical CCD observing and reduction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Steve B. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    CCD instrumentation and techniques in observational astronomy are surveyed. The general topics addressed include: history of large array scientific CCD imagers; noise sources and reduction processes; basic photometry techniques; introduction to differential time-series astronomical photometry using CCDs; 2D imagery; point source spectroscopy; extended object spectrophotometry; introduction to CCD astrometry; solar system applications for CCDs; CCD data; observing with infrared arrays; image processing, data analysis software, and computer systems for CCD data reduction and analysis. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  9. Energy minimization versus pseudo force technique for nonlinear structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamat, M. P.; Hayduk, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The effectiveness of using minimization techniques for the solution of nonlinear structural analysis problems is discussed and demonstrated by comparison with the conventional pseudo force technique. The comparison involves nonlinear problems with a relatively few degrees of freedom. A survey of the state-of-the-art of algorithms for unconstrained minimization reveals that extension of the technique to large scale nonlinear systems is possible.

  10. New characterization techniques for LSST sensors

    DOE PAGES

    Nomerotski, A.

    2015-06-18

    Fully depleted, thick CCDs with extended infra-red response have become the sensor of choice for modern sky surveys. The charge transport effects in the silicon and associated astrometric distortions could make mapping between the sky coordinates and sensor coordinates non-trivial, and limit the ultimate precision achievable with these sensors. Two new characterization techniques for the CCDs, which both could probe these issues, are discussed: x-ray flat fielding and imaging of pinhole arrays.

  11. Image processing techniques for digital orthophotoquad production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hood, Joy J.; Ladner, L. J.; Champion, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Orthophotographs have long been recognized for their value as supplements or alternatives to standard maps. Recent trends towards digital cartography have resulted in efforts by the US Geological Survey to develop a digital orthophotoquad production system. Digital image files were created by scanning color infrared photographs on a microdensitometer. Rectification techniques were applied to remove tile and relief displacement, thereby creating digital orthophotos. Image mosaicking software was then used to join the rectified images, producing digital orthophotos in quadrangle format.

  12. A Successful Broadband Survey for Giant Lyα Nebulae. I. Survey Design and Candidate Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescott, Moire K. M.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.

    2012-04-01

    Giant Lyα nebulae (or Lyα "blobs") are likely sites of ongoing massive galaxy formation, but the rarity of these powerful sources has made it difficult to form a coherent picture of their properties, ionization mechanisms, and space density. Systematic narrowband Lyα nebula surveys are ongoing, but the small redshift range covered and the observational expense limit the comoving volume that can be probed by even the largest of these surveys and pose a significant problem when searching for such rare sources. We have developed a systematic search technique designed to find large Lyα nebulae at 2 <~ z <~ 3 within deep broadband imaging and have carried out a survey of the 9.4 deg2 NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Boötes field. With a total survey comoving volume of ≈108 h -3 70 Mpc3, this is the largest volume survey for Lyα nebulae ever undertaken. In this first paper in the series, we present the details of the survey design and a systematically selected sample of 79 candidates, which includes one previously discovered Lyα nebula.

  13. Survey says? A primer on web-based survey design and distribution.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, Adam J; Pannucci, Christopher J; Kasten, Steven J; Haase, Steven C

    2011-07-01

    The Internet has changed the way in which we gather and interpret information. Although books were once the exclusive bearers of data, knowledge is now only a keystroke away. The Internet has also facilitated the synthesis of new knowledge. Specifically, it has become a tool through which medical research is conducted. A review of the literature reveals that in the past year, over 100 medical publications have been based on Web-based survey data alone. Because of emerging Internet technologies, Web-based surveys can now be launched with little computer knowledge. They may also be self-administered, eliminating personnel requirements. Ultimately, an investigator may build, implement, and analyze survey results with speed and efficiency, obviating the need for mass mailings and data processing. All of these qualities have rendered telephone and mail-based surveys virtually obsolete. Despite these capabilities, Web-based survey techniques are not without their limitations, namely, recall and response biases. When used properly, however, Web-based surveys can greatly simplify the research process. This article discusses the implications of Web-based surveys and provides guidelines for their effective design and distribution.

  14. A SUCCESSFUL BROADBAND SURVEY FOR GIANT Ly{alpha} NEBULAE. I. SURVEY DESIGN AND CANDIDATE SELECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, Moire K. M.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.

    2012-04-01

    Giant Ly{alpha} nebulae (or Ly{alpha} 'blobs') are likely sites of ongoing massive galaxy formation, but the rarity of these powerful sources has made it difficult to form a coherent picture of their properties, ionization mechanisms, and space density. Systematic narrowband Ly{alpha} nebula surveys are ongoing, but the small redshift range covered and the observational expense limit the comoving volume that can be probed by even the largest of these surveys and pose a significant problem when searching for such rare sources. We have developed a systematic search technique designed to find large Ly{alpha} nebulae at 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 within deep broadband imaging and have carried out a survey of the 9.4 deg{sup 2} NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field. With a total survey comoving volume of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} h{sup -3}{sub 70} Mpc{sup 3}, this is the largest volume survey for Ly{alpha} nebulae ever undertaken. In this first paper in the series, we present the details of the survey design and a systematically selected sample of 79 candidates, which includes one previously discovered Ly{alpha} nebula.

  15. Fuel cells: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of fuel cell technology and applications is presented. The operating principles, performance capabilities, and limitations of fuel cells are discussed. Diagrams of fuel cell construction and operating characteristics are provided. Photographs of typical installations are included.

  16. 2000 LEPC Survey

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is the summary report of the 1999 nationwide Local Emergency Planning Committee survey, released in May 2000. It measured their levels of compliance and proactivity, roles in prevention and counter-terrorism, communication, and response plans.

  17. National Nursing Home Survey

    Cancer.gov

    The National Nursing Home Survey provides includes characteristics such as size of nursing home facilities, ownership, Medicare/Medicaid certification, occupancy rate, number of days of care provided, and expenses.

  18. Clean Watersheds Needs Survey

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Watershed Needs Survey is a national assessment of the future capital cost for publicly owned wastewater collection and treatment facilities to meet the Clean Water Act's water quality goals.

  19. Infrared Sky Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2009-02-01

    A retrospective is given on infrared sky surveys from Thomas Edison’s proposal in the late 1870s to IRAS, the first sensitive mid- to far-infrared all-sky survey, and the mid-1990s experiments that filled in the IRAS deficiencies. The emerging technology for space-based surveys is highlighted, as is the prominent role the US Defense Department, particularly the Air Force, played in developing and applying detector and cryogenic sensor advances to early mid-infrared probe-rocket and satellite-based surveys. This technology was transitioned to the infrared astronomical community in relatively short order and was essential to the success of IRAS, COBE and ISO. Mention is made of several of the little known early observational programs that were superseded by more successful efforts.

  20. The Personal Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Frederick C.

    1978-01-01

    The Personal Health Survey (PHS) is a 200-item inventory designed to sample symptomatology as subjective experiences from the 12 principal domains of organ system and psychophysiological functioning. This study investigates the factorial validity of the empirically constructed scales. (Author)

  1. Web surveys' hidden hazards.

    PubMed

    Morrel-Samuels, Palmer

    2003-07-01

    The same question posed on the Web and in print can yield very different answers, dramatically distorting survey results and misleading management. But, as psychologist Palmer Morrel-Samuels demonstrates, the problems are readily fixed.

  2. Survey of Anomaly Detection Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, B

    2006-10-12

    This survey defines the problem of anomaly detection and provides an overview of existing methods. The methods are categorized into two general classes: generative and discriminative. A generative approach involves building a model that represents the joint distribution of the input features and the output labels of system behavior (e.g., normal or anomalous) then applies the model to formulate a decision rule for detecting anomalies. On the other hand, a discriminative approach aims directly to find the decision rule, with the smallest error rate, that distinguishes between normal and anomalous behavior. For each approach, we will give an overview of popular techniques and provide references to state-of-the-art applications.

  3. Benchmarking survey for recycling.

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

  4. Oceanographic Data Bank Survey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings of an Oceanographic Data Bank Survey. The survey was conducted in order to eliminate duplication of data base...development and to aid the Data Base Manager in establishing the data banks for the Acoustic Environmental Support Detachment (AESD). A key finding is...that no one data bank exists that will satisfy the total needs of AESD. Data bases available from the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), Fleet

  5. Wellbore inertial directional surveying system

    DOEpatents

    Andreas, Ronald D.; Heck, G. Michael; Kohler, Stewart M.; Watts, Alfred C.

    1991-01-01

    A wellbore inertial directional surveying system for providing a complete directional survey of an oil or gas well borehole to determine the displacement in all three directions of the borehole path relative to the well head at the surface. The information generated by the present invention is especially useful when numerous wells are drilled to different geographical targets from a single off-shore platform. Accurate knowledge of the path of the borehole allows proper well spacing and provides assurance that target formations are reached. The tool is lowered down into a borehole on the electrical cable. A computer positioned on the surface communicates with the tool via the cable. The tool contains a sensor block which is supported on a single gimbal, the rotation axis of which is aligned with the cylinder axis of the tool and, correspondingly, the borehole. The gyroscope measurement of the sensor block rotation is used in a null-seeking servo loop which essentially prevents rotation of the sensor block aboutthe gimbal axis. Angular rates of the sensor block about axes which are perpendicular to the gimbal axis are measured by gyroscopes in a manner similar to a strapped-down arrangement. Three accelerometers provide acceleration information as the tool is lowered within the borehole. The uphole computer derives position information based upon acceleration information and anular rate information. Kalman estimation techniques are used to compensate for system errors.

  6. Wellbore inertial directional surveying system

    DOEpatents

    Andreas, R.D.; Heck, G.M.; Kohler, S.M.; Watts, A.C.

    1982-09-08

    A wellbore inertial directional surveying system for providing a complete directional survey of an oil or gas well borehole to determine the displacement in all three directions of the borehole path relative to the well head at the surface. The information generated by the present invention is especially useful when numerous wells are drilled to different geographical targets from a single offshore platform. Accurate knowledge of the path of the borehole allows proper well spacing and provides assurance that target formations are reached. The tool is lowered down into a borehole on an electrical cable. A computer positioned on the surface communicates with the tool via the cable. The tool contains a sensor block which is supported on a single gimbal, the rotation axis of which is aligned with the cylinder axis of the tool and, correspondingly, the borehole. The gyroscope measurement of the sensor block rotation is used in a null-seeking servo loop which essentially prevents rotation of the sensor block about the gimbal axis. Angular rates of the sensor block about axes which are perpendicular to te gimbal axis are measured by gyroscopes in a manner similar to a strapped-down arrangement. Three accelerometers provide acceleration information as the tool is lowered within the borehole. The uphole computer derives position information based upon acceleration information and angular rate information. Kalman estimation techniques are used to compensate for system errors. 25 figures.

  7. Using cluster analysis to explore survey data.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Llinos; Roberts, Gwerfyl; Irvine, Fiona; Jones, Peter; Baker, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Llinos Haf Spencer reports on the use of the cluster analysis statistical technique in nursing research and uses data from the Welsh Language Awareness in Healthcare Provision in Wales survey as an exemplar She concludes that cluster analysis is a valuable tool to tease out patterns in data that are not initially evident in bivariate analyses and thus should be considered as a viable option for nursing research.

  8. Imaging technologies and techniques.

    PubMed

    Rafter, Patrick; Phillips, Patrick; Vannan, Mani A

    2004-05-01

    Equipment manufacturers provide contrast-specific detection techniques that have excellent sensitivity and excellent agent-to-tissue specificity along with helpful tools that improve workflow efficiency dramatically. Excellent contrast agents have been approved for LV opacification and are available worldwide. Techniques designed for low-MI imaging offer real-time acquisition capabilities and lead to faster examinations. Techniques designed for medium-MI imaging offer better sensitivity than low-MI techniques while maintaining the benefit of rapid image acquisition. Techniques designed for high-MI imaging offer the best sensitivity with longer acquisition times. These techniques are viable means for imaging contrast agents tailored to clinical needs. Progress by contrast agent manufacturers, equipment manufacturers, and physicians will continue to drive improvements in the areas of detection and clinical workflow for improved patient care.

  9. The DECam Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Robert D.; Burleigh, Kaylan; Dey, Arjun; Schlegel, David J.; Meisner, Aaron M.; Levi, Michael; Myers, Adam D.; Lang, Dustin; Moustakas, John; Patej, Anna; Valdes, Francisco; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Huanyuan, Shan; Nord, Brian; Olsen, Knut A.; Delubac, Timothée; Saha, Abi; James, David; Walker, Alistair R.; DECaLS Team

    2016-06-01

    The DECam Legacy Survey (DECaLS) is conducting a 3-band imaging survey of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) extragalactic footprint as part of the Legacy Survey, which is associated with the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) redshift survey. The Legacy Survey covers 14000 square degrees in the g, r, and z bands and is being executed on the Blanco 4-m, Mayall 4-m, and Bok 2.3-m telescopes. For DECaLS, the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) will image the footprint overlapping SDSS in the region -20 < Dec < +30 deg, to depths of g=24.7, r=23.9, z=23.0 and will eventually cover a total of 7500 square degrees. The survey began in 2014 and will run through Spring 2017. Images and catalogs were introduced in Public Data Release 2 (DR2), which occurred in January 2016. The algorithm "Tractor" applies multi-wavelength forced photometry to DECam and WISE data to produce galaxy (and star) magnitudes (as well as shape and other information) for the catalogs. In total, the optical data in DR2 cover a disjoint footprint in 2078, 2141 and 5322 square degrees in g, r, and z bands, respectively; 1807 square degrees has been observed in all three optical filters. There are approximately 260 million unique sources in DR2 spread over 97,554 0.25 x 0.25 square degree bricks.The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) will observe 30+ million galaxies and quasars in a 14,000 square degree extragalactic footprint. The targeting in that footprint will be provided by a combination of these DECam data, the MOSAIC camera on the Mayall 4-meter, and the 90Prime camera on the Bok telescope.

  10. Hot techniques for tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Scott, A

    2006-11-01

    (1) Some patients experience pain and bleeding after a standard or extracapsular tonsillectomy. (2) Evidence suggests that none of the hot tonsillectomy techniques offers concurrent reductions in intra- and post-operative bleeding and pain, compared with traditional cold-steel dissection with packs or ties. (3) Little information is available on the cost effectiveness of the hot techniques. (4) Diathermy is likely to remain the most commonly practised hot tonsillectomy technique.

  11. Classroom Assessment Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2003-12-01

    Provost David L. Potter of George Mason University chaired a joint task force and presented a report entitled ``Powerful Partnerships : A Shared Responsibility for Learnin'' in June 1998. The main goal is to make a difference in the quality of student learning. Further, it is important to assess this difference and document it. Clifford O. Young, Sr., & Laura Howzell Young of California State University, San Bernardino argue that a new paradigm for assessment, a learning paradigm, must be constructed to measure the success of new kinds of educational practices. Using two survey instruments, the Instruction Model Learning Model Questionnaire (IMLMQ) and the Student Evaluation of Teaching Effectiveness (SETE), they compared students' responses to the course when taught with traditional methods and with interactive methods. The results suggest that neither instrument effectively measures the kinds of learning promoted under the new paradigm. Linn, Baker, & Dunbar recommend that these newer assessment practices should be more authentic, that is, to involve students in the actual or simulated performance of a task or the documentation of the desired competency in a portfolio. Cerbin says that one of the most unfortunate consequences of a summative emphasis is that it inhibits open and productive discussions about teaching; in essence, it marginalizes the types of activity that could lead to better teaching (Cerbin, 1992). William Cerbin, who is the Director of the Center for Effective Teaching and learning, University Assessment Coordinator, and Professor of Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse is a recognized expert in the areas of cognition, language, and development. Edgerton, Hutchings, & Quinlan indicate that Teaching Portfolios may contain evidence of students' learning, but such information is optional, and when included, it may be only one of many pieces of material. Seldin, also supports this and stresses that the interplay between the instructor

  12. 2012 Mask Industry Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Matt; Litt, Lloyd C.

    2012-11-01

    A survey supported by SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting was sent to semiconductor industry leaders to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. 2012 marks the 11th consecutive year for the mask industry survey. This year's survey and reporting structure are similar to those of the previous years with minor modifications based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics. Categories include general mask information, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, and maintenance and returns. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. Results, initial observations, and key comparisons between the 2011 and 2012 survey responses are shown here, including multiple indications of a shift towards the manufacturing of higher end photomasks.

  13. Digital Optical Sky Surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Kron, R.G.

    1995-08-01

    Cameras containing arrays of charge-coupled devices---or which are otherwise capable of sustained high data rates---enable optical sky surveys that compete in efficiency with photographic surveys in terms of area of sky covered per unit observing time. There are gains in performance as well as efficiency: stellar photometry is more straightforward because of the higher dynamic range of CCDs, and the low noise of CCDs allows narrow-band surveys to be undertaken. The small dead-time between exposures allows surveys for rapid variability as well as near-simultaneous color measurements. The most important new prospect may be real-time analysis for identification of sources changing either in position or in brightness. These gains come only after substantial investment in analysis tools and data handling and storage systems. To illustrate some of this potential, this review will focus on a number of sky surveys with CCDs that are either under way or in advanced implementation stages. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital Astronomical} {ital Society} {ital of} {ital the} {ital Pacific}.

  14. Swept Impact Seismic Technique (SIST)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Park, C.B.; Miller, R.D.; Steeples, D.W.; Black, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    A coded seismic technique is developed that can result in a higher signal-to-noise ratio than a conventional single-pulse method does. The technique is cost-effective and time-efficient and therefore well suited for shallow-reflection surveys where high resolution and cost-effectiveness are critical. A low-power impact source transmits a few to several hundred high-frequency broad-band seismic pulses during several seconds of recording time according to a deterministic coding scheme. The coding scheme consists of a time-encoded impact sequence in which the rate of impact (cycles/s) changes linearly with time providing a broad range of impact rates. Impact times used during the decoding process are recorded on one channel of the seismograph. The coding concept combines the vibroseis swept-frequency and the Mini-Sosie random impact concepts. The swept-frequency concept greatly improves the suppression of correlation noise with much fewer impacts than normally used in the Mini-Sosie technique. The impact concept makes the technique simple and efficient in generating high-resolution seismic data especially in the presence of noise. The transfer function of the impact sequence simulates a low-cut filter with the cutoff frequency the same as the lowest impact rate. This property can be used to attenuate low-frequency ground-roll noise without using an analog low-cut filter or a spatial source (or receiver) array as is necessary with a conventional single-pulse method. Because of the discontinuous coding scheme, the decoding process is accomplished by a "shift-and-stacking" method that is much simpler and quicker than cross-correlation. The simplicity of the coding allows the mechanical design of the source to remain simple. Several different types of mechanical systems could be adapted to generate a linear impact sweep. In addition, the simplicity of the coding also allows the technique to be used with conventional acquisition systems, with only minor modifications.

  15. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for SMS exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Murakami, Fumitoshi; Tsukahara, Hotoshi; Mizohata, Shigeharu

    2014-05-01

    The Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) survey is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by sea-surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because the VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed it for the SMS survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We have been developing the VCS survey system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of these surveys are from 100m up to 2100 m. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been also completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system is available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed a new approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In 2013, we have carried out the second VCS survey using the surface-towed high-voltage sparker and ocean bottom source in the Izena Cauldron, which is one of the most promising SMS areas around Japan. The positions of ocean bottom source estimated by this method are consistent with the VCS field records. The VCS data with the sparker have been processed with 3D PSTM. It gives the very high resolution 3D volume deeper than two

  16. UIAGM Ropehandling Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloutier, K. Ross

    The Union Internationale des Associations des Guides de Montagne's (UIAGM) rope handling techniques are intended to form the standard for guiding ropework worldwide. These techniques have become the legal standard for instructional institutions and commercial guiding organizations in UIAGM member countries: Austria, Canada, France, Germany, Great…

  17. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Paul C; Leong-Hoi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. PMID:26491270

  18. Flight Test Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    Fort Rucker, AL 36362-5276 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER TOP 7-4-020 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...2 3. REQUIRED TEST CONDITIONS ............................................. 3 3.1...3. REQUIRED TEST CONDITIONS . 3.1 Air Vehicle Flight Test Techniques. Many different flight test techniques are in existence. As technology

  19. Contamination Control Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  20. Offshore hydraulic fracturing technique

    SciTech Connect

    Meese, C.A. ); Mullen, M.E. ); Barree, R.D. )

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes the frac-and-pack completion technique currently being used in the Gulf of Mexico, and elsewhere, for stimulation and sand control. The paper describes process applications and concerns that arise during implementation of the technique and discusses the completion procedure, treatment design, and execution.

  1. Techniques for Teachers Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, A., Ed.

    1973-01-01

    Includes a simple technique to demonstrate Millikan's oil drop experiment, an environmental studies experiment to measure dissolved oxygen in water samples, and a technique to demonstrate action-reaction. Science materials described are the Pol-A-Star Tomiscope, Nuffield chemistry film loops, air pucks and pH meters. (JR)

  2. Ocean drilling surveys planned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    As a continuation of the International Phase of Ocean Drilling (IPOD), the Glomar Challenger is slated to drill in the Pacific and North Atlantic oceans during 1982-83. In preparation for the drilling, the Joint Oceanographic Institutions (JOI), Inc. will manage the site survey program during 1981-82. These site surveys will be focused to support four programs: a hydrogeology study on the equatorial East Pacific Rise flank; a study of Mesozoic sediments in the western Pacific; a study in sedimentation of the equatorial Pacific basin; and a study of the geochemistry of the North Atlantic ocean crust.JOI has issued a request for proposals for the United States site survey program. Proposal deadline is March 5. For additional information, contact JOI, Inc., 2600 Virginia Avenue, N.W., Suite 512, Washington, D.C. 20037.

  3. The British Geological Survey and the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chesher, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    The British Geological Survey is the UK`s national centre for earth science information with a parallel remit to operate internationally. The Survey`s work covers the full geoscience spectrum in energy, mineral and groundwater resources and associated implications for land use, geological hazards and environmental impact. Much of the work is conducted in collaboration with industry and academia, including joint funding opportunities. Activities relating directly to hydrocarbons include basin analysis, offshore geoscience mapping, hazard assessment, fracture characterization, biostratigraphy, sedimentology, seismology, geomagnetism and frontier data acquisition techniques, offshore. The BGS poster presentation illustrates the value of the collaborative approach through consortia support for regional offshore surveys, geotechnical hazard assessments and state-of-the-art R & D into multicomponent seismic imaging techniques, among others.

  4. Validation of helicopter noise prediction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Succi, G. P.

    1981-01-01

    The current techniques of helicopter rotor noise prediction attempt to describe the details of the noise field precisely and remove the empiricisms and restrictions inherent in previous methods. These techniques require detailed inputs of the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and blade surface pressure distribution. The purpose of this paper is to review those techniques in general and the Farassat/Nystrom analysis in particular. The predictions of the Farassat/Nystrom noise computer program, using both measured and calculated blade surface pressure data, are compared to measured noise level data. This study is based on a contract from NASA to Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. with measured data from the AH-1G Helicopter Operational Loads Survey flight test program supplied by Bell Helicopter Textron.

  5. Validation of helicopter noise prediction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Succi, G. P.

    1981-04-01

    The current techniques of helicopter rotor noise prediction attempt to describe the details of the noise field precisely and remove the empiricisms and restrictions inherent in previous methods. These techniques require detailed inputs of the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and blade surface pressure distribution. The purpose of this paper is to review those techniques in general and the Farassat/Nystrom analysis in particular. The predictions of the Farassat/Nystrom noise computer program, using both measured and calculated blade surface pressure data, are compared to measured noise level data. This study is based on a contract from NASA to Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. with measured data from the AH-1G Helicopter Operational Loads Survey flight test program supplied by Bell Helicopter Textron.

  6. MSE velocity survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimd, C.; Courtois, H.; Koda, J.

    2015-12-01

    A huge velocity survey based on the Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer facility (MSE) is proposed, aiming at investigating the structure and dynamics of the cosmic web over 3π steradians up to ˜1 Gpc and at unprecedented spatial resolution, its relationship with the galaxy formation process, and the bias between galaxies and dark matter during the last three billions years. The cross-correlation of velocity and density fields will further allow the probe any deviation from General Relativity by measuring the the linear-growth rate of cosmic structures at precision competitive with high-redshift spectroscopic redshift surveys.

  7. Lupus Alma Disk Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansdell, Megan

    2016-07-01

    We present the first unbiased ALMA survey of both dust and gas in a large sample of protoplanetary disks. We surveyed 100 sources in the nearby (150-200 pc), young (1-2 Myr) Lupus region to constrain M_dust to 2 M_Mars and M_gas to 1 M_Jup. Most disks have masses < MMSN and gas-to-dust ratios < ISM. Such rapid gas depletion may explain the prevalence of super-Earths in the exoplanet population.

  8. Balloon borne Infrared Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, Philip M.

    2015-08-01

    We report on modeling of a balloon borne mission to survey the 1-5 micron region with sensitivity close to the zodiacal light limits in portions of this band. Such a survey is compelling for numerous science programs and is complimentary to the upcoming Euclid, WFIRST and other orbital missions. Balloons borne missions offer much lower cost access and rapid technological implementation but with much less exposure time and increased backgrounds. For some science missions the complimentary nature of these is extremely useful. .

  9. Geological Survey research 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1982-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of 1981 fiscal year scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic, hydrologic, and cartographic investigations in progress. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral, (2) Water resources, (3) Engineering geology and hydrology, (4) Regional geology, (5) Principles and processes, (6) Laboratory and field methods, (7) Topographic surveys and mapping, (8) Management of resources on public lands, (9) Land information and analysis, and (10) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of investigations in progress.

  10. The WFIRST Supernova Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Hounsell, Rebekah; Scolnic, Daniel; WFIRST Supernova Science Investigation Team

    2017-01-01

    WFRIST is expected to launch in the mid 2020s. As part of its main mission, it will conduct a survey to measure the Universe's cosmic expansion history with supernovae. I will present the first simulations of this survey. The simulations take into account our current knowledge of the hardware, realistic properties of the supernovae, and our understanding of the relevant systematic uncertainties. I will compare the ultimate dark enegery figures of merit derived from the simulations and discuss future plans. These data will be extremely useful for other science; other transient science and studies of the resulting deep static images will particularly benefit.

  11. Refraction corrections for surveying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, W. M.

    1979-01-01

    Optical measurements of range and elevation angle are distorted by the earth's atmosphere. High precision refraction correction equations are presented which are ideally suited for surveying because their inputs are optically measured range and optically measured elevation angle. The outputs are true straight line range and true geometric elevation angle. The 'short distances' used in surveying allow the calculations of true range and true elevation angle to be quickly made using a programmable pocket calculator. Topics covered include the spherical form of Snell's Law; ray path equations; and integrating the equations. Short-, medium-, and long-range refraction corrections are presented in tables.

  12. A STUDY ON REASONS OF ERRORS OF OLD SURVEY MAPS IN CADASTRAL SYSTEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanase, Norihiko

    This paper explicates sources on survey map errors which were made in 19th century. The present cadastral system stands on registers and survey maps which were compiled to change the land taxation system in the Meiji era. Many Japanese may recognize the reasons why poor survey technique by farmers, too long measure to avoid heavy tax, careless official check and other deception made such errors of acreage from several to more than ten percent of area in survey maps. The author would like to maintain that such errors, called nawa-nobi, were lawful in accordance with the then survey regulation because of results to analyze old survey regulations, history of making maps and studies of cadastral system. In addition to, a kind of survey maps' errors should be pointed out a reason why the easy subdivision system which could approve without real survey and disposal of state property with inadequate survey.

  13. 16-foot transonic tunnel test section flowfield survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yetter, J. A.; Abeyounis, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    A flow survey has been made of the test section of the NASA Langley Research Center 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at subsonic and supersonic speeds. The survey was performed using five five-hole pyramid-head probes mounted at 14 inch intervals on a survey rake. Probes were calibrated at freestream Mach numbers from 0.50 to 0.95 and from 1.18 to 1.23. Flowfield surveys were made at Mach numbers from 0.50 to 0.90 and at Mach 1.20. The surveys were made at tunnel stations 130.6, 133.6, and 136.0. By rotating the survey rake through 180 degrees, a cylindrical volume of the test section 4.7 feet in diameter and 5.4 feet long centered about the tunnel centerline was surveyed. Survey results showing the measured test section upflow and sideflow characteristics and local Mach number distributions are presented. The report documents the survey probe calibration techniques used, summarizes the procedural problems encountered during testing, and identifies the data discrepancies observed during the post-test data analysis.

  14. Relativistic corrections and non-Gaussianity in radio continuum surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Maartens, Roy; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Bacon, David; Koyama, Kazuya; Raccanelli, Alvise E-mail: Gong-bo.Zhao@port.ac.uk E-mail: Kazuya.Koyama@port.ac.uk

    2013-02-01

    Forthcoming radio continuum surveys will cover large volumes of the observable Universe and will reach to high redshifts, making them potentially powerful probes of dark energy, modified gravity and non-Gaussianity. We consider the continuum surveys with LOFAR, WSRT and ASKAP, and examples of continuum surveys with the SKA. We extend recent work on these surveys by including redshift space distortions and lensing convergence in the radio source auto-correlation. In addition we compute the general relativistic (GR) corrections to the angular power spectrum. These GR corrections to the standard Newtonian analysis of the power spectrum become significant on scales near and beyond the Hubble scale at each redshift. We find that the GR corrections are at most percent-level in LOFAR, WODAN and EMU surveys, but they can produce O(10%) changes for high enough sensitivity SKA continuum surveys. The signal is however dominated by cosmic variance, and multiple-tracer techniques will be needed to overcome this problem. The GR corrections are suppressed in continuum surveys because of the integration over redshift — we expect that GR corrections will be enhanced for future SKA HI surveys in which the source redshifts will be known. We also provide predictions for the angular power spectra in the case where the primordial perturbations have local non-Gaussianity. We find that non-Gaussianity dominates over GR corrections, and rises above cosmic variance when f{sub NL}∼>5 for SKA continuum surveys.

  15. Resistor Susceptibility Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    composite material configurations, these solutions are generally in the form of integral equations which must be solved by numerical methods. Since...temperature, then Equation 2 is separable (within geometric constraints) and analytical solutions of Equation 2 are possible. For more complex...perturbation techniques. However, if none of the above conditions are satisfied, then Equation 1 must be solved directly using numerical techniques

  16. Comparison of laser transit anemometry data analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Gartrell, Luther R.

    1991-01-01

    Two techniques for the extraction of two-dimensional flow information from laser transit anemometry (LTA) data sets are presented and compared via a simulation study and experimental investigation. The methods are a probability density function (PDF) estimation technique and a marginal distribution analysis technique. The simulation study builds on the results of previous work and provides a quantification of the accuracy of both techniques for various LTA data acquisition scenarios. The experimental comparison consists of using an LTA system to survey the flow downstream of a turbulence generator in a small low-speed wind tunnel. The collected data sets are analyzed and compared.

  17. Active cleaning technique device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a laboratory demonstration model of an active cleaning technique (ACT) device. The principle of this device is based primarily on the technique for removing contaminants from optical surfaces. This active cleaning technique involves exposing contaminated surfaces to a plasma containing atomic oxygen or combinations of other reactive gases. The ACT device laboratory demonstration model incorporates, in addition to plasma cleaning, the means to operate the device as an ion source for sputtering experiments. The overall ACT device includes a plasma generation tube, an ion accelerator, a gas supply system, a RF power supply and a high voltage dc power supply.

  18. Electrical termination techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakey, W. E.; Schleicher, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    A technical review of high reliability electrical terminations for electronic equipment was made. Seven techniques were selected from this review for further investigation, experimental work, and preliminary testing. From the preliminary test results, four techniques were selected for final testing and evaluation. These four were: (1) induction soldering, (2) wire wrap, (3) percussive arc welding, and (4) resistance welding. Of these four, induction soldering was selected as the best technique in terms of minimizing operator errors, controlling temperature and time, minimizing joint contamination, and ultimately producing a reliable, uniform, and reusable electrical termination.

  19. Separation techniques: Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Chromatography is an important biophysical technique that enables the separation, identification, and purification of the components of a mixture for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Proteins can be purified based on characteristics such as size and shape, total charge, hydrophobic groups present on the surface, and binding capacity with the stationary phase. Four separation techniques based on molecular characteristics and interaction type use mechanisms of ion exchange, surface adsorption, partition, and size exclusion. Other chromatography techniques are based on the stationary bed, including column, thin layer, and paper chromatography. Column chromatography is one of the most common methods of protein purification. PMID:28058406

  20. Optimization of spectroscopic surveys for testing non-Gaussianity

    SciTech Connect

    Raccanelli, Alvise; Doré, Olivier; Dalal, Neal E-mail: Olivier.P.Dore@jpl.nasa.gov

    2015-08-01

    We investigate optimization strategies to measure primordial non-Gaussianity with future spectroscopic surveys. We forecast measurements coming from the 3D galaxy power spectrum and compute constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity parameters f{sub NL} and n{sub NG}. After studying the dependence on those parameters upon survey specifications such as redshift range, area, number density, we assume a reference mock survey and investigate the trade-off between number density and area surveyed. We then define the observational requirements to reach the detection of f{sub NL} of order 1. Our results show that power spectrum constraints on non-Gaussianity from future spectroscopic surveys can improve on current CMB limits, but the multi-tracer technique and higher order correlations will be needed in order to reach an even better precision in the measurements of the non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL}.

  1. Generation of complete source samples from the Slew Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schachter, Jonathan

    1992-01-01

    The Einstein Slew Survey consists of 819 bright X-ray sources, of which 636 (or 78 percent) are identified with counterparts in standard catalogs. We argue for the importance of bright X-ray surveys, and compare the slew results to the ROSAT all-sky survey. Also, we discuss statistical techniques for minimizing confusion in arcminute error circles in digitized data. We describe the 238 Slew Survey AGN, clusters, and BL Lac objects identified to date and their implications for logN-logS and source evolution studies. Also given is a catalog of 1075 sources detected in the Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) Slew Survey of the X-ray sky. Five hundred fifty-four of these sources were not previously known as X-ray sources.

  2. Model selection as a science driver for dark energy surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Pia; Parkinson, David; Corasaniti, Pier Stefano; Liddle, Andrew R.; Kunz, Martin

    2006-07-01

    A key science goal of upcoming dark energy surveys is to seek time-evolution of the dark energy. This problem is one of model selection, where the aim is to differentiate between cosmological models with different numbers of parameters. However, the power of these surveys is traditionally assessed by estimating their ability to constrain parameters, which is a different statistical problem. In this paper, we use Bayesian model selection techniques, specifically forecasting of the Bayes factors, to compare the abilities of different proposed surveys in discovering dark energy evolution. We consider six experiments - supernova luminosity measurements by the Supernova Legacy Survey, SNAP, JEDI and ALPACA, and baryon acoustic oscillation measurements by WFMOS and JEDI - and use Bayes factor plots to compare their statistical constraining power. The concept of Bayes factor forecasting has much broader applicability than dark energy surveys.

  3. Freshman Survey Report, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Steve; Hiris, Eric

    The Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) sponsors a national annual survey that gathers data on incoming freshman classes at two- and four-year institutions. The data allow the colleges to compare their students with previous classes and with the "average" American freshman. This report presents findings from the 1997 CIRP…

  4. AACC Nursing Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This document, presented in the form of PowerPoint print outs, indicates a total of 420 (nearly 60%) associate degree nursing (ADN) programs responded to a survey conducted by the American Association of Community Colleges' (AACC) Nursing and Allied Health Initiative (NAHI) for 2003. The sample is representative based on urbanicity and region.…

  5. National Compensation & Benefits Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nink, James

    This national survey of 137 child care institutions, the majority of which are members of the National Association of Hospital Affiliated Child Care Programs, provides 39 tables, some of which are accompanied by brief descriptions, explanations, or analyses. The tables supply information on: (1) organization and accreditation; (2) the size of…

  6. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  7. The GAMA Panchromatic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driver, Simon P.

    2013-07-01

    The Galaxy And Mass Assembly Survey (GAMA) has now been operating for almost 5 years gathering spectroscopic redshifts for five regions of sky spanning 300 sq degrees in total to a depth of r < 19.8 mag. The survey has amassed over 225,000 redshifts making it the third largest redshift campaign after the SDSS and BOSS surveys. The survey has two novel features that set it apart: (1) complete and uniform sampling to a fixed flux limit (r < 19.8 mag) regardless of galaxy clustering due to multiple-visits to each sky region, enabling the construction of high-fidelity catalogues of groups and pairs, (2) co-ordination with diverse imaging campaigns which together sample an extremely broad range along the electro-magnetic spectrum from the UV (GALEX) through optical (VST KIDs), near-IR (VISTA VIKING), mid-IR (WISE), far-IR (Herschel-Atlas), 1m (GMRT), and eventually 20cm continuum and rest-frame 21cm line measurements (ASKAP DINGO). Apart from the ASKAP campaign all multi-wavelength programmes are either complete or in the final stages of observations and the UV-far-IR data are expected to be fully merged by the end of 2013. This article provides a brief flavour of the coming panchromatic database which will eventually include measurements or upper-limits across 27 wavebands for 380,000 galaxies. GAMA DR2 is scheduled for the end of January 2013.

  8. IBM Small Business Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Business Machines Corp., Armonk, NY.

    A telephone survey conducted March 15-22, 1991, examined how small businesses are currently performing. Interviewees were 400 small business owners randomly selected from a Dun and Bradstreet list of companies with 50 or fewer employees. Major findings were as follows: (1) owners were survivors, highly confident in their own abilities, and…

  9. Community Needs Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, Ronald; And Others

    A telephone survey was conducted by Diablo Valley College (DVC) in 1979 to determine the characteristics of community residents and their opinions concerning DVC's programs and services. In addition to demographic data (i.e., length of residence in Central Contra Costa County, age, size of household, head of household's employment and marital…

  10. A Survey Transition Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, William; McAllister, Alex M.

    2012-01-01

    Successful outcomes for a "Transition Course in Mathematics" have resulted from two unique design features. The first is to run the course as a "survey course" in mathematics, introducing sophomore-level students to a broad set of mathematical fields. In this single mathematics course, undergraduates benefit from an introduction of proof…

  11. Bellarmine College Alumni Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Frank

    Alumni of Bellarmine College, Kentucky, who had obtained B.A. or B.S. degrees from 1974 to 1978 were surveyed in 1979. Areas of assessment were as follows: majors, desired occupation at time of graduation, attendance at graduate school, present employment status, jobs held by respondents, reasons why respondents chose their present jobs,…

  12. And the Survey Says ...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Two-Year Colleges, Physics Majors, and Diversity. As noted last month, we're taking a look at physics in two-year colleges (TYCs). We expect to have the first reports from our 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers in the spring of 2014. Last month we noted that the high school physics experience of undergraduate physics…

  13. Marine Attitude Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

  14. Subpolar Atlantic Glider Surveys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-30

    T. W. Lehman, P. L. Sabin, J. W. Ballard, and A. M . Chiodi (2001) Seaglider: A long range autonomous underwater vehicle for oceanographic research. IEEE J. Oceanic Engineering, 26, 424-436. 3 ...are beginning to survey the Labrador Sea autonomously, diving to 1000 m depth about three times daily, transmitting their data at the end of each

  15. Survey of Solar Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Robert; Baker, Steven

    This survey brings together information concerning the growing number of buildings utilizing solar energy and is designed to facilitate the comparison of specific characteristics of the buildings. The 66 U.S. entries are divided into five regions, arranged by state, and roughly by date within each state. Seven entries are from other countries. A…

  16. Damage and intensity survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reagor, G.; Brewer, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    A field team (the tuhors) from the National Earthquake Information Center (USGS) conducted a damage survey of the epicentral area in the week following the earthquakes. Detailed information about damage and where and how strongly the earthquakes were felt was obtained through interviews with local residents and personal observations. 

  17. The Survey Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Lois A. Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Internet-based surveys are still relatively new, and researchers are just beginning to articulate best practices for questionnaire design. Online questionnaire design has generally been guided by the principles applying to other self-administered instruments, such as paper-based questionnaires. Web-based questionnaires, however, have the potential…

  18. Refraction corrections for surveying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Optical measurements of range and elevation angles are distorted by refraction of Earth's atmosphere. Theoretical discussion of effect, along with equations for determining exact range and elevation corrections, is presented in report. Potentially useful in optical site surveying and related applications, analysis is easily programmed on pocket calculator. Input to equation is measured range and measured elevation; output is true range and true elevation.

  19. Freshmen Survey. Fall 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Don

    In 1985, College of the Sequoias (COS) was asked by the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (conducted jointly by the American Council on Education and the University of California, Los Angeles) to participate in a survey of incoming freshmen for the fall 1985 semester. During the summer counseling session, 259 new COS freshmen were…

  20. An Astronomical Misconceptions Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.; Murrell, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Misconceptions that students bring with them to the introductory science classroom plague every area of science and are especially prevalent in astronomy. One way to identify and possibly dispel some of these misconceptions is through the use of a misconceptions survey. The following is a report on the development, implementation, and some early…

  1. Career Interest Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Public Instruction, Des Moines. Guidance Services Section.

    The career interest survey consists of an expanded list of occupations and was developed to provide information to assist secondary school counselors and the exploring division of the Boy Scouts of America in developing career awareness and exploration programs and activities in the Polk County schools. The United States Office of Education's 15…

  2. And the Survey Says...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1987, the Statistical Research Center at the American Institute of Physics has regularly conducted a survey of high school physics teachers. This September we're at it again. This fall, we will look for physics teachers at each of the 4,000+ schools with 12th grade in our nationally representative sample of public and private schools. We…

  3. Continuing Education Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, K. A.; Fenwick, P. R.

    In 1978, a national survey was conducted in New Zealand to determine the extent of participation in continuing education and the level of unmet need for these activities. A questionnaire was developed dealing with respondent characteristics, spare time and interests, agency-directed learning activities (ADLAS), and unmet needs, and administered to…

  4. External College Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ben K.

    This report presents the results of a community survey which attempted to determine the demand for another college in the Los Angeles Community College District. The function of this "community campus" or "external college" would be to serve members of the community who are not already served by the eight existing colleges. Questionnaires received…

  5. Health Occupations Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Lynn H.

    A survey was conducted to determine the need for health occupations personnel in the Moraine Valley Community College district, specifically to: (1) describe present employment for selected health occupations; (2) project health occupation employment to 1974; (3) identify the supply of applicants for the selected occupations; and (4) identify…

  6. Quality Culture Survey Report.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pritesh; Baker, Denyse; Burdick, Rick; Chen, Cylia; Hill, Jonathon; Holland, Morgan; Sawant, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The Parenteral Drug Association conducted an anonymous global survey of quality culture in the pharmaceutical industry to determine whether there is a relationship between certain quality behaviors and certain quality attributes, and whether these quality attributes could be used as surrogates (or proxy variables) to assess quality culture. Other studies have shown that an unhealthy quality culture is a root cause of many quality or compliance issues seen by sites and organizations. Statistical analysis of survey data suggests that certain attributes are driving good behaviors, and the demographic data suggests that this relationship holds irrespective of the geographic location of the site. Executive survey respondents had a more optimistic view of the current state of quality culture than survey respondents at large, with cross-functional vision showing the biggest gap (P-value = 0.07, F-Test). The top five quality attributes that can serve as surrogates for quality culture were (1) Management communication that quality is everyone's responsibility, (2) Site has formal quality improvement objectives and targets, (3) Clear performance criteria for feedback and coaching, (4) Quality topics included in at least half of all-hands meetings, and (5) Collecting error prevention metrics. These identified mature quality attributes are related to management responsibility, and continual improvement of the pharmaceutical quality system sections of ICH Q10, and therefore may be amenable to be incorporated in audit programs or in regulatory inspections. Additional research and discussion is required to build a coherent approach, which the pharmaceutical industry and regulators can adopt.

  7. Survey of NARC Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Retarded Citizens, Arlington, TX. Research and Demonstration Inst.

    The booklet presents results from a survey completed by 5,316 members of the National Association of Retarded Citizens. Findings are discussed for the following topics (sample findings in parentheses): membership characteristics (the two largest classes of occupations were professional/technical and homemakers, households had an annual average…

  8. Informatics: A Brief Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Shaoyi

    2003-01-01

    Provides a brief survey of informatics, defined as the application of information technology to various fields, with respect to its historical background, disciplinary identity, fundamental aspects, applications, and challenges. Highlights include biological, clinical, dental, environmental, geomatics, health, legal, management, medical, museum,…

  9. Surveying School Facilities Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weichel, Harry J.; Dennell, James

    1990-01-01

    Ralston (Nebraska) Public School District's communitywide survey helped set school facilities priorities while keeping the district's finite resources firmly in mind. With an outline of maintenance costs for the next 10 years, the district can develop a strategic construction schedule. The board also has the option of financing projects through a…

  10. Humboldt County Employer Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Dave

    A project was undertaken in Humboldt County to collect information from large and small businesses in the areas of agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation, wholesale and retail, finance, services, and public information with respect to their employee requirements and needs. In all, 451 firms were surveyed to determine the size of the…

  11. Generic results of the space physics community survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Rikhi R.; Cohen, Nathaniel B.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of the members of the space physics research community conducted in 1990-1991 to ascertain demographic information on the respondents and information on their views on a number of facets of their space physics research. The survey was conducted by questionnaire and the information received was compiled in a database and analyzed statistically. The statistical results are presented for the respondent population as a whole and by four different respondent cross sections: individual disciplines of space physics, type of employers, age groups, and research techniques employed. Data from a brief corresponding survey of the graduate students of respondents are also included.

  12. [Weighted estimation methods for multistage sampling survey data].

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiao-Yan; Wei, Yong-Yue; Chen, Feng

    2009-06-01

    Multistage sampling techniques are widely applied in the cross-sectional study of epidemiology, while methods based on independent assumption are still used to analyze such complex survey data. This paper aims to introduce the application of weighted estimation methods for the complex survey data. A brief overview of basic theory is described, and then a practical analysis is illustrated to apply to the weighted estimation algorithm in a stratified two-stage clustered sampling data. For multistage sampling survey data, weighted estimation method can be used to obtain unbiased point estimation and more reasonable variance estimation, and so make proper statistical inference by correcting the clustering, stratification and unequal probability effects.

  13. Infrared airborne spectroradiometer survey results in the western Nevada area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W.; Chang, S. H.; Kuo, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    The Mark II airborne spectroradiometer system was flown over several geologic test sites in western Nevada. The infrared mineral absorption bands were observed and recorded for the first time using an airborne system with high spectral resolution in the 2.0 to 2.5 micron region. The data show that the hydrothermal alteration zone minerals, carbonates, and other minerals are clearly visible in the airborne survey mode. The finer spectral features that distinguish the various minerals with infrared bands are also clearly visible in the airborne survey data. Using specialized computer pattern recognition methods, it is possible to identify mineralogy and map alteration zones and lithologies by airborne spectroradiometer survey techniques.

  14. Survey report: Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kent, M

    1987-06-01

    The 1983 Turkish Population and Health Survey, involving 5398 ever-married women under 50 years of age, revealed that the demand for family planning services in Turkey exceeds current availability. Although almost 3/4 of survey respondents indicated they wanted only 2-3 children, actual fertility rates in the 1978-83 period averaged 4.2 births/woman. The percent of currently married women under 50 years of age using birth control increased from 50% in 1978 to 62% in 1983, but half of this increase was attributable to a greater reliance on withdrawal. Withdrawal was the contraceptive method used by 49% of family planning acceptors in 1983; only 27% reported use of a modern method. Inadequate supplies was the main reason cited for the low use of modern methods, especially in the more rural eastern regions of the country. The prevalence of traditional methods, and an increasing abortion ratio (25.6/100 live births in 1983), indicates a high unmet need for family planning. 78% of the women surveyed in 1983 asserted that they did not want any more children. The 1983 survey also reported an infant mortality rate of 112/1000 live births. Most Turkish women breastfeed their infants for the 1st year of life, but other traditional practices such as reliance on untrained attendants for childbirth and packing earth into the swaddling cloth with the infant have been linked to higher infant mortality. The survey report concluded that improvements in the education and status of women would enhance their acceptance of family planning and contribute to life-styles more promotive of infant survival.

  15. A New Survey for Giant Arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Hennawi, Joseph F.; Gladders, Michael D.; Oguri, Masamune; Dalal, Neal; Koester, Benjamin; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Strauss, Michael A.; Inada, Naohisa; Kayo, Issha; Lin, Huan; Lampeitl, Hubert; Annis, James; Bahcall, Neta A.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2006-11-15

    We report on the first results of an imaging survey to detect strong gravitational lensing targeting the richest clusters selected from the photometric data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with follow-up deep imaging observations from the Wisconsin Indiana Yale NOAO (WIYN) 3.5m telescope and the University of Hawaii 88-inch telescope (UH88). The clusters are selected from an area of 8000 deg{sup 2} using the Red Cluster Sequence technique and span the redshift range 0.1 {approx}< z {approx}< 0.6, corresponding to a comoving cosmological volume of {approx} 2Gpc{sup 3}. Our imaging survey thus targets a volume more than an order of magnitude larger than any previous search. A total of 240 clusters were imaged of which 141 had sub-arcsecond image quality. Our survey has uncovered 16 new lensing clusters with definite giant arcs, an additional 12 systems for which the lensing interpretation is very likely, and 9 possible lenses which contain shorter arclets or candidate arcs which are less certain and will require further observations to confirm their lensing origin. The number of new cluster lenses detected in this survey is likely > 30. Among these new systems are several of the most dramatic examples of strong gravitational lensing ever discovered with multiple bright arcs at large angular separation. These will likely become 'poster-child' gravitational lenses similar to Abell 1689 and CL0024+1654. The new lenses discovered in this survey will enable future systematic studies of the statistics of strong lensing and its implications for cosmology and our structure formation paradigm.

  16. Evaluating survey instruments and methods in a steep channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Daniel N.; Brogan, Daniel J.; Lininger, Katherine B.; Schook, Derek M.; Daugherty, Ellen E.; Sparacino, Matthew S.; Patton, Annette I.

    2016-11-01

    Methods for surveying and analyzing channel bed topography commonly lack a rigorous characterization of their appropriateness for project objectives. We compare four survey methods: a hand level, two different methods of surveying with a laser rangefinder, and a real-time kinematic GNSS (RTK-GNSS) to explore their accuracy in determining channel bed slope and roughness for a study reach in a small, dry, steep channel. Additionally, we evaluate the variability among four operators for each survey technique. Two methods of calculating reach slope were computed: a regression on the channel profile and a calculation using only survey endpoints. Using data from the RTK-GNSS as our accuracy reference, the hand level and two-person laser rangefinder surveying systems performed with high accuracy (< 5% error in estimating slope, < 10% error in estimating roughness), while the one-person laser rangefinder survey system performed with considerably lower accuracy (up to 54% error in roughness and slope). Variability between operators was found to be very low (coefficients of variation ranged from 0.001 to 0.046) for all survey systems except the one-person laser rangefinder system, suggesting that survey data collected by different operators can be validly compared. Due to reach-scale concavity, calculating slope using a regression produced significantly different values than those obtained by using only survey endpoints, suggesting that caution must be taken in choosing the most appropriate method of calculating slope for a given project objective. We present recommendations for choosing appropriate survey and analysis methods to accomplish various surveying objectives.

  17. Small Scale Organic Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of using small scale experimentation in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. Describes small scale filtration techniques as an example of a semi-micro method applied to small quantities of material. (MLH)

  18. Monitoring by Control Technique

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page links to different control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  19. Relaxation techniques for stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems such as high blood pressure, stomachaches, headaches, anxiety, and depression. Using relaxation techniques can help you feel calm. These exercises can also help you manage stress and ease ...

  20. Pattern recognition technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Technique operates regardless of pattern rotation, translation or magnification and successfully detects out-of-register patterns. It improves accuracy and reduces cost of various optical character recognition devices and page readers and provides data input to computer.

  1. The MST Radar Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsley, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    The past ten year have witnessed the development of a new radar technique to examine the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere between roughly 1 to 100 km on a continuous basis. The technique is known as the MST (for Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere) technique and is usable in all weather conditions, being unaffected by precipitation or cloud cover. MST radars make use of scattering from small scale structure in the atmospheric refractive index, with scales of the order of one-half the radar wavelength. Pertinent scale sizes for middle atmospheric studies typically range between a fraction of a meter and a few meters. The structure itself arises primarily from atmospheric turbulence. The technique is briefly described along with the meteorological parameters it measures.

  2. "Techniques for Teachers" Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, A.

    1972-01-01

    A series of short articles describe a method of combined developing/fixing for monochrome film, techniques for thin layer chromatography, experiments with lasers, and safety precautions to be used with lasers in school laboratories. (AL)

  3. Occlusal cranial balancing technique.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gerald H

    2007-01-01

    The acronym for Occlusal Cranial Balancing Technique is OCB. The OCB concept is based on the architectural principle of a level foundation. The principles of Occlusal Cranial Balancing are a monumental discovery and if applied will enhance total body function.

  4. Metamodels for Computer-Based Engineering Design: Survey and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Timothy W.; Peplinski, Jesse; Koch, Patrick N.; Allen, Janet K.

    1997-01-01

    The use of statistical techniques to build approximations of expensive computer analysis codes pervades much of todays engineering design. These statistical approximations, or metamodels, are used to replace the actual expensive computer analyses, facilitating multidisciplinary, multiobjective optimization and concept exploration. In this paper we review several of these techniques including design of experiments, response surface methodology, Taguchi methods, neural networks, inductive learning, and kriging. We survey their existing application in engineering design and then address the dangers of applying traditional statistical techniques to approximate deterministic computer analysis codes. We conclude with recommendations for the appropriate use of statistical approximation techniques in given situations and how common pitfalls can be avoided.

  5. Nondestructive testing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Don E.; McBride, Don

    A comprehensive reference covering a broad range of techniques in nondestructive testing is presented. Based on years of extensive research and application at NASA and other government research facilities, the book provides practical guidelines for selecting the appropriate testing methods and equipment. Topics discussed include visual inspection, penetrant and chemical testing, nuclear radiation, sonic and ultrasonic, thermal and microwave, magnetic and electromagnetic techniques, and training and human factors. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  6. Current cementing techniques in hip hemi-arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Scott, S; McCaskie, A W; Calder, S J; Wildin, C; Gregg, P J

    2001-07-01

    To assess the use of modern cementing techniques in hip hemi-arthroplasty a postal questionnaire was sent during 1998 to all British Orthopaedic Training Association (B.O.T.A.) members regarding use of cement, type of cement, bone preparation and cementing technique. The results of this survey were compared to a similar survey in 1994 to assess any change in practice. Two hundred and eighty-six trainees responded to the 1998 survey, 352 to the 1994 survey. The use of uncemented prostheses had decreased from 31.3 in 1994 to 21.7% in 1998. Normal viscosity Palacos cement remains the most common cement in use, 64.3% in 1998. The use of antibiotic loaded cement has increased from 53.7 in 1994 to 67.9% in 1998. For bone preparation 47.3% of trainees in 1998 used a modern technique (syringe irrigation/pulsed lavage, brushing, gauze packing) compared to 35.1% in 1994. Modern cement insertion (retrograde gun, cement restriction and sustained pressure) was carried out by 39.3% in 1998 compared to 28.5% in 1994. Overall 27.2% of trainees used modern cementing techniques in hip hemi-arthroplasty, compared to 19.4% in 1994. Modern cementing techniques are used by a minority of British orthopaedic trainees, but in comparison to 1994 their use has increased.

  7. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Copied by Survey Photographer. Taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Copied by Survey Photographer. Taken before 1868. (f) Ext- Old Photo-- General view from N.W. - India Wharf Stores, 306-308 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  8. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Copied by Survey, Photographer, Old ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Copied by Survey, Photographer, Old Photo before 1880 (a) Ext-General view from Southwest. - Governor Thomas Prence House, King's Highway (U.S. Route 6), Eastham, Barnstable County, MA

  9. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Topographic Survey of Cosmos Club, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Topographic Survey of Cosmos Club, 1950, by Bernard Locroft, Civil Engineer (Showing Grounds as They Were at End of Sumner Welles Era) SITE PLAN - Townsend House, 2121 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Copied by Survey Photographer (e) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Copied by Survey Photographer (e) Ext-Old Photograph- Gen View North and East Elevations, (before 1868) - India Wharf Stores, 306-308 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. 17. Historic American Buildings Survey, PHOTOCOPY OF 1902 INSURANCE SURVEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic American Buildings Survey, PHOTOCOPY OF 1902 INSURANCE SURVEY FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE FACTORY MUTUALS INSURANCE COMPANY, NORWOOD, MASS. - Clinton Mill, 93 Clinton Street, Woonsocket, Providence County, RI

  12. Techniques for assessment of soil corrosivity

    SciTech Connect

    Durr, C.L.; Beavers, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    Techniques for the assessment of soil corrosivity were evaluated in conjunction with a program for the National Cooperative Highway Research Program on corrosion of steel pilings. The work consisted of a state-of-the-art survey of the literature, field corrosion monitoring, laboratory testing of soils, and the preparation of a recommended practice. The practice will provide guidance to state DOTS in the assessment of the corrosivity of field sites where underground structures have been, or will be, installed. This paper summarizes results of the state-of-the-art survey, the recommended practice, and application of the practice to several existing field sites. Results of the research indicate that a relatively small number of variables are required to describe the corrosivity of a field site. These variables include soil resistivity, pH, soil particle size and the position of the structure with respect to the water table.

  13. Soil Sampling Techniques For Alabama Grain Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. N.; Shaw, J. N.; Mask, P. L.; Touchton, J. T.; Rickman, D.

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing the spatial variability of nutrients facilitates precision soil sampling. Questions exist regarding the best technique for directed soil sampling based on a priori knowledge of soil and crop patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate zone delineation techniques for Alabama grain fields to determine which method best minimized the soil test variability. Site one (25.8 ha) and site three (20.0 ha) were located in the Tennessee Valley region, and site two (24.2 ha) was located in the Coastal Plain region of Alabama. Tennessee Valley soils ranged from well drained Rhodic and Typic Paleudults to somewhat poorly drained Aquic Paleudults and Fluventic Dystrudepts. Coastal Plain s o i l s ranged from coarse-loamy Rhodic Kandiudults to loamy Arenic Kandiudults. Soils were sampled by grid soil sampling methods (grid sizes of 0.40 ha and 1 ha) consisting of: 1) twenty composited cores collected randomly throughout each grid (grid-cell sampling) and, 2) six composited cores collected randomly from a -3x3 m area at the center of each grid (grid-point sampling). Zones were established from 1) an Order 1 Soil Survey, 2) corn (Zea mays L.) yield maps, and 3) airborne remote sensing images. All soil properties were moderately to strongly spatially dependent as per semivariogram analyses. Differences in grid-point and grid-cell soil test values suggested grid-point sampling does not accurately represent grid values. Zones created by soil survey, yield data, and remote sensing images displayed lower coefficient of variations (8CV) for soil test values than overall field values, suggesting these techniques group soil test variability. However, few differences were observed between the three zone delineation techniques. Results suggest directed sampling using zone delineation techniques outlined in this paper would result in more efficient soil sampling for these Alabama grain fields.

  14. 2012 Global Management Education Graduate Survey. Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Each year for the past 13 years, the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC) has conducted a survey of graduate management education students in their final year of business school. The Global Management Education Graduate Survey is distributed to students at participating schools. The survey allows students to express their opinions about…

  15. Global Management Education Graduate Survey, 2011. Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Gregg

    2011-01-01

    Each year for the past 12 years, the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) has conducted a survey of graduate management education students in their final year of business school. This Global Management Education Graduate Survey is distributed to students at participating business schools. The survey allows students to express their…

  16. To Survey or Not to Survey: What Is the Question?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Walter C.

    1979-01-01

    In designing an institutional advancement survey, it is thought that the researcher must have a clear conception of the survey's purpose. The relationship of research to theory, the nature of the survey, data collection, and analysis and interpretation are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  17. ARM User Survey Report

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, LR

    2010-06-22

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to, among other things, determine how to organize the exponentially growing data within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and identify users’ preferred data analysis system. The survey findings appear to have met this objective, having received approximately 300 responses that give insight into the type of work users perform, usage of the data, percentage of data analysis users might perform on an ARM-hosted computing resource, downloading volume level where users begin having reservations, opinion about usage if given more powerful computing resources (including ability to manipulate data), types of tools that would be most beneficial to them, preferred programming language and data analysis system, level of importance for certain types of capabilities, and finally, level of interest in participating in a code-sharing community.

  18. Ionizing Radiation Survey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    0.360 25,000 1.0 40 1.7E-6 26 CRONOS 1.0 10,000 1.0 40 7.3E-5 26 IMP 0.4 4,000 0.3 40 1.7E-6 13 SNAP 0.15 75,000 1.0 40 4.6E-9 13 HTD 0.15 3,000 1.0 40...machines are listed in Table 2. Table 2. X-ray dose at 1 m. ’ads/shot rads/day RAMBO 1.094 43.775 CRONOS 7.65 306. IMP 0.05 1.996 SNAP 0.2 8.003 HTD 0.008...laboratory bay is shown in Figure 1. The survey covered the microwave sources on IMP, TDX, and CDS. CRONOS had previously been surveyed while using a

  19. Geological Survey research, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1975-01-01

    'Geological Survey Research 1975 ' is the 16th annual synopsis of the results of U.S. Geological Survey investigations. These studies are largely directed toward the development of knowledge that will assist the Nation to use and conserve the land and its physical resources wisely. They are wide ranging in scope and deal with almost every facet of solid-earth science and fact finding. Many of the studies are continuations of investigations that have been in progress for several years. But others reflect the increased attention being given to problems that have assumed greater importance in recent years--problems relating to mineral fuels and mineral resources, water quality, environmental impact of mineral resources, land-use analysis, earthquake hazards reduction, subsidence, and the applications of LANDSAT data, to cite a few examples. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Global risks survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    The top five risks facing the globe over the next decade, in order of the likelihood of their occurring, are severe income disparity, chronic fiscal imbalance, rising greenhouse gas emissions, water supply crises, and the mismanagement of population aging. That is according to a survey of more than 1000 experts from industry, government, academia, and civil society, presented in the World Economic Forum's Global Risks 2013 report that was issued on 8 January.

  1. Sloan digital sky survey

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, S.M.; Stoughton, C.; Newberg, H.; Loveday, J.; Petravick, D.; Gurbani, V.; Berman, E.; Sergey, G.; Lupton, R.

    1994-04-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey will produce a detailed digital photometric map of half the northern sky to about 23 magnitude using a special purpose wide field 2.5 meter telescope. From this map we will select {approximately} 10{sup 6} galaxies and 10{sup 5} quasars, and obtain high resolution spectra using the same telescope. The imaging catalog will contain 10{sup 8} galaxies, a similar number of stars, and 10{sup 6} quasar candidates.

  2. Survey report: Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zheng, J

    1991-10-01

    Pakistan suffers an unsuccessful population policy, with a resultant annual population growth of greater than 3%. Cultural and religious objections to family planning (FP) are recognized as the major obstacles to reducing fertility. Accordingly, a 1990-91 demographic and health survey was conducted to elicit information or fertility, family planning, marriage patterns, breastfeeding, and child health for planners and policymakers. The survey was jointly funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development and the government of Pakistan, and interviewed 6,494 ever-married women aged 15-49. The average total fertility rate for the 6-year period prior to the survey was 5.5 lifetime births/woman, less than the figure of greater than 6 found in previous surveys. Increasing age at 1st marriage and a slightly higher level of contraceptive use may be causal factors for the observed decline. Decreased fertility notwithstanding, contraceptive prevalence is low compared to other developing countries in Asia. 1 out of 5 Pakistani women report ever having used contraceptives, and no single method has ever been used by more than 7% of married women. 7% use condoms, 5% the pill, 3% female sterilization, and 3 the IUD and injections, with male sterilization virtually nonexistent, and only limited knowledge of barrier methods. Contraceptive prevalence, including traditional methods, among married women was 12%, with higher coverage in cities, especially among educated women. 37% desire no additional children, and 18% wish to delay child birth for 2 years. Intervention strategy may include working to improve the status of women, fostering greater educational opportunities for women, changing traditional attitudes toward large families and son preference, providing sufficient FP services, and getting commitments for support and action from government and community leaders.

  3. BLAST: THE REDSHIFT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Eales, Stephen; Dye, Simon; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Raymond, Gwenifer; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas; Devlin, Mark J.; Rex, Marie; Semisch, Christopher; Truch, Matthew D. P.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Viero, Marco P.; Patanchon, Guillaume; Siana, Brian

    2009-12-20

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has recently surveyed approx =8.7 deg{sup 2} centered on Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South at 250, 350, and 500 mum. In Dye et al., we presented the catalog of sources detected at 5sigma in at least one band in this field and the probable counterparts to these sources in other wavebands. In this paper, we present the results of a redshift survey in which we succeeded in measuring redshifts for 82 of these counterparts. The spectra show that the BLAST counterparts are mostly star-forming galaxies but not extreme ones when compared to those found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Roughly one quarter of the BLAST counterparts contain an active nucleus. We have used the spectroscopic redshifts to carry out a test of the ability of photometric redshift methods to estimate the redshifts of dusty galaxies, showing that the standard methods work well even when a galaxy contains a large amount of dust. We have also investigated the cases where there are two possible counterparts to the BLAST source, finding that in at least half of these there is evidence that the two galaxies are physically associated, either because they are interacting or because they are in the same large-scale structure. Finally, we have made the first direct measurements of the luminosity function in the three BLAST bands. We find strong evolution out to z = 1, in the sense that there is a large increase in the space density of the most luminous galaxies. We have also investigated the evolution of the dust-mass function, finding similar strong evolution in the space density of the galaxies with the largest dust masses, showing that the luminosity evolution seen in many wavebands is associated with an increase in the reservoir of interstellar matter in galaxies.

  4. Techniques of male circumcision.

    PubMed

    Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Abdullahi; Mungadi, Ismaila A

    2013-01-01

    Male circumcision is a controversial subject in surgical practice. There are, however, clear surgical indications of this procedure. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends newborn male circumcision for its preventive and public health benefits that has been shown to outweigh the risks of newborn male circumcision. Many surgical techniques have been reported. The present review discusses some of these techniques with their merits and drawbacks. This is an attempt to inform the reader on surgical aspects of male circumcision aiding in making appropriate choice of a technique to offer patients. Pubmed search was done with the keywords: Circumcision, technique, complications, and history. Relevant articles on techniques of circumcision were selected for the review. Various methods of circumcision including several devices are in use for male circumcision. These methods can be grouped into three: Shield and clamp, dorsal slit, and excision. The device methods appear favored in the pediatric circumcision while the risk of complications increases with increasing age of the patient at surgery.

  5. Sensorimotor System Measurement Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Riemann, Bryan L.; Myers, Joseph B.; Lephart, Scott M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of currently available sensorimotor assessment techniques. Data Sources: We drew information from an extensive review of the scientific literature conducted in the areas of proprioception, neuromuscular control, and motor control measurement. Literature searches were conducted using MEDLINE for the years 1965 to 1999 with the key words proprioception, somatosensory evoked potentials, nerve conduction testing, electromyography, muscle dynamometry, isometric, isokinetic, kinetic, kinematic, posture, equilibrium, balance, stiffness, neuromuscular, sensorimotor, and measurement. Additional sources were collected using the reference lists of identified articles. Data Synthesis: Sensorimotor measurement techniques are discussed with reference to the underlying physiologic mechanisms, influential factors and locations of the variable within the system, clinical research questions, limitations of the measurement technique, and directions for future research. Conclusions/Recommendations: The complex interactions and relationships among the individual components of the sensorimotor system make measuring and analyzing specific characteristics and functions difficult. Additionally, the specific assessment techniques used to measure a variable can influence attained results. Optimizing the application of sensorimotor research to clinical settings can, therefore, be best accomplished through the use of common nomenclature to describe underlying physiologic mechanisms and specific measurement techniques. PMID:16558672

  6. American Healthy Homes Survey (AHHS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A nationally representative sample of homes was selected for this survey. AHHS measured levels of lead, lead hazards, and allergens in homes nationwide. AHHS also surveyed additional potential health hazards such as arsenic, pesticides, and molds. The lead

  7. Sport Management Survey. Employment Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quain, Richard J.; Parks, Janet B.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of sport management positions was designed to determine projected vacancy rates in six sport management career areas. Respondents to the survey were also questioned regarding their awareness of college professional preparation programs. Results are presented. (MT)

  8. Questionnaire Surveys in Educational Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George

    1980-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses some critical issues related to the use of questionnaire surveys in educational planning. Ten brief sections discuss survey objectives, coverage, questionnaire design, administration, validity, nonresponse, cost considerations, coding, statistical analysis, and interpretation. Five illustrative questionnaire…

  9. Geothermal energy survey and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This is an FY-1990 Annual Report on 'geothermal energy survey and technology' by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). First, concerning geothermal resources exploration project in which surveys have been executed throughout Japan since 1980, outlines of surveys in 1990 and objectives for FY-1992 are summarized. As for surveys for promoting development of geothermal energy, surveys in 8 areas conducted for three years from 1988 to 1990 as well as future plans are also described. Then, the verification investigation for geothermal survey technologies, which has been executed since 1980 for the purpose of establishing geothermal survey technologies to promote the development of geothermal resources in Japan, is introduced with outlines of surveys in 1990 and objectives for FY-1992. Furthermore, development conditions of power generation technologies utilizing geothermal energy such as binary-cycle power generation and hot dry rock power generation are described.

  10. Chapter D in Geological Survey research 1964

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1964-01-01

    This collection of 43 short papers is the last of the chapters of Geological Survey Research 1964. The papers report on scientific and economic results of current work by members of the Geologic, Conservation, Water Resources, and Topographic Divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Some of the papers present results of completed parts of continuing investigations; others announce new discoveries or preliminary results of investigations that will be discussed in greater detail in reports to be published in the future. Still others are. scientific notes of limited scope, and short papers on techniques and instrumentation. Chapter A of this series presents a summary of results of work done during the present fiscal year.

  11. Critical review of directional neutron survey meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmer, Matthew J. I.; Gamage, Kelum A. A.; Taylor, Graeme C.

    2014-01-01

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument.

  12. The Einstein Slew Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin; Plummer, David; Schachter, Jonathan; Fabbiano, G.

    1992-01-01

    A catalog of 819 sources detected in the Einstein IPC Slew Survey of the X-ray sky is presented; 313 of the sources were not previously known as X-ray sources. Typical count rates are 0.1 IPC count/s, roughly equivalent to a flux of 3 x 10 exp -12 ergs/sq cm s. The sources have positional uncertainties of 1.2 arcmin (90 percent confidence) radius, based on a subset of 452 sources identified with previously known pointlike X-ray sources (i.e., extent less than 3 arcmin). Identifications based on a number of existing catalogs of X-ray and optical objects are proposed for 637 of the sources, 78 percent of the survey (within a 3-arcmin error radius) including 133 identifications of new X-ray sources. A public identification data base for the Slew Survey sources will be maintained at CfA, and contributions to this data base are invited.

  13. Onychomycosis. A Mexican survey.

    PubMed

    Arenas, Roberto; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Padilla, Ma Carmen; Arce, Martín; Atoche, Carlos; Barba, José; Campos, Pablo; Fernández, Ramón; Mayorga, Jorge; Nazar, Dulce; Ocampo, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a nail infection caused by dermatophytes, Candida and molds. We aimed to obtain an estimated frequency of onychomycosis in out-patients in private practice through a survey in ten representative cities of Mexico. 12,637 ambulatory patients voluntarily agreed to participate in this National Survey, answering 17 questions on onychomycosis, regardless if they had or did not have any clinical suspicion of onychomycosis. 53% of them were seen for the first time and their main complaint was not onychomycosis. The study was performed in the private offices of 300 physicians in different cities. 48% were clinically diagnosed with onychomycosis. Toenails were affected in 88%, fingernails in 5% and both in 7%. Onychomycosis was diagnosed more frequently in the nails of the first toes and of the thumbs. The main complaint was nail thickening and aesthetic changes. Other associated diseases were diabetes (22%) and arterial hypertension (21%). This survey showed the high frequency of onychomycosis. An intentional search with mycological confirmation is needed in out-patients attending general practice with other complaints, to detect undiagnosed cases.

  14. 2013 mask industry survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Matt

    2013-09-01

    A comprehensive survey was sent to merchant and captive mask shops to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. 2013 marks the 12th consecutive year for this process. Historical topics including general mask profile, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, maintenance, and returns were included and new topics were added. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. While each year's survey includes minor updates based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics, the bulk of the survey and reporting structure have remained relatively constant. A series of improvements is being phased in beginning in 2013 to add value to a wider audience, while at the same time retaining the historical content required for trend analyses of the traditional metrics. Additions in 2013 include topics such as top challenges, future concerns, and additional details in key aspects of mask masking, such as the number of masks per mask set per ground rule, minimum mask resolution shipped, and yield by ground rule. These expansions beyond the historical topics are aimed at identifying common issues, gaps, and needs. They will also provide a better understanding of real-life mask requirements and capabilities for comparison to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).

  15. The Wsrt Halogas Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heald, George

    2015-02-01

    We present an overview of the HALOGAS (Hydrogen Accretion in LOcal GAlaxieS) Survey, which is the deepest systematic investigation of cold gas accretion in nearby spiral galaxies to date. Using the deep H i data that form the core of the survey, we are able to detect neutral hydrogen down to a typical column density limit of about 1019 cm-2 and thereby characterize the low surface brightness extra-planar and anomalous-velocity neutral gas in nearby galaxies with excellent spatial and velocity resolution. Through comparison with sophisticated kinematic modeling, our 3D HALOGAS data also allow us to investigate the disk structure and dynamics in unprecedented detail for a sample of this size. Key scientific results from HALOGAS include new insight into the connection between the star formation properties of galaxies and their extended gaseous media, while the developing HALOGAS catalogue of cold gas clouds and streams provides important insight into the accretion history of nearby spirals. We conclude by motivating some of the unresolved questions to be addressed using forthcoming 3D surveys with the modern generation of radio telescopes.

  16. Robotic and Survey Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woźniak, Przemysław

    Robotic telescopes are revolutionizing the way astronomers collect their dataand conduct sky surveys. This chapter begins with a discussion of principles thatguide the process of designing, constructing, and operating telescopes andobservatories that offer a varying degree of automation, from instruments remotelycontrolled by observers to fully autonomous systems requiring no humansupervision during their normal operations. Emphasis is placed on designtrade-offs involved in building end-to-end systems intended for a wide range ofscience applications. The second part of the chapter contains descriptions ofseveral projects and instruments, both existing and currently under development.It is an attempt to provide a representative selection of actual systems thatillustrates state of the art in technology, as well as important ideas and milestonesin the development of the field. The list of presented instruments spans the fullrange in size starting from small all-sky monitors, through midrange robotic andsurvey telescopes, and finishing with large robotic instruments and surveys.Explosive growth of telescope networking is enabling entirely new modesof interaction between the survey and follow-up observing. Increasingimportance of standardized communication protocols and software is stressed.These developments are driven by the fusion of robotic telescope hardware,massive storage and databases, real-time knowledge extraction, and datacross-correlation on a global scale. The chapter concludes with examplesof major science results enabled by these new technologies and futureprospects.

  17. Results of magnetic HGI and radiometric surveys in W. Canada

    SciTech Connect

    LeSchack, L.A.

    1997-05-19

    This article presents four case histories in which ground-based magnetic horizontal gradient intensity (HGI) and radiometric surveys were used in Western Canada for cost-effective geochemical exploration for hydrocarbons. The authors has developed these two surface exploration techniques from published studies and adapted them for use on the prairies the past 7 years. These surveys are used in conjunction with the usual geologic and seismic studies for: (1) evaluating prospects and land; (2) verifying seismic anomalies and inexpensively locating areas for conducting expensive 3D seismic surveys. Occasionally, as in two of the case histories discussed, these surveys were used successfully as stand-alone exploration methods where seismic exploration is not effective. The HGI and radiometric surveys measure, by geophysical methods, those effects associated with geochemical alterations due to vertical microseepage of hydrocarbons. The total cost, including permitting, data acquisition, data processing, and interpretation of the combination HGI and radiometric surveys is about 15% the total cost of a 3D seismic survey. Because of this, the author finds them an attractive and rapid survey adjunct to traditional exploration. They substantially reduce finding costs and significantly raise the probability of financial success.

  18. A multispectral scanner survey of the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. Date of survey: August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Howard, M.E.; Shines, J.E.

    1994-08-01

    The Multispectral Remote Sensing Department of the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an airborne multispectral scanner survey of a portion of the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. The survey was conducted on August 21 and 22, 1993, using a Daedalus AADS1268 scanner and coincident aerial color photography. Flight altitudes were 5,000 feet (1,524 meters) above ground level for systematic coverage and 1,000 feet (304 meters) for selected areas of special interest. The multispectral scanner survey was initiated as part of an interim and limited investigation conducted to gather preliminary information regarding historical hazardous material release sites which could have environmental impacts. The overall investigation also includes an inventory of environmental restoration sites, a ground-based geophysical survey, and an aerial radiological survey. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of man-made soil disturbances. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the data to assist image interpretation. A geologic ratio enhancement and a color composite consisting of AADS1268 channels 10, 7, and 9 (mid-infrared, red, and near-infrared spectral bands) proved most useful for detecting soil disturbances. A total of 358 disturbance sites were identified on the imagery and mapped using a geographic information system. Of these sites, 326 were located within the Tonopah Test Range while the remaining sites were present on the imagery but outside the site boundary. The mapped site locations are being used to support ongoing field investigations.

  19. Radiation techniques for acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) remains an effective treatment in patients with acromegaly refractory to medical and/or surgical interventions, with durable tumor control and biochemical remission; however, there are still concerns about delayed biochemical effect and potential late toxicity of radiation treatment, especially high rates of hypopituitarism. Stereotactic radiotherapy has been developed as a more accurate technique of irradiation with more precise tumour localization and consequently a reduction in the volume of normal tissue, particularly the brain, irradiated to high radiation doses. Radiation can be delivered in a single fraction by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or as fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in which smaller doses are delivered over 5-6 weeks in 25-30 treatments. A review of the recent literature suggests that pituitary irradiation is an effective treatment for acromegaly. Stereotactic techniques for GH-secreting pituitary tumors are discussed with the aim to define the efficacy and potential adverse effects of each of these techniques. PMID:22136376

  20. 77 FR 19032 - Geological Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... No: 2012-7479] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Announcement of National Geospatial Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... Arista Maher at the U.S. Geological Survey (703-648-6283, amaher@usgs.gov ). Registrations are due...